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Sample records for host-seeking ixodes ricinus

  1. Presence of host-seeking Ixodes ricinus and their infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in the Northern Apennines, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragagli, Charlotte; Mannelli, Alessandro; Ambrogi, Cecilia; Bisanzio, Donal; Ceballos, Leonardo A; Grego, Elena; Martello, Elisa; Selmi, Marco; Tomassone, Laura

    2016-06-01

    Host-seeking ticks were collected in the Northern Apennines, Italy, by dragging at 35 sites, at altitudes ranging from 680 and 1670 m above sea level (asl), from April to November, in 2010 and 2011. Ixodes ricinus (4431 larvae, 597 nymphs and 12 adults) and Haemaphysalis punctata (11,209 larvae, 313 nymphs, and 25 adults) were the most abundant species, followed by Haemaphysalis sulcata (20 larvae, five nymphs, and 13 adults), Dermacentor marginatus (42 larvae and two adults) and Ixodes hexagonus (one nymph). Greatest numbers of ticks were collected at locations characterised by southern exposure and limestone substratum, at altitudes ricinus was most abundant in Turkey oak (Quercus cerris) wood, whereas H. punctata was mostly collected in hop hornbeam (Ostrya carpinifolia) wood and on exposed rocks. Ixodes ricinus was also found up to 1670 m asl, in high stand beech (Fagus sylvatica) wood. The overall prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl) in 294 host-seeking I. ricinus nymphs was 8.5 %. Borrelia garinii was the most frequently identified genospecies (64.0 % of positive nymphs), followed by B. valaisiana, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. afzelii, and B. lusitaniae. Based upon the comparison with the results of previous studies at the same location, these research findings suggest the recent invasion of the study area by the tick vector and the agents of Lyme borreliosis.

  2. Borrelia miyamotoi in host-seeking Ixodes ricinus ticks in England.

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    Hansford, K M; Fonville, M; Jahfari, S; Sprong, H; Medlock, J M

    2015-04-01

    This paper reports the first detection of Borrelia miyamotoi in UK Ixodes ricinus ticks. It also reports on the presence and infection rates of I. ricinus for a number of other tick-borne pathogens of public health importance. Ticks from seven regions in southern England were screened for B. miyamotoi, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Neoehrlichia mikurensis using qPCR. A total of 954 I. ricinus ticks were tested, 40 were positive for B. burgdorferi s.l., 22 positive for A. phagocytophilum and three positive for B. miyamotoi, with no N. mikurensis detected. The three positive B. miyamotoi ticks came from three geographically distinct areas, suggesting a widespread distribution, and from two separate years, suggesting some degree of endemicity. Understanding the prevalence of Borrelia and other tick-borne pathogens in ticks is crucial for locating high-risk areas of disease transmission.

  3. Repellent efficacy of DEET, Icaridin, and EBAAP against Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes scapularis nymphs (Acari, Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchel, Kerstin; Bendin, Juliane; Gharbi, Amina; Rahlenbeck, Sibylle; Dautel, Hans

    2015-06-01

    Repellent efficacy of 10% EBAAP (3-[N-butyl-N-acetyl]-aminopropionic acid, ethyl ester) and 10% Icaridin ((2-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperidinecarboxylic acid 1-methylpropyl ester)) were evaluated against 20% DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) in human subject trials against ticks. Responses of host-seeking nymphs of the European castor bean tick (Ixodes ricinus L.; Acari: Ixodidae) and the North American blacklegged tick (I. scapularis Say; Acari: Ixodidae) were compared. Tests were carried out according to the US-EPA standard protocol with ethanolic solutions of the active ingredients of repellents being applied to the forearm of 10 volunteers. The upward movement of ticks was monitored until repellent failure taking up to 12.5 h. Application of 20% DEET resulted in median complete protection times (CPT; Kaplan-Meier median) between 4 and 4.5 h, while 10% EBAAP yielded CPTs of 3.5-4h. No significant differences were found between the efficacies of two repellents nor between the two species tested. The median of the CPT of a 10% Icaridin solution was 5h in nymphs of I. scapularis, but 8h in those of I. ricinus (PIxodes ticks with Icaridin demonstrating particularly promising results against I. ricinus. Future research should investigate whether similar results occur when adult Ixodes ticks or other tick species are tested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Entomopathogenic fungi associated with Ixodes ricinus ticks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalsbeek, Vibeke; Frandsen, F.; Steenberg, Tove

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi on Ixodes ricinus ticks in relation to the tick stage, engorgement and season. Ticks were collected from the vegetation, from small rodents and from deer. All entomopathogenic fungi found belonged...... infected with fungi. Thirty-three out of 149 engorged females were infected, whereas males and engorged larvae were not infected. Throughout the season, a significantly higher proportion of ticks collected in autumn were infected. Entomopathogenic fungi may have a significant impact on the size of the I...

  5. Synanthropic Birds Influence the Distribution of Borrelia Species: Analysis of Ixodes ricinus Ticks Feeding on Passerine Birds ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubska, Lenka; Literak, Ivan; Kocianova, Elena; Taragelova, Veronika; Sverakova, Veronika; Sychra, Oldrich; Hromadko, Miloslav

    2011-01-01

    Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from 835 birds and from vegetation in the Czech Republic were analyzed. Host-seeking ticks (n = 427) were infected predominantly by Borrelia afzelii (25%). Ticks (n = 1,012) from songbirds (Passeriformes) were infected commonly by Borrelia garinii (12.1%) and Borrelia valaisiana (13.4%). Juveniles of synanthropic birds, Eurasian blackbirds (Turdus merula) and song thrushes (Turdus philomelos), were major reservoir hosts of B. garinii. PMID:21148704

  6. Babesia species in questing Ixodes ricinus, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Maria E; Andersson, Martin O

    2016-02-01

    Babesiosis is an emerging tick-transmitted zoonosis in large parts of the world. In Sweden, the occurrence and diversity of Babesia species is largely unknown. In order to estimate the exposure to Babesia from infected ticks, we collected questing Ixodes ricinus from several sites across southern Sweden during two consecutive field seasons and investigated the occurrence of Babesia species. We report for the first time the occurrence of the zoonotic species Babesia venatorum in Swedish ticks, with a prevalence of 1%. We also detected B. microti (prevalence 3.2%) and B. divergens (prevalence 0.2%). The incidence of Babesia in questing ticks is substantially lower than that of several other tick-borne diseases in Sweden. Nevertheless, babesiosis should not be neglected as a possible diagnosis following tick bites in humans and animals in Sweden. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Exotic Rickettsiae in Ixodes ricinus: fact or artifact?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijsse-Klasen, E.; Fonville, M.; Overbeek, van L.S.; Reimerink, J.H.J.; Sprong, H.

    2010-01-01

    Several pathogenic Rickettsia species can be transmitted via Ixodes ricinus ticks to humans and animals. Surveys of I. ricinus for the presence of Rickettsiae using part of its 16S rRNA gene yield a plethora of new and different Rickettsia sequences. Interpreting these data is sometimes difficult

  8. Natural hybridization between Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes persulcatus ticks evidenced by molecular genetics methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, S Y; Golovljova, I V; Mukhacheva, T A

    2016-02-01

    The recently shown phenomenon of natural hybridization between Ixodes persulcatus and Ixodes pavlovskyi ticks (Kovalev et al., 2015) stimulated similar studies in the sympatric zones of other tick species. In the present paper, 265 Ixodes ricinus and I. persulcatus ticks from Estonia were subjected to a search for interspecific hybrids based on nuclear (ITS2) and mitochondrial (cox1) markers as well as morphological features. Surprisingly, only 72.1% of ticks morphologically identified as I. ricinus actually were I. ricinus both at nuclear and mitochondrial markers, while the accuracy of morphological species identification for I. persulcatus was 99.3%. Among ticks morphologically identified as I. ricinus, 24.6% turned out to be interspecific hybrids and 3.3% were I. persulcatus. Generally, about 11% of the individuals studied were shown to be interspecific hybrids with different levels of nuclear DNA introgression. The analysis of hybrid populations proved the mating pair female I. ricinus×male I. persulcatus to form hybrids more efficiently, then female I. persulcatus×male I. ricinus. The same trend can be observed for backcrosses preferentially mating with I. ricinus. Hybridization between I. ricinus and I. persulcatus proved the existing view about their reproductive isolation to be untenable. Interspecific hybridization occurring between both closely (I. persulcatus and I. pavlovskyi) and more distantly (I. ricinus and I. persulcatus) related Ixodes species could introduce novel alleles that modify vector competence, host use or the ability to exploit diverse microhabitats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. First evidence of Babesia venatorum and Babesia capreoli in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venclikova, Kristyna; Mendel, Jan; Betasova, Lenka; Hubalek, Zdenek; Rudolf, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Ixodes ricinus is the most common tick species occurring in Central Europe and it serves as a principal vector of emerging human pathogens. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Babesia spp. in host-seeking I. ricinus in urban and natural habitats. PCR was applied on samples to assess prevalence of Babesia spp. in questing ixodid ticks. Sequencing was used for Babesia species determination. 1,473 I. ricinus ticks (1,294 nymphs, 99 males and 80 females) were examined for the presence of Babesia spp. at the two study sites. Minimum infection rate for Babesia spp. was found to be 0.5% (infected I. ricinus nymphs were only detected in the natural ecosystem). Two Babesia species were identified by sequencing: B. venatorum (formerly called Babesia sp. EU1) and B. capreoli. The results obtained represent the first evidence of the occurrence of B. venatorum and B. capreoli in host-seeking I. ricinus ticks in the Czech Republic.

  10. Zum Vorkommen der Zecke Ixodes ricinus L. (Ixodoieda, Ixodidae), in der Schweiz

    OpenAIRE

    Kaltenrieder, M.; Hess, E; Aeschlimann, André

    2010-01-01

    Contribution to the presence of the tick Ixodes ricinus L. in Switzerland. — Free living ticks of the species Ixodes ricinus were collected in 76 different biotops in Western Switzerland. The frequency and the density of /. ricinus diminishes with increasing altitude, respectively with decreasing annual average temperature.

  11. First detection of Ixodes ricinus on beef cattle in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erster, O; Roth, A; Hadani, Y; Shkap, V

    2013-01-31

    This is the first report of the presence of Ixodes ricinus on beef cattle in Israel. Up to now, in the Middle East this tick was considered to be confined to Turkey and northern Iran. In the present study, tick samples collected from field-grazing beef cattle in western Galilee (northern Israel) were first examined morphologically for species-specific taxonomical features and then by molecular characterization. Ticks identified morphologically as I. ricinus were then examined by PCR with four different molecular markers: 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, COX1 and cytochrome B. The PCR products were sequenced and compared with annotated I. ricinus sequences in GenBank™ and the analyzed sequences from the collected samples shared 98-99% identity with reported I. ricinus sequences. In contrast, sequences from the collected ticks shared identity of 91% or less with annotated sequences from other Ixodes species. Multiple alignments and neighbor-joining analyses performed for each of the four markers reinforced the results obtained from pairwise alignments. These findings demonstrated for the first time the presence in Israel of the tick species I. ricinus - with results confirmed by a combination of morphological examination and molecular analyses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato-infected Ixodes ricinus collected from vegetation near the Arctic Circle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvidsten, Dag; Stordal, Frode; Lager, Malin; Rognerud, Bjørg; Kristiansen, Bjørn-Erik; Matussek, Andreas; Gray, Jeremy; Stuen, Snorre

    2015-09-01

    This is the first study to determine the density of questing Ixodes ricinus in northern Norway. It was performed at two sites in Brønnøy, which has been known for its tick permissive habitats for decades and is one of the northernmost habitats with an abundant I. ricinus population in the world. From April to November 2011, all stages of host-seeking I. ricinus were collected from the two sites. The overall prevalence of nymphs infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was 21% and that of adult ticks 46%. The rates of the genospecies Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia valaisiana were similar to findings in most other studies in Scandinavia, with B. afzelii by far the most prevalent at 76%. The high Borrelia-infection prevalence in ticks from Brønnøy may explain the high incidence rate of reported Lyme borreliosis in the municipality. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  13. Different activities and footwear influence exposure to host-seeking nymphs of Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, J F; Kramer, M

    2001-07-01

    The relative potential for a person accidentally acquiring host-seeking nymphs of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, and lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (L.), while wearing either of two types of footwear, walking, crawling on hands and knees, and sitting on large fallen logs in deciduous woods, was evaluated. Although flag samples indicated substantial populations of I. scapularis nymphs and low to moderate numbers of A. americanum at the study sites, relatively few I. scapularis and fewer still A. americanum nymphs were acquired during 30-s and 5-min walks. Significantly fewer I. scapularis were picked up when boots were, worn with ankles taped (an anti-tick precaution) than when sneakers were worn with socks exposed during 5-min walks, but when thus attired, there was no significant difference between the number of nymphs acquired during 30-s walks. Nymphs of I. scapularis did not appear to accumulate incrementally on footwear or clothing during walks when boots were worn and ankles taped. Crawling for 30 s (approximately 3 m distance) yielded significantly more I. scapularis nymphs than walking for 30 s. During crawling, I. scapularis nymphs were picked up on 58% of the 30-s samples. Most ticks picked up during crawls were on pant legs. When a flannel flag cloth (0.5 by 0.5 m) was appressed to the upper surface of logs suitable to be sat upon by tired hikers, I. scapularis nymphs were found on 87% of the logs and in 36% of the samples. These data indicate that the potential for contact with host-seeking nymphs of I. scapularis occurring at these densities is greatly elevated by engaging in activities that involve contact with fallen logs and close contact of hands and knees with leaf litter.

  14. Experimental evidence against transmission of Hepatozoon canis by Ixodes ricinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannelli, Alessio; Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Mencke, Norbert; Baneth, Gad; Otranto, Domenico

    2013-09-01

    Hepatozoon canis is among the most widespread tick-borne protozoa infecting domestic and wild carnivores. Its distribution is related to the occurrence of its major vector, the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus. However, the role of Ixodes ricinus as a vector of H. canis has been hypothesized. In the present study, the development of H. canis was investigated in I. ricinus and R. sanguineus nymphs collected from a naturally infested dog. All I. ricinus ticks examined (n=133) were negative by cytological examination at days 20, 30, and 90 post collection, although H. canis DNA was detected in one nymph at day 20 and in 2 nymphs at day 30 post collection. On the other hand, H. canis sporogony was documented by cytology, and H. canis DNA was detected by PCR in R. sanguineus at day 30 post collection. These results indicate that H. canis sporogony does not occur in I. ricinus, but in R. sanguineus, suggesting that I. ricinus does not act as a vector of H. canis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Seasonal infestation of birds with immature stages of Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes arboricola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocianová, Elena; Rusňáková Tarageľová, Veronika; Haruštiaková, Danka; Špitalská, Eva

    2017-03-01

    This study assessed the parasitization of cavity-nesting birds and ground-nesting/foraging birds with larvae and nymphs of two Ixodes species, Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes arboricola. Totals of 679 (52.3%) I. ricinus and 619 (47.7%) I. arboricola ticks were collected from 15 species of passerine birds which were caught during the nesting and non-nesting periods of 2003-2006, in the south-eastern part of the Czech Republic, the Drahanská Vrchovina Uplands. In the non-nesting period from October to March, 6.8% (101/1492) of birds were infested with ticks, mainly with I. arboricola larvae. In the non-nesting period, the average intensity of infestation by I. arboricola and I. ricinus was 8.5 and 1.5 individuals per infested bird, respectively. In the nesting period from April to June, 21.6% (50/232) of birds were infested by both tick species but mainly with I. ricinus nymphs. The average intensity of infestation by I. ricinus and I. arboricola was 13.3 and 10.8 individuals per infested bird, respectively. Altogether, 23.2% of the infested birds were parasitized by both immature life stages of one or both tick species. From an enzootic perspective, co-feeding and co-infestation of I. ricinus and I. arboricola subadults on passerine birds might happen and may be important for the dissemination of tick-borne agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks from Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matei, Ioana Adriana; Kalmár, Zsuzsa; Magdaş, Cristian; Magdaş, Virginia; Toriay, Hortenzia; Dumitrache, Mirabela Oana; Ionică, Angela Monica; D'Amico, Gianluca; Sándor, Attila D; Mărcuţan, Daniel Ioan; Domşa, Cristian; Gherman, Călin Mircea; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Granulocytic anaplasmosis is a common vector-borne disease of humans and animals with natural transmission cycle that involves tick vectors, among which Ixodes ricinus is the most important. The present paper reports the prevalence and geographical distribution of A. phagocytophilum in 10,438 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks collected at 113 locations from 40 counties of Romania. The unfed ticks were examined for the presence of A. phagocytophilum by PCR targeting a portion of ankA gene. The overall prevalence of infection was 3.42%, with local prevalences ranging between 0.29% and 22.45%, with an average prevalence of 5.39% in the infected localities. The infection with A. phagocytophilum was detected in 72 out of 113 localities and in 34 out of 40 counties. The highest prevalence was recorded in females followed by males and nymphs. The results and the distribution model have shown a large distribution of A. phagocytophilum, covering Romania's entire territory. This study is the first large scale survey of the presence of A. phagocytophilum in questing I. ricinus ticks from Romania. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Molecular Identification of Borrelia miyamotoi in Ixodes ricinus from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Mónica; Parreira, Ricardo; Lopes, Nádia; Maia, Carla; Carreira, Teresa; Sousa, Carmelita; Faria, Sofia; Campino, Lenea; Vieira, M Luísa

    2015-08-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi, a relapsing fever spirochete, has been found recently in Ixodes ricinus ticks; however, little is known about its spatial distribution and potential local impact on human health. A total of 640 ticks (447 nymphs and 193 adults) collected throughout Portugal were analyzed using two nested PCR protocols, one targeting the flagellin gene and the other the internal transcribed space region between the 5S and the 23S rRNA. As a result, B. miyamotoi was detected, for the first time, in one guesting I. ricinus nymph collected in the Lisboa district. In addition, a prevalence of 11% (71/640) for B. burgdorferi sensu lato was obtained. Even though no human relapsing fever cases due to infection by B. miyamotoi have been reported yet in Portugal, surveillance must be improved to provide better insight into the prevalence and distribution of this spirochete in ticks.

  18. First evidence of [i]Babesia venatorum[/i] and [i]Babesia capreoli[/i] in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristyna Venclikova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective. [i]Ixodes ricinus[/i] is the most common tick species occurring in Central Europe and it serves as a principal vector of emerging human pathogens. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of [i]Babesia spp[/i]. in host-seeking [i]I. ricinus[/i] in urban and natural habitats. Materials and methods. PCR was applied on samples to assess prevalence of [i]Babesia spp.[/i] in questing ixodid ticks. Sequencing was used for [i]Babesia[/i] species determination. Results. 1,473 [i]I. ricinus[/i] ticks (1,294 nymphs, 99 males and 80 females were examined for the presence of [i]Babesia spp[/i]. at the two study sites. Minimum infection rate for [i]Babesia[/i] spp. was found to be 0.5% (infected I. ricinus nymphs were only detected in the natural ecosystem. Two[i] Babesia[/i] species were identified by sequencing: [i]B. venatorum[/i] (formerly called[i] Babesia[/i] sp. EU1 and [i]B. capreoli. [/i] Conclusions. The results obtained represent the first evidence of the occurrence of [i]B. venatorum[/i] and [i]B. capreoli[/i] in host-seeking[i] I. ricinus[/i] ticks in the Czech Republic.

  19. Prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus in Ixodes ricinus ticks in northern Europe with particular reference to Southern Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background In northern Europe, the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) of the European subtype is usually transmitted to humans by the common tick Ixodes ricinus. The aims of the present study are (i) to obtain up-to-date information on the TBEV prevalence in host-seeking I. ricinus in southern and central Sweden; (ii) to compile and review all relevant published records on the prevalence of TBEV in ticks in northern Europe; and (iii) to analyse and try to explain how the TBE virus can be maintained in natural foci despite an apparently low TBEV infection prevalence in the vector population. Methods To estimate the mean minimum infection rate (MIR) of TBEV in I. ricinus in northern Europe (i.e. Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland) we reviewed all published TBEV prevalence data for host-seeking I. ricinus collected during 1958–2011. Moreover, we collected 2,074 nymphs and 906 adults of I. ricinus from 29 localities in Sweden during 2008. These ticks were screened for TBEV by RT-PCR. Results The MIR for TBEV in nymphal and adult I. ricinus was 0.28% for northern Europe and 0.23% for southern Sweden. The infection prevalence of TBEV was significantly lower in nymphs (0.10%) than in adult ticks (0.55%). At a well-known TBEV-endemic locality, Torö island south-east of Stockholm, the TBEV prevalence (MIR) was 0.51% in nymphs and 4.48% in adults of I. ricinus. Conclusions If the ratio of nymphs to adult ticks in the TBEV-analysed sample differs from that in the I. ricinus population in the field, the MIR obtained will not necessarily reflect the TBEV prevalence in the field. The relatively low TBEV prevalence in the potential vector population recorded in most studies may partly be due to: (i) inclusion of uninfected ticks from the ‘uninfected areas’ surrounding the TBEV endemic foci; (ii) inclusion of an unrepresentative, too large proportion of immature ticks, compared to adult ticks, in the analysed tick pools; and (iii) shortcomings in the laboratory

  20. Prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus in Ixodes ricinus ticks in northern Europe with particular reference to Southern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, John H-O; Golovljova, Irina; Vene, Sirkka; Jaenson, Thomas G T

    2014-03-11

    In northern Europe, the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) of the European subtype is usually transmitted to humans by the common tick Ixodes ricinus. The aims of the present study are (i) to obtain up-to-date information on the TBEV prevalence in host-seeking I. ricinus in southern and central Sweden; (ii) to compile and review all relevant published records on the prevalence of TBEV in ticks in northern Europe; and (iii) to analyse and try to explain how the TBE virus can be maintained in natural foci despite an apparently low TBEV infection prevalence in the vector population. To estimate the mean minimum infection rate (MIR) of TBEV in I. ricinus in northern Europe (i.e. Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland) we reviewed all published TBEV prevalence data for host-seeking I. ricinus collected during 1958-2011. Moreover, we collected 2,074 nymphs and 906 adults of I. ricinus from 29 localities in Sweden during 2008. These ticks were screened for TBEV by RT-PCR. The MIR for TBEV in nymphal and adult I. ricinus was 0.28% for northern Europe and 0.23% for southern Sweden. The infection prevalence of TBEV was significantly lower in nymphs (0.10%) than in adult ticks (0.55%). At a well-known TBEV-endemic locality, Torö island south-east of Stockholm, the TBEV prevalence (MIR) was 0.51% in nymphs and 4.48% in adults of I. ricinus. If the ratio of nymphs to adult ticks in the TBEV-analysed sample differs from that in the I. ricinus population in the field, the MIR obtained will not necessarily reflect the TBEV prevalence in the field. The relatively low TBEV prevalence in the potential vector population recorded in most studies may partly be due to: (i) inclusion of uninfected ticks from the 'uninfected areas' surrounding the TBEV endemic foci; (ii) inclusion of an unrepresentative, too large proportion of immature ticks, compared to adult ticks, in the analysed tick pools; and (iii) shortcomings in the laboratory techniques used to detect the virus that may be

  1. Functional insights into recombinant TROSPA protein from Ixodes ricinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Figlerowicz

    Full Text Available Lyme disease (also called borreliosis is a prevalent chronic disease transmitted by ticks and caused by Borrelia burgdorferi s. l. spirochete. At least one tick protein, namely TROSPA from I. scapularis, commonly occurring in the USA, was shown to be required for colonization of the vector by bacteria. Located in the tick gut, TROSPA interacts with the spirochete outer surface protein A (OspA and initiates the tick colonization. Ixodes ricinus is a primary vector involved in B. burgdorferi s. l. transmission in most European countries. In this study, we characterized the capacities of recombinant TROSPA protein from I. ricinus to interact with OspA from different Borrelia species and to induce an immune response in animals. We also showed that the N-terminal part of TROSPA (a putative transmembrane domain is not involved in the interaction with OspA and that reduction of the total negative charge on the TROSPA protein impaired TROSPA-OspA binding. In general, the data presented in this paper indicate that recombinant TROSPA protein retains the capacity to form a complex with OspA and induces a significant level of IgG in orally immunized rats. Thus, I. ricinus TROSPA may be considered a good candidate component for an animal vaccine against Borrelia.

  2. Prevalence and phylogenetic analysis of Babesia spp. in Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes persulcatus ticks in Latvia.

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    Capligina, Valentina; Berzina, Inese; Bormane, Antra; Salmane, Ineta; Vilks, Karlis; Kazarina, Alisa; Bandere, Dace; Baumanis, Viesturs; Ranka, Renate

    2016-03-01

    Babesia spp. are tick-borne protozoan parasites that have been reported in many European countries and are considered to be emerging pathogens. Several Babesia spp. have been identified in ticks in Latvia. Recently, canine babesiosis cases were diagnosed for the first time in Latvia; therefore, continued studies on the prevalence and occurrence of new species are warranted. In the present study, questing tick samples collected in 2005-2007 were screened for the presence of Babesia spp.; in total, 432 Ixodes ricinus and 693 Ixodes persulcatus ticks were analyzed. Babesia spp. were detected in 1.4% of the I. ricinus ticks and in 1.9% of I. persulcatus ticks. Sequencing revealed that ixodid ticks in Latvia contained Babesia microti, Babesia capreoli, and Babesia venatorum. Babesia microti was the most prevalent species, accounting for 58% of all positive samples; moreover, two distinct B. microti genotypes were identified. Phylogenetic analysis of the full-length 18S rRNA gene of two B. capreoli/B. divergens isolates indicated a closer relationship to the B. capreoli clade than B. divergens. This is the first report of B. venatorum in I. persulcatus ticks in Latvia. Our results suggest that both I. ricinus and I. persulcatus ticks play important roles in the epidemiology of these zoonotic pathogens in Latvia.

  3. Seasonal distribution of Borreliae in Ixodes ricinus ticks in the Belgrade region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milutinović Marija

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Green areas at four localities in the Belgrade region (Ada Ciganlija, Košutnjak, Miljakovac forest, and Mt. Avala were investigated in 2004. The aim of the research was to clarify the faunistic composition, relative abundance, and population dynamics of ticks, as well as the seasonal distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl in Ixodes ricinus. Two species of ticks were detected: Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulates. Relative abundance analysis revealed that the species Ixodes ricinus was predominant (97.41 %. Out of 942 Ixodes ricinus ticks, 188 (19.96 % were infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sl. The infection rate of adults by localities ranged from 19.16% to 30.99% (Mt. Avala and Ada Ciganlija, respectively.

  4. Borrelia miyamotoi is widespread in Ixodes ricinus ticks in southern Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjelland, Vivian; Rollum, Rikke; Korslund, Lars; Slettan, Audun; Tveitnes, Dag

    2015-06-01

    From April to October 2007, host-seeking Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected from four locations in southern Norway; Farsund, Mandal, Søgne and Tromøy, respectively. Larvae (n=210), nymphs (n=1130) and adults (n=449) were investigated for infection with Borrelia miyamotoi by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of part of the 16S rRNA gene. Results were verified by direct sequencing of the PCR amplicon generated from the rrs (16S)-rrl (23S) intergenetic spacer. B. miyamotoi was detected at all sites and throughout the period of questing activity, with infection prevalence (≤1.26%) similar to what has been seen in other European countries. Detection of the relapsing fever spirochete at all locations indicates a wide distribution in southern Norway. This is the first report of B. miyamotoi prevalence in ticks collected from Norway. As not much is known about the spatiotemporal dynamics of this relatively recently discovered pathogen, the conclusions of this study significantly add to the knowledge regarding B. miyamotoi in this region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Blood feeding on large grazers affects the transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato by Ixodes ricinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacilly, F.C.A.; Benning, M.E.; Jacobs, F.; Leidekker, J.; Sprong, H.; Wieren, van S.E.; Takken, W.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of Ixodes ricinus and their associated Borrelia infections on large grazers was investigated. Carcases of freshly shot red deer, mouflon and wild boar were examined for the presence of any stage of I. ricinus. Questing ticks were collected from locations where red deer and wild boar are

  6. Multi-trophic interactions driving the transmission cycle of Borrelia afzelii between Ixodes ricinus and rodents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijvendijk, Van Gilian; Sprong, Hein; Takken, Willem

    2015-01-01

    The tick Ixodes ricinus is the main vector of the spirochaete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the causal agent of Lyme borreliosis, in the western Palearctic. Rodents are the reservoir host of B. afzelii, which can be transmitted to I. ricinus larvae during a blood meal. The infected engorged

  7. Anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks in southwestern Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sormunen, Jani J; Penttinen, Ritva; Klemola, Tero; Vesterinen, Eero J; Hänninen, Jari

    2016-12-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the causative agent of an emerging tick-borne disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis. While the bacterium has been reported from questing ticks in neighboring Sweden, Norway and Russia, the few surveys regarding questing ticks in Finland have thus far been negative. In the current study, the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum in Ixodes ricinus populations was evaluated in several study localities around southwestern Finland during 2013-2014. Some of these populations were previously screened and found negative for A. phagocytophilum in 2000. A total of 3158 I. ricinus collected by blanket dragging were screened for Anaplasma spp. using qPCR. Anaplasma were detected in 9.2% of adult ticks (n = 87) and 3.1% of nymphs (n = 979). All larval samples were negative for infection. All Anaplasma-positive samples were identified as A. phagocytophilum by sequencing. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of the pathogen from questing ticks in Finland. Furthermore, the pathogen was detected from several localities found negative during the previous screening 13 years earlier.

  8. Local landscape effects on population dynamics of Ixodes ricinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed Asghar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ixodes ricinus, a common tick in Europe, transmits severe tickborne pathogens (TBPs. In Sweden, both prevalence and incidence of tick-borne infections have increased during the last few decades, and a majority of the cases is reported from the area around Stockholm. Among ticks, transmission of TBPs involves co-feeding of susceptible larvae or nymphs with infected ticks on the same host. Seasonal synchrony of immature stages and total tick abundance are important factors for the probability of horizontal transmission of TBPs. We have studied the association between local landscape characteristics and population dynamics and the probability of co-occurrence of different life cycle stages of I. ricinus at different locations south of Stockholm, Sweden. We found significant spatiotemporal variation in tick activity patterns. Mean tick abundance varied with a tenfold difference among study sites. The probability of co-occurrence of larvae, nymphs and female adults was highest in June and decreased significantly with vegetation height. In addition, the amount of forest habitat and open water in the surrounding landscape of the study sites expressed significant negative effects on tick abundance and co-occurrence, indicating that environmental heterogeneity may increase the likelihood of good rodent habitats, which in turn, are suitable hosts for immature ticks.

  9. Deep Sequencing Analysis of the Ixodes ricinus Haemocytome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Kopáček, Petr; Franta, Zdeněk; Pedra, Joao H F; Ribeiro, José M C

    2015-05-01

    Ixodes ricinus is the main tick vector of the microbes that cause Lyme disease and tick-borne encephalitis in Europe. Pathogens transmitted by ticks have to overcome innate immunity barriers present in tick tissues, including midgut, salivary glands epithelia and the hemocoel. Molecularly, invertebrate immunity is initiated when pathogen recognition molecules trigger serum or cellular signalling cascades leading to the production of antimicrobials, pathogen opsonization and phagocytosis. We presently aimed at identifying hemocyte transcripts from semi-engorged female I. ricinus ticks by mass sequencing a hemocyte cDNA library and annotating immune-related transcripts based on their hemocyte abundance as well as their ubiquitous distribution. De novo assembly of 926,596 pyrosequence reads plus 49,328,982 Illumina reads (148 nt length) from a hemocyte library, together with over 189 million Illumina reads from salivary gland and midgut libraries, generated 15,716 extracted coding sequences (CDS); these are displayed in an annotated hyperlinked spreadsheet format. Read mapping allowed the identification and annotation of tissue-enriched transcripts. A total of 327 transcripts were found significantly over expressed in the hemocyte libraries, including those coding for scavenger receptors, antimicrobial peptides, pathogen recognition proteins, proteases and protease inhibitors. Vitellogenin and lipid metabolism transcription enrichment suggests fat body components. We additionally annotated ubiquitously distributed transcripts associated with immune function, including immune-associated signal transduction proteins and transcription factors, including the STAT transcription factor. This is the first systems biology approach to describe the genes expressed in the haemocytes of this neglected disease vector. A total of 2,860 coding sequences were deposited to GenBank, increasing to 27,547 the number so far deposited by our previous transcriptome studies that serves as a

  10. Deep Sequencing Analysis of the Ixodes ricinus Haemocytome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalis Kotsyfakis

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ixodes ricinus is the main tick vector of the microbes that cause Lyme disease and tick-borne encephalitis in Europe. Pathogens transmitted by ticks have to overcome innate immunity barriers present in tick tissues, including midgut, salivary glands epithelia and the hemocoel. Molecularly, invertebrate immunity is initiated when pathogen recognition molecules trigger serum or cellular signalling cascades leading to the production of antimicrobials, pathogen opsonization and phagocytosis. We presently aimed at identifying hemocyte transcripts from semi-engorged female I. ricinus ticks by mass sequencing a hemocyte cDNA library and annotating immune-related transcripts based on their hemocyte abundance as well as their ubiquitous distribution.De novo assembly of 926,596 pyrosequence reads plus 49,328,982 Illumina reads (148 nt length from a hemocyte library, together with over 189 million Illumina reads from salivary gland and midgut libraries, generated 15,716 extracted coding sequences (CDS; these are displayed in an annotated hyperlinked spreadsheet format. Read mapping allowed the identification and annotation of tissue-enriched transcripts. A total of 327 transcripts were found significantly over expressed in the hemocyte libraries, including those coding for scavenger receptors, antimicrobial peptides, pathogen recognition proteins, proteases and protease inhibitors. Vitellogenin and lipid metabolism transcription enrichment suggests fat body components. We additionally annotated ubiquitously distributed transcripts associated with immune function, including immune-associated signal transduction proteins and transcription factors, including the STAT transcription factor.This is the first systems biology approach to describe the genes expressed in the haemocytes of this neglected disease vector. A total of 2,860 coding sequences were deposited to GenBank, increasing to 27,547 the number so far deposited by our previous transcriptome studies

  11. Ixodes ricinus defensins attack distantly-related pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonk, Miray; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Valdés, James J; Rego, Ryan O M; Grubhoffer, Libor; Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Rahnamaeian, Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are ubiquitous components of eukaryotic innate immunity. Defensins are a well-known family of antimicrobial peptides, widely distributed in ticks, insects, plants and mammals, showing activity against bacteria, viruses, fungi, yeast and protozoan parasites. Ixodes ricinus is the most common tick species in Europe and is a vector of pathogens affecting human and animal health. Recently, six defensins (including two isoforms) were identified in I. ricinus. We investigated the evolution of the antimicrobial activity of I. ricinus defensins. Among the five unique defensins, only DefMT3, DefMT5 and DefMT6 showed in vitro antimicrobial activity. Each defensin was active against rather distantly-related bacteria (P < 0.05), significantly among Gram-negative species (P < 0.0001). These three defensins represent different clades within the family of tick defensins, suggesting that the last common ancestor of tick defensins may have had comparable antimicrobial activity. Differences in electrostatic potential, and amino acid substitutions in the β-hairpin and the loop bridging the α-helix and β-sheet may affect the antimicrobial activity in DefMT2 and DefMT7, which needs to be addressed. Additionally, the antimicrobial activity of the γ-core motif of selected defensins (DefMT3, DefMT6, and DefMT7) was also tested. Interestingly, compared to full length peptides, the γ-core motifs of these defensins were effective against less species of bacteria. However, the antifungal activity of the γ-core was higher than full peptides. Our results broaden the scope of research in the field of antimicrobial peptides highlighting the overlooked ability of arthropod defensins to act against distantly-related microorganisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Surveillance of Ixodes ricinus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfredsson, Matthias; Olafsson, Erling; Eydal, Matthias; Unnsteinsdottir, Ester Rut; Hansford, Kayleigh; Wint, William; Alexander, Neil; Medlock, Jolyon M

    2017-10-10

    Ixodes ricinus is a three-host tick, a principal vector of Borrelia burgdorferi (s.l.) and one of the main vectors of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus. Iceland is located in the North Atlantic Ocean with subpolar oceanic climate. During the past 3-4 decades, average temperature has increased, supporting more favourable conditions for ticks. Reports of I. ricinus have increased in recent years. If these ticks were able to establish in a changing climate, Iceland may face new threats posed by tick-borne diseases. Active field surveillance by tick flagging was conducted at 111 sites around Iceland from August 2015 to September 2016. Longworth mammal traps were used to trap Apodemus sylvaticus in southwestern and southern Iceland. Surveillance on tick importation by migratory birds was conducted in southeastern Iceland, using bird nets and a Heligoland trap. Vulpes lagopus carcasses from all regions of the country were inspected for ticks. In addition, existing and new passive surveillance data from two institutes have been merged and are presented. Continental probability of presence models were produced. Boosted Regression Trees spatial modelling methods and its predictions were assessed against reported presence. By field sampling 26 questing I. ricinus ticks (7 males, 3 females and 16 nymphs) were collected from vegetation from three locations in southern and southeastern Iceland. Four ticks were found on migratory birds at their arrival in May 2016. A total of 52 A. sylvaticus were live-trapped but no ticks were found nor on 315 V. lagopus carcasses. Passive surveillance data collected since 1976, reports further 214 I. ricinus ticks from 202 records, with an increase of submissions in recent years. The continental probability of presence model correctly predicts approximately 75% of the recorded presences, but fails to predict a fairly specific category of recorded presence in areas where the records are probably opportunistic and not likely to lead to

  13. Vaccination against Bm86 Homologues in Rabbits Does Not Impair Ixodes ricinus Feeding or Oviposition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Coumou

    Full Text Available Human tick-borne diseases that are transmitted by Ixodes ricinus, such as Lyme borreliosis and tick borne encephalitis, are on the rise in Europe. Diminishing I. ricinus populations in nature can reduce tick exposure to humans, and one way to do so is by developing an anti-vector vaccine against tick antigens. Currently, there is only one anti-vector vaccine available against ticks, which is a veterinary vaccine based on the tick antigen Bm86 in the gut of Rhipicephalus microplus. Bm86 vaccine formulations cause a reduction in the number of Rhipicephalus microplus ticks that successfully feed, i.e. lower engorgement weights and a decrease in the number of oviposited eggs. Furthermore, Bm86 vaccines reduce transmission of bovine Babesia spp. Previously two conserved Bm86 homologues in I. ricinus ticks, designated as Ir86-1 and Ir86-2, were described. Here we investigated the effect of a vaccine against recombinant Ir86-1, Ir86-2 or a combination of both on Ixodes ricinus feeding. Recombinant Ixodes ricinus Bm86 homologues were expressed in a Drosophila expression system and rabbits were immunized with rIr86-1, rIr86-2, a combination of both or ovalbumin as a control. Each animal was infested with 50 female adults and 50 male adults Ixodes ricinus and tick mortality, engorgement weights and egg mass were analyzed. Although serum IgG titers against rIr86 proteins were elicited, no effect was found on tick feeding between the rIr86 vaccinated animals and ovalbumin vaccinated animals. We conclude that vaccination against Bm86 homologues in Ixodes ricinus is not an effective approach to control Ixodes ricinus populations, despite the clear effects of Bm86 vaccination against Rhipicephalus microplus.

  14. Vaccination against Bm86 Homologues in Rabbits Does Not Impair Ixodes ricinus Feeding or Oviposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coumou, Jeroen; Wagemakers, Alex; Trentelman, Jos J; Nijhof, Ard M; Hovius, Joppe W

    2014-01-01

    Human tick-borne diseases that are transmitted by Ixodes ricinus, such as Lyme borreliosis and tick borne encephalitis, are on the rise in Europe. Diminishing I. ricinus populations in nature can reduce tick exposure to humans, and one way to do so is by developing an anti-vector vaccine against tick antigens. Currently, there is only one anti-vector vaccine available against ticks, which is a veterinary vaccine based on the tick antigen Bm86 in the gut of Rhipicephalus microplus. Bm86 vaccine formulations cause a reduction in the number of Rhipicephalus microplus ticks that successfully feed, i.e. lower engorgement weights and a decrease in the number of oviposited eggs. Furthermore, Bm86 vaccines reduce transmission of bovine Babesia spp. Previously two conserved Bm86 homologues in I. ricinus ticks, designated as Ir86-1 and Ir86-2, were described. Here we investigated the effect of a vaccine against recombinant Ir86-1, Ir86-2 or a combination of both on Ixodes ricinus feeding. Recombinant Ixodes ricinus Bm86 homologues were expressed in a Drosophila expression system and rabbits were immunized with rIr86-1, rIr86-2, a combination of both or ovalbumin as a control. Each animal was infested with 50 female adults and 50 male adults Ixodes ricinus and tick mortality, engorgement weights and egg mass were analyzed. Although serum IgG titers against rIr86 proteins were elicited, no effect was found on tick feeding between the rIr86 vaccinated animals and ovalbumin vaccinated animals. We conclude that vaccination against Bm86 homologues in Ixodes ricinus is not an effective approach to control Ixodes ricinus populations, despite the clear effects of Bm86 vaccination against Rhipicephalus microplus.

  15. Europe-Wide Meta-Analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Prevalence in Questing Ixodes ricinus Ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strnad, Martin; Hönig, Václav; Růžek, Daniel; Grubhoffer, Libor; Rego, Ryan O M

    2017-08-01

    Lyme borreliosis is the most common zoonotic disease transmitted by ticks in Europe and North America. Despite having multiple tick vectors, the causative agent, Borrelia burgdorferisensu lato, is vectored mainly by Ixodes ricinus in Europe. In the present study, we aimed to review and summarize the existing data published from 2010 to 2016 concerning the prevalence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes in questing I. ricinus ticks. The primary focus was to evaluate the infection rate of these bacteria in ticks, accounting for tick stage, adult tick gender, region, and detection method, as well as to investigate any changes in prevalence over time. The data obtained were compared to the findings of a previous metastudy. The literature search identified data from 23 countries, with 115,028 ticks, in total, inspected for infection with B. burgdorferi sensu lato We showed that the infection rate was significantly higher in adults than in nymphs and in females than in males. We found significant differences between European regions, with the highest infection rates in Central Europe. The most common genospecies were B. afzelii and B. garinii, despite a negative correlation of their prevalence rates. No statistically significant differences were found among the prevalence rates determined by conventional PCR, nested PCR, and real-time PCR.IMPORTANCEBorrelia burgdorferisensu lato is a pathogenic bacterium whose clinical manifestations are associated with Lyme borreliosis. This vector-borne disease is a major public health concern in Europe and North America and may lead to severe arthritic, cardiovascular, and neurological complications if left untreated. Although pathogen prevalence is considered an important predictor of infection risk, solitary isolated data have only limited value. Here we provide summarized information about the prevalence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes among host-seeking Ixodes ricinus ticks, the principal tick vector of borreliae in

  16. Diapause in ticks of the medically important Ixodes ricinus species complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Jeremy S.; Kahl, Olaf; Lane, Robert S.; Levin, Michael L.; Tsao, Jean I.

    2017-01-01

    Four members of the Ixodes ricinus species complex, Ixodes pacificus, Ixodes persulcatus, Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes scapularis, have, between them, a worldwide distribution within the northern hemisphere. They are responsible for the transmission of several animal and human pathogens, including the causal agents of Lyme borreliosis, tick-borne encephalitis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis and human babesiosis. Despite the importance of these ticks as vectors, the knowledge and understanding of the role that diapause plays in their complex life cycles are confused and incomplete. In view of the continuing geographic spread of these tick species, as well as the effects of climate change on vector-borne diseases, it is timely encourage research on diapause phenomena to improve understanding of their biology and of pathogen transmission dynamics. In our review we seek to clarify thinking on the topic and to address gaps in our knowledge that require the attention of researchers. PMID:27263092

  17. Differential diagnosis of three common Ixodes spp. ticks infesting songbirds of Western Europe: Ixodes arboricola, I. frontalis and I. ricinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heylen, Dieter; De Coninck, Eliane; Jansen, Famke; Madder, Maxime

    2014-10-01

    The three most common Ixodes spp. ticks found on songbirds in Western Europe are Ixodes frontalis, I. arboricola and I. ricinus. As the latter species is a generalist, it shares several avian hosts with the two strictly ornithophilic species. Infestations of the three species can overlap in time and space, implying that tick-borne pathogens maintained by the ornithophilic ticks and their hosts could be bridged by I. ricinus to non-avian hosts. Whereas the endophilic Ixodes arboricola only occurs in cavities, I. frontalis has been collected frequently by flagging methods from understory vegetation, which is also the habitat of the field-dwelling I. ricinus. As the latter two species have rather similar morphological characteristics, they can easily be confused with each other. In this study, we present scanning electron photomicrographs of all developmental stages of I. arboricola and I. frontalis, and provide a differential diagnosis key to distinguish the ornithophilic ticks from I. ricinus. In addition, we interpreted their phylogenetic associations based on mitochondrial 16S rDNA with other Ixodes spp. ticks (I. lividus, I. turdus, I. brunneus, I. vespertilionis, I. trianguliceps, I. hexagonus, I. scapularis). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Infection of Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhioua, E.; Bouattour, A.; Hu, C.M.; Gharbi, M.; Aeschliman, A.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Gern, L.

    1999-01-01

    Free-living adult Ixodes ricinus L. were collected in Amdoun, situated in the Kroumiry mountains in northwestern Tunisia (North Africa). Using direct fluorescence antibody assay, the infection rate of field-collected I. ricinus by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was 30.5% (n = 72). No difference in infection rate was observed between male and female ticks. Spirochetes that had been isolated from I. ricinus from Ain Drahim (Kroumiry Mountains) in 1988 were identified as Borrelia lusitaniae (formerly genospecies PotiB2). This is the first identification of a genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from the continent of Africa.

  19. The Seasonal Activity of Ixodes ricinus Tick in Amol, Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrollah Vahedi-Noori

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study aimed to demonstrate the seasonal activities of Ixodes ricinus at the pasture level and on the host.Methods: A vast pasture in Amol countryside (Mazandaran Province, Iran which had the potential for a considerablenumber of cattle and sheep to graze was chosen. Tick sampling from the skin of 130 cattle and 130 sheep were collected every month interval. Simultaneously, the activity of the different stages of I. ricinus on the pasture was considered by dragging method. The collected ticks were placed in jars containing 70% alcohol and sent to the parasitological laboratory for identification.Results: The rate of the infestation with adult I. ricinus in cattle and sheep increases gradually with the beginning offall and reaches its peak in January, February and March while it starts to decline with the beginning of spring as theinfestation rate reach to zero in summer months. Accordingly, the highest number of adult I. ricinus existed on the cattle during January, February, and March. In addition, the results of dragging have been revealed that the active tick population in the pasture exists during November, December, January, and March.Conclusion: Ixodes ricinus is regarded a common tick species in Amol (Mazandaran. Due to the biological properties of I. ricinus which is active in the cold and humid months of the year, the prevalence of ruminant infestations with I. ricinus in this area increases from November to March but reaches to zero again with thebeginning of summer.

  20. Influence of meteorological parameters during the preceding fall and winter on the questing activity of nymphal Ixodes ricinus ticks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollack, Ken; Sodoudi, Sahar; Névir, Peter; Müller, Klaus; Richter, Dania

    2017-05-01

    Wood ticks, Ixodes ricinus L., serve as vectors for various pathogens and are ubiquitous throughout Central Europe. Survival and development of I. ricinus depend on biotic and abiotic factors. We examined whether relative humidity (RH), air (T a ) and soil temperatures (T s ), or snow depth during November through February affect the questing activity of ticks during their subsequent season of activity. We related the number of host-seeking nymphs to meteorological parameters measured in close proximity at minutely intervals over the period of 6 years (2010-2015) in an urban park in Berlin. We defined thresholds at which associations appeared strongest. Although the annual variations in RH, T a , and snow depth were typical of the mid-latitudes, the questing activity of nymphs during their first peak of activity (March through July) varied among the 6 years more than threefold. The accumulated hours of RH below 77% in 2 m height during November through February affected the questing activity of nymphs during the following activity peak. In contrast to T a , accumulated hours of T s below -1 °C in 0.02 m depth or below -4 °C in 0.05 m depth during the preceding period significantly influenced the average number of nymphs questing during spring. Our observations suggest that RH, T s , and snow cover during the preceding months affect the questing activity of nymphal I. ricinus during their first peak of activity. Snow cover serves as an insulator between the atmosphere and soil, which not only stabilizes T s but also appears to protect ticks from exposure to frost and frequent temperature shifts.

  1. Immunoproteomic identification of antigenic salivary biomarkers detected by Ixodes ricinus-exposed rabbit sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu Hai, Vinh; Pages, Frédéric; Boulanger, Nathalie; Audebert, Stéphane; Parola, Philippe; Almeras, Lionel

    2013-09-01

    Ixodes ricinus, the primary vector of tick-borne disease in Europe, is currently expanding its distribution area and its activity in many countries. Antibody responses to tick salivary antigens have been proposed as an alternative marker of exposure to tick bites. However, the identification of the I. ricinus corresponding antigens remains elusive. Using rabbits artificially exposed to I. ricinus and 2 other European tick species (Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Dermacentor reticulatus) as controls, a cross-comparison of IgG profiles was performed against protein salivary gland extracts (pSGE) from these 3 tick species using immunoblots. Immunoblot analysis highlighted a singularity in the immune patterns according to tick species exposure and pSGE antigen source. Two protein bands were detected against I. ricinus pSGE only in rabbits exposed to I. ricinus bites. An immunoproteomic approach based on a fluorescence detection method was developed to unambiguously identify corresponding antigenic spots on 2-D gels. Among the unique I. ricinus salivary antigenic proteins detected by sera from rabbits exposed to this tick species, I. ricinus calreticulin was identified. Although tick calreticulin was previously proposed as a potential antigenic marker following exposure to ticks (particularly in North American tick species), the present study suggested that Ixodes calreticulin does not appear to be cross-recognized by the 2 other tick genera tested. Additional experiments are needed to confirm the use of I. ricinus calreticulin salivary protein as a potential discriminant antigenic biomarker to Ixodes tick exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Ultrastructure and lectin characterization of granular salivary cells from Ixodes ricinus females

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vancová, Marie; Zacharovová, Klára; Grubhoffer, Libor; Nebesářová, Jana

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 3 (2006), s. 431-440 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/1323 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Ixodes ricinus * salivary glands * lectin labeling Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.300, year: 2006

  3. Occurrence of multiple infections with different Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies in Danish Ixodes ricinus nymphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jean Vennestrøm; Egholm, H.; Mikkelsen, Per Jensen

    2008-01-01

    The pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi causes Lyme Borreliosis in human and animals world-wide. In Europe the pathogen is transmitted to the host by the vector Ixodes ricinus. The nymph is the primary instar for transmission to humans. We here study the infection rate of five Borrelia genospecies: B...

  4. Diversity of Ixodes ricinus tick-associated bacterial communities from different forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, van L.S.; Gassner, F.; Lombaers-van der Plas, C.H.; Kastelein, P.; Nunes da Rocha, U.; Takken, W.

    2008-01-01

    Nymphal Ixodes ricinus ticks (n=180) were collected from three different areas in the Netherlands to investigate the effect of forest composition on tick-associated microbial communities. Sampled habitats differed in thickness of leaf litter and humus layers and vegetation associations and were

  5. Behavioural responses of Ixodes ricinus nymphs to carbon dioxide and rodent odour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijvendijk, van G.; Gort, G.; Sprong, H.; Takken, W.

    2017-01-01

    Many haematophagous ectoparasites use carbon dioxide (CO2) and host odour to detect and locate their hosts. The tick Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus) (Ixodida: Ixodidae) walks only small distances and quests in vegetation until it encounters a host. The differential effects of CO2 and host odour on the

  6. The role of large herbivores in Ixodes ricinus and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieren, van S.E.; Hofmeester, T.R.

    2016-01-01

    Large herbivores are the most important reproduction hosts for Ixodes ricinus, and, as such, play a major role in maintaining tick populations. As one individual deer can already feed many females during the tick season, we propose that the relationship between deer density and tick density can best

  7. Morphological differentiation of Ixodes persulcatus and I. ricinus hybrid larvae in experiment and under natural conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugmyrin, Sergey V; Belova, Oxana A; Ieshko, Eugeniy P; Bespyatova, Liubov A; Karganova, Galina G

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the study was detection of hybrid larvae in Ixodes persulcatus and Ixodes ricinus cohabitation sites. To this end, the following three tasks were solved: interspecies crossing of ticks, evaluation of typical morphological signs of the hybrid larvae, and analysis of collected specimens from sites of sympatry. Under experimental conditions, hybrid larvae of I. persulcatus (female) and I. ricinus (male) were obtained that differed from the parental species by the size of setae on the scutum and alloscutum. Discriminant analysis yielded 87.5% classification accuracy for the priory set groups of I. persulcatus, I. ricinus, and hybrids. Of 88 hybrid larvae, 13 (15%) were classified as I. persulcatus and 4 (5%) as I. ricinus. We measured larvae of Ixodes ticks (n=141) collected from small mammals in 1950-1970 in Karelia in cohabitation sites of these species that were previously classified as I. persulcatus or I. ricinus. According to the results of discriminant analysis, 31 larvae (22%) were classified as hybrids with probability p≥0.52; for 10 larvae (7%), the probability of placement to the hybrid group was >0.95. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Isolation and propagation of a Spiroplasma sp. from Slovakian Ixodes ricinus ticks in Ixodes spp. cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; Palomar, Ana M; Kazimirova, Maria

    2015-07-01

    Ixodes spp. ticks are known to occasionally harbour spiroplasmas - helical mycoplasmas in the class Mollicutes; a previous study in Slovakia reported an overall prevalence of Spiroplasma ixodetis of 3% in Ixodes ricinus. In the present study, extracts of unfed adult I. ricinus ticks collected from vegetation in south-western Slovakia were added to a panel of cell lines derived from I. ricinus and Ixodes scapularis embryos. The cultures were monitored by preparation and examination of Giemsa-stained cytocentrifuge smears at intervals over the subsequent 16-18 months. Spiroplasma-like microorganisms were detected in cultures of both tick species after 2-3 months and subcultured onto fresh, uninfected cells of the appropriate cell line up to seven times. Molecular analysis using PCR assays targeting fragments of the 16S rRNA, ITS and rpoB genes confirmed the identity of the microorganisms as a Spiroplasma sp., with between 98.9% and 99.5% similarity to S. ixodetis. The sequences of the spiroplasmas isolated from three different pools of ticks collected on two different occasions were identical for all three genes tested. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of tick-borne microorganism communities in Ixodes spp. of the Ixodes ricinus species complex at distinct geographical regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movila, Alexandru; Dubinina, Helen V; Sitnicova, Natalia; Bespyatova, Liubov; Uspenskaia, Inga; Efremova, Galina; Toderas, Ion; Alekseev, Andrey N

    2014-05-01

    Characterizing the tick-borne microorganism communities of Ixodes ricinus (sheep tick) and Ixodes persulcatus (taiga tick) from the I. ricinus species complex in distinct geographical regions of Eastern Europe and European Russia, we demonstrated differences between the two ticks. Taiga ticks were more frequently mono- and co-infected than sheep ticks: 24.4 % (45/184 tested ticks) versus 17.5 % (52/297) and 4.3 % (8/184) versus 3.4 % (10/297), respectively. Ginsberg co-infection index values were significant at the various sites. Diversity of the tick-borne microorganism communities was estimated by the Shannon index, reaching values of 1.71 ± 0.46 and 1.20 ± 0.15 at the sheep-tick and the taiga-tick harbored sites, respectively. Richness of the tick-borne microorganism community in the sheep tick collection sites was about twice the value of the taiga tick collection sites. Future investigations are warranted to further characterize the peculiarities of the tick-borne microorganism communities among the ticks of the Ixodes ricinus complex.

  10. Molecular characterization of COI gene of Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus, 1758 from Serbia

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    Ćakić Sanja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ixodes ricinus tick is common in the central part of the Balkan Peninsula. It is a vector of pathogenic agents causing diseases in humans and animals. Little is known about the genetic structure of I. ricinus in this region. We have investigated intraspecific variability of the COI gene among I. ricinus ticks collected from different regions of Serbia, and the correlation between the various types of habitat and genetic variability of ticks. The obtained COI gene sequences are the first barcoding sequences of I. ricinus ticks collected at localities in Serbia. Intraspecific variability of these COI gene sequences was very low, and there was no correlation between the various types of habitat and genetic variability of ticks. Samples from isolated localities (canyon/gorge showed no genetic differentiations from the majority of samples from open areas. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON 173006

  11. Dominance of Dermacentor reticulatus over Ixodes ricinus (Ixodidae) on livestock, companion animals and wild ruminants in eastern and central Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Mierzejewska, Ewa J.; Welc-Faleciak, Renata; Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Kowalec, Maciej; Behnke, Jerzy M.; Bajer, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The most common tick species parasitizing animals in Poland are Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus. These tick species differ in their distribution, habitats, seasonal activity and host specificity. Ixodes ricinus is the most prevalent and widely distributed, whereas the range of D. reticulatus is limited to eastern and central parts of the country with several new foci in the middle-west and the west. However, as in many central European countries, the range of D. reticulatus is expa...

  12. An Ixodes ricinus Tick Salivary Lectin Pathway Inhibitor Protects Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from Human Complement.

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    Wagemakers, Alex; Coumou, Jeroen; Schuijt, Tim J; Oei, Anneke; Nijhof, Ard M; van 't Veer, Cornelis; van der Poll, Tom; Bins, Adriaan D; Hovius, Joppe W R

    2016-04-01

    We previously identified tick salivary lectin pathway inhibitor (TSLPI) in Ixodes scapularis, a vector for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) in North America. TSLPI is a salivary protein facilitating B. burgdorferi s.s. transmission and acquisition by inhibiting the host lectin complement pathway through interference with mannose binding lectin (MBL) activity. Since Ixodes ricinus is the predominant vector for Lyme borreliosis in Europe and transmits several complement sensitive B. burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) strains, we aimed to identify, describe, and characterize the I. ricinus ortholog of TSLPI. We performed (q)PCRs on I. ricinus salivary gland cDNA to identify a TSLPI ortholog. Next, we generated recombinant (r)TSLPI in a Drosophila expression system and examined inhibition of the MBL complement pathway and complement-mediated killing of B. burgdorferi s.l. in vitro. We identified a TSLPI ortholog in I. ricinus salivary glands with 93% homology at the RNA and 89% at the protein level compared to I. scapularis TSLPI, which was upregulated during tick feeding. In silico analysis revealed that TSLPI appears to be part of a larger family of Ixodes salivary proteins among which I. persulcatus basic tail salivary proteins and I. scapularis TSLPI and Salp14. I. ricinus rTSLPI inhibited the MBL complement pathway and protected B. burgdorferi s.s. and Borrelia garinii from complement-mediated killing. We have identified a TSLPI ortholog, which protects B. burgdorferi s.l. from complement-mediated killing in I. ricinus, the major vector for tick-borne diseases in Europe.

  13. Morphological features of Ixodes persulcatus and I. ricinus hybrids: nymphs and adults.

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    Bugmyrin, Sergey V; Belova, Oxana A; Bespyatova, Liubov A; Ieshko, Eugeniy P; Karganova, Galina G

    2016-07-01

    Our aim was to reveal morphological features of first-generation Ixodes persulcatus and I. ricinus hybrids (nymphs and adults) obtained under laboratory conditions for further study of natural populations of these species in sympatry foci. In 65 nymphs of three groups I. ricinus (23 specimens), I. persulcatus (21 specimens), and hybrids (21 specimens), 16 parameters were evaluated (length/width of the scutum and capitulum, length of the hypostome, palp, tarsus I, coxa I, sternal setae, and various scutal and alloscutal setae) and discrimination analysis was performed allowing differentiation of hybrid nymphs from original species. General effectiveness of classification of I. ricinus, I. persulcatus, and hybrids was >95 %. Discriminant functions are presented allowing classification of I. persulcatus, I. ricinus, and hybrid nymphs. For description of morphology, 27 adult hybrids (13 males and 14 females) were examined under a stereo microscope at 14-28× (without preparation of permanent mounts). The following morphological distinctions of hybrids from original species were described: posterior marginal groove is not clear (as in I. ricinus) and absence of syncoxa on coxa I (as in I persulcatus). In hybrid males, simultaneous absence of syncoxa on coxa I (as in I. persulcatus) and a long internal spur on coxa I (as in I. ricinus) can be used as a diagnostic feature. Based on the detected characteristics, 10 of 157 ticks collected in Karelia in I. ricinus and I. persulcatus sympatry area were classified as hybrids.

  14. Identification and partial characterization of a Salp15 homolog from Ixodes ricinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Renneker, S; Beyer, D; Kullmann, B; Seitzer, U; Ahmed, J; Bakheit, M A

    2014-04-01

    The immunomodulatory molecule Salp15 is originally described in Ixodes scapularis and has been shown to inhibit CD4 T cell activation. Many Salp15 homologs have been described from Ixodes species, and all were well conserved at C-terminal residues that seem to be essential for the function of the protein. In this study, a gene sequence was amplified from cDNA isolated from engorged female I. ricinus ticks, which was predicted to generate a protein of 12.3 kDa. The protein displayed distinct amino acid differences from previously described I. ricinus Salp15 homologs, with amino acid identity ranging between 46.6% and 93.9%. It was referred to as I. ricinus Salp15-like protein. The protein showed 48.1% sequence identity to I. scapularis Salp15. We analyzed the effect of the recombinant I. ricinus Salp15-like protein on the production of cytokines from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with LPS. The recombinant protein exerted no effect on the production of TNF-α and IL-6, but the production of IL-10 was dose-dependently reduced. It can be concluded that I. ricinus Salp15-like protein exerts an immunomodulatory effect on the host. The inhibition of IL-10 production may possibly lead to a retardation of B cell activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Siberian subtype tick-borne encephalitis virus in Ixodes ricinus in a newly emerged focus, Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jääskeläinen, Anu; Tonteri, Elina; Pieninkeroinen, Ilkka; Sironen, Tarja; Voutilainen, Liina; Kuusi, Markku; Vaheri, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli

    2016-02-01

    The first tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) cases in Kotka, Finland appeared in 2010. Altogether ten human cases have been diagnosed by 2014. Four had long-lasting sequelae. We collected 195 Ixodes ricinus ticks, nine rodents, and eleven shrews from the archipelago of Kotka in 2011. Three Siberian subtype TBE virus (TBEV) strains were isolated from the ticks and three mammals were positive for TBEV antibodies. The archipelago of Kotka is a newly emerged TBE focus of Siberian subtype TBEV circulating notably in I. ricinus. The patients had on average longer hospitalization than reported for the European subtype infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of landscape features on the relationship between Ixodes ricinus ticks and their small mammal hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Bastian, Suzanne; Agoulon, Albert; Bouju, Agnès; Durand, Axelle; Faille, Frédéric; Lebert, Isabelle; Rantier, Yann; Plantard, Olivier; Butet, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Background The consequences of land use changes are among the most cited causes of emerging infectious diseases because they can modify the ecology and transmission of pathogens. This is particularly true for vector-borne diseases which depend on abiotic (e.g. climate) and biotic conditions (i.e. hosts and vectors). In this study, we investigated how landscape features affect the abundances of small mammals and Ixodes ricinus ticks, and how they influence their relationship. Methods From 2012...

  17. Determination of the parameters of the parasitic stage in Ixodes ricinus females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartosik, Katarzyna; Buczek, Alicja

    2013-01-01

    Ixodes ricinus is a tick commonly found on human and animals and of great medical and veterinary importance. The aim of the study was to determine the parameters of different stages of feeding in Ixodes ricinus females. 229 Ixodes ricinus females were collected from 102 animals--roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) culled in southern and south-eastern Poland in 2002. Each female was weighed and the length and width of the scutum as well as the width of the idiosoma were measured. 20 tick females were collected from vegetation growing in the region and analysed in order to compare the changes in the parameters studied to those exhibited by unengorged specimens. Three groups were identified on the basis of female body weight; group I consisted of 52 females in feeding phase I with body weight in the range of 0.0003-0.0043 g (mean 0.0019 g), group II comprised 150 females in feeding phase II with weight in the range of 0.0017-0.3075 g (mean 0.0263 g), and group III consisted of 27 females in feeding phase III with weight in the range of 0.0904-0.3122 g (mean 0.1913 g). Indices characterizing the various feeding phases, such as body index, scutal index, alloscutal index, growth index, engorgement index I and II, and the relative body mass index, were determined. The investigations demonstrated that the values of the morphometric traits in feeding phase I, II and III differe in I. ricinus females. The values of the morphometric features and indices can be helpful in identification of the parasitic stage of I. ricinus females removed from host skin, and assessment of the risk of infection of the host with various parasites injected with tick saliva at the respective feeding phases.

  18. Prevalence and diversity of Babesia spp. in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks from Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Ixodes ricinus ticks transmit Babesia species to vertebrate hosts. Using molecular tools we were able to detect the presence of this piroplasmid in its vector. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence and identity of Babesia species in questing ticks collected in various areas of Norway. Methods DNA from questing l. ricinus ticks were examined with a realtime PCR for the presence of Babesia. Positive samples of tick DNA were identified to species using PCR, and sequence analysis. Results From a total of 1908 questing l. ricinus ticks, 17 (0.9%) indicated the presence of Babesia spp. after realtime-PCR screening. Ixodes ricinus harbouring Babesia spp. was detected in 9 out of 22 localities. Further molecular analyses of DNA from these positive ticks indicate the presence of Babesia venatorum, B. divergens, B. capreoli and a currently undescribed Babesia in Norwegian ticks. The most prevalent was B. venatorum found in 71% of the positive ticks. Conclusions A total of 17 out of 1908 (0.9%) ticks were positive for Babesia. Our data confirm that there are several Babesia species in ticks in Norway. Babesia venatorum was the most prevalent. This species has a zoonotic potential and may cause human babesiosis following a tick bite. PMID:22862883

  19. Prevalence and diversity of Babesia spp. in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks from Norway

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    Øines Øivind

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ixodes ricinus ticks transmit Babesia species to vertebrate hosts. Using molecular tools we were able to detect the presence of this piroplasmid in its vector. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence and identity of Babesia species in questing ticks collected in various areas of Norway. Methods DNA from questing l. ricinus ticks were examined with a realtime PCR for the presence of Babesia. Positive samples of tick DNA were identified to species using PCR, and sequence analysis. Results From a total of 1908 questing l. ricinus ticks, 17 (0.9% indicated the presence of Babesia spp. after realtime-PCR screening. Ixodes ricinus harbouring Babesia spp. was detected in 9 out of 22 localities. Further molecular analyses of DNA from these positive ticks indicate the presence of Babesia venatorum, B. divergens, B. capreoli and a currently undescribed Babesia in Norwegian ticks. The most prevalent was B. venatorum found in 71% of the positive ticks. Conclusions A total of 17 out of 1908 (0.9% ticks were positive for Babesia. Our data confirm that there are several Babesia species in ticks in Norway. Babesia venatorum was the most prevalent. This species has a zoonotic potential and may cause human babesiosis following a tick bite.

  20. «CANDIDATUS MIDICHLORIA MITOCHONDRII»: A NEW MEMBER OF ORDER RICKETTSIALES, ENDOSYMBIONT OF IXODES RICINUS TICK

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    S. N. Shpynov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available «Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii» is the sheep tick Ixodes ricinus endosymbiont. This unique bacteria can occupy and persist within the mitochondria of animals. I. ricinus is an important vector of human pathogens in natural focal of infections. «Candidatus M. mitochondrii» found in the intermembrane space of mitochondria and in the cytoplasm of ovarian cells in 100% females of I. ricinus. The bacteria contain flagella in the salivary glands of ticks. «Candidatus M. mitochondrii» has two groups of unique genes for the members of the order Rickettsiales (cbb3 cytochrome oxidase and flagellin, which allows it to play an important role in embryogenesis of the I. ricinus ticks and cause seroconversion in 58% of patients after ticks bloodsucking. This bacterium formed MALOs group (midichloria and like organisms with genetically closely related organisms which demonstrated a association with a wide range of host from arthropods to ciliates, amoebae, sponges, fish and various animals and humans. Now there is no data about replication the «Candidatus M. mitochondrii» in humans and pathogenicity of this microorganism. Although a high percentage of seropositive samples obtained from patients after bloodsucking of I. ricinus in anamnesis, this bacterium cannot yet be regarded as responsible for the pathology as known human pathogenic from order Rickettsi-ales (Rickettsia, Anaplasma and Ehrlichia spp.. Needed to reconsider the attitude to an immune response to the saliva of I. ricinus, taking into account the potential impact of «Candidatus M. mitochondrii». It is considered highly possible role of this bacterium in the immune response and immunomodulation in humans with bloodsucking of I. ricinus in anamnesis. DNA of «Candidatus M. mitochondrii» was the first time detected in I. ricinus ticks from European part of Russia.

  1. Distribution of Ixodes ricinus L., 1758 and Ixodes persulcatus Shulze, 1930 (Parasitoformes, Ixodidae) in Russia and adjacent countries in view of observable climate changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasyukevich, V. V.; Kazakova, E. V.; Popov, I. O.; Semenov, S. M.

    2009-08-01

    Possible changes in the area inhabited by the ticks Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes persulcatus, the main transmitters of tick-borne encephalitis and Lyme disease in Russia, caused by temperature changes in 1976-2005 compared to 1946-1975 are discussed. It is shown that these changes could result in some areal expansion of these species. In the European part of Russia, I. ricinus expanded its areal boundaries to the east 100-300 km. I. persulcatus expanded its areal in the Asian part of Russia. Its boundary moved to the north and northeast 100-300 km. Areal expansion both of species has not been observed.

  2. First detection of murine herpesvirus 68 in adult Ixodes ricinus ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kúdelová, Marcela; Jánošová, Monika; Belvončíková, Petra

    2018-01-19

    Murine herpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) is a natural pathogen that infects murid rodents, which serves as hosts for Ixodes ricinus ticks. For the first time, MHV-68 was detected in immature I. ricinus ticks feeding on Lacerta viridis lizards trapped in Slovakia, which supports the idea that ticks can acquire the virus from feeding on infected hosts. The recent discovery of MHV-68 infection and MHV-68 M3 gene transcripts in Dermacentor reticulatus ticks collected in Slovakia also supports this suggestion. Here, for the first time, we report MHV-68 infection, which was detected by nested PCR, in I. ricinus adults collected from the vegetation, and the viral load in infected ticks was determined by quantitative PCR. The viral incidence in ticks was 38.1% (21/55), and the viral load varied from 1.5 × 10 3 to 2.85 × 10 4 genome copies per tick. These results suggest that the I. ricinus ticks became infected with MHV-68 from biting infected rodents; thus, I. ricinus ticks may play a role in the spread of this virus in nature.

  3. Occurrence of Francisella spp. in Dermacentor reticulatus and Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik-Fatla, Angelina; Zając, Violetta; Sawczyn, Anna; Cisak, Ewa; Sroka, Jacek; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2015-04-01

    A total of 530 questing Dermacentor reticulatus ticks and 861 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected from Lublin province (eastern Poland) and examined for the presence of Francisella by PCR for 16S rRNA (rrs) and tul4 genes. Only one female D. reticulatus tick out of 530 examined (0.2%) was infected with Francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica, as determined by PCR of the rrs gene. None of 861 I. ricinus ticks were infected with F. tularensis. In contrast, the presence of Francisella-like endosymbionts (FLEs) was detected in more than half of the D. reticulatus ticks (50.4%) and 0.8% of the I. ricinus ticks. The nucleotide sequences of the FLEs detected in D. reticulatus exhibited 100% homology with the nucleotide sequence of the FLE strain FDrH detected in Hungary in D. reticulatus. In conclusion, our results suggest a low contribution of D. reticulatus and I. ricinus ticks to the circulation of F. tularensis in eastern Poland. This finding, however, needs to be confirmed by further studies in other areas. Our study confirmed the common infection of D. reticulatus with Francisella-like endosymbionts (FLEs) of unknown pathogenic potential and revealed, for the first time, a low grade of infection of I. ricinus with FLEs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Behavioural responses of Ixodes ricinus nymphs to carbon dioxide and rodent odour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAN Duijvendijk, G; Gort, G; Sprong, H; Takken, W

    2017-06-01

    Many haematophagous ectoparasites use carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and host odour to detect and locate their hosts. The tick Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus) (Ixodida: Ixodidae) walks only small distances and quests in vegetation until it encounters a host. The differential effects of CO2 and host odour on the host-finding behaviour of I. ricinus have, however, never been clarified and hence represent the subject of this study. The effects of CO2 and odour from bank voles on the activation and attraction of I. ricinus nymphs were analysed in a Y-tube olfactometer. Carbon dioxide evoked a response in the absence and presence of host odour, but did not attract nymphs. Host odour, however, did not evoke a response but did attract nymphs in the absence and presence of CO2 . The current results show that CO2 is an activator, but not an attractant, and that host odour is an attractant, but not an activator, of I. ricinus nymphs, and provide ecological insights into the host-finding behaviour of I. ricinus. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  5. Ixodes ricinus and Its Endosymbiont Midichloria mitochondrii: A Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Salivary Glands and Ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Venere, Monica; Fumagalli, Marco; Cafiso, Alessandra; De Marco, Leone; Epis, Sara; Plantard, Olivier; Bardoni, Anna; Salvini, Roberta; Viglio, Simona; Bazzocchi, Chiara; Iadarola, Paolo; Sassera, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Hard ticks are hematophagous arthropods that act as vectors of numerous pathogenic microorganisms of high relevance in human and veterinary medicine. Ixodes ricinus is one of the most important tick species in Europe, due to its role of vector of pathogenic bacteria such as Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, of viruses such as tick borne encephalitis virus and of protozoans as Babesia spp. In addition to these pathogens, I. ricinus harbors a symbiotic bacterium, Midichloria mitochondrii. This is the dominant bacteria associated to I. ricinus, but its biological role is not yet understood. Most M. mitochondrii symbionts are localized in the tick ovaries, and they are transmitted to the progeny. M. mitochondrii bacteria have however also been detected in the salivary glands and saliva of I. ricinus, as well as in the blood of vertebrate hosts of the tick, prompting the hypothesis of an infectious role of this bacterium. To investigate, from a proteomic point of view, the tick I. ricinus and its symbiont, we generated the protein profile of the ovary tissue (OT) and of salivary glands (SG) of adult females of this tick species. To compare the OT and SG profiles, 2-DE profiling followed by LC-MS/MS protein identification were performed. We detected 21 spots showing significant differences in the relative abundance between the OT and SG, ten of which showed 4- to 18-fold increase/decrease in density. This work allowed to establish a method to characterize the proteome of I. ricinus, and to detect multiple proteins that exhibit a differential expression profile in OT and SG. Additionally, we were able to use an immunoproteomic approach to detect a protein from the symbiont. Finally, the method here developed will pave the way for future studies on the proteomics of I. ricinus, with the goals of better understanding the biology of this vector and of its symbiont M. mitochondrii.

  6. Arsenophonus nasoniae and Rickettsiae Infection of Ixodes ricinus Due to Parasitic Wasp Ixodiphagus hookeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohacsova, Monika; Mediannikov, Oleg; Kazimirova, Maria; Raoult, Didier; Sekeyova, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    Arsenophonus nasoniae, a male-killing endosymbiont of chalcid wasps, was recently detected in several hard tick species. Following the hypothesis that its presence in ticks may not be linked to the direct occurrence of bacteria in tick's organs, we identified A. nasoniae in wasps emerging from parasitised nymphs. We confirmed that 28.1% of Ixodiphagus hookeri wasps parasitizing Ixodes ricinus ticks were infected by A. nasoniae. Moreover, in examined I. ricinus nymphs, A. nasoniae was detected only in those, which were parasitized by the wasp. However, in part of the adult wasps as well as in some ticks that contained wasp's DNA, we did not confirm A. nasoniae. We also found, that in spite of reported male-killing, some newly emerged adult wasp males were also infected by A. nasoniae. Additionally, we amplified the DNA of Rickettsia helvetica and Rickettsia monacensis (known to be Ixodes ricinus-associated bacteria) in adult parasitoid wasps. This may be related either with the digested bacterial DNA in wasp body lumen or with a role of wasps in circulation of rickettsiae among tick vectors.

  7. Arsenophonus nasoniae and Rickettsiae Infection of Ixodes ricinus Due to Parasitic Wasp Ixodiphagus hookeri.

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    Monika Bohacsova

    Full Text Available Arsenophonus nasoniae, a male-killing endosymbiont of chalcid wasps, was recently detected in several hard tick species. Following the hypothesis that its presence in ticks may not be linked to the direct occurrence of bacteria in tick's organs, we identified A. nasoniae in wasps emerging from parasitised nymphs. We confirmed that 28.1% of Ixodiphagus hookeri wasps parasitizing Ixodes ricinus ticks were infected by A. nasoniae. Moreover, in examined I. ricinus nymphs, A. nasoniae was detected only in those, which were parasitized by the wasp. However, in part of the adult wasps as well as in some ticks that contained wasp's DNA, we did not confirm A. nasoniae. We also found, that in spite of reported male-killing, some newly emerged adult wasp males were also infected by A. nasoniae. Additionally, we amplified the DNA of Rickettsia helvetica and Rickettsia monacensis (known to be Ixodes ricinus-associated bacteria in adult parasitoid wasps. This may be related either with the digested bacterial DNA in wasp body lumen or with a role of wasps in circulation of rickettsiae among tick vectors.

  8. Genetic diversity of Salp15 in the Ixodes ricinus complex (Acari: Ixodidae.

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    Xin Wang

    Full Text Available Salp15, a 15-kDa tick salivary gland protein, is both essential for ticks to successfully obtain host blood and also facilitates transmission of Lyme borreliosis. To determine whether the Salp15 gene is expressed in Ixodes persulcatus and Ixodes sinensis, principle vectors of Lyme borreliosis in China, we studied transcriptions of this gene in semi-engorged larvae, nymph and adults of these two species. A total of eight Salp15 homologues, five in I. persulcatus and three in I. sinensis, were identified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Interestingly, the intra-species similarity of Salp15 is approximately equal to its interspecies similarity and more than one Salp15 protein is expressed in a certain tick developmental stage. Comparison of DNA and proteins with other available tick Salp15 homologues suggests that the Salp15 superfamily is genetically conserved and diverse in the Ixodes ricinus complex. These findings indicate that Salp15 proteins in the I. ricinus complex may play an essential role in interacting with the host immune system and transmission of Borrelia genospecies.

  9. Genetic Diversity of Salp15 in the Ixodes ricinus Complex (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Huang, Yong; Niu, Si-bo; Jiang, Bao-Gui; Jia, Na; van der Geest, Leo; Ni, Xue-bing; Sun, Yi; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Salp15, a 15-kDa tick salivary gland protein, is both essential for ticks to successfully obtain host blood and also facilitates transmission of Lyme borreliosis. To determine whether the Salp15 gene is expressed in Ixodes persulcatus and Ixodes sinensis, principle vectors of Lyme borreliosis in China, we studied transcriptions of this gene in semi-engorged larvae, nymph and adults of these two species. A total of eight Salp15 homologues, five in I. persulcatus and three in I. sinensis, were identified by reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Interestingly, the intra-species similarity of Salp15 is approximately equal to its interspecies similarity and more than one Salp15 protein is expressed in a certain tick developmental stage. Comparison of DNA and proteins with other available tick Salp15 homologues suggests that the Salp15 superfamily is genetically conserved and diverse in the Ixodes ricinus complex. These findings indicate that Salp15 proteins in the I. ricinus complex may play an essential role in interacting with the host immune system and transmission of Borrelia genospecies. PMID:24714063

  10. Behavioral asymmetries in ticks - Lateralized questing of Ixodes ricinus to a mechatronic apparatus delivering host-borne cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Romano, Donato; Rocchigiani, Guido; Caselli, Alice; Mancianti, Francesca; Canale, Angelo; Stefanini, Cesare

    2018-02-01

    Ticks are considered among the most dangerous arthropod vectors of disease agents to both humans and animals worldwide. Lateralization contributes to biological fitness in many animals, conferring important functional advantages, therefore studying its role in tick perception would critically improve our knowledge about their host-seeking behavior. In this research, we evaluated if Ixodes ricinus (L.) (Ixodiidae) ticks have a preference in using the right or the left foreleg to climb on a host. We developed a mechatronic device moving a tuft of fox skin with fur as host-mimicking combination of cues. This engineered approach allows to display a realistic combination of both visual and olfactory host-borne stimuli, which is prolonged over the time and standardized for each replicate. In the first experiment, the mechatronic apparatus delivered host-borne cues frontally, to evaluate the leg preference during questing as response to a symmetrical stimulus. In the second experiment, host-borne cues were provided laterally, in an equal proportion to the left and to the right of the tick, to investigate if the host direction affected the questing behavior. In both experiments, the large majority of the tested ticks showed individual-level left-biased questing acts, if compared to the ticks showing right-biased ones. Furthermore, population-level left-biased questing responses were observed post-exposure to host-mimicking cues provided frontally or laterally to the tick. Overall, this is the first report on behavioral asymmetries in ticks of medical and veterinary importance. Moreover, the mechatronic apparatus developed in this research can be exploited to evaluate the impact of repellents on tick questing in highly reproducible standardized conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin, and praziquantel, against the ticks, Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes scapularis, on cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tielemans, E; Prullage, J; Knaus, M; Visser, M; Manavella, C; Chester, S T; Young, David; Everett, William R; Rosentel, J

    2014-04-28

    Five controlled, blinded and randomized studies were conducted to examine the efficacy of a single topical application of a combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin, and praziquantel (BROADLINE(®), Merial) against induced infestations with Ixodes ticks on cats. Three studies investigated the efficacy against Ixodes ricinus and two against Ixodes scapularis. In each study, purpose-bred cats were assigned at random to an untreated group or to a treated group. For the studies using I. ricinus, cats were infested with 50 female ticks and a similar number of males 2 days before treatment application, and weekly afterwards on between four and six occasions. For the studies using I. scapularis, cats were infested with a total of 50 ticks (approximately 25 females and 25 males) according to the same schedule as for I. ricinus. Tick counts for the evaluation of efficacy were performed 48 h after treatment and 48 h after the subsequent weekly infestations. Weekly attachment rates to untreated cats of at least 29% for I. ricinus and at least 30% for I. scapularis demonstrated consistently that the ticks were vigorous and that the attachment rates were adequate for efficacy evaluation. In the I. ricinus studies, an efficacy of at least 93% was demonstrated for up to 37 days after the treatment. In the I. scapularis studies, the efficacy level was at least 95% 30 days after the treatment. The product was well tolerated and caused no adverse reaction. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The toxic effect of permethrin and cypermethrin on engorged Ixodes ricinus females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Buczek

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available introduction. [i]Ixodes ricinus[/i] tick is of great medical and veterinary importance and has a wide range of geographical distribution. The study presents the effect of permethrin (Per and cypermethrin (CM on engorged[i] I. ricinus[/i] females. materials and method. The effect of perythroids studied on engorged I. ricinus females was assessed on the basis of the pre-oviposition and oviposition period. Remote effects of Per and CM application were assessed by investigation of the length and course of embryonic development and larval hatching from eggs laid by pyrethroid-treated females. Per (Copex WP was used at doses of 0.78125–25.0 µg/1 specimen, and CM (Kordon 10WP was applied at 0.3125–10.0 µg/1 specimen. Immediately after the feeding period, I. ricinus females were sprayed with 20 µl of a pyrethroid solution and kept at 28 °C and 75%RH. results. The experiments demonstrated that CM exerted a stronger toxic effect on [i]I. ricinus[/i] females than Per. The lowest doses of CM doubled the length of the pre-oviposition period while its highest doses prolonged the period nearly three times compared with the control. The pyrethroids applied reduced the number and weight of eggs and changed the parameters of the oviposition process. Application of the tested pyrethroid doses led to disturbances in the embryonic development of[i] I. ricinus[/i], i.e. the development was prolonged, few normal larvae hatched, numerous eggs and embryos at various developmental stages died, and larval hatch was inhibited. conclusions. Knowledge about the sensitivity of engorged females to different doses of the tested pyrethroids and the remote effects of their action can be used in practice for tick control among livestock animals, and the reduction of tick population abundance in the environment.

  13. Identification and partial characterisation of new members of the Ixodes ricinus defensin family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonk, Miray; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Valdés, James J; Rego, Ryan O M; Rudenko, Nataliia; Golovchenko, Maryna; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; de la Fuente, José; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2014-05-01

    The hard-bodied tick Ixodes ricinus (castor bean tick) is the most common tick species in Europe. I. ricinus is a vector of the causative agents of diseases that affect humans and animals including tick-borne encephalitis, borreliosis, tick-borne fever and babesiosis. The innate immune system provides ticks with quite an efficient defence against some pathogenic microorganisms in the event of their penetration into the tick body or through the blood meal. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) constitute an important feature of the tick immune system. Defensins are a well-known class of AMPs. Members of the defensin family of proteins have been reported in several tick species. So far, only two defensins had been identified from I. ricinus. In this study, we report the identification of six novel putative defensins from I. ricinus at the genomic and transcriptional levels. At the genomic level they show differences with one being intronless, while others contain two introns. The expression pattern of these molecules in the salivary glands, midgut, ovary, Malpighian tubules, haemolymph and the tick cell line IRE/CTVM19 was determined. Some of them are tissue specific while others seem to be ubiquitous. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses show that these novel members of the I. ricinus defensin family differ phylogenetically and structurally; nevertheless, the cysteine pattern is highly conserved among the family members. Finally, antimicrobial-peptide prediction tools were used to predict putative antimicrobial activity of our defensins. They show putative antimicrobial activity mainly against Gram-positive bacteria. This study displays the diversity of the defensin family in the tick I. ricinus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular evidence for bacterial pathogens in Ixodes ricinus ticks infesting Shetland ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotarczak, Bogumiła; Wodecka, Beata; Rymaszewska, Anna; Adamska, Małgorzata

    2016-06-01

    Ixodes ricinus has the potential to transmit zoonotic pathogens to humans and domestic animals. The feeding I. ricinus (n = 1737) collected from 49 Shetland ponies and questing ones from vegetation (n = 371) were tested for the presence and differentiation of the bacterial species. DNA of I. ricinus ticks was examined with PCR and sequencing analysis to identify species of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bbsl), Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia spp. Altogether, 24.3 % I. ricinus of the infested horses and 12.4 % ticks from vegetation carried at least one pathogen species. Horse-feeding ticks (19.2 %) were significantly more frequently infected with Borrelia spp. than questing ticks (4.8 %). Among Bbsl species, in I. ricinus infesting ponies, B. garinii, B. afzelii, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. valaisiana and B. lusitanie and one species, B. miyamotoi related to relapsing fever group, were detected. The 73 flaB gene sequences of Borrelia obtained from feeding I. ricinus have been deposited in GenBank. Among Rickettsia species, two were identified: R. helvetica which was dominant and R. monacensis. Infections with more than one pathogenic species, involving mostly Bbsl and R. helvetica were detected in 6.3 % of infected ticks collected from horses. Shetland ponies may play an important role in the epidemiological cycle of Bbsl and probably could contribute to the natural cycle of A. phagocytophilum and R. helvetica as host for infected ticks. The awareness about these infectious agents in ticks from ponies might be an important criterion for the risk assessment of human diseases, especially as these animals are maintained for recreational purposes.

  15. Assessment of MALDI-TOF MS biotyping for Borrelia burgdorferi sl detection in Ixodes ricinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Pierre H; Boulanger, Nathalie; Nebbak, Amira; Collin, Elodie; Jaulhac, Benoit; Almeras, Lionel

    2017-01-01

    Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been demonstrated to be useful for tick identification at the species level. More recently, this tool has been successfully applied for the detection of bacterial pathogens directly in tick vectors. The present work has assessed the detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus tick vector by MALDI-TOF MS. To this aim, experimental infection model of I. ricinus ticks by B. afzelii was carried out and specimens collected in the field were also included in the study. Borrelia infectious status of I. ricinus ticks was molecularly controlled using half-idiosome to classify specimens. Among the 39 ticks engorged on infected mice, 14 were confirmed to be infected by B. afzelii. For field collection, 14.8% (n = 12/81) I. ricinus ticks were validated molecularly as infected by B. burgdorferi sl. To determine the body part allowing the detection of MS protein profile changes between non-infected and B. afzelii infected specimens, ticks were dissected in three compartments (i.e. 4 legs, capitulum and half-idiosome) prior to MS analysis. Highly reproducible MS spectra were obtained for I. ricinus ticks according to the compartment tested and their infectious status. However, no MS profile change was found when paired body part comparison between non-infected and B. afzelii infected specimens was made. Statistical analyses did not succeed to discover, per body part, specific MS peaks distinguishing Borrelia-infected from non-infected ticks whatever their origins, laboratory reared or field collected. Despite the unsuccessful of MALDI-TOF MS to classify tick specimens according to their B. afzelii infectious status, this proteomic tool remains a promising method for rapid, economic and accurate identification of tick species. Moreover, the singularity of MS spectra between legs and half-idiosome of I. ricinus could be used to reinforce this proteomic identification

  16. Mitogenomes reveal diversity of the European Lyme borreliosis vector Ixodes ricinus in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpi, Giovanna; Kitchen, Andrew; Kim, Hie Lim; Ratan, Aakrosh; Drautz-Moses, Daniela I; McGraw, John J; Kazimirova, Maria; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Schuster, Stephan C

    2016-08-01

    In Europe, the Ixodes ricinus tick is the most important vector of the etiological agents of Lyme borreliosis and several other emerging tick-borne diseases. Because tick-borne pathogens are dependent on their vectors for transmission, understanding the vector population structure is crucial to inform public health research of pathogen dynamics and spread. However, the population structure and dynamics of this important vector species are not well understood as most genetic studies utilize short mitochondrial and nuclear sequences with little diversity. Herein we obtained and analyzed complete mitochondrial genome (hereafter "mitogenome") sequences to better understand the genetic diversity and the population structure of I. ricinus from two long-standing tick-borne disease foci in northern Italy. Complete mitogenomes of 23 I. ricinus ticks were sequenced at high coverage. Out of 23 mitogenome sequences we identified 17 unique haplotypes composed of 244 segregating sites. Phylogenetic reconstruction using 18 complete mitogenome sequences revealed the coexistence of four highly divergent I. ricinus maternal lineages despite the narrow spatial scale over which these samples were obtained (100km). Notably, the estimated coalescence time of the 18 mitogenome haplotypes is ∼427 thousand years ago (95% HPD 330, 540). This divergence between I. ricinus lineages is consistent with the mitochondrial diversity of other arthropod vector species and indicates that long-term I. ricinus populations may have been less structured and larger than previously thought. Thus, this study suggests that a rapid and accurate retrieval of full mitochondrial genomes from this disease vector enables fine-resolution studies of tick intraspecies genetic relationships, population differentiation, and demographic history. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Ixodes ricinus and Borrelia prevalence at the Arctic Circle in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvidsten, Dag; Stuen, Snorre; Jenkins, Andrew; Dienus, Olaf; Olsen, Renate S; Kristiansen, Bjørn-Erik; Mehl, Reidar; Matussek, Andreas

    2014-03-01

    The distribution limit of Ixodes ricinus ticks in northwestern Europe (Brønnøy, Norway, 1° south of the Arctic Circle), has been known since the 1930s. To reconfirm this finding and extend studies in the areas adjacent to the Arctic Circle (66°33' N), ticks were collected from dogs and cats in 8 districts in northern Norway from 64°56' N to 68°48' N. We detected 549 I. ricinus, 244 (44%) of them in Brønnøy district, and 305 (range 6-87 ticks) in 7 districts in the northern part of the study area. The prevalence of Borrelia in these ticks was determined by real-time PCR. In the Brønnøy district (65°28' N, 12°12' E), 29% of the I. ricinus were Borrelia spp.-positive, and the species B. afzelii was nearly twice as prevalent as B. garinii and/or B. valaisiana. In the study area north of Brønnøy district, only 12 (4%) of the collected ticks contained Borrelia spp. In conclusion, tick occurrence and Borrelia prevalence are high in the Brønnøy district. In contrast, I. ricinus occurrence and Borrelia prevalence are low further north across the Arctic Circle in Norway. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Substrate prediction of Ixodes ricinus salivary lipocalins differentially expressed during Borrelia afzelii infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, James J.; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Sima, Radek; Butterill, Philip T.; Růžek, Daniel; Nuttall, Patricia A.

    2016-09-01

    Evolution has provided ticks with an arsenal of bioactive saliva molecules that counteract host defense mechanisms. This salivary pharmacopoeia enables blood-feeding while enabling pathogen transmission. High-throughput sequencing of tick salivary glands has thus become a major focus, revealing large expansion within protein encoding gene families. Among these are lipocalins, ubiquitous barrel-shaped proteins that sequester small, typically hydrophobic molecules. This study was initiated by mining the Ixodes ricinus salivary gland transcriptome for specific, uncharacterized lipocalins: three were identified. Differential expression of these I. ricinus lipocalins during feeding at distinct developmental stages and in response to Borrelia afzelii infection suggests a role in transmission of this Lyme disease spirochete. A phylogenetic analysis using 803 sequences places the three I. ricinus lipocalins with tick lipocalins that sequester monoamines, leukotrienes and fatty acids. Both structural analysis and biophysical simulations generated robust predictions showing these I. ricinus lipocalins have the potential to bind monoamines similar to other tick species previously reported. The multidisciplinary approach employed in this study characterized unique lipocalins that play a role in tick blood-feeding and transmission of the most important tick-borne pathogen in North America and Eurasia.

  19. Abundance of Ixodes ricinus and prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in the nature reserve Siebengebirge, Germany, in comparison to three former studies from 1978 onwards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Alexandra; Hönig, Václav; Vavrušková, Zuzana; Grubhoffer, Libor; Balczun, Carsten; Albring, Antje; Schaub, Günter A

    2012-11-21

    During the last decades, population densities of Ixodes ricinus and prevalences of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. have increased in different regions in Europe. In the present study, we determined tick abundance and the prevalence of different Borrelia genospecies in ticks from three sites in the Siebengebirge, Germany, which were already examined in the years 1987, 1989, 2001 and 2003. Data from all investigations were compared. In 2007 and 2008, host-seeking I. ricinus were collected by monthly blanket dragging at three distinct vegetation sites in the Siebengebirge, a nature reserve and a well visited local recreation area near Bonn, Germany. In both years, 702 ticks were tested for B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA by nested PCR, and 249 tick samples positive for Borrelia were further genotyped by reverse line blotting. A total of 1046 and 1591 I. ricinus were collected in 2007 and 2008, respectively. In comparison to previous studies at these sites, the densities at all sites increased from 1987/89 and/or from 2003 until 2008. Tick densities and Borrelia prevalences in 2007 and 2008, respectively, were not correlated for all sites and both years. Overall, Borrelia prevalence of all ticks decreased significantly from 2007 (19.5%) to 2008 (16.5%), thus reaching the same level as in 2001 two times higher than in 1987/89 (7.6%). Since 2001, single infections with a Borrelia genospecies predominated in all collections, but the number of multiple infections increased, and in 2007, for the first time, triple Borrelia infections occurred. Prevalences of Borrelia genospecies differed considerably between the three sites, but B. garinii or B. afzelii were always the most dominant genospecies. B. lusitaniae was detected for the first time in the Siebengebirge, also in co-infections with B. garinii or B. valaisiana. Over the last two centuries tick densities have changed in the Siebengebirge at sites that remained unchanged by human activity since they belong to a nature reserve

  20. Abundance of Ixodes ricinus and prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in the nature reserve Siebengebirge, Germany, in comparison to three former studies from 1978 onwards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background During the last decades, population densities of Ixodes ricinus and prevalences of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. have increased in different regions in Europe. In the present study, we determined tick abundance and the prevalence of different Borrelia genospecies in ticks from three sites in the Siebengebirge, Germany, which were already examined in the years 1987, 1989, 2001 and 2003. Data from all investigations were compared. Methods In 2007 and 2008, host-seeking I. ricinus were collected by monthly blanket dragging at three distinct vegetation sites in the Siebengebirge, a nature reserve and a well visited local recreation area near Bonn, Germany. In both years, 702 ticks were tested for B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA by nested PCR, and 249 tick samples positive for Borrelia were further genotyped by reverse line blotting. Results A total of 1046 and 1591 I. ricinus were collected in 2007 and 2008, respectively. In comparison to previous studies at these sites, the densities at all sites increased from 1987/89 and/or from 2003 until 2008. Tick densities and Borrelia prevalences in 2007 and 2008, respectively, were not correlated for all sites and both years. Overall, Borrelia prevalence of all ticks decreased significantly from 2007 (19.5%) to 2008 (16.5%), thus reaching the same level as in 2001 two times higher than in 1987/89 (7.6%). Since 2001, single infections with a Borrelia genospecies predominated in all collections, but the number of multiple infections increased, and in 2007, for the first time, triple Borrelia infections occurred. Prevalences of Borrelia genospecies differed considerably between the three sites, but B. garinii or B. afzelii were always the most dominant genospecies. B. lusitaniae was detected for the first time in the Siebengebirge, also in co-infections with B. garinii or B. valaisiana. Conclusions Over the last two centuries tick densities have changed in the Siebengebirge at sites that remained unchanged by human activity since

  1. IrFC - An Ixodes ricinus injury-responsive molecule related to Limulus Factor C

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urbanová, Veronika; Hartmann, David; Grunclová, Lenka; Šíma, Radek; Flemming, Tina; Hajdušek, Ondřej; Kopáček, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 2 (2014), s. 439-447 ISSN 0145-305X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/2136; GA ČR GP13-27630P; GA ČR GP13-12816P; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Complement * Innate immunity * Limulus Clotting Factor C * Phagocytosis * RNA interference * Tick Ixodes ricinus Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.815, year: 2014

  2. De novo Ixodes ricinus salivary gland transcriptome analysis using two next-generation sequencing methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Alexandra; von Reumont, Björn M.; Erhart, Jan; Chagas, Andrezza C.; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis

    2013-01-01

    Tick salivary gland (SG) proteins possess powerful pharmacologic properties that facilitate tick feeding and pathogen transmission. For the first time, SG transcriptomes of Ixodes ricinus, an important disease vector for humans and animals, were analyzed using next-generation sequencing. SGs were collected from different tick life stages fed on various animal species, including cofeeding of nymphs and adults on the same host. Four cDNA samples were sequenced, discriminating tick SG transcriptomes of early- and late-feeding nymphs or adults. In total, 441,381,454 pyrosequencing reads and 67,703,183 Illumina reads were assembled into 272,220 contigs, of which 34,560 extensively annotated coding sequences are disclosed; 8686 coding sequences were submitted to GenBank. Overall, 13% of contigs were classified as secreted proteins that showed significant differences in the transcript representation among the 4 SG samples, including high numbers of sample-specific transcripts. Detailed phylogenetic reconstructions of two relatively abundant SG-secreted protein families demonstrated how this study improves our understanding of the molecular evolution of hematophagy in arthropods. Our data significantly increase the available genomic information for I. ricinus and form a solid basis for future tick genome/transcriptome assemblies and the functional analysis of effectors that mediate the feeding physiology and parasite-vector interaction of I. ricinus.—Schwarz, A., von Reumont, B.M., Erhart, J., Chagas, A.C., Ribeiro, J.M.C., Kotsyfakis, M. De novo Ixodes ricinus salivary gland transcriptome analysis using two next-generation sequencing methodologies. PMID:23964076

  3. Antibiotic treatment of the hard tick Ixodes ricinus: Influence on Midichloria mitochondrii load following blood meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninio, Camille; Plantard, Olivier; Serra, Valentina; Pollera, Claudia; Ferrari, Nicola; Cafiso, Alessandra; Sassera, Davide; Bazzocchi, Chiara

    2015-07-01

    Midichloria mitochondrii is the most prevalent symbiont of the hard tick Ixodes ricinus, present in 100% of eggs and adult females of wild ticks. This bacterium is intracellular, and is the only known symbiont able to invade the mitochondria of the host cells. However, the role that M. mitochondrii plays in the host metabolism has yet to be elucidated. Multiple lines of evidence indicate the possibility of transmission of this bacterium to the vertebrate host during the tick blood meal. In order to investigate the role of M. mitochondrii in the biology of the tick host, we performed an antibiotic treatment on Ixodes ricinus individuals, with the aim of reducing/eliminating the symbiont, and to potentially observe the dynamic of bacterial infection in the tick host. We microinjected engorged adult females of I. ricinus with tetracycline, and we allowed the resulting larvae to feed on gerbils treated with the same antibiotic. The amount of M. mitochondrii was evaluated at different stages of the experiment using molecular techniques. In addition we evaluated the presence/absence of the symbiont DNA in the blood of gerbils used for the larval feeding. The performed treatments did not allow to eliminate the symbiont population from the host tick, however it allowed to reduce the multiplication that occurs after the larval blood meal. These results open the way for future experiments, using different antibiotic molecules, different administration methods and antibiotic administration on subsequent tick stages, to fulfill the goal of eliminating M. mitochondrii from the host I. ricinus, a major step in our understanding of the impact of this bacterium on ticks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevention of infectious tick-borne diseases in humans: Comparative studies of the repellency of different dodecanoic acid-formulations against Ixodes ricinus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dautel Hans

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ticks of the species Ixodes ricinus are the main vectors of Lyme Borreliosis and Tick-borne Encephalitis – two rapidly emerging diseases in Europe. Repellents provide a practical means of protection against tick bites and can therefore minimize the transmission of tick-borne diseases. We developed and tested seven different dodecanoic acid (DDA-formulations for their efficacy in repelling host-seeking nymphs of I. ricinus by laboratory screening. The ultimately selected formulation was then used for comparative investigations of commercially available tick repellents in humans. Methods Laboratory screening tests were performed using the Moving-object (MO bioassay. All test formulations contained 10% of the naturally occurring active substance DDA and differed only in terms of the quantitative and qualitative composition of inactive ingredients and fragrances. The test procedure used in the human bioassays is a modification of an assay described by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and recommended for regulatory affairs. Repellency was computed using the equation: R = 100 - NR/N × 100, where NR is the number of non-repelled ticks, and N is the respective number of control ticks. All investigations were conducted in a controlled laboratory environment offering standardized test conditions. Results All test formulations strongly repelled nymphs of I. ricinus (100-81% protection as shown by the MO-bioassay. The majority of ticks dropped off the treated surface of the heated rotating drum that served as the attractant (1 mg/cm2 repellent applied. The 10% DDA-based formulation, that produced the best results in laboratory screening, was as effective as the coconut oil-based reference product. The mean protection time of both preparations was generally similar and averaged 8 hours. Repellency investigations in humans showed that the most effective 10% DDA-based formulation (~1.67 mg/cm2 applied strongly avoided the

  5. Influence of meteorological parameters during the preceding fall and winter on the questing activity of nymphal Ixodes ricinus ticks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollack, Ken; Sodoudi, Sahar; Névir, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Wood ticks, Ixodes ricinus L., serve as vectors for various pathogens and are ubiquitous throughout Central Europe. Survival and development of I. ricinus depend on biotic and abiotic factors. We examined whether relative humidity (RH), air (T a ) and soil temperatures (T s ), or snow depth during...... the average number of nymphs questing during spring. Our observations suggest that RH, T s , and snow cover during the preceding months affect the questing activity of nymphal I. ricinus during their first peak of activity. Snow cover serves as an insulator between the atmosphere and soil, which not only...

  6. Metagenomic profile of the bacterial communities associated with Ixodes ricinus ticks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Carpi

    Full Text Available Assessment of the microbial diversity residing in arthropod vectors of medical importance is crucial for monitoring endemic infections, for surveillance of newly emerging zoonotic pathogens, and for unraveling the associated bacteria within its host. The tick Ixodes ricinus is recognized as the primary European vector of disease-causing bacteria in humans. Despite I. ricinus being of great public health relevance, its microbial communities remain largely unexplored to date. Here we evaluate the pathogen-load and the microbiome in single adult I. ricinus by using 454- and Illumina-based metagenomic approaches. Genomic DNA-derived sequences were taxonomically profiled using a computational approach based on the BWA algorithm, allowing for the identification of known tick-borne pathogens at the strain level and the putative tick core microbiome. Additionally, we assessed and compared the bacterial taxonomic profile in nymphal and adult I. ricinus pools collected from two distinct geographic regions in Northern Italy by means of V6-16S rRNA amplicon pyrosequencing and community based ecological analysis. A total of 108 genera belonging to representatives of all bacterial phyla were detected and a rapid qualitative assessment for pathogenic bacteria, such as Borrelia, Rickettsia and Candidatus Neoehrlichia, and for other bacteria with mutualistic relationship or undetermined function, such as Wolbachia and Rickettsiella, was possible. Interestingly, the ecological analysis revealed that the bacterial community structure differed between the examined geographic regions and tick life stages. This finding suggests that the environmental context (abiotic and biotic factors and host-selection behaviors affect their microbiome.Our data provide the most complete picture to date of the bacterial communities present within I. ricinus under natural conditions by using high-throughput sequencing technologies. This study further demonstrates a novel detection

  7. Variability and action mechanism of a family of anticomplement proteins in Ixodes ricinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Couvreur

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ticks are blood feeding arachnids that characteristically take a long blood meal. They must therefore counteract host defence mechanisms such as hemostasis, inflammation and the immune response. This is achieved by expressing batteries of salivary proteins coded by multigene families. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report the in-depth analysis of a tick multigene family and describe five new anticomplement proteins in Ixodes ricinus. Compared to previously described Ixodes anticomplement proteins, these segregated into a new phylogenetic group or subfamily. These proteins have a novel action mechanism as they specifically bind to properdin, leading to the inhibition of C3 convertase and the alternative complement pathway. An excess of non-synonymous over synonymous changes indicated that coding sequences had undergone diversifying selection. Diversification was not associated with structural, biochemical or functional diversity, adaptation to host species or stage specificity but rather to differences in antigenicity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Anticomplement proteins from I. ricinus are the first inhibitors that specifically target a positive regulator of complement, properdin. They may provide new tools for the investigation of role of properdin in physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms. They may also be useful in disorders affecting the alternative complement pathway. Looking for and detecting the different selection pressures involved will help in understanding the evolution of multigene families and hematophagy in arthropods.

  8. Deer presence rather than abundance determines the population density of the sheep tick, Ixodes ricinus, in Dutch forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeester, Tim R.; Sprong, Hein; Jansen, Patrick A.; Prins, Herbert H.T.; Wieren, Van Sipke E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Understanding which factors drive population densities of disease vectors is an important step in assessing disease risk. We tested the hypothesis that the density of ticks from the Ixodes ricinus complex, which are important vectors for tick-borne diseases, is determined by the density

  9. Transmission differentials for multible pathogens as inferred from their prevalence in larva, nymph and sult of Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per M.; Christoffersen, Christian S.; Moutailler, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Ixodes ricinus serves as vector for a range of microorganisms capable of causing clinical illness in humans. The microorganisms occur in the same vector populations and are generally affected by the same tick-host interactions. Still, the instars have different host preferences which should manif...

  10. Length of tick repellency depends on formulation of the repellent compound (icaridin = Saltidin®): tests on Ixodes persulcatus and Ixodes ricinus placed on hands and clothes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2015-08-01

    The present study had the aim to test the repellent potential of the compound icaridin = Saltidin® against the tick species Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes persulcatus using different formulations of the compound. Tests were done on backs of impregnated human hands, on impregnated linen cloth and versus impregnated dog hair. It was found that 1. Ixodes persulcatus-the common Eastern European, Russian Ixodes species is significantly sensitive to icaridin = Saltidin® as I. ricinus protecting for the test period of 5 h. This is an important finding, since I. persulcatus is the vector of agents of the severe Eastern meningoencephalitis; 2. that this repellent compound acts similarly on both I. ricinus and I. persulcatus, when sprayed either on naked skin or on cloths; 3. that there are only slight differences in duration of the repellency when using different formulations containing icaridin = Saltidin®; 4. that icaridin = Saltidin® sprayed on dog hair has identical repellent effects like those seen on human skin and cloths; thus, this compound can also be used to protect animals such as dogs, cats, horses; and 5. that the icaridin = Saltidin® did not induce a bad sensation on skin, nor bad smells; furthermore, it was not sticky and did not leave residuals neither on clothes nor on dog's hair.

  11. Ixodes ricinus tick lipocalins: identification, cloning, phylogenetic analysis and biochemical characterization.

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    Jérôme Beaufays

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During their blood meal, ticks secrete a wide variety of proteins that interfere with their host's defense mechanisms. Among these proteins, lipocalins play a major role in the modulation of the inflammatory response. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Screening a cDNA library in association with RT-PCR and RACE methodologies allowed us to identify 14 new lipocalin genes in the salivary glands of the Ixodes ricinus hard tick. A computational in-depth structural analysis confirmed that LIRs belong to the lipocalin family. These proteins were called LIR for "Lipocalin from I. ricinus" and numbered from 1 to 14 (LIR1 to LIR14. According to their percentage identity/similarity, LIR proteins may be assigned to 6 distinct phylogenetic groups. The mature proteins have calculated pM and pI varying from 21.8 kDa to 37.2 kDa and from 4.45 to 9.57 respectively. In a western blot analysis, all recombinant LIRs appeared as a series of thin bands at 50-70 kDa, suggesting extensive glycosylation, which was experimentally confirmed by treatment with N-glycosidase F. In addition, the in vivo expression analysis of LIRs in I. ricinus, examined by RT-PCR, showed homogeneous expression profiles for certain phylogenetic groups and relatively heterogeneous profiles for other groups. Finally, we demonstrated that LIR6 codes for a protein that specifically binds leukotriene B4. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This work confirms that, regarding their biochemical properties, expression profile, and sequence signature, lipocalins in Ixodes hard tick genus, and more specifically in the Ixodes ricinus species, are segregated into distinct phylogenetic groups suggesting potential distinct function. This was particularly demonstrated by the ability of LIR6 to scavenge leukotriene B4. The other LIRs did not bind any of the ligands tested, such as 5-hydroxytryptamine, ADP, norepinephrine, platelet activating factor, prostaglandins D2 and E2, and finally leukotrienes B4 and C

  12. Blood feeding on large grazers affects the transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato by Ixodes ricinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacilly, F C A; Benning, M E; Jacobs, F; Leidekker, J; Sprong, H; Van Wieren, S E; Takken, W

    2014-10-01

    The presence of Ixodes ricinus and their associated Borrelia infections on large grazers was investigated. Carcases of freshly shot red deer, mouflon and wild boar were examined for the presence of any stage of I. ricinus. Questing ticks were collected from locations where red deer and wild boar are known to occur. Presence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. DNA was examined in a fraction of the collected ticks. Larvae, nymphs and adult ticks were found on the three large grazers. Red deer had the highest tick burden, with many of the nymphs and adult females attached for engorgement. Most larvae had not attached. The mean number of ticks on the animals varied from 13 to 67. Ticks were highly aggregated amongst the animals: some animals had no ticks, while others had high numbers. Larvae and nymphs were mostly found on the ears, while adult ticks were attached to the axillae. The Borrelia infection rate of questing nymphs was 8.5%. Unengorged wandering nymphs on deer had a Borrelia infection rate of 12.5%, while only 0.9% of feeding nymphs carried a Borrelia infection. The infection rate of unengorged adult male ticks was 4.5%, and that of feeding female ticks was 0.7%. The data suggest that ticks feeding on red deer and wild boar lose their Borrelia infections. The implications of the results are discussed with respect to Borrelia epidemiology and maintenance of a Borrelia reservoir as well as the role of reproductive hosts for Ixodes ricinus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Insight into the sialome of the castor bean tick, Ixodes ricinus

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    Valenzuela Jesus G

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, there have been several sialome projects revealing transcripts expressed in the salivary glands of ticks, which are important vectors of several human diseases. Here, we focused on the sialome of the European vector of Lyme disease, Ixodes ricinus. Results In the attempt to describe expressed genes and their dynamics throughout the feeding period, we constructed cDNA libraries from four different feeding stages of Ixodes ricinus females: unfed, 24 hours after attachment, four (partially fed and seven days (fully engorged after attachment. Approximately 600 randomly selected clones from each cDNA library were sequenced and analyzed. From a total 2304 sequenced clones, 1881 sequences forming 1274 clusters underwent subsequent functional analysis using customized bioinformatics software. Clusters were sorted according to their predicted function and quantitative comparison among the four libraries was made. We found several groups of over-expressed genes associated with feeding that posses a secretion signal and may be involved in tick attachment, feeding or evading the host immune system. Many transcripts clustered into families of related genes with stage-specific expression. Comparison to Ixodes scapularis and I. pacificus transcripts was made. Conclusion In addition to a large number of homologues of the known transcripts, we obtained several novel predicted protein sequences. Our work contributes to the growing list of proteins associated with tick feeding and sheds more light on the dynamics of the gene expression during tick feeding. Additionally, our results corroborate previous evidence of gene duplication in the evolution of ticks.

  14. Vector competence of the tick Ixodes ricinus for transmission of Bartonella birtlesii.

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    Caroline Reis

    Full Text Available Bartonella spp. are facultative intracellular vector-borne bacteria associated with several emerging diseases in humans and animals all over the world. The potential for involvement of ticks in transmission of Bartonella spp. has been heartily debated for many years. However, most of the data supporting bartonellae transmission by ticks come from molecular and serological epidemiological surveys in humans and animals providing only indirect evidences without a direct proof of tick vector competence for transmission of bartonellae. We used a murine model to assess the vector competence of Ixodes ricinus for Bartonella birtlesii. Larval and nymphal I. ricinus were fed on a B. birtlesii-infected mouse. The nymphs successfully transmitted B. birtlesii to naïve mice as bacteria were recovered from both the mouse blood and liver at seven and 16 days after tick bites. The female adults successfully emitted the bacteria into uninfected blood after three or more days of tick attachment, when fed via membrane feeding system. Histochemical staining showed the presence of bacteria in salivary glands and muscle tissues of partially engorged adult ticks, which had molted from the infected nymphs. These results confirm the vector competence of I. ricinus for B. birtlesii and represent the first in vivo demonstration of a Bartonella sp. transmission by ticks. Consequently, bartonelloses should be now included in the differential diagnosis for patients exposed to tick bites.

  15. Low prevalence of Borrelia bavariensis in Ixodes ricinus ticks in southeastern Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatz, Martin; Muellegger, Robert R; Hizo-Teufel, Cecilia; Fingerle, Volker

    2014-10-01

    Borrelia bavariensis was recently described as a distinct genospecies among the B. burgdorferi sensu lato complex. The prevalence of B. bavariensis in Austria, a highly endemic area for tick-transmitted pathogens, is scarcely characterized. To investigate the prevalence of B. bavariensis in Ixodes ricinus ticks we reevaluated the results of a study conducted in 518 ticks from southeastern Austria collected in 2002 and 2003. The presence of B. burgdorferi s.l.-specific DNA in ticks was analyzed by a PCR for the outer surface protein A (ospA) gene. Borrelia species were differentiated by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, and samples positive for B. bavariensis were further analyzed by multilocus sequence analysis. Two of 133 (1.5%) B. burgdorferi s.l.-positive I. ricinus ticks were infected with B. bavariensis. Both specimens were coinfected with the OspA serotype 5 of B. garinii. Borrelia bavariensis is present; however, seem to be rare in I. ricinus ticks in southeastern Austria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular detecting of piroplasms in feeding and questing Ixodes ricinus ticks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamska, Małgorzata; Skotarczak, Bogumiła

    The purpose of this study was to detect piroplasms, which are pathogens of veterinary and zoonotic importance in ticks, that were collected from ponies and field vegetation and to determine the role of Shetland ponies as potential reservoir hosts for piroplasms. A total of 1737 feeding and 371 questing Ixodes ricinus collected from horses or vegetation were tested for the presence of Babesia and Theileria DNA. Piroplasm 18S rRNA gene amplification was conducted, and the obtained amplicons were sequenced. Babesia DNA was detected in only three ticks (one tick collected from a pony and two collected from vegetation), and all of the obtained sequences had 100% similarity to B. divergens. Theileria DNA was not present in the examined ticks. Thus, the above results indicate that ponies are probably not essential hosts for the detected species of piroplasms. Piroplasm species typical for horses (Babesia caballi and Theileria equi) were not detected because I. ricinus is not their vector. The low infection rate of I. ricinus with B. divergens shows that the disease risk for the local horse population and people associated with pony horses is low, but it demonstrates their possible role as a source of human infection in northern Poland.

  17. Rickettsial infection in Ixodes ricinus ticks in urban and natural habitats of Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Špitalská, Eva; Boldiš, Vojtech; Derdáková, Markéta; Selyemová, Diana; Rusňáková Tarageľová, Veronika

    2014-03-01

    A total of 1810 Ixodes ricinus ticks was collected from the vegetation from 2 different habitat types: urban and natural. Urban habitats were represented by cemeteries and public parks in the following towns: Bratislava, Malacky, and Martin at 150 m and 400 m above sea level. Natural habitats were selected in the mountain forest of the Martinské hole Mts. in Central Slovakia at 3 different altitudinal levels, i.e. 600 m, 800 m and 1000 ma.s.l. All ticks were tested for the presence of spotted fever group rickettsiae. The DNA of Rickettsia spp. was identified in 9% of all tested ticks. Rickettsia-infected ticks were present in both, urban and sylvatic sites at all studied altitudes. Four different species of Rickettsia were present in positive I. ricinus ticks. Rickettsia helvetica was identified in 77 out of 87 Rickettsia-positive I. ricinus ticks, followed by 8 samples that belonged to Rickettsia monacensis and 2 of the positive ticks were infected with different unidentified Rickettsia spp. Due to the association of R. helvetica and R. monacensis with human infections, it is essential to understand which species of Rickettsia circulate in the natural foci of Slovakia. Circulation of pathogenic rickettsiae in urban as well as natural habitats at different altitudinal levels in Slovakia emphasizes that infection risk is very common throughout this Central European country. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of genomic resources for the tick Ixodes ricinus: isolation and characterization of single nucleotide polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillery, E; Quenez, O; Peterlongo, P; Plantard, O

    2014-03-01

    Assessing the genetic variability of the tick Ixodes ricinus-an important vector of pathogens in Europe-is an essential step for setting up antitick control methods. Here, we report the first identification of a set of SNPs isolated from the genome of I. ricinus, by applying a reduction in genomic complexity, pyrosequencing and new bioinformatics tools. Almost 1.4 million of reads (average length: 528 nt) were generated with a full Roche 454 GS FLX run on two reduced representation libraries of I. ricinus. A newly developed bioinformatics tool (DiscoSnp), which isolates SNPs without requiring any reference genome, was used to obtain 321 088 putative SNPs. Stringent selection criteria were applied in a bioinformatics pipeline to select 1768 SNPs for the development of specific primers. Among 384 randomly SNPs tested by Fluidigm genotyping technology on 464 individuals ticks, 368 SNPs loci (96%) exhibited the presence of the two expected alleles. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium tests conducted on six natural populations of ticks have shown that from 26 to 46 of the 384 loci exhibited significant heterozygote deficiency. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Presence of Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis and Babesia microti in rodents and two tick species (Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes trianguliceps) in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaňarová, Lucia; Stanko, Michal; Miklisová, Dana; Víchová, Bronislava; Mošanský, Ladislav; Kraljik, Jasna; Bona, Martin; Derdáková, Markéta

    2016-03-01

    Rodents are important reservoir hosts of many tick-borne pathogens. Their importance in the circulation of the emerging bacterial agent, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis and the intraerythrocytic protozoan parasite, Babesia microti has been recently proposed. The aim of the present study was to identify the presence and genetic diversity of Candidatus N. mikurensis and B. microti circulating in the natural foci among rodents and two species of ixodid ticks (Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes trianguliceps). In 2011-2013, rodents were captured at sampling sites in Eastern Slovakia. A total of 997 rodents (324 Apodemus agrarius, 350 Apodemus flavicollis, 271 Myodes glareolus, and 52 other rodent species), 788 feeding ticks from rodents, and 1375 questing ticks were investigated for the presence of pathogens by molecular methods followed by DNA sequencing. Candidatus N. mikurensis was detected in 2.4% of questing I. ricinus nymphs and 2.6% of questing adult I. ricinus ticks, spleens of rodents (1.6%), as well as in feeding larval I. ricinus (0.3%) and feeding larval I. trianguliceps ticks (3.3%). The 16S rRNA and gltA gene sequences of Candidatus N. mikurensis obtained in this study confirmed a high degree of genetic identity of this bacterium in Europe. DNA of B. microti was found in ear (0.6%) and spleen biopsies of rodents (1.9%), in rodent foetus (3.8%) and feeding larval (5.2%) and nymphal (8.7%) I. ricinus, in questing nymphal I. ricinus (0.5%) and questing adult I. ricinus ticks (0.3%). None of the 112 I. trianguliceps ticks were infected. B. microti was represented by two different genotypes: 92% of the positive samples belonged to the zoonotic type strain from Jena (Germany). The results of this study underline the importance of rodents in the circulation of both emerging pathogens in natural foci. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of MALDI-TOF MS biotyping for Borrelia burgdorferi sl detection in Ixodes ricinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Pierre H.; Boulanger, Nathalie; Nebbak, Amira; Collin, Elodie; Jaulhac, Benoit; Almeras, Lionel

    2017-01-01

    Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been demonstrated to be useful for tick identification at the species level. More recently, this tool has been successfully applied for the detection of bacterial pathogens directly in tick vectors. The present work has assessed the detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus tick vector by MALDI-TOF MS. To this aim, experimental infection model of I. ricinus ticks by B. afzelii was carried out and specimens collected in the field were also included in the study. Borrelia infectious status of I. ricinus ticks was molecularly controlled using half-idiosome to classify specimens. Among the 39 ticks engorged on infected mice, 14 were confirmed to be infected by B. afzelii. For field collection, 14.8% (n = 12/81) I. ricinus ticks were validated molecularly as infected by B. burgdorferi sl. To determine the body part allowing the detection of MS protein profile changes between non-infected and B. afzelii infected specimens, ticks were dissected in three compartments (i.e. 4 legs, capitulum and half-idiosome) prior to MS analysis. Highly reproducible MS spectra were obtained for I. ricinus ticks according to the compartment tested and their infectious status. However, no MS profile change was found when paired body part comparison between non-infected and B. afzelii infected specimens was made. Statistical analyses did not succeed to discover, per body part, specific MS peaks distinguishing Borrelia-infected from non-infected ticks whatever their origins, laboratory reared or field collected. Despite the unsuccessful of MALDI-TOF MS to classify tick specimens according to their B. afzelii infectious status, this proteomic tool remains a promising method for rapid, economic and accurate identification of tick species. Moreover, the singularity of MS spectra between legs and half-idiosome of I. ricinus could be used to reinforce this proteomic identification

  1. Leptospirosis as a tick-borne disease? Detection of Leptospira spp. in Ixodes ricinus ticks in eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik-Fatla, Angelina; Zając, Violetta; Cisak, Ewa; Sroka, Jacek; Sawczyn, Anna; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    A total of 836 unfed Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected from 2 forested areas of the Lublin region in eastern Poland. Of these, 540 ticks were collected in area 'A', exposed to flooding from the Vistula river, while the remaining 296 ticks were collected in suburban area 'B', not exposed to flooding. Ticks were examined by nested-PCR for the presence of DNA of Leptospira spp. and of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, including its genospecies. The presence of the Leptospira spp. DNA was found in the examined specimens of Ixodes ricinus. The infection rate was much greater in area 'A' exposed to flooding, compared to unexposed area 'B' (15.6% vs. 1.4%, pticks amounted to 24.3%. Altogether, the genospecies Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto was detected most often. No correlation was found to exist between the presence of Leptospira spp. and B. burgdorferi sensu lato in the examined ticks, which indicates that the detection of Leptospira in ticks was not due to a false-positive cross-reaction with DNA of B. burgdorferi. In conclusion, this study shows for the first time the presence of Leptospira spp. in Ixodes ticks and marked frequency of the occurrence of these bacteria in ticks. This finding has significant epidemiological implications by indicating the possibility of the transmission of leptospirosis by Ixodes ricinus, the commonest tick species in Europe and most important vector of numerous pathogens.

  2. Detection and identification of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Rickettsia helvetica in Danish Ixodes ricinus ticks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skarphédinsson, Sigurdur; Lyholm, Birgitte Fjendbo; Ljungberg, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    Borreliosis is an endemic infection in Denmark. Recent serosurveys have indicated that human anaplasmosis may be equally common. The aim of this study was to look for Anaplasma phagocytophilum and related pathogens in Ixodes ricinus ticks and estimate their prevalence, compared to Borrelia, using...... Jutland and Funen, while 11% were positive for Borrelia burgdorferi. The Borrelia genotype B. afzelii was most prevalent, followed by B. valaisiana, B. burgdorferi s.s. and B. garinii.A. phagocytophilum was found in 14.5% of nymphs and 40.5% of adult ticks, while Borrelia was found in 13% of nymphs and 8......% of adult ticks. The difference in prevalence between Anaplasma and Borrelia in adult ticks supports the idea that their maintenance cycles in nature may be different. Ticks were also infected with Rickettsia helvetica. Our study indicates that A. phagocytophilum prevalence in ticks in Denmark is as high...

  3. Seasonal changes in the fatty acid profile of the tick Ixodes ricinus (Acari, Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuber, Piotr; Urbanek, Aleksandra; Naczk, Aleksandra; Stepnowski, Piotr; Gołębiowski, Marek

    2016-06-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) from nymphs, females and males of Ixodes ricinus were analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Ticks were collected from May to October 2013. The most abundant FAs were 18:1, 18:0, 16:0 and 18:2 which are also dominant FAs of insects. Adults contained higher concentrations of FAs in general than nymphs because they contain more fat body and probably a thicker layer of epicuticular lipids. Larger quantities of FAs > 20 carbon atoms in the carboxylic chain were present in females, which generally show higher content of lipids essential for oogenesis, whereas there were similar amounts of 14-18 in both sexes. In September and October, ticks contained large concentrations of the majority of FAs except for 18:1, the most abundant one in ticks collected from May through August. Thus, most FAs, especially those with more than 20 C atoms, tend to increase at lower temperatures.

  4. Prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks in urban and suburban areas of Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oechslin, Corinne P; Heutschi, Daniel; Lenz, Nicole; Tischhauser, Werner; Péter, Olivier; Rais, Olivier; Beuret, Christian M; Leib, Stephen L; Bankoul, Sergei; Ackermann-Gäumann, Rahel

    2017-11-09

    Throughout Europe, Ixodes ricinus transmits numerous pathogens. Its widespread distribution is not limited to rural but also includes urbanized areas. To date, comprehensive data on pathogen carrier rates of I. ricinus ticks in urban areas of Switzerland is lacking. Ixodes ricinus ticks sampled at 18 (sub-) urban collection sites throughout Switzerland showed carrier rates of 0% for tick-borne encephalitis virus, 18.0% for Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato), 2.5% for Borrelia miyamotoi, 13.5% for Rickettsia spp., 1.4% for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, 6.2% for "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis", and 0.8% for Babesia venatorum (Babesia sp., EU1). Site-specific prevalence at collection sites with n > 45 ticks (n = 9) significantly differed for B. burgdorferi (s.l.), Rickettsia spp., and "Ca. N. mikurensis", but were not related to the habitat type. Three hundred fifty eight out of 1078 I. ricinus ticks (33.2%) tested positive for at least one pathogen. Thereof, about 20% (71/358) were carrying two or three different potentially disease-causing agents. Using next generation sequencing, we could detect true pathogens, tick symbionts and organisms of environmental or human origin in ten selected samples. Our data document the presence of pathogens in the (sub-) urban I. ricinus tick population in Switzerland, with carrier rates as high as those in rural regions. Carriage of multiple pathogens was repeatedly observed, demonstrating the risk of acquiring multiple infections as a consequence of a tick bite.

  5. Functional characterization of two defensin isoforms of the hard tick Ixodes ricinus

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    Růžek Daniel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The immune system of ticks is stimulated to produce many pharmacologically active molecules during feeding and especially during pathogen invasion. The family of cationic peptides - defensins - represents a specific group of antimicrobial compounds with six conserved cysteine residues in a molecule. Results Two isoforms of the defensin gene (def1 and def2 were identified in the European tick Ixodes ricinus. Expression of both genes was induced in different tick organs by a blood feeding or pathogen injection. We have tested the ability of synthetic peptides def1 and def2 to inhibit the growth or directly kill several pathogens. The antimicrobial activities (expressed as minimal inhibition concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration values against Gram positive bacteria were confirmed, while Gram negative bacteria, yeast, Tick Borne Encephalitis and West Nile Viruses were shown to be insensitive. In addition to antimicrobial activities, the hemolysis effect of def1 and def2 on human erythrocytes was also established. Conclusions Although there is nothing known about the realistic concentration of defensins in I. ricinus tick body, these results suggest that defensins play an important role in defence against different pathogens. Moreover this is a first report of a one amino acid substitution in a defensins molecule and its impact on antimicrobial activity.

  6. Prevalence and Diversity among Anaplasma phagocytophilum Strains Originating from Ixodes ricinus Ticks from Northwest Norway

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    Ann-Kristin Tveten

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The tick-borne pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum causes great concern for livestock farmers. Tick-borne fever is a widespread disease in Norway, and antibodies have been produced amongst sheep, roe deer, red deer, and moose. The main vector Ixodes ricinus is found along the Norwegian coastline as far north as the Arctic Circle. A total number of 1804 I. ricinus ticks were collected and the prevalence of the pathogen was determined by species-specific qPCR. The overall infection rate varied from 2.83% to 3.32%, but there were no significant differences (p=0.01 in the overall infection rate in 2010, 2011, or 2012. A multilocus sequencing analysis was performed to further characterise the isolates. The genotyping of 27 strains resulted in classification into 19 different sequences types (ST, none of which was found in the MLST database. The nucleotide diversity was for every locus <0.01, and the number of SNPs was between 1 and 2.8 per 100 bp. The majority of SNPs were synonymous. A goeBURST analysis demonstrated that the strains from northwest Norway cluster together with other Norwegian strains in the MLST database and the strains that are included in this study constitute clonal complexes (CC 9, 10, and 11 in addition to the singleton.

  7. Prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Central Bohemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klubal, Radek; Kopecky, Jan; Nesvorna, Marta; Sparagano, Olivier A E; Thomayerova, Jana; Hubert, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria associated with the tick Ixodes ricinus were assessed in specimens unattached or attached to the skin of cats, dogs and humans, collected in the Czech Republic. The bacteria were detected by PCR in 97 of 142 pooled samples including 204 ticks, i.e. 1-7 ticks per sample, collected at the same time from one host. A fragment of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene was amplified, cloned and sequenced from 32 randomly selected samples. The most frequent sequences were those related to Candidatus Midichloria midichlori (71% of cloned sequences), followed by Diplorickettsia (13%), Spiroplasma (3%), Rickettsia (3%), Pasteurella (3%), Morganella (3%), Pseudomonas (2%), Bacillus (1%), Methylobacterium (1%) and Phyllobacterium (1%). The phylogenetic analysis of Spiroplasma 16S rRNA gene sequences showed two groups related to Spiroplasma eriocheiris and Spiroplasma melliferum, respectively. Using group-specific primers, the following potentially pathogenic bacteria were detected: Borellia (in 20% of the 142 samples), Rickettsia (12%), Spiroplasma (5%), Diplorickettsia (5%) and Anaplasma (2%). In total, 68% of I. ricinus samples (97/142) contained detectable bacteria and 13% contained two or more putative pathogenic groups. The prevalence of tick-borne bacteria was similar to the observations in other European countries.

  8. Transport of Babesia venatorum-infected Ixodes ricinus to Norway by northward migrating passerine birds

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    Røed Knut H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine babesiosis is regarded as a limited health problem for Norwegian cows, and the incidence has decreased markedly since the 1930s. Rare cases of babesiosis in splenectomised humans from infection with Babesia divergens and B.venatorum have been described. The objective of this study was to determine whether birds can introduce Babesia-infected ticks. There are between 30 and 85 million passerine birds that migrate to Norway every spring. Methods Passerine birds were examined for ticks at four bird observatories along the southern Norwegian coast during the spring migrations of 2003, 2004 and 2005. The presence of Babesia was detected in the nymphs of Ixodes ricinus by real-time PCR. Positive samples were confirmed using PCR, cloning and phylogenetic analyses. Results Of 512 ticks examined, real-time PCR revealed five to be positive (1.0%. Of these, four generated products that indicated the presence of Babesia spp.; each of these were confirmed to be from Babesia venatorum (EU1. Two of the four B. venatorum-positive ticks were caught from birds having an eastern migratory route (P Conclusions Birds transport millions of ticks across the North Sea, the Skagerrak and the Kattegat every year. Thus, even with the low prevalence of Babesia-infected ticks, a substantial number of infected ticks will be transported into Norway each year. Therefore, there is a continuous risk for introduction of new Babesia spp. into areas where I. ricinus can survive.

  9. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of DNA from Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Ixodes ricinus ticks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntean, Cristina M.; Stefan, Razvan; Bindea, Maria; Cozma, Vasile

    2013-06-01

    In this work we present a method for detection of motile and immotile Borrelia burgdorferi genomic DNA, in relation with infectious and noninfectious spirochetes. An FT-IR study of DNA isolated from B. burgdorferi sensu lato strains and from positive and negative Ixodes ricinus ticks, respectively, is reported. Motile bacterial cells from the species B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii and Borrelia afzelii were of interest. Also, FT-IR absorbance spectra of DNA from immotile spirochetes of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, in the absence and presence of different antibiotics (doxycycline, erythromycin, gentamicin, penicillin V or phenoxymethylpenicillin, tetracycline, respectively) were investigated. FT-IR spectra, providing a high molecular structural information, have been analyzed in the wavenumber range 400-1800 cm-1. FT-IR signatures, spectroscopic band assignments and structural interpretations of these DNAs are reported. Spectral differences between FT-IR absorbances of DNAs from motile bacterial cells and immotile spirochetes, respectively, have been found. Particularly, alterations of the sugar-phosphate B-form chain in the case of DNA from Borrelia immotile cells, as compared with DNA from B. burgdorferi sensu lato motile cells have been observed. Based on this work, specific B. burgdorferi sensu lato and I. ricinus DNA-ligand interactions, respectively, might be further investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  10. Multi-criteria Decision Analysis to Model Ixodes ricinus Habitat Suitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Raphaël; McGrath, Guy; McMahon, Barry J; Vanwambeke, Sophie O

    2017-09-01

    Tick-borne diseases present a major threat to both human and livestock health throughout Europe. The risk of infection is directly related to the presence of its vector. Thereby it is important to know their distribution, which is strongly associated with environmental factors: the presence and availability of a suitable habitat, of a suitable climate and of hosts. The present study models the habitat suitability for Ixodes ricinus in Ireland, where data on tick distribution are scarce. Tick habitat suitability was estimated at a coarse scale (10 km) with a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) method according to four different scenarios (depending on the variables used and on the weights granted to each of them). The western part of Ireland and the Wicklow mountains in the East were estimated to be the most suitable areas for I. ricinus in the island. There was a good level of agreement between results from the MCDA and recorded tick presence. The different scenarios did not affect the spatial outputs substantially. The current study suggests that tick habitat suitability can be mapped accurately at a coarse scale in a data-scarce context using knowledge-based methods. It can serve as a guideline for future countrywide sampling that would help to determine local risk of tick presence and refining knowledge on tick habitat suitability in Ireland.

  11. Seroprevalence of seven pathogens transmitted by the Ixodes ricinus tick in forestry workers in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigaud, E; Jaulhac, B; Garcia-Bonnet, N; Hunfeld, K-P; Féménia, F; Huet, D; Goulvestre, C; Vaillant, V; Deffontaines, G; Abadia-Benoist, G

    2016-08-01

    In order to assess the level of occupational exposure to the main pathogens transmitted by the Ixodes ricinus tick, a seroprevalence study was performed on serum samples collected in 2003 from 2975 forestry workers of northeastern France. The global seroprevalence estimated for the seven pathogens studied was 14.1% (419/2975) for Borrelia burgdorferi sl, 5.7% (164/2908) for Francisella tularensis, 2.3% (68/2941) for tick-borne encephalitis virus, 1.7% (50/2908) for Anaplasma phagocytophilum and 1.7% (48/2908) for Bartonella henselae. The seroprevalences of Babesia divergens and Babesia microti studied in a subgroup of participants seropositive for at least one of these latter pathogens were 0.1% (1/810) and 2.5% (20/810), respectively. Borrelia burgdorferi sl seroprevalence was significantly higher in Alsace and Lorraine and F. tularensis seroprevalence was significantly higher in Champagne-Ardenne and Franche-Comté. The results of this survey also suggest low rates of transmission of Bartonella henselae and F. tularensis by ticks and a different west/east distribution of Babesia species in France. The frequency and potential severity of these diseases justify continued promotion of methods of prevention of I. ricinus bites. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Deconstructing Ixodes ricinus: a partial matrix model allowing mapping of tick development, mortality and activity rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Peña, A; Estrada-Sánchez, D

    2014-03-01

    A stage-structured Leslie matrix model of a partial, discrete population of Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus) (Ixodida: Ixodidae) ticks was developed to elucidate the impact of climate trends on the distribution and phenology of this species in the western Palaearctic. The model calculates development and mortality rates for each instar and evaluates recruitment rates based on the development of the tick population. The model captures the changes in development and mortality rates, providing a coherent index of performance correlated with the tick's geographic range. Maximum development rates are recorded for latitudes south of 36 °N and are spatially correlated with sites of maximum temperature, highest saturation deficit and highest mortality. The maximum available developmental time (the total annual time during which temperature allows development) for I. ricinus in the western Palaearctic is < 45% of the total year. North of 60 °N, available developmental time decreases sharply to only 15% of the year. The latitudinal boundary at which survival rates sharply drop is 43-46 °N, clearly delimiting the classically recognized extent of the main tick populations. The pattern of activity for larval-nymphal synchrony shows a clear west-east pattern. The model demonstrates the impact of climate according to tick stage and geographic location, and provides a practical framework for testing how the tick's lifecycle is affected by climate change. © 2013 The Royal Entomological Society.

  13. Rickettsiaceae and Anaplasmataceae infections in Ixodes ricinus ticks from urban and natural forested areas of Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Ixodes ricinus is a major vector for a range of microbial pathogens and the most prevalent and widely distributed tick species on the European continent, occurring in both natural and urban habitats. Nevertheless, little is known about the relative density of ticks in these two ecologically distinct habitats and the diversity of tick-borne pathogens that they carry. Methods We compared densities of questing I. ricinus nymphs and adults in urban and natural habitats in Central and Northeastern Poland, assessed the prevalence and rate of co-infection with A. phagocytophilum, Rickettsia, Ehrlichia and ‘Ca. Neoehrlichia spp.’ in ticks, and compared the diversity of tick-borne pathogens using molecular assays (PCR). Results Of the 1325 adults and nymphs, 6.2% were infected with at least one pathogen, with 4.4%, 1.7% and less than 0.5% being positive for the DNA of Rickettsia spp., A. phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia spp. and Ca. N. mikurensis, respectively. Although tick abundance was higher in natural habitats, the prevalence of the majority of pathogens was higher in urban forested areas. Conclusion We conclude that: (i) zoonotic genetic variants of A. phagocytophilum are widely distributed in the Polish tick population, (ii) although the diversity of tick borne pathogens was higher in natural habitats, zoonotic species/strains were detected only in urban forests, (iii) and we provide the first description of Ca. N. mikurensis infections in ticks in Poland. PMID:24661311

  14. Coexistence of emerging bacterial pathogens in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Serbia*

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    Tomanović S.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The list of tick-borne pathogens is long, varied and includes viruses, bacteria, protozoa and nematodes. As all of these agents can exist in ticks, their co-infections have been previously reported. We studied co-infections of emerging bacterial pathogens (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Francisella tularensis in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Serbia. Using PCR technique, we detected species-specific sequences, rrf-rrl rDNA intergenic spacer for B. burgdorferi s.l., p44/msp2 paralogs for A. phagocytophilum, and the 17 kDa lipoprotein gene, TUL4, for F. tularensis, respectively, in total DNA extracted from the ticks. Common infections with more than one pathogen were detected in 42 (28.8 % of 146 infected I. ricinus ticks. Co-infections with two pathogens were present in 39 (26.7 % of infected ticks. Simultaneous presence of A. phagocytophilum and different genospecies of B. burgdorferi s.l. complex was recorded in 16 ticks, co-infection with different B. burgdorferi s. l. genospecies was found in 15 ticks and eight ticks harbored mixed infections with F. tularensis and B. burgdorferi s.l. genospecies. Less common were triple pathogen species infections, detected in three ticks, one infected with A. phagocytophilum / B. burgdorferi s.s. / B. lusitaniae and two infected with F. tularensis / B. burgdorferi s.s. / B. lusitaniae. No mixed infections of A. phagocytophilum and F. tularensis were detected.

  15. Infections and Coinfections of Questing Ixodes ricinus Ticks by Emerging Zoonotic Pathogens in Western Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lommano, Elena; Bertaiola, Luce; Dupasquier, Christèle

    2012-01-01

    In Europe, Ixodes ricinus is the vector of many pathogens of medical and veterinary relevance, among them Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and tick-borne encephalitis virus, which have been the subject of numerous investigations. Less is known about the occurrence of emerging tick-borne pathogens like Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp., “Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis,” and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing ticks. In this study, questing nymph and adult I. ricinus ticks were collected at 11 sites located in Western Switzerland. A total of 1,476 ticks were analyzed individually for the simultaneous presence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato, Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp., “Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis,” and A. phagocytophilum. B. burgdorferi sensu lato, Rickettsia spp., and “Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis” were detected in ticks at all sites with global prevalences of 22.5%, 10.2%, and 6.4%, respectively. Babesia- and A. phagocytophilum-infected ticks showed a more restricted geographic distribution, and their prevalences were lower (1.9% and 1.5%, respectively). Species rarely reported in Switzerland, like Borrelia spielmanii, Borrelia lusitaniae, and Rickettsia monacensis, were identified. Infections with more than one pathogenic species, involving mostly Borrelia spp. and Rickettsia helvetica, were detected in 19.6% of infected ticks. Globally, 34.2% of ticks were infected with at least one pathogen. The diversity of tick-borne pathogens detected in I. ricinus in this study and the frequency of coinfections underline the need to take them seriously into consideration when evaluating the risks of infection following a tick bite. PMID:22522688

  16. Tissue-specific signatures in the transcriptional response to Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection of Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes ricinus tick cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar eAlberdi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma phagocytophilum are transmitted by Ixodes spp. ticks and have become one of the most common and relevant tick-borne pathogens due to their impact on human and animal health. Recent results have increased our understanding of the molecular interactions between Ixodes scapularis and A. phagocytophilum through the demonstration of tissue-specific molecular pathways that ensure pathogen infection, development and transmission by ticks. However, little is known about the Ixodes ricinus genes and proteins involved in the response to A. phagocytophilum infection. The tick species I. scapularis and I. ricinus are evolutionarily closely related and therefore similar responses are expected in A. phagocytophilum-infected cells. However, differences may exist between I. scapularis ISE6 and I. ricinus IRE/CTVM20 tick cells associated with tissue-specific signatures of these cell lines. To address this hypothesis, the transcriptional response to A. phagocytophilum infection was characterized by RNA sequencing and compared between I. scapularis ISE6 and I. ricinus IRE/CTVM20 tick cell lines. The transcriptional response to infection of I. scapularis ISE6 cells resembled that of tick hemocytes while the response in I. ricinus IRE/CTVM20 cells was more closely related to that reported previously in infected tick midguts. The inhibition of cell apoptosis by A. phagocytophilum appears to be a key adaptation mechanism to facilitate infection of both vertebrate and tick cells and was used to investigate further the tissue-specific response of tick cell lines to pathogen infection. The results supported a role for the intrinsic pathway in the inhibition of cell apoptosis by A. phagocytophilum infection of I. scapularis ISE6 cells. In contrast, the results in I. ricinus IRE/CTVM20 cells were similar to those obtained in tick midguts and suggested a role for the JAK/STAT pathway in the inhibition of apoptosis in tick cells infected with A. phagocytophilum

  17. Tissue-Specific Signatures in the Transcriptional Response to Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection of Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes ricinus Tick Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberdi, Pilar; Mansfield, Karen L; Manzano-Román, Raúl; Cook, Charlotte; Ayllón, Nieves; Villar, Margarita; Johnson, Nicholas; Fooks, Anthony R; de la Fuente, José

    2016-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum are transmitted by Ixodes spp. ticks and have become one of the most common and relevant tick-borne pathogens due to their impact on human and animal health. Recent results have increased our understanding of the molecular interactions between Ixodes scapularis and A. phagocytophilum through the demonstration of tissue-specific molecular pathways that ensure pathogen infection, development and transmission by ticks. However, little is known about the Ixodes ricinus genes and proteins involved in the response to A. phagocytophilum infection. The tick species I. scapularis and I. ricinus are evolutionarily closely related and therefore similar responses are expected in A. phagocytophilum-infected cells. However, differences may exist between I. scapularis ISE6 and I. ricinus IRE/CTVM20 tick cells associated with tissue-specific signatures of these cell lines. To address this hypothesis, the transcriptional response to A. phagocytophilum infection was characterized by RNA sequencing and compared between I. scapularis ISE6 and I. ricinus IRE/CTVM20 tick cell lines. The transcriptional response to infection of I. scapularis ISE6 cells resembled that of tick hemocytes while the response in I. ricinus IRE/CTVM20 cells was more closely related to that reported previously in infected tick midguts. The inhibition of cell apoptosis by A. phagocytophilum appears to be a key adaptation mechanism to facilitate infection of both vertebrate and tick cells and was used to investigate further the tissue-specific response of tick cell lines to pathogen infection. The results supported a role for the intrinsic pathway in the inhibition of cell apoptosis by A. phagocytophilum infection of I. scapularis ISE6 cells. In contrast, the results in I. ricinus IRE/CTVM20 cells were similar to those obtained in tick midguts and suggested a role for the JAK/STAT pathway in the inhibition of apoptosis in tick cells infected with A. phagocytophilum. Nevertheless, tick

  18. Factors Driving the Abundance of Ixodes ricinus Ticks and the Prevalence of Zoonotic I. ricinus-Borne Pathogens in Natural Foci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-Mera, Isabel G.; Acevedo, Pelayo; Gortázar, Christian; de la Fuente, José

    2012-01-01

    Environmental factors may drive tick ecology and therefore tick-borne pathogen (TBP) epidemiology, which determines the risk to animals and humans of becoming infected by TBPs. For this reason, the aim of this study was to analyze the influence of environmental factors on the abundance of immature-stage Ixodes ricinus ticks and on the prevalence of two zoonotic I. ricinus-borne pathogens in natural foci of endemicity. I. ricinus abundance was measured at nine sites in the northern Iberian Peninsula by dragging the vegetation with a cotton flannelette, and ungulate abundance was measured by means of dung counts. In addition to ungulate abundance, data on variables related to spatial location, climate, and soil were gathered from the study sites. I. ricinus adults, nymphs, and larvae were collected from the vegetation, and a representative subsample of I. ricinus nymphs from each study site was analyzed by PCR for the detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA. Mean prevalences of these pathogens were 4.0% ± 1.8% and 20.5% ± 3.7%, respectively. Statistical analyses confirmed the influence of spatial factors, climate, and ungulate abundance on I. ricinus larva abundance, while nymph abundance was related only to climate. Interestingly, cattle abundance rather than deer abundance was the main driver of B. burgdorferi sensu lato and A. phagocytophilum prevalence in I. ricinus nymphs in the study sites, where both domestic and wild ungulates coexist. The increasing abundance of cattle seems to increase the risk of other hosts becoming infected by A. phagocytophilum, while reducing the risk of being infected by B. burgdorferi sensu lato. Controlling ticks in cattle in areas where they coexist with wild ungulates would be more effective for TBP control than reducing ungulate abundance. PMID:22286986

  19. Europe-Wide Meta-Analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Prevalence in Questing Ixodes ricinus Ticks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strnad, Martin; Hönig, Václav; Růžek, Daniel; Grubhoffer, Libor; Rego, Ryan O. M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 15 (2017), č. článku e00609-17. ISSN 0099-2240 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278976 - ANTIGONE; European Commission(XE) 602272 - ANTIDotE Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato * tick * Ixodes ricinus * genospecies * meta-analysis * Lyme borreliosis * Lyme disease Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.807, year: 2016

  20. Ixodes ricinus abundance and its infection with the tick-borne pathogens in urban and suburban areas of Eastern Slovakia

    OpenAIRE

    Pangr?cov?, Lucia; Derd?kov?, Mark?ta; Pek?rik, Ladislav; Hvi??ov?, Ivana; V?chov?, Bronislava; Stanko, Michal; Hlavat?, Helena; Pe?ko, Branislav

    2013-01-01

    Background Raising abundance of ticks and tick-borne diseases in Europe is the result of multiple factors including climate changes and human activities. Herein, we investigated the presence and seasonal activity of Ixodes ricinus ticks from 10 urban and suburban sites in two different geographical areas of southeastern and northeastern Slovakia during 2008?2010. Our aim was to study the abundance of ticks in correlation with the environmental factors and their infection with Borrelia burgdor...

  1. Genome scaffolding and annotation for the pathogen vector Ixodes ricinus by ultra-long single molecule sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramaro, Wibke J; Hunewald, Oliver E; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; Muller, Claude P

    2017-02-08

    Global warming and other ecological changes have facilitated the expansion of Ixodes ricinus tick populations. Ixodes ricinus is the most important carrier of vector-borne pathogens in Europe, transmitting viruses, protozoa and bacteria, in particular Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato), the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, the most prevalent vector-borne disease in humans in the Northern hemisphere. To faster control this disease vector, a better understanding of the I. ricinus tick is necessary. To facilitate such studies, we recently published the first reference genome of this highly prevalent pathogen vector. Here, we further extend these studies by scaffolding and annotating the first reference genome by using ultra-long sequencing reads from third generation single molecule sequencing. In addition, we present the first genome size estimation for I. ricinus ticks and the embryo-derived cell line IRE/CTVM19. 235,953 contigs were integrated into 204,904 scaffolds, extending the currently known genome lengths by more than 30% from 393 to 516 Mb and the N50 contig value by 87% from 1643 bp to a N50 scaffold value of 3067 bp. In addition, 25,263 sequences were annotated by comparison to the tick's North American relative Ixodes scapularis. After (conserved) hypothetical proteins, zinc finger proteins, secreted proteins and P450 coding proteins were the most prevalent protein categories annotated. Interestingly, more than 50% of the amino acid sequences matching the homology threshold had 95-100% identity to the corresponding I. scapularis gene models. The sequence information was complemented by the first genome size estimation for this species. Flow cytometry-based genome size analysis revealed a haploid genome size of 2.65Gb for I. ricinus ticks and 3.80 Gb for the cell line. We present a first draft sequence map of the I. ricinus genome based on a PacBio-Illumina assembly. The I. ricinus genome was shown to be 26% (500 Mb) larger than the genome of its

  2. Driving forces for changes in geographical distribution of Ixodes ricinus ticks in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medlock Jolyon M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many factors are involved in determining the latitudinal and altitudinal spread of the important tick vector Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae in Europe, as well as in changes in the distribution within its prior endemic zones. This paper builds on published literature and unpublished expert opinion from the VBORNET network with the aim of reviewing the evidence for these changes in Europe and discusses the many climatic, ecological, landscape and anthropogenic drivers. These can be divided into those directly related to climatic change, contributing to an expansion in the tick’s geographic range at extremes of altitude in central Europe, and at extremes of latitude in Scandinavia; those related to changes in the distribution of tick hosts, particularly roe deer and other cervids; other ecological changes such as habitat connectivity and changes in land management; and finally, anthropogenically induced changes. These factors are strongly interlinked and often not well quantified. Although a change in climate plays an important role in certain geographic regions, for much of Europe it is non-climatic factors that are becoming increasingly important. How we manage habitats on a landscape scale, and the changes in the distribution and abundance of tick hosts are important considerations during our assessment and management of the public health risks associated with ticks and tick-borne disease issues in 21st century Europe. Better understanding and mapping of the spread of I. ricinus (and changes in its abundance is, however, essential to assess the risk of the spread of infections transmitted by this vector species. Enhanced tick surveillance with harmonized approaches for comparison of data enabling the follow-up of trends at EU level will improve the messages on risk related to tick-borne diseases to policy makers, other stake holders and to the general public.

  3. Driving forces for changes in geographical distribution of Ixodes ricinus ticks in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Many factors are involved in determining the latitudinal and altitudinal spread of the important tick vector Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Europe, as well as in changes in the distribution within its prior endemic zones. This paper builds on published literature and unpublished expert opinion from the VBORNET network with the aim of reviewing the evidence for these changes in Europe and discusses the many climatic, ecological, landscape and anthropogenic drivers. These can be divided into those directly related to climatic change, contributing to an expansion in the tick’s geographic range at extremes of altitude in central Europe, and at extremes of latitude in Scandinavia; those related to changes in the distribution of tick hosts, particularly roe deer and other cervids; other ecological changes such as habitat connectivity and changes in land management; and finally, anthropogenically induced changes. These factors are strongly interlinked and often not well quantified. Although a change in climate plays an important role in certain geographic regions, for much of Europe it is non-climatic factors that are becoming increasingly important. How we manage habitats on a landscape scale, and the changes in the distribution and abundance of tick hosts are important considerations during our assessment and management of the public health risks associated with ticks and tick-borne disease issues in 21st century Europe. Better understanding and mapping of the spread of I. ricinus (and changes in its abundance) is, however, essential to assess the risk of the spread of infections transmitted by this vector species. Enhanced tick surveillance with harmonized approaches for comparison of data enabling the follow-up of trends at EU level will improve the messages on risk related to tick-borne diseases to policy makers, other stake holders and to the general public. PMID:23281838

  4. Dynamics of digestive proteolytic system during blood feeding of the hard tick Ixodes ricinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franta, Zdeněk; Frantová, Helena; Konvičková, Jitka; Horn, Martin; Sojka, Daniel; Mareš, Michael; Kopáček, Petr

    2010-12-14

    Ticks are vectors of a wide variety of pathogens causing severe diseases in humans and domestic animals. Intestinal digestion of the host blood is an essential process of tick physiology and also a limiting factor for pathogen transmission since the tick gut represents the primary site for pathogen infection and proliferation. Using the model tick Ixodes ricinus, the European Lyme disease vector, we have previously demonstrated by genetic and biochemical analyses that host blood is degraded in the tick gut by a network of acidic peptidases of the aspartic and cysteine classes. This study reveals the digestive machinery of the I. ricinus during the course of blood-feeding on the host. The dynamic profiling of concentrations, activities and mRNA expressions of the major digestive enzymes demonstrates that the de novo synthesis of peptidases triggers the dramatic increase of the hemoglobinolytic activity along the feeding period. Overall hemoglobinolysis, as well as the activity of digestive peptidases are negligible at the early stage of feeding, but increase dramatically towards the end of the slow feeding period, reaching maxima in fully fed ticks. This finding contradicts the established opinion that blood digestion is reduced at the end of engorgement. Furthermore, we show that the digestive proteolysis is localized intracellularly throughout the whole duration of feeding. Results suggest that the egressing proteolytic system in the early stage of feeding and digestion is a potential target for efficient impairment, most likely by blocking its components via antibodies present in the host blood. Therefore, digestive enzymes are promising candidates for development of novel 'anti-tick' vaccines capable of tick control and even transmission of tick-borne pathogens.

  5. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from migratory birds in Southern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skarpaas Tone

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l. are the causative agent for Lyme borreliosis (LB, the most common tick-borne disease in the northern hemisphere. Birds are considered important in the global dispersal of ticks and tick-borne pathogens through their migration. The present study is the first description of B. burgdorferi prevalence and genotypes in Ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on birds during spring and autumn migration in Norway. Methods 6538 migratory birds were captured and examined for ticks at Lista Bird Observatory during the spring and the autumn migration in 2008. 822 immature I. ricinus ticks were collected from 215 infested birds. Ticks were investigated for infection with B. burgdorferi s.l. by real-time PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene, and B. burgdorferi s.l. were thereafter genotyped by melting curve analysis after real-time PCR amplification of the hbb gene, or by direct sequencing of the PCR amplicon generated from the rrs (16S-rrl (23S intergenetic spacer. Results B. burgdorferi s.l. were detected in 4.4% of the ticks. The most prevalent B. burgdorferi genospecies identified were B. garinii (77.8%, followed by B.valaisiana (11.1%, B. afzelii (8.3% and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (2.8%. Conclusion Infection rate in ticks and genospecies composition were similar in spring and autumn migration, however, the prevalence of ticks on birds was higher during spring migration. The study supports the notion that birds are important in the dispersal of ticks, and that they may be partly responsible for the heterogeneous distribution of B. burgdorferi s.l. in Europe.

  6. Diversity of viruses in Ixodes ricinus, and characterization of a neurotropic strain of Eyach virus

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    S. Moutailler

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ticks transmit more pathogens—including bacteria, parasites and viruses—than any other arthropod vector. Although the epidemiological status of many tick-borne bacteria is very well characterized, tick-borne viruses are still relatively under-studied. Recently, several novel tick-borne viruses have been isolated from human febrile illnesses following tick bites, indicating the existence of other potential new and unknown tick-borne viruses. We used high-throughput sequencing to analyse the virome of Ixodes ricinus, the main vector of tick-borne pathogens in Europe. The majority of collected viral sequences were assigned to two potentially novel Nairovirus and Phlebovirus viruses, with prevalence rates ranging from 3.95% to 23.88% in adults and estimated to be between 0.14% and 72.16% in nymphs. These viruses could not be isolated from the brains of inoculated immunocompromised mice, perhaps indicating that they are unable to infect vertebrates. Within the I. ricinus virome, we also identified contigs with >90% identity to the known Eyach virus. Initially isolated in the 1980s, this virus was indirectly associated with human disease, but had never been extensively studied. Eyach virus prevalence varied between 0.07% and 5.26% in ticks from the French Ardennes and Alsace regions. Eyach virus was successfully isolated following intracerebral inoculation of immunocompromised mice with Eyach virus-positive tick extracts. This virus was also able to multiply and persist in the blood of immunocompetent mice inoculated by intraperitoneal injection, and caused brain infections in three of nine juveniles, without any obvious deleterious effects.

  7. Dynamics of digestive proteolytic system during blood feeding of the hard tick Ixodes ricinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sojka Daniel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ticks are vectors of a wide variety of pathogens causing severe diseases in humans and domestic animals. Intestinal digestion of the host blood is an essential process of tick physiology and also a limiting factor for pathogen transmission since the tick gut represents the primary site for pathogen infection and proliferation. Using the model tick Ixodes ricinus, the European Lyme disease vector, we have previously demonstrated by genetic and biochemical analyses that host blood is degraded in the tick gut by a network of acidic peptidases of the aspartic and cysteine classes. Results This study reveals the digestive machinery of the I. ricinus during the course of blood-feeding on the host. The dynamic profiling of concentrations, activities and mRNA expressions of the major digestive enzymes demonstrates that the de novo synthesis of peptidases triggers the dramatic increase of the hemoglobinolytic activity along the feeding period. Overall hemoglobinolysis, as well as the activity of digestive peptidases are negligible at the early stage of feeding, but increase dramatically towards the end of the slow feeding period, reaching maxima in fully fed ticks. This finding contradicts the established opinion that blood digestion is reduced at the end of engorgement. Furthermore, we show that the digestive proteolysis is localized intracellularly throughout the whole duration of feeding. Conclusions Results suggest that the egressing proteolytic system in the early stage of feeding and digestion is a potential target for efficient impairment, most likely by blocking its components via antibodies present in the host blood. Therefore, digestive enzymes are promising candidates for development of novel 'anti-tick' vaccines capable of tick control and even transmission of tick-borne pathogens.

  8. IrFC - An Ixodes ricinus injury-responsive molecule related to Limulus Factor C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanová, Veronika; Hartmann, David; Grunclová, Lenka; Šíma, Radek; Flemming, Tina; Hajdušek, Ondřej; Kopáček, Petr

    2014-10-01

    Limulus Clotting Factor C is a multi-domain serine protease that triggers horseshoe crab hemolymph clotting in the presence of trace amounts of bacterial lipopolysaccharides. Here we describe and functionally characterize an homologous molecule, designated as IrFC, from the hard tick Ixodes ricinus. Tick Factor C consists of an N-terminal cysteine-rich domain, four complement control protein (sushi) modules, an LCCL domain, a truncated C-lectin domain and a C-terminal trypsin-type domain. Developmental expression profiling by quantitative real-time PCR revealed that the irfc mRNA is expressed in all stages including eggs. In tissues dissected from adult I. ricinus females, the irfc mRNA is present mainly in tick hemocytes and accordingly, indirect immunofluorescence microscopy localized IrFC intracellularly, in tick hemocytes. Irfc mRNA levels were markedly increased upon injection of sterile saline, or different microbes, demonstrating that the irfc gene transcription occurs in response to injury. This indicates a possible role of IrFC in hemolymph clotting and/or wound healing, although these defense mechanisms have not been yet definitely demonstrated in ticks. RNAi silencing of irfc expression resulted in a significant reduction in phagocytic activity of tick hemocytes against the Gram-negative bacteria Chryseobacterium indologenes and Escherichia coli, but not against the yeast, Candida albicans. This result suggests that IrFC plays a role in the tick primordial complement system and as such possibly mediates transmission of tick-borne pathogens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The occurrence of Ixodes ricinus ticks and important tick-borne pathogens in areas with high tick-borne encephalitis prevalence in different altitudinal levels of the Czech Republic Part I. Ixodes ricinus ticks and tick-borne encephalitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, M; Danielová, V; Kříž, B; Růžek, D; Fialová, A; Malý, M; Materna, J; Pejčoch, M; Erhart, J

    The aim of the three-year study (2011-2013) was to monitor population density of Ixodes ricinus ticks and its infection rate with the tick-borne encephalitis virus in areas with a high incidence of tick-borne encephalitis as reported in the previous decade 2001-2010. Such a comprehensive and long-term study based on existing epidemiolo-gical findings has not previously been conducted in Europe. In the areas of the Ústí nad Labem Region, Olomouc Region, South Bohemian Region, and Highlands Region, 600 m2 plots were selected in the local optimal I. ricinus habitats where tick flagging was performed every year in the spring-summer and autumn seasons of the questing activity. In total, 18,721 I. ricinus ticks (1448 females, 1425 males, and 15,848 nymphs) were collected and investigated. The results have shown that the differences in the infection rate of I. ricinus observed between regions are driven by variation in the density of the local I. ricinus populations which is influenced by the characteris-tics of the whole local biocenosis. The overall prevalence estimate of TBE virus in Ixodes ricinus ticks at the altitudes below 600 m a.s.l. was 0.096 % (95% CI 0.055-0.156) for nymphs, and 0.477 % (95% CI 0.272-0.773) for adults. The dynamics of the seasonal variation in I. ricinus populations, depending primarily on the climatic factors, are behind the interyear differences in the infection rate of ticks and, consequently, in the epidemiological situation of tick-borne encephalitis. The nymph to adult ratio was 5.5 on average but showed great interregional variability (from 10.3 in the Ústí nad Labem Region to 1.8 in the Highlands Region). It might be used in the future as one of the indicators of the composition of the local I. ricinus population and of the level of the circulation of tick-borne pathogens in zoonotic sphere and also for use in the health risk assessment in a given area. Despite the permanent expansion of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in higher

  10. The speed of kill of fluralaner (Bravecto™) against Ixodes ricinus ticks on dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wengenmayer, Christina; Williams, Heike; Zschiesche, Eva; Moritz, Andreas; Langenstein, Judith; Roepke, Rainer K A; Heckeroth, Anja R

    2014-11-18

    Pathogens that are transmitted by ticks to dogs, such as Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu latu, and Ehrlichia canis, are an increasing problem in the world. One method to prevent pathogen transmission to dogs is to kill the ticks before transmission occurs. Fluralaner (Bravecto™) is a novel isoxazoline insecticide and acaricide that provides long persistent antiparasitic activity following systemic administration. This study investigated the speed of kill of fluralaner against Ixodes ricinus ticks on dogs. A total of 48 dogs were randomized to 8 groups of 6 dogs and each dog was infested with 50 female and 10 male I. ricinus ticks. Two days later (day 0), 4 groups received a single treatment of 25 mg fluralaner/kg body weight as Bravecto™ chewable tablets; the dogs in the other 4 groups were left untreated. Separate control and treatment groups were paired at each time point (4, 8, 12, or 24 hours after treatment) for assessment of tick-killing efficacy. At 4, 8, and 12 weeks after treatment, all dogs were re-infested with 50 female I. ricinus ticks and subsequently assessed for live or dead ticks at either 4, 8, 12, or 24 hours after re-infestation. Efficacy was calculated for each assessment time point by comparison of the treatment group with the respective control group. Tick-killing efficacy was 89.6% at 4 hours, 97.9% at 8 hours, and 100% at 12 and 24 hours after treatment. Eight hours after re-infestation, efficacy was 96.8%, 83.5%, and 45.8% at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after treatment, respectively. At least 98.1% tick-killing efficacy was demonstrated 12 and 24 hours after re-infestation over the entire 12 week study period. Fluralaner kills ticks rapidly after treatment at 4 hours, and over its entire 12-week period of efficacy, it achieves an almost complete killing effect within 12 hours after tick infestation. The rapid tick-killing effect together with the long duration of efficacy enables fluralaner to aid

  11. Climate and environmental change drives Ixodes ricinus geographical expansion at the northern range margin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jore, Solveig; Vanwambeke, Sophie O; Viljugrein, Hildegunn; Isaksen, Ketil; Kristoffersen, Anja B; Woldehiwet, Zerai; Johansen, Bernt; Brun, Edgar; Brun-Hansen, Hege; Westermann, Sebastian; Larsen, Inger-Lise; Ytrehus, Bjørnar; Hofshagen, Merete

    2014-01-08

    Global environmental change is causing spatial and temporal shifts in the distribution of species and the associated diseases of humans, domesticated animals and wildlife. In the on-going debate on the influence of climate change on vectors and vector-borne diseases, there is a lack of a comprehensive interdisciplinary multi-factorial approach utilizing high quality spatial and temporal data. We explored biotic and abiotic factors associated with the latitudinal and altitudinal shifts in the distribution of Ixodes ricinus observed during the last three decades in Norway using antibodies against Anaplasma phagocytophilum in sheep as indicators for tick presence. Samples obtained from 2963 sheep from 90 farms in 3 ecologically different districts during 1978 - 2008 were analysed. We modelled the presence of antibodies against A. phagocytophilum to climatic-, environmental and demographic variables, and abundance of wild cervids and domestic animals, using mixed effect logistic regressions. Significant predictors were large diurnal fluctuations in ground surface temperature, spring precipitation, duration of snow cover, abundance of red deer and farm animals and bush encroachment/ecotones. The length of the growth season, mean temperature and the abundance of roe deer were not significant in the model. Our results highlight the need to consider climatic variables year-round to disentangle important seasonal variation, climatic threshold changes, climate variability and to consider the broader environmental change, including abiotic and biotic factors. The results offer novel insight in how tick and tick-borne disease distribution might be modified by future climate and environmental change.

  12. From Chemistry to Behavior. Molecular Structure and Bioactivity of Repellents against Ixodes ricinus Ticks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Del Fabbro

    Full Text Available Tick-borne zoonoses are considered as emerging diseases. Tick repellents represent an effective tool for reducing the risk of tick bite and pathogens transmission. Previous work demonstrated the repellent activity of the phenylpropanoid eugenol against Ixodes ricinus; here we investigate the relationship between molecular structure and repellency in a group of substances related to that compound. We report the biological activity of 18 compounds varying for the presence/number of several moieties, including hydroxyl and methoxy groups and carbon side-chain. Each compound was tested at different doses with a bioassay designed to measure repellency against individual tick nymphs. Both vapor pressure and chemical features of the tested compounds appeared to be related to repellency. In particular, the hydroxyl and methoxy groups as well as the side-chain on the benzene ring seem to play a role. These results are discussed in light of available data on chemical perception in ticks. In the course of the study new repellent compounds were identified; the biological activity of some of them (at least as effective as the "gold standard" repellent DEET appears to be very promising from a practical point of view.

  13. The vector tick Ixodes ricinus feeding on an arboreal rodent-the edible dormouse Glis glis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fietz, Joanna; Langer, Franz; Havenstein, Nadine; Matuschka, Franz-Rainer; Richter, Dania

    2016-04-01

    The reservoir competence and long life expectancy of edible dormice, Glis glis, suggest that they serve as efficient reservoir hosts for Lyme disease (LD) spirochetes. Their arboreality, however, may reduce the probability to encounter sufficient questing Ixodes ricinus ticks to acquire and perpetuate LD spirochetes. To define the potential role of this small arboreal hibernator in the transmission cycle of LD spirochetes, we examined their rate and density of infestation with subadult ticks throughout the season of activity. Of the 1081 edible dormice that we captured at five study sites in Southern Germany and inspected for ticks at 2946 capture occasions, 26 % were infested with at least one and as many as 26 subadult ticks on their ear pinnae. The distribution of ticks feeding on edible dormice was highly aggregated. Although only few individuals harbored nymphal ticks soon after their emergence from hibernation, the rate of nymphal infestation increased steadily throughout the season and reached about 35 % in September. Dormice inhabiting a site with few conspecifics seemed more likely to be infested by numerous ticks, particularly nymphs, than those individuals living in densely populated sites. Male dormice were more likely to be parasitized by numerous nymphs than were females, independent of their age and body mass. Our observation that season, population density, and sex affect the rates of ticks feeding on edible dormice suggests that the contribution of edible dormice to the transmission cycle of LD spirochetes depends mainly on their ranging behavior and level of activity.

  14. Lyme disease and the detection of Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies in Ixodes ricinus ticks from central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Pascucci

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Province of Pesaro-Urbino, situated in the Marche Region of central Italy, can be considered to be an area at risk for Lyme disease because of its ecological features. Field data are not yet available although the disease is known to be present in neighbouring areas. During a field study lasting twelve months, ticks were collected from the vegetation, from wild cervids and also from humans who reported a tick bite at the local hospital. All ticks were identified and Ixodes ricinus specimens were tested using three different polymerase chain reaction tests for the detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl. To identify the genospecies of B. burgdorferi sl, a fragment of the 5S-23S ribosomal rRNA intergenic spacer of the positive samples was amplified and then sequenced. Sequencing of the 5S-23S intergenic spacer led to the identification of two different genospecies, namely: B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and B. lusitaniae, both of which are involved in cases of human infection. Findings on the host-tick relationships and on the genospecies involved in the cycle of borreliosis confirm the suitable conditions for Lyme disease in the study area. The results concur with previous findings reported in the Mediterranean region.

  15. Dominance of Dermacentor reticulatus over Ixodes ricinus (Ixodidae) on livestock, companion animals and wild ruminants in eastern and central Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierzejewska, Ewa J; Welc-Faleciak, Renata; Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Kowalec, Maciej; Behnke, Jerzy M; Bajer, Anna

    2015-05-01

    The most common tick species parasitizing animals in Poland are Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus. These tick species differ in their distribution, habitats, seasonal activity and host specificity. Ixodes ricinus is the most prevalent and widely distributed, whereas the range of D. reticulatus is limited to eastern and central parts of the country with several new foci in the middle-west and the west. However, as in many central European countries, the range of D. reticulatus is expanding, and some authors have correlated this expansion with an increasing number of available hosts. The aim of the present study was to determine the tick fauna on domestic and livestock animals in two areas endemic for I. ricinus and D. reticulatus and to compare the risk of infestation with different tick species in open and forest areas. Over a 14 month period, 732 ticks were collected from five host species including domestic animals (dogs and cats), livestock (cows and horses) and wildlife (European bison) in two areas, central and NE Poland, endemic for D. reticulatus. Three tick species were recorded: D. reticulatus (623 individuals; 85.1% of all collected ticks), I. ricinus (106 individuals; 14.5%) and three females of Ixodes hexagonus (0.4%) from a dog. Dermacentor reticulatus was the dominant tick species found on four host species and constituted 86, 81, 97 and 100% of all ticks from dogs, horses, cows and bison, respectively, and was collected from animals throughout the year, including during the winter. The common tick, I. ricinus, was the dominant tick collected from cats (94%). Fully-engorged, ready-for-reproduction females of D. reticulatus were collected from all host species. In May 2012, questing ticks were collected by dragging in forest or open habitats. The density of adult marsh ticks in open areas was around 2 ticks/100 m(2) in the majority of locations, with a maximum of 9.5 ticks/100 m(2). The density of adult I. ricinus was much lower in its typical

  16. Efficacy of a fixed combination of permethrin 54.5% and fipronil 6.1% (Effitix) in dogs experimentally infested with Ixodes ricinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneau, Stéphane; Reymond, Nadège; Gupta, Sandeep; Navarro, Christelle

    2015-04-03

    Ticks are the most important vectors of disease-causing pathogens in domestic animals and are considered to be second worldwide to mosquitoes as vectors of human diseases. In Europe, Ixodes ricinus, the sheep tick, plays an important role as companion animal parasite but is also the primary vector of medically important diseases such as tick-borne encephalitis and Lyme borreliosis. The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy under laboratory conditions of a new fixed spot-on combination of fipronil and permethrin (Effitix, Virbac) in treating and preventing tick infestations of Ixodes ricinus in dogs. Twelve dogs were included in this randomized, controlled, blinded laboratory study. They were randomly allocated to two groups of six dogs each according to their pre-treatment live attached Ixodes ricinus tick count. On day 0, the dogs from Group 2 were treated with the recommended dose of Effitix, the dogs from Group 1 remained untreated. On days -2, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35, all dogs were infested with 50 (±4) viable unfed adult Ixodes ricinus (20 ± 2 males, 30 ± 2 females). Ticks were removed and counted at 48 ± 2 hours post product administration or tick infestations. Through the study, the tick attachment rates for the untreated group were greater than 25% demonstrating that adequate levels of infestation were reached on the control dogs. Based on both arithmetic and geometric means (AM and GM), Effitix was deemed to be effective against Ixodes ricinus on days 2, 9, 16, 23, 30 and 37 with a percentage of efficacy of 98%, 100%, 100%, 100%, 93% and 95% respectively (AM). No clinical abnormalities were detected during the study. The study has shown under laboratory conditions, that Effitix is a safe and an effective combination to treat and protect dogs from Ixodes ricinus up to 37 days after administration. The high immediate efficacy of 98% evaluated at 48 hours post-treatment was particularly interesting, meaning that Effitix has a

  17. A case of massive infestation of a male green lizard Lacerta viridis/bilineata by castor bean tick Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus, 1758):

    OpenAIRE

    Carretero, Miguel A.; Gomes, Veronika; Žagar, Anamarija

    2013-01-01

    Infestation by ticks affects several vertebrate groups, including reptiles. Castor bean tick Ixodes ricinus is the most widespread tick species. Here we report an impressive tick infestation of a male green lizard Lacerta viridis/bilineata found in 2012 in the vicinity of Bilpa cave in the Kolpa valley, Slovenia. Lizards as tick hosts can play an important role in the life cycle of I. ricinus and may also be potential vectors of Lyme disease. Zaprarazitiranost s klopi je pogost pojav pri v...

  18. Integration of Ixodes ricinus genome sequencing with transcriptome and proteome annotation of the naïve midgut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramaro, Wibke J; Revets, Dominique; Hunewald, Oliver E; Sinner, Regina; Reye, Anna L; Muller, Claude P

    2015-10-28

    In Europe, Ixodes ricinus ticks are the most important vectors of diseases threatening humans, livestock, wildlife and companion animals. Nevertheless, genomic sequence information is missing and functional annotation of transcripts and proteins is limited. This lack of information is restricting studies of the vector and its interactions with pathogens and hosts. Here we present and integrate the first analysis of the I. ricinus genome with the transcriptome and proteome of the unfed I. ricinus midgut. Whole genome sequencing was performed on I. ricinus ticks and the sequences were de novo assembled. In parallel, I. ricinus ticks were dissected and the midgut transcriptome sequenced. Both datasets were integrated by transcript discovery analysis to identify putative genes and genome contigs were screened for homology. An alignment-based and a motif-search-based approach were combined for the annotation of the midgut transcriptome. Additionally, midgut proteins were identified and annotated by mass spectrometry with public databases and the in-house built transcriptome database as references and results were cross-validated. The de novo assembly of 1 billion DNA sequences to a reference genome of 393 Mb length provides an unprecedented insight into the I. ricinus genome. A homology search revealed sequences in the assembled genome contigs homologous to 89% of the I. scapularis genome scaffolds indicating coverage of most genome regions. We identified moreover 6,415 putative genes. More than 10,000 transcripts from naïve midgut were annotated with respect of predicted function and/or cellular localization. By combining an alignment-based with a motif-search-based annotation approach, we doubled the number of annotations throughout all functional categories. In addition, 574 gel spots were significantly identified by mass spectrometry (pricinus, paving the way for further in-depth analysis of the most important European disease vector and its interactions with

  19. Evaluation of the speed of kill of sarolaner (Simparica™) against induced infestations of three species of ticks (Amblyomma maculatum, Ixodes scapularis, Ixodes ricinus) on dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, Robert H; Geurden, Thomas; Carter, Lori; Everett, William R; McLoughlin, A; Mahabir, Sean P; Myers, Melanie R; Slootmans, Nathalie

    2016-05-30

    The rapid speed of kill of sarolaner (Simparica™, Zoetis), a novel isoxazoline compound, was demonstrated against three tick species known to infest dogs in Europe or the United States. Efficacy was measured against an existing infestation and against subsequent weekly re-infestations for 35 days after treatment. Dogs were randomly allocated to treatment with a single oral dose of either placebo or sarolaner (2mg/kg) based on pre-treatment host-suitability tick counts. Dogs were infested with approximately 50 unfed adult Ixodes scapularis, Ixodes ricinus or Amblyomma maculatum ticks on Days-2, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35. Tick counts were conducted at 4 (I. scapularis only), 8, 12 and 24h after treatment on Day 0 and after each subsequent re-infestation. No treatment-related adverse reactions occurred during any of these studies. Dogs in the placebo-treated groups maintained adequate tick infestations (recovery of 20-70% of applied ticks) throughout the duration of the studies. Following treatment, live tick counts were significantly reduced relative to placebo at the 8h post treatment counts indicating that sarolaner started killing existing infestations of ticks rapidly after treatment. Efficacy was 90.1% against I. ricinus, 98.8% against I. scapularis, and 99.2% against A. maculatum within 12h, and 100% efficacy was achieved at 24h after treatment against all three tick species. This speed of kill was maintained throughout the month with ≥95.7%, ≥98.7% and ≥89.6% efficacy against I. scapularis, I. ricinus, and A. maculatum, respectively, at 24h after re-infestation at least through Day 28. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Reproducibility of local environmental factors for the abundance of questing Ixodes ricinus nymphs on pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyard, Chloé; Barnouin, Jacques; Bord, Séverine; Gasqui, Patrick; Vourc'h, Gwenaël

    2011-06-01

    In ecology and epidemiology, exploratory field studies based on multivariate statistical models commonly are used to identify factors that are associated with a phenomenon. The challenge is to evaluate whether these factors are indeed correlated to the phenomenon or if the statistical significance results from fortuitous association or type 1 statistical error (probability of rejecting a null hypothesis when it is true). This is particularly the case when the phenomenon is linked to environmental factors that usually are more or less correlated to each other and when the phenomenon is itself highly variable. The abundance of Ixodes ricinus ticks, a major disease vector in Europe, is highly variable and depends on environmental conditions that define suitable habitat and host presence. Our objective was to identify reproducible factors in space and time that influenced the abundance of questing I. ricinus nymphs. We sampled questing nymphs in pastures in 4 settings, i.e. during 3 periods (2003, 2004, and 2006) in one region, and during one period (2006) in another region, both regions located in Central France. The same data collection, data selection, and model analysis using negative binomial distribution were applied independently in the 4 data sets to identify 'reproducible' factors, i.e. explanatory factors that were significant in different time periods and spaces. The 3 most reproducible factors suggested that woodland type vegetation and woodland vicinity constantly favoured nymph abundance on pastures. In addition, the presence of fruit trees was significantly associated with nymph abundance in one region. The other factors were not reproducible. The study confirmed the status of key factors for nymph abundance while avoiding having to redefine the statistical model to model the different sampling conditions. It also shows the difficulty to identify factors with general significance acting on a very variable phenomenon, based on a study made one year in one

  1. Effect of landscape features on the relationship between Ixodes ricinus ticks and their small mammal hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Grégoire; Bastian, Suzanne; Agoulon, Albert; Bouju, Agnès; Durand, Axelle; Faille, Frédéric; Lebert, Isabelle; Rantier, Yann; Plantard, Olivier; Butet, Alain

    2016-01-15

    The consequences of land use changes are among the most cited causes of emerging infectious diseases because they can modify the ecology and transmission of pathogens. This is particularly true for vector-borne diseases which depend on abiotic (e.g. climate) and biotic conditions (i.e. hosts and vectors). In this study, we investigated how landscape features affect the abundances of small mammals and Ixodes ricinus ticks, and how they influence their relationship. From 2012 to 2014, small mammals and questing I. ricinus ticks were sampled in spring and autumn in 24 sites located in agricultural and forest landscapes in Brittany, France. We tested the effects of landscape features (composition and configuration) on the abundances of small mammal species and immature ticks and their relationship. Additionally, we quantified the larval tick burden of small mammals in 2012 to better describe this relationship. The nymph abundance was positively influenced by the larval occurrence and the wood mouse Apodemus sylvaticus abundance the previous spring because they hosted tenfold more larvae than the bank vole Myodes glareolus. The bank vole abundance in spring and autumn had a negative and positive effect, respectively, on the nymph abundance. In agricultural landscapes, wood mice were positively influenced by woodland cover and woodland/hedgerow-grassland ecotone, whereas bank voles showed the opposite or non-significant responses to these landscape variables. The woodland cover had a positive effect on immature ticks. The landscape configuration, likely by affecting the landscape connectivity, influences the small mammal communities in permanent habitats. Our study showed that the wood mouse, due to its dominance and to its tolerance to ticks, feeds a substantial proportion of larvae. The acquired resistance to ticks in the bank vole can reduce its role as a trophic resource over time. The nymph abundance seems indirectly influenced by landscape features via their

  2. The majority of sialylated glycoproteins in adult Ixodes ricinus ticks originate in the host, not the tick

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štěrba, Ján; Vancová, Marie; Štěrbová, Jarmila; Bell-Sakyi, L.; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 389, MAY 2014 (2014), s. 93-99 ISSN 0008-6215 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/11/1901; GA ČR GAP302/12/2490; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032; GA ČR GA206/09/1782 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick * Ixodes ricinus * sialic acid * tick cell line Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.929, year: 2014

  3. Influence of microclimate on the life cycle of the common tick Ixodes ricinus (L.) in thermophilic oak forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, M; Cerný, V; Dusbábek, F; Honzáková, E; Olejnícek, J

    1976-01-01

    Under conditions of the South Moravian thermophilic oak forest (Valtice near Breclav), the life cycle of the common tick Ixodes ricinus was studied by continuous recording of main elements of microclimate (temperature and humidity) in three different biotopes: forest, margin of the forest and meadow. Simultaneously conditions and the process of tick hibernation were studied in four soil layers (surface, depths of 10, 20 and 30 cm). Observations made in the winter and vegetation periods were assessed by mathematical-statistical tests. Results obtained in the forest biotope and at its margin are presented in this paper; results from the meadow biotope will be published separately.

  4. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks in relation to the density of wild cervids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulauskas Algimantas

    2009-11-01

    and red deer on the Norwegian islands of Fjelløyvær and Strøm may reduce the infection rate of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in host seeking Ixodes ricinus, in contrast to mainland sites at Hinnebu and Tjore with moderate abundance of wild cervids. The infection rate of Anaplasma phagocytophilum showed the opposite result with a high prevalence in questing ticks in localities with a high density of wild cervids compared to localities with lower density.

  5. Proteomic analysis of castor bean tick Ixodes ricinus: a focus on chemosensory organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovinella, Immacolata; Ban, Liping; Song, Limei; Pelosi, Paolo; Dani, Francesca Romana

    2016-11-01

    In arthropods, the large majority of studies on olfaction have been focused on insects, where most of the proteins involved have been identified. In particular, chemosensing in insects relies on two families of membrane receptors, olfactory/gustatory receptors (ORs/GRs) and ionotropic receptors (IRs), and two classes of soluble proteins, odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs). In other arthropods, such as ticks and mites, only IRs have been identified, while genes encoding for OBPs and CSPs are absent. A third class of soluble proteins, called Niemann-Pick C2 (NPC2) has been suggested as potential carrier for semiochemicals both in insects and other arthropods. Here we report the results of a proteomic analysis on olfactory organs (Haller's organ and palps) and control tissues of the tick Ixodes ricinus, and of immunostaining experiments targeting NPC2s. Adopting different extraction and proteomic approaches, we identified a large number of proteins, and highlighted those differentially expressed. None of the 13 NPC2s known for this species was found. On the other hand, using immunocytochemistry, we detected reaction against one NPC2 in the Haller's organ and palp sensilla. We hypothesized that the low concentration of such proteins in the tick's tissues could possibly explain the discrepant results. In ligand-binding assays the corresponding recombinant NPC2 showed good affinity to the fluorescent probe N-phenylnaphthylamine and to few organic compounds, supporting a putative role of NPC2s as odorant carriers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The integration of multiple independent data reveals an unusual response to Pleistocene climatic changes in the hard tick Ixodes ricinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porretta, Daniele; Mastrantonio, Valentina; Mona, Stefano; Epis, Sara; Montagna, Matteo; Sassera, Davide; Bandi, Claudio; Urbanelli, Sandra

    2013-03-01

    In the last few years, improved analytical tools and the integration of genetic data with multiple sources of information have shown that temperate species exhibited more complex responses to ice ages than previously thought. In this study, we investigated how Pleistocene climatic changes affected the current distribution and genetic diversity of European populations of the tick Ixodes ricinus, an ectoparasite with high ecological plasticity. We first used mitochondrial and nuclear genetic markers to investigate the phylogeographic structure of the species and its Pleistocene history using coalescent-based methods; then we used species distribution modelling to infer the climatic niche of the species at last glacial maximum; finally, we reviewed the literature on the I. ricinus hosts to identify the locations of their glacial refugia. Our results support the scenario that during the last glacial phase, I. ricinus never experienced a prolonged allopatric divergence in separate glacial refugia, but persisted with interconnected populations across Southern and Central Europe. The generalist behaviour in host choice of I. ricinus would have played a major role in maintaining connections between its populations. Although most of the hosts persisted in separate refugia, from the point of view of I. ricinus, they represented a continuity of 'bridges' among populations. Our study highlights the importance of species-specific ecology in affecting responses to Pleistocene glacial-interglacial cycles. Together with other cases in Europe and elsewhere, it contributes to setting new hypotheses on how species with wide ecological plasticity coped with Pleistocene climatic changes. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. The role of rodents in the ecology of Ixodes ricinus and associated pathogens in Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalca, Andrei D; Sándor, Attila D

    2013-01-01

    Rodents comprise more species than any other mammal order. Most rodents are considered keystone species in their ecological communities, hence the survival of many other species in the ecosystem depend on them. From medical point of view, this is particularly important for rodent-dependent pathogens. In the particular case of tick-borne diseases, rodents are important as hosts for vector ticks and as reservoir hosts (Lyme borreliosis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Tick-borne relapsing fevers, tick-borne rickettsioses, babesiosis). Community and population ecology of rodents was shown to be correlated with disease ecology in the case of many tick-borne diseases. In Eastern Europe, several adult hard-tick species use rodents as their principal hosts: Ixodes apronophorus, I. crenulatus, I. laguri, I. redikorzevi, I. trianguliceps. However, the majority of ticks feeding on rodents are immature stages of ticks which as adults are parasitic on larger mammals. Larvae and nymphs of Ixodes ricinus, the most abundant and medically important tick from Europe, are commonly found on rodents. This is particularly important, as many rodents are synanthropic and, together with other micromammals and birds are often the only available natural hosts for ticks in urban environments. This work reviews the correlated ecology of rodents and I. ricinus.

  8. The role of rodents in the ecology of Ixodes ricinus and associated pathogens in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Daniel Mihalca

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Rodents comprise more species than any other mammal order. Most rodents are considered keystone species in their ecological communities, hence the survival of many other species in the ecosystem depend on them. From medical point of view, this is particularly important for rodent-dependent pathogens. In the particular case of tick-borne diseases, rodents are important as hosts for vector ticks and as reservoir hosts (Lyme borreliosis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Tick-borne relapsing fevers, tick-borne rickettsioses, babesiosis. Community and population ecology of rodents was shown to be correlated with disease ecology in the case of many tick-borne diseases. In Eastern Europe, several adult hard-tick species use rodents as their principal hosts: Ixodes apronophorus, I. crenulatus, I. laguri, I. redikorzevi, I. trianguliceps. However, the majority of ticks feeding on rodents are immature stages of ticks which as adults are parasitic on larger mammals. Larvae and nymphs of I. ricinus, the most abundant and medically important tick from Europe, are commonly found on rodents. This is particularly important, as many rodents are synanthropic and, together with other micromammals and birds are often the only available natural hosts for ticks in urban environments. This work reviews the correlated ecology of rodents and Ixodes ricinus.

  9. Ixodes ricinus and its transmitted pathogens in urban and peri-urban areas in Europe: new hazards and relevance for public health

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rizzoli, A.; Silaghi, C.; Obiegala, A.; Rudolf, Ivo; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Földvári, G.; Plantard, O.; Vayssier-Taussat, M.; Bonnet, S.; Špitalská, E.; Kazimírová, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 251 (2014) ISSN 2296-2565 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 261504 - EDENEXT Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : ticks * Ixodes ricinus * tick-borne pathogens * urban habitats * Europe Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology

  10. Persistent detection of Babesia EU1 and Babesia microti in Ixodes ricinus in The Netherlands during a 5-year surveillance: 2003-2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielinga, P.R.; Fonville, M.; Sprong, H.; Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    We report the finding of Babesia EU1 and Babesia microti in Ixodes ricinus ticks in the Netherlands. During 5 years of surveillance between 2003 and 2007, 1488 ticks were collected in a dune forest area near the North Sea and were screened for Babesia infections. In 17 ticks, DNA of the protozoan

  11. Tick Thioester-Containing Proteins and Phagocytosis Do Not Affect Transmission of Borrelia afzelii from the Competent Vector Ixodes ricinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanová, Veronika; Hajdušek, Ondřej; Hönig Mondeková, Helena; Šíma, Radek; Kopáček, Petr

    2017-01-01

    The present concept of the transmission of Lyme disease from Borrelia-infected Ixodes sp. ticks to the naïve host assumes that a low number of spirochetes that manage to penetrate the midgut epithelium migrate through the hemocoel to the salivary glands and subsequently infect the host with the aid of immunomodulatory compounds present in tick saliva. Therefore, humoral and/or cellular immune reactions within the tick hemocoel may play an important role in tick competence to act as a vector for borreliosis. To test this hypothesis we have examined complement-like reactions in the hemolymph of the hard tick Ixodes ricinus against Borrelia afzelii (the most common vector and causative agent of Lyme disease in Europe). We demonstrate that I. ricinus hemolymph does not exhibit borreliacidal effects comparable to complement-mediated lysis of bovine sera. However, after injection of B. afzelii into the tick hemocoel, the spirochetes were efficiently phagocytosed by tick hemocytes and this cellular defense was completely eliminated by pre-injection of latex beads. As tick thioester-containing proteins (T-TEPs) are components of the tick complement system, we performed RNAi-mediated silencing of all nine genes encoding individual T-TEPs followed by in vitro phagocytosis assays. Silencing of two molecules related to the C3 complement component (IrC3-2 and IrC3-3) significantly suppressed phagocytosis of B. afzelii, while knockdown of IrTep (insect type TEP) led to its stimulation. However, RNAi-mediated silencing of T-TEPs or elimination of phagocytosis by injection of latex beads in B. afzelii-infected I. ricinus nymphs had no obvious impact on the transmission of spirochetes to naïve mice, as determined by B. afzelii infection of murine tissues following tick infestation. This result supports the concept that Borrelia spirochetes are capable of avoiding complement-related reactions within the hemocoel of ticks competent to transmit Lyme disease.

  12. The influence of red deer space use on the distribution of Ixodes ricinus ticks in the landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qviller, Lars; Viljugrein, Hildegunn; Loe, Leif Egil; Meisingset, Erling L; Mysterud, Atle

    2016-10-13

    Many wingless ectoparasites have a limited capacity for active movement and are therefore primarily dependent on hitchhiking on their hosts for transportation. The distribution of the tick Ixodes ricinus is expected to depend mainly on transportation by hosts and tick subsequent survival in areas where they drop off. In Europe, the most important hosts of adult female I. ricinus are cervids. The extensive space use of large hosts provides a much larger dispersal potential for I. ricinus than that of smaller mammalian hosts. We aim to determine the contribution of red deer (Cervus elaphus) space use on the spatial distribution of I. ricinus, after accounting for landscape factors. We analysed the spatial distribution of I. ricinus with generalised mixed effects models (GLMMs) based on data from extensive field surveys of questing density in two coastal regions in Norway, from which home range data from 73 red deer with GPS collars were available. Red deer home ranges were derived using the kernel method to identify areas most frequently used by deer. We first fitted a baseline model with tick questing densities relative to landscape features that are likely to affect local climate conditions and hence, survival. We then added deer space use variables to the baseline model with only landscape variables to test whether areas more frequently used by red deer had higher questing tick densities. Questing I. ricinus density was predicted by several landscape features, such as elevation, distance to the fjord and topographic slope. In addition, we found that areas more heavily used within the red deer home ranges, correlated with higher questing tick densities. Increased effects of deer space use were additive to the landscape model, suggesting that correlations were more than just shared landscape preferences between deer and ticks. Our results imply that the distribution of I. ricinus is controlled by a complex set of factors that include both local conditions related to

  13. Multilocus sequence typing using mitochondrial genes (mtMLST) reveals geographic population structure of Ixodes ricinus ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinnis, Ruth E; Seelig, Frederik; Bormane, Antra; Donaghy, Michael; Vollmer, Stephanie A; Feil, Edward J; Kurtenbach, Klaus; Margos, Gabriele

    2014-03-01

    The hard tick Ixodes ricinus is the principal vector of Lyme borreliosis (LB) group spirochaetes in Europe, but it also transmits a large number of other microbial pathogens that are of importance to animal and human health. Here, we characterise geographically distinct populations of this important ectoparasite based on multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of multiple mitochondrial (mt) genes (mtMLST). Internal fragments of approximately 500 bp were amplified and sequenced for 6 protein-encoding and ribosomal genes (atp6, coi, coii, coiii, cytB, and 12s). The samples analysed consisted of 506 questing nymphs collected in Britain and Latvia in 2006-2008 and in Latvia in 2002. Although little genetic structure has previously been observed in I. ricinus ticks among Europe, our data could clearly differentiate these 2 populations. Here, we argue that this novel scheme provides additional phylogenetic resolution which is important for understanding the genetic and geographic structure of I. ricinus populations. This in turn will benefit monitoring and management of tick-borne diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Tissue- and time-dependent transcription in Ixodes ricinus salivary glands and midguts when blood feeding on the vertebrate host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Schwarz, Alexandra; Erhart, Jan; Ribeiro, José M. C.

    2015-01-01

    Ixodes ricinus is a tick that transmits the pathogens of Lyme and several arboviral diseases. Pathogens invade the tick midgut, disseminate through the hemolymph, and are transmitted to the vertebrate host via the salivary glands; subverting these processes could be used to interrupt pathogen transfer. Here, we use massive de novo sequencing to characterize the transcriptional dynamics of the salivary and midgut tissues of nymphal and adult I. ricinus at various time points after attachment on the vertebrate host. Members of a number of gene families show stage- and time-specific expression. We hypothesize that gene expression switching may be under epigenetic control and, in support of this, identify 34 candidate proteins that modify histones. I. ricinus-secreted proteins are encoded by genes that have a non-synonymous to synonymous mutation rate even greater than immune-related genes. Midgut transcriptome (mialome) analysis reveals several enzymes associated with protein, carbohydrate, and lipid digestion, transporters and channels that might be associated with nutrient uptake, and immune-related transcripts including antimicrobial peptides. This publicly available dataset supports the identification of protein and gene targets for biochemical and physiological studies that exploit the transmission lifecycle of this disease vector for preventative and therapeutic purposes. PMID:25765539

  15. Ixodes ricinus ticks are reservoir hosts for Rickettsia helvetica and potentially carry flea-borne Rickettsia species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaasenbeek Cor

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hard ticks have been identified as important vectors of rickettsiae causing the spotted fever syndrome. Tick-borne rickettsiae are considered to be emerging, but only limited data are available about their presence in Western Europe, their natural life cycle and their reservoir hosts. Ixodes ricinus, the most prevalent tick species, were collected and tested from different vegetation types and from potential reservoir hosts. In one biotope area, the annual and seasonal variability of rickettsiae infections of the different tick stages were determined for 9 years. Results The DNA of the human pathogen R. conorii as well as R. helvetica, R. sp. IRS and R. bellii-like were found. Unexpectedly, the DNA of the highly pathogenic R. typhi and R. prowazekii and 4 other uncharacterized Rickettsia spp. related to the typhus group were also detected in I. ricinus. The presence of R. helvetica in fleas isolated from small rodents supported our hypothesis that cross-infection can occur under natural conditions, since R. typhi/prowazekii and R. helvetica as well as their vectors share rodents as reservoir hosts. In one biotope, the infection rate with R. helvetica was ~66% for 9 years, and was comparable between larvae, nymphs, and adults. Larvae caught by flagging generally have not yet taken a blood meal from a vertebrate host. The simplest explanation for the comparable prevalence of R. helvetica between the defined tick stages is, that R. helvetica is vertically transmitted through the next generation with high efficiency. The DNA of R. helvetica was also present in whole blood from mice, deer and wild boar. Conclusion Besides R. helvetica, unexpected rickettsiae are found in I. ricinus ticks. We propose that I. ricinus is a major reservoir host for R. helvetica, and that vertebrate hosts play important roles in the further geographical dispersion of rickettsiae.

  16. Coexistence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. genospecies within Ixodes ricinus ticks from central and eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert; Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Chorostowska-Wynimko, Joanna; Szpechciński, Adam; Supergan-Marwicz, Marta; Horbowicz, Marcin; Szwed, Magdalena; Czerniewicz, Paweł; Sprawka, Iwona

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the prevalence and coinfection rates of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genotypes in Ixodes ricinus (L.) ticks sampled from diverse localities in central and eastern regions of Poland. In years 2009-2011, questing nymphs and adults of I. ricinus were collected using a flagging method at 18 localities representing distinct ecosystem types: urban green areas, suburban forests and rural woodlands. Molecular detection of B. burgdorferi s.l. genospecies was based on amplification of a fla gene using nested PCR technique, subsequent PCR-RFLP analysis and bidirectional sequencing. It was revealed that 45 samples (2.1%) harboured two different B. burgdorferi s.l. genospecies, whereas triple infections with various spirochetes was found in 11 (0.5%) individuals. Generally, the highest average coinfection rates were evidenced in arachnids gathered at rural woodlands, intermediate at suburban forests, while the lowest were recorded at urban green areas. Overall, single spirochete infections were noted in 16.3% (n = 352/2,153) ticks. Importantly, it is the first report evidencing the occurrence of Borrelia miyamotoi (0.3%, n = 7/2153) in I. ricinus populations within central Poland. Circumstantial variability of B. burgdorferi s.l. genospecies in the common tick individuals sampled at various habitat types in central and eastern Poland was displayed. The coexistence of two or three different spirochete genospecies in single adult ticks, as well as the presence of B. miyamotoi were demonstrated. Therefore, further studies uncovering the co-circulation of the tested bacteria and other human pathogens in I. ricinus ticks are required.

  17. A Density Map of the Tick-Borne Encephalitis and Lyme Borreliosis Vector Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) for Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugger, Katharina; Boehnke, Denise; Petney, Trevor; Dobler, Gerhard; Pfeffer, Martin; Silaghi, Cornelia; Schaub, Günter A; Pinior, Beate; Dautel, Hans; Kahl, Olaf; Pfister, Kurt; Süss, Jochen; Rubel, Franz

    2016-11-01

    The castor bean tick Ixodes ricinus (L.) is the principal vector for a variety of viral, bacterial, and protozoan pathogens causing a growing public-health issue over the past decades. However, a national density map of I. ricinus is still missing. Here, I. ricinus nymphs in Germany were investigated by compiling a high-resolution map depicting the mean annually accumulated nymphal density, as observed by monthly flagging an area of 100 m(2) Input data comprise ticks collected at 69 sampling sites. The model domain covers an area of about 357,000 km(2) (regional scale). Two negative binomial regression models were fitted to the data to interpolate the tick densities to unsampled locations using bioclimatic variables and land cover, which were selected according to their significance by the Akaike information criterion (AIC). The default model was fitted to the complete dataset resulting in AIC = 842. An optimized model resulted in a significantly better value of AIC = 732. Tick densities are very low in urban (green) areas. Maximum annual densities up to 1,000 nymphs per 100 m(2) are observed in broad-leaved forests. The tick maps were verified by leave-one-out cross-validation. Root mean square errors of RMSE = 137 and RMSE = 126 nymphs per 100 m(2) were estimated for the two models, respectively. These errors are of the order of the interannual variation of the tick densities. The compilation of a high-resolution density map of unfed nymphal I. ricinus for Germany provides a novel, nationwide insight into the distribution of an important disease vector. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Multi-source analysis reveals latitudinal and altitudinal shifts in range of Ixodes ricinus at its northern distribution limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristoffersen Anja B

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing evidence for a latitudinal and altitudinal shift in the distribution range of Ixodes ricinus. The reported incidence of tick-borne disease in humans is on the rise in many European countries and has raised political concern and attracted media attention. It is disputed which factors are responsible for these trends, though many ascribe shifts in distribution range to climate changes. Any possible climate effect would be most easily noticeable close to the tick's geographical distribution limits. In Norway- being the northern limit of this species in Europe- no documentation of changes in range has been published. The objectives of this study were to describe the distribution of I. ricinus in Norway and to evaluate if any range shifts have occurred relative to historical descriptions. Methods Multiple data sources - such as tick-sighting reports from veterinarians, hunters, and the general public - and surveillance of human and animal tick-borne diseases were compared to describe the present distribution of I. ricinus in Norway. Correlation between data sources and visual comparison of maps revealed spatial consistency. In order to identify the main spatial pattern of tick abundance, a principal component analysis (PCA was used to obtain a weighted mean of four data sources. The weighted mean explained 67% of the variation of the data sources covering Norway's 430 municipalities and was used to depict the present distribution of I. ricinus. To evaluate if any geographical range shift has occurred in recent decades, the present distribution was compared to historical data from 1943 and 1983. Results Tick-borne disease and/or observations of I. ricinus was reported in municipalities up to an altitude of 583 metres above sea level (MASL and is now present in coastal municipalities north to approximately 69°N. Conclusion I. ricinus is currently found further north and at higher altitudes than described in

  19. Effects of global changes on the climatic niche of the tick Ixodes ricinus inferred by species distribution modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Global climate change can seriously impact on the epidemiological dynamics of vector-borne diseases. In this study we investigated how future climatic changes could affect the climatic niche of Ixodes ricinus (Acari, Ixodida), among the most important vectors of pathogens of medical and veterinary concern in Europe. Methods Species Distribution Modelling (SDM) was used to reconstruct the climatic niche of I. ricinus, and to project it into the future conditions for 2050 and 2080, under two scenarios: a continuous human demographic growth and a severe increase of gas emissions (scenario A2), and a scenario that proposes lower human demographic growth than A2, and a more sustainable gas emissions (scenario B2). Models were reconstructed using the algorithm of “maximum entropy”, as implemented in the software Maxent 3.3.3e; 4,544 occurrence points and 15 bioclimatic variables were used. Results In both scenarios an increase of climatic niche of about two times greater than the current area was predicted as well as a higher climatic suitability under the scenario B2 than A2. Such an increase occurred both in a latitudinal and longitudinal way, including northern Eurasian regions (e.g. Sweden and Russia), that were previously unsuitable for the species. Conclusions Our models are congruent with the predictions of range expansion already observed in I. ricinus at a regional scale and provide a qualitative and quantitative assessment of the future climatically suitable areas for I. ricinus at a continental scale. Although the use of SDM at a higher resolution should be integrated by a more refined analysis of further abiotic and biotic data, the results presented here suggest that under future climatic scenarios most of the current distribution area of I. ricinus could remain suitable and significantly increase at a continental geographic scale. Therefore disease outbreaks of pathogens transmitted by this tick species could emerge in previous non

  20. Comparative efficacy of a new spot-on combination product containing selamectin and sarolaner (Stronghold?Plus) versus fluralaner (Bravecto?) against induced infestations with Ixodes ricinus ticks on cats

    OpenAIRE

    Geurden, Thomas; Borowski, Stasia; Wozniakiewicz, Magda; King, Vickie; Fourie, Josephus; Liebenberg, Julian

    2017-01-01

    Background Ticks are increasingly reported on cats worldwide, with Ixodes ricinus being a relevant species across Europe and in near by areas of North Africa and the Middle East. Yet there are few acaracidal products with proven efficacy approved for use in cats. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of a new spot-on formulation containing selamectin and sarolaner with a topical application of fluralaner (Bravecto?) against Ixodes ricinus ticks on cats. To that end, twenty-f...

  1. Differential expression of Ixodes ricinus salivary gland proteins in the presence of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotté, Violaine; Sabatier, Laurence; Schnell, Gilles; Carmi-Leroy, Annick; Rousselle, Jean-Claude; Arsène-Ploetze, Florence; Malandrin, Laurence; Sertour, Natacha; Namane, Abdelkader; Ferquel, Elisabeth; Choumet, Valérie

    2014-01-16

    In Europe, Ixodes ricinus is the main vector of Lyme borreliosis. Their salivary glands play a critical role in the biological success of ticks. To better understand the cross-talk between Borrelia burgdorferi and tick salivary glands, we analyzed protein expression in the salivary glands of I. ricinus adult ticks that were infected by various strains of the B. burgdorferi sl complex. iTRAQ allowed the identification of more than 120 proteins, providing the first proteomic data pertaining to I. ricinus salivary glands. Among these proteins, only 12 were modulated in the presence of various Borrelia strains. Most of them are up-regulated and are involved in cell defense and protein synthesis and processing. Down-regulated proteins are mostly implicated in the cytoskeleton. The DIGE analysis allowed us to identify 35 proteins and showed the down-regulation of 4 proteins. All 15 proteins were not modulated by all strains. Overall, these observations showed that the presence of Borrelia in tick salivary glands is a factor of stress for the protein machinery, and also that some Borrelia strains produce a dysregulation of cytoskeletal proteins. Interestingly, a protein from Borrelia, OspA, was found in infected salivary glands. The consequence of its presence in salivary glands is discussed. Lyme borreliosis is still the most prevalent arthropod-borne disease in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere. The geographical distribution of Lyme borreliosis is expanding, especially towards higher altitudes and latitudes. Human pathogenic spirochetes causing Lyme borreliosis belong to the B. burgdorferi sensu lato complex. They are extracellular pathogens transmitted to humans through the bite of Ixodes spp. ticks. The bioactive molecules present in tick saliva not only promote tick feeding, but also create an advantageous microenvironment at the tick bite site for survival and replication of Borrelia bacteria. Investigation of the tick-host-pathogen interface would

  2. Changes in the geographical distribution and abundance of the tick Ixodes ricinus during the past 30 years in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Ixodes ricinus is the main vector in Europe of human-pathogenic Lyme borreliosis (LB) spirochaetes, the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and other pathogens of humans and domesticated mammals. The results of a previous 1994 questionnaire, directed at people living in Central and North Sweden (Svealand and Norrland) and aiming to gather information about tick exposure for humans and domestic animals, suggested that Ixodes ricinus ticks had become more widespread in Central Sweden and the southern part of North Sweden from the early 1980s to the early 1990s. To investigate whether the expansion of the tick's northern geographical range and the increasing abundance of ticks in Sweden were still occurring, in 2009 we performed a follow-up survey 16 years after the initial study. Methods A questionnaire similar to the one used in the 1994 study was published in Swedish magazines aimed at dog owners, home owners, and hunters. The questionnaire was published together with a popular science article about the tick's biology and role as a pathogen vector in Sweden. The magazines were selected to get information from people familiar with ticks and who spend time in areas where ticks might be present. Results Analyses of data from both surveys revealed that during the near 30-year period from the early 1980s to 2008, I. ricinus has expanded its distribution range northwards. In the early 1990s ticks were found in new areas along the northern coastline of the Baltic Sea, while in the 2009 study, ticks were reported for the first time from many locations in North Sweden. This included locations as far north as 66°N and places in the interior part of North Sweden. During this 16-year period the tick's range in Sweden was estimated to have increased by 9.9%. Most of the range expansion occurred in North Sweden (north of 60°N) where the tick's coverage area doubled from 12.5% in the early 1990s to 26.8% in 2008. Moreover, according to the respondents, the abundance

  3. Changes in the geographical distribution and abundance of the tick Ixodes ricinus during the past 30 years in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaenson Thomas GT

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ixodes ricinus is the main vector in Europe of human-pathogenic Lyme borreliosis (LB spirochaetes, the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV and other pathogens of humans and domesticated mammals. The results of a previous 1994 questionnaire, directed at people living in Central and North Sweden (Svealand and Norrland and aiming to gather information about tick exposure for humans and domestic animals, suggested that Ixodes ricinus ticks had become more widespread in Central Sweden and the southern part of North Sweden from the early 1980s to the early 1990s. To investigate whether the expansion of the tick's northern geographical range and the increasing abundance of ticks in Sweden were still occurring, in 2009 we performed a follow-up survey 16 years after the initial study. Methods A questionnaire similar to the one used in the 1994 study was published in Swedish magazines aimed at dog owners, home owners, and hunters. The questionnaire was published together with a popular science article about the tick's biology and role as a pathogen vector in Sweden. The magazines were selected to get information from people familiar with ticks and who spend time in areas where ticks might be present. Results Analyses of data from both surveys revealed that during the near 30-year period from the early 1980s to 2008, I. ricinus has expanded its distribution range northwards. In the early 1990s ticks were found in new areas along the northern coastline of the Baltic Sea, while in the 2009 study, ticks were reported for the first time from many locations in North Sweden. This included locations as far north as 66°N and places in the interior part of North Sweden. During this 16-year period the tick's range in Sweden was estimated to have increased by 9.9%. Most of the range expansion occurred in North Sweden (north of 60°N where the tick's coverage area doubled from 12.5% in the early 1990s to 26.8% in 2008. Moreover, according to the

  4. The Presence of Borrelia miyamotoi, A Relapsing Fever Spirochaete, in Questing Ixodes ricinus in Belgium and in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochez, C; Heyman, P; Heylen, D; Fonville, M; Hengeveld, P; Takken, W; Simons, L; Sprong, H

    2015-08-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi is a tick-borne bacterium that may cause relapsing fever in humans. As this pathogen has been discovered in Europe only recently, only little is known about its local impact on human health and its spatial distribution. In this study, we show the results of PCR screenings for B. miyamotoi in flagged Ixodes ricinus from Belgium and the Netherlands. B. miyamotoi was detected in nine of thirteen, and three of five locations from the Netherlands and Belgium, respectively. These outcomes indicate that B. miyamotoi is more spread than previously thought. The mean infection rate B. miyamotoi was 1.14% for Belgium and 3.84% for the Netherlands. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Detection of Borrelia-specific 16S rRNA sequence in total RNA extracted from Ixodes ricinus ticks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ž. Radulović

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A reverse transcriptase - polymerase chain reaction based assay for Borrelia species detection in ticks was developed. The method was based on amplification of 552 nucleotide bases long sequence of 16S rRNA, targeted by Borrelia specific primers. In the present study, total RNA extracted from Ixodes ricinus ticks was used as template. The results showed higher sensitivity for Borrelia detection as compared to standard dark-field microscopy. Method specificity was confirmed by cloning and sequencing of obtained 552 base pairs long amplicons. Phylogenetic analysis of obtained sequences showed that they belong to B. lusitaniae and B. afzelii genospecies. RT-PCR based method presented in this paper could be very useful as a screening test for detecting pathogen presence, especially when in investigations is required extraction of total RNA from ticks.

  6. Range expansion of Ixodes ricinus to higher altitude, and co-infestation of small rodents with Dermacentor marginatus in the Northern Apennines, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martello, Elisa; Mannelli, Alessandro; Ragagli, Charlotte; Ambrogi, Cecilia; Selmi, Marco; Ceballos, Leonardo A; Tomassone, Laura

    2014-10-01

    Immature ticks (Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor marginatus) were collected from small rodents (Apodemus spp. and Myodes glareolus), in the Northern Apennines, Italy, at an altitude up to 1650 m above sea level (a.s.l.), from 2009 through 2012. While D. marginatus had been found at the same location in studies carried out in 1994, I. ricinus was very rare or absent. Prevalence (95% confidence interval) of infestation by I. ricinus larvae on Apodemus spp. was 54.4% (47.5, 61.2), and it was greater than prevalence of D. marginatus larvae on the same hosts (23.3%, 17.8, 29.5). The mean (standard deviation) numbers of I. ricinus and D. marginatus larvae per individual Apodemus spp. were similar: 2.3 (4.1) and 2.1 (9.8), respectively. The monthly infestation pattern of the two tick species on Apodemus spp. were different. I. ricinus larvae were more frequent in June and September, than in July-August. I. ricinus nymphs were generally rare, and were most frequently found in July. The prevalence of D. marginatus larvae peaked in July-August, whereas nymphs were mostly active in August-September. Increasing population densities of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and increasing temperatures, in the last decades, in the Apennine area might have contributed to the observed range expansion of I. ricinus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. A multi-level analysis of the relationship between environmental factors and questing Ixodes ricinus dynamics in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Ticks are the most important pathogen vectors in Europe. They are known to be influenced by environmental factors, but these links are usually studied at specific temporal or spatial scales. Focusing on Ixodes ricinus in Belgium, we attempt to bridge the gap between current “single-sided” studies that focus on temporal or spatial variation only. Here, spatial and temporal patterns of ticks are modelled together. Methods A multi-level analysis of the Ixodes ricinus patterns in Belgium was performed. Joint effects of weather, habitat quality and hunting on field sampled tick abundance were examined at two levels, namely, sampling level, which is associated with temporal dynamics, and site level, which is related to spatial dynamics. Independent variables were collected from standard weather station records, game management data and remote sensing-based land cover data. Results At sampling level, only a marginally significant effect of daily relative humidity and temperature on the abundance of questing nymphs was identified. Average wind speed of seven days prior to the sampling day was found important to both questing nymphs and adults. At site level, a group of landscape-level forest fragmentation indices were highlighted for both questing nymph and adult abundance, including the nearest-neighbour distance, the shape and the aggregation level of forest patches. No cross-level effects or spatial autocorrelation were found. Conclusions Nymphal and adult ticks responded differently to environmental variables at different spatial and temporal scales. Our results can advise spatio-temporal extents of environment data collection for continuing empirical investigations and potential parameters for biological tick models. PMID:22830528

  8. Morphological anomalies in Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes inopinatus collected from tick-borne encephalitis natural foci in Central Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chitimia-Dobler, Lidia; Bestehorn, Malena; Bröker, Michael

    2017-01-01

    in Germany, Slovakia and Denmark. A total of 278 (1.9%) out of 14,602 nymph and adult ticks showed morphological anomalies. The anomalies were divided into general anomalies (body asymmetry) and local anomalies (anomalies of appendages, malformation of capitulum, exoskeleton anomalies and anal groove......, palps and exoskeleton. Anal groove deformation was observed in three females and three nymphs. In 2016, the frequency of anomalies in I. inopinatus was found five times higher (9.3%) than in I. ricinus (1.9%). This is the first report of anomaly (ectromely, leg atrophy, idiosoma deformation) in flagged...

  9. Occurrence of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. in Ixodes ricinus in Bavarian public parks, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahling Monia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only limited information is available about the occurrence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in public parks, which are areas strongly influenced by human beings. For this reason, Ixodes ricinus were collected in public parks of different Bavarian cities in a 2-year survey (2009 and 2010 and screened for DNA of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. by PCR. Species identification was performed by sequence analysis and alignment with existing sequences in GenBank. Additionally, coinfections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum were investigated. Results The following prevalences were detected: Babesia spp.: 0.4% (n = 17, including one pool of two larvae in 2009 and 0.5 to 0.7% (n = 11, including one pool of five larvae in 2010; Rickettsia spp.: 6.4 to 7.7% (n = 285, including 16 pools of 76 larvae in 2009. DNA of Bartonella spp. in I. ricinus in Bavarian public parks could not be identified. Sequence analysis revealed the following species: Babesia sp. EU1 (n = 25, B. divergens (n = 1, B. divergens/capreoli (n = 1, B. gibsoni-like (n = 1, R. helvetica (n = 272, R. monacensis IrR/Munich (n = 12 and unspecified R. monacensis (n = 1. The majority of coinfections were R. helvetica with A. phagocytophilum (n = 27, but coinfections between Babesia spp. and A. phagocytophilum, or Babesia spp. and R. helvetica were also detected. Conclusions I. ricinus ticks in urban areas of Germany harbor several tick-borne pathogens and coinfections were also observed. Public parks are of particularly great interest regarding the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens, because of differences in both the prevalence of pathogens in ticks as well as a varying species arrangement when compared to woodland areas. The record of DNA of a Babesia gibsoni-like pathogen detected in I. ricinus suggests that I. ricinus may harbor and transmit more Babesia spp. than previously known. Because of their high recreational value for human beings, urban green

  10. Occurrence of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. in Ixodes ricinus in Bavarian public parks, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Only limited information is available about the occurrence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in public parks, which are areas strongly influenced by human beings. For this reason, Ixodes ricinus were collected in public parks of different Bavarian cities in a 2-year survey (2009 and 2010) and screened for DNA of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. by PCR. Species identification was performed by sequence analysis and alignment with existing sequences in GenBank. Additionally, coinfections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum were investigated. Results The following prevalences were detected: Babesia spp.: 0.4% (n = 17, including one pool of two larvae) in 2009 and 0.5 to 0.7% (n = 11, including one pool of five larvae) in 2010; Rickettsia spp.: 6.4 to 7.7% (n = 285, including 16 pools of 76 larvae) in 2009. DNA of Bartonella spp. in I. ricinus in Bavarian public parks could not be identified. Sequence analysis revealed the following species: Babesia sp. EU1 (n = 25), B. divergens (n = 1), B. divergens/capreoli (n = 1), B. gibsoni-like (n = 1), R. helvetica (n = 272), R. monacensis IrR/Munich (n = 12) and unspecified R. monacensis (n = 1). The majority of coinfections were R. helvetica with A. phagocytophilum (n = 27), but coinfections between Babesia spp. and A. phagocytophilum, or Babesia spp. and R. helvetica were also detected. Conclusions I. ricinus ticks in urban areas of Germany harbor several tick-borne pathogens and coinfections were also observed. Public parks are of particularly great interest regarding the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens, because of differences in both the prevalence of pathogens in ticks as well as a varying species arrangement when compared to woodland areas. The record of DNA of a Babesia gibsoni-like pathogen detected in I. ricinus suggests that I. ricinus may harbor and transmit more Babesia spp. than previously known. Because of their high recreational value for human beings, urban green areas are likely to

  11. Crowdsourcing-based nationwide tick collection reveals the distribution of Ixodes ricinus and I. persulcatus and associated pathogens in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, Maija; Sajanti, Eeva; Sormunen, Jani J; Penttinen, Ritva; Hänninen, Jari; Ruohomäki, Kai; Sääksjärvi, Ilari; Vesterinen, Eero J; Vuorinen, Ilppo; Hytönen, Jukka; Klemola, Tero

    2017-05-10

    A national crowdsourcing-based tick collection campaign was organized in 2015 with the objective of producing novel data on tick distribution and tick-borne pathogens in Finland. Nearly 20 000 Ixodes ticks were collected. The collected material revealed the nationwide distribution of I. persulcatus for the first time and a shift northwards in the distribution of I. ricinus in Finland. A subset of 2038 tick samples containing both species was screened for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (the prevalence was 14.2% for I. ricinus and 19.8% for I. persulcatus), B. miyamotoi (0.2% and 0.4%, respectively) and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV; 0.2% and 3.0%, respectively). We also report new risk areas for TBEV in Finland and, for the first time, the presence of B. miyamotoi in ticks from mainland Finland. Most importantly, our study demonstrates the overwhelming power of citizen science in accomplishing a collection effort that would have been impossible with the scientific community alone.

  12. Phylogenetic Lineages and Postglacial Dispersal Dynamics Characterize the Genetic Structure of the Tick, Ixodes ricinus, in Northwest Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røed, Knut H; Kvie, Kjersti S; Hasle, Gunnar; Gilbert, Lucy; Leinaas, Hans Petter

    2016-01-01

    Dispersal and gene flow are important mechanisms affecting the dynamics of vectors and their pathogens. Here, patterns of genetic diversity were analyzed in many North European populations of the tick, Ixodes ricinus. Population sites were selected within and between areas separated by geographical barriers in order to evaluate the importance of tick transportation by birds in producing genetic connectivity across open sea and mountain ranges. The phylogenetic analyses of the mitochondrial control region and the cytochrome b gene revealed two distinct clades with supported sub-clades, with three genetic lineages: GB and WNo associated with Great Britain and western Norway respectively, and Eu with a wider distribution across continental Europe in agreement with much lower efficiency of tick dispersal by birds than by large mammals. The results suggest different ancestry of I. ricinus colonizing Britain and the rest of northern Europe, possibly from different glacial refuges, while ticks from western Norway and continental Europe share a more recent common ancestry. Demographic history modeling suggests a period of strong increase in tick abundance coincident with progression of the European Neolithic culture, long after their post-glacial colonization of NW Europe.

  13. Tick-borne pathogens induce differential expression of genes promoting cell survival and host resistance in Ixodes ricinus cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Karen L; Cook, Charlotte; Ellis, Richard J; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; Johnson, Nicholas; Alberdi, Pilar; de la Fuente, José; Fooks, Anthony R

    2017-02-15

    There has been an emergence and expansion of tick-borne diseases in Europe, Asia and North America in recent years, including Lyme disease, tick-borne encephalitis and human anaplasmosis. The primary vectors implicated are hard ticks of the genus Ixodes. Although much is known about the host response to these bacterial and viral pathogens, there is limited knowledge of the cellular responses to infection within the tick vector. The bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum is able to bypass apoptotic processes in ticks, enabling infection to proceed. However, the tick cellular responses to infection with the flaviviruses tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and louping ill virus (LIV), which cause tick-borne encephalitis and louping ill respectively, are less clear. Infection and transcriptional analysis of the Ixodes ricinus tick cell line IRE/CTVM20 with the viruses LIV and TBEV, and the bacterium A. phagocytophilum, identified activation of common and distinct cellular pathways. In particular, commonly-upregulated genes included those that modulate apoptotic pathways, putative anti-pathogen genes, and genes that influence the tick innate immune response, including selective activation of toll genes. These data provide an insight into potential key genes involved in the tick cellular response to viral or bacterial infection, which may promote cell survival and host resistance.

  14. Borrelia miyamotoi and Co-Infection with Borrelia afzelii in Ixodes ricinus Ticks and Rodents from Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamšíková, Zuzana; Coipan, Claudia; Mahríková, Lenka; Minichová, Lenka; Sprong, Hein; Kazimírová, Mária

    2017-05-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi causes relapsing fever in humans. The occurrence of this spirochete has been reported in Ixodes ricinus and wildlife, but there are still gaps in the knowledge of its eco-epidemiology and public health impact. In the current study, questing I. ricinus (nymphs and adults) and skin biopsies from rodents captured in Slovakia were screened for the presence of B. miyamotoi and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. DNA. The prevalence of B. miyamotoi and B. burgdorferi s.l. in questing ticks was 1.7 and 16.9%, respectively. B. miyamotoi was detected in Apodemus flavicollis (9.3%) and Myodes glareolus (4.4%). In contrast, B. burgdorferi s.l. was identified in 11.9% of rodents, with the highest prevalence in Microtus arvalis (68.4%) and a lower prevalence in Apodemus spp. (8.4%) and M. glareolus (12.4%). Borrelia afzelii was the prevailing genospecies infecting questing I. ricinus (37.9%) and rodents (72.2%). Co-infections of B. miyamotoi and B. burgdorferi s.l. were found in 24.1 and 9.3% of the questing ticks and rodents, respectively, whereas the proportion of ticks and rodents co-infected with B. miyamotoi and B. afzelii was 6.9 and 7.0%, respectively. The results suggest that B. miyamotoi and B. afzelii share amplifying hosts. The sequences of the B. miyamotoi glpQ gene fragment from our study showed a high degree of identity with sequences of the gene amplified from ticks and human patients in Europe. The results seem to suggest that humans in Slovakia are at risk of contracting tick-borne relapsing fever, and in some cases together with Lyme borreliosis.

  15. Prevalence of Tick-Borne Pathogens in Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus Ticks from Different Geographical Locations in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reye, Anna L.; Stegniy, Valentina; Mishaeva, Nina P.; Velhin, Sviataslau; Hübschen, Judith M.; Ignatyev, George; Muller, Claude P.

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, ticks are important vectors of human and animal pathogens. Besides Lyme Borreliosis, a variety of other bacterial and protozoal tick-borne infections are of medical interest in Europe. In this study, 553 questing and feeding Ixodes ricinus (n = 327) and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks (n = 226) were analysed by PCR for Borrelia, Rickettsia, Anaplasma, Coxiella, Francisella and Babesia species. Overall, the pathogen prevalence in ticks was 30.6% for I. ricinus and 45.6% for D. reticulatus. The majority of infections were caused by members of the spotted-fever group rickettsiae (24.4%), 9.4% of ticks were positive for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, with Borrelia afzelii being the most frequently detected species (40.4%). Pathogens with low prevalence rates in ticks were Anaplasma phagocytophilum (2.2%), Coxiella burnetii (0.9%), Francisella tularensis subspecies (0.7%), Bartonella henselae (0.7%), Babesia microti (0.5%) and Babesia venatorum (0.4%). On a regional level, hotspots of pathogens were identified for A. phagocytophilum (12.5–17.2%), F. tularensis ssp. (5.5%) and C. burnetii (9.1%), suggesting established zoonotic cycles of these pathogens at least at these sites. Our survey revealed a high burden of tick-borne pathogens in questing and feeding I. ricinus and D. reticulatus ticks collected in different regions in Belarus, indicating a potential risk for humans and animals. Identified hotspots of infected ticks should be included in future surveillance studies, especially when F. tularensis ssp. and C. burnetii are involved. PMID:23349900

  16. Survival of Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) nymphs under cold conditions is negatively influenced by frequent temperature variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Coralie; Gern, Lise

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we tested the survival of Ixodes ricinus under cold conditions in the laboratory. We investigated how the frequency of temperature variations (from -5 °C or -10 °C to 13 °C), and infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) influenced survival of questing nymphs collected in spring and autumn 2011. In experiment 1, survival of 1760 nymphs was tested at -10 °C over a short period of time to simulate very cold winter conditions. In experiment 2, survival of 1600 nymphs was tested under cold condition (-5 °C) over a long period of time to simulate common winter conditions. Ticks used for survival tests at -5 °C were screened for Borrelia by quantitative PCR, and genospecies identification was achieved by reverse line blotting. Tick age and frequency of temperature variations had a highly significant effect on I. ricinus survival while Borrelia infection was marginally significant. Hence, survival rate was higher in younger (autumn) than older (spring) nymphs and in nymphs exposed to low rather than high-frequency temperature variations. Borrelia-infected ticks tended to survive better than their uninfected counterparts. These findings suggest that in nature (i) frequent temperature changes in winter threaten tick survival more importantly than very low temperatures, (ii) older (spring) ticks are less resistant to cold than younger (autumn) individuals, and (iii) Borrelia infection plays a marginal role in I. ricinus survival during winter conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes ricinus tick cell lines respond to infection with tick-borne encephalitis virus: transcriptomic and proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisheit, Sabine; Villar, Margarita; Tykalová, Hana; Popara, Marina; Loecherbach, Julia; Watson, Mick; Růžek, Daniel; Grubhoffer, Libor; de la Fuente, José; Fazakerley, John K; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley

    2015-11-18

    Ixodid ticks are important vectors of a wide variety of viral, bacterial and protozoan pathogens of medical and veterinary importance. Although several studies have elucidated tick responses to bacteria, little is known about the tick response to viruses. To gain insight into the response of tick cells to flavivirus infection, the transcriptomes and proteomes of two Ixodes spp cell lines infected with the flavivirus tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) were analysed. RNA and proteins were isolated from the Ixodes scapularis-derived cell line IDE8 and the Ixodes ricinus-derived cell line IRE/CTVM19, mock-infected or infected with TBEV, on day 2 post-infection (p.i.) when virus production was increasing, and on day 6 p.i. when virus production was decreasing. RNA-Seq and mass spectrometric technologies were used to identify changes in abundance of, respectively, transcripts and proteins. Functional analyses were conducted on selected transcripts using RNA interference (RNAi) for gene knockdown in tick cells infected with the closely-related but less pathogenic flavivirus Langat virus (LGTV). Differential expression analysis using DESeq resulted in totals of 43 and 83 statistically significantly differentially-expressed transcripts in IDE8 and IRE/CTVM19 cells, respectively. Mass spectrometry detected 76 and 129 statistically significantly differentially-represented proteins in IDE8 and IRE/CTVM19 cells, respectively. Differentially-expressed transcripts and differentially-represented proteins included some that may be involved in innate immune and cell stress responses. Knockdown of the heat-shock proteins HSP90, HSP70 and gp96, the complement-associated protein Factor H and the protease trypsin resulted in increased LGTV replication and production in at least one tick cell line, indicating a possible antiviral role for these proteins. Knockdown of RNAi-associated proteins Argonaute and Dicer, which were included as positive controls, also resulted in increased LGTV

  18. Ixodes ricinus ticks removed from humans in Northern Europe: seasonal pattern of infestation, attachment sites and duration of feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The common tick Ixodes ricinus is the main vector in Europe of the tick-borne encephalitis virus and of several species of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, which are the etiological agents of Lyme borreliosis. The risk to contract bites of I. ricinus is dependent on many factors including the behaviour of both ticks and people. The tick’s site of attachment on the human body and the duration of tick attachment may be of clinical importance. Data on I. ricinus ticks, which were found attached to the skin of people, were analysed regarding potentially stage-specific differences in location of attachment sites, duration of tick attachment (= feeding duration), seasonal and geographical distribution of tick infestation in relation to age and gender of the tick-infested hosts. Methods During 2008–2009, 1770 tick-bitten persons from Sweden and the Åland Islands removed 2110 I. ricinus ticks. Participants provided information about the date of tick detection and location on their body of each attached tick. Ticks were identified to species and developmental stage. The feeding duration of each nymph and adult female tick was microscopically estimated based on the scutal and the coxal index. Results In 2008, participants were tick-bitten from mid-May to mid-October and in 2009 from early April to early November. The infestation pattern of the nymphs was bimodal whereas that of the adult female ticks was unimodal with a peak in late summer. Tick attachment site on the human body was associated with stage of the tick and gender of the human host. Site of attachment seemed to influence the duration of tick feeding. Overall, 63% of nymphs and adult female ticks were detected and removed more than 24 hours after attachment. Older persons, compared to younger ones, and men, compared to women, removed “their” ticks after a longer period of tick attachment. Conclusions The infestation behaviour of the different tick stages concerning where on the

  19. Detection and Characterization of the Emerging Relapsing Fever Pathogen, Borrelia miyamotoi, from the Ixodes ricinus Tick in the Rural Trakya (Thrace) Region of Northwestern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, Keiko; Şen, Ece; Sato, Kozue; Kawabata, Hiroki; Ohashi, Norio; Masuzawa, Toshiyuki

    2016-12-01

    The hard tick-borne relapsing fever agent, Borrelia miyamotoi infection in Ixodes ricinus ticks sampled from Istanbul and the countryside of Kirklareli in northwestern Turkey, was examined by TaqMan-PCR targeting 16S rDNA, nested PCR targeting 16S rDNA, the flagellin gene (flaB), and the 16S and 23S rDNA intergenic spacer (IGS), and sequencing analyses of these amplicons. B. miyamotoi was detected in 1 out of 248 I. ricinus ticks (infection rate 0.4%). The tick infected with B. miyamotoi was collected in Longos, Kirklareli province on the European side of Turkey near the Bulgarian border. The 16S rDNA, flaB, and IGS sequences from the infected tick showed high similarities to those of B. miyamotoi detected in I. ricinus in Europe.

  20. Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis in rodents in an area with sympatric existence of the hard ticks Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silaghi, Cornelia; Woll, Dietlinde; Mahling, Monia; Pfister, Kurt; Pfeffer, Martin

    2012-12-07

    Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis (CNM) has been described in the hard tick Ixodes ricinus and rodents as well as in some severe cases of human disease. The aims of this study were to identify DNA of CNM in small mammals, the ticks parasitizing them and questing ticks in areas with sympatric existence of Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus in Germany. Blood, transudate and organ samples (spleen, kidney, liver, skin) of 91 small mammals and host-attached ticks from altogether 50 small mammals as well as questing I. ricinus ticks (n=782) were screened with a real-time PCR for DNA of CNM. 52.7% of the small mammals were positive for CNM-DNA. The majority of the infected animals were yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis) and bank voles (Myodes glareolus). Small mammals with tick infestation were more often infected with CNM than small mammals without ticks. Compared with the prevalence of ~25% in the questing I. ricinus ticks, twice the prevalence in the rodents provides evidence for their role as reservoir hosts for CNM. The high prevalence of this pathogen in the investigated areas in both rodents and ticks points towards the need for more specific investigation on its role as a human pathogen.

  1. Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis in rodents in an area with sympatric existence of the hard ticks Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silaghi Cornelia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis (CNM has been described in the hard tick Ixodes ricinus and rodents as well as in some severe cases of human disease. The aims of this study were to identify DNA of CNM in small mammals, the ticks parasitizing them and questing ticks in areas with sympatric existence of Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus in Germany. Methods Blood, transudate and organ samples (spleen, kidney, liver, skin of 91 small mammals and host-attached ticks from altogether 50 small mammals as well as questing I. ricinus ticks (n=782 were screened with a real-time PCR for DNA of CNM. Results 52.7% of the small mammals were positive for CNM-DNA. The majority of the infected animals were yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis and bank voles (Myodes glareolus. Small mammals with tick infestation were more often infected with CNM than small mammals without ticks. Compared with the prevalence of ~25% in the questing I. ricinus ticks, twice the prevalence in the rodents provides evidence for their role as reservoir hosts for CNM. Conclusion The high prevalence of this pathogen in the investigated areas in both rodents and ticks points towards the need for more specific investigation on its role as a human pathogen.

  2. An Ixodes ricinus Tick Salivary Lectin Pathway Inhibitor Protects Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from Human Complement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagemakers, Alex; Coumou, Jeroen; Schuijt, Tim J.; Oei, Anneke; Nijhof, Ard M.; van 't Veer, Cornelis; van der Poll, Tom; Bins, Adriaan D.; Hovius, Joppe W. R.

    2016-01-01

    We previously identified tick salivary lectin pathway inhibitor (TSLPI) in Ixodes scapularis, a vector for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) in North America. TSLPI is a salivary protein facilitating B. burgdorferi s.s. transmission and acquisition by inhibiting the host lectin complement

  3. On the complexity of measuring forests microclimate and interpreting its relevance in habitat ecology: the example of Ixodes ricinus ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnke, Denise; Gebhardt, Reiner; Petney, Trevor; Norra, Stefan

    2017-11-06

    Ecological field research on the influence of meteorological parameters on a forest inhabiting species is confronted with the complex relations between measured data and the real conditions the species is exposed to. This study highlights this complexity for the example of Ixodes ricinus. This species lives mainly in forest habitats near the ground, but field research on impacts of meteorological conditions on population dynamics is often based on data from nearby official weather stations or occasional in situ measurements. In addition, studies use very different data approaches to analyze comparable research questions. This study is an extensive examination of the methodology used to analyze the impact of meteorological parameters on Ixodes ricinus and proposes a methodological approach that tackles the underlying complexity. Our specifically developed measurement concept was implemented at 25 forest study sites across Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Meteorological weather stations recorded data in situ and continuously between summer 2012 and autumn 2015, including relative humidity measures in the litter layer and different heights above it (50 cm, 2 m). Hourly averages of relative humidity were calculated and compared with data from the nearest official weather station. Data measured directly in the forest can differ dramatically from conditions recorded at official weather stations. In general, data indicate a remarkable relative humidity decrease from inside to outside the forest and from ground to atmosphere. Relative humidity measured in the litter layer were, on average, 24% higher than the official data and were much more balanced, especially in summer. The results illustrate the need for, and benefit of, continuous in situ measurements to grasp the complex relative humidity conditions in forests. Data from official weather stations do not accurately represent actual humidity conditions in forest stands and the explanatory power of short period and

  4. On the complexity of measuring forests microclimate and interpreting its relevance in habitat ecology: the example of Ixodes ricinus ticks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Boehnke

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ecological field research on the influence of meteorological parameters on a forest inhabiting species is confronted with the complex relations between measured data and the real conditions the species is exposed to. This study highlights this complexity for the example of Ixodes ricinus. This species lives mainly in forest habitats near the ground, but field research on impacts of meteorological conditions on population dynamics is often based on data from nearby official weather stations or occasional in situ measurements. In addition, studies use very different data approaches to analyze comparable research questions. This study is an extensive examination of the methodology used to analyze the impact of meteorological parameters on Ixodes ricinus and proposes a methodological approach that tackles the underlying complexity. Methods Our specifically developed measurement concept was implemented at 25 forest study sites across Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Meteorological weather stations recorded data in situ and continuously between summer 2012 and autumn 2015, including relative humidity measures in the litter layer and different heights above it (50 cm, 2 m. Hourly averages of relative humidity were calculated and compared with data from the nearest official weather station. Results Data measured directly in the forest can differ dramatically from conditions recorded at official weather stations. In general, data indicate a remarkable relative humidity decrease from inside to outside the forest and from ground to atmosphere. Relative humidity measured in the litter layer were, on average, 24% higher than the official data and were much more balanced, especially in summer. Conclusions The results illustrate the need for, and benefit of, continuous in situ measurements to grasp the complex relative humidity conditions in forests. Data from official weather stations do not accurately represent actual humidity conditions in

  5. Detection of Wolbachia in the tick Ixodes ricinus is due to the presence of the hymenoptera endoparasitoid Ixodiphagus hookeri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Plantard

    Full Text Available The identification of micro-organisms carried by ticks is an important issue for human and animal health. In addition to their role as pathogen vectors, ticks are also the hosts for symbiotic bacteria whose impact on tick biology is poorly known. Among these, the bacterium Wolbachia pipientis has already been reported associated with Ixodes ricinus and other tick species. However, the origins of Wolbachia in ticks and their consequences on tick biology (known to be very diverse in invertebrates, ranging from nutritional symbionts in nematodes to reproductive manipulators in insects are unknown. Here we report that the endoparasitoid wasp Ixodiphagus hookeri (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Encyrtidae--strictly associated with ticks for their development--infested at almost 100% prevalence by a W. pipientis strain belonging to a Wolbachia supergroup that has already been reported as associated with other hymenopteran parasitoids. In a natural population of I. ricinus that suffers high parasitism rates due to I. hookeri, we used specific PCR primers for both hymenopteran and W. pipientis gene fragments to show that all unfed tick nymphs parasitized by I. hookeri also harbored Wolbachia, while unparasitized ticks were Wolbachia-free. We demonstrated experimentally that unfed nymphs obtained from larvae exposed to I. hookeri while gorging on their vertebrate host also harbor Wolbachia. We hypothesize that previous studies that have reported W. pipientis in ticks are due to the cryptic presence of the endoparasitoid wasp I. hookeri. This association has remained hidden until now because parasitoids within ticks cannot be detected until engorgement of the nymphs brings the wasp eggs out of diapause. Finally, we discuss the consequences of this finding for our understanding of the tick microbiome, and their possible role in horizontal gene transfer among pathogenic and symbiotic bacteria.

  6. Diversity of Babesia and Rickettsia species in questing Ixodes ricinus: a longitudinal study in urban, pasture, and natural habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overzier, Evelyn; Pfister, Kurt; Thiel, Claudia; Herb, Ingrid; Mahling, Monia; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2013-08-01

    In a previous study, our group investigated the Babesia spp. prevalence in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks from nine city parks in South Germany in the years 2009 and 2010. We showed predominant prevalence of B. venatorum (in previous literature also known as Babesia sp. EU1), especially in those parks in a more natural condition and with occurrence of large wild animals, such as roe deer. To obtain longitudinal data and to broaden the knowledge about this pathogen, further investigations were carried out in 2011 and 2012 in four of those city parks. Two additional habitat types were chosen for comparison of prevalence data and species analysis focusing on occurrence of potential reservoir hosts. A total of 10,303 questing I. ricinus were collected in four city parks, a pasture, and a natural area in Bavaria, and a representative number of samples were investigated for prevalence of DNA of Babesia spp. (n=4381) and Rickettsia spp. (n=2186) by PCR. In the natural and pasture area, a significantly higher Babesia spp. prevalence compared to the urban area was detected. The natural area revealed sequences of B. microti, B. venatorum, and B. capreoli. In the pasture and urban habitat, predominantly B. venatorum was found, whereas B. capreoli was less frequent and only one B. microti-infected tick was found. All B. microti sequences were 100% identical to the zoonotic Jena/Germany strain. For Rickettsia spp., the significantly highest prevalence was also detected in the natural and pasture areas, whereas lower prevalence was found in the urban area. Sequence analysis revealed R. helvetica (98%) and R. monacensis (2%). Prevalence rates and occurrence of Babesia spp. and Rickettsia spp. differed in urban, pasture and natural sites, most likely depending on the habitat structure (natural or cultivated) and therefore on the appearance and availability of reservoir hosts like roe deer or small mammals.

  7. Comparative efficacy of two fipronil spot-on formulations against experimental tick infestations (Ixodes ricinus) in dogs

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    Bonneau, Stéphane; Gupta, Sandeep

    2010-01-01

    A parallel-group-design, randomized, unicentre and blinded controlled study was undertaken to assess the efficacy of a new fipronil-based spot-on formulation applied once to dogs against experimental Ixodes ricinus infestations. Six dogs served as negative controls (group 1), six dogs served as positive controls (group 2) receiving the original fipronil spot-on (Frontline® spot-on Dog, Merial) at a dosage of 0.67 mL for a dog weighing from 2 to 10 kg and 1.34 mL for a dog weighing from 10.1 to 20 kg and six dogs were treated with a 10% w/v fipronil-based spot-on solution (Effipro® Spot-on, Virbac SA) at an identical dosage (group 3, 0.67 mL for a dog weighing from 2 to 10 kg and 1.34 mL for a dog weighing from 10.1 to 20 kg). Each dog was sedated and subsequently infested with 50 unfed adult I. ricinus on days −7, −2, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35. Forty-eight hours after the treatment and 48 h after each challenge (days −5, 2, 9, 16, 23, 30 and 37), the population of the remaining ticks was assessed for each animal. Geometric mean tick counts obtained were reduced by 99% and 94% on day 2 in groups 2 and 3, respectively, compared to the negative control group. Dogs were protected from re-infestations with an efficacy of >90% for 3 weeks in group 2 and for 5 weeks in group 3. Both 10% w/v fipronil-based spot-on solutions, despite different vehicles, were equally able to eradicate tick infestation, to prevent new infestations and were equally well tolerated. PMID:20556429

  8. Detection of Wolbachia in the Tick Ixodes ricinus is Due to the Presence of the Hymenoptera Endoparasitoid Ixodiphagus hookeri

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    Plantard, Olivier; Bouju-Albert, Agnès; Malard, Marie-Astrid; Hermouet, Axelle; Capron, Gilles; Verheyden, Hélène

    2012-01-01

    The identification of micro-organisms carried by ticks is an important issue for human and animal health. In addition to their role as pathogen vectors, ticks are also the hosts for symbiotic bacteria whose impact on tick biology is poorly known. Among these, the bacterium Wolbachia pipientis has already been reported associated with Ixodes ricinus and other tick species. However, the origins of Wolbachia in ticks and their consequences on tick biology (known to be very diverse in invertebrates, ranging from nutritional symbionts in nematodes to reproductive manipulators in insects) are unknown. Here we report that the endoparasitoid wasp Ixodiphagus hookeri (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Encyrtidae) – strictly associated with ticks for their development - is infested at almost 100% prevalence by a W. pipientis strain belonging to a Wolbachia supergroup that has already been reported as associated with other hymenopteran parasitoids. In a natural population of I. ricinus that suffers high parasitism rates due to I. hookeri, we used specific PCR primers for both hymenopteran and W. pipientis gene fragments to show that all unfed tick nymphs parasitized by I. hookeri also harbored Wolbachia, while unparasitized ticks were Wolbachia-free. We demonstrated experimentally that unfed nymphs obtained from larvae exposed to I. hookeri while gorging on their vertebrate host also harbor Wolbachia. We hypothesize that previous studies that have reported W. pipientis in ticks are due to the cryptic presence of the endoparasitoid wasp I. hookeri. This association has remained hidden until now because parasitoids within ticks cannot be detected until engorgement of the nymphs brings the wasp eggs out of diapause. Finally, we discuss the consequences of this finding for our understanding of the tick microbiome, and their possible role in horizontal gene transfer among pathogenic and symbiotic bacteria. PMID:22292021

  9. Identification of host blood-meal sources and Borrelia in field-collected Ixodes ricinus ticks in north-western Poland.

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    Wodecka, Beata; Skotarczak, Bogumila

    2016-01-01

    Forest animals play fundamental roles in the maintenance of Ixodes ricinus and Borrelia species in the forest biotope. To identify the forest vertebrate species that are host for I. ricinus and for the recognition of the reservoirs of Borrelia species, the blood-meal of 325 I. ricinus ticks collected at two forest sites in north-western Poland were analysed. Nested PCR was used to detect polymorphisms in a fragment of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene for the identification of the hosts species. The products were digested with the restriction enzymes, a combination that allows the identification of 60 vertebrate species, comprising 17 bird, 4 reptile and 39 mammalian species. Host DNA was detected in 244 (75%) I. ricinus individuals, with the species being detected and classified for 210 (86%) samples. The restriction patterns resulted in the identification of 14 vertebrate species, including 2 species of birds, lizard, badger, rabbit, deer; most of the samples contained DNA from wild boar (Sus scrofa), red fox (Vulpes vulpes), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). Identification of Borrelia species was based on the flaB gene using nested PCR coupled to RFLP. This method allows the identification of all Borrelia species transmitted by I. ricinus in Europe, including B. miyamotoi and 3 genetic variants of B. garinii. In the studied isolates, 2 species belonging to B. burgdorferi sensu lato were identified--B. garinii and B. afzelii, and B. miyamotoi, which are related to relapsing fever borreliae.

  10. Multi-trophic interactions driving the transmission cycle of Borrelia afzelii between Ixodes ricinus and rodents: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duijvendijk, Gilian; Sprong, Hein; Takken, Willem

    2015-12-18

    The tick Ixodes ricinus is the main vector of the spirochaete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the causal agent of Lyme borreliosis, in the western Palearctic. Rodents are the reservoir host of B. afzelii, which can be transmitted to I. ricinus larvae during a blood meal. The infected engorged larvae moult into infected nymphs, which can transmit the spirochaetes to rodents and humans. Interestingly, even though only about 1% of the larvae develop into a borreliae-infected nymph, the enzootic borreliae lifecycle can persist. The development from larva to infected nymph is a key aspect in this lifecycle, influencing the density of infected nymphs and thereby Lyme borreliosis risk. The density of infected nymphs varies temporally and geographically and is influenced by multi-trophic (tick-host-borreliae) interactions. For example, blood feeding success of ticks and spirochaete transmission success differ between rodent species and host-finding success appears to be affected by a B. afzelii infection in both the rodent and the tick. In this paper, we review the major interactions between I. ricinus, rodents and B. afzelii that influence this development, with the aim to elucidate the critical factors that determine the epidemiological risk of Lyme borreliosis. The effects of the tick, rodent and B. afzelii on larval host finding, larval blood feeding, spirochaete transmission from rodent to larva and development from larva to nymph are discussed. Nymphal host finding, nymphal blood feeding and spirochaete transmission from nymph to rodent are the final steps to complete the enzootic B. afzelii lifecycle and are included in the review. It is concluded that rodent density, rodent infection prevalence, and tick burden are the major factors affecting the development from larva to infected nymph and that these interact with each other. We suggest that the B. afzelii lifecycle is dependent on the aggregation of ticks among rodents, which is manipulated by the pathogen

  11. Study of the non-parasitic stage in Ixodes ricinus after co-feeding with Dermacentor reticulatus in three infestations

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    Katarzyna Bartosik

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available It was proved that transmission of some pathogens may occur between infected and uninfected ticks co-feeding on a host in the absence of systemic infection. The effect was studied of co-feeding of two different tick species Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus on the course of the non-parasitic stage. Species chosen for the experiment may share their habitats and co-infest animals in nature. In the course of the study the process of egg maturation, oviposition and larval hatching were investigated. In order to estimate if co-feeding influence can counteract host immunity, three subsequent infestations of rabbits were analyzed. Mono-specific groups values of such a parameters as egg amount, number of eggs per 1 mg of female engorgement weight, female oviposition weight loss, hatching success were higher in inter-specific groups were compared. The results indicate that co-feeding with other tick species may partially reduce the influence of host resistance in subsequent infestation.

  12. Chemical composition and repellency of essential oils from four medicinal plants against Ixodes ricinus nymphs (Acari: Ixodidae).

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    El-Seedi, Hesham R; Khalil, Nasr S; Azeem, Muhammad; Taher, Eman A; Göransson, Ulf; Pålsson, Katinka; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2012-09-01

    In our search for effective tick repellents from plant origin, we investigated the effect of essential oils of four medicinal and culinary plants belonging to the family Lamiaceae on nymphs of the tick Ixodes ricinus (L.). The essential oils of the dry leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) (L.), Mentha spicata (Spearmint) (L.), Origanum majorana (Majoram) (L.), and Ocimum basilicum (Basil) (L.) were isolated by steam distillation and 15 microg/cm2 concentration of oils was tested against ticks in a laboratory bioassay. The oils of R. officinalis, M. spicata, and O. majorana showed strong repellency against the ticks 100, 93.2, and 84.3%, respectively, whereas O. basilicum only showed 64.5% repellency. When tested in the field, the oils of R. officinalis and M. spicata showed 68.3 and 59.4% repellency at a concentration of 6.5 microg/cm2 on the test cloths. The oils were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry and the major compounds from the most repellent oils were 1,8-cineole, camphor, linalool, 4-terpineol, borneol, and carvone.

  13. Evaluation of the efficacy of afoxolaner against two European dog tick species: Dermacentor reticulatus and Ixodes ricinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Pascal; Blair, Jeffrey; Fourie, Josephus J; Chester, Theodore S; Larsen, Diane L

    2014-04-02

    The acaricidal efficacy of a novel oral formulation of afoxolaner (NEXGARD(®), Merial) against two European tick species was assessed in dogs experimentally infested with Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus. Three studies, each characterized by a negative controlled randomized block design, were conducted with a total of 52 beagle or mongrel dogs of both sexes. Starting 2 days before treatment, each dog was infested weekly with approximately 50 ticks. The number of live ticks was counted at 48 h post-treatment (Day 2) as well as 48 h following each infestation on Days 9, 16, 23, and 30. Afoxolaner, administered at an average dose of 2.7 mg/kg bodyweight (range 2.5-2.9 mg/kg), rapidly eliminated the pre-existing tick infestations with over 99% acaricidal efficacy and controlled the weekly re-infestations for up to 30 days post treatment with over 96% efficacy on both tick species. Afoxolaner provides excellent acaricidal efficacy against these two major European tick species using the oral route of administration. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus in Ixodes ricinus ticks from three islands in north-western Norway.

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    Paulsen, Katrine M; Pedersen, Benedikte N; Soleng, Arnulf; Okbaldet, Yohannes B; Pettersson, John H-O; Dudman, Susanne G; Ottesen, Preben; Vik, Inger Sofie Samdal; Vainio, Kirsti; Andreassen, Åshild

    2015-09-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is the most important viral tick-borne disease in Europe and can cause severe disease in humans. In Norway, human cases have been reported only from the southern coast. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks from the north-western part of Norway. A total of 4509 ticks were collected by flagging in May and June 2014. A subpopulation of 2220 nymphs and 162 adult ticks were analysed by real-time PCR and positive samples were confirmed by pyrosequencing. The estimated prevalence of TBEV was 3.08% among adult ticks from Sekken in Møre og Romsdal County and 0.41% among nymphs from both Hitra and Frøya in Sør-Trøndelag County. This study indicates that TBEV might be more widespread than the distribution of reported human cases suggests. © 2015 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. 'Candidatus Rickettsia mendelii', a novel basal group rickettsia detected in Ixodes ricinus ticks in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajduskova, Eva; Literak, Ivan; Papousek, Ivo; Costa, Francisco B; Novakova, Marketa; Labruna, Marcelo B; Zdrazilova-Dubska, Lenka

    2016-04-01

    A novel rickettsial sequence in the citrate synthase gltA gene indicating a novel Rickettsia species has been detected in 7 out of 4524 Ixodes ricinus ticks examined within several surveys performed in the Czech Republic from 2005 to 2009. This new Candidatus Rickettsia sp. sequence has been found in 2 nymphs feeding on wild birds (Luscinia megarhynchos and Erithacus rubecula), in a male tick from vegetation, and 4 ticks feeding on a dog (3 males, 1 female tick). Portions of the ompA, ompB, sca4, and htrA genes were not amplifiable in these samples. A maximum likelihood tree of rickettsiae based on comparisons of partial amino acid sequences of citrate synthase and nucleotide sequences of 16S rDNA genes and phylogenetic analysis revealed a basal position of the novel species in the proximity of R. bellii and R. canadensis. The novel species has been named 'Candidatus Rickettsia mendelii' after the founder of genetics, Gregor Mendel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Geographical distribution and prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies in questing Ixodes ricinus from Romania: a countrywide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmár, Zsuzsa; Mihalca, Andrei D; Dumitrache, Mirabela O; Gherman, Călin M; Magdaş, Cristian; Mircean, Viorica; Oltean, Miruna; Domşa, Cristian; Matei, Ioana A; Mărcuţan, Daniel I; Sándor, Attila D; D'Amico, Gianluca; Paştiu, Anamaria; Györke, Adriana; Gavrea, Raluca; Marosi, Béla; Ionică, Angela; Burkhardt, Etelka; Toriay, Hortenzia; Cozma, Vasile

    2013-09-01

    The paper reports the prevalence and geographical distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) and its genospecies in 12,221 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks collected at 183 locations from all the 41 counties of Romania. The unfed ticks were examined for the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. by PCR targeting the intergenic spacer 5S-23S. Reverse line blot hybridization (RLB) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis were performed for identification of B. burgdorferi genospecies. The overall prevalence of infection was 1.4%, with an average local prevalence between 0.75% and 18.8%. B. burgdorferi s.l. was found in ticks of 55 of the 183 localities. The overall prevalence B. burgdorferi s.l. in ticks in the infected localities was 3.8%. The total infection prevalence was higher in female ticks than in other developmental stages. Three Borrelia genospecies were detected. The most widely distributed genospecies was B. afzelii, followed by B. garinii and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.). The study is the first countrywide study and the first report of B. burgdorferi s.s. in Romania. The distribution maps show that higher prevalences were recorded in hilly areas, but Lyme borreliosis spirochetes were also present in forested lowlands, albeit with a lower prevalence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and co-infections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia spp. in Ixodes ricinus in Hamburg, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, K; Jordan, D; Fingerle, V; Strube, C

    2015-12-01

    To obtain initial data on Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae) in Ixodes ricinus (Ixodida: Ixodidae) ticks in Hamburg, Germany, 1400 questing ticks were collected by flagging at 10 different public recreation areas in 2011 and analysed using probe-based quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The overall rate of infection with B. burgdorferi s.l. was 34.1%; 30.0% of adults were infected (36.7% of females and 26.0% of males), as were 34.5% of nymphs. Significant differences in tick infection rates were observed between the spring and summer/autumn months, as well as among sampling locations. Borrelia genospecies identification by reverse line blotting was successful in 43.6% of positive tick samples. The most frequent genospecies was Borrelia garinii/Borrelia bavariensis, followed by Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia valaisiana, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia spielmanii, Borrelia bissettii and Borrelia lusitaniae. Based on previously published data, co-infection of Borrelia and Rickettsiales spp. was determined in 25.8% of ticks. Overall, 22.9% of ticks were co-infected with Rickettsia spp. (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), 1.7% with Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae), and 1.2% with both pathogens. Study results show a high prevalence of Borrelia-positive ticks in recreation areas in the northern German city of Hamburg and the potential health risk to humans in these areas should not be underestimated. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.

  18. Francisella tularensis: No Evidence for Transovarial Transmission in the Tularemia Tick Vectors Dermacentor reticulatus and Ixodes ricinus.

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    Marco Genchi

    Full Text Available Tularemia is a zoonosis caused by the Francisella tularensis, a highly infectious Gram-negative coccobacillus. Due to easy dissemination, multiple routes of infection, high environmental contamination and morbidity and mortality rates, Francisella is considered a potential bioterrorism threat and classified as a category A select agent by the CDC. Tick bites are among the most prevalent modes of transmission, and ticks have been indicated as a possible reservoir, although their reservoir competence has yet to be defined. Tick-borne transmission of F. tularensis was recognized in 1923, and transstadial transmission has been demonstrated in several tick species. Studies on transovarial transmission, however, have reported conflicting results.The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of ticks as reservoirs for Francisella, assessing the transovarial transmission of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica in ticks, using experimentally-infected females of Dermacentor reticulatus and Ixodes ricinus.Transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence in situ hybridization showed F. tularensis within oocytes. However, cultures and bioassays of eggs and larvae were negative; in addition, microscopy techniques revealed bacterial degeneration/death in the oocytes.These results suggest that bacterial death might occur in oocytes, preventing the transovarial transmission of Francisella. We can speculate that Francisella does not have a defined reservoir, but that rather various biological niches (e.g. ticks, rodents, that allow the bacterium to persist in the environment. Our results, suggesting that ticks are not competent for the bacterium vertical transmission, are congruent with this view.

  19. A morphological and molecular study of Anaplasma phagocytophilum transmission events at the time of Ixodes ricinus tick bite

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    Torsteinbø Wenche O

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the causative agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA in humans and tick-borne fever (TBF in ruminants. The bacterium invades and replicates in phagocytes, especially in polymorphonuclear granulocytes. Methods In the present study, skin biopsies and ticks (Ixodes ricinus were collected from tick feeding lesions on 38 grazing lambs between two and three weeks after access to pastures. The histopathological changes associated with tick bites and A. phagocytophilum infection, were described. In addition the skin biopsies were examined by immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, samples from blood, skin biopsies and ticks were examined by serology, PCR amplification of msp2 (p44, genotyping of rrs (16S rRNA variants, and compared with the results obtained from histological and immunohistochemical investigations. Results Tick bites were associated with chronic and hyperplastic inflammatory skin lesions in this study. A. phagocytophilum present in skin lesions were mainly associated with neutrophils and macrophages. Bacteria were occasionally observed in the Tunica media and Tunica adventitia of small vessels, but were rarely found in association with endothelial cells. PCR and genotyping of organisms present in blood, ticks and skin biopsies suggested a haematogenous and a local spread of organisms at the tick attachment sites. Conclusions The present study describes different aspects of A. phagocytophilum infection at the site of tick bite, and indicates that A. phagocytophilum rarely associates with endothelium during the early pathogenesis of infection.

  20. The generalist tick Ixodes ricinus and the specialist tick Ixodes trianguliceps on shrews and rodents in a northern forest ecosystem--a role of body size even among small hosts.

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    Mysterud, Atle; Byrkjeland, Ragna; Qviller, Lars; Viljugrein, Hildegunn

    2015-12-16

    Understanding aggregation of ticks on hosts and attachment of life stages to different host species, are central components for understanding tick-borne disease epidemiology. The generalist tick, Ixodes ricinus, is a well-known vector of Lyme borrelioses, while the specialist tick, Ixodes trianguliceps, feeding only on small mammals, may play a role in maintaining infection levels in hosts. In a northern forest in Norway, we aimed to quantify the role of different small mammal species in feeding ticks, to determine the extent to which body mass, even among small mammals, plays a role for tick load, and to determine the seasonal pattern of the two tick species. Small mammals were captured along transects in two nearby areas along the west coast of Norway. All life stages of ticks were counted. Tick load, including both prevalence and intensity, was analysed with negative binomial models. A total of 359 rodents and shrews were captured with a total of 1106 I. ricinus (60.0 %) and 737 I. trianguliceps (40.4 %), consisting of 98.2 % larvae and 1.8 % nymphs of I. ricinus and 91.2 % larvae, 8.7 % nymphs and 0.1 % adult females of I. trianguliceps. Due to high abundance, Sorex araneus fed most of the larvae of both tick species (I. ricinus 61.9 %, I. trianguliceps 64.9 %) with Apodemus sylvaticus (I. ricinus 20.4 %, I. trianguliceps 10.0 %) and Myodes glareolus (I. ricinus 10.9 %, I. trianguliceps 9.5 %) as the next most important hosts. Individual A. sylvaticus and M. glareolus had higher infestation intensity than S. araneus, while Sorex minutus had markedly lower infestation intensity. The load of I. ricinus larvae and nymphs was related to body mass mainly up to ~10 g, while the load of I. trianguliceps was less dependent of body mass. The load of I. trianguliceps was higher in spring than in fall, while the seasonal pattern was reversed for I. ricinus with higher loads in fall. Body mass was important for explaining load of I. ricinus mainly up to a

  1. Humans parasitized by the hard tick Ixodes ricinus are seropositive to Midichloria mitochondrii: is Midichloria a novel pathogen, or just a marker of tick bite?

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    Mariconti, Mara; Epis, Sara; Gaibani, Paolo; Dalla Valle, Claudia; Sassera, Davide; Tomao, Paola; Fabbi, Massimo; Castelli, Francesco; Marone, Piero; Sambri, Vittorio; Bazzocchi, Chiara; Bandi, Claudio

    2012-11-01

    Midichloria mitochondrii is an intracellular bacterium found in the hard tick Ixodes ricinus. In this arthropod, M. mitochondrii is observed in the oocytes and in other cells of the ovary, where the symbiont is present in the cell cytoplasm and inside the mitochondria. No studies have so far investigated whether M. mitochondrii is present in the salivary glands of the tick and whether it is transmitted to vertebrates during the tick blood meal. To address the above issues, we developed a recombinant antigen of M. mitochondrii (to screen human sera) and antibodies against this antigen (for the staining of the symbiont). Using these reagents we show that (i) M. mitochondrii is present in the salivary glands of I. ricinus and that (ii) seropositivity against M. mitochondrii is highly prevalent in humans parasitized by I. ricinus (58%), while it is very low in healthy individuals (1·2%). These results provide evidence that M. mitochondrii is released with the tick saliva and raise the possibility that M. mitochondrii is infectious to vertebrates. Besides this, our study indicates that M. mitochondrii should be regarded as a package of antigens inoculated into the human host during the tick bite. This implies that the immunology of the response toward the saliva of I. ricinus is to be reconsidered on the basis of potential effects of M. mitochondrii and poses the basis for the development of novel markers for investigating the exposure of humans and animals to this tick species.

  2. Influence of the spatial heterogeneity in tick abundance in the modeling of the seasonal activity of Ixodes ricinus nymphs in Western Europe.

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    Cat, Julie; Beugnet, Frédéric; Hoch, Thierry; Jongejan, Frans; Prangé, Aurélie; Chalvet-Monfray, Karine

    2017-02-01

    The seasonal weather-driven activity of the tick Ixodes ricinus is frequently explored using multisite surveys. This study aimed to investigate the statistical modeling of seasonal trends in the activity of I. ricinus nymphs when both the influence of abiotic factors and spatial heterogeneity were taken into account. Time series data of abiotic covariates (temperature, relative humidity, rainfall and photoperiod) and nymphal tick counts were recorded on several sites in The Netherlands, Belgium and in France in 2008 and 2009. The sites were divided into two subsets which were used for model construction or model validation. A generalized linear mixed model was set up, with aggregated abiotic covariates as fixed effects, and the collection site as a random effect to account for the site-varying density in nymphs. A linear regression model was developed to estimate the site effect against the observed local abundance on each site. The activity patterns simulated from the weather and photoperiod covariates realistically reproduced the observed seasonal trends in nymphal tick activity. The fit between observed and simulated nymphal count time series was greatly improved when the site-specific local abundance in nymphs was included. Our modeling approach allows indicators of local tick abundance and the temporal modeling of I. ricinus activity to be combined. The model presented here can also be used to study scenarios on the temporal patterns of I. ricinus activity in the present and in the context of climate change.

  3. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks and assessment of entomological risk index at localities in Belgrade

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    Krstić Milena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The first case of human Lyme borreliosis (LB in Serbia was recorded in 1987. The number of reported LB cases has increased in the past decade. The aim of this study was to estimate the density of Ixodes ricinus (I. ricinus ticks, the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi in them, and entomological risk index (ERI at 19 Belgrade localities which were grouped into three categories (forests, parkforests, parks. The values of ERI were compared with the number of tick bites in humans. Methods. Ticks were collected monthly by using the flag hours method and the infection rate was determined by using dark field microscopy. The ERI value was calculated for each locality where the ticks were collected. The related data about tick bites was obtained from the patient protocol of the Institute of Epidemiology, Military Medical Academy, Belgrade. Results. The total number of collected ticks, the number of nymphs and the infection rates of the nymphs were significantly higher in forests (p < 0.05 than park-forests and parks. Statistically, the ERI value was significantly higher in forests than parks of Belgrade (χ2 = 7.78, p < 0.01. In March and July, the ERI value was also significantly higher in forests, than park-forests (p < 0.01 and parks (p < 0.01. May was the month with the highest ERI value in each ecological category (forests p < 0.05; park-forests p < 0.01; parks p < 0.001. However, the number of tick bites in humans did not correlate with ERI values. Conclusion. The obtained results indicate that the risk of tick bite and human exposure to B. burgdorferi sensu lato is present at all selected localities in Belgrade. For a more comprehensive Lyme disease risk assessment the method of entomological risk index assessment should be combined with other methods, taking into consideration all tick stages and the behaviour and habits of people who may get infected B. burgdorferi sensu lato.

  4. Heterogeneity in the abundance and distribution of Ixodes ricinus and Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato) in Scotland: implications for risk prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millins, Caroline; Gilbert, Lucy; Johnson, Paul; James, Marianne; Kilbride, Elizabeth; Birtles, Richard; Biek, Roman

    2016-11-22

    Cases of Lyme borreliosis, a vector-borne zoonosis caused by bacteria in the Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato) species group, have increased in recent years in Europe. Knowledge of environmental factors associated with abundance of the tick vector Ixodes ricinus and the pathogen B. burgdorferi (s.l.) is of interest to understand responses to environmental changes, predict variation in risk and to inform management interventions. Nineteen woodland sites across Scotland were surveyed in 2012 for B. burgdorferi (s.l.) infection in questing I. ricinus nymphs (n = 200 per site), deer abundance and vegetation. Climatic factors were extracted for each site. Six additional sites were surveyed for questing nymphs in both 2012 and 2013 (n = 200 per site and year) to test for variation in B. burgdorferi (s.l.) prevalence between years. The mean prevalence of B. burgdorferi (s.l.) across 19 sites was 1.7% (95% CI: 1.4-2.2%; range 0-6%), all four genospecies known to be present in the UK were detected: B. garinii, B. afzelii, B. burgdorferi (sensu stricto) and B. valaisiana. A higher prevalence of B. burgdorferi (s.l.), higher densities of nymphs and higher densities of infected nymphs were found at sites with warmer climates, estimated with growing degree-days. No association between infection prevalence in nymphs and woodland type (semi-natural mixed vs coniferous) or deer density was found. At six sites sampled in 2012 and 2013, there was a significant increase in B. afzelli prevalence at two sites and a decrease in B. garinii prevalence at one site. This study highlights challenges for the prediction of risk of Lyme borreliosis, reflecting the sensitivity of both pathogen and vector ecology to habitat, host and climatic factors. Significant changes in the prevalence of individual genospecies at sites monitored across time are likely to be due to variability in the host community composition between years. Our results indicate the importance of monitoring dynamic

  5. Quantitative Real-Time PCR for Detection of Members of the Ehrlichia phagocytophila Genogroup in Host Animals and Ixodes ricinus Ticks

    OpenAIRE

    Pusterla, Nicola; Huder, Jon B.; Leutenegger, Christian M.; Braun, Ueli; Madigan, John E.; Lutz, Hans

    1999-01-01

    A TaqMan PCR was established for identification and quantitation of members of the Ehrlichia phagocytophila group in experimentally infected cows and in Ixodes ricinus ticks. The TaqMan PCR identified a 106-bp section of the 16S rRNA gene by use of a specific fluorogenic probe and two primers. This technique was specific for members of the E. phagocytophila group, which include E. phagocytophila, Ehrlichia equi, and the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. The TaqMan system identified 10...

  6. [Mapping of parasitological environmental data: the tick Ixodes ricinus--a case of study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiewra, Dorota; Lonc, Elzbieta; Rydzanicz, Katarzyna

    2009-01-01

    While the mapping of health data is not new for epidemiologists the incorporation of differentiated environmental factors, e.g., temperature, rainfall, humidity, elevation, vegetation type, host abundance and distribution, zoonotic reservoirs of infection can create a new opportunities for parasitologists. Suitable tools for spatial modeling of health problems and pathogen occurrence in space and time are provided by geographic information system (GIS). It is computer-based system which integrates, storages, edits, analyses, shares and displays information. This software system is based on connection between information--data and their location. GIS applications allow users to create interactive queries, analyze spatial information, edit data and maps. GIS is very useful to define the habitats of parasites, especially for the ticks which are strong depended on environmental conditions. Mapping not only enables to create maps based on field monitoring but also to create forecasting maps for prevention and control strategies on small and large scale. Up to now ticks and tick-borne diseases (TBD) having strong relationship with the ecosystem are highly amenable to predictive mapping. The aim of study is the characterization of procedural steps with regard to entering field environmental data to GIS database and their visualization on digital maps. The field date of tick monitoring conducted in April 2008 in the Wrocław area (the Osobowicki Forest) made possible to create digital database. ArcView as one of three separate software products of ArcGIS (a scalable framework for implementing GIS) was used to create an interactive maps. Visualization of the data which are stored in tables of attributes made possible to show legibly the distribution of I. ricinus on the analysed area. Mapping of I. ricinus occurrence on digital maps enable to indicate areas of the highest risk of biting and potential tick-borne diseases.

  7. Ecological factors characterizing the prevalence of bacterial tick-borne pathogens in Ixodes ricinus ticks in pastures and woodlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halos, Lénaïg; Bord, Séverine; Cotté, Violaine; Gasqui, Patrick; Abrial, David; Barnouin, Jacques; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Vourc'h, Gwenaël

    2010-07-01

    Ecological changes are recognized as an important driver behind the emergence of infectious diseases. The prevalence of infection in ticks depends upon ecological factors that are rarely taken into account simultaneously. Our objective was to investigate the influences of forest fragmentation, vegetation, adult tick hosts, and habitat on the infection prevalence of three tick-borne bacteria, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Rickettsia sp. of the spotted fever group, in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks, taking into account tick characteristics. Samples of questing nymphs and adults were taken from 61 pastures and neighboring woodlands in central France. The ticks were tested by PCR of pools of nymphs and individual adults. The individual infection prevalence was modeled using multivariate regression. The highest infection prevalences were found in adult females collected in woodland sites for B. burgdorferi sensu lato and A. phagocytophilum (16.1% and 10.7%, respectively) and in pasture sites for Rickettsia sp. (8.7%). The infection prevalence in nymphs was lower than 6%. B. burgdorferi sensu lato was more prevalent in woodlands than in pastures. Forest fragmentation favored B. burgdorferi sensu lato and A. phagocytophilum prevalence in woodlands, and in pastures, the B. burgdorferi sensu lato prevalence was favored by shrubby vegetation. Both results are probably because large amounts of edges or shrubs increase the abundance of small vertebrates as reservoir hosts. The Rickettsia sp. prevalence was maximal on pasture with medium forest fragmentation. Female ticks were more infected by B. burgdorferi sensu lato than males and nymphs in woodland sites, which suggests an interaction between the ticks and the bacteria. This study confirms the complexity of the tick-borne pathogen ecology. The findings support the importance of small vertebrates as reservoir hosts and make a case for further studies in Europe on the link between the

  8. Modelling the Phenological Relationships of Questing Immature Ixodes Ricinus (Ixodidae) Using Temperature and NDVI Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Carné, J; García-Martín, A; Estrada-Peña, A

    2016-02-01

    All active stages of the tick Ixodes ricinus were collected monthly at two sites in northern Spain between the years 2000 and 2007. We used percentile accumulation of the active stage in the environment to evaluate simple and coherent correlations between accumulation of the active stages of larvae and nymphs and medium-resolution MODIS satellite-derived information on the climate, including monthly and accumulated temperature and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). This framework is not intended to predict the actual abundance of ticks in the field as a measure of the hazard to humans, but to provide a basic structure for addressing the phenology of the tick in its geographic range. We demonstrated that the accumulation of larval ticks in the active stage is a sigmoid function of the accumulated temperature from the beginning of the calendar year. We also demonstrated that the accumulated temperature necessary to recruit nymphs from the questing larval stage is a function of the changes in accumulated larvae and nymphs and the accumulated temperature and NDVI recorded by the Aqua sensor. The low p-values obtained in the regressions confirmed that such recruitment can be calculated using time intervals to estimate, for example, the beginning of the questing period or the time of the year when a population peak can be expected. The comparison among predicted and actual accumulated temperatures between larvae and nymph recruitment had an averaged error of ±20 days in one complete year. The use of accumulated temperature and NDVI proposed in this study opens up the re-evaluation of reports on the phenology of the tick in Europe. This framework is intended to evaluate the same correlations along the tick's range and predict its phenological patterns in areas of pathogen transmission risk for humans. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Identification of host blood-meal sources and Borrelia in field-collected Ixodes ricinus ticks in north-western Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Wodecka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Forest animals play fundamental roles in the maintenance of [i]Ixodes ricinus[/i] and [i]Borrelia[/i] species in the forest biotope. To identify the forest vertebrate species that are host for I. ricinus and for the recognition of the reservoirs of [i]Borrelia[/i] species, the blood-meal of 325 [i]I. ricinus[/i] ticks collected at two forest sites in north-western Poland were analysed. Nested PCR was used to detect polymorphisms in a fragment of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene for the identification of the hosts species. The products were digested with the restriction enzymes, a combination that allows the identification of 60 vertebrate species, comprising 17 bird, 4 reptile and 39 mammalian species. Host DNA was detected in 244 (75%[i] I. ricinus[/i] individuals, with the species being detected and classified for 210 (86% samples. The restriction patterns resulted in the identification of 14 vertebrate species, including 2 species of birds, lizard, badger, rabbit, deer; most of the samples contained DNA from wild boar ([i]Sus scrofa[/i], red fox ([i]Vulpes vulpes[/i], red deer ([i]Cervus elaphus[/i] and roe deer ([i]Capreolus capreolus[/i]. Identification of Borrelia species was based on the flaB gene using nested PCR coupled to RFLP. This method allows the identification of all [i]Borrelia[/i] species transmitted by [i]I. ricinus [/i]in Europe, including [i]B. miyamotoi[/i] and 3 genetic variants of [i]B. garinii[/i]. In the studied isolates, 2 species belonging to [i]B. burgdorferi[/i] sensu lato were identified – B. [i]garinii [/i]and B. [i]afzelii[/i], and B. [i]miyamotoi,[/i] which are related to relapsing fever borreliae.

  10. Activity of the tick Ixodes ricinus monitored in a suburban park in Brno, Czech Republic, in association with the evaluation of selected repellents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žákovská, A; Nejezchlebová, H; Bartoňková, N; Rašovská, T; Kučerová, H; Norek, A; Ovesná, P

    2013-12-01

    The ever-increasing number of Lyme borreliosis patients led us to consider more effective procedures for disease prevention. The aim of our study was to monitor the annual activity and infectivity of Ixodes ricinus ticks in the Pisárky region, City of Brno, CR, and to test the responses of the locally-captured ticks to selected repellents. The result of regular one-hour-per-week monitoring in 2011 was the collection of ticks that directly reflected the highest number of Lyme disease patients (4,835) detected throughout the period of recording in the Czech Republic. The ticks were examined for spirochaetes by dark field microscopy. The positive samples were identified by PCR analysis, confirming that 76% of these were infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Ticks were most abundant in May and June, with August having the highest risk for spirochaetal infection. Tick activity was statistically correlated with temperature. The moving-object-bioassay was used to study repellent efficiency on the Ixodes ricinus nymphs captured in the above-mentioned suburban park. Five selected commercial repellents based on DEET (N, N-diethyl-3-thylbenzamide) showed statistically different effects on the non-repellent control group. © 2013 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  11. Year-to-year variation in the density of Ixodes ricinus ticks and the prevalence of the rodent-associated human pathogens Borrelia afzelii and B. miyamotoi in different forest types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruyts, Sanne C.; Tack, Wesley; Ampoorter, Evy; Coipan, Elena C.; Matthysen, Erik; Heylen, Dieter; Sprong, Hein; Verheyen, Kris

    2017-01-01

    The human pathogens Borrelia afzelii, which causes Lyme borreliosis and B. miyamotoi, which causes relapsing fever, both circulate between Ixodes ricinus ticks and rodents. The spatiotemporal dynamics in the prevalence of these pathogens have not yet been fully elucidated, but probably depend on

  12. Infection of Ixodes ricinus by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in peri-urban forests of France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axelle Marchant

    Full Text Available Lyme borreliosis is the most common tick-borne disease in the northern hemisphere. In Europe, it is transmitted by Ixodes ticks that carry bacteria belonging to the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. The objective of this work was to explore eco-epidemiological factors of Lyme borreliosis in peri-urban forests of France (Sénart, Notre-Dame and Rambouillet. We investigated whether the introduction of Tamias sibiricus in Sénart could alter the density of infected ticks. Moreover, the density and tick infection were investigated according to the tree species found in various patches of Sénart forest. For this purpose, ticks were sampled during 3 years. In the Sénart forest, the density of nymph and adult ticks showed no significant difference between 2008, 2009 and 2011. The nymph density varied significantly as a function of the month of collection. Regarding the nymphs, a higher rate of infection and infected density were found in 2009. Plots with chipmunks (C presented a lower density of both nymphs and adult ticks than plots without chipmunks (NC did. A higher rate of infection of nymphs with Borrelia was seen in C plots. The prevalence of the various species of Borrelia was also found to vary between C and NC plots with the year of the collect. The presence of chestnut trees positively influenced the density of both nymphs and adults. The infected nymph density showed a significant difference depending on the peri-urban forest studied, Sénart being higher than Rambouillet. The prevalence of Borrelia species also differed between the various forests studied. Concerning the putative role that Tamias sibiricus may play in the transmission of Borrelia, our results suggest that its presence is correlated with a higher rate of infection of questing ticks by Borrelia genospecies and if its population increases, it could play a significant role in the risk of transmission of Lyme borreliosis.

  13. Infection of Ixodes ricinus by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in peri-urban forests of France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perthame, Emeline; Sertour, Natacha; Garnier, Martine; Godard, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis is the most common tick-borne disease in the northern hemisphere. In Europe, it is transmitted by Ixodes ticks that carry bacteria belonging to the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. The objective of this work was to explore eco-epidemiological factors of Lyme borreliosis in peri-urban forests of France (Sénart, Notre-Dame and Rambouillet). We investigated whether the introduction of Tamias sibiricus in Sénart could alter the density of infected ticks. Moreover, the density and tick infection were investigated according to the tree species found in various patches of Sénart forest. For this purpose, ticks were sampled during 3 years. In the Sénart forest, the density of nymph and adult ticks showed no significant difference between 2008, 2009 and 2011. The nymph density varied significantly as a function of the month of collection. Regarding the nymphs, a higher rate of infection and infected density were found in 2009. Plots with chipmunks (C) presented a lower density of both nymphs and adult ticks than plots without chipmunks (NC) did. A higher rate of infection of nymphs with Borrelia was seen in C plots. The prevalence of the various species of Borrelia was also found to vary between C and NC plots with the year of the collect. The presence of chestnut trees positively influenced the density of both nymphs and adults. The infected nymph density showed a significant difference depending on the peri-urban forest studied, Sénart being higher than Rambouillet. The prevalence of Borrelia species also differed between the various forests studied. Concerning the putative role that Tamias sibiricus may play in the transmission of Borrelia, our results suggest that its presence is correlated with a higher rate of infection of questing ticks by Borrelia genospecies and if its population increases, it could play a significant role in the risk of transmission of Lyme borreliosis. PMID:28846709

  14. Infection of Ixodes ricinus by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in peri-urban forests of France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Axelle; Le Coupanec, Alain; Joly, Claire; Perthame, Emeline; Sertour, Natacha; Garnier, Martine; Godard, Vincent; Ferquel, Elisabeth; Choumet, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis is the most common tick-borne disease in the northern hemisphere. In Europe, it is transmitted by Ixodes ticks that carry bacteria belonging to the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. The objective of this work was to explore eco-epidemiological factors of Lyme borreliosis in peri-urban forests of France (Sénart, Notre-Dame and Rambouillet). We investigated whether the introduction of Tamias sibiricus in Sénart could alter the density of infected ticks. Moreover, the density and tick infection were investigated according to the tree species found in various patches of Sénart forest. For this purpose, ticks were sampled during 3 years. In the Sénart forest, the density of nymph and adult ticks showed no significant difference between 2008, 2009 and 2011. The nymph density varied significantly as a function of the month of collection. Regarding the nymphs, a higher rate of infection and infected density were found in 2009. Plots with chipmunks (C) presented a lower density of both nymphs and adult ticks than plots without chipmunks (NC) did. A higher rate of infection of nymphs with Borrelia was seen in C plots. The prevalence of the various species of Borrelia was also found to vary between C and NC plots with the year of the collect. The presence of chestnut trees positively influenced the density of both nymphs and adults. The infected nymph density showed a significant difference depending on the peri-urban forest studied, Sénart being higher than Rambouillet. The prevalence of Borrelia species also differed between the various forests studied. Concerning the putative role that Tamias sibiricus may play in the transmission of Borrelia, our results suggest that its presence is correlated with a higher rate of infection of questing ticks by Borrelia genospecies and if its population increases, it could play a significant role in the risk of transmission of Lyme borreliosis.

  15. Ixodes ricinus ticks (Acari, Ixodidae) as a vector of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Borrelia miyamotoi in Lower Silesia, Poland--preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiewra, Dorota; Stańczak, Joanna; Richter, Magdalena

    2014-10-01

    Ixodes ricinus is the primary vector of Borrelia spirochetes in Europe, including both the Lyme borreliosis (LB) group and the relapsing fever (RF) group. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of different genospecies from the B. burgdorferi s.l. complex and B. miyamotoi in questing I. ricinus collected in chosen areas in Lower Silesia, SW Poland. A total of 599 I. ricinus ticks were investigated using the PCR-RFLP method. The calculated overall minimum infection rate of ticks with Borrelia spirochetes in Lower Silesia was 15.5%. Five different restriction patterns, characteristic of B. afzelii, B. garinii, B. burgdoreri s.s., B. valaisiana, and B. miyamotoi, were obtained and confirmed by DNA sequencing. At least 14% of ticks were infected with B. burgdorferi s.l. while B.afzelii was the dominant genospecies (68.5%). The MIR for B. miyamotoi was calculated at 2%. Four co-infections in single adult ticks were found: B. miyamotoi/B. afzelii, B. miyamotoi/B. burdorferi s.s., B. miyamotoi/B. garinii, and B. afzelii/B. burgdorferi s.s. The results of this study confirm the risk of LB and RF occuring in both urban and protected areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Temporal pattern of questing tick Ixodes ricinus density at differing elevations in the coastal region of western Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qviller, Lars; Grøva, Lise; Viljugrein, Hildegunn; Klingen, Ingeborg; Mysterud, Atle

    2014-04-11

    Climate change can affect the activity and distribution of species, including pathogens and parasites. The densities and distribution range of the sheep tick (Ixodes ricinus) and it's transmitted pathogens appears to be increasing. Thus, a better understanding of questing tick densities in relation to climate and weather conditions is urgently needed. The aim of this study was to test predictions regarding the temporal pattern of questing tick densities at two different elevations in Norway. We predict that questing tick densities will decrease with increasing elevations and increase with increasing temperatures, but predict that humidity levels will rarely affect ticks in this northern, coastal climate with high humidity. We described the temporal pattern of questing tick densities at ~100 and ~400 m a.s.l. along twelve transects in the coastal region of Norway. We used the cloth lure method at 14-day intervals during the snow-free season to count ticks in two consecutive years in 20 m2 plots. We linked the temporal pattern of questing tick densities to local measurements of the prevailing weather. The questing tick densities were much higher and the season was longer at ~100 compared to at ~400 m a.s.l. There was a prominent spring peak in both years and a smaller autumn peak in one year at ~100 m a.s.l.; but no marked peak at ~400 m a.s.l. Tick densities correlated positively with temperature, from low densities 15-17°C. We found no evidence for reduced questing densities during the driest conditions measured. Tick questing densities differed even locally linked to elevation (on the same hillside, a few kilometers apart). The tick densities were strongly hampered by low temperatures that limited the duration of the questing seasons, whereas the humidity appeared not to be a limiting factor under the humid conditions at our study site. We expect rising global temperatures to increase tick densities and lead to a transition from a short questing season with low

  17. Prevalence of Rickettsiales (Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia spp.) in hard ticks (Ixodes ricinus) in the city of Hamburg, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Kathrin; Strube, Christina

    2014-06-01

    To narrow the gap of missing knowledge on Rickettsia spp. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum infections in ticks in northwestern Germany and, at the same time, to provide first prevalence data on these pathogens in the city of Hamburg, a total of 1,400 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected at ten different public green areas from April until October 2011. Ticks were examined using probe-based quantitative real-time PCR. A percentage of 3.6% (51/1,400) ticks were tested positive for A. phagocytophilum infections divided into 2.1% (3/141) adults [1.7% (1/60) females and 2.5% (2/81) males] and 3.8% (48/1,259) nymphs. The percentage of infected ticks per sampling site varied statistically significantly from 0.7% (1/140) to 12.1% (17/140), whereas between sampling months, no statistically significant differences were observed (2.0-6.5%, 4-13/140). The overall Rickettsia spp. infection rate was 52.5% (735/1,400). In adult ticks, Rickettsia spp. infection rate was 56% (79/141) divided into 61.7% (37/60) infected females and 51.9% (42/81) infected males. Nymphs showed an infection rate of 52.1% (656/1,259). In contrast to A. phagocytophilum infections, no statistically significant differences in Rickettsia spp. infection rates among sampling sites (44.3-63.6%, 62-89/140) were observed, whereas seasonal variations were obvious: the percentage of Rickettsia-positive ticks was significantly lower in April (36.5%, 73/200) and May (29.5%, 59/200) compared to the summer and fall months (55.0-64.5%, 110-129/200). Rickettsia species differentiation via real-time pyrosequencing revealed Rickettsia helvetica as the only occurring species. Co-infections with both Rickettsia spp. and A. phagocytophilum were detected in 2.0% (28/1,400) of the ticks. The present study revealed that in the city of Hamburg, the tick infection rate with A. phagocytophilum is comparable with other German data, whereas the Rickettsia spp. infection rate of 52.5% is by far the highest prevalence detected in

  18. Prevalence of infection with Rickettsia helvetica in Ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on non-rickettsiemic rodent hosts in sylvatic habitats of west-central Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernat, Beata; Stańczak, Joanna; Michalik, Jerzy; Sikora, Bożena; Wierzbicka, Anna

    2016-02-01

    Ixodes ricinus is the most prevalent and widely distributed tick species in European countries and plays a principal role in transmission of a wide range of microbial pathogens. It is also a main vector and reservoir of Rickettsia spp. of the spotted fever group with the infection level ranging in Poland from 1.3% to 11.4%. Nevertheless, little research has been conducted so far to identify reservoir hosts for these pathogens. A survey was undertaken to investigate the presence of Rickettsia spp. in wild small rodents and detached I. ricinus. Rodents, Apodemus flavicollis mice and Myodes glareolus voles were captured in typically sylvatic habitats of west-central Poland. Blood samples and collected ticks were analyzed by conventional, semi-nested and nested PCRs. Rickettsial species were determined by sequence analysis of obtained fragments of gltA and 16S rRNA genes. A total of 2339 immature I. ricinus (mostly larvae) were collected from 158 animals. Proportion of hosts carrying ticks was 84%, being higher for A. flavicollis than for M. glareolus. Rickettsia helvetica, the only species identified, was detected in 8% of 12 nymphs and in at least 10.7% (MIR) of 804 larvae investigated. Prevalence of infected ticks on both rodent species was comparable (10.8 vs. 9%). None of blood samples tested was positive for Rickettsia spp. The results showed that in sylvatic habitats the level of infestation with larval I. ricinus was higher in A. flavicollis mice in comparison with M. glareolus voles. They show that R. helvetica frequently occurred in ticks feeding on rodents. Positive immature ticks were collected from non-rickettsiemic hosts what might suggest a vertical route of their infection (transovarial and/or transstadial) or a very short-lasting rickettsiemia in rodents. A natural vertebrate reservoir host for R. helvetica remains to be determined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Seasonal cycles of the TBE and Lyme borreliosis vector Ixodes ricinus modelled with time-lagged and interval-averaged predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugger, Katharina; Walter, Melanie; Chitimia-Dobler, Lidia; Dobler, Gerhard; Rubel, Franz

    2017-12-01

    Ticks of the species Ixodes ricinus (L.) are the major vectors for tick-borne diseases in Europe. The aim of this study was to quantify the influence of environmental variables on the seasonal cycle of questing I. ricinus. Therefore, an 8-year time series of nymphal I. ricinus flagged at monthly intervals in Haselmühl (Germany) was compiled. For the first time, cross correlation maps were applied to identify optimal associations between observed nymphal I. ricinus densities and time-lagged as well as temporal averaged explanatory variables. To prove the explanatory power of these associations, two Poisson regression models were generated. The first model simulates the ticks of the entire time series flagged per 100 m[Formula: see text], the second model the mean seasonal cycle. Explanatory variables comprise the temperature of the flagging month, the relative humidity averaged from the flagging month and 1 month prior to flagging, the temperature averaged over 4-6 months prior to the flagging event and the hunting statistics of the European hare from the preceding year. The first model explains 65% of the monthly tick variance and results in a root mean square error (RMSE) of 17 ticks per 100 m[Formula: see text]. The second model explains 96% of the tick variance. Again, the accuracy is expressed by the RMSE, which is 5 ticks per 100 m[Formula: see text]. As a major result, this study demonstrates that tick densities are higher correlated with time-lagged and temporal averaged variables than with contemporaneous explanatory variables, resulting in a better model performance.

  20. Efficacy of deltamethrin (Butox® 7.5 pour on) against nymphs and adults of ticks (Ixodes ricinus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus) in treated hair of cattle and sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlhorn, Heinz; Schumacher, Bärbel; Jatzlau, Antje; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Klimpel, Sven; Pohle, Herbert

    2011-04-01

    Ticks are known to be able to transmit a broad spectrum of agents of diseases in cattle or sheep. Therefore, measurements are needed to keep ticks away from the body of any ruminant belonging to the agricultural life stock. The present study dealt with investigations to measure the efficacy of the insecticide deltamethrin (Butox® 7.5 pour on) against specimens of two important species (Ixodes ricinus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus). Four sheep and four young cattle were treated lege arte along the vertebral column with 10 ml Butox® (deltamethrin) per sheep or 30 ml Butox® per cattle. Day 7, 14, 21, and 28 after the treatment, hair was shaved off from the head, ears, the back, belly, and the feet being collected in separate, suitable plastic bags, and transported to the institute, where these hair were brought into close contact with either adult and/or nymph stages of I. ricinus and R. sanguineus. As results, strong, acaricidal effects were seen, which varied according to the parasite species, the origin of the hair (e.g., head, leg, etc.) and according to the period after the treatment. In sheep, the acaricidal effect was noted for the whole period of 28 days along the whole body with respect to adults and nymphs of I. ricinus, while the acaricidal effects of deltamethrin were reduced for R. sanguineus stages beginning at day 21 after treatment. In cattle, the full acaricidal effect was seen for 21 days in I. ricinus stages and for 14 days in R. sanguineus, while the acaricidal efficacy became reduced after these periods of full action-beginning at the hair taken from the legs. Only R. sanguineus adults did not show any reaction on day 28 after treatment. Besides these acaricidal effects, repellent effects were also noted. Full repellency for both species was seen during the first 14 days in sheep and cattle against Ixodes and Rhipicephalus, while the repellency was later reduced, especially in contact with hair from the legs. As conclusion, deltamethrin, besides

  1. Influence of microclimate on the life cycle of the common tick Ixodes ricinus (L.) in an open area in comparison with forest habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, M; Cerný, V; Dusbábek, F; Honzáková, E; Olejnícek, J

    1977-01-01

    Under conditions of the South-Moravian region of Pannonian climate (Valtice near Breclav), the life cycle of the common tick Ixodes ricinus (L.) was studied and a continous recording of main elements of microclimate (temperature and humidity) was carried out in an open grassy area. Simultaneously the process of hibernation was studied in four soil layers (surface, depths of 10, 20 and 30 cm). Observations were assessed by mathematiccal-statistical tests and compared with the results obtained by the same methods in the forest biotope (tipe of thermophilic oak forest)and in the ecotone of forest margin (Daniel et al. 1976). The ticks are able to complete the developmental cycle also in the open grassy areas, where during the vegetation period the development proceeds more quickly than in the forest but with considerably higher losses. In the discussion the conclusions are compared with literary data from other parts of Czechoslovakia.

  2. Prevalence and genotyping of tick-borne encephalitis virus in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks in a new endemic area in western Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lommano, E; Burri, C; Maeder, G; Guerne, M; Bastic, V; Patalas, E; Gern, L

    2012-01-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is the causative agent of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and causes neurological disease in humans in Eurasia. TBEV is transmitted by ticks of the genus Ixodes. Currently 10,000-12,000 clinical cases are reported annually in approximately 30 TBE endemic countries. Since 1990 the epidemiology of TBE is characterized by a global increase of clinical cases and an expansion of risk areas. Similar trends are also observed in Switzerland but few studies confirmed the emergence of new TBE foci by detecting viral RNA in field-collected ticks. In this study, free-living Ixodes ricinus (L.) ticks from one nonendemic and three new TBE endemic regions located in the Western part of Switzerland were screened during four consecutive years (2007-2010) for the presence of TBEV. A total of 9,868 I. ricinus ticks (6,665 nymphs and 3,203 adults) were examined in pools for TBEV by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Our results confirmed the presence of viral RNA in 0.1% (6/6120) of questing ticks collected in one new endemic region. Among TBE endemic sites, the minimal infection rate per 100 ticks tested ranged from 0.21 (1/477) to 0.95 (1/105). Four positive samples were sequenced and phylogenetic analysis of the NS5 gene showed that all TBEV nucleotide sequences belonged to the European subtype and were split into two distinct lineages originating probably independently from two distinct foci located North-East and East of the study region.

  3. Observations on changes in abundance of questing Ixodes ricinus, castor bean tick, over a 35-year period in the eastern part of its range (Russia, Tula region).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotkov, Yu; Kozlova, T; Kozlovskaya, L

    2015-06-01

    Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) L. transmit a wide variety of pathogens to vertebrates including viruses, bacteria and protozoa. Understanding of the epidemiology of tick-borne infections requires basic knowledge of the regional and local factors influencing tick population dynamics. The present study describes the results of monitoring of a questing I. ricinus population, conducted over 35 years (1977-2011) in the eastern, poorly studied part of its range (Russia, Tula region). We have found that the multiannual average abundance of ticks is small and varies depending on the biotope and degree of urban transformation. Tick abundance for the first 14 years of observations (1977-1990) was at the lower limit of the sensitivity of our methods throughout the study area (0.1-0.9 specimens per 1-km transect). In the following 21 years (1991-2011), a manifold increase in abundance was observed, which reached 18.1 ± 1.8 individuals per 1-km transect in moist floodplain terraces, and 4.8 ± 0.9 in xerophylic hill woods. Long-term growth of tick abundance occurred in spite of a relatively constant abundance of small mammals and only minor fluctuations in the abundance of large wild animals. Climate and anthropogenic changes appear to be the main contributors to increased abundance of the tick. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.

  4. Rickettsia helvetica and R. monacensis infections in immature Ixodes ricinus ticks derived from sylvatic passerine birds in west-central Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernat, Beata; Stańczak, Joanna; Michalik, Jerzy; Sikora, Bożena; Cieniuch, Stella

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the importance of forest passerine birds in spreading ixodid ticks infected with rickettsiae of spotted fever group (SFG) in sylvatic habitats in western Poland. In total, 834 immature Ixodes ricinus ticks were found on 64 birds of 11 species which were captured during the tick-questing season between May and September of 2006. Ground-foraging passerines hosted most of the ticks compared with arboreal species, and therefore, only the former group was included into a detailed analysis. Significant predominance of larvae over nymphs was observed (581 vs. 253, respectively). Blackbirds and song thrushes hosted 82 % (n = 681) of the ticks collected from all infested passerines. The overall prevalence range of SF rickettsiae (including Rickettsia helvetica and Rickettsia monacensis) in bird-derived ticks was 10.5-26.9 %, exceeding that in questing ticks, and in ticks feeding on rodents and deer reported earlier from the same study area. This high prevalence of infection in immature I. ricinus ticks feeding on passerine birds strongly implies that they are involved in the enzootic maintenance of spotted fever group rickettsiae in the tick vector populations occurring in sylvatic habitats.

  5. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia valaisiana in Ixodes ricinus ticks from the northwest of Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tveten, Ann-Kristin

    2013-09-01

    Over a 3-y period, Ixodes ricinus ticks were randomly collected to study the prevalence of 4 Borrelia species: B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. afzelii, B. garinii and B. valaisiana. While B. burgdorferi s. s., B. afzelii, and B. garinii have been associated with human borreliosis in Norway for several years, B. valaisiana was reported in a Norwegian tick for the first time in 2010. A real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was developed as an easy-to-use method, with high sensitivity and specificity, to detect and genospecies-type B. burgdorferi s. s., B. afzelii, B. garinii, and B. valaisiana in I. ricinus ticks. A combination of species-specific primers and TaqMan MGB probes labelled with fluorescents with different emission spectra, ensured a highly specific method with the potential to detect more than 1 genospecies in 1 run. Sequencing of the housekeeping gene recG from 48 Borrelia-positive samples was used to confirm specificity. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiling of tick-borne bacteria was used to help optimize the assay sensitivity. The qPCR assay was applied to analyze 1808 I. ricinus ticks collected in the field, which resulted in an overall infection rate of 14.8%, 18.7%, and 14.3% in 2010, 2011, and 2012, respectively. The majority of the Borrelia-infected ticks were infected with B. afzelii. The overall infection rate is somewhat lower than that reported in the most recent study of the infection rate in southern Norway in 2010, and this study indicates that the infection rate varies from one year to another.

  6. A quantitative evaluation of the extent of fluralaner uptake by ticks (Ixodes ricinus, Ixodes scapularis) in fluralaner (Bravecto) treated vs. untreated dogs using the parameters tick weight and coxal index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Heike; Demeler, Janina; Taenzler, Janina; Roepke, Rainer K A; Zschiesche, Eva; Heckeroth, Anja R

    2015-06-30

    Fluralaner is a new antiparasitic drug that was recently introduced as Bravecto chewable tablets for the treatment of tick and flea infestations in dogs. Most marketed tick products exert their effect via topical application and contact exposure to the parasite. In contrast, Bravecto delivers its acaricidal activity through systemic exposure. Tick exposure to fluralaner occurs after attachment to orally treated dogs, which induces a tick-killing effect within 12 h. The fast onset of killing lasts over the entire treatment interval (12 weeks) and suggests that only marginal uptake by ticks is required to induce efficacy. Three laboratory studies were conducted to quantify the extent of uptake by comparison of ticks' weight and coxal index obtained from Bravecto-treated and negative-control dogs. Three studies were conducted using experimental tick infestation with either Ixodes ricinus or Ixodes scapularis after oral administration of fluralaner to dogs. All studies included a treated (Bravecto chewable tablets, MSD Animal Health) and a negative control group. Each study had a similar design for assessing vitality and weighing of ticks collected from dogs of both groups. Additionally, in one study the coxal index (I. ricinus) was calculated as a ratio of tick's ventral coxal gap and dorsal width of scutum. Tick weight data and coxal indices from Bravecto-treated and negative-control groups were compared via statistical analysis. Ticks collected from Bravecto-treated dogs weighed significantly less (p ≤ 0.0108) than ticks collected from negative-control dogs, and their coxal index was also significantly lower (p < 0.0001). The difference in tick weights was demonstrated irrespective of the tick species investigated (I. ricinus, I. scapularis). At some assessments the mean tick weights of Bravecto-treated dogs were significantly lower than those of unfed pre-infestation (baseline) ticks. The demonstrated tick-killing efficacy was in the range of 94.6 - 100

  7. The occurrence of Ixodes ricinus ticks and important tick-borne pathogens in areas with high tick-borne encephalitis prevalence in different altitudinal levels of the Czech Republic Part II. Ixodes ricinus ticks and genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, M; Rudenko, N; Golovchenko, M; Danielová, V; Fialová, A; Kříž, B; Malý, M

    Three years long research study (2011-2013) on population density of Ixodes ricinus and the infection rate of the pathogens that they transmit was conducted in four topographically distant areas in the Czech Republic. In the previous decade (2001-2010) thirteen loci with increased incidence of tick borne encephalitis cases were defined, suggesting the permanent interaction of human population with ticks and indicating the landmarks for study of the presence of other tick borne pathogens. The work program included the identification of existing spectrum of spirochetes from Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex and the conditions of their occurrence and distribution. In the areas of the Ústí nad Labem Region, Olomouc Region, South Bohemian Region, and Highlands Region, 600 m2 plots were selected in the local optimal I. ricinus habitats where tick flagging was performed every year in the spring-summer and autumn seasons of the tick questing activity. Collected adult ticks (1369 males and 1404 females) were individually screened for B. burgdorferi s. l. spirochets. Spirochetes from B. burgdorferi s.l. complex were detected in all 13 studies sites in all altitudes from 280 to 1030 meters a. s. l. The total rate of infection was determined as 11.4% (males 10.4%, females 12.4%) with range limits from 1.4% (Ústí nad Labem in 2011) to 19.7% (South Bohemian Region, 2012).Genospecies were detected in various proportions and in different combinations: Borrelia afzelii, B. garinii, B. burgdorferi s. s., B. bavariensis, B. bissettii, B. valaisiana, B. spielmanii and B. lusitaniae. The three-year observation justifies the assumption that the regional differences in infectivity of I. ricinus are based on the character of the local biocenosis of the respective region. The dynamics of its seasonal changes, conditioned by climatic factors, determines the annual differences. Three of the medically most important Borrelia species formed a core group among all detected genospecies

  8. Speed of kill of a new spot-on formulation of selamectin plus sarolaner for cats against induced infestations with Ixodes ricinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becskei, Csilla; Lin, Dan; Rugg, Douglas; Geurden, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    The speed of kill of a new spot-on formulation containing selamectin plus sarolaner (Stronghold®Plus, Zoetis) for cats was evaluated against Ixodes ricinus ticks in a placebo-controlled, blinded study. Sixteen (16) cats were blocked by pre-treatment tick counts and randomly allocated to the placebo-treated group or the selamectin/sarolaner-treated group. Cats either received a single topical treatment at the minimum dose of 6.0mg selamectin and 1.0mg sarolaner per kg bodyweight or a placebo formulation on Day 0. On Days -2, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35, cats were infested with approximately 50 unfed, viable and adult I. ricinus ticks. Tick counts were performed in situ 8 and 12h after treatment or re-infestation. Ticks were removed from the cats and counted at the 24h tick count. Acaricidal efficacy at each time point was calculated based on the reduction of mean live tick counts in the selamectin/sarolaner-treated group versus the placebo-treated group. There were no treatment-related adverse reactions during the study. Placebo-treated cats maintained infestations with mean tick counts ranging from 10.3 to 21.9 throughout the study. The new spot-on formulation of selamectin plus sarolaner demonstrated 99.3% efficacy (P97.9% for at least 3 weeks and was 89.0% after the re-infestation on Day 28. Mean live tick counts were significantly reduced by 12h after re-infestation for at least 28 days (Psarolaner at the minimum label dose started killing ticks within 24h after treatment and within 12h after re-infestations for 4 weeks. High acaricidal efficacy was achieved within 24h after treatment and this persisted following subsequent re-infestations for a month. Copyright © 2017 Zoetis Services LLC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A Systems Level Analysis Reveals Transcriptomic and Proteomic Complexity in Ixodes Ricinus Midgut and Salivary Glands During Early Attachment and Feeding*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Alexandra; Tenzer, Stefan; Hackenberg, Michael; Erhart, Jan; Gerhold-Ay, Aslihan; Mazur, Johanna; Kuharev, Jörg; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Kotsyfakis, Michail

    2014-01-01

    Although pathogens are usually transmitted within the first 24–48 h of attachment of the castor bean tick Ixodes ricinus, little is known about the tick's biological responses at these earliest phases of attachment. Tick midgut and salivary glands are the main tissues involved in tick blood feeding and pathogen transmission but the limited genomic information for I. ricinus delays the application of high-throughput methods to study their physiology. We took advantage of the latest advances in the fields of Next Generation RNA-Sequencing and Label-free Quantitative Proteomics to deliver an unprecedented, quantitative description of the gene expression dynamics in the midgut and salivary glands of this disease vector upon attachment to the vertebrate host. A total of 373 of 1510 identified proteins had higher expression in the salivary glands, but only 110 had correspondingly high transcript levels in the same tissue. Furthermore, there was midgut-specific expression of 217 genes at both the transcriptome and proteome level. Tissue-dependent transcript, but not protein, accumulation was revealed for 552 of 885 genes. Moreover, we discovered the enrichment of tick salivary glands in proteins involved in gene transcription and translation, which agrees with the secretory role of this tissue; this finding also agrees with our finding of lower tick t-RNA representation in the salivary glands when compared with the midgut. The midgut, in turn, is enriched in metabolic components and proteins that support its mechanical integrity in order to accommodate and metabolize the ingested blood. Beyond understanding the physiological events that support hematophagy by arthropod ectoparasites, we discovered more than 1500 proteins located at the interface between ticks, the vertebrate host, and the tick-borne pathogens. Thus, our work significantly improves the knowledge of the genetics underlying the transmission lifecycle of this tick species, which is an essential step for

  10. Evaluation of the in vitro expression of ATP binding-cassette (ABC) proteins in an Ixodes ricinus cell line exposed to ivermectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangia, Carlo; Vismarra, Alice; Kramer, Laura; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; Porretta, Daniele; Otranto, Domenico; Epis, Sara; Grandi, Giulio

    2016-04-18

    Ticks are among the most important vectors of pathogens causing human and animal disease. Acaricides are used to control tick infestation, although there are increasing reports of resistance. Recently, over-expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins (P-glycoproteins, PgP) has been implicated in resistance to the acaricide ivermectin in the ticks Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato. Ixodid tick cell lines have been used to investigate drug resistance mechanisms. The aim of the present study was to evaluate expression of several PgPs in the Ixodes ricinus-derived cell line IRE/CTVM19 and to determine modulation of expression following treatment with ivermectin. IRE/CTVM19 cells were treated with different concentrations of ivermectin (0, 11, 22 or 33 μM) and incubated for 10 days. Evaluation of viability and relative expression of ABCB1, ABCB6, ABCB8 and ABCB10 genes were carried out at day 10 post treatment. Cell viability ranged between 84% and 92% with no significant differences between untreated and treated cells. qRT-PCR showed that ABC pump expression was not significantly modulated by ivermectin treatment. Expression of the ABCB8 PgP subfamily revealed a biphasic trend, based on the ivermectin concentration. ABCB6 and ABCB10 gene expression was not modulated by ivermectin treatment and ABCB1 expression was not detected. This is the first report of PgP expression in an I. ricinus-derived tick cell line. Development of an in vitro model for the study of acaricide resistance mechanisms would greatly facilitate screening for drug resistance in ticks.

  11. Impact of a freeway on the dispersal of ticks and Ixodes ricinus-borne pathogens: forested resting areas may become Lyme disease hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornok, Sándor; Mulvihill, Maria; Szőke, Krisztina; Gönczi, Enikő; Sulyok, Kinga M; Gyuranecz, Miklós; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2017-06-01

    Man-made barriers are well known for their effects on ecosystems. Habitat fragmentation, for instance, is a recognised consequence of modern-day infrastructure. The aim of the present study was to investigate the diversity and abundance of tick species, as well as the risks of acquiring tick-borne infections in habitats adjacent to a freeway. Therefore, ixodid ticks were collected from the vegetation at two-week intervals (in the main tick season, from March to June) in eight habitats of different types (forest, grove, grassland) along both sides of a freeway. Ixodes ricinus females were molecularly screened for three species of tick-borne bacteria. In the study period, 887 ixodid ticks were collected. These included 704 I. ricinus (79.4%), 51 Dermacentor reticulatus (5.7%), 78 D. marginatus (8.8%), 35 Haemaphysalis inermis (3.9%) and 19 H. concinna (2.1%). There was no significant difference in the abundance of tick species between similar habitats separated by the freeway, except for the absence of Dermacentor spp. on one side. In I. ricinus females, the overall prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum was low, and (in part due to this low rate) did not show significant difference between the two sides of the freeway. Rickettsia helvetica had significantly different overall prevalence between two distant habitats along the same side of the freeway (12.3% vs. 31.4%), but not between habitats on the opposite sides. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. showed significantly different overall prevalence between habitats both on the same and on the opposite sides of the freeway (8.6-35.9%), and the difference was higher if relevant habitats were also separated by the freeway. Importantly, the prevalence rate of the Lyme disease agent was highest in a forested resting area of the freeway, and was significantly inversely proportional to the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum (taking into account all evaluated habitats), apparently related to deer population density. Prevalence rates

  12. Repellency and acaricidal efficacy of a new combination of fipronil and permethrin against Ixodes ricinus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks on dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Pascal; Liebenberg, Julian; Beugnet, Frederic; Fankhauser, Becky

    2015-10-13

    A blinded, controlled laboratory study was conducted to assess the repellency and acaricidal activity of a topical spot on formulation, a combination of fipronil and permethrin, against Ixodes ricinus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks on dogs. A group of 16 adult mixed breed dogs were randomly divided into treatment and control groups based on pre-treatment live tick counts. On Day 0, the topical spot on formulation of fipronil + permethrin (commercialized under the name Frontline Tri-Act®/Frontect®) was administered to dogs in the treatment group at the minimum recommended dose of 0.1 mL/kg, corresponding to 6.76 mg fipronil/kg and 50.48 mg/kg permethrin. Tick infestations were performed with I. ricinus (50 females, 50 males) and R. sanguineus (25 females, 25 males) on each dog on Days 2, 7, 14, 21, and 28. Dogs were sedated prior to exposure and confined to crates for approximately 4 h following tick challenge. Ticks were released next to the sedated dogs and tick counts were performed at 4 h and 24 h after the start of exposure for tick counts and removal. Repellency at 4 h against I. ricinus was 72.6, 96.3, 92.8, 89.0, and 88.7 % on Days 2, 7, 14, 21, and 28, respectively. Repellency was 100 % 24 h after exposures on Days 2, 7, and 14 and 99.6 % after exposures on Days 21 and 28. For R. sanguineus, repellency at 4 h was 78.0, 96.8, 91.5, 88.0, and 56.8 % on Days 2, 7, 14, 21, and 28, respectively. Repellency at 24 h was 98.6, 100, 98.7, 96.1, and 95.1 % for exposures on Days 2, 7, 14, 21, and 28, respectively. For I. ricinus, acaricidal efficacy recorded at 4 h was ≥ 91.1 % during the full month and was ≥ 99.5 % for the full month when counted at 24 h. Acaricidal efficacy against R. sanguineus was ≥ 94.7 % at 4 h from Day 2 to Day 21 and was 71.4 % on Day 28. Acaricidal efficacy at 24 h, was > 97.7 % during the month. Tick counts were statistically significantly reduced in treated dogs at all time

  13. Ixodes ricinus and Its Transmitted Pathogens in Urban and Peri-Urban Areas in Europe: New Hazards and Relevance for Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzoli, Annapaola; Silaghi, Cornelia; Obiegala, Anna; Rudolf, Ivo; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Földvári, Gábor; Plantard, Olivier; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Bonnet, Sarah; Spitalská, Eva; Kazimírová, Mária

    2014-01-01

    Tick-borne diseases represent major public and animal health issues worldwide. Ixodes ricinus, primarily associated with deciduous and mixed forests, is the principal vector of causative agents of viral, bacterial, and protozoan zoonotic diseases in Europe. Recently, abundant tick populations have been observed in European urban green areas, which are of public health relevance due to the exposure of humans and domesticated animals to potentially infected ticks. In urban habitats, small and medium-sized mammals, birds, companion animals (dogs and cats), and larger mammals (roe deer and wild boar) play a role in maintenance of tick populations and as reservoirs of tick-borne pathogens. Presence of ticks infected with tick-borne encephalitis virus and high prevalence of ticks infected with Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., causing Lyme borreliosis, have been reported from urbanized areas in Europe. Emerging pathogens, including bacteria of the order Rickettsiales (Anaplasma phagocytophilum, "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis," Rickettsia helvetica, and R. monacensis), Borrelia miyamotoi, and protozoans (Babesia divergens, B. venatorum, and B. microti) have also been detected in urban tick populations. Understanding the ecology of ticks and their associations with hosts in a European urbanized environment is crucial to quantify parameters necessary for risk pre-assessment and identification of public health strategies for control and prevention of tick-borne diseases.

  14. Activity studies of sesquiterpene oxides and sulfides from the plant Hyptis suaveolens (Lamiaceae) and its repellency on Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashitani, T; Garboui, S S; Schubert, F; Vongsombath, C; Liblikas, I; Pålsson, K; Borg-Karlson, A-K

    2015-12-01

    Hyptis suaveolens (Lamiaceae), a plant traditionally used as a mosquito repellent, has been investigated for repellent properties against nymphs of the tick Ixodes ricinus. Essential oils and volatile compounds of fresh and dried leaves, from plants originating from Laos and Guinea-Bissau, were identified by GC-MS and tested in a tick repellency bioassay. All the essential oils were strongly repellent against the ticks, even though the main volatile constituents differed in their proportions of potentially tick repellent chemicals. (+)/(-)-sabinene were present in high amounts in all preparations, and dominated the emission from dry and fresh leaves together with 1,8-cineol and α-phellandrene. 1,8-Cineol and sabinene were major compounds in the essential oils from H. suaveolens from Laos. Main compounds in H. suaveolens from Guinea-Bissau were (-)-sabinene, limonene and terpinolene. Among the sesquiterpene hydrocarbons identified, α-humulene exhibited strong tick repellency (96.8 %). Structure activity studies of oxidation or sulfidation products of germacrene D, α-humulene and β-caryophyllene, showed increased tick repellent activity: of mint sulfide (59.4 %), humulene-6,7-oxide (94.5 %) and caryophyllene-6,7-oxide (96.9 %). The substitution of oxygen with sulfur slightly lowered the repellency. The effects of the constituents in the oils can then be regarded as a trade off between the subsequently lower volatility of the sesquiterpene derivatives compared to the monoterpenes and may thus increase their potential usefulness as tick repellents.

  15. Ixodes ricinus and its transmitted pathogens in urban and peri-urban areas in Europe: new hazards and relevance for public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annapaola eRizzoli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tick-borne diseases represent major public and animal health issues worldwide. Ixodes ricinus, primarily associated with deciduous and mixed forests, is the principal vector of causative agents of viral, bacterial and protozoan zoonotic diseases in Europe. Recently, abundant tick populations have been observed in European urban green areas, which are of public health relevance due to exposure of humans and domesticated animals to potentially infected ticks. In urban habitats, small and medium sized mammals, birds, companion animals (dogs, cats and larger mammals (roe deer, wild boar play a role in maintenance of tick populations and as reservoirs of tick-borne pathogens. Presence of ticks infected with tick-borne encephalitis virus and high prevalence of ticks infected with Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., causing Lyme borreliosis, have been reported from urbanized areas in Europe. Emerging pathogens, including bacteria of the order Rickettsiales (Anaplasma phagocytophilum, 'Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis', Rickettsia helvetica, R. monacensis, Borrelia miyamatoi and protozoans (Babesia divergens, B. venatorum and B. microti have also been detected in urban tick populations. Understanding the ecology of ticks and their associations with hosts in a European urbanized environment is crucial to quantify parameters necessary for risk pre-assessment and identification of public health strategies for control and prevention of tick-borne diseases.

  16. Tick (Ixodes ricinus) abundance and seasonality at recreational sites in the UK: hazards in relation to fine-scale habitat types revealed by complementary sampling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Andrew D M; Taylor, Jennifer L; Randolph, Sarah E

    2011-06-01

    The seasonal risk to humans of picking up Ixodes ricinus ticks in different habitats at 3 recreational sites in the UK was assessed. A comprehensive range of vegetation types was sampled at 3-weekly intervals for 2 years, using standard blanket-dragging complemented by woollen leggings and square 'heel flags'. Ticks were found in all vegetation types sampled, including short grass close to car parks, but highest densities were consistently found in plots with trees present. Blankets picked up the greatest number of ticks, but heel flags provided important complementary counts of the immature stages in bracken plots; they showed clearly that the decline in tick numbers on blankets in early summer was due to the seasonal growth of vegetation that lifted the blanket clear of the typical questing height, but in reality ticks remained abundant through the summer. Leggings picked up only 11% of the total nymphs and 22% of total adults counted, but this still represented a significant hazard to humans. These results should prompt a greater awareness of the fine-scale distribution of this species in relation to human activities that determines the most likely zones of contact between humans and ticks. Risk communication may then be designed accordingly. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Tick receptor for outer surface protein A from Ixodes ricinus — the first intrinsically disordered protein involved in vector-microbe recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanowicz, Anna; Lewandowski, Dominik; Szpotkowski, Kamil; Figlerowicz, Marek

    2016-04-01

    The tick receptor for outer surface protein A (TROSPA) is the only identified factor involved in tick gut colonization by various Borrelia species. TROSPA is localized in the gut epithelium and can recognize and bind the outer surface bacterial protein OspA via an unknown mechanism. Based on earlier reports and our latest observations, we considered that TROSPA would be the first identified intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) involved in the interaction between a vector and a pathogenic microbe. To verify this hypothesis, we performed structural studies of a TROSPA mutant from Ixodes ricinus using both computational and experimental approaches. Irrespective of the method used, we observed that the secondary structure content of the TROSPA polypeptide chain is low. In addition, the collected SAXS data indicated that this protein is highly extended and exists in solution as a set of numerous conformers. These features are all commonly considered hallmarks of IDPs. Taking advantage of our SAXS data, we created structural models of TROSPA and proposed a putative mechanism for the TROSPA-OspA interaction. The disordered nature of TROSPA may explain the ability of a wide spectrum of Borrelia species to colonize the tick gut.

  18. Ixodes ricinus and Its Transmitted Pathogens in Urban and Peri-Urban Areas in Europe: New Hazards and Relevance for Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzoli, Annapaola; Silaghi, Cornelia; Obiegala, Anna; Rudolf, Ivo; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Földvári, Gábor; Plantard, Olivier; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Bonnet, Sarah; Špitalská, Eva; Kazimírová, Mária

    2014-01-01

    Tick-borne diseases represent major public and animal health issues worldwide. Ixodes ricinus, primarily associated with deciduous and mixed forests, is the principal vector of causative agents of viral, bacterial, and protozoan zoonotic diseases in Europe. Recently, abundant tick populations have been observed in European urban green areas, which are of public health relevance due to the exposure of humans and domesticated animals to potentially infected ticks. In urban habitats, small and medium-sized mammals, birds, companion animals (dogs and cats), and larger mammals (roe deer and wild boar) play a role in maintenance of tick populations and as reservoirs of tick-borne pathogens. Presence of ticks infected with tick-borne encephalitis virus and high prevalence of ticks infected with Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., causing Lyme borreliosis, have been reported from urbanized areas in Europe. Emerging pathogens, including bacteria of the order Rickettsiales (Anaplasma phagocytophilum, “Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis,” Rickettsia helvetica, and R. monacensis), Borrelia miyamotoi, and protozoans (Babesia divergens, B. venatorum, and B. microti) have also been detected in urban tick populations. Understanding the ecology of ticks and their associations with hosts in a European urbanized environment is crucial to quantify parameters necessary for risk pre-assessment and identification of public health strategies for control and prevention of tick-borne diseases. PMID:25520947

  19. Antigenic and genomic analysis of a Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto strain isolated from Ixodes ricinus ticks in Alto Adige-South Tyrol, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciceroni, L; Ciarrocchi, S; Simeoni, J

    1998-07-01

    A Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strain isolated from IXodes ricinus ticks in Alto Adige-South Tyrol (Northern Italy) was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of whole cell proteins, Western immunoblotting analysis (WBA) with polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The isolate named BZ6 was identified as belonging to the genospecies B. burgdorferi sensu stricto on the basis of its protein profile and its reactivity with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. The PFGE study performed with the two rare-cutting restriction enzymes MluI and SmaI confirmed the SDS-PAGE and WBA characterizations, but showed a genetic diversity between the isolate and two out of the three B. burgdorferi sensu stricto strains used in this study as controls, the American type strain B31 and the locally isolated strain BZ1. No difference in the PFGE patterns between the isolate BZ6 and the Swiss strain IRS was noted. Our findings show the value of PFGE analysis for classifying B. burgdorferi sensu lato isolates and for revealing their genetic diversity, and its usefulness for epidemiological investigations.

  20. Characterization of Ixodes ricinus fibrinogen-related proteins (Ixoderins) discloses their function in the tick innate immunity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hönig Mondeková, Helena; Šíma, Radek; Urbanová, Veronika; Kovář, Vojtěch; Rego, Ryan O. M.; Grubhoffer, Libor; Kopáček, Petr; Hajdušek, Ondřej

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, DEC (2017), č. článku 509. ISSN 2235-2988 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-27386S; GA ČR GA17-27393S; GA ČR GJ15-12006Y; GA ČR GA13-11043S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 602272 - ANTIDotE Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Fibrinogen-related protein * Ixoderin * Ixodes * Lectin * RNAi * Tick Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 4.300, year: 2016

  1. Local-scale spatio-temporal distribution of questing Ixodes ricinus L. (Acari: Ixodidae)-A case study from a riparian urban forest in Wrocław, SW Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiewra, Dorota; Stefańska-Krzaczek, Ewa; Szymanowski, Mariusz; Szczepańska, Anna

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents the distribution of questing Ixodes ricinus ticks in suburban forest intensively visited by people. The local-scale observations conducted during a 4-year study at 99 plots (of 100m2 each) located throughout the entire area of a riparian urban forest, showed a high variation in the density of ticks from year to year. Although I. ricinus is generally permanent in the study area, spatial distribution of sample plots harbouring I. ricinus is variable, i.e. mainly random for adults and larvae, and random or clustered for nymphs. Among the most common plant species in the herb layer, there were not any species which had a statistically significant and constant impact on the occurrence of any of the development stages of I. ricinus. Also relations between the density of tick development stages and vegetation variables, including cover of the herb layer, total species number, species number of the herb layer, and percentage coverage of particular species, as well as ecological indices for light, soil moisture, reaction, and nutrients, did not show any constant and predictable pattern in subsequent years of the study. Only tree and shrub layers were found as variables positively affecting the density of ticks. Although small, suburban forests can be considered as tick-borne risk areas, it is impossible to determine in details areas of tick-borne risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Vertical distribution of the tick Ixodes ricinus and tick-borne pathogens in the northern Moravian mountains correlated with climate warming (Jeseníky Mts., Czech Republic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Milan; Materna, Jan; Honig, Václav; Metelka, Ladislav; Danielová, Vlasta; Harcarik, Josef; Kliegrová, Stanislava; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2009-09-01

    A study of the vertical distribution of the common tick Ixodes ricinus and tick-borne pathogens--tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.--was performed in the highest part of the Jeseniky mountain area (the Hrubý Jesenik Mts. with the highest summit Praded, 1,491 m above see level). Altogether 1,253 specimens of all tick stages (607 larvae, 614 nymphs, 8 females and 24 males) were collected at the altitude 990-1,300 m above sea level on 12 collection sites by the flagging method. Altogether 1,207 ticks (8 females, 24 males, 568 nymphs and 607 larvae) were examined for the presence of tick-borne encephalitis virus and B. burgdorferi s.l. None of the samples contained TBEV, 35 samples (6% of adult ticks, 5% of nymphs, 0.7% of larvae) were positive for B. burgdorferi s.l. The most prevalent genospecies were B. afzelii (44%), B. garinii (28%), less frequent were B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (5%), B. valaisiana (3%). The rather large number of ticks (in absolute numbers as well as recounted to the index: average number of nymphs/worker/collection hour) and the presence of all developmental stages clearly demonstrate that there are viable local tick populations in all the sites, and that recorded ticks were not randomly individuals brought into higher altitudes by birds or game animals. The results are compared with the long-term (2002-2007) monitoring of the tick altitudinal distribution in the Krkonose Mts. and the conditions, which allow ticks to establish local populations up to the timberline in both mountain areas, are discussed. Simultaneously, changes in climatic conditions (especially the air temperature) monitored at 3 meteorological stations in the area of the Jeseníky Mts. were compared with the records from another 8 stations in other mountain areas in the Czech Republic. A very similar statistically significant trend of increasing mean air temperatures during the last three decades is found at all analyzed

  3. Thioester-containing proteins of the tick Ixodes ricinus: gene expression, response to microbial challenge and their role in phagocytosis of the yeast Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanová, Veronika; Šíma, Radek; Šauman, Ivo; Hajdušek, Ondřej; Kopáček, Petr

    2015-01-01

    The ability of ticks to act as vectors for a wide range of serious human and animal infectious diseases is apparently linked to the insufficiency of the tick immune system to effectively eliminate pathogens they transmit. At the tick-pathogen interface, an important role is presumably played by components of an ancient complement system that includes a repertoire of thioester-containing proteins (TEPs), which in Ixodes sp. comprises three α2-macroglobulins (A2M), three C3 complement component-related molecules (C3), two macroglobulin complement-related (Mcr) and one insect-type TEPs (Tep). In order to assess the function of TEPs in tick immunity, a quantitative real-time PCR expression analysis of tick TEPs was performed at various developmental stages of Ixodes ricinus, and in tissues dissected from adult females. Expression of TEP genes was mostly tissue specific; IrA2M1, IrC3-1, IrC3-3 were found to be expressed in cells of tick fat body adjacent to the tracheal trunks, IrA2M2 in hemocytes, IrTep in ovaries, IrMcr1 in salivary glands and only IrA2M3, IrC3-2 and IrMcr2 mRNAs were present in multiple organs. Expression of tick TEPs was further examined in response to injection of model microbes representing Gram-negative, Gram-positive bacteria and yeast. The greatest expression induction was observed for IrA2M1 and IrC3-1 after challenge with the yeast Candida albicans. Phagocytosis of the yeast was strongly dependent on an active thioester bond and the subsequent silencing of individual tick TEPs by RNA interference demonstrated the involvement of IrC3-1 and IrMcr2. This result suggests the existence of a distinct complement-like pathway, different from that leading to phagocytosis of Gram-negative bacteria. Understanding of the tick immune response against model microbes should provide new concepts for investigating interactions between ticks and relevant tick-borne pathogens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ecological Factors Characterizing the Prevalence of Bacterial Tick-Borne Pathogens in Ixodes ricinus Ticks in Pastures and Woodlands ▿ §

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halos, Lénaïg; Bord, Séverine; Cotté, Violaine; Gasqui, Patrick; Abrial, David; Barnouin, Jacques; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Vourc'h, Gwenaël

    2010-01-01

    Ecological changes are recognized as an important driver behind the emergence of infectious diseases. The prevalence of infection in ticks depends upon ecological factors that are rarely taken into account simultaneously. Our objective was to investigate the influences of forest fragmentation, vegetation, adult tick hosts, and habitat on the infection prevalence of three tick-borne bacteria, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Rickettsia sp. of the spotted fever group, in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks, taking into account tick characteristics. Samples of questing nymphs and adults were taken from 61 pastures and neighboring woodlands in central France. The ticks were tested by PCR of pools of nymphs and individual adults. The individual infection prevalence was modeled using multivariate regression. The highest infection prevalences were found in adult females collected in woodland sites for B. burgdorferi sensu lato and A. phagocytophilum (16.1% and 10.7%, respectively) and in pasture sites for Rickettsia sp. (8.7%). The infection prevalence in nymphs was lower than 6%. B. burgdorferi sensu lato was more prevalent in woodlands than in pastures. Forest fragmentation favored B. burgdorferi sensu lato and A. phagocytophilum prevalence in woodlands, and in pastures, the B. burgdorferi sensu lato prevalence was favored by shrubby vegetation. Both results are probably because large amounts of edges or shrubs increase the abundance of small vertebrates as reservoir hosts. The Rickettsia sp. prevalence was maximal on pasture with medium forest fragmentation. Female ticks were more infected by B. burgdorferi sensu lato than males and nymphs in woodland sites, which suggests an interaction between the ticks and the bacteria. This study confirms the complexity of the tick-borne pathogen ecology. The findings support the importance of small vertebrates as reservoir hosts and make a case for further studies in Europe on the link between the

  5. Variable strength of forest stand attributes and weather conditions on the questing activity of Ixodes ricinus ticks over years in managed forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Lauterbach

    Full Text Available Given the ever-increasing human impact through land use and climate change on the environment, we crucially need to achieve a better understanding of those factors that influence the questing activity of ixodid ticks, a major disease-transmitting vector in temperate forests. We investigated variation in the relative questing nymph densities of Ixodes ricinus in differently managed forest types for three years (2008-2010 in SW Germany by drag sampling. We used a hierarchical Bayesian modeling approach to examine the relative effects of habitat and weather and to consider possible nested structures of habitat and climate forces. The questing activity of nymphs was considerably larger in young forest successional stages of thicket compared with pole wood and timber stages. Questing nymph density increased markedly with milder winter temperatures. Generally, the relative strength of the various environmental forces on questing nymph density differed across years. In particular, winter temperature had a negative effect on tick activity across sites in 2008 in contrast to the overall effect of temperature across years. Our results suggest that forest management practices have important impacts on questing nymph density. Variable weather conditions, however, might override the effects of forest management practices on the fluctuations and dynamics of tick populations and activity over years, in particular, the preceding winter temperatures. Therefore, robust predictions and the detection of possible interactions and nested structures of habitat and climate forces can only be quantified through the collection of long-term data. Such data are particularly important with regard to future scenarios of forest management and climate warming.

  6. Clinical and serological one-year follow-up of patients after the bite of Ixodes ricinus ticks infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briciu, Violeta T; Flonta, Mirela; Ţăţulescu, Doina F; Meyer, Fabian; Sebah, Daniela; Cârstina, Dumitru; Mihalca, Andrei D; Gherman, Călin M; Hizo-Teufel, Cecilia; Huber, Ingrid; Fingerle, Volker; Lupșe, Mihaela

    2017-04-01

    The risk of developing Lyme borreliosis (LB) after the bite of a Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) infected tick in Romania is unknown. The present prospective study, performed in 2010-2011 in a hospital in Romania, has followed-up clinical and serological outcome of patients that presented with B. burgdorferi positive Ixodes (I.) ricinus bite. A second group of patients, including age, sex and residence-matched individuals bitten by B. burgdorferi negative ticks, was followed-up as a control group. The subjects' outcome was evaluated one year after the tick bite. Forty-three out of 389 ticks detached from patients were positive by hbb Real-Time PCR (RT-PCR) for B. burgdorferi s.l. (mainly B. afzelii, but also B. garinii, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. spielmanii/B. valaisiana and B. lusitaniae). Twenty patients bitten by B. burgdorferi positive ticks and twenty matched control patients returned for the one year follow-up. Two patients from the B. burgdorferi positive group developed clinical manifestations of acute LB (erythema migrans) and 5 patients seroconverted (two from the B. burgdorferi positive group and three from the B. burgdorferi negative group). Borrelia afzelii was identified in ticks collected from persons that developed erythema migrans (EM). Comparing the two groups of patients, no statistical significant differences were found regarding presence of clinical symptoms or seroconversion. No outcome differences were found between the group of patients bitten by B. burgdorferi positive ticks and the group of patients bitten by B. burgdorferi negative ticks.

  7. Transmission differentials for multiple pathogens as inferred from their prevalence in larva, nymph and adult of Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Per M; Christoffersen, Christian S; Moutailler, Sara; Michelet, Lorraine; Klitgaard, Kirstine; Bødker, Rene

    2017-02-01

    Ixodes ricinus serves as vector for a range of microorganisms capable of causing clinical illness in humans. The microorganisms occur in the same vector populations and are generally affected by the same tick-host interactions. Still, the instars have different host preferences which should manifest in different transmission patterns for various microorganisms in the tick populations, i.e., most microorganisms increase in prevalence rate from larvae to nymphs because their reservoirs are among small mammals and birds that serve as blood hosts for larvae. Other microorganisms, like Anaplasma phagocytophilum, mainly increase in prevalence rates from nymphs to adults, because their reservoirs are larger ungulates that serve as primary blood hosts for nymphs and adults. We sampled a representative sample of ticks from 12 locations on Zealand and Funen, Denmark, and investigated the differences in prevalence rate of infection in larvae, nymphs and adults for multiple pathogens. Prevalence of infection for larvae, nymphs and adults, respectively, was: 0, 1.5 and 4.5% for Borrelia burgdorferi; 0, 4.2 and 3.9% for Borrelia garinii; 0, 6.6 and 6.1% for Borrelia afzelii; 0, 0 and 0.6% for Borrelia valaisiana; 0, 3.7 and 0.6% for Borrelia spielmanii; 0, 0.7 and 1.2% for Babesia divergens; 0, 0, 0.6% for Babesia venatorum; 0, 1.5 and 6.1% for A. phagocytophilum. The results were in general compatible with the hypothesis i.e., that differences in blood host for larvae and nymphs define differences in transmission of infectious agents, but other factors than differences in blood hosts between larvae and nymphs may also be important to consider.

  8. A Borrelia afzelii Infection Increases Larval Tick Burden on Myodes glareolus (Rodentia: Cricetidae) and Nymphal Body Weight of Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duijvendijk, Gilian; van Andel, Wouter; Fonville, Manoj; Gort, Gerrit; Hovius, Joppe W; Sprong, Hein; Takken, Willem

    2017-03-01

    Several microorganisms have been shown to manipulate their host or vector to enhance their own transmission. Here we examined whether an infection with Borrelia afzelii affects its transmission between its bank vole (Myodes glareolus, Schreber, 1780) host and tick vector. Captive-bred bank voles were inoculated with B. afzelii or control medium, after which host preference of Ixodes ricinus L. nymphs was determined in a Y-tube olfactometer. Thereafter, infected and uninfected bank voles were placed in a semifield arena containing questing larvae to measure larval tick attachment. Engorged larvae were collected from these bank voles, molted into nymphs, weighed, and analyzed for infection by PCR.Nymphs were attracted to the odors of a bank vole compared to ambient air and preferred the odors of an infected bank vole over that of an uninfected bank vole. In the semifield arena, infected male bank voles had greater larval tick burdens then uninfected males, while similar larval tick burdens were observed on females regardless of infection status. Nymphal ticks that acquired a B. afzelii infection had higher body weight than nymphs that did not acquire an infection regardless of the infection status of the vole. These results show that a B. afzelii infection in bank voles increases larval tick burden and that a B. afzelii infection in larvae increases nymphal body weight. This finding provides novel ecological insights into the enzootic cycle of B. afzelii. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Long-term study of the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. infection in ticks (Ixodes ricinus) feeding on blackbirds (Turdus merula) in NE Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryczyńska, Alicja; Welc-Falęciak, Renata

    2016-11-01

    Seeking evidence to confirm that blackbirds (Turdus merula) may be involved in environmental maintenance of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. (the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis), we conducted a long-term study over three separate 2-year periods, together embracing a span of almost 20 years, all in the same area in northeastern Poland. We examined a total of 78 blackbirds and collected 623 Ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on them. The tick infestation prevalence was found to be very high (89.7 %). Among all ticks collected, 9.8 % individuals were infected with B. burgdorferi s.l. spirochetes. We found statistically significant growth in the prevalence of infected ticks as well as an increasing proportion of blackbirds hosting them in subsequent years of study. Ticks feeding on blackbirds were infected mainly with B. garinii (45.7 %), a genospecies commonly encountered in birds, and with B. afzelii (28.6 %), until recently considered rodent-associated. We also identified B. turdi (22.9 %), frequently found in recent years in ticks feeding on birds, and B. spielmanii (2.8 %), which had previously not been found in infected ticks feeding on blackbirds. We also found that ticks infected with genospecies associated with avian reservoir groups (B. garinii and B. turdi) were not randomly distributed on blackbirds, but instead focused on certain bird specimens. We therefore conjecture that this is a result of ticks becoming infected either from the host blackbird itself, or from other infected ticks feeding on the same host blackbird. We did not find any similar dependency for the rodent specialist B. afzelii.

  10. Variable strength of forest stand attributes and weather conditions on the questing activity of Ixodes ricinus ticks over years in managed forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterbach, Ralf; Wells, Konstans; O'Hara, Robert B; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Renner, Swen C

    2013-01-01

    Given the ever-increasing human impact through land use and climate change on the environment, we crucially need to achieve a better understanding of those factors that influence the questing activity of ixodid ticks, a major disease-transmitting vector in temperate forests. We investigated variation in the relative questing nymph densities of Ixodes ricinus in differently managed forest types for three years (2008-2010) in SW Germany by drag sampling. We used a hierarchical Bayesian modeling approach to examine the relative effects of habitat and weather and to consider possible nested structures of habitat and climate forces. The questing activity of nymphs was considerably larger in young forest successional stages of thicket compared with pole wood and timber stages. Questing nymph density increased markedly with milder winter temperatures. Generally, the relative strength of the various environmental forces on questing nymph density differed across years. In particular, winter temperature had a negative effect on tick activity across sites in 2008 in contrast to the overall effect of temperature across years. Our results suggest that forest management practices have important impacts on questing nymph density. Variable weather conditions, however, might override the effects of forest management practices on the fluctuations and dynamics of tick populations and activity over years, in particular, the preceding winter temperatures. Therefore, robust predictions and the detection of possible interactions and nested structures of habitat and climate forces can only be quantified through the collection of long-term data. Such data are particularly important with regard to future scenarios of forest management and climate warming.

  11. Comparative efficacy of a new spot-on combination product containing selamectin and sarolaner (Stronghold®Plus) versus fluralaner (Bravecto®) against induced infestations with Ixodes ricinus ticks on cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurden, Thomas; Borowski, Stasia; Wozniakiewicz, Magda; King, Vickie; Fourie, Josephus; Liebenberg, Julian

    2017-06-29

    Ticks are increasingly reported on cats worldwide, with Ixodes ricinus being a relevant species across Europe and in near by areas of North Africa and the Middle East. Yet there are few acaracidal products with proven efficacy approved for use in cats. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of a new spot-on formulation containing selamectin and sarolaner with a topical application of fluralaner (Bravecto®) against Ixodes ricinus ticks on cats. To that end, twenty-four (24) cats were randomly allocated to one of three treatment groups. The cats in the control group remained untreated. Cats in group 2 were treated with selamectin/sarolaner (Stronghold®Plus; Zoetis) at the minimum recommended dose of 1.0 mg/kg sarolaner and 6.0 mg/kg selamectin on Days 0, 30 and 60. The cats in group 3 received a fluralaner treatment (Bravecto®spot-on solution for cats, MSD) at the minimum recommended dose of 40.0 mg/kg on Day 0. Cats were infested with 50 (± 4) viable, adult, unfed I. ricinus ticks on Days 26, 54, 82 and 89 and ticks were removed for counting 48 h (± 2 h) later. Three monthly treatments with selamectin/sarolaner provided high and consistent efficacy against I. ricinus for the entire duration of the study period. In contrast, the efficacy of fluralaner declined in the second month after treatment and was below the efficacy threshold of 90% on Days 56, 84 and 91. The percentage efficacy against I. ricinus was numerically higher in the selemectin/sarolaner treated group than in the fluralaner-treated group on Days 56, 84 and 91. Furthermore, greasiness and spiking of the hair, as well as white deposits were frequently observed in the fluralaner-treated cats. The results of the present study confirm the high and consistent efficacy of a new spot-on combination product containing selamectin and sarolaner against I. ricinus in cats, and indicate a decline in fluralaner efficacy during the 91 day period after treatment.

  12. Circumstantial evidence for an increase in the total number and activity of borrelia-infected ixodes ricinus in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sprong Hein

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Between 1994 and 2009, a threefold increase has been observed in consultations of general practitioners for tick bites and Lyme disease in The Netherlands. The objective of this study was to determine whether an increase in the number of questing ticks infected with B. burgdorferi sensu lato is a potential cause of the rise in Lyme disease incidence. Methods Historic data on land usage, temperature and wildlife populations were collected and analyzed together with data from two longitudinal field studies on density of questing ticks. Effective population sizes of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. were calculated. Results Long-term trend analyses indicated that the length of the annual tick questing season increased as well as the surface area of tick-suitable habitats in The Netherlands. The overall abundances of feeding and reproductive hosts also increased. Mathematical analysis of the data from the field studies demonstrated an increase in mean densities/activities of questing ticks, particularly of larvae between 2006 and 2009. No increase in infection rate of ticks with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was found. Population genetic analysis of the collected Borrelia species points to an increase in B. afzelii and B. garinii populations. Conclusions Together, these findings indicate an increase in the total number of Borrelia-infected ticks, providing circumstantial evidence for an increase in the risk of acquiring a bite of a tick infected with B. burgdorferi s.l. Due to the high spatiotemporal variation of tick densities/activities, long-term longitudinal studies on population dynamics of I. ricinus are necessary to observe significant trends.

  13. Comparison of the toxic effect of pyrethroids on [i]Ixodes ricinus[/i] and Dermacentor reticulatus females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Buczek

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available introduction. Despite the increased rates of infestations with[i] I. ricinus (Ir[/i] and [i]D. reticulatus (Dr[/i] ticks observed over the last decade, no effective control methods have been developed so far. The resent study was focused on assessment of the action of pyrethroids on these both tick species. materials and method. The different doses of four pyrethroids, i.e. deltamethrin – D (K-Othrine, permethrin – P (Copex WP, cypermethrin – C (Kordon 10WP, and alphacypermethrin – AC (Alfasekt 5SC were tested. The LD50 for each tested compound was also determined for both tick species. Unengorged and engorged (maintained on rabbit skin tick females were sprayed with 20ml of 0.01563–0.50% solutions of the tested preparations. results. The investigations showed that sensitivity of Ir and Dr to the tested pyrethroids, but the effects exerted by the different doses varied between both tick species and between engorged and unengorged females in these species. The strongest toxic effect on unengorged and engorged Ir and Dr females was exerted by D, whereas the effect of AC was weaker. The LD 50 (in µg/1 g b.w. of D, AC, C, and P for unengorged Ir and Dr females was, respectively, 55.4 and 25.5, 105.2 and 48.5, 225.9 and 197.7, and 553.8 and 380.8. In the case of engorged Ir and Dr females, the LD50 of AC, D, C, and P reached a value of 0.9453 and 0.2310, 1.0428 and 1.3533, 3.489 and 6.5662, and 8.3955 and 7.3940, respectively. conclusions. The differences between the effects of the tested pyrethroids and their different doses on Ir and Dr highlight the necessity for development of a strategy for control of the tick species in different regions, based on investigations of their sensitivity to chemical compounds.

  14. The effect of water and shampooing on the efficacy of fluralaner spot-on solution against Ixodes ricinus and Ctenocephalides felis infestations in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taenzler, Janina; Gale, Boyd; Zschiesche, Eva; Roepke, Rainer K A; Heckeroth, Anja R

    2016-05-31

    Fluralaner spot-on solution provides immediate and persistent efficacy against tick and flea infestations in dogs and cats for 12-weeks following topical administration. The active ingredient fluralaner is distributed systemically following transdermal absorption. Therefore, this study tested the hypothesis whether water-immersion or shampooing of dogs following administration of fluralaner spot-on solution has an impact on subsequent tick and flea efficacy. Thirty-two Beagle dogs were allocated to four study groups of 8 dogs each. On day 0, dogs in the 2 treatment groups received topical administration of fluralaner (Bravecto™ spot-on solution) according to label instructions. Dogs in the 2 corresponding control groups remained untreated. On days 3, 21, 49, and 77 dogs in one treatment group and control group were water-immersed for 2-5 min, while dogs in the other treatment group and control group were shampooed 6-8 min with a commercial foaming micro-emulsion, unscented product. On days 4, 28, 56, and 84 all dogs were co-infested with 50 ± 2 female and 10 ± 2 male Ixodes ricinus and 100 ± 4 Ctenocephalides felis, with tick and flea removal and counts 48 ± 2 h post-infestation. Efficacy against ticks and fleas was calculated for each assessment time point. No treatment-related adverse event was observed in any of the 16 dogs treated with fluralaner spot-on solution during the study. Efficacy against ticks at each assessment time point was between 99.7 and 100 % in the water-immersed group and between 99.2 and 100 % in the shampooed group. Efficacy against fleas was 100 % at each assessment time point as well in the water-immersed as the shampooed group. Tick and flea reduction in both treatment groups was significant at all assessment time points (p fluralaner spot-on solution had an impact on the excellent tick and flea efficacy over the 12-week recommended re-treatment interval.

  15. Approaches for Reverse Line Blot-Based Detection of Microbial Pathogens in Ixodes ricinus Ticks Collected in Austria and Impact of the Chosen Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schötta, Anna-Margarita; Wijnveld, Michiel; Stockinger, Hannes; Stanek, Gerold

    2017-07-01

    Ticks transmit a large number of pathogens capable of causing human disease. In this study, the PCR-reverse line blot (RLB) method was used to screen for pathogens in a total of 554 Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from all provinces of Austria. These pathogens belong to the genera Borrelia , Rickettsiae , Anaplasma / Ehrlichia (including " Candidatus Neoehrlichia"), Babesia , and Coxiella The pathogens with the highest detected prevalence were spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, in 142 ticks (25.6%). Borrelia afzelii (80/142) was the most frequently detected species, followed by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (38/142) and Borrelia valaisiana (36/142). Borrelia garinii/Borrelia bavariensis , Borrelia lusitaniae , and Borrelia spielmanii were found in 28 ticks, 5 ticks, and 1 tick, respectively. Rickettsia spp. were detected in 93 ticks (16.8%): R. helvetica (39/93), R. raoultii (38/93), R. monacensis (2/93), and R. slovaca (1/93). Thirteen Rickettsia samples remain uncharacterized. " Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis," Babesia spp. ( B. venatorum , B. divergens , B. microti ), and Anaplasma phagocytophilum were found in 4.5%, 2.7%, and 0.7%, respectively. Coxiella burnetii was not detected. Multiple microorganisms were detected in 40 ticks (7.2%), and the cooccurrence of Babesia spp. and " Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis" showed a significant positive correlation. We also compared different PCR-RLBs for detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Rickettsia spp. and showed that different detection approaches provide highly diverse results, indicating that analysis of environmental samples remains challenging. IMPORTANCE This study determined the wide spectrum of tick-borne bacterial and protozoal pathogens that can be encountered in Austria. Surveillance of (putative) pathogenic microorganisms occurring in the environment is of medical importance, especially when those agents can be transmitted by ticks and cause disease. The

  16. Seasonality of Ixodes ricinus Ticks on Vegetation and on Rodents and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato Genospecies Diversity in Two Lyme Borreliosis–Endemic Areas in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, David; Kneubühler, Yvan; Rais, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We compared Ixodes ricinus questing density, the infestation of rodents by immature stages, and the diversity of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl) in questing ticks and ticks collected from rodents in two Lyme borreliosis (LB)-endemic areas in Switzerland (Portes-Rouges [PR] and Staatswald [SW]) from 2003 to 2005. There were variations in the seasonal pattern of questing tick densities among years. Questing nymphs were globally more abundant at PR than at SW, but the proportion of rodents infested by immature ticks was similar (59.4% and 61%, respectively). Questing tick activity lasted from February to November with a strong decline in June. The seasonal pattern of ticks infesting rodents was different. Ticks infested rodents without decline in summer, suggesting that the risk of being bitten by ticks remains high during the summer. Rodents from SW showed the highest infestation levels (10±21.6 for larvae and 0.54±1.65 for nymphs). The proportion of rodents infested simultaneously by larvae and nymphs (co-feeding ticks) was higher at SW (28%) than at PR (11%). Apodemus flavicollis was the species the most frequently infested by co-feeding ticks, and Myodes glareolus was the most infective rodent species as measured by xenodiagnosis. At PR, the prevalence of B. burgdorferi sl in questing ticks was higher (17.8% for nymphs and 32.4% for adults) than at SW (10.4% for nymphs and 24.8% for adults), with B. afzelii as the dominant species, but B. garinii, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, and B. valaisiana were also detected. Rodents transmitted only B. afzelii (at PR and at SW) and B. bavariensis (at SW) to ticks, and no mixed infection by additional genospecies was observed in co-feeding ticks. This implies that co-feeding transmission does not contribute to genospecies diversity. However, persistent infections in rodents and co-feeding transmission contribute to the perpetuation of B. afzelii in nature. PMID:22607074

  17. Occurrence and identification of risk areas of Ixodes ricinus-borne pathogens: a cost-effectiveness analysis in north-eastern Italy

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    Capelli Gioia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ixodes ricinus, a competent vector of several pathogens, is the tick species most frequently reported to bite humans in Europe. The majority of human cases of Lyme borreliosis (LB and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE occur in the north-eastern region of Italy. The aims of this study were to detect the occurrence of endemic and emergent pathogens in north-eastern Italy using adult tick screening, and to identify areas at risk of pathogen transmission. Based on our results, different strategies for tick collection and pathogen screening and their relative costs were evaluated and discussed. Methods From 2006 to 2008 adult ticks were collected in 31 sites and molecularly screened for the detection of pathogens previously reported in the same area (i.e., LB agents, TBE virus, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp., "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis". Based on the results of this survey, three sampling strategies were evaluated a-posteriori, and the impact of each strategy on the final results and the overall cost reductions were analyzed. The strategies were as follows: tick collection throughout the year and testing of female ticks only (strategy A; collection from April to June and testing of all adult ticks (strategy B; collection from April to June and testing of female ticks only (strategy C. Results Eleven pathogens were detected in 77 out of 193 ticks collected in 14 sites. The most common microorganisms detected were Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (17.6%, Rickettsia helvetica (13.1%, and "Ca. N. mikurensis" (10.5%. Within the B. burgdorferi complex, four genotypes (i.e., B. valaisiana, B. garinii, B. afzelii, and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto were found. Less prevalent pathogens included R. monacensis (3.7%, TBE virus (2.1%, A. phagocytophilum (1.5%, Bartonella spp. (1%, and Babesia EU1 (0.5%. Co-infections by more than one pathogen were diagnosed in 22% of infected ticks. The prevalences of infection

  18. Assessing the abundance, seasonal questing activity, and Borrelia and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) prevalence of Ixodes ricinus ticks in a Lyme borreliosis endemic area in Southwest Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sormunen, Jani J; Klemola, Tero; Vesterinen, Eero J; Vuorinen, Ilppo; Hytönen, Jukka; Hänninen, Jari; Ruohomäki, Kai; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E; Tonteri, Elina; Penttinen, Ritva

    2016-02-01

    Studies have revealed that Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) have become more abundant and their geographical distribution extended northwards in some Nordic countries during the past few decades. However, ecological data of tick populations in Finland are sparse. In the current study, I. ricinus abundance, seasonal questing activity, and their Borrelia spp. and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) prevalence were evaluated in a Lyme borreliosis endemic area in Southwest Finland, Seili Island, where a previous study mapping tick densities was conducted 12 years earlier. A total of 1940 ticks were collected from five different biotopes by cloth dragging during May-September 2012. The overall tick density observed was 5.2 ticks/100m(2) for nymphs and adults. Seasonal questing activity of ticks differed between biotopes and life stages: bimodal occurrences were observed especially for nymphal and adult ticks in forested biotopes, while larvae in pastures exhibited mostly unimodal occurrence. Prevalence of Borrelia and TBEV in ticks was evaluated using conventional and real-time PCR. All samples were negative for TBEV. Borrelia prevalence was 25.0% for adults (n=44) and the minimum infection rate (MIR) 5.6% for pooled nymph samples (191 samples, 1-14 individuals per sample; 30/191 positive). No Borrelia were detected in pooled larval samples (63 samples, 1-139 individuals per sample). Five species of Borrelia were identified from the samples: B. afzelii, B. burgdorferi s.s., B. garinii, B. valaisiana and B. miyamotoi. In Finland, B. valaisiana and B. miyamotoi have previously been reported from the Åland Islands but not from the mainland or inner archipelago. The results of the present study suggest an increase in I. ricinus abundance on the island. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Do the ticks of birds at an important migratory hotspot reflect the seasonal dynamics of Ixodes ricinus at the migration initiation site? A case study in the Danube Delta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila D Sándor

    Full Text Available Migratory birds play important roles as distributors of ticks within and between continents. In the Old World, the most important migratory route of birds links Asia, Europe and Africa. During their migration, birds use various stopover sites, where they feed and rest and where ticks may attach or detach, creating new natural foci for vector-borne diseases. Danube Delta is one of the most important migration hotspots and so far no studies were focused on ticks of migratory birds herein. The aim of the present study was to assess the species diversity and seasonal dynamics of ticks parasitizing migratory birds in Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve. Migratory birds were trapped on Grindul Lupilor (44°41'N; 28°56'E using mist nets during 4 migratory seasons (2 spring and 2 autumn in 2011 and 2012. From each bird, all the ticks were collected and identified based on morphological features. Epidemiological parameters (prevalence, mean abundance, mean intensity were calculated and all data were analysed statistically based on the season (spring and autumn, regional status of birds (migrants and breeding and foraging behaviour (ground feeders, reed-bed feeders, foliage feeders. A total of 1434 birds (46 species were captured. Ticks were found on 94 birds (10 species. Significantly more migratory birds hosted ticks, compared to resident birds. The 400 collected ticks belonged to four species: Ixodes ricinus (92.25%, I. arboricola (6.25%, I. redikorzevi (1.00% and Haemaphysalis punctata (0.50%. A higher prevalence was found for I. ricinus in spring, with higher prevalence of nymphs in this season, while larvae occurred with the same prevalence in both seasons. Larval intensity was higher during spring and nymphs were more abundant during autumn. The seasonal differences in our study may be related not to the local seasonal dynamics of ticks, but on the seasonal dynamics at the site of migration initiation.

  20. Infections and mixed infections with the selected species of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in eastern Poland: a significant increase in the course of 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik-Fatla, Angelina; Zając, Violetta; Sawczyn, Anna; Sroka, Jacek; Cisak, Ewa; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2016-02-01

    In the years 2008-2009 and 2013-2014, 1620 and 1500 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks, respectively, were examined on the territory of the Lublin province (eastern Poland). The presence of three pathogenic species causing Lyme disease was investigated: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. afzelii and B. garinii. The proportion of I. ricinus ticks infected with B. burgdorferi sensu lato showed a highly significant increase between 2008-2009 and 2013-2014, from 6.0 to 15.3%. A significant increase was noted with regard to all types of infections with individual species: single (4.7-7.8%), dual (1.2-6.6%), and triple (0.1-0.9%). When expressed as the percent of all infections, the frequency of mixed infections increased from 21.4 to 49.2%. Statistical analysis performed with two methods (by calculating of odds ratios and by Fisher's exact test) showed that the frequencies of mixed infections in most cases proved to be significantly greater than expected. The strongest associations were found between B. burgdorferi s. s. and B. afzelii, and between B. burgdorferi s. s. and B. garinii. They appeared to be highly significant (P < 0.0001) when assessed by two methods for 2013-2014, and for the sum of findings for both time periods. The proportions of the individual species detected in the mixed infections in 2008-2009 and 2013-2014 revealed highly significant increases for B. burgdorferi s. s. and B. garinii (from 33.9 to 71.1% and from 18.2 to 82.9%, respectively), and an insignificant decrease for B. afzelii (from 51.4 to 41.6%). The proportions of the species B. burgdorferi s. s., B. afzelii and B. garinii (with combined single and mixed infections) for 2008-2009 and 2013-2014 were: 51.2/44.0 %, 30.6/24.9% and 18.2/31.1%, respectively. In conclusion, our results seem to indicate the detrimental trend of the increasing infection rate of I. ricinus ticks with B. burgdorferi s. l. in eastern Poland, and dramatic enhancement of mixed infections with individual species, which

  1. Comparative Speed of Kill, Repellent (anti-feeding) and Acaricidal Efficacy of an Imidacloprid/Flumethrin Collar (Seresto®) and a Fipronil/(S)-Methoprene/Eprinomectin/Praziquantel Spot-on (Broadline®) against Ixodes ricinus (Linné, 1758) on Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourie, Josephus J; Horak, Ivan G; de Vos, Christa; Deuster, Katrin; Schunack, Bettina

    2015-08-01

    Speed of kill, repellent (anti-feeding) and acaricidal efficacy of an imidacloprid 10 % (w/w) /flumethrin 4.5 % (w/w) collar (Seresto(®), Bayer) and a spot-on formulation of fipronil 8.3 % (w/v) /(S)-methoprene 10 % (w/v) /eprinomectin 0.4 % (w/v) /praziquantel 8.3 % (w/v) (Broadline(®), Merial) against artificiallyinduced infestations with Ixodes ricinus on cats, were assessed in a parallel group design, randomised, controlled study. Twenty-four cats were included and randomly allocated to treatment groups or a non-treated control group. Starting on Day (D) 7 after treatment until D28, cats were each infested with 50 I. ricinus at weekly intervals. Ticks were counted in situ on the cats at 6, 12 and 24 h and upon removal 48 h after each infestation. Based on arithmetic means, Seresto(®) proved to be 100 % effective against adult I. ricinus at all assessment times (6, 12, 24 and 48 h after infestation) throughout the month-long study. Broadline(®) was 0 % to 16.7 % effective at 6 h, 26.8 % to 50.0 % effective at 12 h, while at 24 h after infestation efficacy peaked at 81.5 % on D15 declining to 31.5 % on D29. Based on the 48 h tick counts, the efficacy of Broadline(®) peaked at 100 % on D16 after treatment and decreased to 83.2 % by D30. The Seresto(®) collar provided significantly faster speed of kill and better persistent acaricidal effectiveness against Ixodes ricinus on cats compared to Broadline(®) spot-on. The additional repellent (anti-feeding) effect of Seresto(®) prevents parasites from taking a blood meal and thereby reduces the risk of vector-borne disease pathogen transmission.

  2. Host-Seeking Behavior in the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernard R. Lewis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The reemergence of the bed bug, Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, has recently spawned a frenzy of public, media, and academic attention. In response to the growing rate of infestation, considerable work has been focused on identifying the various host cues utilized by the bed bug in search of a meal. Most of these behavioral studies examine movement within a confined environment, such as a Petri dish. This has prevented a more complete understanding of the insect’s host-seeking process. This work describes a novel method for studying host-seeking behavior, using various movement parameters, in a time-lapse photography system. With the use of human breath as an attractant, we qualitatively and quantitatively assessed how bed bugs navigate their environment between its harborage and the host. Levels of behavioral activity varied dramatically between bed bugs in the presence and absence of host odor. Bed bugs demonstrated not simply activation, but attraction to the chemical components of breath. Localized, stop-start host-seeking behavior or alternating periods of movement and pause were observed among bed bugs placed in the environment void of human breath, while those exposed to human breath demonstrated long range, stop-start host-seeking behavior. A more comprehensive understanding of bed bug host-seeking can lead to the development of traps and monitors that account for unique subtleties in their behavior. The time-lapse photography system uses a large, artificial environment and could also be employed to study other aspects of the insect’s behavioral patterns.

  3. Identification of Ixodes ricinus blood meals using an automated protocol with high resolution melting analysis (HRMA) reveals the importance of domestic dogs as larval tick hosts in Italian alpine forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collini, Margherita; Albonico, Francesca; Rosà, Roberto; Tagliapietra, Valentina; Arnoldi, Daniele; Conterno, Lorenza; Rossi, Chiara; Mortarino, Michele; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Hauffe, Heidi Christine

    2016-12-12

    In Europe, Ixodes ricinus L. is the main vector of a variety of zoonotic pathogens, acquired through blood meals taken once per stage from a vertebrate host. Defining the main tick hosts in a given area is important for planning public health interventions; however, until recently, no robust molecular methods existed for blood meal identification from questing ticks. Here we improved the time- and cost-effectiveness of an HRMA protocol for blood meal analysis and used it to identify blood meal sources of sheep tick larvae from Italian alpine forests. Nine hundred questing nymphs were collected using blanket-dragging in 18 extensive forests and 12 forest patches close to rural villages in the Province of Trento. Total DNA was either extracted manually, with the QIAamp DNA Investigator kit, or automatically using the KingFisher™ Flex Magnetic Particle Processors (KingFisher Cell and Tissue DNA Kit). Host DNA was amplified with six independent host group real-time PCR reactions and identified by means of HRMA. Statistical analyses were performed in R to assess the variables important for achieving successful identification and to compare host use in the two types of forest. Automating DNA extraction improved time- and cost-effectiveness of the HRMA protocol, but identification success fell to 22.4% (KingFisher™) from 55.1% (QIAamp), with larval hosts identified in 215 of 848 questing nymphs; 23 mixed blood meals were noted. However, the list of hosts targeted by our primer sets was extended, improving the potential of the method. Host identification to species or genus level was possible for 137 and 102 blood meals, respectively. The most common hosts were Rodentia (28.9%) and, unexpectedly, Carnivora (28.4%), with domestic dogs accounting for 21.3% of all larval blood meals. Overall, Cetartiodactyla species fed 17.2% of larvae. Passeriformes (14.6%) fed a significantly higher proportion of larvae in forest patches (22.3%) than in extensive forest (9.6%), while

  4. Notas de ixodologia: III - conformação de Ixodes aragãoi Fonseca, 1935, de Ixodes amarali Fonseca, 1935, e lista das espécies do gênero Ixodes que ocorrem no Brasil (Acari, Ixodidae

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    Henrique Aragão

    1952-03-01

    Full Text Available After comparison of the types of Ixodes ricinus aragãoi Fonseca, 1935, with a lot of Ixodes affinis Neumann, 1899, kindly loaned by Dr. Kohls, it was observed that both species differ by the aspect of the dorsal scutm, no large punctations being in the posterior border in the Brazilian material. Therefore is FONSECA'S species maintened as Ixodes aragãoi Fonseca, 1935. Ixodes amarali Fonseca, 1935 was reexamined and confirmed as a valid species. A list of Brazilian species of the genus Ixodes studied by the authors is presented.

  5. A spatial model of mosquito host-seeking behavior.

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    Bree Cummins

    Full Text Available Mosquito host-seeking behavior and heterogeneity in host distribution are important factors in predicting the transmission dynamics of mosquito-borne infections such as dengue fever, malaria, chikungunya, and West Nile virus. We develop and analyze a new mathematical model to describe the effect of spatial heterogeneity on the contact rate between mosquito vectors and hosts. The model includes odor plumes generated by spatially distributed hosts, wind velocity, and mosquito behavior based on both the prevailing wind and the odor plume. On a spatial scale of meters and a time scale of minutes, we compare the effectiveness of different plume-finding and plume-tracking strategies that mosquitoes could use to locate a host. The results show that two different models of chemotaxis are capable of producing comparable results given appropriate parameter choices and that host finding is optimized by a strategy of flying across the wind until the odor plume is intercepted. We also assess the impact of changing the level of host aggregation on mosquito host-finding success near the end of the host-seeking flight. When clusters of hosts are more tightly associated on smaller patches, the odor plume is narrower and the biting rate per host is decreased. For two host groups of unequal number but equal spatial density, the biting rate per host is lower in the group with more individuals, indicative of an attack abatement effect of host aggregation. We discuss how this approach could assist parameter choices in compartmental models that do not explicitly model the spatial arrangement of individuals and how the model could address larger spatial scales and other probability models for mosquito behavior, such as Lévy distributions.

  6. Microtomography of the Baltic amber tick Ixodes succineus reveals affinities with the modern Asian disease vector Ixodes ovatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Jason A; Apanaskevich, Dmitry A; Lehmann, Jens; Hoffmann, René; Fusseis, Florian; Ehlke, Moritz; Zachow, Stefan; Xiao, Xianghui

    2016-10-10

    Fossil ticks are extremely rare and Ixodes succineus Weidner, 1964 from Eocene (ca. 44-49 Ma) Baltic amber is one of the oldest examples of a living hard tick genus (Ixodida: Ixodidae). Previous work suggested it was most closely related to the modern and widespread European sheep tick Ixodes ricinus (Linneaus, 1758). Restudy using phase contrast synchrotron x-ray tomography yielded images of exceptional quality. These confirm the fossil's referral to Ixodes Latreille, 1795, but the characters resolved here suggest instead affinities with the Asian subgenus Partipalpiger Hoogstraal et al., 1973 and its single living (and medically significant) species Ixodes ovatus Neumann, 1899. We redescribe the amber fossil here as Ixodes (Partipalpiger) succineus. Our data suggest that Ixodes ricinus is unlikely to be directly derived from Weidner's amber species, but instead reveals that the Partipalpiger lineage was originally more widely distributed across the northern hemisphere. The closeness of Ixodes (P.) succineus to a living vector of a wide range of pathogens offers the potential to correlate its spatial and temporal position (northern Europe, nearly 50 million years ago) with the estimated origination dates of various tick-borne diseases.

  7. Microtomography of the Baltic amber tick Ixodes succineus reveals affinities with the modern Asian disease vector Ixodes ovatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunlop, Jason A.; Apanaskevich, Dmitry A.; Lehmann, Jens; Hoffmann, René; Fusseis, Florian; Ehlke, Moritz; Zachow, Stefan; Xiao, Xianghui

    2016-10-10

    Background: Fossil ticks are extremely rare, whereby Ixodes succineus Weidner, 1964 from Eocene (ca. 44–49 Ma) Baltic amber is one of the oldest examples of a living hard tick genus (Ixodida: Ixodidae). Previous work suggested it was most closely related to the modern and widespread European sheep tick Ixodes ricinus (Linneaus, 1758). Results: Restudy using phase contrast synchrotron x-ray tomography yielded images of exceptional quality. These confirm the fossil’s referral to Ixodes Latreille, 1795, but the characters resolved here suggest instead affinities with the Asian subgenus Partipalpiger Hoogstraal et al., 1973 and its single living (and medically significant) species Ixodes ovatus Neumann, 1899. We redescribe the amber fossil here as Ixodes (Partipalpiger) succineus. Conclusions: Our data suggest that Ixodes ricinus is unlikely to be directly derived from Weidner’s amber species, but instead reveals that the Partipalpiger lineage was originally more widely distributed across the northern hemisphere. The closeness of Ixodes (P.) succineus to a living vector of a wide range of pathogens offers the potential to correlate its spatial and temporal position (northern Europe, nearly 50 million years ago) with the estimated origination dates of various tick-borne diseases.

  8. The ecology of Lyme borreliosis risk : interactions between lxodes ricinus, rodents and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijvendijk, van Gilian

    2016-01-01

    The sheep tick (Ixodes ricinus) is widespread throughout Europe and can transmit Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), which can cause Lyme borreliosis and B. miyamotoi, the agent of Borrelia miyamotoi disease in humans. Borrelia afzelii is the most common

  9. Inhibition of host-seeking response and olfactory responsiveness in Anopheles gambiae following blood feeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, W.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Adam, W.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of a single blood meal on the host-seeking response of Anopheles gambiae was investigated in the laboratory using a behavioural bioassay, whereas possible changes at the chemosensory level were monitored using electroantennogram recording (EAG). To avoid the possible confounding effect of

  10. Efficacy of Tissue Tolerable Plasma (TTP against Ixodes ricinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bender, Claudia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available [english] The efficacy of Tissue Tolerable Plasma (TTP against ticks was tested, as data from the literature has demonstrated its efficacy against other acari.The study was carried out by using the KINPen09 (Argon as carrier gas on (n=24. Treatment times of 1 and 3 minutes led to a reversible inactivation of the ticks. After 5 min of treatment, they died.Thanks to the acaricidal effect of TPP, a new treatment strategy using the KINPen09 for tick-infested pets is now available.

  11. The extensible alloscutal cuticle of the tick, Ixodes ricinus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Svend Olav; Roepstorff, Peter

    2005-01-01

    the cuticular structure during the extensive distension occurring during a blood meal. Small amounts of 3-monochlorotyrosine and 3,5-dichlorotyrosine were obtained from the distended tick cuticle, corresponding to chlorination of between 0.5% and 1.5% of the tyrosine residues. It is suggested...... of the insoluble fraction are fluorescent when exposed to ultraviolet light, and the fluorescence corresponds in excitation and emission maxima to the fluorescence of the rubber-like arthropodan protein, resilin, and to the amino acid dityrosine. Small amounts of dityrosine were obtained from ticks in the early...... phase of a blood meal when the cuticle weighs less than 4 mg; increasing amounts were obtained from animals in the initial period of feeding, during which the cuticular weight increases from 4 to 11 mg, whereas little increase in dityrosine content was observed during the final period of engorgement...

  12. Infestation of urban populations of the Northern white-breasted hedgehog, Erinaceus roumanicus, by Ixodes spp. ticks in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziemian, S; Michalik, J; Pi Łacińska, B; Bialik, S; Sikora, B; Zwolak, R

    2014-12-01

    Infestation by the nest-dwelling Ixodes hexagonus Leach and the exophilic Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus) (Ixodida: Ixodidae) on the Northern white-breasted hedgehog, Erinaceus roumanicus (Erinaceomorpha: Erinaceidae), was investigated during a 4-year study in residential areas of the city of Poznań, west-central Poland. Of 341 hedgehogs, 303 (88.9%) hosted 10 061 Ixodes spp. ticks encompassing all parasitic life stages (larvae, nymphs, females). Ixodes hexagonus accounted for 73% and I. ricinus for 27% of the collected ticks. Male hedgehogs carried significantly higher tick burdens than females. Analyses of seasonal prevalence and abundance of I. hexagonus revealed relatively stable levels of infestation of all parasitic stages, with a modest summer peak in tick abundance noted only on male hosts. By contrast, I. ricinus females and nymphs peaked in spring and declined steadily thereafter in summer and autumn, whereas the less abundant larvae peaked in summer. This is the first longterm study to evaluate the seasonal dynamics of both tick species on populations of wild hedgehogs inhabiting urban residential areas. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.

  13. Isolation of Tacaribe virus, a Caribbean arenavirus, from host-seeking Amblyomma americanum ticks in Florida.

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    Katherine A Sayler

    Full Text Available Arenaviridae are a family of single stranded RNA viruses of mammals and boid snakes. Twenty-nine distinct mammalian arenaviruses have been identified, many of which cause severe hemorrhagic disease in humans, particularly in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, and in Central and South America. Humans typically become infected with an arenavirus through contact with excreta from infected rodents. Tacaribe virus (TCRV is an arenavirus that was first isolated from bats and mosquitoes during a rabies surveillance survey conducted in Trinidad from 1956 to 1958. Tacaribe virus is unusual because it has never been associated with a rodent host and since that one time isolation, the virus has not been isolated from any vertebrate or invertebrate hosts. We report the re-isolation of the virus from a pool of 100 host-seeking Amblyomma americanum (lone star ticks collected in a Florida state park in 2012. TCRV was isolated in two cell lines and its complete genome was sequenced. The tick-derived isolate is nearly identical to the only remaining isolate from Trinidad (TRVL-11573, with 99.6% nucleotide identity across the genome. A quantitative RT-PCR assay was developed to test for viral RNA in host-seeking ticks collected from 3 Florida state parks. Virus RNA was detected in 56/500 (11.2% of surveyed ticks. As this virus was isolated from ticks that parasitize humans, the ability of the tick to transmit the virus to people should be evaluated. Furthermore, reservoir hosts for the virus need to be identified in order to develop risk assessment models of human infection.

  14. Isolation of Tacaribe virus, a Caribbean arenavirus, from host-seeking Amblyomma americanum ticks in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayler, Katherine A; Barbet, Anthony F; Chamberlain, Casey; Clapp, William L; Alleman, Rick; Loeb, Julia C; Lednicky, John A

    2014-01-01

    Arenaviridae are a family of single stranded RNA viruses of mammals and boid snakes. Twenty-nine distinct mammalian arenaviruses have been identified, many of which cause severe hemorrhagic disease in humans, particularly in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, and in Central and South America. Humans typically become infected with an arenavirus through contact with excreta from infected rodents. Tacaribe virus (TCRV) is an arenavirus that was first isolated from bats and mosquitoes during a rabies surveillance survey conducted in Trinidad from 1956 to 1958. Tacaribe virus is unusual because it has never been associated with a rodent host and since that one time isolation, the virus has not been isolated from any vertebrate or invertebrate hosts. We report the re-isolation of the virus from a pool of 100 host-seeking Amblyomma americanum (lone star ticks) collected in a Florida state park in 2012. TCRV was isolated in two cell lines and its complete genome was sequenced. The tick-derived isolate is nearly identical to the only remaining isolate from Trinidad (TRVL-11573), with 99.6% nucleotide identity across the genome. A quantitative RT-PCR assay was developed to test for viral RNA in host-seeking ticks collected from 3 Florida state parks. Virus RNA was detected in 56/500 (11.2%) of surveyed ticks. As this virus was isolated from ticks that parasitize humans, the ability of the tick to transmit the virus to people should be evaluated. Furthermore, reservoir hosts for the virus need to be identified in order to develop risk assessment models of human infection.

  15. Linkages of Weather and Climate With Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae), Enzootic Transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi, and Lyme Disease in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Rebecca J.; Eisen, Lars; Ogden, Nicholas H.; Beard, Charles B.

    2016-01-01

    Lyme disease has increased both in incidence and geographic extent in the United States and Canada over the past two decades. One of the underlying causes is changes during the same time period in the distribution and abundance of the primary vectors: Ixodes scapularis Say and Ixodes pacificus Cooley and Kohls in eastern and western North America, respectively. Aside from short periods of time when they are feeding on hosts, these ticks exist in the environment where temperature and relative humidity directly affect their development, survival, and host-seeking behavior. Other important factors that strongly influence tick abundance as well as the proportion of ticks infected with the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, include the abundance of hosts for the ticks and the capacity of tick hosts to serve as B. burgdorferi reservoirs. Here, we explore the linkages between climate variation and: 1) duration of the seasonal period and the timing of peak activity; 2) geographic tick distributions and local abundance; 3) enzootic B. burgdorferi transmission cycles; and 4) Lyme disease cases. We conclude that meteorological variables are most influential in determining host-seeking phenology and development, but, while remaining important cofactors, additional variables become critical when exploring geographic distribution and local abundance of ticks, enzootic transmission of B. burgdorferi, and Lyme disease case occurrence. Finally, we review climate change-driven projections for future impact on vector ticks and Lyme disease and discuss knowledge gaps and research needs. PMID:26681789

  16. Linkages of Weather and Climate With Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae), Enzootic Transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi, and Lyme Disease in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Rebecca J; Eisen, Lars; Ogden, Nicholas H; Beard, Charles B

    2016-03-01

    Lyme disease has increased both in incidence and geographic extent in the United States and Canada over the past two decades. One of the underlying causes is changes during the same time period in the distribution and abundance of the primary vectors: Ixodes scapularis Say and Ixodes pacificus Cooley and Kohls in eastern and western North America, respectively. Aside from short periods of time when they are feeding on hosts, these ticks exist in the environment where temperature and relative humidity directly affect their development, survival, and host-seeking behavior. Other important factors that strongly influence tick abundance as well as the proportion of ticks infected with the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, include the abundance of hosts for the ticks and the capacity of tick hosts to serve as B. burgdorferi reservoirs. Here, we explore the linkages between climate variation and: 1) duration of the seasonal period and the timing of peak activity; 2) geographic tick distributions and local abundance; 3) enzootic B. burgdorferi transmission cycles; and 4) Lyme disease cases. We conclude that meteorological variables are most influential in determining host-seeking phenology and development, but, while remaining important cofactors, additional variables become critical when exploring geographic distribution and local abundance of ticks, enzootic transmission of B. burgdorferi, and Lyme disease case occurrence. Finally, we review climate change-driven projections for future impact on vector ticks and Lyme disease and discuss knowledge gaps and research needs.

  17. Host seeking parasitic nematodes use specific odors to assess host resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiocchi, Tiffany; Lee, Grant; Choe, Dong-Hwan; Dillman, Adler R

    2017-07-24

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are insect parasites used as biological control agents. Free-living infective juveniles (IJs) of EPNs employ host-seeking behaviors to locate suitable hosts for infection. We found that EPNs can differentiate between naïve and infected hosts, and that host attractiveness changes over time in a species-specific manner. We used solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to identify volatile chemical cues that may relay information about a potential host's infection status and resource availability. Among the chemicals identified from the headspace of infected hosts, 3-Methyl-2-buten-1-ol (prenol) and 3-Hydroxy-2-butanone (AMC) were selected for further behavioral assays due to their temporal correlation with the behavioral changes of IJs towards the infected hosts. Both compounds were repulsive to IJs of Steinernema glaseri and S. riobrave in a dose-dependent manner when applied on an agar substrate. Furthermore, the repulsive effects of prenol were maintained when co-presented with the uninfected host odors, overriding attraction to uninfected hosts. Prenol was attractive to dauers of some free-living nematodes and insect larvae. These data suggest that host-associated chemical cues may have several implications in EPN biology, not only as signals for avoidance and dispersal of conspecifics, but also as attractants for new potential hosts.

  18. The role of proboscis of the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles stephensi in host-seeking behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimura Aya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The proboscis is an essential head appendage in insects that processes gustatory code during food intake, particularly useful considering that blood-sucking arthropods routinely reach vessels under the host skin using this proboscis as a probe. Results Here, using an automated device able to quantify CO2-activated thermo (35°C-sensing behavior of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi, we uncovered that the protruding proboscis of mosquitoes contributes unexpectedly to host identification from a distance. Ablation experiments indicated that not only antennae and maxillary palps, but also proboscis were required for the identification of pseudo-thermo targets. Furthermore, the function of the proboscis during this behavior can be segregated from CO2 detection required to evoke mosquito activation, suggesting that the proboscis of mosquitoes divide the proboscis into a "thermo-antenna" in addition to a "thermo-probe". Conclusions Our findings support an emerging view with a possible role of proboscis as important equipment during host-seeking, and give us an insight into how these appendages likely evolved from a common origin in order to function as antenna organs.

  19. Host-seeking activity of bluetongue virus vectors: endo/exophagy and circadian rhythm of Culicoides in Western Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvina Viennet

    Full Text Available Feeding success of free-living hematophagous insects depends on their ability to be active when hosts are available and to reach places where hosts are accessible. When the hematophagous insect is a vector of pathogens, determining the components of host-seeking behavior is of primary interest for the assessment of transmission risk. Our aim was to describe endo/exophagy and circadian host-seeking activity of Palaearctic Culicoides species, which are major biting pests and arbovirus vectors, using drop traps and suction traps baited with four sheep, as bluetongue virus hosts. Collections were carried out in the field, a largely-open stable and an enclosed stable during six collection periods of 24 hours in April/May, in late June and in September/October 2010 in western France. A total of 986 Culicoides belonging to 13 species, mainly C. brunnicans and C. obsoletus, was collected on animal baits. Culicoides brunnicans was clearly exophagic, whereas C. obsoletus was able to enter stables. Culicoides brunnicans exhibited a bimodal pattern of host-seeking activity with peaks just after sunrise and sunset. Culicoides obsoletus was active before sunset in spring and autumn and after sunset in summer, thus illustrating influence of other parameters than light, especially temperature. Description of host-seeking behaviors allowed us to discuss control strategies for transmission of Culicoides-borne pathogens, such as bluetongue virus. However, practical vector-control recommendations are difficult to provide because of the variation in the degree of endophagy and time of host-seeking activity.

  20. Outdoor host seeking behaviour of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes following initiation of malaria vector control on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy Vamsi P

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indoor-based anti-vector interventions remain the preferred means of reducing risk of malaria transmission in malaria endemic areas around the world. Despite demonstrated success in reducing human-mosquito interactions, these methods are effective solely against endophilic vectors. It may be that outdoor locations serve as an important venue of host seeking by Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l. mosquitoes where indoor vector suppression measures are employed. This paper describes the host seeking activity of anopheline mosquito vectors in the Punta Europa region of Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea. In this area, An. gambiae sensu stricto (s.s. is the primary malaria vector. The goal of the paper is to evaluate the importance of An gambiae s.l. outdoor host seeking behaviour and discuss its implications for anti-vector interventions. Methods The venue and temporal characteristics of host seeking by anopheline vectors in a hyperendemic setting was evaluated using human landing collections conducted inside and outside homes in three villages during both the wet and dry seasons in 2007 and 2008. Additionally, five bi-monthly human landing collections were conducted throughout 2009. Collections were segregated hourly to provide a time distribution of host-seeking behaviour. Results Surprisingly high levels of outdoor biting by An. gambiae senso stricto and An. melas vectors were observed throughout the night, including during the early evening and morning hours when human hosts are often outdoors. As reported previously, An. gambiae s.s. is the primary malaria vector in the Punta Europa region, where it seeks hosts outdoors at least as much as it does indoors. Further, approximately 40% of An. gambiae s.l. are feeding at times when people are often outdoors, where they are not protected by IRS or LLINs. Repeated sampling over two consecutive dry-wet season cycles indicates that this result is independent of seasonality. Conclusions

  1. Synergism between ammonia, lactic acid and carboxylic acids as kairomones in the host-seeking behaviour of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, R.C.; Qiu, Y.T.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Takken, W.

    2005-01-01

    Host odours play a major role in the orientation and host location of blood-feeding mosquitoes. Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto, which is the most important malaria vector in Africa, is a highly anthropophilic mosquito species, and the host-seeking behaviour of the females of this mosquito is

  2. Evaluation of the SELECT Tick Control System (TCS), a Host-Targeted Bait Box, to Reduce Exposure to Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in a Lyme Disease Endemic Area of New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Terry L; Jordan, Robert A; Williams, Martin; Dolan, Marc C

    2017-07-01

    We describe a 2-yr trial to evaluate the ability of SELECT Tick Control System (TCS) host-targeted bait boxes to reduce numbers of host-seeking Ixodes scapularis nymphs in a residential neighborhood. After four successive 9-wk deployments, nymphal and larval I. scapularis infestation prevalence and intensity were significantly reduced on target small mammals. In addition, these deployments resulted in 87.9% and 97.3% control of host-seeking nymphs in treatment sites at 1 yr and 2 yr postintervention, respectively. Installation of a protective metal cover around the SELECT TCS bait boxes eliminated nontarget wildlife damage to bait boxes that resulted in failure of previous bait box types. The results are discussed in the context of the residential environment and future research needs. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Serological evidence of Midichloria mitochondrii circulation in humans parasitized by I. ricinus in Germany and development of a marker for tick bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Serra

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The tick Ixodes ricinus transmits several microorganisms of medical and veterinary importance. Midichloria mitochondrii (order Rickettsiales; family Midichloriaceae is an intracellular symbiont present in the ovaries and salivary glands of 100% of adult I. ricinus females (Sassera et al., 2008 and is transmitted to the vertebrate host during the tick bite (Mariconti et al., 2012; Bazzocchi et al., 2013 despite its infective role is not demonstrated. In this experimental study, a total of 324 human from different areas of Germany were analysed in order to investigate the seropositivity against the flagellar FliD protein of M. mitochondrii using an ELISA approach. Fifty sera were collected from patients living in non-endemic areas and used as negative controls while 274 sera were obtained from subjects exposed to tick bite and suffering from several symptoms referred to tick borne diseases and collected at the BCA clinic in Augsburg. Since the positivity for the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi transmitted by I. ricinus is indicative for the tick bite, we considered also this additional information. The obtained results showed that 82 out of 274 sera were positive to M. mitochondrii and 42 out of 175 sera of subjects negative to B. burgdorferi were positive to M. mitochondrii to confirm the good property of FliD protein as a tick bite marker. However, the high number (133 out of 274 of subjects parasitized by I. ricinus but negative to both bacteria prompted us to detect new more suitable I. ricinus/M. mitochondrii antigenic proteins to use as markers for tick bite. For this purpose, three I. ricinus proteins and one surface protein of M. mitochondrii were selected and 12 synthetic peptides were designed in order to set-up a new ELISA test for investigating the exposure of humans and animals to this tick species.

  4. [Morphofunctional changes in the midgut of the Ixodes females (Acari: Ixodidae) during the immunizing feedings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'eva, L A

    2006-01-01

    The changes of the midgut in the females of the tick species Ixodes persulcatus and I. ricinus during the second and third immunizing feeding on rabbits were studied by the histological technics. The alternation of one generation of the digestive cells of nymphal stage and two generations of the digestive cells of adult stage was observed. The generation of secretory cells is absent. The tick completes feeding and drop off when the last generation of the digestive cells is on the initial activity stages. The amount of the blood consumed is not enough for the rhythmical functioning of the midgut. The feeding of tick is broken on the second phase and full satiation does not take place. It is apparently an effect of the interruption of the blood entrance into the midgut cavity of feeding tick as a probable result of anti-ticks resistance of unnatural hosts.

  5. Field evaluation of a novel synthetic odour blend and of the synergistic role of carbon dioxide for sampling host-seeking Aedes albopictus adults in Rome, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Pombi, M.; Jacobs, F.H.H.; Verhulst, N.O.; Caputo, B; Torre, della, A.; Takken, W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the expanding worldwide distribution of Aedes albopictus and its increasing relevance as arboviral vector, current methods to collect adult specimens are not optimal. Improved approaches are thus needed to monitor their density and pathogen infections, and to establish baseline data for control interventions. A widely used device is the BG-Sentinel (BG-trap) which mostly targets host-seeking females attracted by release of CO2 and/or a synthetic odour blend (the BG lure). W...

  6. Indicators for elevated risk of human exposure to host-seeking adults of the Rocky Mountain wood tick (Dermacentor andersoni) in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Lars; Ibarra-Juarez, Luis A; Eisen, Rebecca J; Piesman, Joseph

    2008-06-01

    The human-biting adult stage of the Rocky Mountain wood tick (Dermacentor andersoni) can cause tick paralysis in humans and domestic animals and is the primary tick vector in the intermountain west of the pathogens causing Colorado tick fever, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and tularemia. We conducted drag sampling studies in Poudre Canyon and Rocky Mountain National Park of Larimer County, CO, to determine microhabitat use patterns by host-seeking D. andersoni adults and find environmental factors signaling elevated risk of tick exposure. Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) was found to serve as a general indicator of areas with elevated risk of exposure to host-seeking D. andersoni adults; this likely results from a shared climate tolerance of big sagebrush and D. andersoni. Grass was the favored substrate for host-seeking ticks. Drag sampling of open grass or grass bordering rock or shrub produced abundances of D. andersoni adults significantly higher than sampling of brush. Sampling sites in Rocky Mountain National Park, relative to Poudre Canyon, were characterized by more intense usage by elk (Cervus elaphus) but decreased brush coverage, smaller brush size, and lower abundances of host-seeking D. andersoni adults. There has been a tremendous increase in the population of elk in Rocky Mountain National Park over the last decades and we speculate that this has resulted in an ecological cascade where overgrazing of vegetation by elk is followed by suppression of rodent populations, decreased tick abundance, and, ultimately, reduced risk of human exposure to D. andersoni and its associated pathogens.

  7. Influence of Hepatozoon parasites on host-seeking and host-choice behaviour of the mosquitoes Culex territans and Culex pipiens ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Ferguson, Laura V; N Kirk Hillier; Smith, Todd G.

    2012-01-01

    Hepatozoon species are heteroxenous parasites that commonly infect the blood of vertebrates and various organs of arthropods. Despite their ubiquity, little is known about how these parasites affect host phenotype, including whether or not these parasites induce changes in hosts to increase transmission success. The objectives of this research were to investigate influences of the frog blood parasite Hepatozoon clamatae and the snake blood parasite Hepatozoon sipedon on host-seeking and host-...

  8. Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies detection by RLB hybridization in Ixodes cinus ticks from different sites of North-Eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Dunaj

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. RLB (Reverse Line Blot Hybridization is a molecular biology technique that might be used for [i]Borrelia burgdorferi [/i]sensu lato (sl DNA detection with genospecies specification. Among[i] B. burgdorferi[/i] sl genospecies at least 7 are regarded as pathogenic in Europe. objective. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of different [i]Borrelia[/i] genospecies DNA detection in Ixodes ricinus ticks in the endemic area of North-Eastern Poland by using RLB. materials and method. Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected in May – June, from 6 different sites in North-Eastern Poland (Jakubin, Kolno, Grajewo, Suwałki, Siemiatycze, Białowieża by flagging. Extracted DNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting the intergenic spacer 5S 23S of [i]B. burgdorferi sl.[/i] PCR products were hybridised to 15 different oligonucleotide probes for 9 different [i]Borrelia [/i]genospecies ([i]B. burgdorferi sl, B. burgdorferi ss, B. garinii, B. afzelii, B. valaisiana, B. lusitaniae, B. spielmanii, B. bissettii and B. relapsing[/i] fever-like spirochetes (B. myamotoi by RLB. results. [i]Borrelia [/i]genospecies DNA was detected in 205 Ixodes ricinus ticks. Among 14 infected with [i]Borrelia[/i] ticks, 4 were identified as B. garinii and 10 as B. afzelii. Higher numbers of infected ticks were noticed in the eastern part of the research area, where large forest complexes dominate. Nymphs appeared to be the most frequently infected tick stage, which has an epidemiological meaning in the incidence of Lyme borreliosis. conclusions. The study demonstrated that RLB might be easily used in [i]Borrelia[/i] DNA detection with genospecies-identification, and indicated the domination of [i]B. afzelii and B. garinii [/i]in ticks from North-Eastern Poland.

  9. Detection and identification of Rickettsia species in Ixodes tick populations from Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katargina, Olga; Geller, Julia; Ivanova, Anna; Värv, Kairi; Tefanova, Valentina; Vene, Sirkka; Lundkvist, Åke; Golovljova, Irina

    2015-09-01

    A total of 1640 ticks collected in different geographical parts of Estonia were screened for the presence of Rickettsia species DNA by real-time PCR. DNA of Rickettsia was detected in 83 out of 1640 questing ticks with an overall prevalence of 5.1%. The majority of the ticks infected by rickettsiae were Ixodes ricinus (74 of 83), while 9 of the 83 positive ticks were Ixodes persulcatus. For rickettsial species identification, a part of the citrate synthase gltA gene was sequenced. The majority of the positive samples were identified as Rickettsia helvetica (81 out of 83) and two of the samples were identified as Rickettsia monacensis and Candidatus R. tarasevichiae, respectively. Genetic characterization based on the partial gltA gene showed that the Estonian sequences within the R. helvetica, R. monacensis and Candidatus R. tarasevichiae species demonstrated 100% similarity with sequences deposited in GenBank, originating from Rickettsia species distributed over large territories from Europe to Asia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. De novo Ixodes ricinus salivary gland transcriptome analysis using two next-generation sequencing methodologies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schwarz, Alexandra; von Reumont, B.M.; Erhart, Jan; Chagas, A. C.; Ribeiro, J.M.C.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 12 (2013), s. 4745-4756 ISSN 0892-6638 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/12/2409 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : cDNA * high-throughput annotation * molecular evolution * public database * tick feeding * tick life stages Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.480, year: 2013

  11. Prevalence of Beauveria pseudobassiana among entomopathogenic fungi isolated from the hard tick, Ixodes ricinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munteanu, Natalia V; Mitkovets, Polina V; Mitina, Galina V; Movila, Alexandru; Tokarev, Yuri S; Leclerque, Andreas

    2014-10-01

    Human and animal disease-transmitting hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) are of great concern for public health and animal farming. Alternatives to tick control by chemical acaricides are urgently needed, and one intensively evaluated biocontrol strategy is based on the use of tick-pathogenic filamentous fungi. An indispensable prerequisite for the development of tick-derived fungal isolates into registered myco-acaricides is their sound taxonomic characterisation. A set of fungal strains isolated from ixodid ticks in the Republic of Moldova was genetically characterised at the genus and species level together with further tick-derived fungal isolates from different geographic locations in Europe and North America. In a previous study, the same isolates had been assigned to the species Beauveria bassiana. Using a recent molecular taxonomic approach based on phylogenetic reconstruction from both internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and protein-encoding gene sequences, all fungi investigated were conclusively assigned to one of the two "hyphomycete" genera, Beauveria or Isaria (Ascomycota; Hypocreales; Cordycipitaceae). Within the genus Isaria, two species, Isaria farinosa and Isaria fumosorosea, were equally represented. Within the genus Beauveria, the comparatively rare species Beauveria pseudobassiana was found to strongly prevail among the isolates from Moldova, and one of the two tick-derived Beauveria strains from North America could be assigned to this species as well. In particular, the previous classification as B. bassiana could not be confirmed for any of the characterised tick pathogens from Europe and North America. The data presented here lend support to the hypothesis that within the genus Beauveria specific adaptation to ticks might have occurred within the species B. pseudobassiana. To test this hypothesis, a more extensive molecular taxonomic survey carefully reconsidering previous taxonomic assignments of tick-derived fungal isolates is needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. IrCL1-The haemoglobinolytic cathepsin L of the hard tick, Ixodes ricinus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Franta, Zdeněk; Sojka, Daniel; Frantová, Helena; Dvořák, Jan; Horn, Martin; Srba, Jindřich; Talacko, Pavel; Mareš, Michael; Schneider, E.; Craik, C. S.; McKerrow, J. H.; Caffrey, C. R.; Kopáček, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 12 (2011), 1253-1262 ISSN 0020-7519 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600960910; GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/10/2183; GA ČR GPP502/11/P682; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : tick gut * hemoglobin digestion * cathepsin L Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.393, year: 2011

  13. Larvae of Ixodes ricinus transmit Borrelia afzelii and B. miyamotoi to vertebrate hosts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijvendijk, van Gilian; Coipan, Claudia; Wagemakers, Alex; Fonville, Manoj; Ersöz, Jasmin; Oei, Anneke; Földvári, Gábor; Hovius, Joppe; Takken, Willem; Sprong, Hein

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lyme borreliosis is the most common tick-borne human disease and is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.). Borrelia miyamotoi, a relapsing fever spirochaete, is transmitted transovarially, whereas this has not been shown for B. burgdorferi (s.l). Therefore, B. burgdorferi

  14. [Ticks--due to climatic changes, much more than just Ixodes ricinus, TBE and Lyme disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Thomas F

    2008-07-01

    Ectoparasitic arthropodes, like ticks, confer numerous pathogenic bacterial and viral germs upon human beings and/or animals. Since these vectors are poikilothermic, there is a strong dependence on environmental conditions. Climatic as well as microclimatic conditions play a major role. Against this background, it can be anticipated that climatic changes also influence the bionomics of ticks and of the pathogens conferred by them.

  15. Genotypic variation and mixtures of Lyme Borrelia in Ixodes ticks from North America and Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris D Crowder

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Lyme disease, caused by various species of Borrelia, is transmitted by Ixodes ticks in North America and Europe. Studies have shown the genotype of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s. or the species of B. burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l. affects the ability of the bacteria to cause local or disseminated infection in humans.We used a multilocus PCR electrospray mass spectrometry assay to determine the species and genotype Borrelia from ticks collected in New York, Connecticut, Indiana, Southern Germany, and California and characterized isolates from parts of the United States and Europe. These analyses identified 53 distinct genotypes of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto with higher resolution than ospC typing. Genotypes of other members of the B. burgdorferi sensu lato complex were also identified and genotyped including B. afzelii, B. garinii, B. lusitaniae, B. spielmanii, and B. valaisiana. While each site in North America had genotypes unique to that location, we found genotypes shared between individual regions and two genotypes found across the United States. Significant B. burgdorferi s.s. genotypic diversity was observed between North America and Europe: only 6.6% of US genotypes (3 of 45 were found in Europe and 27% of the European genotypes (3 of 11 were observed in the US. Interestingly, 39% of adult Ixodes scapularis ticks from North America were infected with more than one genotype of B. burgdorferi s.s. and 22.2% of Ixodes ricinus ticks from Germany were infected with more than one genotype of B. burgdorferi s.l.The presence of multiple Borrelia genotypes in ticks increases the probability that a person will be infected with more than one genotype of B. burgdorferi, potentially increasing the risks of disseminated Lyme disease. Our study indicates that the genotypic diversity of Borrelia in ticks in both North America and Europe is higher then previously reported and can have potential clinical consequences.

  16. Activity of Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) against Spodoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the most studied plant species with insecticidal properties is the castor bean Ricinus communis. However, its activity against Spodoptera frugiperda is unclear. Therefore, to determinate the insecticidal and insectistatic activities of methanol, hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of the seeds and leaves of R. communis, ...

  17. Old health risks in new places? An ecological niche model for I. ricinus tick distribution in Europe under a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckmann, Melanie; Joyner, T Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Climate change will likely have impacts on disease vector distribution. Posing a significant health threat in the 21st century, risk of tick-borne diseases may increase with higher annual mean temperatures and changes in precipitation. We modeled the current and future potential distribution of the Ixodes ricinus tick species in Europe. The Genetic Algorithm for Rule-set Prediction (GARP) was utilized to predict potential distributions of I. ricinus based on current (1990-2010 averages) and future (2040-2060 averages) environmental variables. A ten model best subset was created out of a possible 200 models based on omission and commission criteria. Our results show that under the A2 climate change scenario the potential habitat range for the I. ricinus tick in Europe will expand into higher elevations and latitudes (e.g., Scandinavia, the Baltics, and Belarus), while contracting in other areas (e.g., Alps, Pyrenees, interior Italy, and northwestern Poland). Overall, a potential habitat expansion of 3.8% in all of Europe is possible. Our results may be used to inform climate change adaptation efforts in Europe. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The abundance and host-seeking behavior of culicine species (Diptera: Culicidae and Anopheles sinensis in Yongcheng city, people's Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiao-Bo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The knowledge of mosquito species diversity and the level of anthropophily exhibited by each species in a region are of great importance to the integrated vector control. Culicine species are the primary vectors of Japanese encephalitis (JE virus and filariasis in China. Anopheles sinensis plays a major role in the maintenance of Plasmodium vivax malaria transmission in China. The goal of this study was to compare the abundance and host-seeking behavior of culicine species and An. sinensis in Yongcheng city, a representative region of P. vivax malaria. Specifically, we wished to determine the relative attractiveness of different animal baits versus human bait to culicine species and An. sinensis. Results Culex tritaeniorhynchus was the most prevalent mosquito species and An. sinensis was the sole potential vector of P. vivax malaria in Yongcheng city. There were significant differences (P An. sinensis and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus collected in distinct baited traps. The relative attractiveness of animal versus human bait was similar towards both An. sinensis and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. The ranking derived from the mean number of mosquitoes per bait indicated that pigs, goats and calves frequently attracted more mosquitoes than the other hosts tested (dogs, humans, and chickens. These trends were similar across all capture nights at three distinct villages. The human blood index (HBI of female An. sinensis was 2.94% when computed with mixed meals while 3.70% computed with only the single meal. 19:00~21:00 was the primary peak of host-seeking female An. sinensis while 4:00~5:00 was the smaller peak at night. There was significant correlation between the density of female An. sinensis and the average relative humidity (P Conclusions Pigs, goats and calves were more attractive to An. sinensis and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus than dogs, humans, and chickens. Female An. sinensis host-seeking activity mainly occurred from 19:00 to 21:00. Thus

  19. Genotyping and Bioforensics of Ricinus communis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinckley, Aubree Christine [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The castor bean plant (Ricinus communis) is a member of the family Euphorbiaceae. In spite of its common name, the castor plant is not a true bean (i.e., leguminous plants belonging to the family, Fabaceae). Ricinus communis is native to tropical Africa, but because the plant was recognized for its production of oil with many desirable properties, it has been introduced and cultivated in warm temperate regions throughout the world (Armstrong 1999 and Brown 2005). Castor bean plants have also been valued by gardeners as an ornamental plant and, historically, as a natural rodenticide. Today, escaped plants grow like weeds throughout much of the southwestern United States, and castor seeds are even widely available to the public for order through the Internet. In this study, multiple loci of chloroplast noncoding sequence data and a few nuclear noncoding regions were examined to identify DNA polymorphisms present among representatives from a geographically diverse panel of Ricinus communis cultivated varieties. The primary objectives for this research were (1) to successfully cultivate castor plants and extract sufficient yields of high quality DNA from an assortment of castor cultivated varieties, (2) to use PCR and sequencing to screen available universal oligos against a small panel of castor cultivars, (3) to identify DNA polymorphisms within the amplified regions, and (4) to evaluate these DNA polymorphisms as appropriate candidates for assay development (see Figure 1). Additional goals were to design, test and optimize assays targeting any DNA polymorphisms that were discovered and to rapidly screen many castor cultivars to determine the amount of diversity present at that particular locus. Ultimately, the goal of this study was to construct a phylogeographic tree representing the genetic relationships present among Ricinus communis cultivars from diverse geographic regions. These research objectives were designed to test the hypothesis that cultivated varieties

  20. Host-seeking activity and avian host preferences of mosquitoes associated with West Nile virus transmission in the northeastern U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suom, Channsotha; Ginsberg, Howard S.; Bernick, Andrew; Klein, Coby; Buckley, P.A.; Salvatore, Christa; LeBrun, Roger A.

    2010-01-01

    Mosquito host-seeking activity was studied using a custom-designed trap to explore: (1) at which time interval of the night adult mosquito abatement would be most effective, and (2) if there exists an avian-specific host-seeking preference. Overnight trials using traps baited with dry ice showed that Aedes taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann) was most active at dusk and was then captured throughout the night. In contrast, Culex spp. (Cx. pipiens (Linnaeus) and Cx. restuans (Theobald) delayed most activity until about two h after dusk and were then captured through the night. This pattern suggests that management activities directed at adult Culex spp. would be most effective if initiated well after sunset. Mosquito capture rates in traps baited with birds in net bags were significantly greater than those with empty net bags, indicating that mosquitoes were attracted to the birds and not incidentally being sucked in by the custom trap's strong fan motor (Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test, n = 24, t = 30, p 2 = 0.21, p = 0.02). Trials with paired traps that contained different native bird species showed that Gray Catbirds, Dumatella carolinensis, attracted more mosquitoes than the heavier Northern Cardinals, Cardinalis cardinalis (paired samples t-test, t = 2.58, df = 7, p = 0.04). However, attractiveness did not differ substantially among bird species, and Gray Catbirds did not attract more mosquitoes than all other birds combined as a group. American Robins, Turdus migratorius (n = 4) were comparable in attractiveness to other bird species, but not enough American Robins were captured for a comprehensive study of mosquito avian preference.

  1. Xyleborus glabratus, X. affinis, and X. ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae): electroantennogram responses to host-based attractants and temporal patterns in host-seeking flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendra, Paul E; Montgomery, Wayne S; Niogret, Jerome; Deyrup, Mark A; Guillén, Larissa; Epsky, Nancy D

    2012-12-01

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is an exotic wood-boring insect that vectors the mycopathogen responsible for laurel wilt, a lethal vascular disease of trees in the Lauraceae, including avocado (Persea americana Mill.). Effective semiochemical-based detection and control programs for X. glabratus will require an understanding of the chemical ecology and host-seeking behaviors of this new invasive pest. This study 1) presents an electroantennography (EAG) method developed for assessment of olfactory responses in ambrosia beetles; 2) uses that new method to quantify EAG responses of X. glabratus, X. affinis, and X. ferrugineus to volatiles from three host-based attractants: manuka oil (essential oil extract from Leptospermum scoparium Forst. & Forst.), phoebe oil (extract from Phoebe porosa Mex.), and wood from silkbay (Persea humilis Nash); and 3) documents temporal differences in host-seeking flight of the sympatric Xyleborus species. Field observations revealed that X. glabratus engages in flight several hours earlier than X. affinis and X. ferrugineus, providing a window for selective capture of the target pest species. In EAG analyses with X. glabratus, antennal response to phoebe oil was equivalent to response to host Persea wood, but EAG response elicited with manuka oil was significantly less. In comparative studies, EAG response of X. glabratus was significantly higher than response of either X. affinis or X. ferrugineus to all three host-based substrates. Future research will use this EAG method to measure olfactory responses to synthetic terpenoids, facilitating identification of the specific kairomones used by X. glabratus for host location.

  2. Immunogenic Properties of Ricinus Communis Var Minor Seed on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The immunogenic properties of Ricinus communis var minor seed was determined after feeding 7 healthy virgin albino white rabbits with varying doses of 0.5g – 0.9g dried ground Ricinus communis var minor seed included in their feed (5g/100g body weight). Booster doses of the same weight were further administered ...

  3. Influence of Hepatozoon parasites on host-seeking and host-choice behaviour of the mosquitoes Culex territans and Culex pipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Laura V; Kirk Hillier, N; Smith, Todd G

    2013-12-01

    Hepatozoon species are heteroxenous parasites that commonly infect the blood of vertebrates and various organs of arthropods. Despite their ubiquity, little is known about how these parasites affect host phenotype, including whether or not these parasites induce changes in hosts to increase transmission success. The objectives of this research were to investigate influences of the frog blood parasite Hepatozoon clamatae and the snake blood parasite Hepatozoon sipedon on host-seeking and host-choice behaviour of the mosquitoes Culex territans and Culex pipiens, respectively. During development of H. sipedon in C. pipiens, significantly fewer infected mosquitoes fed on uninfected snakes compared to uninfected mosquitoes. When H. sipedon was mature in C. pipiens, the number of infected and uninfected C. pipiens that fed on snakes was not significantly different. Higher numbers of mosquitoes fed on naturally infected snakes and frogs compared to laboratory-reared, uninfected control animals. However, experiments using only laboratory-raised frogs revealed that infection did not significantly affect host choice by C. territans. Behaviour of C. pipiens in the presence of H. sipedon may increase transmission success of the parasite and provide the first evidence of phenotypic changes in the invertebrate host of Hepatozoon parasites.

  4. Influence of Hepatozoon parasites on host-seeking and host-choice behaviour of the mosquitoes Culex territans and Culex pipiens☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Laura V.; Kirk Hillier, N.; Smith, Todd G.

    2012-01-01

    Hepatozoon species are heteroxenous parasites that commonly infect the blood of vertebrates and various organs of arthropods. Despite their ubiquity, little is known about how these parasites affect host phenotype, including whether or not these parasites induce changes in hosts to increase transmission success. The objectives of this research were to investigate influences of the frog blood parasite Hepatozoon clamatae and the snake blood parasite Hepatozoon sipedon on host-seeking and host-choice behaviour of the mosquitoes Culex territans and Culex pipiens, respectively. During development of H. sipedon in C. pipiens, significantly fewer infected mosquitoes fed on uninfected snakes compared to uninfected mosquitoes. When H. sipedon was mature in C. pipiens, the number of infected and uninfected C. pipiens that fed on snakes was not significantly different. Higher numbers of mosquitoes fed on naturally infected snakes and frogs compared to laboratory-reared, uninfected control animals. However, experiments using only laboratory-raised frogs revealed that infection did not significantly affect host choice by C. territans. Behaviour of C. pipiens in the presence of H. sipedon may increase transmission success of the parasite and provide the first evidence of phenotypic changes in the invertebrate host of Hepatozoon parasites. PMID:24533317

  5. Evaluation of Lure Combinations Containing Essential Oils and Volatile Spiroketals for Detection of Host-Seeking Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, D; Montgomery, Wayne S; Narvaez, Teresa I; Deyrup, Mark A; Kendra, Paul E

    2017-08-01

    The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), vectors the fungal pathogen (Raffaelea lauricola) that causes laurel wilt, a disease responsible for widespread mortality of trees in the Lauraceae in the southeastern United States. Early detection of incipient vector populations may allow for management practices that could successfully mitigate damage. Developing new, highly effective attractants is a priority for improving sensitivity of early detection efforts. In this study, two field tests were conducted to evaluate combinations of commercially available bark and ambrosia beetle lures for enhanced attraction of host-seeking female X. glabratus. In addition, lures were compared for capture of nontarget scolytine beetles. In the first experiment, traps baited with a combination of cubeb oil, conophthorin, chalcogran, and ethanol captured greater numbers of X. glabratus than cubeb oil alone, the current standard attractant. However, this combination lure resulted in higher nontarget scolytine captures than with the cubeb lure. In the second field test, an oil enriched in the sesquiterpene α-copaene caught significantly more X. glabratus than other lures currently available for monitoring this pest. There were no differences in efficacy between cubeb oil lures produced by two different manufacturers, and a combination lure containing copaiba and cubeb oils did not increase captures over the cubeb lure alone. Results of these two tests suggest that increased sensitivity for detection of X. glabratus may be achieved with a multicomponent lure that incorporates α-copaene, spiroketals, and low release of ethanol. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  6. Field evaluation of a novel synthetic odour blend and of the synergistic role of carbon dioxide for sampling host-seeking Aedes albopictus adults in Rome, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pombi, Marco; Jacobs, Frans; Verhulst, Niels O; Caputo, Beniamino; della Torre, Alessandra; Takken, Willem

    2014-12-11

    Despite the expanding worldwide distribution of Aedes albopictus and its increasing relevance as arboviral vector, current methods to collect adult specimens are not optimal. Improved approaches are thus needed to monitor their density and pathogen infections, and to establish baseline data for control interventions. A widely used device is the BG-Sentinel (BG-trap) which mostly targets host-seeking females attracted by release of CO2 and/or a synthetic odour blend (the BG lure). We compared the attractiveness of this blend to that of the Mbita (MB5) lure, a new synthetic blend of proven efficiency in attracting Afrotropical malaria vectors, and evaluated the additional effect of CO2 to the two odour baits. We carried out 6x6 Latin square experiments in two Ae. albopictus-infested areas in Rome, baiting the BG-traps as follows: CO2, BG lure, MB5 lure, BG lure + CO2, MB5 lure + CO2, no bait. CO2 was derived from yeast-fermented sugar. Overall, 949 females and 816 males were collected. Baited traps collected significantly more females than unbaited ones. Traps baited with either lures in combination with CO2 were more effective than those baited with CO2 alone. No significant differences were observed in female captures between traps baited with any of the two lures, nor between the two lures, independently from the addition of CO2. The use of BG lure + CO2 significantly increased males catches compared to unbaited traps. The results suggest a broad significance of the MB5 lure for sampling medically important mosquito species and highlight the high efficacy of the combination of lures + CO2 for female Ae. albopictus and of BG lure + CO2 for males, leading to consider CO2 as an essential additional cue for the sampling of this species.

  7. Host-seeking behaviors of mosquitoes experimentally infected with sympatric field isolates of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum: no evidence for host manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélie eVantaux

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that Plasmodium parasites can manipulate mosquito feeding behaviours such as motivation and avidity to feed on vertebrate hosts, in ways that increase the probability of parasite transmission. These studies, however, have been mainly carried out on non-natural and/or laboratory based model systems and hence may not reflect what occurs in the field. We now need to move closer to the natural setting, if we are to fully capture the ecological and evolutionary consequences of these parasite-induced behavioral changes. As part of this effort, we conducted a series of experiments to investigate the long and short-range behavioural responses to human stimuli in the mosquito Anopheles coluzzii during different stages of infection with sympatric field isolates of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in Burkina Faso. First, we used a dual-port olfactometer designed to take advantage of the whole body odor to gauge mosquito long-range host-seeking behaviors. Second, we used a locomotor activity monitor system to assess mosquito short-range behaviors. Compared to control uninfected mosquitoes, P. falciparum infection had no significant effect neither on long-range nor on short-range behaviors both at the immature and mature stages. This study, using a natural mosquito-malaria parasite association, indicates that manipulation of vector behavior may not be a general phenomenon. We speculate that the observed contrasting phenotypes with model systems might result from coevolution of the human parasite and its natural vector. Future experiments, using other sympatric malaria mosquito populations or species are required to test this hypothesis. In conclusion, our results highlight the importance of following up discoveries in laboratory model systems with studies on natural parasite–mosquito interactions to accurately predict the epidemiological, ecological and evolutionary consequences of parasite manipulation of vector

  8. Environmental factors affecting survival of immature Ixodes scapularis and implications for geographical distribution of lyme disease: The climate/behavior hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Howard; Albert, Marisa; Acevedo, Lixis; Dyer, Megan C.; Arsnoe, Isis M.; Tsao, Jean I.; Mather, Thomas N.; LeBrun, Roger A.

    2017-01-01

    Recent reports suggest that host-seeking nymphs in southern populations of Ixodes scapularis remain below the leaf litter surface, while northern nymphs seek hosts on leaves and twigs above the litter surface. This behavioral difference potentially results in decreased tick contact with humans in the south, and fewer cases of Lyme disease. We studied whether north-south differences in tick survival patterns might contribute to this phenomenon. Four month old larvae resulting from a cross between Wisconsin males and South Carolina females died faster under southern than under northern conditions in the lab, as has previously been reported for ticks from both northern and southern populations. However, newly-emerged larvae from Rhode Island parents did not differ consistently in mortality under northern and southern conditions, possibly because of their younger age. Survival is lower, and so the north-south survival difference might be greater in older ticks. Larval survival was positively related to larval size (as measured by scutal area), while survival was positively related to larval fat content in some, but not all, trials. The difference in larval survival under northern vs. southern conditions might simply result from faster metabolism under warmer southern conditions leading to shorter life spans. However, ticks consistently died faster under southern than under northern conditions in the laboratory when relative humidity was low (75%), but not under moderate (85%) or high (95%) RH. Therefore, mortality due to desiccation stress is greater under southern than under northern conditions. We hypothesize that mortality resulting from the greater desiccation stress under southern conditions acts as a selective pressure resulting in the evolution of host-seeking behavior in which immatures remain below the leaf litter surface in southern I. scapularis populations, so as to avoid the desiccating conditions at the surface. If this hypothesis is correct, it has

  9. Molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of Hepatozoon spp. in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks and rodents from Slovakia and Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hamšíková, Z.; Silaghi, C.; Rudolf, I.; Venclíková, Kristýna; Mahríková, L.; Slovák, M.; Mendel, J.; Blažejová, H.; Berthová, L.; Kocianová, E.; Hubálek, Z.; Schnittger, L.; Kazimírová, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 10 (2016), s. 3897-3904 ISSN 0932-0113 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : Apicomplexa * Hepatozoon canis * Myodes glareolus Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.329, year: 2016

  10. Molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of Hepatozoon spp. in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks and rodents from Slovakia and Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hamšíková, Z.; Silaghi, C.; Rudolf, Ivo; Venclíková, Kristýna; Mahríková, L.; Slovák, M.; Mendel, Jan; Blažejová, Hana; Berthová, L.; Kocianová, E.; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Schnittger, L.; Kazimírová, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 10 (2016), s. 3897-3904 ISSN 0932-0113 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 261504 - EDENEXT Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Apicomplexa * Hepatozoon canis * Myodes glareolus * Apodemus spp. * Ticks * Central Europe Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.329, year: 2016

  11. Extension of Ixodes ricinus ticks and agents of tick-borne diseases to mountain areas in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Danielová, V.; Rudenko, Natalia; Daniel, M.; Holubová, J.; Materna, J.; Golovchenko, Maryna; Schwarzová, L.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 296, Suppl. 1 (2006), s. 48-53 ISSN 1438-4221. [International Potsdam Symposium on Tick-borne Diseases /8./. Potsdam, 10.03.2005-12.03.2005] Grant - others:WHO/EC(CZ) cCASHh-EVK2-2000-0070 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : ticks * tick-borne pathogens * mountain areas Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.760, year: 2006

  12. Ixodes ricinus ticks are reservoir hosts for Rickettsia helvetica and potentially carry flea-borne Rickettsia species.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprong, H.; Wielinga, P.R.; Fonville, M.; Reusken, C.; Brandenburg, A.H.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background - Hard ticks have been identified as important vectors of rickettsiae causing the spotted fever syndrome. Tick-borne rickettsiae are considered to be emerging, but only limited data are available about their presence in Western Europe, their natural life cycle and their reservoir hosts.

  13. The presence of Borrelia miyamotoi, a relapsing fever spirochaete, in questing Ixodes ricinus in Belgium and in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cochez, C.; Heyman, P.; Heylen, D.; Fonville, M.; Hengeveld, P.; Takken, W.; Simons, L.; Sprong, H.

    2015-01-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi is a tick-borne bacterium that may cause relapsing fever in humans. As this pathogen has been discovered in Europe only recently, only little is known about its local impact on human health and its spatial distribution. In this study, we show the results of PCR screenings for B.

  14. Songbirds as general transmitters but selective amplifiers of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genotypes in Ixodes rinicus ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heylen, Dieter; Matthysen, Erik; Fonville, Manoj; Sprong, Hein

    2014-09-01

    We investigated to what extent a European songbird (Parus major) selectively transmits and amplifies Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. bacteria. Borrelia-naïve birds were recurrently exposed to Ixodes ricinus nymphs carrying a community of more than 34 5S-23S genotypes belonging to five genospecies (Borrelia garinii, Borrelia valaisiana, Borrelia afzelii, B. burgdorferi s.s. and Borrelia spielmanii). Fed ticks were screened for Borrelia after moulting. We found evidence for co-feeding transmission of avian and possibly also mammalian genotypes. Throughout the course of infestations, the infection rate of B. garinii and B. valaisiana increased, indicating successful amplification and transmission, while the infection rate for B. afzelii, B. burgdorferi s.s and B. spielmanii tended to decrease. Within the B. garinii and B. valaisiana genotype communities, certain genotypes were transmitted more than others. Moreover, birds were able to host mixed infections of B. garinii and B. valaisiana, as well as mixed infections of genotypes of the same genospecies. We experimentally show that resident songbirds transmit a broad range of Borrelia genotypes, but selectively amplify certain genotypes, and that one bird can transmit simultaneously several genotypes. Our results highlight the need to explicitly consider the association between genotypes and hosts, which may offer opportunities to point out which hosts are most responsible for the Borrelia presence in questing ticks. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. [Ultrastructural changes in the midgut epithelium of Ixodes sinensis after infesting the rabbits immunized by purified ixodic protein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-gang; Ye, Bing-hui; Zhu, Qing-xian

    2004-02-28

    To observe the ultrastructural changes in the midgut epithelium of Ixodes sinensis after infesting rabbits immunized with Mr 105000 purified tick antigen. New Zealand rabbits were inoculated with Mr 105000 purified antigen by means of mutiple intradermal injection in foot pad, groin and back. Each immunized rabbit was infested by 30 female Ixodes sinensis. At 24 hours, 48 hours, 72 hours, 5 days and 8 days after infestation, three Ixodes sinensis in each group were observed for ultrastructural changes in the epithelium of their midgut. Histological examinations showed that with the time going, digestive cells of the ticks after infesting hosts became more and larger with dense and regularly arranged microvilli, enriched organella, distinct unit-membrane structure, and the appearance of tubli, small vacuole, numerous lipid droplets and hematin granules. These cells also developed a highly infolded basal lamina, forming a labyrinth system. The digestive cells of immunized group were however greatly damaged, whose number and volume were significantly different from control groups. From 24 to 48 hours after infestation, the midgut epithelium of Ixodes snenss showed pathological changes with the basal lamina becoming thinner, looser and broken; digestive cells damaged and vacuolated; microvilli decreased, shortened and irregularly arranged; the mitochondria swollen and its crests reduced, shortened and even with myeloid changes; the rough endoplasmic reticulum dilated; lipid droplets and hematin granules decreased; phagocytic and pinocytic activity weakened; and basal labyrinth system vacuolated. From 72 hours to 8 days after infestation, cells were severely damaged, organella were denatured and necrotic, nuclei showed pyknosis and cells lysed. The rabbits immunized with Mr 105000 purified ixodic protein have acquired the adoptive immunity against Ixodes sinensis; in the anti-tick immunity described above, the midgut of Ixodes sinensis is the major affected site.

  16. Antibacterial profile of fermented seed extracts of ricinus communis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to ascertain the antibacterial properties inherent in fermented seed extracts of Ricinus communis. Dry seeds of R. communis (Castor oil plant) were deshelled, grounded to powder, fermented, and then extracted both with alcohol and water using Soxhlet machine. Different concentrations of the ...

  17. Comparison of Vector Efficiency of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) From the Northeast and Upper Midwest of the United States for the Lyme Disease Spirochete Borrelia mayonii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Lars; Breuner, Nicole E; Hojgaard, Andrias; Hoxmeier, J Charles; Pilgard, Mark A; Replogle, Adam J; Biggerstaff, Brad J; Dolan, Marc C

    2017-01-01

    Borrelia mayonii, a recently recognized species within the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, has been detected in host-seeking Ixodes scapularis Say ticks and found to be associated with Lyme disease in the Upper Midwest. This spirochete has, to date, not been documented from the Northeast, but we previously demonstrated that I. scapularis ticks originating from Connecticut are capable of serving as a vector of B. mayonii In this follow-up study, we compared the vector efficiency for B. mayonii (strain MN14-1420) of I. scapularis ticks originating from Minnesota in the Upper Midwest and Connecticut in the Northeast. CD-1 outbred white mice previously infected with B. mayonii via tick bite were exposed to simultaneous feeding by Minnesota and Connecticut larvae contained within separate feeding capsules. We found no difference in the ability of Minnesota and Connecticut larvae to acquire B. mayonii from infected mice and pass spirochetes to the nymphal stage (overall nymphal infection rates of 11.6 and 13.3%, respectively). Moreover, the efficiency of transmission of B. mayonii by single infected nymphs was similar for the Minnesota and Connecticut ticks (33 and 44%, respectively). We conclude that the examined I. scapularis ticks from the Upper Midwest and Northeast did not differ in their efficiency as vectors for B. mayonii. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016 This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  18. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Investigations of Ricinus communis Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have always played a vital role for the healthy human life. The family Euphorbiaceous is a family of flowering plants and contains nearly about 300 genera and 7,500 species. Amongst all, the species Ricinus communis or castor plant has high traditional and modern medicinal values. The individual parts of the plant like the seed, seed oil, leaves and the roots showed their importance in pharmacology. Traditionally, the plant has been used for the treatment of various diseases in traditional or folk remedies throughout the world. In modern pharmacology, this plant is reported to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, central analgesic, antitumor, anti-nociceptive, antiasthmatic activity and other medicinal properties. These activities of the plant are due to the presence of important phytochemical constituents like flavonoids, glycosides, alkaloids, steroids, terpenoids etc. The aim of present article is to explore the chemical constituents, their structures and medicinal importance of Ricinus communis.

  19. A randomized controlled trial of the efficacy of orally administered fluralaner (Bravecto™) against induced Ixodes holocyclus (Australian paralysis tick) infestations on dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisara, Petr; Webster, Maurice

    2015-05-01

    Ixodes holocyclus ticks are a frequently fatal threat to dogs in eastern Australia. These ticks secrete a neurotoxin that can produce an ascending paralysis after 72 h attachment that can lead to death in affected animals. Fluralaner is a potent systemic acaricide with immediate and persistent efficacy for tick control including evidence of 100% efficacy against Ixodes ricinus ticks within 72 h. This study investigated the potential for oral fluralaner administration to control I. holocyclus infestation and the subsequent risk of host paralysis. Healthy Foxhound and Foxhound cross dogs immunized against holocyclotoxin were randomly allocated to receive either a single fluralaner (at least 25 mg/kg) dose or no treatment. All dogs were penned individually and infested with 30 adult unfed female I. holocyclus 1 day before treatment and 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84, 112 and 140 days following treatment. Ticks were counted and assessed at 24, 48 and 72 h after the initial fluralaner treatment and after each subsequent infestation. Ticks were not removed at the 24 and 48 h assessments, but were removed after the 72 h assessments. On 112 and 140 days post treatment a new group of untreated control dogs was used. Fluralaner treatment efficacy against I. holocyclus was 100% at 72 h post treatment. Following re-infestations the efficacy remained at 100% at the 72 h assessments for 115 days and reached 95.7% at 143 days. The differences between mean live tick counts on treatment and control groups were significant (P fluralaner treatment can prevent Australian paralysis tick infestations for at least 115 days.

  20. Bird ticks in Hungary reflect western, southern, eastern flyway connections and two genetic lineages of Ixodes frontalis and Haemaphysalis concinna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornok, S; Flaisz, B; Takács, N; Kontschán, J; Csörgő, T; Csipak, Á; Jaksa, B R; Kováts, D

    2016-02-24

    Birds play an important role in short- and long-distance transportation of ticks and tick-borne pathogens. The aim of the present study was to provide comprehensive information on the species and genetic diversity of ixodid ticks transported by migratory and non-migratory bird species in Central Europe, and to evaluate relevant data in a geographical, as well as in an ecological context. During a three year period (2012-2014), altogether 3339 ixodid ticks were collected from 1167 passerine birds (representatives of 47 species) at ringing stations in Hungary. These ticks were identified, and the tick-infestations of bird species were compared according to various traits. In addition, PCR and sequencing of part of the cytochrome oxidase subunit-I (COI) and 16S rDNA genes were performed from representatives of five tick species. The most abundant tick species found were Ixodes ricinus and Haemaphysalis concinna (with 2296 and 989 immature stages, respectively). In addition, 48 I. frontalis (all stages), three Hyalomma rufipes nymphs, one I. lividus and two I. festai females were collected. The majority of I. ricinus and I. frontalis specimens occurred on ground-feeding bird species, as contrasted to Ha. concinna. Hy. rufipes showed the highest degree of sequence identity to an Ethiopian hybrid of the same tick species. Based on both COI and 16S rDNA gene analyses, two genetic lineages of I. frontalis were recognized (with only 91.4 % identity in their partial COI gene). These were highly similar to South-Western European isolates of the same tick species. Phylogenetic analysis of Ha. concinna specimens collected from birds in Hungary also revealed two genetic lineages, one of which showed high (≥99 %) degree of 16S rDNA sequence identity to conspecific East Asian isolates. Two genetic lineages of I. frontalis and Ha. concinna are transported by birds in Central Europe, which reflect a high degree of sequence identity to South-Western European and East Asian isolates

  1. Preliminary survey for entomopathogenic fungi associated with Ixodes scapularis>/i> (Acari: Ixodidae) in southern New York and New England, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhioua, Elyes; Ginsberg, Howard S.; Humber, Richard A.; LeBrun, Roger A.

    1999-01-01

    , and thus has considerable potential as a microbial control agent (Zhioua et al. 1997).European studies have suggested that entomopathogenic fungi might serve as natural controls of of Ixodes ricinus L. populations (Samsinakova et al. 1974, Eilenberg et al. 1991, Kalsbeek et al. 1995). In the current study, we describe the isolation of entomopathogenic fungi from field-collected I. scapularis.

  2. Transmission of the Lyme Disease Spirochete Borrelia mayonii in Relation to Duration of Attachment by Nymphal Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Marc C; Breuner, Nicole E; Hojgaard, Andrias; Boegler, Karen A; Hoxmeier, J Charles; Replogle, Adam J; Eisen, Lars

    2017-09-01

    The recently recognized Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia mayonii, has been detected in host-seeking Ixodes scapularis Say ticks and is associated with human disease in the Upper Midwest. Although experimentally shown to be vector competent, studies have been lacking to determine the duration of time from attachment of a single B. mayonii-infected I. scapularis nymph to transmission of spirochetes to a host. If B. mayonii spirochetes were found to be transmitted within the first 24 h after tick attachment, in contrast to Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes (>24 h), then current recommendations for tick checks and prompt tick removal as a way to prevent transmission of Lyme disease spirochetes would need to be amended. We therefore conducted a study to determine the probability of transmission of B. mayonii spirochetes from single infected nymphal I. scapularis ticks to susceptible experimental mouse hosts at three time points postattachment (24, 48, and 72 h) and for a complete feed (>72-96 h). No evidence of infection with or exposure to B. mayonii occurred in mice that were fed upon by a single infected nymph for 24 or 48 h. The probability of transmission by a single infected nymphal tick was 31% after 72 h of attachment and 57% for a complete feed. In addition, due to unintended simultaneous feeding upon some mice by two B. mayonii-infected nymphs, we recorded a single occasion in which feeding for 48 h by two infected nymphs resulted in transmission and viable infection in the mouse. We conclude that the duration of attachment of a single infected nymphal I. scapularis tick required for transmission of B. mayonii appears to be similar to that for B. burgdorferi: transmission is minimal for the first 24 h of attachment, rare up to 48 h, but then increases distinctly by 72 h postattachment. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public

  3. Draft genome sequence of the oilseed species Ricinus communis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Agnes P; Crabtree, Jonathan; Zhao, Qi; Lorenzi, Hernan; Orvis, Joshua; Puiu, Daniela; Melake-Berhan, Admasu; Jones, Kristine M; Redman, Julia; Chen, Grace; Cahoon, Edgar B; Gedil, Melaku; Stanke, Mario; Haas, Brian J; Wortman, Jennifer R; Fraser-Liggett, Claire M; Ravel, Jacques; Rabinowicz, Pablo D

    2010-09-01

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis) is an oilseed crop that belongs to the spurge (Euphorbiaceae) family, which comprises approximately 6,300 species that include cassava (Manihot esculenta), rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) and physic nut (Jatropha curcas). It is primarily of economic interest as a source of castor oil, used for the production of high-quality lubricants because of its high proportion of the unusual fatty acid ricinoleic acid. However, castor bean genomics is also relevant to biosecurity as the seeds contain high levels of ricin, a highly toxic, ribosome-inactivating protein. Here we report the draft genome sequence of castor bean (4.6-fold coverage), the first for a member of the Euphorbiaceae. Whereas most of the key genes involved in oil synthesis and turnover are single copy, the number of members of the ricin gene family is larger than previously thought. Comparative genomics analysis suggests the presence of an ancient hexaploidization event that is conserved across the dicotyledonous lineage.

  4. The Ixodes (Acari: Ixodidae) of Mexico: Parasite-Host and Host-Parasite Checklists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-20

    NUEVO LEON: 2&, 2%, El Potosí (24° 49’ 42”N; 100° 20’ 26”W), 22-V-1963, Sylvilagus sp. (CNAC002366). Ixodes eadsi Kohls and Clifford New record PUEBLA : 1...la Sociedad Mexi- cana de Historia Natural, 4, 21–24. Cooley, R.A. (1945) Ixodes tovari, a new species from Mexico (Ixodidae). Pan-Pacific...Ixodidae). Revista de la Sociedad Mexicana de Historia Natural, 3, 149–154. Cooley, R.A. & Kohls, G.M. (1945) The genus Ixodes in North America. National

  5. Cytokine responses of C3H/HeN mice infested with Ixodes scapularis or Ixodes pacificus nymphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeler, G B; Manweiler, S A; Wikel, S K

    2000-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, is transmitted by Ixodes scapularis in the eastern and midwestern United States and by Ixodes pacificus in the far-Western United States. Studies have shown that infestation with I. scapularis nymphs modulates host cytokine production; however, the influence of I. pacificus infestation on host cytokines remains uninvestigated. This study demonstrated how repeated infestations with pathogen-free I. scapularis or I. pacificus nymphs affects the production of the macrophage cytokines IL-1beta, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha and the T lymphocyte cytokines IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10 and IFN-gamma by C3H/HeN mice. Female mice were infested once or twice with pathogen-free I. scapularis or I. pacificus nymphs, with a 14-day tick-free period between exposures. After each infestation, tick biology parameters were assessed and macrophage and T lymphocyte cytokine production measured by antigen capture ELISA. Acquired resistance to tick feeding did not develop after infestation with either tick species. Differences in cytokine production were observed between infested and noninfested mice, and between mice infested with either I. scapularis or I. pacificus nymphs. Infestations polarized cytokine production towards a Th2 cytokine profile, with suppression of pro-inflammatory Th1 cytokines. This pattern of cytokine production is more pronounced for I. pacificus infested mice.

  6. The effect of water and shampooing on the efficacy of fluralaner spot-on solution against Ixodes ricinus and Ctenocephalides felis infestations in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Taenzler, Janina; Gale, Boyd; Zschiesche, Eva; Roepke, Rainer K.A.; Anja R. HECKEROTH

    2016-01-01

    Background Fluralaner spot-on solution provides immediate and persistent efficacy against tick and flea infestations in dogs and cats for 12-weeks following topical administration. The active ingredient fluralaner is distributed systemically following transdermal absorption. Therefore, this study tested the hypothesis whether water-immersion or shampooing of dogs following administration of fluralaner spot-on solution has an impact on subsequent tick and flea efficacy. Methods Thirty-two Beag...

  7. Molecular cloning and comparative analysis of fibrinogen-related proteins from the soft tick Ornithodoros moubata and the hard tick Ixodes ricinus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rego, Ryan O. M.; Hajdušek, Ondřej; Kovář, Vojtěch; Kopáček, Petr; Grubhoffer, Libor; Hypša, Václav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 9 (2005), s. 991-1004 ISSN 0965-1748 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/1323 Grant - others:ASCR x NRC Canada S & T Cooperation(CA) Z60220518-58/8500 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : innate immunity * hemocytes * lectin s Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.733, year: 2005

  8. Longitudinal analysis of tick densities and Borrelia, Anaplasma, and Ehrlichia infections of Ixodes ricinus ticks in different habitat areas in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielinga, Peter R; Gaasenbeek, Cor; Fonville, Manoj; Boer, Albert de; Vries, Ankje de; Dimmers, Wim; Akkerhuis Op Jagers, Gerard; Schouls, Leo M; Borgsteede, Fred; Giessen, Joke W B van der

    2006-01-01

    From 2000 to 2004, ticks were collected by dragging a blanket in four habitat areas in The Netherlands: dunes, heather, forest, and a city park. Tick densities were calculated, and infection with Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species was investigated by reverse line blot analysis.

  9. Recent Discovery of Widespread Ixodes affinis (Acari: Ixodidae) Distribution in North Carolina With Implications for Lyme Disease Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    174 Journal of Vector Ecology June 2010 Recent discovery of widespread Ixodes affinis ( Acari : Ixodidae) distribution in North Carolina with...NOV 2009 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Recent discovery of widespread Ixodes affinis ( Acari ...reptiles and rodents as hosts by immature Ixodes scapularis ( Acari : Ixodidae) in the coastal plain of North Carolina, USA. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 17: 719

  10. Climate change and Ixodes tick-borne diseases of humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostfeld, Richard S; Brunner, Jesse L

    2015-04-05

    The evidence that climate warming is changing the distribution of Ixodes ticks and the pathogens they transmit is reviewed and evaluated. The primary approaches are either phenomenological, which typically assume that climate alone limits current and future distributions, or mechanistic, asking which tick-demographic parameters are affected by specific abiotic conditions. Both approaches have promise but are severely limited when applied separately. For instance, phenomenological approaches (e.g. climate envelope models) often select abiotic variables arbitrarily and produce results that can be hard to interpret biologically. On the other hand, although laboratory studies demonstrate strict temperature and humidity thresholds for tick survival, these limits rarely apply to field situations. Similarly, no studies address the influence of abiotic conditions on more than a few life stages, transitions or demographic processes, preventing comprehensive assessments. Nevertheless, despite their divergent approaches, both mechanistic and phenomenological models suggest dramatic range expansions of Ixodes ticks and tick-borne disease as the climate warms. The predicted distributions, however, vary strongly with the models' assumptions, which are rarely tested against reasonable alternatives. These inconsistencies, limited data about key tick-demographic and climatic processes and only limited incorporation of non-climatic processes have weakened the application of this rich area of research to public health policy or actions. We urge further investigation of the influence of climate on vertebrate hosts and tick-borne pathogen dynamics. In addition, testing model assumptions and mechanisms in a range of natural contexts and comparing their relative importance as competing models in a rigorous statistical framework will significantly advance our understanding of how climate change will alter the distribution, dynamics and risk of tick-borne disease.

  11. Climate change and Ixodes tick-borne diseases of humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostfeld, Richard S.; Brunner, Jesse L.

    2015-01-01

    The evidence that climate warming is changing the distribution of Ixodes ticks and the pathogens they transmit is reviewed and evaluated. The primary approaches are either phenomenological, which typically assume that climate alone limits current and future distributions, or mechanistic, asking which tick-demographic parameters are affected by specific abiotic conditions. Both approaches have promise but are severely limited when applied separately. For instance, phenomenological approaches (e.g. climate envelope models) often select abiotic variables arbitrarily and produce results that can be hard to interpret biologically. On the other hand, although laboratory studies demonstrate strict temperature and humidity thresholds for tick survival, these limits rarely apply to field situations. Similarly, no studies address the influence of abiotic conditions on more than a few life stages, transitions or demographic processes, preventing comprehensive assessments. Nevertheless, despite their divergent approaches, both mechanistic and phenomenological models suggest dramatic range expansions of Ixodes ticks and tick-borne disease as the climate warms. The predicted distributions, however, vary strongly with the models' assumptions, which are rarely tested against reasonable alternatives. These inconsistencies, limited data about key tick-demographic and climatic processes and only limited incorporation of non-climatic processes have weakened the application of this rich area of research to public health policy or actions. We urge further investigation of the influence of climate on vertebrate hosts and tick-borne pathogen dynamics. In addition, testing model assumptions and mechanisms in a range of natural contexts and comparing their relative importance as competing models in a rigorous statistical framework will significantly advance our understanding of how climate change will alter the distribution, dynamics and risk of tick-borne disease. PMID:25688022

  12. Spontaneous poisoning by Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel S.C. Albuquerque

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to report cases of spontaneous poisoning of cattle by Ricinus communis (castor beans in Paraíba, a semiarid region of northeastern Brazil. The cases were observed in 2 herds on neighboring properties in 2013. Clinical signs developed within 6-24 h and consisted of weakness, tachycardia, dyspnea, profuse watery diarrhea, dehydration, depression, instability, cramps, permanent lateral recumbency and death within 48-72 h. Of the 60 cattle at risk, 19 were affected and 14 died. Five fully recovered after the course of 12 days. Three animals were necropsied. The main gross lesions were hemopericardium, hemothorax, pulmonary edema, petechial hemorrhages in the epicardium and endocardium, ecchymoses at the papillary muscles and suffusions on the intercostal muscles. Hemorrhages were also observed in the abdominal cavity, spleen and mucosa of the abomasum and small intestine. The rumen content was liquid with a large amount of castor bean seeds. There were circular, whitish and focally diffuse areas in the liver parenchyma. The main microscopic lesions consisted of multifocal coagulative myocardial necrosis with the presence of mononuclear cell infiltration and varying degrees of bleeding between cardiac muscle fibers. The abomasum and small intestine mucosae and submucosa had mild edema and mononuclear and polymorphonuclear inflammatory cell infiltration. The diagnosis of R. communis was based on the history of plant consumption, clinical signs, pathology of the disease and the presence of large amounts of castor bean seeds in the forestomachs.

  13. Effect of copper on castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Lucia Helena Garofalo; Cunha, Tassio Cavalcanti da Silva; Lima, Vinicius Mota; Cabral, Paulo Cesar Pinto; Barros Junior, Genival; Lacerda, Rogerio Dantas de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEAg/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    Castor beans crop (Ricinus communis L.) is raising attention as an alternative crop for oil and biodiesel production. Despite the mineral fertilization is an important factor for increasing castor yield, few research has been made on this issue, mainly on the use de copper. In order to evaluate the effects of copper on growth of this plant an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in Campina Grande, Paraiba State, Brazil, from July to December 2007. The substrate for the pot plants was a 6 mm-sieved surface soil (Neossolo Quartzarenico). The experimental design was a completely randomized with three replications. The treatments were composed of five levels of Cu (0; 1; 2; 3 and 4 mg dm{sup -3}), which were applied at the time of planting. One plant of castor bean, cultivar BRS 188 - Paraguacu, was grown per pot after thinning and was irrigated whenever necessary. Data on plant height, number and length of leaves and stem diameter were measured at 21, 34, 77 and 103 days after planting. Copper levels used, in general, did not affect the plant height, stem diameter and leaf area, however they influenced the leaves and shoot biomass dry mass and the quadratic trend was the best to show the behavior of these. (author)

  14. Cavitation studies on whole Ricinus plants by acoustic detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milburn, J A

    1973-12-01

    Acoustic detection has been used to investigate the incidence of cavitation in whole potted Ricinus plants subjected to water stress by withholding water. Cavitation proceeded rather slowly and was detectable before and during wilting. Techniques which restricted water uptake more drastically such as root cooling or overlapping cuts induced more rapid "click" production and wilting; a response already described for excised leaves. When water stress was removed by rewatering, or rewarming a cooled root system, cavitation soon ceased. This response was more sluggish of over-delayed.Cavitation in aging leaves on well watered plants has also been examined. Despite the onset of senescence over many days there was no evidence that dry patches, which often develop extensively, are a consequence of water shortage induced by xylem blockage. Leaves, falling naturally by abscission in still air, were often remarkably turgid with water potentials similar to those of healthy attached leaves. Only after losing water was cavitation apparent, as usual for excised mature leaves. Sometimes more persistent leaves did cavitate in situ, just before abscission, showing that in normal leaves xylem blockage can occasionally precede leaf fall by several hours.

  15. Modeling the geographic distribution of Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the contiguous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Micah; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Monaghan, Andrew J.; Eisen, Rebecca J.

    2016-01-01

    In addition to serving as vectors of several other human pathogens, the black-legged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, and western black-legged tick, Ixodes pacificus Cooley and Kohls, are the primary vectors of the spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi ) that causes Lyme disease, the most common vector-borne disease in the United States. Over the past two decades, the geographic range of I. pacificus has changed modestly while, in contrast, the I. scapularis range has expanded substantially, which likely contributes to the concurrent expansion in the distribution of human Lyme disease cases in the Northeastern, North-Central and Mid-Atlantic states. Identifying counties that contain suitable habitat for these ticks that have not yet reported established vector populations can aid in targeting limited vector surveillance resources to areas where tick invasion and potential human risk are likely to occur. We used county-level vector distribution information and ensemble modeling to map the potential distribution of I. scapularis and I. pacificus in the contiguous United States as a function of climate, elevation, and forest cover. Results show that I. pacificus is currently present within much of the range classified by our model as suitable for establishment. In contrast, environmental conditions are suitable for I. scapularis to continue expanding its range into northwestern Minnesota, central and northern Michigan, within the Ohio River Valley, and inland from the southeastern and Gulf coasts. Overall, our ensemble models show suitable habitat for I. scapularis in 441 eastern counties and for I. pacificus in 11 western counties where surveillance records have not yet supported classification of the counties as established.

  16. Ability of Two Natural Products, Nootkatone and Carvacrol, to Suppress Ixodes Scapularis and Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) in a Lyme Disease Endemic Area of New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    MEDICAL ENTOMOLOGY Ability of Two Natural Products, Nootkatone and Carvacrol, to Suppress Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum ( Acari : Ixodidae...the ability of the natural, plant-derived acaricides nootkatone and carvacrol to suppress Ixodes scapularis Say and Amblyomma americanum (L.) ( Acari ...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ability of Two Natural Products, Nootkatone and Carvacrol, to Suppress Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum ( Acari

  17. The Genus Ixodes (Acari: Ixodidae) in Mexico: Adult Identification Keys, Diagnoses, Hosts, and Distribution (El genero Ixodes (Acari: Ixodidae) en Mexico: claves de identificacion para adultos, diagnosis, huespedes y distribucion)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Distribution in Mexico. Puebla . Hosts in Mexico. Heteromyidae (Mammalia). Ixodes guatemalensis Kohls, 1956 Ixodes guatemalensis Kohls, 1956: 636...de Historia Natural 23:191-307. Hoffmann, A. 1969. Un caso de parálisis por picadura de garrapata. Revista Latinoamericana de Microbiología y

  18. Identification and differentiation of Ricinus communis L. using SSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenka Gálová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false CS JA X-NONE The castor-oil plant (Ricinus communis L., a member of the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae, is a versatile industrial oil crop that is cultivated in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Castor oil is of continuing importance to the global specialty chemical industry because it is the only commercial source of a hydroxylated fatty acid. Castor also has tremendous future potential as an industrial oilseed crop because of its high seed oil content, unique fatty acid composition, potentially high oil yields and ability to be grown under drought and saline conditions. Knowledge of genetic variability is important for breeding programs to provide the basis for developing desirable genotypes. The aim of this study was to assess genetic diversity within the set of 60 ricin genotypes using 10 SSR primers. Ten SSR primers revealed a total of 67 alleles ranging from 4 to 9 alleles per locus with a mean value of 6.70 alleles per locus. The PIC values ranged from 0.719 to 0.860 with an average value of 0.813 and the DI value ranged from 0.745 to 0.862 with an average value of 0.821. Probability of identity (PI was low ranged from 0.004 to 0.018 with an average of 0.008. A dendrogram was constructed from a genetic distance matrix based on profiles of the 10 SSR loci using the unweighted pair-group method with the arithmetic average (UPGMA. According to analysis, the collection of 60 diverse accessions of castor bean was clustered into six clusters. We could not distinguish 2 genotypes grouped in cluster 1, RM-96 and RM-98, which are genetically the closest. Knowledge on the genetic diversity of castor can be used to future breeding programs of castor.

  19. [Control effects of Ricinus communis extracts on Meloidogyne incognita].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qian-Yuan; Hu, Fei-Long; Zhu, Hong-Hong; Liu, Man-Qiang; Li, Hui-Xin; Hu, Feng

    2011-11-01

    Toxicity test and pot experiment were conducted to study the nematocidal activity and control effects of Ricinus communis extracts on Meloidogyne incognita. The results showed that both the ricinine and the R. communis water extracts had high nematocidal activity. The ricinine at concentration 2 g x L(-1) and treated for 48 hours had the strongest nematocidal activity, leading to 91.5% of corrected mortality of M. incognita and with the LC50 being 0.6 g x L(-1), whereas the R. communis water extracts at concentration 100 g x L(-1) and treated for 48 hours had the strongest nematocidal activity, which led to 83.5% of corrected mortality of M. incognita, and the LC50 was 18.3 g x L(-1). With the inoculation of M. incognita treated with ricinine, R. communis water extracts, and R. communis leaf powder, respectively, on tomato seedlings, the mean number of plant root-knots was 17.6 +/- 1.7, 20.6 +/- 1.5 and 22.8 +/- 3.7, respectively, being significantly lower than the control (37.4 +/- 2.3), and the root length increased by 46.8%, 34.5% and 33.8%, and the plant height increased by 33.5%, 22.6% and 15.8%, and the fresh mass increased by 41.4%, 18.9% and 10.1%, respectively, compared with the control. All the results suggested that R. communis extracts could mitigate the harm of M. incognita, and had obvious effects on potted tomato against M. incognita.

  20. Toxic effects of Ricinus communis non-protein trypsin inhibitor on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the study reported herein, we aimed to isolate a trypsin inhibitor from Ricinus communis leaves through chromatographic and spectrometric techniques and evaluate its toxic effects on the development of Spodoptera frugiperda larvae. Plant extracts were submitted to fractionation in adsorption column. The fraction 10 ...

  1. Amelioration of Anti-Nutritive Effects of Castor Oil Seed ( Ricinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amelioration of Anti-Nutritive Effects of Castor Oil Seed ( Ricinus communis ) Meal in Broilers' Ration Using Natural Fermentation and Dl-Methionine ... Growth performance, coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility, serum metabolites, dressing percentage, and retail cuts were determined at the end of the study, which ...

  2. Criblage in vitro des graines d'accessions locales de ricin ( Ricinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le ricin (Ricinus communis L.) est une plante peu exigeante dont la culture offre d'énormes potentialités économiques pour les exploitants agricoles sénégalais. L'identification de génotypes performants avec des rendements acceptables en conditions de stress salin constitue une des solutions pour promouvoir cette ...

  3. In vitro antimicrobial and larvicidal properties of wild Ricinus communis L. in Mauritius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sillma Rampadarath

    2016-02-01

    Conclusions: Ricinus communis (castor plant extracts possess larvicidal properties providing an effective eco-friendly control for fruit flies. The antimicrobial results justify the use of this plant in traditional medicine and the practice of supplementing decoctions/concoctions with conventional antibiotics.

  4. Comparative Metagenomic Profiling of Symbiotic Bacterial Communities Associated with Ixodes persulcatus, Ixodes pavlovskyi and Dermacentor reticulatus Ticks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kurilshikov

    Full Text Available Ixodes persulcatus, Ixodes pavlovskyi, and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks inhabiting Western Siberia are responsible for the transmission of a number of etiological agents that cause human and animal tick-borne diseases. Because these ticks are abundant in the suburbs of large cities, agricultural areas, and popular tourist sites and frequently attack people and livestock, data regarding the microbiomes of these organisms are required. Using metagenomic 16S profiling, we evaluate bacterial communities associated with I. persulcatus, I. pavlovskyi, and D. reticulatus ticks collected from the Novosibirsk region of Russia. A total of 1214 ticks were used for this study. DNA extracted from the ticks was pooled according to tick species and sex. Sequencing of the V3-V5 domains of 16S rRNA genes was performed using the Illumina Miseq platform. The following bacterial genera were prevalent in the examined communities: Acinetobacter (all three tick species, Rickettsia (I. persulcatus and D. reticulatus and Francisella (D. reticulatus. B. burgdorferi sensu lato and B. miyamotoi sequences were detected in I. persulcatus and I. pavlovskyi but not in D. reticulatus ticks. The pooled samples of all tick species studied contained bacteria from the Anaplasmataceae family, although their occurrence was low. DNA from A. phagocytophilum and Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis was first observed in I. pavlovskyi ticks. Significant inter-species differences in the number of bacterial taxa as well as intra-species diversity related to tick sex were observed. The bacterial communities associated with the I. pavlovskyi ticks displayed a higher biodiversity compared with those of the I. persulcatus and D. reticulatus ticks. Bacterial community structure was also diverse across the studied tick species, as shown by permutational analysis of variance using the Bray-Curtis dissimilarity metric (p = 0.002. Between-sex variation was confirmed by PERMANOVA testing in I

  5. Comparative Metagenomic Profiling of Symbiotic Bacterial Communities Associated with Ixodes persulcatus, Ixodes pavlovskyi and Dermacentor reticulatus Ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurilshikov, Alexander; Livanova, Natalya N; Fomenko, Nataliya V; Tupikin, Alexey E; Rar, Vera A; Kabilov, Marsel R; Livanov, Stanislav G; Tikunova, Nina V

    2015-01-01

    Ixodes persulcatus, Ixodes pavlovskyi, and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks inhabiting Western Siberia are responsible for the transmission of a number of etiological agents that cause human and animal tick-borne diseases. Because these ticks are abundant in the suburbs of large cities, agricultural areas, and popular tourist sites and frequently attack people and livestock, data regarding the microbiomes of these organisms are required. Using metagenomic 16S profiling, we evaluate bacterial communities associated with I. persulcatus, I. pavlovskyi, and D. reticulatus ticks collected from the Novosibirsk region of Russia. A total of 1214 ticks were used for this study. DNA extracted from the ticks was pooled according to tick species and sex. Sequencing of the V3-V5 domains of 16S rRNA genes was performed using the Illumina Miseq platform. The following bacterial genera were prevalent in the examined communities: Acinetobacter (all three tick species), Rickettsia (I. persulcatus and D. reticulatus) and Francisella (D. reticulatus). B. burgdorferi sensu lato and B. miyamotoi sequences were detected in I. persulcatus and I. pavlovskyi but not in D. reticulatus ticks. The pooled samples of all tick species studied contained bacteria from the Anaplasmataceae family, although their occurrence was low. DNA from A. phagocytophilum and Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis was first observed in I. pavlovskyi ticks. Significant inter-species differences in the number of bacterial taxa as well as intra-species diversity related to tick sex were observed. The bacterial communities associated with the I. pavlovskyi ticks displayed a higher biodiversity compared with those of the I. persulcatus and D. reticulatus ticks. Bacterial community structure was also diverse across the studied tick species, as shown by permutational analysis of variance using the Bray-Curtis dissimilarity metric (p = 0.002). Between-sex variation was confirmed by PERMANOVA testing in I. persulcatus (p = 0

  6. Relative humidity and activity patterns of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, K.A.; Ginsberg, Howard S.; Gonzalez, L.; Mather, T.N.

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory studies have shown clear relationships between relative humidity (RH) and the activity and survival of Ixodes scapularis Say (blacklegged tick). However, field studies have produced conflicting results. We examined this relationship using weekly tick count totals and hourly RH observations at three field sites, stratified by latitude, within the state of Rhode Island. Records of nymphal tick abundance were compared with several RH-related variables (e.g., RH at time of sampling and mean weekly daytime RH). In total, 825 nymphs were sampled in 2009, a year of greater precipitation, with a weighted average leaf litter RH recorded at time of sampling of 85.22%. Alternatively, 649 nymphs were collected in 2010, a year of relatively low precipitation, and a weighted average RH recorded at time of sampling was 75.51%. Negative binomial regression analysis of tick count totals identified cumulative hours <82% RH threshold as a significant factor observed in both years (2009: P = 0.0037; 2010: P < 0.0001). Mean weekly daytime RH did not significantly predict tick activity in either year. However, mean weekly daytime RH recorded with 1-wk lag before sample date was a significant variable (P = 0.0016) in 2010. These results suggest a lag effect between moisture availability and patterns of tick activity and abundance. Differences in the relative importance of each RH variable between years may have been due to abnormally wet summer conditions in 2009.

  7. Tick genomics: the Ixodes genome project and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagel Van Zee, J; Geraci, N S; Guerrero, F D; Wikel, S K; Stuart, J J; Nene, V M; Hill, C A

    2007-10-01

    Ticks and mites (subphylum Chelicerata; subclass Acari) include important pests of animals and plants worldwide. The Ixodes scapularis (black-legged tick) genome sequencing project marks the beginning of the genomics era for the field of acarology. This project is the first to sequence the genome of a blood-feeding tick vector of human disease and a member of the subphylum Chelicerata. Genome projects for other species of Acari are forthcoming and their genome sequences will likely feature significantly in the future of tick research. Parasitologists interested in advancing the field of tick genomics research will be faced with specific challenges. The development of genetic tools and resources, and the size and repetitive nature of tick genomes are important considerations. Innovative approaches may be required to sequence, assemble, annotate and analyse tick genomes. Overcoming these challenges will enable scientists to investigate the genes and genome organisation of this important group of arthropods and may ultimately lead to new solutions for control of ticks and tick-borne diseases.

  8. Essential oil of the leaves of Ricinus communis L.: in vitro cytotoxicity and antimicrobial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarai, Zied; Ben Chobba, Ines; Ben Mansour, Riadh; Békir, Ahmed; Gharsallah, Néji; Kadri, Adel

    2012-08-13

    The aim of the present study was to appraise the antimicrobial activity of Ricinus communis L. essential oil against different pathogenic microorganisms and the cytotoxic activity against HeLa cell lines. The agar disk diffusion method was used to study the antibacterial activity of Ricinus communis L. essential oil against 12 bacterial and 4 fungi strains. The disc diameters of zone of inhibition (DD), the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and the concentration inhibiting 50% (IC50) were investigated to characterize the antimicrobial activities of this essential oil. The in vitro cytotoxicity of Ricinus communis L. essential oil was examined using a modified MTT assay; the viability and the IC50 were used to evaluate this test. The essential oil from the leaves of Ricinus communis L. was analyzed by GC-MS and bioassays were carried out. Five constituents of the oil were identified by GC-MS. The antimicrobial activity of the oil was investigated in order to evaluate its efficacy against twelve bacteria and four fungi species, using disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration methods. The essential oil showed strong antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms tested with higher sensitivity for Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter cloacae. The cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of the essential oil on HeLa cell lines were examined by MTT assay. The cytotoxicity of the oil was quite strong with IC50 values less than 2.63 mg/ml for both cell lines. The present study showed the potential antimicrobial and anticarcinogenic properties of the essential oil of Ricinus communis L., indicating the possibilities of its potential use in the formula of natural remedies for the topical treatment of infections.

  9. Surveillance for Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes Ticks and Small Rodents in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morshed, Muhammad G; Lee, Min-Kuang; Man, Stephanie; Fernando, Keerthi; Wong, Quantine; Hojgaard, Andrias; Tang, Patrick; Mak, Sunny; Henry, Bonnie; Patrick, David M

    2015-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in British Columbian ticks, fieldwork was conducted over a 2-year period. In all, 893 ticks (Ixodes pacificus, I. angustus, I. soricis, Ixodes spp., and Dermacentor andersoni) of different life stages were retrieved from 483 small rodents (Peromyscus maniculatus, Perognathus parvus, and Reithrodontomys megalotis). B. burgdorferi DNA was detected in 5 out of 359 tick pools, and 41 out of 483 mice were serologically confirmed to have antibodies against B. burgdorferi. These results were consistent with previous studies, data from passive surveillance in British Columbia, and data from neighboring states in the Pacific Northwest, suggesting a continually low prevalence of B. burgdorferi in British Columbia ticks.

  10. Molecular characterization of novel sulfotransferases from the tick, Ixodes scapularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Roberta S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ixodes scapularis, commonly known as the blacklegged or deer tick, is the main vector of Lyme disease in the United States. Recent progress in transcriptome research has uncovered hundreds of different proteins expressed in the salivary glands of hard ticks, the majority of which have no known function, and include many novel protein families. We recently identified transcripts coding for two putative cytosolic sulfotransferases in these ticks which recognized phenolic monoamines as their substrates. In this current study, we characterize the genetic expression of these two cytosolic sulfotransferases throughout the tick life cycle as well as the enzymatic properties of the corresponding recombinant proteins. Interestingly, the resultant recombinant proteins showed sulfotransferase activity against both neurotransmitters dopamine and octopamine. Results The two sulfotransferase genes were coded as Ixosc SULT 1 & 2 and corresponding proteins were referred as Ixosc Sult 1 and 2. Using gene-specific primers, the sulfotransferase transcripts were detected throughout the blacklegged tick life cycle, including eggs, larvae, nymphs, adult salivary glands and adult midgut. Notably, the mRNA and protein levels were altered upon feeding during both the larval and nymphal life stages. Quantitative PCR results confirm that Ixosc SULT1 was statistically increased upon blood feeding while Ixosc SULT 2 was decreased. This altered expression led us to further characterize the function of these proteins in the Ixodid tick. The sulfotransferase genes were cloned and expressed in a bacterial expression system, and purified recombinant proteins Ixosc Sult 1(R and 2(R showed sulfotransferase activity against neurotransmitters dopamine and octopamine as well as the common sulfotransferase substrate p-nitrophenol. Thus, dopamine- or octopamine-sulfonation may be involved in altering the biological signal for salivary secretion in I. scapularis

  11. Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection Subverts Carbohydrate Metabolic Pathways in the Tick Vector, Ixodes scapularis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cabezas Cruz, Alejandro; Alberdi, P.; Valdés, James J.; Villar, M.; de la Fuente, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, 7 February (2017), č. článku 23. ISSN 2235-2988 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278976 - ANTIGONE Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : proteomics * transcriptomics * glucose metabolism * Ixodes scapularis * Anaplasma phagocytophilum Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.300, year: 2016

  12. Ixodes scapularis Tick Cells Control Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection by Increasing the Synthesis of Phosphoenolpyruvate from Tyrosine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cabezas Cruz, Alejandro; Espinosa, P. J.; Obregon, D. A.; Alberdi, P.; de la Fuente, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, AUG 17 (2017), č. článku 375. ISSN 2235-2988 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : proteomics * transcriptomics * phosphoenolpyruvate * glycerol-3-phosphate * Ixodes scapularis * Anaplasma phagocytophilum Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.300, year: 2016

  13. Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection Subverts Carbohydrate Metabolic Pathways in the Tick Vector, Ixodes scapularis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cabezas Cruz, Alejandro; Alberdi, P.; Valdés, James J.; Villar, M.; de la Fuente, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, FEB 7 (2017), č. článku 23. ISSN 2235-2988 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278976 - ANTIGONE Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : proteomics * transcriptomics * glucose metabolism * Ixodes scapularis * Anaplasma phagocytophilum Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.300, year: 2016

  14. Seasonal correlation of sporadic schizophrenia to Ixodes ticks and Lyme borreliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritzsche Markus

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Being born in winter and spring is considered one of the most robust epidemiological risk factors for schizophrenia. The aetiology and exact timing of this birth excess, however, has remained elusive so far. Since during phylogeny, Borrelia DNA has led to multiple germ-line mutations within the CB1 candidate gene for schizophrenia, a meta analysis has been performed of all papers on schizophrenic birth excesses with no less than 3000 cases each. All published numerical data were then plotted against the seasonal distributions of Ixodes ticks worldwide. Results In the United States, Europe and Japan the birth excesses of those individuals who later in life develop schizophrenia mirror the seasonal distribution of Ixodes ticks nine months earlier at the time of conception. South of the Wallace Line, which limits the spread of Ixodes ticks and Borrelia burgdorferi into Australia, seasonal trends are less significant, and in Singapore, being non-endemic for Ixodes ticks and Lyme disease, schizophrenic birth excesses are absent. Conclusion At present, it cannot be excluded that prenatal infection by B. burgdorferi is harmful to the implanting human blastocyst. The epidemiological clustering of sporadic schizophrenia by season and locality rather emphasises the risk to the unborn of developing a congenital, yet preventable brain disorder later in life.

  15. Genomic insights into the Ixodes scapularis tick vector of Lyme disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulia-Nuss, Monika; Nuss, Andrew B.; Meyer, Jason M.

    2016-01-01

    Ticks transmit more pathogens to humans and animals than any other arthropod. We describe the 2.1 Gbp nuclear genome of the tick, Ixodes scapularis (Say), which vectors pathogens that cause Lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, babesiosis and other diseases. The large genome reflects acc...

  16. Use of Energy Crop (Ricinus communis L.) for Phytoextraction of Heavy Metals Assisted with Citric Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Chen, Xueping; He, Chiquan; Liang, Xia; Oh, Kokyo; Liu, Xiaoyan; Lei, Yanru

    2015-01-01

    Ricinus communis L. is a bioenergetic crop with high-biomass production and tolerance to cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), thus, the plant is a candidate crop for phytoremediation. Pot experiments were performed to study the effects of citric acid in enhancing phytoextraction of Cd/Pb by Ricinus communis L. Citric acid increased Cd and Pb contents in plant shoots in all treatments by about 78% and 18-45%, respectively, at the dosage of 10 mM kg(-1) soil without affecting aboveground biomass production. Addition of citric acid reduced CEC, weakened soil adsorption of heavy metals and activated Cd and Pb in soil solutions. The acid-exchangeable fraction (BCR-1) of Pb remained lower than 7% and significantly increased with citric acid amendment. Respective increases in soil evaluation index induces by 14% and 19% under the Cd1Pb50 and Cd1Pb250 treatments upon addition of citric acid resulted in soil quality improvement. Ricinus communis L. has great potential in citric acid-assisted phytoextraction for Cd and Pb remediation.

  17. Efficacy of Plant-Derived and Synthetic Compounds on Clothing as Repellents Against Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    scapularis and Amblyomma americanum ( Acari : Ixodidae) ROBERT A. JORDAN,1,2 TERRY L. SCHULZE,1,3 AND MARC C. DOLAN4 J. Med. Entomol. 49(1): 101Ð106 (2012...repellents against adult Ixodes scapularis Say and Amblyomma americanum (L.) ( Acari : Ixodidae) by using treated coveralls. One day after treatment...permethrin-based (Repel Permanone) repellents against adult Ixodes scapularis Say and Amblyomma americanum (L.) ( Acari : Ixodidae) by using treated

  18. Paired real-time PCR assays for detection of Borrelia miyamotoi in North American Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Christine B; Pilgard, Mark A; Maes, Sarah E; Hojgaard, Andrias; Eisen, Rebecca J

    2016-10-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi is an emerging, tick-borne human pathogen. In North America, it is primarily associated with Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus, two species known to bite humans. Here we describe the development and evaluation of a pair of real-time TaqMan PCR assays designed to detect B. miyamotoi in North American ticks. We sought to achieve sensitivity to B. miyamotoi strains associated with ticks throughout North America, the full genetic diversity of which is unknown, by targeting sequences that are largely conserved between B. miyamotoi strains from the eastern United States and genetically distinct B. miyamotoi strains from Japan. The two assays target different loci on the B. miyamotoi chromosome and can be run side by side under identical cycling conditions. One of the assays also includes a tick DNA target that can be used to verify the integrity of tick-derived samples. Using both recombinant plasmid controls and genomic DNA from North American and Japanese strains, we determined that both assays reliably detect as few as 5 copies of the B. miyamotoi genome. We verified that neither detects B. burgdorferi, B. lonestari or B. turicatae. This sensitive and specific pair of assays successfully detected B. miyamotoi in naturally-infected, colony-reared nymphs and in field-collected I. scapularis and I. pacificus from the Northeast and the Pacific Northwest respectively. These assays will be useful in screening field-collected Ixodes spp. from varied regions of North America to assess the risk of human exposure to this emerging pathogen. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  19. Detection of an undescribed Rickettsia sp. in Ixodes boliviensis from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyo, Adriana; Moreira-Soto, Andrés; Carranza, Marco; Calderón-Arguedas, Olger; Hun, Laya; Taylor, Lizeth

    2014-10-01

    Ixodes boliviensis is a tick of carnivores that is common on domestic dogs. The only Rickettsia that has been detected previously in this species is 'Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae'. We report the detection of an undescribed Rickettsia sp., named strain IbR/CRC, in I. boliviensis collected from dogs in Costa Rica. Analyses of gltA, ompA, and htrA partial sequences place Rickettsia sp. strain IbR/CRC in the group of R. monacensis, also close to an endosymbiont of Ixodes scapularis and other undescribed rickettsiae. It was not possible to isolate Rickettsia sp. strain IbR/CRC in Vero E6 or C6/36 cell lines. Isolation and further characterization of Rickettsia sp. strain IbR/CRC and the other undescribed rickettsiae are required to determine their taxonomic status and pathogenic potential. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. La presencia de Ixodes luciae en el noroeste argentino y nuevos huéspedes para Ixodes pararicinus y algunas especies de Amblyomma (Acari: Ixodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analía G. AUTINO

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El análisis de una colección de garrapatas de mamíferos del noroeste argentino, depositados en la Colección de Anexos de la Colección Mamíferos Lillo (CML de la Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, permitió ampliar el área de distribución de Ixodes luciae Sénevet, a las provincias de Salta y Tucumán e incrementar su rango de huéspedes al roedor sigmodontino Calomys callosus (Rengger y a los marsupiales de la familia Didelphidae Micoureus constantiae (Thomas, Thylamys cinderella Thomas y Thylamys venustus (Thomas. Se registró a C. callosus y Oligoryzomys destructor (Tschudi como nuevos huéspedes de Ixodes pararicinus Keirans & Clifford, y a los Carnivora Lycalopex gymnocercus (Fischer y Oncifelis geoffroyi (d ́Orbigny & Gervais como nuevos huéspedes de Amblyomma neumanni Ribaga y Amblyomma parvum Aragão, respectivamente. Adicionalmente, se observó la infestación de Lutreolina crassicaudata (Desmarest (Didelphidae por I. luciae y la presencia de Amblyomma tigrinum Koch, sobre L. gymnocercus. Ninfas de Amblyomma sp. se obtuvieron de Akodon Meyen (Sigmodontinae.

  1. Evaluation of phytoextracting cadmium and lead by sunflower, ricinus, alfalfa and mustard in hydroponic culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi-xin, Niu; Sun, Li-na; Sun, Tie-heng; Li, Yu-shuang; Wang, Hong

    2007-01-01

    Soil contaminated with heavy metals cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) is hard to be remediated. Phytoremediation may be a feasible method to remove toxic metals from soil, but there are few suitable plants which can hyperaccumulate metals. In this study, Cd and Pb accumulation by four plants including sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), mustard (Brassica juncea L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), ricinus (Ricinus communis L.) in hydroponic cultures was compared. Results showed that these plants could phytoextract heavy metals, the ability of accumulation differed with species, concentrations and categories of heavy metals. Values of BCF (bioconcentration factor) and TF (translocation factor) indicated that four species had dissimilar abilities of phytoextraction and transportation of heavy metals. Changes on the biomass of plants, pH and Eh at different treatments revealed that these four plants had distinct responses to Cd and Pb in cultures. Measurements should be taken to improve the phytoremediation of sites contaminated with heavy metals, such as pH and Eh regulations, and so forth.

  2. Production, optimization and quality assessment of biodiesel from Ricinus communis L. oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ijaz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available At present, biodiesel is gaining tremendous attention due to its eco-friendly nature and is possible substitute for diesel fuel. Biodiesel as renewable energy source can be produced from edible and non-edible feedstock. Non-edible resources are preferred to circumvent for food competition. In the present study FAME was produced from Ricinus communis L. oil by transesterification with methanol and ethanol in the presence of potassium hydroxide. The practical optimal condition for the production of biodiesel from castor bean was found to be: methanol/oil molar ratio, 6:1; temperature, 60 °C; time, 45 min; catalyst concentration 0.32 g. Quality assessment of biodiesel showed comparable results with ASTM standards. The values of specific gravity (SG were 0.5, kinematic viscosity 2.45 cSt, acid values 0.13 mg KOH/g, carbon residue 0.03%, flash point 119 °C, fire point 125 °C, cloud point −10 °C and pour point −20 °C of Ricinus FAME, respectively. Based on our data, it is suggested that to overcome prevailing energy crisis this non-edible plant is useful for production of biodiesel, which is an alternate to fossil fuel and may be used alone or in blend with HSD in engine combustion.

  3. Evaluation of Ricinus communis L. for the Phytoremediation of Polluted Soil with Organochlorine Pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Rissato

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation is an attractive alternative to conventional treatments of soil due to advantages such as low cost, large application areas, and the possibility of in situ treatment. This study presents the assessment of phytoremediation processes conducted under controlled experimental conditions to evaluate the ability of Ricinus communis L., tropical plant species, to promote the degradation of 15 persistent organic pollutants (POPs, in a 66-day period. The contaminants tested were hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH, DDT, heptachlor, aldrin, and others. Measurements made in rhizosphere soil indicate that the roots of the studied species reduce the concentration of pesticides. Results obtained during this study indicated that the higher the hydrophobicity of the organic compound and its molecular interaction with soil or root matrix the greater its tendency to concentrate in root tissues and the research showed the following trend: HCHs < diclofop-methyl < chlorpyrifos < methoxychlor < heptachlor epoxide < endrin < o,p′-DDE < heptachlor < dieldrin < aldrin < o,p′-DDT < p,p′-DDT by increasing order of log Kow values. The experimental results confirm the importance of vegetation in removing pollutants, obtaining remediation from 25% to 70%, and demonstrated that Ricinus communis L. can be used for the phytoremediation of such compounds.

  4. Effects of autoclaving on the proximate composition of stored castor (Ricinus communis seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTHONY NEGEDU

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Negedu A, Ameh JB, Umoh VJ, Atawodi SE, Rai MK. 2013. Effects of autoclaving on the proximate composition of stored castor (Ricinus communis seeds. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 51-56. The effect of autoclaving on the proximate composition, free fatty acids and peroxide value of castor (Ricinus communis L. seeds in storage were studied. Seeds of castor were surface sterilized, dried and divided into two equal sets of 300g each. One set was autoclaved at 15 1b pressure for 30 minutes at 121oC and the other set served as control. Each set was prepared in triplicates and both sets were stored under same room temperature conditions for a period of 180 days and agitated intermittently. Analysis of the proximate composition showed that autoclaving treatment caused an increased total fat content, reduced moisture, protein, nitrogen free extract (soluble sugar and ash contents of the seeds in storage, as well as a non-significant increase in crude fiber (non-soluble sugar content. It increased the free fatty acid content and decreased the peroxide value of seed oil.

  5. Histomorphological evaluation of Compound bone of Granulated Ricinus in bone regeneration in rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan Mateus, Christiano; Orivaldo Chierice, Gilberto; Okamoto, Tetuo

    2011-09-01

    Histological evaluation is an effective method in the behavioral description of the qualitative and quantitative implanted materials. The research validated the performance of Compound bone of Granulated Ricinus on bone regeneration with the histomorphological analysis results. Were selected 30 rabbits, females, divided into 3 groups of 10 animals (G1, G2, G3) with a postoperative time of 45, 70 and 120 days respectively. Each animal is undergone 2 bone lesions in the ilium, one implemented in the material: Compound bone of Granulated Ricinus and the other for control. After the euthanasia, the iliac bone was removed, identified and subjected to histological procedure. The evaluation histological, histomorphological results were interpreted and described by quantitative and qualitative analysis based facts verified in the three experimental groups evaluating the rate of absorption of the material in the tissue regeneration, based on the neo-bone formation. The histomorphologic results classified as a material biocompatible and biologically active. Action in regeneration by bone resorption occurs slowly and gradually. Knowing the time and rate of absorption and neo-formation bone biomaterial, which can be determined in the bone segment applicable in the clinical surgical area.

  6. Fractionation of Stable Cadmium Isotopes in the Cadmium Tolerant Ricinus communis and Hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Rongfei; Guo, Qingjun; Wen, Hanjie; Liu, Congqiang; Yang, Junxing; Peters, Marc; Hu, Jian; Zhu, Guangxu; Zhang, Hanzhi; Tian, Liyan; Han, Xiaokun; Ma, Jie; Zhu, Chuanwei; Wan, Yingxin

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) isotopes provide new insights into Cd uptake, transport and storage mechanisms in plants. Therefore, the present study adopted the Cd-tolerant Ricinus communis and Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum, which were cultured under controlled conditions in a nutrient solution with variable Cd supply, to test the isotopic fractionation of Cd during plant uptake. The Cd isotope compositions of nutrient solutions and organs of the plants were measured by multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). The mass balance of Cd isotope yields isotope fractionations between plant and Cd source (δ114/110Cdorgans-solution) of −0.70‰ to −0.22‰ in Ricinus communis and −0.51‰ to −0.33‰ in Solanum nigrum. Moreover, Cd isotope fractionation during Cd transport from stem to leaf differs between the Cd-tolerant and -hyperaccumulator species. Based on these results, the processes (diffusion, adsorption, uptake or complexation), which may induce Cd isotope fractionation in plants, have been discussed. Overall, the present study indicates potential applications of Cd isotopes for investigating plant physiology. PMID:27076359

  7. Effects of cold-girdling on flows in the transport phloem in Ricinus communis: is mass flow ihibited?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peuke, A.D.; Windt, C.W.; As, van H.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of cold girdling of the transport phloem at the hypocotyl of Ricinus communis on solute and water transport were investigated. Effects on the chemical composition of saps of phloem and xylem as well as of stem tissue were studied by conventional techniques and the water flow in the

  8. Biochemical, physiological and molecular responses of Ricinus communis seeds and seedlings to different temperatures: a multi-omics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro de Jesus, P.R.

    2015-01-01

    Biochemical, physiological and molecular responses of Ricinus communis seeds and seedlings to different temperatures: a multi-omics approach by Paulo Roberto Ribeiro de Jesus The main objective of this thesis was to provide a detailed analysis of physiological,

  9. Metabolite profiling of Ricinus communis germination at different temperatures provides new insights into thermo-mediatedrequirements for successful seedling establishment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro de Jesus, P.R.; Willems, L.A.J.; Mutimawurugo, M.C.; Fernandez, L.G.; Castro, De R.D.; Ligterink, W.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    Ricinus communis seeds germinate to a high percentage and faster at 35¿C than at lower temperatures, butwith compromised seedling establishment. However, seedlings are able to cope with high temperaturesat later stages of seedling establishment if germination occurred at lower temperatures. Our

  10. Evaluation on Infectivity of Babesia microti to Domestic Animals and Ticks Outside the Ixodes Genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajun Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Babesiosis caused by Babesia microti parasite is an emerging tick borne zoonotic disease that was confirmed recently in China. To understand the epidemiology characteristics of this emerging disease, infectivity of B. microti to domestic animals and ticks outside the genus Ixodes was evaluated in this study. Different domestic animals, chick, pig, goat, dog and the reference host rat were experimentally inoculated with B. microti-infected erythrocytes and the parasite infection was monitored daily by blood smear observation, real-time PCR detection, nested-PCR and special antibody responses during 55 days period. The results showed that rats infected with B. microti showed a typical sustained infection with strongly antibody responses; however, both goats and dogs infected with B. microti only showed transient antibody responses and the parasite was not found by blood smear observation or PCR; neither the parasite nor the special antibodies were detected in experimental chicks and pigs. On the other hand, the present study also experimentally investigated the infectivity of B. microti to Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides, Haemaphysalis longicornis, and Hyalomma asiaticum three species of ticks outside the genus Ixodes and the transmission experiment of B. microti between H. longicornis ticks and mice. Results showed that B. microti can be detected in the nymph and adult of these species after molting from engorged tick fed on infected mice, but the parasite was not detected in larvae hatching from eggs of engorged female tick fed on the infected mice. Transmission of B. microti to mice by infected H. longicornis nymphs was confirmed. These results indicated that these domestic animals do not have reservoir competence for B. microti, however, three species of ticks out of the genus Ixodes, common in China were successfully infected by B. microti, with H. longicornis showing the potential of transmitting the parasite to the vertebrate host.

  11. La presencia de Ixodes luciae en el noroeste argentino y nuevos huéspedes para Ixodes pararicinus y algunas especies de Amblyomma (Acari: Ixodidae Presence of Ixodes luciae in Argentina northwest and new hosts for Ixodes pararicinus and some species of Amblyomma (Acari: Ixodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analía G. Autino

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available El análisis de una colección de garrapatas de mamíferos del noroeste argentino, depositados en la Colección de Anexos de la Colección Mamíferos Lillo (CML de la Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, permitió ampliar el área de distribución de Ixodes luciae Sénevet, a las provincias de Salta y Tucumán e incrementar su rango de huéspedes al roedor sigmodontino Calomys callosus (Rengger y a los marsupiales de la familia Didelphidae Micoureus constantiae (Thomas, Thylamys cinderella Thomas y Thylamys venustus (Thomas. Se registró a C . callosus y Oligoryzomys destructor (Tschudi como nuevos huéspedes de Ixodes pararicinus Keirans & Clifford, y a los Carnivora Lycalopex gymnocercus (Fischer y Oncifelis geoffroyi (d´Orbigny & Gervais como nuevos huéspedes de Amblyomma neumanni Ribaga y Amblyomma parvum Aragão, respectivamente. Adicionalmente, se observó la infestación de Lutreolina crassicaudata (Desmarest (Didelphidae por I. luciae y la presencia de Amblyomma tigrinum Koch, sobre L. gymnocercus . Ninfas de Amblyomma sp . se obtuvieron de Akodon Meyen (Sigmodontinae.The analysis of a tick collection of mammals from northwestern Argentina deposited in the Annexes (ACML of Colección Mamíferos Lillo (CML National University of Tucumán, amplified the distribution of Ixodes luciae Sénevet, to Salta and Tucumán provinces and increased the host range to the sigmodontinae rodent Calomys callosus (Rengger and the Didelphidae Micoureus constantiae (Thomas, Thylamys cinderella Thomas and Thylamys venustus (Thomas. Calomys callosus and Oligoryzomys destructor (Tschudi were registered as new hosts of Ixodes pararicinus Keirans & Clifford, and the Carnivora Lycalopex gymnocercus (Fischer and Oncifelis geoffroyi (d´Orbigny & Gervais as new hosts of Amblyomma neumanni Ribaga, and Amblyomma parvum Aragão, respectively . Lutreolina crassicaudata (Desmarest (Didelphidae was also found infested with I. luciae while Amblyomma tigrinum Koch was

  12. An Ixodes minor and Borrelia carolinensis enzootic cycle involving a critically endangered Mojave Desert rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Janet; Ott-Conn, Caitlin; Worth, Joy; Poulsen, Amanda; Clifford, Deana

    2014-03-01

    Microtus californicus scirpensis is an endangered, isolated subspecies of California vole. It requires water pools and riparian bulrush (Schoenoplectus americanus) and occupies some of the rarest habitat of any North American mammal. The minimally vegetated, extremely arid desert surrounding the pools is essentially uninhabitable for Ixodes species ticks. We describe an enzootic cycle of Borrelia carolinensis in Ixodes minor ticks at a site 3500 km distant from the region in which I. minor is known to occur in Tecopa Host Springs, Inyo County, eastern Mojave Desert, California. Voles were live-trapped, and ticks and blood samples queried by PCR and DNA sequencing for identification and determination of the presence of Borrelia spp. Between 2011-2013, we found 21 Ixodes minor ticks (prevalence 4-8%) on Amargosa voles and Reithrodontomys megalotis. DNA sequencing of 16S rRNA from ticks yielded 99% identity to I. minor. There was 92% identity with I. minor in the calreticulin gene fragment. Three ticks (23.1%), 15 (24%) voles, three (27%) house mice, and one (7%) harvest mice were PCR positive for Borrelia spp. Sequencing of the 5S-23S intergenic spacer region and flagellin gene assigned Amargosa vole Borrelia strains to B. carolinensis. Ixodes minor, first described in 1902 from a single Guatemalan record, reportedly occurs only in the southeast American on small mammals and birds. The source of this tick in the Mojave Desert and time scale for introduction is not known but likely via migratory birds. Borrelia strains in the Amargosa ecosystem most closely resemble B. carolinensis. B. carolinensis occurs in a rodent-I. minor enzootic cycle in the southeast U.S. although its epidemiological significance for people or rodents is unknown. The presence of a tick and Borrelia spp. only known from southeast U.S. in this extremely isolated habitat on the other side of the continent is of serious concern because it suggests that the animals in the ecosystem

  13. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Ricinus communis var. carmencita leaf extract and its antibacterial study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Sunita; Sett, Arghya; Bora, Utpal

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we report synthesis of silver nanoparticles (RcAgNPs) from silver nitrate solution using methanolic leaf extract of Ricinus communis var. carmencita. The polyphenols present in the leaves reduce Ag++ ions to Ag0 followed by a color change. Silver nanoparticle formation was ensured by surface plasmon resonance between 400 nm to 500 nm. Crystallinity of the synthesized nanoparticles was confirmed by UHRTEM, SAED and XRD analysis. The capping of phytochemicals and thermal stability of RcAgNPs were assessed by FTIR spectra and TGA analysis, respectively. It also showed antibacterial activity against both gram positive and gram negative strains. RcAgNPs were non-toxic against normal cell line (mouse fibroblast cell line L929) at lower concentrations (80 µg ml-1).

  14. Forensic Applications of Light-Element Stable Isotope Ratios of Ricinus communis Seeds and Ricin Preparations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuzer, Helen W.; West, Jason B.; Ehleringer, James

    2013-01-01

    Seeds of the castor plant Ricinus communis, also known as castor beans, are of forensic interest because they are the source of the poison ricin. We have tested whether stable isotope ratios of castor seeds and ricin prepared by various methods can be used as a forensic signature. We collected over 300 castor seed samples from locations around the world and measured the C, N, O, and H stable isotope ratios of the whole seeds, oil, and three types of ricin preparations. Our results demonstrate that N isotope ratios can be used to correlate ricin prepared by any of these methods to source seeds. Further, stable isotope ratios distinguished >99% of crude and purified ricin protein samples in pair-wise comparison tests. Stable isotope ratios therefore constitute a valuable forensic signature for ricin preparations.

  15. Isotope labeling-based quantitative proteomics of developing seeds of castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogueira, Fábio C S; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Schwämmle, Veit

    2013-01-01

    could be mapped to extant castor gene models, considerably expanding the number of proteins so far identified from developing castor seeds. Cluster validation and statistical analysis resulted in 975 protein trend patterns and the relative abundance of 618 proteins. The results presented in this work......In this study, we used a mass spectrometry-based quantification approach employing isotopic (ICPL) and isobaric (iTRAQ) labeling to investigate the pattern of protein deposition during castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.) development, including that of proteins involved in fatty acid metabolism......, seed-storage proteins (SSPs), toxins, and allergens. Additionally, we have used off-line hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) as a step of peptide fractionation preceding the reverse-phase nanoLC coupled to a LTQ Orbitrap. We were able to identify a total of 1875 proteins, and from these 1748...

  16. Water absorption through salivary gland type I acini in the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis

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    Donghun Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Tick salivary glands play critical roles in maintaining water balance for survival, as they eliminate excess water and ions during blood feeding on hosts. In the long duration of fasting in the off-host period, ticks secrete hygroscopic saliva into the mouth cavity to uptake atmospheric water vapor. Type I acini of tick salivary glands are speculated to be involved in secretion of hygroscopic saliva based on ultrastructure studies. However, we recently proposed that type I acini play a role in resorption of water/ions from the primary saliva produced by other salivary acini (i.e., types II and III during the tick blood feeding phase. In this study, we tested the function of type I acini in unfed female Ixodes scapularis. The route of ingested water was tracked after forced feeding of water with fluorescent dye rhodamine123. We found that type-I acini of the salivary glands, but not type II and III, are responsible for water uptake. In addition, the ingestion of water through the midgut was also observed. Injection or feeding of ouabain, a Na/K-ATPase inhibitor, suppressed water absorption in type I acini. When I. scapularis was offered a droplet of water, ticks rarely imbibed water directly (5%, while some approached the water droplet to use the high humidity formed in the vicinity of the droplet (23%. We conclude that during both on- and off-host stages, type I acini in salivary glands of female Ixodes scapularis absorb water and ions.

  17. Toxicity and repellency of plant essential oils against the arthropod disease vectors Phlebotomus papatasi and Ixodes scapularis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi is an important blood feeder and the main vector of the trypanosomatid protozoa Leishmania major, which causes leishmaniasis in parts of the Afro-Eurasian region. The black- legged tick Ixodes scapularis is the primary tick vector of the bacterium Borrelia burgdorfe...

  18. Are the specialized bird ticks, Ixodes arboricola and I. frontalis, competent vectors for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heylen, D.; Sprong, H.; Oers, van K.; Fonville, M.; Leirs, H.; Matthysen, E.

    2014-01-01

    Our study tested whether two European bird-specialized ticks, Ixodes arboricola and I. frontalis, can act as vectors in the transmission cycles of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. The ticks have contrasting ecologies but share songbird hosts (such as the great tit, Parus major) with the generalist I.

  19. Are the specialized bird ticks, Ixodes arboricola and I. frontalis, competent vectors for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heylen, D.; Sprong, H.; Van Oers, K.; Fonville, M.; Matthysen, E.

    2014-01-01

    Our study tested whether two European bird-specialized ticks, Ixodes arboricola and I. frontalis, can act as vectors in the transmission cycles of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. The ticks have contrasting ecologies but share songbird hosts (such as the great tit, Parus major) with the generalist

  20. Energy flow in castor bean (Ricinus communis L. production systems Fluxos de energia em sistemas de produção de mamona (Ricinus communis L.

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    Adilson Nunes da Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Although energy analysis is a way to evaluate the sustainability of production systems, this practice is not often used in the agribusiness. In this context, the castor bean (Ricinus communis L is an agricultural crop not yet well studied despite its great potential in the Brazilian energetic scenario. This article aimed to evaluate the productive potential of the castor bean oil, using an energetic view applied to two management systems: low (System 1 and medium (System 2 technologies. The quantification of the used material fluxes was made converting these factors in energy units. The input energy fluxes were 3,170.6 MJ ha¹ and 10,366.0 MJ ha¹ for Systems 1 and 2, respectively. The energy balance of System 1 was 11,938.2 MJ ha¹ and that of System 2 16,296.5 MJ ha¹. The net energetic gain or the energy gain over the invested energy (EROI of System 1 was 3.8 and of System 2, 2.6. Although presenting a greater energy demand and a lower EROI, System 2 had a greater energy balance, demonstrating a better viability of this cultivation system for the production of castor bean oil.A análise energética é uma forma de se avaliar a sustentabilidade de um sistema produtivo, apesar de ainda pouco utilizada no setor agropecuário. Inserida neste setor encontra-se a produção da mamoneira (Ricinus communis L., cultura ainda pouco estudada e que apresenta grande importância para o agronegócio brasileiro. Avaliou-se sob a ótica energética a produção potencial de óleo de mamona em dois sistemas de cultivo: com baixa (Sistema 1 e média (Sistema 2 tecnologias. Foi realizada a quantificação dos fluxos de materiais empregados nos dois sistemas de produção e conversão destes fatores em unidades de energia. Os fluxos de energia de entrada foram de 3.170,6 MJ ha¹ e 10.366 MJ ha¹ para os sistemas 1 e 2, respectivamente. O balanço de energia foi de 11.938,2 MJ ha¹ no sistema 1 e 16.296,5 MJ ha¹ no sistema 2. A lucratividade energética, retorno

  1. Sintesis N-Etanol -9,10,12- Trihidroksi Stearamida Yang Diturunkan Dari Minyak Jarak (Ricinus Communis Linn.)

    OpenAIRE

    Manurung, Simon

    2008-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memanfaatkan metil risinoleat yang merupakan komponen utama sebagai trigliserida yang dijumpai pada minyak jarak (Ricinus Communis Linn.) sebagai bahan untuk sintesis senyawa N-etanol-9,10,12-trihidroksi stearamida. Untuk mendapatkan senyawa N-etanol-9,10,12-trihidroksi stearamida, minyak jarak terlebih dahulu dimetanolisis dengan metanol menggunakan katalis H2SO4 dalam pelarut benzena pada kondisi refluks. Metil risinoleat dipisahkan dari metil ester asam le...

  2. First record of Ixodes ariadnae in Western Europe, Belgium--Short communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornok, Sándor; Krawczyk, Aleksandra

    2016-12-01

    Fourteen long-legged ixodid ticks (6 nymphs and 8 larvae) were collected from Bechstein's bat (Myotis bechsteinii) in Rochefort, Belgium. All ticks were morphologically identified as Ixodes ariadnae, based on their long legs (Haller's organ longer than maximum diameter of tarsus I), broad palps and posteriorly reverse bell-shaped scutum with wavy surface. The DNA was extracted from these ticks, followed by PCR amplification of part of their cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. All obtained sequences were 100% identical with each other, and with the COI sequence of I. ariadnae reported previously from Hungary and Germany. Taking into account that the collection site in the present study is close to the French border of Belgium, and migration of Bechstein's bat is known between Belgium and France, it is reasonable to suppose that I. ariadnae also occurs in France. This is the first record of I. ariadnae in Western Europe, outside its formerly known geographical range (Central Europe).

  3. Immunity-related genes in Ixodes scapularis – perspectives from genome information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis A. Smith

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ixodes scapularis, commonly known as the deer tick, transmits a wide array of human and animal pathogens including Borrelia burgdorferi. Despite substantial advances in our understanding of immunity in model arthropods, including other disease vectors, precisely how I. scapularis immunity functions and influences persistence of invading pathogens remains largely unknown. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of the recently sequenced I. scapularis genome for the occurrence of immune-related genes and related pathways. We will also discuss the potential influence of immunity-related genes on the persistence of tick-borne pathogens with an emphasis on the Lyme disease pathogen B. burgdorferi. Further enhancement of our knowledge of tick immune responses is critical to understanding the molecular basis of the persistence of tick-borne pathogens and development of novel interventions against the relevant infections.

  4. Variation in the Microbiota of Ixodes Ticks with Regard to Geography, Species, and Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Treuren, Will; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Brinkerhoff, R Jory; Gonzalez, Antonio; Parobek, Christian M; Juliano, Jonathan J; Andreadis, Theodore G; Falco, Richard C; Ziegler, Lorenza Beati; Hathaway, Nicholas; Keeler, Corinna; Emch, Michael; Bailey, Jeffrey A; Roe, R Michael; Apperson, Charles S; Knight, Rob; Meshnick, Steven R

    2015-09-01

    Ixodes scapularis is the principal vector of Lyme disease on the East Coast and in the upper Midwest regions of the United States, yet the tick is also present in the Southeast, where Lyme disease is absent or rare. A closely related species, I. affinis, also carries the pathogen in the South but does not seem to transmit it to humans. In order to better understand the geographic diversity of the tick, we analyzed the microbiota of 104 adult I. scapularis and 13 adult I. affinis ticks captured in 19 locations in South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, Connecticut, and New York. Initially, ticks from 4 sites were analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing. Subsequently, ticks from these sites plus 15 others were analyzed by sequencing with an Illumina MiSeq machine. By both analyses, the microbiomes of female ticks were significantly less diverse than those of male ticks. The dissimilarity between tick microbiomes increased with distance between sites, and the state in which a tick was collected could be inferred from its microbiota. The genus Rickettsia was prominent in all locations. Borrelia was also present in most locations and was present at especially high levels in one site in western Virginia. In contrast, members of the family Enterobacteriaceae were very common in North Carolina I. scapularis ticks but uncommon in I. scapularis ticks from other sites and in North Carolina I. affinis ticks. These data suggest substantial variations in the Ixodes microbiota in association with geography, species, and sex. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Survival rates of immature Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks estimated using field-placed enclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Nathan C; Holmes, Elizabeth A; Foley, Janet E

    2010-06-01

    Granulocytic anaplasmosis (GA) and Lyme borreliosis are emerging tick-borne diseases caused by infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi, respectively, and maintained in rodent-Ixodes spp. tick cycles, including I. pacificus in the western U.S. Ixodes pacificus has a multiple-year life cycle and B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum are transstadially, but not transovarially, transmitted within ticks, thus ticks function importantly in maintaining infection in nature. In this study, the survival of larval and nymphal I. pacificus was determined using ticks placed in tubes in leaf litter from June 2005 to September 2006 at two field sites in the California northern coast range mountains and a laboratory control. In all three sites, nymphal and larval survival ranged from 90-400 d, with differences in mean survival among sites. Fewer ticks died in the autumn in the moister field sites compared with the drier incubator control treatment. The first large die-off event in late autumn occurred at all sites shortly before relative humidity increased from 80-100% and temperature declined from approximately 22-15 degrees C. The concurrent die-off in the incubator population, subject to relative humidity and temperature regimes that were invariant, suggests that survival time was dependent on other factors in addition to environmental conditions. These results suggested that many ticks exhausted resources or tolerance for relatively low humidity within six months of questing, and that higher humidity prolonged survival. Based on observed longevity, humans and other animals could acquire A. phagocytophilum infection from adult I. pacificus that were infected up to three years earlier.

  6. Population and demographic structure of Ixodes scapularis Say in the eastern United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce M Sakamoto

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The most significant vector of tick-borne pathogens in the United States is Ixodes scapularis Say (the blacklegged tick. Previous studies have identified significant genetic, behavioral and morphological differences between northern vs. southern populations of this tick. Because tick-borne pathogens are dependent on their vectors for transmission, a baseline understanding of the vector population structure is crucial to determining the risks and epidemiology of pathogen transmission. METHODS: We investigated population genetic variation of I. scapularis populations in the eastern United States using a multilocus approach. We sequenced and analyzed the mitochondrial COI and 16S genes and three nuclear genes (serpin2, ixoderin B and lysozyme from wild specimens. RESULTS: We identified a deep divergence (3-7% in I. scapularis COI gene sequences from some southern specimens, suggesting we had sampled a different Ixodes species. Analysis of mitochondrial 16S rRNA sequences did not support this hypothesis and indicated that all specimens were I. scapularis. Phylogenetic analysis and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA supported significant differences between northern vs. southern populations. Demographic analysis suggested that northern populations had experienced a bottleneck/expansion event sometime in the past, possibly associated with Pleistocene glaciation events. CONCLUSIONS: Similar to other studies, our data support the division of northern vs. southern I. scapularis genetic lineages, likely due to differences in the demographic histories between these geographic regions. The deep divergence identified in some COI gene sequences highlights a potential hazard of relying solely on COI for species identification ("barcoding" and population genetics in this important vector arthropod.

  7. Apis mellifera pollination improves agronomic productivity of anemophilous castor bean (Ricinus communis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo A.G. Rizzardo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Castor bean (Ricinus communis L. is cultivated mainly for biodiesel production because of its oil-rich seeds; it is assumed to be an anemophylous species. But pollination deficit can lead to low productivity often attributed to other reasons. In this paper, we investigated pollination requirements, pollination mechanism, occurrence of pollination deficit, and the role of biotic pollinators in a large commercial plantation of castor bean. Our results show that R. communis bears a mixed breeding system favoring selfing by geitonogamy, although the wind promotes mostly outcrossing. We also found that the honey bee (Apis mellifera L. foraging on castor bean can both transfer pollen from male to female flowers within the same raceme and boost the release of airborne pollen by male flowers. Both situations increase geitonogamy rates, raising significantly fruit set and seed yield. This is the first report of an animal foraging activity increasing seed yield in an anemophilous and geitonogamous crop and elucidates the role of biotic pollinators in castor bean reproduction.A mamoneira (Ricinus communis L. é cultivada principalmente para produção de biodiesel devido ao alto teor de óleo de suas sementes e considerada como sendo de polinização anemófila. Mas déficits de polinização podem levar a baixos índices de produtividade geralmente atribuídos a outros fatores. Neste trabalho foram investigados os requerimentos, mecanismos e déficit de polinização e o papel dos polinizadores bióticos em um monocultivo comercial de mamona. Os resultados mostram que R. communis possui um sistema de polinização misto, favorecendo a autopolinização por geitonogamia, embora o vento normalmente promova polinização cruzada. Observou-se também que a abelha melífera (Apis mellifera L. forrageando na mamoneira pode tanto transferir pólen das flores estaminadas para as pistiladas do mesmo racemo, quanto aumentar consideravelmente a liberação de p

  8. Prevention of adhesion formation in Wistar-albino rats by increased bowel movements achieved with oral Ricinus oil use for 8 days postoperatively: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahyaoglu, Serkan; Timur, Hakan; Kaba, Metin; Kahyaoglu, Inci; Sirvan, Levent; Cicek, Mahmut Nedim

    2012-12-01

    Adhesion formation frequently occurs after abdominopelvic surgery and can cause significant morbidity for patients. Meticulous hemostasis, minimal access surgery and utilization of surgical adjuvants intraoperatively are clinically useful measures to minimize adhesion formation. We investigated the clinical efficiency of oral Ricinus oil treatment for 8 days postoperatively to decrease adhesion formation in this case-control study in a rat model. Following computer-generated randomization, 24 female Wistar-albino rats were operated on, with 10 standard cautery lesions on the right uterine horn and two simple suture lesions on left uterine horn generated with absorbable material. Half (n=12) the rats received 0.13 g (0.2 ml) Ricinus oil emulsion (40 g/60 ml) via the oral route during the first 8 days postoperatively, and the remaining rats (n=11) were considered as controls. The extent, severity, degree, total adhesion scores and histopathological features of the adhesions were the main outcome measures. The degree and total adhesion formation scores in the Ricinus oil group and control group revealed significant differences in adhesion extent and severity. The total adhesion scores of the Ricinus oil and control groups were 3.00 ± 2.21 and 5.18 ± 2.78 respectively (P0.05). Ricinus oil treatment following abdominopelvic surgery for the 8-day period that covers the completion of tissue healing process may be a promising, cheap and cost-effective treatment strategy for patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of the cadmium and lead phytoextraction by castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) in hydroponics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Z. X.; Sun, L. N.

    2017-06-01

    Phytoextraction has been considered as an innovative method to remove toxic metals from soil; higher biomass plants such as castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) have already been considered as a hyperaccumulating candidate. In the present study, castor bean was used to accumulate the cadmium and lead in hydroponic culture, and the root exudates and biomass changes were analyzed. Results demonstrated that ratios of aerial biomass/ root biomass (AW/RW) in treatments declined with concentrations of Cd or Pb. Optical density (OD) at 190 nm and 280 nm of root exudates observed in Cd and Pb treatments were lower than the control. In single Cd or Pb treatments, bioconcentration factors (BCF) of Cd or Pb increased with time and decreased with concentrations, the highest BCFs appeared in Cd5 (14.36) and Pb50 (6.48), respectively. Cd-BCF or Pb-BCF showed positive correlations with AW/RW ratios and OD values, and they were negative correlated with Cd and Pb concentration. Results in this study may supply useful information for phytoremediation of soil contaminated with cadmium and lead in situ.

  10. Biodiesel Obtaining from Ricinus Seed. Academical Proyect For Promoting Biofuels Use in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Daza, O.; Amador Ramirez, P.; Reyes Ortega, Y.; Rosas Mendoza, S.; Cervantes de la Rosa, A.; Pineda Gonzalez, A.A.

    2007-07-01

    Mexico shares a strong responsibility into Latin-America and with the rest of the world as GHG emitter. At present, this responsibility has not a minimum of response on education, economy, politics, science and technology. One of the most important contamination source in Mexico is transport which, additionally, undergoes a slow modernization process. Brazil and European Union experiences and an abundant scientific literature have shown the economical and technological feasibility for substituting fossil fuels by other renewable and clean fuels as bioethanol and biodiesel. Authors consider as fundamental objective to promote production and use of biofuels in Mexico. They are working on the investigation project which is developed in Puebla State searching to take advantage of regional row materials. Ricinus seed cultivation could stimulate regional socioeconomic conditions because of water demand is modest, currently the seed grows wildly and some land extension in the region is not active due to high emigration towards USA. Knowledge about biodiesel obtaining from diverse materials is abundant and international companies market industrial equipment and technology for producing it, nevertheless, the authors consider important to develop in Mexico adequate technology to the specific socioeconomic and natural conditions working the own raw materials. (auth)

  11. Selective response of Ricinus communis seedlings to soil borne rhizoctonia infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Bittsanszky

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Seedlings of Ricinus communis tolerated soil-borne Rhizoctonia infection in strain dependent manner. There was no connection revealed between pathogenicity of strains and their origin or taxonomic position, however, the castor plant proved to be susceptible to most strains highly pathogenic to other host plants as well. Rhizoctonia zeae (teleomorph: Waitea circinata, a species new for European flora, was less aggressive to R. communis as the most potent R. solani strains. The effect of Rhizoctonia infection on mass accumulation of hypocotyls was more prominent than that on cotyledons. The protein content and glutathione S-transferase (GST activity increased in parallel with evolution of disease syndrome. Metalaxyl, an acetanilide type systemic anti-omycete fungicide induced locally the GST activity in R. communis cotyledons with 24 hours lag phase, and this induction was altered in the seedlings grown in Rhizoctonia infested soil by strain dependent manner. It might be concluded, that the stress response related detoxication mechanisms of plants in tolerant host/parasite pairs take effect at higher level than in highly susceptible relationships.

  12. Effects of Oganic and Biofertilizers on Growth Indices of Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Amin Ghafori

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Castor plant, Ricinus communis L. is a species of flowering plant in the spurge family; Euphorbiaceae, which contains a vast number of plants mostly native to the tropics. It belongs to a monotypic genus Ricinus. The name Ricinus is a latin word for tick. The plant is probably named because its seed has markings and a dump at the end that resemble certain ticks (NCRI, 2014. Castorbean is an industrial oil seed crop containing about 45-58 percent oil, which has tremendous application in petrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, textiles, chemicals, soap, leather, paints, varnishes, ink, nylon and plastic. Castor oil is traditionally associated with medicine and veterinary use in the fields of obstetrics, dermatology. It is also used as laxative. Presently, its utilization as bio-diesel has magnified its importance. Its oil does not freeze even at high altitudes and it is one the best lubricants for jet engines. This 100% castor-based product, has numerous applications in industry such as rotating glass car-wipers, ski boots fixatives, and for use in air-brake systems on trucks. Many new uses, based on the biodegradability of castor oil derived products, are expected in the future (Labalette et al., 1996. The shell of the castor bean is used as an organic termite control agent and its seed cake as manure in the soil. Medicinal plants are valuable resources in a wide range of natural resources that scientific identification, cultivation, development and proper utilization of them can have an important role in community health, employment and non-petrol exports. Quality of medicinal plants is more important than other crops. One of the most important factors determining the yield of castor bean is fertility. Integrated supply of nutrient to plants through combinations of organic and inorganic sources is becoming an increasingly important aspect of environmentally sound agriculture. Reports showed that the application of manure on bean

  13. Synthesis and characterization of dialkanolamides from castor oil (Ricinus communis) as nonionic surfactant

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    Anwar, M.; Wahyuningsih, T. D.

    2017-12-01

    Nonionic surfactant of dialkanolamide derivates was synthesized and characterized from castor oil (Ricinus comunnis). Ricinoleic acid was isolated from castor oil by hydrolysis in alkaline (KOH) condition at 65 °C. Oxidation of ricinoleic acid by dilute potassium permanganate (KMnO4) in alkaline condition at 75-90 °C gave dicarboxylic acid which was then reacted with ethanolamine at 140-160 °C for 6 hours. The product was recrystallized with isopropanol, and the structure elucidation was performed by FTIR, 1HNMR spectrometer, and GC-MS with silylation method. Characterization of surfactants was carried out by surface tension measurement (capillary rise method), Critical Micelle Concentration (CMC) based on turbidity method and calculation of Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Balance (HLB) value with Griffin method and Bancroft rule. The result showed that ricinoleic acid in castor oil is 86.19 % and it is oxidation give an azelaic acid and octanedioic acid in 53.25 %. Amidation of a dicarboxylic acid and ethanolamine at 140-160 °C for 6 hours yielded of N1,N9-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)nona diamide in 49.35 %. Surfactant characterization indicates that dialkanolamide derivates can be used as a surfactant due to its ability to reduce the surface tension of ethanol with CMC at 1.2 g/L, HLB value is 5.58 and can be used as emulsifier water in oil (W/O).

  14. Apis mellifera pollination improves agronomic productivity of anemophilous castor bean (Ricinus communis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzardo, Rômulo A G; Milfont, Marcelo O; Silva, Eva M S da; Freitas, Breno M

    2012-12-01

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) is cultivated mainly for biodiesel production because of its oil-rich seeds; it is assumed to be an anemophylous species. But pollination deficit can lead to low productivity often attributed to other reasons. In this paper, we investigated pollination requirements, pollination mechanism, occurrence of pollination deficit, and the role of biotic pollinators in a large commercial plantation of castor bean. Our results show that R. communis bears a mixed breeding system favoring selfing by geitonogamy, although the wind promotes mostly outcrossing. We also found that the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) foraging on castor bean can both transfer pollen from male to female flowers within the same raceme and boost the release of airborne pollen by male flowers. Both situations increase geitonogamy rates, raising significantly fruit set and seed yield. This is the first report of an animal foraging activity increasing seed yield in an anemophilous and geitonogamous crop and elucidates the role of biotic pollinators in castor bean reproduction.

  15. Jatropha curcasand Ricinus communisdisplay contrasting photosynthetic mechanisms in response to environmental conditions

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    Milton Costa Lima Neto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Higher plants display different adaptive strategies in photosynthesis to cope with abiotic stress. In this study, photosynthetic mechanisms and water relationships displayed byJatropha curcasL. (physic nuts andRicinus communisL. (castor bean, in response to variations in environmental conditions, were assessed.R. communis showed higher CO2 assimilation, stomatal and mesophyll conductance thanJ. curcas as light intensity and intercellular CO2 pressure increased. On the other hand,R. communis was less effective in stomatal control in response to adverse environmental factors such as high temperature, water deficit and vapor pressure deficit, indicating lower water use efficiency. Conversely,J. curcas exhibited higher photosynthetic efficiency (gas exchange and photochemistry and water use efficiency under these adverse environmental conditions.R. communisdisplayed higher potential photosynthesis, but exhibited a lowerin vivo Rubisco carboxylation rate (Vcmax and maximum electron transport rate (Jmax. During the course of a typical day, in a semiarid environment, with high irradiation, high temperature and high vapor pressure deficit, but exposed to well-watered conditions, the two studied species presented similar photosynthesis. Losing potential photosynthesis, but maintaining favorable water status and increasing non-photochemical quenching to avoid photoinhibition, are important acclimation mechanisms developed byJ. curcas to cope with dry and hot conditions. We suggest thatJ. curcas is more tolerant to hot and dry environments thanR. communis but the latter species displays higher photosynthetic efficiency under well-watered and non-stressful conditions.

  16. In vitro antimicrobial activity of an experimental dentifrice based on Ricinus communis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Vanessa Maria Fagundes; Pinheiro, Juliana Barchelli; Pisani, Marina Xavier; Watanabe, Evandro; de Souza, Raphael Freitas; Paranhos, Helena de Freitas Oliveira; Lovato-Silva, Cláudia Helena

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of a Ricinus communis-based experimental dentifrice for denture hygiene against the following standard strains: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans and Candida glabrata. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay was performed with R. communis in pure oil at 2.5%. Only E. coli was not inhibited by R. communis, but the MIC (0.0781%) was effective against the other microorganisms. From these results it was determined the R. communis concentrations for experimental dentifrices, 1, 2, 5 and 10%, which were evaluated by the test-well diffusion in agar. The commercial dentifrices Colgate, Trihydral and Corega Brite were tested for comparative purposes. The diameter of the zones of bacterial growth inhibition produced around the wells was measured (in mm) with a rule under reflected light. Data were analyzed statistically by analysis of variance and Tukey's post-hoc test (α=0.05). Neither the commercial nor the experimental dentifrices were effective against E. coli. The experimental dentifrices containing R. communis at 2, 5 and 10% presented action against S. mutans, S. aureaus and E. faecallis. The experimental dentifrices showed no antimicrobial activity against Candida spp. and E. coli in any of the tested concentrations. Trihydral was the most effective. Comparing the experimental dentifrices, the product with 10% R. communis produced the largest zones of bacterial growth inhibition and had similar antimicrobial activity to the commercial dentifrices, except against S. aureus.

  17. Identification and expression profiles of the WRKY transcription factor family in Ricinus communis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Liang; Zhang, Liang-Bo; Guo, Dong; Li, Chang-Zhu; Peng, Shi-Qing

    2012-07-25

    In plants, WRKY proteins constitute a large family of transcription factors. They are involved in many biological processes, such as plant development, metabolism, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. A large number of WRKY transcription factors have been reported from Arabidopsis, rice, and other higher plants. The recent publication of the draft genome sequence of castor bean (Ricinus communis) has allowed a genome-wide search for R. communis WRKY (RcWRKY) transcription factors and the comparison of these positively identified proteins with their homologs in model plants. A total of 47 WRKY genes were identified in the castor bean genome. According to the structural features of the WRKY domain, the RcWRKY are classified into seven main phylogenetic groups. Furthermore, putative orthologs of RcWRKY proteins in Arabidopsis and rice could now be assigned. An analysis of expression profiles of RcWRKY genes indicates that 47 WRKY genes display differential expressions either in their transcript abundance or expression patterns under normal growth conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. IMUNIDADE CRUZADA PELAS SEMENTES DE Abrus precatorius E Ricinus communis EM BOVINOS Crossimmunity by the seeds of Abrus precatorius and Ricinus communis in cattle

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    Carlos Hubinger Tokarnia

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Cinco bovinos imunizados contra a ação tóxica das sementes de Abrus precatorius L. ("tento", "jiquiriti" não adoeceram ou somente levemente pela administração das sementes de Ricinus communis L. ("mamona", em doses que em bovinos que antes nunca ingeriram sementes de A. precatorius ou R. communis, causaram intoxicação de intensidade de grau moderado a acentuado ou até a morte. Um sexto bovino, que não ficou bem imunizado contra a ação tóxica das sementes de A. precatorius, adoeceu em grau acentuado pela administração de dose elevada das sementes de R. communis. Já dos cinco bovinos imunizados contra a ação tóxica das sementes de R. communis quatro adoeceram em grau acentuado, oquinto em grau moderado, pela administração das sementes de A. precatorias em doses que em bovinos que antes nunca ingeriram sementes de R. communis ou A. precatorius causaram intoxicação de intensidade leve a acentuada. Estes resultados permitem concluir que bovinos imunizados contra a ação tóxica das sementes de A. precatorius são resistentes à ação tóxica das sementes de R. communis, mas que o contrário não ocorre, isto é, bovinos imunizados contra a ação tóxica das sementes de R. communis, não se mostraram protegidos contra a intoxicação por A. precatorius. Estudos anteriores por outros autores mostraram que as toxalbuminas de A. precatorius e R. communis, respectivamente abrina e ricina, são diferentes do ponto de vista antigênico. Uma explicação para a divergência desses resultados com os nossos poderia estar no fato de que no presente estudo foram usados poligástricos que receberam as sementes por via oral, enquanto que nos estudos anteriores foram usados monogástricos em que as sementes ou as toxinas foram aplicadas por via parenteral. A administração de folhas frescas ou do pericarpo do fruto de R. communis a bovinos imunizados contra a ação das sementes desta planta tiveram o mesmo efeito tóxico que em animais n

  19. Occurrence and genetic variability of Kemerovo virus in Ixodes ticks from different regions of Western Siberia, Russia and Kazakhstan.

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    Tkachev, Sergey E; Tikunov, Artem Yu; Babkin, Igor V; Livanova, Natalia N; Livanov, Stanislav G; Panov, Victor V; Yakimenko, Valeriy V; Tantsev, Alexey K; Taranenko, Dmitrii E; Tikunova, Nina V

    2017-01-01

    Kemerovo virus (KEMV), a member of the Reoviridae family, Orbivirus genus, is transmitted by Ixodes ticks and can cause aseptic meningitis and meningoencephalitis. Recently, this virus was observed in certain provinces of European part of Russia, Ural, and Western and Eastern Siberia. However, the occurrence and genetic diversity of KEMV in Western Siberia remain poorly studied. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the prevalence and genetic variability of KEMV in Ixodes ticks from Western Siberia. A total of 1958 Ixodes persulcatus, I. pavlovskyi ticks and their hybrids from Novosibirsk and Omsk provinces, Altai Republic (Russia) and East Kazakhstan province (Kazakhstan) were analyzed for the presence of KEMV and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) RNA. It was observed that the KEMV distribution area in Western Siberia was wider than originally thought and included Northern and Northeastern Altai in addition to the Omsk and Novosibirsk provinces. For the first time, this virus was found in Kazakhstan. The occurrence of KEMV was statistically lower than TBEV in most locations in Western Siberia. KEMV was found both in I. persulcatus and I. pavlovskyi ticks and in their hybrids. Notably, KEMV variants observed in the 2010s were genetically different from those isolated in the 1960s, which indicated the ongoing process of evolution of the Kemerovo virus group. Moreover, the possibility of reassortment for KEMV was demonstrated for the first time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence of Lyme borrelia in Ixodes persulcatus ticks from an area with a confirmed case of Lyme disease.

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    Murase, Yusuke; Konnai, Satoru; Githaka, Naftaly; Hidano, Arata; Taylor, Kyle; Ito, Takuya; Takano, Ai; Ando, Shuji; Kawabata, Hiroki; Tsubota, Toshio; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2013-02-01

    In this study, the prevalence of Borrelia infections in Ixodes ticks from a site in Hokkaido, Japan, with confirmed cases of Lyme disease was determined by a PCR method capable of detecting and differentiating between strains of pathogenic Borrelia, with particular emphasis on Borrelia garinii (B. garinii) and Borrelia afzelli (B. afzelli), using tick-derived DNA extracts as template. A total of 338 ticks, inclusive of 284 Ixodes persulcatus (I. persulcatus), were collected by flagging vegetation in mid-spring. Ninety-eight (34.5%) of I. persulcatus tested positive for Borrelia species DNA, whereas the overall prevalence of Borrelia species in Ixodes ovatus and Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks was 19.5 and 7.7%, respectively. PCR-RFLP and sequence analysis of Borrelia rrf(5S)-rrl(23S) intergenic spacer DNA amplicons indicated that they originated from three different Borrelia species namely, B. garinii, B. afzelii and B. japonica. Among the I. persulcatus species, which is a known vector of human borreliosis, 86 were mono-infected with B. garinii, 2 ticks were mono-infected with B. afzelii and whereas 12 ticks had dual infections. Most significant, 11 of the I. persulcatus ticks were coinfected with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and B. garinii. The difference between the number of obtained and expected co-infections was significant (χ(2)=4.32, P=0.038).

  1. Isolamento do alcalóide ricinina das folhas de Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae através de cromatografias em contracorrente Isolation of the alkaloid ricinine from the leaves of Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae through counter-current chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Leite

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Droplet counter-current chromatography, rotation locular counter-current chromatography and high-speed counter-current chromatography were applied to the preparative separation of the alkaloid ricinine from the dichloromethane extracts of Ricinus communis leaves. The solvent system used was composed of dichloromethane-methanol-water (93:35:72 v/v/v and all techniques led to the isolation of large amounts of the alkaloid. The best result was obtained through HSCCC, since the ricinine yield was respectively 50% and 30% higher than when using RLCCC or DCCC.

  2. Human pathogens associated with the blacklegged tick Ixodes scapularis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelder, Mark P; Russell, Curtis B; Sheehan, Nina Jain; Sander, Beate; Moore, Stephen; Li, Ye; Johnson, Steven; Patel, Samir N; Sider, Doug

    2016-05-05

    The blacklegged tick Ixodes scapularis transmits Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu stricto) in eastern North America; however, the agent of Lyme disease is not the sole pathogen harbored by the blacklegged tick. The blacklegged tick is expanding its range into areas of southern Canada such as Ontario, an area where exposure to blacklegged tick bites and tick-borne pathogens is increasing. We performed a systematic review to evaluate the public health risks posed by expanding blacklegged tick populations and their associated pathogens. We followed PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines for conducting our systematic review. We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, BIOSIS, Scopus and Environment Complete databases for studies published from 2000 through 2015, using subject headings and keywords that included "Ixodes scapularis", "Rickettsia", "Borrelia", "Anaplasma", "Babesia" and "pathogen." Two reviewers screened titles and abstracts against eligibility criteria (i.e. studies that included field-collected blacklegged ticks and studies that did not focus solely on B. burgdorferi) and performed quality assessments on eligible studies. Seventy-eight studies were included in the final review, 72 were from the US and eight were from Canada (two studies included blacklegged ticks from both countries). Sixty-four (82%) studies met ≥ 75% of the quality assessment criteria. Blacklegged ticks harbored 91 distinct taxa, 16 of these are tick-transmitted human pathogens, including species of Anaplasma, Babesia, Bartonella, Borrelia, Ehrlichia, Rickettsia, Theileria and Flavivirus. Organism richness was highest in the Northeast (Connecticut, New York) and Upper Midwest US (Wisconsin); however, organism richness was dependent on sampling effort. The primary tick-borne pathogens of public health concern in Ontario, due to the geographic proximity or historical detection in Ontario, are Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia microti, B. burgdorferi

  3. Collection of castor-oil plant germoplasm (Ricinus communis L. in two municipalities of Arauca, Colombia

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    Carlos Iván Cardozo Conde

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ricinus communis L., commonly known as the castor-oil plant, is important for its use in biofuels production. With the objective of learning about its current status, in 40 villages influential to the oil complex of Caricare (municipality of Arauquita and Caño Limón (municipality of Arauca in Arauca, Colombia (where five years earlier the crop had been established, a collection of sexual seed was carried out between December 2011 and January 2012. The variables studied include passport data as a collection resource, local name, relief, and soil type among others. A Garmin map76CSx was used in order to identify the transects and record data such as geographic location and elevation. Simple descriptive statistics were used to identify the variables of greatest variation. Using the qualitative variables of greatest importance, a contingency table analysis with a significance level of 5%, a multiple correspondence analysis (MCA and principal component analysis (PCA were performed for quantitative and qualitative variables, in addition to a classification analysis through a similarity matrix. The castor-oil plant was found in 25% of the villages visited. 12 introductions were collected, four from Caricare and eight from Caño Limón. Although the environmental conditions were favo­rable for its cultivation, there are no castor-oil plant crops in the locations visited. The absence of grain commercialization and oil extraction equipment is the main limiting factor. A garden was established using collected materials for the purpose of research, breeding and propagation.

  4. ABA flow modelling in Ricinus communis exposed to salt stress and variable nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peuke, Andreas D

    2016-10-01

    In a series of experiments with Ricinus communis, abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations in tissues and transport saps, its de novo biosynthesis, long-distance transport, and metabolism (degradation) were affected by nutritional conditions, nitrogen (N) source, and nutrient limitation, or salt stress. In the present study these data were statistically re-evaluated, and new correlations presented that underpin the importance of this universal phytohormone. The biggest differences in ABA concentration were observed in xylem sap. N source had the strongest effect; however, nutrient limitation (particularly phosphorus limitation) and salt also had significant effects. ABA was found in greater concentration in phloem sap compared with xylem sap; however, the effect of treatment on ABA concentration in phloem was lower. In the leaves, ABA concentration was most variable compared with the other tissues. This variation was only affected by the N source. In roots, ABA was significantly decreased by nutrient limitation. Of the compartments in which ABA was quantified, xylem sap ABA concentration was most significantly correlated with leaf stomatal conductance and leaf growth. Additionally, ABA concentration in xylem was significantly correlated to that in phloem, indicating a 6-fold concentration increase from xylem to phloem. The ABA flow model showed that biosynthesis of ABA in roots affected the xylem flow of ABA. Moreover, ABA concentration in xylem affected the degradation of the phytohormone in shoots and also its export from shoots via phloem. The role of phloem transport is discussed since it stimulates ABA metabolism in roots. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  5. Single nucleotide polymorphisms for assessing genetic diversity in castor bean (Ricinus communis

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    Rabinowicz Pablo D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Castor bean (Ricinus communis is an agricultural crop and garden ornamental that is widely cultivated and has been introduced worldwide. Understanding population structure and the distribution of castor bean cultivars has been challenging because of limited genetic variability. We analyzed the population genetics of R. communis in a worldwide collection of plants from germplasm and from naturalized populations in Florida, U.S. To assess genetic diversity we conducted survey sequencing of the genomes of seven diverse cultivars and compared the data to a reference genome assembly of a widespread cultivar (Hale. We determined the population genetic structure of 676 samples using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs at 48 loci. Results Bayesian clustering indicated five main groups worldwide and a repeated pattern of mixed genotypes in most countries. High levels of population differentiation occurred between most populations but this structure was not geographically based. Most molecular variance occurred within populations (74% followed by 22% among populations, and 4% among continents. Samples from naturalized populations in Florida indicated significant population structuring consistent with local demes. There was significant population differentiation for 56 of 78 comparisons in Florida (pairwise population ϕPT values, p Conclusion Low levels of genetic diversity and mixing of genotypes have led to minimal geographic structuring of castor bean populations worldwide. Relatively few lineages occur and these are widely distributed. Our approach of determining population genetic structure using SNPs from genome-wide comparisons constitutes a framework for high-throughput analyses of genetic diversity in plants, particularly in species with limited genetic diversity.

  6. First description of the male and redescription of the female of Ixodes tapirus Kohls, 1956 (Acari: Ixodidae), a parasite of tapirs (Perissodactyla: Tapiridae) from the mountains of Colombia, Costa Rica and Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apanaskevich, Dmitry A; Domínguez, Lillian G; Torres, Sugeys S; Bernal, Juan A; Montenegro, Victor M; Bermúdez, Sergio E

    2017-03-01

    The male of Ixodes tapirus Kohls, 1956 (Acari: Ixodidae) is described for the first time and the female is redescribed in greater detail. Adults of I. tapirus are similar to those of Ixodes guatemalensis Kohls, 1956, Ixodes lasallei Méndez & Ortiz, 1958, Ixodes montoyanus Cooley, 1944 and Ixodes venezuelensis Kohls, 1953 but can be distinguished by their overall size, the amount of sclerotisation of the conscutum and accessory plates, the shape of the scutum, the number of punctations and their pattern on the conscutum and scutum, the depth of the punctations on the basis capituli dorsally, the shape and size of the porose areas and the size and shape of the auriculae. Adults of I. tapirus were collected from tapirs and vegetation in the mountains of Colombia, Panama and recorded from Costa Rica for the first time.

  7. Flagging versus dragging as sampling methods for nymphal Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulison, Eric L; Kuczaj, Isis; Pang, Genevieve; Hickling, Graham J; Tsao, Jean I; Ginsberg, Howard S

    2013-06-01

    The nymphal stage of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae), is responsible for most transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, to humans in North America. From 2010 to fall of 2012, we compared two commonly used techniques, flagging and dragging, as sampling methods for nymphal I. scapularis at three sites, each with multiple sampling arrays (grids), in the eastern and central United States. Flagging and dragging collected comparable numbers of nymphs, with no consistent differences between methods. Dragging collected more nymphs than flagging in some samples, but these differences were not consistent among sites or sampling years. The ratio of nymphs collected by flagging vs dragging was not significantly related to shrub density, so habitat type did not have a strong effect on the relative efficacy of these methods. Therefore, although dragging collected more ticks in a few cases, the numbers collected by each method were so variable that neither technique had a clear advantage for sampling nymphal I. scapularis. © 2013 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  8. The Geographic Distribution of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) Revisited: The Importance of Assumptions About Error Balance.

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    Peterson, A Townsend; Raghavan, Ram K

    2017-07-01

    The black-legged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, is the primary vector of Borrelia burgdorferi, a spirochete that causes Lyme disease, in eastern North America. Lyme disease risk has generally been considered to be focused in the Northeast and the northern Midwest in the United States, yet the distribution of the vector extends considerably more broadly. A recent analysis of the distribution of the species using ecological niche modeling approaches painted an odd biogeographic picture, in which the species is distributed in a "rimming" distribution across the northern Midwest and Northeast, and along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the eastern United States, but not broadly in the interior of eastern North America. Here, we reanalyze the situation for this species, and demonstrate that the distribution estimated in the previous study was a consequence of assumptions about relative weights applied to different error types. A more appropriate error weighting scheme for niche modeling analyses, in which omission error is prioritized over commission error, shows a simpler distribution, in which the species ranges continuously across eastern North America; this distributional pattern is supported by independent occurrence data from the eastern Great Plains, in Kansas. We discuss implications for public health planning and intervention across the region, as well as for developing effective and predictive maps of vector distributions and pathogen transmission risk. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Influences of weather on Ixodes scapularis nymphal densities at long-term study sites in Connecticut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Laura E; Scott, Jennifer A; Stafford, Kirby C

    2015-04-01

    Tick species worldwide are implicated in transmission of pathogens that cause mild to severe diseases in humans and livestock. Although tick population densities are often highly correlated with tick-borne disease rates, we currently know little about which factors underlie annual changes in those tick population densities. We used a 25-year dataset of Ixodes scapularis drag-sampling surveys at two locations in CT, USA, to investigate the relationship between average nymphal density from mid-May to mid-August and monthly, lagged regional weather variables. The dataset was randomly split into two data subsets, one for hypothesis development and one for hypothesis testing. Nymphal density showed the strongest association with the Standardized Precipitation Index for January of the same year that density data were collected in the analysis based on the hypothesis development data subset. This association was positive; nymphal tick density increased with regional winter precipitation. Nymphal density was positively associated with this same weather variable in the hypothesis testing data subset. Weather conditions during the coldest months of the year may serve as a bottleneck to tick populations, thereby functioning as an important correlate of not only annual blacklegged tick nymphal densities the following summer, but also entomological risk associated with tick-borne pathogens transmitted by this species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact of Spring Bird Migration on the Range Expansion of Ixodes scapularis Tick Population.

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    Wu, Xiaotian; Röst, Gergely; Zou, Xingfu

    2016-01-01

    Many observational studies suggest that seasonal migratory birds play an important role in spreading Ixodes scapularis, a vector of Lyme disease, along their migratory flyways, and they are believed to be responsible for geographic range expansion of I. scapularis in Canada. However, the interplay between the dynamics of I. scapularis on land and migratory birds in the air is not well understood. In this study, we develop a periodic delay meta-population model which takes into consideration the local landscape for tick reproduction within patches and the times needed for ticks to be transported by birds between patches. Assuming that the tick population is endemic in the source region, we find that bird migration may boost an already established tick population at the subsequent region and thus increase the risk to humans, or bird migration may help ticks to establish in a region where the local landscape is not appropriate for ticks to survive in the absence of bird migration, imposing risks to public health. This theoretical study reveals that bird migration plays an important role in the geographic range expansion of I. scapularis, and therefore our findings may suggest some strategies for Lyme disease prevention and control.

  11. Genomic insights into the Ixodes scapularis tick vector of Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulia-Nuss, Monika; Nuss, Andrew B; Meyer, Jason M; Sonenshine, Daniel E; Roe, R Michael; Waterhouse, Robert M; Sattelle, David B; de la Fuente, José; Ribeiro, Jose M; Megy, Karine; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Miller, Jason R; Walenz, Brian P; Koren, Sergey; Hostetler, Jessica B; Thiagarajan, Mathangi; Joardar, Vinita S; Hannick, Linda I; Bidwell, Shelby; Hammond, Martin P; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Abrudan, Jenica L; Almeida, Francisca C; Ayllón, Nieves; Bhide, Ketaki; Bissinger, Brooke W; Bonzon-Kulichenko, Elena; Buckingham, Steven D; Caffrey, Daniel R; Caimano, Melissa J; Croset, Vincent; Driscoll, Timothy; Gilbert, Don; Gillespie, Joseph J; Giraldo-Calderón, Gloria I; Grabowski, Jeffrey M; Jiang, David; Khalil, Sayed M S; Kim, Donghun; Kocan, Katherine M; Koči, Juraj; Kuhn, Richard J; Kurtti, Timothy J; Lees, Kristin; Lang, Emma G; Kennedy, Ryan C; Kwon, Hyeogsun; Perera, Rushika; Qi, Yumin; Radolf, Justin D; Sakamoto, Joyce M; Sánchez-Gracia, Alejandro; Severo, Maiara S; Silverman, Neal; Šimo, Ladislav; Tojo, Marta; Tornador, Cristian; Van Zee, Janice P; Vázquez, Jesús; Vieira, Filipe G; Villar, Margarita; Wespiser, Adam R; Yang, Yunlong; Zhu, Jiwei; Arensburger, Peter; Pietrantonio, Patricia V; Barker, Stephen C; Shao, Renfu; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Hauser, Frank; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P; Park, Yoonseong; Rozas, Julio; Benton, Richard; Pedra, Joao H F; Nelson, David R; Unger, Maria F; Tubio, Jose M C; Tu, Zhijian; Robertson, Hugh M; Shumway, Martin; Sutton, Granger; Wortman, Jennifer R; Lawson, Daniel; Wikel, Stephen K; Nene, Vishvanath M; Fraser, Claire M; Collins, Frank H; Birren, Bruce; Nelson, Karen E; Caler, Elisabet; Hill, Catherine A

    2016-02-09

    Ticks transmit more pathogens to humans and animals than any other arthropod. We describe the 2.1 Gbp nuclear genome of the tick, Ixodes scapularis (Say), which vectors pathogens that cause Lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, babesiosis and other diseases. The large genome reflects accumulation of repetitive DNA, new lineages of retro-transposons, and gene architecture patterns resembling ancient metazoans rather than pancrustaceans. Annotation of scaffolds representing ∼57% of the genome, reveals 20,486 protein-coding genes and expansions of gene families associated with tick-host interactions. We report insights from genome analyses into parasitic processes unique to ticks, including host 'questing', prolonged feeding, cuticle synthesis, blood meal concentration, novel methods of haemoglobin digestion, haem detoxification, vitellogenesis and prolonged off-host survival. We identify proteins associated with the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, an emerging disease, and the encephalitis-causing Langat virus, and a population structure correlated to life-history traits and transmission of the Lyme disease agent.

  12. Outer surface protein B is critical for Borrelia burgdorferi adherence and survival within Ixodes ticks.

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    Girish Neelakanta

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Survival of Borrelia burgdorferi in ticks and mammals is facilitated, at least in part, by the selective expression of lipoproteins. Outer surface protein (Osp A participates in spirochete adherence to the tick gut. As ospB is expressed on a bicistronic operon with ospA, we have now investigated the role of OspB by generating an OspB-deficient B. burgdorferi and examining its phenotype throughout the spirochete life cycle. Similar to wild-type isolates, the OspB-deficient B. burgdorferi were able to readily infect and persist in mice. OspB-deficient B. burgdorferi were capable of migrating to the feeding ticks but had an impaired ability to adhere to the tick gut and survive within the vector. Furthermore, the OspB-deficient B. burgdorferi bound poorly to tick gut extracts. The complementation of the OspB-deficient spirochete in trans, with a wild-type copy of ospB gene, restored its ability to bind tick gut. Taken together, these data suggest that OspB has an important role within Ixodes scapularis and that B. burgdorferi relies upon multiple genes to efficiently persist in ticks.

  13. Prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi in Ixodes persulcatus in Irkutsk City and its neighboring territories, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasnatinov, Maxim A; Danchinova, Galina A; Takano, Ai; Kawabata, Hiroki; Ohashi, Norio; Masuzawa, Toshiyuki

    2016-03-01

    Adult Ixodes persulcatus were collected in highly populated districts in Irkutsk city, Russia, and in popular recreational and professional areas in its neighboring territories. Borrelia miyamotoi infection in I. persulcatus was examined using multiplex Taqman-PCR targeting 16S rDNA, and nested PCR and sequencing analyses targeting flaB and 16S rDNA. B. miyamotoi and Lyme disease Borrelia species were detected in 13 (infection rate, 2.9%) and 77 (17.3%) out of 445 I. persulcatus ticks, respectively, collected from 4 sites around the Baikal Lake. The 16S rDNA and flaB sequences of these amplicons were closely related to those of B. miyamotoi detected and/or isolated from I. persulcatus in Japan and Far Eastern Russia, and clustered separately from those of Europe and North America. These results indicate that additional surveillance for B. miyamotoi infection is needed in order to determine how it affects human health in Irkutsk City and its neighboring territories. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Flagging versus dragging as sampling methods for nymphal Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae)

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    Rulison, Eric L.; Kuczaj, Isis; Pang, Genevieve; Hickling, Graham J.; Tsao, Jean I.; Ginsberg, Howard S.

    2013-01-01

    The nymphal stage of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae), is responsible for most transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, to humans in North America. From 2010 to fall of 2012, we compared two commonly used techniques, flagging and dragging, as sampling methods for nymphal I. scapularis at three sites, each with multiple sampling arrays (grids), in the eastern and central United States. Flagging and dragging collected comparable numbers of nymphs, with no consistent differences between methods. Dragging collected more nymphs than flagging in some samples, but these differences were not consistent among sites or sampling years. The ratio of nymphs collected by flagging vs dragging was not significantly related to shrub density, so habitat type did not have a strong effect on the relative efficacy of these methods. Therefore, although dragging collected more ticks in a few cases, the numbers collected by each method were so variable that neither technique had a clear advantage for sampling nymphal I. scapularis.

  15. The search for Ixodes dammini and Borrelia burgdorferi in Nova Scotia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Colin R; Specht, Harold B; Coombs, B Ann

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-four Ixodes dammini ticks (23 adults and one nymph) have been recovered in Nova Scotia since 1984. There has not been a systematic search for larvae and none has been identified. The recovery of the nymph from a road-killed yellow throat bird, Geothypis trichas, in late May 1990 supports the contention that migrating birds are bringing deer ticks into the province every spring. In March and April 1991, four adult deer ticks were identified, suggesting that these ticks had overwintered. These deer tick specimens indicate that it is possible that I dammini is becoming established in Nova Scotia, if it is not already established. There has been no evidence for the existence of Borrelia burgdorferi in the province. The spirochete was not cultured from 650 Dermacentor variabilis ticks, nor were antibodies detected in a small sample of feral rodents using an indirect fluorescent antibody test. A survey of 137 dog sera samples, analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, also proved negative. There has been no confirmed indigenous case of Lyme disease in Nova Scotia to date. PMID:22416195

  16. Isolation of entomopathogenic fungi from soils and Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks: prevalence and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuininga, Amy R; Miller, Jessica L; Morath, Shannon U; Daniels, Thomas J; Falco, Richard C; Marchese, Michael; Sahabi, Sadia; Rosa, Dieshia; Stafford, Kirby C

    2009-05-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi are commonly found in forested soils that provide tick habitat, and many species are pathogenic to Ixodes scapularis Say, the blacklegged tick. As a first step to developing effective biocontrol strategies, the objective of this study was to determine the best methods to isolate entomopathogenic fungal species from field-collected samples of soils and ticks from an Eastern deciduous forest where I. scapularis is common. Several methods were assessed: (1) soils, leaf litter, and ticks were plated on two types of media; (2) soils were assayed for entomopathogenic fungi using the Galleria bait method; (3) DNA from internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the nuclear ribosomal repeat was extracted from pure cultures obtained from soils, Galleria, and ticks and was amplified and sequenced; and (4) DNA was extracted directly from ticks, amplified, and sequenced. We conclude that (1) ticks encounter potentially entomopathogenic fungi more often in soil than in leaf litter, (2) many species of potentially entomopathogenic fungi found in the soil can readily be cultured, (3) the Galleria bait method is a sufficiently efficient method for isolation of these fungi from soils, and (4) although DNA extraction from ticks was not possible in this study because of small sample size, DNA extraction from fungi isolated from soils and from ticks was successful and provided clean sequences in 100 and 73% of samples, respectively. A combination of the above methods is clearly necessary for optimal characterization of entomopathogenic fungi associated with ticks in the environment.

  17. Ixodes scapularis saliva mitigates inflammatory cytokine secretion during Anaplasma phagocytophilum stimulation of immune cells

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    Chen Gang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ixodes scapularis saliva enables the transmission of infectious agents to the mammalian host due to its immunomodulatory, anesthetic and anti-coagulant properties. However, how I. scapularis saliva influences host cytokine secretion in the presence of the obligate intracellular rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum remains elusive. Methods Bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs were stimulated with pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs and A. phagocytophilum. Cytokine secretion was measured in the presence and absence of I. scapularis saliva. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were also stimulated with Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-α in the presence and absence of I. scapularis saliva and interleukin (IL-8 was measured. Results I. scapularis saliva inhibits inflammatory cytokine secretion by macrophages during stimulation of Toll-like (TLR and Nod-like receptor (NLR signaling pathways. The effect of I. scapularis saliva on immune cells is not restricted to murine macrophages because decreasing levels of interleukin (IL-8 were observed after TNF-α stimulation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. I. scapularis saliva also mitigates pro-inflammatory cytokine response by murine macrophages during challenge with A. phagocytophilum. Conclusions These findings suggest that I. scapularis may inhibit inflammatory cytokine secretion during rickettsial transmission at the vector-host interface.

  18. CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORETIC ANALYSIS OF LOW-MOLECULAR-MASS OF CA SPECIES IN PHLOEM SAP OF Ricinus communis L.

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    Noor Fitri

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A capillary electrophoretic (CE analysis with ultra-violet (UV detection was performed for further separation of low-molecular-mass (LMM calcium species in phloem sap of Ricinus communis L. Two different background electrolytes (BGE were used for the separation; these are (1 hydrogen phosphate/dihydrogen phosphate buffer containing cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB as an electro-osmotic flow (EOF modifier, and (2 boric acid buffer containing CTAB. Various parameters affecting the analysis, including the composition and pH of the BGE were systematically studied. The sensitivity, resolution, baseline noise, migration time of the species peaks, and reproducibility of the method were evaluated under optimised condition. At least 13 UV-active species were optimally separated within about ten minutes. The optimised measurement condition was also achieved using 10 mM hydrogen phosphate/10 mM dihydrogen phosphate containing 0.5 mM CTAB at pH 8.0 as BGE, and by applying voltage of ‑20 kV and temperature of 14°C. Evidently, the analytical method was successfully used for the separation of LMM calcium species in phloem sap of R. communis L.   Keywords: capillary electrophoresis, calcium species, phloem sap, Ricinus communis

  19. Metabolite profiling of the oilseed crop Ricinus communis during early seed imbibition reveals a specific metabolic signature in response to temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro de Jesus, P.R.; Willems, L.A.J.; Mudde, E.; Fernandez, L.G.; Castro, de R.D.; Ligterink, W.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    Seed imbibition is an important process in the plant life cycle and determines whether seed germination and plant growth will be successful or not. Ricinus communis is becoming an important crop for oil production, and therefore, studying the physiological and biochemical aspects of seed imbibition

  20. Prevalence and Diversity of Tick-Borne Pathogens in Nymphal Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in Eastern National Parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tammi L; Graham, Christine B; Boegler, Karen A; Cherry, Cara C; Maes, Sarah E; Pilgard, Mark A; Hojgaard, Andrias; Buttke, Danielle E; Eisen, Rebecca J

    2017-05-01

    Tick-borne pathogens transmitted by Ixodes scapularis Say (Acari: Ixodidae), also known as the deer tick or blacklegged tick, are increasing in incidence and geographic distribution in the United States. We examined the risk of tick-borne disease exposure in 9 national parks across six Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic States and the District of Columbia in 2014 and 2015. To assess the recreational risk to park visitors, we sampled for ticks along frequently used trails and calculated the density of I. scapularis nymphs (DON) and the density of infected nymphs (DIN). We determined the nymphal infection prevalence of I. scapularis with a suite of tick-borne pathogens including Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia miyamotoi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti. Ixodes scapularis nymphs were found in all national park units; DON ranged from 0.40 to 13.73 nymphs per 100 m2. Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, was found at all sites where I. scapularis was documented; DIN with B. burgdorferi ranged from 0.06 to 5.71 nymphs per 100 m2. Borrelia miyamotoi and A. phagocytophilum were documented at 60% and 70% of the parks, respectively, while Ba. microti occurred at just 20% of the parks. Ixodes scapularis is well established across much of the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic States, and our results are generally consistent with previous studies conducted near the areas we sampled. Newly established I. scapularis populations were documented in two locations: Washington, D.C. (Rock Creek Park) and Greene County, Virginia (Shenandoah National Park). This research demonstrates the potential risk of tick-borne pathogen exposure in national parks and can be used to educate park visitors about the importance of preventative actions to minimize tick exposure. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  1. Ixodídeos em animais silvestres na Região do Planalto Serrano, Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil

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    Marcia Sangaletti Lavina

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento da fauna de ixodídeos, bem como a potencialidade como transmissores de patógenos aos seus hospedeiros e em alguns casos aos humanos, é de grande importância para o estabelecimento de programas de saúde pública e vigilância epidemiológica. Com o objetivo de identificar ixodídeos de mamíferos silvestres no Planalto Serrano de Santa Catarina foram examinados carrapatos, coletados ou recebidos no Laboratório de Parasitologia e Doenças Parasitárias do Centro de Ciências Agroveterinárias – CAV/UDESC no período 2001 a 2011. Os ixodídeos eram provenientes de animais silvestres que passaram pelo processo de triagem do Hospital de Clínicas Veterinárias (HCV do CAV e de animais encontrados mortos em rodovias do Estado. De acordo com as chaves dicotômicas específicas identificou-se Amblyomma aureolatum coletados em Pseudalopex gymnocercus, Lycalopex gymnocercus, Leopardus pardalis, Cerdocyon thous, Leopardus tigrinus, Puma concolor e Bufo sp.; A. dubitatum em Hydrochoerus hydrochoeris; A. rotundatum em Puma concolor e Bohtrops sp.; A. ovale em Bufo sp.; e Rhipicephalus microplus em Mazama gouazoubira. Foi identificado um exemplar de A. longirostre que se encontrava em uma residência da área urbana do município de Lages. As espécies A. rotundatum em Bohtrops sp. e em Puma concolor; e A. longirostre, encontrada no ambiente, foram relatadas pela primeira vez no estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil. 

  2. Phylogeny of a relapsing fever Borrelia species transmitted by the hard tick Ixodes scapularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Alan G

    2014-10-01

    The discovery of Borrelia species that were related to the agents of relapsing fever but were transmitted by hard ticks rather than soft ticks challenged previous taxonomies based largely on microbe-host specificities and geographic considerations. One of these newly-identified organisms is the Borrelia miyamotoi sensu lato strain LB-2001 from North America and transmitted by Ixodes scapularis. This or related strains have been identified as the cause of human disease, but comparatively little is known about their biology or genetics. Using recently acquired chromosome sequence of LB-2001 together with database sequences and additional sequences determined here, I carried out comparisons of the several species of Borrelia, including those in the two major clades: the relapsing fever group of species and the Lyme disease group of species. Phylogenetic inference at the species level was based on four data sets: whole chromosomes of ∼1Mb each, and concatenated sequences of 19 ribosomal protein genes, 3 conserved nucleic acid enzymes (rpoC, recC, and dnaE), and 4 contiguous genes for nucleotide salvage on a large plasmid. Analyses using neighbor-joining, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian methods were largely concordant for each of the trees. They showed that LB-2001 and related hard tick-associated organisms, like Borrelia lonestari, are deeply positioned within the RF group of species and that these organisms did not, as some earlier estimations had suggested, constitute a paraphyletic group. The analyses also provided further evidence that major changes in host ranges and life cycles, such as hard to soft ticks or vice versa, may not correlate well with overall sequence differences. The genetic differences between LB-2001 and B. miyamotoi sensu stricto justify provisional use of the "sensu lato" designation for LB-2001. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Acquisition of Borrelia burgdorferi infection by larval Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) associated with engorgement measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couret, Janelle; Dyer, M.C.; Mather, T.N.; Han, S.; Tsao, J.I.; LeBrun, R.A.; Ginsberg, Howard

    2017-01-01

    Measuring rates of acquisition of the Lyme disease pathogen, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt & Brenner, by the larval stage of Ixodes scapularis Say is a useful tool for xenodiagnoses of B. burgdorferi in vertebrate hosts. In the nymphal and adult stages of I. scapularis, the duration of attachment to hosts has been shown to predict both body engorgement during blood feeding and the timing of infection with B. burgdorferi. However, these relationships have not been established for the larval stage of I. scapularis. We sought to establish the relationship between body size during engorgement of larval I. scapularis placed on B. burgdorferi-infected, white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus Rafinesque) and the presence or absence of infection in larvae sampled from hosts over time. Body size, time, and their interaction were the best predictors of larval infection with B. burgdorferi. We found that infected larvae showed significantly greater engorgement than uninfected larvae as early as 24 h after placement on a host. These findings may suggest that infection with B. burgdorferi affects the larval feeding process. Alternatively, larvae that engorge more rapidly on hosts may acquire infections faster. Knowledge of these relationships can be applied to improve effective xenodiagnosis of B. burgdorferi in white-footed mice. Further, these findings shed light on vector–pathogen–host interactions during an understudied part of the Lyme disease transmission cycle.

  4. Northward range expansion of Ixodes scapularis evident over a short timescale in Ontario, Canada.

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    Katie M Clow

    Full Text Available The invasion of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis into Ontario, Canada poses a significant risk to public health because it is a vector for numerous pathogens, including Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, the causative agent of Lyme disease. Baseline field sampling in 2014 and 2015 detected I. scapularis and B. burgdorferi at sites across southern, eastern and central Ontario, including a hot spot in eastern Ontario. A "speed of spread" model for I. scapularis developed by Leighton and colleagues (2012 estimated that the tick's range was expanding northward at 46 km/year. In 2016, we revisited a subset of sites sampled in 2014 and 2015 to understand the changing nature of risk, and assess whether the rate of tick invasion is consistent with the speed of spread estimate. Ticks were collected via tick dragging at 17 out of 36 sites, 5 of which were new sites for I. scapularis. Samples were positive for B. burgdorferi at 8 sites. No other I. scapularis-borne pathogens were detected. Centrographic statistics revealed an increase in the dispersion of I. scapularis positive sites in eastern Ontario. Field data for each site were then compared to the model's predicted year of establishment for each census subdivision. Our findings illustrate that the range expansion of I. scapularis and the emergence of B. burgdorferi is ongoing, and provide short timescale evidence of the processes associated with I. scapularis spread. The range front appears to be moving at a rate of ~46 km/year, with colonization of the tick behind this range front occurring at a slower and heterogeneous rate. Assessment of site-level ecological factors did not provide any insight into the underlying processes that may be influencing the colonization of I. scapularis in specific areas. Ongoing field sampling is needed to monitor this dynamic process. This study highlights the current geographic risk associated with Lyme disease, which can be used to target public health

  5. Functional genomics tool: Gene silencing in Ixodes scapularis eggs and nymphs by electroporated dsRNA

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    Troiano Emily

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ticks are blood-sucking arthropods responsible for transmitting a wide variety of disease-causing agents, and constitute important public health threats globally. Ixodes scapularis is the primary vector of the Lyme disease agent in the eastern and central U.S. RNAi is a mechanism by which gene-specific double-stranded RNA (dsRNA triggers degradation of homologous mRNA transcripts. Here, we describe an optimized protocol for effectively suppressing gene expression in the egg and nymphal stages of I. scapularis by electroporation. Results The genes encoding the putative Phospholipase A2 (PLA2, cytoplasmic Cystatin, Syntaxin-5, β-Actin and Calreticulin were targeted by delivering the dsRNA encoding the specific gene coding regions in the unfed nymphs. Silencing was measured using real time qRT-PCR. Electroporation as a mode of dsRNA delivery appears to be substantially efficient and less traumatic to the tick than dsRNA microinjection in the unfed nymphs. Using Cy3-labeled dsRNA to monitor the movement, electroporated dsRNA entered the nymphs and spread to salivary glands and other tissues. The significant disruption of β-actin and cytoplasmic Cystatin transcripts in tick eggs demonstrate the applicability of this technique. The PLA2, cytoplasmic Cystatin, Syntaxin-5, β-Actin and Calreticulin genes were also significantly silenced, suggesting that this method has the potential to introduce dsRNA in eggs and unfed nymphs. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that electroporation can be used as a simple dsRNA delivery tool in assessing the functional role of tick genes in the vector-host interactions. This technique represents a novel approach for specific gene suppression in immature stages of ticks.

  6. Growth of Coxiella burnetii in the Ixodes scapularis-derived IDE8 tick cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrin, Brian; Mahapatra, Saugata; Blouin, Edmour F; Shaw, Edward I

    2011-07-01

    Q fever, a zoonotic disease, is caused by a gram-negative intracellular bacterium, Coxiella burnetii. Although normally transmitted during exposure to infectious aerosols, C. burnetii is also found in arthropod vectors. In the environment, ticks are thought to play a crucial role in bacterial maintenance and transmission by infecting various mammalian species. However, the nature of the pathogen-tick relationship is not well defined. To determine C. burnetii's interactions with a cultured tick cell line, we introduced purified C. burnetii NMII into Ixodes scapularis-derived IDE8 cells and assayed for bacterial presence, replication, gene expression, and subsequent infectivity for mammalian cells. Tick cells were harvested at 24 h, 72 h, 7 days, and 11 days postinfection (PI). C. burnetii uptake and subsequent replication was demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescence assay, electron microscopy, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). When a genome equivalent multiplicity of infection of 30 was used, 30%-40% of exposed cells were seen to have small, rounded, vacuoles at 72 h PI, whereas at 7 and 11 days PI, 60%-70% of cells contained enlarged vacuoles harboring large numbers of bacteria. Quantitative PCR analysis of total genomic DNA confirmed that C. burnetii genome numbers increased significantly from 24 h to 11 days PI. Expression of C. burnetii type four secretion system homologs at 7 days PI was demonstrated by reverse transcriptase PCR. Finally, indirect immunofluorescence assay demonstrated that C. burnetii propagated within IDE8 cells were infectious for mammalian cells. These studies demonstrate the utility of cultured tick cell lines as a model to investigate C. burnetii's molecular interactions with its arthropod vectors.

  7. Expansion of the Lyme Disease Vector Ixodes Scapularis in Canada Inferred from CMIP5 Climate Projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Michelle; García-García, Almudena; Cuesta-Valero, Francisco José; Beltrami, Hugo; Hansen-Ketchum, Patti; MacDougall, Donna; Ogden, Nicholas Hume

    2017-05-31

    A number of studies have assessed possible climate change impacts on the Lyme disease vector, Ixodes scapularis. However, most have used surface air temperature from only one climate model simulation and/or one emission scenario, representing only one possible climate future. We quantified effects of different Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) and climate model outputs on the projected future changes in the basic reproduction number (R0) of I. scapularis to explore uncertainties in future R0 estimates. We used surface air temperature generated by a complete set of General Circulation Models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) to hindcast historical (1971-2000), and to forecast future effects of climate change on the R0 of I. scapularis for the periods 2011-2040 and 2041-2070. Increases in the multimodel mean values estimated for both future periods, relative to 1971-2000, were statistically significant under all RCP scenarios for all of Nova Scotia, areas of New Brunswick and Quebec, Ontario south of 47°N, and Manitoba south of 52°N. When comparing RCP scenarios, only the estimated R0 mean values between RCP6.0 and RCP8.5 showed statistically significant differences for any future time period. Our results highlight the potential for climate change to have an effect on future Lyme disease risk in Canada even if the Paris Agreement's goal to keep global warming below 2°C is achieved, although mitigation reducing emissions from RCP8.5 levels to those of RCP6.0 or less would be expected to slow tick invasion after the 2030s. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP57.

  8. Expansion of the Lyme Disease Vector Ixodes scapularis in Canada inferred from CMIP5 Climate Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Michelle Yvonne; García-García, Almudena; José Cuesta-Valero, Francisco; Beltrami, Hugo; Hansen-Ketchum, Patti; MacDougall, Donna; Hume Ogden, Nicholas

    2017-04-01

    A number of studies have assessed possible climate change impacts on the Lyme disease vector, Ixodes scapularis. However, most have used surface air temperature from only one climate model simulation and/or one emission scenario, representing only one possible climate future. We quantified effects of different Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) and climate model outputs on the projected future changes in the basic reproduction number (R0) of I. scapularis to explore uncertainties in future R0 estimates. We used surface air temperature generated by a complete set of General Circulation Models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) to hindcast historical and forecast future effects of climate change on the R0 of I. scapularis. As in previous studies, R0 of I. scapularis increased with a warming climate under future projected climate. Increases in the multi-model mean R0 values showed significant changes over time under all RCP scenarios, however; only the estimated R0 mean values between RCP6.0 and RCP8.5 showed statistically significant differences. Our results highlight the potential for climate change to have an effect on future Lyme disease risk in Canada even if the Paris Agreement's goal to keep global warming below 2°C is achieved, although mitigation reducing emissions from RCP8.5 levels to those of RCP6.0 or less would be expected to slow tick invasion after the 2030s. On-going planning is needed to inform and guide adaptation in light of the projected range of possible futures.

  9. Evaluation of extracts and oils of tick-repellent plants from Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaenson, T G T; Pålsson, K; Borg-Karlson, A-K

    2005-12-01

    Abstract. Leaves of Myrica gale Linnaeus (Myricaceae), Rhododendron tomentosum (Stokes) H. Harmaja (formerly Ledum palustre Linnaeus: Ericaceae) and Artemisia absinthium Linnaeus (Asteraceae) were extracted with organic solvents of different polarities and the essential oils of leaves were obtained by steam distillation. The extracts or oils were tested in the laboratory for repellency against host-seeking nymphs of Ixodes ricinus Linnaeus (Acari: Ixodidae). Rhododendron tomentosum oil, 10%, diluted in acetone, exhibited 95% repellency; R. tomentosum and A. absinthium extracts in ethyl acetate, > 70% repellency; A. absinthium extract in hexane, approximately 62% repellency; and M. gale oil, 10%, approximately 50% repellency on I. ricinus nymphs. Compounds in the leaf extracts or in the oils were collected by solid phase microextraction (SPME) and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and/or MS. Characteristic volatiles detected from oil or extract of M. gale were the monoterpenes 1,8-cineole, alpha-terpineol, 4-terpineol and thujenol; and of R. tomentosum myrcene and palustrol. Characteristic volatiles from leaf extracts of A. absinthium were sabinene, oxygenated monoterpenes, e.g. thujenol and linalool, and geranyl acetate. Each plant species synthesized numerous volatiles known to exhibit acaricidal, insecticidal, 'pesticidal' and/or arthropod repellent properties. These plants may be useful sources of chemicals for the control of arthropods of medical, veterinary or agricultural importance.

  10. Diagnóstico de Ixodes woodi Bishopp, 1911 (Acari: Ixodidae no Brazil: imigração em Homo sapiens - Relato de caso.

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    Nicolau Maués Serra Freire

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Serra-Freire N.M., Amorim M. & Gazêta G.S. Diagnostic of Ixodes woodi Bishopp, 1911 (Acari: Ixodidae in Brazil: immigration on Homo sapiens - Case report. [Diagnóstico de Ixodes woodi Bishopp, 1911 (Acari: Ixodidae no Brazil: imigração em Homo sapiens - Relato de caso.] Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(1:97-99, 2015. Laboratório de Referência Nacional para Vetores das Riquetsioses, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz/FIOCRUZ, Av. Brasil, 4365, Manguinhos, RJ 21045-900, Brasil. E-mail: nmsf@ioc.fiocruz.br One nymph of Ixodes wood (Ixodidae: Ixodinae was self-collected from a woman that had just arrived in Rio de Janeiro after a holiday period in Norway, Europe. She traveled by plane presenting a skin irritation on right leg and preserved the parasite that was in her skin. This is the first brazilian record of I. woodi. Also, in South America Ixodes wood hadn’t been previously reported. In United State of America, rodents appear to be the main hosts for immature stages, although there are other records from members of Mammalia class. I. woodi doesn’t seem to be a threat to men and domestic mammals, from which has seldom been reported, but there is quoting of his relationship between trophic and rickettsiae bacteria, but no transmission.

  11. Parasitism of Ixodes (Multidentatus auritulus Neumann (Acari: Ixodidae on birds from the city of Curitiba, state of Paraná, southern Brazil

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    Márcia Arzua

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The tick-bird relationship of 56 specimens of birds (Passeriformes and Columbiformes collected in the city of Curitiba, State of Paraná, between 1990 and 1995, among which 102 specimens of Ixodes (Multidentatus auritulus were found and analyzed. New host records were also produced including the first report of I. auritulus on a Columbiformes bird in Brazil.

  12. Adverse moisture events predict seasonal abundance of Lyme disease vector ticks (Ixodes scapularis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Kathryn A.; Ginsberg, Howard S.; Dugas, Katherine D.; Hamel, Lutz H.; Mather, Thomas N.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most commonly reported vector-borne disease in north temperate regions worldwide, affecting an estimated 300,000 people annually in the United States alone. The incidence of LB is correlated with human exposure to its vector, the blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis). To date, attempts to model tick encounter risk based on environmental parameters have been equivocal. Previous studies have not considered (1) the differences between relative humidity (RH) in leaf litter and at weather stations, (2) the RH threshold that affects nymphal blacklegged tick survival, and (3) the time required below the threshold to induce mortality. We clarify the association between environmental moisture and tick survival by presenting a significant relationship between the total number of tick adverse moisture events (TAMEs - calculated as microclimatic periods below a RH threshold) and tick abundance each year.Methods: We used a 14-year continuous statewide tick surveillance database and corresponding weather data from Rhode Island (RI), USA, to assess the effects of TAMEs on nymphal populations of I. scapularis. These TAMEs were defined as extended periods of time (>8 h below 82% RH in leaf litter). We fit a sigmoid curve comparing weather station data to those collected by loggers placed in tick habitats to estimate RH experienced by nymphal ticks, and compiled the number of historical TAMEs during the 14-year record.Results: The total number of TAMEs in June of each year was negatively related to total seasonal nymphal tick densities, suggesting that sub-threshold humidity episodes >8 h in duration naturally lowered nymphal blacklegged tick abundance. Furthermore, TAMEs were positively related to the ratio of tick abundance early in the season when compared to late season, suggesting that lower than average tick abundance for a given year resulted from tick mortality and not from other factors.Conclusions: Our results clarify the mechanism

  13. Transcriptional profiling of the murine cutaneous response during initial and subsequent infestations with Ixodes scapularis nymphs

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    Heinze Dar M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ixodes scapularis ticks are hematophagous arthropods capable of transmitting many infectious agents to humans. The process of blood feeding is an extended and continuous interplay between tick and host responses. While this process has been studied extensively in vitro, no global understanding of the host response to ticks has emerged. Methods To address this issue, we used PCR-arrays to measure skin-specific expression of 233 discrete genes at 8 time points during primary and secondary infestations of mice with pathogen-free I. scapularis nymphs. Selected results were then validated at the mRNA and protein levels by additional real-time PCR and bioplex assay. Results Primary infestation was characterized by the late induction of an innate immune response. Lectin pattern recognition receptors, cytokines, and chemokines were upregulated consistent with increased neutrophil and macrophage migration. Gene ontology and pathway analyses of downregulated genes suggested inhibition of gene transcription and Th17 immunity. During the secondary infestation, additional genes were modulated suggesting a broader involvement of immune cells including CD8 and CD4 positive T lymphocytes. The cytokine response showed a mixed Th1/Th2 profile with a potential for T regulatory cell activity. Key gene ontology clusters observed during the secondary infestation were cell migration and activation. Matrix metalloproteinases were upregulated, apoptosis-related genes were differentially modulated, and immunoreceptor signaling molecules were upregulated. In contrast, transcripts related to mitogenic, WNT, Hedgehog, and stress pathways were downregulated. Conclusions Our results support a model of tick feeding where lectin pattern recognition receptors orchestrate an innate inflammatory response during primary infestation that primes a mixed Th1/Th2 response upon secondary exposure. Tick feeding inhibits gene transcription and Th17 immunity. Salivary

  14. Irrigation of Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L.) and Sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) Plant Species with Municipal Wastewater Effluent: Impacts on Soil Properties and Seed Yield

    OpenAIRE

    Chatzakis, Michalis K.; Tzanakakis, Vasileios A.; Mara, Duncan D.; Angelakis, Andreas N.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of plant species (castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) versus sunflower (Helianthus annus L.)) and irrigation regime (freshwater versus secondary treated municipal wastewater) on soil properties and on seed and biodiesel yield were studied in a three year pot trial. Plant species were irrigated at rates according to their water requirements with either freshwater or wastewater effluent. Pots irrigated with freshwater received commercial fertilizer, containing N, P, and K, applied at ...

  15. Bis(β-lactosyl-[60]fullerene as novel class of glycolipids useful for the detection and the decontamination of biological toxins of the Ricinus communis family

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    Hirofumi Dohi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Glycosyl-[60]fullerenes were first used as decontaminants against ricin, a lactose recognition proteotoxin in the Ricinus communis family. A fullerene glycoconjugate carrying two lactose units was synthesized by a [3 + 2] cycloaddition reaction between C60 and the azide group in 6-azidohexyl β-lactoside per-O-acetate. A colloidal aqueous solution with brown color was prepared from deprotected bis(lactosyl-C60 and was found stable for more than 6 months keeping its red color. Upon mixing with an aqueous solution of Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA120, the colloidal solution soon caused precipitations, while becoming colorless and transparent. In contrast, a solution of concanavalin A (Con A caused no apparent change, indicating that the precipitation was caused specifically by carbohydrate–protein interactions. This notable phenomenon was quantified by means of sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE, and the results were discussed in terms of detection and decontamination of the deadly biological toxin in the Ricinus communis family.

  16. Inibição do desenvolvimento de fungos fitopatogênicos por detergente derivado de óleo da mamona (Ricinus communis The castor oil plant detergent (Ricinus communis inhibits the asexual development of phytopathogenic fungi

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    Eunice Hitomi Takano

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo avaliou-se o efeito fungitóxico do detergente derivado do óleo da mamona (Ricinus communis sobre o desenvolvimento dos fitopatógenos: Pyricularia grisea, Fusarium graminearum e Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Seis concentrações do detergente (12,5mL L-1 a 300mL L-1 foram, individualmente, incorporadas ao Meio Basal; a seguir, após inoculação fúngica, o crescimento radial dos micélios foi avaliado. A inibição total do desenvolvimento de C. lindemuthianum e P. grisea foi observada entre as concentrações de 50mL L-1 e 200mL L-1, respectivamente. Com base no crescimento miceliano das colônias de F. graminearum, a atividade antifúngica do detergente do óleo da mamona (DOM determinou inibição variável entre 79,4 e 91% para a raça F2 e entre 80,7 e 90,7% para a raça F4. O detergente, nas concentrações de 100 a 300mL L-1, inibiu em 100% a germinação de conídios de F. graminearum (raças F-4 e F-2. Os resultados demonstram nítida atividade antifúngica do detergente derivado do óleo da mamona sobre fitopatógenos.In the present study the fungitoxic effect of the castor oil plant detergent (Ricinus communis on the development of the phytopathogens Pyricularia grisea, Fusarium graminearum and Colletotrichum lindemuthianum was evaluated. Six concentrations of the detergent (12.5mL L-1 to 300mL L-1 had been, individually, incorporated to the Basal Medium. After fungi inoculations, the radial growth of mycelia were evaluated. Detergent at 50mL L-1 and 200mL L-1 inhibited completely the development of P. grisea and C. lindemuthianum, respectively. On the basis of the mycelial growth of F. graminearum, the fungitoxic activity of the castor oil plant detergent (DOM determined inhibition in the range of 79.4 and 91% for the F2 race and 80.7 and 90.7% for the F4 race. Detergent at the concentrations of 100mL L-1 to 300mL L-1 inhibited in 100% the F. graminearum germination conidia (races F-4 and F-2. Results

  17. Escala diagramática para avaliação de mofo cinzento (Amphobotrys ricini da mamoneira (Ricinus communis L. Diagramatic scale to assess gray mold (Amphobotyrs ricini in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.

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    Haroldo Antunes Chagas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi a elaboração de uma escala diagramática para avaliação de mofo cinzento causado por Amphobotrys ricini (Buchw. em mamoneira (Ricinus communis L.. Utilizaram 59 cachos, que foram desinfestados em solução de hipoclorito de sódio a 2% por 30 segundos e em água destilada e esterilizada. Depois foram acondicionados em bandejas com espuma umedecida, onde receberam discos de micélio de 5mm do patógeno, permanecendo em câmara climática a 25ºC e UR de 80%. Observou-se a evolução da doença e foram obtidos fotos dos cachos doentes diariamente. Para a determinação da porcentagem de severidade dos cachos, os frutos infectados e sadios foram contados, estimando-se dessa forma a porcentagem da área lesionada e elaborando uma escala diagramática com seis níveis de severidade. A adoção da escala proposta, melhorou a acurácia (R²=0,94, com valores de "a" não significativamente diferentes de zero (0 e os valores de "b" não diferentes de um (1.The aim of the present study was to develop a diagrammatic scale to assess gray mold caused by Amphobotrys ricini in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.. The experiment included 59 clusters, which were disinfected in solution of sodium hypochlorite to 2% for 30 seconds and distilled water and sterilized. Then, they were packed in moistened foam trays which received 5mm mycelial discs, and were kept in a climatic chamber at 25º C and 80%. RH. The disease evolution was observed daily pictures of the clusters diseased. To determine the severity percentage of the bunches, infected and healthy fruits were counted, estimating thus the percentage of the injured area, and developing a diagrammatic scale with six severity levels. The adoption of the proposed scale, improved the accuracy (R² = 0,94 "a" values were not significantly different from zero (0 and "b" values were not significantly different from one (1.

  18. Balanço energético para a produção de biodiesel pela cultura da mamona (Ricinus communis L. Energy balance for biodiesel production by the castor bean crop (Ricinus communis L.

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    Rodolfo Glauber Chechetto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A cultura da mamona (Ricinus communis L. adquiriu prestígio ao interesse da indústria pela qualidade de seu óleo e, recentemente, pela busca de novas fontes de energias. O experimento que serviu como base para os dados utilizados nesse trabalho foi realizado na Fazenda Experimental Lageado, FCA - UNESP, no município de Botucatu - SP, no ano de 2008. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a viabilidade energética da cultura através do balanço e da eficiência energética, desde a implantação até a produção de biodiesel, utilizando parâmetros de consumo operacional no manejo para instalação e manutenção da cultura, colheita e processamento de óleo. As operações de manejo de solo, semeadura e colheita consumiramo total de 266,20 MJ ha-1, que juntamente com fertilizantes, agrotóxicos, combustíveis e lubrificantes, mão-de-obra, sementes e processamento industrial totalizaram uma entrada de energia de 56.808,10 MJ ha-1. A produção de energia foi de 72.814,00 MJ ha-1. O setor ainda carece de estudos que contribuiriam para o levantamento de dados e coeficientes energéticos mais específicos. A cultura da mamona foi considerada eficiente, permitindo ganho de 15.983,44 MJ ha-1, equivalente a aproximadamente 415 L de óleo diesel.The castor bean crop (Ricinus communis L. has acquired prestige due to industries interest in the oil quality and recently for new sources of energy demand. The experiment that served as basis for the data used in this study was conducted at the Lageado Experimental Farm, in Botucatu - SP, 2008. This study aimed to avaluate the crop viability through energy balance and energy efficiency since the implantation until biodiesel production using parameters of consumption in operational management for installation and maintenance of culture harvest and oil production. The soil management operations, sow and harvest consumed the total of 266.20 MJ ha-1, gathering with the fertilizers, pesticides, fuels

  19. Capillary feeding of specific dsRNA induces silencing of the isac gene in nymphal Ixodes scapularis ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, C A G; Lima, C M R; Dolan, M C; Piesman, J; Beard, C B; Zeidner, N S

    2005-08-01

    Ixodes scapularis transmits several pathogens including Borrelia burgdorferi. Bioactive compounds in tick saliva support tick feeding and influence pathogen transmission to the mammalian host. These studies utilized oral delivery of dsRNA to silence an anticomplement gene (isac) in I. scapularis nymphs. Silencing of isac significantly reduced fed-tick weight compared to delivery of control lacZ dsRNA, and immunoblots specific for FlaB protein indicated a reduction in spirochete load in isac-silenced infected nymphs. SDS-PAGE demonstrated that isac gene silencing affected expression of a number of salivary and non-salivary gland proteins in ticks. Finally, multiple isac cDNA homologues were cloned, and these may represent a new gene family coexpressed during tick feeding. This work presents a novel oral delivery approach for specific gene silencing in I. scapularis nymphs and characterizes the effect of isac on blood-feeding in an attempt to block transmission of B. burgdorferi.

  20. Relationships between maternal engorgement weight and the number, size, and fat content of larval Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Howard; Lee, Chong; Volson, Barry; Dyer, Megan C.; LeBrun, Roger A.

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between engorgement weight of female Ixodes scapularis Say and characteristics of offspring was studied using field-collected females fed on rabbits in the laboratory. The number of eggs laid was positively related to maternal engorgement weight in one trial, and larval size (estimated by scutal area) was positively related to maternal engorgement weight in the other. These results suggest a trade-off in number of eggs produced versus average size of offspring, possibly determined during late engorgement. The adults for the two trials were collected from different sites in southern Rhode Island and in different seasons (the fall adults were newly emerged, while the spring adults had presumably lived through the winter), so it is not clear whether these results reflect genetic differences or subtle environmental differences between trials. Percent egg hatch and average fat content of larvae were not related to female engorgement weight. We present a modified method to measure lipid content of pooled larval ticks.

  1. [Designing and clinical testing of immune-enzyme and immunofluorescence test systems for serodiagnosis of ixodes borreliosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomelova, V G; Kharitonenkov, I G; Sadykbekova, R K; Bychenkova, T A; Anan'eva, L P; Sokolova, M V; Osin, N S

    2004-01-01

    The methods of immune enzyme assay (MIEA) and of lanthanide immunofluorescence analysis (LIFA) were used to work out the test systems for the detection (in blood serum of patients) of specific IgM IgG antibodies to the B. burgdorferi spirochete--a causative agent of ixodic borrelioses. The test system was clinically tested versus the indirect immunofluorescence reaction (IIFR) and commercial immune enzyme test system (CIET). The results of antibodies' detection were shown to correlate with the analysis data for the same sera in IIFR and to be in line with a real presence or absence of the disease. Test systems based on LIFA were proven to be most sensitive and specific.

  2. Castor (Ricinus communis L. and Pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L. Growth Indices in Terms of Interference

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    naser jafarzadeh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Growth analysis has been widely used in breeding programs to identify the important plant developmental phases and components related to higher yield under a particular set of environmental conditions. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L. is an important commercial crop. Castor oil based by products is used in manufacturing of several commercially important commodities like surfactants, coatings, greases, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, polyesters, polymers, etc. Interference (Interactive effects among species on inter-species populations is one of the main issues on the eco-physiology of plant populations where weeds impose negative effects by approaching the plant to compete in light, water and nutrient elements availability and results in reduced growth and yield (Shinggu et al., 2011. Growth indices are useful for interpreting plant reactions to the crop and weed density. Various reasons have been attributed for the low productivity among the most important is weed competition (Radosevich, 1987. The aim of the present experiment was evaluating the interference effects of redroot pigweed on growth indices of castor bean in northwest of Iran. Materials and methods This experiment was conducted in Urmia, Iran (Agricultural Research of West Azarbayjan, Saatlo Station (37°44´18״ N Latitude and 45° 10´ 53״ E Longitude, at 1338 m above sea level in 2012. The soil of the experimental field was sandy - loam, with pH of 7.2. Competitive pattern of experiment was in two-factor based on a randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications arranged in four castor plant densities (3, 4, 5 and 6 plants.m-2 and four redroot pigweed densities (0, 5, 10 and 15 plants.m-2. Redroot pigweed and castor seeds were simultaneously directly planted on the 22th May in 2012. Redroot pigweed plants were weeded at the times related to the treatments level. Irrigation and intercultural operations were performed whenever necessary. Plots were 3m×5m

  3. Large scale spatial risk and comparative prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes pacificus.

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    Kerry Padgett

    Full Text Available Borrelia miyamotoi is a newly described emerging pathogen transmitted to people by Ixodes species ticks and found in temperate regions of North America, Europe, and Asia. There is limited understanding of large scale entomological risk patterns of B. miyamotoi and of Borreila burgdorferi sensu stricto (ss, the agent of Lyme disease, in western North America. In this study, B. miyamotoi, a relapsing fever spirochete, was detected in adult (n=70 and nymphal (n=36 Ixodes pacificus ticks collected from 24 of 48 California counties that were surveyed over a 13 year period. Statewide prevalence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato (sl, which includes B. burgdorferi ss, and B. miyamotoi were similar in adult I. pacificus (0.6% and 0.8%, respectively. In contrast, the prevalence of B. burgdorferi sl was almost 2.5 times higher than B. miyamotoi in nymphal I. pacificus (3.2% versus 1.4%. These results suggest similar risk of exposure to B. burgdorferi sl and B. miyamotoi from adult I. pacificus tick bites in California, but a higher risk of contracting B. burgdorferi sl than B. miyamotoi from nymphal tick bites. While regional risk of exposure to these two spirochetes varies, the highest risk for both species is found in north and central coastal California and the Sierra Nevada foothill region, and the lowest risk is in southern California; nevertheless, tick-bite avoidance measures should be implemented in all regions of California. This is the first study to comprehensively evaluate entomologic risk for B. miyamotoi and B. burgdorferi for both adult and nymphal I. pacificus, an important human biting tick in western North America.

  4. Gene Structures, Evolution and Transcriptional Profiling of the WRKY Gene Family in Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhi; Yang, Lifu; Wang, Danhua; Huang, Qixing; Mo, Yeyong; Xie, Guishui

    2016-01-01

    WRKY proteins comprise one of the largest transcription factor families in plants and form key regulators of many plant processes. This study presents the characterization of 58 WRKY genes from the castor bean (Ricinus communis L., Euphorbiaceae) genome. Compared with the automatic genome annotation, one more WRKY-encoding locus was identified and 20 out of the 57 predicted gene models were manually corrected. All RcWRKY genes were shown to contain at least one intron in their coding sequences. According to the structural features of the present WRKY domains, the identified RcWRKY genes were assigned to three previously defined groups (I-III). Although castor bean underwent no recent whole-genome duplication event like physic nut (Jatropha curcas L., Euphorbiaceae), comparative genomics analysis indicated that one gene loss, one intron loss and one recent proximal duplication occurred in the RcWRKY gene family. The expression of all 58 RcWRKY genes was supported by ESTs and/or RNA sequencing reads derived from roots, leaves, flowers, seeds and endosperms. Further global expression profiles with RNA sequencing data revealed diverse expression patterns among various tissues. Results obtained from this study not only provide valuable information for future functional analysis and utilization of the castor bean WRKY genes, but also provide a useful reference to investigate the gene family expansion and evolution in Euphorbiaceus plants.

  5. Trace isotope analysis of Ricinus communis seed core for provenance determination by laser ablation-ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagas, Christina K; Scadding, Rachel L; Scadding, Cameron J; Watling, R John; Roberts, Warren; Ovenden, Simon P B

    2017-01-01

    The castor bean plant, Ricinus communis, grows wild throughout many regions of Australia. The seeds of the plant contain the schedule 1 chemical agent ricin, a type II ribosomal inhibiting protein. Currently there are limited analytical techniques that can be applied in analysis of the seeds to establish attribution. In this study, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used for the analysis of seeds collected from 68 plants across 38 locations around Australia. Of the 92 elemental isotopes measured, fifteen ((24)Mg, (27)Al, (44)Ca, (53)Cr, (55)Mn, (57)Fe, (60)Ni, (65)Cu, (66)Zn, (75)As, (85)Rb, (88)Sr, (98)Mo, (138)Ba and (202)Hg) yielded data that were relevant to all collection sites. Data were further analysed using multivariate statistical analysis which facilitated the potential for the identification of unique provenance isotopes. Furthermore, this analysis indicated that (59)Co was present at significant levels in Victorian and Sydney specimens only. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Local Perceptions about the Effects of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas and Castor (Ricinus communis Plantations on Households in Ghana and Ethiopia

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    Joleen A. Timko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel plantations have been hyped as a means to reinvigorate Africa’s rural areas. Yet there is still apprehension about the negative environmental and social impacts of large-scale commercial biofuel production around rising food prices, land grabbing, ecological damage, and disruption of rural livelihoods. Given the extent of Jatropha curcas production in Ghana and Ethiopia and Castor bean (Ricinus communis in Ethiopia, this paper presents the results of a study that assessed the socio-economic implications of industrial Jatropha plantations on local livelihoods in Ghana, and of industrial Jatropha and Castor plantations on local livelihoods in Ethiopia. This study used primary data collected from 234 households in Ghana and 165 in Ethiopia. The cultivation of Jatropha and Castor has had several important effects on local livelihoods in the study sites, most notably decreases in household landholdings due to the arrival of industrial Jatropha or Castor plantations; and the resulting changes these plantations have caused in household socio-economic status, food security, fallow periods, and fodder availability. We consider how a lack of meaningful consultation between local people, their traditional authorities and the biofuel company managers, along with shortcomings in each country’s broader land acquisition process and poor land use information, may have contributed to these overall negative effects on local livelihoods. We conclude by suggesting several ways that emerging biofuel industries could be improved from the perspective of local people and their livelihoods.

  7. Genome-wide survey and expression profiles of the AP2/ERF family in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Li, Fei; Ling, Lizhen; Liu, Aizhong

    2013-11-13

    The AP2/ERF transcription factor, one of the largest gene families in plants, plays a crucial role in the regulation of growth and development, metabolism, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L., Euphobiaceae) is one of most important non-edible oilseed crops and its seed oil is broadly used for industrial applications. The available genome provides a great chance to identify and characterize the global information on AP2/ERF transcription factors in castor bean, which might provide insights in understanding the molecular basis of the AP2/ERF family in castor bean. A total of 114 AP2/ERF transcription factors were identified based on the genome in castor bean. According to the number of the AP2/ERF domain, the conserved amino acid residues within AP2/ERF domain, the conserved motifs and gene organization in structure, and phylogenetical analysis, the identified 114 AP2/ERF transcription factors were characterized. Global expression profiles among different tissues using high-throughput sequencing of digital gene expression profiles (DGEs) displayed diverse expression patterns that may provide basic information in understanding the function of the AP2/ERF gene family in castor bean. The current study is the first report on identification and characterization of the AP2/ERF transcription factors based on the genome of castor bean in the family Euphobiaceae. Results obtained from this study provide valuable information in understanding the molecular basis of the AP2/ERF family in castor bean.

  8. Systematic comparison of oligosaccharide specificity of Ricinus communis agglutinin I and Erythrina lectins: a search by frontal affinity chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itakura, Yoko; Nakamura-Tsuruta, Sachiko; Kominami, Junko; Sharon, Nathan; Kasai, Ken-Ichi; Hirabayashi, Jun

    2007-10-01

    Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA120) is considered a versatile tool for the detection of galactose-containing oligosaccharides. However, possible contamination by the highly toxic isolectin 'ricin' has become a critical issue for RCA120's continued use. From a practical viewpoint, it is necessary to find an effective substitute for RCA120. For this purpose, we examined by means of frontal affinity chromatography over 100 lectins which have similar sugar-binding specificities to that of RCA120. It was found that Erythrina cristagalli lectin (ECL) showed the closest similarity to RCA120. Both lectins prefer Gal beta1-4GlcNAc (type II) to Gal beta1-3GlcNAc (type I) structures, with increased affinity for highly branched N-acetyllactosamine-containing N-glycans. Their binding strength significantly decreased following modification of the 3-OH, 4-OH and 6-OH of the galactose moiety of the disaccharide, as well as the 3-OH of its N-acetylglucosamine residue. Several differences were also observed in the affinity of the two lectins for various other ligands, as well as effects of bisecting GlcNAc and terminal sialylation. Although six other Erythrina-derived lectins have been reported with different amino acid sequences, all showed quite similar profiles to that of ECL, and thus, to RCA120. Erythrina lectins can therefore serve as effective substitutes for RCA120, taking the above differences into consideration.

  9. Gene Structures, Evolution and Transcriptional Profiling of the WRKY Gene Family in Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L..

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    Zhi Zou

    Full Text Available WRKY proteins comprise one of the largest transcription factor families in plants and form key regulators of many plant processes. This study presents the characterization of 58 WRKY genes from the castor bean (Ricinus communis L., Euphorbiaceae genome. Compared with the automatic genome annotation, one more WRKY-encoding locus was identified and 20 out of the 57 predicted gene models were manually corrected. All RcWRKY genes were shown to contain at least one intron in their coding sequences. According to the structural features of the present WRKY domains, the identified RcWRKY genes were assigned to three previously defined groups (I-III. Although castor bean underwent no recent whole-genome duplication event like physic nut (Jatropha curcas L., Euphorbiaceae, comparative genomics analysis indicated that one gene loss, one intron loss and one recent proximal duplication occurred in the RcWRKY gene family. The expression of all 58 RcWRKY genes was supported by ESTs and/or RNA sequencing reads derived from roots, leaves, flowers, seeds and endosperms. Further global expression profiles with RNA sequencing data revealed diverse expression patterns among various tissues. Results obtained from this study not only provide valuable information for future functional analysis and utilization of the castor bean WRKY genes, but also provide a useful reference to investigate the gene family expansion and evolution in Euphorbiaceus plants.

  10. A case of Guillain — Barre syndrome associated with ixodes tick borreliosis and listeriosis

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    O.N. Domashenko

    2017-04-01

    , colorless, contains protein 0.71g/l, cytosis makes 1 cell per mcl (lymphocyte, red cell count was 1–3 per mcl, positive Pandy’s test, and glucose ratio of 3.9 mmol/l. IIFT (IgM, liquor as of 07.11.2016 indentified: negative Rubella virus; measles, mumps, Varicella zoster virus, adenovirus type 3; EBV, capsid antigen; Treponema pallidum; Toxoplasma gondii; HSV type I; negative HSV type II; Coxsackie virus type B1; Coxsackie virus type А7; Echo virus type 7; positive Borrelia afzelii; Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto; Borrelia garinii; Listeria monocytogenes 1/2а; Listeria monocytogenes 4b; СМV; negative Hemophilus influenza. PCR (liquor as of 07.11.2016 showed: no Toxoplasma gondii, Human herpes virus type 6, СМV. IgM antibodies profile to Borrelia antigens in the immunoblotting reaction (blood as of 09.11.2016 revealed specific antibodies of IgM class to Borrelia garinii (Flagellin, OspC; OspC to Borrelia afzelii — negative; OspC to Borrelia burgdorferi — negative. There was diagnosed Guillain — Barre acute inflammatory-allergic polyneuropathy (Landry type with pronounced quadriparesis, bulbar syndrome, oculomotor dysfunctions, associated with ixodes tick borreliosis and listeriosis, which were confirmed by IgM revealed to Borrelia garinii (IIFT in the liquor and Western blot reaction in the blood, IgM to Listeria monocytogenes 1/2а, 4b (IIFT in the liquor. The therapy included immunovenin, 5 sessions of plasmapheresis, cefepime, retarpen, cytoflavinum, cycloferonum, ceraxon, actovegin, neuromidin, proserinum, combilipen, diclophenacum, nucleo CMP, mexidol, fluconazole, probiotics, glucose solution, panangin, insulin, L-lysine aescinat, berlithion, suprastin, lasix, berlipril, bisoprololum, tube feeding, APV, microclysters. Since the 48th day of the disease the state of the patient started improving and the rapid recovery of neurological status was observed. Independent breathing restored. The laryngeal-pharyngeal reflexes, sensitive and motor activity

  11. PENGARUH EKSTRAK ETANOL BIJI JARAK (Ricinus communis L. TERHADAP STRUKTUR HISTOLOGIS TESTIS TIKUS SAWAH (Ratus Argentiventer ROBINSON & KLOSS (The Effect of Castor-bean (Ricinus communis L. Seeds Ethanol Extract on Microscopic Structure of Testis of

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    Istriyati Istriyati

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK  Tikus sawah (Rattus argentivenler Robinson dan Kloss merupakan jenis hewan mammal yang menimbulkan kerugian besar di sektor pertanian. Selain daya adaptasi yang tinggi terhadap lingkungan, tikus sawah memiliki kemampuan reproduksi yang tinggi dalam waktu singkat, sehingga populasi tikus sawah dapat meningkat dengan cepat Untuk mengatasi hal ini, diperlukan suatu teknik pengendalian, dengan mempengaruhi tingkat fertilitasnya. Biji jarak (Ricinus communis L. diduga mempunyai efek antifertilitas yang diharapkan dapat mengurangi jumlah populasi tikus sawah. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mempelajari pengaruh ekstrak biji jarak terhadap struktur mikroskopis testis tikus sawah. Tiga puluh ekor tikus sawah jantan dengan rata-rata berat badan 99,4 g dibagi menjadi 6 kelompok, masing-masing 5 ekor. Satu kelompok kontrol diperlakukan dengan akuabides, 5 kelompok lainnya masing-masing diperlakukan dengan ekstrak etanol biji jarak secara oral dengan metode one way single dose 0.2 ml: 0.4 ml: 0.6 ml: 0.8 ml dan 1.0 ml/100 g bb. Setelah perlakuan tikus sawah dipelihara selama 12 hari. Kemudian tikus dikorbankan dan diambil testisnya untuk dibuat preparat dengan metode parafin, fiksasi dalam larutan Bouin, tebal sayatan 6 um, pewarnaan dengan hematoksilin dan Eosin (HE. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan struktur mikroskopis testis mengalami degenerasi. Uji statistik menunjukkan adanya penurunan secara nyata jumlah spermatogonia, spermatosit dan spermatid testis tikus sawah antara kelompok kontrol dan perlakuan. Makin tinggi dosis, makin tinggi tingkat kerusakan struktur mikroskopis dan jumlah spermatogonia, spermatosit dan spermatid makin sedikit.   ABSTRACT  Rice-field rat (Rattus argentiventer Robinson & Kloss is a mammal pest that causes serious lost on agriculture crop. Beside high adaptation, rice-field rats also have high reproduction ability in a short time, so that the population of the rats increase rapidly. To control population of rice

  12. Eficiência da seleção recorrente para redução da estatura de plantas em mamoneira (Ricinus communis L. Recurrent selection efficiency for stature reduction of castor bean (Ricinus communis L. plants

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    Inocencio Junior de Oliveira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se, o presente trabalho, com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência da seleção recorrente para a redução da estatura de plantas de mamona da cultivar Guarani (Ricinus communis L., tornando-a com porte adequado para facilitar a colheita manual e/ou mecânica. Foram realizados quatro ciclos de seleção recorrente com a utilização de progênies autofecundadas na cultivar Guarani para redução da estatura das plantas, nas condições edafoclimáticas dos municípios de São Manuel - SP, Botucatu - SP e Penápolis - SP. As avaliações de estatura das plantas e de produtividade de grãos (kg.ha-1, dos quatro ciclos de seleção e do ciclo original foram realizadas nos municípios de São Manuel - SP, Botucatu - SP e Penápolis - SP na safra 2005/2006, sob um delineamento de blocos casualizados com cinco repetições e parcela útil de 30 m². A análise de variância para as características avaliadas foi feita separadamente para cada local e conjuntamente para os três locais e, posteriormente, realizada a comparação das médias pelo teste de Tukey, a 5%. Foram estimados, para as três localidades, por análise de regressão, os ganhos genéticos dos quatros ciclos de seleção para estatura de plantas. A partir dos resultados obtidos pôde-se concluir que a seleção recorrente foi eficiente para a redução da estatura de plantas e que a cultivar de mamona Guarani apresenta variabilidade genética para essa característica e que a produtividade não foi influenciada pela redução da estatura de plantas.The aim of this work was to evaluate the recurrent selection efficiency for reduction of stature of the castor bean plants of the Guarani cultivar (Ricinus communis L., turning it with appropriate strucuture to facilitate the manual and/or mechanic harvest. Four cycles of recurrent selection were accomplished through the utilization of self-pollinated progenies in the Guarani cultivar for reduction of plants stature, in

  13. Serpentine bacteria influence metal translocation and bioconcentration of Brassica juncea and Ricinus communis grown in multi-metal polluted soils

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    Ying eMa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effects of inoculation of rhizosphere or endophytic bacteria (Psychrobacter sp. SRS8 and Pseudomonas sp. A3R3, respectively isolated from a serpentine environment on the plant growth and the translocation and accumulation of Ni, Zn and Fe by Brassica juncea and Ricinus communis on a multi-metal polluted serpentine soil (SS. Field collected SS was diluted to 0, 25, 50 and 75% with pristine soil in order to obtain a range of heavy metal concentrations and used in microcosm experiments. Regardless of inoculation with bacteria, the biomass of both plant species decreased with increase of the proportion of SS. Inoculation of plants with bacteria significantly increased the plant biomass and the heavy metal accumulation compared with non-inoculated control in the presence of different proportion of SS, which was attributed to the production of plant growth promoting and/or metal mobilizing metabolites by bacteria. However, SRS8 showed a maximum increase in the biomass of the test plants grown even in the treatment of 75% SS. In turn, A3R3 showed maximum effects on the accumulation of heavy metals in both plants. Regardless of inoculation of bacteria and proportion of SS, both plant species exhibited low values of bioconcentration factor (<1 for Ni and Fe. The inoculation of both bacterial strains significantly increased the translocation factor (TF of Ni while decreasing the TF of Zn in both plant species. Besides this contrasting effect, the TFs of all metals were < 1, indicating that all studied bacteria-plant combinations are suitable for phytostabilization. This study demonstrates that the bacterial isolates A3R3 and SRS8 improved the growth of B. juncea and R. communis in SS soils and have a great potential to be used as inoculants in phytostabilization scenarios of multi-metal contaminated soils.

  14. CAPACIDAD ANTAGÓNICA Y QUITINOLÍTICA DE MICROORGANISMOS AISLADOS DE RESIDUOS DE HIGUERILLA (Ricinus communis

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    TERESA CABRA C

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se ha comprobado que los fertilizantes y controladores biológicos a base de microorganismos benéficos productores de metabolitos de interés, inducen el crecimiento vegetal y actúan contra microorganismos patógenos y plagas que afectan los agroecosistemas. Por lo tanto, su uso constituye una práctica eficiente de producción limpia que ayuda a reducir el impacto ambiental causado por el uso de agroquímicos. En este trabajo se evaluó la capacidad antagónica y quitinolítica de 15 cepas bacterianas y una levaduriforme, aisladas de residuos lignocelulósicos de higuerilla (Ricinus communis. La actividad antagónica de cada cepa se determinó por la capacidad de inhibir el crecimiento del hongo fitopatógeno Fusarium equiseti, en medio de cultivo PDA. Solamente la bacteria Bacillus subtilis, presentó una inhibición significativa del crecimiento del hongo equivalente al 76,08%. Por lo tanto se demuestra que la cepa de Bacillus subtilis puede ser empleada en la formulación de inoculantes microbianos. La capacidad quitinolítica de las cepas se definió por el crecimiento del microorganismo y por la formación de halos de hidrólisis alrededor de las colonias sobre el medio de cultivo suplementado con quitina coloidal. Ninguna de las cepas evaluadas mostró capacidad para degradar quitina.

  15. Exploiting EST databases for the development and characterization of EST-SSR markers in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.).

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    Qiu, Lijun; Yang, Chun; Tian, Bo; Yang, Jun-Bo; Liu, Aizhong

    2010-12-16

    The castor bean (Ricinus communis L.), a monotypic species in the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae, 2n = 20), is an important non-edible oilseed crop widely cultivated in tropical, sub-tropical and temperate countries for its high economic value. Because of the high level of ricinoleic acid (over 85%) in its seed oil, the castor bean seed derivatives are often used in aviation oil, lubricants, nylon, dyes, inks, soaps, adhesive and biodiesel. Due to lack of efficient molecular markers, little is known about the population genetic diversity and the genetic relationships among castor bean germplasm. Efficient and robust molecular markers are increasingly needed for breeding and improving varieties in castor bean. The advent of modern genomics has produced large amounts of publicly available DNA sequence data. In particular, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) provide valuable resources to develop gene-associated SSR markers. In total, 18,928 publicly available non-redundant castor bean EST sequences, representing approximately 17.03 Mb, were evaluated and 7732 SSR sites in 5,122 ESTs were identified by data mining. Castor bean exhibited considerably high frequency of EST-SSRs. We developed and characterized 118 polymorphic EST-SSR markers from 379 primer pairs flanking repeats by screening 24 castor bean samples collected from different countries. A total of 350 alleles were identified from 118 polymorphic SSR loci, ranging from 2-6 per locus (A) with an average of 2.97. The EST-SSR markers developed displayed moderate gene diversity (He) with an average of 0.41. Genetic relationships among 24 germplasms were investigated using the genotypes of 350 alleles, showing geographic pattern of genotypes across genetic diversity centers of castor bean. Castor bean EST sequences exhibited considerably high frequency of SSR sites, and were rich resources for developing EST-SSR markers. These EST-SSR markers would be particularly useful for both genetic mapping and population structure

  16. Gene structure, expression pattern and interaction of Nuclear Factor-Y family in castor bean (Ricinus communis).

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    Wang, Yue; Xu, Wei; Chen, Zexi; Han, Bing; Haque, Mohammad E; Liu, Aizhong

    2017-11-08

    Nuclear Factor-Y transcription factors, which function in regulating seed development (including storage reservoir accumulation) and responding to abiotic stresses, were identified and characterized in castor bean. Nuclear Factor-Y (NF-Y) transcription factors in plants contain three subunits (NF-YA, NF-YB and NF-YC), and function as a heterodimer or heterotrimer complex in regulating plant growth, development and response to stresses. Castor bean (Ricinus communis, Euphorbiaceae) one of the most economically important non-edible oilseed crops, able to grow in diverse soil conditions and displays high tolerance to abiotic stresses. Due to increasing demands for its seed oils, it is necessary to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of growth and development. Based on the available genome data, we identified 25 RcNF-Y members including six RcNF-YAs, 12 RcNF-YBs and seven RcNF-YCs, and characterized their gene structures. Yeast two-hybrid assays confirmed the protein-protein interactions among three subunits. Using transcriptomic data from different tissues, we found that six members were highly or specifically expressed in endosperms (in particular, two LEC1-type members RcNF-YB2 and RcNF-YB12), implying their involvement in regulating seed development and storage reservoir accumulation. Further, we investigated the expression changes of RcNF-Y members in two-week-old seedlings under drought, cold, hot and salt stresses. We found that the expression levels of 20 RcNF-Y members tested were changed and three RcNF-Y members might function in response to abiotic stresses. This study is the first reported on genomic characterization of NF-Y transcription factors in the family Euphorbiaceae. Our results provide the basis for improved understanding of how NF-Y genes function in the regulation of seed development and responses to abiotic stresses in both castor bean and other plants in this family.

  17. Alternatif Pembuatan Biodiesel Melalui Transesterifikasi Minyak Castor (Ricinus communis Menggunakan Katalis Campuran Cangkang Telur Ayam dan Kaolin

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    Soni - Setiadji

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel was produced by transesterification of castor oil (Ricinus communis using a catalyst of CaO and kaolin (CaO / kaolin had been performed. CaO was obtained from the calcination of eggshell. Castor oil is selected as biodiesel feedstock because it belongs to non-food oil and easy to cultivate. In general, the research method aims to comprise the CaO / Kaolin catalysts with a ratio of 15 mmol CaO per 1 gram of kaolin activated using impregnation method and biodiesel produced through transesterification of castor oil using the catalyst at 65 ºC for 8 hours with ratio of castor oil: methanol: catalyst (1: 15: 5% w / w. The reaction is carried out on the reflux system. The XRD analysis show the presence of silica and potassium aluminum silicate hydroxide in the catalyst. The EDS results show the catalyst-forming components CaO and silica. The FTIR analysis results show the absorption peak in the functional group forming the methyl ester compound. Based on the characterization of GC-MS, the largest methyl ester components contained in biodiesel are methyl risinoleate, methyl elaidat, methyl stearate, methyl linoleate, and methyl palmitate. The overall conversion of castor oil to methyl ester using CaO / kaolin catalyst is 97.36%. The largest component in castor oil is risinoleic acid, has been successfully converted to methyl risinoleate by 74.75%.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15408/jkv.v0i0.4778

  18. Amblyomma aureolatum and Ixodes auritulus (Acari: Ixodidae) on birds in southern Brazil, with notes on their ecology.

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    Arzua, Márcia; Navarro Da Silva, Mário Antonio; Famadas, Kátia Maria; Beati, Lorenza; Barros-Battesti, Darci Moraes

    2003-01-01

    Between January 1999 and December 2000, 876 bird specimens were captured in three different ecological environments from the Reinhard Maack Park, Curitiba, State of Paraná, southern Brazil. A total of 142 birds (16.2%) were infested with Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas 1772) (N=699) and/or Ixodes auritulus Neumann, 1904 (N=18) ticks. Questing A. aureolatum nymphs (N=2) and adults (N=5) were also collected from the soil and the vegetation. None of the I. auritulus were collected off-host. We collected only immatures of A. aureolatum on birds, but all life stages of I. auritulus. The latter species was collected on Turdus rufiventris and on Synallaxis ruficapilla, which is herein recognized as a host of I. auritulus for the first time. Moreover, this is also the first report of A. aureolatum infesting birds, and 16 different bird species were found infested. It was observed that larval infestation was positively correlated with the dry and cold season, while nymphal infestation was positively correlated with the warm and rainy season. Although only 2-years worth of data is provided, our results suggest the infestation of birds by ticks was significantly higher at the biotopes formed by forest at its first stage of regeneration 'capoeira' and the original Araucaria forest habitat 'mata' than the ecotone between forest and urban areas 'peripheral area'.

  19. No Observed Effect of Landscape Fragmentation on Pathogen Infection Prevalence in Blacklegged Ticks (Ixodes scapularis in the Northeastern United States.

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    Christine P Zolnik

    Full Text Available Pathogen prevalence within blacklegged ticks (Ixodes scapularis Say, 1821 tends to vary across sites and geographic regions, but the underlying causes of this variation are not well understood. Efforts to understand the ecology of Lyme disease have led to the proposition that sites with higher host diversity will result in lower disease risk due to an increase in the abundance of inefficient reservoir species relative to the abundance of species that are highly competent reservoirs. Although the Lyme disease transmission cycle is often cited as a model for this "dilution effect hypothesis", little empirical evidence exists to support that claim. Here we tested the dilution effect hypothesis for two pathogens transmitted by the blacklegged tick along an urban-to-rural gradient in the northeastern United States using landscape fragmentation as a proxy for host biodiversity. Percent impervious surface and habitat fragment size around each site were determined to assess the effect of landscape fragmentation on nymphal blacklegged tick infection with Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Our results do not support the dilution effect hypothesis for either pathogen and are in agreement with the few studies to date that have tested this idea using either a landscape proxy or direct measures of host biodiversity.

  20. Asymmetrical focal neurological deficits in dogs and cats with naturally occurring tick paralysis (Ixodes holocyclus): 27 cases (1999-2006).

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    Holland, C T

    2008-10-01

    To describe basic epidemiological features, clinical characteristics and outcomes of asymmetrical focal neurological deficits identified in dogs and cats with naturally occurring tick paralysis (Ixodes holocyclus). A retrospective study. Computer records were reviewed for all dogs and cats treated for tick paralysis between July 1999 and June 2006 at a suburban veterinary hospital in Newcastle, New South Wales. Neurological deficits were identified in 17/197 dogs and 10/89 cats and included unilateral facial paralysis (14 dogs; 2 cats), anisocoria (4 dogs; 7 cats), unilateral loss of the cutaneous trunci reflex (1 dog; 1 cat) and Horner's syndrome in 2 cats with anisocoria. Occurrence of deficits was not linked to season, severity of tick paralysis, breed, age, sex or body weight. With facial paralysis and anisocoria, the site of tick attachment was invariably on the head or neck and always ipsilateral to the facial paralysis. By contrast, with anisocoria alone, no consistent relationship was noted between any one pupillary dimension and the side of tick atta