WorldWideScience

Sample records for hot cell operation

  1. Zirconium Recycle Test Equipment for Hot Cell Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, Emory D.; DelCul, Guillermo Daniel; Spencer, Barry B.; Bradley, Eric Craig; Brunson, Ronald Ray

    2015-01-01

    The equipment components and assembly support work were modified for optimized, remote hot cell operations to complete this milestone. The modifications include installation of a charging door, Swagelok connector for the off-gas line between the reactor and condenser, and slide valve installation to permit attachment/replacement of the product salt collector bottle.

  2. Hot cell verification facility update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titzler, P.A.; Moffett, S.D.; Lerch, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    The Hot Cell Verification Facility (HCVF) provides a prototypic hot cell mockup to check equipment for functional and remote operation, and provides actual hands-on training for operators. The facility arrangement is flexible and assists in solving potential problems in a nonradioactive environment. HCVF has been in operation for six years, and the facility is a part of the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory

  3. Operating experience and radiation protection problems in the working of the radio-metallurgy hot cell facilities at BARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janardhanan, S.; Watamwar, S.B.; Mehta, S.K.; Pillai, P.M.B.; John, Jacob; Kutty, K.N.

    1977-01-01

    The Bhabha Atomic Research Centre at Bombay has six hot cell facilities for radiometallurgical investigations of irradiated/failed fuel elements. The hot cell facilities have been provided with certain built-in safety features, a ventilation system, radiation monitoring instruments for various purposes, a centralised air monitoring system and a central panel for display of various alarms. Procedures adopted for radiation protection and contamination control include : (1) radiation leak test for cells and filter efficiency evaluation before cell activation, (2) practices to be followed by frog suit personnel while working in hot cell areas, (3) receipt and handling of irradiated fuel elements, (4) cell filter change operation, (5) checks on high level drains and (6) effluent discharge and waste shipments. Operating experience in the working of these facilities along with radiation accident incidents is described. Data regarding release of activity during normal cell operations, dose rates during various metallurgical operations and personnel exposures are presented. (M.G.B.)

  4. Preliminary evaluation of rotational Vol-oxidizer for hot cell operation - 5320

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.H.; Lee, J.W.; Cho, Y.Z.; Ahn, D.H.; Song, K.C.

    2015-01-01

    KAERI is developing a mechanical head-end process for pyro-processing. As a piece of the processing equipment, a vol-oxidizer that can handle several tens of kg of HM/batch is under development to supply U 3 O 8 powders to an electrolytic reduction (ER) reactor. To operate a vol-oxidizer in a hot cell, the reactor should be optimized by the mechanical design, and the vol-oxidizer should have a high hull recovery rate. In addition, a vol-oxidizer for hot cell demonstrations that handles the spent fuel of high radiation virulence in a limited space should have a small size and not scatter in its outlet. In this paper, we aim at a preliminary evaluation of a rotational vol-oxidizer for hot cell operation. To evaluate the preliminary situation, we produced a theoretical equation of an optimum reactor size, and verification tests were conducted using an acryl vessel and zircaloy-4 tube according to various weights and lengths. In addition, we predicted the terminal velocity of U 3 O 8 using the terminal velocity of SiO 2 , which will determine the optimum air flux, and through an oxidation experiment, we verified the theory form to detect the existence of U 3 O 8 powder in a discharge filter. In addition, hull separation tests were conducted using a reactor and hulls with a 50 kg HM/batch for the recovery rate of the hulls. The results indicate that we obtained an appropriate air flux so as to not cause U 3 O 8 powder dispersion from using a Stokes equation and density ratio equation prior to the demonstration. The optimum flow and experimental results of the hull separation test have been applied for the design of the demonstration oxidizer, and the operation conditions of the oxidizer were produced. (authors)

  5. Modification of a scanning electron microscope for remote operation in a hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, J.R.; Watson, H.E.; Smidt, F.A. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination of broken fracture specimens is an essential part of the characterization of the failure mode of fracture toughness of specimens. The large specimen mass required for such examinations dictates the use of a shielded facility for performing such examinations on irradiated specimens. This report describes the modification of a commercial SEM for remote operation in a hot cell. The facility is used to examine specimens from several Navy and DOE-sponsored programs conducted at NRL which require the examination of radioactive materials

  6. Standard guide for mechanical drive systems for remote operation in hot cell facilities

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 Intent: 1.1.1 The intent of this standard is to provide general guidelines for the design, selection, quality assurance, installation, operation, and maintenance of mechanical drive systems used in remote hot cell environments. The term mechanical drive systems used herein, encompasses all individual components used for imparting motion to equipment systems, subsystems, assemblies, and other components. It also includes complete positioning systems and individual units that provide motive power and any position indicators necessary to monitor the motion. 1.2 Applicability: 1.2.1 This standard is intended to be applicable to equipment used under one or more of the following conditions: 1.2.1.1 The materials handled or processed constitute a significant radiation hazard to man or to the environment. 1.2.1.2 The equipment will generally be used over a long-term life cycle (for example, in excess of two years), but equipment intended for use over a shorter life cycle is not excluded. 1.2.1.3 The ...

  7. Hot-cell verification facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschenbaum, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    The Hot Cell Verification Facility (HCVF) was established as the test facility for the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) examination equipment. HCVF provides a prototypic hot cell environment to check the equipment for functional and remote operation. It also provides actual hands-on training for future FMEF Operators. In its two years of operation, HCVF has already provided data to make significant changes in items prior to final fabrication. It will also shorten the startup time in FMEF since the examination equipment will have been debugged and operated in HCVF

  8. Experimental evidence of hot carriers solar cell operation in multi-quantum wells heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodière, Jean; Lombez, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.lombez@chimie-paristech.fr [IRDEP, Institute of R and D on Photovoltaic Energy, UMR 7174, CNRS-EDF-Chimie ParisTech, 6 Quai Watier-BP 49, 78401 Chatou Cedex (France); Le Corre, Alain; Durand, Olivier [INSA, FOTON-OHM, UMR 6082, F-35708 Rennes (France); Guillemoles, Jean-François [IRDEP, Institute of R and D on Photovoltaic Energy, UMR 7174, CNRS-EDF-Chimie ParisTech, 6 Quai Watier-BP 49, 78401 Chatou Cedex (France); NextPV, LIA CNRS-RCAST/U. Tokyo-U. Bordeaux, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan)

    2015-05-04

    We investigated a semiconductor heterostructure based on InGaAsP multi quantum wells (QWs) using optical characterizations and demonstrate its potential to work as a hot carrier cell absorber. By analyzing photoluminescence spectra, the quasi Fermi level splitting Δμ and the carrier temperature are quantitatively measured as a function of the excitation power. Moreover, both thermodynamics values are measured at the QWs and the barrier emission energy. High values of Δμ are found for both transition, and high carrier temperature values in the QWs. Remarkably, the quasi Fermi level splitting measured at the barrier energy exceeds the absorption threshold of the QWs. This indicates a working condition beyond the classical Shockley-Queisser limit.

  9. Mechanical shielded hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgy, H.R.; Abdel-Rassoul, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    A plan to erect a mechanical shielded hot cell in the process hall of the Radiochemical Laboratory at Inchas is described. The hot cell is designed for safe handling of spent fuel bundles, from the Inchas reactor, and for dismantling and cutting the fuel rods in preparation for subsequent treatment. The biological shielding allows for the safe handling of a total radioactivity level up to 10,000 MeV-Ci. The hot cell consists of an α-tight stainless-steel box, connected to a γ-shielded SAS, through an air-lock containing a movable carriage. The α-box is tightly connected with six dry-storage cavities for adequate storage of the spent fuel bundles. Both the α-box, with the dry-storage cavities, and the SAS are surrounded by 200-mm thick biological lead shielding. The α-box is equipped with two master-slave manipulators, a lead-glass window, a monorail crane and Padirac and Minirag systems. The SAS is equipped with a lead-glass window, tong manipulator, a shielded pit and a mechanism for the entry of the spent fuel bundle. The hot cell is served by adequate ventilation and monitoring systems. (author)

  10. General reformulation of hot cell complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, G.L. de; Souza, A.S.F. de; Souza, M.L.M. de; Rautenberg, F.A.

    1986-01-01

    The implantation of an operation philosophy without direct intervention of operator during isotope production process in hot cells of the CV-28 cyclotron is presented. The modifications carried out in equipments, systems and installations are described. (M.C.K.)

  11. Multipurpose reprocessing hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, R.D.

    1975-01-01

    A multipurpose hot cell is being designed for use at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant for handling future scheduled fuels that cannot be adequately handled by the existing facilities and equipment. In addition to providing considerable flexibility to handle a wide variety of fuel sizes up to 2,500 lb in weight the design will provide for remote maintenance or replacement of the in-cell equipment with a minimum of exposure to personnel and also provide process piping connections for custom processing of small quantities of fuel. (auth)

  12. Implementation of a Digital Mock-up for Remote Hot cell Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hee Seong; Park, Byung Suk; Kim, Sung Hyun; Kim, Ki Ho; Kim, Ho Dong

    2010-01-01

    A remote manipulation environment that a human operator has to observe is the inner side of a hotcell through a lead grass window which has many obstacles due to many existing 'blind-spots' where are several cameras installed. The lack of visual information when operating in a cluttered environment makes manoeuvering a manipulator very difficult and when this situation is exacerbated by strict time limits for a task completion, then a manipulator and environmental collisions and resultant damage can occur. To cope with these problems, there has been efforts to develop a virtual simulator to validate control programs visually and to establish maintainability-engineering tools that automate generation assembly/disassembly procedures by using Computer Aided Design(CAD) visualization systems with human figure models to virtual reality systems where engineers can interact with the system using virtual input devices. This article introduces a system that can simulate a deployment analysis on a digital mock-up effectively and proposes a scheme to enable an operator to improve a remote manipulation by using a haptic device

  13. A Preliminary Shielding Study on the Integrated Operation Verification System in the Head-End Hot-Cell of the Pyro-processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jinhwam; Kim, Yewon; Park, Se-Hwan; Ahn, Seong-Kyu; Cho, Gyuseong [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Nuclear power accounts for more than 30 percent of power production in Korea. Its significance has annually been increased. Disposal spent fuel containing uranium, transuranic elements, and fission products is unavoidable byproduct of nuclear power production. it is recognized that finding appropriate sites for interim storage of disposal spent fuel is not easy because isolated sites should be required. Pyro-processing technology, Pyro-processing should be operated under high radiation environment in hot-cell structures. Because of this reason, all workers should be unauthorized to access inside the hot-cell areas under any circumstances except for acceptable dose verification and a normal operation should be remotely manipulated. For the reliable normal operation of pyroprocessing, it is noted that an evaluation of the space dose distribution in the hot-cell environments is necessary in advance in order to determine which technologies or instruments can be utilized on or near the process as the Integrated Operation Verification System (IOVS) is measured. Not like the electroreduction and electro-refining hot-cells, the head-end hot-cell equips Camera Radiation Detector (CRD) in which plutonium is securely measured and monitored for the safeguard of the pyro-processing. Results have been obtained using F2 surface tally in order to observe the magnitude of the gamma-ray and neutron flux which pass through the surface of the process cell. Furthermore, T-mesh tally has also been used to obtain the space dose distribution in the headend hot-cell. The hot-cell was divided into 7,668 cells in which each dimension was 1 x 1 x 1m for the T-mesh tally. To determine the position of the CRD and the surveillance camera, divergent approaches were required. Because the purpose of the CRD which contains a gamma-ray detector and a neutron detector is to identify the material composition as the process proceeds, the position in which detectable flux is exposed is required, whereas

  14. The development of synthetic test procedure for hot cell equipment systems in IMEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Sang Bok; Lee, Key Soon; Park, Dae Kyu; Hong, Kwon Pyo; Choo, Yong Sun

    1998-04-01

    Hot cell facility should be confirmed to operation safety through pre-commissioning test after construction. In this report, the detailed procedure of hot cell equipment are described. The contents are as follows: 1. Entrance equipment of hot cell 2. Specimen transportation equipment between hot cells 3. Waste discharge equipment in hot cell 4. Specimen loading equipment to hot cell 5. Interlinking equipment in hot cell. (author). 4 tabs

  15. Construction of an external electrode for determination of electrochemical corrosion potential in normal operational conditions of an BWR type reactor for hot cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar T, J.A.; Rivera M, H.; Hernandez C, R.

    2001-01-01

    The behavior of the corrosion processes at high temperature requires of external devices that being capable to resist a temperature of 288 Centigrade and a pressure of 80 Kg/cm 2 , to give stable and reproducible results of some variable and resisting physically and chemically the radiation. The external electrode of Ag/AgCl fulfils all the requirements in the determination of the electrochemical corrosion potential under normal operational conditions of a BWR type reactor in hot cells. (Author)

  16. Construction of concrete hot cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    The standard is to be applied to rooms (hot cells) which are enclosed by a concrete shield and in which radioactive material is handled by remote control. The rooms may be in facilities for experimental purposes (e.g. development of fuel elements and materials or of chemical processes) or in facilities for production purposes (e.g. reprocessing of nuclear fuel or treatment of radioactive wastes). The standard is to give a design hasis for concrete hot cells and their installations which is to be applied by designers, constructors, future users and competent authorities as well as independent experts. (orig.) [de

  17. Construction of concrete hot cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    The standard is to be applied to rooms (hot cells) which are enclosed by a concrete shield and in which radioactive material is handled by remote control. The rooms may be in facilities for experimental purposes (e.g. development of fuel elements and materials or of chemical processes) or in facilities for production purposes (e.g. reprocessing of nuclear fuel or treatment of radioactive wastes). The standard is to give a design basis for concrete hot cells and their installations which is to be applied by designers, constructors, future users and competent authorities as well as independent experts. (orig.) [de

  18. Decommissioning of the Risoe Hot Cell facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsen, H.

    1991-02-01

    The Hot Cell facility at Risoe has been in active use since 1964. During the years several types of nuclear fuels have been handled and examined: test reactor fuel pins from the Danish reactor DR3, the Norwegian Halden reactor, etc; power reactor fuel pins from several foreign reactors, including plutonium enriched pins; HTGR fuel from the Dragon reactor. All kinds of physical and chemical non-destructive and destructive post irradiation examinations have been performed. Besides, different radiotherapy sources have been produced, mainly cobalt sources. The general object of the decommissioning programme for the Hot Cell facility was to obtain a safe condition for the total building that does not require the special safety provisions. The hot cell building will be usable for other purposes after decommissioning. The facilicy comprised six concrete cells, lead cells, glove boxes, a shielded unit for temporary storage of waste, frogman area, decontamination areas, workshops, various installations of importance for safe operation of the plant, offices, etc. The tasks comprised e.g. removal of all irradiated fuel items, removal of other radioactive items, removal of contaminated equipment, and decontamination of all the cells and rooms. The goal was to decontaminate all the concrete cells to a degree where no loose contamination exists in the cells, and where the radiation level is so low, that total removal of the cell structures can be done at any time in the future without significant dose commitments. (AB)

  19. The hot demonstration operation of the incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Kezhi; Zhang Zhetao; Fan Xianhua; Li Zhenliang

    1991-01-01

    The hot demonstration operation results of the incinerator designed and developed by CIAE described. During the operation, machine oil containing 3 H with the specific activity of 3.7 x 10 4 Bq/L to 3.7 x 10 7 6 Bq/L was burned. The concentration of 3 H in the off-gas after cleaning was about 286 Bq/m 3 . The process parameters, decontamination factors of radionuclides and the results of environmental monitoring and evaluation are also given in this report

  20. Hot cell facilities for post irradiation examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Prerna; Bhandekar, Anil; Pandit, K.M.; Dhotre, M.P.; Rath, B.N.; Nagaraju, P.; Dubey, J.S.; Mallik, G.K.; Singh, J.L.

    2017-01-01

    Reliable performance of nuclear fuels and critical core components has a large bearing on the economics of nuclear power and radiation safety of plant operating personnel. In view of this, Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) is periodically carried out on fuels and components to generate feedback information which is used by the designers, fabricators and the reactor operators to bring about changes for improved performance of the fuel and components. Examination of the fuel bundles has to be carried out inside hot cells due to their high radioactivity

  1. Decommissioning of the Risoe hot cell facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsen, H.

    1992-02-01

    Concise descriptions of actions taken in relation to the decommissioning of the hot cell facility at Risoe National Laboratory are presented. The removal of fissile material, of large contaminated equipment from the concrete cell line and a separate shielded storage facility, and the removal of large contaminated facilities such as out cell parts of a tube transport system between a concrete cell and a lead shielded steel box and a remotely operated Reichert Telatom microscope housed in a lead shielded glove box is described in addition to the initial mapping of radiation levels related to the decontamination of concrete cells. The dose commitment of 17.7 mSv was ascribed to 12 persons in the 2nd half of 1991. The work resulting in these doses was mainly handling of waste together with the frogman entrances in order to repair the in-cell crane and power manipulator. The overall time schedule for the project still appears to be applicable. (AB)

  2. Cooling Grapple System for FMEF hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semmens, L.S.; Frandsen, G.B.; Tome, R.

    1983-01-01

    A Cooling Grapple System was designed and built to handle fuel assemblies within the FMEF hot cell. The variety of functions for which it is designed makes it unique from grapples presently in use. The Cooling Grapple can positively grip and transport assemblies vertically, retrieve assemblies from molten sodium where six inches of grapple tip is submerged, cool 7 kw assemblies in argon, and service an in-cell area of 372 m 2 (4000 ft 2 ). Novel and improved operating and maintenance features were incorporated in the design including a shear pin and mechanical catcher system to prevent overloading the grapple while allowing additional reaction time for crane shutdown

  3. Hot cell design in the vitrification plant China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Yubo; Wang Guangkai; Zhang Wei; Liang Runan; Dou Yuan

    2015-01-01

    In the area of reprocessing and radioactive waste management, gloveboxes and cells are a kind of non-standard equipments providing an isolated room to operate radioactive material inside, while the operator outside with essential biological shield and protection. The hot cell is a typical one, which could handle high radioactive material with various operating means and tight enclosure. The dissertation is based on Vitrification Plant China, a cooperation project between China and Germany. For the sino-western difference in design philosophy, it was presented how to draft an acceptable design proposal of applicable huge hot cells by analysing the design requirements, such as radioprotection, observation, illumination, remote handling, transportation, maintenance and decontamination. The construction feasibility of hot cells was also approved. Thanks to 3D software Autodesk Inventor, digital hot cell was built to integrate all the interfaces inside, which validated the design by checking the mechanical interference. (author)

  4. 14 CFR 25.961 - Fuel system hot weather operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.961 Fuel system hot weather operation. (a) The fuel system must perform satisfactorily in hot weather operation. This... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system hot weather operation. 25.961...

  5. Fastener tightening in a radioactive (hot) cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalk, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    Accurate remote tightening of fasteners in a radioactive (Hot) cell can be a very exasperating experience. Viewing can be difficult (in many places) and work sometimes must be done using mirrors and/or cameras. If electro mechanical manipulators are used, the operator has no ''feel,'' which often can result in cross threading, or improper torquing of fasteners. At the Interim Examination and Maintenance (IEM) Cell, where reactor components from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) are disassembled, these problems are prevalent because three of the IEM Cell walls have no windows. Electric impact wrenches were first proposed and tested for the IEM Cell, but the combined effects of radiation, dry argon atmosphere and poor visibility radically altered the cell tool development philosophy. This change in philosophy is reflected in the development of several simple fastener tightening devices

  6. Fastener tightening in a radioactive (hot) cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalk, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    Accurate remote tightening of fasteners in a radioactive (hot) cell can be a very exasperating experience. Viewing can be difficult (in many places) and work sometimes must be done using mirrors and/or cameras. If electro mechanical manipulators are used, the operator has no feel, which often can result in cross threading, or improper torquing of fasteners. At the Interim Examination and Maintenance (IEM) Cell, where reactor components from the Fast Flux Testing Facility (FFTF) are disassembled, these problems are prevalent because three of the IEM Cell walls have no windows. Electric impact wrenches were first proposed and tested for the IEM Cell, but the combined effects of radiation, dry argon atmosphere and poor visibility radically altered the cell tool development philosophy. This change in philosophy is reflected in the development of several simple fastener tightening devices

  7. Operation of the hot test loop facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, Moon Ki; Park, Choon Kyeong; Won, Soon Yeon; Yang, Sun Kyu; Cheong, Jang Whan; Cheon, Se Young; Song, Chul Hwa; Jeon, Hyeong Kil; Chang, Suk Kyu; Jeong, Heung Jun; Cho, Young Ro; Kim, Bok Duk; Min, Kyeong Ho

    1994-12-01

    The objective of this project is to obtain the available experimental data and to develop the measuring techniques through taking full advantage of the facilities. The facilities operated by the thermal hydraulics department have been maintained and repaired in order to carry out the thermal hydraulics tests necessary for providing the available data. The performance tests for double grid type bottom end piece which was improved on the debris filtering effectivity were performed using the PWR-Hot Test Loop. The CANDU-Hot Test Loop was operated to carry out the pressure drop tests and strength tests of fuel. The Cold Test Loop was used to obtain the local velocity data in subchannel within fuel bundle and to understand the characteristic of pressure drop required for improving the nuclear fuel and to develop the advanced measuring techniques. RCS Loop, which is used to measure the CHF, is presently under design and construction. B and C Loop is designed and constructed to assess the automatic depressurization safety system behavior. 4 tabs., 79 figs., 7 refs. (Author) .new

  8. Design of the integration interface between the EU HCPB TBM and the ITER TBM port plug including hot cell operations for connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuberger, H.; Boccaccini, L.V.; Roccella, R.

    2007-01-01

    In the frame of the activities of the EU Breeder Blanket Programme and of the Test Blanket Working Group, the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed Test Blanket Module- (HCPB-TBM) System is developed. The TBM test schedule foresees four different campaigns for simulation of DEMO relevant conditions, campaign requires a dedicate TBM. Therefore a concept for TBM integration into ITER is designed with attention to simplify the mounting/dismounting operations. This paper presents the status of this concept with regard to the operations in hot cell required to install a new TBM into an equatorial TBM Port Plug (PP). This includes the establishment of the connection for the attachment, supply- and diagnostic lines in the environment of the interface (IF 1) between the TBM rear part and the PP backside shield. The connection of IF 1 has to be designed to cope with a temperature difference between TBM and PP (∝200 K) and the EM-loads during normal operation and disruption scenarios. The reference attachment concept based on shear keys and flexible cartridges is revised to cope with new conditions on the load and at the interface to the PP. According to the latest results of EM analysis, a radial component of the Maxwell forces (due to the ferromagnetic structural material) has been identified as an additional challenging load for the attachment. Furthermore, the replacing operations at IF 1 are influenced by the design of the PP; the recent ITER proposal based on a removable back side shield allows access to the IF 1 from the periphery after the frame of the PP surrounding the TBM is removed. As for the mechanical attachment, the tools and operations for connection of the TBM supply lines (Helium-, Purge- and measurement lines for different purpose depending on the test schedule) are strongly influenced by the restrictions to access IF 1, too. Dismantling of the frame would allow direct access to the interface by e.g. orbital welding tools. The concept for connection of the TBM

  9. Hot Cell Facility (HCF) Safety Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MITCHELL,GERRY W.; LONGLEY,SUSAN W.; PHILBIN,JEFFREY S.; MAHN,JEFFREY A.; BERRY,DONALD T.; SCHWERS,NORMAN F.; VANDERBEEK,THOMAS E.; NAEGELI,ROBERT E.

    2000-11-01

    This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) is prepared in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports, and has been written to the format and content guide of DOE-STD-3009-94 Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports. The Hot Cell Facility is a Hazard Category 2 nonreactor nuclear facility, and is operated by Sandia National Laboratories for the Department of Energy. This SAR provides a description of the HCF and its operations, an assessment of the hazards and potential accidents which may occur in the facility. The potential consequences and likelihood of these accidents are analyzed and described. Using the process and criteria described in DOE-STD-3009-94, safety-related structures, systems and components are identified, and the important safety functions of each SSC are described. Additionally, information which describes the safety management programs at SNL are described in ancillary chapters of the SAR.

  10. Hot Cell Facility (HCF) Safety Analysis Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MITCHELL, GERRY W.; LONGLEY, SUSAN W.; PHILBIN, JEFFREY S.; MAHN, JEFFREY A.; BERRY, DONALD T.; SCHWERS, NORMAN F.; VANDERBEEK, THOMAS E.; NAEGELI, ROBERT E.

    2000-01-01

    This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) is prepared in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports, and has been written to the format and content guide of DOE-STD-3009-94 Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports. The Hot Cell Facility is a Hazard Category 2 nonreactor nuclear facility, and is operated by Sandia National Laboratories for the Department of Energy. This SAR provides a description of the HCF and its operations, an assessment of the hazards and potential accidents which may occur in the facility. The potential consequences and likelihood of these accidents are analyzed and described. Using the process and criteria described in DOE-STD-3009-94, safety-related structures, systems and components are identified, and the important safety functions of each SSC are described. Additionally, information which describes the safety management programs at SNL are described in ancillary chapters of the SAR

  11. Decommissioning of the Risoe Hot Cell facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsen, H.

    1993-02-01

    A concise description of the current status (December 31st, 1992) regarding the decommissioning of the hot cell facility at Risoe National Laboratory is given in this periodic report. During the second half of the year 1992, all remaining fissile material and a large amount of contaminated material were removed, major repair work was carried out on the in-cell crane, the shielded storage facility was decontaminated and sealed, iodine filters in the cell ventilation system were removed, remote cleaning was carried out on three concrete cells to radiation levels acceptable for final cleaning by frogmen, and the remaining work schedule was planned. These processes are briefly described. Some breakdowns of older, but vital equipment (i.e. the in-cell crane and the power manipulator) that was taken into extensive use led to a certain amount of delay. The collective radiation doses during this half-year were no higher than under normal operation of the facility, and amounted to 12 man-mSv ascribed to 14 persons. It was concluded that, when removing old epoxy paint in the cells using paint strippers applied by hand, personnel can wear polythene oversuits, although a technique for remote handling has been developed. Tables illustrate measured radiation levels in cells number 1,4,5 and 6, and a diagram describes the shielded storage facility. (AB)

  12. Hot Cell Window Shielding Analysis Using MCNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, Chad L.; Scates, Wade W.; Taylor, J. Todd

    2009-01-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory Materials and Fuels Complex nuclear facilities are undergoing a documented safety analysis upgrade. In conjunction with the upgrade effort, shielding analysis of the Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF) hot cell windows has been conducted. This paper describes the shielding analysis methodology. Each 4-ft thick window uses nine glass slabs, an oil film between the slabs, numerous steel plates, and packed lead wool. Operations in the hot cell center on used nuclear fuel (UNF) processing. Prior to the shielding analysis, shield testing with a gamma ray source was conducted, and the windows were found to be very effective gamma shields. Despite these results, because the glass contained significant amounts of lead and little neutron absorbing material, some doubt lingered regarding the effectiveness of the windows in neutron shielding situations, such as during an accidental criticality. MCNP was selected as an analysis tool because it could model complicated geometry, and it could track gamma and neutron radiation. A bounding criticality source was developed based on the composition of the UNF. Additionally, a bounding gamma source was developed based on the fission product content of the UNF. Modeling the windows required field inspections and detailed examination of drawings and material specifications. Consistent with the shield testing results, MCNP results demonstrated that the shielding was very effective with respect to gamma radiation, and in addition, the analysis demonstrated that the shielding was also very effective during an accidental criticality.

  13. Decommissioning of the Risoe Hot Cell facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsen, H.

    1994-06-01

    Nuclear fuels have been handled and examined after irradiation by physical and chemical techniques, and radiotherapy sources, mainly 60 Co, have been produced at Risoe National Laboratory since 1964. The aims of decommissioning (during 1990-94, at IAEA Stage 2 level for reactors) were to obtain safe conditions for the remaining parts of the facility and to produce clean space areas for new projects. The facility comprises 6 concrete cells, several lead-shielded steel cells, glove boxes, shielded storage for waste, a remotely operated optical microscope, a frogman area for personnel access to the concrete cells, a decontamination facility, workshops and safety installations. All steel cells, glove boxes and the microscope were emptied and removed. The concrete cells were emptied of fissile material, scientific equipment, general tools and scrap. Decontamination should facilitate waste packing and reduce amount of waste to be stored temporarily at the Risoe waste treatment facility together with highly active waste. The concrete cells were cleaned remotely by wiping, hot spot removal, by mechanical means and vacuum cleaning. The interiors of 2 cells were decontaminated by high pressure water jetting. All master-slave manipulators and part of the contaminated ventilation system at the cells were removed. The cells are left in a non-ventilated state, connected to the atmosphere by an absolute filter. The main contaminants measured before cell closure were 60 Co, 137 Cs and alpha-emitters. Dismantling, decontamination waste disposal and received doses are described. Simple techniques involving low doses were found to be very effective. (AB)

  14. Advanced manipulator system for large hot cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertut, J.; Moreau, C.; Brossard, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    Large hot cells can be approached as extrapolated from smaller ones as wide, higher or longer in size with the same concept of using mechanical master slave manipulators and high density windows. This concept leads to a large number of working places and corresponding equipments, with a number of penetrations through the biological protection. When the large cell does not need a permanent operation of number of work places, as in particular to serve PIE machines and maintain the facility, use of servo manipulators with a large supporting unit and extensive use of television appears optimal. The advance on MA 23 and supports will be described including the extra facilities related to manipulators introduction and maintenance. The possibility to combine a powered manipulator and MA 23 (single or pair) on the same boom crane system will be described. An advance control system to bring the minimal dead time to control support movement, associated to the master slave arm operation is under development. The general television system includes over view cameras, associated with the limited number of windows, and manipulators camera. A special new system will be described which brings an automatic control of manipulator cameras and saves operator load and dead time. Full scale tests with MA 23 and support will be discussed. (author)

  15. 14 CFR 27.961 - Fuel system hot weather operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 27.961 Fuel system hot weather operation. Each suction lift fuel system and other fuel systems with features conducive to... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system hot weather operation. 27.961...

  16. 14 CFR 23.961 - Fuel system hot weather operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system hot weather operation. 23.961... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 23.961 Fuel system hot weather operation. Each fuel system must be free from vapor lock...

  17. 14 CFR 29.961 - Fuel system hot weather operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.961 Fuel system hot weather operation. Each suction lift fuel system and other fuel systems conducive to vapor... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system hot weather operation. 29.961...

  18. Stress Analysis for Mobile Hot Cell Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad Hannan Bahrin; Anwar Abdul Rahman; Mohd Arif Hamzah

    2015-01-01

    Prototype and Plant Development Centre (PDC) is developing a Mobile Hot Cell (MHC) to handle and manage Spent High Activity Radioactive Sources (SHARS), such as teletherapy heads and dry irradiators. At present, there are two units of MHC in the world, one in South Africa and the other one in China. Malaysian Mobile MHC is developed by Malaysian Nuclear Agency with the assistance of IAEA expert, based on the design of South Africa and China, but with improved features. Stress analysis has been performed on the design to fulfill the safety requirement in MHC operation. This paper discusses the loading effect analysis from the radiation shielding materials to the MHC wall structure, roof supporting column and window structure. (author)

  19. Seismic evaluation of a hot cell structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, M.G.; Kot, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    The evaluation of the structural capacity of and the seismic demand on an existing hot cell structure in a nuclear facility is described. An ANSYS finite-element model of the cell was constructed, treating the walls as plates and the floor and ceiling as a system of discrete beams. A modal analysis showed that the fundamental frequencies of the cell walls lie far above the earthquake frequency range. An equivalent static analysis of the structure was performed. Based on the analysis it was demonstrated that the hot cell structure, would readily withstand the evaluation basis earthquake

  20. Radiation protection measures for hot cell sanitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, H.U.; Burck, W.; Dilger, H.

    1983-01-01

    The cell 5 of the Hot Cell Facility of the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (KfK) was to be restored and reequipped after 12 years of operation. The decontamination work was first done remotely controlled and afterwards by 38 persons entering the cell, which took about 2 months. The radiation protection methods and personal dosimetry systems are described. At the beginning of the work the γ-dose rate amounted up to 900 mSv/h. After completion of the remotely controlled decontamination work the γ-dose rate decreased to 1.5 mSv/h. At that time the (α+β-contamination was 10 5 Bq/cm 2 . Till the end of the work the removable activity dropped to 10 2 - 10 3 Bq/cm 2 for β-radiation, to 0.3 - 30 Bq/cm 2 for α-radiation and the local dose rate to about 0.03 mSv/h. During the work the accumulated collective doses were listed for breast, hand, head, gonads and foot. In the figure the development with the time of the doses for breast and hand is shown. During restoration work of the cell the accumulated collective whole-body dose amounted to 30 mSv. (orig.) [de

  1. Hot cells of the Osiris reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jourdain, Jean

    1969-10-01

    Hot cells of the Osiris reactor are β and γ type cells. Their main functions are: the extraction of irradiated samples from experimental assemblies (irradiation loops, experimental devices) used to irradiate them, the reinstallation of experimental setups with irradiated samples, the fractioning of unrecoverable experimental devices, and the removal of irradiated samples and active wastes. Each cell is therefore equipped with means for remote handling, for observation and for removal, and a venting. Each cell may also receive additional equipment, notably for the dismantling of experimental setups. This report presents the cell implantation in the reactor, elements to be handled in cells, the path followed by elements to be handled (arrival, departure, conveyors). It describes the cells (capacity and protection, design and construction, external and internal arrangements) and the cell equipment (remote handling devices, windows, lighting, lifting unit, sound system), and the installed electric power. A realisation planning is provided. An appendix indicates the cost of these hot cells

  2. Preliminary Feasibility Study on the Construction of Steel Hot Cell Facility for Precise Manipulated Examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Sangbok; Kwon, Hyungmun; Kim, Heemoon; Kim, Dosik; Min, Duckkee; Hong, Kwonpyo

    2006-01-01

    Hot laboratory is essential facility to research and develop in the nuclear industries to examine radioactive materials. The post irradiation examinations for irradiated fuels and materials should be mainly conducted in the hot cell facility to protect radiations to operators. Hot cells are divided into a concrete hot cell and a steel hot cell according to the wall materials. Usually a concrete hot cell is applied to test for high level radioactive materials like as a fuel assembly, rods, and large structure specimens, and a steel hot cell for comparatively lower level activity materials in fuel fragments, and small structural materials. A steel hot cell has many benefits in a specimen manipulation, construction and maintenance costs. In recent the test for the irradiated materials is more frequently required a small and precise manipulating examination for higher degree tests of research and developments. Unfortunately hot laboratory facilities in domestics have mainly constituted of concrete hot cells, and not ready for techniques in steel hot cells. In this paper the construction feasibility of steel hot cell facility is preliminary reviewed in the points of the status of domestic facilities, the test demand prospect and detailed plans

  3. WESF hot cells waste minimization criteria hot cells window seals evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walterskirchen, K.M.

    1997-01-01

    WESF will decouple from B Plant in the near future. WESF is attempting to minimize the contaminated solid waste in their hot cells and utilize B Plant to receive the waste before decoupling. WESF wishes to determine the minimum amount of contaminated waste that must be removed in order to allow minimum maintenance of the hot cells when they are placed in ''laid-up'' configuration. The remaining waste should not cause unacceptable window seal deterioration for the remaining life of the hot cells. This report investigates and analyzes the seal conditions and hot cell history and concludes that WESF should remove existing point sources, replace cerium window seals in F-Cell and refurbish all leaded windows (except for A-Cell). Work should be accomplished as soon as possible and at least within the next three years

  4. A State of the Art Report on the Case Study of Hot Cell Decontamination and Refurbishment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, H. J.; Jung, C. H.; Moon, J. K.; Park, G. I.; Song, K. C

    2008-08-15

    As the increase of the operation age of the domestic high radiation facilities such as IMEF, PIEF and DFDF, the necessity of decontamination and refurbishment of hot cells in these facilities is also increased. In the near future, the possibilities of refurbishment of hot cells in compliance with the new regulations, the reuse of hot cells for the other purposes and the decommissioning of the facilities also exist. To prepare against the decontamination and refurbishment of hot cells, the reports on the refurbishment, decommissioning and decontamination experiences of hot cells in USA, Japan, France, Belgium and Great Britain were investigated. ANL of USA performed the project on the decontamination of hot cells. The purpose of the project was to practically eliminate the radioactive emissions of Rn-220 to the environment and to restore the hot cells to an empty restricted use condition. The five hot cells were emptied and decontaminated for restricted use. Chemical processing facility in JAEA of Japan was used for the reprocessing study of spent fuels, hot cells in CPF were refurbished from 1995 for the tests of the newly developed reprocessing process. In a first stage, decommissioning and decontamination were fully performed by the remote operation Then, decommissioning and decontamination were performed manually. By the newly developed process, they reported that the radiation exposure of workers were satisfactorily reduced. In the other countries, they also make an effort for the refurbishment and decontamination of hot cells and it is inferred that they accumulate experiences in these fields.

  5. Decommissioning of the Risoe Hot Cell facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsen, H.

    1994-02-01

    Concise description of progress in hot cell facility decommissioning at Risoe National Laboratory is presented. Removal of the large contaminated equipment has been completed, all the concrete cells have been finally cleaned. The total contamination left on the concrete walls is of the order of 1850 GBq. Preliminary smear tests proved the stack to be probably clean. The delay in project completion seems to be around 7 months, the remaining work being of rather conventional character. (EG)

  6. Decommissioning of the Risoe Hot Cell facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsen, H.

    1991-08-01

    Concise descriptions of actions taken in relation to the decommissioning of the hot cell facility at Risoe National Laboratory are presented. The removal of fissile material, removal and decontamination of large cell internals, and of large equipment such as glove boxes and steel boxes, in addition to dose commitments, are explained. Tables illustrating the analysis of smear tests, constants for contamination level examination, contamination and radiation levels after cleaning and total contamination versus measured radiation are included. (AB)

  7. Safety evaluation report of hot cell facilities for demonstration of advanced spent fuel conditioning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Gil Sung; Choung, W. M.; Ku, J. H.; Cho, I. J.; Kook, D. H.; Park, S. W.; Bek, S. Y.; Lee, E. P.

    2004-10-01

    The advanced spent fuel conditioning process(ACP) proposed to reduce the overall volume of the PWR spent fuel and improve safety and economy of the long-term storage of spent fuel. In the next phase(2004∼2006), the hot test will be carried out for verification of the ACP in a laboratory scale. For the hot test, the hot cell facilities of α- type and auxiliary facilities are required essentially for safe handling of high radioactive materials. As the hot cell facilities for demonstration of the ACP, a existing hot cell of β- type will be refurbished to minimize construction expenditures of hot cell facility. Up to now, the detail design of hot cell facilities and process were completed, and the safety analysis was performed to substantiate secure of conservative safety. The design data were submitted for licensing which was necessary for construction and operation of hot cell facilities. The safety investigation of KINS on hot cell facilities was completed, and the license for construction and operation of hot cell facilities was acquired already from MOST. In this report, the safety analysis report submitted to KINS was summarized. And also, the questionnaires issued from KINS and answers of KAERI in process of safety investigation were described in detail

  8. Decommissioning of the Risoe Hot Cell facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsen, H.

    1993-10-01

    A concise description of the current status of the decommissioning of the hot cell capacity at Risoe National Laboratory is given in this 6th periodic report covering January 1st to June 30th, 1993. All registered and safeguarded fissile material has been removed and the task of cutting and packing scrap material and experimental equipment from the concrete cell line has been completed. Concrete cells 5 and 6 have been finally cleaned and the master slave manipulators removed from them. The major part of the contamination on the shutters and shutter houses were on their horizontal planes and the main contaminant was 137 Cs. Here the surfaces were cleaned by wiping with wet cloths. The method is described. Tables illustrating the resulting contamination levels are included, the density is now low on the shutters. The method of final inn-cell cleaning is explained, and here again tables represent the resulting contamination levels. The work on ''hot spot'' removal and remote cleaning by vacuuming continues on the remaining cells. A collective dose of ca. 16.3 man-mSv was ascribed to 18 persons in the first half of 1993, arising mainly from in-cell work and waste handling. To sum up, the main results from this period are successful removal of last waste from the cells, remote cleaning of cells 2 and 3, final condition for all shutters and shutter housings and final condition for cells 5 and 6. Tables illustrate measured dose rates in detail. (AB)

  9. Implementation of a cabin X-rays in hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berduola, F.; Caral, L.

    2001-01-01

    The Fabrice process for the reconstituted short length irradiated rods in a hot cell was developed by the CEA especially for power ramp testing. This technique requires intricate operations in a hot cell with specially adapted equipment and great skill people. And end plug is inserted under pressure and fitted to the opening end of a cladding tube. The meeting surfaces of the en plug and the opening end are welded by a TIG (tunsten inert gas) process. Nevertheless, somo predominate defects may occur in the end plug weld joints, such as lack of penetration and cavity. So, particular attention must be paid to non-destructive examination in particular X-ray control of welding areas. A radioscopy technique has been applied to the control of TIG welds of the end plugs to rod assemblies in a hot cell mock-up to be tested under realistic geometric conditions. This X-rays method enables immediate monitoring of any welding defaults on a TV screen. A remote positioning system for the Fabrice rod is being developed to position fuel rods below a X-ray source. Radioscopy pictures will be recorded during remote positioning of the rod movement. This document presents the modifications achieved by the constructor in cooperation with our laboratory staff, concerning the nuclearization of the apparatus as well as its implementation in the shielded hot cell n paragraph 2 of the CEA-DEC/SLS/LECA Laboratory in Cadarache. Hot operation of the rod positioner is planned for september 2022 because of recent refurbishing works in the plant. (Author)

  10. Apparatus of hot cell for iodine-123 production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, G.L. de; Rautenberg, F.A.; Souza, A.S.F. de.

    1986-01-01

    The hot cell installation at IEN cyclotron (Brazilian-CNEN) for sup(123)I production is presented. Several devices, such as, tube furnace coupling system, tube furnace driving system, sup(123)I target transfer system, product extraction system, furnace control system, and effluent systems, were constructed and modified for implanting process engineering. The requirements of safety engineering for operation process were based on ALARA concept. (M.C.K.)

  11. Introduction of hot cell facility in research center Rez - Poster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrickova, A.; Srba, O.; Miklos, M.; Svoboda, P.

    2015-01-01

    This poster presents the hot cell facility which is being constructed as part of the SUSEN project at the Rez research center (Czech Republic). Within this project a new complex of 10 hot cells and one semi-hot cell will be built. There will be 8 gamma hot cells and 2 alpha hot cells. In each hot cell a hermetic, removable box made of stainless steel will home different type of devices. The hot cells and semi hot cell will be equipped with devices for processing samples (cutting, welding, drilling, machining) as well as equipment for testing (sample preparation area, stress testing machine, fatigue machine, electromechanical creep machine, high frequency resonance pulsator...) and equipment for studying material microstructure (nano-indenter with nano-scratch tester and scanning electron microscope). An autoclave with water loop, installed in a cell will allow mechanical testing in control environment of water, pressure and temperature. A scheme shows the equipment of each cell. This hot laboratory will be able to cover all the process to study radioactive materials: receiving the material, the preparation of the samples, mechanical testing and microstructure observation. Our hot cells will be close to the research nuclear reactor LVR-15 and new irradiation facility (high irradiation by cobalt source) is planned to be built within the SUSEN project

  12. Waste Handling in SVAFO's Hot Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, Jennifer; Ekenborg, Fredrik; Hellsten, Erik

    2016-01-01

    The decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear installations entails the generation of significant quantities of radioactive waste that must be accepted for disposal. In order to optimise the use of the final repositories for radioactive waste it is important that the waste be sent to the correct repository; that is, that waste containing short-lived radionuclides not be designated as long-lived due to conservative characterisation procedures. The disposal of short-lived waste in a future Swedish repository for long-lived waste will result in increased costs, due to the higher volumetric cost of the disposal as well as costs associated with decades of interim storage before disposal can occur. SVAFO is a non-profit entity that is responsible for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities from historical research and development projects in Sweden. They provide interim storage for radioactive waste arising from research activities until the final repository for long-lived waste is available. SVAFO's offices and facilities are located on the Studsvik site on the east coast of Sweden near the town of Nykoeping. Some of the retired facilities that SVAFO is in the process of decommissioning are located elsewhere in Sweden. The HM facility is a small waste treatment plant owned and operated by SVAFO. The plant processes both liquid and solid radioactive wastes. The facility includes a hot cell equipped with a compactor, a saw and other tools as well as manipulators for the handling and packaging of waste with high dose rates. The cell is fitted with special systems for transporting waste in and passing it out in drums. As with most hot cells there has been an accumulation of surface contamination on the walls, floor and other surfaces during decades of operation. Until recently there has been no attempt to quantify or characterize this contamination. Current practices dictate that after waste is handled in the hot cell it is conservatively designated as long

  13. Development of a hot cell for post-irradiation analysis of nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Selma S.C.; Silva Junior, Silverio Ferreira da; Loureiro, Joao Roberto M. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: selmasallam@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: silvasf@cdtn.br, e-mail: jrmattos@cdtn.br

    2009-07-01

    Post irradiation examinations of nuclear fuels are performed in order to verify their in-service behavior. Examinations are conducted in compact structures called hot cells, designed to attend the different types of tests and analysis for fuel's characterization. The characterization of fuel microstructure is an activity performed in hot cells. Usually, hot cells for microstructural fuel analysis are designed to allow the metallographic and ceramographic samples preparation and after that, microscopical analysis of the fuel's microstructure. Due to the complexity of the foreseen operations, the severe limitations imposed by the available space into the hot cells, the capabilities of the remote manipulation devices, the procedures of radiological protection and the needs to obtain samples with an adequate surface quality for microscopic analysis, the design of a hot cell for fuel samples preparation presents a high level of complexity. In this paper, the methodology used to develop a hot cell facility for nuclear fuel's metallographic and ceramographic samples preparation is presented. Equipment, devices and systems used in conventional sample preparation processes were evaluated during bench tests. After the necessary adjustments and processes adaptations, they were assembled in a mock-up of the respective hot cell, where they were tested in conditions as realistic as possible, in order to improve the operations and processes to be performed at the real hot cells. (author)

  14. Development of a hot cell for post-irradiation analysis of nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Selma S.C.; Silva Junior, Silverio Ferreira da; Loureiro, Joao Roberto M.

    2009-01-01

    Post irradiation examinations of nuclear fuels are performed in order to verify their in-service behavior. Examinations are conducted in compact structures called hot cells, designed to attend the different types of tests and analysis for fuel's characterization. The characterization of fuel microstructure is an activity performed in hot cells. Usually, hot cells for microstructural fuel analysis are designed to allow the metallographic and ceramographic samples preparation and after that, microscopical analysis of the fuel's microstructure. Due to the complexity of the foreseen operations, the severe limitations imposed by the available space into the hot cells, the capabilities of the remote manipulation devices, the procedures of radiological protection and the needs to obtain samples with an adequate surface quality for microscopic analysis, the design of a hot cell for fuel samples preparation presents a high level of complexity. In this paper, the methodology used to develop a hot cell facility for nuclear fuel's metallographic and ceramographic samples preparation is presented. Equipment, devices and systems used in conventional sample preparation processes were evaluated during bench tests. After the necessary adjustments and processes adaptations, they were assembled in a mock-up of the respective hot cell, where they were tested in conditions as realistic as possible, in order to improve the operations and processes to be performed at the real hot cells. (author)

  15. Upgrades of Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory hot cell facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daubert, R.L.; DesChane, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory operates the 327 Postirradiation Testing Laboratory (PITL) and the 324 Shielded Materials Facility (SMF). These hot cell facilities provide diverse capabilities for the postirradiation examination and testing of irradiated reactor fuels and materials. The primary function of these facilities is to determine failure mechanisms and effects of irradiation on physical and mechanical properties of reactor components. The purpose of this paper is to review major equipment and facility upgrades that enhance customer satisfaction and broaden the engineering capabilities for more diversified programs. These facility and system upgrades are providing higher quality remote nondestructive and destructive examination services with increased productivity, operator comfort, and customer satisfaction

  16. Some steps of the dismantling of the hot cell ATTILA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrasson, L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the dismantling, during 2 years and just finished now, of a large hot cell (11.6 m x 5.90 m x 5.80 m) at Fontenay-aux-Roses (France) characterised by an importand irradiation and contamination mean dose rate 7 rads/hr, in some places 20 rads/hr, coming at 98 % from Cesium 137 (beta decay radioisotope). Put into operation in March 1967, the Attila cell was used for spent fuel processing using halogenides [fr

  17. Shielding calculation of a hot cell for the processing of fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.C.S. da; Pina, J.L.S. de; Silva, J.J.G. da.

    1986-12-01

    A dose rate estimation is made for an operator of a lead wall, fission products processing hot cell, in a distance of 50 cm from the emission source, at Brazilian Institute of Nuclear Engineering (IEN). (L.C.J.A.)

  18. Experience of in-cell visual inspection using CCD camera in hot cell of Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, Padi Srinivas; Amudhu Ramesh Kumar, R.; Geo Mathews, M.; Ravisankar, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the selection, customization and operating experience of the visual inspection system for the hot cell of a Reprocessing Plant. For process equipment such as fuel chopping machine, dissolver, centrifuge, centrifugal extractors etc., viewing of operations and maintenance using manipulators is required. For this, the service of in-cell camera is essential. The ambience of the hot cell of Compact facility for Reprocessing of Advanced fuels in Lead cell (CORAL) for the reprocessing of fast reactor spent fuel has high gamma radiation and acidic vapors. Black and white Charge Coupled Device (CCD) camera has been used in CORAL incorporating in-house modifications to suit the operating ambient conditions, thereby extending the operating life of the camera. (author)

  19. Strategic Planning for Hot Cell Closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LANGSTAFF, D.C.

    2001-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor were remediating a large hot cell complex to mitigate the radiological hazard. A Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) closure unit was determined to be located within the complex. The regulator established a challenge to develop an acceptable closure plan on a short schedule (four months). The scope of the plan was to remove all excess equipment and mixed waste from the closure unit, establish the requirements of the legally binding Closure Plan and develop an acceptable schedule. The complex has several highly radioactive tanks, tank vaults, piping, and large hot cells containing complex chemical processing equipment. Driven by a strong need to develop an effective strategy to meet cleanup commitments, three principles were followed to develop an acceptable plan: (1) Use a team approach, (2) Establish a buffer zone to support closure, and (3) Use good practice when planning the work sequence. The team was composed of DOE, contractor, and Washington State Department of Ecology (Regulator) staff. The team approach utilized member expertise and fostered member involvement and communication. The buffer zone established an area between the unregulated parts of the building and the areas that were allegedly not in compliance with environmental standards. Introduction of the buffer zone provided simplicity, clarity, and flexibility into the process. Using good practice means using the DOE Integrated Safety Management Core Functions for planning and implementing work safely. Paying adequate attention to detail when the situation required contributed to the process credibility and a successful plan

  20. Cleanout and decontamination of radiochemical hot cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surma, J.E.; Holton, L.K. Jr.; Katayama, Y.B.; Gose, J.E.; Haun, F.E.; Dierks, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing and employing advanced remote and contact technologies in cleaning out and decontaminating six radiochemical hot cells at Hanford under the Department of Energy's Surplus Facilities Management Program. The program is using a series of remote and contact decontamination techniques to reduce costs and to significantly lower radiation doses to workers. Refurbishment of the cover blocks above the air lock trench reduced radiation exposure in the air lock and cleanout and decontamination of an analytical cell achieved a reduction in radioactive contamination. Nuclear Regulatory Commission-approved Type B burial boxes are also being used to reduce waste disposal costs and radiation doses. PNL is currently decommissioning its pilot-scale radioactive liquid-fed ceramic melter. Special tools have been developed and are being used to accomplish the world's first such effort. 4 refs., 5 figs

  1. Nonequilibrium statistical operator in hot-electron transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, D.Y.; Liu, M.

    1991-09-01

    The Nonequilibrium Statistical Operator method developed by Zubarev is generalized and applied to the study of hot-electron transport in semiconductors. The steady-state balance equations for momentum and energy are derived to the lowest order in the electron-lattice coupling. We show that the derived balance equations are exactly the same as those obtained by Lei and Ting. This equivalence stems from the fact that to the linear order in the electron-lattice coupling, two statistical density matrices have identical effect when they are used to calculate the average value of a dynamical operator. The application to the steady-state and transient hot-electron transport in multivalley semiconductors is also discussed. (author). 28 refs, 1 fig

  2. Introduction of radiation protection and dosimetry in new hot cell facility in research center Rez

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svrcula, P.; Petrickova, A.; Srba, O.; Miklos, M.; Svoboda, P.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the poster is to present radiation protection and dosimetry in the new hot cell facility being constructed as part of the SUSEN project. The hot cell facility is composed of 10 hot cells and 1 semi-hot cell. All shielding is made from steel, the outer wall shielding has thickness of 500 mm, internal wall between hot cells 300 mm with the possibility to extension to 500 mm. The ceiling shielding has a thickness of 400 mm and the floor shielding is 300 mm wide. Shielded windows allow direct view into the hot cells. Their shielding effect is equivalent to 500 mm of steel. The dimension of the window in the control room is 800 mm x 600 mm with a thickness of 900 mm. All important operating data are collected in the central system of hot cells. The system monitors under-pressure level and temperature in each chamber. If necessary it can directly control the ventilation system. Each hot cell is equipped with dose rate probes. The system also measures and evaluates airborne radioactivity in the building

  3. Hot-cell shielding system for high power transmission in DUPIC fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.; Lee, J.; Park, J.; Yang, M.; Park, H.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a newly designed hot-cell shielding system for use in the development of DUPIC (Direct Use of spent PWR fuel In CANDU reactors) fuel at KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute). This hot-cell shielding system that was designed to transmit high power to sintering furnace in-cell from the out-of-cell through a thick cell wall has three subsystems - a steel shield plug with embedded spiral cooling line, stepped copper bus bars, and a shielding lead block. The dose-equivalent rates of the hot-cell shielding system and of the apertures between this system and the hot-cell wall were calculated. Calculated results were compared with the allowable dose limit of the existing hot-cell. Experiments for examining the temperature changes of the shielding system developed during normal furnace operation were also carried out. Finally, gamma-ray radiation survey experiments were conducted by Co-60 source. It is demonstrated that, from both calculated and experimental results, the newly designed hot-cell shielding system meets all the shielding requirements of the existing hot-cell facility, enabling high power transmission to the in-cell sintering furnace. (author)

  4. Automation in nuclear hot cells (Paper No. 020)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, B.C.; Chougule, A.S.; Radke, M.G.; Ramaswamy, N.V.; Ramkumar, M.S.

    1987-02-01

    Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) in Trombay produces radioactive sources for a wide variety of uses in industry, agriculture and medicine, both within the country and abroad. The production and delivery of the radioactive sources in a form, ready for the end use, entails a number of operations, most of which are to be done with remote handling facilities, to maintain the prescribed biological shield to protect the operators. One of the repetitive operation among these which has to be done inside a concrete shielded hot-cell is the picking up of tiny radioactive wafers of iridium as small as 2.5mm dia., 0.3mm thick placing them in the required numbers to make up the total activity inside a capsule, closing the capsule with a top lid and finally welding the capsule. For doing this job remotely, recourse had to be taken to the use of master-slave manipulators (MSM), needing highly skilled operators to handle it for such delicate jobs repetitively. The operations for this repetitive job unlike most of other hot-cell operations, can be structured for machine operation and also fully automated. An automated system synthesising electromechanical, pneumatic and welding operations developed by the Division of Remote Handling and Robotics, BARC is described here. This relieves the operator of a number of jobs, to be repetitively done by MSM which would be strenous and taxing on account of the extremely small sizes of the pellets and wafers when they are to be handled, by remote indirect means with reliance on the master slave manipulators. A description of the automated system is given. (author). 3 figs

  5. Reversible electron–hole separation in a hot carrier solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limpert, S; Bremner, S; Linke, H

    2015-01-01

    Hot-carrier solar cells are envisioned to utilize energy filtering to extract power from photogenerated electron–hole pairs before they thermalize with the lattice, and thus potentially offer higher power conversion efficiency compared to conventional, single absorber solar cells. The efficiency of hot-carrier solar cells can be expected to strongly depend on the details of the energy filtering process, a relationship which to date has not been satisfactorily explored. Here, we establish the conditions under which electron–hole separation in hot-carrier solar cells can occur reversibly, that is, at maximum energy conversion efficiency. We thus focus our analysis on the internal operation of the hot-carrier solar cell itself, and in this work do not consider the photon-mediated coupling to the Sun. After deriving an expression for the voltage of a hot-carrier solar cell valid under conditions of both reversible and irreversible electrical operation, we identify separate contributions to the voltage from the thermoelectric effect and the photovoltaic effect. We find that, under specific conditions, the energy conversion efficiency of a hot-carrier solar cell can exceed the Carnot limit set by the intra-device temperature gradient alone, due to the additional contribution of the quasi-Fermi level splitting in the absorber. We also establish that the open-circuit voltage of a hot-carrier solar cell is not limited by the band gap of the absorber, due to the additional thermoelectric contribution to the voltage. Additionally, we find that a hot-carrier solar cell can be operated in reverse as a thermally driven solid-state light emitter. Our results help explore the fundamental limitations of hot-carrier solar cells, and provide a first step towards providing experimentalists with a guide to the optimal configuration of devices. (paper)

  6. Radiation dose assessment of ACP hot cell in accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kook, D. H.; Jeong, W. M.; Koo, J. H.; Jeo, I. J.; Lee, E. P.; Ryu, K. S.

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced spent fuel Condition in Process(ACP) is under development for the effective management of spent fuel which had been generated in nuclear plants. The ACP needs a hot cell where most operations will be performed. To give priority to the environments safety, radiation doses evaluations for the radioactive nuclides in accident cases were preliminarily performed with the meteorological data around facility site. Fire accident prevails over several accidnets. Internal Dose and External Dose evaluation according to short dispersion data for that case show a safe margin for regulation limits and SAR limit of IMEF where this facility will be constructed

  7. Dismantling of an alpha contaminated hot cell at the Marcoule Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachon, M.

    1988-01-01

    For the remodeling of Marcoule Pilot Plant, the cell 82: old unit for plutonium solution purification by extraction, was dismantled. About 42 tons of wastes were evacuated. Some wastes wen decontaminated by mechanical means other wastes with higher residual activity were stored for subsequent processing. The operation shows that dismantling of a hot cell is possible even if incorporated in an operating plant [fr

  8. Standard guide for hot cell specialized support equipment and tools

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 Intent: 1.1.1 This guide presents practices and guidelines for the design and implementation of equipment and tools to assist assembly, disassembly, alignment, fastening, maintenance, or general handling of equipment in a hot cell. Operating in a remote hot cell environment significantly increases the difficulty and time required to perform a task compared to completing a similar task directly by hand. Successful specialized support equipment and tools minimize the required effort, reduce risks, and increase operating efficiencies. 1.2 Applicability: 1.2.1 This guide may apply to the design of specialized support equipment and tools anywhere it is remotely operated, maintained, and viewed through shielding windows or by other remote viewing systems. 1.2.2 Consideration should be given to the need for specialized support equipment and tools early in the design process. 1.2.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conv...

  9. Characterisation study of radionuclides in Hot Cell Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghare, P.T.; Rath, D.P.; Govalkar, Atul; Mukherjee, Govinda; AniIKumar, S.; Yadav, R.K.B.; Mallik, G.K.

    2016-01-01

    Examination of different types of experimental as well as power reactor irradiated fuels and validation of fuel modeling codes is carried out in general Hot cell facility. The Hot cell facility has six concrete shielded hot cells, capable of handling radioactivity varying from 3.7 TBQ to 3700 TBq gamma activity. The facility was augmented with two hot cells having designed capacity to handle radioactivity of 9250 TBQ of equivalent activity of 60 Co. The study of characterization of various radionuclides present inside the hot cell of PIE facility was taken up. This study will help in providing valuable inputs for various radiological safety parameters to keep personnel exposure to ALARA level as per the mandate of radiation safety program

  10. Handling of Highly Radioactive Radiation Sources in a Hot Cell Using a Mechanically Driven Cell Crane - 13452

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klute, Stefan; Huber, Wolfgang-Bruno [Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH, Am Taubenfeld 25/1, 69123 Heidelberg (Germany); Meyer, Franz [Nuclear Engineering Seibersdorf GmbH, 2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)

    2013-07-01

    In 2010, Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH was awarded the contract for design and erection of a Hot Cell for handling and storage of highly radioactive radiation sources. This Hot Cell is part of a new hot cell laboratory, constructed for the NHZ (Neues Handhabungszentrum = New Handling Center) of the Nuclear Engineering Seibersdorf GmbH (NES). All incurring radioactive materials from Austria are collected in the NHZ, where they are safely conditioned and stored temporarily until their final storage. The main tasks of the NES include, apart from the collection, conditioning and storage of radioactive waste, also the reprocessing and the decontamination of facilities and laboratories originating from 45 years of research and development at the Seibersdorf site as well as the operation of the Hot Cell Laboratory [1]. The new Hot Cell Laboratory inside the NHZ consists of the following room areas: - One hot cell, placed in the center, for remote controlled, radiation protected handling of radioactive materials, including an integrated floor storage for the long-term temporary storage of highly radioactive radiation sources; - An anteroom for the loading and unloading of the hot cell; - One control room for the remote controlling of the hot cell equipment; - One floor storage, placed laterally to the hot cell, for burial, interim storage and removal of fissionable radioactive material in leak-proof packed units in 100 l drums. The specific design activity of the hot cell of 1.85 Pbq relating to 1-Me-Radiator including the integrated floor storage influences realization and design of the components used in the cell significantly. (authors)

  11. Computer control of ET-RR-1 hot cell manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effat, A.M.; Rahman, F.A.

    1990-01-01

    The hot cell designed for remote handling of radioactive materials are, in effect, integral systems of safety devices for attaining adequate radiological protection for the operating personnel. Their operation involve potential hazards that are sometimes of great magnitude. The effect of an incident or accident could thus be fatal. some of these incident are due to the collision of the manipulator slave side with the radioactive objectives. Therefore in order to minimize the probability of such type of incidents, the movement of the manipulators is suggested (in the present investigation) to be kept under computer control. A model have been developed to control the movement of the hot cell manipulators in the slave side for Egypt first research reactor ET-RR-1, specially in the hidden sectors. The model is based on the use of a microprocessor and some accessories fixed to the manipulators slave side in a special manner such that it prevents the manipulator from colliding with radioactive objects. This is achieved by a signal transmitted to a specially designed brake which controls the movement of the upper arm of the manipulator master side. The hardware design of the model as well as the software are presented in details

  12. Development of Radioactive Substance Contamination Diffusion Preventive Equipment for a Hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Yong Sun; Kim, Do Sik; Baik, Seung Je; Yoo, Byung Ok; Kim, Ki Ha; Lee, Eun Pyo; Ahn, Sang Bok; Ryu, Woo Seok

    2009-01-01

    The hot cell of irradiated materials examination facility (IMEF), which has been operating since 1996, is generally contaminated by the radioactive nuclides of irradiated nuclear fuels and structural steels like Cs-137, Co-60, Co-134 and Ru-106. Especially Cs-137 is a main contaminated radioactive isotope which is easily moved here and there due to air flow in the hot cell, water-soluble, extremely toxic, and has a half-life of 30.23 years. To repair or fix the abnormal function of test apparatus installed in the hot cell, the maintenance door, so called a rear door and located at an intervention area, is opened to enter the hot cell inside. In a moment of opening the maintenance door, dirty air diffusion from the hot cell to an intervention area could be occurred in spite of increasing the rpm of exhaust fan to maintain much low under pressure, but an adjacent area to a maintenance door, i.e. intervention area, is very severely contaminated due to the unpredictable air flow. In this paper, the development of the radioactive substance contamination diffusion preventive equipment for a hot cell is studied to prevent dirty and toxic gaseous radioactive nuclides diffusion from a hot cell and installed at an intervention area of IMEF

  13. Hot laboratory in Saclay. Equipment and radio-metallurgy technique of the hot lab in Saclay. Description of hot cell for handling of plutonium salts. Installation of an hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazire, R.; Blin, J.; Cherel, G.; Duvaux, Y.; Cherel, G.; Mustelier, J.P.; Bussy, P.; Gondal, G.; Bloch, J.; Faugeras, P.; Raggenbass, A.; Raggenbass, P.; Fufresne, J.

    1959-01-01

    Describes the conception and installation of the hot laboratory in Saclay (CEA, France). The construction ended in 1958. The main aim of this laboratory is to examine fuel rods of EL2 and EL3 as well as nuclear fuel studies. It is placed in between both reactors. In a first part, the functioning and specifications of the hot lab are given. The different hot cells are described with details of the ventilation and filtration system as well as the waste material and effluents disposal. The different safety measures are explained: description of the radiation protection, decontamination room and personnel monitoring. The remote handling equipment is composed of cutting and welding machine controlled with manipulators. Periscopes are used for sight control of the operation. In a second part, it describes the equipment of the hot lab. The unit for an accurate measurement of the density of irradiated uranium is equipped with an high precision balance and a thermostat. The equipment used for the working of irradiated uranium is described and the time length of each operation is given. There is also an installation for metallographic studies which is equipped with a manipulation bench for polishing and cleaning surfaces and a metallographic microscope. X-ray examination of uranium pellets will also be made and results will be compared with those of metallography. The last part describes the hot cells used for the manipulation of plutonium salts. The plutonium comes from the reprocessing plant and arrived as a nitric solution. Thus these cells are used to study the preparation of plutonium fluorides from nitric solution. The successive operations needed are explained: filtration, decontamination and extraction with TBP, purification on ion exchangers and finally formation of the plutonium fluorides. Particular attention has been given to the description of the specifications of the different gloveboxes and remote handling equipment used in the different reaction steps and

  14. Milestones Towards Hot CMC Structures for Operational Space Rentry Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hald, H.; Weihs, H.; Reimer, T.

    2002-01-01

    little nose cap had been developed and tested during the EXPRESS mission in 1995. These three flight tests were the first ones in Europe carried out with such a kind of material and hot structural concept and manifold lessons learned w.r.t. material behaviour and structural design performance under the severe environment conditions of ballistic capsule reentry could be achieved. Within an ESA program called FESTIP we developed a new design concept for a rigid surface TPS based on CMC's which should be adaptable to the outer side of a cryogenic tank structure of a future SSTO vehicle. Special TPS concept features are (flat) integral stiffened CMC panels, hot CMC fasteners for outside attachment capability, thermal displacement compensation, sealing and insulation, provision of a purge gap etc. Two test samples have been constructed and manufactured in close cooperation with industrial companies and finally they were tested very successfully under realistic thermal and mechanical loading conditions. A further key technology is high temperature fastening of shell like CMC components; here two new CMC based fastener concepts featuring a combination of screwing and riveting methods could be developed and qualified even under high temperature fatigue loads within ESA and national German programs. In addition high temperature testing technology has been matured over years and some extraordinary tests of components like the EMA bearing for the X-38 body flaps designed and manufactured by MAN-T could be tested very successfully. Finally these developments put DLR in the position to develop and provide the nose cap system for X-38 from NASA and some of the most demanding basic features will be highlighted briefly (details in a separate paper). Reflecting the described developments and considering near future programs like CRV and other ongoing experimental developments it is obvious that we now entered a state of transition from basic technology development towards operational use

  15. Qualification of a production and packaging hot cell for sodium pertechnetate Tc 99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavero, Luis; Robles, Anita; Miranda, Jesus; Martinez, Ramos; Paragulla, Wilson; Moore, Mariel; Herrera, Jorge; Ocana, Elias; Portilla, Arturo; Otero, Manuel; Novoa, Carlos; Koga, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    It was designed and implemented a protocol for a hot cell of production and packaging of sodium pertechnetate Tc 99m, in a two-step process: installation qualification (IQ) and operation qualification (OQ). In the IQ design specifications and user requirements and associated equipment and materials by traceable documentation was verified. In the OQ scheduled for operation and control sequences it was verified plus operational tests recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and ISO 14644-1 and 3 were performed to clean areas. The results showed that the hot cell complies with the classification for Grades C and A for the preparation and packaging of Tc 99m. (authors).

  16. Conceptual design report of hot cell modification and process for fission Mo-99 production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Ho; Choung, W. M.; Lee, K. I.; Hwang, D. S.; Kim, Y. K.; Park, K. B.; Jung, Y. J.; Kim, D. S.; Park, Y. C.

    2001-05-01

    In this conceptual design report, the basic data and design guides for detail design of fission Mo-99 production process and hot cell modification are included.The basic data and design guides for detail design of fission Mo-99 production process contains following contents. -design capacity, the basic process, process flow diagram, process material balance, process data. The basic data and design guides for modification of existing hot cell contains following contents. - plot plan of hot cell facility, the plan for shield reinforcement of hot cell, the plan for management and storage of high level liquid wastes, the plan of ventilation system, the plan for modification of auxiliary facilities. And also, the results of preliminary safety analysis(normal operation and accidents) and criticality analysis are included in this conceptual design report

  17. Conceptual design report of hot cell modification and process for fission Mo-99 production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Ho; Choung, W. M.; Lee, K. I.; Hwang, D. S.; Kim, Y. K.; Park, K. B.; Jung, Y. J.; Kim, D. S.; Park, Y. C

    2001-05-01

    In this conceptual design report, the basic data and design guides for detail design of fission Mo-99 production process and hot cell modification are included.The basic data and design guides for detail design of fission Mo-99 production process contains following contents. -design capacity, the basic process, process flow diagram, process material balance, process data. The basic data and design guides for modification of existing hot cell contains following contents. - plot plan of hot cell facility, the plan for shield reinforcement of hot cell, the plan for management and storage of high level liquid wastes, the plan of ventilation system, the plan for modification of auxiliary facilities. And also, the results of preliminary safety analysis(normal operation and accidents) and criticality analysis are included in this conceptual design report.

  18. Linear thermal expansion coefficient measurement technology in hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Dae Gyu; Choo, Yong Sun; Ahn, Sang Bok; Hong, Kwon Pyo; Lee, K. S.

    1998-06-01

    To establish linear thermal expansion coefficient measurement technology in hot cell, we reviewed and evaluated various measuring technology by paper and these were compared with the data produced with pre-installed dilatometer in hot cell. Detailed contents are as follows; - The theory of test. - Review of characteristics for various measurement technology and compatibility with hot cell. - Review of standard testing regulations(ASTM). - System calibration of pre-installed dilatometer. - Performance test of pre-installed dilatometer. (author). 12 refs., 15 tabs., 8 figs

  19. Estimation of radiation exposure for hot cell workers during DUPIC fuel fabrication process in IMEF M6 cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Yong Bum; Baek, Sang Yeol; Park, Dae Kyu

    1997-06-01

    DUPIC(Direct Use of spent PWR fuel In CANDU) fuel cycle to utilize the PWR spent fuel in fabricating CANDU fuel, which is expected to reduce not only the total amount of high level radwastes but the energy sources is underway. IMEF M6 cell to be used as DUPIC fuel fabrication facility is refurbished and retrofitted. Radiation exposure for the hot cell worker by dispersion of the radioactive materials during the DUPIC process were estimated on the basis of the hot cell design information. According to the estimation results, DUPIC fuel fabrication process could be run without any severe impacts to the hot cell workers when the ventilation system to maintain the sufficient pressure difference between hotcell and working area and radiation monitoring system is supports the hot cell operation properly. (author). 4 tabs., 6 figs.

  20. Reliance Cell Operator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Reliance Cell Operator. Reliance was the only bidder for cellular licences for Assam and NE. Services allowed only in Guwahati and Shillong due to “security reasons”. Only major cities in the country with only one operator.

  1. New facilities of the ECN hot cell laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duijves, K.A.; Konings, R.J.M.

    1996-04-01

    A description is given of two recent expansions of the ECN Hot Cell Laboratory in Petten; a production facility for molybdenum-99 and an actinide laboratory, a special facility to investigate unirradiated alpha- and beta-active samples. (orig.)

  2. Refurbishment of an Analytical Laboratory Hot Cell Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, K.; Henslee, S.P.; Michelbacher, J.A.; Coleman, R.M.

    1997-01-01

    An Analytical Laboratory Hot Cell (ALHC) Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) was in service for nearly thirty years. In order to comply with DOE regulations governing such facilities and meet ANL-W programmatic requirements, a major refurbishment effort was undertaken. All penetrations within the facility were sealed; the ventilation system was redesigned, upgraded and replaced; the manipulators were replaced; the hot cell windows were removed, refurbished, and reinstalled; all hot cell utilities were replaced; a lead-shielded glovebox housing an Inductively Coupled Plasma - Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES) System was interfaced with the hot cells, and a new CO2 fire suppression system and other ALHC support equipment were installed

  3. Engineering hot-cell windows for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, K.R.; Courtney, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    Radiation protection considerations in the design and construction of hot-cell windows are discussed. The importance of evaluating the potential gamma spectra and neutron source terms is stressed. 11 references

  4. The development on electric discharge machine for hot cell usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Sang Bok; Kim, Young Suk; Park, Dae Kyu; Choo, Yong Sun; Oh, Wan Ho

    1998-06-01

    The electric discharge machine(EDM) was developed for hot cell usages in IMEF. This machine will be used to fabricate specimen directly from irradiated components from NPP's. The detailed contents are as follows; 1. Outline of electric discharge machine 2. Specimen shape to be fabricated by EDM 3. Technical specification to manufacture EDM 4. Installation EDM in hot cell 5. Optimum discharge conditions to fabricate specimens from CANDU tube. (author). 4 tabs., 20 figs

  5. Conceptual layout design of CFETR Hot Cell Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Zheng, E-mail: gongz@mail.ustc.edu.cn [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Qi, Minzhong, E-mail: qiminzhong@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Cheng, Yong, E-mail: chengyong@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Song, Yuntao, E-mail: songyt@ipp.ac.cn [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • This article proposed a conceptual layout design for CFETR. • The design principles are to support efficient maintenance to ensure the realization of high duty time. • The preliminary maintenance process and logistics are described in detail. • Life cycle management, maneuverability, risk and safety are in the consideration of design. - Abstract: CFETR (China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor) is new generation of Tokomak device beyond EAST in China. An overview of hot cell layout design for CFETR has been proposed by ASIPP&USTC. Hot Cell, as major auxiliary facility, not only plays a pivotal role in supporting maintenance to meet the requirements of high duty time 0.3–0.5 but also supports installation and decommissioning. Almost all of the Tokomak devices are lateral handling internal components like ITER and JET, but CFETR maintain the blanket module from 4 vertical ports, which is quite a big challenge for the hot cell layout design. The activated in-vessel components and several diagnosis instruments will be repaired and refurbished in the Hot Cell Facility, so the appropriate layout is very important to the Hot Cell Facility to ensure the high duty time, it is divided into different parts equipped with a variety of RH equipment and diagnosis devices based on the functional requirements. The layout of the Hot Cell Facility should make maintenance process more efficient and reliable, and easy to service and rescue when a sudden events taking place, that is the capital importance issue considered in design.

  6. Quantitative experimental assessment of hot carrier-enhanced solar cells at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dac-Trung; Lombez, Laurent; Gibelli, François; Boyer-Richard, Soline; Le Corre, Alain; Durand, Olivier; Guillemoles, Jean-François

    2018-03-01

    In common photovoltaic devices, the part of the incident energy above the absorption threshold quickly ends up as heat, which limits their maximum achievable efficiency to far below the thermodynamic limit for solar energy conversion. Conversely, the conversion of the excess kinetic energy of the photogenerated carriers into additional free energy would be sufficient to approach the thermodynamic limit. This is the principle of hot carrier devices. Unfortunately, such device operation in conditions relevant for utilization has never been evidenced. Here, we show that the quantitative thermodynamic study of the hot carrier population, with luminance measurements, allows us to discuss the hot carrier contribution to the solar cell performance. We demonstrate that the voltage and current can be enhanced in a semiconductor heterostructure due to the presence of the hot carrier population in a single InGaAsP quantum well at room temperature. These experimental results substantiate the potential of increasing photovoltaic performances in the hot carrier regime.

  7. Decommissioning of hot cells using a hydraulically powered servo manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asquith, J.D.; Loughborough, D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the preparations and initial trials involved in remotely dismantling the containment boxes within two concrete shielded hot cells at Harwell Laboratory using a hydraulically powered servo manipulator, ARTISAN. The manipulator deploys a variety of tools for cutting operations. The modular design has enabled it to be specifically configured for this application by adjusting the link lengths using spacers between the joints. In addition to the remote handling requirements, a new posting and ventilation system for the facility is outlined. Trials with ARTISAN in an in-active mock-up have now been successfully completed, and the manipulator is installed in the active facility. The considerations and approach adopted in this project are typical of many situations where remote techniques are required for decommissioning activities. (author)

  8. Development of remote electrochemical decontamination for hot cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, A.D.; Lain, M.J.; Fletcher, P.A.; Dawson, R.K.; Pottinger, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    The primary aim of the programme is to develop and evaluate remote electrochemical decontamination systems for metal surfaces. The bulk of the waste volume should be reduced to a reuse or low-level waste disposal category, while concentrating most of the activity in a small volume suitable for immobilisation. The goal of the development programme is to test these techniques in both alpha-active and alpha-beta-gamma hot cells in order to ascertain their usefulness as a component of an overall decommissioning strategy. As a result of the radiological environment, particular emphasis will be placed on remote operation in order to reduce occupational radiation exposure. Two types of technique based on the electrochemical dissolution of thin surface layers of the substrate will be investigated: immersion of small items in tanks for electroetching and in situ electropolishing. In both cases, reagents will be chosen with their subsequent disposal in mind. (Author)

  9. Design Report for ACP Hot Cell Rear Door

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku, J. H.; Kwon, K. C.; Choung, W. M.; Cho, I. J.; Kook, D. H.; Lee, W. K.; You, G. S.; Lee, E. P.; Park, S. W

    2005-12-15

    A hot-cell facility was constructed at the IMEF building for the demonstrate ACP process. ACP hot-cell consists of process cell and maintenance cell, and each cell has rear door. Since this facility was constructed at basement floor, all process materials, equipment and radioactive materials are take in and out through the rear door. Also, this door can be an access route of workers for the maintenance works. Therefore ACP hot-cell rear doors must maintain the radiation shielding, sealing, mechanical and structural safety. This report presents design criteria, design contents of each part and driving part. It was confirmed that the rear doors sufficiently maintain the safety through the structural analysis and shielding analysis. Also, it was confirmed that the rear doors were constructed as designed by the gamma scanning test after the installation.

  10. Design Report for ACP Hot Cell Rear Door

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, J. H.; Kwon, K. C.; Choung, W. M.; Cho, I. J.; Kook, D. H.; Lee, W. K.; You, G. S.; Lee, E. P.; Park, S. W.

    2005-12-01

    A hot-cell facility was constructed at the IMEF building for the demonstrate ACP process. ACP hot-cell consists of process cell and maintenance cell, and each cell has rear door. Since this facility was constructed at basement floor, all process materials, equipment and radioactive materials are take in and out through the rear door. Also, this door can be an access route of workers for the maintenance works. Therefore ACP hot-cell rear doors must maintain the radiation shielding, sealing, mechanical and structural safety. This report presents design criteria, design contents of each part and driving part. It was confirmed that the rear doors sufficiently maintain the safety through the structural analysis and shielding analysis. Also, it was confirmed that the rear doors were constructed as designed by the gamma scanning test after the installation

  11. Certification of the PSI request for the renewal of the operation license for the Hot Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-03-01

    At the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), the Hot Laboratory was built in the years 1961 to 1963 in the former EIR in order to make scientific material analyses on highly radioactive material samples and to prepare diagnostic and therapeutically useful radioisotopes. The 1964 safety report with the request for the granting of the operational warrant was revised for the first time in 2004. Further safety reports and radiation protection plans were produced and accepted by the surveying authorities. The operational regulations were revised and approved on a yearly basis by the PSI direction. The regulations reflect the experience gained in 40 years of safe operation and take new regulations in nuclear energy legislation into account. In the years 2000-2002 the Hot Lab was refitted especially with respect to the fields of radiation and fire protection. Presently, the Hot Lab is used for applied material research on highly radioactive samples which mainly come from nuclear power plants, research reactors and the target stations of the PSI accelerator facilities. The investigations on highly radioactive samples and the handling of large quantities of radioisotopes include the possibility of incidents. The analysis of such incidents shows that the legal safety requirements are satisfied. The Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) requirements concerning the protection of personnel, population and environment, as well as the protection against fire, are fulfilled. In the Hot Lab the principle of barriers for the containment of radioactive materials is applied. Open radioactive sources are manipulated in depressurized cells. The air extracted from the cells is filtered before being released to the environment. In the building, the total amount of radioactive materials is limited in order to reduce the exposition of the population in normal operation as well as in case of incidents, and to avoid criticality accidents. Possible weaknesses in this concept can be shown

  12. Hot spots and heavily dislocated regions in multicrystalling silicon cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simo, A.; Martinuzzi, S.

    1990-01-01

    The formation mechanism and the electrical consequences of hot spots have been investigated in multicrystalline solar cells. The hot spots were revealed by means of an infrared camera when the cells are reverse biassed in the dark. The minority carrier diffusion length (L n ), the photovoltage (V oc ) and the photocurrent (J sc ) were measured in the hot spot area and far from this zone thanks to mesa diodes. Dark forward I-V curves lead to values of ideality factor (M) and reverse saturation current (J o ). It is found that J o and M are higher in the hot spot area, while J sc , V oc and at a less extent L n are smaller. Large densities of dislocations and lineages structures are revealed in the abnormally heated regions

  13. Preliminary safety analysis report for the Auxiliary Hot Cell Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OSCAR, DEBBY S.; WALKER, SHARON ANN; HUNTER, REGINA LEE; WALKER, CHERYL A.

    1999-01-01

    The Auxiliary Hot Cell Facility (AHCF) at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) will be a Hazard Category 3 nuclear facility used to characterize, treat, and repackage radioactive and mixed material and waste for reuse, recycling, or ultimate disposal. A significant upgrade to a previous facility, the Temporary Hot Cell, will be implemented to perform this mission. The following major features will be added: a permanent shield wall; eight floor silos; new roof portals in the hot-cell roof; an upgraded ventilation system; and upgraded hot-cell jib crane; and video cameras to record operations and facilitate remote-handled operations. No safety-class systems, structures, and components will be present in the AHCF. There will be five safety-significant SSCs: hot cell structure, permanent shield wall, shield plugs, ventilation system, and HEPA filters. The type and quantity of radionuclides that could be located in the AHCF are defined primarily by SNL/NM's legacy materials, which include radioactive, transuranic, and mixed waste. The risk to the public or the environment presented by the AHCF is minor due to the inventory limitations of the Hazard Category 3 classification. Potential doses at the exclusion boundary are well below the evaluation guidelines of 25 rem. Potential for worker exposure is limited by the passive design features incorporated in the AHCF and by SNL's radiation protection program. There is no potential for exposure of the public to chemical hazards above the Emergency Response Protection Guidelines Level 2

  14. Preliminary safety analysis report for the Auxiliary Hot Cell Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OSCAR,DEBBY S.; WALKER,SHARON ANN; HUNTER,REGINA LEE; WALKER,CHERYL A.

    1999-12-01

    The Auxiliary Hot Cell Facility (AHCF) at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) will be a Hazard Category 3 nuclear facility used to characterize, treat, and repackage radioactive and mixed material and waste for reuse, recycling, or ultimate disposal. A significant upgrade to a previous facility, the Temporary Hot Cell, will be implemented to perform this mission. The following major features will be added: a permanent shield wall; eight floor silos; new roof portals in the hot-cell roof; an upgraded ventilation system; and upgraded hot-cell jib crane; and video cameras to record operations and facilitate remote-handled operations. No safety-class systems, structures, and components will be present in the AHCF. There will be five safety-significant SSCs: hot cell structure, permanent shield wall, shield plugs, ventilation system, and HEPA filters. The type and quantity of radionuclides that could be located in the AHCF are defined primarily by SNL/NM's legacy materials, which include radioactive, transuranic, and mixed waste. The risk to the public or the environment presented by the AHCF is minor due to the inventory limitations of the Hazard Category 3 classification. Potential doses at the exclusion boundary are well below the evaluation guidelines of 25 rem. Potential for worker exposure is limited by the passive design features incorporated in the AHCF and by SNL's radiation protection program. There is no potential for exposure of the public to chemical hazards above the Emergency Response Protection Guidelines Level 2.

  15. Operation of the nuclear fuel cycle test facilities -Operation of the hot test loop facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, S. Y.; Jeong, M. K.; Park, C. K.; Yang, S. K.; Won, S. Y.; Song, C. H.; Jeon, H. K.; Jeong, H. J.; Cho, S.; Min, K. H.; Jeong, J. H.

    1997-01-01

    A performance and reliability of a advanced nuclear fuel and reactor newly designed should be verified by performing the thermal hydraulics tests. In thermal hydraulics research team, the thermal hydraulics tests associated with the development of an advanced nuclear fuel and reactor haven been carried out with the test facilities, such as the Hot Test Loop operated under high temperature and pressure conditions, Cold Test Loop, RCS Loop and B and C Loop. The objective of this project is to obtain the available experimental data and to develop the advanced measuring techniques through taking full advantage of the facilities. The facilities operated by the thermal hydraulics research team have been maintained and repaired in order to carry out the thermal hydraulics tests necessary for providing the available data. The performance tests for the double grid type bottom end piece which was improved on the debris filtering effectivity were performed using the PWR-Hot Test Loop. The CANDU-Hot Test Loop was operated to carry out the pressure drop tests and strength tests of CANFLEX fuel. The Cold Test Loop was used to obtain the local velocity data in subchannel within HANARO fuel bundle and to study a thermal mixing characteristic of PWR fuel bundle. RCS thermal hydraulic loop was constructed and the experiments have been carried out to measure the critical heat flux. In B and C Loop, the performance tests for each component were carried out. (author). 19 tabs., 78 figs., 19 refs

  16. Operation of the nuclear fuel cycle test facilities -Operation of the hot test loop facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, S. Y.; Jeong, M. K.; Park, C. K.; Yang, S. K.; Won, S. Y.; Song, C. H.; Jeon, H. K.; Jeong, H. J.; Cho, S.; Min, K. H.; Jeong, J. H.

    1997-01-01

    A performance and reliability of a advanced nuclear fuel and reactor newly designed should be verified by performing the thermal hydraulics tests. In thermal hydraulics research team, the thermal hydraulics tests associated with the development of an advanced nuclear fuel and reactor haven been carried out with the test facilities, such as the Hot Test Loop operated under high temperature and pressure conditions, Cold Test Loop, RCS Loop and B and C Loop. The objective of this project is to obtain the available experimental data and to develop the advanced measuring techniques through taking full advantage of the facilities. The facilities operated by the thermal hydraulics research team have been maintained and repaired in order to carry out the thermal hydraulics tests necessary for providing the available data. The performance tests for the double grid type bottom end piece which was improved on the debris filtering effectivity were performed using the PWR-Hot Test Loop. The CANDU-Hot Test Loop was operated to carry out the pressure drop tests and strength tests of CANFLEX fuel. The Cold Test Loop was used to obtain the local velocity data in subchannel within HANARO fuel bundle and to study a thermal mixing characteristic of PWR fuel bundle. RCS thermal hydraulic loop was constructed and the experiments have been carried out to measure the critical heat flux. In B and C Loop, the performance tests for each component were carried out. (author). 19 tabs., 78 figs., 19 refs.

  17. Materials and fabrication processes for operation in hot hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuffias, R.H.; Duffy, A.J.; Arrieta, V.M.; Abrams, W.M.; Benander, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    Operation in hot (2500 endash 3000 K) hydrogen severely limits the choice of structural materials. Rhenium is nonreactive with and has low permeability to hydrogen, and has sufficient strength up to 2800 K. Carbon, in the form of graphite or carbon composites, has excellent high temperature strength but reacts with hydrogen to form methane at a rapid rate above 2000 K. The carbides of zirconium, niobium, hafnium, and tantalum are nonreactive with and have low permeability to hydrogen, but they can be reliably fabricated only in the form of coatings. In order to demonstrate the Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) solar-thermal propulsion concept, rhenium and rhenium-coated graphite were chosen as the structural materials for the receiver-absorber-converter (RAC) component of the ISUS system. Several methods were investigated for fabricating the rhenium parts and coatings, with chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and Ultramet chosen as the most likely process and company for success. The CVD or rhenium and other refractory materials were thus applied to the ISUS program for fabrication of the RAC subsystem. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  18. Dismantling of a hot cell of high level activity. Method and tools used

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeantet, E.; Miquel, P.; Baudoin, J.C.; Moutonnet, A.

    1981-05-01

    The aim of this operation is the removal of all the equipment and the material introduced and used in the hot cell 'Attila' and its decontamination to obtain an irradiation level as low as possible to allow direct intervention. The Attila facilitie was build in 1964-1966 to study dry processing of irradiated fuels by halogenide volatility process. Dismantling of the out-cell and of the laboratory associated to the shielded cell, dismantling inside the shielded cell with the remote handling equipment of the cell and tools used for these operations are described in this article [fr

  19. Haptic shared control improves hot cell remote handling despite controller inaccuracies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oosterhout, J.; Abbink, D. A.; Koning, J. F.; Boessenkool, H.; Wildenbeest, J. G. W.; Heemskerk, C. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    A promising solution to improve task performance in ITER hot cell remote handling is the use of haptic shared control. Haptic shared control can assist the human operator along a safe and optimal path with continuous guiding forces from an intelligent autonomous controller. Previous research tested

  20. Hot cell renovation in the spent fuel conditioning process facility at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Nam Yu

    2015-10-01

    Results and conclusion: Based on the considered refurbishment workflow, previous equipment in the M8 cell, including vessels and pipes, were removed and disposed of successfully after a zoning smear survey and decontamination, and new equipment with advanced functions and specifications were installed in the hot cell. Finally, the operating area and isolation room were also refurbished to meet the requirements of the improved hot cell facility.

  1. EDF requirements for hot cells examinations on irradiated fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segura, J.C.; Ducros, G.

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of increasing French Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) availability while lengthening the fuel irradiation cycle and reaching higher burnups lead EDF to carry out on site and hot cell examinations. The data issued from such fuel behaviour monitoring programmes will be used to ascertain that the design criteria are met. Data are also needed for modelling, development and validation. The paper deals quickly with the logistics linked to the selection and transport of fuel rods from NPP to hot cell laboratory. Hot cell PIEs remain a valuable method to obtain data in such fields as PCI (Pellet-Cladding Interaction), internal pressure, FGR (Fission Gas Release), oxide thickness, metallurgical aspects. The paper introduces burnup determination methods, inner pressure evaluation, preparation of samples for further irradiation such as power ramps for PCI and RIA (Reactivity Initiated Accident) testing. The nuclear microprobe of Perre Suee laboratory is also presented. (author)

  2. Iodine speciation in the hot cell effluent gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.S.; Jester, W.A.; Olynyk, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    The various species of airborne radioiodine can affect the iodine source term of a severe core damage accident because of the different transport and deposition properties. also, the radiobiological hazardness may vary according to their chemical form. The purpose of the work reported in this paper was to characterize the various chemical forms of airborne radioiodine in hot cell effluent gases of a radiopharmaceutical production facility that produces medical radioisotopes from separated fission products of irradiated uranium targets. It is concluded that the methyl iodide is the youngest chemical species in terms of effective decay time age, and the hot cell filter bank is least efficient in removing the methyl iodide

  3. Treatment of concrete bars from the dismantling of hot cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, A.; Stutz, U.; Valencia, L.

    2002-01-01

    The Central Decontamination Operations Department (HDB) of the Karlsruhe Research Center operates facilities for the disposal of radioactive waste. In general, their objective is to decontaminate radioactive residues for unrestricted release in order to minimize the volume of waste products suitable for repository storage. In the case of about 120 concrete bars from the dismantling of hot cells, we reduce the volume of radioactive waste by sawing off the most contaminated parts of the bar. If there are no insertions such as cables or ventilation systems, the rest of the bar is sandblasted and its activity manually measured to ensure compliance with the release criteria. Otherwise, the bar is minced into small pieces by a power shovel. Afterwards, the rubble is filled into drums and its activity is measured by the clearance measurement facility. If the rubble and the sandblasted bars do not exceed the activity limit specified by the release criteria, the material is disposed of without further regulations for unrestricted use. Those parts of the bars which can not be released must be stored in special containers suitable for the KONRAD final disposal. Using this method, about 70 % of the total mass can be released. (author)

  4. Review of tritium confinement and atmosphere detritiation system in hot cells complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzello, Claudio; Borgognoni, Fabio; Pinna, Tonio; Tosti, Silvano

    2010-01-01

    The tritium confinement strategy adopted during the past years in the ITER hot cell building is compared to the safety requirements given by the standard ISO-17873 'Nuclear facilities - criteria for the design and operation of ventilation systems for nuclear installations other than nuclear reactors'. In fact, this is the reference safety guideline recommended by French licensing authorities. Several features of the considered design of the hot cell building are not in agreement with these guidelines. Main discrepancies concern the zoning of the hot cell complex, the flow rates of ventilation, and the possibility to recycle the room atmosphere and to detritiate the effluent air. These aspects are discussed together with some proposed modifications of the design.

  5. Alpha-Gamma Hot-Cell Facility at Argonne National Laboratory East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neimark, L.A.; Jackson, W.D.; Donahue, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    The Alpha-Gamma Hot-Cell Facility has been in operation at Argonne National Laboratory East (ANL-E) for 15 years. The facility was designed for plutonium research in support of ANL's LMFBR program. The facility consists of a kilocurie, nitrogen-atmosphere alpha-gamma hot cell and supporting laboratories. Modifications to the facility and its equipment have been made over the years as the workload and nature of the work changed. These modifications included inerting the entire hot cell, adding four work stations, modifying in-loading procedures and examination equipment to handle longer test articles, and changing to a new sodium-vapor lighting system. Future upgrading includes the addition of a decontamination and repair facility, use of radio-controlled transfer carts, refurbishment of the zinc bromide windows, and the installation of an Auger microprobe

  6. Application of Cyclone to Removal of Hot Particulate in Hot Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gye Nam; Lee, Sung Yeol; Won, Hui Jun; Jung, Chong Hun; Oh, Won Zin

    2005-01-01

    The size and main ingredient of hot particulate generated during the nuclide experiment in hot cells of nuclear facilities were 0.5300 μm and UO 2 . A cyclone filter equipment which consists of a cyclone and Bag/HEPA filter was devised to remove hot particulate generated during the nuclide experiment in hot cells of nuclear facilities. The experimental conditions to maximize the collection efficiency of hot particulate were suggested through experiments done with the cyclone filter equipment. With the large size of simulated particulate, the collection efficiency of the particulate was high. When the size of simulated particulate was more than 5 μm, the collection efficiency of the particulate was more than 80% and when the size of simulated particulate was less than 1.0 μm, the collection efficiency decreased by less than. If the inflow velocity of simulated particulate was increased, the collection efficiency of the particulate was also increased. When the inflow velocity of simulated particulate was more than 12 m/sec, the collection efficiency was higher than , but after 17 m/sec inflow velocity, no change observed. The collection efficiency of the simulated particulate can be enhanced with the length of vortex finder inside the chamber. With the length of vortex finder, 7.2 cm, the observed collection efficiency of the particulate was the maximum. Moreover, when the sub-cone was attached under the cyclone, the collection efficiency of cyclone increased 2%. It was found that effect by attachment of sub-cone was not serious.

  7. Remote Robotic Cleaning System for Contaminated Hot-Cell Floor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Ho; Park, Jang Jin; Yang, Myung S.; Kwon, Hyo Kjo

    2005-01-01

    The M6 hot-cell of the Irradiated Material Examination Facility at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been contaminated with spent fuel debris and other radioactive waste due to the DUPIC nuclear fuel development processes. As the hot-cell is active, direct human workers' access, even with protection, to the in-cell is not possible because of the nature of the high radiation level of the spent PWR fuel. A remote robotic cleaning system has been developed for use in a highly radioactive environment of the M6 hot-cell. The remote robotic cleaning system was designed to completely eliminate human interaction with hazardous radioactive contaminants. This robotic cleaning system was also designed to remove contaminants or contaminated smears placed or fixed on the floor of the M6 hot-cell by mopping it in a remote manner. The environmental, functional and mechanical design considerations, control system and capabilities of the developed remote robotic cleaning system are presented

  8. Analysis of the hot cell lay-out for the advanced spent fuel conditioning process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. Y.; Kim, S. H.; Song, T. G.; Hong, D. H.; Kim, Y. H.; Yoon, J. S

    2003-04-01

    Equipment used for ACP must operate in intense radiation fields enclosed in a hot cell and be remotely maintained. For the reliable remote maintenance operation, several design aspects should be considered. Even though the design results seem to be satisfactory, all the remote operation should be checked prior to the hot demonstration. The best way to check the remote operability is a real mock-up test, but the mock-up test is too expensive and time consuming, and need refabrication of the design to deal with the problem found in the test operation. The 3D graphic simulator gives an alternate solution for this. It can check the remote operability of the process without fabrication of the process equipment. In other words, using a graphic simulator, remote operation task can be simulated in a computer(virtual environment), not the real environment. In this report, for the analysis on the hat cell layout for the ACP process, the verification from the concept of the process to the detailed motion of the equipment and the remote operation devices using virtual prototyping is described. Also, the requirement of the process equipment in the sense of size and remote maintenance, and that of the transportation and handling for the process material are described. Finally, from these results, the hot cell layout alternatives and the bases for the selection of the optimum layout are implemented. The graphical simulator and the results from this analysis can be effectively used not only for optimizing the hot cell layout but also designing the ACP equipment and maintenance process.

  9. Radball Technology Testing For Hot Cell Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2010-01-01

    Operations at various U.S. Department of Energy sites have resulted in substantial radiological contamination of tools, equipment, and facilities. It is essential to use remote technologies for characterization and decommissioning to keep worker exposures as low as reasonably achievable in these highly contaminated environments. A significant initial step in planning and implementing D and D of contaminated facilities involves the development of an accurate assessment of the radiological, chemical, and structural conditions inside of the facilities. Collected information describing facility conditions using remote technologies could reduce the conservatism associated with planning initial worker entry (and associated cost).

  10. Experiences from Refurbishment of Metallography Hot Cells and Application of a New Preparation Concept for Materialography Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberlander, B. C.; Espeland, M.; Solum, N. O.

    2001-01-01

    After more than 30 years of operation the lead shielded metallography hot cells needed a basic renewal and modernisation not least of the specimen preparation equipment. Preparation in hot cells of radioactive samples for metallography and ceramography is challenging and time consuming. It demands a special design and quality of all in-cell equipment and skill and patience from the operator. Essentials in the preparation process are: simplicity and reliability of the machines, and a good quality, reproducibility and efficiency in performance. Desirable is process automation, flexibility and an alara amounto of radioactive waste produced per sample prepared. State of the art preparation equipment for materialography seems to meet most of the demands, however, it cannot be used in hot cells without modifications. Therefore. IFE and Struers in Copenhagen modified a standard model of a Strues precision cutting machine and a microprocessor controlled grinding and polishing machine for Hot Cell application. Hot cell utilisation of the microcomputer controlled grinding and polishing machine and the existing automatic dosing equipment made the task of preparing radioactive samples more attractive. The new grinding and polishing system for hot cells provides good sample preparation quality and reproductibility at reduced preparation time and reduced amount of contaminated waste produced per sample prepared. the sample materials examined were irradiated cladding materials and fuels

  11. A self-adaptive toll rate algorithm for high occupancy toll (HOT) lane operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Dramatically increasing travel demands and insufficient traffic facility supplies have resulted in severe : traffic congestion. High Occupancy Toll (HOT) lane operations have been proposed as one of the most : applicable and cost-effective countermea...

  12. Another 60Co hot cell accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steidley, K.D.; Zeik, G.S.; Ouellette, R.

    1979-01-01

    An accident at a commercial irradiation facility is described. Because of inadequate safety arrangements a worker entered the irradiation cell while the 500,000 Ci 60 Co source was exposed. The duration of the exposure was established by re-enactment of the worker's movements, and dose rates at various locations at the accident site were measured. From the results a total absorbed dose of 210 rad to the surface of the victim was calculated. This and results of chromosomal aberration studies (200 rad) and the worker's film badge reading (126 rad) lead to the assignment of a nominal 200 rad absorbed dose. The worker was taken to two local hospital emergency departments, both of which examined and discharged him. Eventually he was admitted to a medical centre with experience of radiation effects. His symptoms and treatment during his 7 week stay in hospital are described and his blood counts vs time are shown graphically. As a result of the unsatisfactory response of the emergency departments the NRC has modified its licensing procedures to include specific arrangements with a local hospital. It is stressed that accident dosage estimates should always be supplied to the patient or his personal physician. (author)

  13. Report on operation utilization and technical development of research reactors and hot laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    Activities of the Division of Research Reactor Operation in fiscal 1980 are described. The division is responsible for operation and maintenance of JRR-2, JRR-3, JRR-4 and Hot Laboratory. In the above connection, various other works are performed, including technical management of fuel and coolant, radiation control, irradiation technique, etc. In Hot Laboratory, postirradiation examinations of fuels and materials are made, and also development of examination methods. (author)

  14. Report on operation, utilization and technical development of research reactors and hot laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-03-01

    Activities of the Division of Research Reactor Operation in fiscal 1978 are described. The division is responsible for operation and maintenance of JRR-2, JRR-3, JRR-4 and Hot Laboratory. In the above connection, various other works are performed, including technical management of fuel and coolant, radiation control, irradiation technique, etc. In Hot Laboratory, postirradiation examinations of fuels and materials are made, and also development of examination methods. (author)

  15. Report on operation, utilization and technical development of Research Reactors and Hot Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-10-01

    Activities of the Division of Research Reactor Operation in fiscal 1981 are described. The division is responsible for operation and maintenance of JRR-2, JRR-3, JRR-4 and Hot Laboratory. In the above connection, various other works are performed, including technical management of fuel and coolant, radiation control, irradiation technique, etc. In Hot Laboratory, postirradiation examinations of fuels and materials are made, and also development of examination methods. (author)

  16. Current status of JAERI Tokai hot cell facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itami, Hiroharu; Morozumi, Minoru; Yamahara, Takeshi

    1992-01-01

    JAERI has 4 hot cell facilities in order to examine high radioactive materials. Three of them, the Research Hot Laboratory, the Reactor Fuel Examination Facility and the Waste Safety Testing Facility are located in the JAERI Tokai site, and the rest is the JMTR Hot Laboratory in the Oarai site. The Research Hot Laboratory (RHL) was constructed for post-irradiation examination (PIE), especially nuclear related basic research experiment, such as metallurgical, chemical and mechanical examination on fuels and materials irradiated in research and test reactors. This facility has 10 large dimension concrete and 38 lead cells. At present the RHL is used for various kinds of examinations of high radioactive samples such as fuels of research and test reactors, power reactors and high temperature testing reactor (HTTR), and structural materials. The Reactor Fuel Examination Facility (RFEF) was designed and constructed for carrying out PIE of irradiated full-size fuel assemblies of light water reactors (LWRs). This facility has a storage pool, 8 concrete and 5 lead cells. They are currently used for safety evaluation on high burnup and advanced lWR fuels as part of the national program. The Waste Safety Testing Facility (WASTEF) was designed and constructed for safety research on long-term storage and disposal of high level radioactive wastes, generated by fuel reprocessing. The WASTEF has 5 concrete cells and 1 lead cell. Examinations on the behavior of various long-lived fission products in a glass form and in a canister and, releasing behavior of them out of a canister are carrying out under the condition at storage. (author)

  17. Planning, Management and Organizational Aspects of the Decommissioning of a Hot Cell Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strufe, N. [Danish Decommissioning, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2013-08-15

    This CRP project document ''Planning, Management and Organizational Aspects in Decommissioning of a Hot Cell Facility'' aims to describe the establishment of a management organization that ensures that the DD Hot Cell Project is properly and safely conducted and that staff members, who are seconded to the project, have a strong feeling of ownership and being an integral part of the project. The objectives of the decommissioning project of the hot cell facility is to decontaminate the facility and to remove items that cannot be decontaminated on site, in order for the entire hot cell building to become useable for other purposes without any radiological restrictions. The project requires proper communication and coordination with all stakeholders on-site, comprehensive work plans and strict control of the individual working areas and operations. A project of this type obviously requires a strong and well managed and coordinated project organization. DD has established a management system - KMS. The purposes of the KMS are twofold. The system aims to secure the fulfilment of the conditions and requirements of quality set by the nuclear authorities. The system also aims to provide the basis for a rational and economically feasible operation with a high level of safety. One of the main lessons learned in this project is clear that is to ensure that the necessary resources are available and the required expertise is allocated timely for the performance of the project(s) a strong coordination and great flexibility within the DD organization is required. This document describes the approach and considerations from the project management point of view. The document initially gives an introduction to the hot cell decommissioning project followed by issues of the general considerations and planning of the project within the DD, including aspects on organisation, quality assurance and coordination. (author)

  18. Ballooning test equipment for use in hot cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broendsted, P.; Adrian, F.

    1979-12-01

    An equipment for testing the LOCA behaviour of irradiated cladding materials is described. The details of the construction and of the installation in the Hot Cells are reported. Pilot tests carried out showed that the performance of the system fulfills the basic experimental prerequisites, which were: heating rate of 2-3degC/s, final temperature 1150degC/s, internal pressure max. 30 atm, external pressure max. 1 atm, test atmosphere either air or steam. (author)

  19. NDE of PWR fuel: Identifying candidates for hot cell examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, J.E.; Bury, J.G.; Correal, O.A.; Kunishi, H.; Wilson, H.W.

    1992-05-01

    On-site examinations were performed at the Indian Point 3 and Callaway reactors to attempt to identify the leakage mechanism of several leaking fuel rods. The exams consisted of removing the leaking fuel rods from the assembly and performing a visual examination. These results, combined with other available on-site data on leaking fuel rods, were used to select fuel rods for shipment to a hot cell for detailed root cause examination. Three fuel rods from the Indian Point 3 reactor were found to be leaking due to debris-induced fretting. The examinations at Callaway were terminated prior to completion due to utility scheduler conflicts. Rods from the Callaway reactor were selected for shipment to the hot cell along with the rods from the Byron 1 and 2 and V.C. Summer reactors. The data presented in the report summarize the coolant activity history, the UT examination results, and a summary of the review of the fabrication records. The basis for the selection of the rods to be sent to the hot cells is also summarized

  20. Dual-mode operation of 2D material-base hot electron transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Lan, Yann-Wen; Jr., Carlos M. Torres,; Zhu, Xiaodan; Qasem, Hussam; Adleman, James R.; Lerner, Mitchell B.; Tsai, Shin-Hung; Shi, Yumeng; Li, Lain-Jong; Yeh, Wen-Kuan; Wang, Kang L.

    2016-01-01

    Vertical hot electron transistors incorporating atomically-thin 2D materials, such as graphene or MoS2, in the base region have been proposed and demonstrated in the development of electronic and optoelectronic applications. To the best of our knowledge, all previous 2D material-base hot electron transistors only considered applying a positive collector-base potential (V-CB > 0) as is necessary for the typical unipolar hot-electron transistor behavior. Here we demonstrate a novel functionality, specifically a dual-mode operation, in our 2D material-base hot electron transistors (e.g. with either graphene or MoS2 in the base region) with the application of a negative collector-base potential (V-CB < 0). That is, our 2D material-base hot electron transistors can operate in either a hot-electron or a reverse-current dominating mode depending upon the particular polarity of VCB. Furthermore, these devices operate at room temperature and their current gains can be dynamically tuned by varying VCB. We anticipate our multi-functional dual-mode transistors will pave the way towards the realization of novel flexible 2D material-based high-density and low-energy hot-carrier electronic applications.

  1. Dual-mode operation of 2D material-base hot electron transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Lan, Yann-Wen

    2016-09-01

    Vertical hot electron transistors incorporating atomically-thin 2D materials, such as graphene or MoS2, in the base region have been proposed and demonstrated in the development of electronic and optoelectronic applications. To the best of our knowledge, all previous 2D material-base hot electron transistors only considered applying a positive collector-base potential (V-CB > 0) as is necessary for the typical unipolar hot-electron transistor behavior. Here we demonstrate a novel functionality, specifically a dual-mode operation, in our 2D material-base hot electron transistors (e.g. with either graphene or MoS2 in the base region) with the application of a negative collector-base potential (V-CB < 0). That is, our 2D material-base hot electron transistors can operate in either a hot-electron or a reverse-current dominating mode depending upon the particular polarity of VCB. Furthermore, these devices operate at room temperature and their current gains can be dynamically tuned by varying VCB. We anticipate our multi-functional dual-mode transistors will pave the way towards the realization of novel flexible 2D material-based high-density and low-energy hot-carrier electronic applications.

  2. Dual-mode operation of 2D material-base hot electron transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Yann-Wen; Torres, Carlos M; Zhu, Xiaodan; Qasem, Hussam; Adleman, James R; Lerner, Mitchell B; Tsai, Shin-Hung; Shi, Yumeng; Li, Lain-Jong; Yeh, Wen-Kuan; Wang, Kang L

    2016-09-01

    Vertical hot electron transistors incorporating atomically-thin 2D materials, such as graphene or MoS2, in the base region have been proposed and demonstrated in the development of electronic and optoelectronic applications. To the best of our knowledge, all previous 2D material-base hot electron transistors only considered applying a positive collector-base potential (VCB > 0) as is necessary for the typical unipolar hot-electron transistor behavior. Here we demonstrate a novel functionality, specifically a dual-mode operation, in our 2D material-base hot electron transistors (e.g. with either graphene or MoS2 in the base region) with the application of a negative collector-base potential (VCB transistors can operate in either a hot-electron or a reverse-current dominating mode depending upon the particular polarity of VCB. Furthermore, these devices operate at room temperature and their current gains can be dynamically tuned by varying VCB. We anticipate our multi-functional dual-mode transistors will pave the way towards the realization of novel flexible 2D material-based high-density and low-energy hot-carrier electronic applications.

  3. FCFPYRO simulation of the first year FCF hot operation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liaw, J.R.; Li, S.X.; Benedict, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    A simulation study has been successfully completed according to the first year FCF operational plan for the treatment of EBR-II spent fuels. Material flow by nuclides for each processing step and radioactive decays during the process are considered. The FCFPYRO code package is a very useful tool to provide step-by-step information essential to the analysis of operational strategy, process chemistry, heat removal, criticality safety, and radiological health issues in FCF

  4. Evaluation of modular robot system for maintenance tasks in hot cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagala, Prithvi Sekhar, E-mail: ps.pagala@upm.es [Centre for Automation and Robotics UPM-CSIC (Spain); Ferre, Manuel, E-mail: m.ferre@upm.es [Centre for Automation and Robotics UPM-CSIC (Spain); Orona, Luis, E-mail: l.orona@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: •Modular robot deployment inside hot cell for remote manipulation evaluated. •Flexible and adaptable system for variety of tasks presented. •Uses in large workspaces and evolving requirements shown. -- Abstract: This work assesses the use of a modular robot system to perform maintenance and inspection tasks such as, remote flexible inspection, manipulation and cooperation with deployed systems inside the hot cell. A flexible modular solution for the inclusion in maintenance operations is presented. The proposed heterogeneous modular robotic system is evaluated using simulations of the prototype across selected robot configuration to perform tasks. Results obtained show the advantages and ability of the modular robot to perform the necessary tasks as well as its ability to adapt and evolve depending on the need. The simulation test case inside hot cell shows modular robot configuration, a two modular arm to perform tele-operation tasks in the workspace and a wheeled platform for inspection collaborating to perform tasks. The advantage of using re-configurable modular robot over conventional robot platforms is shown.

  5. AECL hot-cell facilities and post-irradiation examination services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schankula, M.H.; Plaice, E.L.; Woodworth, L.G.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the post-irradiation examination (PIE) services available at AECL's hot-cell facilities (HCF). The HCFs are used primarily to provide PIE support for operating CANDU power reactors in Canada and abroad, and for the examination of experimental fuel bundles and core components irradiated in research reactors at the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) and off-shore. A variety of examinations and analysis are performed ranging from non-destructive visual and dimensional inspections to detailed optical and scanning electron microscopic examinations. Several hot cells are dedicated to mechanical property testing of structural materials and to determine the fitness-for-service of reactor core components. Facility upgrades and the development of innovative examination techniques continue to improve AECL's PIE capabilities. (author)

  6. Development of maintenance equipment for nuclear material fabrication equipment in a highly active hot cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. J.; Yang, M. S.; Kim, K. H. and others

    2000-09-01

    This report presents the development of a maintenance system for a highly contaminated nuclear material handling equipment at a hot-cell. This maintenance system has mainly three subsystems - a gamma-radiation measurement module for detecting a gamma-radiation level and identifying its distribution in-situ, a dry-type decontamination device for cleaning up contaminated particles, and a maintenance chamber for isolating contaminated equipment. The mechanical design considerations, controller, capabilities and remote operation and manipulation of the maintenance system are described. Such subsystems developed were installed and tested in the IMEF (Irradiated Material Examination Facility) M6 hot-cell after mock-up tests and performed their specific tasks successfully.

  7. Development of maintenance equipment for nuclear material fabrication equipment in a highly active hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. J.; Yang, M. S.; Kim, K. H. and others

    2000-09-01

    This report presents the development of a maintenance system for a highly contaminated nuclear material handling equipment at a hot-cell. This maintenance system has mainly three subsystems - a gamma-radiation measurement module for detecting a gamma-radiation level and identifying its distribution in-situ, a dry-type decontamination device for cleaning up contaminated particles, and a maintenance chamber for isolating contaminated equipment. The mechanical design considerations, controller, capabilities and remote operation and manipulation of the maintenance system are described. Such subsystems developed were installed and tested in the IMEF (Irradiated Material Examination Facility) M6 hot-cell after mock-up tests and performed their specific tasks successfully

  8. AECL hot-cell facilities and post-irradiation examination services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schankula, M.H.; Plaice, E.L.; Woodworth, L.G.

    1998-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of the post-irradiation examination (PIE) services available at AECL's hot-cell facilities (HCF). The HCFs are used primarily to provide PIE support for operating CANDU power reactors in Canada and abroad, and for the examination of experimental fuel bundles and core components irradiated in research reactors at the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) and off-shore. A variety of examinations and analyses are performed ranging from non-destructive visual and dimensional inspections to detailed optical and scanning electron microscopic examinations. Several hot cells are dedicated to mechanical property testing of structural materials and to determine the fitness-for-service of reactor core components. Facility upgrades and the development of innovative examination techniques continue to improve AECL's PIE capabilities. (author)

  9. Decontamination of an Analytical Laboratory Hot Cell Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelbacher, J.A.; Henslee, S.P.; Rosenberg, K.E.; Coleman, R.M.

    1995-11-01

    An Analytical Laboratory Hot Cell Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) had been in service for nearly thirty years. In order to comply with current DOE regulations governing such facilities and meet programmatic requirements, a major refurbishment effort was mandated. Due to the high levels of radiation and contamination within the cells, a decontamination effort was necessary to provide an environment that permitted workers to enter the cells to perform refurbishment activities without receiving high doses of radiation and to minimize the potential for the spread of contamination. State-of-the-art decontamination methods, as well as time-proven methods were utilized to minimize personnel exposure as well as maximize results

  10. Comparison the machinability of Inconel 718, Inconel 625 and Monel 400 in hot turning operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asit Kumar Parida

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, three nickel base alloys (Inconel 718, Inconel 625 and Monel-400 have been studied for chip formation in the hot turning process using flame heating. Cutting force, tool life, chip morphology, tool wear, and surface integrity (surface roughness and microhardness beneath the machined surface have been determined in both room and hot temperature conditions (300 °C and 600 °C. Flame heating (Liquefied petroleum gas and oxygen along with turning operation has been utilized for machining of three materials. It was observed that significant reduction of cutting force, tool wear, chatter formation, surface roughness and increase tool life, chip tool contact length, etc., for all three nickel base alloys in hot machining compared to room temperature machining. Keywords: Hot turning, Nickel base alloys, Machinability, Cutting forces, Tool wear

  11. Experimental Investigation of the Hot Water Layer Effect on Upward Flow Open Pool Reactor Operability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou Elmaaty, T.

    2014-01-01

    The open pool reactor offers a high degree of reliability in the handling and manoeuvring, the replacement of reactor internal components and the suing of vertical irradiation channels. The protection of both the operators and the reactor hall environment against radiation hazards is considered a matter of interest. So, a hot water layer is implemented above many of the research reactors main pool, especially those whose flow direction is upward flow. An experimental work was carried out to ensure the operability of the upward flow open pool research reactor with / without the hot water layer. The performed experiment showed that, the hot water layer is produced an inverse buoyant force make the water to diffuse downward against the ordinary natural circulation from the reactor core. An upward flow - open pool research reactor (with a power greater than 20 M watt) could not wok without a hot water layer. The high temperature of the hot water layer surface could release a considerable amount of water vapour into the reactor hall, so a heat and mass transfer model is built based on the measured hot water layer surface temperature to calculate the amount of released water vapour during the reactor operating period. The effects of many parameters like the ambient air temperature, the reactor hall relative humidity and the speed of the pushed air layer above the top pool end on the evaporation rate is studied. The current study showed that, the hot water layer system is considered an efficient shielding system against Gamma radiation for open pool upward flow reactor and that system should be operated before the reactor start up by a suitable period of time. While, the heat and mass transfer model results showed that, the amount of the released water vapour is increased as a result of both the increase in hot water layer surface temperature and the increase in air layer speed. As the increase in hot water layer surface temperature could produce a good operability

  12. Experimental Investigation of the Hot Water Layer Effect on Upward Flow Open Pool Reactor Operability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou Elmaaty, T.

    2015-01-01

    The open pool reactor offers a high degree of reliability in the handling and manoeuvring, the replacement of reactor internal components and the swing of vertical irradiation channels. The protection of both the operators and the reactor hall environment against radiation hazards is considered a matter of interest. So, a hot water layer implemented above many of the research reactors main pool, especially those whose flow direction is upward flow. An experimental work was carried out to ensure the operability of the upward flow open pool research reactor with / without the hot water layer. The performed experiment showed that, the hot water layer produced an inverse buoyant force making the water to diffuse downward against the ordinary natural circulation from the reactor core. An upward flow-open pool research reactor (with a power greater than 20 Mw) could not wok without a hot water layer. The high temperature of the hot water layer surface could release a considerable amount of water vapour into the reactor hall, so a heat and mass transfer model is built based on the measured hot water layer surface temperature to calculate the amount of released water vapour during the reactor operating period. The effects of many parameters like the ambient air temperature, the reactor hall relative humidity and the speed of the pushed air layer above the top pool end on the evaporation rate is studied. The current study showed that, the hot water layer system is considered an efficient shielding system against gamma radiation for open pool upward flow reactor and that system should be operated before the reactor start up by a suitable period of time. While, the heat and mass transfer model results showed that, the amount of the released water vapour is increased as a result of both the increase in hot water layer surface temperature and the increase in air layer speed. As the increase in hot water layer surface temperature could produce a good operability conditions from

  13. Surveillance and radiological protection in the Hot Cell laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, J.M.; Torre, J. De la; Garcia C, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    The Hot Cells Laboratory (LCC) located in the National Institute of Nuclear Research are an installation that was designed for the management at distance of 10,000 Curies of Co-60 or other radioactive materials with different values in activity. The management of such materials in the installation, implies to analyze and to determine the doses that the POE will receive as well as the implementation of protection measures and appropriate radiological safety so that is completed the specified by the ALARA concept. In this work it is carried out an evaluation of the doses to receive for the POE when managing radionuclides with maximum activities that can be allowed in function of the current conditions of the cells and an evaluation of results is made with the program of surveillance and radiological protection implemented for the development of the works that carried out in the installation. (Author)

  14. Annual report on operation, utilization and technical development of research reactors and hot laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    This report describes the activities of the Department of Research Reactor Operation in fiscal year of 1989. It also presents some technical topics on the reactor operation and utilization in details. The Department is responsible for operation of the research reactors, JRR-2 and JRR-4, and the Hot Laboratory. The research reactor JRR-3 was reconstructed to enhance the performance for utilization. The first criticality was achieved on March 22, 1989, and it subsequently went into operation. In connection with the reactor operation, the various research and development activities in the area of fuel management, water chemistry, radiation monitoring and material irradiation have been made. In the Hot Laboratory, post-irradiation examinations of fuels and materials have been carried out along with the development of related techniques. (author)

  15. Conceptual design of the hot cell facility universal docking station at ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dammann, A.; Benchikhoune, M.; Friconneau, J.P.; Ivanov, V.; Lemee, A.; Martins, J.P.; Tamassy, G.

    2011-01-01

    Between main shutdowns of the ITER machine, in-vessel components and Iter Remote Maintenance System (IRMS) are transferred between the Tokamak complex and the Hot Cell Facility using different types of sealed casks. Transfer Casks have different physical interfaces with the Vacuum Vessel, which need to be the same at the docking stations of the HCF. It means that in-vessel components and IRMS are cleaned in the same cells, which is in fact not convenient. Furthermore, logistic studies showed that the use rate of the cells is very inhomogeneous. In order to have dedicated cell for decontamination of Remote Handling tools, in order to increase the operability efficiency and to removes the hot cell docking operation from the critical path, the concept of a universal docking station has been investigated. Based on an existing design, the work was focused on a review of requirements, the re-design and the integration within the HCF layout. The universal docking station has been proposed and is now integrated in HCF design.

  16. Conceptual design of the hot cell facility universal docking station at ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dammann, A., E-mail: alexis.dammann@iter.org [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Benchikhoune, M.; Friconneau, J.P.; Ivanov, V. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Lemee, A. [SOGETI High Tech, 180 Rue Rene Descartes, 13851 Aix en Provence (France); Martins, J.P. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Tamassy, G. [SOGETI High Tech, 180 Rue Rene Descartes, 13851 Aix en Provence (France)

    2011-10-15

    Between main shutdowns of the ITER machine, in-vessel components and Iter Remote Maintenance System (IRMS) are transferred between the Tokamak complex and the Hot Cell Facility using different types of sealed casks. Transfer Casks have different physical interfaces with the Vacuum Vessel, which need to be the same at the docking stations of the HCF. It means that in-vessel components and IRMS are cleaned in the same cells, which is in fact not convenient. Furthermore, logistic studies showed that the use rate of the cells is very inhomogeneous. In order to have dedicated cell for decontamination of Remote Handling tools, in order to increase the operability efficiency and to removes the hot cell docking operation from the critical path, the concept of a universal docking station has been investigated. Based on an existing design, the work was focused on a review of requirements, the re-design and the integration within the HCF layout. The universal docking station has been proposed and is now integrated in HCF design.

  17. Evaluation of Tritium Behavior in the Epoxy Painted Concrete Wall of ITER Hot Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hirofumi; Hayashi, Takumi; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Nishi, Masataka

    2005-01-01

    Tritium behavior released in the ITER hot cell has been investigated numerically using a combined analytical methods of a tritium transport analysis in the multi-layer wall (concrete and epoxy paint) with the one dimensional diffusion model and a tritium concentration analysis in the hot cell with the complete mixing model by the ventilation. As the results, it is revealed that tritium concentration decay and permeation issues are not serious problem in a viewpoint of safety, since it is expected that tritium concentration in the hot cell decrease rapidly within several days just after removing the tritium release source, and tritium permeation through the epoxy painted concrete wall will be negligible as long as the averaged realistic diffusion coefficient is ensured in the concrete wall. It is also revealed that the epoxy paint on the concrete wall prevents the tritium inventory increase in the concrete wall greatly (two orders of magnitudes), but still, the inventory in the wall is estimated to reach about 0.1 PBq for 20 years operation

  18. Applying hot-wire anemometry to directly measure the water balance in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell for a pre-humidified hydrogen stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berning, Torsten; Shakhshir, Saher Al

    2016-01-01

    In a recent publication it has been shown how the water balance in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell can be determined employing hot wire anemometry. The hot wire sensor has to be placed into the anode outlet pipe of the operating fuel cell, and the voltage signal E that is read from the senso....... Finally, it will be shown how previously developed dew point diagrams for the anode side in a fuel cell can be corrected for a humidified hydrogen inlet stream....

  19. Technical specifications of variable speed motors for negative pressure control in hot cell area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seon Duk; Bang, H. S.; Cho, W. K

    2002-01-01

    Hot cells are the facilities for handling the high radioactive materials and various R and D activities are performed using hot cells. Therefore the control of air flow in hot cell area is very important technology and it is started with the variable speed motor(VSM) controlling the air handling system in that area. This report describes various technical aspects of VS motors and will be useful for understanding the practical technologies of VS motors and also for optimization of the negative pressure controls in hot cell area.

  20. Exposure management in a hot-cell decontamination and refurbishment campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtney, J.C.; Ferguson, K.R.; Chesnovar, D.L.; Huebner, M.F.

    1984-01-01

    We developed a minicomputer-based system to provide rapid access to personnel dosimetry data during a campaign to decontaminate and refurbish a hot-cell at the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) Complex. This system allows project management to estimate doses for future tasks, assess the effectiveness of decontamination and personnel protection techniques, and balance exposures among members of various skill groups. As the campaign progresses, projected total exposures can be minimized by tradeoffs between estimated doses during decontamination and estimated dose savings during the refurbishment phase. The effectiveness of various dose-reduction procedures can be compared on the basis of data from a few cell entries before more extensive routine operations are scheduled. Because the radiation fields vary significantly with location in the cell, we find that measurements of whole-body, skin, and extremity doses are more valuable than dose-rate information. Penetrating and skin radiation doses to personnel can be compared to administrative guidelines. This helps us to select the most effective combination of protective clothing. For example, leaded gauntlets reduce the dose rate to the workers' hands, but their use can increase the time required for some in-cell tasks. Hence, use of gauntlets can lead to higher whole-body and skin doses. The program is written for the HFEF Complex Harris/6 minimainframe computer with a disk-monitor operating system

  1. Shield wall evaluation of hot cell facility for advanced spent fuel conditioning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, I. J.; Kuk, D. H.; Ko, J. H.; Jung, W. M.; Yoo, G. S.; Lee, E. P.; Park, S. W.

    2002-01-01

    The future hot cell is located in the Irradiated Material Experiment Facility (IMEF) at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). It is β-γ type hot cell that was constructed on the base floor in IMEF building for irradiated material testing. And this hot cell will be used for carrying out the Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process (ACP). The radiation shielding capability of hot cell should be sufficient to meet the radiation dose requirements in the related regulations. Because the radioactive sources of ACP are expected to be higher than radioactive sources of IMEF design criteria, the future hot cell in current status is unsatisfactory to hot test of ACP. So the shielding analysis of the future hot cell is performed to evaluate shielding ability of concrete shield wall. The shielding analysis included (a) identification of ACP source term; (b) photon source spectrum; (c) shielding analysis by QADS and MCNP-4C; and (d) enhancement of concrete shield wall. In this research, dose rates are obtained according to ACP source, geometry and hot cell shield wall thickness. And the evaluation and reinforcement thickness of the shield wall about future hot cell are concluded

  2. Remote maintenance for a new generation of hot cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, M.J.; Grant, N.R.

    1987-01-01

    For several years the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been developing facility concepts, designing specialized equipment, and testing prototypical hardware for reprocessing spent fuel from fast breeder reactors. The major facility conceptual design, the Hot Experimental Facility, was based on total remote maintenance to increase plant availability and to reduce radiation exposure. This thrust included designing modular equipment to facilitate maintenance and the manipulation necessary to accomplish maintenance. Included in the design repetoire was the development effort in advanced servomanipulator systems, a remote sampling system, television viewing, and a transporter system, television viewing, and a transporter for manipulator positioning. Demonstration of these developed items is currently ongoing, and the technology is available for applications where production operations in highly radioactive environments are required

  3. Remote maintenance for a new generation of hot cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, M.J.; Grant, N.R.

    1987-01-01

    For several years the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developing facility concepts, designing specialized equipment, and testing prototypical hardware for reprocessing spent fuel from fast breeder reactors. The major facility conceptual design, the Hot Experimental Facility, was based on total remote maintenance to increase plant availability and to reduce radiation exposure. This thrust included designing modular equipment to facilitate maintenance and the manipulation necessary to accomplish maintenance. Included in the design repetoire was the development effort in advanced servomanipulator systems, a remote sampling system, television viewing, and a transporter for manipulator positioning. Demonstration of these developed items is currently ongoing, and the technology is available for applications where production operations in highly radioactive environments are required

  4. Work strain in decontamination of hot cells, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinouchi, Nobuyuki; Ikezawa, Yoshio

    1991-01-01

    In decontamination of hot cells, the workers should wear suitable protective clothing to protect them from internal exposure and skin contamination. But such protective clothing causes some work strain, especially heat-stress. As a simple method to evaluate quantitative work strain, we used sweat rates of the wearers. In the previous paper, sweat rates for workers with two types of protective clothing were reported. In the present paper, sweat rates under severer working conditions are measured for three types: (1) pressure ventilated blouse; (2) full-face mask and polyethylene coverall; (3) full-face mask and vinyl anorak. The measured values for 65 subjects widely scatter from 0.2 to 2.5 l/h for all the protective clothing. Based on these values, the effects of protective clothing and working conditions (ambient temperature and humidity) on work strain are discussed. (author)

  5. The development of a mobile hot cell facility for the conditioning of spent high activity radioactive sources (SHARS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebenberg, G.R.; Al-Mughrabi, M.

    2008-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Waste Technology Section with additional support from the U.S. National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA) through the IAEA Nuclear Security Fund has funded the design, fabrication, evaluation, and testing of a portable hot cell intended to address the problem of disused SHARS in obsolete irradiation devices such as teletherapy heads and dry irradiators. The project is initially targeting the African continent but expected soon to expand to Latin America and Asia. This hot cell would allow source removal, characterization, consolidation, repackaging in modern storage shields, and secure storage of high risk SHARS at single sites in each IAEA Member State. The mobile hot cell and related equipment is transported in two shipping containers to a specific country where the following process takes place: 1-) Assembly of hot cell; 2-) Removal of SHARS from working shields, encapsulation into a stainless steel capsule and placement into a long term storage shield; 3-) Conditioning of any other spent sources the country may require; 4-) Dismantling of the hot cell; 5-) Shipping equipment out of country. The operation in a specific country is planned to be executed over a three week period. This presentation will discuss the development of the mobile hot cell facility as well as the demonstration of the state of readiness of the system for manipulation of SHARS and the planned execution of the conditioning operations. As a result of this project, excess SHARS could be managed safely and securely and possibly be more easily repatriated to their country of origin for appropriate final disposition. (author)

  6. Hot wire deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahan, A.H.; Iwaniczko, E.; Nelson, B.P.; Reedy, R.C. Jr.; Crandall, R.S. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    This paper details the results of a study in which low H content, high deposition rate hot wire (HW) deposited amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) has been incorporated into a substrate solar cell. The authors find that the treatment of the top surface of the HW i layer while it is being cooled from its high deposition temperature is crucial to device performance. They present data concerning these surface treatments, and correlate these treatments with Schottky device performance. The authors also present first generation HW n-i-p solar cell efficiency data, where a glow discharge (GD) {mu}c-Si(p) layer was added to complete the partial devices. No light trapping layer was used to increase the device Jsc. Their preliminary investigations have yielded efficiencies of up to 6.8% for a cell with a 4000 {Angstrom} thick HW i-layer, which degrade less than 10% after a 900 hour light soak. The authors suggest avenues for further improvement of their devices.

  7. Hot cell renovation in the spent fuel conditioning process facility at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Seung Nam; Lee, Jong Kwang; Park, Byung Suk; Cho, Il Je; Kim, Ki Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The advanced spent fuel conditioning process facility (ACPF) of the irradiated materials examination facility (IMEF) at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been renovated to implement a lab scale electrolytic reduction process for pyroprocessing. The interior and exterior structures of the ACPF hot cell have been modified under the current renovation project for the experimentation of the electrolytic reduction process using spent nuclear fuel. The most important aspect of this renovation was the installation of the argon compartment within the hot cell. For the design and system implementation of the argon compartment system, a full-scale mock-up test and a three-dimensional (3D) simulation test were conducted in advance. The remodeling and repairing of the process cell (M8a), the maintenance cell (M8b), the isolation room, and their utilities were also planned through this simulation to accommodate the designed argon compartment system. Based on the considered refurbishment workflow, previous equipment in the M8 cell, including vessels and pipes, were removed and disposed of successfully after a zoning smear survey and decontamination, and new equipment with advanced functions and specifications were installed in the hot cell. Finally, the operating area and isolation room were also refurbished to meet the requirements of the improved hot cell facility.

  8. Operation of a novel hot-electron vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkan, Naci; O'Brien-Davies, Angela; Thoms, A. B.; Potter, Richard J.; Poolton, Nigel; Adams, Michael J.; Masum, J.; Bek, Alpan; Serpenguzel, Ali; Aydinli, Atilla; Roberts, John S.

    1998-07-01

    The hot Electron Light Emission and Lasing in Semiconductor Heterostructures devices (HELLISH-1) is novel surface emitter consisting of a GaAs quantum well, within the depletion region, on the n side of Ga1-xAlxAs p- n junction. It utilizes hot electron transport parallel to the layers and injection of hot electron hole pairs into the quantum well through a combination of mechanisms including tunnelling, thermionic emission and diffusion of `lucky' carriers. Super Radiant HELLISH-1 is an advanced structure incorporating a lower distributed Bragg reflector (DBR). Combined with the finite reflectivity of the upper semiconductor-air interface reflectivity it defines a quasi- resonant cavity enabling emission output from the top surface with a higher spectral purity. The output power has increased by two orders of magnitude and reduced the full width at half maximum (FWHM) to 20 nm. An upper DBR added to the structure defines HELLISH-VCSEL which is currently the first operational hot electron surface emitting laser and lases at room temperature with a 1.5 nm FWHM. In this work we demonstrate and compare the operation of UB-HELLISH-1 and HELLISH-VCSEL using experimental and theoretical reflectivity spectra over an extensive temperature range.

  9. Photovoltaic Cell Operation on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Kerslake, Thomas; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Scheiman, David A.

    2004-01-01

    The Martian surface environment provides peculiar challenges for the operation of solar arrays: low temperature, solar flux with a significant scattered component that varies in intensity and spectrum with the amount of suspended atmospheric dust, and the possibility of performance loss due to dust deposition on the array surface. This paper presents theoretical analyses of solar cell performance on the surface of Mars and measurements of cells under Martian conditions.

  10. Dose levels in the hot cells area ININ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torre, J. De la; Ramirez, J.M.; Solis, M.L.

    2004-01-01

    The Laboratory of Hot Cells (LCC) located in the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) is an institution, it is an area where radioactive material is managed with different activity values, in function of its original design for 10,000 curies of Co-60. Managing this materials in the installation, it implies to measure and to analyze the dose levels that the POE will receive as well as the implementation of appropriate measures of radiological protection and radiological safety, so that that is completed settled down by the concept ALARA. In this work they are carried out mensurations of the levels of the dose to receive for the POE when managing radionuclides with maximum activities that can be allowed in function of the current conditions of the cells and an evaluation of the obtained results is made comparing them with the effective international norms as well as the application of the program of surveillance and radiological protection implemented for the development of the works that are carry out in the installation. (Author)

  11. B cells in operational tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesneau, M; Danger, R; Soulillou, J-P; Brouard, S

    2018-02-16

    Transplantation is currently the therapy of choice for endstage organ failure even though it requires long-term immunosuppresive therapy, with its numerous side effects, for acceptance of the transplanted organ. In rare cases however, patients develop operational tolerance, that is, graft survival without immunosuppression. Studies conducted on these patients reveal genetic, phenotypic, and functional signatures. They provide a better understanding of the immunological mechanisms involved in operational tolerance and define biomarkers that could be used to adapt immunosuppressive treatment to the individual, safely reduce immunosuppression doses, and ideally and safely guide immunosuppression withdrawal. This review summarizes studies that suggest a role for B cells as biomarkers of operational tolerance and discusses the use of B cells as a predictive tool for immunologic risk. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Dismantling of a hot cell-block and the treatment of the produced concrete bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rompf, U.; Brielmayer, M.; Graf, A.; Stutz, U.; Ambos, F.

    2003-01-01

    A building with hot cells had been operated in Karlstein/Main from 1968 to 1989 in order to perform check-ups at radiated fuel rods and nuclear components. The operation of the system was stopped after an operation period of approximately 20 years. The core part of the building to be disassembled is a U-shaped hot cell-block with nine individual cells, partly consisting of heavy reinforced concrete, located in the ground floor (fig. 1 and fig. 2). The major part of the cells was covered with 10 mm steel plate and provided with approx. 1,400 openings of all different kinds. The wall thickness of the cells was between 0.90 m and 1.10 m. Under these conditions a successful decontamination at the ''existing building structure'' was not possible. Therefore, the non-supporting structures of the hot cell-block were removed in individual blocks by means of sawing and the remaining walls and floors were peeled by using the diamond rope sawing technique. The dismantling took 17 months. A re-treatment of the produced concrete blocks (235 blocks, approx. 970 Mg) to reduce the radioactive waste to a minimum was performed at the Research Centre Karlsruhe, Central Decontamination Department (HDB). The Target of the concrete bar treatment at HDB is to reduce the volume of radioactive waste to a minimum and to add the major part of the concrete bars to harmless utilisation. To achieve the same, initially the more contaminated parts of the bars without openings, such as tubes, cable or ventilating shafts, are removed by means of wire cutting and packed into a KONRAD-Container as radioactive waste. The remaining bar is decontaminated by means of sandblasting and afterwards, following successful release measurement, released from the scope of the regulations under the Atomic Energy. Bars with openings are crushed into small pieces by means of the remote-controlled chisel excavator, in order to separate the individual kinds of material. The rubble is packed into drums and measured by

  13. Design and rescue scenario of common repair equipment for in-vessel components in ITER hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakudate, Satoshi; Takeda, Nobukazu; Nakahira, Masataka; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi

    2006-06-01

    Transportation of the in-vessel components to be repaired in the ITER hot cell is carried by two kinds of transporters, i.e., overhead cranes and floor vehicles. The access area for repair operations in the hot cell is duplicated by these transporters. Clear sharing of the respective roles of these transporters with the minimum duplication is therefore useful for rationalization. The overhead cranes, which are independently installed in the respective cells in the hot sell, cannot pass through the components to be repaired between cells, i.e., receiving cell and refurbishment cell as an example. If the floor vehicle with simple mechanisms can cover the inaccessible area for the overhead cranes, a global transporter system in the hot cell will be simplified and the reliability will be increased. Based on this strategy, the overhead crane and floor vehicle concepts are newly proposed. The overhead crane has an adapter for change of the end-effectors, which can be easily changed, to grasp many kinds of components to be repaired. The floor vehicle, which is equipped with wheel mechanisms for transportation, is just to pass through the components between cells with only straight (linear) motion on the floor. The simple wheel mechanism can solve the spread of the dust, which is the critical issue of the original air bearing mechanism for traveling in the 2001 FDR design. Rescue scenarios and procedures in the hot cell are also studied in this report. The proposed rescue crane has major two functions for rescue operations of the hot cell facility, i.e., one for the overhead crane and the other for refurbishment equipment such as workstation for divertor repair. The rescue of the faulty overhead crane is carried out using the rescue tool installed on the rescue crane or directly traveled by pushing/pulling by the rescue crane after docking on the faulty overhead crane. For the rescue of the workstation, the rescue crane consists of a telescopic manipulator (maximum length

  14. Characterization report for Building 301 Hot Cell Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    During the period from October, 1997, through March, 1998, ANL-E Health Physics conducted a pre-D and D characterization of Building 301, referred to as the Hot Cell Facility. While primary emphasis was placed on radiological evaluation, the presence of non-nuclear hazardous and toxic material was also included in the scope of the characterization. This is one of the early buildings on the ANL-E site, and was heavily used in the 1950`s and 1960`s for various nuclear reaction and reactor design studies. Some degree of cleanup and contamination fixation was done in the 1970`s, so that the building could be used with a minimum of risk of personnel contamination. Work records are largely nonexistent for the early history of the building, so that any assumptions about extent and type of contamination had to be kept very open in the survey planning process. The primary contaminant was found to be painted-over Cs-137 embedded in the concrete floors, although a variety of other nuclides consistent with the work said to have been performed were found in smaller quantities. Due to leaks and drips through the floor, a relatively modest amount of soil contamination was found in the service trench under the building, not penetrating deeply. Two contaminated, disconnected drain lines leaving the building could not be traced by site records, and remain a problem for remediation. The D and D Characterization Plan was fulfilled.

  15. The Hot Cell Radioactive Waste Concept of Forschungszentrum Juelich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pott, G.; Halaszovich, St.

    1999-01-01

    During the last 30 years extensive scientific examinations on radioactive metals,ceramics and fuel elements have been carried out, so that a high volume of waste has resulted. Also from the dismantling of irradiated facilities metallics waste has o be handed. Prior for equipment repair the hot cell involved has to be decontaminated and a large amount of lower active waste is produced. The waste is collected for conditioning and storing. There are different categories as: low active liquid waste, low active burnable waste, fuel waste, low and high active metallic waste. For each waste category special transport container are used. For the volume reduction our Waste Department is equipped with special facilities e.g.: furnace for burning, drying, liquids evaporators, hydraulic press for pelletizing, decontamination box for the dismantling ad cleaning of components. After conditioning the waste will be stored on site or transported to final storage in a salt mine (ERAM) . Special documentation has to be done for the acceptance of this waste

  16. Characterization report for Building 301 Hot Cell Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    During the period from October, 1997, through March, 1998, ANL-E Health Physics conducted a pre-D and D characterization of Building 301, referred to as the Hot Cell Facility. While primary emphasis was placed on radiological evaluation, the presence of non-nuclear hazardous and toxic material was also included in the scope of the characterization. This is one of the early buildings on the ANL-E site, and was heavily used in the 1950's and 1960's for various nuclear reaction and reactor design studies. Some degree of cleanup and contamination fixation was done in the 1970's, so that the building could be used with a minimum of risk of personnel contamination. Work records are largely nonexistent for the early history of the building, so that any assumptions about extent and type of contamination had to be kept very open in the survey planning process. The primary contaminant was found to be painted-over Cs-137 embedded in the concrete floors, although a variety of other nuclides consistent with the work said to have been performed were found in smaller quantities. Due to leaks and drips through the floor, a relatively modest amount of soil contamination was found in the service trench under the building, not penetrating deeply. Two contaminated, disconnected drain lines leaving the building could not be traced by site records, and remain a problem for remediation. The D and D Characterization Plan was fulfilled

  17. Dose control programme of Hot Cell facility at Isotope Wing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapkal, Jyotsna A.; Suresh, Manju; Shreenivas, V.; Amruta, C.T.; Yadav, R.K.B.; Gopalkrishanan, R.K.; Patil, B.N.; Sastry, K.V.S.

    2015-01-01

    Hot Cell Facility of Board of Radiation Isotope Technology (BRIT) at Radiological Laboratories (RLG) is involved in fabrication of sealed radioisotopes like Cobalt-60, Cesium-137 and Iridium-192 radioisotopes which are widely used for various medical and industrial applications. In the field of Medicine, above radioactive sources are used for treatment procedures such as Teletherapy and Brachytherapy. 192 Ir radioisotope is widely used for industrial radiography particularly for non-destructive testing of welds in steel in the oil and gas industries. In spite of the increased production of these radioisotopes to meet the requirements from medical and industrial sector, the annual Collective Dose for BRIT facility, during 2011-2013 has shown a downward trend. This paper describes in brief the measures adopted by the facility based on the radiological safety inputs provided by Radiation Hazards Control (RHC) Unit of Isotope Wing, RLG for reducing the collective dose during year 2012 and 2013 by nearly 40% of collective dose consumed for year-2011. Strict implementation of the radiological safety measures during handling of radioactive sources, administrative controls and engineered safety measures resulted in lowering of collective dose during year 2011-2013. (author)

  18. Transformation of a beta gamma hot-cell under air in a tight hot-cell under inert gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, G.

    1981-05-01

    For several years now, fuel elements from graphite gas reactors have been stored in pools at the Cadarache Center after having been subjected (in general) to laboratory examinations. The CEA has adopted the following re-transfer procedure for these fuel elements while awaiting reprocessing: the fuel elements are extracted from their existing cartridges and transferred into new welded stainless steel containers capable of assuring long term storage. The storage, however, envisaged is temporary and is realized in the Pegase pool, specially adapted for this purpose. This re-transfer operation is envisaged for some 2.300 containers. All the appropriate safety measures will be taken. The various different fuel materials handled are often highly irradiated. The presence of water in certain containers due to loss of leaktightness has led to a series of chemical reactions (corrosion of uranium by water, reactions with magnesium, formation of hydrides). As a result, existing envelopes can contain UO 2 , UH 3 and hydrogen; operations must therefore being carried out in an inert atmosphere (preferably argon). The re-transfer process can not therefore be carried out in a conventional cell. It is therefore envisaged to carry out this work in a leaktight cell in an inert atmosphere. A laboratory cell could be modified to perform these functions. This cell would be reconverted to its original state when operations terminate (in about 3 years time) [fr

  19. The 'SILOE' reactor at Grenoble, France and associated hot cell facilities. Information sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardt, P. von der; Roettger, H.

    1981-01-01

    Technical information is given on the SILOE reactor and associated hot cell facilities, with the main emphasis on experimental irradiation facilities, specialized irradiation devices (loops and capsules) and possibilities for post-irradiation examinations of samples. The information is presented in the form of eight information sheets under the headings: main characteristics of the reactor; utilization and specialization of the reactor; experimental facilities; neutron spectra; main characteristics of specialized irradiation devices; main characteristics of hot cell facilities; equipment and techniques available for post-irradiation examinations; utilization and specialization of the hot cell facilities

  20. The DR 3 reactor at Risoe, Denmark and its associated hot cell facilities. Information sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardt, P. von der; Roettger, H.

    1981-01-01

    Technical information is given on the DR 2 reactor and associated hot cell facilities, with the main emphasis on experimental irradiation facilities, specialized irradiation devices (loops and capsules) and possibilities for post-irradiation examinations of samples. The information is presented in the form of seven information sheets under the headings: main characteristics of the reactor; utilization and specialization of the reactor; experimental facilities; main characteristics of specialized irradiation devices; main characteristics of hot cell facilities; equipment and techniques available for post-irradiation examinations; utilization and specialization of the hot cell facilities

  1. The DIDO-reactor at Harwell, U.K. and ancillary hot cell facilities. Information sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardt, P. von der; Roettger, H.

    1981-01-01

    Technical information is given on the DIDO reactor and associated hot cell facilities, with the main emphasis on experimental irradiation facilities, specialized irradiation devices (loops and capsules) and possibilities for post-irradiation examinations of samples. The information is presented in the form of eight information sheets under the headings: main characteristics of the reactor; utilization and specialization of the reactor; experimental facilities; neutron spectra; main characteristics of specialized irradiation devices; main characteristics of hot cell facilities; equipment and techniques available for post-irradiation examinations; utilization and specialization of the hot cell facilities

  2. The 'OSIRIS' reactor at Saclay, France and available hot cell facilities. Information sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardt, P. von der; Roettger, H.

    1981-01-01

    Technical information is given on the OSIRIS reactor and associated hot cell facilities, with the main emphasis on experimental irradiation facilities, specialized irradiation devices (loops and capsules) and possibilities for post-irradiation examinations of samples. The information is presented in the form of eight information sheets under the headings: main characteristics of the reactor; utilization and specialization of the reactor; experimental facilities; neutron spectra; main characteristics of specialized irradiation devices; main characteristics of hot cell facilities; equipment and techniques available for post-irradiation examinations; utilization and specialization of the hot cell facilities

  3. Nonplasmonic Hot-Electron Photocurrents from Mn-Doped Quantum Dots in Photoelectrochemical Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yitong; Rossi, Daniel; Parobek, David; Son, Dong Hee

    2016-03-03

    We report the measurement of the hot-electron current in a photoelectrochemical cell constructed from a glass/ITO/Al2 O3 (ITO=indium tin oxide) electrode coated with Mn-doped quantum dots, where hot electrons with a large excess kinetic energy were produced through upconversion of the excitons into hot electron hole pairs under photoexcitation at 3 eV. In our recent study (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2015, 137, 5549), we demonstrated the generation of hot electrons in Mn-doped II-VI semiconductor quantum dots and their usefulness in photocatalytic H2 production reaction, taking advantage of the more efficient charge transfer of hot electrons compared with band-edge electrons. Here, we show that hot electrons produced in Mn-doped CdS/ZnS quantum dots possess sufficient kinetic energy to overcome the energy barrier from a 5.4-7.5 nm thick Al2 O3 layer producing a hot-electron current in photoelectrochemical cell. This work demonstrates the possibility of harvesting hot electrons not only at the interface of the doped quantum dot surface, but also far away from it, thus taking advantage of the capability of hot electrons for long-range electron transfer across a thick energy barrier. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Robot Work Platform for Large Hot Cell Deactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BITTEN, E.J.

    2000-01-01

    The 324 Building, located at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, is being deactivated to meet state and federal cleanup commitments. The facility is currently in its third year of a nine-year project to complete deactivation and closure for long-term surveillance and maintenance. The 324 building contains large hot cells that were used for high-radiation, high-contamination chemical process development and demonstrations. A major obstacle for the 324 deactivation project is the inability to effectively perform deactivation tasks within highly radioactive, contaminated environments. Current strategies use inefficient, resource intensive technologies that significantly impact the cost and schedule for deactivation. To meet mandated cleanup commitments, there is a need to deploy rapid, more efficient remote/robot technologies to minimize worker exposure, accelerate work tasks, and eliminate the need for multiple specialized tool design and procurement efforts. This paper describes the functions and performance requirements for a crane-deployed remote/robot Work Platform possessing full access capabilities. The remote/robot Work Platform will deploy commercially available off-the-shelf tools and end effectors to support Project cleanup goals and reduce overall project risk and cost. The intent of this system is to maximize the use of off-the-shelf technologies that minimize additional new, unproven, or novel designs. This paper further describes procurement strategy, the selection process, the selected technology, and the current status of the procurement and lessons learned. Funding, in part, has been provided by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science and Technology, Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area

  5. Single-nanowire, low-bandgap hot carrier solar cells with tunable open-circuit voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpert, Steven; Burke, Adam; Chen, I.-Ju; Anttu, Nicklas; Lehmann, Sebastian; Fahlvik, Sofia; Bremner, Stephen; Conibeer, Gavin; Thelander, Claes; Pistol, Mats-Erik; Linke, Heiner

    2017-10-01

    Compared to traditional pn-junction photovoltaics, hot carrier solar cells offer potentially higher efficiency by extracting work from the kinetic energy of photogenerated ‘hot carriers’ before they cool to the lattice temperature. Hot carrier solar cells have been demonstrated in high-bandgap ferroelectric insulators and GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures, but so far not in low-bandgap materials, where the potential efficiency gain is highest. Recently, a high open-circuit voltage was demonstrated in an illuminated wurtzite InAs nanowire with a low bandgap of 0.39 eV, and was interpreted in terms of a photothermoelectric effect. Here, we point out that this device is a hot carrier solar cell and discuss its performance in those terms. In the demonstrated devices, InP heterostructures are used as energy filters in order to thermoelectrically harvest the energy of hot electrons photogenerated in InAs absorber segments. The obtained photovoltage depends on the heterostructure design of the energy filter and is therefore tunable. By using a high-resistance, thermionic barrier, an open-circuit voltage is obtained that is in excess of the Shockley-Queisser limit. These results provide generalizable insight into how to realize high voltage hot carrier solar cells in low-bandgap materials, and therefore are a step towards the demonstration of higher efficiency hot carrier solar cells.

  6. Consideration of hot channel factors in design for providing operating margins on coolant channel outlet temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, V.K.; Surendar, C.; Bapat, C.N.

    1994-01-01

    The Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (IPHWR) are horizontal pressure tube reactors using natural uranium oxide fuel in the form of short (495 mm) clusters. The fuel clusters in the Zr-Nb pressure tubes are cooled by high pressure, high temperature and subcooled circulating heavy water. Coolant flow distribution to individual channels is designed to match the power distribution so as to obtain uniform coolant outlet temperature. However, during operation, the coolant outlet temperature in individual channels deviate from their nominal value due to: tolerances in process design; effects of grid frequency on the pump speed; deviation in channel powers from the nominal values due to on-power fuelling and movement of reactivity devices, and so on. Thus an operating margin, between the highest permissible and nominal coolant outlet temperatures, is required taking into account various hot channel factors that contribute to higher coolant outlet temperatures. The paper discusses the methodology adopted to assess various hot channel factors which would provide optimum operating margins while ensuring sub-cooling. (author)

  7. Nuclear facilities of EdF's operational hot base of Tricastin. 2009 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This annual report is established on account of article 21 of the 2006-686 French law from June 13, 2006, relative to the transparency and safety in the nuclear domain. It describes, first, the nuclear facilities of the EdF operational hot base of Tricastin, then, the measures taken to ensure their safety (personnel radioprotection, actions implemented for nuclear safety improvement, organisation in crisis situation, external and internal controls, technical assessment of the facilities), and finally the procedures of management of radioactive wastes. A glossary and the viewpoint of the Committee of Hygiene, safety and working conditions about the content of the document conclude the report. (J.S.)

  8. DQO Summary Report for 324 and 327 Building Hot Cells D4 Project Waste Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.A. Lee

    2006-02-06

    This data quality objective (DQO) summary report provides the results of the DQO process conducted for waste characterization activities for the 324 and 327 Building hot cells decommission, deactivate, decontaminate, and demolish activities. This DQO summary report addresses the systems and processes related to the hot cells, air locks, vaults, tanks, piping, basins, air plenums, air ducts, filters, an adjacent elements that have high dose rates, high contamination levels, and/or suspect transuranic waste, which will require nonstandard D4 techniques.

  9. The 'MELUSINE' reactor at Grenoble, France, and associated hot cell facilities. Information sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardt, P. von der; Roettger, H.

    1981-01-01

    Technical information is given on the MELUSINE reactor and associated hot cell facilities, with the main emphasis on experimental irradiation facilities and specialized irradiation devices (loops and capsules). The information is presented in the form of six information sheets under the headings: main characteristics of the reactor; utilization and specialization of the reactor; experimental facilities; neutron spectra; main characteristics of specialized irradiation devices; main characteristics of hot cell facilities

  10. Hot cell chemistry for isotope production at Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, J.W.; Bentley, G.E.; Ott, M.A.; DeBusk, T.P.

    1978-01-01

    A family of standardized glass and plastic ware has been developed for the unit processes of dissolution, volume reduction, ion exchange, extraction, gasification, filtration, centrifugation, and liquid transfer in the hot cells. Computerized data handling and gamma pulse analysis have been applied to quality control and process development in hot cell procedures for production of isotopes for research in physics and medicine. The above has greatly reduced the time needed to set up for and produce a new isotope

  11. Haptic shared control improves hot cell remote handling despite controller inaccuracies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosterhout, J. van; Abbink, D.A.; Koning, J.F.; Boessenkool, H.; Wildenbeest, J.G.W.; Heemskerk, C.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: Haptic shared control is generally based upon perfect environment information. A realistic implementation holds model errors with respect to the environment. Operators were aided with inaccurate guiding forces during a peg-in-hole task. The results showed that small guiding inaccuracies still aid the operator. -- Abstract: A promising solution to improve task performance in ITER hot cell remote handling is the use of haptic shared control. Haptic shared control can assist the human operator along a safe and optimal path with continuous guiding forces from an intelligent autonomous controller. Previous research tested such controllers with accurate knowledge of the environment (giving flawless guiding forces), while in a practical implementation guidance forces will sometimes be flawed due to inaccurate models or sensor information. This research investigated the effect of zero and small (7.5 mm) errors on task performance compared to normal (unguided) operation. In a human factors experiment subjects performed a three dimensional virtual reality peg-in-hole type task (30 mm diameter; 0.1 mm clearance), with and without potentially flawed haptic shared control. The results showed that the presence of guiding forces, despite of small guiding errors, still improved task performance with respect to unguided operations

  12. Haptic shared control improves hot cell remote handling despite controller inaccuracies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oosterhout, J. van, E-mail: J.vanOosterhout@differ.nl [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of 3mE, BioMechanical Engineering Department, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Abbink, D.A. [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of 3mE, BioMechanical Engineering Department, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Koning, J.F. [Heemskerk Innovative Technology B.V., Jonckerweg 12, 2201 DZ Noordwijk (Netherlands); Boessenkool, H. [FOM Institute DIFFER (Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research), Association EURATOM-FOM, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, PO Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Wildenbeest, J.G.W. [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of 3mE, BioMechanical Engineering Department, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Heemskerk Innovative Technology B.V., Jonckerweg 12, 2201 DZ Noordwijk (Netherlands); Heemskerk, C.J.M. [Heemskerk Innovative Technology B.V., Jonckerweg 12, 2201 DZ Noordwijk (Netherlands)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: Haptic shared control is generally based upon perfect environment information. A realistic implementation holds model errors with respect to the environment. Operators were aided with inaccurate guiding forces during a peg-in-hole task. The results showed that small guiding inaccuracies still aid the operator. -- Abstract: A promising solution to improve task performance in ITER hot cell remote handling is the use of haptic shared control. Haptic shared control can assist the human operator along a safe and optimal path with continuous guiding forces from an intelligent autonomous controller. Previous research tested such controllers with accurate knowledge of the environment (giving flawless guiding forces), while in a practical implementation guidance forces will sometimes be flawed due to inaccurate models or sensor information. This research investigated the effect of zero and small (7.5 mm) errors on task performance compared to normal (unguided) operation. In a human factors experiment subjects performed a three dimensional virtual reality peg-in-hole type task (30 mm diameter; 0.1 mm clearance), with and without potentially flawed haptic shared control. The results showed that the presence of guiding forces, despite of small guiding errors, still improved task performance with respect to unguided operations.

  13. Development of the maintenance process by the servo manipulator for the parts of the equipment outside the MSM's workspace in a hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. Y.; Kim, S. H.; Song, D. K.; Park, B. S.; Yun, G. S.

    2003-01-01

    In this study, the maintenance process by the servo manipulator for the parts of the equipment that cannot be reached by MSM in the hot cell was developed. To do this, the virtual mock up is implemented using virtual prototyping technology. And, Using this mock-up, the workspace of the manipulators in the hot cell and the operator's view through the wall-mounted lead glass are analyzed. And the path planning of the servo manipulator using the collision detection of the virtual mockup is established. Also, the maintenance process for the parts of the equipment that are located out area of the MSM's workspace by the servo manipulator is proposed and verified through the graphic simulation. The proposed remote maintenance process of the equipment can be effectively used in the real hot cell operation. Also, the implemented virtual mock-up of the hot cell can be effecively used in analyzing the various hot cell operation and in enhancing the reliability and safety of the spent fuel manaement

  14. Thermal performance behavior of a domestic hot water solar storage tank during consumption operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehghan, A.A.; Barzegar, A.

    2011-01-01

    Transient thermal performance behavior of a vertical storage tank of a domestic solar water heating system with a mantle heat exchanger has been investigated numerically in the discharge/consumption mode. It is assumed that the tank is initially stratified during its previous heat storing/charging operation. During the discharging period, the city cold water is fed at the bottom of the tank and hot water is extracted from its top outlet port for consumption. Meanwhile, the collector loop is assumed to be active. The conservation equations in the axis-symmetric cylindrical co-ordinate have been used and discretised by employing the finite volume method. The low Reynolds number (LRN) k - ω model is utilized for treating turbulence in the fluid. The influence of the tank Grashof number, the incoming cold fluid Reynolds number and the size of the inlet port of the heat storage tank on the transient thermal characteristics of the tank is investigated and discussed. It is found that for higher values of Grashof number, the pre-established thermal stratification is well preserved during the discharging operation mode. It is also noticed that in order to have a tank with a proper thermal performance and or have least mixing inside the tank during the consumption period, the tank inflow Reynolds number and or its inflow port diameter should be kept below certain values. In these cases, the storage tank is enabling to provide proper amount of hot water with a proper temperature for consumption purposes.

  15. First operational tests of an oxycoal hot gas cleaning facility; Erste Betriebstests einer Oxycoal-Heissgasreinigung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellermann, A.; Habermehl, M.; Foerster, M.; Kneer, R. [RWTH Aachen University (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Waerme- und Stoffuebertragung

    2009-07-01

    An oxyfuel power plant process using a ceramic high temperature membrane for oxygen supply is investigated within the scope of the OXYCOAL-AC project at RWTH Aachen Uni-versity. Implementing the membrane requires a clean gas at a temperature of 850 C. There-fore a hot gas cleaning facility based on porous ceramic candle filters is used, which is state-of-the-art for the gas cleaning of synthesis gas or for flue gas cleaning in pressurised fluid-ised bed furnaces. However, these applications operate at lower temperatures and in a sig-nificantly different atmosphere. Thus, experiences for dust removal at high temperatures in oxyfuel atmoshere are not available. Experiments with a hot gas cleaning facility were con-ducted at the experimental combustion plant of the Institute of Heat and Mass Transfer, us-ing different candle filter materials. The flue gas was provided by a coal fired 100 kW{sub th} oxy-fuel furnace. The operational behaviour of the filtration facility, the adhesion and dedusting properties of the filter cake were investigated. (orig.)

  16. Research and design of module supporting and rotary device in hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Wenguang; Song Changfei; Chen Mingchi

    2013-01-01

    Background: This paper introduced a device for tandem accelerator project, designed for the radioactive target source module maintaining and testing. Purpose: The module is required to be lifting, rotary and precise orientation in technology. Methods: We designed the structure of rotary drum, supporting drum and screw lifting device to achieve the function. In circumference, we adopt the project with electro-motion cursory locate, hand-motion precise locate, sensor location detect and cylinder locate pin, the measure is safe and trustiness. Results: Via experimentation, all technology targets are fulfilled, and the rationality and reliability of the device has been validated. Conclusions: The successful development of this device provides a good direction and reference for radioactive areas such as accelerator, hot cell, reactor etc., and can be adapted to its capability of long-distance shield operating, maintaining or testing. (authors)

  17. Functional components for a design strategy: Hot cell shielding in the high reliability safeguards methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrelli, R.A., E-mail: rborrelli@uidaho.edu

    2016-08-15

    The high reliability safeguards (HRS) methodology has been established for the safeguardability of advanced nuclear energy systems (NESs). HRS is being developed in order to integrate safety, security, and safeguards concerns, while also optimizing these with operational goals for facilities that handle special nuclear material (SNM). Currently, a commercial pyroprocessing facility is used as an example system. One of the goals in the HRS methodology is to apply intrinsic features of the system to a design strategy. This current study investigates the thickness of the hot cell walls that could adequately shield processed materials. This is an important design consideration that carries implications regarding the formation of material balance areas, the location of key measurement points, and material flow in the facility.

  18. Structural Safety Analysis of Openable Working Table in ACP Hot Cell for Spent Fuel Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Ki Chan; Ku, Jeong Hoe; Lee, Eun Pyo; Choung, Won Myung; You, Gil Sung; Lee, Won Kyung; Cho, IL Je; Kuk, Dong Hak

    2006-01-01

    A demonstration facility for advanced spent fuel conditioning process (ACP) is under construction in KAERI. In this hot cell facility, all process equipment and materials are taken in and out only through the rear door. The working table in front of the process rear door is specially designed to be openable for the efficient use of the space. This paper presents the structural safety analysis of the openable working table, for the normal operational load condition and accidental drop condition of heavy object. Both cases are investigated through static and dynamic finite element analyses. The analysis results show that structural safety of the working table is sufficiently assured and the working table is not collapsed even when an object of 500 kg is dropped from the height of 50 cm.

  19. Development of a pattern hot cell for production of injectable radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Fabio Eduardo de

    2010-01-01

    , developed exclusively to produce ideal conditions in the micro ambient. All the operational parameters of the cell were investigated by planning specific assays. The results of these assays were in agreement with the criterions established and indicated the potential of the project in the development of a hot cell for radiopharmaceutical production. (author)

  20. FABRICE process for the refrabrication of experimental pins in a hot cell, from pins pre-irradiated in power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vignesoult, N.; Atabek, R.; Ducas, S.

    1982-06-01

    The Fabrice ''hot cell refabrication'' process for small pins from very long irradiated fuel elements was developed at the CEA to allow parametric studies of the irradiation behavior of pins from nuclear power plants. Since this operation required complete assurance of the validity of the process, qualification of the fabrication was performed on test pins, refabricated in the hot cell, as well as irradiation qualification. The latter qualification was intended to demonstrate that, in identical experimental irradiation conditions, the refabricated Fabrice pins behaved in the same way as whole pins with the same initial characteristics. This qualification of the Fabrice process, dealing with more than twenty pins at different burnups, showed that fabrication did not alter: the inherent characteristics of the sampled fuel element and the irradiation behavior of the sampled fuel element [fr

  1. Performance analysis of high-concentrated multi-junction solar cells in hot climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, Adel A.; Kandil, Kandil M.; Alzanki, Talal H.; Alenezi, Mohammad R.

    2018-03-01

    Multi-junction concentrator solar cells are a promising technology as they can fulfill the increasing energy demand with renewable sources. Focusing sunlight upon the aperture of multi-junction photovoltaic (PV) cells can generate much greater power densities than conventional PV cells. So, concentrated PV multi-junction solar cells offer a promising way towards achieving minimum cost per kilowatt-hour. However, these cells have many aspects that must be fixed to be feasible for large-scale energy generation. In this work, a model is developed to analyze the impact of various atmospheric factors on concentrator PV performance. A single-diode equivalent circuit model is developed to examine multi-junction cells performance in hot weather conditions, considering the impacts of both temperature and concentration ratio. The impacts of spectral variations of irradiance on annual performance of various high-concentrated photovoltaic (HCPV) panels are examined, adapting spectra simulations using the SMARTS model. Also, the diode shunt resistance neglected in the existing models is considered in the present model. The present results are efficiently validated against measurements from published data to within 2% accuracy. Present predictions show that the single-diode model considering the shunt resistance gives accurate and reliable results. Also, aerosol optical depth (AOD) and air mass are most important atmospheric parameters having a significant impact on HCPV cell performance. In addition, the electrical efficiency (η) is noticed to increase with concentration to a certain concentration degree after which it decreases. Finally, based on the model predictions, let us conclude that the present model could be adapted properly to examine HCPV cells' performance over a broad range of operating conditions.

  2. Study of cold and hot sources in a research reactor. (Physics, specifications, operation, utilization)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safieh, J.

    1982-10-01

    A brief description of the reactor, sources and experimental channels (ORPHEE being taken as example) is first given. The first part deals with the hot neutron source, mainly made of a graphite block to be carried at a temperature of 1500 0 K by nuclear heating. The present study focused on the determination, with the code MERCURE IV, of heat sources generated in the graphite block. From these results the spatial distribution of temperatures have been calculated with two different methods. Mechanical and thermal stresses have been calculated for the hot points. Then, the outlet neutron spectra is determined by means of the code APOLLO. Finally, the operation of the device is presented and the risks and the safety measures are given. The second part deals with cold neutron sources comprising mainly a cold moderator (liquid hydrogen 20.4 0 K). The helium coolant circuit liquefies the hydrogen by means of heat exchange in a condenser. Cold neutron yields calculations are developed by means of the code THERMOS in the plane and cyclindrical geometries. Heat sources generated by nuclear radiations are calculated. A detailed description of the device and its coolant circuit is given, and a risk analysis is finally presented. The third part deals with the part of thermal cold and hot neutrons in the study of matter and its dynamics. Technical means needed to obtain a monochromatic beam, for diffraction experiments, are recalled emphasizing on the interest of these neutrons with regard to X radiation. Then, one deals with cold neutron guides. Finally, the efficiency of two neutron guides is calculated. 78 refs [fr

  3. Development and performance tests of the bridge-transported servo manipulator system for remote maintenance jobs in a hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Jae Hyun; Park, Byung Suk; Ko, Byung Seung; Yoon, Ji Sup; Jung, Ki Jung

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a prototype of the Bridge-Transported Servo Manipulator (BTSM) system introduced, which has been developed to do operation and maintenance jobs remotely in a hot cell. The system consists of a telescopic transporter, a slave arm, a master arm, and a control system. Several tests such as a positional tracking, a weight handling, reliability, and operability have been performed and test results are presented. Based on the test results, an upgraded system which will be used during demonstrations of the advanced spent fuel conditioning process (ACP) has been designed.

  4. Mobile hot cell transition design phase study for radioactive waste treatment on the Hanford reservation site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pons, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: At the US Department of Energy's Hanford Reservation site, 4 caissons in under ground storage contain approximately 23 cubic meters of Transuranic (TRU) waste, in over 5,000 small packages. The retrieval of these wastes presents a number of very difficult issues, including the configuration of the vaults, approximately 50,000 curies of activity, high dose rates, and damaged/degraded waste packages. The waste will require remote retrieval and processing sufficient to produce certifiable RH-TRU waste packages. This RH-TRU will be packaged for staging on site until certification by CCP is completed to authorize shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The project has introduced AREVA' s innovative Hot Mobile Cell (HMC) technology to perform size reduction, sorting, characterization, and packaging of the RH waste stream at the point of generation, the retrieval site in the field. This approach minimizes dose and hazard exposure to workers that is usually associated with this operation. The HMC can also be used to provide employee protection, weather protection, and capacity improvements similar to those realized in general burial ground. AREVA TA and his partner AFS will provide this technology based on the existing HMCs developed and operated in France: - ERFB (Bituminized Waste Drum Retrieval Facility): ERFB was built specifically for retrieving the bituminized waste drums (approximately 6,000 stored in trenches in the North zone on the Marcoule site (in operation since 2001). - ERCF (Waste Drum Recovery and Packaging Facility): The ERCF was built specifically to retrieve bituminized waste drums stored in 35 pits located in the south area on Marcoule site (in operation) - FOSSEA (Legacy Waste Removal and Trench Cleanup): The FOSSEA project consists of the retrieval of waste stored on the Basic Nuclear Facility. Waste from the 56 trenches will be inspected, characterised, and if necessary processed or repackaged, and

  5. Chapter 6. Operation of electrolytic cell in standard operating practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanko, E.A.; Kabirov, Sh.O.; Safiev, Kh.; Azizov, B.S.; Mirpochaev, Kh.A.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter is devoted to operation of electrolytic cell in standard operating practices. Therefore, the electrolyte temperature, the composition of electrolyte, including the level of metals was considered. The regulation of electrolyte composition by liquidus temperature and electrolyte overheating was studied. Damping of anode effects was studied as well. Maintenance of electrolytic cells was described. Heat and energy balances of aluminium electrolytic cells were considered.

  6. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT): Additive Manufactured Hot Fire Planning and Testing in GRC Cell 32 Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikes, John C.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this project is to hot fire test an additively manufactured thrust chamber assembly TCA (injector and thrust chamber). GRC will install the additively manufactured Inconel 625 injector, two additively manufactured (SLM) water cooled Cu-Cr thrust chamber barrels and one additively manufactured (SLM) water cooled Cu-Cr thrust chamber nozzle on the test stand in Cell 32 and perform hot fire testing of the integrated TCA.

  7. Air system in the hot cell for injectable radiopharmaceutical production: requirements for personnel and environment safety and protection of the product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Fabio E.; Araujo, Elaine B., E-mail: fecampos@ipen.b, E-mail: ebaraujo@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    . Nevertheless, the application of clean room requirements in radioisotope laboratories in general and hot cells is technically not an easy task. The required negative pressure inside the hot cell depends on the operations to be performed inside the cell, on the type of radionuclide and their total activity. Hot cells works in negative pressure that ranges typically from 200 Pa to 500 Pa below room pressure. The new rules for radiopharmaceutical production will be soon published by ANVISA in order to regulate the GMP in this area. This make urgent the development of national models for hot cells that combines GMP and radioprotection concepts and attempt for the radiopharmaceutical process lines as in development at IPEN. (author)

  8. Air system in the hot cell for injectable radiopharmaceutical production: requirements for personnel and environment safety and protection of the product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Fabio E.; Araujo, Elaine B.

    2009-01-01

    . Nevertheless, the application of clean room requirements in radioisotope laboratories in general and hot cells is technically not an easy task. The required negative pressure inside the hot cell depends on the operations to be performed inside the cell, on the type of radionuclide and their total activity. Hot cells works in negative pressure that ranges typically from 200 Pa to 500 Pa below room pressure. The new rules for radiopharmaceutical production will be soon published by ANVISA in order to regulate the GMP in this area. This make urgent the development of national models for hot cells that combines GMP and radioprotection concepts and attempt for the radiopharmaceutical process lines as in development at IPEN. (author)

  9. A Shielding Analysis of Hot Cell for a 10 MW Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alnajjar, Alaaddin; Park, Chang Je; Roh, Gyuhong; Lee, Byunchul

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a shielding analysis has been performed for the hot cell in a 10 MW research reactor. Two kinds of shielding analysis code systems are used such as MCNPX2.7 and M-Shield7. The first one is Monte Carlo stochastic code and the second one is a deterministic point kernel code. The results are compared in this study. In order to obtain source term, the ORIGEN-S code is used for different kinds of source. Four kinds of sources are taken into consideration. From the simulation, it is also proposed that the proper thickness of shielding material and the maximum source capacity in the hot cell. This study shows preliminary analysis results of hot cell shielding for 10MW research reactor. Total four different source terms are considered such as spent fuel assembly, Ir-192, Mo-99, and I-131. For shielding material, general concrete, heavy concrete, and lead are used. MCNPX code is mainly used for a simplified hot cell model and the result are nearly consistent when compared with M-Shield code. Required shielding thickness and the hot cell capacity are also obtained for various criterion of surface dose rates

  10. 324 and 325 Building hot cell cleanout program: Decontamination of C-Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Y.B.; Holton, L.K. Jr.

    1989-10-01

    During FY 1989 the decontamination of C-Cell of Hanford's 324 Building was completed as part of the 324 and 325 Building Hot Cell Cleanout Program sponsored by the DOE Nuclear Energy's Surplus Facilities Management Program. The decontamination effort was completed using a series of remote and contact decontamination techniques. Initial radiation readings in C-Cell averaged 50 rad/hr and were reduced remotely to less than 200 mrad/hr using an alkaline foam cleaner followed by a 5000-psi water flush. Contact decontamination was then permissible using ultra high-pressure water, at 36,000 psi, further reducing the average radiation level in the cell to less than 86 mrem/hr. The approach used in decontaminating C-Cell resulted in a savings in radiation exposure of 87% and a cost savings of 39% compared to a hands-on procedure used in A-Cell, 324 Building in 1987. The radiation dose and the costs to achieve a 244-fold reduction in radiation contamination were 1.65 mrem per ft 2 and $96 per ft 2 of cell surface area. 14 figs., 4 tabs

  11. PWR fuel monitoring: recent progress with hot cells' examination equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenebault, P.

    1989-01-01

    The 'hot' laboratories set up by the French Atomic Energy Authority (CEA) in its nuclear research centers at Saclay and Grenoble, and by the French Electricity Board (EDF) on the Chinon nuclear power station site, are used for dismantling and examining fuel rod assemblies irradiated in PWRs. This article is limited to a description of a number of new or totally updated items of equipment in these laboratories. Nuclear industry companies are also participating in the development of new examination techniques. As an example, the use of wave-guides for remote transmission of signals in a radioactive environment is described. 2 figs

  12. Distinct Rayleigh scattering from hot spot mutant p53 proteins reveals cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Ho Joon; Nguyen, Anh H; Kim, Yeul Hong; Park, Kyong Hwa; Kim, Doyoun; Kim, Kyeong Kyu; Sim, Sang Jun

    2014-07-23

    The scattering of light redirects and resonances when an electromagnetic wave interacts with electrons orbits in the hot spot core protein and oscillated electron of the gold nanoparticles (AuNP). This report demonstrates convincingly that resonant Rayleigh scattering generated from hot spot mutant p53 proteins is correspondence to cancer cells. Hot spot mutants have unique local electron density changes that affect specificity of DNA binding affinity compared with wild types. Rayleigh scattering changes introduced by hot-spot mutations were monitored by localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) shift changes. The LSPR λmax shift for hot-spot mutants ranged from 1.7 to 4.2 nm for mouse samples and from 0.64 nm to 2.66 nm for human samples, compared to 9.6 nm and 15 nm for wild type and mouse and human proteins, respectively with a detection sensitivity of p53 concentration at 17.9 nM. It is interesting that hot-spot mutants, which affect only interaction with DNA, launches affinitive changes as considerable as wild types. These changes propose that hot-spot mutants p53 proteins can be easily detected by local electron density alterations that disturbs the specificity of DNA binding of p53 core domain on the surface of the DNA probed-nanoplasmonic sensor. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. ITER diagnostics: Maintenance and commissioning in the hot cell test bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, C.I.; Barnsley, R.; Costley, A.E.; Gottfried, R.; Haist, B.; Itami, K.; Kondoh, T.; Loesser, G.D.; Palmer, J.; Sugie, T.; Tesini, A.; Vayakis, G.

    2005-01-01

    In-vessel diagnostic equipment in ITER integrated in six equatorial and 12 upper ports, 16 divertor cassettes and five lower ports is designed to be removed in modules and then repaired, tested and commissioned in the same location at the ITER hot cell. The repair requirements and tests on these components are described along with design features that facilitate repair. The testing establishes the repair strategy, qualifies the refurbishment work and finally checks the mechanical and diagnostic function before the return of the modules. At the hot cell, a dummy port is provided for tests of mechanical and vacuum integrity as well as commissioning of the diagnostic equipment. The scope of the hot cell maintenance and commissioning activities is summarised and an overview of the integration of the diagnostic equipment is given

  14. Removal of an acid fume system contaminated with perchlorates located within hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, K.E.; Henslee, S.P.; Vroman, W.R.; Krsul, J.R.; Michelbacher, J.A.; Knighton, G.C.

    1992-09-01

    An add scrubbing system located within the confines of a highly radioactive hot cell at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) was remotely removed. The acid scrubbing system was routinely used for the dissolution of irradiated reactor fuel samples and structural materials. Perchloric acid was one of the acids used in the dissolution process and remained in the system with its inherent risks. Personnel could not enter the hot cell to perform the dismantling of the acid scabbing system due to the high radiation field and the explosion potential associated with the perchlorates. A robot was designed and built at ANL-W and used to dismantle the system without the need for personnel entry into the hot cell. The robot was also used for size reduction of removed components and loading of the removed components into waste containers

  15. D and D Toolbox Project - Technology Demonstration of Fixatives Applied to Hot Cell Facilities via Remote Sprayer Platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagos, L.; Shoffner, P.; Espinosa, E.; Pena, G.; Kirk, P.; Conley, T.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management's (DOE-EM's) D and D Toolbox Project is to use an integrated systems approach to develop a suite of decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) technologies, a D and D toolbox, that can be readily used across the DOE complex to improve safety, reduce technical risks, and limit uncertainty within D and D operations. Florida International University's Applied Research Center (FIU-ARC) is supporting this initiative by identifying technologies suitable to meet specific facility D and D requirements, assessing the readiness of those technologies for field deployment, and conducting technology demonstrations of selected technologies at FIU-ARC facilities in Miami, Florida. To meet the technology gap challenge for a technology to remotely apply strippable/fixative coatings, FIU-ARC identified and demonstrated of a remote fixative sprayer platform. During this process, FIU-ARC worked closely with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the selection of typical fixatives and in the design of a hot cell mockup facility for demonstrations at FIUARC. For this demonstration and for future demonstrations, FIU-ARC built a hot cell mockup facility at the FIU-ARC Technology Demonstration/Evaluation site in Miami, Florida. FIU-ARC selected the International Climbing Machines' (ICM's) Robotic Climber to perform this technology demonstration. The selected technology was demonstrated at the hot cell mockup facility at FIU-ARC during the week of November 10, 2008. Fixative products typically used inside hot cells were investigated and selected for this remote application. The fixatives tested included Sherwin Williams' Promar 200 and DTM paints and Bartlett's Polymeric Barrier System (PBS). The technology evaluation documented the ability of the remote system to spray fixative products on horizontal and vertical concrete surfaces. The technology performance, cost, and health and safety issues were evaluated

  16. Possibilities and prospects of investigation of irradiated structural and fuel materials using scanning electron microscope PHILLIPS XL 30 ESEM-TMP installed in the hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovanov, V. N.; Novoselov, A.E.; Kuzmin, S.V.; Yakovlev, V. V.

    2005-01-01

    Scanning electron microscope Philips XL 30 ESEM - TMP with X-ray microanalysis system INCA has been installed at SSC RF RIAR. The microscope is placed in the hot cell. Monitoring and control system is installed in the operator's room. Irradiated specimens are supplied to the hot cell through the transport terminal and installed into the microscope by manipulators. Direct contact of the personnel with radioactive materials is impossible. In addition it is developed the system of remote placement of the irradiated specimens into the specimen chamber of microscope. The system includes a stage with three seats, holders for different types of specimens and equipment for their remote loading in the holders. (Author)

  17. Criticality detector exclusion zone in a spent-fuel hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.S.; Sterbentz, J.W.

    1999-01-01

    The main purpose of a criticality alarm system (CAS) is to protect personnel by detecting a criticality event (neutron radiation) and actuating an alarm system to initiate emergency response. Inadvertent criticality alarms from noncritical events, such as spurious voltage spikes or intense gamma radiation fields, can produce work cessation and time-consuming and costly event assessments and may result in harm to personnel during an evacuation. It therefore becomes a major concern to ensure that inadvertent or false criticality alarms do not occur or at least are minimized. Minimization of inadvertent criticality alarms due to intense gamma radiation emitted from spent-nuclear-fuel (SNF) elements as opposed to neutron radiation from an actual criticality event is the primary focus of this calculational and experimental study. The Irradiated Fuel Storage Facility (IFSF) located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is a government-owned, contractor-operated facility whose mission is to provide safe handling and dry storage for various types of SNFs. Although other fuel types (lower burnup) are stored in the IFSF, it is the high-burnup elements with the associated intense gamma radiation fields that have the potential to inadvertently set off the criticality alarms in the fuel-handling area adjacent to the storage vault. Typically, in the fuel-handling cave or hot cell of the IFSF, the cask lid is removed, and individual fuel elements are extracted from the cask and placed in special storage canisters. It is during the time period when fuel elements are extracted from their casks or when fully loaded canisters are moved in the hot cell that the CAS detectors are exposed to the intense gamma radiation fields from the spent fuel. The neutron detectors positioned in one of the manipulator ports are designed such that fast neutrons from a criticality event are thermalized by a polyethylene moderator, strike the scintillator detector material, and

  18. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Tricastin operational hot base nuclear facilities - 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the Tricastin operational hot base facility (INB no. 157, Bollene, Vaucluse (FR)), a nuclear workshop for storage and maintenance and qualification operations on some EdF equipments. Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facility are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2013, if some, are reported as well as the effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility is presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions

  19. Use of a CO2 pellet non-destructive cleaning system to decontaminate radiological waste and equipment in shielded hot cells at the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bench, T.R.

    1997-01-01

    This paper details how the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory modified and utilized a commercially available, solid carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) pellet, non-destructive cleaning system to support the disposition and disposal of radioactive waste from shielded hot cells. Some waste materials and equipment accumulated in the shielded hot cells cannot be disposed directly because they are contaminated with transuranic materials (elements with atomic numbers greater than that of uranium) above waste disposal site regulatory limits. A commercially available CO 2 pellet non-destructive cleaning system was extensively modified for remote operation inside a shielded hot cell to remove the transuranic contaminants from the waste and equipment without generating any secondary waste in the process. The removed transuranic contaminants are simultaneously captured, consolidated, and retained for later disposal at a transuranic waste facility

  20. Analytical modeling of the temporal evolution of hot spot temperatures in silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasmer, Sven; Rajsrima, Narong; Geisemeyer, Ino; Fertig, Fabian; Greulich, Johannes Michael; Rein, Stefan

    2018-03-01

    We present an approach to predict the equilibrium temperature of hot spots in crystalline silicon solar cells based on the analysis of their temporal evolution right after turning on a reverse bias. For this end, we derive an analytical expression for the time-dependent heat diffusion of a breakdown channel that is assumed to be cylindrical. We validate this by means of thermography imaging of hot spots right after turning on a reverse bias. The expression allows to be used to extract hot spot powers and radii from short-term measurements, targeting application in inline solar cell characterization. The extracted hot spot powers are validated at the hands of long-term dark lock-in thermography imaging. Using a look-up table of expected equilibrium temperatures determined by numerical and analytical simulations, we utilize the determined hot spot properties to predict the equilibrium temperatures of about 100 industrial aluminum back-surface field solar cells and achieve a high correlation coefficient of 0.86 and a mean absolute error of only 3.3 K.

  1. Saturation spectroscopy of calcium atomic vapor in hot quartz cells with cold windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilshanskaya, E. V.; Saakyan, S. A.; Sautenkov, V. A.; Murashkin, D. A.; Zelener, B. B.; Zelener, B. V.

    2018-01-01

    Saturation spectroscopy of calcium atomic vapor was performed in hot quartz cells with cold windows. The Doppler-free absorption resonances with spectral width near 50 MHz were observed. For these experiments and future applications long-lived quartz cells with buffer gas were designed and made. A cooling laser for calcium magneto-optical trap will be frequency locked to the saturation resonances in the long-lived cells.

  2. Employing Hot Wire Anemometry to Directly Measure the Water Balance in a Proton Exchange membrane Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shakhshir, Saher Al; Hussain, Nabeel; Berning, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    Water management in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC’s) remains a critical problem for their durability, cost, and performance. Because the anode side of this fuel cell has the tendency to become dehydrated, measuring the water balance can be an important diagnosis tool during fuel cell...... operation. The water balance indicates how much of the product water leaves at the anode side versus the cathode side. Previous methods of determining the fuel cell water balance often relied on condensing the water in the exhaust gas streams and weighing the accumulated mass which is a time consuming...... process that has limited accuracy. Currently, our group is developing a novel method to accurately determine the water balance in a PEMFC in real time by employing hot-wire anemometry. The amount of heat transferred from the wire to the anode exhaust stream can be translated into a voltage signal which...

  3. Hot laboratory in Saclay. Equipment and radio-metallurgy technique of the hot lab in Saclay. Description of hot cell for handling of plutonium salts. Installation of an hot cell; Laboratoire a tres haute activite de Saclay. Equipement et techniques radiometallurgiques du laboratoire a haute activite de Saclay. Description de cellules pour manipulation de sels de plutonium. Amenagement d'une cellule du laboratoire de haute activite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazire, R; Blin, J; Cherel, G; Duvaux, Y; Cherel, G; Mustelier, J P; Bussy, P; Gondal, G; Bloch, J; Faugeras, P; Raggenbass, A; Raggenbass, P; Fufresne, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    Describes the conception and installation of the hot laboratory in Saclay (CEA, France). The construction ended in 1958. The main aim of this laboratory is to examine fuel rods of EL2 and EL3 as well as nuclear fuel studies. It is placed in between both reactors. In a first part, the functioning and specifications of the hot lab are given. The different hot cells are described with details of the ventilation and filtration system as well as the waste material and effluents disposal. The different safety measures are explained: description of the radiation protection, decontamination room and personnel monitoring. The remote handling equipment is composed of cutting and welding machine controlled with manipulators. Periscopes are used for sight control of the operation. In a second part, it describes the equipment of the hot lab. The unit for an accurate measurement of the density of irradiated uranium is equipped with an high precision balance and a thermostat. The equipment used for the working of irradiated uranium is described and the time length of each operation is given. There is also an installation for metallographic studies which is equipped with a manipulation bench for polishing and cleaning surfaces and a metallographic microscope. X-ray examination of uranium pellets will also be made and results will be compared with those of metallography. The last part describes the hot cells used for the manipulation of plutonium salts. The plutonium comes from the reprocessing plant and arrived as a nitric solution. Thus these cells are used to study the preparation of plutonium fluorides from nitric solution. The successive operations needed are explained: filtration, decontamination and extraction with TBP, purification on ion exchangers and finally formation of the plutonium fluorides. Particular attention has been given to the description of the specifications of the different gloveboxes and remote handling equipment used in the different reaction steps and

  4. Hot laboratory in Saclay. Equipment and radio-metallurgy technique of the hot lab in Saclay. Description of hot cell for handling of plutonium salts. Installation of an hot cell; Laboratoire a tres haute activite de Saclay. Equipement et techniques radiometallurgiques du laboratoire a haute activite de Saclay. Description de cellules pour manipulation de sels de plutonium. Amenagement d'une cellule du laboratoire de haute activite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazire, R.; Blin, J.; Cherel, G.; Duvaux, Y.; Cherel, G.; Mustelier, J.P.; Bussy, P.; Gondal, G.; Bloch, J.; Faugeras, P.; Raggenbass, A.; Raggenbass, P.; Fufresne, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    Describes the conception and installation of the hot laboratory in Saclay (CEA, France). The construction ended in 1958. The main aim of this laboratory is to examine fuel rods of EL2 and EL3 as well as nuclear fuel studies. It is placed in between both reactors. In a first part, the functioning and specifications of the hot lab are given. The different hot cells are described with details of the ventilation and filtration system as well as the waste material and effluents disposal. The different safety measures are explained: description of the radiation protection, decontamination room and personnel monitoring. The remote handling equipment is composed of cutting and welding machine controlled with manipulators. Periscopes are used for sight control of the operation. In a second part, it describes the equipment of the hot lab. The unit for an accurate measurement of the density of irradiated uranium is equipped with an high precision balance and a thermostat. The equipment used for the working of irradiated uranium is described and the time length of each operation is given. There is also an installation for metallographic studies which is equipped with a manipulation bench for polishing and cleaning surfaces and a metallographic microscope. X-ray examination of uranium pellets will also be made and results will be compared with those of metallography. The last part describes the hot cells used for the manipulation of plutonium salts. The plutonium comes from the reprocessing plant and arrived as a nitric solution. Thus these cells are used to study the preparation of plutonium fluorides from nitric solution. The successive operations needed are explained: filtration, decontamination and extraction with TBP, purification on ion exchangers and finally formation of the plutonium fluorides. Particular attention has been given to the description of the specifications of the different gloveboxes and remote handling equipment used in the different reaction steps and

  5. Hot topics in alkaline exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serov, Alexey; Zenyuk, Iryna V.; Arges, Christopher G.; Chatenet, Marian

    2018-01-01

    The tremendous progress from the first discovery of fuel cell principles by Sir William Robert Grove in 1839 [1] and independent observation of electricity generated in electrochemical reaction of hydrogen and air by a Swiss scientist Christian F. Shoenbein [2] to the recent breakthroughs in the fuel cell field resulted in the appearance of this clean energy technology around us. Indeed, fuel cell technology undoubtedly has entered into our life with the first introduction of Toyota Mirai Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) by Toyota Motor Co. in December of 2014 [3,4]. This FCV is commercially available and can be purchased in several countries. However, its sticker price of 57,500 substantially limits the number of customers that can purchase it. There are numerous factors that contribute to the high cost of fuel cell stack, however the price of platinum and platinum alloys is the main contributor [5].

  6. Hot gas flow cell for optical measurements on reactive gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosch, Helge; Fateev, Alexander; Nielsen, Karsten Lindorff

    2013-01-01

    A new design is presented for a gas flow cell for reactive gases at high temperatures. The design features three heated sections that are separated by flow windows. This design avoids the contact of reactive gases with the material of the exchangeable optical windows. A gas cell with this design ......-resolution measurements are presented for the absorption cross-section of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the UV range up to 773 K (500 degrees C)...

  7. The hot cell laboratories for material investigations of the Institute for Safety Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viehrig, H W

    1998-10-01

    Special facilities for handling and testing of irradiated specimens are necessary, to perform the investigation of activated material. The Institute for Safety Research has two hot cell laboratories: - the preparation laboratory and - the materials testing laboratory. This report is intended to give an overview of the available facilities and developed techniques in the laboratories. (orig.)

  8. Photovoltaic network connection portraits (XIV): The issue of hot cells; Retraso de la conexion fotovoltaica a la red (XIV): El asunto de las celulas calientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzo, E.; Martinez, F.; Moreton, R.

    2009-07-01

    In some cases due to plants performance is not as correct as hoped, and in some other, simply because the nice colors of the thermographs resulted very attractive to plenty of people; many photovoltaic generators have been profusely thermography within the current year. It has caused a special interest on hot cells phenomenon, that is to say those cells which operate at a significantly higher temperature than other placed in the same panel. (Author) 4 refs.

  9. Device for inserting and removing electric plug in socket- using remote handling apparatus inside radioactive hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallereau, R.; Galmard, Y.

    1994-01-01

    A device for pushing an electric plug into a supply socket inside a radioactive hot cell and for withdrawing the plug after use of the appliance attached to it, comprises a pair of pivotally mounted arms. It can be used inside radioactive hot cells, to insert and put in and put off electric plugs

  10. Plant cell nucleolus as a hot spot for iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roschzttardtz, Hannetz; Grillet, Louis; Isaure, Marie-Pierre; Conéjéro, Geneviève; Ortega, Richard; Curie, Catherine; Mari, Stéphane

    2011-08-12

    Many central metabolic processes require iron as a cofactor and take place in specific subcellular compartments such as the mitochondrion or the chloroplast. Proper iron allocation in the different organelles is thus critical to maintain cell function and integrity. To study the dynamics of iron distribution in plant cells, we have sought to identify the different intracellular iron pools by combining three complementary imaging approaches, histochemistry, micro particle-induced x-ray emission, and synchrotron radiation micro X-ray fluorescence. Pea (Pisum sativum) embryo was used as a model in this study because of its large cell size and high iron content. Histochemical staining with ferrocyanide and diaminobenzidine (Perls/diaminobenzidine) strongly labeled a unique structure in each cell, which co-labeled with the DNA fluorescent stain DAPI, thus corresponding to the nucleus. The unexpected presence of iron in the nucleus was confirmed by elemental imaging using micro particle-induced x-ray emission. X-ray fluorescence on cryo-sectioned embryos further established that, quantitatively, the iron concentration found in the nucleus was higher than in the expected iron-rich organelles such as plastids or vacuoles. Moreover, within the nucleus, iron was particularly accumulated in a subcompartment that was identified as the nucleolus as it was shown to transiently disassemble during cell division. Taken together, our data uncover an as yet unidentified although abundant iron pool in the cell, which is located in the nuclei of healthy, actively dividing plant tissues. This result paves the way for the discovery of a novel cellular function for iron related to nucleus/nucleolus-associated processes.

  11. Los Alamos Hot-Cell-Facility modifications for examining FFTF fuel pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, B.M.; Ledbetter, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Commissioned in 1960, the Wing 9 Hot Cell Facility at Los Alamos was recently modified to meet the needs of the 1980s. Because fuel pins from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) are too long for examination in the original hot cells, we modified cells to accommodate longer fuel pins and to provide other capabilities as well. For instance, the T-3 shipping cask now can be opened in an inert atmosphere that can be maintained for all nondestructive and destructive examinations of the fuel pins. The full-length pins are visually examined and photographed, the wire wrap is removed, and fission gas is sampled. After the fuel pin is cropped, a cap is seal-welded on the section containing the fuel column. This section is then transferred to other cells for gamma-scanning, radiography, profilometry, sectioning for metallography, and chemical analysis

  12. Basic design and construction of a mobile hot cell for the conditioning of spent high activity radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Hongxiang; Fan Zhiwen; Al-Mughrabi, M.

    2011-01-01

    The conditioning of spent high activity radioactive sources is one important step in sealed radioactive sources management strategies. Based on the practice on the designing of the immobilized hot cell, the handling of the sealed radioactive sources, and the reference of the mobile hot cell constructed in South Africa, SHARS conditioning process and the basic design of a mobile hot cell is developed. The mobile hot cell has been constructed and the tests including the cold test of the SRS conditioning, the hot cell assemble and disassemble and SRS recovery were done. The shielding capacity were tested by 3.8 x 10 13 Bq cobalt-60 sources and the dose rate of the equipment surface, below 2 m, is less than 0.016 mSv/h. It is proved that the designing requirement is meet and the function of the equipment is good. (authors)

  13. Hot Start to European Pluripotent Stem Cell Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sousa, Paul A; Steeg, Rachel; Kreisel, Beate; Allsopp, Timothy E

    2017-07-01

    Achieving consistency in standards of access to and quality of human induced pluripotent stem cells has lagged behind their use. In Europe, a network of academic and industrial partners has been established to overcome this challenge. The experience reveals the devil in the detail of worthy ambitions informing future efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Operating a fuel cell using landfill gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trippel, C.E.; Preston, J.L. Jr.; Trocciola, J.; Spiegel, R.

    1996-12-31

    An ONSI PC25{trademark}, 200 kW (nominal capacity) phosphoric acid fuel cell operating on landfill gas is installed at the Town of Groton Flanders Road landfill in Groton, Connecticut. This joint project by the Connecticut Light & Power Company (CL&P) which is an operating company of Northeast Utilities, the Town of Groton, International Fuel Cells (IFC), and the US EPA is intended to demonstrate the viability of installing, operating and maintaining a fuel cell operating on landfill gas at a landfill site. The goals of the project are to evaluate the fuel cell and gas pretreatment unit operation, test modifications to simplify the GPU design and demonstrate reliability of the entire system.

  15. Hot cell examination on the surveillance capsule and HANARO capsule in IMEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Yong Sun; Oh, Wan Ho; Yoo, Byung Ok; Jung, Yang Hong; Ahn, Sang Bok; Baik, Seung Je; Song, Wung Sup; Hong, Kwon Pyo

    2000-01-01

    For the maintenance of integrity and safety of pressurizer of commercial power plant until its life span, it is required by US NRC 10CFR50 APP. G and H and ASTM E185-94 to periodically monitor irradiation embrittlement by neutron irradiation. In order to accomplished the requirement reactor operator has been carrying out the test by extracting the monitoring capsule embeded in reactor during the period of planned preventive maintenance. In relation to this irradiation samples are being used for prediction of reactor vessel life span and reactor vessel's adjusted reference temperature by irradiation of neutron flux enough to reach to end of life span. And also irradiation capsules with and without instrumentation are used for R and D on nuclear materials. Each capsule contains high radioactivity, therefore, post irradiation examination has to be handled by all means in the hot cell. The facility available for this purpose is Irradiated material examination facility (IMEF) to handle such works as capsule receiving, capsule cut and dismantling, sample classification, various examination, and finally development and improvement of examination equipment and instrumentation. (Hong, J. S.)

  16. Development of remote crane system for use inside small argon hot-cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Kwang; Park, Byung Suk; Yu, Seung-Nam; Kim, Kiho; Cho, Ilje [Nuclear Fuel Cycle Process Technology Development Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we describe the design of a novel crane system for the use in a small argon hot-cell where only a pair of master-slave manipulators (MSM) is available for the remote maintenance of the crane. To increase the remote maintainability in the space-limited environment, we devised a remote actuation mechanism in which electrical parts consisting of a servo-motor, a position sensor, and two limit switches located inside the workspace of the MSM transmit power to the mechanical parts located in the ceiling. Even though the design concept does not provide thoroughly sufficient solution because the mechanical parts are placed out of the MSM's workspace, the durability of mechanical parts can be easily increased if they have a high safety margin. Therefore, the concept may be one of the best solutions for our special crane system. In addition, we developed a servo-control system based on absolute positioning technology; therefore, it is possible for us to perform the given tasks more safely through an automatic operation. (authors)

  17. Resonant tunneling diodes as energy-selective contacts used in hot-carrier solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Yasuhiko; Sugimoto, Noriaki; Ichiki, Akihisa; Kusano, Yuya; Motohiro, Tomoyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Among the four features unique to hot-carrier solar cells (HC-SCs): (i) carrier thermalization time and (ii) carrier equilibration time in the absorber, (iii) energy-selection width and (iv) conductance of the energy-selective contacts (ESCs), requisites of (i)-(iii) for high conversion efficiency have been clarified. We have tackled the remaining issues related to (iv) in the present study. The detailed balance model of HC-SC operation has been improved to involve a finite value of the ESC conductance to find the required values, which in turn has been revealed to be feasible using resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) consisting of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and quantum wells (QWs) by means of a formulation to calculate the conductance of the QD- and QW-RTDs derived using the rigorous solutions of the effective-mass Hamiltonians. Thus, all of the four requisites unique to HC-SCs to achieve high conversion efficiency have been elucidated, and the two requisites related to the ESCs can be fulfilled using the QD- and QW-RTDs

  18. Resonant tunneling diodes as energy-selective contacts used in hot-carrier solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Yasuhiko, E-mail: takeda@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp; Sugimoto, Noriaki [Toyota Central Research and Development Laboratories, Inc., 41-1, Yokomichi, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Ichiki, Akihisa [Green Mobility Collaborative Research Center, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Kusano, Yuya [Green Mobility Collaborative Research Center, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Toyota Motor Corp., 1200 Mishuku, Susono, Shizuoka 410-1193 (Japan); Motohiro, Tomoyoshi [Toyota Central Research and Development Laboratories, Inc., 41-1, Yokomichi, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Green Mobility Collaborative Research Center, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan)

    2015-09-28

    Among the four features unique to hot-carrier solar cells (HC-SCs): (i) carrier thermalization time and (ii) carrier equilibration time in the absorber, (iii) energy-selection width and (iv) conductance of the energy-selective contacts (ESCs), requisites of (i)-(iii) for high conversion efficiency have been clarified. We have tackled the remaining issues related to (iv) in the present study. The detailed balance model of HC-SC operation has been improved to involve a finite value of the ESC conductance to find the required values, which in turn has been revealed to be feasible using resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) consisting of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and quantum wells (QWs) by means of a formulation to calculate the conductance of the QD- and QW-RTDs derived using the rigorous solutions of the effective-mass Hamiltonians. Thus, all of the four requisites unique to HC-SCs to achieve high conversion efficiency have been elucidated, and the two requisites related to the ESCs can be fulfilled using the QD- and QW-RTDs.

  19. The feasibility study of hot cell decontamination by the PFC spray method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui-Jun Won; Chong-Hun Jung; Jei-Kwon Moon

    2008-01-01

    module. A performance test on each module was executed and the results have been reported. A combined test of the four modules, however, has not been performed as yet. The main objective of the present study is to demonstrate the feasibility of the full PFC spray decontamination process. Decontamination of the inside of the IMEF hot cell by the PFC spray method was also performed. PFC spray decontamination process was demonstrated by using a surrogate wall contaminated with Eu 2 O 3 powder. The spray pressure was 41 kgf/cm 2 , the orifice diameter was 0.2 mm and the spray velocity was 0.2 L/min. And, the decontaminated area was 100 cm 2 . From previous test results, we found that the decontamination factor of the PFC spray method was in the range from 9.6 to 62.4. When the decontamination efficiency of Co-60 was high, then the decontamination efficiency of Cs-137 was also high. As the surface roughness of the specimen increased, the PFC spray decontamination efficiency decreased. Inferring from the previous results, the surface of the surrogate wall was cleaned by the PFC spray method. The vacuum cup of the collection module operated well and gathered more than 99 % of the PFC solution. Also, filtration and distillation modules operated well. All the filtered PFC solution flowed to the storage chamber where some of the PFC solution was distilled. The coolant of the distillation module was a dry ice. And, the recycled solution was transferred to the spray module by a high pressure pump. To evaluate the PFC spray decontamination efficiency, a smear device was fabricated and operated by a manipulator. Before and after decontamination, a smear test was performed. The tested area was 100 cm 2 and the radioactivity was estimated indirectly by measuring the radioactivity of the filter paper. The average decontamination factor was in the range between 10 and 15. One application time was 2 minutes. The sprayed PFC solution was collected by the vacuum cup and it was stored in the

  20. New electron beam facility for irradiated plasma facing materials testing in hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, N.; Kawamura, H.; Akiba, M.

    1995-01-01

    Since plasma facing components such as the first wall and the divertor for the next step fusion reactors are exposed to high heat loads and high energy neutron flux generated by the plasma, it is urgent to develop of plasma facing components which can resist these. Then, we have established electron beam heat facility (open-quotes OHBISclose quotes, Oarai Hot-cell electron Beam Irradiating System) at a hot cell in JMTR (Japan Materials Testing Reactor) hot laboratory in order to estimate thermal shock resistivity of plasma facing materials and heat removal capabilities of divertor elements under steady state heating. In this facility, irradiated plasma facing materials (beryllium, carbon based materials and so on) and divertor elements can be treated. This facility consists of an electron beam unit with the maximum beam power of 50kW and the vacuum vessel. The acceleration voltage and the maximum beam current are 30kV (constant) and 1.7A, respectively. The loading time of electron beam is more than 0.1ms. The shape of vacuum vessel is cylindrical, and the mainly dimensions are 500mm in inner diameter, 1000mm in height. The ultimate vacuum of this vessel is 1 x 10 -4 Pa. At present, the facility for thermal shock test has been established in a hot cell. And performance estimation on the electron beam is being conducted. Presently, the devices for heat loading tests under steady state will be added to this facility

  1. New electron beam facility for irradiated plasma facing materials testing in hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimakawa, S.; Akiba, M.; Kawamura, H.

    1996-01-01

    Since plasma facing components such as the first wall and the divertor for the next step fusion reactors are exposed to high heat loads and high energy neutron flux generated by the plasma, it is urgent to develop plasma facing components which can resist these. We have established electron beam heat facility ('OHBIS', Oarai hot-cell electron beam irradiating system) at a hot cell in JMTR (Japan materials testing reactor) hot laboratory in order to estimate thermal shock resistivity of plasma facing materials and heat removal capabilities of divertor elements under steady state heating. In this facility, irradiated plasma facing materials (beryllium, carbon based materials and so on) and divertor elements can be treated. This facility consists of an electron beam unit with the maximum beam power of 50 kW and the vacuum vessel. The acceleration voltage and the maximum beam current are 30 kV (constant) and 1.7 A, respectively. The loading time of the electron beam is more than 0.1 ms. The shape of vacuum vessel is cylindrical, and the main dimensions are 500 mm in inside diameter, 1000 mm in height. The ultimate vacuum of this vessel is 1 x 10 -4 Pa. At present, the facility for the thermal shock test has been established in a hot cell. The performance of the electron beam is being evaluated at this time. In the future, the equipment for conducting static heat loadings will be incorporated into the facility. (orig.)

  2. Choice of technological regimes of a blast furnace operation with injection of hot reducing gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babich, A. I.

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Injection rate of fossil fuels is limited because of drop in the flame temperature in the raceway and problems in the deadman region and the cohesive zone. The next step for obtaining a considerable coke saving, a better operation in the deadman as an well as increase in blast furnace productivity and minimizing the environmental impact due to a decrease in carbon dioxide emmision would be injection by tuyeres of hot reducing gases (HRG which are produced by low grade coal gasification or top gas regenerating. Use of HRG in combination with high pulverized coal inyection PCI rate and oxigen enrichment in the blast could allow to keep and to increase the competitiveness of the blast furnace process. Calculations using a mathematical model show that the HRG injection in combination with pulverized coal (PC and enriching blast with oxigen can provide an increase in PC rate up to 300-400 kg/tHM and a rise in the furnace productivity by 40-50 %. Blast furnace operation with full oxigen blast (100 % of process oxigen with the exception for the hot blast is possible when HRG is injected.

    La tasa de inyección de combustibles fósiles está limitada a causa de la caída de la temperatura de llama en el raceway (cavidad frente a las toberas y a problemas en la región del "hombre muerto" y en la zona cohesiva. La inyección por tobera de gases reductores calientes (GRC, que se producen por gasificación de carbón de bajo grado o generación de gas de tragante, será la próxima etapa para lograr un considerable ahorro adicional de coque, una zona del "hombre muerto" bien definida, además de un aumento en la productividad del horno alto y para minimizar el impacto ambiental debido a una disminución de la emisión de dióxido de carbono. El uso de GRC en combinación con una tasa elevada de inyección de carbón pulverizado (ICP con viento enriquecido en oxígeno, podrá permitir mantener y aumentar la competitividad del proceso del horno

  3. 324 and 325 Building Hot Cell Cleanout Program: Air lock cover block refurbishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Y.B.; Holton, L.K. Jr.; Gale, R.M.

    1989-05-01

    The high-density concrete cover blocks shielding the pipe trench in the hot-cell air lock of the 324 Building Radiochemical Engineering Cells had accumulated fixed radioactivity ranging from 1100 to 22, 000 mrad/hr. A corresponding increase in the radiation exposure to personnel entering the air lock, together with ALARA concerns, led to the removal of the contaminated concrete surface with a hydraulic spaller and the emplacement of a stainless steel covering over a layer of grout. The resultant saving in radiation exposure is estimated to be 7200 mrad for personnel completing burial box runs for the 324 and 325 Building Hot Cell Cleanout Program. Radiation exposure to all staff members entering the air lock is now at least 50% lower. 3 refs., 22 figs., 1 tab

  4. Decommissioning of a hot cell with high levels of contamination. Experience during the Undressed of Workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, A.; Sancho, C.

    1998-01-01

    The object of this work is to show the radiological controls in decommissioning of the inner of the Base Cell of the Nuclear Facility of CIEMAT, IN-04 (Metallurgy Hot Cells) and the experience during the undressed of workers in decommissioning of this cell. The workers were equipped with one cotton overalls and one or two paper overalls of one-use. Also, when the radiation levels are high, the workers were equipped with leaded glasses and aprons. The protection equipment for internal contamination were autonomous and semi-autonomous respiratory equipment. Due to a high superficial contamination levels, two areas were established in order to proceed to the undressed of the workers when these concluded their work. The first area was a confined enclosure by joined to the hot cell, where an expert of the Radiation Protection Service (RPS), trained for it, take off the first paper overall and the first pair of gloves to the worker that come out the hot cells. The second area was at the exist of the Load Zone, where another expert of PRS, take off the second paper overall, the second pair of gloves and dislocated the pipe of air of the semi-autonomous respiratory equipment, to the worker that come out this zone. (Author)

  5. A user friendly method for image based acquisition of constraint information during constrained motion of servo manipulator in hot-cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, Surendra Singh; Sarkar, Ushnish; Swaroop, Tumapala Teja; Panjikkal, Sreejith; Ray, Debasish Datta

    2016-01-01

    In master slave manipulator, slave arm is controlled by an operator to manipulate the objects in remote environment using an iso-kinematic master arm which is located in the control room. In such a scenario, where the actual work environment is separated from the operator, formulation of techniques for assisting the operator to execute constrained motion (preferential inclusion or preferential exclusion of workspace zones) in the slave environment are not only helpful, but also essential. We had earlier demonstrated the efficacy of constraint motion with predefined geometrical constraints of various types. However, in a hot-cell scenario the generation of the constraint equations is difficult since we shall not have access to the cell for taking measurements. In this paper, a user friendly method is proposed for image based acquisition of the various constraint geometries thus eliminating the need to take in-cell measurements. For this purpose various hot cell tasks and required geometrical primitives pertaining to these tasks have been surveyed and an algorithm has been developed for generating the constraint geometry for each primitive. This methodology shall increase the efficiency and ease of use of the hot cell Telemanipulator by providing real time constraint acquisition and subsequent assistive force based constrained motion. (author)

  6. Control of everyday contamination problems in a hot cell laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buch, R.

    1983-01-01

    For handling unsealed radioactive materials, contamination monitoring and the application of appropriate methods for the prevention of contamination are essential measures to achieve radiation protection safety at the working place and during operation. It is essential to know which are the contamination sources and which circumstances may lead to contamination release and diffusion. Depending on the kind of contamination and the extent of the resulting radiation exposure, suitable easy-to-use measuring equipment is necessary. The lecture shows how contamination release can be limited or prevented, and detected in due time by the use of appropriate measuring instruments, so that contaminations and the ways of decontaminating do not necessarily cause increased dose rates. (orig.) [de

  7. Crane system with remote actuation mechanism for use in argon compartment in ACPF hot cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Kwang, E-mail: leejk@kaeri.re.kr; Park, Byung-Suk; Yu, Seung-Nam; Kim, Kiho; Cho, Il-je

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Novel crane system with a remote actuation mechanism for feasible maintenance under limited space conditions is proposed. • Linear drive systems are implemented for accurate positioning. • Modular design concepts for easy maintenance are introduced. • The motion controller and the off-the-shelf camera controller are integrated to provide more efficient operation. - Abstract: The Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process Facility (ACPF) at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has recently been successfully renovated. One of the highlights of this renovation project was the installation of a small argon compartment within the atmospheric hot cell of the facility. Even though a crane system was considered necessary for the remote handling of the processing equipment inside the argon compartment, no suitable commercial cranes were available. This was because a limited amount of space had been reserved for the installation of the crane. Moreover, a master-slave manipulator (MSM), the only available means of maintenance of the crane, was unable to reach it in the limited workspace. To address the difficulties in the design of this crane, in this study, a remote actuation mechanism is devised where the mechanical and electrical parts of the crane system are separated, positioned far away from each other, and connected through power transmission shafts. This approach has two main advantages. First, the electrical parts can be placed inside the workspace of the MSM, hence allowing for remote maintenance. Second, the space occupied by the electrical parts and their cables, which are separate from the crane in the proposed design, can be considered and exploited in designing the mechanical parts of the crane. This enables the construction of a short, special crane in order to maximize the workspace. Furthermore, the mechanical parts for the MSM located outside the workspace are designed to possess a high safety margin to ensure durability

  8. Thermal Shielding of the Shock Absorber to a Seal of a Hot-cell Cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, K. S.; Lee, J. C.; Kim, K. Y.; Seo, C. S.; Seo, K. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    In order to safely transport the radioactive waste arising from the hot test of ACP(Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process) a shipping package is required. Therefore KAERI is developing a shipping package to transport the radioactive waste arising in the ACPF during a hot test. Regulatory requirements for a Type B package are specified in the Korea MOST Act 2008-69, IAEA Safety Standard Series No. TS-R-1, and US 10 CFR Part. These regulatory guidelines classify the hot cell cask as a Type B package, and state that the Type B package for transporting radioactive materials should be able to withstand a test sequence consisting of a 9 m drop onto an unyielding surface, a 1 m drop onto a puncture bar, and a 30 minute fully engulfing fire. Greiner et al. performed a research on the thermal protection provided by shock absorbers by using CAFE computer code. This paper discusses the experimental approach used to simulate the response of the hot cell cask to fire in a furnace with chamber dimensions of 300 cm(W) x 400 cm(L) x 200 cm(H) by using a 1/2 scale model which was damaged by both a 9 m drop test and a 1 m puncture test

  9. Computer control of shielded cell operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffords, W.R. III.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes in detail a computer system to remotely control shielded cell operations. System hardware, software, and design criteria are discussed. We have designed a computer-controlled buret that provides a tenfold improvement over the buret currently in service. A computer also automatically controls cell analyses, calibrations, and maintenance. This system improves conditions for the operators by providing a safer, more efficient working environment and is expandable for future growth and development

  10. Final Report - Membranes and MEA's for Dry, Hot Operating Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrock, Steven J

    2011-06-30

    The focus of this program was to develop a new Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) which can operate under hotter, dryer conditions than the state of the art membranes today and integrate it into a Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA). These MEA's should meet the performance and durability requirements outlined in the solicitation, operating under low humidification conditions and at temperatures ranging from -20ºC to 120ºC, to meet 2010 DOE technical targets for membranes. This membrane should operate under low humidification conditions and at temperatures ranging from -20ºC to 120ºC in order to meet DOE HFCIT 2010 commercialization targets for automotive fuel cells. Membranes developed in this program may also have improved durability and performance characteristics making them useful in stationary fuel cell applications. The new membranes, and the MEA's comprising them, should be manufacturable at high volumes and at costs which can meet industry and DOE targets. This work included: A) Studies to better understand factors controlling proton transport within the electrolyte membrane, mechanisms of polymer degradation (in situ and ex situ) and membrane durability in an MEA; B) Development of new polymers with increased proton conductivity over the range of temperatures from -20ºC to 120ºC and at lower levels of humidification and with improved chemical and mechanical stability; C) Development of new membrane additives for increased durability and conductivity under these dry conditions; D) Integration of these new materials into membranes and membranes into MEA's, including catalyst and gas diffusion layer selection and integration; E) Verification that these materials can be made using processes which are scalable to commercial volumes using cost effective methods; F) MEA testing in single cells using realistic automotive testing protocols. This project addresses technical barriers A (Durability) and C (Performance) from the Fuel Cells section of the

  11. Use of lasers at the Los Alamos Hot-Cell Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarus, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    An optical profilometer that uses a Techmet LaserMike scanning, focused, laser-beam, optical micrometer is installed in a remote alpha-gamma containment cell at the Los Alamos Hot-Cell Facility. A hot-cell extension chamber provides the nominal 30-cm (12-in.) working distance required by the LaserMike and, at the same time, keeps the LaserMike components outside the high-radiation-containment environment. This system provides measurement accuracy better than +- 5 μm (0.0002 in.) on diameters between 2 and 13 mm (0.88 and 0.5 in.) at a rate of 33 measurements per second. The Hot-Cell Facility also uses a Korad 20-J-output ruby pulsed laser to drill a hole in reactor-fuel-element cladding to sample fission gas. The laser is then used to reweld the hole so that the fuel element will not be contaminated and may be stored without an alpha-containment barrier. The wall thickness of the fuel elements sampled varies from 0.25 to 0.50 mm (0.010 to 0.020 in.)

  12. A study on decontamination and decommissioning of experimental DUPIC equipment at PIEF 9405 hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H. H.; Park, J. J.; Shin, J. M.; Yang, M. S.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, E. P.

    2000-09-01

    The characterization experiment for powder and sintered fuel had been performed using about 1 kg-U spent PWR fuel at No. 9405 hot-cell in PIEF(Post Irradiated Experiment Facility) since early in 1999. Currently, The experiments in PIEF have been completed. It is supposed to dismantle and decontaminate the installed equipment by the end of year 2000. Since all of DUPIC equipment in hot-cell are contaminated by high radioactive material, the decontamination and dismantlement must br performed remotely by M/S manipulator. During the radioactive waste packing and transportation, the reduction method of radiation exposure has to be considered. Firstly, This report describes the basic plan for dismantlement/decontamination of the characterization equipment(power and sintered fuel). And methods of measurement/packing/ transportation, method of dismantlement/decontamination of the experimental apparatus and the reduction method of radiation dose exposure, etc. are explained in order

  13. The results of decontamination and decommissioning of experimental DUPIC equipment at PIEF 9405 hot cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H. H.; Park, J. J.; Shin, J. M.; Cho, K. H.; Yang, M. S.; Lee, E. P. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-02-01

    The characterization experiment for powder and sintered fuel had been performed using about 1 kg-U spent PWR fuel at No. 9405 hot-cell in PIEF(Post Irradiated Experiment Facility) since early in 1999. Currently, the experiments in PIEF have been completed. Since all DUPIC equipment in hot-cell are contaminated by high radioactive material, the decontamination and dismantlement must be performed remotely by M/S manipulator. During the radioactive waste packing and transportation, the reduction method of radiation exposure has to be considered. This report describes the basic plan for dismantlement/decontamination of the characterization equipment (power and sintered fuel). And methods of measurement/packing/transportation, method of dismantlement/decontamination of the experimental apparatus and the reduction method of radiation dose exposure, etc. are explained in order. 7 refs., 42 figs., 10 tabs. (Author)

  14. Development of one body α-γ type manipulator for hot cell facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, S. K.; Lee, S. B.; Lee, E. P.

    2004-01-01

    To handle the high level radioactive materials in a sealed type hot cell, our company has developed the one body alpha-gamma type manipulator and this is an improved model compared with the previously developed beta-gamma and separated alpha-gamma type manipulators. The successful development of one body alpha-gamma type manipulator means our company has a whole capacity to design and fabricate all kinds of manipulators using in hot cells. Until now most of the manipulators in Korea were imported from other countries. The development of Korean manipulators gives us the easier maintenance and lower price compared to the foreign products. It is also possible to export the Korean manipulators to overseas

  15. High Density Radiation Shielding Concretes for Hot Cells of 99mTc Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakr, K.

    2006-01-01

    High density concrete [more than 3.6 ton/m 3 (3.6x10 3 kg/m 3 )] was prepared to be used as a radiation shielding concrete (RSC) for hot-cells in gel technetium project at inshas to attenuate gamma radiation emitted from radioactive sources. different types of concrete were prepared by mixing local mineral aggregates mainly gravel and ilmenite . iron shots were added to the concrete mixture proportion as partial replacement of heavy aggregates to increase its density. the physical properties of prepared concrete in both plastic and hardened phases were investigated. compressive strength and radiation attenuation of gamma rays were determined. Results showed that ilmenite concrete mixed with iron shots had the highest density suitable to be use as RSC according to the chinese hot cell design requirements. Recommendations to avoid some technical problems of manufacturing radiation shielding concrete were maintained

  16. The FRJ 1 reactor (MERLIN) at Juelich, F.R. Germany and associated hot cell facilities. Information sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardt, P. von der; Roettger, H.

    1981-01-01

    Technical information is given on the FRJ 1 reactor and associated hot cell facilities, with the main emphasis on experimental irradiation facilities, specialized irradiation devices (loops and capsules) and possibilities for post-irradiation examinations of samples. The information is presented in the form of eight information sheets under the headings: main characteristics of the reactor; utilization and specialization of the reactor; experimental facilities; neutron spectra; main characteristics of specialized irradiation devices; main characteristics of hot cell facilities; equipment and techniques available for post-irradiation examinations; utilization and specialization of the hot cell facilities

  17. The FR 2 reactor at Karlsruhe, F.R. Germany and associated hot cell facilities. Information sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardt, P. von der; Roettger, H.

    1981-01-01

    Technical information is given on the FR 2 reactor and associated hot cell facilities, specialized irradiation devices (loops and capsules) and possibilities for post-irradiation examinations of samples. The information is presented in the form of eight information sheets under the headings: main characteristics of the reactor; utilization and specialization of the reactor; experimental facilities; neutron spectra; main characteristics of specialized irradiation devices; main characteristics of hot cell facilities; equipment and techniques available for post-irradiation examinations; utilization and specialization of the hot cell facilities

  18. The improvement of dynamic universal testing machine for hot cell usages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Sang Bok; Lee, Key Soon; Park, Dae Kyu; Hong, Kwon Pyo; Choo, Yong Sun

    1998-01-01

    Dynamic universal testing machine(UTM) were developed for hot cell usages, which can perform tensile, compression, bending, fracture toughness and fatigue crack growth tests. In this report, technical reviews in the course of developing machine were described. Detailed subjects are as follows; 1. Outline of testing method using dynamic UTM 2. Detailed testing system organizations 3. Technical specification to develop machine 4. Setting up load string 5. Inspection and pre-commissioning tests on machine. (author). 14 figs

  19. Annual report on operation and management of hot laboratories and facilities. From April 1, 2006 to March 31, 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-02-01

    This is an annual report in a fiscal year 2006 that describes activities of the Reactor Fuel Examination Facility (RFEF), the Waste Safety Testing Facility (WASTEF), the Research Hot Laboratory (RHL) and the other research hot facilities in the Department of Hot laboratories and facilities. In RFEF, destructive examinations of BWR fuel rods and re-assembly were carried out as PIEs for a fuel assembly irradiated for 5 cycles in the Fukushima-2 Nuclear Power Station Unit-1. Mechanical property measurement of high burn-up fuel rods were performed as spent fuel integrity test for long term dry storage in order to formulate guidelines and technical criteria. In WASTEF, Slow Strain Rate Tests (SSRT) and Uni-axial Constant Load Tensile tests (UCLT) of in-core materials in pressurized high-temperature water condition, stress corrosion cracking tests for high-performance fuel cladding material and calorific value measurement of pulse irradiated fuel in NSRR were carried out. In RHL, equipment un-installations and decontamination were performed to lead cells according to the decommissioning plan. And modification of fuel storage room were started in order to utilize the facility for un-irradiated fuel storage after a fiscal year 2007. In addition, management of the other research hot facilities (No.1 Plutonium Laboratory, No.2 Research Laboratory, No.4 Research Laboratory, Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, Uranium Enrichment Laboratory, (Simulation Test for Environmental Radionuclide Migration (STEM), Clean Laboratory for Environmental Analysis and Research (CLEAR) and fuel storage) were carried out. (author)

  20. The impact of silicon solar cell architecture and cell interconnection on energy yield in hot & sunny climates

    KAUST Repository

    Haschke, Jan

    2017-03-23

    Extensive knowledge of the dependence of solar cell and module performance on temperature and irradiance is essential for their optimal application in the field. Here we study such dependencies in the most common high-efficiency silicon solar cell architectures, including so-called Aluminum back-surface-field (BSF), passivated emitter and rear cell (PERC), passivated emitter rear totally diffused (PERT), and silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells. We compare measured temperature coefficients (TC) of the different electrical parameters with values collected from commercial module data sheets. While similar TC values of the open-circuit voltage and the short circuit current density are obtained for cells and modules of a given technology, we systematically find that the TC under maximum power-point (MPP) conditions is lower in the modules. We attribute this discrepancy to additional series resistance in the modules from solar cell interconnections. This detrimental effect can be reduced by using a cell design that exhibits a high characteristic load resistance (defined by its voltage-over-current ratio at MPP), such as the SHJ architecture. We calculate the energy yield for moderate and hot climate conditions for each cell architecture, taking into account ohmic cell-to-module losses caused by cell interconnections. Our calculations allow us to conclude that maximizing energy production in hot and sunny environments requires not only a high open-circuit voltage, but also a minimal series-to-load-resistance ratio.

  1. Nuclear Materials Characterization in the Materials and Fuels Complex Analytical Hot Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriquez, Michael

    2009-01-01

    As energy prices skyrocket and interest in alternative, clean energy sources builds, interest in nuclear energy has increased. This increased interest in nuclear energy has been termed the 'Nuclear Renaissance'. The performance of nuclear fuels, fuels and reactor materials and waste products are becoming a more important issue as the potential for designing new nuclear reactors is more immediate. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) Analytical Laboratory Hot Cells (ALHC) are rising to the challenge of characterizing new reactor materials, byproducts and performance. The ALHC is a facility located near Idaho Falls, Idaho at the INL Site. It was built in 1958 as part of the former Argonne National Laboratory West Complex to support the operation of the second Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR-II). It is part of a larger analytical laboratory structure that includes wet chemistry, instrumentation and radiochemistry laboratories. The purpose of the ALHC is to perform analytical chemistry work on highly radioactive materials. The primary work in the ALHC has traditionally been dissolution of nuclear materials so that less radioactive subsamples (aliquots) could be transferred to other sections of the laboratory for analysis. Over the last 50 years though, the capabilities within the ALHC have also become independent of other laboratory sections in a number of ways. While dissolution, digestion and subdividing samples are still a vitally important role, the ALHC has stand alone capabilities in the area of immersion density, gamma scanning and combustion gas analysis. Recent use of the ALHC for immersion density shows that extremely fine and delicate operations can be performed with the master-slave manipulators by qualified operators. Twenty milligram samples were tested for immersion density to determine the expansion of uranium dioxide after irradiation in a nuclear reactor. The data collected confirmed modeling analysis with very tight

  2. Improved PFB operations: 400-hour turbine test results. [coal combustion products and hot corrosion in gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollbuhler, R. J.; Benford, S. M.; Zellars, G. R.

    1980-01-01

    A pressurized fluidized bed (PFB) coal-burning reactor was used to provide hot effluent gases for operation of a small gas turbine. Preliminary tests determined the optimum operating conditions that would result in minimum bed particle carryover in the combustion gases. Solids were removed from the gases before they could be transported into the test turbine by use of a modified two stage cyclone separator. Design changes and refined operation procedures resulted in a significant decrease in particle carryover, from 2800 to 93 ppm (1.5 to 0.05 grains/std cu ft), with minimal drop in gas temperature and pressure. The achievement of stable burn conditions and low solids loadings made possible a 400 hr test of small superalloy rotor, 15 cm (6 in.) in diameter, operating in the effluent. Blades removed and examined metallographically after 200 hr exhibited accelerated oxidation over most of the blade surface, with subsurface alumina penetration to 20 micron m. After 400 hours, average erosion loss was about 25 micron m (1 mil). Sulfide particles, indicating hot corrosion, were present in depletion zones, and their presence corresponded in general to the areas of adherent solids deposit. Sulfidation appears to be a materials problem equal in importance to erosion.

  3. Experience of Integrated Safeguards Approach for Large-scale Hot Cell Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyaji, N.; Kawakami, Y.; Koizumi, A.; Otsuji, A.; Sasaki, K.

    2010-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been operating a large-scale hot cell laboratory, the Fuels Monitoring Facility (FMF), located near the experimental fast reactor Joyo at the Oarai Research and Development Center (JNC-2 site). The FMF conducts post irradiation examinations (PIE) of fuel assemblies irradiated in Joyo. The assemblies are disassembled and non-destructive examinations, such as X-ray computed tomography tests, are carried out. Some of the fuel pins are cut into specimens and destructive examinations, such as ceramography and X-ray micro analyses, are performed. Following PIE, the tested material, in the form of a pin or segments, is shipped back to a Joyo spent fuel pond. In some cases, after reassembly of the examined irradiated fuel pins is completed, the fuel assemblies are shipped back to Joyo for further irradiation. For the IAEA to apply the integrated safeguards approach (ISA) to the FMF, a new verification system on material shipping and receiving process between Joyo and the FMF has been established by the IAEA under technical collaboration among the Japan Safeguard Office (JSGO) of MEXT, the Nuclear Material Control Center (NMCC) and the JAEA. The main concept of receipt/shipment verification under the ISA for JNC-2 site is as follows: under the IS, the FMF is treated as a Joyo-associated facility in terms of its safeguards system because it deals with the same spent fuels. Verification of the material shipping and receiving process between Joyo and the FMF can only be applied to the declared transport routes and transport casks. The verification of the nuclear material contained in the cask is performed with the method of gross defect at the time of short notice random interim inspections (RIIs) by measuring the surface neutron dose rate of the cask, filled with water to reduce radiation. The JAEA performed a series of preliminary tests with the IAEA, the JSGO and the NMCC, and confirmed from the standpoint of the operator that this

  4. Annual report on operation, utilization and technical development of Research Reactors and Hot Laboratory, from April 1, 1983 to March 31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    Activities of the Department of Research Reactor Operation in fiscal year 1983 are described. The department is responsible for operation and maintenance of JRR-2, JRR-3, JRR-4 and Hot Laboratory. In the above connection, various other work has also been performed, such as technical management of fuel and coolant, radiation control, irradiation technique, etc. In Hot Laboratory, we have performed post-irradiation examinations of fuels and materials, and also development of examination procedures, too. (author)

  5. Environmental Assessment for decontaminating and decommissioning the General Atomics Hot Cell Facility. Final [report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    This EA evaluates the proposed action to decontaminate and decommission GA's hot cell facility in northern San Diego, CA. This facility has been used for DOE and commercial nuclear R ampersand D for > 30 years. About 30,000 cubic feet of decontamination debris and up to 50,000 cubic feet of contaminated soil are to be removed. Low-level radioactive waste would be shipped for disposal. It was determined that the proposal does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the human environment according to NEPA; therefore, a finding of no significant impact is made, and an environmental impact statement is not required

  6. Environmental Assessment for decontaminating and decommissioning the General Atomics Hot Cell Facility. Final [report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This EA evaluates the proposed action to decontaminate and decommission GA`s hot cell facility in northern San Diego, CA. This facility has been used for DOE and commercial nuclear R&D for > 30 years. About 30,000 cubic feet of decontamination debris and up to 50,000 cubic feet of contaminated soil are to be removed. Low-level radioactive waste would be shipped for disposal. It was determined that the proposal does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the human environment according to NEPA; therefore, a finding of no significant impact is made, and an environmental impact statement is not required.

  7. Spent Fuel Handling and Packaging Program: a survey of hot cell facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, M.N.

    1978-07-01

    Hot cell facilities in the United States were surveyed to determine their capabilities for conducting integral fuel assembly and individual fuel rod examinations that are required in support of the Spent Fuel Handling and Packaging Program. The ability to receive, handle, disassemble and reconstitute full-length light water reactor spent fuel assemblies, and the ability to conduct nondestructive and destructive examinations on full-length fuel rods were of particular interest. Three DOE-supported facilities and three commercial facilities were included in the survey. This report provides a summary of the findings

  8. Applying hot-wire anemometry to directly measure the water balance in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al Shakhshir, Saher; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Berning, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    In order to better understand and more accurately measure the water balance in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell, our group has recently proposed to apply hot wire anemometry in the fuel cell's anode outlet. It was theoretically shown that the electrical signal obtained from the hot wire sensor...... can be directly converted into the fuel cell water balance. In this work an ex-situ experimental investigation is performed to examine the effect of the wire diameter and the outlet pipe diameter on the voltage signal. For a laboratory fuel cell where the mass flow rate the anode outlet is small...... number Nu range between m = 0.137 and m = 0.246. In general, it is shown that applying hot wire anemometry yields in fact very clear voltage readings with high frequency, and it can be used as a diagnosis tool in various fuel cell applications....

  9. TERT promoter hot spot mutations are frequent in Indian cervical and oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinothkumar, Vilvanathan; Arunkumar, Ganesan; Revathidevi, Sundaramoorthy; Arun, Kanagaraj; Manikandan, Mayakannan; Rao, Arunagiri Kuha Deva Magendhra; Rajkumar, Kottayasamy Seenivasagam; Ajay, Chandrasekar; Rajaraman, Ramamurthy; Ramani, Rajendren; Murugan, Avaniyapuram Kannan; Munirajan, Arasambattu Kannan

    2016-06-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the uterine cervix and oral cavity are most common cancers in India. Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) overexpression is one of the hallmarks for cancer, and activation through promoter mutation C228T and C250T has been reported in variety of tumors and often shown to be associated with aggressive tumors. In the present study, we analyzed these two hot spot mutations in 181 primary tumors of the uterine cervix and oral cavity by direct DNA sequencing and correlated with patient's clinicopathological characteristics. We found relatively high frequency of TERT hot spot mutations in both cervical [21.4 % (30/140)] and oral [31.7 % (13/41)] squamous cell carcinomas. In cervical cancer, TERT promoter mutations were more prevalent (25 %) in human papilloma virus (HPV)-negative cases compared to HPV-positive cases (20.6 %), and both TERT promoter mutation and HPV infection were more commonly observed in advanced stage tumors (77 %). Similarly, the poor and moderately differentiated tumors of the uterine cervix had both the TERT hot spot mutations and HPV (16 and 18) at higher frequency (95.7 %). Interestingly, we observed eight homozygous mutations (six 228TT and two 250TT) only in cervical tumors, and all of them were found to be positive for high-risk HPV. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study from India reporting high prevalence of TERT promoter mutations in primary tumors of the uterine cervix and oral cavity. Our results suggest that TERT reactivation through promoter mutation either alone or in association with the HPV oncogenes (E6 and E7) could play an important role in the carcinogenesis of cervical and oral cancers.

  10. Lead Acetate Based Hybrid Perovskite Through Hot Casting for Planar Heterojunction Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Gwang Su; Choi, Won-Gyu; Na, Sungjae; Gökdemir, Fatma Pinar; Moon, Taeho

    2018-03-01

    Flawless coverage of a perovskite layer is essential in order to achieve realistic high-performance planar heterojunction solar cells. We present that high-quality perovskite layers can be efficiently formed by a novel hot casting route combined with MAI (CH3NH3I) and non-halide lead acetate (PbAc2) precursors under ambient atmosphere. Casting temperature is controlled to produce various perovskite microstructures and the resulted crystalline layers are found to be comprised of closely packed islands with a smooth surface structure. Lead acetate employed perovskite solar cells are fabricated using PEDOT:PSS and PCBM charge transporting layers, in p- i- n type planar architecture. Especially, the outstanding open-circuit voltage demonstrates the high crystallinity and dense coverage of the produced perovskite layers by this facile route.

  11. Lignin monomer composition affects Arabidopsis cell-wall degradability after liquid hot water pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladisch Michael

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lignin is embedded in the plant cell wall matrix, and impedes the enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic feedstocks. To investigate whether enzymatic digestibility of cell wall materials can be improved by altering the relative abundance of the two major lignin monomers, guaiacyl (G and syringyl (S subunits, we compared the degradability of cell wall material from wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana with a mutant line and a genetically modified line, the lignins of which are enriched in G and S subunits, respectively. Results Arabidopsis tissue containing G- and S-rich lignins had the same saccharification performance as the wild type when subjected to enzyme hydrolysis without pretreatment. After a 24-hour incubation period, less than 30% of the total glucan was hydrolyzed. By contrast, when liquid hot water (LHW pretreatment was included before enzyme hydrolysis, the S-lignin-rich tissue gave a much higher glucose yield than either the wild-type or G-lignin-rich tissue. Applying a hot-water washing step after the pretreatment did not lead to a further increase in final glucose yield, but the initial hydrolytic rate was doubled. Conclusions Our analyses using the model plant A. thaliana revealed that lignin composition affects the enzymatic digestibility of LHW pretreated plant material. Pretreatment is more effective in enhancing the saccharification of A. thaliana cell walls that contain S-rich lignin. Increasing lignin S monomer content through genetic engineering may be a promising approach to increase the efficiency and reduce the cost of biomass to biofuel conversion.

  12. Transcription-factor occupancy at HOT regions quantitatively predicts RNA polymerase recruitment in five human cell lines.

    KAUST Repository

    Foley, Joseph W

    2013-10-20

    BACKGROUND: High-occupancy target (HOT) regions are compact genome loci occupied by many different transcription factors (TFs). HOT regions were initially defined in invertebrate model organisms, and we here show that they are a ubiquitous feature of the human gene-regulation landscape. RESULTS: We identified HOT regions by a comprehensive analysis of ChIP-seq data from 96 DNA-associated proteins in 5 human cell lines. Most HOT regions co-localize with RNA polymerase II binding sites, but many are not near the promoters of annotated genes. At HOT promoters, TF occupancy is strongly predictive of transcription preinitiation complex recruitment and moderately predictive of initiating Pol II recruitment, but only weakly predictive of elongating Pol II and RNA transcript abundance. TF occupancy varies quantitatively within human HOT regions; we used this variation to discover novel associations between TFs. The sequence motif associated with any given TF\\'s direct DNA binding is somewhat predictive of its empirical occupancy, but a great deal of occupancy occurs at sites without the TF\\'s motif, implying indirect recruitment by another TF whose motif is present. CONCLUSIONS: Mammalian HOT regions are regulatory hubs that integrate the signals from diverse regulatory pathways to quantitatively tune the promoter for RNA polymerase II recruitment.

  13. Transcription-factor occupancy at HOT regions quantitatively predicts RNA polymerase recruitment in five human cell lines.

    KAUST Repository

    Foley, Joseph W; Sidow, Arend

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High-occupancy target (HOT) regions are compact genome loci occupied by many different transcription factors (TFs). HOT regions were initially defined in invertebrate model organisms, and we here show that they are a ubiquitous feature of the human gene-regulation landscape. RESULTS: We identified HOT regions by a comprehensive analysis of ChIP-seq data from 96 DNA-associated proteins in 5 human cell lines. Most HOT regions co-localize with RNA polymerase II binding sites, but many are not near the promoters of annotated genes. At HOT promoters, TF occupancy is strongly predictive of transcription preinitiation complex recruitment and moderately predictive of initiating Pol II recruitment, but only weakly predictive of elongating Pol II and RNA transcript abundance. TF occupancy varies quantitatively within human HOT regions; we used this variation to discover novel associations between TFs. The sequence motif associated with any given TF's direct DNA binding is somewhat predictive of its empirical occupancy, but a great deal of occupancy occurs at sites without the TF's motif, implying indirect recruitment by another TF whose motif is present. CONCLUSIONS: Mammalian HOT regions are regulatory hubs that integrate the signals from diverse regulatory pathways to quantitatively tune the promoter for RNA polymerase II recruitment.

  14. Hot cells for testing the UO{sub 2} fuel elements after irradiation. Radiation protection conditions for hot cells design; Vruce celije za ispitivanje gorivnih elemenata UO{sub 2} posle ozracivanja, Uslovi zastite pri projektovanju vrucih celija

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlovic, A; Devic, J; Mihailovic, K [Institut za nuklearne nauke Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1969-07-01

    This paper includes protection conditions which hot cells should satisfy for the investigation of fuel elements after reactor irradiation. The basic elements of hot cells are given, and the conditions for a special ventilation, dosimetric control and a special treatment of contaminated water are established (author) U radu su obuhvaceni uslovi zastite koje treba da zadovolje vruce celije za ispitivanje gorivnih elemenata posle ozracivanja u reaktoru, dati su osnovni elementi vrucih celija i postavljeni su uslovi za specijalnu ventilaciju, dozimentrijsku kontrolu i specijalni tretman otpadnih voda (author)

  15. Particle-in-cell studies of laser-driven hot spots and a statistical model for mesoscopic properties of Raman backscatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, B.J.; Yin, L.; Bowers, K.J.; Kline, J.L.; Montgomery, D.S.; Fernandez, J.C.; Daughton, W.

    2006-01-01

    The authors use explicit particle-in-cell simulations to model stimulated scattering processes in media with both solitary and multiple laser hot spots. These simulations indicate coupling among hot spots, whereby scattered light, plasma waves, and hot electrons generated in one laser hot spot may propagate to neighboring hot spots, which can be destabilized to enhanced backscatter. A nonlinear statistical model of a stochastic beam exhibiting this coupled behavior is described here. Calibration of the model using particle-in-cell simulations is performed, and a threshold is derived for 'detonation' of the beam to high reflectivity. (authors)

  16. Evaluation of the Shielding Performance for the Hot-cell built in 100-MeV Isotope Beam-line of KOMAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong Min; Park, Sung Kyun; Min, Yi Sub; Cho, Yong Sub [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    This study describes the structure of the hot-cell constructed in KOMAC for radioisotope production and evaluates the shielding performance for the hot-cell via the radiation shielding ability test. Korea multi-purpose accelerator complex (KOMAC) is currently operating 20-MeV and 100-MeV beam-line one by on. Additional 100-MeV beam-line and target room (TR101) are planned for the purpose of the radioisotope production in this year. The initial goal of the radioisotope production is to produce the radioactive isotopes, Sr-82 or Cu-67, used widely for the diagnosis and treatment of the cancer. In order to produce these radioisotopes mentioned, the proton beam with the energy between 70-MeV and 100- MeV at a beam current of 300 μA is irradiated into a solid target made of ZnO or RbCl. After the irradiation of the proton beam during approximately 100 hours, the radioisotope Sr-82 with the radioactivity amount of about 3.8 Ci or the Cu-67 with the amount of about 2.7 Ci will be produced. Radioisotopes produced though this process should be conveyed from the TR101 target room to the PR101 processing room and then in order to be delivered into the place for the next process step, a hot-cell is necessary. Result of the shielding performance evaluation of the hot-cell for producing radioisotopes shows the necessity of the shield reinforcement using lead material at side of the lead glass window.

  17. Technical Development of Gamma Scanning for Irradiated Fuel Rod after Upgrade of System in Hot-cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Woo Seog; Kim, Hee Moon; Baik, Seung Je; Yoo, Byung Ok; Choo, Yong Sun

    2007-06-15

    Non-destructive test system was installed at hot-cell(M1) in IMEF(Irradiated Materials Examination Facility) more than 10 years ago for the diametric measurement and gamma scanning of fuel rod. But this system must be needed to be remodeled for the effective operations. In 2006, the system was upgraded for 3 months. The collimator bench can be movable with horizontal direction(x-direction) by motorized system for sectional gamma scanning and 3-dimensional tomography of fuel rod. So, gamma scanning for fuel rod can be detectable by x, y and rotation directions. It may be possible to obtain the radioactivities with radial and axial directions of pellet. This system is good for the series experiments with several positions. Operation of fuel bench and gamma detection program were linked each other by new program tools. It can control detection and bench moving automatically when gamma inspection of fuel rod is carried out with axial or radial positions. Some of electronic parts were added in PLC panel, and operating panel was re-designed for the remote control. To operate the fuel bench by computer, AD converter and some I/O cards were installed in computer. All of software were developed in Windows-XP system instead of DOS system. Control programs were made by visual-C language. After upgrade of system, DUPIC fuel which was irradiated in HANARO research reactor was detected by gamma scanning. The results were good and operation of gamma scanning showed reduced inspection time and easy control of data on series of detection with axial positions. With consideration of ECT(Eddy Current Test) installation, the computer program and hardware were set up as well. But ECT is not installed yet, so we have to check abnormal situation of program and hardware system. It is planned to install ECT in 2007.

  18. The influence of microstructure and operating temperature on the fatigue endurance of hot forged Inconel{sup ®} 718 components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maderbacher, H., E-mail: hermann.maderbacher@unileoben.ac.at [Chair of Mechanical Engineering, Montanuniversität Leoben, Franz-Josef-Straße 18, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Oberwinkler, B., E-mail: bernd.oberwinkler@bohler-forging.com [Böhler Schmiedetechnik GmbH and Co KG, Mariazellerstraße 25, 8605 Kapfenberg (Austria); Gänser, H.-P., E-mail: hans-peter.gaenser@mcl.at [Materials Center Leoben Forschung GmbH, Roseggerstraße 12, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Tan, W., E-mail: wen.tan@unileoben.ac.at [Chair of Mechanical Engineering, Montanuniversität Leoben, Franz-Josef-Straße 18, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Rollett, M., E-mail: mathias.rollett@stud.unileoben.ac.at [Chair of Mechanical Engineering, Montanuniversität Leoben, Franz-Josef-Straße 18, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Stoschka, M., E-mail: michael.stoschka@stud.unileoben.ac.at [Chair of Mechanical Engineering, Montanuniversität Leoben, Franz-Josef-Straße 18, 8700 Leoben (Austria)

    2013-11-15

    The dependence of the fatigue behavior of hot-forged Inconel{sup ®} 718 aircraft components on the operating temperature and the material microstructure is investigated. To this purpose, possible correlations between a variety of tested microstructural parameters and the results from low-cycle fatigue (LCF) testing are analyzed using statistical methods. To identify the prevailing damage mechanisms, failure analyses are carried out on specimens tested at different temperatures. Optical and scanning electron microscopy are used for the inspection of surface crack networks and of the final fracture surface. In addition, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyses are performed at the crack initiation sites to track down possible accumulations of alloying elements. The results are critically reviewed and used to propose a temperature and microstructure dependent fatigue model for predicting LCF ε⧸N-curves.

  19. Operating experience with remote handling equipment in a typical hot facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravishankar, A.; Balasubramanian, G.R.

    1990-01-01

    Large number of articulated arm manipulators and special purpose remote tools have been used either alone or in combination in a recent campaign of treatment of irradiated J rods of CIRUS for separation of 233 U. These equipments were used for operations such as remote maintenance of centrifuge, centrifugal extractor, direct sampling, assistance for sample conveying operations etc. Paper discusses problems encountered in using articulated arm manipulators of type MAll,AMl and how they were overcome. Problems encountered in use of model-8 manipulator for chopper maintenence in a mockup facility are also highlighted. (author). 4 figs., 1 tab

  20. The development of a mobile hot cell facility for the conditioning of spent high activity radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebenberg, G.R.; Al-Mughrabi, M.

    2010-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Waste Technology Section with additional support from the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) through the IAEA Nuclear Security Fund has funded the design, fabrication, evaluation, and testing of a portable hot cell intended to address the problem of disused Spent High Activity Radioactive Sources (SHARS) in obsolete irradiation devices such as teletherapy heads and dry irradiators. The project is initially targeting the African continent but expected soon to expand to Latin America and Asia. This hot cell allows source removal, characterization, consolidation, repackaging in modern storage shields, and secure storage of high risk SHARS at national radioactive waste storage facilities. (authors)

  1. Employing Hot Wire Anemometry to Directly Measure the Water Balance of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shakhshir, Saher Al; Berning, Torsten

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC’s) are currently being commercialized for various applications ranging from automotive to stationary such as powering telecom back-up units. In PEMFC’s, oxygen from air is internally combined with hydrogen to form water and produce electricity and waste......-hoc and real time electrical signal of the fuel cell water balance by employing hot wire anemometry. The hot wire sensor is placed into a binary mixture of hydrogen and water vapour, and the voltage signal received gives valuable insight into heat and mass transfer phenomena in a PEMFC. A central question...

  2. Review of biomass fired space heating/domestic hot water boilers' application, operation and design parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Monitoring exercises have been carried out for ETSU, by a number of contractors, on a number of wood fired heating schemes; feasibility studies on proposed schemes have also been carried out. Monitoring reports and feasibility studies have been reviewed to try and establish the suitability and economic viability of the various types of plant used (or proposed) and their application. Of the sixteen schemes reviewed just over 30% showed a reasonable return on the incremental capital cost of plant compared to gas oil fired plant. These schemes had one or more of the following attributes: - Low wood fuel cost -Long operating hours -Relatively low incremental capital cost of wood plant over gas oil plant. Small systems with low operating hours (e.g. short weekday occupancy premises, like schools) and relatively high incremental operating and maintenance costs and capital costs exhibited no advantage over equivalent fossil fuel fired plant. The unit fuel cost advantage to wood, in these cases, was insufficient to outweigh the increased O and M and capital costs, because of the comparatively low annual fuel consumption. Most of the plants reviewed had low thermal efficiencies due to the simplicity of the fuel to air control systems and the wide range of heating demand over which they had to operate. The former can be increased by improved combustion control systems and the latter by correct sizing of boilers and/or the installation of hybrid systems. (Author)

  3. Operating results and simulations on a fuel cell for residential energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Yasuhiro; Goto, Ryuichiro; Nakamura, Makoto; Kubota, Hideki; Ochifuji, Kiyoshi

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the performance evaluation of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) prototype and demonstration experiments of the electric power and domestic hot water system using it from a pragmatic view-point. Three types of demonstration experiments were carried out applying standard electric power and hot water demands. It was shown that the primary energy reduction rate of this system as compared to the conventional system reached up to 24% under double daily start and stop (DSS) operation. The amount of primary energy reduction in experiments using the energy demand of a household in Sapporo in winter exceeded the experimental results of the standard energy demand, demonstrating that the effects of the introduction of a fuel cell in cold regions could be considerable, in particular, during the winter season

  4. Hot-carrier solar cells using low-dimensional quantum structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Daiki; Kasamatsu, Naofumi; Harada, Yukihiro; Kita, Takashi [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2014-10-27

    We propose a high-conversion-efficiency solar cell (SC) utilizing the hot carrier (HC) population in an intermediate-band (IB) of a quantum dot superlattice (QDSL) structure. The bandgap of the host semiconductor in this device plays an important role as an energy-selective barrier for HCs in the QDSLs. According to theoretical calculation using the detailed balance model with an air mass 1.5 spectrum, the optimum IB energy is determined by a trade-off relation between the number of HCs with energy exceeding the conduction-band edge and the number of photons absorbed by the valence band−IB transition. Utilizing experimental data of HC temperature in InAs/GaAs QDSLs, the maximum conversion efficiency under maximum concentration (45 900 suns) has been demonstrated to increase by 12.6% as compared with that for a single-junction GaAs SC.

  5. The reliability improvement plan of hot cell examination data by introducing of Kolas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Kwon Pyo; Park, Dae Gyu; Ahn, Sang Bok; Choo, Yong Sun; Song, Wung Sup; Jung, Yang Hong; Yoo, Byung Ok; Baik, Seung Je; Lim, Nam Jin; Nam Ju Hee

    2000-01-01

    For enhancement of hot cell data reliability produced at Irradiated Material Examination Facility in KAERI,Korea a project to introduce Kolas of National Quality Assurance Institute. By Kolas introduction the examination data currently produced would be reinforced by additional function of uncertainty evaluation and would obtained more reliable data. The all of data collected would be quality controlled, so that it would be re-traceable. Presently at IMEF shock test, tension test, dimension measurement test, hardness test, density test, and composition analysis test will be subject to Kolas. It is also planned to expand the number of test items in near future. At the end of 2000 year IMEF aims to secure the certificate issued by the National Quality Assurance Institute. (Hong, J. S.)

  6. The Results of HLW Processing Using Zirconium Salt of Dibutyl phosphoric Acid in Hot Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorov, Yu.S.; Zilberman, B.Ya.; Shmidt, O.V. [Khlopin Radium Institute, 2nd Murinsky Ave., 28, Saint-Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-01

    Zirconium salt of dibutyl phosphoric acid (ZS HDBP), is an effective solvent for liquid HLW and ILW (high and intermediate level wastes) processing with radionuclide partitioning into different groups for further immobilization according to radiotoxicity. The rig trials in mixer-settles in hot cells were carried out using 30 L of real HLW containing transplutonium (TPE), rare earths (RE), Sr and Cs in 2 mol/L HNO{sub 3}, characterized by total specific activity 520 MBk/L. The recovery factor for TPE and RE was as high as 10{sup 4}, but only 10 for Sr. Purification factor of TPE and RE from Cs and Sr was 10{sup 4}, and that of Sr from TPE and Cs was 10{sup 3}. Almost all Cs was localized in the second cycle raffinate. So Zr salt of HDBP can be used in HLW processing with radionuclide partitioning with respect to the categories of radiotoxicity. (authors)

  7. Hot Cell Facility modifications at Sandia National Laboratories to support 99Mo production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernon, M.; Philbin, J.; Berry, D.

    1997-01-01

    In September, 1996, following the completion of an extensive Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), a record of decision (ROD) was issued by DOE selecting Sandia as the facility to take on the 99 Mo production mission. 99 Mo is the precursor to 99m Tc which is used in 36,000 medical procedures per day in the US. to meet US 99 Mo medical demands, 20 kCi of 99 Mo must be delivered to the pharmaceutical companies each week. This could be accomplished by the processing of twenty-five targets (total fission product of 15 kCi/target) each week within the SNL Hot Cell Facility (HCF). To accomplish this new mission, significant modifications to the HCF will have to be undertaken. This paper presents a brief history of the HCF, and describes modifications necessary to achieve DOE directives

  8. Management of hot cell waste in Atalante Facilities (abstract and presentation slides)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dancausse, Jean-Philippe; Ferlay, Gilles; Eysseric, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    In solution R and D experiments on nuclear fuel from dissolution to liquid extraction lead to produce a large set of wastes. This paper present how these highly contaminated solid and liquid wastes is managed in Hot Cells and in Atalante. Firstly, an inventory of several types of generated wastes is made: 1) Solid wastes. 2) Glass reactors and liquid solution containers. 3) Plastic and Teflon materials for sampling, Highly corrosive solutions. 4) Metallic containers for solid storage like fuels, crucibles. 5) Miscellaneous mixed solid materials. 6) Liquid wastes. 7) Rinsing liquids. 8) Highly corrosive waste containing fluorhydric acid. 9) Analytical solution with sulphate ions. 10) Organic solvent coming from liquid-liquid extraction. A focus will be made on optimised treatment of 1) solid wastes: Mechanically and chemically 2) liquid wastes containing sulphate ions and hydrogen fluoride, 3) organic liquid waste: to remove activity before hydrothermal oxidation. (Author)

  9. Construction of concrete hot cells; requirements for shielding windows for concrete walls with different densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-10-01

    The shielding windows form part of the basic equipment of hot cells for remote handling, as defined in standard DIN 25 420 part 1. The draft standard in hand is intended to specify the design and manufacture requirements, especially with regard to main dimensions, sight quality, shielding effects, and radiation resistance. The standard refers to three types of shielding window with surface area design (product of density and wall thickness) corresponding to concrete walls of the densities 2.4, 3.4, and 4.0 g/cm 3 . The windows fit to three types of concrete of common usage, and the design is made for Co-60 radiation, with attenuation factors of about 10 4 , 10 6 , or 10 7 . For concrete walls with densities between these data, a shielding window suitable to the next higher density data is to be chosen. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Remote real time x-ray examination of fuel elements in a hot cell environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yapuncich, F.L.

    1993-01-01

    This report discusses the Remote Real Time X-ray System which will allow for detailed examination of fuel elements. This task will be accomplished in a highly radioactive hot cell environment. Two remote handling systems win be utilized at the examination station. One handling system will transfer the fuel element to and from the shielded x-ray system. A second handling system will allow for vertical and rotational inspection of the fuel elements. The process win include removing a single nuclear fuel element from a element fabrication magazine(EFM), positioning the fuel element within the shielding envelope of the x-ray system and transferring the fuel element from the station manipulator to the x-ray system manipulator, performing the x-ray inspection, and then transferring the fuel element to either the element storage magazine(ESM) or a reject bin

  11. Limets 2: a hot-cell test set-up for Liquid Metal Embrittlement (LME) studies in liquid lead alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Bosch, J.; Bosch, R.W.; Al Mazouzi, A.

    2008-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. In the nuclear energy sector one of the main candidate designs for the accelerator driven system (ADS) uses liquid lead or lead bismuth eutectic both as a coolant and as spallation target. In the fusion community liquid lead lithium eutectic is considered as a possible coolant for the blanket and as a tritium source. Therefore the candidate materials for such structural components should not only comply with the operating conditions but in addition need to guarantee chemical and physical integrity when coming into contact with the lead alloys. The latter phenomena can be manifested in terms of erosion/corrosion. and/or of the so called liquid metal embrittlement (LME). Thus the susceptibility to LME of the structural materials under consideration to be used in such applications should be investigated in contact with the various lead alloys. LME, if occurring in any solid metal/liquid meta] couple, is likely to increase with irradiation hardening as localised stresses and crack initiations can promote it. To investigate the mechanical response of irradiated materials in contact with a liquid metal under representative conditions, a dedicated testing facility has recently been developed and built at our centre. It consists of an instrumented hot cell. equipped with a testing machine that allows mechanical testing of active materials in contact with active liquid lead lithium and liquid lead bismuth under well controlled chemistry conditions. The specificity of the installation is to handle highly activated and contaminated samples. Also a dedicated dismantling set-up has been developed that allows to retrieve the samples from the irradiation rig without any supplementary damage. In this presentation we will focus on the technical design of this new installation, its special features that have been developed to allow testing in a hot environment and the modifications and actions that have been taken to allow testing in liquid lead

  12. HOT CELL SYSTEM FOR DETERMINING FISSION GAS RETENTION IN METALLIC FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sell, D. A.; Baily, C. E.; Malewitz, T. J.; Medvedev, P. G.; Porter, D. L.; Hilton, B. A.

    2016-09-01

    A system has been developed to perform measurements on irradiated, sodium bonded-metallic fuel elements to determine the amount of fission gas retained in the fuel material after release of the gas to the element plenum. During irradiation of metallic fuel elements, most of the fission gas developed is released from the fuel and captured in the gas plenums of the fuel elements. A significant amount of fission gas, however, remains captured in closed porosities which develop in the fuel during irradiation. Additionally, some gas is trapped in open porosity but sealed off from the plenum by frozen bond sodium after the element has cooled in the hot cell. The Retained fission Gas (RFG) system has been designed, tested and implemented to capture and measure the quantity of retained fission gas in characterized cut pieces of sodium bonded metallic fuel. Fuel pieces are loaded into the apparatus along with a prescribed amount of iron powder, which is used to create a relatively low melting, eutectic composition as the iron diffuses into the fuel. The apparatus is sealed, evacuated, and then heated to temperatures in excess of the eutectic melting point. Retained fission gas release is monitored by pressure transducers during the heating phase, thus monitoring for release of fission gas as first the bond sodium melts and then the fuel. A separate hot cell system is used to sample the gas in the apparatus and also characterize the volume of the apparatus thus permitting the calculation of the total fission gas release from the fuel element samples along with analysis of the gas composition.

  13. Hot spot mutations in Finnish non-small cell lung cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäki-Nevala, Satu; Sarhadi, Virinder Kaur; Rönty, Mikko; Kettunen, Eeva; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti; Wolff, Henrik; Knuuttila, Aija; Knuutila, Sakari

    2016-09-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a common cancer with a poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to screen Finnish NSCLC tumor samples for common cancer-related mutations by targeted next generation sequencing and to determine their concurrences and associations with clinical features. Sequencing libraries were prepared from DNA isolated from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor material of 425 patients using the AmpliSeq Colon and Lung panel covering mutational hot spot regions of 22 cancer genes. Sequencing was performed with the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM). Data analysis of the hot spot mutations revealed mutations in 77% of the patients, with 7% having 3 or more mutations reported in the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC) database. Two of the most frequently mutated genes were TP53 (46%) and KRAS (25%). KRAS codon 12 mutations were the most recurrently occurring mutations. EGFR mutations were significantly associated with adenocarcinoma, female gender and never/light-smoking history; CTNNB1 mutations with light ex-smokers, PIK3CA and TP53 mutations with squamous cell carcinoma, and KRAS with adenocarcinoma. TP53 mutations were most prevalent in current smokers and ERBB2, ERBB4, PIK3CA, NRAS, NOTCH1, FBWX7, PTEN and STK11 mutations occurred exclusively in a group of ever-smokers, however the association was not statistically significant. No mutation was found that associated with asbestos exposure. Finnish NSCLC patients have a similar mutation profile as other Western patients, however with a higher frequency of BRAF mutations but a lower frequency of STK11 and ERBB2 mutations. Moreover, TP53 mutations occurred frequently with other gene mutations, most commonly with KRAS, MET, EGFR and PIK3CA mutations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Remotely handled and remotely operated valve, particularly for the hot part of radioactive plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radovan, G.; Sandling, M.J.; Davidson, J.W.; Blaseck, K.; Hoffmeister, L.; Westendorf, H.

    1988-01-01

    The valve consists of a valve whose valve housing is built into a pipeline. The wear parts of the valve to be replaced, such as the valve body and valve seat, are combined into a replacement part. The replacement part and a clamp act together so that the replacement part is interlocked with the valve housing in the closed operating position. The exchange can be made by undoing a single central screw. (DG) [de

  15. Operating experience with a 250 kW el molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Manfred; Huppmann, Gerhard

    The MTU MCFC program is carried out by a European consortium comprising the German companies MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH, Ruhrgas AG and RWE Energie AG as well as the Danish company Energi E2 S/A. MTU acts as consortium leader. The company shares a license and technology exchange agreement with Fuel Cell Energy Inc., Danbury, CT, USA (formerly Energy Research Corp., ERC). The program was started in 1990 and covers a period of about 10 years. The highlights of this program to date are: Considerable improvements regarding component stability have been demonstrated on laboratory scale. Manufacturing technology has been developed to a point which enables the consortium to fabricate the porous components on a 250 cm 2 scale. Several large area stacks with 5000-7660 cm 2 cell area and a power range of 3-10 kW have been tested at the facilities in Munich (Germany) and Kyndby (Denmark). These stacks have been supplied by FCE. As far as the system design is concerned it was soon realized that conventional systems do not hold the promise for competitive power plants. A system analysis led to the conclusion that a new innovative design approach is required. As a result the "Hot Module" system was developed by the consortium. A Hot Module combines all the components of a MCFC system operating at the similar temperatures and pressures into a common thermally insulated vessel. In August 1997 the consortium started its first full size Hot Module MCFC test plant at the facilities of Ruhrgas AG in Dorsten, Germany. The stack was assembled in Munich using 292 cell packages purchased from FCE. The plant is based on the consortium's unique and proprietary "Hot Module" concept. It operates on pipeline natural gas and was grid connected on 16 August 1997. After a total of 1500 h of operation, the plant was intentionally shut down in a controlled manner in April 1998 for post-test analysis. The Hot Module system concept has demonstrated its functionality. The safety concept has been

  16. Annual report on operation, utilization and technical development of research reactors and hot laboratory, from April 1, 1987 to March 31, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    Activities of the Department of Research Reactor Operation in fiscal year 1987 are described. The department is responsible for operation and maintenance of JRR-2, JRR-4, Research Reactor Development Division which performed upgraded JRR-3 and other R D, and Hot Laboratory. In the above connection various other work has also been performed, such as technical management of fuel and coolant, radiation control, irradiation technique, etc. In Hot Laboratory, we have performed post-irradiation examinations of fuels and materials, and also development of examination procedures, too. (author)

  17. Annual report on operation, utilization and technical development of research reactors and hot laboratory, from April 1, 1985 to March 31, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    Activities of the Department of Research Reactor Operation in fiscal year 1985 are described. The department is responsible for operation and maintenance of JRR-2, JRR-4, Research Reactor Development Division which performed upgraded JRR-3 and other R and D, and Hot Laboratory. In the above connection various other work has also been performed, such as technical management of fuel and coolant, radiation control, irradiation technique, etc. In Hot Laboratory, we have performed post-irradiation examinations of fuels and materials, and also development of examination procedures, too. (author)

  18. Hot Cell Installation and Demonstration of the Severe Accident Test Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linton, Kory D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Burns, Zachary M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrani, Kurt A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Yan, Yong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    A Severe Accident Test Station (SATS) capable of examining the oxidation kinetics and accident response of irradiated fuel and cladding materials for design basis accident (DBA) and beyond design basis accident (BDBA) scenarios has been successfully installed and demonstrated in the Irradiated Fuels Examination Laboratory (IFEL), a hot cell facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The two test station modules provide various temperature profiles, steam, and the thermal shock conditions necessary for integral loss of coolant accident (LOCA) testing, defueled oxidation quench testing and high temperature BDBA testing. The installation of the SATS system restores the domestic capability to examine postulated and extended LOCA conditions on spent fuel and cladding and provides a platform for evaluation of advanced fuel and accident tolerant fuel (ATF) cladding concepts. This document reports on the successful in-cell demonstration testing of unirradiated Zircaloy-4. It also contains descriptions of the integral test facility capabilities, installation activities, and out-of-cell benchmark testing to calibrate and optimize the system.

  19. Analysis of hot spots in boilers of organic Rankine cycle units during transient operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benato, A.; Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Pierobon, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the investigation of critical dynamic events causing thermochemical decompositionof the working fluid in organic Rankine cycle power systems. The case study is the plant of an oiland gas platform where one of the three gas turbines is combined with an organic Rankine cycle...... and fluid decomposition. It is demonstrated thatthe use of a spray attemperator can mitigate the problems of local overheating of the organic compound.As a practical consequence, this paper provides guidelines for safe and reliable operation of organicRankine cycle power modules on offshore installations....

  20. Energetic, Exergetic and Exergoeconomic Analysis of CO2 Refrigeration Systems Operating in Hot Climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gullo, Paride; Elmegaard, Brian; Cortella, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    of the product of a R744 refrigeration solution with auxiliary compressor with those of a R744 conventional system, both of them operating in transcritical conditions. The results pointed out that the adoption of an auxiliary compressor resulted in an increase of the COP by approximately 18.7% over...... conditions. CO2 refrigeration system with parallel compression represents one of the solutions which have been proposed in the last few years in order to enhance the performance of a single-stage refrigeration system. The main target of this study is to compare the thermodynamic efficiency and the final cost...

  1. Large remote manipulator operating and maintenance experience at IEM cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, D.F.; McGuinness, P.W.

    1985-01-01

    The Interim Examination and Maintenance (IEM) Cell at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) has two large Electro-Mechanical Manipulators (EMM's). These manipulators are used for cell operations (processing of reactor core components) as well as general cell maintenance. From our eleven years of operation and maintenance experience with these large EMM's, we have learned many lessons concerning manipulator design. This paper describes the IEM Cell EMM design features and discusses operating and maintenance experience at the IEM Cell

  2. Hot Cell Post-Irradiation Examination and Poolside Inspection of Nuclear Fuel. Proceedings of the IAEA-HOTLAB Technical Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-04-01

    The growing operational requirements for nuclear fuel, such as longer fuel cycles, higher burnups and wider use of transient regimes, require more robust fuel designs and more radiation resistant materials. Development of such advanced fuels is only possible with testing and analysis of their performance and application of adequate post-irradiation examination (PIE) methods and techniques. In addition, operational feedback data from poolside and PIE facilities are absolutely necessary for verification of fuel modelling codes and analysis of fuel failure mechanisms. For these reasons, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has supported the international exchange of knowledge and sharing of best practices in the application of modern destructive and non-destructive methods of investigation of highly radioactive materials through a series of technical meetings (TMs), the last of which was held in 2006 in Buenos Aires. Since 1963, similar meetings, initially at the European level, have been organized by the Hot Laboratories and Remote Handling Working Group (HOTLAB), a partner in the development of the IAEA's Post Irradiation Examination Facilities Database (PIEDB), part of the IAEA's Integrated Nuclear Fuel Cycle Information System. With this successful partnership in mind, in 2010 the IAEA Technical Working Group on Fuel Performance and Technology recommended that a joint IAEA-HOTLAB TM be held on 'Hot Cell Post-Irradiation Examination and Pool-Side Inspection of Nuclear Fuel', covering questions relevant to the IAEA sub-programmes on 'Nuclear Power Reactor Fuel Engineering' and 'Management of Spent Fuel from Nuclear Power Reactors'. The TM was held on 23-27 May 2011, in Smolenice, Slovakia, with the participation of a large number of interested organizations and comprehensive coverage of major PIE and poolside inspection issues relating to both operation and storage of fuel for nuclear power reactors. The proceedings, summaries and conclusions of that joint

  3. Dresses problems arising from hot-plant operation and their solution (1961)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodier, J.; Bouzigues, H.; Boutot, P.

    1961-01-01

    This article deals with effective methods to struggle radioactive contamination using rationally designed working clothes. The choice of the cloth is important and cotton, because of its absorbent properties constitutes an effective barrier to radioelements failing on its surface. Clothing the personnel of large nuclear industrial concerns is a big problem which can only be solved by carefully studied methods. The decontamination and washing of large amounts of clothes whose flow increases during periods of radio-active incidents have to be treated as are those operations in hospital laundering. Linen washing by the German counter-current method (the Sulzman system) is of great value because of the volume which can be treated and, more important, because of the small amount of liquid waste produced. Dry cleaning is certainly a method of the future and is even more economic than the preceding one. In 'active' laundries, the control of clothing for residual contamination can constitute a serious bottleneck in the production of clean clothing if automatic high-speed machines are not used. The risk to the operating personnel comes solely from contamination of the atmosphere and of the surfaces. Because of this, the plant must be considered as an active zone in which are handled several tens of millicuries of dangerous emitters and several micro- curies of plutonium daily. (authors) [fr

  4. The effect of side-chain substitution and hot processing on diketopyrrolopyrrole-based polymers for organic solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heintges, G.H.L.; Leenaers, P.J.; Janssen, R.A.J.

    2017-01-01

    The effects of cold and hot processing on the performance of polymer-fullerene solar cells are investigated for diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) based polymers that were specifically designed and synthesized to exhibit a strong temperature-dependent aggregation in solution. The polymers, consisting of

  5. Hot-compress: A new postdeposition treatment for ZnO-based flexible dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haque Choudhury, Mohammad Shamimul, E-mail: shamimul129@gmail.com [Department of Frontier Material, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 466-8555 (Japan); Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, International Islamic University Chittagong, b154/a, College Road, Chittagong 4203 (Bangladesh); Kishi, Naoki; Soga, Tetsuo [Department of Frontier Material, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 466-8555 (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • A new postdeposition treatment named hot-compress is introduced. • Hot-compression gives homogeneous compact layer ZnO photoanode. • I-V and EIS analysis data confirms the efficacy of this method. • Charge transport resistance was reduced by the application of hot-compression. - Abstract: This article introduces a new postdeposition treatment named hot-compress for flexible zinc oxide–base dye-sensitized solar cells. This postdeposition treatment includes the application of compression pressure at an elevated temperature. The optimum compression pressure of 130 Ma at an optimum compression temperature of 70 °C heating gives better photovoltaic performance compared to the conventional cells. The aptness of this method was confirmed by investigating scanning electron microscopy image, X-ray diffraction, current-voltage and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis of the prepared cells. Proper heating during compression lowers the charge transport resistance, longer the electron lifetime of the device. As a result, the overall power conversion efficiency of the device was improved about 45% compared to the conventional room temperature compressed cell.

  6. Equipment, operation and some results from a hot test of the CTH actinide separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liljenzin, J.O.; Persson, G.

    1981-01-01

    The CTH actinide separation process has been tested by treating 16 l of 10 year old waste solution from PUREX reprocessing of metallic fuel. It was in general found to operate well and, in some respects, slightly better than design specifications. The extraction process removed more than 99.995% of initial alpha activity. After the sorption steps 5 Bq/l β-activity remained in solution. The modified reversed TALSPEAK process used to separate Am and Cm from the lanthanides gave an Am-Cm product with less than 0.7% of the lanthanides and vice versa. This result can probably be somewhat improved by continuous addition of lactic acid and closer pH control. (orig.)

  7. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of EdF's Tricastin operational hot base nuclear facilities (BCOT) - 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the Tricastin operational hot base facility (INB no. 157, Bollene, Vaucluse (FR)), a nuclear workshop for storage and maintenance and qualification operations on some EdF equipments. Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facility are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2010, if some, are reported as well as the effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility is presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  8. Prototype Development of Remote Operated Hot Uniaxial Press (ROHUP) to Fabricate Advanced Tc-99 Bearing Ceramic Waste Forms - 13381

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alaniz, Ariana J.; Delgado, Luc R.; Werbick, Brett M. [University of Nevada - Las Vegas, Howard R. Hughes College of Engineering, 4505 S. Maryland Parkway, Box 454009, Las Vegas, NV 89154-4009 (United States); Hartmann, Thomas [University of Nevada - Las Vegas, Harry Reid Canter, 4505 S. Maryland Parkway, Box 454009, Las Vegas, NV 89154-4009 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this senior student project is to design and build a prototype construction of a machine that simultaneously provides the proper pressure and temperature parameters to sinter ceramic powders in-situ to create pellets of rather high densities of above 90% (theoretical). This ROHUP (Remote Operated Hot Uniaxial Press) device is designed specifically to fabricate advanced ceramic Tc-99 bearing waste forms and therefore radiological barriers have been included in the system. The HUP features electronic control and feedback systems to set and monitor pressure, load, and temperature parameters. This device operates wirelessly via portable computer using Bluetooth{sup R} technology. The HUP device is designed to fit in a standard atmosphere controlled glove box to further allow sintering under inert conditions (e.g. under Ar, He, N{sub 2}). This will further allow utilizing this HUP for other potential applications, including radioactive samples, novel ceramic waste forms, advanced oxide fuels, air-sensitive samples, metallic systems, advanced powder metallurgy, diffusion experiments and more. (authors)

  9. Certification of the PSI request for the renewal of the operation license for the Hot Laboratory; Gutachten zum Gesuch des Paul Scherrer Instituts um Erneuerung der Betriebsbewilligung für das Hotlabor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-03-15

    At the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), the Hot Laboratory was built in the years 1961 to 1963 in the former EIR in order to make scientific material analyses on highly radioactive material samples and to prepare diagnostic and therapeutically useful radioisotopes. The 1964 safety report with the request for the granting of the operational warrant was revised for the first time in 2004. Further safety reports and radiation protection plans were produced and accepted by the surveying authorities. The operational regulations were revised and approved on a yearly basis by the PSI direction. The regulations reflect the experience gained in 40 years of safe operation and take new regulations in nuclear energy legislation into account. In the years 2000-2002 the Hot Lab was refitted especially with respect to the fields of radiation and fire protection. Presently, the Hot Lab is used for applied material research on highly radioactive samples which mainly come from nuclear power plants, research reactors and the target stations of the PSI accelerator facilities. The investigations on highly radioactive samples and the handling of large quantities of radioisotopes include the possibility of incidents. The analysis of such incidents shows that the legal safety requirements are satisfied. The Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) requirements concerning the protection of personnel, population and environment, as well as the protection against fire, are fulfilled. In the Hot Lab the principle of barriers for the containment of radioactive materials is applied. Open radioactive sources are manipulated in depressurized cells. The air extracted from the cells is filtered before being released to the environment. In the building, the total amount of radioactive materials is limited in order to reduce the exposition of the population in normal operation as well as in case of incidents, and to avoid criticality accidents. Possible weaknesses in this concept can be shown

  10. A new stack effluent monitoring system at the Risoe Hot Cell plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boetter-Jensen, L.; Hedemann Jensen, P.; Lauridsen, B.

    1984-06-01

    This report describes a new stack effluent monitoring system that has been installed at the Hot Cell facility. It is an integrating iodine/particulate system consisting of a γ-shielded flow house in which a continous air sample from the ventilation channel ia sucked through coal and glass filter papers. Activity is accumulated on the filter papers and a thin plastic scintillator detects the β-radiation from the trapped iodine or particulate activity. The stack effluent monitoring system has a two-step regulating function as applied to the ventilation system, first switching it to a recirculating mode, and finally to building-seal after given releases of 131 I. The collection efficiency for iodine in form of elementary iodine (I 2 ) and methyliodide (CH 3 I) has been determined experimentally. The unwanted response from a noble gas release has also been determined from experiments. The noble gas response was determined from puff releases of the nuclide 41 Ar in the concrete cells. It is concluded that the iodine/particulate system is extremely sensitive and that it can easily detect iodine or particulate releases as low as a few MBq. A gamma monitor placed in connection with the iodine/particulate system detects Xe/Kr-releases as low as a few tens of MBq per second. (author)

  11. Optimal operation by dynamic programming in a solar/electric hot-water system; Taiyonetsu/denryoku kyuto system no doteki keikakuho ni yoru saiteki un`yo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edo, S; Kenmoku, Y; Sakakibara, T [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Nakagawa, S [Maizuru College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kawamoto, T [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    With regard to utilization of a solar/electric hot-water system, a discussion was given by using a dynamic programming method on operation of a system which minimizes power charge. The discussed system is an installation in a welfare facility accommodating 100 persons, where solar heat is stored in a heat storage tank from a heat collector, and utilized for hot water supply. If the solar heat is insufficient for required hot water quantity, the water is heated by using an electric heater. The discussion compared the system operation using the dynamic programming method with the following two systems: the operation method 1, which does not utilize insolation forecast and the operation method 2, in which insolation forecast is utilized and late-night electric power is utilized for heating water in shortage. As a result of the calculation, the operation using the dynamic programming method conducts heat storage by utilizing the late-night power even if insolation is sufficient in winter in order to suppress heating by utilizing late-night power for days with less insolation. Thus, suppression is given on excessive utilization of day-time power and on rise in annual maximum power demand. It was found that the present system reduces power consumption by 37.7% when compared with the operation method 1, and 22.7% when compared even with the operation method 2. 3 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Closure of the concrete supercontainer in hot cell under thermal load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craeye, Bart, E-mail: bart.craeye@artesis.b [Artesis Univerity College of Antwerp, Applied Engineering and Technology, Antwerp (Belgium); De Schutter, Geert [Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research, Ghent University, Technologiepark-Zwijnaarde 904, 9052 Ghent (Belgium); Wacquier, William; Van Humbeeck, Hughes [ONDRAF/NIRAS, Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials (Belgium); Van Cotthem, Alain [Tractebel Development Engineering, Consulting Company (Belgium); Areias, Lou [SCK.CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Center (Belgium)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: We model the behaviour of the supercontainer for the disposal of high-level waste and spent fuel assemblies during fabrication at ground surface. We study the early-age cracking behaviour of the buffer and evaluate the crack creating mechanisms. In case accurate measures are taken, cracking of the buffer can be avoided. - Abstract: For the final disposal of long-lived, heat-emitting vitrified high-level waste (HLW) in a clayey host rock, an intensive study is conducted to investigate the early-age behaviour of concrete supercontainers. Self-compacting concrete (SCC) is taken as the reference concrete type as it facilitates the casting process in combination with an improved homogeneity compared to the traditional concrete compositions. A laboratory characterization program is conducted to obtain the relevant thermal, mechanical and maturity-related properties of the SCC. These obtained data are implemented into the material database of the finite element tool HEAT to study the behaviour of the concrete layers during the different construction stages of the supercontainer: (i) Stage 1: Fabrication of the concrete buffer inside a stainless steel envelope. No early-age cracking is expected in case accurate measures are taken to reduce the thermal gradient between the outer surface and the middle of the buffer, e.g. by providing insulation and excluding wind. (ii) Stages 2-4: Emplacement of the carbon steel overpack containing the HLW canisters, filling the remaining annular gap with cementitious filler and closure by fitting the lid under thermal load. The construction stages (2-4) for the closure of the supercontainer are executed in hot cell. In this study, the crack creating mechanism and the behaviour of the concrete supercontainer during these construction stages in hot cell are investigated. In case precautionary measures are taken, such as reducing the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the overpack, prolonging the preceding cooling

  13. Closure of the concrete supercontainer in hot cell under thermal load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craeye, Bart; De Schutter, Geert; Wacquier, William; Van Humbeeck, Hughes; Van Cotthem, Alain; Areias, Lou

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We model the behaviour of the supercontainer for the disposal of high-level waste and spent fuel assemblies during fabrication at ground surface. → We study the early-age cracking behaviour of the buffer and evaluate the crack creating mechanisms. → In case accurate measures are taken, cracking of the buffer can be avoided. - Abstract: For the final disposal of long-lived, heat-emitting vitrified high-level waste (HLW) in a clayey host rock, an intensive study is conducted to investigate the early-age behaviour of concrete supercontainers. Self-compacting concrete (SCC) is taken as the reference concrete type as it facilitates the casting process in combination with an improved homogeneity compared to the traditional concrete compositions. A laboratory characterization program is conducted to obtain the relevant thermal, mechanical and maturity-related properties of the SCC. These obtained data are implemented into the material database of the finite element tool HEAT to study the behaviour of the concrete layers during the different construction stages of the supercontainer: (i) Stage 1: Fabrication of the concrete buffer inside a stainless steel envelope. No early-age cracking is expected in case accurate measures are taken to reduce the thermal gradient between the outer surface and the middle of the buffer, e.g. by providing insulation and excluding wind. (ii) Stages 2-4: Emplacement of the carbon steel overpack containing the HLW canisters, filling the remaining annular gap with cementitious filler and closure by fitting the lid under thermal load. The construction stages (2-4) for the closure of the supercontainer are executed in hot cell. In this study, the crack creating mechanism and the behaviour of the concrete supercontainer during these construction stages in hot cell are investigated. In case precautionary measures are taken, such as reducing the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the overpack, prolonging the

  14. Handling support for mixer-settlers in hot cells with biological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobao, Afonso dos Santos Tome; Forbicini, Sergio; Camilo, Ruth Luqueze

    1996-01-01

    The solvent extraction research facilities of IPEN/CNEN-SP carries out researching work in irradiated materials separation. This installation is provided with two cells with five operating windows, being that, each once of then has a pair of manipulators (master-slave type-MA-11 La Calhene). Solvent extraction research are carried out in acrylic mixer-settlers inside of the shielded cells. These equipment undergo an intense chemical attack which product failures in the acrylic material, so it is necessary to replace them periodically. The developed equipment is able to change the mixer-settlers without its rigidness,, level and the adjustment of the determined coordinates of the mechanical assemblage inside the cell. The definitive implantation of the equipment depends on the final tests on the cells where the fine adjustments will be made. (author)

  15. Tandem solar cells deposited using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, M.K. van

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis, the application of the hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) technique for the deposition of silicon thin films is described. The HWCVD technique is based on the dissociation of silicon-containing gasses at the catalytic surface of a hot filament. Advantages of this technique

  16. Remote-welding technique for assembling in-pile IASCC capsule in hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamata, Kazuo; Ishii, Toshimitsu; Kanazawa, Yoshiharu; Iwamatsu, Shigemi; Ohmi, Masao; Shimizu, Michio; Matsui, Yoshinori; Saito, Jun-ichi; Ugachi, Hirokazu; Kaji, Yoshiyuki; Tsukada, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate behavior of the irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) caused by the simultaneous effects of neutron irradiation and high temperature water environment in such a light water reactor (LWR), it is necessary to perform crack growth tests in an in-pile IASCC capsule irradiated in the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). The development of the remote-welding technique is essential for remotely assembling the in-pile IASCC capsule installing the pre-irradiated CT specimens. This report describes a new remote-welding machine developed for assembling the in-pile IASCC capsule. The remote-welding technique that the capsule tube is rotated light under the fixed torch was applied to the machine for the welding of thick and large-diameter tubes. The assembly work of four in-pile IASCC capsules having pre-irradiated CT specimens in the hot cell was succeeded for performing the crack growth test under the neutron irradiation in JMTR. The irradiation test of two capsules has been already finished in JMTR without problems. (author)

  17. Hot Cell Liners Category of Transuranic Waste Stored Below Ground within Area G

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Robert Wesley [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hargis, Kenneth Marshall [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    A large wildfire called the Las Conchas Fire burned large areas near Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in 2011 and heightened public concern and news media attention over transuranic (TRU) waste stored at LANL’s Technical Area 54 (TA-54) Area G waste management facility. The removal of TRU waste from Area G had been placed at a lower priority in budget decisions for environmental cleanup at LANL because TRU waste removal is not included in the March 2005 Compliance Order on Consent (Reference 1) that is the primary regulatory driver for environmental cleanup at LANL. The Consent Order is an agreement between LANL and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) that contains specific requirements and schedules for cleaning up historical contamination at the LANL site. After the Las Conchas Fire, discussions were held by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) with the NMED on accelerating TRU waste removal from LANL and disposing it at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report summarizes available information on the origin, configuration, and composition of the waste containers within the Hot Cell Liners category; their physical and radiological characteristics; the results of the radioassays; and the justification to reclassify the five containers as LLW rather than TRU waste.

  18. Exosomes surf on filopodia to enter cells at endocytic hot spots, traffic within endosomes, and are targeted to the ER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusermann, Wolf; Hean, Justin; Trojer, Dominic; Steib, Emmanuelle; von Bueren, Stefan; Graff-Meyer, Alexandra; Genoud, Christel; Martin, Katrin; Pizzato, Nicolas; Voshol, Johannes; Morrissey, David V; Andaloussi, Samir E L; Wood, Matthew J; Meisner-Kober, Nicole C

    2016-04-25

    Exosomes are nanovesicles released by virtually all cells, which act as intercellular messengers by transfer of protein, lipid, and RNA cargo. Their quantitative efficiency, routes of cell uptake, and subcellular fate within recipient cells remain elusive. We quantitatively characterize exosome cell uptake, which saturates with dose and time and reaches near 100% transduction efficiency at picomolar concentrations. Highly reminiscent of pathogenic bacteria and viruses, exosomes are recruited as single vesicles to the cell body by surfing on filopodia as well as filopodia grabbing and pulling motions to reach endocytic hot spots at the filopodial base. After internalization, exosomes shuttle within endocytic vesicles to scan the endoplasmic reticulum before being sorted into the lysosome as their final intracellular destination. Our data quantify and explain the efficiency of exosome internalization by recipient cells, establish a new parallel between exosome and virus host cell interaction, and suggest unanticipated routes of subcellular cargo delivery. © 2016 Heusermann et al.

  19. Modeling and characterization of double resonant tunneling diodes for application as energy selective contacts in hot carrier solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehl, Zacharie; Suchet, Daniel; Julian, Anatole; Bernard, Cyril; Miyashita, Naoya; Gibelli, Francois; Okada, Yoshitaka; Guillemolles, Jean-Francois

    2017-02-01

    Double resonant tunneling barriers are considered for an application as energy selective contacts in hot carrier solar cells. Experimental symmetric and asymmetric double resonant tunneling barriers are realized by molecular beam epitaxy and characterized by temperature dependent current-voltage measurements. The negative differential resistance signal is enhanced for asymmetric heterostructures, and remains unchanged between low- and room-temperatures. Within Tsu-Esaki description of the tunnel current, this observation can be explained by the voltage dependence of the tunnel transmission amplitude, which presents a resonance under finite bias for asymmetric structures. This effect is notably discussed with respect to series resistance. Different parameters related to the electronic transmission of the structure and the influence of these parameters on the current voltage characteristic are investigated, bringing insights on critical processes to optimize in double resonant tunneling barriers applied to hot carrier solar cells.

  20. Device operation of organic tandem solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadipour, A.; de Boer, B.; Blom, P. W. M.

    2008-01-01

    A generalized methodology is developed to obtain the current-voltage characteristic of polymer tandem solar cells by knowing the electrical performance of both sub cells. We demonstrate that the electrical characteristics of polymer tandem solar cells are correctly predicted for both the series and

  1. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT): Additive Manufactured Hot Fire Planning and Testing in GRC Cell 32

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this project is to hot fire test an additively manufactured thrust chamber assembly TCA (injector and thrust chamber). GRC will install the...

  2. Hot cell works and related irradiation tests in fission reactor for development of new materials for nuclear application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikama, Tatsuo

    1999-01-01

    Present status of research works in Oarai Branch, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, utilizing Japan Materials Testing Reactor and related hot cells will be described.Topics are mainly related with nuclear materials studies, excluding fissile materials, which is mainly aiming for development of materials for advanced nuclear systems such as a nuclear fusion reactor. Conflict between traditional and routined procedures and new demands will be described and future perspective is discussed. (author)

  3. Study of the effect of injecting cold or hot water on the operation of an oil field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gusein-Zade, M A; Kolosovskaya, A K; Lebedev, V V; Chicherov, L G

    1968-11-01

    Several Soviet reservoirs contain either highly paraffinic or viscous crude oils, where recovery by an ordinary waterflood is poor. Under such circumstances, hot water injection appears to be advantageous. Hot water injection is advisable when: (1) the reservoir is heterogeneous and contains low-permeability sections; (2) the oil is saturated with paraffin at reservoir temperature; and (3) reservoir pressure is only slightly higher than static pressure. In Uzen field, hot water injection should recover 1.5 times more oil than would be recovered with cold water. Various problems involved with hot water injection such as equipment and methods of heating the water, transportation of the water of the wellhead, heat losses in transport of hot water, and well equipment for handling hot water are discussed. Calculations indicate that it should be possible to transport 100/sup 0/C water through a 5 km pipeline with a 4/sup 0/ to 6/sup 0/C temperature drop; then deliver to the well bottom at a temperature of 90/sup 0/ to 92/sup 0/C.

  4. Hot Flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hot flashes Overview Hot flashes are sudden feelings of warmth, which are usually most intense over the face, neck and chest. Your skin might redden, as if you're blushing. Hot flashes can also cause sweating, and if you ...

  5. Internet accessible hot cell with gamma spectroscopy at the Missouri S and T nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, Edwin [Nuclear Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 203 Fulton Hall, 300 W. 13th St., Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Mueller, Gary, E-mail: gmueller@mst.edu [Nuclear Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 203 Fulton Hall, 300 W. 13th St., Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Castano, Carlos; Usman, Shoaib; Kumar, Arvind [Nuclear Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 203 Fulton Hall, 300 W. 13th St., Rolla, MO 65409 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > A dual-chambered internet-accessible heavily shielded facility has been built. > The facility allows distance users to analyze neutron irradiated samples remotely. > The Missouri S and T system uses computer automation with user feedback. > The system can analyze multiple samples and assist several researchers concurrently. - Abstract: A dual-chambered internet-accessible heavily shielded facility with pneumatic access to the University of Missouri Science and Technology (Missouri S and T) 200 kW Research Nuclear Reactor (MSTR) core has been built and is currently available for irradiation and analysis of samples. The facility allows authorized distance users engaged in collaborative activities with Missouri S and T to remotely manipulate and analyze neutron irradiated samples. The system consists of two shielded compartments, one for multiple sample storage, and the other dedicated exclusively for radiation measurements and spectroscopy. The second chamber has multiple detector ports, with graded shielding, and has the capability to support gamma spectroscopy using radiation detectors such as an HPGe detector. Both these chambers are connected though a rapid pneumatic system with access to the MSTR nuclear reactor core. This new internet-based system complements the MSTR's current bare pneumatic tube (BPT) and cadmium lined pneumatic tube (CPT) facilities. The total transportation time between the core and the hot cell, for samples weighing 10 g, irradiated in the MSTR core, is roughly 3.0 s. This work was funded by the DOE grant number DE-FG07-07ID14852 and expands the capabilities of teaching and research at the MSTR. It allows individuals who do not have on-site access to a nuclear reactor facility to remotely participate in research and educational activities.

  6. Internet accessible hot cell with gamma spectroscopy at the Missouri S and T nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, Edwin; Mueller, Gary; Castano, Carlos; Usman, Shoaib; Kumar, Arvind

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A dual-chambered internet-accessible heavily shielded facility has been built. → The facility allows distance users to analyze neutron irradiated samples remotely. → The Missouri S and T system uses computer automation with user feedback. → The system can analyze multiple samples and assist several researchers concurrently. - Abstract: A dual-chambered internet-accessible heavily shielded facility with pneumatic access to the University of Missouri Science and Technology (Missouri S and T) 200 kW Research Nuclear Reactor (MSTR) core has been built and is currently available for irradiation and analysis of samples. The facility allows authorized distance users engaged in collaborative activities with Missouri S and T to remotely manipulate and analyze neutron irradiated samples. The system consists of two shielded compartments, one for multiple sample storage, and the other dedicated exclusively for radiation measurements and spectroscopy. The second chamber has multiple detector ports, with graded shielding, and has the capability to support gamma spectroscopy using radiation detectors such as an HPGe detector. Both these chambers are connected though a rapid pneumatic system with access to the MSTR nuclear reactor core. This new internet-based system complements the MSTR's current bare pneumatic tube (BPT) and cadmium lined pneumatic tube (CPT) facilities. The total transportation time between the core and the hot cell, for samples weighing 10 g, irradiated in the MSTR core, is roughly 3.0 s. This work was funded by the DOE grant number DE-FG07-07ID14852 and expands the capabilities of teaching and research at the MSTR. It allows individuals who do not have on-site access to a nuclear reactor facility to remotely participate in research and educational activities.

  7. Hot water-extracted Lycium barbarum and Rehmannia glutinosa inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jane C-J; Chiang, Shih-Wen; Wang, Ching-Chiung; Tsai, Ya-Hui; Wu, Ming-Shun

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of hot water-extracted Lycium barbarum (LBE) and Rehmannia glutinosa (RGE) on cell proliferation and apoptosis in rat and/or human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. METHODS: Rat (H-4-II-E) and human HCC (HA22T/VGH) cell lines were incubated with various concentrations (0-10 g/L) of hot water-extracted LBE and RGE. After 6-24 h incubation, cell proliferation (n = 6) was measured by a colorimetric method. The apoptotic cells (n = 6) were detected by flow cytometry. The expression of p53 protein (n = 3) was determined by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. RESULTS: Crude LBE (2-5 g/L) and RGE (2-10 g/L) dose-dependently inhibited proliferation of H-4-II-E cells by 11% (P < 0.05) to 85% (P < 0.01) after 6-24 h treatment. Crude LBE at a dose of 5 g/L suppressed cell proliferation of H-4-II-E cells more effectively than crude RGE after 6-24 h incubation (P < 0.01). Crude LBE (2-10 g/L) and RGE (2-5 g/L) also dose-dependently inhibited proliferation of HA22T/VGH cells by 14%-43% (P < 0.01) after 24 h. Crude LBE at a dose of 10 g/L inhibited the proliferation of HA22T/VGH cells more effectively than crude RGE (56.8% ± 1.6% vs 70.3% ± 3.1% of control, P = 0.0003 < 0.01). The apoptotic cells significantly increased in H-4-II-E cells after 24 h treatment with higher doses of crude LBE (2-5 g/L) and RGE (5-10 g/L) (P < 0.01). The expression of p53 protein in H-4-II-E cells was 119% and 143% of the control group compared with the LBE-treated (2, 5 g/L) groups, and 110% and 132% of the control group compared with the RGE -treated (5, 10 g/L) groups after 24 h. CONCLUSION: Hot water-extracted crude LBE (2-5 g/L) and RGE (5-10 g/L) inhibit proliferation and stimulate p53-mediated apoptosis in HCC cells. PMID:16874858

  8. HOT 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Sara Stefansen

    2016-01-01

    HOT samler og formidler 21 literacykyndiges bud på, hvad der er hot, og hvad der bør være hot inden for literacy – og deres begrundelser for disse bud.......HOT samler og formidler 21 literacykyndiges bud på, hvad der er hot, og hvad der bør være hot inden for literacy – og deres begrundelser for disse bud....

  9. Method of operating a direct dme fuel cell system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of operating a fuel cell system comprising one or more fuel cells with a proton exchange membrane, wherein the membrane is composed of a polymeric material comprising acid-doped polybenzimidazole (PBI). The method comprises adjusting the operating...

  10. A Method of Operating a Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of determining the net water drag coefficient (rd) in a fuel cell. By measuring the velocity of the fluid stream at the outlet of the anode, rd can be determined. Real time monitoring and adjustments of the water balance of a fuel cell may be therefore...

  11. Pressurized Operation of a Planar Solid Oxide Cell Stack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Højgaard; Sun, Xiufu; Ebbesen, Sune Dalgaard

    2016-01-01

    , pressurized SOEC based electrolyzers can become more efficient both energy- and cost-wise than PEM and Alkaline systems. Pressurization of SOFCs can significantly increase the cell power density and reduce the size of auxiliary components. In the present study, a SOC stack was successfully operated......Solid oxide cells (SOCs) can be operated either as fuel cells (SOFC) to convert fuels to electricity or as electrolyzers (SOEC) to convert electricity to fuels such as hydrogen or methane. Pressurized operation of SOCs provide several benefits on both cell and system level. If successfully matured...

  12. Hot Spots Detection of Operating PV Arrays through IR Thermal Image Using Method Based on Curve Fitting of Gray Histogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The overall efficiency of PV arrays is affected by hot spots which should be detected and diagnosed by applying responsible monitoring techniques. The method using the IR thermal image to detect hot spots has been studied as a direct, noncontact, nondestructive technique. However, IR thermal images suffer from relatively high stochastic noise and non-uniformity clutter, so the conventional methods of image processing are not effective. The paper proposes a method to detect hotspots based on curve fitting of gray histogram. The result of MATLAB simulation proves the method proposed in the paper is effective to detect the hot spots suppressing the noise generated during the process of image acquisition.

  13. Ceramide-Enriched Membrane Domains in Red Blood Cells and the Mechanism ofSphingomyelinase-Induced Hot-Cold Hemolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montes, Ruth; Lopez, David; Sot, Jesus

    2008-01-01

    Hot-cold hemolysis is the phenomenon whereby red blood cells, preincubated at 37 °C in the presence of certain agents, undergo rapid hemolysis when transferred to 4 °C. The mechanism of this phenomenon is not understood. PlcHR2, a phospholipase C/sphingomyelinase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa......) but also in goat erythrocytes, which lack PC. However, in horse erythrocytes, with a large proportion of PC and almost no SM, hot-cold hemolysis induced by PlcHR2 is not observed. Fluorescence microscopy observations confirm the formation of ceramide-enriched domains as a result of PlcHR2 activity. After......-cold hemolysis. Differential scanning calorimetry of erytrocyte membranes treated with PlcHR2 demonstrates the presence of ceramide-rich domains that are rigid at 4 °C but fluid at 37 °C. Ceramidase treatment causes the disapperance of the calorimetric signal assigned to ceramide-rich domains. Finally...

  14. Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) is one of the largest hot cells dedicated to radioactive materials research at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The nation's...

  15. Analysis of Operating Temperature of the Polycrystalline Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír GÁLL

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the solar cells with orientation on the calculation of operating temperature of the polycrystalline solar cell, which is under actual load. Operating conditions have a significant effect on the efficiency of solar cells. In the summer with increasing temperature, the efficiency decreases. In the winter, efficiency and output voltage are rising. The operating temperature is determined by intensity of solar radiation, the types of materials used by construction and operating condition. The aim of this work was simplify of the calculation of operating temperature of solar cells. The result of this work is a derived equation that allows a more accurate and faster calculation this temperature with using Matlab software.

  16. Wide Operating Voltage Range Fuel Cell Battery Charger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Botella, Juan Carlos; Mira Albert, Maria del Carmen; Sen, Gokhan

    2014-01-01

    DC-DC converters for fuel cell applications require wide voltage range operation due to the unique fuel cell characteristic curve. Primary parallel isolated boost converter (PPIBC) is a boost derived topology for low voltage high current applications reaching an efficiency figure up to 98...... by two the converter input-to-output voltage gain. This allows covering the conditions when the fuel cell stack operates in the activation region (maximum output voltage) and increases the degrees of freedom for converter optimization. The transition between operating modes is studied because represents...

  17. Development of a pattern hot cell for production of injectable radiopharmaceuticals; Desenvolvimento de um modelo de cela para processamento de radiofarmacos injetaveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Fabio Eduardo de

    2010-07-01

    , developed exclusively to produce ideal conditions in the micro ambient. All the operational parameters of the cell were investigated by planning specific assays. The results of these assays were in agreement with the criterions established and indicated the potential of the project in the development of a hot cell for radiopharmaceutical production. (author)

  18. Importance of Electrode Hot-Pressing Conditions for the Catalyst Performance of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Shuang Ma; Dhiman, Rajnish; Larsen, Mikkel Juul

    2015-01-01

    The catalyst performance in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) depends on not only the choice of materials, but also on the electrode structure and in particular on the interface between the components. In this work, we demonstrate that the hot-pressing conditions used during electrode...... lamination have a great influence on the catalyst properties of a low-temperature PEMFC, especially on its durability. Lamination pressure, temperature and duration were systematically studied in relation to the electrochemical surface area, platinum dissolution, platinum particle size and electrode surface...

  19. A new approach for helium backfilling and leak testing seal-welded capsules in a hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strasslsund, E.K.; Berger, D.N.

    1992-05-01

    Gamma irradiation sources containing radioactive 137 Cesium Chloride are being produced at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site as part of a Westinghouse Hanford company/Pacific Northwest Laboratory cooperative program. New equipment was developed to leak test the double-encapsulated sources in a hot cell. The equipment, which includes a helium backfill chamber and end cap press , a vacuum chamber, and a helium mass spectrometer, has provided technicians with the capability to detect leaks in sealed sources as small as 1. 0x10 -7 atm cm 3 /S helium

  20. Hot cell examination on the surveillance capsule of SA 533 cl. 1 reactor pressure vessel (1st test report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Yong Sun; Jung, Y. H.; Yoo, B. O.; Baik, S. J.; Oh, W. H.; Soong, W. S.; Hong, K. P

    2000-08-01

    The post-irradiated examinations such as impact test, tensile test, composition analysis and etc. were conducted to monitor and to evaluate the radiation-induced changes, so called radiation embrittlement, in the mechanical properties of ferritic materials. Those data should be applied to confirm safety as well as reliability of reactor pressure vessel. The scopes and contents of hot cell examination on the surveillance capsule are as follows; - Capsule transportation, cutting, dismantling and classification - Shim block and Dosimeter cutting and dismantling - Impact test - Tensile test - Composition analysis by EPMA - SEM observation on the fractured surface - Hardness test - Radwaste treatment.

  1. The Holistic Targeting (HOT) methodology as the means to improve Information Operations (IO) target development and prioritization

    OpenAIRE

    Ieva, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    Prioritization. In response to this challenge, this study proposes five recommendations to enhance IO integration into the Joint Targeting Cycle: the use of interim IO Joint Munitions Effectiveness Manual (JMEM) techniques to better forecast cognitive effects, the adoption of the Measure of Worth (MOW) model to assess IO effects, the HOT methodology to develop and prioritize IO targets, the use of compendium software facilitate targeting problem understanding and the network analysis to...

  2. Principles and operation of crystalline and amorphous silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambouleyron, I.

    1983-01-01

    This paper deals with the fundamental aspects of photovoltaic energy conversion. Crystalline silicon solar cell physics together with design criteria and conversion losses are discussed. The general properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon and the principles of a-Si:H solar cell operation are briefly reviewed. New trends in amorphous materials of photovoltaic interest and novel device structures are finally presented. (Author) [pt

  3. Heat transfer and pressure drop of a gasket-sealed plate heat exchanger depending on operating conditions across hot and cold sides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Joon [Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyouck Ju [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In a gas engine based cogeneration system, heat may be recovered from two parts: Jacket water and exhaust gas. The heat from the jacket water is often recovered using a plate-type heat exchanger, and is used for room heating and/or hot water supply applications. Depending on the operating conditions of an engine and heat recovery system, there may be an imbalance in the flow rate and supply pressure between the engine side and the heat-recovery side of the heat exchanger. This imbalance causes deformation of the plate, which affects heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics. In the present study, the heat transfer and pressure drop inside a heat exchanger were investigated under varying hot-side and cold-side operating conditions. Thermal efficiency of the plate heat exchanger decreases up to 30% with an operating engine load of 50%. A correction factor for the pressure drop correlation is proposed to account for the deformation caused by an imbalance between the two sides of a heat exchanger.

  4. Polymer electrolyte fuel cells: flow field for efficient air operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechi, F N; Tsukada, A; Haas, O; Scherer, G G [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    A new flow field was designed for a polymer electrolyte fuel cell stack with an active area of 200 cm{sup 2} for operation at low air stoichiometry and low air over pressure. Optimum of gas flow and channel dimensions were calculated based on the required pressure drop in the fluid. Single cells and a bi-cell stack with the new flow field show an improved current/voltage characteristic when operated at low air stoichiometries as compared to that of the previous non optimized design. (author) 4 figs., 3 refs.

  5. Decontamination of hot cells K-1, K-3, M-1, M-3, and A-1, M-Wing, Building 200: Project final report Argonne National Laboratory-East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheever, C.L.; Rose, R.W.

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to remove radioactively contaminated materials and equipment from the hot cells, to decontaminate the hot cells, and to dispose of the radioactive waste. The goal was to reduce stack releases of Rn-220 and to place the hot cells in an emptied, decontaminated condition with less than 10 microSv/h (1 mrem/h) general radiation background. The following actions were needed: organize and mobilize a decontamination team; prepare decontamination plans and procedures; perform safety analyses to ensure protection of the workers, public, and environment; remotely size-reduce, package, and remove radioactive materials and equipment for waste disposal; remotely decontaminate surfaces to reduce hot cell radiation background levels to allow personnel entries using supplied air and full protective suits; disassemble and package the remaining radioactive materials and equipment using hands-on techniques; decontaminate hot cell surfaces to remove loose radioactive contaminants and to attain a less than 10 microSv/h (1 mrem/h) general background level; document and dispose of the radioactive and mixed waste; and conduct a final radiological survey

  6. Surveillance and radiological protection in the Hot Cell laboratory; Vigilancia y proteccion radiologica en el Laboratorio de Celdas Calientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, J.M.; Torre, J. De la; Garcia C, M.A. [ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The Hot Cells Laboratory (LCC) located in the National Institute of Nuclear Research are an installation that was designed for the management at distance of 10,000 Curies of Co-60 or other radioactive materials with different values in activity. The management of such materials in the installation, implies to analyze and to determine the doses that the POE will receive as well as the implementation of protection measures and appropriate radiological safety so that is completed the specified by the ALARA concept. In this work it is carried out an evaluation of the doses to receive for the POE when managing radionuclides with maximum activities that can be allowed in function of the current conditions of the cells and an evaluation of results is made with the program of surveillance and radiological protection implemented for the development of the works that carried out in the installation. (Author)

  7. Applying hot wire anemometry to directly measure the water balance in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell - Part 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berning, Torsten; Al Shakhshir, Saher

    2015-01-01

    In order to accurately determine the water balance of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell it has recently been suggested to employ constant temperature anemometry (CTA), a frequently used method to measure the velocity of a fluid stream. CTA relies on convective heat transfer around a heated wire...... the equations required to calculate the heat transfer coefficient and the resulting voltage signal as function of the fuel cell water balance. The most critical and least understood part is the determination of the Nusselt number to calculate the heat transfer between the wire and the gas stream. Different...... expressions taken from the literature will be examined in detail, and it will be demonstrated that the power-law approach suggested by Hilpert is the only useful one for the current purposes because in this case the voltage response from the hot-wire sensor E/E0 shows the same dependency to the water balance...

  8. Annual report on operation, utilization and technical development of hot laboratories. From April 1, 1996 to March 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This report describes activities, in fiscal year 1996, of the Reactor Fuel Examination Facility (RFEF), the Research Hot Laboratory (RHL) and the Waste Safety Testing Facility (WASTEF) which belong to the Department of Hot laboratories. In the RFEF, Post-Irradiation Examinations (PIEs) of PWR fuel assemblies irradiated in the Takahama Unit 3, a BWR fuel assembly irradiated in the Fukusima Daini Unit have been performed. Also, PIEs of assembly materials irradiated in the Fugen Reactor have been carried out. To support R and D works in JAERI, refabrication of segmented fuel rods have been done using irradiated LWR fuel rods for pulse irradiation in the NSRR and re-irradiation tests in the JMTR. PIEs have been performed on high burnup fuel rods and ROX fuel rods. For the RHL, PIEs have been performed on segment fuels irradiated in the NSRR, fuels and materials for HTTR, standard fuels for JRR-3M and materials for nuclear fusion reactor. In addition, a monitoring test of fuel elements in accordance with the surveillance program of the Magnox reactor of the Japan Atomic Power Corporation has been continued. In the WASTEF, leaching tests on TRU in simulated glass forms and a low flow rate tests on glass waste forms have been carried out. The examinations of alpha damage acceleration for the Synroc waste forms have also been performed. (author)

  9. Murine leukemia virus vector integration favors promoter regions and regional hot spots in a human T-cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukahara, Tomonori; Agawa, Hideyuki; Matsumoto, Sayori; Matsuda, Mizuho; Ueno, Shuichi; Yamashita, Yuki; Yamada, Koichiro; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Kojima, Katsuhiko; Takeshita, Toshikazu

    2006-01-01

    Genomic analysis of integration will be important in evaluating the safety of human gene therapy with retroviral vectors. Here, we investigated MLV vector integration sites in human T-cells, since they are amenable to gene transfer studies, and have been used therapeutically in clinical trials. We mapped 340 MLV vector integration sites in the infected human T-cell clones we established. The data showed that MLV preferred integration near the transcription start sites (±5 kb), near CpG islands (±1 kb), and within the first intron of RefSeq genes. We also identified MLV integration hot spots that contained three or more integrations within a 100 kb region. RT-PCR revealed that mRNA-levels of T-cell clones that contained MLV integrations near transcription start sites or introns were dysregulated compared to the uninfected cells. These studies help define the profile of MLV integration in T-cells and the risks associated with MLV-based gene therapy

  10. Utilizing hot electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozik, Arthur J.

    2018-03-01

    In current solar cells, any photon energy exceeding the semiconductor bandgap is lost before being collected, limiting the cell performance. Hot carrier solar cells could avoid these losses. Now, a detailed experimental study and analysis shows that this strategy could lead to an improvement of the photoconversion efficiency in practice.

  11. Annual report on operation, utilization and technical development of hot laboratories. From April 1, 2001 to March 31, 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-01-01

    This is an annual report in a fiscal year of 2001 that describes activities of the Reactor Fuel Examination Facility (RFEF), the Waste Safety Testing Facility (WASTEF), and the Research Hot Laboratory (RHL) in the Department of Hot laboratories. In RFEF, PIEs including destructive and nondestructive tests were performed on a BWR fuel assembly and/or its fuel rod irradiated in the Fukushima-2 Nuclear Power Station Unit-1 and a fuel assembly with UO{sub 2}-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and mixed oxide (MOX) fuel pellets for Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute. In addition, 34 fuel assemblies irradiated in the nuclear ship ''Mutsu'' were conveyed from Mutsu Establishment, and re-assembly and PIEs for the assemblies were carried out. In WASTEF, tests for evaluating barrier performance in terms of disposal of waste, high temperature tests for evaluating stable on TRansUraniums (TRU) nitrides, leaching tests on Rock-like OXide (ROX) fuels were performed. The slow Strain Rate Tests (SSRT) apparatuses were installed for investigation of Irradiation-Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC) on light water structural materials, and characterization tests for the apparatus were performed. In RHL, PIEs for light water reactor materials, fusion materials, and target materials of Proton Accelerator Facilities were carried out for laboratories in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. PIEs for zirconium alloys for ultra-high burn-up irradiated in the Kashiwazaki Nuclear Power Station Unit-5 were also performed. In order to investigate roots cause of pipe rupture in Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station Unit-1 of Chubu Electric Power Company, several examinations including SEM observation, EPMA, and Vickers hardness test were performed in those three facilities. The data from the examinations greatly contribute to clarify roots cause of the pipe rupture. (author)

  12. Annual report on operation, utilization and technical development of hot laboratories. From April 1, 2001 to March 31, 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This is an annual report in a fiscal year of 2001 that describes activities of the Reactor Fuel Examination Facility (RFEF), the Waste Safety Testing Facility (WASTEF), and the Research Hot Laboratory (RHL) in the Department of Hot laboratories. In RFEF, PIEs including destructive and nondestructive tests were performed on a BWR fuel assembly and/or its fuel rod irradiated in the Fukushima-2 Nuclear Power Station Unit-1 and a fuel assembly with UO 2 -Gd 2 O 3 and mixed oxide (MOX) fuel pellets for Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute. In addition, 34 fuel assemblies irradiated in the nuclear ship ''Mutsu'' were conveyed from Mutsu Establishment, and re-assembly and PIEs for the assemblies were carried out. In WASTEF, tests for evaluating barrier performance in terms of disposal of waste, high temperature tests for evaluating stable on TRansUraniums (TRU) nitrides, leaching tests on Rock-like OXide (ROX) fuels were performed. The slow Strain Rate Tests (SSRT) apparatuses were installed for investigation of Irradiation-Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC) on light water structural materials, and characterization tests for the apparatus were performed. In RHL, PIEs for light water reactor materials, fusion materials, and target materials of Proton Accelerator Facilities were carried out for laboratories in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. PIEs for zirconium alloys for ultra-high burn-up irradiated in the Kashiwazaki Nuclear Power Station Unit-5 were also performed. In order to investigate roots cause of pipe rupture in Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station Unit-1 of Chubu Electric Power Company, several examinations including SEM observation, EPMA, and Vickers hardness test were performed in those three facilities. The data from the examinations greatly contribute to clarify roots cause of the pipe rupture. (author)

  13. The Spatial Predilection for Early Esophageal Squamous Cell Neoplasia: A "Hot Zone" for Endoscopic Screening and Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Lun; Chang, I-Wei; Chen, Chien-Chuan; Chang, Chi-Yang; Lin, Jaw-Town; Mo, Lein-Ray; Wang, Hsiu-Po; Lee, Ching-Tai

    2016-04-01

    Early esophageal squamous cell neoplasias (ESCNs) are easily missed with conventional white-light endoscopy. This study aimed to assess whether early ESCNs have a spatial predilection and the patterns of recurrence after endoscopic treatment. We analyzed the circumferential and longitudinal location of early ESCNs, as well as their correlations with exposure to carcinogens in a cohort of 162 subjects with 248 early ESCNs; 219 of which were identified by screening and 29 by surveillance endoscopy. The circumferential location was identified using a clock-face orientation, and the longitudinal location was identified according to the distance from the incisor. The most common circumferential and longitudinal distributions of the early ESCNs were found in the 6 to 9 o'clock quadrant (38.5%) and at 26 to 30 cm from the incisor (41.3%), respectively. A total of 163 lesions (75%) were located in the lower hemisphere arc, and 149 (68.4%) were located at 26 to 35 cm from the incisor. One hundred eleven (51%) early ESCNs were centered within the "hot zone" (i.e., lower hemisphere arc of the esophagus at 26 to 35 cm from the incisor), which comprised 20% of the esophageal area. Exposure to alcohol, betel nut, or cigarette was risk factors for the development of early ESCNs in the lower hemisphere. After complete endoscopic treatment, the mean annual incidence of metachronous tumors was 10%. In addition, 43% of the metachronous recurrent neoplasias developed within the "hot zone." Cox regression analysis revealed that the index tumor within the hot zone (hazard ratio [HR]: 3.19; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17-8.68; P = 0.02) and the presence of numerous Lugol-voiding lesions in the esophageal background mucosa were independent predictors for metachronous recurrence (HR: 4.61; 95% CI: 1.36-15.56; P = 0.01). We identified a hot zone that may be used to enhance the detection of early ESCNs during endoscopic screening and surveillance, especially in areas that

  14. System for controlling the operating temperature of a fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabis, Thomas R.; Makiel, Joseph M.; Veyo, Stephen E.

    2006-06-06

    A method and system are provided for improved control of the operating temperature of a fuel cell (32) utilizing an improved temperature control system (30) that varies the flow rate of inlet air entering the fuel cell (32) in response to changes in the operating temperature of the fuel cell (32). Consistent with the invention an improved temperature control system (30) is provided that includes a controller (37) that receives an indication of the temperature of the inlet air from a temperature sensor (39) and varies the heat output by at least one heat source (34, 36) to maintain the temperature of the inlet air at a set-point T.sub.inset. The controller (37) also receives an indication of the operating temperature of the fuel cell (32) and varies the flow output by an adjustable air mover (33), within a predetermined range around a set-point F.sub.set, in order to maintain the operating temperature of the fuel cell (32) at a set-point T.sub.opset.

  15. Solid oxide fuel cell performance under severe operating conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Søren; Hendriksen, P.V.; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2006-01-01

    The performance and degradation of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) were studied under severe operating conditions. The cells studied were manufactured in a small series by ECN, in the framework of the EU funded CORE-SOFC project. The cells were of the anode-supported type with a double layer LSM...... cathode. They were operated at 750 °C or 850 °C in hydrogen with 5% or 50% water at current densities ranging from 0.25 A cm–2 to 1 A cm–2 for periods of 300 hours or more. The area specific cell resistance, corrected for fuel utilisation, ranged between 0.20 Ω cm2 and 0.34 Ω cm2 at 850 °C and 520 m......V, and between 0.51 Ω cm2 and 0.92 Ω cm2 at 750 °C and 520 mV. The degradation of cell performance was found to be low (ranging from 0 to 8%/1,000 hours) at regular operating conditions. Voltage degradation rates of 20 to 40%/1,000 hours were observed under severe operating conditions, depending on the test...

  16. Development of mathematical model and optimal control system of internal temperatures of hot-blast stove process in staggered parallel operation; Netsufuro sushiki model to parallel sofu ni okeru ronai ondo saiteki seigyo system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matoba, Y. [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Otsuka, K.

    1998-07-01

    A mathematical model and an optimal control system of hot-blast stove process are described. A precise mathematical simulation model of the hot-blast stove was developed and the accuracy of the model has been confirmed. An optimal control system of the thermal conditions of the hot-blast stoves in staggered parallel operation was also developed. By the use of the multivariable optimal regulator and the feedforward compensations for the change of the aimed blast temperature and blast volume, the system is able to control the hot blast temperature and the brick temperature efficiently. The system has been applied to Kashima works. The variations of the blast temperature and the silica brick temperature have been decreased. The ultimate low heat level operations have been realized and the thermal efficiency furthermore has been raised by about 1%. 8 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  17. HOT 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henriette Romme

    Undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og hvad der burde være hot på læseområdet med 21 læsekyndige. Undersøgelsen er gennemført siden 2010. HOT-undersøgelsen er foretaget af Nationalt Videncenter for Læsning - Professionshøjskolerne i samarb. med Dansklærerforeningen......Undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og hvad der burde være hot på læseområdet med 21 læsekyndige. Undersøgelsen er gennemført siden 2010. HOT-undersøgelsen er foretaget af Nationalt Videncenter for Læsning - Professionshøjskolerne i samarb. med Dansklærerforeningen...

  18. Optimization of Fuel Cell System Operating Conditions for Fuel Cell Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy

    2008-01-01

    Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology for use in fuel cell vehicles and other applications has been intensively developed in recent decades. Besides the fuel cell stack, air and fuel control and thermal and water management are major challenges in the development of the fuel cell for vehicle applications. The air supply system can have a major impact on overall system efficiency. In this paper a fuel cell system model for optimizing system operating conditions was developed wh...

  19. Scope and dissolution studies and characterization of irradiated nuclear fuel in Atalante Hot Cell Facilities (abstract and presentation slides)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dancausse, Jean-Philippe; Reynier Tronche, Nathalie; Ferlay, Gilles; Herlet, Nathalie; Eysseric, Cathrine; Esbelin, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Since 1999, several studies on nuclear fuels were realised in C11/C12 Atalante Hot Cell. This paper presents firstly an overview of the apparatus used for fuel dissolution and characterisation like reactor design, gas trapping flask and solid/liquid separation. Then, the general methodology is described as a function of fuel, temperature, reagents, showing for each step, the reachable experimental data: Dissolution rate, chemical and radiochemical fuel composition including volatile LLRN, insoluble mass, composition, morphology, cladding chemical, radiochemical and physical characterisation using SIMS (made in Cadarache/LECA facilities), MEB. To conclude, some of the obtained results on 129I and 14C composition of oxide fuels, rate of dissolution and first results on dissolution studies of RERTR UMo fuel will be detailed. (Author)

  20. Bubbling cell death: A hot air balloon released from the nucleus in the cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Nan-Shan

    2016-06-01

    Cell death emanating from the nucleus is largely unknown. In our recent study, we determined that when temperature is lowered in the surrounding environment, apoptosis stops and bubbling cell death (BCD) occurs. The study concerns the severity of frostbite. When exposed to severe cold and strong ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, people may suffer serious damages to the skin and internal organs. This ultimately leads to limb amputations, organ failure, and death. BCD is defined as "formation of a single bubble from the nucleus per cell and release of this swelling bubble from the cell surface to extracellular space that causes cell death." When cells are subjected to UV irradiation and/or brief cold shock (4℃ for 5 min) and then incubated at room temperature or 4℃ for time-lapse microscopy, each cell releases an enlarging nuclear gas bubble containing nitric oxide. Certain cells may simultaneously eject hundreds or thousands of exosome-like particles. Unlike apoptosis, no phosphatidylserine flip-over, mitochondrial apoptosis, damage to Golgi complex, and chromosomal DNA fragmentation are shown in BCD. When the temperature is increased back at 37℃, bubble formation stops and apoptosis restarts. Mechanistically, proapoptotic WW domain-containing oxidoreductase and p53 block the protective TNF receptor adaptor factor 2 that allows nitric oxide synthase 2 to synthesize nitric oxide and bubble formation. In this mini-review, updated knowledge in cell death and the proposed molecular mechanism for BCD are provided. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  1. HOT 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henriette

    Undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og hvad der burde være hot på læseområdet med 21 læsekyndige. Undersøgelsen er gennemført siden 2010. HOT-undersøgelsen er foretaget af Nationalt Videncenter for Læsning - Professionshøjskolerne i samarb. med Dansklærerforeningen...

  2. Polymer electrolyte fuel cells physical principles of materials and operation

    CERN Document Server

    Eikerling, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The book provides a systematic and profound account of scientific challenges in fuel cell research. The introductory chapters bring readers up to date on the urgency and implications of the global energy challenge, the prospects of electrochemical energy conversion technologies, and the thermodynamic and electrochemical principles underlying the operation of polymer electrolyte fuel cells. The book then presents the scientific challenges in fuel cell research as a systematic account of distinct components, length scales, physicochemical processes, and scientific disciplines. The main part of t

  3. HOT 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henriette Romme

    En undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og burde være hot på læseområdet. I undersøgelsen deltager 21 læsekyndige fra praksisfeltet, professionshøjskolerne og forskningsområdet.......En undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og burde være hot på læseområdet. I undersøgelsen deltager 21 læsekyndige fra praksisfeltet, professionshøjskolerne og forskningsområdet....

  4. Standard Guide for On-Site Inspection and Verification of Operation of Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1987-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers procedures and test methods for conducting an on-site inspection and acceptance test of an installed domestic hot water system (DHW) using flat plate, concentrating-type collectors or tank absorber systems. 1.2 It is intended as a simple and economical acceptance test to be performed by the system installer or an independent tester to verify that critical components of the system are functioning and to acquire baseline data reflecting overall short term system heat output. 1.3 This guide is not intended to generate accurate measurements of system performance (see ASHRAE standard 95-1981 for a laboratory test) or thermal efficiency. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine th...

  5. Optical Fier Based System for Multiple Thermophysical Properties for Glove Box, Hot Cell and In-Pile Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ban, Heng

    2017-11-30

    Thermal diffusivity of materials is of interest in nuclear applications at temperatures in excess of 2000°C. Commercial laser flash apparatus (LFA) that heats samples with a furnace typically do not reach these elevated temperatures nor are they easily adapted to a glove-box or hot cell environment. In this research, we performed work on an experimental technique using single laser surface heating, i.e. heating the disk sample only at its front surface with the continuous wave (CW) laser, to allow measurement of thermal diffusivity at very high temperatures within a small chamber. Thermal diffusivity is measured using a separate pulsed laser on the front side and IR detector on the rear side. The new way of heating provides easy operation in comparison to other heating methods. The measurement of sample reference temperature is needed for the measured thermal diffusivity. A theoretical model was developed to describe transient heat transfer across the sample due to the laser pulse, starting from the steady state temperature of the sample heated by the CW laser. The experimental setup was established with a 500W CW laser and maximum 50 Joule pulse laser irradiated at the front surface of the sample. The induced temperature rise at the rear surface, along with the steady-state temperature at the front surface, was recorded for the determination of thermal diffusivity and the sample temperature. Three samples were tested in vacuum over a wide temperature range of 500°C to 2100°C, including graphite, Inconel 600 and tungsten. The latter two samples were coated with sprayed graphite on their front surfaces in order to achieve surface absorption/emission needs, i.e. high absorptivity of the front surface against relatively low emissivity of the rear surface. Thermal diffusivity of graphite determined by our system are within a 5% difference of the commercial LFA data at temperatures below 1300°C and agree well with its trend at higher temperatures. Good agreement

  6. The impact of silicon solar cell architecture and cell interconnection on energy yield in hot & sunny climates

    KAUST Repository

    Haschke, Jan; Seif, Johannes P.; Riesen, Yannick; Tomasi, Andrea; Cattin, Jean; Tous, Loï c; Choulat, Patrick; Aleman, Monica; Cornagliotti, Emanuele; Uruena, Angel; Russell, Richard; Duerinckx, Filip; Champliaud, Jonathan; Levrat, Jacques; Abdallah, Amir A.; Aï ssa, Brahim; Tabet, Nouar; Wyrsch, Nicolas; Despeisse, Matthieu; Szlufcik, Jozef; De Wolf, Stefaan; Ballif, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    architectures, including so-called Aluminum back-surface-field (BSF), passivated emitter and rear cell (PERC), passivated emitter rear totally diffused (PERT), and silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells. We compare measured temperature coefficients (TC

  7. Strategies for Lowering Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Operating Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Tarancón

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Lowering the operating temperature of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs to the intermediate range (500–700 ºC has become one of the main SOFC research goals. High operating temperatures put numerous requirements on materials selection and on secondary units, limiting the commercial development of SOFCs. The present review first focuses on the main effects of reducing the operating temperature in terms of materials stability, thermo-mechanical mismatch, thermal management and efficiency. After a brief survey of the state-of-the-art materials for SOFCs, attention is focused on emerging oxide-ionic conductors with high conductivity in the intermediate range of temperatures with an introductory section on materials technology for reducing the electrolyte thickness. Finally, recent advances in cathode materials based on layered mixed ionic-electronic conductors are highlighted because the decreasing temperature converts the cathode into the major source of electrical losses for the whole SOFC system. It is concluded that the introduction of alternative materials that would enable solid oxide fuel cells to operate in the intermediate range of temperatures would have a major impact on the commercialization of fuel cell technology.

  8. Mechanical behaviour of PEM fuel cell catalyst layers during regular cell operation

    OpenAIRE

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2010-01-01

    Damage mechanisms in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell are accelerated by mechanical stresses arising during fuel cell assembly (bolt assembling), and the stresses arise during fuel cell running, because it consists of the materials with different thermal expansion and swelling coefficients. Therefore, in order to acquire a complete understanding of the mechanical behaviour of the catalyst layers during regular cell operation, mechanical response under steady-state hygro-thermal stresses s...

  9. Non-Hermitian Operator Modelling of Basic Cancer Cell Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagarello, Fabio; Gargano, Francesco

    2018-04-01

    We propose a dynamical system of tumor cells proliferation based on operatorial methods. The approach we propose is quantum-like: we use ladder and number operators to describe healthy and tumor cells birth and death, and the evolution is ruled by a non-hermitian Hamiltonian which includes, in a non reversible way, the basic biological mechanisms we consider for the system. We show that this approach is rather efficient in describing some processes of the cells. We further add some medical treatment, described by adding a suitable term in the Hamiltonian, which controls and limits the growth of tumor cells, and we propose an optimal approach to stop, and reverse, this growth.

  10. Operating Cell Temperature Determination in Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenlo, F.

    2002-01-01

    Two procedures (simplified and complete) to determine me operating cell temperature in photovoltaic modules operating in real conditions assuming isothermal stationary modules are presented in this work. Some examples are included that show me dependence of this temperature on several environmental (sky, ground and ambient temperatures, solar irradiance, wind speed, etc.) and structural (module geometry and size, encapsulating materials, anti reflexive optical coatings, etc.) factors and also on electrical module performance. In a further step temperature profiles for non-isothermal modules are analysed besides transitory effects due to variable irradiance and wind gusts. (Author) 27 refs

  11. Characteristics of Subfreezing Operation of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishler, Jeffrey Harris

    Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells are capable of high efficiency operation, and are free of NOx, SOx, and CO2 emissions when using hydrogen fuel, and ideally suited for use in transportation applications due to their high power density and low operating temperatures. However, under subfreezing conditions which may be encountered during winter seasons in some areas, product water will freeze within the membrane, cathode side catalyst layer and gas diffusion media, leading to voltage loss and operation failure. Experiments were undertaken in order to characterize the amount and location of water during fuel cell operation. First, in-situ neutron radiography was undertaken on the fuel cells at a normal operating temperature for various operating current densities, inlet relative humidities, and diffusion media hydrophobicities. It was found that more hydrophobic cathode microporous layer (MPL) or hydrophilic anode MPL may result in a larger amount of water transporting back to the anode. The water profiles along the channels were measured and the point of liquid water emergence, where two phase flow begins, was compared to previous models. Secondly, under subfreezing temperatures, neutron imaging showed that water ice product accumulates because of lack of a water removal mechanism. Water was observed under both the lands and channels, and increased almost linearly with time. It is found that most ice exists in the cathode side. With evidence from experimental observation, a cold start model was developed and explained, following existing approaches in the literature. Three stages of cold start are explained: membrane saturation, ice storage in catalyst layer pores, and then ice melting. The voltage losses due to temperature change, increased transport resistance, and reduced electrochemical surface area. The ionic conductivity of the membrane at subfreezing temperatures was modeled. Voltage evolution over time for isothermal cold starts was predicted and

  12. Performance of a solid oxide fuel cell CHP system coupled with a hot water storage tank for single household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liso, Vincenzo; Zhao, Yingru; Yang, Wenyuan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system for cogeneration of heat and power integrated with a stratified heat storage tank is studied. Thermal stratification in the tank increases the heat recovery performance as it allows existence of a temperature gradient with the benefit of deliver......In this paper a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system for cogeneration of heat and power integrated with a stratified heat storage tank is studied. Thermal stratification in the tank increases the heat recovery performance as it allows existence of a temperature gradient with the benefit...... of delivering hot water for the household and returning the coldest fluid back to SOFC heat recovery heat-exchanger. A model of the SOFC system is developed to determine the energy required to meet the hourly average electric load of the residence. The model evaluates the amount of heat generated and the amount...... of heat used for thermal loads of the residence. Two fuels are considered, namely syngas and natural gas. The tank model considers the temperature gradients over the tank height. The results of the numerical simulation is used to size the SOFC system and storage heat tank to provide energy for a small...

  13. Dose levels in the hot cells area ININ; Niveles de dosis en el area de celdas calientes-ININ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torre, J. De la; Ramirez, J.M. [ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Solis, M.L. [UAEM, Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: jto@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-07-01

    The Laboratory of Hot Cells (LCC) located in the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) is an institution, it is an area where radioactive material is managed with different activity values, in function of its original design for 10,000 curies of Co-60. Managing this materials in the installation, it implies to measure and to analyze the dose levels that the POE will receive as well as the implementation of appropriate measures of radiological protection and radiological safety, so that that is completed settled down by the concept ALARA. In this work they are carried out mensurations of the levels of the dose to receive for the POE when managing radionuclides with maximum activities that can be allowed in function of the current conditions of the cells and an evaluation of the obtained results is made comparing them with the effective international norms as well as the application of the program of surveillance and radiological protection implemented for the development of the works that are carry out in the installation. (Author)

  14. In SITU Transmission Electron Microscopy on Operating Electrochemical CELLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gualandris, Fabrizio; Simonsen, Søren Bredmose; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2016-01-01

    Solid oxide cells (SOC) have the potential of playing a significant role in the future efficient energy system scenario. In order to become widely commercially available, an improved performance and durability of the cells has to be achieved [1]. Conventional scanning and transmission SEM and TEM...... have been often used for ex-situ post mortem characterization of SOFCs and SOECs [2,3]. However, in order to get fundamental insight of the microstructural development of SOFC/SOEC during operation conditions in situ studies are necessary [4]....

  15. Preliminary report for the license of a hot cell that will be use in the technology development for the obtention of Mo-99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fucugauchi, L.A.; Millan S, S.; Lopez M, A.E.; Lopez C, R; Sanchez M, V.; Reynoso V, R.; Vera, A.

    1991-05-01

    A preliminary report for the license of a hot cell that will be used in the development of the technology for the obtaining of Mo-99 is presented. The following topics are also included: objective of the project, technical description, description of the prototype cell, handling of radioactive wastes, lists of equipment that will be used, risk analysis, curricula, quality assurance plan and an annex with the report on handling of radioactive wastes presented to the PAGD-IAEA. (Author)

  16. Technique Comparison of the Fracture Toughness Tests for Irradiated Fuel Claddings in a Hot Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Sangbok; Kim, Dosik; Jung, Yanghong; Choo, Yongsun; Ryu, Wooseog

    2007-01-01

    The degradation of a fracture toughness in a fuel cladding is a important factor to restrict the operation safety in nuclear power plants. The fracture properties of claddings were traditionally measured through a rubber bung test, a burst test, etc. Those results were the qualitative fracture characteristics, and could not be used as design or operation safety evaluation data. We need to evaluate the quantitative characteristics of claddings under normal operation and in accidents. The application of a fracture mechanics concept in testing a fuel cladding is restricted by the cladding geometry and creating the correct stress-state conditions. The geometry of claddings does not meet the requirement of the ASTM Standards for a specimen configuration and an applied load. The specimen may be produced from previously flattened claddings, but the flattening causes some uncertainties in the results due to changes in the microstructure of the material and a new distribution of the internal stresses. Therefore many efforts have been devoted to developing new test techniques, to quantify the fracture characteristics of claddings. Researchers from JAEA and NFI in Japan, Studsvik Company Ltd in Sweden, IAEA in Australia, and KAERI in Korea have independently developed fracture test techniques. This study is designed to review the independently developed techniques and to compare of their merits. Finally we shall apply the other techniques to upgrade our developing techniques

  17. Fuel cell bus operation, system investigation H2 bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The WP covers two tasks: - Prepartion of Technical Catalogue: In cooperation with ICIL, AR have compiled a technical catalogue, providing the impartial descriptions, both of existing technology and regulations, and the likely future developments of these, as to remedy the first problem faced by a potential hydrogen bus fleet operator viz the absence of an impartial description of the available vehicle and fuels systems together with the absence of a description of regulatory and safety factors which need consideration. - Fuel Cell Bus Operation - System Investigation H 2 Bus: The application of fuel cell electric generation systems to hybrid electrical buses or electrical busses without any storage system on board is considered. The task will cover safety and environmental aspects, a cost estimate and a market evaluation. (orig.)

  18. In-Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy on Operating Electrochemical Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gualandris, Fabrizio; Simonsen, Søren Bredmose; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    have been often used for ex-situpost mortem characterization of SOFCs and SOECs [2,3]. However, in order to get fundamental insight of themicrostructural development of SOFC/SOEC during operation conditions in-situ studies are necessary [4]. Thedevelopment of advanced TEM chips and holders makes...... it possible to undertake analysis during exposure to theSOFC/SOEC sample of reactive gas flow, elevated temperatures and electrical biasing in combination. Thisallows the study of nanostructure development under temperature and electrode polarisation conditions similarto operation conditions.In this work, we...... with animage corrector and a differential pumping system.A symmetric cell was prepared by depositing a cell consisting of three thin films on a strontium titanate (STO)single crystal substrate by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Lanthanum strontium cobaltite La0.6Sr0.4CoO3-δ (LSC)was chosen as electrode...

  19. Converter Compressor Building, SWMU 089, Hot Spot Areas 1, 2, and 5 Operations, Maintenance, and Monitoring Report, Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Deborah M.

    2015-01-01

    This Operations, Maintenance, and Monitoring Report (OMMR) presents the findings, observations, and results from operation of the air sparging (AS) interim measure (IM) for Hot Spot (HS) Areas 1, 2, and 5 at the Converter Compressor Building (CCB) located at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida. The objective of the IM at CCB HS Areas 1, 2, and 5 is to decrease concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in groundwater in the treatment zones via AS to levels that will enable a transition to a monitored natural attenuation (MNA) phase. This OMMR presents system operations and maintenance (O&M) information and performance monitoring results since full-scale O&M began in June 2014 (2 months after initial system startup in April 2014), including quarterly performance monitoring events in July and October 2014 and January and May 2015. Based on the results to date, the AS system is operating as designed and is meeting the performance criteria and IM objective. The performance monitoring network is adequately constructed for assessment of IM performance at CCB HS Areas 1, 2, and 5. At the March 2014 KSC Remediation Team (KSCRT) Meeting, team consensus was reached for the design prepared for expansion of the system to treat the HS 4 area, and at the November 2014 KSCRT Meeting, team consensus was reached that HS 3 was adequately delineated horizontally and vertically and for selection of AS for the remedial approach for HS 3. At the July 2015 KSCRT meeting, team consensus was reached to continue IM operations in all zones until HSs 3 and 4 is operational, once HS 3 and 4 zones are operational discontinue operations in HS 1, 2, and 5 zones where concentrations are less than GCTLs to observe whether rebounding conditions occur. Team consensus was also reached to continue quarterly performance monitoring to determine whether operational zones achieve GCTLs and to continue annual IGWM of CCB-MW0012, CCBMW0013, and CCB-MW0056, located south of the treatment area. The

  20. Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Operating at Low Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Jabbar, Mohammed Hussain

    An important issue that has limited the potential of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) for portable applications is its high operating temperatures (800-1000 ºC). Lowering the operating temperature of SOFCs to 400-600 ºC enable a wider material selection, reduced degradation and increased lifetime....... On the other hand, low-temperature operation poses serious challenges to the electrode performance. Effective catalysts, redox stable electrodes with improved microstructures are the prime requisite for the development of efficient SOFC anodes. The performance of Nb-doped SrT iO3 (STN) ceramic anodes...... at 400ºC. The potential of using WO3 ceramic as an alternative anode materials has been explored. The relatively high electrode polarization resistance obtained, 11 Ohm cm2 at 600 ºC, proved the inadequate catalytic activity of this system for hydrogen oxidation. At the end of this thesis...

  1. A Comparison of the Hot Spot and the Average Cancer Cell Counting Methods and the Optimal Cutoff Point of the Ki-67 Index for Luminal Type Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, Nobuyuki; Nishimura, Reiki; Osako, Tomofumi; Nishiyama, Yasuyuki; Fujisue, Mamiko; Okumura, Yasuhiro; Nakano, Masahiro; Tashima, Rumiko; Toyozumi, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    In this case-control study, we investigated the most suitable cell counting area and the optimal cutoff point of the Ki-67 index. Thirty recurrent cases were selected among hormone receptor (HR)-positive/HER2-negative breast cancer patients. As controls, 90 nonrecurrent cases were randomly selected by allotting 3 controls to each recurrent case based on the following criteria: age, nodal status, tumor size, and adjuvant endocrine therapy alone. Both the hot spot and the average area of the tumor were evaluated on a Ki-67 immunostaining slide. The median Ki-67 index value at the hot spot and average area were 25.0 and 14.5%, respectively. Irrespective of the area counted, the Ki-67 index value was significantly higher in all of the recurrent cases (p hot spot was the most suitable cutoff point for predicting recurrence. Moreover, higher x0394;Ki-67 index value (the difference between the hot spot and the average area, ≥10%) and lower progesterone receptor expression (hot spot strongly correlated with recurrence, and the optimal cutoff point was found to be 20%. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. HOT 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henriette Romme

    En undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og burde være hot på læseområdet. I undersøgelsen deltager en række læsekyndige fra praksisfeltet, professionshøjskolerne og forskningsområdet. Undersøgelsen er gentaget hvert år siden 2010.......En undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og burde være hot på læseområdet. I undersøgelsen deltager en række læsekyndige fra praksisfeltet, professionshøjskolerne og forskningsområdet. Undersøgelsen er gentaget hvert år siden 2010....

  3. HOT 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henriette Romme

    En undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og burde være hot på læseområdet. I undersøgelsen deltager en række læsekyndige fra praksisfeltet, professionshøjskolerne og forskningsområdet. Undersøgelsen er gentaget hvert år siden 2010.......En undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og burde være hot på læseområdet. I undersøgelsen deltager en række læsekyndige fra praksisfeltet, professionshøjskolerne og forskningsområdet. Undersøgelsen er gentaget hvert år siden 2010....

  4. Mechanical Tests Plan after Neutron Irradiation for SMART SG Tube Materials in a Hot Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Sang Bok; Baik, Seung Jai; Kim, Do Sik; Yoo, Byung Ok; Jung, Yang Hong; Song, Woong Sub; Choo, Kee Nam; Park, Jin Seok; Lee, Yong Sun; Ryu, Woo Seog

    2010-01-01

    An advanced integral PWR, SMART (System- Integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) is being developed in KAERI. It has compact size and a relatively small power rating compared to a conventional reactor. The main components such as the steam generators, main circulation pumps are located in the reactor vessel. Therefore they are damaged from neutron irradiations generated from nuclear fuel fissions during operation. The SMART SG tubes which are 17 mm in a diameter and 2.5 mm in a thickness will be made of Alloy 690. To ensure the operation safety the post irradiation examinations is necessary to evaluate the deterioration levels of various original properties. Specially the amount of mechanical properties change should be reflected and revised to design data. For that tensile, fracture, hardness test are planned and under preparations. In this paper the detailed plans are reviewed. Three kinds of materials having different heat treatment procedures are prepared to fabricate specimens. The capsules installed the specimens are going to be irradiated in HANARO. Finally the tests for them will be performed in IMEF, Irradiated Materials Examination Facility at KAERI

  5. Fire preparedness measures in buildings with hot laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberlaender, B.C.

    2003-01-01

    Important hot laboratory safety issues are the general design/construction of the building with respect to fire, fire prevention, fire protection, administrative controls, and risk assessment. Within the network of the European Working Group Hot Laboratories and Remote Handling items concerning 'fire preparedness measures in hot laboratories' were screened and studied. Two questionnaires were sent to European hot laboratories; the first in November 2002 on 'fire preparedness measures, fire detection and fire suppression/extinguishing in lead shielded cells, concrete shielded cells' and the second in June 2003 on 'Fire preparedness measures in buildings with hot laboratories'. The questionnaires were filled in by a total of ten hot laboratories in seven European countries. On request of participants the answers were evaluated and 'anonymised' for presentation and discussion at the plenary meeting. The answers showed that many European hot laboratories are implementing improvements to their fire protection programmes to comply with more stringent requirements of the national authorities. The recommendations ('International guidelines for the fire protection of Nuclear Power Plants') given by the insurance pools are followed up with national variations. An ISO standard (ISO 17873) is in progress giving criteria for the design and the operation of ventilation systems as well as fire hazard management in nuclear installations others than reactors

  6. Investigation of remote sensing scale up for hot cell waste tank applications. CPAC optical moisture monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.L.

    1994-01-01

    This report discusses work done to investigate the feasibility of using non-contact optical absorption to remotely sense the surface moisture content of salt cake materials. Optical measurements were made in a dimensionally scaled setup to investigate this technique for in-situ waste tank applications. Moisture measurements were obtained from BY-104 simulant samples with 0 wt%, 10 wt%, and 20 wt% moisture content using the back-scattered light from a pulsed infrared optical parametric converter (OPC) laser source operating from 1.51 to 2.12 micron. An InGaAs detector, with 0.038 steradian solid angle (hemisphere = 6.28 steradians) collection angle was used to detect the back-scattered light. This work indicated that there was sufficient back-scatter from the BY-104 material to provide an indication of the surface moisture content

  7. Hot Laboratories and Remote Handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bart, G.; Blanc, J.Y.; Duwe, R.

    2003-01-01

    The European Working Group on ' Hot Laboratories and Remote Handling' is firmly established as the major contact forum for the nuclear R and D facilities at the European scale. The yearly plenary meetings intend to: - Exchange experience on analytical methods, their implementation in hot cells, the methodologies used and their application in nuclear research; - Share experience on common infrastructure exploitation matters such as remote handling techniques, safety features, QA-certification, waste handling; - Promote normalization and co-operation, e.g., by looking at mutual complementarities; - Prospect present and future demands from the nuclear industry and to draw strategic conclusions regarding further needs. The 41. plenary meeting was held in CEA Saclay from September 22 to 24, 2003 in the premises and with the technical support of the INSTN (National Institute for Nuclear Science and Technology). The Nuclear Energy Division of CEA sponsored it. The Saclay meeting was divided in three topical oral sessions covering: - Post irradiation examination: new analysis methods and methodologies, small specimen technology, programmes and results; - Hot laboratory infrastructure: decommissioning, refurbishment, waste, safety, nuclear transports; - Prospective research on materials for future applications: innovative fuels (Generation IV, HTR, transmutation, ADS), spallation source materials, and candidate materials for fusion reactor. A poster session was opened to transport companies and laboratory suppliers. The meeting addressed in three sessions the following items: Session 1 - Post Irradiation Examinations. Out of 12 papers (including 1 poster) 7 dealt with surface and solid state micro analysis, another one with an equally complex wet chemical instrumental analytical technique, while the other four papers (including the poster) presented new concepts for digital x-ray image analysis; Session 2 - Hot laboratory infrastructure (including waste theme) which was

  8. GHz Rabi Flopping to Rydberg States in Hot Atomic Vapor Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, B.; Baluktsian, T.; Schlagmueller, M.; Koelle, A.; Kuebler, H.; Loew, R.; Pfau, T.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the observation of Rabi oscillations to a Rydberg state on a time scale below 1 ns in thermal rubidium vapor. We use a bandwidth-limited pulsed excitation and observe up to 6 full Rabi cycles within a pulse duration of ∼4 ns. We find good agreement between the experiment and numerical simulations based on a surprisingly simple model. This result shows that fully coherent dynamics with Rydberg states can be achieved even in thermal atomic vapor, thus suggesting small vapor cells as a platform for room-temperature quantum devices. Furthermore, the result implies that previous coherent dynamics in single-atom Rydberg gates can be accelerated by 3 orders of magnitude.

  9. The development of crack measurement system using the direct current potential drop method for use in the hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Do-Sik; Ahn, Sang-Bok; Lee, Key-Soon; Kim, Yong-Suk; Kwon, Sang-Chul

    1999-01-01

    The crack length measurement system using the direct current potential drop (DCPD) method was developed for the detection of crack growth initiation and subsequent crack growth. The experimental precautions and data processing procedure required for its application were also described find discussed. The system presented herein was specially built for use in fracture toughness testing of unirradiated or irradiated pressure tube materials from nuclear reactor. The application of this system for fracture toughness determination was illustrated from the test of curved compact tension specimens removed from CANDU reactor pressure tubes. The crack extension was monitored using the DCPD method. It is found that the changes of the potential drop and the changes of the crack length have a linear relationship. The final crack front was marked by heat-tinting after the test and the specimen broken open for determination of the initial and final physical crack length. The physical crack lengths, obtained by the 9-point average method described in ASTM E1737-96 on heat-tinted fracture surface, were used to calibrate the DCPD method for each test on an individual basis by matching the change in voltage to the crack extension. It is found that this system can be recommended for determination of the J-integral resistance (J-R) curve of unirradiated or irradiation materials in the hot cell, especially when testing at elevated temperature and in the environment chamber or furnace. (author)

  10. Late-Onset Metastasis of Renal Cell Carcinoma into a Hot Thyroid Nodule: An Uncommon Finding Not to Be Overlooked

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Foppiani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 74-year-old man with a four-year history of right nephrectomy for clear cell renal carcinoma (CCRC who was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism. On ultrasound (US, a 5 cm solid isohypoechoic nodule with intranodular vascularization was found in the left thyroid lobe. The nodule was deemed autonomous on T99mc thyroid scan. Methimazole was started and serum thyroid hormone levels quickly normalized; euthyroidism was maintained with a very low dosage of antithyroid drug. Over time, compressive symptoms and local pain occurred and US revealed growth of the nodule. Total thyroidectomy was performed and the combined histological and immunohistochemical evaluation deemed the nodule compatible with metastasis of CCRC; on 2-year follow-up, no tumor relapse was ascertained. In patients with a history of cancer, a thyroid nodule, even if hyperfunctioning, must be suspected of being a metastasis and investigated. Hot nodules, which are largely benign, may be vulnerable to metastatic colonization owing to their rich vascularization. In these cases, surgery may be curative.

  11. Novel materials for fuel cells operating on liquid fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A. C. Sequeira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Towards commercialization of fuel cell products in the coming years, the fuel cell systems are being redefined by means of lowering costs of basic elements, such as electrolytes and membranes, electrode and catalyst materials, as well as of increasing power density and long-term stability. Among different kinds of fuel cells, low-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs are of major importance, but their problems related to hydrogen storage and distribution are forcing the development of liquid fuels such as methanol, ethanol, sodium borohydride and ammonia. In respect to hydrogen, methanol is cheaper, easier to handle, transport and store, and has a high theoretical energy density. The second most studied liquid fuel is ethanol, but it is necessary to note that the highest theoretically energy conversion efficiency should be reached in a cell operating on sodium borohydride alkaline solution. It is clear that proper solutions need to be developed, by using novel catalysts, namely nanostructured single phase and composite materials, oxidant enrichment technologies and catalytic activity increasing. In this paper these main directions will be considered.

  12. Test results for fuel cell operation on anaerobic digester gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, R. J.; Preston, J. L.

    EPA, in conjunction with ONSI, embarked on a project to define, design, test, and assess a fuel cell energy recovery system for application at anaerobic digester waste water (sewage) treatment plants. Anaerobic digester gas (ADG) is produced at these plants during the process of treating sewage anaerobically to reduce solids. ADG is primarily comprised of methane (57-66%), carbon dioxide (33-39%), nitrogen (1-10%), and a small amount of oxygen (sulfur-bearing compounds (principally hydrogen sulfide) and halogen compounds (chlorides). The project has addressed two major issues: development of a cleanup system to remove fuel cell contaminants from the gas and testing/assessing of a modified ONSI PC25 C fuel cell power plant operating on the cleaned, but dilute, ADG. Results to date demonstrate that the ADG fuel cell power plant can, depending on the energy content of the gas, produce electrical output levels close to full power (200 kW) with measured air emissions comparable to those obtained by a natural gas fuel cell. The cleanup system results show that the hydrogen sulfide levels are reduced to below 10 ppbv and halides to approximately 30 ppbv.

  13. Atomistic mechanisms of ReRAM cell operation and reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Sumeet C.

    2018-01-01

    We present results from first-principles-based modeling that captures functionally important physical phenomena critical to cell materials selection, operation, and reliability for resistance-switching memory technologies. An atomic-scale description of retention, the low- and high-resistance states (RS), and the sources of intrinsic cell-level variability in ReRAM is discussed. Through the results obtained from density functional theory, non-equilibrium Green’s function, molecular dynamics, and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations; the role of variable-charge vacancy defects and metal impurities in determining the RS, the LRS-stability, and electron-conduction in such RS is reported. Although, the statistical electrical characteristics of the oxygen-vacancy (Ox-ReRAM) and conductive-bridging RAM (M-ReRAM) are notably different, the underlying similar electrochemical phenomena describing retention and formation/dissolution of RS are being discussed.

  14. Operating method of molten carbonate type fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, Tsuneo

    1988-12-06

    Molten carbonate type fuel cell involves a problem of oxidation of anode while the unit is stopped. Although there is a method proposed wherein an inactive gas is supplied to anode during the stoppage, the market-available inactive gas contains a slight amount of oxygen which makes it difficult to prevent the deterioration of the anode. In this invention, at the start and the stop other than the normal operation, a protective gas mixture of an inactive gas with a small amount of hydrogen is supplied to the anode. The inactive gas is a commercial type nitrogen, argon or helium; hydrogen is mixed in amount 0.5 - 2.0% of the inactive gas. By this method, oxygen in air which comes in from the gas-sealed portion of the cell is reduced by hydrogen in the protective gas and is discharged in the form of water. 2 figs.

  15. CFD analysis of laboratory scale phase equilibrium cell operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jama, Mohamed Ali; Nikiforow, Kaj; Qureshi, Muhammad Saad; Alopaeus, Ville

    2017-10-01

    For the modeling of multiphase chemical reactors or separation processes, it is essential to predict accurately chemical equilibrium data, such as vapor-liquid or liquid-liquid equilibria [M. Šoóš et al., Chem. Eng. Process.: Process Intensif. 42(4), 273-284 (2003)]. The instruments used in these experiments are typically designed based on previous experiences, and their operation verified based on known equilibria of standard components. However, mass transfer limitations with different chemical systems may be very different, potentially falsifying the measured equilibrium compositions. In this work, computational fluid dynamics is utilized to design and analyze laboratory scale experimental gas-liquid equilibrium cell for the first time to augment the traditional analysis based on plug flow assumption. Two-phase dilutor cell, used for measuring limiting activity coefficients at infinite dilution, is used as a test case for the analysis. The Lagrangian discrete model is used to track each bubble and to study the residence time distribution of the carrier gas bubbles in the dilutor cell. This analysis is necessary to assess whether the gas leaving the cell is in equilibrium with the liquid, as required in traditional analysis of such apparatus. Mass transfer for six different bio-oil compounds is calculated to determine the approach equilibrium concentration. Also, residence times assuming plug flow and ideal mixing are used as reference cases to evaluate the influence of mixing on the approach to equilibrium in the dilutor. Results show that the model can be used to predict the dilutor operating conditions for which each of the studied gas-liquid systems reaches equilibrium.

  16. CFD analysis of laboratory scale phase equilibrium cell operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jama, Mohamed Ali; Nikiforow, Kaj; Qureshi, Muhammad Saad; Alopaeus, Ville

    2017-10-01

    For the modeling of multiphase chemical reactors or separation processes, it is essential to predict accurately chemical equilibrium data, such as vapor-liquid or liquid-liquid equilibria [M. Šoóš et al., Chem. Eng. Process Intensif. 42(4), 273-284 (2003)]. The instruments used in these experiments are typically designed based on previous experiences, and their operation verified based on known equilibria of standard components. However, mass transfer limitations with different chemical systems may be very different, potentially falsifying the measured equilibrium compositions. In this work, computational fluid dynamics is utilized to design and analyze laboratory scale experimental gas-liquid equilibrium cell for the first time to augment the traditional analysis based on plug flow assumption. Two-phase dilutor cell, used for measuring limiting activity coefficients at infinite dilution, is used as a test case for the analysis. The Lagrangian discrete model is used to track each bubble and to study the residence time distribution of the carrier gas bubbles in the dilutor cell. This analysis is necessary to assess whether the gas leaving the cell is in equilibrium with the liquid, as required in traditional analysis of such apparatus. Mass transfer for six different bio-oil compounds is calculated to determine the approach equilibrium concentration. Also, residence times assuming plug flow and ideal mixing are used as reference cases to evaluate the influence of mixing on the approach to equilibrium in the dilutor. Results show that the model can be used to predict the dilutor operating conditions for which each of the studied gas-liquid systems reaches equilibrium.

  17. Waste reduction efforts through the evaluation and procurement of a digital camera system for the Alpha-Gamma Hot Cell Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, T. S.; Cohen, A. B.; Tsai, H.; Kettman, W. C.; Trychta, K.

    1999-01-01

    The Alpha-Gamma Hot Cell Facility (AGHCF) at Argonne National Laboratory-East is a research facility where sample examinations involve traditional photography. The AGHCF documents samples with photographs (both Polaroid self-developing and negative film). Wastes generated include developing chemicals. The AGHCF evaluated, procured, and installed a digital camera system for the Leitz metallograph to significantly reduce labor, supplies, and wastes associated with traditional photography with a return on investment of less than two years

  18. Design, Construction and Operation of a Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) in the 100-kW-Class

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiming, Andreas; Huppmann, Gerhard; Aasberg-Petersen, Kim

    1999-01-01

    In fuel cells, the electrochemical energy of the fuel is converted directly into electricity and heat. The electrochemical conversion is inherently related to high electrical efficiencies and very low pollutant emissions. Fuel cells with sufficiently high operating temperatures such as (1) the phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC), operating temperature: 200 o C, (2) the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), operating temperature: 650 o C and (3) the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), operating temperature: around 900 o C are best suited for decentralised combined heat and power (CHP) applications. This is due to the fact, that the heat of the exothermic reaction taking place in the fuel cell can be used in the domestic, commercial and industrial sector for heating and hot water or steam production. At the present time, gas-engines or gas-turbines are the preferred CHP-technologies for these applications. Nowadays, the PAFC is commercially available. More than 160 plants, each with a power of 200 kW, have been installed world-wide. Ruhrgas has investigated the behaviour of a 200 kW PAFC at its research centre in Dorsten, Germany, and at the site of a local utility. High temperature fuel cells such as MCFC or SOFC promise electrical efficiencies above 50 % in simple cycle mode. Up to now, MCFC-test plants have been built and operated in the 100 kW to 1 MW power range. The largest MCFC ever operated consisted of 16 identical stacks of 125 kW each, resulting in a plant power of 2 MW. The initial experience with SOFC in this power-range is currently gained from the operation of a 100 kW plant. In this paper, the result of the construction and operation of a highly innovatively designed 280 kW MCFC will be presented. This plant has been designed, built and operated by a European consortium for the development and market introduction of the MCFC. Members of the consortium are MTU-Friedrichshafen GmbH, Haldor Topsoee NS, Elkraft A.m.b.H., RWE Energie AG and Ruhrgas AG. (author)

  19. The ultrastructure of tumor cells in patients with rectal cancer after pre-operative irradiation and intra-operative cryotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyinnik, Yu.O.; Kotenko, O.Je.; Nevzorov, V.P.; Chyibyisov, L.P.

    2000-01-01

    Electronic microscopy of the tumor cells was performed to confirm the efficacy of combined pre-operative gamma-therapy and intraoperative cryotherapy (CT). Pre-operative irradiation at the dose of 20 Gy accompanied by intra-operative cryotherapy caused the changes in the ultrastructure, the depth and degree of which allow to consider them destructive and irreversible

  20. Cathodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Operating at Low Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Alfred Junio

    . High performance cathodes were obtained from strontium-doped lanthanum cobaltite (LSC) infiltrated - Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (CGO) ionic conducting backbone. Systematic tuning of the CGO and LSC firing temperatures and LSC loading resulted in a cathode with low polarization resistance, Rp = 0.044 cm2 at 600......This dissertation focuses on the development of nanostructured cathodes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and their performance at low operating temperatures. Cathodes were mainly fabricated by the infiltration method, whereby electrocatalysts are introduced onto porous, ionic conducting backbones...... with increasing LSC firing temperature, highlighting the importance of materials compability over higher ionic conductivity. The potential of Ca3Co4O9+delta as an electrocatalyst for SOFCs has also been explored and encouraging results were found i.e., Rp = 0.64 cm2 for a Ca3Co4O9+delta/CGO 50 vol % composite...

  1. HOT 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Sara Stefansen

    HOT er en kvalitativ undersøgelse, der hvert år diskuterer og undersøger en lille udvalgt skare af danskkyndige fagpersoners bud på, hvad de er optagede af på literacyområdet her og nu – altså hvilke emner, de vil vurdere som aktuelle at forholde sig til i deres nuværende praksis.......HOT er en kvalitativ undersøgelse, der hvert år diskuterer og undersøger en lille udvalgt skare af danskkyndige fagpersoners bud på, hvad de er optagede af på literacyområdet her og nu – altså hvilke emner, de vil vurdere som aktuelle at forholde sig til i deres nuværende praksis....

  2. An Applied Study on the Decontamination and Decommissioning of Hot Cell Facilities in the United States and Comparison with the Studsvik Facility for Solid and Liquid Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varley, Geoff; Rusch, Chris

    2006-07-01

    This report presents the plans, processes and results of the decontamination and decommissioning of the Hot Cell Facility in Building 23 at the General Atomics Torrey Pines Mesa Facility (HCF) and compares the program and cost of decommissioning HCF with the Swedish cost estimate for decontamination and decommissioning of the HM hot cell and wastes treatment facility at Studsvik in Sweden. The HCF had three main hot cells and was licensed to: Receive, handle and ship radioactive materials; Remotely handle, examine and store irradiated fuel materials; Extract tritium (engineering scale); Support new reactor production development; Develop, fabricate and inspect UO 2 - BeO fuel materials. The HM facility in Studsvik was constructed to handle and package medium-active solid and liquid wastes, prior to disposal. Central to the facility is a conventional hot cell including three work stations, serviced by master slave manipulators. Other parts of the facility include holding tanks for liquid wastes and slurries, a centrifuge room, as well as an encapsulation station where drummed wastes can be encapsulated in cement, offices, laboratories and workshops and so on, as well as building and cell ventilation systems. Decontamination and decommissioning of the HCF took place during 1993 through 2001. The objective was to obtain regulatory release of the site so that it could be used on an unrestricted basis. Based on data from extensive hazardous and radiological materials characterization, GA evaluated four decommissioning options and selected dismantling as the only option that would satisfy the decommissioning objective. The decontamination and decommissioning scope included the following actions. 1. Remove the legacy waste that consisted of radioactive wastes stored at the HCF consisting of 21,434 kg of irradiated fuel material (IFM) that was owned by the US DoE and store the waste in temporary storage set up at the GA site. 2. Actual Decontamination and Dismantlement

  3. An Applied Study on the Decontamination and Decommissioning of Hot Cell Facilities in the United States and Comparison with the Studsvik Facility for Solid and Liquid Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varley, Geoff; Rusch, Chris [NAC International, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2006-07-15

    This report presents the plans, processes and results of the decontamination and decommissioning of the Hot Cell Facility in Building 23 at the General Atomics Torrey Pines Mesa Facility (HCF) and compares the program and cost of decommissioning HCF with the Swedish cost estimate for decontamination and decommissioning of the HM hot cell and wastes treatment facility at Studsvik in Sweden. The HCF had three main hot cells and was licensed to: Receive, handle and ship radioactive materials; Remotely handle, examine and store irradiated fuel materials; Extract tritium (engineering scale); Support new reactor production development; Develop, fabricate and inspect UO{sub 2} - BeO fuel materials. The HM facility in Studsvik was constructed to handle and package medium-active solid and liquid wastes, prior to disposal. Central to the facility is a conventional hot cell including three work stations, serviced by master slave manipulators. Other parts of the facility include holding tanks for liquid wastes and slurries, a centrifuge room, as well as an encapsulation station where drummed wastes can be encapsulated in cement, offices, laboratories and workshops and so on, as well as building and cell ventilation systems. Decontamination and decommissioning of the HCF took place during 1993 through 2001. The objective was to obtain regulatory release of the site so that it could be used on an unrestricted basis. Based on data from extensive hazardous and radiological materials characterization, GA evaluated four decommissioning options and selected dismantling as the only option that would satisfy the decommissioning objective. The decontamination and decommissioning scope included the following actions. 1. Remove the legacy waste that consisted of radioactive wastes stored at the HCF consisting of 21,434 kg of irradiated fuel material (IFM) that was owned by the US DoE and store the waste in temporary storage set up at the GA site. 2. Actual Decontamination and

  4. Hot particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merwin, S.E.; Moeller, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensees are required to assess the dose to skin from a hot particle contamination event at a depth of skin of7mg/cm 2 over an area of 1 cm 2 and compare the value to the current dose limit for the skin. Although the resulting number is interesting from a comparative standpoint and can be used to predict local skin reactions, comparison of the number to existing limits based on uniform exposures is inappropriate. Most incidents that can be classified as overexposures based on this interpretation of dose actually have no effect on the health of the worker. As a result, resources are expended to reduce the likelihood that an overexposure event will occur when they could be directed toward eliminating the cause of the problem or enhancing existing programs such as contamination control. Furthermore, from a risk standpoint, this practice is not ALARA because some workers receive whole body doses in order to minimize the occurrence of hot particle skin contaminations. In this paper the authors suggest an alternative approach to controlling hot particle exposures

  5. Quantum theory of operation for rectenna solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grover, Sachit; Joshi, Saumil; Moddel, Garret

    2013-01-01

    Optical rectennas, sub-micrometre antenna-coupled diodes, can directly rectify solar and thermal electromagnetic radiation, and have been proposed as an alternative to conventional semiconductor photovoltaics. We develop a comprehensive description of the operating principle of rectenna solar cells. In prior work classical concepts from microwave rectenna theory have been applied to the analysis of photovoltaic power generation using these ultra-high frequency rectifiers. Because of their high photon energy the interaction of petahertz frequency waves with fast-responding diodes requires a semiclassical analysis. We use the theory of photon-assisted transport to derive the current–voltage [I(V)] characteristics of metal/insulator/metal tunnel diodes under illumination. We show how power is generated in the second quadrant of the I(V) characteristic, derive solar cell parameters, and analyse the key variables that influence the performance under monochromatic radiation and to a first order approximation. The efficiency improves with reduced dark current under reverse bias and increasing incident electromagnetic power. (paper)

  6. A hot water extract of Curcuma longa inhibits adhesion molecule protein expression and monocyte adhesion to TNF-α-stimulated human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Kengo; Muroyama, Koutarou; Yamamoto, Norio; Murosaki, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    The recruitment of arterial leukocytes to endothelial cells is an important step in the progression of various inflammatory diseases. Therefore, its modulation is thought to be a prospective target for the prevention or treatment of such diseases. Adhesion molecules on endothelial cells are induced by proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and contribute to the recruitment of leukocytes. In the present study, we investigated the effect of hot water extract of Curcuma longa (WEC) on the protein expression of adhesion molecules, monocyte adhesion induced by TNF-α in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). Treatment of HUVECs with WEC significantly suppressed both TNF-α-induced protein expression of adhesion molecules and monocyte adhesion. WEC also suppressed phosphorylation and degradation of nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha (IκBα) induced by TNF-α in HUVECs, suggesting that WEC inhibits the NF-κB signaling pathway.

  7. Hot air balloon engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmonds, Ian [Solartran Pty Ltd, 12 Lentara Street, Kenmore, Brisbane 4069 (Australia)

    2009-04-15

    This paper describes a solar powered reciprocating engine based on the use of a tethered hot air balloon fuelled by hot air from a glazed collector. The basic theory of the balloon engine is derived and used to predict the performance of engines in the 10 kW to 1 MW range. The engine can operate over several thousand metres altitude with thermal efficiencies higher than 5%. The engine thermal efficiency compares favorably with the efficiency of other engines, such as solar updraft towers, that also utilize the atmospheric temperature gradient but are limited by technical constraints to operate over a much lower altitude range. The increased efficiency allows the use of smaller area glazed collectors. Preliminary cost estimates suggest a lower $/W installation cost than equivalent power output tower engines. (author)

  8. Adenosinergic Immunosuppression by Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Requires Co-Operation with T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkelä, Erja; Laitinen, Anita; Räbinä, Jarkko; Valkonen, Sami; Takatalo, Maarit; Larjo, Antti; Veijola, Johanna; Lampinen, Milla; Siljander, Pia; Lehenkari, Petri; Alfthan, Kaija; Laitinen, Saara

    2016-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have the capacity to counteract excessive inflammatory responses. MSCs possess a range of immunomodulatory mechanisms, which can be deployed in response to signals in a particular environment and in concert with other immune cells. One immunosuppressive mechanism, not so well-known in MSCs, is mediated via adenosinergic pathway by ectonucleotidases CD73 and CD39. In this study, we demonstrate that adenosine is actively produced from adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) by CD73 on MSCs and MSC-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs). Our results indicate that although MSCs express CD39 at low level and it colocalizes with CD73 in bulge areas of membranes, the most efficient adenosine production from adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) requires co-operation of MSCs and activated T cells. Highly CD39 expressing activated T cells produce AMP from ATP and MSCs produce adenosine from AMP via CD73 activity. Furthermore, adenosinergic signaling plays a role in suppression of T cell proliferation in vitro. In conclusion, this study shows that adenosinergic signaling is an important immunoregulatory mechanism of MSCs, especially in situations where ATP is present in the extracellular environment, like in tissue injury. An efficient production of immunosuppressive adenosine is dependent on the concerted action of CD39-positive immune cells with CD73-positive cells such as MSCs or their EVs. © 2016 AlphaMed Press.

  9. LASER ABLATION-INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA-ATOMIC EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY STUDY AT THE 222-S LABORATORY USING HOT-CELL GLOVE BOX PROTOTYPE SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockrem, L.L.; Owens, J.W.; Seidel, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the installation, testing and acceptance of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant procured laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (LA-ICP-AES) system for remotely analyzing high-level waste samples in a hot cell environment. The 2005-003; ATS MP 1027, Management Plan for Waste Treatment Plant Project Work Performed by Analytical Technical Services. The APD group at the 222-S laboratory demonstrated acceptable turnaround time (TAT) and provide sufficient data to assess sensitivity, accuracy, and precision of the LA-ICP-AES method

  10. LASER ABLATION-INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA-ATOMIC EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY STUDY AT THE 222-S LABORATORY USING HOT-CELL GLOVE BOX PROTOTYPE SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, C.M.; Jain, J.; Owens, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the installation, testing, and acceptance of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) procured laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (LA-ICP-AES) system for remotely analyzing high-level waste (HLW) samples in a hot cell environment. The work was completed by the Analytical Process Development (APD) group in accordance with Task Order 2005-003; ATS MP 1027, Management Plan for Waste Treatment Plant Project Work Performed by Analytical Technical Services. The APD group at the 222-S Laboratory demonstrated acceptable turnaround time (TAT) and provide sufficient data to assess sensitivity, accuracy, and precision of the LA-ICP-AES method

  11. Potential ability of hot water adzuki (Vigna angularis) extracts to inhibit the adhesion, invasion, and metastasis of murine B16 melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Tomohiro; Umekawa, Hayato; Furuichi, Yukio

    2005-03-01

    The 40% ethanol eluent of the fraction of hot-water extract from adzuki beans (EtEx.40) adsorbed onto DIAION HP-20 resin has many biological activities, for example, antioxidant, antitumorigenesis, and intestinal alpha-glucosidase suppressing activities. This study examined the inhibitory effect of EtEx.40 on experimental lung metastasis and the invasion of B16-BL6 melanoma cells. EtEx.40 was found significantly to reduce the number of tumor colonies. It also inhibited the adhesion and migration of B16-BL6 melanoma cells into extracellular matrix components and their invasion into reconstituted basement membrane (matrigel) without affecting cell proliferation in vitro. These in vivo data suggest that EtEx.40 possesses a strong antimetastatic ability, which might be a lead compound in functional food development.

  12. Electrolytes for Wide Operating Temperature Lithium-Ion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Provided herein are electrolytes for lithium-ion electrochemical cells, electrochemical cells employing the electrolytes, methods of making the electrochemical cells and methods of using the electrochemical cells over a wide temperature range. Included are electrolyte compositions comprising a lithium salt, a cyclic carbonate, a non-cyclic carbonate, and a linear ester and optionally comprising one or more additives.

  13. Hot food and beverage consumption and the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: A case-control study in a northwest area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Wei-Ping; Nie, Guo-Ji; Chen, Meng-Jie; Yaz, Tajigul Yiminni; Guli, Arzi; Wuxur, Arzigul; Huang, Qing-Qing; Lin, Zhi-Gang; Wu, Jing

    2017-12-01

    This study was trying to investigate the association of hot food and beverage consumption and the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Hotan, a northwest area of China with high risk of esophageal squmous cell carcinoma. A population-based case-control study was designed. For the study, 167 patients diagnosed with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma were selected from Hotan during 2014 to 2015, and 167 community-based controls were selected from the same area, matched with age and sex. Information involved of temperature of food and beverage intake was obtained by face-to-face interview. Logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the association between temperature of food and beverage intake and the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. The temperature of the food and beverage consumed by the esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients was significantly higher than the controls. High temperature of tea, water, and food intake significantly increased the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma by more than 2-fold, with adjusted odds ratio 2.23 (1.45-2.90), 2.13 (1.53-2.66), and 2.98 (1.89-4.12). Intake of food and beverage with high temperature was positively associated with the incidence of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Northwestern China. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Based Upon Colloidal Deposition of Thin Films for Lower Temperature Operation (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reitz, T. L; Xiao, H

    2006-01-01

    In order to reduce the operating temperature of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), anode-supported cells incorporating thin film electrolytes in conjunction with anode/electrolyte and cathode/electrolyte interlayers were studied...

  15. Low stoichiometry operation of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell employing the interdigitated flow field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berning, Torsten; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2012-01-01

    A multiphase fuel cell model based on computational fluid dynamics is used to investigate the possibility of operating a proton exchange membrane fuel cell at low stoichiometric flow ratios (ξ gases. A case study...

  16. Test results and operational characteristics of prototype SSCL half cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McInturff, A.D.; Burgett, W.; Carter, H.

    1994-01-01

    The SSCL Accelerator System's String Test (ASST) has had several cool down, subsequent operational test series, and warm up cycles. The first cycle of these was rather limited in scope as mandated by Congress. The subsequent tests have been performed to obtain more complete information about parameters of, or operating experience with, the ensemble of magnets and spools when operating serially as in accelerator operations. The tests and procedures performed to date have emphasized cryogenic, mechanical, and electrical operations. These have included running, as well as upset conditions, i.e., superconducting to normal transition of the string (quench). This paper represents a summary of the operational test results and characteristics seen to date. A limited discussion will be included as to their implications with respect to a successful accelerator operation

  17. Radioactive Mapping Contaminant of Alpha on The Air in Space of Repair of Hot Cell and Medium Radioactivity Laboratory in Radio metallurgy Installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusuf-Nampira; Endang-Sukesi; S-Wahyuningsih; R-Budi-Santoso

    2007-01-01

    Hot cell and space of acid laboratory medium activity in Radio metallurgy Installation are used for the examination preparation of fuel nuclear post irradiation. The sample examined is dangerous radioactive material representing which can disseminate passing air stream. The dangerous material spreading can be pursued by arranging air stream from laboratory space to examination space. To know the performance the air stream arrangement is hence conducted by radioactive mapping contaminant of alpha in laboratory / space of activity place, for example, medium activity laboratory and repair space. This mapping radioactivity contaminant is executed with the measurement level of the radioactivity from sample air taken at various height with the distance of 1 m, various distance and from potential source as contaminant spreading access. The mapping result indicate that a little spreading of radioactive material happened from acid cupboard locker to laboratory activity up to distance of 3 m from acid cupboard locker and spreading of radioactive contaminant from goods access door of the hot cell 104 to repair space reach the distance of 2 m from goods door access. Level of the radioactive contamination in the space was far under maximum limitation allowed (20 Bq / m 3 ). (author)

  18. Development of a new miniature short-residence-time annular centrifugal solvent extraction contactor for tests of process flowsheets in hot cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanoe, J.Y.; Rivalier, P.

    2000-01-01

    Researches undertaken on new nuclear fuel reprocessing extraction processes need tests of process flowsheets in hot cells. To this goal, a new miniature short residence-time annular centrifugal solvent extraction contactor was conceived and developed at Marcoule. This single stage contactor is composed of an outer stationary cylinder (made of transparent plexiglas on prototype and of stainless steel on models for hot cells) and a suspended inner rotating cylinder of stainless steel; the inside diameter of the rotor is 12 mm. Aqueous and organic phases are fed into the gap between the two cylinders. The mixture flows down the annular space and then up through an orifice at the bottom of the rotor. Into the rotor, the emulsion breaks rapidly under the centrifugal force (up to 600 g with rotor speed of 10,000 rpm). The separated phases flow over their weirs and discharge at the top in their collector rings. The liquid hold-up of this centrifugal contactor is approximately 6 mL. The use in hots cells needed original designs for: - the assembly of a single-stage contactor: every part (motor, rotor, stationary housing) is simply inserted on the other one without screws and nuts; - the assembly of multistage group: every stage is stacking in two rails and an intermediate part (supported on the two rails) links exit ports and their corresponding inlet ports. All the parts are pressed and sealed against a terminal plate with a screw. Separating capacity tests with. a prototype were conducted using water as the aqueous phase and hydrogenated tetra-propylene (TPH) as the organic phase with aqueous to organic (A/O) flow ratio equal to 1. The best performances were obtained with rotor speed ranging from 4000 to 5000 rpm; the total throughput was then up to 2 L.h -1 . For a total throughput of 300 mL.h -1 , the hold-up in the annular mixing zone varied from 0.5 to 1.5 mL according to the A/O ratio and the starting mode. A number of tests were also performed to measure the

  19. Recent trend of administration on hot springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okubo, Shigeru [Environment Agency, Tokyo (Japan)

    1989-01-01

    The Environmental Agency exercises jurisdiction over Hot Spring Act, and plans to protect the source of the hot spring and to utilize it appropriately. From the aspect of utilization, hot springs are widely used as a means to remedy chronic diseases and tourist spots besides places for recuperation and repose. Statistics on Japanese hot springs showed that the number of hot spring spots and utilized-fountainhead increased in 1987, compared with the number in 1986. Considering the utilized-headspring, the number of naturally well-out springs has stabilized for 10 years while power-operated springs have increased. This is because the demand of hot springs has grown as the number of users has increased. Another reason is to keep the amount of hot water by setting up the power facility as the welled-out amount has decreased. Major point of recent administration on the hot spring is to permit excavation and utilization of hot springs. Designation of National hot spring health resorts started in 1954 in order to ensure the effective and original use of hot springs and to promote the public use of them, for the purpose of arranging the sound circumstances of hot springs. By 1988, 76 places were designated. 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Radiation shielding design for a hot repair facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtney, J.C.; Dwight, C.C.

    1991-01-01

    A new repair and decontamination area is being built to support operations at the demonstration fuel cycle facility for the Integral Fast Reactor program at Argonne National Laboratory's site at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Provisions are made for remote, glove wall, and contact maintenance on equipment removed from hot cells where spent fuel will be electrochemically processed and recycled to the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II. The source for the shielding design is contamination from a mix of fission and activation products present on items removed from the hot cells. The repair facility also serves as a transfer path for radioactive waste produced by processing operations. Radiation shields are designed to limit dose rates to no more than 5 microSv h-1 (0.5 mrem h-1) in normally occupied areas. Point kernel calculations with buildup factors have been used to design the shielding and to position radiation monitors within the area

  1. Single and multijunction silicon based thin film solar cells on a flexible substrate with absorber layers made by hot-wire CVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongbo

    2007-09-01

    With the worldwide growing concern about reliable energy supply and the environmental problems of fossil and nuclear energy production, the need for clean and sustainable energy sources is evident. Solar energy conversion, such as in photovoltaic systems, can play a major role in the urgently needed energy transition in electricity production. Solar cells based on thin film silicon and its alloys are a promising candidate that is capable of fulfilling the fast increasing demand of a reliable solar cell supply. The conventional method to deposit silicon thin films is based on plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) techniques, which have the disadvantage of increasing film inhomogeneity at a high deposition rate when scaling up for the industrial production. In this thesis, we study the possibility of making high efficiency single and multijunction thin film silicon solar cells with the so-called hot-wire CVD technique, in which no strong electromagnetic field is involved in the deposition. Therefore, the up-scaling for industrial production is straightforward. We report and discuss our findings on the correlation of substrate surface rms roughness and the main output parameter of a solar cell, the open circuit voltage Voc of c-Si:H n i p cells. By considering all the possible reasons that could influence the Voc of such cells, we conclude that the near linear correlation of Voc and substrate surface rms roughness is the result the two most probable reasons: the unintentional doping through the cracks originated near the valleys of the substrate surface due to the in-diffusion of impurities, and the high density electrical defects formed by the collision of columnar silicon structures. Both of them relate to the morphology of substrate surface. Therefore, to have the best cell performance on a rough substrate surface, a good control on the substrate surface morphology is necessary. Another issue influencing the performance of c-Si:H solar cells is the

  2. Hot demonstration of proposed commercial nuclide removal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.

    1996-01-01

    This task covers the development and operation of an experimental test unit located in a Building 4501 hot cell within Building 4501 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This equipment is designed to test radionuclides removal technologies under continuous operatoin on actual ORNL Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) supernatant, Savannah River high-level waste supernatant, and Hanford supernatant. The latter two may be simulated by adding the appropriate chemicals and/or nuclides to the MVST supernatant

  3. Trial operation of a phosphoric acid fuel cell (PC25) for CHP applications in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhrig, M.; Droste, W.; Wolf, D. [Ruhrgas AG, Dorsten (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    In Europe, ten 200 kW phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs) produced by ONSI (PC25) are currently in operation. Their operators collaborate closely in the European Fuel Cell Users Group (EFCUG). The experience gained from trial operation by the four German operators - HEAG, HGW/HEW, Thyssengas and Ruhrgas - coincides with that of the other European operators. This experience can generally be regarded as favourable. With a view to using fuel cells in combined heat and power generation (CHP), the project described in this report, which was carried out in cooperation with the municipal utility of Bochum and Gasunie of the Netherlands, aimed at gaining experience with the PC 25 in field operation under the specific operating conditions prevailing in Europe. The work packages included heat-controlled operation, examination of plant behavior with varying gas properties and measurement of emissions under dynamic load conditions. The project received EU funding under the JOULE programme.

  4. Cell saver for on-pump coronary operations reduces systemic inflammatory markers: a randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Sune; Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Andersen, Lars Willy

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether intraoperative use of a cell saver reduces the systemic inflammatory response after coronary operations using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB).......This study investigated whether intraoperative use of a cell saver reduces the systemic inflammatory response after coronary operations using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB)....

  5. Low-temperature fuel cells operating with contaminated feedstock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wingelaar, P.J.H.

    2007-01-01

    This work concerns the analysis and modeling of the dynamic and static behavior of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC). Three fundamentally different measurement methods are used to determine the static, the large-signal, and the small-signal dynamic behavior of a fuel cell system. By

  6. Solar Hot Water Heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The solar panels pictured below, mounted on a Moscow, Idaho home, are part of a domestic hot water heating system capable of providing up to 100 percent of home or small business hot water needs. Produced by Lennox Industries Inc., Marshalltown, Iowa, the panels are commercial versions of a collector co-developed by NASA. In an effort to conserve energy, NASA has installed solar collectors at a number of its own facilities and is conducting research to develop the most efficient systems. Lewis Research Center teamed with Honeywell Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota to develop the flat plate collector shown. Key to the collector's efficiency is black chrome coating on the plate developed for use on spacecraft solar cells, the coating prevents sun heat from "reradiating," or escaping outward. The design proved the most effective heat absorber among 23 different types of collectors evaluated in a Lewis test program. The Lennox solar domestic hot water heating system has three main components: the array of collectors, a "solar module" (blue unit pictured) and a conventional water heater. A fluid-ethylene glycol and water-is circulated through the collectors to absorb solar heat. The fluid is then piped to a double-walled jacket around a water tank within the solar module.

  7. 40 CFR 68.85 - Hot work permit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Program 3 Prevention Program § 68.85 Hot work permit. (a) The owner or operator shall issue a hot work permit for hot work operations conducted on or near a covered process. (b...

  8. Identification of the hot-spot areas for sickle cell disease using cord blood screening at a district hospital: an Indian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Sujata; Sahu, Pushpansu; Kar, Shantanu Kumar; Negi, Sapna

    2015-10-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD), a genetic disorder often reported late, can be identified early in life, and hot-spot areas may be identified to conduct genetic epidemiology studies. This study was undertaken to estimate prevalence and to identify hot spot area for SCD in Kalahandi district, by screening cord blood of neonates delivered at the district hospital as first-hand information. Kalahandi District Hospital selected for the study is predominated by tribal population with higher prevalence of SCD as compared to other parts of Odisha. Cord blood screening of SCD was carried out on 761 newborn samples of which 13 were screened to be homozygous for SCD. Information on area of parent's residence was also collected. Madanpur Rampur area was found to be with the highest prevalence of SCD (10.52 %) and the gene distribution did not follow Hardy-Weinberg Equation indicating un-natural selection. The approach of conducting neonatal screening in a district hospital for identification of SCD is feasible and appropriate for prioritizing area for the implementation of large-scale screening and planning control measures thereof.

  9. The performance of silicon solar cells operated in liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yiping; Fang Zhenlei; Zhu Li; Huang Qunwu; Zhang Yan; Zhang Zhiying

    2009-01-01

    Better performance can be achieved when the bare silicon solar cells are immersed into liquids for the enhanced heat removing. In this study, the performance of solar cells immersed in liquids was examined under simulated sunlight. To distinguish the effects of the liquid optic and electric properties on the solar cells, a comparison between immersion of the solar module and the bare solar cells was carried out. It was found that the optic properties of the liquids can cause minor efficiency changes on the solar cells, while the electric properties of the liquids, the molecular polarizable and ions, are responsible for the most of the changes. The bare solar cells immersed in the non-polar silicon oil have the best performance. The accelerated life tests were carried out at 150 deg. C high temperature and under 200 W/m 2 ultraviolet light irradiation, respectively. It was found that the silicon oil has good stability. This study can give support on the cooling of the concentrated photovoltaic systems by immersing the solar cells in the liquids directly

  10. Establishment and operation of a photovoltaic cell test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearsall, N.M.; Forbes, I.

    1999-07-01

    This report describes the setting up of a test facility at the University of Northumbria. Details of the equipment specification and procurement are given, and the commissioning and initial operation of the facility, and the measurement procedures for I-V characteristics, spectral response measurements, optical scanning and test charges are outlined. The business plan for the test facility is discussed, and operating experience is reviewed in terms of publicity, services provided, and collaboration.

  11. High Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells with Long Operating Lifetimes

    KAUST Repository

    Peters, Craig H.; Sachs-Quintana, I. T.; Kastrop, John P.; Beaupré , Serge; Leclerc, Mario; McGehee, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Organic bulk-heterojunction solar cells comprising poly[N-9'-hepta-decanyl- 2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2', 1',3'-benzothiadiazole) (PCDTBT) are systematically aged and demonstrate lifetimes approaching seven years, which is the longest reported lifetime for polymer solar cells. An experimental set-up is described that is capable of testing large numbers of solar cells, holding each device at its maximum power point while controlling and monitoring the temperature and light intensity. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Characterising of solid state electrochemical cells under operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtappels, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Compared to significant progress in PEMFC especially regarding the utilization of complex fuels such as methanol significant progress has been made by applying spectroscopic / differential IR and spectrometric techniques to working fuel cells, the processes in solid state high temperature...... electrochemical cells are still a "black box". In order to identify local reaction sites, surface coverage and potential/current introduced materials and surface modifications, in situ techniques are needed to gain a better understanding of the elementary and performance limiting steps for these cells...

  13. High Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells with Long Operating Lifetimes

    KAUST Repository

    Peters, Craig H.

    2011-04-20

    Organic bulk-heterojunction solar cells comprising poly[N-9\\'-hepta-decanyl- 2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4\\',7\\'-di-2-thienyl-2\\', 1\\',3\\'-benzothiadiazole) (PCDTBT) are systematically aged and demonstrate lifetimes approaching seven years, which is the longest reported lifetime for polymer solar cells. An experimental set-up is described that is capable of testing large numbers of solar cells, holding each device at its maximum power point while controlling and monitoring the temperature and light intensity. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Low-noise Collision Operators for Particle-in-cell Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowski, J.L.V.

    2005-01-01

    A new method to implement low-noise collision operators in particle-in-cell simulations is presented. The method is based on the fact that relevant collision operators can be included naturally in the Lagrangian formulation that exemplifies the particle-in-cell simulation method. Numerical simulations show that the momentum and energy conservation properties of the simulated plasma associated with the low-noise collision operator are improved as compared with standard collision algorithms based on random numbers

  15. Effects of hot airflow during spin-coating process on CH3NH3PbI3-xClx perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroki; Ohishi, Yuya; Oku, Takeo

    2018-01-01

    CH3NH3PbI3-xClx photovoltaic devices were fabricated, and the effects of hot airflow during spin-coating were investigated. Cubic perovskite crystals that is a high temperature phase were obtained by the hot airflow method. The conversion efficiencies of the devices prepared by the hot airflow were remained even after 56 days.

  16. Development of a Small Punch Test Technique for an Evaluation of the Mechanical Properties of Irradiated Materials in a Hot Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Do-Sik; Ahn, Sang-Bok; Yoo, Byung-Ok; Choo, Yong-Sun; Hong, Kwon-Pyo

    2006-01-01

    Miniaturized specimens have been widely used to evaluate the mechanical properties of steels and plastics. Especially for a study on the irradiation effects in nuclear materials, the small specimen test techniques have attracted considerable attention. Therefore, it is essential that the test techniques be developed and verified to extract the mechanical properties information from small specimens. Among the test techniques using small specimens, the small punch (SP) test technique using small disc-sized specimen has been successfully used to estimate the tensile properties (yield strength and ultimate tensile strength), DBTT (ductile-brittle transition temperature), fracture toughness and creep properties of metals irradiated in a reactor or a proton accelerator. In this paper, the existing SP test techniques are reviewed and summarized. In addition, the information on the development of the SP test procedure is obtained to evaluate the radiation effects on the mechanical properties of nuclear materials in a hot cell

  17. Design considerations for teleoperation systems operating in gas-tight argon cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungnam Yu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the nuclear industry, mechanical engineers spend a significant portion of their time designing equipment such as manipulators, bogies, mechanical grippers, and so on. Some customized designs can be considered as standard mechanical equipment in this area, although it is not unusual to find that an existing design cannot simply be copied from one project to another. Varied performance requirements can dictate that redesign, often quite extensive redesign, is required. However, if something similar has been done before, engineers could use that as a starting point for the new project. In this regard, this study presents several guidelines inspired by previous design knowledge for similar development cases. Moreover, this study presents more detailed suggestions such as design guidelines for an argon-based hot cell atmosphere and design experience for a large-scale practical hot cell facility. Design considerations and case studies dealt with in this study are dedicated to teleoperation manipulators that are used at a large-scale argon cell facility for pyroprocess integrated inactive demonstration (PRIDE, at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. In particular, for case studies to support the suggested recommendations, a fabricated telemanipulator system for PRIDE is introduced, and several kinds of experimental results associated with it are presented.

  18. Basics of Solar Heating & Hot Water Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC.

    In presenting the basics of solar heating and hot water systems, this publication is organized from the general to the specific. It begins by presenting functional and operational descriptions of solar heating and domestic hot water systems, outlining the basic concepts and terminology. This is followed by a description of solar energy utilization…

  19. Cell Phone Calls in the Operating Theater and Staff Distractions: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avidan, Alexander; Yacobi, Galel; Weissman, Charles; Levin, Phillip D

    2017-01-09

    Cell phones are the primary communication tool in our institution. There are no restrictions on their use in the operating rooms. The goal of this study was to evaluate the extent of cell phone use in the operating rooms during elective surgery and to evaluate whether they cause staff distractions. The following data on cell phone use were recorded anonymously: number of incoming and outgoing cell phone calls, duration of cell phone calls and their content (patient related, work related, private), who was distracted by the cell phone calls, and duration of distractions. We made observations during 52 surgeries. There were 205 cell phone calls, 197 (96.1%; median, 3 per surgery; interquartile range, 2-5) incoming and 8 (3.9%) outgoing. Incoming calls were answered on 110 (55.8%) of 197 (median, 2; interquartile range, 1-3) occasions. The mean duration of incoming calls (64 ± 40 seconds) was shorter than those of the outgoing calls (137 ± 242 seconds, P cell phone calls in the operating rooms during elective surgery was lower than expected and caused short-lived distractions mainly to the operating surgeons. We recommend that operating surgeons turn off their cell phones before surgery.

  20. Employing Hot Wire Anemometry to Directly Measure the Water Balance of a Commercial Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Stack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shakhshir, Saher Al; Berning, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC’s) are currently being commercialized for various applications ranging from automotive (e.g. the Toyota Mirai) to stationary such as powering telecom backup units. In PEMFC’s, oxygen from air is internally combined with hydrogen to form water and produce...... and increased degradation rates. Clearly, a fundamental understanding of all aspects of water management in PEMFC is imperative. This includes the fuel cell water balance, i.e. which fraction of the product water leaves the fuel cell via the anode channels versus the cathode channel. Our research group...... signal received gives valuable insight into heat and mass transfer phenomena in a PEMFC....

  1. Solar 'hot spots' are still hot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Taeil

    1990-01-01

    Longitude distributions of solar flares are not random but show evidence for active zones (or hot spots) where flares are concentrated. According to a previous study, two hot spots in the northern hemisphere, which rotate with a synodic period of about 26.72 days, produced the majority of major flares, during solar cycles 20 and 21. The more prominent of these two hot spots is found to be still active during the rising part of cycle 22, producing the majority of northern hemisphere major flares. The synodic rotation period of this hot spot is 26.727 + or - 0.007 days. There is also evidence for hot spots in the southern hemisphere. Two hot spots separated by 180 deg are found to rotate with a period of 29.407 days, with one of them having persisted in the same locations during cycles 19-22 and the other, during cycles 20-22.

  2. Solar hot spots are still hot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, T.

    1990-01-01

    Longitude distributions of solar flares are not random but show evidence for active zones (or hot spots) where flares are concentrated. According to a previous study, two hot spots in the northern hemisphere, which rotate with a synodic period of about 26.72 days, produced the majority of major flares, during solar cycles 20 and 21. The more prominent of these two hot spots is found to be still active during the rising part of cycle 22, producing the majority of northern hemisphere major flares. The synodic rotation period of this hot spot is 26.727 + or - 0.007 days. There is also evidence for hot spots in the southern hemisphere. Two hot spots separated by 180 deg are found to rotate with a period of 29.407 days, with one of them having persisted in the same locations during cycles 19-22 and the other, during cycles 20-22. 14 refs

  3. Hürthle cell tumor dwelling in hot thyroid nodules: preoperative detection with technetium-99m-MIBI dual-phase scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vattimo, A; Bertelli, P; Cintorino, M; Burroni, L; Volterrani, D; Vella, A; Lazzi, S

    1998-05-01

    Single injection dual-phase scintigraphy (early and late acquisitions) with 99mTc-MIBI was used to differentiate benign and malignant hot thyroid nodules. Thirteen euthyroid and two hyperthyroid patients displaying a hot thyroid nodule on the 99mTc scan due to an autonomously functioning thyroid nodule (AFTN) underwent early (15-30 min) and late (3-4 hr) thyroid scintigraphy after the administration of 740-1000 MBq 99mTc-MIBI. Visual scoring was done to assess nodular tracer uptake and retention. In addition, the nodular-to-thyroid (N/T) uptake ratio in the early and late image and the washout rates (WO) from the nodule and thyroidal tissue were measured. All patients underwent thyroid surgery. Histopathology revealed a Hürthle cell tumor in three nodules, a benign adenoma with oxyphilic metaplasia in two nodules and a benign adenoma without oxyphilic cells in the remaining 10 nodules. The Hürthle cell tumor nodules displayed intense and persistent uptake of 99mTc-MIBI (N/T was 2.81 +/- 0.52 and 5.53 +/- 1.06 in early and late images, respectively; WO from the nodule was 12.33 +/- 0.47, WO from the thyroidal tissue was 22.00 +/- 3.56). The benign nodules showed intense uptake in the early image and intense uptake to absent retention in the late image (N/T was 2.94 +/- 1.31 and 1.62 +/- 0.50 in the early and late images, respectively; WO from the nodule was 20.25 +/- 2.92, WO from the thyroidal tissue was 20.33 +/- 2.92). Single injection dual-phase 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy of the thyroid with AFTN can identify nodules as a result of the activity of a Hürthle cell tumor, since these tumors cause intense and persistent tracer uptake in contrast with a benign AFTN.

  4. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Operating on Alternative and Renewable Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaoxing; Quan, Wenying; Xiao, Jing; Peduzzi, Emanuela; Fujii, Mamoru; Sun, Funxia; Shalaby, Cigdem; Li, Yan; Xie, Chao; Ma, Xiaoliang; Johnson, David; Lee, Jeong; Fedkin, Mark; LaBarbera, Mark; Das, Debanjan; Thompson, David; Lvov, Serguei; Song, Chunshan

    2014-09-30

    This DOE project at the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) initially involved Siemens Energy, Inc. to (1) develop new fuel processing approaches for using selected alternative and renewable fuels – anaerobic digester gas (ADG) and commercial diesel fuel (with 15 ppm sulfur) – in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power generation systems; and (2) conduct integrated fuel processor – SOFC system tests to evaluate the performance of the fuel processors and overall systems. Siemens Energy Inc. was to provide SOFC system to Penn State for testing. The Siemens work was carried out at Siemens Energy Inc. in Pittsburgh, PA. The unexpected restructuring in Siemens organization, however, led to the elimination of the Siemens Stationary Fuel Cell Division within the company. Unfortunately, this led to the Siemens subcontract with Penn State ending on September 23rd, 2010. SOFC system was never delivered to Penn State. With the assistance of NETL project manager, the Penn State team has since developed a collaborative research with Delphi as the new subcontractor and this work involved the testing of a stack of planar solid oxide fuel cells from Delphi.

  5. Safety standards, legislation and codes of practice for fuel cell manufacture and operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, C.P.

    1999-07-01

    This report examines safety standards, legislation and codes of practice for fuel cell manufacture and operation in the UK, Europe and internationally. Management of health and safety in the UK is discussed, and the characteristics of phosphoric acid (PAFC), proton exchange membrane (PEM), molten carbonate (MCFC), solid oxide (SOFC) fuel cells are described. Fuel cell power plant standards and manufacture in the UK, design and operational considerations, end of life disposal, automotive fuel cell system, and fuelling and vehicular concerns are explored, and standards, legislation and codes of practice are explained in the appendix.

  6. Modeling and operation optimization of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell system for maximum efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, In-Su; Park, Sang-Kyun; Chung, Chang-Bock

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A proton exchange membrane fuel cell system is operationally optimized. • A constrained optimization problem is formulated to maximize fuel cell efficiency. • Empirical and semi-empirical models for most system components are developed. • Sensitivity analysis is performed to elucidate the effects of major operating variables. • The optimization results are verified by comparison with actual operation data. - Abstract: This paper presents an operation optimization method and demonstrates its application to a proton exchange membrane fuel cell system. A constrained optimization problem was formulated to maximize the efficiency of a fuel cell system by incorporating practical models derived from actual operations of the system. Empirical and semi-empirical models for most of the system components were developed based on artificial neural networks and semi-empirical equations. Prior to system optimizations, the developed models were validated by comparing simulation results with the measured ones. Moreover, sensitivity analyses were performed to elucidate the effects of major operating variables on the system efficiency under practical operating constraints. Then, the optimal operating conditions were sought at various system power loads. The optimization results revealed that the efficiency gaps between the worst and best operation conditions of the system could reach 1.2–5.5% depending on the power output range. To verify the optimization results, the optimal operating conditions were applied to the fuel cell system, and the measured results were compared with the expected optimal values. The discrepancies between the measured and expected values were found to be trivial, indicating that the proposed operation optimization method was quite successful for a substantial increase in the efficiency of the fuel cell system.

  7. Allograft cytotoxicity co-operation between alloimmune T cells and macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.; Jones, T.C.

    1978-01-01

    T cells from the spleens of C57BL 10 (H-2sup(b)) mice 7 to 12 days after immunization with P815Y (H-2sup(d)) mastocytoma cells have been shown to co-operate synergistically with an adherent component of non-immune starch induced peritoneal cells in the cytostasis of target cells. Although significant values for synergy could be obtained using the ( 125 I) UdR incorporation assay to measure cytostasis, normal peritoneal cells were incapable of co-operating with T cells in cytolysis as measured by 51 Cr release from pre-labelled target cells. Initially, the synergistic interaction was immunologically specific, but non-specific activity could be induced by challenge with specific antigen. (author)

  8. What is going on between defibrotide and endothelial cells? Snapshots reveal the hot spots of their romance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo, Marta; Mir, Enrique; Rovira, Montse; Escolar, Ginés; Carreras, Enric; Diaz-Ricart, Maribel

    2016-03-31

    Defibrotide (DF) has received European Medicines Agency authorization to treat sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, an early complication after hematopoietic cell transplantation. DF has a recognized role as an endothelial protective agent, although its precise mechanism of action remains to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the interaction of DF with endothelial cells (ECs). A human hepatic EC line was exposed to different DF concentrations, previously labeled. Using inhibitory assays and flow cytometry techniques along with confocal microscopy, we explored: DF-EC interaction, endocytic pathways, and internalization kinetics. Moreover, we evaluated the potential role of adenosine receptors in DF-EC interaction and if DF effects on endothelium were dependent of its internalization. Confocal microscopy showed interaction of DF with EC membranes followed by internalization, though DF did not reach the cell nucleus even after 24 hours. Flow cytometry revealed concentration, temperature, and time dependent uptake of DF in 2 EC models but not in other cell types. Moreover, inhibitory assays indicated that entrance of DF into ECs occurs primarily through macropinocytosis. Our experimental approach did not show any evidence of the involvement of adenosine receptors in DF-EC interaction. The antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties of DF seem to be caused by the interaction of the drug with the cell membrane. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the precise mechanisms of action of DF as a therapeutic and potential preventive agent on the endothelial damage underlying different pathologic situations. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  9. Fermi-degeneracy and discrete-ion effects in the spherical-cell model and electron-electron correlation effects in hot dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, H.; Nishihara, K.

    1992-01-01

    The spherical-cell model [F. Perrot, Phys. Rev. A 25, 489 (1982); M. W. C. Dharma-wardana and F. Perrot, ibid. 26, 2096 (1982)] is improved to investigate laser-produced hot, dense plasmas. The free-electron distribution function around a test free electron is calculated by using the Fermi integral in order that the free-electron--free-electron correlation function includes Fermi-degeneracy effects, and also that the calculation includes the discrete-ion effect. The free-electron--free-electron, free-electron--ion, and ion-ion correlation effects are coupled, within the framework of the hypernetted-chain approximation, through the Ornstein-Zernike relation. The effective ion-ion potential includes the effect of a spatial distribution of bound electrons. The interparticle correlation functions and the effective potential acting on either an electron or an ion in hot, dense plasmas are calculated numerically. The Fermi-degeneracy effect on the correlation functions between free electrons becomes clear for the degeneracy parameter θ approx-lt 1. The discrete-ion effect in the calculation of the correlation functions between free electrons affects the electron-ion pair distribution functions for r s approx-gt 3. As an application of the proposed model, the strong-coupling effect on the stopping power of charged particles [Xin-Zhong Yan, S. Tanaka, S. Mitake, and S. Ichimaru, Phys. Rev. A 32, 1785 (1985)] is estimated. While the free-electron--ion strong-coupling effect and the Fermi-degeneracy effect incorporated in the calculation of the free-electron distribution function around a test free electron enhance the stopping number, the quantum-diffraction effect incorporated in the quantal hypernetted-chain equations [J. Chihara, Prog. Theor. Phys. 72, 940 (1984); Phys. Rev. A 44, 1247 (1991); J. Phys. Condens. Matter 3, 8715 (1991)] reduces the stopping number substantially

  10. A Stem Cell-rescue Operation in a Nuclear Devastation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dear friends, The aftermath of one of the most devastating post earthquake- tsunamis in the history of mankind, the March 2011 post-earthquake-tsunami-hitnuclear accident in Fukushima, Japan, has brought to fore several questions throughout the world on the safety of nuclearinstallations. Such Calamities,which are far beyond our comprehension, has left all nations with such installations and those planning to expand their nuclear power plant programmes in a dilemma. However, the recent news that the Japanese authorities are considering to harvest and store bone marrow stem cells for transfusion to radiation-exposed workers has ushered in a new ray of hope. The hematopoietic stem cells will be harvested before exposure and in case of bone marrow depletion after radiation exposure; these cells can be immediately retrieved from storage and transfused to the radiation-exposed worker so that they have the potential to re-constitute the entire bone marrow in the patient. This will be a great life-saver and game-changer as bone marrow depletion is one of the major consequences of high levels of radiation exposure. This strategy can be prescribed as a routine procedure in all the countries with such nuclear installations, especially for workers at very high risk of radiation exposure. In future, such preventive strategies should be considered for implementation to not only the workers in the facility, but also the rescue team and the vulnerable population in the radiation zone.The regenerative potential of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC is the key factor to be considered now. This is high time that the studies on optimal in vitro expansion of HSCs and ways of successful engraftment of the transfused cells to a niche of radiation-exposed host environment should be attempted in all earnestness by the regenerative medicine community at present. Natural calamities like this help man to realise that the millions of scientific discoveries and inventions can

  11. Rapid establishment of the European Bank for induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (EBiSC - the Hot Start experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. De Sousa

    2017-04-01

    eTOC: The report focuses on the EBiSC experience of rapidly establishing an operational capacity to procure, bank and distribute a foundational collection of established hiPSC lines. It validates the feasibility and defines the challenges of harnessing and integrating the capability and productivity of centres across Europe using commonly available resources currently in the field.

  12. Process Optimization for High Efficiency Heterojunction c-Si Solar Cells Fabrication Using Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ai, Y.; Yuan, H. C.; Page, M.; Nemeth, W.; Roybal, L.; Wang, Q.

    2012-06-01

    The researchers extensively studied the effects of annealing or thermal history of cell process on the minority carrier lifetimes of FZ n-type c-Si wafers with various i-layer thicknesses from 5 to 60 nm, substrate temperatures from 100 to 350 degrees C, doped layers both p- and n-types, and transparent conducting oxide (TCO).

  13. Environmental and ventilation benefits for underground mining operations using fuel cell powered production equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocsis, C.; Hardcastle, S.

    2007-01-01

    The benefits of replacing diesel engines with fuel cells in mine production equipment were discussed. The paper was part of a multi-year feasibility study conducted to evaluate the use of hydrogen fuel cell-powered equipment to replace diesel engine powered equipment in underground mining operations. The feasibility study demonstrated that fuel cells are capable of eliminating the unwanted by-products of combustion engines. However, the use of fuel cells also reduced the amount of ventilation that mines needed to supply, thereby further reducing energy consumption. This study examined the benefits of replacing diesel engines with fuel cells, and discussed the mitigating qualifiers that may limit ventilation energy savings. Solutions to retaining and maintaining additional ventilation in the event of hydrogen leaks from fuel cell stacks were also investigated. The analyses were conducted on 6 operating mines. Current operating costs were compared with future operating conditions using fuel cell powered production vehicles. Operating costs of the primary ventilation system were established with a mine ventilation simulator. The analysis considered exhaust shaft velocities, heating system air velocities, and levels of silica exposure. Canadian mine design criteria were reviewed. It was concluded that appropriate safeguards are needed along hydrogen distribution lines to lower the impacts of hydrogen leaks. Large financial commitments may also be required to ensure a spark-free environment. 20 refs., 6 tabs., 3 figs

  14. Basic principles of STT-MRAM cell operation in memory arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khvalkovskiy, A V; Apalkov, D; Watts, S; Chepulskii, R; Beach, R S; Ong, A; Tang, X; Driskill-Smith, A; Lottis, D; Chen, E; Nikitin, V; Krounbi, M; Butler, W H; Visscher, P B

    2013-01-01

    For reliable operation, individual cells of an STT-MRAM memory array must meet specific requirements on their performance. In this work we review some of these requirements and discuss the fundamental physical principles of STT-MRAM operation, covering the range from device level to chip array performance, and methodology for its development. (paper)

  15. Experimental Investigations of the Energy and Environmental Indices of Operation of a Low-Capacity Combined Gas Producer and Hot-Water Boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, L. A.; Stepanov, D. V.; Dovgal‧, A. N.

    2015-07-01

    It has been shown that the introduction of combined gas producers and boilers on renewable energy sources is a pressing issue. A structural diagram of a low-capacity combined gas producer and boiler on renewable energy sources has been given; a bench and procedures for investigation and processing of results have been developed. Experimental investigations of the energy and environmental indices of a 40-kW combined gas producer and hotwater boiler burning wood have been carried out. Results of the experimental investigations have been analyzed. Distinctive features have been established and a procedure of thermal calculation of the double furnace of a lowcapacity combined gas producer and boiler burning solid fuel has been proposed. The calculated coefficients of heat transfer from the gases in the convection bank have been compared with the obtained experimental results. A calculation dependence for the heat transfer from the gases in convection banks of low-capacity hot-water boilers has been proposed. The quantities of harmful emissions from the combined gas producer and boiler on renewable energy sources have been compared with the existing Ukrainian and foreign standards. It has been established that the environmental efficiency of the boiler under study complies with most of the standard requirements of European countries.

  16. Residential solar hot water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-06-01

    This report examines the feasibility of using solar energy to preheat domestic water coming from the city supply at a temperature of approximately 4{degree}C. Four solar collectors totalling 7 m{sup 2} were installed on a support structure facing south at an angle of 60{degree} from the horizontal. The system worked most efficiently in the spring and early summer when the combination of long hours of sunshine, clean air and clear skies allowed for maximum availability of solar radiation. Performance dropped in late summer and fall mainly due to cloudier weather conditions. The average temperature in the storage tank over the 10 months of operation was 42{degree}C, ranging from a high of 83{degree}C in July to a low of 6{degree}C in November. The system provided a total of 7.1 GJ, which is approximately one-third the annual requirement for domestic hot water heating. At the present time domestic use of solar energy to heat water does not appear to be economically viable. High capital costs are the main problem. As a solar system with present day technology can only be expected to meet half to two-thirds of the hot water energy demand the savings are not sufficient for the system to pay for itself within a few years. 5 figs.

  17. Comparison of photovoltaic cell temperatures in modules operating with exposed and enclosed back surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkoong, D.; Simon, F. F.

    1981-01-01

    Four different photovoltaic module designs were tested to determine the cell temperature of each design. The cell temperatures were compared to those obtained on identical design, using the same nominal operating cell temperature (NOCT) concept. The results showed that the NOCT procedure does not apply to the enclosed configurations due to continuous transient conditions. The enclosed modules had higher cell temperatures than the open modules, and insulated modules higher than the uninsulated. The severest performance loss - when translated from cell temperatures - 17.5 % for one enclosed, insulated module as a compared to that module mounted openly.

  18. Is post-operative radiation for renal cell carcinoma justified?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aref, Ibrahim; Bociek, R. Gregory; Salhani, Douglas

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To identify the pattern of failure in patients with resected renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Materials and methods: The records of 116 patients with unilateral, non-hematogenous metastatic RCC who were treated with definitive surgery and referred to the Ottawa Regional Cancer Centre between 1977 and 1988 were reviewed. Distribution by stage included T1 (3 patients), T2 (42 patients) and T3 (71 patients). The median follow-up was 44 months, with a range of 4-267 months. Results: Local regional failure (LRF) developed in 8 patients. Nine patients developed local or regional recurrence, plus distant failure. Fifty-eight patients had distant metastases (DM) only. The 7-year actuarial rate for LRF and DM were 12%, and 67%, respectively. The overall 7-year actuarial survival rate was 35%, and cause-specific survival was 42%. Conclusions: LRF alone is rare following nephrectomy. DM is the main pattern of failure. This data does not support the role of adjuvant radiation therapy in this disease

  19. Installation package for a solar heating and hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Development and installation of two commercial solar heating and hot water systems are reported. The systems consist of the following subsystems: collector, storage, transport, hot water, auxiliary energy and controls. General guidelines are provided which may be utilized in development of detailed installation plans and specifications. In addition, operation, maintenance and repair of a solar heating and hot water system instructions are included.

  20. Hot tub folliculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... survives in hot tubs, especially tubs made of wood. Symptoms The first symptom of hot tub folliculitis ... may help prevent the problem. Images Hair follicle anatomy References D'Agata E. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other ...

  1. Performance Analysis of Air Breathing Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Stack (PEMFCS) At Different Operating Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunil, V.; Venkata siva, G.; Yoganjaneyulu, G.; Ravikumar, V. V.

    2017-08-01

    The answer for an emission free power source in future is in the form of fuel cells which combine hydrogen and oxygen producing electricity and a harmless by product-water. A proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is ideal for automotive applications. A single cell cannot supply the essential power for any application. Hence PEM fuel cell stacks are used. The effect of different operating parameters namely: type of convection, type of draught, hydrogen flow rate, hydrogen inlet pressure, ambient temperature and humidity, hydrogen humidity, cell orientation on the performance of air breathing PEM fuel cell stack was analyzed using a computerized fuel cell test station. Then, the fuel cell stack was subjected to different load conditions. It was found that the stack performs very poorly at full capacity (runs only for 30 min. but runs for 3 hours at 50% capacity). Hence, a detailed study was undertaken to maximize the duration of the stack’s performance at peak load.

  2. Optimal design and operation of solid oxide fuel cell systems for small-scale stationary applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Robert Joseph

    The advent of maturing fuel cell technologies presents an opportunity to achieve significant improvements in energy conversion efficiencies at many scales; thereby, simultaneously extending our finite resources and reducing "harmful" energy-related emissions to levels well below that of near-future regulatory standards. However, before realization of the advantages of fuel cells can take place, systems-level design issues regarding their application must be addressed. Using modeling and simulation, the present work offers optimal system design and operation strategies for stationary solid oxide fuel cell systems applied to single-family detached dwellings. A one-dimensional, steady-state finite-difference model of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is generated and verified against other mathematical SOFC models in the literature. Fuel cell system balance-of-plant components and costs are also modeled and used to provide an estimate of system capital and life cycle costs. The models are used to evaluate optimal cell-stack power output, the impact of cell operating and design parameters, fuel type, thermal energy recovery, system process design, and operating strategy on overall system energetic and economic performance. Optimal cell design voltage, fuel utilization, and operating temperature parameters are found using minimization of the life cycle costs. System design evaluations reveal that hydrogen-fueled SOFC systems demonstrate lower system efficiencies than methane-fueled systems. The use of recycled cell exhaust gases in process design in the stack periphery are found to produce the highest system electric and cogeneration efficiencies while achieving the lowest capital costs. Annual simulations reveal that efficiencies of 45% electric (LHV basis), 85% cogenerative, and simple economic paybacks of 5--8 years are feasible for 1--2 kW SOFC systems in residential-scale applications. Design guidelines that offer additional suggestions related to fuel cell

  3. Optimized Packing Density of Large CZTS Nanoparticles Synthesized by Hot-injection for Thin Film Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Sara Lena Josefin; Lam, Yeng Ming; Schou, Jørgen

    will be deposited through wet-chemical means, e.g. doctor-blading, spin-coating and spray-coating. The annealing time required can be minimized when starting with larger nanoparticles, and thus the elemental losses associated with annealing at higher temperature reduced. The films are characterized by TEM......, solution processing allows for comparatively fast and inexpensive fabrication, and also holds the record efficiency in the kesterite family. Unfortunately, the record cell is deposited with a highly toxic solvent, hydrazine. This toxic solvent can be avoided through the nanocrystal ink approach...

  4. Development of a control algorithm for teleoperation of DFDF(IMEF/M6 hot cell) maintenance equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Chae Youn; Kwon, Hyuk Jo; Kim, Hak Duck; Jun, Ji Myung; Oh, Hee Geun [Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    Teleoperation has been used for separating operators from the working environment. Thus, it is usually used to perform a work in an inaccessible place such as space, deep sea, etc. Also, it is used to perform a work in an accessible but a very poor working environment such as explosive, poison gas, radioactive area, etc. It is one of the advanced technology-intensive research areas. It has potentially big economical and industrial value. There is a tendency to avoid working in a difficult, dirty or dangerous place, particularly, in a high radioactive area since there always exist a possibility to be in a very dangerous situation. Thus, developing and utilizing of a teleoperation system will minimize the possibility to be exposed in such a extreme situation directly. Recently, there has been many researches on reflecting force information occurring in teleoperation to the operator in addition to visual information. The reflected force information is used to control the teleoperation system bilaterally. It will contribute a lot to improve teleoperation's safety and working efficiency. This study developed a bilateral force reflecting control algorithm. It may be used as a key technology of a teleoperation system for maintaining, repairing and dismantling facilities exposed in a high radioactive. 42 refs., 71 figs., 12 tabs. (Author)

  5. Microstructure characterisation of solid oxide electrolysis cells operated at high current density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowen, Jacob R.; Bentzen, Janet Jonna; Chen, Ming

    degradation of cell components in relation to the loss of electrochemical performance specific to the mode of operation. Thus descriptive microstructure characterization methods are required in combination with electrochemical characterization methods to decipher degradation mechanisms. In the present work......High temperature solid oxide cells can be operated either as fuel cells or electrolysis cells for efficient power generation or production of hydrogen from steam or synthesis gas (H2 + CO) from steam and CO2 respectively. When operated under harsh conditions, they often exhibit microstructural...... quantified using the mean linear intercept method as a function of current density and correlated to increases in serial resistance. The above structural changes are then compared in terms of electrode degradation observed during the co-electrolysis of steam and CO2 at current densities up to -1.5 A cm-2...

  6. Ionospheric hot spot at high latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schunk, R.W.; Sojka, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    A hot spot (or spots) can occur in the high-latitude ionosphere depending on the plasma convection pattern. The hot spot corresponds to a small magnetic local time-magnetic latitude region of elevated ion temperatures located near the dusk and/or dawn meridians. For asymmetric convection electric field patterns, with enhanced flow in either the dusk or dawn sector of the polar cap, a single hot spot should occur in association with the strong convection cell. However, on geomagnetically disturbed days, two strong convection cells can occur, and hence, two hot spots should exist. The hot spot should be detectable when the electric field in the strong convection cell exceeds about 40 mV m -1 . For electric fields of the order of 100 mV m -1 in the convection cell, the ion temperature in the hot spot is greatest at low altitudes, reaching 4000 0 K at 160 km, and decreases with altitude in the F-region. An ionospheric hot spot (or spots) can be expected at all seasons and for a wide range of solar cycle conditions

  7. Modelling Hot Air Balloons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimicombe, M. W.

    1991-01-01

    A macroscopic way of modeling hot air balloons using a Newtonian approach is presented. Misleading examples using a car tire and the concept of hot air rising are discussed. Pressure gradient changes in the atmosphere are used to explain how hot air balloons work. (KR)

  8. The design of hot laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The need for specialized laboratories to handle radioactive substances of high activity has increased greatly due to the expansion of the nuclear power industry and the widespread use of radioisotopes in scientific research and technology. Such laboratories, which are called hot laboratories, are specially designed and equipped to handle radioactive materials of high activity, including plutonium and transplutonium elements. The handling of plutonium and transplutonium elements presents special radiation-protection and safety problems because of their high specific activity and high radiotoxicity. Therefore, the planning, design, construction and operation of hot laboratories must meet the stringent safety, containment, ventilation, shielding, criticality control and fire-protection requirements. The IAEA has published two manuals in its Safety Series, one on the safety aspects of design and equipment of hot laboratories (SS No.30) and the other on the safe handling of plutonium (SS No.39). The purpose of the symposium in Otaniemi was to collect information on recent developments in the safety features of hot laboratories and to review the present state of knowledge. A number of new developments have taken place as the result of growing sophistication in the philosophy of radiation protection as given in the ICRP recommendations (Report No.22) and in the Agency's basic safety standards (No.9). The topics discussed were safety features of planning and design, air cleaning, transfer and transport systems, criticality control, fire protection, radiological protection, waste management, administrative arrangements and operating experience

  9. Numerical investigation of the effect of operating parameters on a planar solid oxide fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj, Abhishek; Sasmito, Agus P.; Shamim, Tariq

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of operating parameters on a planar type of SOFC are investigated. • The studies carried out by developing a three dimensional mathematical model. • The cell performance is enhanced at high temperatures and cathode stoichiometry. • Cathode stoichiometry has a high influence on the cell performance. • The effect of anode stoichiometry on the cell performance is low. - Abstract: The three operating parameters – temperature, stoichiometry and the degree of humidification – constitute key factors required to ensure high performance of the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). A careful trade-off between performance and parasitic loads is required in order to optimize the output. The present study numerically analyzes the influence of the key operating parameters on the performance of planar type of SOFC and parasitic loads utilizing a validated three dimensional mathematical model which takes into account of the conservation of mass, momentum, species and charge. The numerical results indicate that the cell performance is enhanced at high temperatures and cathode stoichiometry and it declines with increasing cathode relative humidity. Furthermore, cathode stoichiometry is found to have higher influence on the cell performance as compared to the anode stoichiometry. The gain in cell performance however, has to be balanced with the changing parasitic load requirement from pumping, humidification and heating. The results presented herein can assist in the selection of optimum or near-to-optimum operating parameters for high performance planar type SOFC

  10. Refitting of the 'Celimene' hot cell for following up the fuel assembly of 900 MWe PWR power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lhermenier, Andre; Van Craeynest, J.-C.

    1980-05-01

    The 'Celimene' cell adjoining the EL3 reactor provides for the acceptance, handling and the examination of irradiated fuel assemblies from power reactors (length approximately 4m, weight approximately 700 kg). Within the framework of the PWR fuel behavior follow-up or reprocessing, it is possible to extract an assembly representative of the normal fuel cycle, carry out non destructive tests on this assembly, extract pencils from it and re-insert this assembly, after refitting the head, into the normal fuel cycle for handling in a reprocessing plant or storage pond. Given suitable refitting techniques, the re-irradiation of the assembly can be considered after examination. Significant changes have been made to the buildings and the hoist facilities for handling very heavy flasks. It was necessary to rearrange the handling, machining and in-cell storage facilities. The development of an inspection rig will make it possible, some time in 1980, to carry out non destructive tests of assemblies, optical and metrological examination of assemblies prior to dismantling or of the structure after dismantling [fr

  11. Reconfiguration of the NRAD delay loop for proposed 1 MW operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidel, C.C.; Richards, W.J.; Pruett, D.P.

    1984-01-01

    The Hot Fuel Examination Facility, HFEF, is one of several facilities located at the Argonne Site. HFEF comprises a large hot cell where both nondestructive and destructive examination of highly-irradiated reactor fuels are conducted in support of the LMFBR program. One of the nondestructive examination technqiues utilized at HFEF is neutron radiography. Neutron radiography is provided by the NRAD reactor facility, which is located beneath the HFEF hot cell. The NRAD reactor is a TRIGA reactor and is operated at a steady-state power level of 250 kw solely for neutron radiography and the development of radiography techniques. Modifications of the NRAD delay loop for 1 MW operations are described

  12. Adsorptive on-board desulfurization over multiple cycles for fuel-cell-based auxiliary power units operated by different types of fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Raphael; Weinlaender, Christof; Kienzl, Norbert; Bitschnau, Brigitte; Schroettner, Hartmuth; Hochenauer, Christoph

    2018-05-01

    On-board desulfurization is essential to operate fuel-cell-based auxiliary power units (APU) with commercial fuels. In this work, both (i) on-board desulfurization and (ii) on-board regeneration performance of Ag-Al2O3 adsorbent is investigated in a comprehensive manner. The herein investigated regeneration strategy uses hot APU off-gas as the regeneration medium and requires no additional reagents, tanks, nor heat exchangers and thus has remarkable advantages in comparison to state-of-the-art regeneration strategies. The results for (i) show high desulfurization performance of Ag-Al2O3 under all relevant operating conditions and specify the influence of individual operation parameters and the combination of them, which have not yet been quantified. The system integrated regeneration strategy (ii) shows excellent regeneration performance recovering 100% of the initial adsorption capacity for all investigated types of fuels and sulfur heterocycles. Even the adsorption capacity of the most challenging dibenzothiophene in terms of regeneration is restored to 100% over 14 cycles of operation. Subsequent material analyses proved the thermal and chemical stability of all relevant adsorption sites under APU off-gas conditions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time 100% regeneration after adsorption of dibenzothiophene is reported over 14 cycles of operation for thermal regeneration in oxidizing atmospheres.

  13. Overview of P.I.E. techniques for L.W.R. fuels at Saclay hot cells with special emphasis on new apparatus and on mechanical testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, J.Y.; Hardy, J.L.; Trotabas, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the state-of-the-art in the Saclay hot cells for examining L.W.R. fuels. First, we present the classical path followed by a fuel rod in the laboratory, to begin with non-destructive testing. This is completed by destructive examinations, such as free volume determination and fission gases analyses, density measurement and metallographies including X-rays diffraction and microprobe (EPMA/WDX). These two last techniques enable the identification of elements and chemical nature of compounds which are present. We also perform mechanical tests on metallic components, on clads and guide-tubes (tensile tests, creep, burst or fatigue tests by internal pressure). Another apparatus is devoted to the study of irradiated clad behaviour during LOCA-type transients. In the second chapter, a particular emphasis is given to the developments in progress, or planned in the near future. This includes: (a) The implementation of a new non-destructive testing bench to inspect more fuel rods simultaneously. (b) A new image analyzer to be applied e.g. to hydrides analysis in the clad, or to the inspection of safety test fuel bundles. (c) As for mechanical testing, we describe here the tensile tests on clads or on guide-tubes, performed on longitudinal samples or ring samples

  14. A comparison of low-pressure and supercharged operation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell systems for aircraft applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, C.; Preiß, G.; Gores, F.; Griebenow, M.; Heitmann, S.

    2016-08-01

    Multifunctional fuel cell systems are competitive solutions aboard future generations of civil aircraft concerning energy consumption, environmental issues, and safety reasons. The present study compares low-pressure and supercharged operation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells with respect to performance and efficiency criteria. This is motivated by the challenge of pressure-dependent fuel cell operation aboard aircraft with cabin pressure varying with operating altitude. Experimental investigations of low-pressure fuel cell operation use model-based design of experiments and are complemented by numerical investigations concerning supercharged fuel cell operation. It is demonstrated that a low-pressure operation is feasible with the fuel cell device under test, but that its range of stable operation changes between both operating modes. Including an external compressor, it can be shown that the power demand for supercharging the fuel cell is about the same as the loss in power output of the fuel cell due to low-pressure operation. Furthermore, the supercharged fuel cell operation appears to be more sensitive with respect to variations in the considered independent operating parameters load requirement, cathode stoichiometric ratio, and cooling temperature. The results indicate that a pressure-dependent self-humidification control might be able to exploit the potential of low-pressure fuel cell operation for aircraft applications to the best advantage.

  15. Current density distribution mapping in PEM fuel cells as an instrument for operational measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geske, M.; Heuer, M.; Heideck, G.; Styczynski, Z. A. [Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Chair Electric Power Networks and Renewable Energy Sources, Magdeburg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    A newly developed measurement system for current density distribution mapping has enabled a new approach for operational measurements in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). Taking into account previously constructed measurement systems, a method based on a multi layer printed circuit board was chosen for the development of the new system. This type of system consists of a sensor, a special electronic device and the control and visualization PC. For the acquisition of the current density distribution values, a sensor device was designed and installed within a multilayer printed circuit board with integrated shunt resistors. Varying shunt values can be taken into consideration with a newly developed and evaluated calibration method. The sensor device was integrated in a PEM fuel cell stack to prove the functionality of the whole measurement system. A software application was implemented to visualize and save the measurement values. Its functionality was verified by operational measurements within a PEMFC system. Measurement accuracy and possible negative reactions of the sensor device during PEMFC operation are discussed in detail in this paper. The developed system enables operational measurements for different operating phases of PEM fuel cells. Additionally, this can be seen as a basis for new opportunities of optimization for fuel cell design and operation modes. (author)

  16. Current Density Distribution Mapping in PEM Fuel Cells as An Instrument for Operational Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Geske

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A newly developed measurement system for current density distribution mapping has enabled a new approach for operational measurements in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC. Taking into account previously constructed measurement systems, a method based on a multi layer printed circuit board was chosen for the development of the new system. This type of system consists of a sensor, a special electronic device and the control and visualization PC. For the acquisition of the current density distribution values, a sensor device was designed and installed within a multilayer printed circuit board with integrated shunt resistors. Varying shunt values can be taken into consideration with a newly developed and evaluated calibration method. The sensor device was integrated in a PEM fuel cell stack to prove the functionality of the whole measurement system. A software application was implemented to visualize and save the measurement values. Its functionality was verified by operational measurements within a PEMFC system. Measurement accuracy and possible negative reactions of the sensor device during PEMFC operation are discussed in detail in this paper. The developed system enables operational measurements for different operating phases of PEM fuel cells. Additionally, this can be seen as a basis for new opportunities of optimization for fuel cell design and operation modes.

  17. Design and Operation of an Electrochemical Methanol Concentration Sensor for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, S. R.; Valdez, T. I.; Chun, W.

    2000-01-01

    The development of a 150-Watt packaged power source based on liquid feed direct methanol fuel cells is being pursued currently at the Jet propulsion Laboratory for defense applications. In our studies we find that the concentration of methanol in the fuel circulation loop affects the electrical performance and efficiency the direct methanol fuel cell systems significantly. The practical operation of direct methanol fuel cell systems, therefore, requires accurate monitoring and control of methanol concentration. The present paper reports on the principle and demonstration of an in-house developed electrochemical sensor suitable for direct methanol fuel cell systems.

  18. Laboratory stand for examination of the operational thermal parameters of polyvalent system for heating, cooling and domestic hot water supply using renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlateva, Merima

    2014-01-01

    The report presents the structure of an universal laboratory stand for determine the operating parameters of a polyvalent system for utilization of renewable energy sources. The system is a combination of three modules using different technologies for renewable sources – solar energy, atmospheric air and biomass, incorporated in a common heat accumulator. The structural scheme permits the possibility to use the stand in different operating modes, to demonstrate the feasibility of using any one of the renewable energy sources both individually and in various combinations. The author express gratitude to the partners of the companies Robert Bosch Bulgaria Ltd, Ahi Carrier Bulgaria and Eratermtotal, with whose generous support is build the stand. Key words: Renewable energy sources (RES), Heating with RES, Biomass, Air to Water Heat pumps

  19. Remotely handled and remotely operated valve, particularly for the hot part of radioactive plants. Fernhantierbare und fernbedienbare Armatur, insbesondere fuer den heissen Bereich radioaktiver Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radovan, G.; Sandling, M.J.; Davidson, J.W.; Blaseck, K.; Hoffmeister, L.; Westendorf, H.

    1988-01-21

    The valve consists of a valve whose valve housing is built into a pipeline. The wear parts of the valve to be replaced, such as the valve body and valve seat, are combined into a replacement part. The replacement part and a clamp act together so that the replacement part is interlocked with the valve housing in the closed operating position. The exchange can be made by undoing a single central screw.

  20. Maintenance of electrolytic cells with failure technologic mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galushkin, N.V.

    1995-01-01

    This chapter of monograph is devoted to failures in regular operation of electrolytic cell and ways of their neutralization. Thus, the main failures in regular operation of electrolytic cell, including hot driving, cold driving of tank, carbides formation were studied. The emergency cases in operation of tanks and ways of their neutralization were described.

  1. Dynamic modeling and evaluation of solid oxide fuel cell - combined heat and power system operating strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanaeda, Kimihiro; Mueller, Fabian; Brouwer, Jacob; Samuelsen, Scott

    Operating strategies of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) combined heat and power (CHP) systems are developed and evaluated from a utility, and end-user perspective using a fully integrated SOFC-CHP system dynamic model that resolves the physical states, thermal integration and overall efficiency of the system. The model can be modified for any SOFC-CHP system, but the present analysis is applied to a hotel in southern California based on measured electric and heating loads. Analysis indicates that combined heat and power systems can be operated to benefit both the end-users and the utility, providing more efficient electric generation as well as grid ancillary services, namely dispatchable urban power. Design and operating strategies considered in the paper include optimal sizing of the fuel cell, thermal energy storage to dispatch heat, and operating the fuel cell to provide flexible grid power. Analysis results indicate that with a 13.1% average increase in price-of-electricity (POE), the system can provide the grid with a 50% operating range of dispatchable urban power at an overall thermal efficiency of 80%. This grid-support operating mode increases the operational flexibility of the SOFC-CHP system, which may make the technology an important utility asset for accommodating the increased penetration of intermittent renewable power.

  2. Performance of diagonal control structures at different operating conditions for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, Maria; Husar, Attila; Feroldi, Diego; Riera, Jordi [Institut de Robotica i Informatica Industrial, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, C. Llorens i Artigas 4, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-08-25

    This work is focused on the selection of operating conditions in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. It analyses efficiency and controllability aspects, which change from one operating point to another. Specifically, several operating points that deliver the same amount of net power are compared, and the comparison is done at different net power levels. The study is based on a complex non-linear model, which has been linearised at the selected operating points. Different linear analysis tools are applied to the linear models and results show important controllability differences between operating points. The performance of diagonal control structures with PI controllers at different operating points is also studied. A method for the tuning of the controllers is proposed and applied. The behaviour of the controlled system is simulated with the non-linear model. Conclusions indicate a possible trade-off between controllability and optimisation of hydrogen consumption. (author)

  3. Indigenous development of system integration for proton exchange membrane fuel cell operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, S.; Arshad, M.; Anjum, A.R.

    2011-01-01

    System integration was developed for fuel cell to control various parameters including voltage, current, power, temperature, pressure of gas (H/sub 2/), humidification, etc. The compact software has also been developed for monitoring different parameters of fuel cell system. System integrated was installed on fuel cell stack to manipulate these parameters. The compact software has been linked with the integrated system for visual monitoring of different parameters of fuel cell system during operation on PC. The installation of software and integrated system on fuel cell stack is the key achievement for the safe operation of fuel cell stack and for the provision of requisite power to any electric device for optimum performance. The compact software was developed for micro controller in KIEL. Control card and driver card are controlled by software-driven micro controller. A communication protocol was designed and developed. PC software has been developed to control and watch the values of all parameters of fuel cell such as voltage, current, power, temperature, pressure of hydrogen, pressure of oxygen, operational times and performance of the system on computer screen. (author)

  4. Sinusoidal potential cycling operation of a direct ethanol fuel cell to improving carbon dioxide yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Pasha; Pickup, Peter G.

    2014-12-01

    A direct ethanol fuel cell has been operated under sinusoidal (AC) potential cycling conditions in order to increase the yield of carbon dioxide and thereby increase cell efficiency relative to operation at a fixed potential. At 80 °C, faradaic yields of CO2 as high as 25% have been achieved with a PtRu anode catalyst, while the maximum CO2 production at constant potential was 13%. The increased yields under cycling conditions have been attributed to periodic oxidative stripping of adsorbed CO. These results will be important in the optimization of operating conditions for direct ethanol fuel cells, where the benefits of potential cycling are projected to increase as catalysts that produce CO2 more efficiently are implemented.

  5. Operation strategy for solid oxide fuel cell systems for small-scale stationary applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liso, Vincenzo; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2009-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cell micro cogeneration systems have the potential to reduce domestic energy consumption by providing both heat and power on site without transmission losses. The high grade heat produced during the operation of the power causes high thermal transients during startup/shutdown pha......Solid oxide fuel cell micro cogeneration systems have the potential to reduce domestic energy consumption by providing both heat and power on site without transmission losses. The high grade heat produced during the operation of the power causes high thermal transients during startup....../shutdown phases and degrades the fuel cells. To counteract the degradation, the system has not to be stressed with rapid load variation during the operation. The analysis will consider an average profile for heat and power demand of a family house. Finally data analysis and power system limitations will be used...

  6. Hot sample archiving. Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVey, C.B.

    1995-01-01

    This Engineering Study revision evaluated the alternatives to provide tank waste characterization analytical samples for a time period as recommended by the Tank Waste Remediation Systems Program. The recommendation of storing 40 ml segment samples for a period of approximately 18 months (6 months past the approval date of the Tank Characterization Report) and then composite the core segment material in 125 ml containers for a period of five years. The study considers storage at 222-S facility. It was determined that the critical storage problem was in the hot cell area. The 40 ml sample container has enough material for approximately 3 times the required amount for a complete laboratory re-analysis. The final result is that 222-S can meet the sample archive storage requirements. During the 100% capture rate the capacity is exceeded in the hot cell area, but quick, inexpensive options are available to meet the requirements

  7. Ormen Lange hot tap - a world record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apeland, Kjell Edvard

    2010-07-01

    For the last 10 years Statoil have been developing a new concept for performing subsea Hot Tap operations remotely controlled. The system was first used offshore in 2008 during a partly diver assisted operation, connecting the Tampen Link pipeline to the Statfjord Intrafield pipeline. In July 2009, the Hot Tap System successfully performed two remotely controlled Hot Taps, on a world record depth of 860 meters on the Ormen Lange field operated by Shell. The Hot Tap technology enables existing pipeline architecture to be modified, without interfering with the current production. Most of the technology is depth independent and the system is currently qualified to 1000 meter depth. Phase II of this project which involves development and construction of a retrofit Tee, thus enabling installation and welding of a Tee on an unprepared pipeline is well underway. This presentation will describe experiences from the development of the Remote Hot Tap system and give an overview of the offshore operations leading to the conclusion of the world's deepest Hot Taps. (Author)

  8. Analysis of long-time operation of micro-cogeneration unit with fuel cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patsch Marek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro-cogeneration is cogeneration with small performance, with maximal electric power up to 50 kWe. On the present, there are available small micro-cogeneration units with small electric performance, about 1 kWe, which are usable also in single family houses or flats. These micro-cogeneration units operate on principle of conventional combustion engine, Stirling engine, steam engine or fuel cell. Micro-cogeneration units with fuel cells are new progressive developing type of units for single family houses. Fuel cell is electrochemical device which by oxidation-reduction reaction turn directly chemical energy of fuel to electric power, secondary products are pure water and thermal energy. The aim of paper is measuring and evaluation of operation parameters of micro-cogeneration unit with fuel cell which uses natural gas as a fuel.

  9. Thermal modeling of nickel-hydrogen battery cells operating under transient orbital conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrage, Dean S.

    1991-01-01

    An analytical study of the thermal operating characteristics of nickel-hydrogen battery cells is presented. Combined finite-element and finite-difference techniques are employed to arrive at a computationally efficient composite thermal model representing a series-cell arrangement operating in conjunction with a radiately coupled baseplate and coldplate thermal bus. An aggressive, low-mass design approach indicates that thermal considerations can and should direct the design of the thermal bus arrangement. Special consideration is given to the potential for mixed conductive and convective processes across the hydrogen gap. Results of a compressible flow model are presented and indicate the transfer process is suitably represented by molecular conduction. A high-fidelity thermal model of the cell stack (and related components) indicates the presence of axial and radial temperature gradients. A detailed model of the thermal bus reveals the thermal interaction of individual cells and is imperative for assessing the intercell temperature gradients.

  10. Characterisation of a Planar Solid Oxide Cell Stack Operated at Elevated Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Højgaard; Graves, Christopher R.; Chen, Ming

    2016-01-01

    As the global and local energy production becomes more dependent on intermittent renewable sources like wind and solar, efficient and reversible conversion of electricity to storable fuels becomes increasingly important. Solid oxide cells (SOCs) are interesting in this context since they can...... be operated either as electrolysers (SOEC) to convert electricity to fuels such as hydrogen or methane, and as fuel cells (SOFC) to convert fuels to electricity. Both productivity and conversion efficiency can be improved if the SOC operation pressure can be increased from ambient pressure to 10-30 bar. Here...... and heat exchangers is analyzed and the expected impact of pressurization on the hydrogen production cost is evaluated....

  11. Characterization of a Planar Solid Oxide Cell Stack Operated at Elevated Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Højgaard; Graves, Christopher R.; Chen, Ming

    2016-01-01

    As global and local energy production becomes more dependent on intermittent renewable sources like wind and solar, efficient and reversible conversion of electricity to storable fuels becomes increasingly important. Solid oxide cells (SOCs) are interesting in this context since they can...... be operated either as electrolyzers (SOEC) to convert electricity to fuels such as hydrogen or methane, and as fuel cells (SOFC) to convert fuels to electricity. Both productivity and conversion efficiency can be improved if the SOC operation pressure can be increased from ambient pressure to 10–30 bar...... in this paper. Additionally, the expected impact on the hydrogen production efficiency and cost is discussed....

  12. In-ground operation of Geothermic Fuel Cells for unconventional oil and gas recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Neal; Anyenya, Gladys; Haun, Buddy; Daubenspeck, Mark; Bonadies, Joseph; Kerr, Rick; Fischer, Bernhard; Wright, Adam; Jones, Gerald; Li, Robert; Wall, Mark; Forbes, Alan; Savage, Marshall

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents operating and performance characteristics of a nine-stack solid-oxide fuel cell combined-heat-and-power system. Integrated with a natural-gas fuel processor, air compressor, reactant-gas preheater, and diagnostics and control equipment, the system is designed for use in unconventional oil-and-gas processing. Termed a ;Geothermic Fuel Cell; (GFC), the heat liberated by the fuel cell during electricity generation is harnessed to process oil shale into high-quality crude oil and natural gas. The 1.5-kWe SOFC stacks are packaged within three-stack GFC modules. Three GFC modules are mechanically and electrically coupled to a reactant-gas preheater and installed within the earth. During operation, significant heat is conducted from the Geothermic Fuel Cell to the surrounding geology. The complete system was continuously operated on hydrogen and natural-gas fuels for ∼600 h. A quasi-steady operating point was established to favor heat generation (29.1 kWth) over electricity production (4.4 kWe). Thermodynamic analysis reveals a combined-heat-and-power efficiency of 55% at this condition. Heat flux to the geology averaged 3.2 kW m-1 across the 9-m length of the Geothermic Fuel Cell-preheater assembly. System performance is reviewed; some suggestions for improvement are proposed.

  13. Tritium and heat management in ITER Test Blanket Systems port cell for maintenance operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giancarli, L.M., E-mail: luciano.giancarli@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Cortes, P.; Iseli, M.; Lepetit, L.; Levesy, B. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Livingston, D. [Frazer-Nash Consultancy Ltd., Stonebridge House, Dorking Business Park, Dorking, Surrey RH4 1HJ (United Kingdom); Nevière, J.C. [Comex-Nucleaire, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Pascal, R. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Ricapito, I. [Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla, 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Barcelona E-08019 (Spain); Shu, W. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Wyse, S. [Frazer-Nash Consultancy Ltd., Stonebridge House, Dorking Business Park, Dorking, Surrey RH4 1HJ (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: •The ITER TBM Program is one of the ITER missions. •We model a TBM port cell with CFD to optimize the design choices. •The heat and tritium releases management in TBM port cells has been optimized. •It is possible to reduce the T-concentration below one DAC in TBM port cells. •The TBM port cells can have human access within 12 h after shutdown. -- Abstract: Three ITER equatorial port cells are dedicated to the assessment of six different designs of breeding blankets, known as Test Blanket Modules (TBMs). Several high temperature components and pipework will be present in each TBM port cell and will release a significant quantity of heat that has to be extracted in order to avoid the ambient air and concrete wall temperatures to exceed allowable limits. Moreover, from these components and pipes, a fraction of the contained tritium permeates and/or leaks into the port cell. This paper describes the optimization of the heat extraction management during operation, and the tritium concentration control required for entry into the port cell to proceed with the required maintenance operations after the plasma shutdown.

  14. Documentation associated with the shipping of Hot-Cell Waste from WESF 225-B to the 200W (218-W-3AE) burial grounds under shipment number RSR-37338

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PAWLAK, M.W.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to compile the records generated during the Packaging and Shipping of WESF Hot-Cell Waste from the 225-B Facility to 200W (218-W-3AE) burial grounds. A total of six 55-gallon drums were packaged and shipped using the Chem-Nuc Cask in accordance with WHC-SD-TP-SARP-025, Rev.0 ''Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (Onsite) for Type B Material in the CNS-14-215H Cask''

  15. High pressure operation of tubular solid oxide fuel cells and their intergration with gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, C.; Wepfer, W.J. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Fossil fuels continue to be used at a rate greater than that of their natural formation, and the current byproducts from their use are believed to have a detrimental effect on the environment (e.g. global warming). There is thus a significant impetus to have cleaner, more efficient fuel consumption alternatives. Recent progress has led to renewed vigor in the development of fuel cell technology, which has been shown to be capable of producing high efficiencies with relatively benign exhaust products. The tubular solid oxide fuel cell developed by Westinghouse Electric Corporation has shown significant promise. Modeling efforts have been and are underway to optimize and better understand this fuel cell technology. Thus far, the bulk of modeling efforts has been for operation at atmospheric pressure. There is now interest in developing high-efficiency integrated gas turbine/solid oxide fuel cell systems. Such operation of fuel cells would obviously occur at higher pressures. The fuel cells have been successfully modeled under high pressure operation and further investigated as integrated components of an open loop gas turbine cycle.

  16. Annual public information report about the Tricastin operational hot base nuclear facilities - 2015. This report is written in compliance with articles L. 125-15 and L125-16 of the French environment code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the Tricastin operational hot base facility (INB no. 157, Bollene, Vaucluse (FR)), a nuclear workshop for storage and maintenance and qualification operations on some EdF equipments. Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facility are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2015, if any, are reported as well as the effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility is presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions

  17. TOF-SIMS characterization of impurity enrichment and redistribution in solid oxide electrolysis cells during operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiebach, Wolff-Ragnar; Norrman, Kion; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos

    2014-01-01

    cathode. The surfaces and cross-sections of the cells were analyzed, and several elemental impurities like Si, Ca and Na were identified and spatially mapped and their enrichment and migration during operation is reported. With advancing operation time, the concentration of these elements, especially Na...... and Ca, increases. For Si, a concentration gradient is found from the gas inlet to the gas outlet. Additionally, a loss of Ni percolation in the active cathode is observed in the same area where the Si enrichment is found. Based on the obtained TOF-SIMS results, the influence of the operating conditions...

  18. Evaluation of the radial design of fuel cells in an operation cycle of a BWR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez C, J.; Martin del Campo M, C.

    2003-01-01

    This work is continuation of one previous in the one that the application of the optimization technique called Tabu search to the radial design of fuel cells of boiling water reactors (BWR, Boiling Water Reactor) is presented. The objective function used in the optimization process only include neutron parameters (k-infinite and peak of radial power) considering the cell at infinite media. It was obtained to reduce the cell average enrichment completing the characteristics of reactivity of an original cell. The objective of the present work is to validate the objective function that was used for the radial design of the fuel cell (test cell), analyzing the operation of a one cycle of the reactor in which fuels have been fresh recharged that contain an axial area with the nuclear database of the cell designed instead of the original cell. For it is simulated it with Cm-Presto the cycle 10 of the reactor operation of the Unit 1 of the Nuclear Power station of Laguna Verde (U1-CNLV). For the cycle evaluation its were applied so much the simulation with the Haling strategy, as the simulation of the one cycle with control rod patterns and they were evaluated the energy generation and several power limits and reactivity that are used as design parameters in fuel reloads of BWR reactors. The results at level of an operation cycle of the reactor, show that the objective function used in the optimization and radial design of the cell is adequate and that it can induce to one good use of the fuel. (Author)

  19. Hot Surface Ignition

    OpenAIRE

    Tursyn, Yerbatyr; Goyal, Vikrant; Benhidjeb-Carayon, Alicia; Simmons, Richard; Meyer, Scott; Gore, Jay P.

    2015-01-01

    Undesirable hot surface ignition of flammable liquids is one of the hazards in ground and air transportation vehicles, which primarily occurs in the engine compartment. In order to evaluate the safety and sustainability of candidate replacement fuels with respect to hot surface ignition, a baseline low lead fuel (Avgas 100 LL) and four experimental unleaded aviation fuels recommended for reciprocating aviation engines were considered. In addition, hot surface ignition properties of the gas tu...

  20. Process and equipment development for hot isostatic pressing treatability study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bateman, Ken; Wahlquist, Dennis; Malewitz, Tim

    2015-03-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA), LLC, has developed processes and equipment for a pilot-scale hot isostatic pressing (HIP) treatability study to stabilize and volume reduce radioactive calcine stored at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). In 2009, the U. S. Department of Energy signed a Record of Decision with the state of Idaho selecting HIP technology as the method to treat 5,800 yd^3 (4,400 m^3) of granular zirconia and alumina calcine produced between 1953 and 1992 as a waste byproduct of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. Since the 1990s, a variety of radioactive and hazardous waste forms have been remotely treated using HIP within INL hot cells. To execute the remote process at INL, waste is loaded into a stainless-steel or aluminum can, which is evacuated, sealed, and placed into a HIP furnace. The HIP simultaneously heats and pressurizes the waste, reducing its volume and increasing its durability. Two 1 gal cans of calcine waste currently stored in a shielded cask were identified as candidate materials for a treatability study involving the HIP process. Equipment and materials for cask-handling and calcine transfer into INL hot cells, as well as remotely operated equipment for waste can opening, particle sizing, material blending, and HIP can loading have been designed and successfully tested. These results demonstrate BEA’s readiness for treatment of INL calcine.

  1. Circulating miRNAs as biomarkers for oral squamous cell carcinoma recurrence in operated patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Yan; Wang, Xuan; Venø, Morten Trillingsgaard

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory non-coding RNAs for which altered expression in cancers can serve as potential biomarkers for diseases. We here investigated whether circulating miRNAs can serve as biomarkers for predicting post-operational recurrence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC...

  2. Low stoichiometry operation of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell employing the interdigitated flow field design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berning, Torsten; Odgaard, Madeleine; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2011-01-01

    Fuel cell operation on dry reactant gases under low stoichiometry conditions employing the interdigitated flow field is investigated using a multi-fluid model. It is assumed that the MEA contains a water uptake layer which facilitates water absorption to the membrane and hence prevents the anode...

  3. Periodic Virtual Cell Manufacturing (P-VCM) - Concept, Design and Operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slomp, Jannes; Krushinsky, Dimitry; Caprihan, Rahul

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses the concept of Periodic Virtual Cell Manufacturing (P-VCM). After giving an illustrative example of the operation and design complexity of a P-VCM system, we present an industrial case to study the applicability of the concept. The illustrative example and the

  4. Reversing and Repairing Microstructure Degradation in Solid Oxide Cells During Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graves, Christopher R.

    2013-01-01

    density by reversible battery-like operation, cycling between electrolysis mode and fuel-cell mode. Also reported are new examples of beneficial effects of (2) redox cycling, (3) exsolution of nano-catalysts, and (4) high cathodic polarization, all of which can be used to maintain or even improve...

  5. New operational modes for the Ta2O5-based electrolyte conductance cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthuis, Wouter; Smith, A.; van der Zalm, R.A.J.; Bergveld, Piet

    1994-01-01

    Based on the recently presented conductance cell, two specific operational modes are proposed. In the oscillator mode, the conductivity of the electrolyte determines the frequency of an oscillator, experimentally obtaining a shift from 10 to 27 kHz for a KCl concentration range from 0.5 to 100 mM.

  6. Combined local current distribution measurements and high resolution neutron radiography of operating direct methanol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Alexander; Wippermann, Klaus [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. of Energy Research, IEF-3: Fuel Cells; Sanders, Tilman [RWTH Aachen (DE). Inst. for Power Electronics and Electrical Drives (ISEA); Arlt, Tobias [Helmholtz Centre Berlin (Germany). Inst. for Applied Materials

    2010-07-01

    Neutron radiography allows the investigation of the local fluid distribution in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) under operating conditions. Spatial resolutions in the order of some tens of micrometers at the full test cell area are achieved. This offers the possibility to study practice-oriented, large stack cells with an active area of several hundred cm{sup 2} as well as specially designed, small test cells with an area of some cm{sup 2}. Combined studies of high resolution neutron radiography and segmented cell measurements are especially valuable, because they enable a correlation of local fluid distribution and local performance [1, 2]. The knowledge of this interdependency is essential to optimise the water management and performance respecting a homogeneous fluid, current and temperature distribution and to achieve high performance and durability of DMFCs. (orig.)

  7. Dresses problems arising from hot-plant operation and their solution (1961); Les problemes vestimentaires poses par l'exploitation des installations actives et leurs solutions (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodier, J; Bouzigues, H; Boutot, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Production de Plutonium, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    This article deals with effective methods to struggle radioactive contamination using rationally designed working clothes. The choice of the cloth is important and cotton, because of its absorbent properties constitutes an effective barrier to radioelements failing on its surface. Clothing the personnel of large nuclear industrial concerns is a big problem which can only be solved by carefully studied methods. The decontamination and washing of large amounts of clothes whose flow increases during periods of radio-active incidents have to be treated as are those operations in hospital laundering. Linen washing by the German counter-current method (the Sulzman system) is of great value because of the volume which can be treated and, more important, because of the small amount of liquid waste produced. Dry cleaning is certainly a method of the future and is even more economic than the preceding one. In 'active' laundries, the control of clothing for residual contamination can constitute a serious bottleneck in the production of clean clothing if automatic high-speed machines are not used. The risk to the operating personnel comes solely from contamination of the atmosphere and of the surfaces. Because of this, the plant must be considered as an active zone in which are handled several tens of millicuries of dangerous emitters and several micro- curies of plutonium daily. (authors) [French] Ce memoire traite des moyens efficaces de lutte contre la contamination radioactive que peuvent offrir des vetements de travail de conception rationnelle. Le choix du tissu est un element important et la fibre de coton, par ses proprietes absorbantes, constitue un excellent barrage aux radioelements deposes a sa surface. L'habillement du personnel des grands ensembles industriels de l'energie atomique est un gros probleme qui ne peut etre solutionne qu'avec des moyens soigneusement etudies. La decontamination et le lavage des grandes quantites de vetements renouveles a cadence

  8. Dresses problems arising from hot-plant operation and their solution (1961); Les problemes vestimentaires poses par l'exploitation des installations actives et leurs solutions (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodier, J.; Bouzigues, H.; Boutot, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Production de Plutonium, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    This article deals with effective methods to struggle radioactive contamination using rationally designed working clothes. The choice of the cloth is important and cotton, because of its absorbent properties constitutes an effective barrier to radioelements failing on its surface. Clothing the personnel of large nuclear industrial concerns is a big problem which can only be solved by carefully studied methods. The decontamination and washing of large amounts of clothes whose flow increases during periods of radio-active incidents have to be treated as are those operations in hospital laundering. Linen washing by the German counter-current method (the Sulzman system) is of great value because of the volume which can be treated and, more important, because of the small amount of liquid waste produced. Dry cleaning is certainly a method of the future and is even more economic than the preceding one. In 'active' laundries, the control of clothing for residual contamination can constitute a serious bottleneck in the production of clean clothing if automatic high-speed machines are not used. The risk to the operating personnel comes solely from contamination of the atmosphere and of the surfaces. Because of this, the plant must be considered as an active zone in which are handled several tens of millicuries of dangerous emitters and several micro- curies of plutonium daily. (authors) [French] Ce memoire traite des moyens efficaces de lutte contre la contamination radioactive que peuvent offrir des vetements de travail de conception rationnelle. Le choix du tissu est un element important et la fibre de coton, par ses proprietes absorbantes, constitue un excellent barrage aux radioelements deposes a sa surface. L'habillement du personnel des grands ensembles industriels de l'energie atomique est un gros probleme qui ne peut etre solutionne qu'avec des moyens soigneusement etudies. La decontamination et le lavage des grandes quantites de vetements

  9. How to develop a Standard Operating Procedure for sorting unfixed cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    Written Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) are an important tool to assure that recurring tasks in a laboratory are performed in a consistent manner. When the procedure covered in the SOP involves a high-risk activity such as sorting unfixed cells using a jet-in-air sorter, safety elements are critical components of the document. The details on sort sample handling, sorter set-up, validation, operation, troubleshooting, and maintenance, personal protective equipment (PPE), and operator training, outlined in the SOP are to be based on careful risk assessment of the procedure. This review provides background information on the hazards associated with sorting of unfixed cells and the process used to arrive at the appropriate combination of facility design, instrument placement, safety equipment, and practices to be followed. PMID:22381383

  10. Influence of operation and irradiation on cell-mediated immunity in patients with oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tominaga, Kazuhiro; Tominaga, Naohiro; Tokuhisa, Michio

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of operation and irradiation on cell-mediated immunity in patients with primary oral squamous cell carcinoma, several parameters, including NK activity, LAK activity, and IL-2 production, were selected. Twenty-two patients who underwent operation and/or irradiation from 1989 to 1993 were evaluated. Perioperatively, no significant change of immunologic parameters was observed except increased number of peripheral leukocytes at two weeks after operation. Immediately and/or one month after irradiation, significantly decreased numbers of leukocytes and lymphocytes as well as significantly depressed levels of blastoid transformation of lymphocytes, LAK activity, and IL-2 production were observed. By three months after irradiation, values of immunologic parameters returned to preirradiation values. The number of monocytes and level of NK activity showed little change after irradiation. (author)

  11. Acid-doped Polybenzimidazole Membranes as Electrolyte for Fuel Cells Operating Above 100°C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qingfeng, Li; Jensen, Jens Oluf; He, Ronhuan

    2003-01-01

    The technical achievement and challenges for the PEMFC technology based on perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) polymer membranes (e.g. Nafion®) are briefly discussed. The newest development in the field is alternative polymer electrolytes for operation above 100°C. As one of the successful approaches...... to high operational temperatures, the development and evaluation of acid doped PBI membranes are reviewed, covering polymer synthesis, membrane casting, acid doping, physiochemical characterization and fuel cell tests. A high temperature PEMFC system operational at up to 200°C is demonstrated with no gas...... humidification and high CO-tolerance up to 10 vol%. This high CO tolerance allows for a direct use of reformed hydrogen without further CO removal, which opens the possibility for an integrated reformer-fuel cell system. The content of this review is to a large extent based on research performed by the authors...

  12. How to develop a standard operating procedure for sorting unfixed cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Ingrid

    2012-07-01

    Written standard operating procedures (SOPs) are an important tool to assure that recurring tasks in a laboratory are performed in a consistent manner. When the procedure covered in the SOP involves a high-risk activity such as sorting unfixed cells using a jet-in-air sorter, safety elements are critical components of the document. The details on sort sample handling, sorter set-up, validation, operation, troubleshooting, and maintenance, personal protective equipment (PPE), and operator training, outlined in the SOP are to be based on careful risk assessment of the procedure. This review provides background information on the hazards associated with sorting of unfixed cells and the process used to arrive at the appropriate combination of facility design, instrument placement, safety equipment, and practices to be followed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Construction of concrete hot cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    The calculations are valid for point cources of 60 Co with an average photon energy of 1,25 MeV. They may also be applied to line or volume sources. In these cases the concrete densities or wall ticknesses are on the safe side. For sources showing a marked line or volume character a special calculation for line or volume sources is recommended. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Construction of concrete hot cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    This part 4 of the draft standard deals with a specific design type of radiation shielding windows for walls with a concrete desnity of 2.3 g/m 3 and wall thicknesses of 800 mm, 1000 mm, 1200 mm, 1400 mm, and 1500 mm. The design is for protection against Co-60 radiation, with the attenuation factors being 2x10 3 , 2x10 4 , 2x10 5 , 2x10 6 , and 8x10 6 . These specifications are given in order to define the requirements to be met by design and manufacture, especially with regard to main dimensions, seeing conditions, shielding effect, and radiation resistance of the windows. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Hot cell facility in CVR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miklos, M.; Srba, O.

    2014-01-01

    In the Czech Republic irradiated fuel inspection has been carried out at Temelin NPP since 2003. Initial reason was the use of eastern reactor concept with western fuel type, then later confirmation of the new fuel from another manufacturer. Since 2008, Research Centre Rez Ltd. cooperates in inspections, whose team has been working as an independent check of the fuel supplier since 2011. Within post-radiation program the checks of the status of selected fuel assemblies are carried out during downtime on the block, i.e. visual inspection and measurement of torsion, bending and length of the fuel assembly takes place. (authors)

  16. Air-processed organic tandem solar cells on glass: toward competitive operating lifetimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adams, Jens; Spyropoulos, George D.; Salvador, Michael

    2015-01-01

    efficiencies of more than 10% the rather limited stability of this type of devices raises concerns towards future commercialization. The tandem concept allows for both absorbing a broader range of the solar spectrum and reducing thermalization losses. We designed an organic tandem solar cell with an inverted...... device geometry comprising environmentally stable active and charge-selecting layers. Under continuous white light irradiation, we demonstrate an extrapolated, operating lifetime in excess of one decade. We elucidate that for the current generation of organic tandem cells one critical requirement...... for long operating lifetimes consists of periodic UV light treatment. These results suggest that new material approaches towards UV-resilient active and interfacial layers may enable efficient organic tandem solar cells with lifetimes competitive with traditional inorganic photovoltaics....

  17. Preliminary estimation of the dose rates of the operation room of the RPR radioisotope cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.C.S.; Silva, J.J.G.; Pina, J.L.S. de; Fajardo, P.W.

    1986-07-01

    During the preliminary studies, about the installations layout of a radioisotope production reactor, the possibility of construction of a radioisotope cell at the reactor building has been investigated. The decisions about that construction has considered mainly the level of the radiation dose over the cell operator. The dose rate has been calculated based on: neutron flux and gamma radiation from fission products and activation materials inside the reactor; volatile fission products such as noble gases and iodides; tritium form ternary fission. The objective was calculate the radiation dose over the cell operator during a journey of 8 hours of work per day. For those calculations some data have been obtained from the Angra-3 reactor. (author)

  18. Modeling deflagration waves out of hot spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partom, Yehuda

    2017-01-01

    It is widely accepted that shock initiation and detonation of heterogeneous explosives comes about by a two-step process known as ignition and growth. In the first step a shock sweeping through an explosive cell (control volume) creates hot spots that become ignition sites. In the second step, deflagration waves (or burn waves) propagate out of those hot spots and transform the reactant in the cell into reaction products. The macroscopic (or average) reaction rate of the reactant in the cell depends on the speed of those deflagration waves and on the average distance between neighboring hot spots. Here we simulate the propagation of deflagration waves out of hot spots on the mesoscale in axial symmetry using a 2D hydrocode, to which we add heat conduction and bulk reaction. The propagation speed of the deflagration waves may depend on both pressure and temperature. It depends on pressure for quasistatic loading near ambient temperature, and on temperature at high temperatures resulting from shock loading. From the simulation we obtain deflagration fronts emanating out of the hot spots. For 8 to 13 GPa shocks, the emanating fronts propagate as deflagration waves to consume the explosive between hot spots. For higher shock levels deflagration waves may interact with the sweeping shock to become detonation waves on the mesoscale. From the simulation results we extract average deflagration wave speeds.

  19. TWRS tank waste pretreatment process development hot test siting report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howden, G.F.; Banning, D.L.; Dodd, D.A.; Smith, D.A.; Stevens, P.F.; Hansen, R.I.; Reynolds, B.A.

    1995-02-01

    This report is the sixth in a series that have assessed the hot testing requirements for TWRS pretreatment process development and identified the hot testing support requirements. This report, based on the previous work, identifies specific hot test work packages, matches those packages to specific hot cell facilities, and provides recommendations of specific facilities to be employed for the pretreatment hot test work. Also identified are serious limitations in the tank waste sample retrieval and handling infrastructure. Recommendations are provided for staged development of 500 mL, 3 L, 25 L and 4000 L sample recovery systems and specific actions to provide those capabilities

  20. EFFECT SIGNIFICANCE ASSESSMENT OF THE THERMODYNAMICAL FACTORS ON THE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sednin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Technologies of direct conversion of the fuel energy into electrical power are an upcoming trend in power economy. Over the last decades a number of countries have created industrial prototypes of power plants on fuel elements (cells, while fuel cells themselves became a commercial product on the world energy market. High electrical efficiency of the fuel cells allows predictting their further spread as part of hybrid installations jointly with gas and steam turbines which specifically enables achieving the electrical efficiency greater than 70 %. Nevertheless, investigations in the area of increasing efficiency and reliability of the fuel cells continue. Inter alia, research into the effects of oxidizing reaction thermodynamic parameters, fuel composition and oxidation reaction products on effectiveness of the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC is of specific scientific interest. The article presents a concise analysis of the fuel type effects on the SOFC efficiency. Based on the open publications experimental data and the data of numerical model studies, the authors adduce results of the statistical analysis of the SOFC thermodynamic parameters effect on the effectiveness of its functioning as well as of the reciprocative factors of these parameters and gas composition at the inlet and at the outlet of the cell. The presented diagrams reflect dimension of the indicated parameters on the SOFC operation effectiveness. The significance levels of the above listed factors are ascertained. Statistical analysis of the effects of the SOFC functionning process thermodynamical, consumption and concentration parameters demonstrates quintessential influence of the reciprocative factors (temperature – flow-rate and pressure – flow-rate and the nitrogen N2 and oxygen O2 concentrations on the operation efficiency in the researched range of its functioning. These are the parameters to be considered on a first-priority basis while developing mathematical models