WorldWideScience

Sample records for hot dense matter

  1. Intense, ultrashort light and dense, hot matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tiphoton and tunneling ionization, the physics of plasma formed in dense matter is .... A typical Gaussian laser pulse of 100 fs dura- .... J range) – and finally it is compressed back to its .... bond-hardening, molecular orientation and reori-.

  2. Neutrino reactions in hot and dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohs, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, neutrino reactions in hot and dense matter are studied. In particular, this work is concerned with neutrino-matter interactions that are relevant for neutrino transport in core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe). The majority of the energy from a CCSN is released in the form of neutrinos. Accurate understanding and computation of these interactions is most relevant to achieve sufficiently reliable predictions for the evolution of CCSNe and other related question such as the production of heavy elements or neutrino oscillations. For this purpose this work follows the combined approach of searching for new important neutrino reactions and improving the computation of those reactions that are already implemented. First we estimate the relevance of charged-current weak interactions that include muon-neutrinos or muons, as well as the role of neutron decay for neutrino transport in CCSNe. All of these reactions were previously neglected in CCSN-simulations. We derive and compute the matrix element and subsequent semi-analytic expressions for transport properties like the inverse mean free path of the new reactions. It is found that these reactions are important for muon neutrinos and low energy electron antineutrinos at very high densities in the protoneutron star surface. Consequently their implementation might lead to several changes in the prediction of CCSNe signatures such as the nucleosynthesis yields. Second we improve the precision in the computation of well known neutrino-nucleon reactions like neutrino absorption on neutrons. We derive semi-analytic expressions for transport properties that use less restrictive approximations while keeping the computational demand constant. Therefore we consider the full relativistic kinematics of all participating particles i.e. allowing for relativistic nucleons and finite lepton masses. Also the weak magnetism terms of the matrix elements are explicitly included to all orders. From our results we suggest that the

  3. Neutrino reactions in hot and dense matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohs, Andreas

    2015-04-13

    In this thesis, neutrino reactions in hot and dense matter are studied. In particular, this work is concerned with neutrino-matter interactions that are relevant for neutrino transport in core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe). The majority of the energy from a CCSN is released in the form of neutrinos. Accurate understanding and computation of these interactions is most relevant to achieve sufficiently reliable predictions for the evolution of CCSNe and other related question such as the production of heavy elements or neutrino oscillations. For this purpose this work follows the combined approach of searching for new important neutrino reactions and improving the computation of those reactions that are already implemented. First we estimate the relevance of charged-current weak interactions that include muon-neutrinos or muons, as well as the role of neutron decay for neutrino transport in CCSNe. All of these reactions were previously neglected in CCSN-simulations. We derive and compute the matrix element and subsequent semi-analytic expressions for transport properties like the inverse mean free path of the new reactions. It is found that these reactions are important for muon neutrinos and low energy electron antineutrinos at very high densities in the protoneutron star surface. Consequently their implementation might lead to several changes in the prediction of CCSNe signatures such as the nucleosynthesis yields. Second we improve the precision in the computation of well known neutrino-nucleon reactions like neutrino absorption on neutrons. We derive semi-analytic expressions for transport properties that use less restrictive approximations while keeping the computational demand constant. Therefore we consider the full relativistic kinematics of all participating particles i.e. allowing for relativistic nucleons and finite lepton masses. Also the weak magnetism terms of the matrix elements are explicitly included to all orders. From our results we suggest that the

  4. Neutrino interactions in hot and dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, S.; Prakash, M.; Lattimer, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    We study the charged and neutral current weak interaction rates relevant for the determination of neutrino opacities in dense matter found in supernovae and neutron stars. We establish an efficient formalism for calculating differential cross sections and mean free paths for interacting, asymmetric nuclear matter at arbitrary degeneracy. The formalism is valid for both charged and neutral current reactions. Strong interaction corrections are incorporated through the in-medium single particle energies at the relevant density and temperature. The effects of strong interactions on the weak interaction rates are investigated using both potential and effective field-theoretical models of matter. We investigate the relative importance of charged and neutral currents for different astrophysical situations, and also examine the influence of strangeness-bearing hyperons. Our findings show that the mean free paths are significantly altered by the effects of strong interactions and the multi-component nature of dense matter. The opacities are then discussed in the context of the evolution of the core of a protoneutron star. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  5. Neutrinos and Nucleosynthesis in Hot and Dense Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, George [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2016-01-14

    The Topical Collaboration for Neutrinos and Nucleosynthesis in Hot and Dense matter brought together researchers from a variety of nuclear science specialties and a number of institutions to address nuclear physics and neutrino physics problems associated with dense matter and the origin of the elements. See attached final technical reports for (1) the UCSD award and (2) a copy of the report for the whole TC

  6. Intense, ultrashort light and dense, hot matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This article presents an overview of the physics and applications of the interaction of high intensity laser light with matter. It traces the crucial advances that have occurred over the past few decades in laser technology and nonlinear optics and then discusses physical phenomena that occur in intense laser fields and their ...

  7. Colour deconfinement in hot and dense matter

    CERN Document Server

    Satz, Helmut

    1996-01-01

    We first introduce the conceptual basis of critical behaviour in strongly interacting matter, with colour deconfinement as QCD analog of the insulator-conductor transition and chiral symmetry restoration as special case of the associated shift in the mass of the constituents. Next we summarize quark-gluon plasma formation in finite temperature lattice QCD. We consider the underlying symmetries and their spontaneous breaking/restoration in the transition, as well as the resulting changes in thermodynamic behaviour. Finally, we turn to the experimental study of strongly interacting matter by high energy nuclear collisions, using charmonium production to probe the confinement status of the produced primordial medium. Recent results from Pb-Pb collisions at CERN may provide first evidence for colour deconfinement.

  8. Strangeness in hot and dense nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nappi, E.

    2009-01-01

    Ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions are believed to provide the extreme conditions of energy densities able to lead to a transition to a short-lived state, called Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP), where the quarks are no longer bound inside hadrons. The studies performed so far, formerly at SPS (CERN) and later at RHIC (BNL) allowed to achieve a multitude of crucial results consistent with the hypothesis that a new phase of the QCD matter has been indeed created. However, the emerging picture is that of the formation of a strongly interacting medium with negligibly small viscosity, a perfect liquid, rather than the ideal perturbative QCD parton-gas predicted by most theorists. The head-on collision between lead nuclei at the unprecedented energies of the forthcoming Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, due to start in 2008, will allow to measure the properties of compressed and excited nuclear matter at even higher initial densities and temperatures, far above the predicted QCD phase transition point. The longer duration of the quark-gluon plasma phase and the much more abundant production of hard probes, which depend much less on details of the later hadronic phase, will likely provide a consistent and uncontroversial experimental evidence of the QGP formation. Among the signals what witness the charge in the nature of the state of nuclear matter, the chemical equilibrium value of the strangeness plays a key role since it is directly sensitive to the matter properties and provides information on the link between the partonic and the hadronic phases. The aim of this course is to overview the underlying goals, the current status and the prospect of the physics of the nucleus-nucleus collisions at ultrarelativistic energies. Among the experimental methods adopted to investigate the challenging signatures of the QGP formation, emphasis on those related to the strangeness flavour will be given.

  9. Quantum statistical model for hot dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rukhsana Kouser; Tasneem, G.; Saleem Shahzad, M.; Shafiq-ur-Rehman; Nasim, M.H.; Amjad Ali

    2015-01-01

    In solving numerous applied problems, one needs to know the equation of state, photon absorption coefficient and opacity of substances employed. We present a code for absorption coefficient and opacity calculation based on quantum statistical model. A self-consistent method for the calculation of potential is used. By solving Schrödinger equation with self-consistent potential we find energy spectrum of quantum mechanical system and corresponding wave functions. In addition we find mean occupation numbers of electron states and average charge state of the substance studied. The main processes of interaction of radiation with matter included in our opacity calculation are photon absorption in spectral lines (Bound-bound), photoionization (Bound-free), inverse bremsstrahlung (Free-free), Compton and Thomson scattering. Bound-bound line shape function has contribution from natural, Doppler, fine structure, collisional and stark broadening. To illustrate the main features of the code and its capabilities, calculation of average charge state, absorption coefficient, Rosseland and Planck mean and group opacities of aluminum and iron are presented. Results are satisfactorily compared with the published data. (authors)

  10. Probing hot dense matter with jet energy loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levai, P.; Barnafoeldi, G.G.; Gyulassy, M.; Vitev, I.; Fai, G.; Zhang, Y.

    2002-01-01

    We study, in a pQCD calculation augmented by nuclear effects, the jet energy loss needed to reproduce the π 0 spectra in Au+Au collisions at large p T , measured by PHENIX at RHIC. The transverse width of the parton momentum distributions (intrinsic k T ) is used phenomenologically to obtain a reliable baseline pp result. Jet quenching is applied to the nuclear spectra (including shadowing and multiscattering) to fit the data. Latest results on fluctuating gluon radiation are considered to measure the opacity of the produced hot dense matter at RHIC energy. (orig.)

  11. Effective Field Theories for Hot and Dense Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaschke D.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The lecture is divided in two parts. The first one deals with an introduction to the physics of hot, dense many-particle systems in quantum field theory [1, 2]. The basics of the path integral approach to the partition function are explained for the example of chiral quark models. The QCD phase diagram is discussed in the meanfield approximation while QCD bound states in the medium are treated in the rainbow-ladder approximation (Gaussian fluctuations. Special emphasis is devoted to the discussion of the Mott effect, i.e. the transition of bound states to unbound, but resonant scattering states in the continnum under the influence of compression and heating of the system. Three examples are given: (1 the QCD model phase diagram with chiral symmetry ¨ restoration and color superconductivity [3], (2 the Schrodinger equation for heavy-quarkonia [4], and (2 Pions [5] as well as Kaons and D-mesons in the finite-temperature Bethe-Salpeter equation [6]. We discuss recent applications of this quantum field theoretical approach to hot and dense quark matter for a description of anomalous J/ψ supression in heavy-ion collisions [7] and for the structure and cooling of compact stars with quark matter interiors [8]. The second part provides a detailed introduction to the Polyakov-loop Nambu–Jona-Lasinio model [9] for thermodynamics and mesonic correlations [10] in the phase diagram of quark matter. Important relationships of low-energy QCD like the Gell-Mann–Oakes–Renner relation are generalized to finite temperatures. The effect of including the coupling to the Polyakov-loop potential on the phase diagram and mesonic correlations is discussed. An outlook is given to effects of nonlocality of the interactions [11] and of mesonic correlations in the medium [12] which go beyond the meanfield description.

  12. Thermodynamic instabilities in hot and dense nuclear matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavagno A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the presence of thermodynamic instabilities in a hot and dense nuclear medium where a nuclear phase transition can take place. Similarly to the low density nuclear liquid-gas phase transition, we show that such a phase transition is characterized by pure hadronic matter with both mechanical instability (fluctuations on the baryon density that by chemical-diffusive instability (fluctuations on the strangeness concentration. The analysis is performed by requiring the global conservation of baryon number and zero net strangeness in the framework of an effective relativistic mean field theory with the inclusion of the Δ(1232-isobars, hyperons and the lightest pseudoscalar and vector meson degrees of freedom. It turns out that in this situation hadronic phases with different values of strangeness content may coexist, altering significantly meson-antimeson ratios.

  13. DS Mesons in Asymmetric Hot and Dense Hadronic Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divakar Pathak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The in-medium properties of DS mesons are investigated within the framework of an effective hadronic model, which is a generalization of a chiral SU(3 model, to SU(4, in order to study the interactions of the charmed hadrons. In the present work, the DS mesons are observed to experience net attractive interactions in a dense hadronic medium, hence reducing the masses of the DS+ and DS- mesons from the vacuum values. While this conclusion holds in both nuclear and hyperonic media, the magnitude of the mass drop is observed to intensify with the inclusion of strangeness in the medium. Additionally, in hyperonic medium, the mass degeneracy of the DS mesons is observed to be broken, due to opposite signs of the Weinberg-Tomozawa interaction term in the Lagrangian density. Along with the magnitude of the mass drops, the mass splitting between DS+ and DS- mesons is also observed to grow with an increase in baryonic density and strangeness content of the medium. However, all medium effects analyzed are found to be weakly dependent on isospin asymmetry and temperature. We discuss the possible implications emanating from this analysis, which are all expected to make a significant difference to observables in heavy ion collision experiments, especially the upcoming Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM experiment at the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR, GSI, where matter at high baryonic densities is planned to be produced.

  14. Particle production in hot and dense nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eklund, A.

    1992-08-01

    The charged particle production in heavy ion reactions at 200 A GeV has been studied for projectiles of 16 O and 32 S on targets of Al, Cu, Ag and Au. Up to 700 charged particles are measured in the pseudorapidity region -1.7 32 S+Au. The measured particle density is used to estimate the energy density attained in central collisions and gives a values of ≅2 GeV/fm 3 . This is close to the energy density predicted for the phase transition from hadronic matter to a quark-gluon plasma. To measure the large number of charged particle produced, finely granulated detector systems are employed. Streamer tube detectors with pad readout and large area, multi-step avalanche chambers with optical readout have been developed for the measurements. The widths of the pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles increase with decreasing centrality of the collision as well as with increasing mass of the target nucleus. This behaviour is assumed to be due to the target fragmentation. The Monte-Carlo model for nucleus-nucleus collisions, VENUS 3.11, which includes rescattering, is in reasonable agreement with the data. The yield of charged particles for central collisions of the heavy targets with 33 S is found to be proportional to the target mass, A, at target rapidity. At midrapidity it is approximately proportional to A 0.3 . At midrapidity the charged particle measurements are supplemented by measurements of the transverse energy. The dimensionless, normalized variances of the multiplicity and transverse energy distributions are, to a large extent, governed by the collision geometry. The change in the normalized variance when studying the charged particle distribution in a narrow angular region is explained as being of statistical nature. (au)

  15. Properties of hot and dense strongly interacting matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almasi, Gabor Andras

    2017-06-19

    In this thesis we consider effective models of quantum chromodynamics to learn about the chiral- and deconfinement phase transitions. In Chapter 1 we review basic properties of strongly interacting matter and the foundations of finite temperature field theory. We review furthermore the nonperturbative functional renormalization group (FRG) approach. In Chapter 2 we introduce the quark-meson (QM) model and its extensions including the Polyakov-loop variables and repulsive vector interactions between quarks. We then discuss features of the model both in the mean-field approximation and in the renormalization group treatment. A novel method to solve the renormalization group equations based on the Chebyshev polynomials is presented at the end of the chapter. In Chapter 3 the scaling behavior of the order parameter at the chiral phase transition is studied within effective models. We explore universal and nonuniversal structures near the critical point. These include the scaling functions, the leading corrections to scaling and the corresponding size of the scaling window as well as their dependence on an external symmetry breaking field. We consider two models in the mean-field approximation, the QM and the Polyakov-loop-extended quark-meson (PQM) models, and compare their critical properties with a purely bosonic theory, the O(N) linear sigma model in the N → ∞ limit. In these models the order parameter scaling function is found analytically using the high temperature expansion of the thermodynamic potential. The effects of a gluonic background on the nonuniversal scaling parameters are studied within the PQM model. Furthermore, numerical calculations of the scaling function and the scaling window are performed in the QM model using the FRG. Chapter 4 contains a study of the critical properties of net-baryon-number fluctuations at the chiral restoration transition in a medium at finite temperature and net baryon density. The chiral dynamics of quantum

  16. Diffusion constant in hot and dense hadronic matter. A hadro-molecular-dynamic calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, N.; Miyamura, O.; Muroya, S.; Nonaka, C.

    2002-01-01

    We evaluate baryon/charge diffusion constant of dense and hot hadronic matter based on the molecular dynamical method by using a hadronic collision generator which describes nuclear collisions at energies 10 1-2 GeV/A and satisfies detailed balance at low temperatures (T ≤ 200 MeV). For the hot and dense hadronic matter of the temperature range, T = 100 - 200 MeV and baryon number density, n B =0.16 fm -3 - 0.32 fm -3 , charge diffusion constant D gradually increases from 0.5 fmc to 2 fmc with temperature and is almost independent of baryon number density. Based on the obtained diffusion constant we make simple discussions on the diffusion of charge fluctuation in ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions. (author)

  17. Hadrons in dense matter. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buballa, M.; Noerenberg, W.; Schaefer, B.J.; Wambach, J.

    2000-03-01

    The following topics were dealt with: Elementary hadronic reactions, Delta dynamics in nuclei, in-medium s-wave ππ-correlations, strangeness in hot and dense matter, medium modifications of vector mesons and dilepton production, medium modifications of charmonium, thermal properties of hot and dense hadronic matter, nuclear matter, spectral functions and QCD sum rules

  18. Bulk viscosity of hot dense Quark matter in the PNJL model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Shisong; Guo Panpan; Zhang Le; Hou Defu

    2014-01-01

    Starting from the Kubo formula and the QCD low energy theorem, we study the the bulk viscosity of hot dense quark matter in the PNJL model from the equation of state. We show that the bulk viscosity has a sharp peak near the chiral phase transition, and that the ratio of bulk viscosity over entropy rises dramatically in the vicinity of the phase transition. These results agree with those from the lattice and other model calculations. In addition, we show that the increase of chemical potential raises the bulk viscosity. (authors)

  19. Hot and dense matter in compact stars - from nuclei to quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hempel, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation deals with the equation of state of hot and dense matter in compact stars, with special focus on first order phase transitions. A general classification of first order phase transitions is given and the properties of mixed phases are discussed. Aspects of nucleation and the role of local constraints are investigated. The derived theoretical concepts are applied to matter in neutron stars and supernovae, in the hadron-quark and the liquid-gas phase transition. For the detailed description of the liquid-gas phase transition a new nuclear statistical equilibrium model is developed. It is based on a thermodynamic consistent implementation of relativistic mean-field interactions and excluded volume effects. With this model different equation of state tables are calculated and the composition and thermodynamic properties of supernova matter are analyzed. As a first application numerical simulations of core-collapse supernovae are presented. For the hadron-quark phase transition two possible scenarios are studied in more detail. First the appearance of a new mixed phase in a proto neutron star and the implications on its evolution. In the second scenario the consequences of the hadron-quark transition in corecollapse supernovae are investigated. Simulations show that the appearance of quark matter has clear observable signatures and can even lead to the generation of an explosion. (orig.)

  20. Hot and dense matter in compact stars - from nuclei to quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hempel, Matthias

    2010-10-19

    This dissertation deals with the equation of state of hot and dense matter in compact stars, with special focus on first order phase transitions. A general classification of first order phase transitions is given and the properties of mixed phases are discussed. Aspects of nucleation and the role of local constraints are investigated. The derived theoretical concepts are applied to matter in neutron stars and supernovae, in the hadron-quark and the liquid-gas phase transition. For the detailed description of the liquid-gas phase transition a new nuclear statistical equilibrium model is developed. It is based on a thermodynamic consistent implementation of relativistic mean-field interactions and excluded volume effects. With this model different equation of state tables are calculated and the composition and thermodynamic properties of supernova matter are analyzed. As a first application numerical simulations of core-collapse supernovae are presented. For the hadron-quark phase transition two possible scenarios are studied in more detail. First the appearance of a new mixed phase in a proto neutron star and the implications on its evolution. In the second scenario the consequences of the hadron-quark transition in corecollapse supernovae are investigated. Simulations show that the appearance of quark matter has clear observable signatures and can even lead to the generation of an explosion. (orig.)

  1. A calculation of baryon diffusion constant in hot and dense hadronic matter based on an event generator URASiMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, N.; Miyamura, O.; Nonaka, C.; Muroya, S.

    2000-01-01

    We evaluate thermodynamical quantities and transport coefficient of a dense and hot hadronic matter based on an event generator URASiMA (Ultra-Relativistic AA collision Simulator based on Multiple Scattering Algorithm). The statistical ensembles in equilibrium with fixed temperature and chemical potential are generated by imposing periodic boundary condition to the simulation of URASiMA, where energy density and baryon number density is conserved. Achievement of the thermal equilibrium and the chemical equilibrium are confirmed by the common value of slope parameter in the energy distributions and the saturation of the numbers of contained particles, respectively. By using the generated ensembles, we investigate the temperature dependence and the chemical potential dependence of the baryon diffusion constant of a dense and hot hadronic matter. (author)

  2. Low mass dilepton production at the SPS probing hot and dense nuclear matter

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez de los Heros, C; Baur, R; Breskin, Amos; Chechik, R; Drees, A; Jacob, C; Faschingbauer, U; Fisher, P H; Fraenkel, Zeev; Fuchs, C; Gatti, E; Glässel, P; Günzel, T F; Hess, F; Irmscher, D; Lenkeit, B C; Olsen, L H; Panebratsev, Yu A; Pfeiffer, A; Ravinovich, I; Rehak, P; Schön, A; Schükraft, Jürgen; Sampietro, M; Shimansky, S S; Shor, A; Specht, H J; Steiner, V; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tel-Zur, G; Tserruya, Itzhak; Ullrich, T S; Wurm, J P; Yurevich, V I

    1996-01-01

    CERES and HELIOS-3 have detected a significant enhancement of low--mass dileptons in nuclear collisions at 200 GeV/nucleon with respect to the expected ``conventional'' sources. The onset of the excess, starting at a mass of $\\sim2m_{\\pi}$, and the possibility of a quadratic dependence on the event multiplicity suggest the opening of the $\\pi^+\\pi^-\\rightarrow e^+e^-(\\mu^+\\mu^-)$ annihilation channel. This would be the first observation of thermal radiation from dense hadronic matter. Possible interpretations of these results are presented, including the reduction of the $\\rho$ mass due to partial restoration of chiral symmetry in the dense fireball formed in the collision.

  3. Fine focusing of intense heavy ions for the production of hot dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heimrich, B.

    1989-02-01

    In order to perform the first experimental studies on the interaction of intense ion beams with matter an electrostatic quadrupole doublet was developed which focuses the space-charge carrying ion beam of the RFQ accelerator at the GSI Darmstadt on an area of 1 mm 2 . By an especially manufactured target holder this intense ion beam was stopped in tungsten targets and the first plasma induced by heavy ions was produced. Electrons and ions which are emitted from the plasmas have been spectroscoped by an especially for this fabricated spectrometer in their energy and time distribution in the eV region by which first comparisons between theory and praxis on the heating of dense matter by intense ion beams could be made. (orig./HSI) [de

  4. Proceedings of RIKEN BNL Research Center Workshop: P- and CP-odd Effects in Hot and Dense Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, A.; Fukushima, K.; Kharzeev, D.; Warringa, H.; Voloshin, S.

    2010-04-26

    This volume contains the proceedings of the RBRC/CATHIE workshop on 'P- and CP-odd Effects in Hot and Dense Matter' held at the RIKEN-BNL Research Center on April 26-30, 2010. The workshop was triggered by the experimental observation of charge correlations in heavy ion collisions at RHIC, which were predicted to occur due to local parity violation (P- and CP-odd fluctuations) in hot and dense QCD matter. This experimental result excited a significant interest in the broad physics community, inspired a few alternative interpretations, and emphasized the need for a deeper understanding of the role of topology in QCD vacuum and in hot and dense quark-gluon matter. Topological effects in QCD are also closely related to a number of intriguing problems in condensed matter physics, cosmology and astrophysics. We therefore felt that a broad cross-disciplinary discussion of topological P- and CP-odd effects in various kinds of matter was urgently needed. Such a discussion became the subject of the workshop. Specific topics discussed at the workshop include the following: (1) The current experimental results on charge asymmetries at RHIC and the physical interpretations of the data; (2) Quantitative characterization of topological effects in QCD matter including both analytical (perturbative and non-perturbative using gauge/gravity duality) and numerical (lattice-QCD) calculations; (3) Topological effects in cosmology of the Early Universe (including baryogenesis and dark energy); (4) Topological effects in condensed matter physics (including graphene and superfiuids); and (5) Directions for the future experimental studies of P- and CP-odd effects at RHIC and elsewhere. We feel that the talks and intense discussions during the workshop were extremely useful, and resulted in new ideas in both theory and experiment. We hope that the workshop has contributed to the progress in understanding the role of topology in QCD and related fields. We thank all the speakers and

  5. Proceedings of RIKEN BNL Research Center Workshop: P- and CP-odd Effects in Hot and Dense Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, A.; Fukushima, K.; Kharzeev, D.; Warringa, H.; Voloshin, S.

    2010-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the RBRC/CATHIE workshop on 'P- and CP-odd Effects in Hot and Dense Matter' held at the RIKEN-BNL Research Center on April 26-30, 2010. The workshop was triggered by the experimental observation of charge correlations in heavy ion collisions at RHIC, which were predicted to occur due to local parity violation (P- and CP-odd fluctuations) in hot and dense QCD matter. This experimental result excited a significant interest in the broad physics community, inspired a few alternative interpretations, and emphasized the need for a deeper understanding of the role of topology in QCD vacuum and in hot and dense quark-gluon matter. Topological effects in QCD are also closely related to a number of intriguing problems in condensed matter physics, cosmology and astrophysics. We therefore felt that a broad cross-disciplinary discussion of topological P- and CP-odd effects in various kinds of matter was urgently needed. Such a discussion became the subject of the workshop. Specific topics discussed at the workshop include the following: (1) The current experimental results on charge asymmetries at RHIC and the physical interpretations of the data; (2) Quantitative characterization of topological effects in QCD matter including both analytical (perturbative and non-perturbative using gauge/gravity duality) and numerical (lattice-QCD) calculations; (3) Topological effects in cosmology of the Early Universe (including baryogenesis and dark energy); (4) Topological effects in condensed matter physics (including graphene and superfiuids); and (5) Directions for the future experimental studies of P- and CP-odd effects at RHIC and elsewhere. We feel that the talks and intense discussions during the workshop were extremely useful, and resulted in new ideas in both theory and experiment. We hope that the workshop has contributed to the progress in understanding the role of topology in QCD and related fields. We thank all the speakers and

  6. Probing properties of hot and dense QCD matter with heavy flavor in the PHENIX experiment at RHIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouicer Rachid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hadrons carrying heavy quarks, i.e. charm or bottom, are important probes of the hot and dense medium created in relativistic heavy ion collisions. Heavy quarkantiquark pairs are mainly produced in initial hard scattering processes of partons. While some of the produced pairs form bound quarkonia, the vast majority hadronize into particles carrying open heavy flavor. Heavy quark production has been studied by the PHENIX experiment at RHIC via measurements of single leptons from semi-leptonic decays in both the electron channel at mid-rapidity and in the muon channel at forward rapidity. A large suppression and azimuthal anisotropy of single electrons have been observed in Au + Au collisions at 200 GeV. These results suggest a large energy loss and flow of heavy quarks in the hot, dense matter. The PHENIX experiment has also measured J/ψ production at 200 GeV in p + p, d + Au, Cu + Cu and Au + Au collisions, both at mid- and forward-rapidities, and additionally Cu + Au and U + U at forward-rapidities. In the most energetic collisions, more suppression is observed at forward rapidity than at central rapidity. This can be interpreted either as a sign of quark recombination, or as a hint of additional cold nuclear matter effects. The centrality dependence of nuclear modification factor, RAA(pT, for J/ψ in U + U collisions at √sNN = 193 GeV shows a similar trend to the lighter systems, Au + Au and Cu + Cu, at similar energy 200 GeV.

  7. {pi}{pi}-correlations in hot and dense matter; {pi}{pi}-Korrelationen in heisser und dichter Materie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isselhorst, C.

    2006-07-01

    Properties of the {pi}{pi}-interactions in hot and dense matter are studied within a nonperturbative and symmetry conserving approach. The pion and its chiral partner, the {sigma}-meson, are described within the linear {sigma} model and special attention is given to the conservation of the underlying chiral symmetry. The first part deals with the properties of pion and {sigma} in the vacuum, the further being the ''Goldstone''-boson of the theory, while the latter is a broad resonance. The results in the vacuum are tested against experimental results like {pi}{pi}-phase shifts as well as the mass and the width of the {sigma}-meson. Besides the propagator of the {sigma}-meson, the preservation of the chiral symmetry is explicitly examined and chiral Ward identities for the n-point functions of the theory are fulfilled. Furthermore the {pi}{pi}-scattering matrix is calculated and shown to be consistent with predictions from chiral perturbation theory. In the second part of this work the model is extended to finite temperature with special emphasis on the chiral phase transition. The transition temperature and the critical exponent {beta} are determined, and the influence of the temperature on the propagator of the s-meson as well as on the {pi}{pi}-scattering matrix is examined. The third part deals with the properties of pion and {sigma} in dense matter. Additional couplings like the ones to particle-hole excitations and short range repulsion have to be included to ensure stability at nuclear matter density. At zero three momentum one observes a strong downward shift of the {sigma}-mass accompanied by an accumulation of strength near the two-pion threshhold in the spectral function. Taking into account a finite three momentum for the {pi}{pi}-pair, respectively the {sigma}-meson, one observes a weakening of the aforementioned effect. Having thus developed a model for the {pi}{pi}-interaction at finite temperature and density, we try to describe

  8. Nuclear pasta in hot dense matter and its implications for neutrino scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggero, Alessandro; Margueron, Jérôme; Roberts, Luke F.; Reddy, Sanjay

    2018-04-01

    The abundance of large clusters of nucleons in neutron-rich matter at subnuclear density is found to be greatly reduced by finite-temperature effects when matter is close to β equilibrium, compared to the case where the electron fraction is fixed at Ye>0.1 , as often considered in the literature. Large nuclei and exotic nonspherical nuclear configurations called pasta, favored in the vicinity of the transition to uniform matter at T =0 , dissolve at a relatively low temperature Tu as protons leak out of nuclei and pasta. For matter at β equilibrium with a negligible neutrino chemical potential we find that Tuβ≃4 ±1 MeV for realistic equations of state. This is lower than the maximum temperature Tmaxβ≃9 ±1 MeV at which nuclei can coexist with a gas of nucleons and can be explained by a change in the nature of the transition to uniform matter called retrograde condensation. An important new finding is that coherent neutrino scattering from nuclei and pasta makes a modest contribution to the opacity under the conditions encountered in supernovas and neutron star mergers. This is because large nuclear clusters dissolve at most relevant temperatures, and at lower temperatures, when clusters are present, Coulomb correlations between them suppress coherent neutrino scattering off individual clusters. Implications for neutrino signals from galactic supernovas are briefly discussed.

  9. Effects of delta degrees of freedom on quark condensate in hot and dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lei; Ning Pingzhi

    1996-01-01

    The relativistic mean-field theory is applied to study the quark condensate systematically in nuclear matter at zero and finite temperature in terms of the relative importance of delta degrees of freedom. Calculations have included the high-order contributions to quark condensate in nuclear medium due to the baryon-baryon interactions. Numerical results are presented for the nuclear density up to five times larger than the normal density and temperature up to 120 MeV. It is found that the delta resonance in nuclear matter can cause substantial decreases to in-medium quark condensate

  10. Energy-weighted sum rules for mesons in hot and dense matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabrera, D.; Polls, A.; Ramos, A.; Tolos Rigueiro, Laura

    2009-01-01

    We study energy-weighted sum rules of the pion and kaon propagator in nuclear matter at finite temperature. The sum rules are obtained from matching the Dyson form of the meson propagator with its spectral Lehmann representation at low and high energies. We calculate the sum rules for specific

  11. Towards a generalized Landau theory of quasi-particles for hot dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leermakers, R.

    1985-01-01

    In this thesis it is tried to construct a Landau quasi-particle theory for relativistic systems, using field-theoretical methods. It includes a perturbative calculation of the pressure of a quark-gluon plasma. It reports the existence of a hitherto unnoticed plasmon contribution of the order g 3 due to transverse quasi-gluons. A new and Lorentz covariant formulation of the Landau theory is being developed, for a general relativistic system. A detailed calculation is presented of the observables of a quantum electrodynamical (QED) plasma, in lowest orders of perturbation theory. A transverse plasmon effect is discovered, both analytically and numerically. In addition, the analysis shows quasi-electrons and positrons to be stable excitations at any temperature. This is proven in all orders of perturbation theory. Along with a Landau theory for quark-gluon matter, a linearized kinetic equation is derived for the singlet quark distribution function, with a collision term for soft encounters between quasi-quarks. (Auth.)

  12. Effective equation of state of hot and dense matter in nuclear collisions around FAIR energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bravina L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical and thermal equilibration in the central zone of heavy-ion collisions at energies around FAIR is studied within two microscopic models. Two systems are utilized for the analysis: (i central cubic cell of fixed volume V = 125 fm3 and (ii expanding central area of uniformly distributed energy density. It is found that kinetic, thermal, and chemical equilibration of the expanding hadronic matter are nearly approached in both systems for the period of 10–18 fm/c. The expansion proceeds almost isentropically. The extracted equation of state (EOS in P − ɛ plane has a linear dependence P = aɛ, where a ≡ c2s slightly increases with the collision energy from 0.12 to 0.145. Linear dependencies for the EOS are found also in T − μB and T − μS planes. The characteristic kinks observed in the last two phase diagrams are linked to inelastic freeze-out in the expanding fireball.

  13. Properties of hot and dense matter created in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arsene, Ionut Cristian

    2009-07-01

    In this thesis we tried to characterize a few aspects of the rich field of relativistic heavy ion collisions at intermediate and high energies. In chapter 2 we used two different microscopic string models, UrQMD and QGSM, to study the formation and evolution of the locally equilibrated matter in the central zone of heavy ion collisions at energies spanning from sq root sNN approx 4 GeV up to 17.3 GeV. The calculations were performed both in the cubic central cell of fixed volume V = 5 centre dot 5 centre dot 5 fm3 and for the instantly expanding volume of homogeneous energy density. To decide whether or not equilibrium is reached we used a traditional approach based on the fulfillment of the conditions of kinetic, thermal and chemical equilibrium. Both models favor the formation of equilibrated matter for a period of about 10 fm/c in which the matter expands isentropically with constant entropy per baryon. The square of the speed of sound c{sub s}2 has been found to vary in UrQMD from 0.13 at AGS to 0.15 at SPS energies and in QGSM from 0.11 at AGS to 0.15 at SPS. In both models the rise in c{sub s}2 slows down at sq rootsNN approx 9 GeV. Chapter 3 describes the HYDJET++ model as a superposition of the soft, hydrotype state and the hard state resulting from multi-parton fragmentation. Both states are treated independently. The hard part is an NN collision generator called PYQUEN which modifies the 'standard' jet event obtained with the PYTHIA generator and includes radiative and collisional energy loss for partons. Initial state effects like shadowing are included also. The soft part is the thermal hadronic state generated on the chemical and thermal freeze-out hypersurfaces obtained from the parametrization of relativistic hydrodynamics. We found that this model gives a good description of soft observables at top RHIC energy, like the p{sub T} spectrum, elliptic flow and HBT correlations. The hard part of the model describes well the high-p{sub T

  14. Warm Dense Matter: An Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalantar, D H; Lee, R W; Molitoris, J D

    2004-01-01

    This document provides a summary of the ''LLNL Workshop on Extreme States of Materials: Warm Dense Matter to NIF'' which was held on 20, 21, and 22 February 2002 at the Wente Conference Center in Livermore, CA. The warm dense matter regime, the transitional phase space region between cold material and hot plasma, is presently poorly understood. The drive to understand the nature of matter in this regime is sparking scientific activity worldwide. In addition to pure scientific interest, finite temperature dense matter occurs in the regimes of interest to the SSMP (Stockpile Stewardship Materials Program). So that obtaining a better understanding of WDM is important to performing effective experiments at, e.g., NIF, a primary mission of LLNL. At this workshop we examined current experimental and theoretical work performed at, and in conjunction with, LLNL to focus future activities and define our role in this rapidly emerging research area. On the experimental front LLNL plays a leading role in three of the five relevant areas and has the opportunity to become a major player in the other two. Discussion at the workshop indicated that the path forward for the experimental efforts at LLNL were two fold: First, we are doing reasonable baseline work at SPLs, HE, and High Energy Lasers with more effort encouraged. Second, we need to plan effectively for the next evolution in large scale facilities, both laser (NIF) and Light/Beam sources (LCLS/TESLA and GSI) Theoretically, LLNL has major research advantages in areas as diverse as the thermochemical approach to warm dense matter equations of state to first principles molecular dynamics simulations. However, it was clear that there is much work to be done theoretically to understand warm dense matter. Further, there is a need for a close collaboration between the generation of verifiable experimental data that can provide benchmarks of both the experimental techniques and the theoretical capabilities. The conclusion of this

  15. Hyperons in dense matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dapo, Haris

    2009-01-28

    The hyperon-nucleon YN low momentum effective interaction (V{sub low} {sub k}) allows for an extensive study of the behavior of hyperons in dense matter, together with an investigation of effects of the presence of hyperons on dense matter. The first step towards this goal is the construction of the matrix elements for the hyperon-nucleon low momentum potential. In order to assess the different properties of hyperons within these potentials we calculate the hyperon single-particle potentials in the Hartree-Fock approximation for all of the interactions. Their dependence on both momentum and density, is studied. The single-particle potentials are then used to determine the chemical potential of hyperons in neutron stars. For nucleonic properties, the nucleon-nucleon V{sub low} {sub k} can be used with the caveat that the calculation of the ground-state energy of symmetric nuclear matter does not correctly reproduce the properties of matter at saturation. With the nucleon-nucleon V{sub low} {sub k} one is unable to reach the densities needed for the calculation of neutron star masses. To circumvent this problem we use two approaches: in the first one, we parametrize the entire nucleonic sector. In the second one, we replace only the three-body force. The former will enable us to study neutron star masses, and the latter for studying the medium's response to the external probe. In this thesis we take the external probe to be the neutrino. By combining this parametrization with the YN V{sub low} {sub k} potential, we calculate the equation of state of equilibrated matter. Performing the calculation in the Hartree-Fock approximation at zero temperature, the concentrations of all particles are calculated. From these we can ascertain at which densities hyperons appear for a wide range of parameters. Finally, we calculate the masses of neutron stars with these concentrations. For the calculation of the medium's response to an external probe, we replace the three

  16. Hyperons in dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dapo, Haris

    2009-01-01

    The hyperon-nucleon YN low momentum effective interaction (V low k ) allows for an extensive study of the behavior of hyperons in dense matter, together with an investigation of effects of the presence of hyperons on dense matter. The first step towards this goal is the construction of the matrix elements for the hyperon-nucleon low momentum potential. In order to assess the different properties of hyperons within these potentials we calculate the hyperon single-particle potentials in the Hartree-Fock approximation for all of the interactions. Their dependence on both momentum and density, is studied. The single-particle potentials are then used to determine the chemical potential of hyperons in neutron stars. For nucleonic properties, the nucleon-nucleon V low k can be used with the caveat that the calculation of the ground-state energy of symmetric nuclear matter does not correctly reproduce the properties of matter at saturation. With the nucleon-nucleon V low k one is unable to reach the densities needed for the calculation of neutron star masses. To circumvent this problem we use two approaches: in the first one, we parametrize the entire nucleonic sector. In the second one, we replace only the three-body force. The former will enable us to study neutron star masses, and the latter for studying the medium's response to the external probe. In this thesis we take the external probe to be the neutrino. By combining this parametrization with the YN V low k potential, we calculate the equation of state of equilibrated matter. Performing the calculation in the Hartree-Fock approximation at zero temperature, the concentrations of all particles are calculated. From these we can ascertain at which densities hyperons appear for a wide range of parameters. Finally, we calculate the masses of neutron stars with these concentrations. For the calculation of the medium's response to an external probe, we replace the three-body force with a density-dependent interaction. This

  17. Transport properties of dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Naoki; Mitake, Shinichi; Iyetomi, Hiroshi; Ichimaru, Setsuo

    1983-01-01

    Transport coefficients, electrical and thermal conductivities in particular, are essential physical quantities for the theories of stellar structure. Since the discoveries of pulsars and X-ray stars, an accurate evaluation of the transport coefficients in the dense matter has become indispensable to the quantitative understanding of the observed neutron stars. The authors present improved calculations of the electrical and thermal conductivities of the dense matter in the liquid metal phase, appropriate to white dwarfs and neutron stars. (Auth.)

  18. Unified approach to dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Byung-Yoon; Lee, Hee-Jung; Vento, Vicente; Kim, Joon-Il; Min, Dong-Pil; Rho, Mannque

    2005-01-01

    We apply the Skyrme model to dense hadronic matter, which provides a unified approach to high density, valid in the large N c limit. In our picture, dense hadronic matter is described by the classical soliton configuration with minimum energy for the given baryon number density. By incorporating the meson fluctuations on such ground state we obtain an effective Lagrangian for meson dynamics in a dense medium. Our starting point has been the Skyrme model defined in terms of pions, thereafter we have extended and improved the model by incorporating other degrees of freedom such as dilaton, kaons and vector mesons

  19. Suprathermal viscosity of dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alford, Mark; Mahmoodifar, Simin; Schwenzer, Kai

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by the existence of unstable modes of compact stars that eventually grow large, we study the bulk viscosity of dense matter, taking into account non-linear effects arising in the large amplitude regime, where the deviation μ Δ of the chemical potentials from chemical equilibrium fulfills μ Δ > or approx. T. We find that this supra-thermal bulk viscosity can provide a potential mechanism for saturating unstable modes in compact stars since the viscosity is strongly enhanced. Our study confirms previous results on strange quark matter and shows that the suprathermal enhancement is even stronger in the case of hadronic matter. We also comment on the competition of different weak channels and the presence of suprathermal effects in various color superconducting phases of dense quark matter.

  20. Electric Conductivity of Hot and Dense Quark Matter in a Magnetic Field with Landau Level Resummation via Kinetic Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Kenji; Hidaka, Yoshimasa

    2018-04-01

    We compute the electric conductivity of quark matter at finite temperature T and a quark chemical potential μ under a magnetic field B beyond the lowest Landau level approximation. The electric conductivity transverse to B is dominated by the Hall conductivity σH. For the longitudinal conductivity σ∥, we need to solve kinetic equations. Then, we numerically find that σ∥ has only a mild dependence on μ and the quark mass mq. Moreover, σ∥ first decreases and then linearly increases as a function of B , leading to an intermediate B region that looks consistent with the experimental signature for the chiral magnetic effect. We also point out that σ∥ at a nonzero B remains within the range of the lattice-QCD estimate at B =0 .

  1. Nucleation of strange matter in dense stellar cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, J.E.; Benvenuto, O.G.; Vucetich, H.

    1992-01-01

    We investigate the nucleation of strange quark matter inside hot, dense nuclear matter. Applying Zel'dovich's kinetic theory of nucleation we find a lower limit of the temperature T for strange-matter bubbles to appear, which happens to be satisfied inside the Kelvin-Helmholtz cooling era of a compact star life but not much after it. Our bounds thus suggest that a prompt conversion could be achieved, giving support to earlier expectations for nonstandard type-II supernova scenarios

  2. Anomalous properties of hot dense nonequilibrium plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrante, G; Zarcone, M; Uryupin, S A

    2005-01-01

    A concise overview of a number of anomalous properties of hot dense nonequilibrium plasmas is given. The possibility of quasistationary megagauss magnetic field generation due to Weibel instability is discussed for plasmas created in atom tunnel ionization. The collisionless absorption and reflection of a test electromagnetic wave normally impinging on the plasma with two-temperature bi-maxwellian electron velocity distribution function are studied. Due to the wave magnetic field influence on the electron kinetics in the skin layer the wave absorption and reflection significantly depend on the degree of the electron temperature anisotropy. The linearly polarized impinging wave during reflection transforms into an elliptically polarized one. The problem of transmission of an ultrashort laser pulse through a layer of dense plasma, formed as a result of ionization of a thin foil, is considered. It is shown that the strong photoelectron distribution anisotropy yields an anomalous penetration of the wave field through the foil

  3. Transition to Δ matter from hot, dense nuclear matter within a relativistic mean field formulation of the nonlinear σ and ω model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Z.; Zhuo, Y.; Li, Z.; Mao, G.; Zhuo, Y.; Mao, G.; Greiner, W.

    1997-01-01

    An investigation of the transition to Δ matter is performed based on a relativistic mean field formulation of the nonlinear σ and ω model. We demonstrate that in addition to the Δ-meson coupling, the occurrence of the baryon resonance isomer also depends on the nucleon-meson coupling. Our results show that for the favored phenomenological value of m * and K, the Δ isomer exists at baryon density ∼2 3ρ 0 if β=1.31 is adopted. For universal coupling of the nucleon and Δ, the Δ density at baryon density ∼2 3ρ 0 and temperature ∼0.4 0.5 fm -1 is about normal nuclear matter density, which is in accord with a recent experimental finding. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  4. Skyrmions, dense matter and nuclear forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pethick, C.J.

    1984-12-01

    A simple introduction to a number of properties of Skyrme's chiral soliton model of baryons is given. Some implications of the model for dense matter and for nuclear interactions are discussed. (orig.)

  5. 16. Hot dense plasma atomic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, Dappen; Totsuji, H.; Nishii, Y.

    2002-01-01

    This document gathers 13 articles whose common feature is to deal with atomic processes in hot plasmas. Density functional molecular dynamics method is applied to the hydrogen plasma in the domain of liquid metallic hydrogen. The effects of the density gradient are taken into account in both the electronic kinetic energy and the exchange energy and it is shown that they almost cancel with each other, extending the applicability of the Thomas-Fermi-Dirac approximation to the cases where the density gradient is not negligible. Another article reports about space and time resolved M-shell X-ray measurements of a laser-produced gas jet xenon plasma. Plasma parameters have been measured by ion acoustic and electron plasma waves Thomson scattering. Photo-ionization becomes a dominant atomic process when the density and the temperature of plasmas are relatively low and when the plasma is submitted to intense external radiation. It is shown that 2 plasmas which have a very different density but have the same ionization parameters, are found in a similar ionization state. Most radiation hydrodynamics codes use radiative opacity data from available libraries of atomic data. Several articles are focused on the determination of one group Rosseland and Planck mean analytical formulas for several single elements used in inertial fusion targets. In another paper the plasma density effect on population densities, effective ionization, recombination rate coefficients and on emission lines from carbon and Al ions in hot dense plasma, is studied. The last article is devoted to a new atomic model in plasmas that considers the occupation probability of the bound state and free state density in the presence of the plasma micro-field. (A.C.)

  6. Nucleon structure and properties of dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutschera, M.; Pethick, C.J.; Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL

    1988-01-01

    We consider the properties of dense matter in a framework of the Skyrme soliton model and the chiral bag model. The influence of the nucleon structure on the equation of state of dense matter is emphasized. We find that in both models the energy per unit volume is proportional to n 4/3 , n being the baryon number density. We discuss the properties of neutron stars with a derived equation of state. The role of many-body effects is investigated. The effect of including higher order terms in the chiral lagrangian is examined. The phase transition to quark matter is studied. 29 refs., 6 figs. (author)

  7. Molecular dynamics for dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Toshiki; Chiba, Satoshi; Watanabe, Gentaro

    2012-01-01

    We review a molecular dynamics method for nucleon many-body systems called quantum molecular dynamics (QMD), and our studies using this method. These studies address the structure and the dynamics of nuclear matter relevant to neutron star crusts, supernova cores, and heavy-ion collisions. A key advantage of QMD is that we can study dynamical processes of nucleon many-body systems without any assumptions about the nuclear structure. First, we focus on the inhomogeneous structures of low-density nuclear matter consisting not only of spherical nuclei but also of nuclear “pasta”, i.e., rod-like and slab-like nuclei. We show that pasta phases can appear in the ground and equilibrium states of nuclear matter without assuming nuclear shape. Next, we show our simulation of compression of nuclear matter which corresponds to the collapsing stage of supernovae. With the increase in density, a crystalline solid of spherical nuclei changes to a triangular lattice of rods by connecting neighboring nuclei. Finally, we discuss fragment formation in expanding nuclear matter. Our results suggest that a generally accepted scenario based on the liquid–gas phase transition is not plausible at lower temperatures. (author)

  8. Molecular dynamics for dense matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Toshiki; Watanabe, Gentaro; Chiba, Satoshi

    2012-08-01

    We review a molecular dynamics method for nucleon many-body systems called quantum molecular dynamics (QMD), and our studies using this method. These studies address the structure and the dynamics of nuclear matter relevant to neutron star crusts, supernova cores, and heavy-ion collisions. A key advantage of QMD is that we can study dynamical processes of nucleon many-body systems without any assumptions about the nuclear structure. First, we focus on the inhomogeneous structures of low-density nuclear matter consisting not only of spherical nuclei but also of nuclear "pasta", i.e., rod-like and slab-like nuclei. We show that pasta phases can appear in the ground and equilibrium states of nuclear matter without assuming nuclear shape. Next, we show our simulation of compression of nuclear matter which corresponds to the collapsing stage of supernovae. With the increase in density, a crystalline solid of spherical nuclei changes to a triangular lattice of rods by connecting neighboring nuclei. Finally, we discuss fragment formation in expanding nuclear matter. Our results suggest that a generally accepted scenario based on the liquid-gas phase transition is not plausible at lower temperatures.

  9. Phase transitions in dense matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexheimer, Veronica; Hempel, Matthias; Iosilevskiy, Igor; Schramm, Stefan

    2017-11-01

    As the density of matter increases, atomic nuclei disintegrate into nucleons and, eventually, the nucleons themselves disintegrate into quarks. The phase transitions (PT's) between these phases can vary from steep first order to smooth crossovers, depending on certain conditions. First-order PT's with more than one globally conserved charge, so-called non-congruent PT's, have characteristic differences compared to congruent PT's. In this conference proceeding we discuss the non-congruence of the quark deconfinement PT at high densities and/or temperatures relevant for heavy-ion collisions, neutron stars, proto-neutron stars, supernova explosions, and compact-star mergers.

  10. Final Technical Report for Year 5 Early Career Research Project "Viscosity and equation of state of hot and dense QCD matter"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molnar, Denes [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2016-05-25

    The Section below summarizes research activities and achievements during the fifth (last) year of the PI’s Early Career Research Project (ECRP). Unlike the first four years of the project, the last year was not funded under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). The ECRP advanced two main areas: i) radiative 3 ↔ 2 radiative transport, via development of a new computer code MPC/Grid that solves the Boltzmann transport equation in full 6+1D (3X+3V+time); and ii) application of relativistic hydrodynamics, via development of a self-consistent framework to convert viscous fluids to particles. In Year 5 we finalized thermalization studies with radiative gg ↔ ggg transport (Sec. 1.1.1) and used nonlinear covariant transport to assess the accuracy of fluid-to-particle conversion models (Sec. 1.1.2), calculated observables with self-consistent fluid-to-particle conversion from realistic viscous hydrodynamic evolution (Secs. 1.2.1 and 1.2.2), extended the covariant energy loss formulation to heavy quarks (Sec. 1.4.1) and studied energy loss in small systems (Sec. 1.4.2), and also investigated how much of the elliptic flow could have non-hydrodynamic origin (Sec 1.3). Years 1-4 of the ECRP were ARRA-funded and, therefore, they have their own report document ’Final Technical Report for Years 1-4 of the Early Career Research Project “Viscosity and equation of state of hot and dense QCD matter”’ (same award number DE-SC0004035). The PI’s group was also part of the DOE JET Topical Collaboration, a multi-institution project that overlapped in time significantly with the ECRP. Purdue achievements as part of the JET Top- ical Collaboration are in a separate report “Final Technical Report summarizing Purdue research activities as part of the DOE JET Topical Collaboration” (award DE-SC0004077).

  11. Strange hadrons and antiprotons as probes of hot and dense nuclear matter in relativistic heavy-ion collisions; Seltsame Hadronen und Antiprotonen als Proben heisser und dichter Kernmaterie in relativistischen Schwerionenkollisionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schade, Henry

    2010-09-15

    Strange particles play an important role as probes of relativistic heavy-ion collisions where hot and dense matter is studied. The focus of this thesis is on the production of strange particles within a transport model of Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (BUU) type. Current data of the HADES Collaboration concerning K{sup {+-}} and {phi} spectra provide the appropriate experimental framework. Moreover, the double-strange hyperon {xi}{sup -} is analyzed below the free NN production threshold. Hadron multiplicities, transversemomentum and rapidity spectra are compared with recent experimental data. Further important issues are in-medium mass shifts, the nuclear equation of state as well as the mean field of nucleons. Besides the study of AA collisions a comparison with recent ANKE data regarding the {phi} yield in pA collisions is done. Transparency ratios are determined and primarily investigated for absorption of {phi} mesons by means of the BUU transport code. Thereby, secondary {phi} production channels, isospin asymmetry and detector acceptance are important issues. A systematic analysis is presented for different system sizes. The momentum integrated Boltzmann equations describe dense nuclear matter on a hadronic level appearing in the Big Bang as well as in little bangs, in the context of kinetic off-equilibrium dynamics. This theory is applied to antiprotons and numerically calculated under consideration of various expansion models. Here, the evolution of proton- and antiproton densities till freeze-out is analyzed for ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions within a hadrochemic resonance gas model acting as a possible ansatz for solving the ''antiproton puzzle''. Furthermore, baryonic matter and antimatter is investigated in the early universe and the adiabatic path of cosmic matter is sketched in the QCD phase diagram. (orig.)

  12. About chiral models of dense matter and its magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutschera, M.

    1990-12-01

    The chiral models of dense nucleon matter are discussed. The quark matter with broken chiral symmetry is described. The magnetic properties of dense matter are presented and conclusions are given. 37 refs. (A.S.)

  13. Constitutive law of dense granular matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatano, Takahiro

    2010-01-01

    The frictional properties of dense granular matter under steady shear flow are investigated using numerical simulation. Shear flow tends to localize near the driving boundary unless the coefficient of restitution is close to zero and the driving velocity is small. The bulk friction coefficient is independent of shear rate in dense and slow flow, whereas it is an increasing function of shear rate in rapid flow. The coefficient of restitution affects the friction coefficient only in such rapid flow. Contrastingly, in dense and slow regime, the friction coefficient is independent of the coefficient of restitution and mainly determined by the elementary friction coefficient and the rotation of grains. It is found that the mismatch between the vorticity of flow and the angular frequency of grains plays a key role to the frictional properties of sheared granular matter.

  14. Probing dense matter with strange hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Rafelski, Johann; Rafelski, Johann; Letessier, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of hadron production experimental data allows to understand the properties of the dense matter fireball produced in relativistic heavy ion collisions. We interpret the analysis results and argue that color deconfined state has been formed at highest CERN-SPS energies and at BNL-RHIC.

  15. Coherent scattering of neutrinos by 'nuclear pasta' in dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonoda, Hidetaka

    2007-01-01

    We examine coherent scattering cross section of neutrino and nucleon systems via weak-neutral current at subnuclear densities, which will be important in supernova cores. Below melting density and temparature of nuclei, nuclear shape becomes rodlike and slablike; this is called nuclear 'pasta'. Transition of structure will greatly influence coherent effects which can not easily be predicted. We calculate static structure factor of nuclear matter using data of several nuclear models, and discuss the effects of existence of nuclear pasta on neutrino opacity in hot dense matter

  16. Equation of state of dense baryonic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, F.; Weigel, M.K.

    1989-01-01

    In a previous investigation we treated nuclear matter as well as neutron matter at zero and finite temperatures in the frame of different relativistic field theoretical models, but with the restriction to nucleons as the only present baryons. This approach is extended by including a larger fraction of baryons and mesons, necessary for a description of baryon matter under extreme conditions. The equation of state (EOS) is calculated in both the Hartree and Hartree-Fock (HF) approximations for dense nuclear as well as neutron matter. Self-interactions of the σ field up to fourth order have been taken into account. For the treatment of many-baryon matter in the HF approach the parameters of the theory had to be readjusted. A phase transition of both many-baryon systems (neutron as well as nuclear matter) in the high-pressure and high-energy-density region has been found. (author)

  17. Interacting hot dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atrio-Barandela, F.; Davidson, S.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the viability of a light particle (∼30eV neutrino) with strong self-interactions as a dark matter candidate. The interaction prevents the neutrinos from free-streaming during the radiation-dominated regime so galaxy-sized density perturbations can survive. Smaller scale perturbations are damped due to neutrino diffusion. We calculate the power spectrum in the imperfect fluid approximation, and show that it is damped at the length scale one would estimate due to neutrino diffusion. The strength of the neutrino-neutrino coupling is only weakly constrained by observations, and could be chosen by fitting the power spectrum to the observed amplitude of matter density perturbations. The main shortcoming of our model is that interacting neutrinos cannot provide the dark matter in dwarf galaxies. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  18. Cold dense baryonic matter and compact stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun Kyu Lee; Sang-Jin Sin; Mannque Rho

    2011-01-01

    Probing dense hadronic matter is thus far an uncharted field of physics. Here we give a brief summary of the highlights of what has been so far accomplished and what will be done in the years ahead by the World Class University III Project at Hanyang University in the endeavor to unravel and elucidate the multi-facet of the cold dense baryonic matter existing in the interior of the densest visible stable object in the universe, i.e. neutron stars, strangeness stars and/or quark stars, from a modest and simplified starting point of an effective field theory modeled on the premise of QCD as well as from a gravity dual approach of hQCD. The core of the matter of our research is the possible origin of the ∼ 99% of the proton mass that is to be accounted for and how the 'vacuum' can be tweaked so that the source of the mass generation can be uncovered by measurements made in terrestrial as well as space laboratories. Some of the issues treated in the program concern what can be done - both theoretically and experimentally - in anticipation of what's to come for basic physics research in Korea. (authors)

  19. Strange mesons in dense nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senger, P.

    2000-10-01

    Experimental data on the production of kaons and antikaons in heavy ion collisions at relativistic energies are reviewed with respect to in-medium effects. The K - /K + ratios measured in nucleus-nucleus collisions are 1-2 orders of magnitude larger than in proton-proton collisions. The azimuthal angle distributions of K + mesons indicate a repulsive kaon-nucleon potential. Microscopic transport calculations consistently explain both the yields and the emission patterns of kaons and antikaons when assuming that their properties are modified in dense nuclear matter. The K + production excitation functions measured in light and heavy collision systems provide evidence for a soft nuclear equation-of-state. (orig.)

  20. Bulk and shear viscosities of hot and dense hadron gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadam, Guru Prakash; Mishra, Hiranmaya

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the bulk and the shear viscosity at finite temperature and baryon densities of hadronic matter within a hadron resonance gas model which includes a Hagedorn spectrum. The parameters of the Hagedorn spectrum are adjusted to fit recent lattice QCD simulations at finite chemical potential. For the estimation of the bulk viscosity we use low energy theorems of QCD for the energy momentum tensor correlators. For the shear viscosity coefficient, we estimate the same using molecular kinetic theory to relate the shear viscosity coefficient to average momentum of the hadrons in the hot and dense hadron gas. The bulk viscosity to entropy ratio increases with chemical potential and is related to the reduction of velocity of sound at nonzero chemical potential. The shear viscosity to entropy ratio on the other hand, shows a nontrivial behavior with the ratio decreasing with chemical potential for small temperatures but increasing with chemical potential at high temperatures and is related to decrease of entropy density with chemical potential at high temperature due to finite volume of the hadrons

  1. Anomalous optical emission in hot dense oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Mario; Gregoryanz, Eugene; Mao, Ho-kwang; Hemley, Russell J.

    2007-11-01

    We report the observation of unusually strong, broad-band optical emission peaked between 590 and 650 nm when solid and fluid oxygen are heated by a near infrared laser at pressures from 3 to 46 GPa. In situ Raman spectra of oxygen were collected and corresponding temperatures were measured from the Stokes/anti-Stokes intensity ratios of vibrational transitions. The intense optical emission overwhelmed the Raman spectrum at temperatures exceeding 750 K. The spectrum was found to be much narrower than Planck-type thermal emission, and the intensity increase with input power was much steeper than expected for the thermal emission. The result places an important general caveat on calculating temperatures based on optical emission spectra in high-pressure laser-heating experiments. The intense emission in oxygen is photo-induced rather than being purely thermal, through multiphoton or multi-step single photon absorption processes related to the interaction with infrared radiation. The results suggest that short lived ionic species are induced by this laser-matter interaction.

  2. Frontiers and challenges in warm dense matter

    CERN Document Server

    Desjarlais, Michael; Redmer, Ronald; Trickey, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Warm Dense Matter (WDM) occupies a loosely defined region of phase space intermediate between solid, liquid, gas, and plasma, and typically shares characteristics of two or more of these phases. WDM is generally associated with the combination of strongly coupled ions and moderately degenerate electrons, and careful attention to quantum physics and electronic structure is essential. The lack of a small perturbation parameter greatly limits approximate attempts at its accurate description. Since WDM resides at the intersection of solid state and high energy density physics, many high energy density physics (HEDP) experiments pass through this difficult region of phase space. Thus, understanding and modeling WDM is key to the success of experiments on diverse facilities. These include the National Ignition Campaign centered on the National Ignition Facility (NIF), pulsed-power driven experiments on the Z machine, ion-beam-driven WDM experiments on the NDCX-II, and fundamental WDM research at the Linear Coherent...

  3. Energy level broadening effect on the equation of state of hot dense Al and Au plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Yong; Jin Fengtao; Yuan Jianmin

    2007-01-01

    In the hot dense matter regime, the isothermal equation of state (EOS) of Al and Au is calculated using an average-atom (AA) model in which the broadening of energy levels of atoms and ions are accounted for by using with a Gaussian distribution of the density of states. The distribution of bound electrons in the energy bands is determined by the continuum Fermi-Dirac distribution. With a self-consistent field average atoms scheme, it is shown that the energy-level broadening has a significant effect on the isothermal equation of state (EOS) of Al and Au in the hot dense matter regime. The jumps in the equation of state (EOS) induced by pressure ionization of the one-electron orbital with the increase in density, which often occur in the normal average-atom model and have been avoided by generally introducing the pseudo-shape resonance states, disappear naturally

  4. Propagation of monochromatic light in a hot and dense medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masood, Samina S. [University of Houston Clear Lake, Department of Physical and Applied Sciences, Houston, TX (United States)

    2017-12-15

    Photons, as quanta of electromagnetic fields, determine the electromagnetic properties of an extremely hot and dense medium. Considering the properties of the photons in the interacting medium of charged particles, we explicitly calculate the electromagnetic properties such as the electric permittivity, magnetic permeability, refractive index and the propagation speed of electromagnetic signals in an extremely hot and dense background. Photons acquire a dynamically generated mass in such a medium. The screening mass of the photon, the Debye shielding length and the plasma frequency are calculated as functions of the statistical parameters of the medium. We study the properties of the propagating particles in astrophysical systems of distinct statistical conditions. The modifications in the properties of the medium lead to the equation of state of the system. We mainly calculate all these parameters for extremely high temperatures of the early universe. (orig.)

  5. Propagation of monochromatic light in a hot and dense medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Samina S.

    2017-12-01

    Photons, as quanta of electromagnetic fields, determine the electromagnetic properties of an extremely hot and dense medium. Considering the properties of the photons in the interacting medium of charged particles, we explicitly calculate the electromagnetic properties such as the electric permittivity, magnetic permeability, refractive index and the propagation speed of electromagnetic signals in an extremely hot and dense background. Photons acquire a dynamically generated mass in such a medium. The screening mass of the photon, the Debye shielding length and the plasma frequency are calculated as functions of the statistical parameters of the medium. We study the properties of the propagating particles in astrophysical systems of distinct statistical conditions. The modifications in the properties of the medium lead to the equation of state of the system. We mainly calculate all these parameters for extremely high temperatures of the early universe.

  6. Stark broadening in hot, dense laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tighe, R.J.; Hooper, C.F. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Broadened Lyman-α x-ray lines from neon X and argon XVIII radiators, which are immersed in a hot, dense deuterium or deuterium-tritium plasma, are discussed. In particular, these lines are analyzed for several temperature-density cases, characteristic of laser-produced plasmas; special attention paid to the relative importance of ion, electron, and Doppler effects. Static ion microfield distribution functions are tabulated

  7. Physics of dense matter, neutron stars, and supernova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1989-02-01

    Nuclear and astrophysical evidence on the equation of state of dense matter is examined. The role of hyperonization of matter in the development of proto-neutron stars is briefly discussed. 7 refs., 4 figs

  8. Ultra-dense hot low Z line transition opacity simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauvan, P.; Minguez, E.; Gil, J.M.; Rodriguez, R.; Rubiano, J.G.; Martel, P.; Angelo, P.; Schott, R.; Philippe, F.; Leboucher-Dalimier, E.; Mancini, R.; Calisti, A.

    2002-01-01

    In this work two atomic physics models (the IDEFIX code using the dicenter model and the code based on parametric potentials ANALOP) have been used to calculate the opacities for bound-bound transitions in hot ultra-dense, low Z plasmas. These simulations are in connection with experiments carried out at LULI during the last two years, focused on bound-bound radiation. In this paper H-like opacities for aluminum and fluorine plasmas have been simulated, using both theoretical models, in a wide range of densities and temperatures higher than 200 eV

  9. Interaction of graphite with a hot, dense deuterium plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desko, J.C. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The erosion of ATJ-S graphite caused by a hot, dense deuterium plasma has been investigated experimentally. The plasma was produced in an electromagnetic shock tube. Plasma characteristics were typically: ion temperature approx. = 800 eV (approx. 1 x 10 7 0 K), number density approx. = 10 16 /cm 3 , and transverse magnetic field approx. = 1 tesla. The energetic ion flux, phi, to the sample surfaces was approx. 10 23 ions/cm 2 -sec for a single pulse duration of approx. 0.1 usec. Sample surfaces were metallographically prepared and examined with a scanning electron microscope before and after exposure

  10. Photons in dense nuclear matter: Random-phase approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetina, Stephan; Rrapaj, Ermal; Reddy, Sanjay

    2018-04-01

    We present a comprehensive and pedagogic discussion of the properties of photons in cold and dense nuclear matter based on the resummed one-loop photon self-energy. Correlations among electrons, muons, protons, and neutrons in β equilibrium that arise as a result of electromagnetic and strong interactions are consistently taken into account within the random phase approximation. Screening effects, damping, and collective excitations are systematically studied in a fully relativistic setup. Our study is relevant to the linear response theory of dense nuclear matter, calculations of transport properties of cold dense matter, and investigations of the production and propagation of hypothetical vector bosons such as the dark photons.

  11. Experimental Studies of the Transport Parameters of Warm Dense Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chouffani, Khalid [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States)

    2014-12-01

    There is a need to establish fundamental properties of matter and energy under extreme physical conditions. Although high energy density physics (HEDP) research spans a wide range of plasma conditions, there is one unifying regime that is of particular importance and complexity: that of warm dense matter, the transitional state between solid state condensed matter and energetic plasmas. Most laboratory experimental conditions, including inertial confinement implosion, fall into this regime. Because all aspects of laboratory-created high-energy-density plasmas transition through the warm dense matter regime, understanding the fundamental properties to determine how matter and energy interact in this regime is an important aspect of major research efforts in HEDP. Improved understanding of warm dense matter would have significant and wide-ranging impact on HEDP science, from helping to explain wire initiation studies on the Sandia Z machine to increasing the predictive power of inertial confinement fusion modeling. The central goal or objective of our proposed research is to experimentally determine the electrical resistivity, temperature, density, and average ionization state of a variety of materials in the warm dense matter regime, without the use of theoretical calculations. Since the lack of an accurate energy of state (EOS) model is primarily due to the lack of experimental data, we propose an experimental study of the transport coefficients of warm dense matter.

  12. Characterization of hot dense plasma with plasma parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Narendra; Goyal, Arun; Chaurasia, S.

    2018-05-01

    Characterization of hot dense plasma (HDP) with its parameters temperature, electron density, skin depth, plasma frequency is demonstrated in this work. The dependence of HDP parameters on temperature and electron density is discussed. The ratio of the intensities of spectral lines within HDP is calculated as a function of electron temperature. The condition of weakly coupled for HDP is verified by calculating coupling constant. Additionally, atomic data such as transition wavelength, excitation energies, line strength, etc. are obtained for Be-like ions on the basis of MCDHF method. In atomic data calculations configuration interaction and relativistic effects QED and Breit corrections are newly included for HDP characterization and this is first result of HDP parameters from extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiations.

  13. Quark matter formation in dense stellar objects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Although not much is known about the density at which the phase transition takes place at small temperatures, it is expected to occur around the nuclear densities of few times nuclear matter density. Also, there is a strong reason to believe that the quark matter formed after the phase transition is in colour superconducting ...

  14. Warm dense matter and Thomson scattering at FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faeustlin, Roland Rainer

    2010-05-01

    X-ray free electron lasers are powerful tools to investigate moderately to strongly correlated solid density low temperature plasmas, named warm dense matter. These plasmas are of most interest for astrophysics and laser plasma interaction, particularly inertial confinement fusion. This work utilizes the ultrashort soft x-ray pulse duration and high brilliance of the free electron laser in Hamburg, FLASH, to generate warm dense matter and to study its ultrafast processes. The techniques applied are absorption measurement, emission spectroscopy and Thomson scattering. Radiative hydrodynamics and Thomson scattering simulations are used to investigate the impact of temperature and density gradients in the sample and to fit the experimental data. The measurements result in a comprehensive picture of soft x-ray matter interaction related to warm dense matter and yield insight into ultrafast equilibration and relaxation mechanisms, in particular impact ionization and radiative recombination. (orig.)

  15. Warm dense matter and Thomson scattering at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faeustlin, Roland Rainer

    2010-05-15

    X-ray free electron lasers are powerful tools to investigate moderately to strongly correlated solid density low temperature plasmas, named warm dense matter. These plasmas are of most interest for astrophysics and laser plasma interaction, particularly inertial confinement fusion. This work utilizes the ultrashort soft x-ray pulse duration and high brilliance of the free electron laser in Hamburg, FLASH, to generate warm dense matter and to study its ultrafast processes. The techniques applied are absorption measurement, emission spectroscopy and Thomson scattering. Radiative hydrodynamics and Thomson scattering simulations are used to investigate the impact of temperature and density gradients in the sample and to fit the experimental data. The measurements result in a comprehensive picture of soft x-ray matter interaction related to warm dense matter and yield insight into ultrafast equilibration and relaxation mechanisms, in particular impact ionization and radiative recombination. (orig.)

  16. Quark matter formation in dense stellar objects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    On the other hand, the strangeness fraction is expected to be close to zero in the hadronic phase [4a]. Thus, the chemical equilibration of the quark matter will be associated with the generation of strangeness. In addition to the production of strangeness the equilibration process will liberate con- siderable amount of energy ...

  17. Color molecular dynamics for dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Toshiki; Hatsuda, Tetsuo

    2000-01-01

    We propose a microscopic approach for quark many-body system based on molecular dynamics. Using color confinement and one-gluon exchange potentials together with meson exchange potentials between quarks, we construct nucleons and nuclear/quark matter. Dynamical transition between confinement and deconfinement phases are studied at high baryon density with this molecular dynamics simulation. (author)

  18. Seeded hot dark matter models with inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratsias, John; Scherrer, Robert J.; Steigman, Gary; Villumsen, Jens V.

    1993-01-01

    We examine massive neutrino (hot dark matter) models for large-scale structure in which the density perturbations are produced by randomly distributed relic seeds and by inflation. Power spectra, streaming velocities, and the Sachs-Wolfe quadrupole fluctuation are derived for this model. We find that the pure seeded hot dark matter model without inflation produces Sachs-Wolfe fluctuations far smaller than those seen by COBE. With the addition of inflationary perturbations, fluctuations consistent with COBE can be produced. The COBE results set the normalization of the inflationary component, which determines the large-scale (about 50/h Mpc) streaming velocities. The normalization of the seed power spectrum is a free parameter, which can be adjusted to obtain the desired fluctuations on small scales. The power spectra produced are very similar to those seen in mixed hot and cold dark matter models.

  19. Pion condensation in cold dense matter and neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haensel, P.; Proszynski, M.

    1982-01-01

    We study possible influence, on the neutron star structure, of a pion condensation occurring in cold dense matter. Several equations of state with pion-condensed phase are considered. The models of neutron stars are calculated and confronted with existing observational data on pulsars. Such a confrontation appears to rule out the models of dense matter with an abnormal self-bound state, and therefore it seems to exclude the possibility of the existence of abnormal superheavy neutron nuclei and abnormal neutron stars with a liquid pion-condensed surface

  20. Axions as hot and cold dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Kwang Sik; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Tokyo Univ., Kashiwa; Takahashi, Fuminobu; Tokyo Univ., Kashiwa

    2013-10-01

    The presence of a hot dark matter component has been hinted at 3σ by a combination of the results from different cosmological observations. We examine a possibility that pseudo Nambu- Goldstone bosons account for both hot and cold dark matter components. We show that the QCD axions can do the job for the axion decay constant f a 10 ) GeV, if they are produced by the saxion decay and the domain wall annihilation. We also investigate the cases of thermal QCD axions, pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons coupled to the standard model sector through the Higgs portal, and axions produced by modulus decay.

  1. Kaon dynamics in dense nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Ch.

    1998-01-01

    In this thesis a list of cross sections concerning the kaons and antikaons production, has been presented. A new method for the parametrisation of particles rescattering cross sections, based on the neural networks has been developed. Because of the influence of the nuclear matter on kaons properties, the effect of the optical potential parameters has been studied. In particular a term has been added to the vector part of this potential to determine the relative importance of this part compared to the scalar part. A new parametrisation of the resonance lifetime has been proposed. (A.L.B.)

  2. Menopausal Hot Flashes and White Matter Hyperintensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Rebecca C.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Derby, Carol A.; Sejdić, Ervin; Maki, Pauline M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Hot flashes are the classic menopausal symptom. Emerging data links hot flashes to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, yet how hot flashes are related to brain health is poorly understood. We examined the relationship between hot flashes - measured via physiologic monitor and self-report - and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) among midlife women. Methods Twenty midlife women ages 40-60 without clinical CVD, with their uterus and both ovaries, and not taking hormone therapy were recruited. Women underwent 24 hours of ambulatory physiologic and diary hot flash monitoring to quantify hot flashes; magnetic resonance imaging to assess WMH burden; 72 hours of actigraphy and questionnaires to quantify sleep; and a blood draw, questionnaires, and physical measures to quantify demographics and CVD risk factors. Test of a priori hypotheses regarding relations between physiologically-monitored and self-reported wake and sleep hot flashes and WMH were conducted in linear regression models. Results More physiologically-monitored hot flashes during sleep were associated with greater WMH, controlling for age, race, and body mass index [beta(standard error)=.0002 (.0001), p=.03]. Findings persisted controlling for sleep characteristics and additional CVD risk factors. No relations were observed for self-reported hot flashes. Conclusions More physiologically-monitored hot flashes during sleep were associated with greater WMH burden among midlife women free of clinical CVD. Results suggest that relations between hot flashes and CVD risk observed in the periphery may extend to the brain. Future work should consider the unique role of sleep hot flashes in brain health. PMID:26057822

  3. Broken superfluid in dense quark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parganlija, Denis; Schmitt, Andreas [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Technische Universitaet Wien, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Alford, Mark [Department of Physics, Washington University St Louis, MO, 63130 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Quark matter at high densities is a superfluid. Properties of the superfluid become highly non-trivial if the effects of strange-quark mass and the weak interactions are considered. These properties are relevant for a microscopic description of compact stars. We discuss the effect of a (small) explicitly symmetry-breaking term on the properties of a zero-temperature superfluid in a relativistic φ{sup 4} theory. If the U(1) symmetry is exact, chemical potential and superflow can be equivalently introduced either via (1) a background gauge field or (2) a topologically nontrivial mode. However, in the case of the explicitly broken symmetry, we demonstrate that the scenarios (1) and (2) lead to quantitatively different results for the mass of the pseudo-Goldstone mode and the critical velocity for superfluidity.

  4. Color superconductivity in dense quark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alford, Mark G.; Schmitt, Andreas; Rajagopal, Krishna; Schaefer, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Matter at high density and low temperature is expected to be a color superconductor, which is a degenerate Fermi gas of quarks with a condensate of Cooper pairs near the Fermi surface that induces color Meissner effects. At the highest densities, where the QCD coupling is weak, rigorous calculations are possible, and the ground state is a particularly symmetric state, the color-flavor locked (CFL) phase. The CFL phase is a superfluid, an electromagnetic insulator, and breaks chiral symmetry. The effective theory of the low-energy excitations in the CFL phase is known and can be used, even at more moderate densities, to describe its physical properties. At lower densities the CFL phase may be disfavored by stresses that seek to separate the Fermi surfaces of the different flavors, and comparison with the competing alternative phases, which may break translation and/or rotation invariance, is done using phenomenological models. We review the calculations that underlie these results and then discuss transport properties of several color-superconducting phases and their consequences for signatures of color superconductivity in neutron stars.

  5. Strange particles from dense hadronic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafelski, J.; Letessier, J.; Tounsi, A.

    1996-01-01

    After a brief survey of the remarkable accomplishments of the current heavy ion collision experiments up to 200A GeV, we address in depth the role of strange particle production in the search for new phases of matter in these collisions. In particular, we show that the observed enhancement pattern of otherwise rarely produced multistrange antibaryons can be consistently explained assuming color deconfinement in a localized, rapidly disintegrating hadronic source. We develop the theoretical description of this source, and in particular study QCD based processes of strangeness production in the deconfined, thermal quark-gluon plasma phase, allowing for approach to chemical equilibrium and dynamical evolution. We also address thermal charm production. Using a rapid hadronization model we obtain final state particle yields, providing detailed theoretical predictions about strange particle spectra and yields as functions of heavy ion energy. Our presentation is comprehensive and self contained: we introduce the procedures used in data interpretation in considerable detail, discuss the particular importance of selected experimental results, and show how they impact the theoretical developments. (author)

  6. Scale-chiral symmetry, ω meson, and dense baryonic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yong-Liang; Rho, Mannque

    2018-05-01

    It is shown that explicitly broken scale symmetry is essential for dense skyrmion matter in hidden local symmetry theory. Consistency with the vector manifestation fixed point for the hidden local symmetry of the lowest-lying vector mesons and the dilaton limit fixed point for scale symmetry in dense matter is found to require that the anomalous dimension (|γG2| ) of the gluon field strength tensor squared (G2 ) that represents the quantum trace anomaly should be 1.0 ≲|γG2|≲3.5 . The magnitude of |γG2| estimated here will be useful for studying hadron and nuclear physics based on the scale-chiral effective theory. More significantly, that the dilaton limit fixed point can be arrived at with γG2≠0 at some high density signals that scale symmetry can arise in dense medium as an "emergent" symmetry.

  7. Equation of state and neutrino opacity of dense stellar matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, S. (Sanjay)

    2004-01-01

    The properties of matter at densities similar to nuclear density plays an important role in core collapse supernova. In this talk I discuss aspects of the equation of state and weak interactions at high density. I highlight its relation to the temporal and spectral features of the neutrino emission from the newly born neutron star born in the aftermath of a core-collapse supernova. I will briefly comment on how this will impact r-process nucleosynthesis. The hot and dense neutron star (proto-neutron star) born in the aftermath of a core collapse supernova provides a promising environment for r-process nucleosynthesis. The intense temperatures and neutrino fluxes in the vicinity of the proto-neutron star is expected to result in a high entropy neutron-rich wind necessary for successful r-process nucleosynthesis. Although theoretical efforts to simulate core collapse supernova have not been able to provide a mechanism for robust explosions, several key features of the supernova dynamics and early evolution of the proto-neutron star are well understood. Large scale numerical simulations of supernova and neutron star evolution are now being pursued by several groups. Simulating core collapse supernova is challenging because it involves coupled multi-dimensional hydrodynamics and neutrino transport. The neutrinos play a key role since they are the dominant source of energy transport. It is expected that refinements in neutrino transport and better treatment of multi-dimensional effects are needed to understand the explosion mechanism. The temporal and spectral features of the neutrino emission which is emitted from the proto-neutron star is an independent diagnostic of supernova explosion dynamics and early evolution of the proto-neutron star. To accurately predict the ambient conditions just outside the newly born neutron star for the first 10-20 s, we will need to understand both the explosion mechanism and neutrino emission. In this talk I will discuss micro

  8. Hot hadronic matter in the early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, R.L.; Dykema, P.G.; Gleeson, A.M.

    1977-04-01

    A fully relativistic equation of state for hot baryonic matter was used to investigate the strong interaction contribution to the equation of motion of the Friedmann universe. A pronounced softening of the equation of state is observed near nuclear density. The significance of the results is analyzed in terms of analytic solutions for the Friedmann cosmology

  9. Transport properties of hot gluonic matter

    CERN Document Server

    Bluhm, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the temperature dependence of the scaled jet quenching parameter of hot gluonic matter within a quasiparticle approach. A pronounced maximum in the vicinity of the transition temperature is observed, where the ratio of the scaled jet quenching parameter and the inverse specific shear viscosity increases above typical values for weakly coupled systems.

  10. The effective charge of heavy ions in hot, dense plasma, special attention being given to dielectronic recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, T.

    1985-11-01

    This work investigates the effective charge Zsub(eff) of heavy ion beams when passing through hot, dense matter. Major new results concern the temperature and high density effects on Zsub(eff), the importance of dielectronic recombination in the process where free electrons are captured by the projectile, and the corresponding shell oscillations in Zsub(eff), as well as the derivation of approximate scaling relations for Zsub(eff). (orig./GG) [de

  11. Dark matter, hot and cold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafi, Qaisar

    1993-01-01

    Cosmologists responded enthusiastically to the announcement at the Washington meeting of the American Physical Society in April 1992 that the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) had succeeded in detecting primordial anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB - June 1992, page 1). The COBE satellite was launched in November 1989 into an orbit approximately 900 km above the Earth, carrying instruments to make precise measurements of the spectrum and anisotropy of the CMB. Data from the Far-lnfra Red Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) beautifully shows the CMB spectrum to be that of a black body at a temperature of 2.73±0.06K. An even more important result, at least from the viewpoint of theories of large scale structure formation (LSS), comes from the Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) which provided the first evidence for CMB anisotropy. Some anisotropy on the angular slice probed by COBE is expected in any reasonable model of LSS. COBE's measurement of the quadrupole anisotropy at six parts per million provides an important clue for developing a 'standard model' of LSS. The COBE numbers are in remarkably good agreement with the predictions of a particularly simple class of LSS models proposed almost a decade ago, with far reaching implications for dark matter searches

  12. Soliton matter as a model of dense nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1985-01-01

    We employ the hybrid soliton model of the nucleon consisting of a topological meson field and deeply bound quarks to investigate the behavior of the quarks in soliton matter as a function of density. To organize the calculation, we place the solitons on a spatial lattice. The model suggests the transition of matter from a color insulator to a color conductor above a critical density of a few times normal nuclear density. 9 references, 5 figures

  13. On parametrised cold dense matter equation of state inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Thomas E.; Raaijmakers, Geert; Watts, Anna L.

    2018-04-01

    Constraining the equation of state of cold dense matter in compact stars is a major science goal for observing programmes being conducted using X-ray, radio, and gravitational wave telescopes. We discuss Bayesian hierarchical inference of parametrised dense matter equations of state. In particular we generalise and examine two inference paradigms from the literature: (i) direct posterior equation of state parameter estimation, conditioned on observations of a set of rotating compact stars; and (ii) indirect parameter estimation, via transformation of an intermediary joint posterior distribution of exterior spacetime parameters (such as gravitational masses and coordinate equatorial radii). We conclude that the former paradigm is not only tractable for large-scale analyses, but is principled and flexible from a Bayesian perspective whilst the latter paradigm is not. The thematic problem of Bayesian prior definition emerges as the crux of the difference between these paradigms. The second paradigm should in general only be considered as an ill-defined approach to the problem of utilising archival posterior constraints on exterior spacetime parameters; we advocate for an alternative approach whereby such information is repurposed as an approximative likelihood function. We also discuss why conditioning on a piecewise-polytropic equation of state model - currently standard in the field of dense matter study - can easily violate conditions required for transformation of a probability density distribution between spaces of exterior (spacetime) and interior (source matter) parameters.

  14. Hot interstellar matter in elliptical galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Dong-Woo

    2012-01-01

    Based on a number of new discoveries resulting from 10 years of Chandra and XMM-Newton observations and corresponding theoretical works, this is the first book to address significant progress in the research of the Hot Interstellar Matter in Elliptical Galaxies. A fundamental understanding of the physical properties of the hot ISM in elliptical galaxies is critical, because they are directly related to the formation and evolution of elliptical galaxies via star formation episodes, environmental effects such as stripping, infall, and mergers, and the growth of super-massive black holes. Thanks to the outstanding spatial resolution of Chandra and the large collecting area of XMM-Newton, various fine structures of the hot gas have been imaged in detail and key physical quantities have been accurately measured, allowing theoretical interpretations/predictions to be compared and tested against observational results. This book will bring all readers up-to-date on this essential field of research.

  15. Axions as hot and cold dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kwang Sik [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kawasaki, Masahiro [Tokyo Univ., Kashiwa (Japan). Inst. for Cosmic Ray Research; Tokyo Univ., Kashiwa (Japan). Kavli IPMU, TODIAS; Takahashi, Fuminobu [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Tokyo Univ., Kashiwa (Japan). Kavli IPMU, TODIAS

    2013-10-15

    The presence of a hot dark matter component has been hinted at 3{sigma} by a combination of the results from different cosmological observations. We examine a possibility that pseudo Nambu- Goldstone bosons account for both hot and cold dark matter components. We show that the QCD axions can do the job for the axion decay constant f{sub a}

  16. The EOS and neutrino interactions in dense matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, M; Reddy, S [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, SUNY at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    1998-06-01

    The deleptonization and cooling times of a newly born neutron star depend on the equation of state (EOS) and neutrino opacities in dense matter. Through model calculations we show that effects of Pauli blocking and many-body correlations due to strong interactions reduce both the neutral and charged current neutrino cross sections by large factors compared to the case in which these effects are ignored. (orig.)

  17. Nuclei in neutrino-degenerate dense matter, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogasawara, Ryusuke; Sato, Katsuhiko

    1982-01-01

    The properties of nuclei in cold dense matter with strongly degenerate neutrinos are investigated with the aid of an extended Thomas-Fermi model of nuclei. The following results are obtained. 1) The proton number of nucleus increases with the increasing density of the matter and it becomes very huge compared with that of the cold catalyzed matter due to the decrease of the Coulomb energy caused by the effect of the lattice-Coulomb energy. 2) The matter densities at the neutron-drip points, where the chemical potentials of neutrons equal zero are obtained as a function of the number of leptons per nucleon Y sub(L), and it is found that nuclei coalesce before neutron drip when Y sub(L) is greater than about 0.4 for the case b.c.c. lattice. 3) Along the neutron-drip points, an infinite network of linked nuclei may be formed at the matter density rho sub(P) asymptotically equals 9 x 10 13 g cm - 3 , and the bubble-phase appears at the matter density rho sub(B) asymptotically equals 1.1 x 10 14 g cm - 3 . When the matter density becomes higher than rho sub(H) asymptotically equals 1.7 x 10 14 g cm - 3 , the bubbles melt into a homogeneous matter. (author)

  18. Generation and characterisation of warm dense matter with intense lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper I discuss the subject of warm dense matter (WDM), which, apart from being of academic interest and relevant to inertial fusion capsules, is a subject of importance to those who wish to understand the formation and structure of planetary interiors and other astrophysical bodies. I broadly outline some key properties of WDM and go on to discuss various methods of generating samples in the laboratory using large laser facilities and outline some common techniques of diagnosis. It is not intended as a comprehensive review but rather a brief outline for scientists new to the field and those with an interest but not working in the field directly.

  19. Ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations of unmagnetized dense plasma jet injection into a hot strongly magnetized plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Wei; Hsu, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    We present results from three-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations of unmagnetized dense plasma jet injection into a uniform hot strongly magnetized plasma, with the aim of providing insight into core fueling of a tokamak with parameters relevant for ITER and NSTX (National Spherical Torus Experiment). Unmagnetized dense plasma jet injection is similar to compact toroid injection but with much higher plasma density and total mass, and consequently lower required injection velocit...

  20. Weak interactions in hot nucleon matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowell, S.; Pandharipande, V.R.

    2006-01-01

    The reaction rates for electron capture, neutrino absorption, and neutrino scattering in hot asymmetric nuclear matter are calculated with two-body effective interactions and one-body effective weak operators obtained from realistic models of nuclear forces by use of correlated basis theory. The infinite system is modeled in a box with periodic boundary conditions, and the one-quasiparticle quasi-hole response functions are calculated with a large microcanonical sample and the Tamm-Dancoff approximation. Results for matter at a temperature of 10 MeV, proton fraction 0.4, and densities ρ=(1/2),1,(3/2)ρ 0 , where ρ 0 is the equilibrium density of symmetric nuclear matter, are presented to illustrate the method. In general, the strength of the response is shifted to higher-energy transfers when compared with that of a noninteracting Fermi gas. The shift in the response and the weakness of effective operators as compared with the bare operators significantly reduce the cross sections for electron capture and neutrino scattering by factors of ∼2.5-3.5. In contrast, the symmetry energy enhances the neutrino absorption reaction rate relative to the Fermi gas. However, this reaction rate is still quite small because of Pauli blocking

  1. Confining but chirally symmetric dense and cold matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glozman, L. Ya.

    2012-01-01

    The possibility for existence of cold, dense chirally symmetric matter with confinement is reviewed. The answer to this question crucially depends on the mechanism of mass generation in QCD and interconnection of confinement and chiral symmetry breaking. This question can be clarified from spectroscopy of hadrons and their axial properties. Almost systematical parity doubling of highly excited hadrons suggests that their mass is not related to chiral symmetry breaking in the vacuum and is approximately chirally symmetric. Then there is a possibility for existence of confining but chirally symmetric matter. We clarify a possible mechanism underlying such a phase at low temperatures and large density. Namely, at large density the Pauli blocking prevents the gap equation to generate a solution with broken chiral symmetry. However, the chirally symmetric part of the quark Green function as well as all color non-singlet quantities are still infrared divergent, meaning that the system is with confinement. A possible phase transition to such a matter is most probably of the first order. This is because there are no chiral partners to the lowest lying hadrons.

  2. Time-resolved Thomson scattering on high-intensity laser-produced hot dense helium plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sperling, P; Liseykina, T; Bauer, D; Redmer, R

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of brilliant free-electron lasers enables new pump–probe experiments to characterize warm and hot dense matter states, i.e. systems at solid-like densities and temperatures of one to several hundred eV. Such extreme conditions are relevant for high-energy density studies such as, e.g., in planetary physics and inertial confinement fusion. We consider here a liquid helium jet pumped with a high-intensity optical short-pulse laser that is subsequently probed with brilliant soft x-ray radiation. The optical short-pulse laser generates a strongly inhomogeneous helium plasma which is characterized with particle-in-cell simulations. We derive the respective Thomson scattering spectrum based on the Born–Mermin approximation for the dynamic structure factor considering the full density and temperature-dependent Thomson scattering cross section throughout the target. We observe plasmon modes that are generated in the interior of the target and study their temporal evolution. Such pump–probe experiments are promising tools to measure the important plasma parameters density and temperature. The method described here can be applied to various pump–probe scenarios by combining optical lasers, soft x-rays and hard x-ray sources. (paper)

  3. Ionic structures and transport properties of hot dense W and U plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yong; Yuan, Jianmin

    2016-10-01

    We have combined the average-atom model with the hyper-netted chain approximation (AAHNC) to describe the electronic and ionic structure of uranium and tungsten in the hot dense matter regime. When the electronic structure is described within the average-atom model, the effects of others ions on the electronic structure are considered by the correlation functions. And the ionic structure is calculated though using the hyper-netted chain (HNC) approximation. The ion-ion pair potential is calculated using the modified Gordon-Kim model based on the electronic density distribution in the temperature-depended density functional theory. And electronic and ionic structures are determined self-consistently. On the basis of the ion-ion pair potential, we perform the classical (CMD) and Langevin (LMD) molecular dynamics to simulate the ionic transport properties, such as ionic self-diffusion and shear viscosity coefficients, through the ionic velocity correlation functions. Due that the free electrons become more and more with increasing the plasma temperature, the influence of the electron-ion collisions on the transport properties become more and more important.

  4. A comparison of two atomic models for the radiative properties of dense hot low Z plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minguez, E.; Sauvan, P.; Gil, J.M.; Rodriguez, R.; Rubiano, J.G.; Florido, R.; Martel, P.; Angelo, P.; Schott, R.; Philippe, F.; Leboucher-Dalimier, E.; Mancini, R.

    2003-01-01

    In this work, two different atomic models (ANALOP based on parametric potentials and IDEFIX based on the dicenter model) are used to calculate the opacities for bound-bound transitions in hot dense, low Z plasmas, and the results are compared to each other. In addition, the ANALOP code has been used to compute free-bound cross sections for hydrogen-like ions

  5. Sound modes in hot nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolomietz, V. M.; Shlomo, S.

    2001-01-01

    The propagation of the isoscalar and isovector sound modes in a hot nuclear matter is considered. The approach is based on the collisional kinetic theory and takes into account the temperature and memory effects. It is shown that the sound velocity and the attenuation coefficient are significantly influenced by the Fermi surface distortion (FSD). The corresponding influence is much stronger for the isoscalar mode than for the isovector one. The memory effects cause a nonmonotonous behavior of the attenuation coefficient as a function of the relaxation time leading to a zero-to-first sound transition with increasing temperature. The mixing of both the isoscalar and the isovector sound modes in an asymmetric nuclear matter is evaluated. The condition for the bulk instability and the instability growth rate in the presence of the memory effects is studied. It is shown that both the FSD and the relaxation processes lead to a shift of the maximum of the instability growth rate to the longer-wavelength region

  6. Dynamic electron-ion collisions and nuclear quantum effects in quantum simulation of warm dense matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dongdong; Dai, Jiayu

    2018-02-01

    The structural, thermodynamic and transport properties of warm dense matter (WDM) are crucial to the fields of astrophysics and planet science, as well as inertial confinement fusion. WDM refers to the states of matter in a regime of temperature and density between cold condensed matter and hot ideal plasmas, where the density is from near-solid up to ten times solid density, and the temperature between 0.1 and 100 eV. In the WDM regime, matter exhibits moderately or strongly coupled, partially degenerate properties. Therefore, the methods used to deal with condensed matter and isolated atoms need to be properly validated for WDM. It is therefore a big challenge to understand WDM within a unified theoretical description with reliable accuracy. Here, we review the progress in the theoretical study of WDM with state-of-the-art simulations, i.e. quantum Langevin molecular dynamics and first principles path integral molecular dynamics. The related applications for WDM are also included.

  7. Sonoluminescence test for equation of state in warm dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Siu-Fai; Barnard, J.J.; Leung, P.T.; Yu, S.S.

    2008-01-01

    In experiments of Single-bubble Sonoluminescence (SBSL), the bubble is heated to temperatures of a few eV in the collapse phase of the oscillation. Our hydrodynamic simulations show that the density inside the bubble can go up to the order of 1 g/cm3, and the electron density due to ionization is 1021; cm3. So the plasma coupling constant is found to be around 1 and the gas inside the bubble is in the Warm Dense Matter (WDM) regime. We simulate the light emission of SL with an optical model for thermal radiation which takes the finite opacity of the bubble into consideration. The numerical results obtained are compared to the experimental data and found to be very sensitive to the equation of state used. As theories for the equation of state, as well as the opacity data, in the WDM regime are still very uncertain, we propose that SL may be a good low-cost experimental check for the EOS and the opacity data for matter in the WDM regime

  8. Collaborative Research: Neutrinos and Nucleosynthesis in Hot and Dense Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alford, Mark [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2015-05-31

    The Topical Collaboration funded one of Prof. Alford's graduate students, Jun (Sophia) Han, by providing 75% of her support. The work reported here was wholly or partly supported by the Topical Collaboration. Additional support, e.g. for postdoc Kai Schwenzer, came from Nuclear Theory grant #DE-FG02-05ER41375.

  9. Hadrons in dense and/or hot hadronic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, T.; Chanfray, G.; Davesne, D.; Delorme, J.; Ericson, M.; Marteau, J.

    1998-01-01

    Medium effects on various properties of hadrons have been considered. We have studied the mixing between axial and vector currents which accompanies the partial restoration of chiral symmetry. We have improved in several ways our interpretation of the modifications of the ρ mass spectrum in the CERN heavy ion experiment CERES. Still in the domain of relativistic heavy ion collisions, a Boltzmann transport equation has been solved with the aim of incorporating medium effects on the pion spectra. More formally, studies have been conducted with promising results on non perturbative methods in field theory. Other topics cover nuclear effects in the atmospheric neutrino problem and a semi-classical approach to exclusive (e,e'p) reactions. (authors)

  10. Collaborative Research: Neutrinos and Nucleosynthesis in Hot Dense Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, Gail [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Schaefer, Thomas [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2015-05-31

    The major accomplishments of the research activity at NC State during the five years were: to determine the effects and signatures of turbulence in supernova, to calculate r-process and supernova nucleosynthesis, and to determine the neutrino scattering and flavor transformation that occurs in black hole accretion disks. This report goes into more detail on them.

  11. Beta transition rates in hot and dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, K.; El Eid, M.F.; Hillebrandt, W.

    1977-05-01

    Allowed and first-forbidden transition rates of β +- decays and e +- captures under stellar conditions of high temperatures and high densities are reformulated. The present paper mainly describes the formalism which is essentially based on the gross theory of nuclear β-decays, but also contains the numerical results of the transition rates of nuclei with the mass number 56. The discussion includes a short but critical review of several different approaches to the astrophysical β-transitions of nuclei as well as of the neutron and proton. Further results of the transition rates and the neutrino energy losses will soon be presented elsewhere as simple functions of temperature and density for many nuclei, together with an application to collapsing massive stars. (orig.) [de

  12. X-ray Spectroscopy of Hot Dense Plasmas: Experimental Limits, Line Shifts and Field Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renner, Oldrich; Sauvan, Patrick; Dalimier, Elisabeth; Riconda, Caterina; Rosmej, Frank B.; Weber, Stefan; Nicolai, Philippe; Peyrusse, Olivier; Uschmann, Ingo; Hoefer, Sebastian; Kaempfer, Tino; Loetzsch, Robert; Zastrau, Ulf; Foerster, Eckhart; Oks, Eugene

    2008-01-01

    High-resolution x-ray spectroscopy is capable of providing complex information on environmental conditions in hot dense plasmas. Benefiting from application of modern spectroscopic methods, we report experiments aiming at identification of different phenomena occurring in laser-produced plasma. Fine features observed in broadened profiles of the emitted x-ray lines and their satellites are interpreted using theoretical models predicting spectra modification under diverse experimental situations.

  13. Transportation conformity particulate matter hot-spot air quality modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    In light of the new development in particulate matter (PM) hot-spot regulations and Illinois Department : of Transportation (IDOT)s National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation requirements, : this project is intended to (1) perform and ...

  14. PROCEEDINGS OF RIKEN/BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP, EQUILIBRIUM AND NON-EQUILIBRIM ASPECTS OF HOT, DENSE QCD, VOLUME 28.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vega, H.J.; Boyanovsky, D. [and others

    2000-07-17

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven, beginning operation this year, and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, beginning operation {approximately}2005, will provide an unprecedented range of energies and luminosities that will allow us to probe the Gluon-Quark plasma. At RHIC and LHC, at central rapidity typical estimates of energy densities and temperatures are e * 1-10 GeV/fm3 and T0 * 300 - 900 MeV. Such energies are well above current estimates for the GQ plasma. Initially, this hot, dense plasma is far from local thermal equilibrium, making the theoretical study of transport phenomena, kinetic and chemical equilibration in dense and hot plasmas, and related issues a matter of fundamental importance. During the last few years a consistent framework to study collective effects in the Gluon-Quark plasma, and a microscopic description of transport in terms of the hard thermal (and dense) loops resummation program has emerged. This approach has the potential of providing a microscopic formulation of transport, in the regime of temperatures and densities to be achieved at RHIC and LHC. A parallel development over the last few years has provided a consistent formulation of non-equilibrium quantum field theory that provides a real-time description of phenomena out of equilibrium. Novel techniques including non-perturbative approaches and the dynamical renormalization group techniques lead to new insights into transport and relaxation. A deeper understanding of collective.excitations and transport phenomena in the GQ plasma could lead to recognize novel potential experimental signatures. New insights into small-c physics reveals a striking similarity between small-c and hard thermal loops, and novel real-time numerical simulations have recently studied the parton distributions and their thermalizations in the initial stages of a heavy ion collision.

  15. PROCEEDINGS OF RIKEN/BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP, EQUILIBRIUM AND NON-EQUILIBRIM ASPECTTS OF HOT, DENSE QCD, VOLUME 28.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DE VEGA,H.J.; BOYANOVSKY,D. [and others

    2000-07-17

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven, beginning operation this year, and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, beginning operation {approximately}2005, will provide an unprecedented range of energies and luminosities that will allow us to probe the Gluon-Quark plasma. At RHIC and LHC, at central rapidity typical estimates of energy densities and temperatures are e * 1-10 GeV/fm3 and T0 * 300 - 900 MeV. Such energies are well above current estimates for the GQ plasma. Initially, this hot, dense plasma is far from local thermal equilibrium, making the theoretical study of transport phenomena, kinetic and chemical equilibration in dense and hot plasmas, and related issues a matter of fundamental importance. During the last few years a consistent framework to study collective effects in the Gluon-Quark plasma, and a microscopic description of transport in terms of the hard thermal (and dense) loops resummation program has emerged. This approach has the potential of providing a microscopic formulation of transport, in the regime of temperatures and densities to be achieved at RHIC and LHC. A parallel development over the last few years has provided a consistent formulation of non-equilibrium quantum field theory that provides a real-time description of phenomena out of equilibrium. Novel techniques including non-perturbative approaches and the dynamical renormalization group techniques lead to new insights into transport and relaxation. A deeper understanding of collective.excitations and transport phenomena in the GQ plasma could lead to recognize novel potential experimental signatures. New insights into small-c physics reveals a striking similarity between small-c and hard thermal loops, and novel real-time numerical simulations have recently studied the parton distributions and their thermalizations in the initial stages of a heavy ion collision.

  16. Proceedings of RIKEN BNL research center workshop, equilibrium and non-equilibrium aspects of hot, dense QCD, Vol. 28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vega, H.J.; Boyanovsky, D.

    2000-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven, beginning operation this year, and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, beginning operation ∼2005, will provide an unprecedented range of energies and luminosities that will allow us to probe the Gluon-Quark plasma. At RHIC and LHC, at central rapidity typical estimates of energy densities and temperatures are e * 1-10 GeV/fm3 and T0 * 300 - 900 MeV. Such energies are well above current estimates for the GQ plasma. Initially, this hot, dense plasma is far from local thermal equilibrium, making the theoretical study of transport phenomena, kinetic and chemical equilibration in dense and hot plasmas, and related issues a matter of fundamental importance. During the last few years a consistent framework to study collective effects in the Gluon-Quark plasma, and a microscopic description of transport in terms of the hard thermal (and dense) loops resummation program has emerged. This approach has the potential of providing a microscopic formulation of transport, in the regime of temperatures and densities to be achieved at RHIC and LHC. A parallel development over the last few years has provided a consistent formulation of non-equilibrium quantum field theory that provides a real-time description of phenomena out of equilibrium. Novel techniques including non-perturbative approaches and the dynamical renormalization group techniques lead to new insights into transport and relaxation. A deeper understanding of collective.excitations and transport phenomena in the GQ plasma could lead to recognize novel potential experimental signatures. New insights into small-c physics reveals a striking similarity between small-c and hard thermal loops, and novel real-time numerical simulations have recently studied the parton distributions and their thermalizations in the initial stages of a heavy ion collision

  17. Fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy for warm dense matter studies and ICF plasma diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Stephanie

    2017-10-01

    The burning core of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) plasma at stagnation is surrounded by a shell of warm, dense matter whose properties are difficult both to model (due to a complex interplay of thermal, degeneracy, and strong coupling effects) and to diagnose (due to low emissivity and high opacity). We demonstrate a promising technique to study the warm dense shells of ICF plasmas based on the fluorescence emission of dopants or impurities in the shell material. This emission, which is driven by x-rays produced in the hot core, exhibits signature changes in response to compression and heating. High-resolution measurements of absorption and fluorescence features can refine our understanding of the electronic structure of material under high compression, improve our models of density-driven phenomena such as ionization potential depression and plasma polarization shifts, and help diagnose shell density, temperature, mass distribution, and residual motion in ICF plasmas at stagnation. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC., a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA-0003525. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science Early Career Research Program, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences under FWP-14-017426.

  18. Some Recent Progress on Quark Pairings in Dense Quark and Nuclear Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang Jinyi; Wang Jincheng; Wang Qun

    2012-01-01

    In this review article we give a brief overview on some recent progress in quark pairings in dense quark/nuclear matter mostly developed in the past five years. We focus on following aspects in particular: the BCS-BEC crossover in the CSC phase, the baryon formation and dissociation in dense quark/nuclear matter, the Ginzburg-Landau theory for three-flavor dense matter with U A (1) anomaly, and the collective and Nambu-Goldstone modes for the spin-one CSC. (physics of elementary particles and fields)

  19. Intense Ion Beams for Warm Dense Matter Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heimbucher, Lynn; Coleman, Joshua Eugene

    2008-01-01

    The Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is exploring the physical limits of compression and focusing of ion beams for heating material to warm dense matter (WDM) and fusion ignition conditions. The NDCX is a beam transport experiment with several components at a scale comparable to an inertial fusion energy driver. The NDCX is an accelerator which consists of a low-emittance ion source, high-current injector, solenoid matching section, induction bunching module, beam neutralization section, and final focusing system. The principal objectives of the experiment are to control the beam envelope, demonstrate effective neutralization of the beam space-charge, control the velocity tilt on the beam, and understand defocusing effects, field imperfections, and limitations on peak intensity such as emittance and aberrations. Target heating experiments with space-charge dominated ion beams require simultaneous longitudinal bunching and transverse focusing. A four-solenoid lattice is used to tune the beam envelope to the necessary focusing conditions before entering the induction bunching module. The induction bunching module provides a head-to-tail velocity ramp necessary to achieve peak axial compression at the desired focal plane. Downstream of the induction gap a plasma column neutralizes the beam space charge so only emittance limits the focused beam intensity. We present results of beam transport through a solenoid matching section and simultaneous focusing of a singly charged K + ion bunch at an ion energy of 0.3 MeV. The results include a qualitative comparison of experimental and calculated results after the solenoid matching section, which include time resolved current density, transverse distributions, and phase-space of the beam at different diagnostic planes. Electron cloud and gas measurements in the solenoid lattice and in the vicinity of intercepting diagnostics are also presented. Finally, comparisons of

  20. Intense Ion Beam for Warm Dense Matter Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Joshua Eugene [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is exploring the physical limits of compression and focusing of ion beams for heating material to warm dense matter (WDM) and fusion ignition conditions. The NDCX is a beam transport experiment with several components at a scale comparable to an inertial fusion energy driver. The NDCX is an accelerator which consists of a low-emittance ion source, high-current injector, solenoid matching section, induction bunching module, beam neutralization section, and final focusing system. The principal objectives of the experiment are to control the beam envelope, demonstrate effective neutralization of the beam space-charge, control the velocity tilt on the beam, and understand defocusing effects, field imperfections, and limitations on peak intensity such as emittance and aberrations. Target heating experiments with space-charge dominated ion beams require simultaneous longitudinal bunching and transverse focusing. A four-solenoid lattice is used to tune the beam envelope to the necessary focusing conditions before entering the induction bunching module. The induction bunching module provides a head-to-tail velocity ramp necessary to achieve peak axial compression at the desired focal plane. Downstream of the induction gap a plasma column neutralizes the beam space charge so only emittance limits the focused beam intensity. We present results of beam transport through a solenoid matching section and simultaneous focusing of a singly charged K+ ion bunch at an ion energy of 0.3 MeV. The results include a qualitative comparison of experimental and calculated results after the solenoid matching section, which include time resolved current density, transverse distributions, and phase-space of the beam at different diagnostic planes. Electron cloud and gas measurements in the solenoid lattice and in the vicinity of intercepting diagnostics are also presented. Finally

  1. Theory of ultra dense matter and the dynamics of high energy interactions involving nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyulassy, M.

    1993-01-01

    Progress in the areas of pQCD radiative processes in dense matter, QCD transport theories to describe the evolution of nonequilibrium phenomena in dense matter, and the development and testing of phenomenological models of high-energy nuclear collisions is summarized. The evolution of the total energy density of quarks and gluons with minijet initial conditions at RHIC energy is shown for Au+Au

  2. Hot super-dense compact object with particular EoS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tito, E. P.; Pavlov, V. I.

    2018-03-01

    We show the possibility of existence of a self-gravitating spherically-symmetric equilibrium configuration for a neutral matter with neutron-like density, small mass M ≪ M_{⊙}, and small radius R ≪ R_{⊙}. We incorporate the effects of both the special and general theories of relativity. Such object may be formed in a cosmic cataclysm, perhaps an exotic one. Since the base equations of hydrostatic equilibrium are completed by the equation of state (EoS) for the matter of the object, we offer a novel, interpolating experimental data from high-energy physics, EoS which permits the existence of such compact system of finite radius. This EoS model possesses a critical state characterized by density ρc and temperature Tc. For such an object, we derive a radial distribution for the super-dense matter in "liquid" phase using Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations for hydrostatic equilibrium. We demonstrate that a stable configuration is indeed possible (only) for temperatures smaller than the critical one. We derive the mass-radius relation (adjusted for relativistic corrections) for such small (M ≪ M_{⊙}) super-dense compact objects. The results are within the constraints established by both heavy-ion collision experiments and theoretical studies of neutron-rich matter.

  3. Ultra-dense neutron star matter, strange quark stars, and the nuclear equation of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, F.; Meixner, M.; Negreiros, R.P.; Malheiro, M.

    2007-01-01

    With central densities way above the density of atomic nuclei, neutron stars contain matter in one of the densest forms found in the universe. Depending of the density reached in the cores of neutron stars, they may contain stable phases of exotic matter found nowhere else in space. This article gives a brief overview of the phases of ultra-dense matter predicted to exist deep inside neutron stars and discusses the equation of state (EoS) associated with such matter. (author)

  4. An effective equation of state for dense matter with strangeness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balberg, S.; Gal, A.

    1997-01-01

    An effective equation of state which generalizes the Lattimer-Swesty equation for nuclear matter is presented for matter at supernuclear densities including strange baryons. It contains an adjustable baryon potential energy density, based on models of local potentials for the baryon-baryon interactions. The features of the equation rely on the properties of nuclei for the nucleon-nucleon interactions, and mainly on experimental data from hypernuclei for the hyperon-nucleon and hyperon-hyperon interactions. The equation is used to calculate equilibrium compositions and thermodynamic properties of high density matter with strangeness in two astrophysical contexts: neutron star matter (transparent to neutrinos) and proto-neutron star matter (opaque to neutrinos). The effective equation of state reproduces typical properties of high density matter found in theoretical microscopic models. Of these, the main result is that hyperons appear in both types of matter at about twice the nuclear saturation density, and that their appearance significantly softens the equation of state. The range of maximal masses of neutron stars found in a comprehensive parameter survey is 1.4-1.7 M s un. Another typical result is that the maximal mass of a proto-neutron star with strange baryons is higher than that of an evolved neutron star (opposite to the case of nuclear matter), setting the stage for a ''delayed collapse'' scenario. (orig.)

  5. Phases of dense matter with non-spherical nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pethick, C J [NORDITA, Copenhagen (Denmark); [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States); Ravenhall, D G [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1998-06-01

    A brief review is given of some of the important physics related to phases with non-spherical nuclei that can exist in neutron stars and in matter in stellar collapse at densities just below the saturation density of nuclear matter. Comparisons are made with other systems that exhibit similar liquid-crystal-like phases, both in nuclear physics and in condensed matter physics. A short account is given of recent work on the elastic properties of these phases, and their vibration spectrum, as well as on neutron superfluid gaps. (orig.)

  6. Nucleon effective masses in field theories of dense matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C H; Reddy, S; Prakash, M [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    1998-06-01

    We point out some generic trends of effective masses in commonly used field-theoretical descriptions of stellar matter in which several species of strongly interacting particles of dissimilar masses may be present. (orig.)

  7. Nucleon effective masses in field theories of dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.H.; Reddy, S.; Prakash, M.

    1998-01-01

    We point out some generic trends of effective masses in commonly used field-theoretical descriptions of stellar matter in which several species of strongly interacting particles of dissimilar masses may be present. (orig.)

  8. Cosmological N-body simulations with generic hot dark matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandbyge, Jacob; Hannestad, Steen

    2017-01-01

    We have calculated the non-linear effects of generic fermionic and bosonic hot dark matter components in cosmological N-body simulations. For sub-eV masses, the non-linear power spectrum suppression caused by thermal free-streaming resembles the one seen for massive neutrinos, whereas for masses...

  9. S-wave pairing of Λ hyperons in dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balberg, S.; Barnea, N.; Barnea, N.

    1998-01-01

    In this work we calculate the 1 S 0 gap energies of Λ hyperons in neutron star matter. The calculation is based on a solution of the BCS gap equation for an effective G-matrix parametrization of the Λ-Λ interaction with a nuclear matter background, presented recently by Lanskoy and Yamamoto. We find that a gap energy of a few tenths of a MeV is expected for Λ Fermi momenta up to about 1.3fm -1 . Implications for neutron star matter are examined, and suggest the existence of a Λ 1 S 0 superfluid between the threshold baryon density for Λ formation and the baryon density where the Λ fraction reaches 15 endash 20%. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  10. What do QCD sum rules tell us about dense matter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, T.D.; Washington Univ., Seattle, WA

    1995-01-01

    The QCD sum rule approach to the properties of hadrons in both the vacuum and in nuclear matter is discussed. The primary limitation for the nuclear matter case is the absence of reliable phenomenological information about the form of the spectral function and about the value of certain four quark condensates. The approach gives moderate evidence in support of the Dirac phenomenology picture of strong attractive Lorentz scalar and repulsive Lorentz vector optical potentials. The approach gives weak evidence for decreasing vector meson masses in medium. (orig.)

  11. Fabrication of dense yttrium oxyfluoride ceramics by hot pressing and their mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Ryuki; Tsunoura, Toru; Yoshida, Katsumi; Yano, Toyohiko; Kishi, Yukio

    2018-06-01

    Excellent corrosion-resistant materials have been strongly required to reduce particle contamination during the plasma process in semiconductor production. Yttrium oxyfluoride can be a candidate as highly corrosion-resistant material. In this study, three types of dense yttrium oxyfluoride ceramics with different oxygen contents, namely, YOF, Y5O4F7 and Y5O4F7 + YF3, were fabricated by hot pressing, and their mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties were evaluated. Y5O4F7 ceramics showed an excellent thermal stability up to 800 °C, a low loss factor, and volume resistivity comparable to conventional plasma-resistant oxides, such as Y2O3. From these results, yttrium oxyfluoride ceramics are strongly suggested to be used as electrostatic chucks in semiconductor production.

  12. Phase structure of hot and/or dense QCD with the Schwinger-Dyson equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takagi, Satoshi [Nagoya Univ., Nagoya, Aichi (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    We investigate the phase structure of the hot and/or dense QCD using the Schwinger-Dyson equation (SDE) with the improved ladder approximation in the Landau gauge. We solve the coupled SDE for the Majorana masses of the quark and antiquark (separately from the SDE for the Dirac mass) in the finite temperature and/or chemical potential region. The resultant phase structure is rather different from those by other analyses. In addition to this analysis we investigate the phase structure with the different two types of the SDE, in one of which the Majorana mass gap of the antiquark is neglected, while in the other of which the Majorana mass gap of the quark and that of the antiquark are set to be equal. The effect of the Debye mass of the gluon on the phase structure is also investigated. (author)

  13. BCS-BEC crossover in dense relativistic matter: Collective excitations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brauner, Tomáš

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 9 (2008), 096006/1-096006/11 ISSN 1550-7998 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/0734 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : quark matter * dynamical model * gross-neveu Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 5.050, year: 2008

  14. Interplay between kaon condensation and hyperons in highly dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, Takumi

    2008-01-01

    The possible coexistence and/or competition of kaon condensation with hyperons are investigated in hyperonic matter, where hyperons are mixed in the ground state of neutron-star matter. The formulation is based on the effective chiral Lagrangian for the kaon-baryon interaction and the nonrelativistic baryon-baryon interaction model. First, the onset condition of the s-wave kaon condensation realized from hyperonic matter is reexamined. It is shown that the usual assumption of the continuous phase transition is not always kept valid in the presence of the negatively charged hyperons (Σ - ). Second, the equation of state (EOS) of the kaon-condensed phase in hyperonic matter is discussed. In the case of the stronger kaon-baryon attractive interaction, it is shown that a local energy minimum with respect to the baryon number density appears as a result of considerable softening of the EOS due to both kaon condensation and hyperon mixing and recovering of the stiffness of the EOS at very high densities. This result implies a possible existence of self-bound objects with kaon condensates on any scale from an atomic nucleus to a neutron star

  15. New possibilities in supernova accretion phase from dense matter effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, S.; Mirizzi, A.; Saviano, N.

    2012-07-01

    We carry out a detailed analysis of the supernova (SN) neutrino flavor evolution during the accretion phase (at post-bounce times tpb Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect in the SN mantle and Earth matter effects, can reveal the neutrino mass hierarchy in the likely case that the mixing angle θ13 is not very small.

  16. Experimental study of ion stopping power in warm dense matter: charge-state distribution measurements of ions leaving warm dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, Maxence

    2013-01-01

    The determination if the ion slowing down process (or stopping power) in warm dense matter is essential especially in the frame of inertial confinement fusion. During my thesis, our interest was driven by the modification of the charge state of ion beam emerging from warm dense matter, this quantity playing a major role in ion stopping power calculation. We took advantage of the properties exhibited by ion beams produced by high intensity short pulse lasers to study during two experiments performed at ELFIE and TITAN facilities, the charge state modification of a carbon and helium ion beams emerging from an aluminum foil isochorically heated by an energetic proton beam. In the first two chapters are presented the major challenges regarding the subject from both a theoretical and experimental point of view. Here are exposed the different simulation tools used during the thesis. The third chapter is devoted to the study of the property of laser-produced ion beams in the scope of our experiments aiming at studying the stopping power. We have studied in particular ion beams generated using lower-than-solid density targets during two experiments: helium gas jet and laser-exploded target. In the last chapter are presented the set-ups and results of the two experiments on the charge state of ion beam emerging from warm dense matter. The data we measured in solid-density cold aluminum are successfully compared with the results already obtained in conventional accelerators. (author) [fr

  17. Nucleon-nucleon correlations in dense nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alm, T.

    1993-02-01

    In this thesis new results on the problematics of the formation of nucleon-nucleon correlations in nuclear matter could be presented. Starting from a general study of the two-particle problem in matter we studied the occurrence of a suprafluid phase (pair condensate of nucleons). The Gorkov decoupling by means of anomalous Green functions was generalized, so that also Cooper pairs with spin 1 (triplet pairing) can be described. A generalized gap equation resulted, which permits to determine the order parameters of the suprafluied phase in arbitrary channels of the nucleon-nucleon scattering states. This equation was solvd in the 1 S 0 -, in the 3 P 2 - 3 F 2 , and in the 3 S 1 - 3 D 1 channel under application of realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials. The behaviour of the resulting gap parameters in the single channels was studied as function of density and temperature. (orig.) [de

  18. Properties of the ρ meson in dense nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, M.

    1992-05-01

    In order to reach a description of the ρ meson, which is in accordance with the principles of the gauge invariance of the electromagnetic interaction, the vector-dominance hypothesis, and the unitarity a model for the ρ meson in the vacuum is developed. Thereafter follows the calculation of the properties of the ρ meson in nuclear matter. First the connection between the spectral function of the ρ meson and the dilepton production rate for an equilibrium state is derived. Then the model for the pion in nuclear matter is described. Following approximations are applied: The description of the pion-baryon interaction pursues non-relativistically and both the width of the delta resonance and the short-range repulsive delta-nucleon interaction is neglected. The self-energy of the ρ meson in nuclear matter following from this description is formally derived from the requirement to couple the ρ meson to a conserved current. The corrections for the 3-point and 4-point vertex resulting from this are calculated and discussed. Thereafter the physical consequences of the changed self-energy of the ρ meson in nuclear matter are considered. By means of the spectral function it is shown that up to the two-fold of the ground-state density the position of the resonance is nearly not changed. At still higher densities the resonances is a little shifted to higher energies. In the range of an invariant mass of about 400 meV a strong increasement concentrated on a small range results. This is caused by coupling to a naked delta-hole state and a pion. Finally the possibilities are discussed to apply the results of this thesis to the prediction of experimental data. Thereby it is proved to be necessary to base on a simulation of the heavy ion reaction. (orig./HSI) [de

  19. Progress towards an ab initio real-time treatment of warm dense matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baczewski, Andrew; Cangi, Attila; Hansen, Stephanie; Jensen, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) provides an accurate description of equilibrium properties of warm dense matter, such as the dynamic structure factor (Baczewski et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 116(11), 2016). While non-equilibrium properties, such as stopping power, have also been demonstrated to be within the grasp of TDDFT, the ultrafast isochoric heating of condensed matter into the warm dense state, enabled by recent advances in XFELs, remains beyond its capabilities. In this talk, we will describe the successes of and continuing challenges for TDDFT for warm dense matter, and present progress towards a more complete ab initio treatment of isochoric x-ray heating. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International, Inc., for the DOE's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA0003525.

  20. Numerical study of dense adjoint matter in two color QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hands, S.; Morrison, S.; Scorzato, L.; Oevers, M.

    2000-06-01

    We identify the global symmetries of SU(2) lattice gauge theory with N flavors of staggered fermion in the presence of a quark chemical potential μ, for fermions in both fundamental and adjoint representations, and anticipate likely patterns of symmetry breaking at both low and high densities. Results from numerical simulations of the model with N=1 adjoint flavor on a 4 3 x 8 lattice are presented, using both hybrid Monte Carlo and two-step multi-boson algorithms. It is shown that the sign of the fermion determinant starts to fluctuate once the model enters a phase with non-zero baryon charge density. HMC simulations are not ergodic in this regime, but TSMB simulations retain ergodicity even in the dense phase, and in addition appear to show superior decorrelation. The HMC results for the equation of state and the pion mass show good quantitative agreement with the predictions of chiral perturbation theory, which should hold only for N≥2. The TSMB results incorporating the sign of the determinant support a delayed onset transition, consistent with the pattern of symmetry breaking expected for N=1. (orig.)

  1. Jets as a probe of dense matter at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filimonov, Kirill

    2004-01-01

    Jet quenching in the matter created in high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions provides a tomographic tool to probe the medium properties. Recent experimental results on jet production at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) are reviewed. Jet properties in p+p and d+Au collisions have been measured, establishing the baseline for studying jet modification in heavy-ion collisions. Current progress on detailed studies of high transverse momentum production in Au+Au collisions is discussed, with an emphasis on dihadron correlation measurements

  2. New color-magnetic defects in dense quark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Alexander; Schmitt, Andreas

    2018-06-01

    Color-flavor locked (CFL) quark matter expels color-magnetic fields due to the Meissner effect. One of these fields carries an admixture of the ordinary abelian magnetic field and therefore flux tubes may form if CFL matter is exposed to a magnetic field, possibly in the interior of neutron stars or in quark stars. We employ a Ginzburg–Landau approach for three massless quark flavors, which takes into account the multi-component nature of color superconductivity. Based on the weak-coupling expressions for the Ginzburg–Landau parameters, we identify the regime where CFL is a type-II color superconductor and compute the radial profiles of different color-magnetic flux tubes. Among the configurations without baryon circulation we find a new solution that is energetically preferred over the flux tubes previously discussed in the literature in the parameter regime relevant for compact stars. Within the same setup, we also find a new defect in the 2SC phase, namely magnetic domain walls, which emerge naturally from the previously studied flux tubes if a more general ansatz for the order parameter is used. Color-magnetic defects in the interior of compact stars allow for sustained deformations of the star, potentially strong enough to produce detectable gravitational waves.

  3. Variational approach to dense relativistic matter using functional techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoodbhoy, P.

    1982-01-01

    The zero temperature ground state of an infinite system of baryons interacting with each other through the exchange of scalar and vector mesons is studied by means of a variational principle appropriate to relativistic systems. A trial wavefunctional is constructed which represents the fluctuation of the quantum fields about their mean values. The renormalized ground-state energy is subsequently calculated at a point where the vacuum is stable. Renormalization to all orders in the strong coupling constants is thereby obtained. A simple expression for the binding energy per particle with three free parameters is found. These parameters are fixed by fitting to the observed nucleon mass and to the values of the fermi momentum and binding energy of nuclear matter. A prediction for the binding energy and equation of state of nuclear and neutron matter is obtained for densities far away from the density of normal nuclei. Finally, a comparison is made with results obtained by other authors who have used classical-perturbative methods for the same system

  4. Magnetization of dense neutron matter in a strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaev, A.A.; Yang, J.

    2010-01-01

    Spin polarized states in neutron matter at a strong magnetic field up to 1018 G are considered in the model with the Skyrme effective interaction. Analyzing the self consistent equations at zero temperature, it is shown that a thermodynamically stable branch of solutions for the spin polarization parameter as a function of the density corresponds to the negative spin polarization when the majority of neutron spins are oriented oppositely to the direction of the magnetic field. In addition, beginning from some threshold density dependent on the magnetic field strength, the self-consistent equations have also two other branches of solutions for the spin polarization parameter with the positive spin polarization. The free energy corresponding to one of these branches turns out to be very close to the free energy corresponding to the thermodynamically preferable branch with the negative spin polarization. As a consequence, at a strong magnetic field, the state with the positive spin polarization can be realized as a metastable state at the high density region in neutron matter which changes into a thermodynamically stable state with the negative spin polarization with decrease in the density at some threshold value. The calculations of the neutron spin polarization parameter, energy per neutron, and chemical potentials of spin-up and spin-down neutrons as functions of the magnetic field strength show that the influence of the magnetic field remains small at the field strengths up to 1017 G.

  5. Physics of hot hadronic matter and quark-gluon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuryak, E.V.

    1990-07-01

    This Introductory talk contains a brief review of the current status of theoretical and experimental activities related to physics of superdense matter. In particular, we discuss latest lattice results on the phase transition, recent progress in chiral symmetry physics based on the theory of interacting instantons, new in the theory of QGP and of hot hadronic matter, mean p t and collective flow, the shape of p t distribution, strangeness production, J/ψ suppression and φ enhancement, two puzzles connected with soft pion and soft photon enhancements, and some other ''ultrasoft'' phenomena. 56 refs., 6 figs

  6. The role of hadron resonances in hot hadronic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goity, Jose [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Hampton Univ., Hampton, VA (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Hadron resonances can play a significant role in hot hadronic matter. Of particular interest for this workshop are the contributions of hyperon resonances. The question about how to quantify the effects of resonances is here addressed. In the framework of the hadron resonance gas, the chemically equilibrated case, relevant in the context of lattice QCD calculations, and the chemically frozen case relevant in heavy ion collisions are discussed.

  7. Energy loss of particles in dense matter - calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigmans, R.

    1987-08-01

    In the last decade, a class of detectors gradually have become more and more important in experimental particle physics. They are called calorimeters, or total absorption detectors. Basically a calorimeter is a block of matter, in which the particle to be measured interacts, and deposits all its energy in the form of a shower of decreasingly lower-energy particles. The block is made such that certain (usually small and hopefully constant) fraction of the initial particle energy is transformed in a measurable signal (light, electrical charge). This lecture mainly deals with sampling calorimeters but in section 2 also fully sensitive devices are briefly treated. In this section calorimeters for detecting electromagnetic showers are discussed. The physics processes relevant to em shower development are examined, and the factors that limit the performance of em calorimeters. Section 3 is devoted to readout techniques for sampling calorimeters. In sections 4-7 hadron calorimeters are discussed. The physics processes relevant to hadron shower development, their consequences for the calorimeter signals and the possibility for optimizing the performance of hadron calorimeters are examined. In section 8 an outlook for future development is given. 31 refs.; 48 figs

  8. X-ray Thomson scattering in warm dense matter at low frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murillo, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    The low-frequency portion of the x-ray Thomson scattering spectrum is determined by electrons that follow the slow ion motion. This ion motion is characterized by the ion-ion dynamic structure factor, which contains a wealth of information about the ions, including structure and collective modes. The frequency-integrated (diffraction) contribution is considered first. An effective dressed-particle description of warm dense matter is derived from the quantum Ornstein-Zernike equations, and this is used to identify a Yukawa model for warm dense matter. The efficacy of this approach is validated by comparing a predicted structure with data from the extreme case of a liquid metal; good agreement is found. A Thomas-Fermi model is then introduced to allow the separation of bound and free states at finite temperatures, and issues with the definition of the ionization state in warm dense matter are discussed. For applications, analytic structure factors are given on either side of the Kirkwood line. Finally, several models are constructed for describing the slow dynamics of warm dense matter. Two classes of models are introduced that both satisfy the basic sum rules. One class of models is the 'plasmon-pole'-like class, which yields the dispersion of ion-acoustic waves. Damping is then included via generalized hydrodynamics models that incorporate viscous contributions.

  9. Interaction of powerful hot plasma and fast ion streams with materials in dense plasma focus devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernyshova, M., E-mail: maryna.chernyshova@ipplm.pl [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Gribkov, V.A. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Institution of Russian Academy of Sciences A.A. Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Material Science RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kowalska-Strzeciwilk, E.; Kubkowska, M.; Miklaszewski, R.; Paduch, M.; Pisarczyk, T.; Zielinska, E. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Demina, E.V.; Pimenov, V.N.; Maslyaev, S.A. [Institution of Russian Academy of Sciences A.A. Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Material Science RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bondarenko, G.G. [National Research University Higher School of Economics (HSE), Moscow (Russian Federation); Vilemova, M.; Matejicek, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the CAS, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Materials perspective for use in mainstream nuclear fusion facilities were studied. • Powerful streams of hot plasma and fast ions were used to induce irradiation. • High temporal, spatial, angular and spectral resolution available in experiments. • Results of irradiation were investigated by number of analysis techniques. - Abstract: A process of irradiating and ablating solid-state targets with hot plasma and fast ion streams in two Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) devices – PF-6 and PF-1000 was examined by applying a number of diagnostics of nanosecond time resolution. Materials perspective for use in chambers of the mainstream nuclear fusion facilities (mainly with inertial plasma confinement like NIF and Z-machine), intended both for the first wall and for constructions, have been irradiated in these simulators. Optical microscopy, SEM, Atomic Emission Spectroscopy, images in secondary electrons and in characteristic X-ray luminescence of different elements, and X-ray elemental analysis, gave results on damageability for a number of materials including low-activated ferritic and austenitic stainless steels, β-alloy of Ti, as well as two types of W and a composite on its base. With an increase of the number of shots irradiating the surface, its morphology changes from weakly pronounced wave-like structures or ridges to strongly developed ones. At later stages, due to the action of the secondary plasma produced near the target materials they melted, yielding both blisters and a fracturing pattern: first along the grain and then “in-between” the grains creating an intergranular net of microcracks. At the highest values of power flux densities multiple bubbles appeared. Furthermore, in this last case the cracks were developed because of microstresses at the solidification of melt. Presence of deuterium within the irradiated ferritic steel surface nanolayers is explained by capture of deuterons in lattice defects of the types of impurity atoms

  10. New approximation for calculating free-free absorption in hot dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrot, F.

    1996-01-01

    We propose a model for calculating free-free absorption (inverse bremmstrahlung) in hot dense plasmas. This model writes the total Gaunt factor as the product of a static factor and a dynamic factor. The treatment of the static part is based on a relation between the absorption cross section and the elastic scattering cross section, which is exact for very low frequencies and becomes asymptotically correct when the Born approximation is valid. Generalizing this relation provides an expression of the absorption cross section Q(k,k'), which depends on the initial and final wave vectors k and k', as an integral of a unique function S * (k). The calculation of nondiagonal matrix elements (k ''not='' k') is thus avoided. The analytical summation of the high angular momenta in the partial wave expansion of the cross section makes possible to apply the model in the limit of weak electron screening. The collective effects are accounted for in a dynamic Gaunt factor and in an index of refraction different from unity. Numerical results for the Gaunt factor in cesium are presented and discussed. An application to the mean opacities of carbon is also shown. (Author)

  11. Outline of experimental schemes for measurements of thermophysical and transport properties in warm dense matter at GSI and FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauschwitz, Anna; Jacoby, Joachim; Maruhn, Joachim; Basko, Mikhail; Efremov, Vladimir; Iosilevskiy, Igor; Neumayer, Paul; Novikov, Vladimir; Tauschwitz, Andreas; Rosmej, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Different experimental schemes for investigation of warm dense matter produced with intense energetic ion beams are presented. The described target configurations allow direct measurements of thermophysical and transport properties of warm dense matter without hydrodynamic recalculations. The presented experiments will be realized at the current GSI synchrotron SIS-18 and the future FAIR facility in the framework of the WDM-collaboration.

  12. A pulsed power hydrodynamics approach to exploring properties of warm dense matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinovsky, Robert Emil [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Pulsed Power Hydrodynamics, as an application of low-impedance, pulsed power, and high magnetic field technology developed over the last decade to study advanced hydrodynamic problems, instabilities, turbulence, and material properties, can potentially be applied to the study of the behavior and properties of warm dense matter (WDM) as well. Exploration of the properties, such as equation of state and conductivity, of warm dense matter is an emerging area of study focused on the behavior of matter at density near solid density (from 10% of solid density to a few times solid density) and modest temperatures ({approx}1-10 eV). Warm dense matter conditions can be achieved by laser or particle beam heating of very small quantities of matter on timescales short compared to the subsequent hydrodynamic expansion timescales (isochoric heating) and a vigorous community of researchers is applying these techniques using petawatt scale laser systems, but the microscopic size scale of the WDM produced in this way limits access to some physics phenomena. Pulsed power hydrodynamics techniques, either through high convergence liner compression of a large volume, modest density, low temperature plasma to densities approaching solid density or through the explosion and subsequent expansion of a conductor (wire) against a high pressure (density) gas background (isobaric expansion) techniques both offer the prospect for producing warm dense matter in macroscopic quantities. However, both techniques demand substantial energy, proper power conditioning and delivery, and an understanding of the hydrodynamic and instability processes that limit each technique. Similarly, liner compression of normal density material, perhaps using multiple reflected shocks can provide access to the challenging region above normal density -- again with the requirement of very large amounts of driving energy. In this paper we will provide an introduction to techniques that might be applied to explore this

  13. Fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy for warm dense matter studies and ICF plasma diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, S. B.; Harding, E. C.; Knapp, P. F.; Gomez, M. R.; Nagayama, T.; Bailey, J. E.

    2018-05-01

    The burning core of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) plasma produces bright x-rays at stagnation that can directly diagnose core conditions essential for comparison to simulations and understanding fusion yields. These x-rays also backlight the surrounding shell of warm, dense matter, whose properties are critical to understanding the efficacy of the inertial confinement and global morphology. We show that the absorption and fluorescence spectra of mid-Z impurities or dopants in the warm dense shell can reveal the optical depth, temperature, and density of the shell and help constrain models of warm, dense matter. This is illustrated by the example of a high-resolution spectrum collected from an ICF plasma with a beryllium shell containing native iron impurities. Analysis of the iron K-edge provides model-independent diagnostics of the shell density (2.3 × 1024 e/cm3) and temperature (10 eV), while a 12-eV red shift in Kβ and 5-eV blue shift in the K-edge discriminate among models of warm dense matter: Both shifts are well described by a self-consistent field model based on density functional theory but are not fully consistent with isolated-atom models using ad-hoc density effects.

  14. Jet evolution in hot and cold QCD matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domdey, Svend Oliver

    2010-07-23

    In this thesis, we study the evolution of energetic partons in hot and cold QCD matter. In both cases, interactions with the medium lead to energy loss of the parton and its transverse momentum broadens. The propagation of partons in cold nuclear matter can be investigated experimentally in deep-inelastic scattering (DIS) on nuclei. We use the dipole model to calculate transverse momentum broadening in DIS on nuclei and compare to experimental data from HERMES. In hot matter, the evolution of the parton shower is strongly modified. To calculate this modification, we construct an additional scattering term in the QCD evolution equations which accounts for scattering of partons in the quark-gluon plasma. With this scattering term, we compute the modified gluon distribution in the shower at small momentum fractions. Furthermore, we calculate the modified fragmentation function of gluons into pions. The scattering term causes energy loss of the parton shower which leads to a suppression of hadrons with large transverse momentum. In the third part of this thesis, we study double dijet production in hadron collisions. This process contains information about the transverse parton distribution of hadrons. As main result, we find that double dijet production will allow for a study of the transverse growth of hadronic wave functions at the LHC. (orig.)

  15. The fluid dynamics of a basaltic magma chamber replenished by influx of hot, dense ultrabasic magma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppert, Herbert E.; Sparks, R. Stephen J.

    1981-09-01

    This paper describes a fluid dynamical investigation of the influx of hot, dense ultrabasic magma into a reservoir containing lighter, fractionated basaltic magma. This situation is compared with that which develops when hot salty water is introduced under cold fresh water. Theoretical and empirical models for salt/water systems are adapted to develop a model for magmatic systems. A feature of the model is that the ultrabasic melt does not immediately mix with the basalt, but spreads out over the floor of the chamber, forming an independent layer. A non-turbulent interface forms between this layer and the overlying magma layer across which heat and mass are transferred by the process of molecular diffusion. Both layers convect vigorously as heat is transferred to the upper layer at a rate which greatly exceeds the heat lost to the surrounding country rock. The convection continues until the two layers have almost the same temperature. The compositions of the layers remain distinct due to the low diffusivity of mass compared to heat. The temperatures of the layers as functions of time and their cooling rate depend on their viscosities, their thermal properties, the density difference between the layers and their thicknesses. For a layer of ultrabasic melt (18% MgO) a few tens of metres thick at the base of a basaltic (10% MgO) magma chamber a few kilometres thick, the temperature of the layers will become nearly identical over a period of between a few months and a few years. During this time the turbulent convective velocities in the ultrabasic layer are far larger than the settling velocity of olivines which crystallise within the layer during cooling. Olivines only settle after the two layers have nearly reached thermal equilibrium. At this stage residual basaltic melt segregates as the olivines sediment in the lower layer. Depending on its density, the released basalt can either mix convectively with the overlying basalt layer, or can continue as a separate

  16. Onset of superfluidity in hot asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alm, T.; Roepke, G.; Friman, B.L.

    1991-05-01

    The onset of superfluidity in hot asymmetric nuclear matter is studied within a generalized Beth-Uhlenbeck approach. The finite tempeature t-matrix is of the Bethe-Goldstone type and contains hole-hole propagation not considered in the Brueckner G-matrix approach. It is shown that the phase contour for the onset of superfluidity in this approach is identical to that obtained within Gorkov's approach to BCS theory. Results for the realistic Paris potential imply that the critical temperature in the neutron-proton triplet channel is on the order of 6-8 MeV and thus much larger than that for singlet pairing. (orig.)

  17. Cosmological N -body simulations with generic hot dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandbyge, Jacob; Hannestad, Steen, E-mail: jacobb@phys.au.dk, E-mail: sth@phys.au.dk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, Ny Munkegade 120, DK–8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2017-10-01

    We have calculated the non-linear effects of generic fermionic and bosonic hot dark matter components in cosmological N -body simulations. For sub-eV masses, the non-linear power spectrum suppression caused by thermal free-streaming resembles the one seen for massive neutrinos, whereas for masses larger than 1 eV, the non-linear relative suppression of power is smaller than in linear theory. We furthermore find that in the non-linear regime, one can map fermionic to bosonic models by performing a simple transformation.

  18. Towards Dense Nuclear Matter in A Modified Sakai-Sugimoto Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rho Mannque

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available As a part of the attempt to address dense baryonic matter, we first review holographic approaches to QCD. The big advantage of the holographic approaches is that they render strongly coupled 4D gauge theories as duals of certain weakly coupled string/supergravity that are well understood. Its relevance to real QCD is one of the central problems in hadron/nuclear physics as well as in the context of applied string theory. None of the models based on these holographic approaches presently available can adequately describe the system we are interested in, namely dense baryonic matter. Nevertheless, some aspects of the holographic approach are found to describe certain processes both in vacuum and in medium. In this talk we only present the structure of a model that appears to be closest to QCD, and has the potential to address the problem.

  19. Relaxation of the chiral imbalance in dense matter of a neutron star

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvornikov Maxim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the quantum field theory methods, we calculate the helicity flip of an electron scattering off protons in dense matter of a neutron star. The influence of the electroweak interaction between electrons and background nucleons on the helicity flip is examined. We also derive the kinetic equation for the chiral imbalance. The derived kinetic equation is compared with the results obtained by other authors.

  20. Vector manifestation and violation of vector dominance in hot matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Masayasu; Sasaki, Chihiro

    2004-01-01

    We show the details of the calculation of the hadronic thermal corrections to the two-point functions in the effective field theory of QCD for pions and vector mesons based on the hidden local symmetry (HLS) in hot matter using the background field gauge. We study the temperature dependence of the pion velocity in the low-temperature region determined from the hadronic thermal corrections, and show that, due to the presence of the dynamical vector meson, the pion velocity is smaller than the speed of the light already at one-loop level, in contrast to the result obtained in the ordinary chiral perturbation theory including only the pion at one-loop. Including the intrinsic temperature dependences of the parameters of the HLS Lagrangian determined from the underlying QCD through the Wilsonian matching, we show how the vector manifestation (VM), in which the massless vector meson becomes the chiral partner of pion, is realized at the critical temperature. We present a new prediction of the VM on the direct photon-π-π coupling which measures the validity of the vector dominance (VD) of the electromagnetic form factor of the pion: we find that the VD is largely violated at the critical temperature, which indicates that the assumption of the VD made in several analyses on the dilepton spectra in hot matter may need to be weakened for consistently including the effect of the dropping mass of the vector meson

  1. Future cosmological sensitivity for hot dark matter axions

    CERN Document Server

    Archidiacono, Maria; Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Raffelt, Georg; Wong, Yvonne Y Y

    2015-01-01

    We study the potential of a future, large-volume photometric survey to constrain the axion mass $m_a$ in the hot dark matter limit. Future surveys such as Euclid will have significantly more constraining power than current observations for hot dark matter. Nonetheless, the lowest accessible axion masses are limited by the fact that axions lighter than $\\sim 0.15$ eV decouple before the QCD epoch, assumed here to occur at a temperature $T_{\\rm QCD} \\sim 170$ MeV; this leaves an axion population of such low density that its late-time cosmological impact is negligible. For larger axion masses, $m_a \\gtrsim 0.15$ eV, where axions remain in equilibrium until after the QCD phase transition, we find that a Euclid-like survey combined with Planck CMB data can detect $m_a$ at very high significance. Our conclusions are robust against assumptions about prior knowledge of the neutrino mass. Given that the proposed IAXO solar axion search is sensitive to $m_a\\lesssim 0.2$ eV, the axion mass range probed by cosmology is n...

  2. A hydrodynamic approach to cosmology - Texture-seeded cold dark matter and hot dark matter cosmogonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, R. Y.; Ostriker, J. P.; Spergel, D. N.; Turok, N.

    1991-01-01

    Hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy formation in a texture-seeded cosmology are presented, with attention given to Omega = 1 galaxies dominated by both hot dark matter (HDM) and cold dark matter (CDM). The simulations include both gravitational and hydrodynamical physics with a detailed treatment of collisional and radiative thermal processes, and use a cooling criterion to estimate galaxy formation. Background radiation fields and Zel'dovich-Sunyaev fluctuations are explicitly computed. The derived galaxy mass function is well fitted by the observed Schechter luminosity function for a baryonic M/L of 3 and total M/L of 60 in galaxies. In both HDM and CDM texture scenarios, the 'galaxies' and 'clusters' are significantly more strongly correlated than the dark matter due to physical bias processes. The slope of the correlation function in both cases is consistent with observations. In contrast to Gaussian models, peaks in the dark matter density distributrion are less correlated than average.

  3. Effects of energy conservation on equilibrium properties of hot asymmetric nuclear matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Ko, Che Ming

    2018-01-01

    Based on the relativistic Vlasov-Uehling-Uhlenbeck transport model, which includes relativistic scalar and vector potentials on baryons, we consider an N -Δ -π system in a box with periodic boundary conditions to study the effects of energy conservation in particle production and absorption processes on the equilibrium properties of the system. The density and temperature of the matter in the box are taken to be similar to the hot dense matter formed in heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies. We find that to maintain the equilibrium numbers of N ,Δ , and π , which depend on the mean-field potentials of N and Δ , we must include these potentials in the energy conservation condition that determines the momenta of outgoing particles after a scattering or decay process. We further find that the baryon scalar potentials mainly affect the Δ and pion equilibrium numbers, while the baryon vector potentials have considerable effect on the effective charged pion ratio at equilibrium. Our results thus indicate that it is essential to include in the transport model the effect of potentials in the energy conservation of a scattering or decay process, which is ignored in most transport models, for studying pion production in heavy ion collisions.

  4. Fermi-degeneracy and discrete-ion effects in the spherical-cell model and electron-electron correlation effects in hot dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, H.; Nishihara, K.

    1992-01-01

    The spherical-cell model [F. Perrot, Phys. Rev. A 25, 489 (1982); M. W. C. Dharma-wardana and F. Perrot, ibid. 26, 2096 (1982)] is improved to investigate laser-produced hot, dense plasmas. The free-electron distribution function around a test free electron is calculated by using the Fermi integral in order that the free-electron--free-electron correlation function includes Fermi-degeneracy effects, and also that the calculation includes the discrete-ion effect. The free-electron--free-electron, free-electron--ion, and ion-ion correlation effects are coupled, within the framework of the hypernetted-chain approximation, through the Ornstein-Zernike relation. The effective ion-ion potential includes the effect of a spatial distribution of bound electrons. The interparticle correlation functions and the effective potential acting on either an electron or an ion in hot, dense plasmas are calculated numerically. The Fermi-degeneracy effect on the correlation functions between free electrons becomes clear for the degeneracy parameter θ approx-lt 1. The discrete-ion effect in the calculation of the correlation functions between free electrons affects the electron-ion pair distribution functions for r s approx-gt 3. As an application of the proposed model, the strong-coupling effect on the stopping power of charged particles [Xin-Zhong Yan, S. Tanaka, S. Mitake, and S. Ichimaru, Phys. Rev. A 32, 1785 (1985)] is estimated. While the free-electron--ion strong-coupling effect and the Fermi-degeneracy effect incorporated in the calculation of the free-electron distribution function around a test free electron enhance the stopping number, the quantum-diffraction effect incorporated in the quantal hypernetted-chain equations [J. Chihara, Prog. Theor. Phys. 72, 940 (1984); Phys. Rev. A 44, 1247 (1991); J. Phys. Condens. Matter 3, 8715 (1991)] reduces the stopping number substantially

  5. Path Integral Monte Carlo Simulations of Warm Dense Matter and Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Militzer, Burkhard [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2018-01-13

    New path integral Monte Carlo simulation (PIMC) techniques will be developed and applied to derive the equation of state (EOS) for the regime of warm dense matter and dense plasmas where existing first-principles methods cannot be applied. While standard density functional theory has been used to accurately predict the structure of many solids and liquids up to temperatures on the order of 10,000 K, this method is not applicable at much higher temperature where electronic excitations become important because the number of partially occupied electronic orbitals reaches intractably large numbers and, more importantly, the use of zero-temperature exchange-correlation functionals introduces an uncontrolled approximation. Here we focus on PIMC methods that become more and more efficient with increasing temperatures and still include all electronic correlation effects. In this approach, electronic excitations increase the efficiency rather than reduce it. While it has commonly been assumed such methods can only be applied to elements without core electrons like hydrogen and helium, we recently showed how to extend PIMC to heavier elements by performing the first PIMC simulations of carbon and water plasmas [Driver, Militzer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108 (2012) 115502]. Here we propose to continue this important development to extend the reach of PIMC simulations to yet heavier elements and also lower temperatures. The goal is to provide a robust first-principles simulation method that can accurately and efficiently study materials with excited electrons at solid-state densities in order to access parts of the phase diagram such the regime of warm dense matter and plasmas where so far only more approximate, semi-analytical methods could be applied.

  6. Determining the properties of dense matter: Superconductivity, bulk viscosity, and light reflection in compact stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Gerald J.

    In this dissertation, we investigate the properties of matter, denser than nuclei, that exists inside compact stars. First, we examine a mixed superfluid/superconductor system, which likely occurs in neutron star cores. We derive an effective theory of Cooper pair quasiparticles from a microscopic theory of nucleons, and calculate the coupling strengths between quasiparticles. We then calculate the structure of magnetic flux tubes, taking into consideration interactions between neutron and proton Cooper pairs. We find that interactions between the condensates can lead to interesting phenomena and new phases at the border between type-I and type-II behavior. Next, we examine the response of nuclear matter to vibrational modes by calculating the bulk viscosity from purely leptonic processes. We find that for hot neutron stars, the bulk viscosity due to leptons is very small compared to the bulk viscosity due to nucleons, but for cold neutron stars, the leptonic component is dominant. Finally, we derive the reflection and transmission properties of light at boundaries between phases of matter that have two independent U(1) generators, which may exist at the surface of "strange stars" or at boundaries between different phases of matter in a neutron star.

  7. Is it possible to tell the difference between fermionic and bosonic hot dark matter?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannestad, S.; Tu, H. [Aarhus Univ. (Denmark). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Ringwald, A.; Wong, Y.Y.Y. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    We study the difference between thermally produced fermionic and bosonic hot dark matter in detail. In the linear regime of structure formation, their distinct free-streaming behaviours can lead to pronounced differences in the matter power spectrum. While not detectable with current cosmological data, such differences will be clearly observable with upcoming large scale weak lensing surveys for particles as light as m{sub HDM} {proportional_to} 0.2 eV. In the nonlinear regime, bosonic hot dark matter is not subject to the same phase space constraints that severely limit the amount of fermionic hot dark matter infall into cold dark matter halos. Consequently, the overdensities in fermionic and bosonic hot dark matter of equal particle mass can differ by more than a factor of five in the central part of a halo. However, this unique manifestation of quantum statistics may prove very difficult to detect unless the mass of the hot dark matter particle and its decoupling temperature fall within a very narrow window, 1hot dark matter infall may have some observable consequences for the nonlinear power spectrum and hence the weak lensing convergence power spectrum at l {proportional_to} 10{sup 3} {yields} 10{sup 4} at the percent level. (orig.)

  8. Equation of state of dense nuclear matter and neutron star structure from nuclear chiral interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombaci, Ignazio; Logoteta, Domenico

    2018-02-01

    Aims: We report a new microscopic equation of state (EOS) of dense symmetric nuclear matter, pure neutron matter, and asymmetric and β-stable nuclear matter at zero temperature using recent realistic two-body and three-body nuclear interactions derived in the framework of chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) and including the Δ(1232) isobar intermediate state. This EOS is provided in tabular form and in parametrized form ready for use in numerical general relativity simulations of binary neutron star merging. Here we use our new EOS for β-stable nuclear matter to compute various structural properties of non-rotating neutron stars. Methods: The EOS is derived using the Brueckner-Bethe-Goldstone quantum many-body theory in the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approximation. Neutron star properties are next computed solving numerically the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov structure equations. Results: Our EOS models are able to reproduce the empirical saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter, the symmetry energy Esym, and its slope parameter L at the empirical saturation density n0. In addition, our EOS models are compatible with experimental data from collisions between heavy nuclei at energies ranging from a few tens of MeV up to several hundreds of MeV per nucleon. These experiments provide a selective test for constraining the nuclear EOS up to 4n0. Our EOS models are consistent with present measured neutron star masses and particularly with the mass M = 2.01 ± 0.04 M⊙ of the neutron stars in PSR J0348+0432.

  9. Ultra High Intensity laser produced fast electron transport in under-dense and over-dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manclossi, Mauro

    2006-01-01

    This thesis is related to inertial fusion research, and particularly concerns the approach to fast ignition, which is based on the use of ultra-intense laser pulses to ignite the thermonuclear fuel. Until now, the feasibility of this scheme has not been proven and depends on many fundamental aspects of the underlying physics, which are not yet fully understood and which are also very far from controls. The main purpose of this thesis is the experimental study of transport processes in the material over-dense (solid) and under-dense (gas jet) of a beam of fast electrons produced by pulse laser at a intensity of some 10 19 Wcm -2 . (author)

  10. Theoretical model of x-ray scattering as a dense matter probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregori, G; Glenzer, S H; Rozmus, W; Lee, R W; Landen, O L

    2003-02-01

    We present analytical expressions for the dynamic structure factor, or form factor S(k,omega), which is the quantity describing the x-ray cross section from a dense plasma or a simple liquid. Our results, based on the random phase approximation for the treatment on the charged particle coupling, can be applied to describe scattering from either weakly coupled classical plasmas or degenerate electron liquids. Our form factor correctly reproduces the Compton energy down-shift and the known Fermi-Dirac electron velocity distribution for S(k,omega) in the case of a cold degenerate plasma. The usual concept of scattering parameter is also reinterpreted for the degenerate case in order to include the effect of the Thomas-Fermi screening. The results shown in this work can be applied to interpreting x-ray scattering in warm dense plasmas occurring in inertial confinement fusion experiments or for the modeling of solid density matter found in the interior of planets.

  11. Accelerator and Ion Beam Tradeoffs for Studies of Warm Dense Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, J.J.; Briggs, R.J.; Callahan, D.A.; Davidson, R.C.; Friedman, A.; Grisham, L.; Lee, E.P.; Lee, R.W.; Logan, B.G.; Olson, C.L.; Rose, D.V.; Santhanam, P.; Sessler, A.M.; Staples, J.W.; Tabak, M.; Welch, D.R.; Wurtele, J.S.; Yu, S.S.

    2006-01-01

    One approach for heating a target to ''Warm Dense Matter'' conditions (similar, for example, to the interiors of giant planets or certain stages in inertial confinement fusion targets), is to use intense ion beams as the heating source (see refs.[6] and [7] and references therein for motivation and accelerator concepts). By consideration of ion beam phase-space constraints, both at the injector, and at the final focus, and consideration of simple equations of state and relations for ion stopping, approximate conditions at the target foil may be calculated. Thus, target temperature and pressure may be calculated as a function of ion mass, ion energy, pulse duration, velocity tilt, and other accelerator parameters. We connect some of these basic parameters to help search the extensive parameter space including ion mass, ion energy, total charge in beam pulse, beam emittance, target thickness and density

  12. Input energy measurement toward warm dense matter generation using intense pulsed power generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, R.; Ito, T.; Ishitani, T.; Tamura, F.; Kudo, T.; Takakura, N.; Kashine, K.; Takahashi, K.; Sasaki, T.; Kikuchi, T.; Harada, Nob.; Jiang, W.; Tokuchi, A.

    2016-05-01

    In order to investigate properties of warm dense matter (WDM) in inertial confinement fusion (ICF), evaluation method for the WDM with isochoric heating on the implosion time-scale using an intense pulsed power generator ETIGO-II (∼1 TW, ∼50 ns) has been considered. In this study, the history of input energy into the sample is measured from the voltage and the current waveforms. To achieve isochoric heating, a foamed aluminum with pore sizes 600 μm and with 90% porosity was packed into a hollow glass capillary (ø 5 mm × 10 mm). The temperature of the sample is calculated from the numerical calculation using the measured input power. According to the above measurements, the input energy into a sample and the achievable temperature are estimated to be 300 J and 6000 K. It indicates that the WDM state is generated using the proposed method with ICF implosion time-scale.

  13. Globular cluster neutron stars and the determination of the dense matter equation of state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillot, Sebastien

    2016-09-01

    Combining measurements of the mass and radius of multiple neutron stars (NSs) represents the most promising way to determine the equation of state of dense NS matter. NSs in quiescent low-mass x-ray binaries (qLMXB) located in globular clusters have placed useful constraints on the equation of state. The statistical approaches combining measurements from multiple NSs can be further improved by the addition of more NS observations. We propose here to obtain a high signal to noise spectrum of the qLMXB in M30, the only low-absorption globular cluster qLMXBs that does not have deep X-ray observations, and which requires Chandra unmatched angular resolution. The 300 ks proposed observation will permit measurement of the NS radius with 12-15% uncertainties.

  14. Hydrogen and helium under high pressure: a case for a classical theory of dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celebonovic, V.

    1989-01-01

    When subject to high pressure, H 2 and 3 He are expected to undergo phase transitions, and to become metallic at a sufficiently high pressure. Using a semiclassical theory of dense matter proposed by Savic and Kasanin (1962/65), calculations of phase transition and metallisation pressure have been performed for these two materials. In hydrogen, metallisation occurs at 3.0±0.2 Mbar, while for helium the corresponding value is 106±1 Mbar. A phase transition occurs in helium at 10.0±0.4 Mbar. These values are close to the results obtainable by more rigorous methods. Possibilities of experimental verification of the calculations are briefly discussed. 38 refs

  15. Accelerator and Ion Beam Tradeoffs for Studies of Warm Dense Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Barnard, John J; Callahan, Debra; Davidson, Ronald C; Friedman, Alex; Grant-Logan, B; Grisham, Larry; Lee, Edward; Lee, Richard; Olson, Craig; Rose, David; Santhanam, Parthiban; Sessler, Andrew M; Staples, John W; Tabak, Max; Welch, Dale; Wurtele, Jonathan; Yu, Simon

    2005-01-01

    One approach to heat a target to "Warm Dense Matter" conditions (similar, for example, to the interiors of giant planets or certain stages in Inertial Confinement Fusion targets), is to use intense ion beams as the heating source. By consideration of ion beam phase space constraints, both at the injector, and at the final focus, and consideration of simple equations of state, approximate conditions at a target foil may be calculated. Thus target temperature and pressure may be calculated as a function of ion mass, ion energy, pulse duration, velocity tilt, and other accelerator parameters. We examine the variation in target performance as a function of various beam and accelerator parameters, in the context of several different accelerator concepts, recently proposed for WDM studies.

  16. Hydrogen and helium under high pressure: a case for a classical theory of dense matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celebonovic, V. (Belgrade Univ. (Yugoslavia). Inst. za Fiziku)

    1989-06-01

    When subject to high pressure, H{sub 2} and {sup 3}He are expected to undergo phase transitions, and to become metallic at a sufficiently high pressure. Using a semiclassical theory of dense matter proposed by Savic and Kasanin (1962/65), calculations of phase transition and metallisation pressure have been performed for these two materials. In hydrogen, metallisation occurs at 3.0{plus minus}0.2 Mbar, while for helium the corresponding value is 106{plus minus}1 Mbar. A phase transition occurs in helium at 10.0{plus minus}0.4 Mbar. These values are close to the results obtainable by more rigorous methods. Possibilities of experimental verification of the calculations are briefly discussed. 38 refs.

  17. Space-Time Characterization of Laser Plasma Interactions in the Warm Dense Matter Regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, L F; Uschmann, I; Forster, E; Zamponi, F; Kampfer, T; Fuhrmann, A; Holl, A; Redmer, R; Toleikis, S; Tschentsher, T; Glenzer, S H

    2008-04-30

    Laser plasma interaction experiments have been performed using a fs Titanium Sapphire laser. Plasmas have been generated from planar PMMA targets using single laser pulses with 3.3 mJ pulse energy, 50 fs pulse duration at 800 nm wavelength. The electron density distributions of the plasmas in different delay times have been characterized by means of Nomarski Interferometry. Experimental data were compared with hydrodynamic simulation. First results to characterize the plasma density and temperature as a function of space and time are obtained. This work aims to generate plasmas in the warm dense matter (WDM) regime at near solid-density in an ultra-fast laser target interaction process. Plasmas under these conditions can serve as targets to develop x-ray Thomson scattering as a plasma diagnostic tool, e.g., using the VUV free-electron laser (FLASH) at DESY Hamburg.

  18. Optimized simultaneous transverse and longitudinal focusing of intense ion beam pulses for warm dense matter applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sefkow, Adam B.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Gilson, Erik P.; Roy, Prabir K.; Seidl, Peter A.; Yu, Simon S.; Welch, Dale R.; Rose, David V.; Barnard, John J.

    2007-01-01

    Intense, space-charge-dominated ion beam pulses for warm dense matter and heavy ion fusion applications must undergo simultaneous transverse and longitudinal bunch compression in order to meet the requisite beam intensities desired at the target. The longitudinal compression of an ion bunch is achieved by imposing an initial axial velocity tilt on the drifting beam and subsequently neutralizing its space-charge and current in a drift region filled with high-density plasma. The Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has measured a sixty-fold longitudinal current compression of an intense ion beam with pulse duration of a few nanoseconds, in agreement with simulations and theory. A strong solenoid is modeled near the end of the drift region in order to transversely focus the beam to a sub-millimeter spot size coincident with the longitudinal focal plane. The charge and current neutralization provided by the background plasma is critical in determining the total achievable transverse and longitudinal compression of the beam pulse. Numerical simulations show that the current density of an NDCX ion beam can be compressed over a few meters by factors greater than 10 5 with peak beam density in excess of 10 14 cm -3 . The peak beam density sets a lower bound on the local plasma density required near the focal plane for optimal beam compression, since the simulations show stagnation of the compression when n beam >n plasma . Beam-plasma interactions can also have a deleterious effect on the compression physics and lead to the formation of nonlinear wave excitations in the plasma. Simulations that optimize designs for the simultaneous transverse and longitudinal focusing of an NDCX ion beam for future warm dense matter experiments are discussed

  19. Effects of strong and electromagnetic correlations on neutrino interactions in dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, S.; Prakash, M.; Lattimer, J.M.; Reddy, S.; Pons, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    An extensive study of the effects of correlations on both charged and neutral current weak interaction rates in dense matter is performed. Both strong and electromagnetic correlations are considered. The propagation of particle-hole interactions in the medium plays an important role in determining the neutrino mean free paths. The effects due to Pauli blocking and density, spin, and isospin correlations in the medium significantly reduce the neutrino cross sections. As a result of the lack of experimental information at high density, these correlations are necessarily model dependent. For example, spin correlations in nonrelativistic models are found to lead to larger suppressions of neutrino cross sections compared to those of relativistic models. This is due to the tendency of the nonrelativistic models to develop spin instabilities. Notwithstanding the above caveats, and the differences between nonrelativistic and relativistic approaches such as the spin- and isospin-dependent interactions and the nucleon effective masses, suppressions of order 2 - 3, relative to the case in which correlations are ignored, are obtained. Neutrino interactions in dense matter are especially important for supernova and early neutron star evolution calculations. The effects of correlations for protoneutron star evolution are calculated. Large effects on the internal thermodynamic properties of protoneutron stars, such as the temperature, are found. These translate into significant early enhancements in the emitted neutrino energies and fluxes, especially after a few seconds. At late times, beyond about 10 s, the emitted neutrino fluxes decrease more rapidly compared to simulations without the effects of correlations, due to the more rapid onset of neutrino transparency in the protoneutron star. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  20. Directly calculated electrical conductivity of hot dense hydrogen from molecular dynamics simulation beyond Kubo-Greenwood formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qian; Kang, Dongdong; Zhao, Zengxiu; Dai, Jiayu

    2018-01-01

    Electrical conductivity of hot dense hydrogen is directly calculated by molecular dynamics simulation with a reduced electron force field method, in which the electrons are represented as Gaussian wave packets with fixed sizes. Here, the temperature is higher than electron Fermi temperature ( T > 300 eV , ρ = 40 g / cc ). The present method can avoid the Coulomb catastrophe and give the limit of electrical conductivity based on the Coulomb interaction. We investigate the effect of ion-electron coupled movements, which is lost in the static method such as density functional theory based Kubo-Greenwood framework. It is found that the ionic dynamics, which contributes to the dynamical electrical microfield and electron-ion collisions, will reduce the conductivity significantly compared with the fixed ion configuration calculations.

  1. Interaction of heavy ions beams with hot and dense plasmas. Application to inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maynard, Gilles

    1987-01-01

    The subject of this work is the variation with time, on one of the energy and charge state of an heavy ion beam which through a plasma, and on another side, of a target used in ion inertial confinement fusion. We take in account projectile excitation, and higher order corrections to the Born stopping power formula are calculated. Comparison with experimental results in gas and solid are good. In hot plasma case, non-equilibrium charge states are described. We present an hydrodynamic simulation code of one dimension and three temperatures. We show that the shortening of the heavy ions beams with temperature reinforces the radiative transfer importance. (author) [fr

  2. Normal ground state of dense relativistic matter in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbar, E. V.; Miransky, V. A.; Shovkovy, I. A.

    2011-01-01

    The properties of the ground state of relativistic matter in a magnetic field are examined within the framework of a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. The main emphasis of this study is the normal ground state, which is realized at sufficiently high temperatures and/or sufficiently large chemical potentials. In contrast to the vacuum state, which is characterized by the magnetic catalysis of chiral symmetry breaking, the normal state is accompanied by the dynamical generation of the chiral shift parameter Δ. In the chiral limit, the value of Δ determines a relative shift of the longitudinal momenta (along the direction of the magnetic field) in the dispersion relations of opposite chirality fermions. We argue that the chirality remains a good approximate quantum number even for massive fermions in the vicinity of the Fermi surface and, therefore, the chiral shift is expected to play an important role in many types of cold dense relativistic matter, relevant for applications in compact stars. The qualitative implications of the revealed structure of the normal ground state on the physics of protoneutron stars are discussed. A noticeable feature of the Δ parameter is that it is insensitive to temperature when T 0 , where μ 0 is the chemical potential, and increases with temperature for T>μ 0 . The latter implies that the chiral shift parameter is also generated in the regime relevant for heavy ion collisions.

  3. Optical Response of Warm Dense Matter Using Real-Time Electron Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baczewski, Andrew; Shulenburger, Luke; Desjarlais, Michael; Magyar, Rudolph

    2014-03-01

    The extreme temperatures and solid-like densities in warm dense matter present a unique challenge for theory, wherein neither conventional models from condensed matter nor plasma physics capture all of the relevant phenomenology. While Kubo-Greenwood DFT calculations have proven capable of reproducing optical properties of WDM, they require a significant number of virtual orbitals to reach convergence due to their perturbative nature. Real-time TDDFT presents a complementary framework with a number of computationally favorable properties, including reduced cost complexity and better scalability, and has been used to reproduce the optical response of finite and ordered extended systems. We will describe the use of Ehrenfest-TDDFT to evolve coupled electron-nuclear dynamics in WDM systems, and the subsequent evaluation of optical response functions from the real-time electron dynamics. The advantages and disadvantages of this approach will be discussed relative to the current state-of-the-art. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  4. Proton acceleration experiments and warm dense matter research using high power lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, M; Alber, I; Guenther, M; Harres, K [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Bagnoud, V [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Brown, C R D [Plasma Physics Group, Imperial College London, SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Clarke, R; Heathcote, R; Li, B [STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), Chilton, Didcot, OX14 OQX (United Kingdom); Daido, H [Photo Medical Research Center, JAEA, Kizugawa-City, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Fernandez, J; Flippo, K; Gaillard, S; Gauthier, C [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Geissel, M [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Glenzer, S; Kritcher, A; Kugland, N; LePape, S [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Gregori, G, E-mail: markus.roth@physik.tu-darmstadt.d [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    The acceleration of intense proton and ion beams by ultra-intense lasers has matured to a point where applications in basic research and technology are being developed. Crucial for harvesting the unmatched beam parameters driven by the relativistic electron sheath is the precise control of the beam. In this paper we report on recent experiments using the PHELIX laser at GSI, the VULCAN laser at RAL and the TRIDENT laser at LANL to control and use laser accelerated proton beams for applications in high energy density research. We demonstrate efficient collimation of the proton beam using high field pulsed solenoid magnets, a prerequisite to capture and transport the beam for applications. Furthermore, we report on two campaigns to use intense, short proton bunches to isochorically heat solid targets up to the warm dense matter state. The temporal profile of the proton beam allows for rapid heating of the target, much faster than the hydrodynamic response time thereby creating a strongly coupled plasma at solid density. The target parameters are then probed by x-ray Thomson scattering to reveal the density and temperature of the heated volume. This combination of two powerful techniques developed during the past few years allows for the generation and investigation of macroscopic samples of matter in states present in giant planets or the interior of the earth.

  5. Proton acceleration experiments and warm dense matter research using high power lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, M; Alber, I; Guenther, M; Harres, K; Bagnoud, V; Brown, C R D; Clarke, R; Heathcote, R; Li, B; Daido, H; Fernandez, J; Flippo, K; Gaillard, S; Gauthier, C; Geissel, M; Glenzer, S; Kritcher, A; Kugland, N; LePape, S; Gregori, G

    2009-01-01

    The acceleration of intense proton and ion beams by ultra-intense lasers has matured to a point where applications in basic research and technology are being developed. Crucial for harvesting the unmatched beam parameters driven by the relativistic electron sheath is the precise control of the beam. In this paper we report on recent experiments using the PHELIX laser at GSI, the VULCAN laser at RAL and the TRIDENT laser at LANL to control and use laser accelerated proton beams for applications in high energy density research. We demonstrate efficient collimation of the proton beam using high field pulsed solenoid magnets, a prerequisite to capture and transport the beam for applications. Furthermore, we report on two campaigns to use intense, short proton bunches to isochorically heat solid targets up to the warm dense matter state. The temporal profile of the proton beam allows for rapid heating of the target, much faster than the hydrodynamic response time thereby creating a strongly coupled plasma at solid density. The target parameters are then probed by x-ray Thomson scattering to reveal the density and temperature of the heated volume. This combination of two powerful techniques developed during the past few years allows for the generation and investigation of macroscopic samples of matter in states present in giant planets or the interior of the earth.

  6. Mixing rules for optical and transport properties of warm, dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kress, Joel D.; Horner, Daniel A.; Collins, Lee A.

    2009-01-01

    The warm, dense matter (WDM) regime requires a sophisticated treatment since neither ideal gas laws or fully ionized plasma models apply. Mixtures represent the predominant form of matter throughout the universe and the ability to predict the properties of a mixture, though direct simulation or from convolution of the properties of the constituents is both a challenging prospect and an important goal. Through quantum molecular dynamics (QMD), we accurately simulate WDM and compute equations of state, transport, and optical properties of such materials, including mixtures, in a self-consistent manner from a single simulation. With the ability to directly compute the mixture properties, we are able to validate mixing rules for combining the optical and dynamical properties of Li and H separately to predict the properties of lithium hydride (LiH). We have examined two such mixing rules and extend them to morphologies beyond a simple liquid alloy. We have also studied a mixture of polyethylene and aluminum at T = 1 eV.

  7. Confinement-deconfinement phase transition in hot and dense QCD at large N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhitnitsky, Ariel R.

    2008-01-01

    We conjecture that the confinement-deconfinement phase transition in QCD at large number of colors N and N f c where θ dependence experiences a sudden change in behavior [A. Parnachev, A. Zhitnitsky, (arXiv: 0806.1736 [hep-ph])]. The conjecture is also supported by quantum field theory arguments when the instanton calculations (which trigger the θ dependence) are under complete theoretical control for T>T c , suddenly break down immediately below T c with sharp changes in the θ dependence. Finally, the conjecture is supported by a number of numerical lattice results. We employ this conjecture to study confinement-deconfinement phase transition of dense QCD at large μ in large N limit by analyzing the θ dependence. We find that the confinement-deconfinement phase transition at N f c ∼√(N)Λ QCD . This result agrees with recent findings by McLerran and Pisarski [L. McLerran, R.D. Pisarski, Nucl. Phys. A 796 (2007) 83]. We also speculate on case when N f ∼N

  8. Density and field effect on electron-ion collision cross-sections in hot dense plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaufridy de Dortan, F. de

    2003-03-01

    Collisional excitation cross-sections are essential for the modeling of the properties of non equilibrium plasmas. There has been a lot of work on electron impact excitation of isolated ions, but in dense plasmas, neighboring particles are expected to widely disturb these electron transitions in atoms. Plasma modeling through a radially perturbed potential has already been done but is not satisfactory as it does not account for levels degeneracy breaking and its consequences. Introduction of a quasistatic electric micro-field of neighboring ions allows us to break spherical symmetry. Our original theoretical study has given birth to a numerical code that accurately computes collisional strengths and rates (in the Distorted Waves approach) in atoms submitted to a realistic micro-field. Hydrogen- and helium-like aluminium is studied. Stark mixing widely increases rates of transitions from high l levels and forbidden transitions are field-enhanced by many orders of magnitude until they reach allowed ones. Eventually, we conduct an elementary stationary collisional radiative study to investigate field-enhancement effects on corresponding line shapes. In cases we study (aluminium, hydrogen- and helium-like) we find a relatively weak increase of K-shell line broadening

  9. Single-shot mega-electronvolt ultrafast electron diffraction for structure dynamic studies of warm dense matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mo, M. Z., E-mail: mmo09@slac.stanford.edu; Shen, X.; Chen, Z.; Li, R. K.; Dunning, M.; Zheng, Q.; Weathersby, S. P.; Reid, A. H.; Coffee, R.; Makasyuk, I.; Edstrom, S.; McCormick, D.; Jobe, K.; Hast, C.; Glenzer, S. H.; Wang, X. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Sokolowski-Tinten, K. [Faculty of Physics and Centre for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Lotharstrasse 1, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    We have developed a single-shot mega-electronvolt ultrafast-electron-diffraction system to measure the structural dynamics of warm dense matter. The electron probe in this system is featured by a kinetic energy of 3.2 MeV and a total charge of 20 fC, with the FWHM pulse duration and spot size at sample of 350 fs and 120 μm respectively. We demonstrate its unique capability by visualizing the atomic structural changes of warm dense gold formed from a laser-excited 35-nm freestanding single-crystal gold foil. The temporal evolution of the Bragg peak intensity and of the liquid signal during solid-liquid phase transition are quantitatively determined. This experimental capability opens up an exciting opportunity to unravel the atomic dynamics of structural phase transitions in warm dense matter regime.

  10. Warm dense matter study and pulsed-power developments for X-pinch equipment in Nagaoka University of Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Toru; Miki, Yasutoshi; Tachinami, Fumitaka; Saito, Hirotaka; Takahashi, Takuya; Anzai, Nobuyuki; Kikuchi, Takashi; Aso, Tsukasa; Harada, Nob.

    2014-01-01

    In order to explore high energy density physics, we have performed WDM experiment by using several pulsed-power devices. To generate well-defined warm dense state for evaluating electrical conductivity and its properties, we have proposed an isochoric heating of foamed metal by using pulsed-power discharge. The proposed technique yields the electrical conductivity of warm dense matter with a well-defined temperature. To observe the warm dense matter, a pulsed-power generator based on a pulse-forming-network (PFN) was studied toward generating an intense point-spot-like X-ray source from X-pinch technique. From comparison of the designing and the actual inductances of the X-pinch system, the actual inductance of X-pinch system is 3.5 times higher than the designing inductance. To reduce the total inductance of X-pinch system, we will modify the gap switch system such as multi spake gap

  11. Inhibition of the electron cyclotron maser instability in the dense magnetosphere of a hot Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley-Yates, S.; Stevens, I. R.

    2018-06-01

    Hot Jupiter (HJ) type exoplanets are expected to produce strong radio emission in the MHz range via the Electron Cyclotron Maser Instability (ECMI). To date, no repeatable detections have been made. To explain the absence of observational results, we conduct 3D adaptive mess refinement (AMR) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the magnetic interactions between a solar type star and HJ using the publicly available code PLUTO. The results are used to calculate the efficiency of the ECMI at producing detectable radio emission from the planets magnetosphere. We also calculate the frequency of the ECMI emission, providing an upper and lower bounds, placing it at the limits of detectability due to Earth's ionospheric cutoff of ˜10 MHz. The incident kinetic and magnetic power available to the ECMI is also determined and a flux of 0.075 mJy for an observer at 10 pc is calculated. The magnetosphere is also characterized and an analysis of the bow shock which forms upstream of the planet is conducted. This shock corresponds to the thin shell model for a colliding wind system. A result consistent with a colliding wind system. The simulation results show that the ECMI process is completely inhibited by the planets expanding atmosphere, due to absorption of UV radiation form the host star. The density, velocity, temperature and magnetic field of the planetary wind are found to result in a magnetosphere where the plasma frequency is raised above that due to the ECMI process making the planet undetectable at radio MHz frequencies.

  12. Hot Strange Hadronic Matter in an Effective Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Wei-Liang; SU Ru-Keng; SONG Hong-Qiu

    2003-01-01

    An effective model used to describe the strange hadronic matter with nucleons, Λ-hyperons, and Ξ-hyperonsis extended to finite temperature. The extended model is used to study the density, temperature, and strangeness fractiondependence of the effective masses of baryons in the matter. The thermodynamical quantities, such as free energy andpressure, as well as the equation of state of the matter, are given.

  13. Hot Strange Hadronic Matter in an Effective Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIANWei-Liang; SURu-Keng; SONGHong-Qiu

    2003-01-01

    An effective model used to describe the strange hadronic matter with nucleons, A-hyperons, and [I]-hyperons is extended to finite temperature. The extended model is used to study the density, temperature, and strangeness fraction dependence of the effective masses of baryons in the matter. The thermodynamical quantities, such as free energy and pressure, as well as the equation of state of the matter, are given.

  14. Heavy Scalar, Vector, and Axial-Vector Mesons in Hot and Dense Nuclear Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we shall investigate the mass modifications of scalar mesons (D0; B0, vector mesons (D*; B*, and axial-vector mesons (D1; B1 at finite density and temperature of the nuclear medium. The above mesons are modified in the nuclear medium through the modification of quark and gluon condensates. We will find the medium modification of quark and gluon condensates within chiral SU(3 model through the medium modification of scalar-isoscalar fields σ and ζ at finite density and temperature. These medium modified quark and gluon condensates will further be used through QCD sum rules for the evaluation of in-medium properties of the above mentioned scalar, vector, and axial vector mesons. We will also discuss the effects of density and temperature of the nuclear medium on the scattering lengths of the above scalar, vector, and axial-vector mesons. The study of the medium modifications of the above mesons may be helpful for understanding their production rates in heavy-ion collision experiments. The results of present investigations of medium modifications of scalar, vector, and axial-vector mesons at finite density and temperature can be verified in the compressed baryonic matter (CBM experiment of FAIR facility at GSI, Germany.

  15. Short intense ion pulses for materials and warm dense matter research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidl, Peter A., E-mail: PASeidl@lbl.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Persaud, Arun; Waldron, William L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Barnard, John J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Davidson, Ronald C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Friedman, Alex [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Gilson, Erik P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Greenway, Wayne G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Grote, David P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Kaganovich, Igor D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Lidia, Steven M.; Stettler, Matthew; Takakuwa, Jeffrey H.; Schenkel, Thomas [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-11-11

    We have commenced experiments with intense short pulses of ion beams on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment-II at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, by generating beam spots size with radius r<1 mm within 2 ns FWHM and approximately 10{sup 10} ions/pulse. To enable the short pulse durations and mm-scale focal spot radii, the 1.2 MeV Li{sup +} ion beam is neutralized in a 1.6-meter drift compression section located after the last accelerator magnet. An 8-Tesla short focal length solenoid compresses the beam in the presence of the large volume plasma near the end of this section before the target. The scientific topics to be explored are warm dense matter, the dynamics of radiation damage in materials, and intense beam and beam-plasma physics including selected topics of relevance to the development of heavy-ion drivers for inertial fusion energy. Here we describe the accelerator commissioning and time-resolved ionoluminescence measurements of yttrium aluminum perovskite using the fully integrated accelerator and neutralized drift compression components.

  16. Short intense ion pulses for materials and warm dense matter research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidl, Peter A.; Persaud, Arun; Waldron, William L.; Barnard, John J.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Friedman, Alex; Gilson, Erik P.; Greenway, Wayne G.; Grote, David P.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Lidia, Steven M.; Stettler, Matthew; Takakuwa, Jeffrey H.; Schenkel, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We have commenced experiments with intense short pulses of ion beams on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment-II at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, by generating beam spots size with radius r<1 mm within 2 ns FWHM and approximately 10"1"0 ions/pulse. To enable the short pulse durations and mm-scale focal spot radii, the 1.2 MeV Li"+ ion beam is neutralized in a 1.6-meter drift compression section located after the last accelerator magnet. An 8-Tesla short focal length solenoid compresses the beam in the presence of the large volume plasma near the end of this section before the target. The scientific topics to be explored are warm dense matter, the dynamics of radiation damage in materials, and intense beam and beam-plasma physics including selected topics of relevance to the development of heavy-ion drivers for inertial fusion energy. Here we describe the accelerator commissioning and time-resolved ionoluminescence measurements of yttrium aluminum perovskite using the fully integrated accelerator and neutralized drift compression components.

  17. The Merger of Two Compact Stars: A Tool for Dense Matter Nuclear Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Drago

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the different signals, in gravitational and electromagnetic waves, emitted during the merger of two compact stars. We will focus in particular on the possible contraints that those signals can provide on the equation of state of dense matter. Indeed, the stiffness of the equation of state and the particle composition of the merging compact stars strongly affect, e.g., the life time of the post-merger remnant and its gravitational wave signal, the emission of the short gamma-ray-burst, the amount of ejected mass and the related kilonova. The first detection of gravitational waves from the merger of two compact stars in August 2017, GW170817, and the subsequent detections of its electromagnetic counterparts, GRB170817A and AT2017gfo, is the first example of the era of “multi-messenger astronomy”: we discuss what we have learned from this detection on the equation of state of compact stars and we provide a tentative interpretation of this event, within the two families scenario, as being due to the merger of a hadronic star with a quark star.

  18. PLANS FOR WARM DENSE MATTER EXPERIMENTS AND IFE TARGET EXPERIMENTS ON NDCX-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldron, W.L.; Barnard, J.J.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Friedman, A.; Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; Ni, P.A.; Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Sharp, W.M.

    2008-01-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory (HIFS-VNL) is currently developing design concepts for NDCX-II, the second phase of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment, which will use ion beams to explore Warm Dense Matter (WDM) and Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) target hydrodynamics. The ion induction accelerator will consist of a new short pulse injector and induction cells from the decommissioned Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). To fit within an existing building and to meet the energy and temporal requirements of various target experiments, an aggressive beam compression and acceleration schedule is planned. WDM physics and ion-driven direct drive hydrodynamics will initially be explored with 30 nC of lithium ions in experiments involving ion deposition, ablation, acceleration and stability of planar targets. Other ion sources which may deliver higher charge per bunch will be explored. A test stand has been built at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to test refurbished ATA induction cells and pulsed power hardware for voltage holding and ability to produce various compression and acceleration waveforms. Another test stand is being used to develop and characterize lithium-doped aluminosilicate ion sources. The first experiments will include heating metallic targets to 10,000 K and hydrodynamics studies with cryogenic hydrogen targets

  19. Self-consistent average-atom scheme for electronic structure of hot and dense plasmas of mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Jianmin

    2002-01-01

    An average-atom model is proposed to treat the electronic structures of hot and dense plasmas of mixture. It is assumed that the electron density consists of two parts. The first one is a uniform distribution with a constant value, which is equal to the electron density at the boundaries between the atoms. The second one is the total electron density minus the first constant distribution. The volume of each kind of atom is proportional to the sum of the charges of the second electron part and of the nucleus within each atomic sphere. By this way, one can make sure that electrical neutrality is satisfied within each atomic sphere. Because the integration of the electron charge within each atom needs the size of that atom in advance, the calculation is carried out in a usual self-consistent way. The occupation numbers of electron on the orbitals of each kind of atom are determined by the Fermi-Dirac distribution with the same chemical potential for all kinds of atoms. The wave functions and the orbital energies are calculated with the Dirac-Slater equations. As examples, the electronic structures of the mixture of Au and Cd, water (H 2 O), and CO 2 at a few temperatures and densities are presented

  20. Self-consistent average-atom scheme for electronic structure of hot and dense plasmas of mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jianmin

    2002-10-01

    An average-atom model is proposed to treat the electronic structures of hot and dense plasmas of mixture. It is assumed that the electron density consists of two parts. The first one is a uniform distribution with a constant value, which is equal to the electron density at the boundaries between the atoms. The second one is the total electron density minus the first constant distribution. The volume of each kind of atom is proportional to the sum of the charges of the second electron part and of the nucleus within each atomic sphere. By this way, one can make sure that electrical neutrality is satisfied within each atomic sphere. Because the integration of the electron charge within each atom needs the size of that atom in advance, the calculation is carried out in a usual self-consistent way. The occupation numbers of electron on the orbitals of each kind of atom are determined by the Fermi-Dirac distribution with the same chemical potential for all kinds of atoms. The wave functions and the orbital energies are calculated with the Dirac-Slater equations. As examples, the electronic structures of the mixture of Au and Cd, water (H2O), and CO2 at a few temperatures and densities are presented.

  1. X-RAY EMISSION FROM SUPERNOVAE IN DENSE CIRCUMSTELLAR MATTER ENVIRONMENTS: A SEARCH FOR COLLISIONLESS SHOCKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ofek, E. O.; Gal-Yam, A.; Yaron, O.; Arcavi, I.; Fox, D.; Cenko, S. B.; Filippenko, A. V.; Bloom, J. S.; Sullivan, M.; Gnat, O.; Frail, D. A.; Horesh, A.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Corsi, A.; Quimby, R. M.; Gehrels, N.; Nugent, P. E.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Bildsten, L.; Poznanski, D.

    2013-01-01

    The optical light curve of some supernovae (SNe) may be powered by the outward diffusion of the energy deposited by the explosion shock (the so-called shock breakout) in optically thick (τ ∼> 30) circumstellar matter (CSM). Recently, it was shown that the radiation-mediated and radiation-dominated shock in an optically thick wind must transform into a collisionless shock and can produce hard X-rays. The X-rays are expected to peak at late times, relative to maximum visible light. Here we report on a search, using Swift/XRT and Chandra, for X-ray emission from 28 SNe that belong to classes whose progenitors are suspected to be embedded in dense CSM. Our sample includes 19 Type IIn SNe, one Type Ibn SN, and eight hydrogen-poor superluminous SNe (SLSN-I such as SN 2005ap). Two SNe (SN 2006jc and SN 2010jl) have X-ray properties that are roughly consistent with the expectation for X-rays from a collisionless shock in optically thick CSM. However, the X-ray emission from SN 2006jc can also be explained as originating in an optically thin region. Thus, we propose that the optical light curve of SN 2010jl is powered by shock breakout in CSM. We suggest that two other events (SN 2010al and SN 2011ht) were too X-ray bright during the SN maximum optical light to be explained by the shock-breakout model. We conclude that the light curves of some, but not all, SNe IIn/Ibn are powered by shock breakout in CSM. For the rest of the SNe in our sample, including all of the SLSN-I events, our X-ray limits are not deep enough and were typically obtained too early (i.e., near the SN maximum light) for definitive conclusions about their nature. Late-time X-ray observations are required in order to further test whether these SNe are indeed embedded in dense CSM. We review the conditions required for a shock breakout in a wind profile. We argue that the timescale, relative to maximum light, for the SN to peak in X-rays is a probe of the column density and the density profile above the

  2. Origin of life and living matter in hot mineral water

    OpenAIRE

    Ignatov, Ignat; Mosin, Oleg

    2013-01-01

    In this review the composition of water and isotopic structure of water during a process of origin of life is submitted. The data obtained testify that life maintenance depends on physical-chemical properties of water and external factors – temperature and рН. Hot mineral alkaline water, which interacts with CaCO 3 is closest to these conditions. Next in line with regard to quality is sea and mountain water.

  3. Solar Hot Water System Matter in Turkey (Mersin Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müjgan ŞEREFHANOĞLU SÖZEN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available When the effects of sustainability on the construction sector have been taken into consideration, solar active systems on buildings emerge as an important design issue in the context of renewal energy usage. Solar hot water systems such as those widely used in Turkey are inefficient and have a negative effect on a building’s aesthetic and the urban view in general because of the poor quality of installation. Natural circulated open loop systems are commonly used, particularly in the south of Turkey, as they are highly economical and require no regulation to install. Solar hot water systems tend to be clustered together on the roofs, causing visual pollution, and this situation arises largely because are not considered part of the architectural design. It is therefore important to consider the negative effects of such systems in the form of treatment studies. This study aims to determine the positive effects that will be gained by the renovation of solar hot water systems in Mersin, a city in the southern region of Turkey.

  4. Importance of finite-temperature exchange correlation for warm dense matter calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasiev, Valentin V; Calderín, Lázaro; Trickey, S B

    2016-06-01

    The effects of an explicit temperature dependence in the exchange correlation (XC) free-energy functional upon calculated properties of matter in the warm dense regime are investigated. The comparison is between the Karasiev-Sjostrom-Dufty-Trickey (KSDT) finite-temperature local-density approximation (TLDA) XC functional [Karasiev et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 076403 (2014)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.112.076403] parametrized from restricted path-integral Monte Carlo data on the homogeneous electron gas (HEG) and the conventional Monte Carlo parametrization ground-state LDA XC [Perdew-Zunger (PZ)] functional evaluated with T-dependent densities. Both Kohn-Sham (KS) and orbital-free density-functional theories are used, depending upon computational resource demands. Compared to the PZ functional, the KSDT functional generally lowers the dc electrical conductivity of low-density Al, yielding improved agreement with experiment. The greatest lowering is about 15% for T=15 kK. Correspondingly, the KS band structure of low-density fcc Al from the KSDT functional exhibits a clear increase in interband separation above the Fermi level compared to the PZ bands. In some density-temperature regimes, the deuterium equations of state obtained from the two XC functionals exhibit pressure differences as large as 4% and a 6% range of differences. However, the hydrogen principal Hugoniot is insensitive to the explicit XC T dependence because of cancellation between the energy and pressure-volume work difference terms in the Rankine-Hugoniot equation. Finally, the temperature at which the HEG becomes unstable is T≥7200 K for the T-dependent XC, a result that the ground-state XC underestimates by about 1000 K.

  5. Hot Strange Hadronic Matter in an Effective Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Wei-Liang; Su, Ru-Keng; Song, Hong-Qiu

    2003-10-01

    An effective model used to describe the strange hadronic matter with nucleons, Λ-hyperons, and Ξ-hyperons is extended to finite temperature. The extended model is used to study the density, temperature, and strangeness fraction dependence of the effective masses of baryons in the matter. The thermodynamical quantities, such as free energy and pressure, as well as the equation of state of the matter, are given. The project supported in part by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 10075071, 10047005, 19947001, 19975010, and 10235030, and the CAS Knowledge Innovation Project No. KJCX2-N11. Also supported by the State Key Basic Research Development Program under Grant No. G200077400 and the Exploration Project of Knowledge Innovation Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences

  6. Understanding the role of fast electrons in the heating of dense matter: experimental techniques and recent results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, R.; Anderson, C.; Hill, J.M.; King, J.; Snavely, R.; Hatchett, S.; Key, M.; Koch, J.; MacKinnon, A.; Stephens, R.; Cowan, T.

    2003-01-01

    An intense laser impinging upon dense matter converts a large fraction of its energy into fast electrons. (Here we take 'fast' to mean electrons that are much more energetic than the normal Boltzmann-like distribution measured in the tens to hundreds of eV.) Upon transiting the interior of the dense matter, these electrons are responsible for isochoric heating of the material. Just how these electrons traverse the material, and various interfaces within the material, is a subject of substantial amounts of computation and theory, and recently, experiments. Here we outline the nature of the heating mechanisms, and the current level of understanding of the complex physical processes. In particular we discuss new experimental techniques to record essential features of this transport problem

  7. Recent Progress in Constraining the Equation of State of Dense Neutron-Rich Nuclear Matter with Heavy-Ion Reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Baoan; Chen Liewen; Wen Dehua; Xiao Zhigang; Xu Chang; Yong Gaochan; Zhang Ming

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear symmetry energy E sym (ρ) is the most uncertain part of the Equation of State (EOS) of dense neutron-rich nuclear matter. In this talk, we discuss the underlying physics responsible for the uncertain E sym (ρ) especially at supra-saturation densities, the circumstantial evidence for a super-soft E sym (ρ) from analyzing π - /π + ratio in relativistic heavy-ion collisions and its impacts on astrophysics and cosmology.

  8. Real-time ultrafast dynamics of dense, hot matter measured by pump-probe Doppler spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lad, Amit D; Mondal, S; Narayanan, V; Ahmed, Saima; Kumar, G Ravindra; Rajeev, P P; Robinson, A P L [Central Laser Facility, Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Pasley, J, E-mail: amitlad@tifr.res.i [Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-01

    A detailed understanding of the critical surface motion of high intensity laser produced plasma is very crucial for understanding the interaction. We employ the two colour pump-probe technique to report the first ever femtosecond scale ultrafast dynamics measurement of the critical surface of a solid plasma produced by a relativistically intense, femtosecond pump laser beam (10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}, 30 fs, 800 nm) on an aluminium target. We observe the Doppler shift of a time delayed probe laser beam (10{sup 12} W/cm{sup 2}, 80 fs, 400 nm) up to delays of 30 ps. Such unravelling of dynamics has not been possible in earlier measurements, which typically used the self reflection of a powerful pump pulse. We observe time dependent red and blue shifts and measure their magnitudes to infer plasma expansion velocity and acceleration and thereby the plasma profile. Our results are very well reproduced by 1D hydrodynamic simulation (HYADES code).

  9. Configuration Path Integral Monte Carlo. Ab initio simulations of fermions in the warm dense matter regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoof, Tim

    2017-03-08

    diagonalization method. Benchmark results are presented which reveal large errors of the Hartree-Fock approximation in open shell configurations even for weak coupling strengths and a significant deviation of multi-level blocking PIMC data in the complete basis set limit. The application of the CPIMC method to the warm dense homogeneous electron gas (HEG) quantifies the accuracy of recently published restricted PIMC (RPIMC) results which have been the basis for the construction of exchange-correlation free energy functionals to be used in finite-temperature density functional theory calculations of warm dense matter. It is shown that the errors of the RPIMC data exceed 10 % at intermediate densities. Additionally, highly accurate data for the exchange-correlation energy at high densities, which are inaccessible by the RPIMC method, are provided in this work. These results are useful to significantly increase the quality of future exchange-correlation functionals for finite-temperature applications. The benchmark results of this work have already been used in the development of other methods such as density-matrix QMC. In particular, thorough comparisons have been crucial for the successful verification of the accuracy of the permutation blocking PIMC method, which extends PIMC calculations to much higher densities and degeneracies. The combination of the complementary CPIMC and PBPIMC methods allows for an almost complete description of the HEG at finite temperatures in the thermodynamic limit.

  10. Extended application of Kohn-Sham first-principles molecular dynamics method with plane wave approximation at high energy—From cold materials to hot dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shen; Kang, Wei; Wang, Hongwei; Zhang, Ping; He, X. T.

    2016-01-01

    An extended first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) method based on Kohn-Sham scheme is proposed to elevate the temperature limit of the FPMD method in the calculation of dense plasmas. The extended method treats the wave functions of high energy electrons as plane waves analytically and thus expands the application of the FPMD method to the region of hot dense plasmas without suffering from the formidable computational costs. In addition, the extended method inherits the high accuracy of the Kohn-Sham scheme and keeps the information of electronic structures. This gives an edge to the extended method in the calculation of mixtures of plasmas composed of heterogeneous ions, high-Z dense plasmas, lowering of ionization potentials, X-ray absorption/emission spectra, and opacities, which are of particular interest to astrophysics, inertial confinement fusion engineering, and laboratory astrophysics.

  11. Extended application of Kohn-Sham first-principles molecular dynamics method with plane wave approximation at high energy—From cold materials to hot dense plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shen; Kang, Wei, E-mail: weikang@pku.edu.cn [Center for Applied Physics and Technology, HEDPS, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wang, Hongwei [College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang, Ping, E-mail: zhang-ping@iapcm.ac.cn [Center for Applied Physics and Technology, HEDPS, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); LCP, Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China); He, X. T., E-mail: xthe@iapcm.ac.cn [Center for Applied Physics and Technology, HEDPS, and IFSA Collaborative Innovation Center of MoE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China)

    2016-04-15

    An extended first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) method based on Kohn-Sham scheme is proposed to elevate the temperature limit of the FPMD method in the calculation of dense plasmas. The extended method treats the wave functions of high energy electrons as plane waves analytically and thus expands the application of the FPMD method to the region of hot dense plasmas without suffering from the formidable computational costs. In addition, the extended method inherits the high accuracy of the Kohn-Sham scheme and keeps the information of electronic structures. This gives an edge to the extended method in the calculation of mixtures of plasmas composed of heterogeneous ions, high-Z dense plasmas, lowering of ionization potentials, X-ray absorption/emission spectra, and opacities, which are of particular interest to astrophysics, inertial confinement fusion engineering, and laboratory astrophysics.

  12. Finite temperature effects on anisotropic pressure and equation of state of dense neutron matter in an ultrastrong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isayev, A. A.; Yang, J.

    2011-01-01

    Spin-polarized states in dense neutron matter with the recently developed Skyrme effective interaction (BSk20 parametrization) are considered in the magnetic fields H up to 10 20 G at finite temperature. In a strong magnetic field, the total pressure in neutron matter is anisotropic, and the difference between the pressures parallel and perpendicular to the field direction becomes significant at H>H th ∼10 18 G. The longitudinal pressure decreases with the magnetic field and vanishes in the critical field 10 18 c 19 G, resulting in the longitudinal instability of neutron matter. With increasing temperature, the threshold H th and critical H c magnetic fields also increase. The appearance of the longitudinal instability prevents the formation of a fully spin-polarized state in neutron matter and only the states with moderate spin polarization are accessible. The anisotropic equation of state is determined at densities and temperatures relevant to the interiors of magnetars. The entropy of strongly magnetized neutron matter turns out to be larger than the entropy of nonpolarized matter. This is caused by some specific details in the dependence of the entropy on the effective masses of neutrons with spin up and spin down in a polarized state.

  13. Self-consistent descriptions of vector mesons in hot matter reexamined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riek, Felix; Knoll, Joern

    2010-01-01

    Technical concepts are presented that improve the self-consistent treatment of vector mesons in a hot and dense medium. First applications concern an interacting gas of pions and ρ mesons. As an extension of earlier studies, we thereby include random-phase-approximation-type vertex corrections and further use dispersion relations to calculate the real part of the vector-meson self-energy. An improved projection method preserves the four transversality of the vector-meson polarization tensor throughout the self-consistent calculations, thereby keeping the scheme void of kinematical singularities.

  14. Unified first principles description from warm dense matter to ideal ionized gas plasma: electron-ion collisions induced friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jiayu; Hou, Yong; Yuan, Jianmin

    2010-06-18

    Electron-ion interactions are central to numerous phenomena in the warm dense matter (WDM) regime and at higher temperature. The electron-ion collisions induced friction at high temperature is introduced in the procedure of ab initio molecular dynamics using the Langevin equation based on density functional theory. In this framework, as a test for Fe and H up to 1000 eV, the equation of state and the transition of electronic structures of the materials with very wide density and temperature can be described, which covers a full range of WDM up to high energy density physics. A unified first principles description from condensed matter to ideal ionized gas plasma is constructed.

  15. Isospin and momentum dependence of liquid-gas phase transition in hot asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jun; Ma, Hongru; Chen, Liewen; Li, Baoan

    2008-01-01

    The liquid-gas phase transition in hot neutron-rich nuclear matter is investigated within a self-consistent thermal model using different interactions with or without isospin and/or momentum dependence. The boundary of the phase-coexistence region is shown to be sensitive to the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy as well as the isospin and momentum dependence of the nuclear interaction. (author)

  16. Hot electron spatial distribution under presence of laser light self-focusing in over-dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimoto, T; Yabuuchi, T; Habara, H; Kondo, K; Kodama, R; Mima, K; Tanaka, K A; Lei, A L

    2008-01-01

    In fast ignition for laser thermonuclear fusion, an ultra intense laser (UIL) pulse irradiates an imploded plasma in order to fast-heat a high-density core with hot electrons generated in laser-plasma interactions. An UIL pulse needs to make plasma channel via laser self-focusing and to propagate through the corona plasma to reach close enough to the core. Hot electrons are used for heating the core. Therefore the propagation of laser light in the high-density plasma region and spatial distribution of hot electron are important in issues in order to study the feasibility of this scheme. We measure the spatial distribution of hot electron when the laser light propagates into the high-density plasma region by self-focusing

  17. Equation of State of Dense Matter and Consequences for Neutron Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A. W.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There is currently tremendous interest in the role of hyperons and other exotic forms of matter in neutron stars. This is particularly so following the measurement by Demorest et al. of a star with a mass almost 2 solar masses. Given that we know of no physical mechanism to stop the occurrence of hyperons at matter in beta–equilibrium above roughly 3 times nuclear matter density, we discuss the constraints on the possible maximum mass when hyperons are included in the equation of state. The discussion includes a careful assessment of the constraints from low energy nuclear properties as well as the properties of hypernuclei. The model within which these calculations are carried out is the quark-meson coupling (QMC model, which is derived starting at the quark level.

  18. Shock discontinuities around the confinement-deconfinement transition in baryon-rich dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rischke, D.H.; Waldhauser, B.M.; Stoecker, H.; Greiner, W.; Friman, B.L.

    1989-05-01

    We investigate shock discontinuities that involve a conversion of hadronic matter into quark-gluon matter and vice versa. Such discontinuities may develop when nuclear matter is compressed to energy densities beyond the deconfinement transition and in the hadronization of an expanding quark-gluon plasma. In these investigations we study the influence of various phenomenological equations of state. Consequences for entropy production in heavy-ion collisions are discussed and estimates of inclusive particle ratios at freeze-out are given. We find that antiparticle-to-particle ratios may be enhanced by an order of magnitude if a quark-gluon plasma is created during the collision compared to a purely hadronic collision scenario. (orig.)

  19. Phase transition in dense nuclear matter with quark and gluon condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.; Kapusta, J.I.; Olive, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear matter is expected to modify the expectation values of the quark and gluon condensates. We utilize the chiral and scale symmetries of QCD to describe the interaction between these condensates and hadrons. We solve the resulting equations self-consistently in the relativistic mean field approximation. In order that these QCD condensates be driven towards zero at high density their coupling to sigma and vector mesons must be such that the masses of these mesons do not decrease with density. In this case a physically sensible phase transition to quark matter ensures. (orig.)

  20. Concluding Remarks: Connecting Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions and Neutron Star Mergers by the Equation of State of Dense Hadron- and Quark Matter as signalled by Gravitational Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanauske, Matthias; Steinheimer, Jan; Bovard, Luke; Mukherjee, Ayon; Schramm, Stefan; Takami, Kentaro; Papenfort, Jens; Wechselberger, Natascha; Rezzolla, Luciano; Stöcker, Horst

    2017-07-01

    The underlying open questions in the fields of general relativistic astrophysics and elementary particle and nuclear physics are strongly connected and their results are interdependent. Although the physical systems are quite different, the 4D-simulation of a merger of a binary system of two neutron stars and the properties of the hot and dense matter created in high energy heavy ion collisions, strongly depend on the equation of state of fundamental elementary matter. Neutron star mergers represent optimal astrophysical laboratories to investigate the QCD phase structure using a spectrogram of the post-merger phase of the emitted gravitational waves. These studies can be supplemented by observations from heavy ion collisions to possibly reach a conclusive picture on the QCD phase structure at high density and temperature. As gravitational waves (GWs) emitted from merging neutron star binaries are on the verge of their first detection, it is important to understand the main characteristics of the underlying merging system in order to predict the expected GW signal. Based on numerical-relativity simulations of merging neutron star binaries, the emitted GW and the interior structure of the generated hypermassive neutron stars (HMNS) have been analyzed in detail. This article will focus on the internal and rotational HMNS properties and their connection with the emitted GW signal. Especially, the appearance of the hadon-quark phase transition in the interior region of the HMNS and its conjunction with the spectral properties of the emitted GW will be addressed and confronted with the simulation results of high energy heavy ion collisions.

  1. THE PROPERTIES OF THE (K)over-bar* MESON IN DENSE MATTER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molina, R.; Tolos, L.; Oset, E.; Ramos, A.

    2011-01-01

    In this talk were view the properties of (K) over bar* mesons in nuclear matter. A unitary approach in coupled channels within the framework of the local hidden gauge formalism is used to account for the interaction of the antikaon with the nucleons and the (K) over bar pi decay channel is

  2. Zero Sound in Neutron Stars with Dense Quark Matter under Strong Magnetic Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouvaris, Christoforos

    2009-01-01

    We study a neutron star with a quark matter core under extremely strong magnetic fields. We investigate the possibility of an Urca process as a mechanism for the cooling of such a star. We found that apart from very particular cases, the Urca process cannot occur. We also study the stability...

  3. Jets and high pT hadrons in dense matter: recent results from STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, Peter; Klay, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    We review recent measurements of high transverse momentum (high pT) hadron production in nuclear collisions by the STAR Collaboration at RHIC. The previously observed suppression in central Au+Au collisions has been extended to much higher pT. New measurements from d+Au collisions are presented which help disentangle the mechanisms responsible for the suppression. Inclusive single hadron spectra are enhanced in d+Au relative to p+p, while two-particle azimuthal distributions are observed to be similar in p+p, d+Au and peripheral Au+Au collisions. The large suppression of inclusive hadron production and absence of the away-side jet-like correlations in central Au+Au collisions are shown to be due to interactions of the jets with the very dense medium produced in these collisions

  4. Constraints of the variation of fundamental couplings and sensitivity of the equation of state of dense matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Garcia, M. Angeles, E-mail: mperezga@usal.es [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental and IUFFyM, Universidad de Salamanca, E-37008 Salamanca (Spain); Martins, C.J.A.P., E-mail: Carlos.Martins@astro.up.pt [Centro de Astrofisica da Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal)

    2012-12-05

    We discuss the coupled variations of the gravitational, strong and electroweak coupling constants and the current knowledge of the nuclear equation of state based on heavy ion collision experiments and neutron star mass-radius relationship. In particular we focus in our description on phenomenological parameters, R, relating variations in the quantum chromodynamics scale {Lambda}{sub QCD} and the fine structure constant {alpha}, and S, relating variations of v, the Higgs vacuum expectation value and the Yukawa couplings, h, in the quark sector. This parametrization is valid for any model where gauge coupling unification occurs at some (unspecified) high energy scale. From a physically motivated set of equations of state for dense matter we obtain the constrained parameter phase space (R,S) in high density nuclear environments. This procedure is complementary to (although currently less powerful than) those used in low-density conditions. For variations of {Delta}{alpha}/{alpha}=0.005 we find that the obtained constrained parameter lies on a strip region in the (R,S) plane that partially overlaps some of the allowed values of parameters derived from primordial abundances. This may be of interest in the context of unification scenarios where a dense phase of the universe may have existed at early times.

  5. Very low electron temperature in warm dense matter formed by focused picosecond soft x-ray laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishino, Masahiko; Hasegawa, Noboru; Nishikino, Masaharu; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Yamagiwa, Mitsuru; Pikuz, Tatiana; Skobelev, Igor; Faenov, Anatoly; Inogamov, Nail

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the optical emission from the ablating surfaces induced by the irradiations of soft x-ray laser (SXRL) pulses with the aim of estimation of the maximum electron temperature. No emission signal in the spectral range of 400–800 nm could be observed despite the formation of damage structures on the target surfaces. Hence, we estimated an upper limit for the electron temperature of 0.4–0.7 eV for the process duration of 100–1000 ps. Our results imply that the ablation and/or surface modification by the SXRL is not accompanied by plasma formation but is induced by thermo-mechanical pressure, which is so called a spallative ablation. This spallative ablation process occurs in the low electron temperature region of a non-equilibrium state of warm dense matter

  6. The hot and cold interstellar matter of early type galaxies and their radio emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dongwoo; Fabbiano, G.

    1990-01-01

    Over the last few years, the knowledge of the interstellar matter (ISM) of early type galaxies has increased dramatically. Many early type galaxies are now known to have ISM in three different phases: cold (neutral hydrogen (HI), dust and molecular material), warm (ionized) and hot (S-ray emitting) gas. Early type galaxies have smaller masses of cold ISM (10 to the 7th power - 10 to the 8th power solar mass; Jura et al. 1987) than later type spiral galaxies, while they have far more hot gas (10 to the 9th power - 10 to the tenth power solar mass; Forman et al. 1985, Canizares et al. 1987). In order to understand the relationship between the different phases of the ISM and the role of the ISM in fueling radio continuum sources and star formation, researchers compared observational data from a wide range of wavelengths

  7. A three-dimensional hydrodynamic treatment of the hot dark matter cosmological scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Renyue; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    1992-01-01

    The study computes the evolution of the hot dark matter (HDM) model containing both baryonic matter and dark matter for a post recombination Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe. A locally valid Newtonian approximation is used to model a representative piece of the universe with size much less than the horizon. For the HDM model with the present chosen normalization, the hard X-ray (1-10 keV) radiation intensity is less than that in the observations (Wu et al., 1991) by a factor of 30. In agreement with other work, it is found that baryonic matter is slightly antibiased over dark matter on the cell scale, 0.5/h Mpc = 667 kpc. The HDM model with the present chosen parameters does not overproduce X-ray-luminous clusters, and there is a negative evolution in the late epochs in the sense that the number density of X-ray clusters was higher at 0.5 redshift than at 0 redshift at the brightest end.

  8. Dense baryon matter with isospin and chiral imbalance in the framework of a NJL4 model at large Nc: Duality between chiral symmetry breaking and charged pion condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khunjua, T. G.; Klimenko, K. G.; Zhokhov, R. N.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper the phase structure of dense quark matter has been investigated at zero temperature in the presence of baryon, isospin and chiral isospin chemical potentials in the framework of massless (3 +1 )-dimensional Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with two quark flavors. It has been shown that in the large-Nc limit (Nc is the number of colors of quarks) there exists a duality correspondence between the chiral symmetry breaking phase and the charged pion condensation one. The key conclusion of our studies is the fact that chiral isospin chemical potential generates charged pion condensation in dense quark matter with isotopic asymmetry.

  9. Vector mesons in dense matter and dilepton production in heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, Elvira

    2008-02-15

    The vector meson spectral functions are calculated to the first order in the nuclear matter density assuming the dominant contribution comes from the couplings of the vector mesons to nucleons and nucleon resonances. An attempt is made to reproduce the HADES dilepton production data with the in-medium spectral functions of the vector mesons using the Relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (RQMD) transport model developed earlier for modelling heavy-ion collisions. The results are sensitive to the in-medium broadening of nucleon resonances. A generally good agreement with the HADES data is achieved for selfconsistent treatment of the nucleon resonance broadening and the vector meson spectral functions. (orig.)

  10. Vector mesons in dense matter and dilepton production in heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santini, Elvira

    2008-01-01

    The vector meson spectral functions are calculated to the first order in the nuclear matter density assuming the dominant contribution comes from the couplings of the vector mesons to nucleons and nucleon resonances. An attempt is made to reproduce the HADES dilepton production data with the in-medium spectral functions of the vector mesons using the Relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (RQMD) transport model developed earlier for modelling heavy-ion collisions. The results are sensitive to the in-medium broadening of nucleon resonances. A generally good agreement with the HADES data is achieved for selfconsistent treatment of the nucleon resonance broadening and the vector meson spectral functions. (orig.)

  11. Off-shell effects and consistency of many-body treatments of dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krippa, Boris; Birse, Michael C.; McGovern, Judith A.; Walet, Niels R.

    2003-01-01

    Effective field theory requires all observables to be independent of the representation used for the quantum field operators. It means that off-shell properties of the interactions should not lead to any observable effects. We analyze this issue in the context of many-body approaches to nuclear matter, where it should be possible to shift the contributions of lowest order in purely off-shell two-body interactions into three-body forces. We show that none of the commonly used truncations of the two-body scattering amplitude such as the ladder, Brueckner-Hartree-Fock, or parquet approximations respect this requirement

  12. Description of hot compressed hadronic matter based on an effective chiral Lagrangian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florkowski, W. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1996-11-01

    In this report we give the review of the recent results obtained in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model, describing the properties of hot compressed matter. The first large class problems concerns the behaviour of static meson correlation functions. In particular, this includes the investigation of the screening of meson fields at finite temperature or density. Another wide range of problems presented in our report concerns the formulation of the transport theory for the NJL model and its applications to the description of high energy nuclear collision. 86 refs, 35 figs.

  13. Description of hot compressed hadronic matter based on an effective chiral Lagrangian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florkowski, W.

    1996-11-01

    In this report we give the review of the recent results obtained in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model, describing the properties of hot compressed matter. The first large class problems concerns the behaviour of static meson correlation functions. In particular, this includes the investigation of the screening of meson fields at finite temperature or density. Another wide range of problems presented in our report concerns the formulation of the transport theory for the NJL model and its applications to the description of high energy nuclear collision. 86 refs, 35 figs

  14. Improvement of microstructure and mechanical properties of high dense SiC ceramics manufactured by high-speed hot pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voyevodin, V.; Sayenko, S.; Lobach, K.; Tarasov, R.; Zykova, A.; Svitlychnyi, Ye.; Surkov, A.; Abelentsev, V.; Ghaemi, H.; Szkodo, M.; Gajowiec, G.; Kmiec, M.; Antoszkiewicz, M.

    2017-01-01

    Non-oxide ceramics possess high physical-mechanical properties, corrosion and radiation resistance, which can be used as a protective materials for radioactive wastes disposal. The aim of the present study was the manufacturing of high density SiC ceramics with advanced physical and mechanical parameters. The high performance on the properties of produced ceramics was determined by the dense and monolithic structure. The densified silicon carbide samples possessed good mechanical strength, with a high Vickers micro hardness up to 28.5 GPa.

  15. The role of gauge fields in cold and dense quark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noronha, J

    2007-07-01

    In this thesis we investigate the role played by gauge fields in providing new observable signatures that can attest to the presence of color superconductivity in neutron stars. We show that thermal gluon fluctuations in color-flavor locked superconductors can substantially increase their critical temperature and also change the order of the transition, which becomes a strong first-order phase transition. Moreover, we explore the effects of strong magnetic fields on the properties of color-flavor locked superconducting matter. We find that both the energy gaps as well as the magnetization are oscillating functions of the magnetic field. Also, it is shown that the magnetization can be so strong that homogeneous quark matter becomes metastable for a range of parameters. This points towards the existence of magnetic domains or other types of magnetic inhomogeneities in the hypothesized quark cores of magnetars. Obviously, our results only apply if the strong magnetic fields observed on the surface of magnetars can be transmitted to their inner core. This can occur if the superconducting protons expected to exist in the outer core form a type-II superconductor. However, it has been argued that the observed long periodic oscillations in isolated pulsars can only be explained if the outer core is a type-I superconductor rather than type-II. We show that this is not the only solution for the precession puzzle by demonstrating that the long-term variation in the spin of PSR 1828-11 can be explained in terms of Tkachenko oscillations within superfluid shells. (orig.)

  16. The role of gauge fields in cold and dense quark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noronha, J.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate the role played by gauge fields in providing new observable signatures that can attest to the presence of color superconductivity in neutron stars. We show that thermal gluon fluctuations in color-flavor locked superconductors can substantially increase their critical temperature and also change the order of the transition, which becomes a strong first-order phase transition. Moreover, we explore the effects of strong magnetic fields on the properties of color-flavor locked superconducting matter. We find that both the energy gaps as well as the magnetization are oscillating functions of the magnetic field. Also, it is shown that the magnetization can be so strong that homogeneous quark matter becomes metastable for a range of parameters. This points towards the existence of magnetic domains or other types of magnetic inhomogeneities in the hypothesized quark cores of magnetars. Obviously, our results only apply if the strong magnetic fields observed on the surface of magnetars can be transmitted to their inner core. This can occur if the superconducting protons expected to exist in the outer core form a type-II superconductor. However, it has been argued that the observed long periodic oscillations in isolated pulsars can only be explained if the outer core is a type-I superconductor rather than type-II. We show that this is not the only solution for the precession puzzle by demonstrating that the long-term variation in the spin of PSR 1828-11 can be explained in terms of Tkachenko oscillations within superfluid shells. (orig.)

  17. Too hot to handle? Analytic solutions for massive neutrino or warm dark matter cosmologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepian, Zachary; Portillo, Stephen K. N.

    2018-05-01

    We obtain novel closed-form solutions to the Friedmann equation for cosmological models containing a component whose equation of state is that of radiation (w = 1/3) at early times and that of cold pressureless matter (w = 0) at late times. The equation of state smoothly transitions from the early to late-time behavior and exactly describes the evolution of a species with a Dirac Delta function distribution in momentum magnitudes |p_0| (i.e. all particles have the same |p_0|). Such a component, here termed "hot matter", is an approximate model for both neutrinos and warm dark matter. We consider it alone and in combination with cold matter and with radiation, also obtaining closed-form solutions for the growth of super-horizon perturbations in each case. The idealized model recovers t(a) to better than 1.5% accuracy for all a relative to a Fermi-Dirac distribution (as describes neutrinos). We conclude by adding the second moment of the distribution to our exact solution and then generalizing to include all moments of an arbitrary momentum distribution in a closed-form solution.

  18. Hot metastable state of abnormal matter in relativistic nuclear field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1987-01-01

    Because of their non-linearity, the field equations of relativistic nuclear field theory admit of additional solutions besides the normal state of matter. One of these is a finite-temperature abnormal phase. Over a narrow range in temperature, matter can exist in the abnormal phase at zero pressure. This is a hot metastable state, for which there is a barrier against decay, because the field configuration is different than in the normal state, the baryon masses are far removed from their vacuum masses, there is an abundance of pairs also far removed from their vacuum masses, and a correspondingly high entropy. The abundance of baryon-antibaryon pairs is the glue that holds this matter together. The signals associated with this novel state are quite unusual. A fragment of such matter will cool by emitting a spectrum of black-body radiation, consisting principally of photons, lepton pairs and pions, rather than by baryon emission, because the latter are far removed from their vacuum masses. If produced at the upper end of its temperature range, a large fraction of the original energy, more than half in the examples studied here, is radiated in this way. The baryons and light elements produced in the eventual decay, after the abnormal matter has cooled to a domain where its pressure becomes positive, will account for only a fraction of the original energy. The energy domain of this state depends sensitively on the coupling constants, and within a reasonable range as determined by nuclear matter properties, can lie in the range of GeV to tens of GeV per nucleon. (orig.)

  19. Neutron stars, fast pulsars, supernovae and the equation of state of dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glendening, N.K.

    1989-01-01

    We discuss the prospects for obtaining constraints on the equation of state from astrophysical sources. Neutron star masses although few are known at present, provide a very direct constraint in as much as the connection to the equation of state involves only the assumption that Einstein's general theory of relativity is correct at the macroscopic scale. If the millisecond pulses briefly observed in the remnant of SN1987A can be attributed to uniform rotation of a pulsar, then a very severe constraint is placed on the equation of state. The theory again is very secure. The precise nature of the constraint is not yet understood, but it appears that the equation of state must be neither too soft nor stiff, and it may be that there is information not only on the stiffness of the equation of state but on its shape. Supernovae simulations involve such a plethora of physical processes including those involved in the evolution of the precollapse configuration, not all of them known or understood, that they provide no constraint at the present time. Not even the broad category of mechanism for the explosion is agreed upon (prompt shock, delayed shock, or nuclear explosion). In connection with very fast pulsars, we include some speculations on pure quark matter stars, and on possible scenarios for understanding the disappearance of the fast pulsar in SN1987A. 47 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab

  20. Equation of state for dense nucleonic matter from metamodeling. II. Predictions for neutron star properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margueron, Jérôme; Hoffmann Casali, Rudiney; Gulminelli, Francesca

    2018-02-01

    Employing recently proposed metamodeling for the nucleonic matter equation of state, we analyze neutron star global properties such as masses, radii, momentum of inertia, and others. The impact of the uncertainty on empirical parameters on these global properties is analyzed in a Bayesian statistical approach. Physical constraints, such as causality and stability, are imposed on the equation of state and different hypotheses for the direct Urca (dUrca) process are investigated. In addition, only metamodels with maximum masses above 2 M⊙ are selected. Our main results are the following: the equation of state exhibits a universal behavior against the dUrca hypothesis under the condition of charge neutrality and β equilibrium; neutron stars, if composed exclusively of nucleons and leptons, have a radius of 12.7 ±0.4 km for masses ranging from 1 up to 2 M⊙ ; a small radius lower than 11 km is very marginally compatible with our present knowledge of the nuclear empirical parameters; and finally, the most important empirical parameters which are still affected by large uncertainties and play an important role in determining the radius of neutrons stars are the slope and curvature of the symmetry energy (Lsym and Ksym) and, to a lower extent, the skewness parameters (Qsat /sym).

  1. Neutron stars, fast pulsars, supernovae and the equation of state of dense matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glendening, N.K.

    1989-06-01

    We discuss the prospects for obtaining constraints on the equation of state from astrophysical sources. Neutron star masses although few are known at present, provide a very direct constraint in as much as the connection to the equation of state involves only the assumption that Einstein's general theory of relativity is correct at the macroscopic scale. If the millisecond pulses briefly observed in the remnant of SN1987A can be attributed to uniform rotation of a pulsar, then a very severe constraint is placed on the equation of state. The theory again is very secure. The precise nature of the constraint is not yet understood, but it appears that the equation of state must be neither too soft nor stiff, and it may be that there is information not only on the stiffness of the equation of state but on its shape. Supernovae simulations involve such a plethora of physical processes including those involved in the evolution of the precollapse configuration, not all of them known or understood, that they provide no constraint at the present time. Not even the broad category of mechanism for the explosion is agreed upon (prompt shock, delayed shock, or nuclear explosion). In connection with very fast pulsars, we include some speculations on pure quark matter stars, and on possible scenarios for understanding the disappearance of the fast pulsar in SN1987A. 47 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Modeling warm dense matter experiments using the 3D ALE-AMR code and the move toward exascale computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koniges, A.; Liu, W.; Barnard, J.; Friedman, A.; Logan, G.; Eder, D.; Fisher, A.; Masters, N.; Bertozzi, A.

    2013-01-01

    The Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment II (NDCX II) is an induction accelerator planned for initial commissioning in 2012. The final design calls for a 3 MeV, Li + ion beam, delivered in a bunch with characteristic pulse duration of 1 ns, and transverse dimension of order 1 mm. The NDCX II will be used in studies of material in the warm dense matter (WDM) regime, and ion beam/hydrodynamic coupling experiments relevant to heavy ion based inertial fusion energy. We discuss recent efforts to adapt the 3D ALE-AMR code to model WDM experiments on NDCX II. The code, which combines Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) hydrodynamics with Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR), has physics models that include ion deposition, radiation hydrodynamics, thermal diffusion, anisotropic material strength with material time history, and advanced models for fragmentation. Experiments at NDCX-II will explore the process of bubble and droplet formation (two-phase expansion) of superheated metal solids using ion beams. Experiments at higher temperatures will explore equation of state and heavy ion fusion beam-to-target energy coupling efficiency. Ion beams allow precise control of local beam energy deposition providing uniform volumetric heating on a timescale shorter than that of hydrodynamic expansion. We also briefly discuss the effects of the move to exascale computing and related computational changes on general modeling codes in fusion. (authors)

  3. Constraining the Dense Matter Equation of State with ATHENA-WFI observations of Neutron Stars in Quiescent LMXBs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillot, Sebastien; Oezel, F.

    2015-09-01

    The study of neutron star quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries (qLMXBs) will address one of the main science goals of the Athena x-ray observatory. The study of the soft X-ray thermal emission from the neutron star surface in qLMXBs is a crucial tool to place constrains on the dense matter equation of state. I will briefly review this method, its strength and current weaknesses and limitations, as well as the current constraints on the equation of state from qLMXBs. The superior sensitivity of Athena will permit the acquisition of unprecedentedly high signal-to-noise spectra from these sources. It has been demonstrated that a single qLMXB, even with high S/N, will not place useful constraints on the EoS. However, a combination of qLMXBs spectra has shown promises of obtaining tight constraints on the equation of state. I will discuss the expected prospects for observations of qLMXBs inside globular clusters -- those that Athena will be able to resolve. I will also present the constraints on the equation of state that Athena will be able to obtain from these qLMXBs and from a population of qLMXBs in the field of the Galaxy, with distance measurements provided by Gaia.

  4. Multi-charge-state molecular dynamics and self-diffusion coefficient in the warm dense matter regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yongsheng; Hou, Yong; Kang, Dongdong; Gao, Cheng; Jin, Fengtao; Yuan, Jianmin

    2018-01-01

    We present a multi-ion molecular dynamics (MIMD) simulation and apply it to calculating the self-diffusion coefficients of ions with different charge-states in the warm dense matter (WDM) regime. First, the method is used for the self-consistent calculation of electron structures of different charge-state ions in the ion sphere, with the ion-sphere radii being determined by the plasma density and the ion charges. The ionic fraction is then obtained by solving the Saha equation, taking account of interactions among different charge-state ions in the system, and ion-ion pair potentials are computed using the modified Gordon-Kim method in the framework of temperature-dependent density functional theory on the basis of the electron structures. Finally, MIMD is used to calculate ionic self-diffusion coefficients from the velocity correlation function according to the Green-Kubo relation. A comparison with the results of the average-atom model shows that different statistical processes will influence the ionic diffusion coefficient in the WDM regime.

  5. K-shell spectra from hot dense aluminum layers buried in carbon and heated by ultrashort laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eidmann, K.; Andiel, U.; Pisani, F.; Hakel, P.; Mancini, R.C.; Junkel-Vives, G.C.; Abdallah, J.; Witte, K.

    2003-01-01

    Ultrashort laser pulses allow for the generation of hot plasmas near solid state densities. For this purpose a Ti:Sapphire laser was used, which delivers after frequency doubling, pulses of high contrast with an energy of about 60 mJ and a duration of 150 fs at 395 nm. The typical intensity on the target was a few 10 17 W/cm 2 . To achieve a high degree of uniformity we used targets consisting of a 25 nm thin Al tracer layer buried at different depths up to 400 nm in solid carbon. Time-integrated Al K-shell spectra are presented. Characteristic features of the spectra are significant high-order satellite line emission, strong line broadening and a center-of-mass line shift to the red, which was observed in transitions from principal quantum number n=2 or 3 to 1. Accurate measurement of the shift was made possible by using the cold Si K α line as an absolute wavelength calibration. In addition to time-integrated measurements, we used an ultrafast X-ray streak camera to obtain time and spectrally resolved spectra. Typical durations of the Ly α and He α lines are in the range 2-4 ps. The experimental results are compared with a time-dependent model, which combines hydrodynamic simulations, time-dependent atomic kinetics, detailed spectral line shapes including line shifts, and radiation transport

  6. Topology of large-scale structure in seeded hot dark matter models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaky, Matthew M.; Scherrer, Robert J.; Villumsen, Jens V.

    1992-01-01

    The topology of the isodensity surfaces in seeded hot dark matter models, in which static seed masses provide the density perturbations in a universe dominated by massive neutrinos is examined. When smoothed with a Gaussian window, the linear initial conditions in these models show no trace of non-Gaussian behavior for r0 equal to or greater than 5 Mpc (h = 1/2), except for very low seed densities, which show a shift toward isolated peaks. An approximate analytic expression is given for the genus curve expected in linear density fields from randomly distributed seed masses. The evolved models have a Gaussian topology for r0 = 10 Mpc, but show a shift toward a cellular topology with r0 = 5 Mpc; Gaussian models with an identical power spectrum show the same behavior.

  7. Search for cold and hot dark matter with the Heidelberg-Moscow experiment, HDMS, GENIUS and GENIUS-TF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H.V.; Dietz, A.; Krivosheina, I.V.

    2003-01-01

    The recent result from the Heidelberg-Moscow double beta experiment allows neutrinos still to play an important role as hot dark matter in the Universe. HDMS has started in 2001 its search for cold dark matter (WIMPS), with a HPGe crystal of enriched 73 Ge. Concerning hot dark matter, GENIUS will improve the present accuracy for the (effective) neutrino mass. At the same time GENIUS will extend the range of sensitivity in an unprecedented way to cover a wide range of the parameter space of SUSY parameters for neutralinos as cold dark matter. A GENIUS Test Facility in the Gran Sasso has been approved in 2001 and will come into operation by end of 2002. Finally some comments are given to some criticism of the result presented elsewhere

  8. The evolution of X-ray clusters in a cold plus hot dark matter universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Greg L.; Klypin, Anatoly; Loken, Chris; Norman, Michael L.; Burns, Jack O.

    1994-01-01

    We present the first self-consistently computed results on the evolution of X-ray properties of galaxy clusters in a cold + hot dark matter (CHDM) model. We have performed a hydrodynamic plus N-body simulation for the COBE-compatible CHDM model with standard mass components: Omega(sub hot) = 0.3, Omega (sub cold) = 0.6 and Omega(sub baryon) = 0.1 (h = 0.5). In contrast with the CDM model, which fails to reproduce the observed temperature distribution function dN/dT (Bryan et al. 1994b), the CHDM model fits the observational dN/dT quite well. Our results on X-ray luminosity are less firm but even more intriguing. We find that the resulting X-ray luminosity functions at redshifts z = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.7 are well fit by observations, where they overlap. The fact that both temperatures and luminosities provide a reasonable fit to the available observational data indicates that, unless we are missing some essential physics, there is neither room nor need for a large fraction of gas in rich clusters: 10% (or less) in baryons is sufficient to explain their X-ray properties. We also see a tight correlation between X-ray luminosity and gas temperature.

  9. Hot nuclear matter in the modified quark-meson coupling model with quark-quark correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakout, I.; Jaqaman, H.R.

    2000-01-01

    Short-range quark-quark correlations in hot nuclear matter are examined within the modified quark-meson coupling (MQMC) model by adding repulsive scalar and vector quark-quark interactions. Without these correlations, the bag radius increases with the baryon density. However, when the correlations are introduced the bag size shrinks as the bags overlap. Also as the strength of the scalar quark-quark correlation is increased, the decrease of the effective nucleon mass M* N with the baryonic density is slowed down and tends to saturate at high densities. Within this model we study the phase transition from the baryon-meson phase to the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) phase with the latter modelled as an ideal gas of quarks and gluons inside a bag. Two models for the QGP bag parameter are considered. In one case, the bag is taken to be medium-independent and the phase transition from the hadron phase to QGP is found to occur at five to eight times ordinary nuclear matter density for temperatures less than 60 MeV. For lower densities, the transition takes place at a higher temperature, reaching up to 130 MeV at zero density. In the second case, the QGP bag parameter is considered to be medium-dependent as in the MQMC model for the hadronic phase. In this case, it is found that the phase transition occurs at much lower densities. (author)

  10. The peculiar velocities of rich clusters in the hot and cold dark matter scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, George F.; West, Michael J.; Villumsen, Jens V.

    1993-01-01

    We present the results of a study of the peculiar velocities of rich clusters of galaxies. The peculiar motion of rich clusters in various cosmological scenarios is of interest for a number of reasons. Observationally, one can measure the peculiar motion of clusters to greater distances than galaxies because cluster peculiar motions can be determined to greater accuracy. One can also test the slope of distance indicator relations using clusters to see if galaxy properties vary with environment. We have used N-body simulations to measure the amplitude and rms cluster peculiar velocity as a function of bias parameter in the hot and cold dark matter scenarios. In addition to measuring the mean and rms peculiar velocity of clusters in the two models, we determined whether the peculiar velocity vector of a given cluster is well aligned with the gravity vector due to all the particles in the simulation and the gravity vector due to the particles present only in the clusters. We have investigated the peculiar velocities of rich clusters of galaxies in the cold dark matter and hot dark matter galaxy formation scenarios. We have derived peculiar velocities and associated errors for the scenarios using four values of the bias parameter ranging from b = 1 to b = 2.5. The growth of the mean peculiar velocity with scale factor has been determined and compared to that predicted by linear theory. In addition, we have compared the orientation of force and velocity in these simulations to see if a program such as that proposed by Bertschinger and Dekel (1989) for elliptical galaxy peculiar motions can be applied to clusters. The method they describe enables one to recover the density field from large scale redshift distance samples. The method makes it possible to do this when only radial velocities are known by assuming that the velocity field is curl free. Our analysis suggests that this program if applied to clusters is only realizable for models with a low value of the bias

  11. Modeling Warm Dense Matter Experiments using the 3D ALE-AMR Code and the Move Toward Exascale Computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koniges, A.; Eder, E.; Liu, W.; Barnard, J.; Friedman, A.; Logan, G.; Fisher, A.; Masers, N.; Bertozzi, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment II (NDCX II) is an induction accelerator planned for initial commissioning in 2012. The final design calls for a 3 MeV, Li+ ion beam, delivered in a bunch with characteristic pulse duration of 1 ns, and transverse dimension of order 1 mm. The NDCX II will be used in studies of material in the warm dense matter (WDM) regime, and ion beam/hydrodynamic coupling experiments relevant to heavy ion based inertial fusion energy. We discuss recent efforts to adapt the 3D ALE-AMR code to model WDM experiments on NDCX II. The code, which combines Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) hydrodynamics with Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR), has physics models that include ion deposition, radiation hydrodynamics, thermal diffusion, anisotropic material strength with material time history, and advanced models for fragmentation. Experiments at NDCX-II will explore the process of bubble and droplet formation (two-phase expansion) of superheated metal solids using ion beams. Experiments at higher temperatures will explore equation of state and heavy ion fusion beam-to-target energy coupling efficiency. Ion beams allow precise control of local beam energy deposition providing uniform volumetric heating on a timescale shorter than that of hydrodynamic expansion. The ALE-AMR code does not have any export control restrictions and is currently running at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) at LBNL and has been shown to scale well to thousands of CPUs. New surface tension models that are being implemented and applied to WDM experiments. Some of the approaches use a diffuse interface surface tension model that is based on the advective Cahn-Hilliard equations, which allows for droplet breakup in divergent velocity fields without the need for imposed perturbations. Other methods require seeding or other methods for droplet breakup. We also briefly discuss the effects of the move to exascale computing and related

  12. Atoms in dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Recent experiments with high-power pulsed lasers have strongly encouraged the development of improved theoretical understanding of highly charged ions in a dense plasma environment. This work examines the theory of dense plasmas with emphasis on general rules which govern matter at extreme high temperature and density. 106 refs., 23 figs

  13. Atoms in dense plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    More, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Recent experiments with high-power pulsed lasers have strongly encouraged the development of improved theoretical understanding of highly charged ions in a dense plasma environment. This work examines the theory of dense plasmas with emphasis on general rules which govern matter at extreme high temperature and density. 106 refs., 23 figs.

  14. Quasi-static electron density fluctuations of atoms in hot compressed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimaldi, F.; Grimaldi-Lecourt, A.

    1982-01-01

    The standard theoretical methods for the calculation of properties of hot compressed matter lead to a description based on the Average Atom model. In this model the degenerate orbitals are populated with the Fermi-Dirac (FD) density, partitioned according to the binomial distribution. Since the one particle picture is inadequate to evaluate reliable optical properties, a method involving correlated population fluctuations, but limited to unrelaxed orbitals and lacking time dependence, has been examined. The probability distribution of fluctuations in a particular level is evaluated through a decoupling procedure. The method is carried out self consistently. For each level this leads to the definition of an effective 1st order ionization energy as a statistical sum of all possible transition energies. As a result the effective number of electrons exchanged with the outside weights the chemical potential. This defines an effective chemical potential μsup(k) for each level. In many cases of interest the statistics leads to FD type average occupation numbers. This allows a treatment of the continuum in a Thomas-Fermi like model using the effective ionization energy and μsup(k). We obtain a simultaneous description of charge rearrangements and net fluctuations in the Wigner-Seitz cell. The discussion is supported by numerical results for iron. (author)

  15. Hydrodynamic Tunneling of 440 GeV SPS protons in Solid Material: Production of Warm Dense Matter at CERN HiRadMat Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Naeem Ahmad; Blanco Sancho, Juan; Schmidt, Ruediger; Shutov, Alaxander; Burkart, Florian; Wollmann, Daniel; Piriz, Antonio Roberto

    2013-10-01

    Numerical simulations have shown that the range of 7 TeV LHC protons in solid matter will be significantly increased due to hydrodynamic tunneling. For example, in solid copper and solid carbon, these protons and the shower can penetrate up to 35 m and 25 m, respectively. However, their corresponding static range in the two materials is 1 m and 3 m, respectively. This will have important implications on machine protection design. In order to validate these simulation results, experiments have been performed at the CERN HiRadMat facility using the 440 GeV SPS proton beam irradiating solid copper cylindrical target. The phenomenon of hydrodynamic tunneling has been experimentally confirmed and good agreement has been found between the simulations and the experimental results. A very interesting outcome of this work is that the HiRadMat facility can be used to generate High Energy Density matter including Warm Dense Matter and strongly coupled plasmas in the laboratory.

  16. QCD equation of state of hot deconfined matter at finite baryon density. A quasiparticle perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluhm, Marcus

    2008-01-01

    The quasiparticle model, based on quark and gluon degrees of freedom, has been developed for the description of the thermodynamics of a hot plasma of strongly interacting matter which is of enormous relevance in astrophysics, cosmology and for relativistic heavy-ion collisions as well. In the present work, this phenomenological model is extended into the realm of imaginary chemical potential and towards including, in general, different and independent quark flavour chemical potentials. In this way, nonzero net baryon-density effects in the equation of state are selfconsistently attainable. Furthermore, a chain of approximations based on formal mathematical manipulations is presented which outlines the connection of the quasiparticle model with the underlying gauge field theory of strong interactions, QCD, putting the model on firmer ground. The applicability of the model to extrapolate the equation of state known from lattice QCD at zero baryon density to nonzero baryon densities is shown. In addition, the ability of the model to extrapolate results to the chiral limit and to asymptotically large temperatures is illustrated by confrontation with available first-principle lattice QCD results. Basing on these successful comparisons supporting the idea that the hot deconfined phase can be described in a consistent picture by dressed quark and gluon degrees of freedom, a reliable QCD equation of state is constructed and baryon-density effects are examined, also along isentropic evolutionary paths. Scaling properties of the equation of state with fundamental QCD parameters such as the number of active quark flavour degrees of freedom, the entering quark mass parameters or the numerical value of the deconfinement transition temperature are discussed, and the robustness of the equation of state in the regions of small and large energy densities is shown. Uncertainties arising in the transition region are taken into account by constructing a family of equations of state

  17. Fierz-complete NJL model study. II. Toward the fixed-point and phase structure of hot and dense two-flavor QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Jens; Leonhardt, Marc; Pospiech, Martin

    2018-04-01

    Nambu-Jona-Lasinio-type models are often employed as low-energy models for the theory of the strong interaction to analyze its phase structure at finite temperature and quark chemical potential. In particular, at low temperature and large chemical potential, where the application of fully first-principles approaches is currently difficult at best, this class of models still plays a prominent role in guiding our understanding of the dynamics of dense strong-interaction matter. In this work, we consider a Fierz-complete version of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with two massless quark flavors and study its renormalization group flow and fixed-point structure at leading order of the derivative expansion of the effective action. Sum rules for the various four-quark couplings then allow us to monitor the strength of the breaking of the axial UA(1 ) symmetry close to and above the phase boundary. We find that the dynamics in the ten-dimensional Fierz-complete space of four-quark couplings can only be reduced to a one-dimensional space associated with the scalar-pseudoscalar coupling in the strict large-Nc limit. Still, the interacting fixed point associated with this one-dimensional subspace appears to govern the dynamics at small quark chemical potential even beyond the large-Nc limit. At large chemical potential, corrections beyond the large-Nc limit become important, and the dynamics is dominated by diquarks, favoring the formation of a chirally symmetric diquark condensate. In this regime, our study suggests that the phase boundary is shifted to higher temperatures when a Fierz-complete set of four-quark interactions is considered.

  18. Herschel Observations of EXtra-Ordinary Sources: H2S as a Probe of Dense Gas and Possibly Hidden Luminosity Toward the Orion KL Hot Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, N. R.; Bergin, E. A.; Neill, J. L.; Black, J. H.; Blake, G. A.; Kleshcheva, M.

    2014-02-01

    We present Herschel/HIFI observations of the light hydride H2S obtained from the full spectral scan of the Orion Kleinmann-Low nebula (Orion KL) taken as part of the Herschel Observations of EXtra-Ordinary Sources GT (guaranteed time) key program. In total, we observe 52, 24, and 8 unblended or slightly blended features from H2 32S, H2 34S, and H2 33S, respectively. We only analyze emission from the so-called hot core, but emission from the plateau, extended ridge, and/or compact ridge are also detected. Rotation diagrams for ortho and para H2S follow straight lines given the uncertainties and yield T rot = 141 ± 12 K. This indicates H2S is in local thermodynamic equilibrium and is well characterized by a single kinetic temperature or an intense far-IR radiation field is redistributing the population to produce the observed trend. We argue the latter scenario is more probable and find that the most highly excited states (E up >~ 1000 K) are likely populated primarily by radiation pumping. We derive a column density, N tot(H2 32S) = 9.5 ± 1.9 × 1017 cm-2, gas kinetic temperature, T kin = 120+/- ^{13}_{10} K, and constrain the H2 volume density, n_H_2 >~ 9 × 10 7 cm-3, for the H2S emitting gas. These results point to an H2S origin in markedly dense, heavily embedded gas, possibly in close proximity to a hidden self-luminous source (or sources), which are conceivably responsible for Orion KL's high luminosity. We also derive an H2S ortho/para ratio of 1.7 ± 0.8 and set an upper limit for HDS/H2S of <4.9 × 10 -3. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  19. Average-atom model for two-temperature states and ionic transport properties of aluminum in the warm dense matter regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yong; Fu, Yongsheng; Bredow, Richard; Kang, Dongdong; Redmer, Ronald; Yuan, Jianmin

    2017-03-01

    The average-atom model combined with the hyper-netted chain approximation is an efficient tool for electronic and ionic structure calculations for warm dense matter. Here we generalize this method in order to describe non-equilibrium states with different electron and ion temperature as produced in laser-matter interactions on ultra-short time scales. In particular, the electron-ion and ion-ion correlation effects are considered when calculating the electron structure. We derive an effective ion-ion pair-potential using the electron densities in the framework of temperature-depended density functional theory. Using this ion-ion potential we perform molecular dynamics simulations in order to determine the ionic transport properties such as the ionic diffusion coefficient and the shear viscosity through the ionic velocity autocorrelation functions.

  20. Hot-electron surface retention in intense short-pulse laser-matter interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, R J; Dodd, E S; Albright, B J

    2005-07-01

    Implicit hybrid plasma simulations predict that a significant fraction of the energy deposited into hot electrons can be retained near the surface of targets with steep density gradients illuminated by intense short-pulse lasers. This retention derives from the lateral transport of heated electrons randomly emitted in the presence of spontaneous magnetic fields arising near the laser spot, from geometric effects associated with a small hot-electron source, and from E fields arising in reaction to the ponderomotive force. Below the laser spot hot electrons are axially focused into a target by the B fields, and can filament in moderate Z targets by resistive Weibel-like instability, if the effective background electron temperature remains sufficiently low. Carefully engineered use of such retention in conjunction with ponderomotive density profile steepening could result in a reduced hot-electron range that aids fast ignition. Alternatively, such retention may disturb a deeper deposition needed for efficient radiography and backside fast ion generation.

  1. Novel diagnostics for warm dense matter: application to shock compressed target; Nouveaux diagnostics pour l'etude de la matiere dense et chaude: application aux cibles comprimees par choc laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravasio, A

    2007-03-15

    In this work, we present 3 novel diagnostics for warm dense plasma (WDM) investigations: hard X-ray radiography, proton radiography and X-ray Thomson scattering. Each of these techniques is applied in shock compression experiments. The main objective consists in accessing a new parameter, in addition to shock and particle velocity, for EOS (Equation of State) measurements. In the first chapter we give a deep description of WDM states as strongly coupled and Fermi degenerate states. Then, we introduce how we have generated a WDM state in our experiment: the shock wave. We, in particular, illustrate its formation in the classical laser-matter interaction regime. In the second chapter the principles of standard probing techniques are presented. We see that energetic probe sources are necessary to investigate high Z dense plasmas. The third chapter is dedicated to X-ray radiography results. We report on a first direct density measurement of a shock compressed high Z target using K{alpha} hard X-ray radiation. These results are of great interests as they allow an in-situ characterization of high Z material, impossible with standard techniques. We show that probing a well known material as Al will allow the comparison between our data and the results from already validated simulations. In the fourth chapter, we present the results obtained from proton radiography on low density carbon foam. The data analysis will require the development of a specific Monte-Carlo code to simulate the proton propagation through the shocked target. The comparison of the simulations with the experimental data show a low dependency on density. The fifth chapter is devoted to X-ray Thomson scattering results. For the first time, we have performed collective x-ray Thomson scattering measurement from a shock compressed target, accessing to electron density and temperature. The obtained results are compared with simulated x-ray scattered spectra. The novel technique is then used in the

  2. Critical temperature of liquid-gas phase transition for hot nuclear matter and three-body force effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Wei; Lu Guangcheng; Li Zenghua; Luo Peiyan; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing

    2005-01-01

    The finite temperature Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (FTBHF) approach is extended by introducing a microscopic three-body force. Within the extended approach, the three-body force effects on the equation of state of hot nuclear matter and its temperature dependence have been investigated. The critical properties of the liquid-gas phase transition of hot nuclear matter have been calculated. It is shown that the three-body force provides a repulsive contribution to the equation of state of hot nuclear matter. The repulsive effect of the three-body force becomes more pronounced as the density and temperature increase and consequently inclusion of the three-body force contribution in the calculation reduces the predicted critical temperature from about 16 MeV to about 13 MeV. By separating the contribution originated from the 2σ-exchange process coupled to the virtual excitation of a nucleon-antinucleon pair from the full three-body force, the connection between the three-body force effect and the relativistic correction from the Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock has been explored. It turns out that the contribution of the 2σ-N(N-bar) part is more repulsive than that of the full three-body force and the calculated critical temperature is about 11 MeV if only the 2σ-N(N-bar) component of the three-body force is included which is lower than the value obtained in the case of including the full three-body force and is close to the value predicted by the Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (DBHF) approach. Our result provides a reasonable explanation for the discrepancy between the values of critical temperature predicted from the FTBHF approach including the three-body force and the DBHF approach. (authors)

  3. Probing the neutron star interior and the Equation of State of cold dense matter with the SKA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watts, A.; Xu, R.; Espinoza, C.; Andersson, N.; Antoniadis, J.; Antonopoulou, D.; Buchner, S.; Dai, S.; Demorest, P.; Freire, P.; Hessels, J.; Margueron, J.; Oertel, M.; Patruno, A.; Possenti, A.; Ransom, S.; Stairs, I.; Stappers, B.

    2015-01-01

    With an average density higher than the nuclear density, neutron stars (NS) provide a unique testground for nuclear physics, quantum chromodynamics (QCD), and nuclear superfluidity. Determination of the fundamental interactions that govern matter under such extreme conditions is one of the major

  4. Detailed analysis of hollow ions spectra from dense matter pumped by X-ray emission of relativistic laser plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, S. B.; Colgan, J.; Abdallah, J.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Pikuz, S. A.; Skobelev, I. Yu.; Wagenaars, E.; Culfa, O.; Dance, R. J.; Tallents, G. J.; Rossall, A. K.; Woolsey, N. C.; Booth, N.; Lancaster, K. L.; Evans, R. G.; Gray, R. J.; McKenna, P.; Kaempfer, T.; Schulze, K. S.; Uschmann, I.

    2014-01-01

    X-ray emission from hollow ions offers new diagnostic opportunities for dense, strongly coupled plasma. We present extended modeling of the x-ray emission spectrum reported by Colgan et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 125001 (2013)] based on two collisional-radiative codes: the hybrid-structure Spectroscopic Collisional-Radiative Atomic Model (SCRAM) and the mixed-unresolved transition arrays (MUTA) ATOMIC model. We show that both accuracy and completeness in the modeled energy level structure are critical for reliable diagnostics, investigate how emission changes with different treatments of ionization potential depression, and discuss two approaches to handling the extensive structure required for hollow-ion models with many multiply excited configurations

  5. Leptogenesis as an origin of hot dark matter and baryon asymmetry in the E6 inspired SUSY models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevzorov, R.

    2018-04-01

    We explore leptogenesis within the E6 inspired U (1) extension of the MSSM in which exact custodial symmetry forbids tree-level flavour-changing transitions and the most dangerous baryon and lepton number violating operators. This supersymmetric (SUSY) model involves extra exotic matter beyond the MSSM. In the simplest phenomenologically viable scenarios the lightest exotic fermions are neutral and stable. These states should be substantially lighter than 1eV forming hot dark matter in the Universe. The low-energy effective Lagrangian of the SUSY model under consideration possesses an approximate global U(1)E symmetry associated with the exotic states. The U(1)E symmetry is explicitly broken because of the interactions between the right-handed neutrino superfields and exotic matter supermultiplets. As a consequence the decays of the lightest right-handed neutrino/sneutrino give rise to both U(1)E and U(1) B - L asymmetries. When all right-handed neutrino/sneutrino are relatively light ∼106-107GeV the appropriate amount of the baryon asymmetry can be induced via these decays if the Yukawa couplings of the lightest right-handed neutrino superfields to the exotic matter supermultiplets vary between ∼10-4-10-3.

  6. Model of the Phase Transition Mimicking the Pasta Phase in Cold and Dense Quark-Hadron Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayriyan, Alexander; Grigorian, Hovik

    2018-02-01

    A simple mixed phase model mimicking so-called "pasta" phases in the quarkhadron phase transition is developed and applied to static neutron stars for the case of DD2 type hadronic and NJL type quark matter models. The influence of the mixed phase on the mass-radius relation of the compact stars is investigated. Model parameters are chosen such that the results are in agreement with the mass-radius constraints.

  7. Skyrme interaction and the properties of cold and hot neutron matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, H.M.M.; Hassan, M.Y.M.; Ramadan, S.

    1986-08-01

    The binding energy per particle, effective mass, magnetic susceptibility, etc for neutron matter are calculated using the Skyrme interaction SKII. Relativistic corrections to the non-relativistic Skyrme effective interaction to order 1/C 2 are also used to calculate the corrections for the binding energy of neutron matter. The correction is very small for small values of k h and increases as k n is increased. The thermal properties of neutron matter are calculated also using SKII force. The temperature dependences of the volume and spin pressure are determined. The results obtained show a similar trend as previous theoretical estimates by different methods of calculation. (author)

  8. Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission . XIX. CoRoT-23b: a dense hot Jupiter on an eccentric orbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rouan, D.; Parviainen, H.; Moutou, C.

    2012-01-01

    We report the detection of CoRoT-23b, a hot Jupiter transiting in front of its host star with a period of 3.6314 ± 0.0001 days. This planet was discovered thanks to photometric data secured with the CoRoT satellite, combined with spectroscopic radial velocity (RV) measurements. A photometric search...... to be 7 Gyr, not far from the transition to subgiant, in agreement with the rather large stellar radius. The two features of a significant eccentricity of the orbit and of a fairly high density are fairly uncommon for a hot Jupiter. The high density is, however, consistent with a model of contraction...... is more than a few 105, a value that is the lower bound of the usually expected range. Even if CoRoT-23b  features a density and an eccentricity that are atypical of a hot Jupiter, it is thus not an enigmatic object....

  9. Theory of ultra dense matter and the dynamics of high energy interactions involving nuclei. Progress report, December 15, 1993--December 14, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyulassy, M.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress made during the second year of the three year DOE agreement DE-FG02-93ER40764 on theoretical nuclear physics research performed at the Columbia University and presents a detailed budget adjustment for the third year period December 15, 1994 to December 14, 1995. Sections 1.1 to 1.8 highlight the technical progress made on the following general areas: Multiple scattering and radiative processes in QCD; the quark-gluon plasma transition in nuclear matter; QCD transport theory and dissipative mechanism in dense matter; phenomenological models of high energy interactions involving nuclei; signatures of quark-gluon plasma formation in A+A; neurocomputation theory. Section 2 contains a bibliography of published papers and invited conference papers. Section 3 lists the Columbia nuclear theory members for the December 15, 1994 to December 14, 1995 period. Finally, the budget adjustment requesting $319,830 for the third year relative to the original $320,000 is presented in section 6. Copies of the research papers accompany this report

  10. Theory of ultra dense matter and the dynamics of high energy interactions involving nuclei. Progress report, December 15, 1993--December 14, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyulassy, M.

    1994-09-12

    This report summarizes the progress made during the second year of the three year DOE agreement DE-FG02-93ER40764 on theoretical nuclear physics research performed at the Columbia University and presents a detailed budget adjustment for the third year period December 15, 1994 to December 14, 1995. Sections 1.1 to 1.8 highlight the technical progress made on the following general areas: Multiple scattering and radiative processes in QCD; the quark-gluon plasma transition in nuclear matter; QCD transport theory and dissipative mechanism in dense matter; phenomenological models of high energy interactions involving nuclei; signatures of quark-gluon plasma formation in A+A; neurocomputation theory. Section 2 contains a bibliography of published papers and invited conference papers. Section 3 lists the Columbia nuclear theory members for the December 15, 1994 to December 14, 1995 period. Finally, the budget adjustment requesting $319,830 for the third year relative to the original $320,000 is presented in section 6. Copies of the research papers accompany this report.

  11. Charge-Transfer Processes in Warm Dense Matter: Selective Spectral Filtering for Laser-Accelerated Ion Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braenzel, J.; Barriga-Carrasco, M. D.; Morales, R.; Schnürer, M.

    2018-05-01

    We investigate, both experimentally and theoretically, how the spectral distribution of laser accelerated carbon ions can be filtered by charge exchange processes in a double foil target setup. Carbon ions at multiple charge states with an initially wide kinetic energy spectrum, from 0.1 to 18 MeV, were detected with a remarkably narrow spectral bandwidth after they had passed through an ultrathin and partially ionized foil. With our theoretical calculations, we demonstrate that this process is a consequence of the evolution of the carbon ion charge states in the second foil. We calculated the resulting spectral distribution separately for each ion species by solving the rate equations for electron loss and capture processes within a collisional radiative model. We determine how the efficiency of charge transfer processes can be manipulated by controlling the ionization degree of the transfer matter.

  12. Has matter's mother paid a call?

    CERN Multimedia

    Weiss, P

    2003-01-01

    "..Stunning results .. are prompting a growing chorus of physicists to say that it's time to declare success in a decades-long quest to make quark-gluon plasma - an extremely hot, dense soup of matter that contains loose fundamental particles known as quarks and gluons" (1 page).

  13. Variational Calculation for the Equation of State of Hot Asymmetric Nuclear Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togashi, Hajime; Kanzawa, Hiroaki; Takano, Masatoshi

    2010-01-01

    We calculate the equation of state (EOS) of asymmetric nuclear matter at finite temperatures with the cluster variational method based on the realistic nuclear Hamiltonian composed of the AV18 and UIX nuclear potentials. The free energy is calculated with an extension of the variational method proposed by Schmidt and Pandharipande. The obtained thermodynamic quantities such as entropy, internal energy, pressure and chemical potential derived from the free energy are reasonable. It is also found that the present variational calculation is self-consistent. These thermodynamic quantities are essential ingredients in our project for constructing a new nuclear EOS applicable to supernova simulations.

  14. Warm-hot gas in X-ray bright galaxy clusters and the H I-deficient circumgalactic medium in dense environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchett, Joseph N.; Tripp, Todd M.; Wang, Q. Daniel; Willmer, Christopher N. A.; Bowen, David V.; Jenkins, Edward B.

    2018-04-01

    We analyse the intracluster medium (ICM) and circumgalactic medium (CGM) in seven X-ray-detected galaxy clusters using spectra of background quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) (HST-COS/STIS), optical spectroscopy of the cluster galaxies (MMT/Hectospec and SDSS), and X-ray imaging/spectroscopy (XMM-Newton and Chandra). First, we report a very low covering fraction of H I absorption in the CGM of these cluster galaxies, f_c = 25^{+25}_{-15} {per cent}, to stringent detection limits (N(H I) detect O VI in any cluster, and we only detect BLA features in the QSO spectrum probing one cluster. We estimate that the total column density of warm-hot gas along this line of sight totals to ˜ 3 per cent of that contained in the hot T > 107 K X-ray emitting phase. Residing at high relative velocities, these features may trace pre-shocked material outside the cluster. Comparing gaseous galaxy haloes from the low-density `field' to galaxy groups and high-density clusters, we find that the CGM is progressively depleted of H I with increasing environmental density, and the CGM is most severely transformed in galaxy clusters. This CGM transformation may play a key role in environmental galaxy quenching.

  15. Non-Markovian effects on the dynamics of bubble growth in hot asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolomietz, V.M.; Sanzhur, A.I.; Shlomo, S.

    2003-01-01

    We study the conditions for the generation and the dynamical evolution of embryonic overcritical vapor bubbles in an overheated asymmetric nuclear matter. We show that the Fermi-surface distortion and memory effects significantly hinder the growth of the bubbles. Moreover, the growth of the bubble is accompanied by characteristic oscillations of its radius R. The characteristic energy E, the damping parameter Γ, and the instability growth rate parameter ζ, depend on the relaxation time τ. The characteristic oscillations disappear in the short relaxation time limit τ→0. Our approach ignores the fluctuations of the particle numbers in the bubble region and the finite diffuse layer of the bubble. The minimum size of the critical radius R * for which our approach applies is determined by the condition a/R * <<1, where a=0.5-1 fm is the temperature-dependent surface thickness of the bubble

  16. GORGON - a computer code for the calculation of energy deposition and the slowing down of ions in cold materials and hot dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, K.A.; Moritz, N.; Tahir, N.A.

    1983-11-01

    The computer code GORGON, which calculates the energy deposition and slowing down of ions in cold materials and hot plasmas is described, and analyzed in this report. This code is in a state of continuous development but an intermediate stage has been reached where it is considered useful to document the 'state of the art' at the present time. The GORGON code is an improved version of a code developed by Zinamon et al. as part of a more complex program system for studying the hydrodynamic motion of plane metal targets irradiated by intense beams of protons. The improvements made in the code were necessary to improve its usefulness for problems related to the design and burn of heavy ion beam driven inertial confinement fusion targets. (orig./GG) [de

  17. Laser shocks on helium, hydrogen and diamond: an experimental study of the warm dense matter zone; Chocs laser sur l'helium, l'hydrogene et le diamant: une etude experimentale de la 'Warm Dense Matter'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brygoo, St

    2006-11-15

    The purpose of this work was to develop a new approach of laser shocks on pre-compressed targets in order to collect data concerning the equation of state in the warm dense matter zone of the phase diagram. The accuracy of the measurement has been increased by the use of a new metrology based on quartz. Quartz is considered as a standard for the measurement of both the pressure and the density, a model of an isentropic relaxation based on a Grueneisen type approximation has been developed. By combining laser shocks with diamond anvil cells and by using this new metrology, we have investigated the following systems: diamond, helium, hydrogen, deuterium and hydrogen-helium mixtures. The results for helium agree very well with the predictions of the Saumon-Chabrier model. The results for deuterium are consistent with the latest results found in literature. As for the results concerning hydrogen, they have showed the limits of the quartz-based metrology. In fact, by being so little dense we are at the limit of the application range of the quartz relaxation. A mixture of helium-hydrogen (50 %) has been investigated, no sign of phase separation has been found.

  18. Hadronization of dense partonic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fries, Rainer J [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2006-12-15

    The parton recombination model has turned out to be a valuable tool to describe hadronization in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. I review the model and revisit recent progress in our understanding of hadron correlations. I also discuss higher Fock states in the hadrons, possible violations of the elliptic flow scaling and recombination effects in more dilute systems.

  19. Quantum Simulations for Dense Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceperley, David M.

    2010-01-01

    High pressure systems are important, for example, to understand the interiors of giant planets (Jupiter and Saturn), for experiments at NIF (the National Ignition Facility at Livermore) related to inertially confined fusion and for other interests of DOE. In this project, we are developing innovative simulation methods (Quantum Monte Carlo methods) to allow more accurate calculation of properties of systems under extreme conditions of pressure and temperature. These methods can use the power of current day supercomputers made of very many processors, starting from the basic equations of physics to model quantum phenomena important at the microscopic scale. During the grant period, we have settled two important questions of the physics of hydrogen and helium under extreme conditions. We have found the pressures and temperatures when hydrogen and helium mix together; this is important to understand the difference of the interiors of the planets Jupiter and Saturn. Secondly, we have shown that there exists a sharp transition as a function of pressure between molecular and atomic liquid hydrogen at temperatures below 2000K. This prediction can be confirmed with high pressure experiments.

  20. Progress report 1986. Laser-matter interaction Greco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Basic researches are based on laser-matter interaction, generation and study of dense and hot plasmas. The main aim is inertial fusion by laser; many researches are also engaged in other ways, basic ones such as X-ray laser and laser acceleration of particles, or applied ones such as X-ray sources or laser processing of materials [fr

  1. Dense ceramic articles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockbain, A.G.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for the manufacture of articles of substantially pure dense ceramic materials, for use in severe environments. Si N is very suitable for use in such environments, but suffers from the disadvantage that it is not amenable to sintering. Some disadvantages of the methods normally used for making articles of Si N are mentioned. The method described comprises mixing a powder of the substantially pure ceramic material with an additive that promotes densification, and which is capable of nuclear transmutation into a gas when exposed to radiation, and hot pressing the mixture to form a billet. The billet is then irradiated to convert the additive into a gas which is held captive in the billet, and it is then subjected to a hot forging operation, during which the captive gas escapes and an article of substantially pure dense ceramic material is forged. The method is intended primarily for use for Si N, but may be applied to other ceramic materials. The additive may be Li or Be or their compounds, to the extent of at least 5 ppm and not more than 5% by weight. Irradiation is effected by proton or neutron bombardment. (UK)

  2. Hadrons in hot and dense medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallik, S.

    2004-01-01

    We review chiral perturbation theory in some detail and construct interaction terms involving the Goldstone and the different non-Goldstone fields, in presence of external (classical) fields coupled to currents. The ensemble average of the two-point functions of the currents can now be expanded in terms of Feynman diagrams. We evaluate the one-loop diagrams in the neighbourhood of the respective poles to find the effective couplings and masses of the particles in medium. We also describe the virial formula for the self-energy of a particle in medium, giving its pole position. It proves useful if the scattering amplitude of the particle with particles in medium is known experimentally. (author)

  3. Introductory Overview of Quark Matter 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2013-01-01

    The two arguably most generic phenomena seen in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions are the flow of essentially all soft hadronic observables and the quenching of essentially all hard hadronic observables. Limiting the discussion to these two classes of phenomena, I review what can be said so far about the properties of hot and dense QCD matter from the heavy ion programs at RHIC and at the LHC, and I discuss the opportunities for further progress in the coming years

  4. Does mindfulness matter? Everyday mindfulness, mindful eating and self-reported serving size of energy dense foods among a sample of South Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshara, Monica; Hutchinson, Amanda D; Wilson, Carlene

    2013-08-01

    Serving size is a modifiable determinant of energy consumption, and an important factor to address in the prevention and treatment of obesity. The present study tested an hypothesised negative association between individuals' everyday mindfulness and self-reported serving size of energy dense foods. The mediating role of mindful eating was also explored. A community sample of 171 South Australian adults completed self-report measures of everyday mindfulness and mindful eating. The dependent measure was participants' self-reported average serving size of energy dense foods consumed in the preceding week. Participants who reported higher levels of everyday mindfulness were more mindful eaters (r=0.41, pMindful eating fully mediated the negative association between everyday mindfulness and serving size. The domains of mindful eating most relevant to serving size included emotional and disinhibited eating. Results suggest that mindful eating may have a greater influence on serving size than daily mindfulness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Warm Dense Matter and Strongly Coupled Plasmas Created by Intense Heavy Ion Beams and XUV-Free Electron Laser: An Overview of Spectroscopic Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosmej, F B [University of Provence et CNRS, Centre St. Jerome, PIIM-DGP, case 232, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Lee, R W [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Riley, D [Queens University of Belfast, University Road, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Meyer-ter-Vehn, J [Max-Planck Institute for Quantum Optics, 85748 Garching (Germany); Krenz, A [Max-Planck Institute for Quantum Optics, 85748 Garching (Germany); Tschentscher, T [HASYLAB at DESY, Nothkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Tauschwitz, An [University of Frankfurt, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Frankfurt (Germany); Tauschwitz, A [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung GSI, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Lisitsa, V S [Russian Research Center Kurchatov, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Faenov, A Ya [VNIIFTRI, Multi Charged Ion Spectra Data Center, 141570 Mendeleevo (Russian Federation)

    2007-06-15

    High density plasma physics, radiation emission/scattering and related atomic physics, spectroscopy and diagnostics are going to make large steps forward due to new experimental facilities providing beams of intense heavy ions and X/XUV free electron laser radiation. These facilities are currently being established at GSI-Darmstadt and DESY-Hamburg in Germany to access new and complementary parameter regimes for basic research which have never been obtained in laboratories so far: homogenous benchmark samples near solid density and temperatures from eV up to keV. This will provide important impact to many disciplines like astrophysics, atomic physics in dense environments, dense and strongly coupled plasma effects, radiation emission, equation of state. The spectroscopic analysis of the radiation emission plays a key role in this research to investigate the dynamics of electric fields in multi-particle coupled Coulomb systems and the modification of plasma statistics.

  6. Using Continuous In-situ Measurement of Fluorescence to Reveal Hot Spots and Hot Moments of Dissolved Organic Matter Dynamics in a Forested Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, K. A.; Hosen, J. D.; Raymond, P. A.; Stubbins, A.; Shanley, J. B.

    2017-12-01

    River systems serve as net carbon exporters from land to the ocean, fueling downstream aquatic ecosystem food webs. Fluorescence signatures of aquatic organic matter can be used as a proxy for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration and can characterize DOC composition, reactivity, and source to improve our understanding of ecological processes. In-situ measurement of fluorescence using fifteen-minute interval data logging allows greater temporal resolution than laboratory studies. However, in-situ data must be corrected for interferences from temperature, absorbance and turbidity changes occurring in the field. We installed multiparameter water quality sondes (Eureka Mantas) and in-situ fluorometers (Turner Designs Cyclops) at sites nested within streams and riparian zones in the Sleepers River Research Watershed in Vermont in 2017. We coupled these measurements with simultaneous intensive field sampling campaigns and laboratory analysis of DOC and fluorescence Excitation-Emission Matrices. The data loggers from the nested sites recorded fluorescence peaks responding to discharge events and tracked changes in fluorescence occurring from upstream to downstream sites. Laboratory results confirm a nonlinear, hysteretic relationship between discharge and DOC where peak DOC lags peak discharge. This hysteresis is predicted to be controlled by multiple flow paths and DOC sources (i.e. groundwater, overland flow). We conclude that continuous in-situ records of river water fluorescence can be used to inform ecological processes and test new hypotheses concerning dissolved organic matter dynamics in watersheds.

  7. Hot gas in the cold dark matter scenario: X-ray clusters from a high-resolution numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyesung; Cen, Renyue; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Ryu, Dongsu

    1994-01-01

    A new, three-dimensional, shock-capturing hydrodynamic code is utilized to determine the distribution of hot gas in a standard cold dark matter (CDM) model of the universe. Periodic boundary conditions are assumed: a box with size 85 h(exp -1) Mpc having cell size 0.31 h(exp -1) Mpc is followed in a simulation with 270(exp 3) = 10(exp 7.3) cells. Adopting standard parameters determined from COBE and light-element nucleosynthesis, sigma(sub 8) = 1.05, omega(sub b) = 0.06, and assuming h = 0.5, we find the X-ray-emitting clusters and compute the luminosity function at several wavelengths, the temperature distribution, and estimated sizes, as well as the evolution of these quantities with redshift. We find that most of the total X-ray emissivity in our box originates in a relatively small number of identifiable clusters which occupy approximately 10(exp -3) of the box volume. This standard CDM model, normalized to COBE, produces approximately 5 times too much emission from clusters having L(sub x) is greater than 10(exp 43) ergs/s, a not-unexpected result. If all other parameters were unchanged, we would expect adequate agreement for sigma(sub 8) = 0.6. This provides a new and independent argument for lower small-scale power than standard CDM at the 8 h(exp -1) Mpc scale. The background radiation field at 1 keV due to clusters in this model is approximately one-third of the observed background, which, after correction for numerical effects, again indicates approximately 5 times too much emission and the appropriateness of sigma(sub 8) = 0.6. If we have used the observed ratio of gas to total mass in clusters, rather than basing the mean density on light-element nucleosynthesis, then the computed luminosity of each cluster would have increased still further, by a factor of approximately 10. The number density of clusters increases to z approximately 1, but the luminosity per typical cluster decreases, with the result that evolution in the number density of bright

  8. Exposure to Particle Matters and Hazardous Volatile Organic Compounds in Selected Hot Spring Hotels in Guangdong, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiusheng He

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In Guangdong province, many hot springs were exploited and developed into popular places for tourist. In addition, hotels have been set up near hot spring sites to attract people, including local citizens, to spend their spare time inside these so-called “spring hotels”. In our study, indoor air quality was investigated in four hot spring hotels in Guangdong province, China. Measured indoor pollutants included CO2, CO, PM10, PM2.5 and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs. As the result show, high concentrations of carbon dioxide might be attributed to poor ventilation; and the variations of indoor PM10, PM2.5 concentrations were related to occupants’ activities. Alpha-pinene and toluene were the most common VOC species in the hot spring hotels other than monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons like Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylenes (BTEX, which were at medium levels among the reported indoor pollutants. High cancer risk of benzene in the newly decorated rooms should be seriously taken into consideration in the future. Indoor to Outdoor air concentration ratios (I/O for CO2 and VOCs were higher than 1, indicating their strong indoor sources. Negative correlations were found between indoor CO2 and all the other compounds, and VOCs were shown to be significantly correlated (p < 0.01 to each other, including aromatic hydrocarbons and mono-terpenes. For indoor and outdoor air compounds, correlation coefficients among all compounds did not show a significant correlation, which indicated that these pollutants had different sources. Principal components analysis by SPSS showed that indoor materials, inhabitants’ activities and respiration, cleaning products and outdoor sources were the main sources of indoor detected pollutants in hot spring hotels.

  9. Baryonic matter and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Fukushima, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    We summarize recent developments in identifying the ground state of dense baryonic matter and beyond. The topics include deconfinement from baryonic matter to quark matter, a diquark mixture, topological effect coupled with chirality and density, and inhomogeneous chiral condensates.

  10. Biomagnetic monitoring of particulate matter (PM through leaves of an invasive alien plant Lantana camara in an Indo-Burma hot spot region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat Kumar Rai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Present study was performed in urban forests of Aizawl, Mizoram, North East India falling under an Indo-Burma hot spot region of existing ecological relevance and pristine environment. Phyto-sociolology of invasive weeds has been performed and results revealed that Lantana camara was the most dominant invasive weed. Further, the air quality studies revealed high suspended particulate matter (SPM as well as respirable suspended particulate matter (RSPM in ambient air of Aizawl, Mizoram, North East India. Bio-magnetic monitoring through plant leaves has been recognised as recent thrust area in the field of particulate matter (PM science. We aimed to investigate that whether magnetic properties of Lantana camara leaves may act as proxy of PM pollution and hence an attempt towards it's sustainable management. Magnetic susceptibility (χ, Anhyste reticremanent magnetization (ARM and Saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM of Lantana camara plant leaves were assessed and concomitantly correlated these magnetic properties with ambient PM in order to screen this invasive plant which may act as proxy for ambient PM concentrations. Results revealed high χ, ARM, SIRM of Lantana camara leaves and moreover, these parameters were having significant and positive correlation with ambient SPM as well as RSPM. Therefore, present study recommended the use of Lantana camara as bio-magnetic monitor which may further have sustainable management implications of an invasive plant.

  11. Holographic Renormalization in Dense Medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chanyong

    2014-01-01

    The holographic renormalization of a charged black brane with or without a dilaton field, whose dual field theory describes a dense medium at finite temperature, is investigated in this paper. In a dense medium, two different thermodynamic descriptions are possible due to an additional conserved charge. These two different thermodynamic ensembles are classified by the asymptotic boundary condition of the bulk gauge field. It is also shown that in the holographic renormalization regularity of all bulk fields can reproduce consistent thermodynamic quantities and that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy is nothing but the renormalized thermal entropy of the dual field theory. Furthermore, we find that the Reissner-Nordström AdS black brane is dual to a theory with conformal matter as expected, whereas a charged black brane with a nontrivial dilaton profile is mapped to a theory with nonconformal matter although its leading asymptotic geometry still remains as AdS space

  12. Search for solar axions by the CERN axion solar telescope with 3He buffer gas: closing the hot dark matter gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arik, M; Aune, S; Barth, K; Belov, A; Borghi, S; Bräuninger, H; Cantatore, G; Carmona, J M; Cetin, S A; Collar, J I; Da Riva, E; Dafni, T; Davenport, M; Eleftheriadis, C; Elias, N; Fanourakis, G; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Friedrich, P; Galán, J; García, J A; Gardikiotis, A; Garza, J G; Gazis, E N; Geralis, T; Georgiopoulou, E; Giomataris, I; Gninenko, S; Gómez, H; Gómez Marzoa, M; Gruber, E; Guthörl, T; Hartmann, R; Hauf, S; Haug, F; Hasinoff, M D; Hoffmann, D H H; Iguaz, F J; Irastorza, I G; Jacoby, J; Jakovčić, K; Karuza, M; Königsmann, K; Kotthaus, R; Krčmar, M; Kuster, M; Lakić, B; Lang, P M; Laurent, J M; Liolios, A; Ljubičić, A; Luzón, G; Neff, S; Niinikoski, T; Nordt, A; Papaevangelou, T; Pivovaroff, M J; Raffelt, G; Riege, H; Rodríguez, A; Rosu, M; Ruz, J; Savvidis, I; Shilon, I; Silva, P S; Solanki, S K; Stewart, L; Tomás, A; Tsagri, M; van Bibber, K; Vafeiadis, T; Villar, J; Vogel, J K; Yildiz, S C; Zioutas, K

    2014-03-07

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope has finished its search for solar axions with (3)He buffer gas, covering the search range 0.64 eV ≲ ma ≲ 1.17 eV. This closes the gap to the cosmological hot dark matter limit and actually overlaps with it. From the absence of excess x rays when the magnet was pointing to the Sun we set a typical upper limit on the axion-photon coupling of gaγ ≲ 3.3 × 10(-10)  GeV(-1) at 95% C.L., with the exact value depending on the pressure setting. Future direct solar axion searches will focus on increasing the sensitivity to smaller values of gaγ, for example by the currently discussed next generation helioscope International AXion Observatory.

  13. Search for Solar Axions by the CERN Axion Solar Telescope with 3 He Buffer Gas: Closing the Hot Dark Matter Gap

    CERN Document Server

    Arik, M.; Barth, K.; Belov, A.; Borghi, S.; Bräuninger, H.; Cantatore, G.; Carmona, J.M.; Cetin, S.A.; Collar, J.I.; Da Riva, E.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Elias, N.; Fanourakis, G.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Friedrich, P.; Galán, J.; García, J.A.; Gardikiotis, A.; Garza, J.G.; Gazis, E.N.; Geralis, T.; Georgiopoulou, E.; Giomataris, I.; Gninenko, S.; Gómez, H.; Gómez Marzoa, M.; Gruber, E.; Guthörl, T.; Hartmann, R.; Hauf, S.; Haug, F.; Hasinoff, M.D.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Iguaz, F.J.; Irastorza, I.G.; Jacoby, J.; Jakovčić, K.; Karuza, M.; Königsmann, K.; Kotthaus, R.; Krčmar, M.; Kuster, M.; Lakić, B.; Lang, P.M.; Laurent, J.M.; Liolios, A.; Ljubičić, A.; Lozza, V.; Luzón, G.; Neff, S.; Niinikoski, T.; Nordt, A.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pivovaroff, M.J.; Raffelt, G.; Riege, H.; Rodríguez, A.; Rosu, M.; Ruz, J.; Savvidis, I.; Shilon, I.; Silva, P.S.; Solanki, S.K.; Stewart, L.; Tomás, A.; Tsagri, M.; van Bibber, K.; Vafeiadis, T.; Villar, J.; Vogel, J.K.; Yildiz, S.C.; Zioutas, K.

    2014-01-01

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) has finished its search for solar axions with 3^He buffer gas, covering the search range 0.64 eV < m_a <1.17 eV. This closes the gap to the cosmological hot dark matter limit and actually overlaps with it. From the absence of excess X-rays when the magnet was pointing to the Sun we set a typical upper limit on the axion-photon coupling of g_ag < 3.3 x 10^{-10} GeV^{-1} at 95% CL, with the exact value depending on the pressure setting. Future direct solar axion searches will focus on increasing the sensitivity to smaller values of g_a, for example by the currently discussed next generation helioscope IAXO.

  14. Search for Solar Axions by the CERN Axion Solar Telescope with He3 Buffer Gas: Closing the Hot Dark Matter Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arik, M.; Aune, S.; Barth, K.; Belov, A.; Borghi, S.; Bräuninger, H.; Cantatore, G.; Carmona, J. M.; Cetin, S. A.; Collar, J. I.; Da Riva, E.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Elias, N.; Fanourakis, G.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Friedrich, P.; Galán, J.; García, J. A.; Gardikiotis, A.; Garza, J. G.; Gazis, E. N.; Geralis, T.; Georgiopoulou, E.; Giomataris, I.; Gninenko, S.; Gómez, H.; Gómez Marzoa, M.; Gruber, E.; Guthörl, T.; Hartmann, R.; Hauf, S.; Haug, F.; Hasinoff, M. D.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Iguaz, F. J.; Irastorza, I. G.; Jacoby, J.; Jakovčić, K.; Karuza, M.; Königsmann, K.; Kotthaus, R.; Krčmar, M.; Kuster, M.; Lakić, B.; Lang, P. M.; Laurent, J. M.; Liolios, A.; Ljubičić, A.; Luzón, G.; Neff, S.; Niinikoski, T.; Nordt, A.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pivovaroff, M. J.; Raffelt, G.; Riege, H.; Rodríguez, A.; Rosu, M.; Ruz, J.; Savvidis, I.; Shilon, I.; Silva, P. S.; Solanki, S. K.; Stewart, L.; Tomás, A.; Tsagri, M.; van Bibber, K.; Vafeiadis, T.; Villar, J.; Vogel, J. K.; Yildiz, S. C.; Zioutas, K.; CAST Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope has finished its search for solar axions with He3 buffer gas, covering the search range 0.64 eV≲ma≲1.17 eV. This closes the gap to the cosmological hot dark matter limit and actually overlaps with it. From the absence of excess x rays when the magnet was pointing to the Sun we set a typical upper limit on the axion-photon coupling of gaγ≲3.3×10-10 GeV-1 at 95% C.L., with the exact value depending on the pressure setting. Future direct solar axion searches will focus on increasing the sensitivity to smaller values of gaγ, for example by the currently discussed next generation helioscope International AXion Observatory.

  15. Sub-nanometer distances and cluster shapes in dense hydrogen and in higher levels of hydrogen Rydberg matter by phase-delay spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmlid, Leif

    2011-01-01

    The inter-atomic distances in potassium clusters of Rydberg matter (RM) at excitation levels n B = 4–8 were recently measured by phase-delay spectroscopy (Holmlid, J Nanopart Res 12: 273, 2010). Excitation levels n B B = 1, 2, and 3 is found. Close-packing is the main structure both in planar and 3D clusters. Planar clusters are only observed for n B = 1 and 3, while 3D clusters are found in excitation levels n B = 1, 2 and 3. The cluster–cluster distance in stacks of planar clusters for n B = 2 and 3 is now observed for the first time.

  16. Experimental and numerical analysis of traffic emitted nanoparticle and particulate matter dispersion at urban pollution hot-spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Anju

    Road vehicles are a major source of airborne nanoparticles (traffic hot-spots such as traffic intersections (TIs), where pollution pockets are created due to frequently changing driving conditions. Recent trends suggest an exponential increase in travel demand and travelling time in the UK and elsewhere over the years, which indicate a growing need for the accurate characterisation of exposure at TIs since exposure at these hot-spots can contribute disproportionately high to overall commuting exposure. Based on field observations, this thesis aims (i) to investigate the traffic driving conditions in which TIs become a hotspot for nanoparticles and PM, (ii) to estimate the extent of road that is affected by high particle number concentrations (PNCs) and PM due to presence of a signal, (iii) to assess the vertical and horizontal variations in PNC and PMC at different TIs, (iv) to estimate the associated in-cabin and pedestrian exposure at TIs, and finally (v) to predict PNCs by using freely available models of air pollution at TIs. For this thesis, two sets of experiments (i.e. mobile- and fixed-sites) were carried out to measure airborne nanoparticles and PM in the size range of (0.005-10 ?m) using a fast response differential mobility spectrometer (DMS50) and a GRIMM particle spectrometer (1.107 E). Mobile measurements were made on a circle passing through 10 TIs and fixed-site measurements were carried out at two different types of TIs (i.e. 3- and 4-way). Dispersion modelling was then performed by using California Line Source (CALINE4) and California Line Source for Queueing and Hotspot Calculations (CAL3QHC) at TIs. Several important findings were then extrapolated during the analysis. These findings indicated that congested TIs were found to become hot-spots when vehicle accelerate from idling conditions. The average length of road in longitudinal direction that is affected by high PNCs and PM was found to be highest (148 m; 89 to -59 m from the center of a TI

  17. Dence Cold Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavinskiy Alexey

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Possible way to create dense cold baryonic matter in the laboratory is discussed. The density of this matter is comparable or even larger than the density of neutron star core. The properties of this matter can be controlled by trigger conditions. Experimental program for the study of properties of dense cold matter for light and heavy ion collisions at initial energy range √sNN~2-3GeV is proposed..

  18. Hot Flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hot flashes Overview Hot flashes are sudden feelings of warmth, which are usually most intense over the face, neck and chest. Your skin might redden, as if you're blushing. Hot flashes can also cause sweating, and if you ...

  19. HOT 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Sara Stefansen

    2016-01-01

    HOT samler og formidler 21 literacykyndiges bud på, hvad der er hot, og hvad der bør være hot inden for literacy – og deres begrundelser for disse bud.......HOT samler og formidler 21 literacykyndiges bud på, hvad der er hot, og hvad der bør være hot inden for literacy – og deres begrundelser for disse bud....

  20. Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, S. S.; Bennett, C. L.

    1995-01-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the Astrophysics conference in Maryland, organized by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the University of Maryland. The topics covered included low mass stars as dark matter, dark matter in galaxies and clusters, cosmic microwave background anisotropy, cold and hot dark matter, and the large scale distribution and motions of galaxies. There were eighty five papers presented. Out of these, 10 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database

  1. Interference Coordination for Dense Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soret, Beatriz; Pedersen, Klaus I.; Jørgensen, Niels T.K.

    2015-01-01

    and dense deployment in Tokyo are compared. Evolution to DenseNets offers new opportunities for further development of downlink interference cooperation techniques. Various mechanisms in LTE and LTE-Advanced are revisited. Some techniques try to anticipate the future in a proactive way, whereas others......The promise of ubiquitous and super-fast connectivity for the upcoming years will be in large part fulfilled by the addition of base stations and spectral aggregation. The resulting very dense networks (DenseNets) will face a number of technical challenges. Among others, the interference emerges...... as an old acquaintance with new significance. As a matter of fact, the interference conditions and the role of aggressor and victim depend to a large extent on the density and the scenario. To illustrate this, downlink interference statistics for different 3GPP simulation scenarios and a more irregular...

  2. Heavy-flavour hadrons as probes of strongly-interacting matter: highlights from ALICE

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    In Pb-Pb collisions the heavy-flavour nuclear modification factor together with the elliptic-flow measurements allow one to study the heavy-quark transport properties in the hot and dense medium. The production of heavy quarks in heavy-ion collisions is furthermore also affected by the presence of cold nuclear matter in the initial state. The study of p-Pb collisions is instrument...

  3. Quantum dense key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degiovanni, I.P.; Ruo Berchera, I.; Castelletto, S.; Rastello, M.L.; Bovino, F.A.; Colla, A.M.; Castagnoli, G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a protocol for quantum dense key distribution. This protocol embeds the benefits of a quantum dense coding and a quantum key distribution and is able to generate shared secret keys four times more efficiently than the Bennet-Brassard 1984 protocol. We hereinafter prove the security of this scheme against individual eavesdropping attacks, and we present preliminary experimental results, showing its feasibility

  4. Density and field effect on electron-ion collision cross-sections in hot dense plasma; Etude de l'influence de l'environnement plasma sur les sections efficaces d'excitation collisionnelle electron-ion dans un plasma chaud et dense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaufridy de Dortan, F. de

    2003-03-15

    Collisional excitation cross-sections are essential for the modeling of the properties of non equilibrium plasmas. There has been a lot of work on electron impact excitation of isolated ions, but in dense plasmas, neighboring particles are expected to widely disturb these electron transitions in atoms. Plasma modeling through a radially perturbed potential has already been done but is not satisfactory as it does not account for levels degeneracy breaking and its consequences. Introduction of a quasistatic electric micro-field of neighboring ions allows us to break spherical symmetry. Our original theoretical study has given birth to a numerical code that accurately computes collisional strengths and rates (in the Distorted Waves approach) in atoms submitted to a realistic micro-field. Hydrogen- and helium-like aluminium is studied. Stark mixing widely increases rates of transitions from high l levels and forbidden transitions are field-enhanced by many orders of magnitude until they reach allowed ones. Eventually, we conduct an elementary stationary collisional radiative study to investigate field-enhancement effects on corresponding line shapes. In cases we study (aluminium, hydrogen- and helium-like) we find a relatively weak increase of K-shell line broadening.

  5. Probing warm dense lithium by inelastic X-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Saiz, E; Riley, D [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast (United Kingdom); Gregori, G [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford (United Kingdom); Gregori, G; Clarke, R J; Neely, D; Notley, M M; Spindloe, C [Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, OX (United Kingdom); Gericke, D O; Vorberger, J; Wunsch, K [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom); Barbrel, B; Koenig, M [Laboratoire pour l' Utilisation des Laser Intenses, Ecole Polytechnique - Universite Paris-6, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Freeman, R R; Weber, R L; Van Woerkom, L [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio (United States); Glenzer, S H; Landen, O L; Neumayer, P; Price, D [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California (United States); Khattak, F Y [Department of Physics, Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat-26000, NWFP (Pakistan); Pelka, A; Roth, M; Schollmeier, M [Institut fur Kernphysik, Technische Universitat Darmstadt (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    One of the grand challenges of contemporary physics is understanding strongly interacting quantum systems comprising such diverse examples as ultracold atoms in traps, electrons in high-temperature superconductors and nuclear matter. Warm dense matter, defined by temperatures of a few electron volts and densities comparable with solids, is a complex state of such interacting matter. Moreover, the study of warm dense matter states has practical applications for controlled thermonuclear fusion, where it is encountered during the implosion phase, and it also represents laboratory analogues of astrophysical environments found in the core of planets and the crusts of old stars. Here we demonstrate how warm dense matter states can be diagnosed and structural properties can be obtained by inelastic X-ray scattering measurements on a compressed lithium sample. Combining experiments and ab initio simulations enables us to determine its microscopic state and to evaluate more approximate theoretical models for the ionic structure. (authors)

  6. Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission . XIII. CoRoT-13b: a dense hot Jupiter in transit around a star with solar metallicity and super-solar lithium content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, J.; Bruntt, H.; Ollivier, M.; Díaz, R. F.; Csizmadia, Sz.; Aigrain, S.; Alonso, R.; Almenara, J.-M.; Auvergne, M.; Baglin, A.; Barge, P.; Bonomo, A. S.; Bordé, P.; Bouchy, F.; Carone, L.; Carpano, S.; Deleuil, M.; Deeg, H. J.; Dvorak, R.; Erikson, A.; Ferraz-Mello, S.; Fridlund, M.; Gandolfi, D.; Gazzano, J.-C.; Gillon, M.; Guenther, E. W.; Guillot, T.; Hatzes, A.; Havel, M.; Hébrard, G.; Jorda, L.; Léger, A.; Llebaria, A.; Lammer, H.; Lovis, C.; Mazeh, T.; Moutou, C.; Ofir, A.; von Paris, P.; Pätzold, M.; Queloz, D.; Rauer, H.; Rouan, D.; Santerne, A.; Schneider, J.; Tingley, B.; Titz-Weider, R.; Wuchterl, G.

    2010-11-01

    We announce the discovery of the transiting planet CoRoT-13b. Ground-based follow-up in CFHT and IAC80 confirmed CoRoT's observations. The mass of the planet was measured with the HARPS spectrograph and the properties of the host star were obtained analyzing HIRES spectra from the Keck telescope. It is a hot Jupiter-like planet with an orbital period of 4.04 days, 1.3 Jupiter masses, 0.9 Jupiter radii, and a density of 2.34 g cm-3. It orbits a G0V star with T_eff = 5 945 K, M* = 1.09 M⊙, R_* = 1.01 R⊙, solar metallicity, a lithium content of + 1.45 dex, and an estimated age of between 0.12 and 3.15 Gyr. The lithium abundance of the star is consistent with its effective temperature, activity level, and age range derived from the stellar analysis. The density of the planet is extreme for its mass, implies that heavy elements are present with a mass of between about 140 and 300 {M}⊕. The CoRoT space mission, launched on December 27th 2006, has been developed and is operated by CNES, with the contribution of Austria, Belgium, Brazil, ESA (RSSD and Science Programme), Germany and Spain. Part of the observations were obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii. Based on observations made with HARPS spectrograph on the 3.6-m European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere telescope at La Silla Observatory, Chile (ESO program 184.C-0639). Based on observations made with the IAC80 telescope operated on the island of Tenerife by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias in the Spanish Observatorio del Teide. Part of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics

  7. Modelling dense relational data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlau, Tue; Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    they are not naturally suited for kernel K-means. We propose a generative Bayesian model for dense matrices which generalize kernel K-means to consider off-diagonal interactions in matrices of interactions, and demonstrate its ability to detect structure on both artificial data and two real data sets....

  8. Is dense codeswitching complex?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorleijn, M.

    In this paper the question is raised to what extent dense code switching can be considered complex. Psycholinguistic experiments indicate that code switching involves cognitive costs, both in production and comprehension, a conclusion that could indicate that code switching is indeed complex. In

  9. Simulation of dense colloids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrmann, H.J.; Harting, J.D.R.; Hecht, M.; Ben-Naim, E.

    2008-01-01

    We present in this proceeding recent large scale simulations of dense colloids. On one hand we simulate model clay consisting of nanometric aluminum oxide spheres in water using realistic DLVO potentials and a combination of MD and SRD. We find pronounced cluster formation and retrieve the shear

  10. Plasmas the first state of matter

    CERN Document Server

    Krishan, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    Most astronomers believe that the universe began about 15 billion years ago when an explosion led to its expansion and cooling. The present state of the universe compels us to believe that the universe was extremely hot and dense in its infancy. In the beginning there was intense radiation. The photons produced equal amounts of matter and antimatter and a plasma soup of particles and antiparticles was present. Plasma is the first state of matter from which all the other states originated. This book discusses the diversity of cosmic and terrestrial plasmas found in the early universe, galactic and intergalactic media, stellar atmospheres, interstellar spaces, the solar system and the Earth's ionosphere, and their observability with the most recent telescopes such as the Chandra X-ray telescope and gamma ray telescopes. It deals with different ways of creating plasmas such as thermal, pressure and radiative ionization for laboratory and cosmic plasmas.

  11. HOT 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henriette Romme

    Undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og hvad der burde være hot på læseområdet med 21 læsekyndige. Undersøgelsen er gennemført siden 2010. HOT-undersøgelsen er foretaget af Nationalt Videncenter for Læsning - Professionshøjskolerne i samarb. med Dansklærerforeningen......Undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og hvad der burde være hot på læseområdet med 21 læsekyndige. Undersøgelsen er gennemført siden 2010. HOT-undersøgelsen er foretaget af Nationalt Videncenter for Læsning - Professionshøjskolerne i samarb. med Dansklærerforeningen...

  12. HOT 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henriette

    Undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og hvad der burde være hot på læseområdet med 21 læsekyndige. Undersøgelsen er gennemført siden 2010. HOT-undersøgelsen er foretaget af Nationalt Videncenter for Læsning - Professionshøjskolerne i samarb. med Dansklærerforeningen...

  13. HOT 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henriette Romme

    En undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og burde være hot på læseområdet. I undersøgelsen deltager 21 læsekyndige fra praksisfeltet, professionshøjskolerne og forskningsområdet.......En undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og burde være hot på læseområdet. I undersøgelsen deltager 21 læsekyndige fra praksisfeltet, professionshøjskolerne og forskningsområdet....

  14. Electrical and thermal conductivities in dense plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faussurier, G., E-mail: gerald.faussurier@cea.fr; Blancard, C.; Combis, P.; Videau, L. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)

    2014-09-15

    Expressions for the electrical and thermal conductivities in dense plasmas are derived combining the Chester-Thellung-Kubo-Greenwood approach and the Kramers approximation. The infrared divergence is removed assuming a Drude-like behaviour. An analytical expression is obtained for the Lorenz number that interpolates between the cold solid-state and the hot plasma phases. An expression for the electrical resistivity is proposed using the Ziman-Evans formula, from which the thermal conductivity can be deduced using the analytical expression for the Lorenz number. The present method can be used to estimate electrical and thermal conductivities of mixtures. Comparisons with experiment and quantum molecular dynamics simulations are done.

  15. Atomic physics in dense plasmas. Recent advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leboucher-Dalimier, E.; Angelo, P.; Ceccotti, T.; Derfoul, H.; Poquerusse, A.; Sauvan, P.; Oks, E.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents observations and simulations of novel density-dependent spectroscopic features in hot and dense plasmas. Both time-integrated and time-resolved results using ultra-high resolutions spectrometers are presented; they are justified within the standard spectral line shape theory or the quasi-molecular alternative treatment. A particular attention is paid to the impact of the spatio-temporal evolution of the plasma on the experimental spectra. Satellite-like features and molecular lines in the cases of Flyβ, Heβ are discussed emphasizing their importance for the density diagnostics when ion-ion correlations are significant. (authors)

  16. Properties of Localized Protons in Neutron Star Matter at Finite Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmaglinski, A.; Kubis, S.; Wójcik, W.

    2014-02-01

    We study properties of the proton component of neutron star matter for realistic nuclear models. Vanishing of the nuclear symmetry energy implies proton-neutron separation in dense nuclear matter. Protons which form admixture tend to be localized in potential wells. Here, we extend the description of proton localization to finite temperatures. It appears that the protons are still localized at temperatures typical for hot neutron stars. That fact has important astrophysical consequences. Moreover, the temperature inclusion leads to unexpected results for the behavior of the proton localized state.

  17. Atoms in dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper covers some aspects of the theory of atomic processes in dense plasmas. Because the topic is very broad, a few general rules which give useful guidance about the typical behavior of dense plasmas have been selected. These rules are illustrated by semiclassical estimates, scaling laws and appeals to more elaborate calculations. Included in the paper are several previously unpublished results including a new mechanism for electron-ion heat exchange (section II), and an approximate expression for oscillator-strengths of highly charged ions (section V). However the main emphasis is not upon practical formulas but rather on questions of fundamental theory, the structural ingredients which must be used in building a model for plasma events. What are the density effects and how does one represent them? Which are most important? How does one identify an incorrect theory? The general rules help to answer these questions. 106 references, 23 figures, 2 tables

  18. Polarization of X rays of multiply charged ions in dense high-temperature plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baronova, EO; Dolgov, AN; Yakubovskii, LK

    2004-01-01

    The development of a method for studying the features of X-ray emission by multiply charged ions in a dense hot plasma is considered. These features are determined by the radiation polarization phenomenon.

  19. Dense Plasma Focus Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Li, Shengtai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jungman, Gerard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-31

    The mechanisms for pinch formation in Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) devices, with the generation of high-energy ions beams and subsequent neutron production over a relatively short distance, are not fully understood. Here we report on high-fidelity 2D and 3D numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations using the LA-COMPASS code to study the pinch formation dynamics and its associated instabilities and neutron production.

  20. Multifragmentation of hot nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamain, B.

    1990-10-01

    It is difficult to deposit a large amount (∼ 1 Gev) of excitation energy into a nucleus. And if one wants to deposit large excitation energy values, the best way consists of shooting a given target nucleus with several nucleons, which can be achieved by using intermediate energy (10-100 MeV/nucleon) heavy ions. Such very excited objects were named hot nuclei. The study of hot nuclei has been undertaken only for 7 years because intermediate energy heavy ion facilities were not available before. The game is then to determine the decay properties of such nuclei, their limits of existence. Their study is connected with general properties of nuclear matter: namely its equation of state. Of special interest, is the onset of a new decay mechanism: multifragmentation, which is the non-sequential disassembly of a hot nucleus into several light nuclei (often called intermediate-mass fragments or IMF) or particles. This paper, shows how this mechanism can reflect fundamental properties of nuclear matter, but also how its experimental signature is difficult to establish. Multifragmentation has also been studied by using very energetic projectiles (protons and heavy ions) in the relativistic or ultra-relativistic region. The multifragmentation question of hot nuclei is far from being solved. One knows that IMF production increases when the excitation energy brought into a system is strongly increased, but very little is known about the mechanisms involved and a clear onset for multifragmentation is not established

  1. Interaction of Interstellar Shocks with Dense Obstacles: Formation of ``Bullets''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.

    The so-called cumulative effect take place in converging conical shock waves arising behind dense obstacles overtaken by incident interstellar shock. A significant part of energy of converging flow of matter swept-up by a radiative conical shock can be transferred to a dense jet-like ejection (``bullet'') directed along the cone axis. Possible applications of this effect for star-forming regions (e.g., OMC-1) and supernova remnants (e.g., Vela SNR) are discussed.

  2. LHC Report: serving a hot, dense soup for Christmas

    CERN Multimedia

    Reyes Alemany for the LHC team

    2015-01-01

    With just a few days left until the end of the year, the LHC is finishing 2015 with yet another successful heavy-ion run. This has been possible thanks to a great deal of dedication and professionalism on the part of many people throughout the Organization.   As already reported in previous Bulletin articles, the last leg of the race started on 14 November with the 5.02 TeV intermediate energy proton run, the preparation for which was interleaved with the beginning of commissioning for the ion run. Early in the morning of 17 November, lead-lead collisions were produced for the first time at a new energy frontier: 5.02 TeV centre-of-mass energy per colliding nucleon pair (or 1.045 PeV total). With the proton-proton reference run safely out of the way, commissioning and validation with ions was then completed, opening the way for Stable Beams and the start of data-taking at ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb. The following days were eventful. Steady improvements were made in various accelerator chain systems ...

  3. Non-thermal effects in a hot dense plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.A.; Kania, D.R.; Hammel, B.A.; Kallne, E.; Maestas, M.D.; McGurn, J.; Shepherd, R.

    1985-01-01

    A hollow gas shell Z-pinch device is described, and some initial observations are shown to lead to the conclusion that there is an energetic electron beam produced along the axis of the collapsing gas shell. An experiment is summarized that directly measured some of the characteristics of this runaway electron beam. Finally, the results of an experiment which observed a new affect are presented along with a model that uses a runaway electron beam to explain this new effect. 9 refs., 17 figs

  4. Experiments on hot and dense laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Back, C.A.; Woolsey, N.C.; Asfaw, A.; Glenzer, S.H.; Hammel, B.A.; Keane, C.J.; Lee, R.W.; Liedahl, D.; Moreno, J.C.; Nash, J.K.; Osterheld, A.L.; Calisti, A.; Stamm, R.; Talin, B.; Godbert, L.; Mosse, C.; Ferri, S.; Klein, L.

    1996-01-01

    Plasmas generated by irradiating targets with ∼20 kJ of laser energy are routinely created in inertial confinement fusion research. X-ray spectroscopy provides one of the few methods for diagnosing the electron temperature and electron density. For example, electron densities approaching 10 24 cm -3 have been diagnosed by spectral linewidths. However, the accuracy of the spectroscopic diagnostics depends on the population kinetics, the radiative transfer, and the line shape calculations. Analysis for the complex line transitions has recently been improved and accelerated by the use of a database where detailed calculations can be accessed rapidly and interactively. Examples of data from Xe and Ar doped targets demonstrate the current analytic methods. First we will illustrate complications that arise from the presence of a multitude of underlying spectral lines. Then, we will consider the Ar He-like 1s 2 ( 1 S 0 ) - 1s3p( 1 P 0 ) transition where ion dynamic effects may affect the profile. Here, the plasma conditions are such that the static ion microfield approximation is no longer valid; therefore in addition to the width, the details of the line shape can be used to provide additional information. We will compare the data to simulations and discuss the possible pitfalls involved in demonstrating the effect of ion dynamics on lineshapes

  5. Radiative redistribution modeling for hot and dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosse, C.; Calisti, A.; Talin, B.; Stamm, R.; Lee, R. W.; Klein, L.

    1999-01-01

    A model based on an extension of the Frequency Fluctuation Model (FFM) is developed to investigate the two-photon processes and particularly the radiative redistribution functions for complex emitters in a wide range of plasmas conditions. The FFM, originally, designed as a fast and reliable numerical procedure for the calculation of the spectral shape of the Stark broadened lines emitted by multi-electron ions, relies on the hypothesis that the emitter-plasma system can be well represented by a set of 'Stark Dressed Transitions', SDT. These transitions connected to each others through a stochastic mixing process accounting for the local microfield random fluctuations, form the basis for the extension of the FFM to computation of non-linear response functions. The formalism of the second order radiative redistribution function is presented and examples are shown

  6. Damage of metal surfaces by a hot, dense deuterium plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panayotou, N.F.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of differences in alloy chemistry and systematic changes in microstructural interface density on the occurrence of unipolar arcing was studied. The effect of thermionic emission is examined by comparing the refractory metals W, Nb, and Nb-751 alloy to the non-refractory stainless steels, AISI 304, 316 and Nimonic PE-16. The effect of alloying additions is examined by comparing Mo containing 316 and Mo free 304 stainless steels as well as Zr containing Nb-751 and Zr free Nb. The effect of interface density is examined by systematically varying the density of microstructural interfaces in AISI 4130, a ferritic steel. Although most of the metals and alloys studied are candidate fusion reactor materials, 4130 was chosen on the basis of our ability to modify the density of microstructural interfaces in the material by heat treatment. The results are discussed with respect to available unipolar arcing theory. The significance of the work, in terms of actual power reactors is assessed and the need for further work defined

  7. Enhanced nuclear level decay in hot dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosselin, G.; Morel, P.

    2004-01-01

    A model of nuclear level decay in a plasma environment is described. Nuclear excitation and decay by photon processes, nuclear excitation by electron capture, and decay by internal conversion are taken into account. The electrons in the plasma are described by a relativistic average atom model for the bound electrons and by a relativistic Thomas-Fermi-Dirac model for the free electrons. Nuclear decay of isomeric level may be enhanced through an intermediate level lying above the isomer. An enhanced nuclear decay rate may occur for temperatures far below the excitation energy of the transition to the intermediate level. In most cases, the enhancement factor may reach several decades

  8. Coalescence preference in dense packing of bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeseul; Gim, Bopil; Gim, Bopil; Weon, Byung Mook

    2015-11-01

    Coalescence preference is the tendency that a merged bubble from the contact of two original bubbles (parent) tends to be near to the bigger parent. Here, we show that the coalescence preference can be blocked by densely packing of neighbor bubbles. We use high-speed high-resolution X-ray microscopy to clearly visualize individual coalescence phenomenon which occurs in micro scale seconds and inside dense packing of microbubbles with a local packing fraction of ~40%. Previous theory and experimental evidence predict a power of -5 between the relative coalescence position and the parent size. However, our new observation for coalescence preference in densely packed microbubbles shows a different power of -2. We believe that this result may be important to understand coalescence dynamics in dense packing of soft matter. This work (NRF-2013R1A22A04008115) was supported by Mid-career Researcher Program through NRF grant funded by the MEST and also was supported by Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (2009-0082580) and by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry and Education, Science and Technology (NRF-2012R1A6A3A04039257).

  9. DENSE MEDIUM CYCLONE OPTIMIZATON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald H. Luttrell; Chris J. Barbee; Peter J. Bethell; Chris J. Wood

    2005-06-30

    Dense medium cyclones (DMCs) are known to be efficient, high-tonnage devices suitable for upgrading particles in the 50 to 0.5 mm size range. This versatile separator, which uses centrifugal forces to enhance the separation of fine particles that cannot be upgraded in static dense medium separators, can be found in most modern coal plants and in a variety of mineral plants treating iron ore, dolomite, diamonds, potash and lead-zinc ores. Due to the high tonnage, a small increase in DMC efficiency can have a large impact on plant profitability. Unfortunately, the knowledge base required to properly design and operate DMCs has been seriously eroded during the past several decades. In an attempt to correct this problem, a set of engineering tools have been developed to allow producers to improve the efficiency of their DMC circuits. These tools include (1) low-cost density tracers that can be used by plant operators to rapidly assess DMC performance, (2) mathematical process models that can be used to predict the influence of changes in operating and design variables on DMC performance, and (3) an expert advisor system that provides plant operators with a user-friendly interface for evaluating, optimizing and trouble-shooting DMC circuits. The field data required to develop these tools was collected by conducting detailed sampling and evaluation programs at several industrial plant sites. These data were used to demonstrate the technical, economic and environmental benefits that can be realized through the application of these engineering tools.

  10. HOT 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henriette Romme

    En undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og burde være hot på læseområdet. I undersøgelsen deltager en række læsekyndige fra praksisfeltet, professionshøjskolerne og forskningsområdet. Undersøgelsen er gentaget hvert år siden 2010.......En undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og burde være hot på læseområdet. I undersøgelsen deltager en række læsekyndige fra praksisfeltet, professionshøjskolerne og forskningsområdet. Undersøgelsen er gentaget hvert år siden 2010....

  11. HOT 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henriette Romme

    En undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og burde være hot på læseområdet. I undersøgelsen deltager en række læsekyndige fra praksisfeltet, professionshøjskolerne og forskningsområdet. Undersøgelsen er gentaget hvert år siden 2010.......En undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og burde være hot på læseområdet. I undersøgelsen deltager en række læsekyndige fra praksisfeltet, professionshøjskolerne og forskningsområdet. Undersøgelsen er gentaget hvert år siden 2010....

  12. Density measurement verification for hot mix asphalt concrete pavement construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) requires a minimum density for the construction of dense-graded hot mix asphalt concrete (HMAC) pavements to ensure the likelihood that the pavement will not experience distresses that reduce the expected se...

  13. Density measurement verification for hot mixed asphalt concrete pavement construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) requires a minimum density for the construction of dense-graded hot mix asphalt concrete (HMAC) pavements to ensure the likelihood that the pavement will not experience distresses that reduce the expected se...

  14. The effect of tree species on seasonal fluctuations in water-soluble and hot water-extractable organic matter at post-mining sites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cepáková, Šárka; Tošner, Z.; Frouz, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 275, August (2016), s. 19-27 ISSN 0016-7061 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/12/1288; GAJU(CZ) GAJU/04-146/2013/P Program:GA Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : HWC * liquid-state 1H NMR * seasonality * soil organic carbon * water-extractable organic matter Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science Impact factor: 4.036, year: 2016

  15. Geometrical optics of dense aerosols: forming dense plasma slabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Michael J; Valeo, Ernest J; Fisch, Nathaniel J

    2013-11-01

    Assembling a freestanding, sharp-edged slab of homogeneous material that is much denser than gas, but much more rarefied than a solid, is an outstanding technological challenge. The solution may lie in focusing a dense aerosol to assume this geometry. However, whereas the geometrical optics of dilute aerosols is a well-developed field, the dense aerosol limit is mostly unexplored. Yet controlling the geometrical optics of dense aerosols is necessary in preparing such a material slab. Focusing dense aerosols is shown here to be possible, but the finite particle density reduces the effective Stokes number of the flow, a critical result for controlled focusing.

  16. Studying dense plasmas with coherent XUV pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stabile, H.

    2006-12-01

    The investigation of dense plasma dynamic requires the development of diagnostics able to ensure the measurement of electronic density with micro-metric space resolution and sub-nanosecond, or even subpicosecond, time resolution (indeed this must be at least comparable with the characteristic tune scale of plasma evolution). In contrast with low-density plasmas, dense plasmas cannot be studied using optical probes in the visible domain, the density range accessible being limited to the critical density (N c equals 1.1*10 21 λ -2 (μm) ∼ 10 21 cm -3 for infrared). In addition, light is reflected even at smaller densities if the medium exhibits sharp density gradients. Hence probing of dense plasmas, for instance those produced by laser irradiation of solids, requires using shorter wavelength radiation. Thanks to their physical properties, high order harmonics generated in rare gases are particularly adapted to the study of dense plasmas. Indeed, they can naturally be synchronized with the generating laser and their pulse duration is very short, which makes it possible to use them in pump-probe experiments. Moreover, they exhibit good spatial and temporal coherencies. Two types of diagnostics were developed during this thesis. The first one was used to study the instantaneous creation of hot-solid-density plasma generated by focusing a femtosecond high-contrast laser on an ultra-thin foil (100 nm) in the 10 18 W/cm 2 intensity regime. The use of high order harmonics, providing a probe beam of sufficiently short wavelengths to penetrate such a medium, enables the study of its dynamics on the 100 fs time scale. The second one uses the harmonics beam as probe beam (λ equals 32 nm) within an interferometric device. This diagnostic was designed to ensure a micro-metric spatial resolution and a temporal resolution in the femtosecond range. The first results in presence of plasma created by irradiation of an aluminum target underline the potentialities of this new

  17. Glaciations and dense interstellar clouds; and reply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCrea, W H [Sussex Univ., Brighton (UK); Dennison, B; Mansfield, V N

    1976-09-16

    Reference is made to Dennison and Mansfield (Nature 261:32 (1976)) who offered comments on a previous paper by the author (Nature 255:607 (1975)), in which he suggested that a possible cause of an ice age on the Earth was the passage of the solar system through an interstellar matter compression region bordering a spiral arm of the Galaxy. Dennison and Mansfield criticised this suggestion because it led them to expect to find a dense cloud of interstellar matter still very close to the Earth, whereas no such cloud is known. It is stated here that this criticism ignores the structure of the Galaxy, that provided the basis of the suggestion. A reply by Dennison and Mansfield is appended.

  18. Mercury's Densely Cratered Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Mariner 10 took this picture (FDS 27465) of the densely cratered surface of Mercury when the spacecraft was 18,200 kilometers (8085 miles) from the planet on March 29. The dark line across top of picture is a 'dropout' of a few TV lines of data. At lower left, a portion of a 61 kilometer (38 mile) crater shows a flow front extending across the crater floor and filling more than half of the crater. The smaller, fresh crater at center is about 25 kilometers (15 miles) in diameter. Craters as small as one kilometer (about one-half mile) across are visible in the picture.The Mariner 10 mission, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science, explored Venus in February 1974 on the way to three encounters with Mercury-in March and September 1974 and in March 1975. The spacecraft took more than 7,000 photos of Mercury, Venus, the Earth and the Moon.Image Credit: NASA/JPL/Northwestern University

  19. Charmonium propagation through a dense medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopeliovich B.Z.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Attenuation of a colourless c̄c dipole propagating with a large momentum through a hot medium originates from two sources, Debye screening (melting, and inelastic collisions with surrounding scattering centres (absorption. The former never terminates completely production of a bound charmonium in heavy ion collisions, even at very high temperatures. The latter, is controlled my the magnitude of the dipole cross section, related to the transport coefficient, which is the rate of transverse momentum broadening in the medium. A novel procedure of Lorentz boosting of the Schrödinger equation is developed, which allows to calculate the charmonium survival probability employing the path-integral technique, incorporating both melting and absorption. A novel mechanism of charmonium regeneration in a dense medium is proposed.

  20. HOT 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Sara Stefansen

    HOT er en kvalitativ undersøgelse, der hvert år diskuterer og undersøger en lille udvalgt skare af danskkyndige fagpersoners bud på, hvad de er optagede af på literacyområdet her og nu – altså hvilke emner, de vil vurdere som aktuelle at forholde sig til i deres nuværende praksis.......HOT er en kvalitativ undersøgelse, der hvert år diskuterer og undersøger en lille udvalgt skare af danskkyndige fagpersoners bud på, hvad de er optagede af på literacyområdet her og nu – altså hvilke emner, de vil vurdere som aktuelle at forholde sig til i deres nuværende praksis....

  1. Hot particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merwin, S.E.; Moeller, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensees are required to assess the dose to skin from a hot particle contamination event at a depth of skin of7mg/cm 2 over an area of 1 cm 2 and compare the value to the current dose limit for the skin. Although the resulting number is interesting from a comparative standpoint and can be used to predict local skin reactions, comparison of the number to existing limits based on uniform exposures is inappropriate. Most incidents that can be classified as overexposures based on this interpretation of dose actually have no effect on the health of the worker. As a result, resources are expended to reduce the likelihood that an overexposure event will occur when they could be directed toward eliminating the cause of the problem or enhancing existing programs such as contamination control. Furthermore, from a risk standpoint, this practice is not ALARA because some workers receive whole body doses in order to minimize the occurrence of hot particle skin contaminations. In this paper the authors suggest an alternative approach to controlling hot particle exposures

  2. Monopole transitions in hot nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujkowski, Z.

    1994-01-01

    Monopole transitions can be a signature of shape changing in a hot, pulsating nucleus (the low energy E0 mode) and/or a measure of the compressibility of finite nuclei (GMR, the breathing mode). Experimental information pertaining to GMR is reviewed. Recipes for deducing the incompressibility modules for infinite nuclear matter from data on GMR are discussed. Astrophysical implications are outlined. The first attempts at locating the GMR strength in moderately hot nuclei are described. Prospects for improving the experimental techniques to make an observation of this strength in selected nuclei unambiguous are discussed. (author). 46 refs, 8 figs

  3. Monopole transitions in hot nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sujkowski, Z. [Soltan Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    Monopole transitions can be a signature of shape changing in a hot, pulsating nucleus (the low energy E0 mode) and/or a measure of the compressibility of finite nuclei (GMR, the breathing mode). Experimental information pertaining to GMR is reviewed. Recipes for deducing the incompressibility modules for infinite nuclear matter from data on GMR are discussed. Astrophysical implications are outlined. The first attempts at locating the GMR strength in moderately hot nuclei are described. Prospects for improving the experimental techniques to make an observation of this strength in selected nuclei unambiguous are discussed. (author). 46 refs, 8 figs.

  4. Prospects of Constraining the Dense Matter Equation of State from Timing Analysis of Pulsars in Double Neutron Star Binaries: The Cases of PSR J0737 ‒ 3039A and PSR J1757 ‒ 1854

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjari Bagchi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Lense-Thirring effect from spinning neutron stars in double neutron star binaries contributes to the periastron advance of the orbit. This extra term involves the moment of inertia of the neutron stars. The moment of inertia, on the other hand, depends on the mass and spin of the neutron star, as well as the equation of state of the matter. If at least one member of the double neutron star binary (better the faster one is a radio pulsar, then accurate timing analysis might lead to the estimation of the contribution of the Lense-Thirring effect to the periastron advance, which will lead to the measurement of the moment of inertia of the pulsar. The combination of the knowledge on the values of the moment of inertia, the mass and the spin of the pulsar will give a new constraint on the equation of state. Pulsars in double neutron star binaries are the best for this purpose as short orbits and moderately high eccentricities make the Lense-Thirring effect substantial, whereas tidal effects are negligible (unlike pulsars with main sequence or white-dwarf binaries. The most promising pulsars are PSR J0737 − 3039A and PSR J1757 − 1854. The spin-precession of pulsars due to the misalignment between the spin and the orbital angular momentum vectors affect the contribution of the Lense-Thirring effect to the periastron advance. This effect has been explored for both PSR J0737 − 3039A and PSR J1757 − 1854, and as the misalignment angles for both of these pulsars are small, the variation in the Lense-Thirring term is not much. However, to extract the Lense-Thirring effect from the observed rate of the periastron advance, more accurate timing solutions including precise proper motion and distance measurements are essential.

  5. Coherent neutrino interactions in a dense medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiers, K.; Weiss, N.

    1997-01-01

    Motivated by the effect of matter on neutrino oscillations (the MSW effect) we study in more detail the propagation of neutrinos in a dense medium. The dispersion relation for massive neutrinos in a medium is known to have a minimum at nonzero momentum p∼G F ρ/√(2). We study in detail the origin and consequences of this dispersion relation for both Dirac and Majorana neutrinos both in a toy model with only neutral currents and a single neutrino flavor and in a realistic open-quotes standard modelclose quotes with two neutrino flavors. We find that for a range of neutrino momenta near the minimum of the dispersion relation, Dirac neutrinos are trapped by their coherent interactions with the medium. This effect does not lead to the trapping of Majorana neutrinos. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  6. A constitutive law for dense granular flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jop, Pierre; Forterre, Yoël; Pouliquen, Olivier

    2006-06-08

    A continuum description of granular flows would be of considerable help in predicting natural geophysical hazards or in designing industrial processes. However, the constitutive equations for dry granular flows, which govern how the material moves under shear, are still a matter of debate. One difficulty is that grains can behave like a solid (in a sand pile), a liquid (when poured from a silo) or a gas (when strongly agitated). For the two extreme regimes, constitutive equations have been proposed based on kinetic theory for collisional rapid flows, and soil mechanics for slow plastic flows. However, the intermediate dense regime, where the granular material flows like a liquid, still lacks a unified view and has motivated many studies over the past decade. The main characteristics of granular liquids are: a yield criterion (a critical shear stress below which flow is not possible) and a complex dependence on shear rate when flowing. In this sense, granular matter shares similarities with classical visco-plastic fluids such as Bingham fluids. Here we propose a new constitutive relation for dense granular flows, inspired by this analogy and recent numerical and experimental work. We then test our three-dimensional (3D) model through experiments on granular flows on a pile between rough sidewalls, in which a complex 3D flow pattern develops. We show that, without any fitting parameter, the model gives quantitative predictions for the flow shape and velocity profiles. Our results support the idea that a simple visco-plastic approach can quantitatively capture granular flow properties, and could serve as a basic tool for modelling more complex flows in geophysical or industrial applications.

  7. Dibaryons and nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besliu, C.; Popa, L.; Popa, V.

    1992-01-01

    We discuss some recent ideas concerning the structure and the properties of the dibaryonic resonances, with special emphasis on their behaviour when produced in dense nuclear matter. Some features of their de-excitation mechanism and consequent experimentally identifiable signatures are predicted. (Author)

  8. Precombination Cloud Collapse and Baryonic Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Craig J.

    1993-01-01

    A simple spherical model of dense baryon clouds in the hot big bang 'strongly nonlinear primordial isocurvature baryon fluctuations' is reviewed and used to describe the dependence of cloud behavior on the model parameters, baryon mass, and initial over-density. Gravitational collapse of clouds before and during recombination is considered including radiation diffusion and trapping, remnant type and mass, and effects on linear large-scale fluctuation modes. Sufficiently dense clouds collapse early into black holes with a minimum mass of approx. 1 solar mass, which behave dynamically like collisionless cold dark matter. Clouds below a critical over-density, however, delay collapse until recombination, remaining until then dynamically coupled to the radiation like ordinary diffuse baryons, and possibly producing remnants of other kinds and lower mass. The mean density in either type of baryonic remnant is unconstrained by observed element abundances. However, mixed or unmixed spatial variations in abundance may survive in the diffuse baryon and produce observable departures from standard predictions.

  9. Quark Matter '87: Concluding remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyulassy, M.

    1988-03-01

    This year marked the beginning of the experimental program at BNL and CERN to probe the properties of ultra dense hadronic matter and to search for the quark-gluon plasma phase of matter. Possible implications of the preliminary findings are discussed. Problems needing further theoretical and experimental study are pointed out. 50 refs

  10. Dynamics of dense particle disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, S.; Tremaine, S.; Toronto Univ., Canada)

    1986-01-01

    The present investigation of mechanical equilibrium and collisional transport processes in dense, differentially rotating particle disks is based on the Enskog (1922) theory of dense, hard sphere gases, with the single exception that the spheres are inelastic. The viscous instability suggested as a source of Saturn B ring structure does not arise in the models presented, although the ring may be subject to a phase transition analogous to the liquid-solid transition observed in molecular dynamics simulations of elastic hard spheres. In such a case, the ring would alternately exhibit zero-shear, or solid, and high shear, or liquid, zones. 29 references

  11. Observations of dense plasma formation in the vacuum spark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuaqui, H.; Favre, M.; Wyndham, E.; Aliaga R, R.; Choi, P.; Dumitrescu-Zoita, C.

    1994-01-01

    A series of experimental observations have been performed on the dense plasma formations or Hot Spots generated in the Vacuum Spark. The plasma discharges are driven by a 1.5 Ohm, 120 ns line at currents up to 100 KA. The line may be used to deliver a rectangular current pulse when the line gap is used. Alternatively when the line gap is shorted, the Vacuum Spark itself switches the line. A Nd: Yag Laser, with an energy of 0.5 J in an 8 ns pulse, is used to pre ionizing the discharge. The formation of Hot Spots is studied under a range of different conditions. These include the pre ionizing conditions, as well as the Anode shape and the Anode Cathode separation. The optimization of these parameters permit very reproducible shot to shot behaviour. Of particular interest is the Hot Spot size dependence as a function of its temperature and of time. The use of a new variant on the Pin Hole Camera, the Slit Wire Camera provides a new method of measuring with precision the Hot Spot dimensions in different X-ray emission energy ranges. A quadruple hole Camera is used to measure the temperature of the Hot Spots. The temporal and spatial evolution of the X-ray emission is measured using using a Slit Wire, Scintillator, Fibre Optic, Photomultiplier array. The temporal emission of the X-rays is also observed using an array of PIN X-ray diodes. (author). 5 refs, 6 figs

  12. Degenerate stars. XII - Recognition of hot nondegenerates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstein, J. L.

    1980-12-01

    Fifty-one newly observed degenerate stars and 14 nondegenerates include 13 faint red stars, most of which do not show any lines except DF, Gr 554. Hot subdwarfs and an X-ray source are discussed along with the problem of low-resolution spectroscopic classification of dense hot stars. The multichannel spectrum of the carbon-rich magnetic star LP 790-29 is examined by fitting the undisturbed parts of the spectrum to a black body of 7625 K by the least squares method; the Swan bands absorb 600 A of the spectrum assuming that the blocked radiation is redistributed in the observed region.

  13. Hot nuclear matter and thermodynamical equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borderie, B.; Bacri, C.O.; Dore, D.; Frankland, J.D.; Plagnol, E.; Rivet, M.F.; Tassan-Got, L.

    1999-01-01

    Quasi-complete events from collisions between 36 Ar and 58 Ni corresponding to vaporized sources have been detected with the multidetector INDRA over the excitation energy range 10 - 28 AMeV. For the first time complete information concerning kinematical properties of emitted particles and chemical composition (mean values but also variances) are derived. Despite the very extreme conditions in which such sources are produced (binary collisions with short reaction times and source life-times), their properties are in agreement with the results of a statistical model including a final state excluded volume interaction and describing a gas of fermions and bosons in thermodynamical equilibrium. (authors)

  14. Dense Crowds of Virtual Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stüvel, S.A.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis presents a novel crowd simulation method `Torso Crowds', aimed at the simulation of dense crowds. The method is based on the results of user studies and a motion capture experiment, which are also described in this thesis. Torso Crowds introduces a capsule shape to represent people in

  15. Thermal relaxation of charm in hadronic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Min, E-mail: mhe@comp.tamu.edu [Cyclotron Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Fries, Rainer J. [Cyclotron Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); RIKEN/BNL Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Rapp, Ralf [Cyclotron Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2011-07-18

    The thermal relaxation rate of open-charm (D) mesons in hot and dense hadronic matter is calculated using empirical elastic scattering amplitudes. D-meson interactions with thermal pions are approximated by D{sup *} resonances, while scattering off other hadrons (K, {eta}, {rho}, {omega}, K{sup *}, N, {Delta}) is evaluated using vacuum scattering amplitudes as available in the literature based on effective Lagrangians and constrained by realistic spectroscopy. The thermal relaxation time of D-mesons in a hot {pi} gas is found to be around 25-50 fm/c for temperatures T=150-180 MeV, which reduces to 10-25 fm/c in a hadron-resonance gas. The latter values, argued to be conservative estimates, imply significant modifications of D-meson spectra in heavy-ion collisions. Close to the critical temperature (T{sub c}), the spatial diffusion coefficient (D{sub s}) is surprisingly similar to recent calculations for charm quarks in the Quark-Gluon Plasma using non-perturbative T-matrix interactions. This suggests a possibly continuous minimum structure of D{sub s} around T{sub c}.

  16. Nuclear matter revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negele, J.W.; Zabolitzky, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    It is stated that at the Workshop on Nuclear and Dense Matter held at the University of Illinois in May 1977 significant progress was reported that largely resolves many of the questions raised in this journal Vol. 6, p.149, 1976. These include perturbative versus variational methods as applied to nuclear matter, exact solutions for bosons, what is known as the fermion 'homework problem', and various other considerations regarding nuclear matter, including the use of variational methods as opposed to perturbation theory. (15 references) (U.K.)

  17. Studies of nuclei under the extreme conditions of density, temperature, isospin asymmetry and the phase diagram of hadronic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mekjian, Aram [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2016-10-18

    The main emphasis of the entire project is on issues having to do with medium energy and ultra-relativistic energy and heavy ion collisions. A major goal of both theory and experiment is to study properties of hot dense nuclear matter under various extreme conditions and to map out the phase diagram in density or chemical potential and temperature. My studies in medium energy nuclear collisions focused on the liquid-gas phase transition and cluster yields from such transitions. Here I developed both the statistical model of nuclear multi-fragmentation and also a mean field theory.

  18. Specular Reflectivity and Hot-Electron Generation in High-Contrast Relativistic Laser-Plasma Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, Gregory Elijah [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-intense laser (> 1018 W/cm2) interactions with matter are capable of producing relativistic electrons which have a variety of applications in state-of-the-art scientific and medical research conducted at universities and national laboratories across the world. Control of various aspects of these hot-electron distributions is highly desired to optimize a particular outcome. Hot-electron generation in low-contrast interactions, where significant amounts of under-dense pre-plasma are present, can be plagued by highly non-linear relativistic laser-plasma instabilities and quasi-static magnetic field generation, often resulting in less than desirable and predictable electron source characteristics. High-contrast interactions offer more controlled interactions but often at the cost of overall lower coupling and increased sensitivity to initial target conditions. An experiment studying the differences in hot-electron generation between high and low-contrast pulse interactions with solid density targets was performed on the Titan laser platform at the Jupiter Laser Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, CA. To date, these hot-electrons generated in the laboratory are not directly observable at the source of the interaction. Instead, indirect studies are performed using state-of-the-art simulations, constrained by the various experimental measurements. These measurements, more-often-than-not, rely on secondary processes generated by the transport of these electrons through the solid density materials which can susceptible to a variety instabilities and target material/geometry effects. Although often neglected in these types of studies, the specularly reflected light can provide invaluable insight as it is directly influenced by the interaction. In this thesis, I address the use of (personally obtained) experimental specular reflectivity measurements to indirectly study hot-electron generation in the context of high-contrast, relativistic

  19. Phase transitions in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1984-11-01

    The rather general circumstances under which a phase transition in hadronic matter at finite temperature to an abnormal phase in which baryon effective masses become small and in which copious baryon-antibaryon pairs appear is emphasized. A preview is also given of a soliton model of dense matter, in which at a density of about seven times nuclear density, matter ceases to be a color insulator and becomes increasingly color conducting. 22 references

  20. Pseudo-Goldstone modes in isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, T.D.; Broniowski, W.

    1995-01-01

    The authors analyze the chiral limit in dense isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter. It is shown that the pseudo-Goldstone modes in this system are qualitatively different from the case of isospin-symmetric matter

  1. Formation and decay of hot nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamain, B.

    1992-09-01

    The mechanisms involved in hot nuclei formation and decay and their eventual connexion with fundamental properties of nuclear matter are discussed, i.e. its equation of state is considered. After a brief review of the reactions in which hot nuclei can be formed, the variables which are used to describe them, the corresponding theoretical descriptions and their limits when extreme states are reached are discussed. Experimental evidences for hot nuclei formation are presented, with the corresponding decay properties used as signatures. (R.P.) 64 refs.; 25 figs.; 2 tabs

  2. Detection of Hot Halo Gets Theory Out of Hot Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    Scientists using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have detected an extensive halo of hot gas around a quiescent spiral galaxy. This discovery is evidence that galaxies like our Milky Way are still accumulating matter from the gradual inflow of intergalactic gas. "What we are likely witnessing here is the ongoing galaxy formation process," said Kristian Pedersen of the University of Copenhagen, Denmark, and lead author of a report on the discovery. Chandra observations show that the hot halo extends more than 60,000 light years on either side of the disk of the galaxy known as NGC 5746. The detection of such a large halo alleviates a long-standing problem for the theory of galaxy formation. Spiral galaxies are thought to form from enormous clouds of intergalactic gas that collapse to form giant, spinning disks of stars and gas. Chandra X-ray Image of NGC 5746 Chandra X-ray Image of NGC 5746 One prediction of this theory is that large spiral galaxies should be immersed in halos of hot gas left over from the galaxy formation process. Hot gas has been detected around spiral galaxies in which vigorous star formation is ejecting matter from the galaxy, but until now hot halos due to infall of intergalactic matter have not been detected. "Our observations solve the mystery of the missing hot halos around spiral galaxies," said Pedersen. "The halos exist, but are so faint that an extremely sensitive telescope such as Chandra is needed to detect them." DSS Optical Image of NGC 5746 DSS Optical Image of NGC 5746 NGC 5746 is a massive spiral galaxy about a 100 million light years from Earth. Its disk of stars and gas is viewed almost edge-on. The galaxy shows no signs of unusual star formation, or energetic activity from its nuclear region, making it unlikely that the hot halo is produced by gas flowing out of the galaxy. "We targeted NGC 5746 because we thought its distance and orientation would give us the best chance to detect a hot halo caused by the infall of

  3. Equilibration of matter near the QCD critical point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravina, L V; Arsene, I; Nilsson, M S; Tywoniuk, K; Zabrodin, E E

    2006-01-01

    The relaxation of hot and dense nuclear matter to local equilibrium in the central zone of heavy-ion collisions at energies around 40 A GeV is studied within the microscopic transport model. Dynamical calculations performed for the central cell in the reaction are compared to the predictions of the thermal statistical model. It is found that kinetic, thermal and chemical equilibrations of the expanding hadronic matter are nearly approached for the period of 10-18 fm/c. Within this time, the matter in the cell expands almost isentropically. It is quite interesting that in the T-μ B plane the system crosses the critical point predicted by lattice QCD calculations. Similar to the cells studied at lower (AGS) and higher (SPS, RHIC) energies, the central cell at 40 A GeV possesses negative (though small) net strangeness. Several peculiarities are observed as well. These features can be attributed to the transition from baryon-dominated to meson-dominated matter, discussed recently

  4. Numerical study of dense adjoint 2-color matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hands, S.; Scorzato, L.; Oevers, M.

    2000-11-01

    We study the global symmetries of SU(2) gauge theory with N flavors of staggered fermions in the presence of a chemical potential. We motivate the special interest of the case N=1 (staggered) with fermions in the adjoint representation of the gauge group. We present results from numerical simulations with both hybrid Monte Carlo and the two-step multi-bosonic algorithm. (orig.)

  5. Some remarks on chiral symmetry in dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaellman, C.G.; Montonen, C.

    1982-01-01

    The restoration of chiral symmetry in quantum chromodynamics as the temperature T and the chemical potential vertical stroke μ vertical stroke are increased is discussed qualitatively and using effective field theories. The latter are shown not to give reliable quantitative estimates. It is argued that a dilute gas of instantons cannot be the main dynamical agent responsible for the breakdown of chiral symmetry. (orig.)

  6. Creation and transmutation of magnetized nuclei at explosively dense matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondratyev V. N.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of iron group chemical elements is considered for the ultra-magnetized astrophysical plasma in supernovae. Maximum of nucleosynthesis products is shown to shift towards smaller mass numbers approaching titanium due to magnetic modification of nuclear structure. The results are corroborated with an excess of 44Ti revealed from the INTEGRAL mission data.

  7. Dense Chern-Simons matter with fermions at large N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geracie, Michael; Goykhman, Mikhail; Son, Dam T. [Kadanoff Center for Theoretical Physics, Enrico Fermi Institute and Department of Physics,The University of Chicago, 5620 S. Ellis Av., Chicago, IL, 60637 (United States)

    2016-04-18

    In this paper we investigate properties of Chern-Simons theory coupled to massive fermions in the large N limit. We demonstrate that at low temperatures the system is in a Fermi liquid state whose features can be systematically compared to the standard phenomenological theory of Landau Fermi liquids. This includes matching microscopically derived Landau parameters with thermodynamic predictions of Landau Fermi liquid theory. We also calculate the exact conductivity and viscosity tensors at zero temperature and finite chemical potential. In particular we point out that the Hall conductivity of an interacting system is not entirely accounted for by the Berry flux through the Fermi sphere. Furthermore, investigation of the thermodynamics in the non-relativistic limit reveals novel phenomena at strong coupling. As the ’t Hooft coupling λ approaches 1, the system exhibits an extended intermediate temperature regime in which the thermodynamics is described by neither the quantum Fermi liquid theory nor the classical ideal gas law. Instead, it can be interpreted as a weakly coupled quantum Bose gas.

  8. Dense Chern-Simons matter with fermions at large N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geracie, Michael; Goykhman, Mikhail; Son, Dam T.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate properties of Chern-Simons theory coupled to massive fermions in the large N limit. We demonstrate that at low temperatures the system is in a Fermi liquid state whose features can be systematically compared to the standard phenomenological theory of Landau Fermi liquids. This includes matching microscopically derived Landau parameters with thermodynamic predictions of Landau Fermi liquid theory. We also calculate the exact conductivity and viscosity tensors at zero temperature and finite chemical potential. In particular we point out that the Hall conductivity of an interacting system is not entirely accounted for by the Berry flux through the Fermi sphere. Furthermore, investigation of the thermodynamics in the non-relativistic limit reveals novel phenomena at strong coupling. As the ’t Hooft coupling λ approaches 1, the system exhibits an extended intermediate temperature regime in which the thermodynamics is described by neither the quantum Fermi liquid theory nor the classical ideal gas law. Instead, it can be interpreted as a weakly coupled quantum Bose gas.

  9. Dense Chern-Simons matter with fermions at large N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geracie, Michael; Goykhman, Mikhail; Son, Dam T.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we investigate properties of Chern-Simons theory coupled to massive fermions in the large N limit. We demonstrate that at low temperatures the system is in a Fermi liquid state whose features can be systematically compared to the standard phenomenological theory of Landau Fermi liquids. This includes matching microscopically derived Landau parameters with thermodynamic predictions of Landau Fermi liquid theory. We also calculate the exact conductivity and viscosity tensors at zero temperature and finite chemical potential. In particular we point out that the Hall conductivity of an interacting system is not entirely accounted for by the Berry flux through the Fermi sphere. Furthermore, investigation of the thermodynamics in the non-relativistic limit reveals novel phenomena at strong coupling. As the 't Hooft coupling λ approaches 1, the system exhibits an extended intermediate temperature regime in which the thermodynamics is described by neither the quantum Fermi liquid theory nor the classical ideal gas law. Instead, it can be interpreted as a weakly coupled quantum Bose gas.

  10. Dilute and dense axion stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visinelli, Luca; Baum, Sebastian; Redondo, Javier; Freese, Katherine; Wilczek, Frank

    2018-02-01

    Axion stars are hypothetical objects formed of axions, obtained as localized and coherently oscillating solutions to their classical equation of motion. Depending on the value of the field amplitude at the core |θ0 | ≡ | θ (r = 0) |, the equilibrium of the system arises from the balance of the kinetic pressure and either self-gravity or axion self-interactions. Starting from a general relativistic framework, we obtain the set of equations describing the configuration of the axion star, which we solve as a function of |θ0 |. For small |θ0 | ≲ 1, we reproduce results previously obtained in the literature, and we provide arguments for the stability of such configurations in terms of first principles. We compare qualitative analytical results with a numerical calculation. For large amplitudes |θ0 | ≳ 1, the axion field probes the full non-harmonic QCD chiral potential and the axion star enters the dense branch. Our numerical solutions show that in this latter regime the axions are relativistic, and that one should not use a single frequency approximation, as previously applied in the literature. We employ a multi-harmonic expansion to solve the relativistic equation for the axion field in the star, and demonstrate that higher modes cannot be neglected in the dense regime. We interpret the solutions in the dense regime as pseudo-breathers, and show that the life-time of such configurations is much smaller than any cosmological time scale.

  11. Dark matter and cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1992-03-01

    The cosmological dark matter problem is reviewed. The Big Bang Nucleosynthesis constraints on the baryon density are compared with the densities implied by visible matter, dark halos, dynamics of clusters, gravitational lenses, large-scale velocity flows, and the {Omega} = 1 flatness/inflation argument. It is shown that (1) the majority of baryons are dark; and (2) non-baryonic dark matter is probably required on large scales. It is also noted that halo dark matter could be either baryonic or non-baryonic. Descrimination between ``cold`` and ``hot`` non-baryonic candidates is shown to depend on the assumed ``seeds`` that stimulate structure formation. Gaussian density fluctuations, such as those induced by quantum fluctuations, favor cold dark matter, whereas topological defects such as strings, textures or domain walls may work equally or better with hot dark matter. A possible connection between cold dark matter, globular cluster ages and the Hubble constant is mentioned. Recent large-scale structure measurements, coupled with microwave anisotropy limits, are shown to raise some questions for the previously favored density fluctuation picture. Accelerator and underground limits on dark matter candidates are also reviewed.

  12. Dark matter and cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1992-03-01

    The cosmological dark matter problem is reviewed. The Big Bang Nucleosynthesis constraints on the baryon density are compared with the densities implied by visible matter, dark halos, dynamics of clusters, gravitational lenses, large-scale velocity flows, and the {Omega} = 1 flatness/inflation argument. It is shown that (1) the majority of baryons are dark; and (2) non-baryonic dark matter is probably required on large scales. It is also noted that halo dark matter could be either baryonic or non-baryonic. Descrimination between cold'' and hot'' non-baryonic candidates is shown to depend on the assumed seeds'' that stimulate structure formation. Gaussian density fluctuations, such as those induced by quantum fluctuations, favor cold dark matter, whereas topological defects such as strings, textures or domain walls may work equally or better with hot dark matter. A possible connection between cold dark matter, globular cluster ages and the Hubble constant is mentioned. Recent large-scale structure measurements, coupled with microwave anisotropy limits, are shown to raise some questions for the previously favored density fluctuation picture. Accelerator and underground limits on dark matter candidates are also reviewed.

  13. Dark matter and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1992-03-01

    The cosmological dark matter problem is reviewed. The Big Bang Nucleosynthesis constraints on the baryon density are compared with the densities implied by visible matter, dark halos, dynamics of clusters, gravitational lenses, large-scale velocity flows, and the Ω = 1 flatness/inflation argument. It is shown that (1) the majority of baryons are dark; and (2) non-baryonic dark matter is probably required on large scales. It is also noted that halo dark matter could be either baryonic or non-baryonic. Descrimination between ''cold'' and ''hot'' non-baryonic candidates is shown to depend on the assumed ''seeds'' that stimulate structure formation. Gaussian density fluctuations, such as those induced by quantum fluctuations, favor cold dark matter, whereas topological defects such as strings, textures or domain walls may work equally or better with hot dark matter. A possible connection between cold dark matter, globular cluster ages and the Hubble constant is mentioned. Recent large-scale structure measurements, coupled with microwave anisotropy limits, are shown to raise some questions for the previously favored density fluctuation picture. Accelerator and underground limits on dark matter candidates are also reviewed

  14. Study of warm dense plasma electronic dynamics by optical interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deneuville, F.

    2013-01-01

    The Warm Dense Matter (WDM) regime is characterised by a density close to the solid density and an electron temperature close to the Fermi temperature. In this work, the nonequilibrium Warm Dense Matter is studied during the solid to liquid phase transition induced by an ultra short laser interacting with a solid. A 30 femtosecond time resolution pump-probe experiment (FDI) is set up, yielding to the measurement of the heated sample complex reflectivity for both S and P polarisation. We have determined a criterion based on the measured reflectivities, which permits to control the interface shape of the probed matter. For pump laser fluences around 1 J/cm 2 , the hydrodynamics of the heated matter is studied and experimental results are compared to the two-temperatures code ESTHER. Furthermore, the evolution of the dielectric function at 800 nm and 400 nm is inferred from our measurements on a sub-picosecond time-scale. Within the Drude-Lorentz model for the conduction electrons, the dielectric function yields information such as ionisation state, electronic temperature and electron collision frequency. (author) [fr

  15. Dense Breasts: Answers to Commonly Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Genetics of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Dense Breasts: Answers to Commonly Asked Questions What are dense breasts? Breasts contain glandular, connective, and fat tissue. Breast density is a term that describes the ...

  16. Solar 'hot spots' are still hot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Taeil

    1990-01-01

    Longitude distributions of solar flares are not random but show evidence for active zones (or hot spots) where flares are concentrated. According to a previous study, two hot spots in the northern hemisphere, which rotate with a synodic period of about 26.72 days, produced the majority of major flares, during solar cycles 20 and 21. The more prominent of these two hot spots is found to be still active during the rising part of cycle 22, producing the majority of northern hemisphere major flares. The synodic rotation period of this hot spot is 26.727 + or - 0.007 days. There is also evidence for hot spots in the southern hemisphere. Two hot spots separated by 180 deg are found to rotate with a period of 29.407 days, with one of them having persisted in the same locations during cycles 19-22 and the other, during cycles 20-22.

  17. Solar hot spots are still hot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, T.

    1990-01-01

    Longitude distributions of solar flares are not random but show evidence for active zones (or hot spots) where flares are concentrated. According to a previous study, two hot spots in the northern hemisphere, which rotate with a synodic period of about 26.72 days, produced the majority of major flares, during solar cycles 20 and 21. The more prominent of these two hot spots is found to be still active during the rising part of cycle 22, producing the majority of northern hemisphere major flares. The synodic rotation period of this hot spot is 26.727 + or - 0.007 days. There is also evidence for hot spots in the southern hemisphere. Two hot spots separated by 180 deg are found to rotate with a period of 29.407 days, with one of them having persisted in the same locations during cycles 19-22 and the other, during cycles 20-22. 14 refs

  18. Equation of state for isospin asymmetric matter of nucleons and deltas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xiaohua; Zhang Yingxun; Li Zhuxia; Zhao Zhixiang

    2008-01-01

    An investigation on the equation of state of the isospin asymmetric, hot, dense matter of nucleons and deltas is performed based on the relativistic mean field theory. The QHD-II-type effective Lagrangian extending to the delta degree of freedom is adopted. Our results show that the equation of state is softened due to the inclusion of the delta degree of freedom. The baryon resonance isomer may occur depending on the delta-meson coupling. The results show that the densities for appearing the baryon resonance isomer, the densities for starting softening the equation of state and the extent of the softening depend not only on the temperature, the coupling strengths but also the isospin asymmetry of the baryon matter. (authors)

  19. Constructing Dense Graphs with Unique Hamiltonian Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mark A. M.

    2012-01-01

    It is not difficult to construct dense graphs containing Hamiltonian cycles, but it is difficult to generate dense graphs that are guaranteed to contain a unique Hamiltonian cycle. This article presents an algorithm for generating arbitrarily large simple graphs containing "unique" Hamiltonian cycles. These graphs can be turned into dense graphs…

  20. Quark matter 93

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otterlund, Ingvar; Ruuskanen, Vesa

    1993-12-15

    In his welcome address to the 10th International Conference on Ultra- Relativistic Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (Quark Matter '93), held in Borlange, Sweden, from 20-24 June, Hans-Ake Gustafsson was puzzled why this year's conference was billed as the tenth in the series. He had tried to count but could only find eight forerunners - Bielefeld (1982), Brookhaven (1983), Helsinki (1984), Asilomar (1986), Nordkirchen (1987), Lenox (1988), Menton (1990), Gatlinburg (1991), making this year's meeting at Borlange the ninth. The answer was given by Helmut Satz in his introductory talk, pointing out that at the time of the Bielefeld meeting, a few conferences dealing with similar topics had already been held. The Bielefeld organizers thus did not consider their conference the first. Whatever its pedigree, the Borlange meeting covered particle production in highly excited and compressed nuclear matter, fluctuations and correlations, quark phenomena (quantum chromodynamics - QCD) in nuclear collisions, probes and signatures of Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP), future collider experiments and instrumentation. The theoretical talks were split between the fundamental properties of the hot and dense matter at or near equilibrium, and the interface between theory and experiment. The phenomenological modelling of heavy ion collisions seems to reproduce at least all the main features of the data with hadrons, resonances and strings as the degrees of freedom. However secondary interactions among the produced hadrons or strings need to be added. Hydrodynamic calculations lead to results which reproduce the main features of the collisions. With increasing collision energy, the parton degrees of freedom become more important. Klaus Geiger described an ambitious scheme treating the whole nucleus-nucleus collision in terms of a kinetic parton (quark/gluon) cascade. The initial parton distribution at the beginning of the collision is determined from the quark-gluon nuclear structure and the

  1. Quark matter 93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otterlund, Ingvar; Ruuskanen, Vesa

    1993-01-01

    In his welcome address to the 10th International Conference on Ultra- Relativistic Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (Quark Matter '93), held in Borlange, Sweden, from 20-24 June, Hans-Ake Gustafsson was puzzled why this year's conference was billed as the tenth in the series. He had tried to count but could only find eight forerunners - Bielefeld (1982), Brookhaven (1983), Helsinki (1984), Asilomar (1986), Nordkirchen (1987), Lenox (1988), Menton (1990), Gatlinburg (1991), making this year's meeting at Borlange the ninth. The answer was given by Helmut Satz in his introductory talk, pointing out that at the time of the Bielefeld meeting, a few conferences dealing with similar topics had already been held. The Bielefeld organizers thus did not consider their conference the first. Whatever its pedigree, the Borlange meeting covered particle production in highly excited and compressed nuclear matter, fluctuations and correlations, quark phenomena (quantum chromodynamics - QCD) in nuclear collisions, probes and signatures of Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP), future collider experiments and instrumentation. The theoretical talks were split between the fundamental properties of the hot and dense matter at or near equilibrium, and the interface between theory and experiment. The phenomenological modelling of heavy ion collisions seems to reproduce at least all the main features of the data with hadrons, resonances and strings as the degrees of freedom. However secondary interactions among the produced hadrons or strings need to be added. Hydrodynamic calculations lead to results which reproduce the main features of the collisions. With increasing collision energy, the parton degrees of freedom become more important. Klaus Geiger described an ambitious scheme treating the whole nucleus-nucleus collision in terms of a kinetic parton (quark/gluon) cascade. The initial parton distribution at the beginning of the collision is determined from the quark-gluon nuclear structure

  2. Screening in dense ionic fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosi, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    There has been great progress in recent years in determining and understanding the structure of molten salts. I focus on molten alkali halides and discuss two main points concerning their liquid structure and its relationship with static electrical response in these dense ionic conductors. These are (i) the nature of screening and the related definitions and properties of the screening length and of the dielectric function, and (ii) developments in integral equations techniques for the evaluation of molten salt structure and static screening from given pair potentials. (author). 26 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  3. Orbital free molecular dynamics; Approche sans orbitale des plasmas denses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, F

    2007-08-15

    The microscopic properties of hot and dense plasmas stay a field essentially studied thanks to classical theories like the One Component Plasma, models which rely on free parameters, particularly ionization. In order to investigate these systems, we have used, in this PhD work, a semi-classical model, without free parameters, that is based on coupling consistently classical molecular dynamics for the nuclei and orbital free density functional theory for the electrons. The electronic fluid is represented by a free energy entirely determined by the local density. This approximation was validated by a comparison with an ab initio technique, quantum molecular dynamics. This one is identical to the previous except for the description of the free energy that depends on a quantum-independent-particle model. Orbital free molecular dynamics was then used to compute equation of state of boron and iron plasmas in the hot and dense regime. Furthermore, comparisons with classical theories were performed on structural and dynamical properties. Finally, equation of state and transport coefficients mixing laws were studied by direct simulation of a plasma composed of deuterium and copper. (author)

  4. The quark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, Mannque.

    1980-04-01

    The present status of our understanding of the physics of hadronic (nuclear or neutron) matter under extreme conditions, in particular at high densities is discussed. This is a problem which challenges three disciplines of physics: nuclear physics, astrophysics and particle physics. It is generally believed that we now have a correct and perhaps ultimate theory of the strong interactions, namely quantum chromodynamics (QCD). The constituents of this theory are quarks and gluons, so highly dense matters should be describable in terms of these constituents alone. This is a question that addresses directly to the phenomenon of quark confinement, one of the least understood aspects in particle physics. For nuclear physics, the possibility of a phase change between nuclear matter and quark matter introduces entirely new degrees of freedom in the description of nuclei and will bring perhaps a deeper understanding of nuclear dynamics. In astrophysics, the properties of neutron stars will be properly understood only when the equation of state of 'neutron' matter at densities exceeding that of nuclear matter can be realiably calculated. Most fascinating is the possibility of quark stars existing in nature, not entirely an absurd idea. Finally the quark matter - nuclear matter phase transition must have occured in the early stage of universe when matter expanded from high temperature and density; this could be an essential ingredient in the big-bang cosmology

  5. Observations of non-linear plasmon damping in dense plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, B. B. L.; Sperling, P.; French, M.; Recoules, V.; Glenzer, S. H.; Redmer, R.

    2018-05-01

    We present simulations using finite-temperature density-functional-theory molecular-dynamics to calculate dynamic dielectric properties in warm dense aluminum. The comparison between exchange-correlation functionals in the Perdew, Burke, Ernzerhof approximation, Strongly Constrained and Appropriately Normed Semilocal Density Functional, and Heyd, Scuseria, Ernzerhof (HSE) approximation indicates evident differences in the electron transition energies, dc conductivity, and Lorenz number. The HSE calculations show excellent agreement with x-ray scattering data [Witte et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 225001 (2017)] as well as dc conductivity and absorption measurements. These findings demonstrate non-Drude behavior of the dynamic conductivity above the Cooper minimum that needs to be taken into account to determine optical properties in the warm dense matter regime.

  6. Temperature Measurements of Dense Plasmas by Detailed Balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holl, A; Redmer, R; Ropke, G; Reinholz, H; Thiele, R; Fortmann, C; Forster, E; Cao, L; Tschentscher, T; Toleikis, S; Glenzer, S H

    2006-01-01

    Plasmas at high electron densities of n e = 10 20 - 10 26 cm -3 and moderate temperatures T e = 1 - 20 eV are important for laboratory astrophysics, high energy density science and inertial confinement fusion. These plasmas are usually referred to as Warm Dense Matter (WDM) and are characterized by a coupling parameter of Λ ∼> 1 where correlations become important. The characterization of such plasmas is still a challenging task due to the lack of direct measurement techniques for temperatures and densities. They propose to measure the Thomson scattering spectrum of vacuum-UV radiation off density fluctuations in the plasma. Collective Thomson scattering provides accurate data for the electron temperature applying first principles. Further, this method takes advantage of the spectral asymmetry resulting from detailed balance and is independent of collisional effects in these dense systems

  7. Influence of galactic arm scale dynamics on the molecular composition of the cold and dense ISM. I. Observed abundance gradients in dense clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruaud, M.; Wakelam, V.; Gratier, P.; Bonnell, I. A.

    2018-04-01

    Aim. We study the effect of large scale dynamics on the molecular composition of the dense interstellar medium during the transition between diffuse to dense clouds. Methods: We followed the formation of dense clouds (on sub-parsec scales) through the dynamics of the interstellar medium at galactic scales. We used results from smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations from which we extracted physical parameters that are used as inputs for our full gas-grain chemical model. In these simulations, the evolution of the interstellar matter is followed for 50 Myr. The warm low-density interstellar medium gas flows into spiral arms where orbit crowding produces the shock formation of dense clouds, which are held together temporarily by the external pressure. Results: We show that depending on the physical history of each SPH particle, the molecular composition of the modeled dense clouds presents a high dispersion in the computed abundances even if the local physical properties are similar. We find that carbon chains are the most affected species and show that these differences are directly connected to differences in (1) the electronic fraction, (2) the C/O ratio, and (3) the local physical conditions. We argue that differences in the dynamical evolution of the gas that formed dense clouds could account for the molecular diversity observed between and within these clouds. Conclusions: This study shows the importance of past physical conditions in establishing the chemical composition of the dense medium.

  8. Hot tub folliculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... survives in hot tubs, especially tubs made of wood. Symptoms The first symptom of hot tub folliculitis ... may help prevent the problem. Images Hair follicle anatomy References D'Agata E. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other ...

  9. Modelling Hot Air Balloons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimicombe, M. W.

    1991-01-01

    A macroscopic way of modeling hot air balloons using a Newtonian approach is presented. Misleading examples using a car tire and the concept of hot air rising are discussed. Pressure gradient changes in the atmosphere are used to explain how hot air balloons work. (KR)

  10. Deterministic and unambiguous dense coding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Shengjun; Cohen, Scott M.; Sun Yuqing; Griffiths, Robert B.

    2006-01-01

    Optimal dense coding using a partially-entangled pure state of Schmidt rank D and a noiseless quantum channel of dimension D is studied both in the deterministic case where at most L d messages can be transmitted with perfect fidelity, and in the unambiguous case where when the protocol succeeds (probability τ x ) Bob knows for sure that Alice sent message x, and when it fails (probability 1-τ x ) he knows it has failed. Alice is allowed any single-shot (one use) encoding procedure, and Bob any single-shot measurement. For D≤D a bound is obtained for L d in terms of the largest Schmidt coefficient of the entangled state, and is compared with published results by Mozes et al. [Phys. Rev. A71, 012311 (2005)]. For D>D it is shown that L d is strictly less than D 2 unless D is an integer multiple of D, in which case uniform (maximal) entanglement is not needed to achieve the optimal protocol. The unambiguous case is studied for D≤D, assuming τ x >0 for a set of DD messages, and a bound is obtained for the average . A bound on the average requires an additional assumption of encoding by isometries (unitaries when D=D) that are orthogonal for different messages. Both bounds are saturated when τ x is a constant independent of x, by a protocol based on one-shot entanglement concentration. For D>D it is shown that (at least) D 2 messages can be sent unambiguously. Whether unitary (isometric) encoding suffices for optimal protocols remains a major unanswered question, both for our work and for previous studies of dense coding using partially-entangled states, including noisy (mixed) states

  11. Spherically symmetric relativistic model for spiral galaxies and dense stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojman, R.; Rodrigues, L.M.C.; Sasse, F.D.

    1990-01-01

    The behaviour of the pressure and the density as well as the gravitational field of a dense star are studied in some detail. For such a purpose and to take into account relativistic effects, we find a family of exact solutions of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov equation, which contains as a particular case solutions corresponding to a γ-law equation of state. The mentioned family can also be used to model the (luminous or dark) matter content of spiral galaxies, as it fits the observed data for their orbital velocities profiles. (author)

  12. Breaking Dense Structures: Proving Stability of Densely Structured Hybrid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eike Möhlmann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstraction and refinement is widely used in software development. Such techniques are valuable since they allow to handle even more complex systems. One key point is the ability to decompose a large system into subsystems, analyze those subsystems and deduce properties of the larger system. As cyber-physical systems tend to become more and more complex, such techniques become more appealing. In 2009, Oehlerking and Theel presented a (de-composition technique for hybrid systems. This technique is graph-based and constructs a Lyapunov function for hybrid systems having a complex discrete state space. The technique consists of (1 decomposing the underlying graph of the hybrid system into subgraphs, (2 computing multiple local Lyapunov functions for the subgraphs, and finally (3 composing the local Lyapunov functions into a piecewise Lyapunov function. A Lyapunov function can serve multiple purposes, e.g., it certifies stability or termination of a system or allows to construct invariant sets, which in turn may be used to certify safety and security. In this paper, we propose an improvement to the decomposing technique, which relaxes the graph structure before applying the decomposition technique. Our relaxation significantly reduces the connectivity of the graph by exploiting super-dense switching. The relaxation makes the decomposition technique more efficient on one hand and on the other allows to decompose a wider range of graph structures.

  13. Quark matter droplets in neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiselberg, H.; Pethick, C. J.; Staubo, E. F.

    1993-01-01

    We show that, for physically reasonable bulk and surface properties, the lowest energy state of dense matter consists of quark matter coexisting with nuclear matter in the presence of an essentially uniform background of electrons. We estimate the size and nature of spatial structure in this phase, and show that at the lowest densities the quark matter forms droplets embedded in nuclear matter, whereas at higher densities it can exhibit a variety of different topologies. A finite fraction of the interior of neutron stars could consist of matter in this new phase, which would provide new mechanisms for glitches and cooling.

  14. Optimal super dense coding over memory channels

    OpenAIRE

    Shadman, Zahra; Kampermann, Hermann; Macchiavello, Chiara; Bruß, Dagmar

    2011-01-01

    We study the super dense coding capacity in the presence of quantum channels with correlated noise. We investigate both the cases of unitary and non-unitary encoding. Pauli channels for arbitrary dimensions are treated explicitly. The super dense coding capacity for some special channels and resource states is derived for unitary encoding. We also provide an example of a memory channel where non-unitary encoding leads to an improvement in the super dense coding capacity.

  15. Birth, life and death of hot nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suraud, E.; Tamain, B.; Gregoire, C.

    1989-01-01

    Intermediate energy heavy-ions (10-100 MeV/u) are the most powerful tool to study hot nuclear matter properties. In this paper we give a review of experimental and theoretical works which support this statement. The first challenge is to achieve hot nuclei formation. The second one is to study their properties. The formation step is governed by the relative influence of nucleon-nucleon collisions and mean field effects. Fundamental quantities such as excited matter decay time, thermalization time, relaxation time for collective modes are of major importance and are compared with typical collision times. It appears that semi-classical theories are able to give a reasonable description of the collision and that they are a good guide for defining further experiments. We show how it has been possible to experimentally establish that very hot equilibrated nuclei are really formed. Their decay properties are not basically different from decay properties at lower bombarding energy. However specific channels are open: in that sense, we take stock of the multifragmentation process. Moreover, compression effects may be an important feature of this energy range. Future studies will involve heavier projectiles around 30-50 MeV/u. They will be the best probe for hot and compressed nuclear matter studies

  16. Dense module enumeration in biological networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Koji; Georgii, Elisabeth

    2009-12-01

    Analysis of large networks is a central topic in various research fields including biology, sociology, and web mining. Detection of dense modules (a.k.a. clusters) is an important step to analyze the networks. Though numerous methods have been proposed to this aim, they often lack mathematical rigorousness. Namely, there is no guarantee that all dense modules are detected. Here, we present a novel reverse-search-based method for enumerating all dense modules. Furthermore, constraints from additional data sources such as gene expression profiles or customer profiles can be integrated, so that we can systematically detect dense modules with interesting profiles. We report successful applications in human protein interaction network analyses.

  17. Dense module enumeration in biological networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, Koji; Georgii, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of large networks is a central topic in various research fields including biology, sociology, and web mining. Detection of dense modules (a.k.a. clusters) is an important step to analyze the networks. Though numerous methods have been proposed to this aim, they often lack mathematical rigorousness. Namely, there is no guarantee that all dense modules are detected. Here, we present a novel reverse-search-based method for enumerating all dense modules. Furthermore, constraints from additional data sources such as gene expression profiles or customer profiles can be integrated, so that we can systematically detect dense modules with interesting profiles. We report successful applications in human protein interaction network analyses.

  18. Dense sheet Z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetsu, Miyamoto

    1999-01-01

    The steady state and quasi-steady processes of infinite- and finite-width sheet z-pinches are studied. The relations corresponding to the Bennett relation and Pease-Braginskii current of cylindrical fiber z-pinches depend on a geometrical factor in the sheet z-pinches. The finite-width sheet z-pinch is approximated by a segment of infinite-width sheet z-pinch, if it is wide enough, and corresponds to a number of (width/thickness) times fiber z-pinch plasmas of the diameter that equals the sheet thickness. If the sheet current equals this number times the fiber current, the plasma created in the sheet z-pinches is as dense as in the fiber z-pinches. The total energy of plasma and magnetic field per unit mass is approximately equal in both pinches. Quasi-static transient processes are different in several aspects from the fiber z-pinch. No radiation collapse occurs in the sheet z-pinch. The stability is improved in the sheet z-pinches. The fusion criterions and the experimental arrangements to produce the sheet z-pinches are also discussed. (author)

  19. STAR FORMATION IN DENSE CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, Philip C.

    2011-01-01

    A model of core-clump accretion with equally likely stopping describes star formation in the dense parts of clusters, where models of isolated collapsing cores may not apply. Each core accretes at a constant rate onto its protostar, while the surrounding clump gas accretes as a power of protostar mass. Short accretion flows resemble Shu accretion and make low-mass stars. Long flows resemble reduced Bondi accretion and make massive stars. Accretion stops due to environmental processes of dynamical ejection, gravitational competition, and gas dispersal by stellar feedback, independent of initial core structure. The model matches the field star initial mass function (IMF) from 0.01 to more than 10 solar masses. The core accretion rate and the mean accretion duration set the peak of the IMF, independent of the local Jeans mass. Massive protostars require the longest accretion durations, up to 0.5 Myr. The maximum protostar luminosity in a cluster indicates the mass and age of its oldest protostar. The distribution of protostar luminosities matches those in active star-forming regions if protostars have a constant birthrate but not if their births are coeval. For constant birthrate, the ratio of young stellar objects to protostars indicates the star-forming age of a cluster, typically ∼1 Myr. The protostar accretion luminosity is typically less than its steady spherical value by a factor of ∼2, consistent with models of episodic disk accretion.

  20. Warm dense mater: another application for pulsed power hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinovsky, Robert Emil [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Pulsed Power Hydrodynamics (PPH) is an application of low-impedance pulsed power, and high magnetic field technology to the study of advanced hydrodynamic problems, instabilities, turbulence, and material properties. PPH can potentially be applied to the study of the properties of warm dense matter (WDM) as well. Exploration of the properties of warm dense matter such as equation of state, viscosity, conductivity is an emerging area of study focused on the behavior of matter at density near solid density (from 10% of solid density to slightly above solid density) and modest temperatures ({approx}1-10 eV). Conditions characteristic of WDM are difficult to obtain, and even more difficult to diagnose. One approach to producing WDM uses laser or particle beam heating of very small quantities of matter on timescales short compared to the subsequent hydrodynamic expansion timescales (isochoric heating) and a vigorous community of researchers are applying these techniques. Pulsed power hydrodynamic techniques, such as large convergence liner compression of a large volume, modest density, low temperature plasma to densities approaching solid density or through multiple shock compression and heating of normal density material between a massive, high density, energetic liner and a high density central 'anvil' are possible ways to reach relevant conditions. Another avenue to WDM conditions is through the explosion and subsequent expansion of a conductor (wire) against a high pressure (density) gas background (isobaric expansion) techniques. However, both techniques demand substantial energy, proper power conditioning and delivery, and an understanding of the hydrodynamic and instability processes that limit each technique. In this paper we will examine the challenges to pulsed power technology and to pulsed power systems presented by the opportunity to explore this interesting region of parameter space.

  1. Critical point in the phase diagram of primordial quark-gluon matter from black hole physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critelli, Renato; Noronha, Jorge; Noronha-Hostler, Jacquelyn; Portillo, Israel; Ratti, Claudia; Rougemont, Romulo

    2017-11-01

    Strongly interacting matter undergoes a crossover phase transition at high temperatures T ˜1012 K and zero net-baryon density. A fundamental question in the theory of strong interactions, QCD, is whether a hot and dense system of quarks and gluons displays critical phenomena when doped with more quarks than antiquarks, where net-baryon number fluctuations diverge. Recent lattice QCD work indicates that such a critical point can only occur in the baryon dense regime of the theory, which defies a description from first principles calculations. Here we use the holographic gauge/gravity correspondence to map the fluctuations of baryon charge in the dense quark-gluon liquid onto a numerically tractable gravitational problem involving the charge fluctuations of holographic black holes. This approach quantitatively reproduces ab initio results for the lowest order moments of the baryon fluctuations and makes predictions for the higher-order baryon susceptibilities and also for the location of the critical point, which is found to be within the reach of heavy-ion collision experiments.

  2. Dense image correspondences for computer vision

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Ce

    2016-01-01

    This book describes the fundamental building-block of many new computer vision systems: dense and robust correspondence estimation. Dense correspondence estimation techniques are now successfully being used to solve a wide range of computer vision problems, very different from the traditional applications such techniques were originally developed to solve. This book introduces the techniques used for establishing correspondences between challenging image pairs, the novel features used to make these techniques robust, and the many problems dense correspondences are now being used to solve. The book provides information to anyone attempting to utilize dense correspondences in order to solve new or existing computer vision problems. The editors describe how to solve many computer vision problems by using dense correspondence estimation. Finally, it surveys resources, code, and data necessary for expediting the development of effective correspondence-based computer vision systems.   ·         Provides i...

  3. Hot Surface Ignition

    OpenAIRE

    Tursyn, Yerbatyr; Goyal, Vikrant; Benhidjeb-Carayon, Alicia; Simmons, Richard; Meyer, Scott; Gore, Jay P.

    2015-01-01

    Undesirable hot surface ignition of flammable liquids is one of the hazards in ground and air transportation vehicles, which primarily occurs in the engine compartment. In order to evaluate the safety and sustainability of candidate replacement fuels with respect to hot surface ignition, a baseline low lead fuel (Avgas 100 LL) and four experimental unleaded aviation fuels recommended for reciprocating aviation engines were considered. In addition, hot surface ignition properties of the gas tu...

  4. Hot Laboratories and Remote Handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bart, G.; Blanc, J.Y.; Duwe, R.

    2003-01-01

    The European Working Group on ' Hot Laboratories and Remote Handling' is firmly established as the major contact forum for the nuclear R and D facilities at the European scale. The yearly plenary meetings intend to: - Exchange experience on analytical methods, their implementation in hot cells, the methodologies used and their application in nuclear research; - Share experience on common infrastructure exploitation matters such as remote handling techniques, safety features, QA-certification, waste handling; - Promote normalization and co-operation, e.g., by looking at mutual complementarities; - Prospect present and future demands from the nuclear industry and to draw strategic conclusions regarding further needs. The 41. plenary meeting was held in CEA Saclay from September 22 to 24, 2003 in the premises and with the technical support of the INSTN (National Institute for Nuclear Science and Technology). The Nuclear Energy Division of CEA sponsored it. The Saclay meeting was divided in three topical oral sessions covering: - Post irradiation examination: new analysis methods and methodologies, small specimen technology, programmes and results; - Hot laboratory infrastructure: decommissioning, refurbishment, waste, safety, nuclear transports; - Prospective research on materials for future applications: innovative fuels (Generation IV, HTR, transmutation, ADS), spallation source materials, and candidate materials for fusion reactor. A poster session was opened to transport companies and laboratory suppliers. The meeting addressed in three sessions the following items: Session 1 - Post Irradiation Examinations. Out of 12 papers (including 1 poster) 7 dealt with surface and solid state micro analysis, another one with an equally complex wet chemical instrumental analytical technique, while the other four papers (including the poster) presented new concepts for digital x-ray image analysis; Session 2 - Hot laboratory infrastructure (including waste theme) which was

  5. Additive Manufacturing of Dense Hexagonal Boron Nitride Objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquez Rossy, Andres E [ORNL; Armstrong, Beth L [ORNL; Elliott, Amy M [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL

    2017-05-12

    The feasibility of manufacturing hexagonal boron nitride objects via additive manufacturing techniques was investigated. It was demonstrated that it is possible to hot-extrude thermoplastic filaments containing uniformly distributed boron nitride particles with a volume concentration as high as 60% and that these thermoplastic filaments can be used as feedstock for 3D-printing objects using a fused deposition system. Objects 3D-printed by fused deposition were subsequently sintered at high temperature to obtain dense ceramic products. In a parallel study the behavior of hexagonal boron nitride in aqueous solutions was investigated. It was shown that the addition of a cationic dispersant to an azeotrope enabled the formulation of slurries with a volume concentration of boron nitride as high as 33%. Although these slurries exhibited complex rheological behavior, the results from this study are encouraging and provide a pathway for manufacturing hexagonal boron nitride objects via robocasting.

  6. Electron transport phenomena and dense plasmas produced by ultra-short pulse laser interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    Recent experiments with femtosecond lasers provide a test bed for theoretical ideas about electron processes in hot dense plasmas. We briefly review aspects of electron conduction theory likely to prove relevant to femtosecond laser absorption. We show that the Mott-Ioffe-Regel limit implies a maximum inverse bremsstrahlung absorption of about 50% at temperatures near the Fermi temperature. We also propose that sheath inverse bremsstrahlung leads to a minimum absorption of 7-10% at high laser intensity

  7. High-resolution simulations of galaxy formation in a cold dark matter scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kates, R.E.; Klypin, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    We present the results of our numerical simulations of galaxy clustering in a two-dimensional model. Our simulations allowed better resolution than could be obtained in three-dimensional simulations. We used a spectrum of initial perturbations corresponding to a cold dark matter (CDM) model and followed the history of each particle by modelling the shocking and subsequent cooling of matter. We took into account cooling processes in a hot plasma with primeval cosmic abundances of H and He as well as Compton cooling. (However, the influence of these processes on the trajectories of ordinary matter particles was not simulated in the present code.) As a result of the high resolution, we were able to observe a network of chains on all scales down to the limits of resolution. This network extends out from dense clusters and superclusters and penetrates into voids (with decreasing density). In addition to the dark matter network structure, a definite prediction of our simulations is the existence of a connected filamentary structure consisting of hot gas with a temperature of 10 6 K and extending over 100-150 Mpc. (Throughout this paper, we assume the Hubble constant H 0 =50 km/sec/Mpc.) These structures trace high-density filaments of the dark matter distribution and should be searched for in soft X-ray observations. In contrast to common assumptions, we found that peaks of the linearized density distribution were not reliable tracers of the eventual galaxy distribution. We were also able to demonstrate that the influence of small-scale fluctuations on the structure at larger scales is always small, even at the late nonlinear stage. (orig.)

  8. Advances of dense plasma physics with particle accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Blazevic, A.; Rosmej, O.N.; Spiller, P.; Tahir, N.A.; Weyrich, K. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung, GSI-Darmstadt, Plasmaphysik, Darmstadt (Germany); Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Dafni, T.; Kuster, M.; Roth, M.; Udrea, S.; Varentsov, D. [DarmstadtTechnische Univ., Institut fur Kernphysik (Germany); Jacoby, J. [Frankfurt Univ., Institut fur Angewandte Physik (Germany); Zioutas, K. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneve (Switzerland); Patras Univ., Dept. of Physics (Greece); Sharkov, B.Y. [Institut for Theoretical and Experimental Physics ITEP, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2006-06-15

    High intensity particle beams from accelerators induce high energy density states in bulk matter. The SIS-18 heavy ion synchrotron at GSI (Darmstadt, Germany) now routinely delivers intense Uranium beams that deposit about 1 kJ/g of specific energy in solid matter, e.g. solid lead. Due to the specific nature of the ion-matter interaction a volume of matter is heated uniformly with low gradients of temperature and pressure in the initial phase, depending on the pulse structure of the beam with respect to space and time. The new accelerator complex FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and ion Research) at GSI as well as beams from the CERN large hadron collider (LHC) will vastly extend the accessible parameter range for high energy density states. One special piece of accelerator equipment a superconducting high field dipole magnet, developed for the LHC at CERN is now serving as a key instrument to diagnose the dense plasma of the sun interior plasma, thus providing an extremely interesting combination of accelerator physics, plasma physics and particle physics. (authors)

  9. Advances of dense plasma physics with particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Blazevic, A.; Rosmej, O.N.; Spiller, P.; Tahir, N.A.; Weyrich, K.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Dafni, T.; Kuster, M.; Roth, M.; Udrea, S.; Varentsov, D.; Jacoby, J.; Zioutas, K.; Sharkov, B.Y.

    2006-01-01

    High intensity particle beams from accelerators induce high energy density states in bulk matter. The SIS-18 heavy ion synchrotron at GSI (Darmstadt, Germany) now routinely delivers intense Uranium beams that deposit about 1 kJ/g of specific energy in solid matter, e.g. solid lead. Due to the specific nature of the ion-matter interaction a volume of matter is heated uniformly with low gradients of temperature and pressure in the initial phase, depending on the pulse structure of the beam with respect to space and time. The new accelerator complex FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and ion Research) at GSI as well as beams from the CERN large hadron collider (LHC) will vastly extend the accessible parameter range for high energy density states. One special piece of accelerator equipment a superconducting high field dipole magnet, developed for the LHC at CERN is now serving as a key instrument to diagnose the dense plasma of the sun interior plasma, thus providing an extremely interesting combination of accelerator physics, plasma physics and particle physics. (authors)

  10. Quantifying Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying Matter explains how scientists learned to measure matter and quantify some of its most fascinating and useful properties. It presents many of the most important intellectual achievements and technical developments that led to the scientific interpretation of substance. Complete with full-color photographs, this exciting new volume describes the basic characteristics and properties of matter. Chapters include:. -Exploring the Nature of Matter. -The Origin of Matter. -The Search for Substance. -Quantifying Matter During the Scientific Revolution. -Understanding Matter's Electromagnet

  11. Recent progress on understanding 'pasta' phases in dense stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Gentaro; Sonoda, Hidetaka

    2005-01-01

    In cores of supernovae and crusts of neutron stars, nuclei can adopt interesting shapes, such as rods or slabs, etc., which are referred to as nuclear 'pasta'. Recently, we have been studying the pasta phases focusing on their dynamical aspects with quantum molecular dynamic (QMD) approach. We review our findings on the following topics: dynamical formation of the pasta phases by cooling down the hot uniform nuclear matter; a phase diagram on the density versus temperature plane; structural transitions between the pasta phases induced by compression and their mechanism. Properties of the nuclear interaction used in our works are also discussed

  12. Preparation and characterization of dense nanohydroxyapatite/PLLA composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, Sandrine; Arostegui, Saioa; Lemaitre, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Synthetic bone graft substitutes based on PLLA have been largely studied during the past decade. PLLA/hydroxyapatite composites appear as promising materials for large bone defect healing. In this study dense PLLA/nano-hydroxyapatite composites were prepared by hot pressing. Dense samples were investigated rather than porous scaffolds, in order to shed light on possible correlations between intrinsic mechanical properties and nano-hydroxyapatite concentration. Hydroxyapatite deagglomerated by wet attrition milling, and further dispersed into chloroform was used (median diameter = 80 nm). Particle size distribution measurements and transmission electron microscopy show evidence that particle size and dispersion are maintained throughout the successive steps of composite processing. Mechanical properties were tested (uni-axial and diametral compression tests) as a function of nano-hydroxyapatite content. Increasing concentrations of nano-hydroxyapatite (0, 25 and 50 wt.%) increase the Young's modulus and the mechanical strength of the composite; at the same time, the failure mechanism of the material changes from plastic to brittle. Young's modulus over 6 GPa and uniaxial compressive strength over 100 MPa have been achieved. These values expressed in terms of intrinsic tensile and shear strengths indicate that 50 wt.% nano-hydroxyapatite containing samples develop properties comparable to those of cortical bone. PLLA/nano-hydroxyapatite composites are thus promising candidates to develop bioresorbable porous bone substitutes showing superior mechanical performance

  13. Evaluación de las propiedades mecánicas de una mezcla densa en caliente modificada con un desecho de polietileno de baja densidad (PEBD Mechanical properties evaluation of a dense hot asphalt mixture modified with a residue of low density polyethylene (LDPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Rondón Quintana

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta los resultados experimentales de ensayar una mezcla asfáltica densa en caliente tipo MDC-2 (acorde con las especificaciones del Instituto Nacional de Vías - INVIAS, 2007 modificada con un desecho de polietileno de baja densidad (PEBD. Para la evaluación del comportamiento de las mezclas asfálticas convencionales (sin aditivo y modificadas se realizaron ensayos Marshall, módulo dinámico, deformación permanente y resistencia a fatiga. Las mezclas fueron elaboradas con un cemento asfáltico (CA producido en Colombia tipo CA 80-100. Al CA con y sin aditivo se realizaron ensayos de caracterización de asfaltos como penetración y punto de ablandamiento. La modificación de las mezclas se realizó por vía húmeda. Las mezclas modificadas con desecho de PEBD experimentan mayor rigidez (bajo carga monotónica y cíclica y resistencia a la deformación permanente en comparación con las convencionales. Sin embargo la resistencia a fatiga de las mezclas convencionales disminuye cuando se adiciona PEBD al CA. Adicionalmente el CA modificado presenta mayor resistencia a la penetración, mayor punto de ablandamiento y menor susceptibilidad térmica a fluir que el convencional.Laboratory tests were used to evaluate the effect on the mechanical properties of a hot asphalt mix (MDC-2 as per INVIAS, 2007 specifications due to the addition by wet way of a residue of low density polyethylene (LDPE. The strength under monotonic load, resilient modulus, rutting and fatigue strength were evaluated. Asphalt cement (AC AC 80-100 was used from Colombia. The results show that the monotonic and cyclic mechanical strength evaluated were higher for the mixes modified with LDPE compared with mixtures with asphalts without additives. However, the mixes modified with LDPE undergo less fatigue strength. Additionally, characterization tests were conducted on asphalt cement with and without additive. The LDPE produces higher penetration resistance

  14. Composite systems of dilute and dense couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, J R; Saad, D

    2008-01-01

    Composite systems, where couplings are of two types, a combination of strong dilute and weak dense couplings of Ising spins, are examined through the replica method. The dilute and dense parts are considered to have independent canonical disordered or uniform bond distributions; mixing the models by variation of a parameter γ alongside inverse temperature β we analyse the respective thermodynamic solutions. We describe the variation in high temperature transitions as mixing occurs; in the vicinity of these transitions we exactly analyse the competing effects of the dense and sparse models. By using the replica symmetric ansatz and population dynamics we described the low temperature behaviour of mixed systems

  15. Vacuum hot pressing of titanium-alloy powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, R.K.

    1975-01-01

    Full or nearly full dense products of wrought-metal properties have been obtained by vacuum hot pressing (VHP) of several prealloyed Ti--6Al--4V powders including hydride, hydride/dehydride, and rotating electrode process (REP) spherical powder. The properties of billets VHP from Ti--6Al--4V hydride powder and from hydride/dehydride powders have been shown to be equivalent. The REP spherical powder billets processed by VHP or by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) resulted in equivalent tensile properties. The potential of VHP for fabrication of near net aircraft parts such as complex fittings and engine disks offers considerable cost savings due to reduced material and machining requirements

  16. Finding dense locations in indoor tracking data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Tanvir; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Lu, Hua

    2014-01-01

    for semi-constrained indoor movement, and then uses this to map raw tracking records into mapping records representing object entry and exit times in particular locations. Then, an efficient indexing structure, the Dense Location Time Index (DLT-Index) is proposed for indexing the time intervals...... of the mapping table, along with associated construction, query processing, and pruning techniques. The DLT-Index supports very efficient aggregate point queries, interval queries, and dense location queries. A comprehensive experimental study with real data shows that the proposed techniques can efficiently......Finding the dense locations in large indoor spaces is very useful for getting overloaded locations, security, crowd management, indoor navigation, and guidance. Indoor tracking data can be very large and are not readily available for finding dense locations. This paper presents a graph-based model...

  17. Dynamical theory of dense groups of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamon, Gary A.

    1990-01-01

    It is well known that galaxies associate in groups and clusters. Perhaps 40% of all galaxies are found in groups of 4 to 20 galaxies (e.g., Tully 1987). Although most groups appear to be so loose that the galaxy interactions within them ought to be insignificant, the apparently densest groups, known as compact groups appear so dense when seen in projection onto the plane of the sky that their members often overlap. These groups thus appear as dense as the cores of rich clusters. The most popular catalog of compact groups, compiled by Hickson (1982), includes isolation among its selection critera. Therefore, in comparison with the cores of rich clusters, Hickson's compact groups (HCGs) appear to be the densest isolated regions in the Universe (in galaxies per unit volume), and thus provide in principle a clean laboratory for studying the competition of very strong gravitational interactions. The $64,000 question here is then: Are compact groups really bound systems as dense as they appear? If dense groups indeed exist, then one expects that each of the dynamical processes leading to the interaction of their member galaxies should be greatly enhanced. This leads us to the questions: How stable are dense groups? How do they form? And the related question, fascinating to any theorist: What dynamical processes predominate in dense groups of galaxies? If HCGs are not bound dense systems, but instead 1D change alignments (Mamon 1986, 1987; Walke & Mamon 1989) or 3D transient cores (Rose 1979) within larger looser systems of galaxies, then the relevant question is: How frequent are chance configurations within loose groups? Here, the author answers these last four questions after comparing in some detail the methods used and the results obtained in the different studies of dense groups.

  18. Kinetic chemistry of dense interstellar clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graedel, T.E.; Langer, W.D.; Frerking, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    A detailed model of the time-dependent chemistry of dense interstellar clouds has been developed to study the dominant chemical processes in carbon and oxygen isotope fractionation, formation of nitrogen-containing molecules, evolution of product molecules as a function of cloud density and temperature, and other topics of interest. The full computation involves 328 individual reactions (expanded to 1067 to study carbon and oxygen isotope chemistry); photodegradation processes are unimportant in these dense clouds and are excluded

  19. KINETIC TEMPERATURES OF THE DENSE GAS CLUMPS IN THE ORION KL MOLECULAR CORE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, K.-S.; Kuan, Y.-J.; Liu, S.-Y.; Charnley, Steven B.

    2010-01-01

    High angular-resolution images of the J = 18 K -17 K emission of CH 3 CN in the Orion KL molecular core were observed with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). Our high-resolution observations clearly reveal that CH 3 CN emission originates mainly from the Orion Hot Core and the Compact Ridge, both within ∼15'' of the warm and dense part of Orion KL. The clumpy nature of the molecular gas in Orion KL can also be readily seen from our high-resolution SMA images. In addition, a semi-open cavity-like kinematic structure is evident at the location between the Hot Core and the Compact Ridge. We performed excitation analysis with the 'population diagram' method toward the Hot Core, IRc7, and the northern part of the Compact Ridge. Our results disclose a non-uniform temperature structure on small scales in Orion KL, with a range of temperatures from 190-620 K in the Hot Core. Near the Compact Ridge, the temperatures are found to be 170-280 K. Comparable CH 3 CN fractional abundances of 10 -8 to 10 -7 are found around both in the Hot Core and the Compact Ridge. Such high abundances require that a hot gas phase chemistry, probably involving ammonia released from grain mantles, plays an important role in forming these CH 3 CN molecules.

  20. ESA uncovers Geminga's `hot spot'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    particles kicked out by Geminga’s strong magnetic field, trail the neutron star as it moves about in space. hi-res Size hi-res: 377 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot, panel (b) Panel (b) shows how electrically charged particles interact with Geminga’s magnetic field. For example, if electrons (blue) are kicked out by the star, positrons (red) hit the star’s magnetic poles like in an ‘own goal’. hi-res Size hi-res: 435 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot, panel (c) Panel (c) illustrates the size of Geminga’s magnetic field (blue) compared to that of the star itself at the centre (purple). The magnetic field is tilted with respect to Geminga’s rotation axis (red). hi-res Size hi-res: 121 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot, panel (d) Panel (d) shows the magnetic poles of Geminga, where charged particles hit the surface of the star, creating a two-million degree hot spot, a region much hotter than the surroundings. As the star spins on its rotation axis, the hot spot comes into view and then disappears, causing the periodic colour change seen by XMM-Newton. Neutron stars are the smallest kind of stars known. They are the super-dense remnants of massive stars that died in cataclysmic explosions called supernovae. They have been thrown through space like cannonballs and set spinning at a furious rate, with magnetic fields hundreds of billions of times stronger than Earth’s. In the case of Geminga, this cannonball contains one and a half times the mass of the Sun, squeezed into a sphere just 20 kilometres across and spinning four times every second. A cloud bustling with electrically charged particles surrounds Geminga. These particles are shepherded by its magnetic and electric fields. ESA’s XMM-Newton observatory had already discovered that some of these particles are ejected into space, forming tails that stream behind the neutron star as it hurtles along. Scientists did not know

  1. Sterile neutrinos as dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodelson, S.; Widrow, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    The simplest model that can accommodate a viable nonbaryonic dark matter candidate is the standard electroweak theory with the addition of right-handed (sterile) neutrinos. We consider a single generation of neutrinos with a Dirac mass μ and a Majorana mass M for the right-handed component. If M much-gt μ (standard hot dark matter corresponds to M=0), then sterile neutrinos are produced via oscillations in the early Universe with energy density independent of M. However, M is crucial in determining the large scale structure of the Universe; for M∼100 eV, sterile neutrinos make an excellent warm dark matter candidate

  2. The hot big bang and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, M.S. [Departments of Physics and of Astronomy & Astrophysics, Enrico Fermi Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637-1433 (United States)]|[NASA/Fermilab Astrophysics Center, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510-0500 (United States)

    1995-08-01

    The hot big-bang cosmology provides a reliable accounting of the Universe from about 10{sup {minus}2} sec after the bang until the present, as well as a robust framework for speculating back to times as early as 10{sup {minus}43} sec. Cosmology faces a number of important challenges; foremost among them are determining the quantity and composition of matter in the Universe and developing a detailed and coherent picture of how structure (galaxies, clusters of galaxies, superclusters, voids, great walls, and so on) developed. At present there is a working hypothesis{emdash}cold dark matter{emdash}which is based upon inflation and which, if correct, would extend the big bang model back to 10{sup {minus}32} sec and cast important light on the unification of the forces. Many experiments and observations, from CBR anisotropy experiments to Hubble Space Telescope observations to experiments at Fermilab and CERN, are now putting the cold dark matter theory to the test. At present it appears that the theory is viable only if the Hubble constant is smaller than current measurements indicate (around 30 km s{sup {minus}1} Mpc{sup {minus}1}), or if the theory is modified slightly, e.g., by the addition of a cosmological constant, a small admixture of hot dark matter (5 eV {open_quote}{open_quote}worth of neutrinos{close_quote}{close_quote}), more relativistic particle or a tilted spectrum of density perturbations.

  3. LATTICE SIMULATIONS OF THE THERMODYNAMICS OF STRONGLY INTERACTING ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND THE EXPLORATION OF NEW PHASES OF MATTER IN RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION COLLISIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KARSCH, F.

    2006-01-01

    At high temperatures or densities matter formed by strongly interacting elementary particles (hadronic matter) is expected to undergo a transition to a new form of matter--the quark gluon plasma--in which elementary particles (quarks and gluons) are no longer confined inside hadrons but are free to propagate in a thermal medium much larger in extent than the typical size of a hadron. The transition to this new form of matter as well as properties of the plasma phase are studied in large scale numerical calculations based on the theory of strong interactions--Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD). Experimentally properties of hot and dense elementary particle matter are studied in relativistic heavy ion collisions such as those currently performed at the relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) at BNL. We review here recent results from studies of thermodynamic properties of strongly interacting elementary particle matter performed on Teraflops-Computer. We present results on the QCD equation of state and discuss the status of studies of the phase diagram at non-vanishing baryon number density

  4. Hot Weather Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the person plenty of water and fruit or vegetable juice even if they say they’re not thirsty. No alcohol, coffee or tea. Seek medical help if you suspect dehydration. Light meals: Avoid hot, heavy meals and don’ ...

  5. China's 'Hot Money' Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Michael F; Morrison, Wayne M

    2008-01-01

    .... The recent large inflow of financial capital into China, commonly referred to as "hot money," has led some economists to warn that such flows may have a destabilizing effect on China's economy...

  6. Hot neutron stars at birth and energy release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatsuka, Tatsuyuki

    1994-01-01

    For the discussion of hot neutron stars at birth, it is necessary to calculate the equation of state for a so-called 'supernova matter' consisting of a neutron-rich nuclear matter and degenerated leptons. One of the aims of this paper is to obtain the realistic results for the equation of state. In 10-20s after the birth, new born hot neutron stars are cooled down by neutrino diffusion process, and gradually contract to usual cold neutron starts. It is another aim of this paper to determine how much energy is released during this cooling stage. The points to which attention was paid are explained. A three-nucleon interaction was introduced phenomenologically, as a two-nucleon interaction is insufficient to satisfy the empirical saturation property of symmetric nuclear matters. The separation of uncertain part from well-known part has the merit to clarify the dependence of the results on the present theoretical uncertainties. The validity of the simplified calculation as an approximation for the exact calculation is discussed. The results by both calculations were compared for the case of hot symmetric nuclear matters. The comparison of the density profiles for a hot neutron star and a cold neutron star is shown. The binding energy for hot and cold neutron stars was plotted. These results are examined. (K.I.)

  7. Greco Laser-matter interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Research program in 1985 at GRECO ILM (Group of Coordinated Research: Interaction Laser Matter) continued with its principal direction in fundamental physics of laser inertial confinement; also researches on X-ray lasers hare been undergone and new high power laser application fields with particle acceleration, material processing and X-ray sources. A six beam laser was operated. Wavelength effects were studied. Atomic physics was deeply stressed as dense medium diagnostics from multicharged ions. Research development in ultra-dense medium was also important X-ray laser research gave outstanding results. New research fields were developed this year: laser acceleration of particles by wave beating or Raman instability; dense laser produced plasma use as X-ray source; material processing by laser shocks [fr

  8. THE GREEN BANK TELESCOPE MAPS THE DENSE, STAR-FORMING GAS IN THE NEARBY STARBURST GALAXY M82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kepley, Amanda A.; Frayer, David; Leroy, Adam K.; Usero, Antonio; Marvil, Josh; Walter, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    Observations of the Milky Way and nearby galaxies show that dense molecular gas correlates with recent star formation, suggesting that the formation of this gas phase may help regulate star formation. A key test of this idea requires wide-area, high-resolution maps of dense molecular gas in galaxies to explore how local physical conditions drive dense gas formation, but these observations have been limited because of the faintness of dense gas tracers like HCN and HCO + . Here we demonstrate the power of the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT)—the largest single-dish millimeter radio telescope—for mapping dense gas in galaxies by presenting the most sensitive maps yet of HCN and HCO + in the starburst galaxy M82. The HCN and HCO + in the disk of this galaxy correlates with both recent star formation and more diffuse molecular gas and shows kinematics consistent with a rotating torus. The HCO + emission extending to the north and south of the disk is coincident with the outflow previously identified in CO and traces the eastern edge of the hot outflowing gas. The central starburst region has a higher ratio of star formation to dense gas than the outer regions, pointing to the starburst as a key driver of this relationship. These results establish that the GBT can efficiently map the dense molecular gas at 90 GHz in nearby galaxies, a capability that will increase further with the 16 element feed array under construction

  9. Ion distribution in the hot spot of an inertial confinement fusion plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xianzhu; Guo, Zehua; Berk, Herb

    2012-10-01

    Maximizing the fusion gain of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) for inertial fusion energy (IFE) applications leads to the standard scenario of central hot spot ignition followed by propagating burn wave through the cold/dense assembled fuel. The fact that the hot spot is surrounded by cold but dense fuel layer introduces subtle plasma physics which requires a kinetic description. Here we perform Fokker-Planck calculations and kinetic PIC simulations for an ICF plasma initially in pressure balance but having large temperature gradient over a narrow transition layer. The loss of the fast ion tail from the hot spot, which is important for fusion reactivity, is quantified by Fokker-Planck models. The role of electron energy transport and the ambipolar electric field is investigated via kinetic simulations and the fluid moment models. The net effect on both hot spot ion temperature and the ion tail distribution, and hence the fusion reactivity, is elucidated.

  10. Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einasto J.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available I give a review of the development of the concept of dark matter. The dark matter story passed through several stages from a minor observational puzzle to a major challenge for theory of elementary particles. Modern data suggest that dark matter is the dominant matter component in the Universe, and that it consists of some unknown non-baryonic particles. Dark matter is the dominant matter component in the Universe, thus properties of dark matter particles determine the structure of the cosmic web.

  11. Consequences of the Solar System passage through dense interstellar clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Yeghikyan

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Several consequences of the passage of the solar system through dense interstellar molecular clouds are discussed. These clouds, dense (more than 100 cm-3, cold (10–50 K and extended (larger than 1 pc, are characterized by a gas-to-dust mass ratio of about 100, by a specific power grain size spectrum (grain radii usually cover the range 0.001–3 micron and by an average dust-to-gas number density ratio of about 10-12. Frequently these clouds contain small-scale (10–100 AU condensations with gas concentrations ranging up to 10 5 cm-3. At their casual passage over the solar system they exert pressures very much enhanced with respect to today’s standards. Under these conditions it will occur that the Earth is exposed directly to the interstellar flow. It is shown first that even close to the Sun, at 1 AU, the cloud’s matter is only partly ionized and should mainly interact with the solar wind by charge exchange processes. Dust particles of the cloud serve as a source of neutrals, generated by the solar UV irradiation of dust grains, causing the evaporation of icy materials. The release of neutral atoms from dust grains is then followed by strong influences on the solar wind plasma flow. The behavior of the neutral gas inflow parameters is investigated by a 2-D hydrodynamic approach to model the interaction processes. Because of a reduction of the heliospheric dimension down to 1 AU, direct influence of the cloud’s matter to the terrestrial environment and atmosphere could be envisaged.Key words. Interplanetary physics (heliopause and solar wind termination; interplanetary dust; interstellar gas

  12. Consequences of the Solar System passage through dense interstellar clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Yeghikyan

    Full Text Available Several consequences of the passage of the solar system through dense interstellar molecular clouds are discussed. These clouds, dense (more than 100 cm-3, cold (10–50 K and extended (larger than 1 pc, are characterized by a gas-to-dust mass ratio of about 100, by a specific power grain size spectrum (grain radii usually cover the range 0.001–3 micron and by an average dust-to-gas number density ratio of about 10-12. Frequently these clouds contain small-scale (10–100 AU condensations with gas concentrations ranging up to 10 5 cm-3. At their casual passage over the solar system they exert pressures very much enhanced with respect to today’s standards. Under these conditions it will occur that the Earth is exposed directly to the interstellar flow. It is shown first that even close to the Sun, at 1 AU, the cloud’s matter is only partly ionized and should mainly interact with the solar wind by charge exchange processes. Dust particles of the cloud serve as a source of neutrals, generated by the solar UV irradiation of dust grains, causing the evaporation of icy materials. The release of neutral atoms from dust grains is then followed by strong influences on the solar wind plasma flow. The behavior of the neutral gas inflow parameters is investigated by a 2-D hydrodynamic approach to model the interaction processes. Because of a reduction of the heliospheric dimension down to 1 AU, direct influence of the cloud’s matter to the terrestrial environment and atmosphere could be envisaged.

    Key words. Interplanetary physics (heliopause and solar wind termination; interplanetary dust; interstellar gas

  13. Processes in a dense long-pulse electron beam focused on a solid target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkhipov, A V; Sominskij, G G [St. Petersburg Technical Univ. (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The results obtained in beam-target experiments with dense medium-energy electron beam in the regime of long single pulses are presented. The measured power density of the focused beam at the target reached 20 MW/cm{sup 2} in these experiments. The processes caused by dense flows of secondary particles and by a dense target ablation plasma were studied in detail. Substantial target shielding occurs when the energy density at the target exceeds the value of about 1 kJ/cm{sup 2}. The target plasma and the sputtered matter that is responsible for shielding affects also the beam structure, as well as the target etching rates. (J.U.). 3 figs., 5 refs.

  14. Processes in a dense long-pulse electron beam focused on a solid target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipov, A.V.; Sominskij, G.G.

    1996-01-01

    The results obtained in beam-target experiments with dense medium-energy electron beam in the regime of long single pulses are presented. The measured power density of the focused beam at the target reached 20 MW/cm 2 in these experiments. The processes caused by dense flows of secondary particles and by a dense target ablation plasma were studied in detail. Substantial target shielding occurs when the energy density at the target exceeds the value of about 1 kJ/cm 2 . The target plasma and the sputtered matter that is responsible for shielding affects also the beam structure, as well as the target etching rates. (J.U.). 3 figs., 5 refs

  15. Dense transient pinches and pulsed power technology: research and applications using medium and small devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto, Leopoldo; Pavez, Cristian; Moreno, Jose; Cardenas, Miguel; Zambra, Marcelo; Tarifeno, Ariel; Huerta, Luis; Tenreiro, Claudio; Giordano, Jose Luis; Lagos, Miguel; Escobar, Rodrigo; Ramos, Jorge; Altamirano, Luis; Retamal, Cesar; Silva, Patricio

    2008-01-01

    The Plasma Physics and Plasma Technology Group of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN) has, since about ten years ago, used plasma production devices to study dense hot plasmas, particularly Z-pinches and plasma foci (PFs). In the case of Z-pinches, the studies include studies on the dynamics and stability of gas-embedded Z-pinches at currents of thermonuclear interest, and preliminary studies on wire arrays. For PF research, the aim of the work has been to characterize the physics of these plasmas and also to carry out the design and construction of smaller devices-in terms of both input energy and size-capable of providing dense hot plasmas. In addition, taking advantage of the experience in pulsed power technology obtained from experimental researches in dense transient plasmas, an exploratory line of pulsed power applications is being developed. In this paper, a brief review listing the most important results achieved by the Plasma Physics and Plasma Technology Group of the CCHEN is presented, including the scaling studies, PF miniaturization and diagnostics and research on Z-pinches at currents of thermonuclear interest. Then, exploratory applications of pulsed power are presented, including nanoflashes of radiation for radiography and substances detection, high pulsed magnetic fields generation and rock fragmentation.

  16. Dense Plasma Focus-Based Nanofabrication of III-V Semiconductors: Unique Features and Recent Advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangla, Onkar; Roy, Savita; Ostrikov, Kostya Ken

    2015-12-29

    The hot and dense plasma formed in modified dense plasma focus (DPF) device has been used worldwide for the nanofabrication of several materials. In this paper, we summarize the fabrication of III-V semiconductor nanostructures using the high fluence material ions produced by hot, dense and extremely non-equilibrium plasma generated in a modified DPF device. In addition, we present the recent results on the fabrication of porous nano-gallium arsenide (GaAs). The details of morphological, structural and optical properties of the fabricated nano-GaAs are provided. The effect of rapid thermal annealing on the above properties of porous nano-GaAs is studied. The study reveals that it is possible to tailor the size of pores with annealing temperature. The optical properties of these porous nano-GaAs also confirm the possibility to tailor the pore sizes upon annealing. Possible applications of the fabricated and subsequently annealed porous nano-GaAs in transmission-type photo-cathodes and visible optoelectronic devices are discussed. These results suggest that the modified DPF is an effective tool for nanofabrication of continuous and porous III-V semiconductor nanomaterials. Further opportunities for using the modified DPF device for the fabrication of novel nanostructures are discussed as well.

  17. Fast Solvers for Dense Linear Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauers, Manuel [Research Institute for Symbolic Computation (RISC), Altenbergerstrasse 69, A4040 Linz (Austria)

    2008-10-15

    It appears that large scale calculations in particle physics often require to solve systems of linear equations with rational number coefficients exactly. If classical Gaussian elimination is applied to a dense system, the time needed to solve such a system grows exponentially in the size of the system. In this tutorial paper, we present a standard technique from computer algebra that avoids this exponential growth: homomorphic images. Using this technique, big dense linear systems can be solved in a much more reasonable time than using Gaussian elimination over the rationals.

  18. Asymmetric condensed dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguirre, Anthony; Diez-Tejedor, Alberto, E-mail: aguirre@scipp.ucsc.edu, E-mail: alberto.diez@fisica.ugto.mx [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA, 95064 (United States)

    2016-04-01

    We explore the viability of a boson dark matter candidate with an asymmetry between the number densities of particles and antiparticles. A simple thermal field theory analysis confirms that, under certain general conditions, this component would develop a Bose-Einstein condensate in the early universe that, for appropriate model parameters, could survive the ensuing cosmological evolution until now. The condensation of a dark matter component in equilibrium with the thermal plasma is a relativistic process, hence the amount of matter dictated by the charge asymmetry is complemented by a hot relic density frozen out at the time of decoupling. Contrary to the case of ordinary WIMPs, dark matter particles in a condensate must be lighter than a few tens of eV so that the density from thermal relics is not too large. Big-Bang nucleosynthesis constrains the temperature of decoupling to the scale of the QCD phase transition or above. This requires large dark matter-to-photon ratios and very weak interactions with standard model particles.

  19. Energy flux of hot atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wotzak, G.P.; Kostin, M.D.

    1976-01-01

    The process in which hot atoms collide with thermal atoms of a gas, transfer kinetic energy to them, and produce additional hot atoms is investigated. A stochastic method is used to obtain numerical results for the spatial and time dependent energy flux of hot atoms in a gas. The results indicate that in hot atom systems a front followed by an intense energy flux of hot atoms may develop

  20. HotRegion: a database of predicted hot spot clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukuroglu, Engin; Gursoy, Attila; Keskin, Ozlem

    2012-01-01

    Hot spots are energetically important residues at protein interfaces and they are not randomly distributed across the interface but rather clustered. These clustered hot spots form hot regions. Hot regions are important for the stability of protein complexes, as well as providing specificity to binding sites. We propose a database called HotRegion, which provides the hot region information of the interfaces by using predicted hot spot residues, and structural properties of these interface residues such as pair potentials of interface residues, accessible surface area (ASA) and relative ASA values of interface residues of both monomer and complex forms of proteins. Also, the 3D visualization of the interface and interactions among hot spot residues are provided. HotRegion is accessible at http://prism.ccbb.ku.edu.tr/hotregion.

  1. Solid Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S

  2. Dense high temperature ceramic oxide superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landingham, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    Dense superconducting ceramic oxide articles of manufacture and methods for producing these articles are described. Generally these articles are produced by first processing these superconducting oxides by ceramic processing techniques to optimize materials properties, followed by reestablishing the superconducting state in a desired portion of the ceramic oxide composite.

  3. Dense high-temperature plasma transport processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giniyatova, Sh.G.

    2002-01-01

    In this work the transport processes in dense high-temperature semiclassical plasma are studied on the base of the kinetic equation, where the semiclassical potential was used, in its collision integral. The coefficient of plasma electrical conductivity, viscosity and thermal conductivity were received. There were compared with the other authors' results. The Grad's method was used obtaining of viscosity and thermal coefficients. (author)

  4. The electronic pressure in dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozwolski, A.E.

    1982-01-01

    A thermodynamic calculation of the electronic pressure in a dense plasma is given. Approximations involved by the use of the Debye length are avoided, so the above theory remains valid even if the Debye length is smaller than the interionic distance. (author)

  5. APT: Action localization Proposals from dense Trajectories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, J.C.; Jain, M.; Gati, E.; Snoek, C.G.M.; Xie, X.; Jones, M.W.; Tam, G.K.L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is on action localization in video with the aid of spatio-temporal proposals. To alleviate the computational expensive video segmentation step of existing proposals, we propose bypassing the segmentations completely by generating proposals directly from the dense trajectories used to

  6. Dense Alternating Sign Matrices and Extensions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fiedler, Miroslav; Hall, F.J.; Stroev, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 444, 1 March (2014), s. 219-226 ISSN 0024-3795 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : alternating sign matrix * dense matrix * totally unimodular matrix * combined matrix * generalized complementary basic matrix Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.939, year: 2014

  7. Stable solitary waves in super dense plasmas at external magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaani, Azam; Javidan, Kurosh; Sarbishaei, Mohsen

    2015-07-01

    Propagation of localized waves in a Fermi-Dirac distributed super dense matter at the presence of strong external magnetic fields is studied using the reductive perturbation method. We have shown that stable solitons can be created in such non-relativistic fluids in the presence of an external magnetic field. Such solitary waves are governed by the Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation. Properties of solitonic solutions are studied in media with different values of background mass density and strength of magnetic field.

  8. Speech Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse Jørgensen, Stina

    2011-01-01

    About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011.......About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011....

  9. Memory Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Memory Matters KidsHealth / For Kids / Memory Matters What's in ... of your complex and multitalented brain. What Is Memory? When an event happens, when you learn something, ...

  10. Atomic process calculations in hot dense plasmas using average atom models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velarde, G.; Aragones, J.M.; Gamez, L.; Honrubia, J.J.; Martinez-Val, J.M.; Minguez, E.; Ocana, J.L.; Perlado, J.M.; Serrano, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    During the past years, an important effort has been devoted in the authors Institute to develop the NORCLA code, which in the first version was characterized by the following features: one-dimensional lagrangian mesh; equilibrium between radiation, ion and electron species; local alpha energy deposition; neutron transport by the discrete ordinates method and analytical equation of state, opacities and conductivities. In the successive versions of NORCLA, EOS and electron conductivities were modified by the pressure ionization and degeneracy corrections; a module was also developed for computing the energy deposition of the incident ion beams coupled to the energy equation, and a code to calculate the alpha particle transport and energy deposition. Recently, a 3T version of the NORCLA code, with tabular EOS, opacities and conductivities, laser ray tracing and suprathermal electrons transport has been produced. In this article, the atomic physic models developed to determine more accurate the atomic data, such as EOS and opacities are explained, giving a brief description and a comparison of them. As a result of this development, a DENIM Atomic Data Library is being generated, taking some data and procedures from the SESAME Library. This library is presented, including a comparison of the opacity data for aluminium and iron at different densities and temperatures. Conclusions about this work are presented, and the ongoing developments summarized

  11. Hot and dense plasma probing by soft X-ray lasers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krůs, Miroslav; Kozlová, Michaela; Nejdl, Jaroslav; Rus, B.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2018), č. článku C01004. ISSN 1748-0221. [International Symposium on Laser-Aided Plasma Diagnostics/18./. Prague, 24.09.2017-28.09.2017] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010014; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015083 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Plasma diagnostics - interferometry * spectroscopy and imaging * Plasma diagnostics - probes * Plasma generation (laser-produced, RF, x ray-produced) Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: 2.11 Other engineering and technologies Impact factor: 1.220, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-0221/13/01/C01004

  12. X-ray spectroscopic characterization of laser produced hot dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontogiannopoulos, N.

    2007-12-01

    In this work we performed experiments of emission and absorption spectroscopy of laser produced plasmas, to provide well characterized spectral data which permit to benchmark atomic physics codes. More precisely, we produced xenon and krypton plasmas in NLTE (non local thermodynamic equilibrium) conditions and studied their emission spectra. In a second experiment, we characterized the absorption spectra of zinc sulfide and aluminium plasmas in LTE (local thermodynamic equilibrium) conditions.The first two chapters give an outline of the theory involved in the study of the emission and absorption plasma spectroscopy. Chapter 1 describes the different atomic processes occurring in a plasma. The LTE and the NLTE statistics ruling the equilibrium of the atomic processes are presented. Then, we give a brief description of the different codes of plasma atomic physics used in the analysis of our experimental data, namely HULLAC, SCO and TRANSPEC/AVERROES. In Chapter 2 the macroscopic theory of the radiation transport through a plasma is given. We describe also the self-similar model of Basko and the view factor approach, which permits us to calculate the heating conditions of the absorption foils achieved in the interior of the spherical gold cavity. Chapter 3 gives a description of the instruments used for realizing the two experiments, as well as the technical characteristics of the LULI2000 laser facility used to perform the experiments. Chapter 4 presents the experiment realized to characterize the emission spectra of the xenon and krypton plasmas in NLTE, as well the analysis of the experimental data with TRANSPEC/AVERROES. Finally, the experiment for measuring the absorption spectrum of the ZnS plasma mixture and the analysis of the experimental data with the code SCO are given in Chapter 5

  13. Skin Effect Simulation for Area 11 Dense Plasma Focus Hot Plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meehan, B. Timothy [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)

    2017-07-27

    Two arc flashover events occurred at the DPF Area 11 facility. These flashover events happened in the same location on the bank current delivery plates. The damage from one of these events can be seen on the left-hand side of Figure 1. Since the flashovers occurred in the same area of the bank, and the reliability of the bank is important for future DPF experiments, a failure analysis effort was initiated. Part of this failure analysis effort was an effort to understand the physical reasons behind why the flashover happened, and why it happened in the same place twice. This paper summarizes an effort to simulate the current flow in the bank in order to understand the reasons for the flashover.

  14. Interfacing spin qubits in quantum dots and donors—hot, dense, and coherent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandersypen, L. M. K.; Bluhm, H.; Clarke, J. S.; Dzurak, A. S.; Ishihara, R.; Morello, A.; Reilly, D. J.; Schreiber, L. R.; Veldhorst, M.

    2017-09-01

    Semiconductor spins are one of the few qubit realizations that remain a serious candidate for the implementation of large-scale quantum circuits. Excellent scalability is often argued for spin qubits defined by lithography and controlled via electrical signals, based on the success of conventional semiconductor integrated circuits. However, the wiring and interconnect requirements for quantum circuits are completely different from those for classical circuits, as individual direct current, pulsed and in some cases microwave control signals need to be routed from external sources to every qubit. This is further complicated by the requirement that these spin qubits currently operate at temperatures below 100 mK. Here, we review several strategies that are considered to address this crucial challenge in scaling quantum circuits based on electron spin qubits. Key assets of spin qubits include the potential to operate at 1 to 4 K, the high density of quantum dots or donors combined with possibilities to space them apart as needed, the extremely long-spin coherence times, and the rich options for integration with classical electronics based on the same technology.

  15. Slowing-down of non-relativistic ions in a hot dense plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maynard, G.

    1982-01-01

    The parameter γ (action of the free-electrons of the plasma) was investigated: calculation of the mean value of γ for a great number of monokinetic incident ions and of the dispersion about this mean value, using the random phase approximation; and calculation of the dielectric function. The contribution of the plasma ions to the stopping power was studied and the description of the ion-plasma interaction improved. The slowing-down of an ion at large distance by the bound electrons of an atom was calculated. This study is applied to the ion-plasma interaction in the ion-beam inertial confinement [fr

  16. Super-transition-arrays: A model for the spectral analysis of hot, dense plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar-Shalom, A.; Oreg, J.; Goldstein, W.H.; Shvarts, D.; Zigler, A.

    1989-01-01

    A method is presented for calculating the bound-bound emission from a local thermodynamic equilibrium plasma. The total transition array of a specific single-electron transition, including all possible contributing configurations, is described by only a small number of super-transition-arrays (STA's). Exact analytic expressions are given for the first few moments of an STA. The method is shown to interpolate smoothly between the average-atom (AA) results and the detailed configuration accounting that underlies the unresolved transition array (UTA) method. Each STA is calculated in its own, optimized potential, and the model achieves rapid convergence in the number of STA's included. Comparisons of predicted STA spectra with the results of the AA and UTA methods are presented. It is shown that under certain plasma conditions the contributions of low-probability transitions can accumulate into an important component of the emission. In these cases, detailed configuration accounting is impractical. On the other hand, the detailed structure of the spectrum under such conditions is not described by the AA method. The application of the STA method to laser-produced plasma experiments is discussed

  17. Interaction of powerful hot plasma and fast ion streams with materials in dense plasma focus devices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chernyshova, M.; Gribkov, V. A.; Kowalska-Strzeciwilk, E.; Kubkowska, M.; Miklaszewski, R.; Paduch, M.; Pisarczyk, T.; Zielinska, E.; Demina, E.V.; Pimenov, V. N.; Maslyaev, S. A.; Bondarenko, G.G.; Vilémová, Monika; Matějíček, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 113, December (2016), s. 109-118 ISSN 0920-3796 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12837S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Radiation damageability * Materials tests * Plasma focus * Plasma streams * Ion beams * Laser interferometrya Subject RIV: JF - Nuclear Energetics OBOR OECD: Nuclear related engineering Impact factor: 1.319, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0920379616306858

  18. XFEL resonant photo-pumping of dense plasmas and dynamic evolution of autoionizing core hole states

    OpenAIRE

    Rosmej, F. B.; Moinard, A.; Renner, O.; Galtier, E.; Lee, J. J.; Nagler, B.; Heimann, P. A.; Schlotter, W.; Turner, J. J.; Lee, R. W.; Makita, M.; Riley, D.; Seely, J.

    2016-01-01

    Similarly to the case of LIF (Laser-Induced Fluorescence), an equally revolutionary impact to science is expected from resonant X-ray photo-pumping. It will particularly contribute to a progress in high energy density science: pumped core hole states create X-ray transitions that can escape dense matter on a 10 fs-time scale without essential photoabsorption, thus providing a unique possibility to study matter under extreme conditions. In the first proof of principle experiment at the X-ray F...

  19. Experiments on two-step heating of a dense plasma in the GOL-3 facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astrelin, V.T.; Burdakov, A.V.; Koidan, V.S.; Mekler, K.I.; Mel'nikov, P.I.; Postupaev, V.V.; Shcheglov, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the results of experiments on two-stage heating of a dense plasma by a relativistic electron beam in the GOL-3 facility. A dense plasma with a length of about a meter and a hydrogen density up to 10 17 cm -3 was created in the main plasma, whose density was 10 15 cm -3 . In the process of interacting with the plasma, the electron beam (1 MeV, 40 kA, 4 μs) imparts its energy to the electrons of the main plasma through collective effects. The heated electrons, as they disperse along the magnetic field lines, in turn reach the region of dense plasma and impart their energy to it by pairwise collisions. Estimates based on experimental data are given for the parameters of the flux of hot plasma electrons, the energy released in the dense plasma, and the energy balance of the beam-plasma system. The paper discusses the dynamics of the plasma, which is inhomogeneous in density and temperature, including the appearance of pressure waves

  20. Excitation of hydrogen atom by ultrashort laser pulses in optically dense plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calisti, A. [Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS, PIIM, Marseille (France); Astapenko, V.A. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudnyi (Russian Federation); Lisitsa, V.S. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudnyi (Russian Federation); Russian Research Center ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-10-15

    The features of excitation of a hydrogen atom by ultrashort laser pulses (USP) with a Gaussian envelope in optically dense plasma at a Lyman-beta transition are studied theoretically. The problem is of interest for diagnostics of optically dense media. USP have two doubtless advantages over conventional laser excitation: (a) the USP carrier frequency is shifted to the region of short wavelengths allowing exciting atoms from the ground state and (b) the wide spectrum of USP allows them to penetrate into optically dense media to much longer distances as compared with monochromatic radiation. As actual realistic cases, two examples are considered: hot rarefied plasma (the coronal limit) and dense cold plasma (the Boltzmann equilibrium). Universal expressions for the total probability of excitation of the transition under consideration are obtained in view of absorption of radiation in a medium. As initial data for the spectral form of a line, the results of calculations by methods of molecular dynamics are used. The probability of excitation of an atom is analysed for different values of problem parameters: the pulse duration, the optical thickness of a medium, and the detuning of the pulse carrier frequency from the eigenfrequency of an electron transition. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    What You See Ain't What. You Got, Resonance, Vol.4,. No.9,1999. Dark Matter. 2. Dark Matter in the Universe. Bikram Phookun and Biman Nath. In Part 11 of this article we learnt that there are compelling evidences from dynamics of spiral galaxies, like our own, that there must be non-luminous matter in them. In this.

  2. Time resolved x-ray photography of a dense plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, J.C.; Meyer, J.; Rankin, G.

    1977-01-01

    The temporal development of the hot plasma in a dense plasma focus is studied by x-ray streak photography of approximately 2 ns resolution time. It is shown that initially a uniform x-ray emitting pinch plasma is formed which subsequently cools down until x-ray emission stops after approximately 50 ns. At a time of around 100 ns after initial x-ray emission coinciding with the break-up time of the pinch a second burst of x-rays is observed coming from small localized regions. The observations are compared with results obtained from time-resolved shadow and schlieren photography of a similar dense focus discharge. (author)

  3. X-ray investigations of the hot ISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, W. T.

    1993-01-01

    At energies less than one keV, the intensity of the galactic x-ray background dominates that of the extragalactic background in almost every direction on the sky. Below 1/4 keV, the galactic x-ray background has a galactic stellar component, but the dominant emitter seems to be hot interstellar matter. The origin of the general 3/4 keV x-ray background remains uncertain, but one component must also be the contribution from hot interstellar matter. An overview is given of recent x-ray investigations of the hot interstellar medium using data from the ROSAT X-ray Telescope/Position-Sensitive Proportional Counter (XRT/PSPC) instrument. Several prominent features in the low energy x-ray background that are interpreted as fossil supernova remnants are discussed.

  4. Utilizing hot electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozik, Arthur J.

    2018-03-01

    In current solar cells, any photon energy exceeding the semiconductor bandgap is lost before being collected, limiting the cell performance. Hot carrier solar cells could avoid these losses. Now, a detailed experimental study and analysis shows that this strategy could lead to an improvement of the photoconversion efficiency in practice.

  5. Mechanical shielded hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgy, H.R.; Abdel-Rassoul, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    A plan to erect a mechanical shielded hot cell in the process hall of the Radiochemical Laboratory at Inchas is described. The hot cell is designed for safe handling of spent fuel bundles, from the Inchas reactor, and for dismantling and cutting the fuel rods in preparation for subsequent treatment. The biological shielding allows for the safe handling of a total radioactivity level up to 10,000 MeV-Ci. The hot cell consists of an α-tight stainless-steel box, connected to a γ-shielded SAS, through an air-lock containing a movable carriage. The α-box is tightly connected with six dry-storage cavities for adequate storage of the spent fuel bundles. Both the α-box, with the dry-storage cavities, and the SAS are surrounded by 200-mm thick biological lead shielding. The α-box is equipped with two master-slave manipulators, a lead-glass window, a monorail crane and Padirac and Minirag systems. The SAS is equipped with a lead-glass window, tong manipulator, a shielded pit and a mechanism for the entry of the spent fuel bundle. The hot cell is served by adequate ventilation and monitoring systems. (author)

  6. Couches minces electrochromiques d'oxyde de tungstene dense et poreux pour des applications de controle energetique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camirand, Hubert

    Nanotechnology has modified the landscape of energy generation, energy storage and energy saving devices. Architectural fenestration can extensively benefit from green nanotechnologies. Amongst them, active fenestration or "smart" windows are able to modify their coloration state upon the application of a small electrical voltage, when based on electrochromic materials. In fact, the amount of visible and near-infrared light that can penetrate through the window can be altered. Therefore, their implementation can allow for a significant reduction in energy consumption in buildings. Furthermore, the capability of optimizing indoor comfort is user-controlled, thus an additional degree of freedom is given by electrochromic-based technology. It is worth mentioning that such devices can be largely advantageous in countries with variable seasons, such as here in Canada. As a matter of fact, the large temperature difference between the hot and cold season influences the requirement of impeding or enabling visible and thermal radiation to pass through. This master's thesis is entirely devoted to tungsten trioxide (WO 3), which is the most widely studied electrochromic material. In the present case, WO3 thin films are synthesized by radiofrequency magnetron sputtering. By varying the deposition pressure and power, the porosity content/packing density of the films is modified. This work's main topic is the characterization of electrochromic samples by in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry simultaneously with the application of an electrical voltage in an aqueous electrolytic medium made of sulfuric acid (H2SO 4). The methodology developed here allows for an in-depth study of electro-active materials. To corroborate this, optical properties of WO3 are obtained for a wide range of coloration levels, and these are subsequently used to model the resulting coloration of electrochromic multilayer systems. However, the interface between the dense and porous films affects the coloration

  7. High frequency flow-structural interaction in dense subsonic fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baw-Lin; Ofarrell, J. M.

    1995-01-01

    Prediction of the detailed dynamic behavior in rocket propellant feed systems and engines and other such high-energy fluid systems requires precise analysis to assure structural performance. Designs sometimes require placement of bluff bodies in a flow passage. Additionally, there are flexibilities in ducts, liners, and piping systems. A design handbook and interactive data base have been developed for assessing flow/structural interactions to be used as a tool in design and development, to evaluate applicable geometries before problems develop, or to eliminate or minimize problems with existing hardware. This is a compilation of analytical/empirical data and techniques to evaluate detailed dynamic characteristics of both the fluid and structures. These techniques have direct applicability to rocket engine internal flow passages, hot gas drive systems, and vehicle propellant feed systems. Organization of the handbook is by basic geometries for estimating Strouhal numbers, added mass effects, mode shapes for various end constraints, critical onset flow conditions, and possible structural response amplitudes. Emphasis is on dense fluids and high structural loading potential for fatigue at low subsonic flow speeds where high-frequency excitations are possible. Avoidance and corrective measure illustrations are presented together with analytical curve fits for predictions compiled from a comprehensive data base.

  8. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontius, D.H.; Snyder, T.R.

    1999-09-30

    The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup particulate samples and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract were designed to address problems with filter operation that have been linked to characteristics of the collected particulate matter. One objective of this work was to generate an interactive, computerized data bank of the key physical and chemical characteristics of ash and char collected from operating advanced particle filters and to relate these characteristics to the operation and performance of these filters. The interactive data bank summarizes analyses of over 160 ash and char samples from fifteen pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification facilities utilizing high-temperature, high pressure barrier filters.

  9. Hot Deformation Behavior of Hot-Extruded AA7175 Through Hot Torsion Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Se-Yeon; Jung, Taek-Kyun; Son, Hyeon-Woo; Kim, Sang-Wook; Son, Kwang-Tae; Choi, Ho-Joon; Oh, Sang-Ho; Lee, Ji-Woon; Hyun, Soong-Keun

    2018-03-01

    The hot deformation behavior of hot-extruded AA7175 was investigated with flow curves and processing maps through hot torsion tests. The flow curves and the deformed microstructures revealed that dynamic recrystallization (DRX) occurred in the hot-extruded AA7175 during hot working. The failure strain was highest at medium temperature. This was mainly influenced by the dynamic precipitation of fine rod-shaped MgZn2. The processing map determined the optimal deformation condition for the alloy during hot working.

  10. WARM EXTENDED DENSE GAS AT THE HEART OF A COLD COLLAPSING DENSE CORE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinnaga, Hiroko; Phillips, Thomas G.; Furuya, Ray S.; Kitamura, Yoshimi

    2009-01-01

    In order to investigate when and how the birth of a protostellar core occurs, we made survey observations of four well-studied dense cores in the Taurus molecular cloud using CO transitions in submillimeter bands. We report here the detection of unexpectedly warm (∼30-70 K), extended (radius of ∼2400 AU), dense (a few times 10 5 cm -3 ) gas at the heart of one of the dense cores, L1521F (MC27), within the cold dynamically collapsing components. We argue that the detected warm, extended, dense gas may originate from shock regions caused by collisions between the dynamically collapsing components and outflowing/rotating components within the dense core. We propose a new stage of star formation, 'warm-in-cold core stage (WICCS)', i.e., the cold collapsing envelope encases the warm extended dense gas at the center due to the formation of a protostellar core. WICCS would constitute a missing link in evolution between a cold quiescent starless core and a young protostar in class 0 stage that has a large-scale bipolar outflow.

  11. The dark side of matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, D.

    2003-01-01

    The number of baryons (protons and neutrons) of the universe can be deduced from the relative abundances of light elements (deuterium, helium and lithium) that were generated during the very first minutes of the cosmic history. This calculation has shown that the baryonic matter represents only 5% of the total mass of the universe. As for neutrinos (hot dark matter), their very low mass restraints their contribution to only 0,3%. The spinning movement of galaxies requires the existence of huge quantity of matter that seems invisible (black matter). Astrophysicists have recently discovered that the universal expansion is accelerating and that the space geometry is euclidean, from these 2 facts they have deduced a value of the mass-energy density that implies the existence of something different from dark matter called dark energy and that is expected to represent about 70% of the mass of the universe. Physicists face the challenge of detecting black matter and black energy. The first attempt for detecting black matter began in 1997 when the UKDMC detector entered into service. Now more than half a dozen of detectors are searching for dark matter but till now in vain. A new generation of detectors (CDMS-2, ZEPLIN-2, CRESST-2 and Edelweiss-2) combining detection, new methods of particle discrimination and the study of the evolution of the signal over very long periods of time are progressively entering into operation. (A.C.)

  12. Software Simulation of Hot Tearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S.; Hansen, P.N.; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    1999-01-01

    The brittleness of a solidifying alloy in a temperature range near the solidus temperature has been recognised since the fifties as the mechanism responsible for hot tearing. Due to this brittlenes, the metal will crack under even small amounts of strain in that temperature range. We see these hot...... tears in castings close to hot centres, where the level of strain is often too high.Although the hot tearing mechanism is well understood, until now it has been difficult to do much to reduce the hot tearing tendency in a casting. In the seventies, good hot tearing criteria were developed by considering...... the solidification rate and the strain rate of the hot tear prone areas. But, until recently it was only possible to simulate the solidification rate, so that the criteria could not be used effectively.Today, with new software developments, it is possible to also simulate the strain rate in the hot tear prone areas...

  13. Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) is one of the largest hot cells dedicated to radioactive materials research at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The nation's...

  14. Dense Output for Strong Stability Preserving Runge–Kutta Methods

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.

    2016-12-10

    We investigate dense output formulae (also known as continuous extensions) for strong stability preserving (SSP) Runge–Kutta methods. We require that the dense output formula also possess the SSP property, ideally under the same step-size restriction as the method itself. A general recipe for first-order SSP dense output formulae for SSP methods is given, and second-order dense output formulae for several optimal SSP methods are developed. It is shown that SSP dense output formulae of order three and higher do not exist, and that in any method possessing a second-order SSP dense output, the coefficient matrix A has a zero row.

  15. Baryonic and Non-Baryonic Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Bernard

    2000-01-01

    Cosmological nucleosynthesis calculations imply that there should be both non-baryonic and baryonic dark matter. Recent data suggest that some of the non-baryonic dark matter must be "hot" (i.e. massive neutrinos) and there may also be evidence for "cold" dark matter (i.e. WIMPs). If the baryonic dark matter resides in galactic halos, it is likely to be in the form of compact objects (i.e. MACHOs) and these would probably be the remnants of a first generation of pregalactic or protogalactic P...

  16. Sterile neutrino dark matter with supersymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, Bibhushan; Wells, James D.

    2017-08-01

    Sterile neutrino dark matter, a popular alternative to the WIMP paradigm, has generally been studied in non-supersymmetric setups. If the underlying theory is supersymmetric, we find that several interesting and novel dark matter features can arise. In particular, in scenarios of freeze-in production of sterile neutrino dark matter, its superpartner, the sterile sneutrino, can play a crucial role in early Universe cosmology as the dominant source of cold, warm, or hot dark matter, or of a subdominant relativistic population of sterile neutrinos that can contribute to the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom Neff during big bang nucleosynthesis.

  17. Dense plasma focus - a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tendys, J.

    1976-01-01

    The dense plasma focus (DPF) is a convenient source of short, intense neutron pulses, and dense, high temperature plasma. This review of the literature on the DPF indicates that its operation is still not understood, and attempts to show where the present data is either inadequate or inconsistent. Because the plasma conditions and neutron and x-ray fluxes vary from shot to shot, it is maintained that, to resolve inconsistencies in the present data, spectra need to be measured with energy and time resolution simultaneously, and cannot be built up from a large number of shots. Time resolutions of the order of 1 nsec for pulse lengths of about 100 nsec make these requirements especially difficult. Some theoretical models are presented for the neutron output and its spectrum, but no self-consistent description of the plasma in the focus region is likely for some time. (author)

  18. Highly Dense Isolated Metal Atom Catalytic Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaxin; Kasama, Takeshi; Huang, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    -ray diffraction. A combination of electron microscopy images with X-ray absorption spectra demonstrated that the silver atoms were anchored on five-fold oxygen-terminated cavities on the surface of the support to form highly dense isolated metal active sites, leading to excellent reactivity in catalytic oxidation......Atomically dispersed noble-metal catalysts with highly dense active sites are promising materials with which to maximise metal efficiency and to enhance catalytic performance; however, their fabrication remains challenging because metal atoms are prone to sintering, especially at a high metal...... loading. A dynamic process of formation of isolated metal atom catalytic sites on the surface of the support, which was achieved starting from silver nanoparticles by using a thermal surface-mediated diffusion method, was observed directly by using in situ electron microscopy and in situ synchrotron X...

  19. Deterministic dense coding with partially entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozes, Shay; Oppenheim, Jonathan; Reznik, Benni

    2005-01-01

    The utilization of a d -level partially entangled state, shared by two parties wishing to communicate classical information without errors over a noiseless quantum channel, is discussed. We analytically construct deterministic dense coding schemes for certain classes of nonmaximally entangled states, and numerically obtain schemes in the general case. We study the dependency of the maximal alphabet size of such schemes on the partially entangled state shared by the two parties. Surprisingly, for d>2 it is possible to have deterministic dense coding with less than one ebit. In this case the number of alphabet letters that can be communicated by a single particle is between d and 2d . In general, we numerically find that the maximal alphabet size is any integer in the range [d,d2] with the possible exception of d2-1 . We also find that states with less entanglement can have a greater deterministic communication capacity than other more entangled states.

  20. PHOTOCHEMICAL HEATING OF DENSE MOLECULAR GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glassgold, A. E. [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Najita, J. R. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2015-09-10

    Photochemical heating is analyzed with an emphasis on the heating generated by chemical reactions initiated by the products of photodissociation and photoionization. The immediate products are slowed down by collisions with the ambient gas and then heat the gas. In addition to this direct process, heating is also produced by the subsequent chemical reactions initiated by these products. Some of this chemical heating comes from the kinetic energy of the reaction products and the rest from collisional de-excitation of the product atoms and molecules. In considering dense gas dominated by molecular hydrogen, we find that the chemical heating is sometimes as large, if not much larger than, the direct heating. In very dense gas, the total photochemical heating approaches 10 eV per photodissociation (or photoionization), competitive with other ways of heating molecular gas.

  1. Low temperatures - hot topic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1988-09-15

    Neutrino mass measurements, next-generation double beta experiments, solar neutrino detection, searches for magnetic monopoles and the challenge of discovering what most of the Universe is made of (dark matter), not to mention axions (cosmic and solar), supersymmetric neutral particles and cosmic neutrinos. All this physics could use cryogenic techniques. Thus the second European Workshop on Low Temperature Devices for the Detection of Low Energy Neutrinos and Dark Matter, held at LAPP (Annecy) in May, covered an active and promising field.

  2. Low temperatures - hot topic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    Neutrino mass measurements, next-generation double beta experiments, solar neutrino detection, searches for magnetic monopoles and the challenge of discovering what most of the Universe is made of (dark matter), not to mention axions (cosmic and solar), supersymmetric neutral particles and cosmic neutrinos. All this physics could use cryogenic techniques. Thus the second European Workshop on Low Temperature Devices for the Detection of Low Energy Neutrinos and Dark Matter, held at LAPP (Annecy) in May, covered an active and promising field

  3. Dense-plasma research using ballistic compressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, H.

    1986-01-01

    An introduction is given to research on dense (or nonideal) plasmas which can be generated to advantage by ballistic compressors. Some properties of ballistic compressors are discussed especially in comparison with shock tubes. A short review is given on the history of these devices for high-pressure plasma generation. The present state of the art is reported including research on the two ZIE (Central Institute for Electron Physics) ballistic compressors. (author)

  4. Particle identification system based on dense aerogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnyakov, A.Yu. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Barnyakov, M.Yu. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Technical University, 20, Karl Marx prospect, Novosibirsk, 630092 (Russian Federation); Beloborodov, K.I., E-mail: K.I.Beloborodov@inp.nsk.su [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 2, Pirogova Street, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Bobrovnikov, V.S.; Buzykaev, A.R. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Danilyuk, A.F. [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, 5, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Golubev, V.B. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 2, Pirogova Street, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Gulevich, V.V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Kononov, S.A.; Kravchenko, E.A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 2, Pirogova Street, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Onuchin, A.P.; Martin, K.A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Technical University, 20, Karl Marx prospect, Novosibirsk, 630092 (Russian Federation); Serednyakov, S.I. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 2, Pirogova Street, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); and others

    2013-12-21

    A threshold Cherenkov counter based on dense aerogel with refraction index n=1.13 is described. This counter is used for kaon identification at momenta below 1 GeV/c in the SND detector, which takes data at the VEPP-2000 e{sup +}e{sup −} collider. The results of measurements of the counter efficiency using electrons, muons, pions, and kaons produced in e{sup +}e{sup −} annihilation are presented.

  5. Leeuwpan fine coal dense medium plant

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lundt, M

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Beneficiation 2010, 4–6 May 2010. 671The Journal of The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy VOLUME 110 NOVEMBER 2010 L Leeuwpan fine coal dense medium plant mixed with magnetite in the launder and enters... with production. Plant equipment operational changes Cyclone spigot changes In an attempt to lower the cut-point density, the spigot on the L 672 NOVEMBER 2010 VOLUME 110 The Journal of The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy Figure 1...

  6. Interplay of hot electrons from localized and propagating plasmons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Chung V; Hayashi, Koki; Ito, Yasuo; Gorai, Naoki; Allison, Giles; Shi, Xu; Sun, Quan; Cheng, Zhenzhou; Ueno, Kosei; Goda, Keisuke; Misawa, Hiroaki

    2017-10-03

    Plasmon-induced hot-electron generation has recently received considerable interest and has been studied to develop novel applications in optoelectronics, photovoltaics and green chemistry. Such hot electrons are typically generated from either localized plasmons in metal nanoparticles or propagating plasmons in patterned metal nanostructures. Here we simultaneously generate these heterogeneous plasmon-induced hot electrons and exploit their cooperative interplay in a single metal-semiconductor device to demonstrate, as an example, wavelength-controlled polarity-switchable photoconductivity. Specifically, the dual-plasmon device produces a net photocurrent whose polarity is determined by the balance in population and directionality between the hot electrons from localized and propagating plasmons. The current responsivity and polarity-switching wavelength of the device can be varied over the entire visible spectrum by tailoring the hot-electron interplay in various ways. This phenomenon may provide flexibility to manipulate the electrical output from light-matter interaction and offer opportunities for biosensors, long-distance communications, and photoconversion applications.Plasmon-induced hot electrons have potential applications spanning photodetection and photocatalysis. Here, Hoang et al. study the interplay between hot electrons generated by localized and propagating plasmons, and demonstrate wavelength-controlled polarity-switchable photoconductivity.

  7. Collective dynamics in dense fluid mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, S.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis deals with the short wavelength collective dynamics of dense binary fluid mixtures. The analysis shows that at the level of linearized generalized hydrodynamics, the longitudinal modes of the system separates essentially into two parts - one involves the coupling of partial density fluctuations of the two species and the other involves coupling of longitudinal momentum and temperature fluctuations. The authors have shown that the coupling of longitudinal momentum and temperature fluctuations leads to an adequate description of sound propagation in such systems. In particular, they show that structural disorder controls the trapping of sound waves in dense mixtures. The coupling of the partial density fluctuations of the two species leads to a simple description of the partial dynamic structure factors. The results are in agreement with the molecular dynamics simulations of soft sphere mixtures. The partial density fluctuations are the slowest decaying fluctuations on molecular length scales and it turns out that nonlinear coupling of these slow modes leads to important corrections to the long time behavior of the time correlation functions determining the shear viscosity in dense mixtures

  8. Formation and fragmentation of protostellar dense cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maury, Anaelle

    2009-01-01

    Stars form in molecular clouds, when they collapse and fragment to produce protostellar dense cores. These dense cores are then likely to contract under their own gravity, and form young protostars, that further evolve while accreting their circumstellar mass, until they reach the main sequence. The main goal of this thesis was to study the formation and fragmentation of protostellar dense cores. To do so, two main studies, described in this manuscript, were carried out. First, we studied the formation of protostellar cores by quantifying the impact of protostellar outflows on clustered star formation. We carried out a study of the protostellar outflows powered by the young stellar objects currently formed in the NGc 2264-C proto-cluster, and we show that protostellar outflows seem to play a crucial role as turbulence progenitors in clustered star forming regions, although they seem unlikely to significantly modify the global infall processes at work on clump scales. Second, we investigated the formation of multiple systems by core fragmentation, by using high - resolution observations that allow to probe the multiplicity of young protostars on small scales. Our results suggest that the multiplicity rate of protostars on small scales increase while they evolve, and thus favor dynamical scenarios for the formation of multiple systems. Moreover, our results favor magnetized scenarios of core collapse to explain the small-scale properties of protostars at the earliest stages. (author) [fr

  9. Hybrid-Based Dense Stereo Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, T. Y.; Ting, H. W.; Jaw, J. J.

    2016-06-01

    Stereo matching generating accurate and dense disparity maps is an indispensable technique for 3D exploitation of imagery in the fields of Computer vision and Photogrammetry. Although numerous solutions and advances have been proposed in the literature, occlusions, disparity discontinuities, sparse texture, image distortion, and illumination changes still lead to problematic issues and await better treatment. In this paper, a hybrid-based method based on semi-global matching is presented to tackle the challenges on dense stereo matching. To ease the sensitiveness of SGM cost aggregation towards penalty parameters, a formal way to provide proper penalty estimates is proposed. To this end, the study manipulates a shape-adaptive cross-based matching with an edge constraint to generate an initial disparity map for penalty estimation. Image edges, indicating the potential locations of occlusions as well as disparity discontinuities, are approved by the edge drawing algorithm to ensure the local support regions not to cover significant disparity changes. Besides, an additional penalty parameter 𝑃𝑒 is imposed onto the energy function of SGM cost aggregation to specifically handle edge pixels. Furthermore, the final disparities of edge pixels are found by weighting both values derived from the SGM cost aggregation and the U-SURF matching, providing more reliable estimates at disparity discontinuity areas. Evaluations on Middlebury stereo benchmarks demonstrate satisfactory performance and reveal the potency of the hybrid-based dense stereo matching method.

  10. Hot subluminous star: HDE 283048

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laget, M.; Vuillemin, A.; Parsons, S.B.; Henize, K.G.; Wray, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    The star HDE 283048, located at α = 3/sup h/50/sup m/.3, delta = +25 0 36', shows a strong ultraviolet continuum. Ground-based observations indicate a hot-dominated composite spectrum. Several lines of evidence suggest that the hot component is a hot subdwarf. 2 figures

  11. Microbial hotspots and hot moments in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzyakov, Yakov; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia

    2015-04-01

    increases in C stocks. Consequently, the intensification of fluxes is much stronger than the increase of pools. Maintenance of stoichiometric ratios by accelerated microbial growth in hotspots requires additional nutrients (e.g. N and P), causing their microbial mining from soil organic matter, i.e. priming effects. Consequently, priming effects are localized in microbial hotspots and are consequences of hot moments. Finally, we estimated the contribution of the hotspots to the whole soil profile and suggested that, irrespective of their volume, the hotspots are mainly responsible for the ecologically relevant processes in soil.

  12. Extreme states in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafelski, J.; Frankfurt Univ.

    1981-01-01

    Theory of hot nuclear fireballs consisting of all possible finite size hadronic constituents in chemical and thermal equilibrium is presented. As a complement of this hadronic gas phase characterized by maximal temperature and energy density, the quark bag description of the hadronic fireball is considered. Preliminary calculations of temperatures and mean transverse momenta of particles emitted in high multiplicity relativistic nuclear collisions together with some considereations on the observability of quark matter are offered. (orig.)

  13. Hot chocolate effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, F.S.

    1982-01-01

    The ''hot chocolate effect'' was investigated quantitatively, using water. If a tall glass cylinder is filled nearly completely with water and tapped on the bottom with a softened mallet one can detect the lowest longitudinal mode of the water column, for which the height of the water column is one-quarter wavelength. If the cylinder is rapidly filled with hot tap water containing dissolved air the pitch of that mode may descend by nearly three octaves during the first few seconds as the air comes out of solution and forms bubbles. Then the pitch gradually rises as the bubbles float to the top. A simple theoretical expression for the pitch ratio is derived and compared with experiment. The agreement is good to within the 10% accuracy of the experiments

  14. Hot water reticulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, S. K.

    1977-10-15

    Hot water reticulation (district heating) is an established method of energy supply within cities in many countries. It is based on the fact that heat can often be obtained cheaply in bulk, and that the resultant savings can, in suitable circumstances, justify the investment in a reticulation network of insulated pipes to distribute the heat to many consumers in the form of hot water or occasionally steam. The heat can be used by domestic, commercial, and industrial consumers for space heating and water heating, and by industries for process heat. The costs of supplying domestic consumers can be determined by considering an average residential area, but industrial and commercial consumers are so varied in their requirements that every proposal must be treated independently. Fixed costs, variable costs, total costs, and demand and resource constraints are discussed.

  15. The hot chocolate effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Frank S.

    1982-05-01

    The ''hot chocolate effect'' was investigated quantitatively, using water. If a tall glass cylinder is filled nearly completely with water and tapped on the bottom with a softened mallet one can detect the lowest longitudinal mode of the water column, for which the height of the water column is one-quarter wavelength. If the cylinder is rapidly filled with hot tap water containing dissolved air the pitch of that mode may descend by nearly three octaves during the first few seconds as the air comes out of solution and forms bubbles. Then the pitch gradually rises as the bubbles float to the top. A simple theoretical expression for the pitch ratio is derived and compared with experiment. The agreement is good to within the 10% accuracy of the experiments.

  16. Hot air balloon engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmonds, Ian [Solartran Pty Ltd, 12 Lentara Street, Kenmore, Brisbane 4069 (Australia)

    2009-04-15

    This paper describes a solar powered reciprocating engine based on the use of a tethered hot air balloon fuelled by hot air from a glazed collector. The basic theory of the balloon engine is derived and used to predict the performance of engines in the 10 kW to 1 MW range. The engine can operate over several thousand metres altitude with thermal efficiencies higher than 5%. The engine thermal efficiency compares favorably with the efficiency of other engines, such as solar updraft towers, that also utilize the atmospheric temperature gradient but are limited by technical constraints to operate over a much lower altitude range. The increased efficiency allows the use of smaller area glazed collectors. Preliminary cost estimates suggest a lower $/W installation cost than equivalent power output tower engines. (author)

  17. D matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiu, Gary; Wang Liantao

    2004-01-01

    We study the properties and phenomenology of particlelike states originating from D branes whose spatial dimensions are all compactified. They are nonperturbative states in string theory and we refer to them as D matter. In contrast to other nonperturbative objects such as 't Hooft-Polyakov monopoles, D-matter states could have perturbative couplings among themselves and with ordinary matter. The lightest D particle (LDP) could be stable because it is the lightest state carrying certain (integer or discrete) quantum numbers. Depending on the string scale, they could be cold dark matter candidates with properties similar to that of WIMPs or wimpzillas. The spectrum of excited states of D matter exhibits an interesting pattern which could be distinguished from that of Kaluza-Klein modes, winding states, and string resonances. We speculate about possible signatures of D matter from ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and colliders

  18. The ''hot'' patella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kipper, M.S.; Alazraki, N.P.; Feiglin, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    Increased patellar uptake on bone scans is seen quite commonly but the possible or probable etiologies of this finding have not been previously well described. A review of 100 consecutive bone scans showed that the incidence of bilateral ''hot'' patellae is 15%. Identified etiologies include osteoarthritic degenerative disease (35%), fracture, possible metastatic disease, bursitis, Paget's disease, and osteomyelitis. The value of careful history, physical examination, and radiographs is stressed

  19. Hot nuclei and fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerreau, D.

    1993-01-01

    A review is made of the present status concerning the production of nuclei above 5 MeV temperature. Considerable progress has been made recently on the understanding of the formation and the fate of such hot nuclei. It appears that the nucleus seems more stable against temperature than predicted by static calculations. However, the occurrence of multifragment production at high excitation energies is now well established. The various experimental features of the fragmentation process are discussed. (author) 59 refs., 12 figs

  20. 'Hot particle' intercomparison dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaurin, D.G.L.; Baum, J.W.; Charles, M.W.; Darley, D.P.J.; Durham, J.S.; Scannell, M.J.; Soares, C.G.

    1996-01-01

    Dosimetry measurements of four 'hot particles' were made at different density thickness values using five different methods. The hot particles had maximum dimensions of 650 μm and maximum beta energies of 0.97, 046, 0.36, and 0.32 MeV. Absorbers were used to obtain the dose at different depths for each dosimeter. Measurements were made using exoelectron dosimeters, an extrapolation chamber, NE Extremity Tape Dosimeters (tm), Eberline RO-2 and RO-2A survey meters, and two sets of GafChromic (tm) dye film with each set read out at a different institution. From these results the dose was calculated averaged over 1 cm 2 of tissue at 18, 70, 125, and 400 μm depth. Comparisons of tissue-dose averaged over 1 cm 2 for 18, 70, and 125 μm depth based on interpolated measured values, were within 30% for the GafChromic (tm) dye film, extrapolation chamber, NE Extremity Tape Dosimeters (tm), and Eberline RO-2 and 2A (tm) survey meters except for the hot particle with 0.46 MeV maximum beta energy. The results for this source showed differences of up to 60%. The extrapolation chamber and NE Extremity Tape dosimeters under-responded for measurements at 400 μm by about a factor of 2 compared with the GafChromic dye films for two hot particles with maximum beta energy of 0.32 and 0.36 MeV which each emitted two 100% 1 MeV photons per disintegration. Tissue doses determined using exoelectron dosimeters were a factor of 2 to 5 less than those determined using other dosimeters, possibly due to failures of the equipment. (author)