WorldWideScience

Sample records for host shift events

  1. Host Event Based Network Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonathan Chugg

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of INL’s research on this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of a host event based network monitoring tool and the effects on host performance. Current host based network monitoring tools work on polling which can miss activity if it occurs between polls. Instead of polling, a tool could be developed that makes use of event APIs in the operating system to receive asynchronous notifications of network activity. Analysis and logging of these events will allow the tool to construct the complete real-time and historical network configuration of the host while the tool is running. This research focused on three major operating systems commonly used by SCADA systems: Linux, WindowsXP, and Windows7. Windows 7 offers two paths that have minimal impact on the system and should be seriously considered. First is the new Windows Event Logging API, and, second, Windows 7 offers the ALE API within WFP. Any future work should focus on these methods.

  2. Revisiting the particular role of host shifts in initiating insect speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Andrew A; Devine, Sara N; Hippee, Alaine C; Tvedte, Eric S; Ward, Anna K G; Widmayer, Heather A; Wilson, Caleb J

    2017-01-04

    The notion that shifts to new hosts can initiate insect speciation is more than 150 years old, yet widespread conflation with paradigms of sympatric speciation has led to confusion about how much support exists for this hypothesis. Here, we review 85 insect systems and evaluate the relationship between host shifting, reproductive isolation, and speciation. We sort insects into five categories: (1) systems in which a host shift has initiated speciation; (2) systems in which a host shift has made a contribution to speciation; (3) systems in which a host shift has caused the evolution of new reproductive isolating barriers; (4) systems with host-associated genetic differences; and (5) systems with no evidence of host-associated genetic differences. We find host-associated genetic structure in 65 systems, 43 of which show that host shifts have resulted in the evolution of new reproductive barriers. Twenty-six of the latter also support a role for host shifts in speciation, including eight studies that definitively support the hypothesis that a host shift has initiated speciation. While this review is agnostic as to the fraction of all insect speciation events to which host shifts have contributed, it clarifies that host shifts absolutely can and do initiate speciation.

  3. Species formation by host shifting in avian malaria parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricklefs, Robert E; Outlaw, Diana C; Svensson-Coelho, Maria; Medeiros, Matthew C I; Ellis, Vincenzo A; Latta, Steven

    2014-10-14

    The malaria parasites (Apicomplexa: Haemosporida) of birds are believed to have diversified across the avian host phylogeny well after the origin of most major host lineages. Although many symbionts with direct transmission codiversify with their hosts, mechanisms of species formation in vector-borne parasites, including the role of host shifting, are poorly understood. Here, we examine the hosts of sister lineages in a phylogeny of 181 putative species of malaria parasites of New World terrestrial birds to determine the role of shifts between host taxa in the formation of new parasite species. We find that host shifting, often across host genera and families, is the rule. Sympatric speciation by host shifting would require local reproductive isolation as a prerequisite to divergent selection, but this mechanism is not supported by the generalized host-biting behavior of most vectors of avian malaria parasites. Instead, the geographic distribution of individual parasite lineages in diverse hosts suggests that species formation is predominantly allopatric and involves host expansion followed by local host-pathogen coevolution and secondary sympatry, resulting in local shifting of parasite lineages across hosts.

  4. Histories of host shifts and cospeciation among free-living parasitoids of Rhagoletis flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamerlinck, G; Hulbert, D; Hood, G R; Smith, J J; Forbes, A A

    2016-09-01

    Host shifts by specialist insects can lead to reproductive isolation between insect populations that use different hosts, promoting diversification. When both a phytophagous insect and its ancestrally associated parasitoid shift to the same novel host plant, they may cospeciate. However, because adult parasitoids are free living, they can also colonize novel host insects and diversify independent of their ancestral host insect. Although shifts of parasitoids to new insect hosts have been documented in ecological time, the long-term importance of such shifts to parasitoid diversity has not been evaluated. We used a genus of flies with a history of speciation via host shifting (Rhagoletis [Diptera: Tephritidae]) and three associated hymenopteran parasitoid genera (Diachasma, Coptera and Utetes) to examine cophylogenetic relationships between parasitoids and their host insects. We inferred phylogenies of Rhagoletis, Diachasma, Coptera and Utetes and used distance-based cophylogenetic methods (ParaFit and PACo) to assess congruence between fly and parasitoid trees. We used an event-based method with a free-living parasitoid cost model to reconstruct cophylogenetic histories of each parasitoid genus and Rhagoletis. We found that the current species diversity and host-parasitoid associations between the Rhagoletis flies and parasitoids are the primary result of ancient cospeciation events. Parasitoid shifts to ancestrally unrelated hosts primarily occur near the branch tips, suggesting that host shifts contribute to recent parasitoid species diversity but that these lineages may not persist over longer time periods. Our analyses also stress the importance of biologically informed cost models when investigating the coevolutionary histories of hosts and free-living parasitoids.

  5. Cross-kingdom host shifts of phytomyxid parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhauser, Sigrid; Kirchmair, Martin; Bulman, Simon; Bass, David

    2014-02-23

    Phytomyxids (plasmodiophorids and phagomyxids) are cosmopolitan, obligate biotrophic protist parasites of plants, diatoms, oomycetes and brown algae. Plasmodiophorids are best known as pathogens or vectors for viruses of arable crops (e.g. clubroot in brassicas, powdery potato scab, and rhizomania in sugar beet). Some phytomyxid parasites are of considerable economic and ecologic importance globally, and their hosts include important species in marine and terrestrial environments. However most phytomyxid diversity remains uncharacterised and knowledge of their relationships with host taxa is very fragmentary. Our molecular and morphological analyses of phytomyxid isolates-including for the first time oomycete and sea-grass parasites-demonstrate two cross-kingdom host shifts between closely related parasite species: between angiosperms and oomycetes, and from diatoms/brown algae to angiosperms. Switching between such phylogenetically distant hosts is generally unknown in host-dependent eukaryote parasites. We reveal novel plasmodiophorid lineages in soils, suggesting a much higher diversity than previously known, and also present the most comprehensive phytomyxid phylogeny to date. Such large-scale host shifts between closely related obligate biotrophic eukaryote parasites is to our knowledge unique to phytomyxids. Phytomyxids may readily adapt to a wide diversity of new hosts because they have retained the ability to covertly infect alternative hosts. A high cryptic diversity and ubiquitous distribution in agricultural and natural habitats implies that in a changing environment phytomyxids could threaten the productivity of key species in marine and terrestrial environments alike via host shift speciation.

  6. Host shift and speciation in a coral-feeding nudibranch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucci, Anuschka; Toonen, Robert J; Hadfield, Michael G

    2006-01-01

    While the role of host preference in ecological speciation has been investigated extensively in terrestrial systems, very little is known in marine environments. Host preference combined with mate choice on the preferred host can lead to population subdivision and adaptation leading to host shifts. We use a phylogenetic approach based on two mitochondrial genetic markers to disentangle the taxonomic status and to investigate the role of host specificity in the speciation of the nudibranch genus Phestilla (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia) from Guam, Palau and Hawaii. Species of the genus Phestilla complete their life cycle almost entirely on their specific host coral (species of Porites, Goniopora and Tubastrea). They reproduce on their host coral and their planktonic larvae require a host-specific chemical cue to metamorphose and settle onto their host. The phylogenetic trees of the combined cytochrome oxidase I and ribosomal 16S gene sequences clarify the relationship among species of Phestilla identifying most of the nominal species as monophyletic clades. We found a possible case of host shift from Porites to Goniopora and Tubastrea in sympatric Phestilla spp. This represents one of the first documented cases of host shift as a mechanism underlying speciation in a marine invertebrate. Furthermore, we found highly divergent clades within Phestilla sp. 1 and Phestilla minor (8.1–11.1%), suggesting cryptic speciation. The presence of a strong phylogenetic signal for the coral host confirms that the tight link between species of Phestilla and their host coral probably played an important role in speciation within this genus. PMID:17134995

  7. Tidal Disruption Events Prefer Unusual Host Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    French, K Decker; Zabludoff, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Tidal Disruption Events (TDEs) are transient events observed when a star passes close enough to a supermassive black hole to be tidally destroyed. Many TDE candidates have been discovered in host galaxies whose spectra have weak or no line emission yet strong Balmer line absorption, indicating a period of intense star formation that has recently ended. As such, TDE host galaxies fall into the rare class of quiescent Balmer-strong galaxies. Here, we quantify the fraction of galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) with spectral properties like those of TDE hosts, determining the extent to which TDEs are over-represented in such galaxies. Galaxies whose spectra have Balmer absorption H$\\delta_{\\rm A}$ $-$ $\\sigma$(H$\\delta_{\\rm A}$) $>$ 4 \\AA\\ (where $\\sigma$(H$\\delta_{\\rm A}$) is the error in the Lick H$\\delta_{\\rm A}$ index) and H$\\alpha$ emission EW $$ 1.31 \\AA\\ and H$\\alpha$ EW $80\\times$ enhancement in such hosts and providing an observational link between the $\\gamma$/X-ray-bright and optical/UV-br...

  8. Detecting ancient codispersals and host shifts by double dating of host and parasite phylogenies: Application in proctophyllodid feather mites associated with passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimov, Pavel B; Mironov, Sergey V; OConnor, Barry M

    2017-07-22

    Inferring cophylogeographic events requires matching the timing of these events on both host and symbiont (e.g., parasites) phylogenies because divergences of hosts and their symbionts may not temporally coincide, and host switches may occur. We investigate a large radiation of birds (Passeriformes) and their permanent symbionts, the proctophyllodid feather mites (117 species from 116 bird species; six genes, 11,468 nt aligned) using two time-calibration strategies for mites: fossils only and host phylogeography only. Out of 10 putative cophylogeographic events 4 agree in timing for both symbiont and host events being synchronous co-origins or codispersals; three were based on host shifts, but agree in timing being very close to the origin of modern hosts; two disagree; and one large basal mite split was seemingly independent from host phylogeography. Among these events was an ancient (21-25.3 Mya), synchronous codispersal from the Old World leading to the origin and diversifications of New World emberizoid passerids and their mites, the thraupis + quadratus species groups of Proctophyllodes. Our framework offers a more robust detection of host and symbiont cophylogeographic events (as compared to host-symbiont reconciliation analysis and using host phylogeography for time-calibration) and provides independent data for testing alternative hypotheses on timing of host diversification and dispersal. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  9. Population transcriptomics of cactus host shifts in Drosophila mojavensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzkin, Luciano M

    2012-05-01

    In the presence of environmental change, natural selection can shape the transcriptome. Under a scenario of environmental change, genotypes that are better able to modulate gene expression to maximize fitness will tend to be favoured. Therefore, it is important to examine gene expression at the population level to distinguish random or neutral gene expression variation from the pattern produced by natural selection. This study investigates the natural variation in transcriptional response to a cactus host shift utilizing the mainland Sonora population of Drosophila mojavensis. Drosophila mojavensis is a cactophilic species composed of four cactus host populations endemic to the deserts of North America. Overall, the change in cactus host was associated with a significant reduction in larval viability as well as the differential expression of 21% of the genome (3109 genes). Among the genes identified were a set of genes previously known to be involved in xenobiotic metabolism, as well as genes involved in cellular energy production, oxidoreductase/carbohydrate metabolism, structural components and mRNA binding. Interestingly, of the 3109 genes whose expression was affected by host use, there was a significant overrepresentation of genes that lacked an orthologous call to the D. melanogaster genome, suggesting the possibility of an accelerated rate of evolution in these genes. Of the genes with a significant cactus effect, the majority, 2264 genes, did not exhibit a significant cactus-by-line interaction. This population-level approach facilitated the identification of genes involved in past cactus host shifts.

  10. Host shifts and molecular evolution of H7 avian influenza virus hemagglutinin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stallknecht David E

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Evolutionary consequences of host shifts represent a challenge to identify the mechanisms involved in the emergence of influenza A (IA viruses. In this study we focused on the evolutionary history of H7 IA virus in wild and domestic birds, with a particular emphasis on host shifts consequences on the molecular evolution of the hemagglutinin (HA gene. Based on a dataset of 414 HA nucleotide sequences, we performed an extensive phylogeographic analysis in order to identify the overall genetic structure of H7 IA viruses. We then identified host shift events and investigated viral population dynamics in wild and domestic birds, independently. Finally, we estimated changes in nucleotide substitution rates and tested for positive selection in the HA gene. A strong association between the geographic origin and the genetic structure was observed, with four main clades including viruses isolated in North America, South America, Australia and Eurasia-Africa. We identified ten potential events of virus introduction from wild to domestic birds, but little evidence for spillover of viruses from poultry to wild waterbirds. Several sites involved in host specificity (addition of a glycosylation site in the receptor binding domain and virulence (insertion of amino acids in the cleavage site were found to be positively selected in HA nucleotide sequences, in genetically unrelated lineages, suggesting parallel evolution for the HA gene of IA viruses in domestic birds. These results highlight that evolutionary consequences of bird host shifts would need to be further studied to understand the ecological and molecular mechanisms involved in the emergence of domestic bird-adapted viruses.

  11. CERN hosts training event on international management

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    CERN held its first training event on international management at the Globe on 2 October, sharing its expertise with high-level Swiss managers as part of their year-long part-time executive training programme on advanced management. CERN is often talked about in terms of impressive statistics: the coldest place in the universe, the largest accelerator, the greatest volume of data. Whilst the science is undeniably remarkable, it is backed by a management infrastructure that has to be as cutting-edge as the research it supports. On 2 October, the Learning and Development section of HR organised an event for 60 delegates to come to CERN to learn about international management from those who have taken on the management challenges at the heart of this unique institution. It was the first time that CERN had prepared such an event. SKU, a non-profit organisation, approached our management training team to arrange the event as part of a wee...

  12. The causes and consequences of changes in virulence following pathogen host shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longdon, Ben; Hadfield, Jarrod D; Day, Jonathan P; Smith, Sophia C L; McGonigle, John E; Cogni, Rodrigo; Cao, Chuan; Jiggins, Francis M

    2015-03-01

    Emerging infectious diseases are often the result of a host shift, where the pathogen originates from a different host species. Virulence--the harm a pathogen does to its host-can be extremely high following a host shift (for example Ebola, HIV, and SARs), while other host shifts may go undetected as they cause few symptoms in the new host. Here we examine how virulence varies across host species by carrying out a large cross infection experiment using 48 species of Drosophilidae and an RNA virus. Host shifts resulted in dramatic variation in virulence, with benign infections in some species and rapid death in others. The change in virulence was highly predictable from the host phylogeny, with hosts clustering together in distinct clades displaying high or low virulence. High levels of virulence are associated with high viral loads, and this may determine the transmission rate of the virus.

  13. Molecular phylogeny of Pompilinae (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae): Evidence for rapid diversification and host shifts in spider wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Juanita; Pitts, James P; Florez, Jaime A; Bond, Jason E; von Dohlen, Carol D

    2016-01-01

    Pompilinae is one of the largest subfamilies of spider wasps (Pompilidae). Most pompilines are generalist spider predators at the family level, but some taxa exhibit ecological specificity (i.e., to spider-host guild). Here we present the first molecular phylogenetic analysis of Pompilinae, toward the aim of evaluating the monophyly of tribes and genera. We further test whether changes in the rate of diversification are associated with host-guild shifts. Molecular data were collected from five nuclear loci (28S, EF1-F2, LWRh, Wg, Pol2) for 76 taxa in 39 genera. Data were analyzed using maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI). The phylogenetic results were compared with previous hypotheses of subfamilial and tribal classification, as well as generic relationships in the subfamily. The classification of Pompilus and Agenioideus is also discussed. A Bayesian relaxed molecular clock analysis was used to examine divergence times. Diversification rate-shift tests accounted for taxon-sampling bias using ML and BI approaches. Ancestral host family and host guild were reconstructed using MP and ML methods. Ancestral host guild for all Pompilinae, for the ancestor at the node where a diversification rate-shift was detected, and two more nodes back in time was inferred using BI. In the resulting phylogenies, Aporini was the only previously proposed monophyletic tribe. Several genera (e.g., Pompilus, Microphadnus and Schistonyx) are also not monophyletic. Dating analyses produced a well-supported chronogram consistent with topologies from BI and ML results. The BI ancestral host-use reconstruction inferred the use of spiders belonging to the guild "other hunters" (frequenting the ground and vegetation) as the ancestral state for Pompilinae. This guild had the highest probability for the ML reconstruction and was equivocal for the MP reconstruction; various switching events to other guilds occurred throughout the evolution of the group. The diversification of

  14. Phylogenetic test of speciation by host shift in leaf cone moths (Caloptilia) feeding on maples (Acer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakadai, Ryosuke; Kawakita, Atsushi

    2016-07-01

    The traditional explanation for the exceptional diversity of herbivorous insects emphasizes host shift as the major driver of speciation. However, phylogenetic studies have often demonstrated widespread host plant conservatism by insect herbivores, calling into question the prevalence of speciation by host shift to distantly related plants. A limitation of previous phylogenetic studies is that host plants were defined at the family or genus level; thus, it was unclear whether host shifts predominate at a finer taxonomic scale. The lack of a statistical approach to test the hypothesis of host-shift-driven speciation also hindered studies at the species level. Here, we analyze the radiation of leaf cone moths (Caloptilia) associated with maples (Acer) using a newly developed, phylogeny-based method that tests the role of host shift in speciation. This method has the advantage of not requiring complete taxon sampling from an entire radiation. Based on 254 host plant records for 14 Caloptilia species collected at 73 sites in Japan, we show that major dietary changes are more concentrated toward the root of the phylogeny, with host shift playing a minor role in recent speciation. We suggest that there may be other roles for host shift in promoting herbivorous insect diversification rather than facilitating speciation per se.

  15. Climatic regime shift and decadal anomalous events in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Weihong [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, 100871 (China); Lin, Xiang; Zhu, Yafen; Xu, Yuan; Fu, Jiaolan [Monsoon and Environment Research Group, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing, 100871 (China)

    2007-09-15

    Climatic time series from historical documents and instrumental records from China showed temporal and regional patterns in the last two to three centuries, including two multidecadal oscillations at quasi-20-year and quasi-70-year timescales revealed by signal analysis from wavelet transform. Climatic anomalous events on the decadal timescale were identified based on the two oscillations when their positive (or negative) phases coincide with each other to amplify amplitude. The coldest event occurred in the decade of 1965-1975 in eastern China, while the periods of 1920-1930, 1940-1950, and 1988-2000 appeared to be warmer in most parts of China. For the precipitation series in northern China, the dry anomalous event was found in the late 1920s, while the wet anomalous event occurred in the 1950s. A severe drought in 1927-1929 in northern China coincided with the anomalous warm and dry decade, caused large-scale famine in nine provinces over northern China. Climatic anomalous events with a warm-dry or cold-wet association in the physical climate system would potentially cause severe negative impacts on natural ecosystem in the key vulnerable region over northern China. The spatial pattern of summer rainfall anomalies in the eastern China monsoon region showed an opposite variations in phase between the Yellow River Valley (North China) and the mid-low Yangtze River Valley as well as accompanied the shift of the northernmost monsoon boundary. Climatic regime shifts for different time points in the last 200 years were identified. In North China, transitions from dry to wet periods occurred around 1800, 1875, and 1940 while the transitions from wet to dry periods appeared around 1840, 1910, and the late 1970s. The reversal transition in these time points can also be found in the lower Yangtze River. Climatic regime shifts in China were linked to the interaction of mid- and low latitude atmospheric circulations (the westerly flow and the monsoon flow) when they cross

  16. Evolutionary genetics of host shifts in herbivorous insects: insights from the age of genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertacnik, Kim L; Linnen, Catherine R

    2017-02-01

    Adaptation to different host taxa is a key driver of insect diversification. Herbivorous insects are classic models for ecological and evolutionary research, but it is recent advances in sequencing, statistics, and molecular technologies that have cleared the way for investigations into the proximate genetic mechanisms underlying host shifts. In this review, we discuss how genome-scale data are revealing-at resolutions previously unimaginable-the genetic architecture of host-use traits, the causal loci underlying host shifts, and the predictability of host-use evolution. Collectively, these studies are providing novel insights into longstanding questions about host-use evolution. On the basis of this synthesis, we suggest that different host-use traits are likely to differ in their genetic architecture (number of causal loci and the nature of their genetic correlations) and genetic predictability (extent of gene or mutation reuse), indicating that any conclusions about the causes and consequences of host-use evolution will depend heavily on which host-use traits are investigated. To draw robust conclusions and identify general patterns in host-use evolution, we argue that investigation of diverse host-use traits and identification of causal genes and mutations should be the top priorities for future studies on the evolutionary genetics of host shifts. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  17. Invasion success of a scarab beetle within its native range: host range expansion versus host-shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Caroline Lefort

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Only recently has it been formally acknowledged that native species can occasionally reach the status of ‘pest’ or ‘invasive species’ within their own native range. The study of such species has potential to help unravel fundamental aspects of biological invasions. A good model for such a study is the New Zealand native scarab beetle, Costelytra zealandica (White, which even in the presence of its natural enemies has become invasive in exotic pastures throughout the country. Because C. zealandica still occurs widely within its native habitat, we hypothesised that this species has only undergone a host range expansion (ability to use equally both an ancestral and new host onto exotic hosts rather than a host shift (loss of fitness on the ancestral host in comparison to the new host. Moreover, this host range expansion could be one of the main drivers of its invasion success. In this study, we investigated the fitness response of populations of C. zealandica from native and exotic flora, to several feeding treatments comprising its main exotic host plant as well as one of its ancestral hosts. Our results suggest that our initial hypothesis was incorrect and that C. zealandica populations occurring in exotic pastures have experienced a host-shift rather than simply a host-range expansion. This finding suggests that an exotic plant introduction can facilitate the evolution of a distinct native host-race, a phenomenon often used as evidence for speciation in phytophagous insects and which may have been instrumental to the invasion success of C. zealandica.

  18. Shifting preference between oviposition vs. host-feeding under changing host densities in two aphelinid parasitoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Nian-Wan; Ji, Lu-Lu; Lövei, Gabor L;

    2012-01-01

    Destructive host-feeding is common in hymenopteran parasitoids. Such feeding may be restricted to host stages not preferred for oviposition. However, whether this is a fixed strategy or can vary according to resource levels or parasitoid needs is less clear. We tested the trade-off between host...... feeding and oviposition on two whitefly parasitoids under varying host densities. Females of two aphelinid parasitoids, Eretmocerus hayati and Encarsia sophia were exposed to nine different densities of their whitefly host, Bemisia tabaci, in single-instar tests to identify their functional response....... Mixed-instar host choice tests were also conducted by exposing whiteflies at four densities to the parasitoids. We hypothesized that the parasitoid females can detect different host densities, and decide on oviposition vs. host-feeding accordingly. The results showed that both Er. hayati and En. sophia...

  19. Mimetic host shifts in an endangered social parasite of ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jeremy A.; Elmes, Graham W.; Sielezniew, Marcin; Stankiewicz-Fiedurek, Anna; Simcox, David J.; Settele, Josef; Schönrogge, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    An emerging problem in conservation is whether listed morpho-species with broad distributions, yet specialized lifestyles, consist of more than one cryptic species or functionally distinct forms that have different ecological requirements. We describe extreme regional divergence within an iconic endangered butterfly, whose socially parasitic young stages use non-visual, non-tactile cues to infiltrate and supplant the brood in ant societies. Although indistinguishable morphologically or when using current mitochondrial and nuclear sequence-, or microsatellite data, Maculinea rebeli from Spain and southeast Poland exploit different Myrmica ant species and experience 100 per cent mortality with each other's hosts. This reflects major differences in the hydrocarbons synthesized from each region by the larvae, which so closely mimic the recognition profiles of their respective hosts that nurse ants afford each parasite a social status above that of their own kin larvae. The two host ants occupy separate niches within grassland; thus, conservation management must differ in each region. Similar cryptic differentiation may be common, yet equally hard to detect, among the approximately 10 000 unstudied morpho-species of social parasite that are estimated to exist, many of which are Red Data Book listed. PMID:23193127

  20. Shifting preference between oviposition vs. host-feeding under changing host densities in two aphelinid parasitoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Nian-Wan; Ji, Lu-Lu; Lövei, Gabor L

    2012-01-01

    feeding and oviposition on two whitefly parasitoids under varying host densities. Females of two aphelinid parasitoids, Eretmocerus hayati and Encarsia sophia were exposed to nine different densities of their whitefly host, Bemisia tabaci, in single-instar tests to identify their functional response....... Mixed-instar host choice tests were also conducted by exposing whiteflies at four densities to the parasitoids. We hypothesized that the parasitoid females can detect different host densities, and decide on oviposition vs. host-feeding accordingly. The results showed that both Er. hayati and En. sophia...... parasitized most on first and second (the optimal ones), and fed most on third nymphal instars (the suboptimal one) of the whitefly host as theory predicts, while at high densities, both parasitism and host-feeding occurred on first and second instars which are preferred for oviposition. En. sophia...

  1. The importance of pollen chemistry in evolutionary host shifts of bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderplanck, Maryse; Vereecken, Nicolas J.; Grumiau, Laurent; Esposito, Fabiana; Lognay, Georges; Wattiez, Ruddy; Michez, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Although bee-plant associations are generally maintained through speciation processes, host shifts have occurred during evolution. Understanding shifts between both phylogenetically and morphologically unrelated plants (i.e., host-saltation) is especially important since they could have been key processes in the origin and radiation of bees. Probably far from being a random process, such host-saltation might be driven by hidden constraints associated with plant traits. We selected two clades of oligolectic bees (i.e., Colletes succinctus group and Melitta leporina group) foraging on co-flowering but unrelated host-plants to test this hypothesis. We analyzed floral scent, floral color and chemical composition of pollen from host and non-host plants of these two clades. We did not find evidence for host-plant evolution in the Melitta leporina group driven by one of the assayed floral traits. On the contrary, hosts of the C. succinctus group display similar primary nutritive content of pollen (i.e., amino acids and sterols) but not similar floral scent or color, suggesting that shared pollen chemistry probably mediates saltation in this clade. Our study revealed that constraints shaping floral associations are diverse and clearly depend on species life-history traits, but evidence suggests that pollen chemistry may act as a major floral filter and guide evolutionary host-shifts. PMID:28216663

  2. Host specificity and temporal and seasonal shifts in host preference of a web-spider parasitoid Zatypota percontatoria.

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    Korenko, Stanislav; Michalková, Veronika; Zwakhals, Kees; Pekár, Stano

    2011-01-01

    Current knowledge about polysphinctine parasite wasps' interactions with their spider hosts is very fragmented and incomplete. This study presents the host specificity of Zatypota percontatoria (Müller) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) and its adaptation to varying host availability. Two years of field observations show that Z. percontatoria is a stenophagous parasitoid that parasitizes only five closely related web-building spiders of the family Theridiidae (Araneae). Within the Theridiidae it attacks only species belonging to a small group of species, here called the "Theridion" group. These hosts have a similar biology, but are available at different levels of abundance and at different sizes over the season. Laboratory experiments showed that this wasp species ignores linyphiid, araneid or dictynid spiders and accepts only theridiid spiders of the "Theridion" group. In the field study, wasp females preferred older juvenile and sub-adult female spider instars with intermediate body size. Only 5% of the parasitized spiders were males. Parasitism in the natural population of theridiid spiders was on average 1.3%. Parasitism was most frequent on two species, Theridion varians Hahn in 2007 and Neottiura bimaculata Linnaeus in 2008. The parasitization rate was positively correlated with spider abundance. The wasp responded adaptively to seasonal changes in host abundance and host body size and shifted host preference according to the availability of suitable hosts during, as well as between, seasons. In spring and summer the highest percentage of parasitism was on T. varians and in autumn it was on N. bimaculata.

  3. Host and phenology shifts in the evolution of the social moth genus Thaumetopoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonato, Mauro; Battisti, Andrea; Kerdelhué, Carole; Burban, Christian; Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos; Pivotto, Isabelle; Salvato, Paola; Negrisolo, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    The genus Thaumetopoea contains the processionary moths, a group of lepidopteran associated with forest trees, well known for the social behaviour of the larvae and for carrying urticating setae. The taxonomy of the genus is partly unresolved and a phylogenetic approach is lacking. The goal of this work is to produce a phylogeny for Thaumetopoea and to identify the main traits driving the evolution of this group. Eighteen mitochondrial and three nuclear genes were fully/partly sequenced. Markers were aligned and analysed singularly or in various combinations. Phylogenetic analyses were performed according to maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods. Trees obtained from largest data sets provided identical topologies that received strong statistical support. Three main clades were identified within Thaumetopoea and were further supported by several signatures located in the mitochondrial tRNAs and intergenic spacers. The reference topology was used to investigate the evolution of life history traits related to biogeography, host plant, ecology, and morphology. A multigenic approach allowed to produce a robust phylogenetic analysis of the genus Thaumetopoea, with the identification of three major clades linked to different ecological and life history traits. The first clade is associated with Angiosperm host plants and has a fast spring development of larvae on young foliage. The other clades have originated by one event of host plant shift to Gymnosperm Pinaceae, which implied a longer larval developmental time due to the lower nutritional quality of leaves. These clades showed different adaptations to such a constraint, the first with a switch of larval feeding to cold season (winter pine processionary moths), and the second with a retraction to high altitude and latitude and a development cycle extended over two years (summer pine processionary moths). Recent global warming is affecting all species and seems able to further shape the evolution of the

  4. Host and phenology shifts in the evolution of the social moth genus Thaumetopoea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Simonato

    Full Text Available The genus Thaumetopoea contains the processionary moths, a group of lepidopteran associated with forest trees, well known for the social behaviour of the larvae and for carrying urticating setae. The taxonomy of the genus is partly unresolved and a phylogenetic approach is lacking. The goal of this work is to produce a phylogeny for Thaumetopoea and to identify the main traits driving the evolution of this group. Eighteen mitochondrial and three nuclear genes were fully/partly sequenced. Markers were aligned and analysed singularly or in various combinations. Phylogenetic analyses were performed according to maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods. Trees obtained from largest data sets provided identical topologies that received strong statistical support. Three main clades were identified within Thaumetopoea and were further supported by several signatures located in the mitochondrial tRNAs and intergenic spacers. The reference topology was used to investigate the evolution of life history traits related to biogeography, host plant, ecology, and morphology. A multigenic approach allowed to produce a robust phylogenetic analysis of the genus Thaumetopoea, with the identification of three major clades linked to different ecological and life history traits. The first clade is associated with Angiosperm host plants and has a fast spring development of larvae on young foliage. The other clades have originated by one event of host plant shift to Gymnosperm Pinaceae, which implied a longer larval developmental time due to the lower nutritional quality of leaves. These clades showed different adaptations to such a constraint, the first with a switch of larval feeding to cold season (winter pine processionary moths, and the second with a retraction to high altitude and latitude and a development cycle extended over two years (summer pine processionary moths. Recent global warming is affecting all species and seems able to further shape the

  5. Host shifts enhance diversification of ectomycorrhizal fungi: diversification rate analysis of the ectomycorrhizal fungal genera Strobilomyces and Afroboletus with an 80-gene phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hirotoshi; Tanabe, Akifumi S; Toju, Hirokazu

    2017-04-01

    Mutualisms with new host lineages can provide symbionts with novel ecological opportunities to expand their geographical distribution, thereby leading to evolutionary diversification. Because ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi provide ideal opportunities to test the relationship between host shifts and diversification, we tested whether mutualism with new host lineages could increase the diversification rates of ECM fungi. Using a Bayesian tree inferred from 23 027-base nucleotide sequences of 80 single-copy genes, we tested whether the diversification rate had changed through host-shift events in the monophyletic clade containing the ECM fungal genera Strobilomyces and Afroboletus. The results indicated that these fungi were initially associated with Caesalpinioideae/Monotoideae in Africa, acquired associations with Dipterocarpoideae in tropical Asia, and then switched to Fagaceae/Pinaceae and Nothofagaceae/Eucalyptus. Fungal lineages associated with Fagaceae/Pinaceae were inferred to have approximately four-fold and two-fold greater diversification rates than those associated with Caesalpinioideae/Monotoideae and Dipterocarpoideae or Nothofagaceae/Eucalyptus, respectively. Moreover, the diversification rate shift was inferred to follow the host shift to Fagaceae/Pinaceae. Our study suggests that host-shift events, particularly those occurring with respect to Fagaceae/Pinaceae, can provide ecological opportunities for the rapid diversification of Strobilomyces-Afroboletus. Although further studies are needed for generalization, we propose a possible diversification scenario of ECM fungi. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Discordant phylogenies suggest repeated host shifts in the Fusarium-Euwallacea ambrosia beetle mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Kerry; Sink, Stacy; Libeskind-Hadas, Ran; Hulcr, Jiri; Kasson, Matthew T; Ploetz, Randy C; Konkol, Joshua L; Ploetz, Jill N; Carrillo, Daniel; Campbell, Alina; Duncan, Rita E; Liyanage, Pradeepa N H; Eskalen, Akif; Na, Francis; Geiser, David M; Bateman, Craig; Freeman, Stanley; Mendel, Zvi; Sharon, Michal; Aoki, Takayuki; Cossé, Allard A; Rooney, Alejandro P

    2015-09-01

    The mutualism between xyleborine beetles in the genus Euwallacea (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and members of the Ambrosia Fusarium Clade (AFC) represents one of 11 known evolutionary origins of fungiculture by ambrosia beetles. Female Euwallacea beetles transport fusarial symbionts in paired mandibular mycangia from their natal gallery to woody hosts where they are cultivated in galleries as a source of food. Native to Asia, several exotic Euwallacea species were introduced into the United States and Israel within the past two decades and they now threaten urban landscapes, forests and avocado production. To assess species limits and to date the evolutionary diversification of the mutualists, we reconstructed the evolutionary histories of key representatives of the Fusarium and Euwallacea clades using maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods. Twelve species-level lineages, termed AF 1-12, were identified within the monophyletic AFC and seven among the Fusarium-farming Euwallacea. Bayesian diversification-time estimates placed the origin of the Euwallacea-Fusarium mutualism near the Oligocene-Miocene boundary ∼19-24 Mya. Most Euwallacea spp. appear to be associated with one species of Fusarium, but two species farmed two closely related fusaria. Euwallacea sp. #2 in Miami-Dade County, Florida cultivated Fusarium spp. AF-6 and AF-8 on avocado, and Euwallacea sp. #4 farmed Fusarium ambrosium AF-1 and Fusarium sp. AF-11 on Chinese tea in Sri Lanka. Cophylogenetic analyses indicated that the Euwallacea and Fusarium phylogenies were largely incongruent, apparently due to the beetles switching fusarial symbionts (i.e., host shifts) at least five times during the evolution of this mutualism. Three cospeciation events between Euwallacea and their AFC symbionts were detected, but randomization tests failed to reject the null hypothesis that the putative parallel cladogenesis is a stochastic pattern. Lastly, two collections of Euwallacea sp. #2 from Miami

  7. Collective defence portfolios of ant hosts shift with social parasite pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongepier, Evelien; Kleeberg, Isabelle; Job, Sylwester; Foitzik, Susanne

    2014-09-22

    Host defences become increasingly costly as parasites breach successive lines of defence. Because selection favours hosts that successfully resist parasitism at the lowest possible cost, escalating coevolutionary arms races are likely to drive host defence portfolios towards ever more expensive strategies. We investigated the interplay between host defence portfolios and social parasite pressure by comparing 17 populations of two Temnothorax ant species. When successful, collective aggression not only prevents parasitation but also spares host colonies the cost of searching for and moving to a new nest site. However, once parasites breach the host's nest defence, host colonies should resort to flight as the more beneficial resistance strategy. We show that under low parasite pressure, host colonies more likely responded to an intruding Protomognathus americanus slavemaker with collective aggression, which prevented the slavemaker from escaping and potentially recruiting nest-mates. However, as parasite pressure increased, ant colonies of both host species became more likely to flee rather than to fight. We conclude that host defence portfolios shift consistently with social parasite pressure, which is in accordance with the degeneration of frontline defences and the evolution of subsequent anti-parasite strategies often invoked in hosts of brood parasites.

  8. Experimentally induced host-shift changes life-history strategy in a seed beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savković, Uroš; ĐorĐević, Mirko; Šešlija Jovanović, Darka; Lazarević, Jelica; Tucić, Nikola; Stojković, Biljana

    2016-04-01

    Expansion of the host range in phytophagous insects depends on their ability to form an association with a novel plant through changes in host-related traits. Phenotypic plasticity has important effects on initial survival of individuals faced with a new plant, as well as on the courses of evolutionary change during long-term adaptation to novel conditions. Using experimental populations of the seed beetle that evolved on ancestral (common bean) or novel (chickpea) host and applying reciprocal transplant at both larval and adult stage on the alternative host plant, we studied the relationship between the initial (plastic) phases of host-shift and the subsequent stages of evolutionary divergence in life-history strategies between populations exposed to the host-shift process. After 48 generations, populations became well adapted to chickpea by evolving the life-history strategy with prolonged larval development, increased body mass, earlier reproduction, shorter lifespan and decreased plasticity of all traits compared with ancestral conditions. In chickpea-adapted beetles, negative fitness consequences of low plasticity of pre-adult development (revealed as severe decrease in egg-to-adult viability on beans) exhibited mismatch with positive effects of low plasticity (i.e. low host sensitivity) in oviposition and fecundity. In contrast, beetles adapted to the ancestral host showed high plasticity of developmental process, which enabled high larval survival on chickpea, whereas elevated plasticity in adult behaviour (i.e. high host sensitivity) resulted in delayed reproduction and decreased fecundity on chickpea. The analysis of population growth parameters revealed significant fluctuation during successive phases of the host-shift process in A. obtectus.

  9. Inlfuence of Host Shift on Genetic Differentiation of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Xuan-wu; LIU Ying-hong; LUO Lin-ming; FENG Chuan-hong; WANG Sheng; MA Li

    2014-01-01

    Invasion of the oriental fruit lfy, Bactrocera dorsalis, into new niches containing different food sources (a process referred to as host shift), may cause population genetic differentiation and sympatric speciation. To attempt to infer that experimentally, test populations were established by transferring a subset of the original populations, which had been grown on banana for many generations, onto navel orange, and then subculturing the navel orange population and banana population for at least 20 generations. Four pairs of SSR primers with high polymorphism on laboratory strains were used to detect population genetic differentiation. All six tested populations (the 5th, 10th and 15th generations of B. dorsalis fed on banana and navel orange, respectively) were found to have low genetic diversity. Furthermore, the genetic diversity of the navel orange populations was found to decline after being crossed for several generations. Populations initially were deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, however, equilibrium was achieved with increasing numbers of generations in both of the host populations. Limited gene lfows were found among the six populations. The Nei’s standard genetic distances between the two host populations of the same generation were initially low, but increased with generation number. Genetic distances between banana and navel orange populations of the same generation were lower than genetic distances between different generations grown on the same host plant. Analysis of molecular distance (AMOVA) results based on generation groups and host groups demonstrated that genetic variation among generations was greater than that between the two host populations. The results indicated that population genetic differentiation occurred after the host shift, albeit at low level. Biogeography and taxonomy of the B. dorsalis complex revealed that speciation of B. dorsalis might be tightly associated with host shift or host specialization of B. dorsalis

  10. The role of viral evolution in rabies host shifts and emergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollentze, Nardus; Biek, Roman; Streicker, Daniel G

    2014-01-01

    Despite its ability to infect all mammals, Rabies virus persists in numerous species-specific cycles that rarely sustain transmission in alternative species. The determinants of these species-associations and the adaptive significance of genetic divergence between host-associated viruses are poorly understood. One explanation is that epidemiological separation between reservoirs causes neutral genetic differentiation. Indeed, recent studies attributed host shifts to ecological factors and selection of ‘preadapted’ viral variants from the existing viral community. However, phenotypic differences between isolates and broad scale comparative and molecular evolutionary analyses indicate multiple barriers that Rabies virus must overcome through adaptation. This review assesses various lines of evidence and proposes a synthetic hypothesis for the respective roles of ecology and evolution in Rabies virus host shifts. PMID:25064563

  11. Ecological genomics in Xanthomonas: the nature of genetic adaptation with homologous recombination and host shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao-Li; Pu, Pei-Hua; Huang, Hao-Jen; Sung, Huang-Mo; Liaw, Hung-Jiun; Chen, Yi-Min; Chen, Chien-Ming; Huang, Ming-Ban; Osada, Naoki; Gojobori, Takashi; Pai, Tun-Wen; Chen, Yu-Tin; Hwang, Chi-Chuan; Chiang, Tzen-Yuh

    2015-03-15

    Comparative genomics provides insights into the diversification of bacterial species. Bacterial speciation usually takes place with lasting homologous recombination, which not only acts as a cohering force between diverging lineages but brings advantageous alleles favored by natural selection, and results in ecologically distinct species, e.g., frequent host shift in Xanthomonas pathogenic to various plants. Using whole-genome sequences, we examined the genetic divergence in Xanthomonas campestris that infected Brassicaceae, and X. citri, pathogenic to a wider host range. Genetic differentiation between two incipient races of X. citri pv. mangiferaeindicae was attributable to a DNA fragment introduced by phages. In contrast to most portions of the genome that had nearly equivalent levels of genetic divergence between subspecies as a result of the accumulation of point mutations, 10% of the core genome involving with homologous recombination contributed to the diversification in Xanthomonas, as revealed by the correlation between homologous recombination and genomic divergence. Interestingly, 179 genes were under positive selection; 98 (54.7%) of these genes were involved in homologous recombination, indicating that foreign genetic fragments may have caused the adaptive diversification, especially in lineages with nutritional transitions. Homologous recombination may have provided genetic materials for the natural selection, and host shifts likely triggered ecological adaptation in Xanthomonas. To a certain extent, we observed positive selection nevertheless contributed to ecological divergence beyond host shifting. Altogether, mediated with lasting gene flow, species formation in Xanthomonas was likely governed by natural selection that played a key role in helping the deviating populations to explore novel niches (hosts) or respond to environmental cues, subsequently triggering species diversification.

  12. Ecological genomics in Xanthomonas: the nature of genetic adaptation with homologous recombination and host shifts

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Chao-Li

    2015-03-15

    Background: Comparative genomics provides insights into the diversification of bacterial species. Bacterial speciation usually takes place with lasting homologous recombination, which not only acts as a cohering force between diverging lineages but brings advantageous alleles favored by natural selection, and results in ecologically distinct species, e.g., frequent host shift in Xanthomonas pathogenic to various plants. Results: Using whole-genome sequences, we examined the genetic divergence in Xanthomonas campestris that infected Brassicaceae, and X. citri, pathogenic to a wider host range. Genetic differentiation between two incipient races of X. citri pv. mangiferaeindicae was attributable to a DNA fragment introduced by phages. In contrast to most portions of the genome that had nearly equivalent levels of genetic divergence between subspecies as a result of the accumulation of point mutations, 10% of the core genome involving with homologous recombination contributed to the diversification in Xanthomonas, as revealed by the correlation between homologous recombination and genomic divergence. Interestingly, 179 genes were under positive selection; 98 (54.7%) of these genes were involved in homologous recombination, indicating that foreign genetic fragments may have caused the adaptive diversification, especially in lineages with nutritional transitions. Homologous recombination may have provided genetic materials for the natural selection, and host shifts likely triggered ecological adaptation in Xanthomonas. To a certain extent, we observed positive selection nevertheless contributed to ecological divergence beyond host shifting. Conclusion: Altogether, mediated with lasting gene flow, species formation in Xanthomonas was likely governed by natural selection that played a key role in helping the deviating populations to explore novel niches (hosts) or respond to environmental cues, subsequently triggering species diversification. © Huang et al.

  13. Lighting the Landscape: Molecular Events Under Dynamic Stark Shifts

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Bo Y; Shin, Seokmin

    2016-01-01

    A new perspective on how to manipulate molecules by means of very strong laser pulses is emerging with insights from the so-called light-induced potentials, which are the adiabatic potential energy surfaces of molecules severely distorted by the effect of the strong field. Different effects appear depending on how the laser frequency is tuned, to a certain electronic transition, creating light-induced avoided crossings, or very off-resonant, generating Stark shifts. In the former case it is possible to induce dramatic changes in the geometry and redistribution of charges in the molecule while the lasers are acting and to fully control photodissociation reactions as well as other photochemical processes. Several theoretical proposals taken from the work of the authors are reviewed and analyzed showing the unique features that the strong-laser chemistry opens to control the transient properties and the dynamics of molecules.

  14. The Post-starburst Evolution of Tidal Disruption Event Host Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, K. Decker; Arcavi, Iair; Zabludoff, Ann

    2017-02-01

    We constrain the recent star formation histories of the host galaxies of eight optical/UV-detected tidal disruption events (TDEs). Six hosts had quick starbursts of absorption line spectrum, we uncover emission lines; at least five hosts have ionization sources inconsistent with star formation that instead may be related to circumnuclear gas, merger shocks, or post-AGB stars.

  15. Identify the costs and benefits of bidding for the hosting of a mega-event

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊淑一

    2014-01-01

    A mega-event which attracts attention from all over the world might have both positive and negative effect on the hosting city(Syme et al.1989).The aim of this paper is to evaluate the costs and benefits of bidding for the hosting of megaevents.It identified legacies of bidding for the hosting of megaevents from following four aspects,which are economics,public life,infrastructure,and image of the hosting city,with the methods of literature review,logic analysis,examples,and contrast analysis.The result of this study unveiled that when a city bids for hosting a mega-event for the purpose of stimulating its local economic,improving civic pride,developing basic public infrastructures,and enhance its city image to the worldwide,it also needs to pay attention to potential drawbacks of hosting the event,such as debt crisis,interfering the daily life of the public.

  16. Caterpillar seed predators mediate shifts in selection on flowering phenology in their host plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, Alicia; Ehrlén, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Variation in selection among populations and years has important implications for evolutionary trajectories of populations. Yet, the agents of selection causing this variation have rarely been identified. Selection on the time of reproduction within a season in plants might differ both among populations and among years, and selection can be mediated by both mutualists and antagonists. We investigated if differences in the direction of phenotypic selection on flowering phenology among 20 populations of Gentiana pneumonanthe during 2 yr were related to the presence of the butterfly seed predator Phengaris alcon, and if butterfly incidence was associated with the abundance of the butterfly's second host, Myrmica ants. In plant populations without the butterfly, phenotypic selection favored earlier flowering. In populations where the butterfly was present, caterpillars preferentially attacked early-flowering individuals, shifting the direction of selection to favoring later flowering. Butterfly incidence in plant populations increased with ant abundance. Our results demonstrate that antagonistic interactions can shift the direction of selection on flowering phenology, and suggest that such shifts might be associated with differences in the community context.

  17. Can an evolving Universe host a static event horizon?

    CERN Document Server

    Davidson, Aharon; Verbin, Yosef

    2012-01-01

    We prove the existence of general relativistic perfect fluid black hole solutions, and demonstrate the phenomenon for the $P=w\\rho$ class of equations of state. While admitting a local time-like Killing vector on the event horizon itself, the various black hole configurations are necessarily time dependent (thereby avoiding a well known no-go theorem) away from the horizon. Consistently, Hawking's imaginary time periodicity is globally manifest on the entire spacetime manifold.

  18. CERN openlab to host innovation and entrepreneurship event | 26 November

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN openlab

    2015-01-01

    Do you have a bright idea for a business? The first-of-its-kind ‘CERN openlab Innovation and Entrepreneurship Event’ is a great opportunity for you to explore it further. The event, which is being organised in collaboration with the CERN Knowledge Transfer Group and IdeaSquare, will take place on Thursday, 26 November. This full-day event is also supported by CERN openlab partner company Intel as part of a joint project (see here) on innovation and entrepreneurship.   During the morning session, experts from a variety of organisations will speak on diverse subjects related to both innovation and entrepreneurship. From commercialisation and start-up funding to marketing and social impact, the broad range of topics covered by these talks will provide a valuable learning opportunity. CERN personnel and users are encouraged to come forward with their own innovative ideas for the event. There will be the opportunity to privately discuss these ideas on a one-to-one basis with the ex...

  19. Impact of extended-duration shifts on medical errors, adverse events, and attentional failures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura K Barger

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A recent randomized controlled trial in critical-care units revealed that the elimination of extended-duration work shifts (> or =24 h reduces the rates of significant medical errors and polysomnographically recorded attentional failures. This raised the concern that the extended-duration shifts commonly worked by interns may contribute to the risk of medical errors being made, and perhaps to the risk of adverse events more generally. Our current study assessed whether extended-duration shifts worked by interns are associated with significant medical errors, adverse events, and attentional failures in a diverse population of interns across the United States.We conducted a Web-based survey, across the United States, in which 2,737 residents in their first postgraduate year (interns completed 17,003 monthly reports. The association between the number of extended-duration shifts worked in the month and the reporting of significant medical errors, preventable adverse events, and attentional failures was assessed using a case-crossover analysis in which each intern acted as his/her own control. Compared to months in which no extended-duration shifts were worked, during months in which between one and four extended-duration shifts and five or more extended-duration shifts were worked, the odds ratios of reporting at least one fatigue-related significant medical error were 3.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.3-3.7 and 7.5 (95% CI, 7.2-7.8, respectively. The respective odds ratios for fatigue-related preventable adverse events, 8.7 (95% CI, 3.4-22 and 7.0 (95% CI, 4.3-11, were also increased. Interns working five or more extended-duration shifts per month reported more attentional failures during lectures, rounds, and clinical activities, including surgery and reported 300% more fatigue-related preventable adverse events resulting in a fatality.In our survey, extended-duration work shifts were associated with an increased risk of significant medical

  20. Identify the costs and benefits of bidding for the hosting of a mega-event

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊淑一

    2014-01-01

    A mega-event which attracts attention from all over the world might have both positive and negative effect on the hosting city (Syme et al.1989).The aim of this paper is to evaluate the costs and benefits of bidding for the hosting of mega-events.It identified legacies of bidding for the hosting of mega-events from following four aspects,which are economics,public life,infrastructure,and image of the hosting city,with the methods of literature review,logic analysis,examples,and contrast analysis.The result of this study unveiled that when a city bids for hosting a mega-event for the purpose of stimulating its local economic,improving civic pride,developing basic public infrastructures,and enhance its city image to the worldwide,it also needs to pay attention to potential drawbacks of hosting the event,such as debt crisis,interfering the daily life of the public.

  1. Zeno-Gravity Correspondence: Zeno's Dichotomy Paradox and Gravitational red-shift near Event Horizon

    CERN Document Server

    Pal, Sridip

    2016-01-01

    We relate Zeno's Dichotomy paradox with gravitational red-shift near event horizon in a spherically symmetric space-time. A dictionary of this connection, henceforth called as Zeno-Gravity correspondence, has been built up. The infinite sequence of Zeno's paradox gets mapped to the effect of infinite gravitational red-shift near event horizon and the infinite amount of co-ordinate time the light/particle takes to reach the horizon, starting from a finite distance away from the horizon. Utilizing the dictionary, we elucidate the concept of gravitational red-shift and co-ordinate chart, not covering the whole manifold in a more transparent student-friendly manner without using sophisticated machinery of differential geometry.

  2. Temperature shift and host cell contact up-regulate sporozoite expression of Plasmodium falciparum genes involved in hepatocyte infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Siau

    proteins involved in hepatocyte invasion, while the other two were predominantly expressed during hepatic parasite development. The genome-wide up-regulation of expression observed supports the hypothesis that the shift from the mosquito to the mammalian host contributes to activate quiescent salivary gland sporozoites into a state of readiness for the hepatic stages. Functional studies on four of the up-regulated genes validated our approach as one means to determine the repertoire of proteins implicated during the early events of the Plasmodium infection, and in this case that of P. falciparum, the species responsible for the severest forms of malaria.

  3. Facilitators and Inhibitors of Bidding and Hosting Mega Sporting Events in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Koosha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Legacies of hosting mega sporting events have been attempting idea for both the developed and the developing nations to participate in "bidding" competitions. Through mega sporting events bid process, despite all defined essentials infrastructures, the viewpoint of local organizing committee play a significant role to propose a winning bid and delivery of successful games. This research aims to identify the facilitators and inhibitors of bidding and hosting mega sporting events in Iran from the viewpoints of the Iranian distinguished professors in the sport management and the sport executive managers. Researcher questionnaire and Semi-structure interviews were conducted to gain in depth data. The results indicated that Iran currently has limitations to have winning bid and successful host mega sporting events; even though, it possesses the potential to do so. Public interest and support for hosting the sport events, good security condition against terrorism and tourist attractions are known as the strong points and he challenges and inhibitors which Iran is faced with includes: the qualitative and quantitative weakness in the transportation infrastructures and sport venues, west countries economic boycott, unstable government support and the lack of long-run planning for the events.

  4. A new topological parameter for monitoring subtle aggregation events in host-guest inclusion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novato, Willian T. G.; De Almeida, Wagner B.; Dos Santos, Hélio F.

    2012-02-01

    Supramolecular complexes with cyclodextrin (CD) have been the subject of considerable research in the material and life sciences. The dynamics of systems are difficult to characterise, therefore, knowledge of the molecular features governing the host-guest equilibrium might aid in the design and practical application of the resulting inclusion complexes. In this Letter, we present a new topological parameter based on simple trigonometric considerations to be used to monitor subtle host-guest inclusion events along the molecular dynamics trajectory. The new topological descriptor, called vector-μ, was applied to amphetamine@α/β-CD inclusion complexes, providing interesting insights on the host-guest equilibrium.

  5. A Global Phylogeny of Leafmining Ectoedemia Moths (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae): Exploring Host Plant Family Shifts and Allopatry as Drivers of Speciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorenweerd, Camiel; van Nieukerken, Erik J.; Menken, Steph B. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Host association patterns in Ectoedemia (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae) are also encountered in other insect groups with intimate plant relationships, including a high degree of monophagy, a preference for ecologically dominant plant families (e.g. Fagaceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae, and Betulaceae) and a tendency for related insect species to feed on related host plant species. The evolutionary processes underlying these patterns are only partly understood, we therefore assessed the role of allopatry and host plant family shifts in speciation within Ectoedemia. Methodology Six nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers with a total aligned length of 3692 base pairs were used to infer phylogenetic relationships among 92 species belonging to the subgenus Ectoedemia of the genus Ectoedemia, representing a thorough taxon sampling with a global coverage. The results support monophyletic species groups that are congruent with published findings based on morphology. We used the obtained phylogeny to explore host plant family association and geographical distribution to investigate if host shifts and allopatry have been instrumental in the speciation of these leafmining insects. Significance We found that, even though most species within species groups commonly feed on plants from one family, shifts to a distantly related host family have occasionally occurred throughout the phylogeny and such shifts are most commonly observed towards Betulaceae. The largest radiations have occurred within species groups that feed on Fagaceae, Rosaceae, and Salicaceae. Most species are restricted to one of the seven global biogeographic regions, but within species groups representatives are commonly found in different biogeographic regions. Although we find general patterns with regard to host use and biogeography, there are differences between clades that suggest that different drivers of speciation, and perhaps drivers that we did not examine, have shaped diversity patterns in different

  6. Integrative analyses unveil speciation linked to host plant shift in Spialia butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Roldán, Juan L; Dapporto, Leonardo; Dincă, Vlad; Vicente, Juan C; Hornett, Emily A; Šíchová, Jindra; Lukhtanov, Vladimir A; Talavera, Gerard; Vila, Roger

    2016-09-01

    Discovering cryptic species in well-studied areas and taxonomic groups can have profound implications in understanding eco-evolutionary processes and in nature conservation because such groups often involve research models and act as flagship taxa for nature management. In this study, we use an array of techniques to study the butterflies in the Spialia sertorius species group (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae). The integration of genetic, chemical, cytogenetic, morphological, ecological and microbiological data indicates that the sertorius species complex includes at least five species that differentiated during the last three million years. As a result, we propose the restitution of the species status for two taxa often treated as subspecies, Spialia ali (Oberthür, 1881) stat. rest. and Spialia therapne (Rambur, 1832) stat. rest., and describe a new cryptic species Spialia rosae Hernández-Roldán, Dapporto, Dincă, Vicente & Vila sp. nov. Spialia sertorius (Hoffmannsegg, 1804) and S. rosae are sympatric and synmorphic, but show constant differences in mitochondrial DNA, chemical profiles and ecology, suggesting that S. rosae represents a case of ecological speciation involving larval host plant and altitudinal shift, and apparently associated with Wolbachia infection. This study exemplifies how a multidisciplinary approach can reveal elusive cases of hidden diversity.

  7. Restoration of an endangered plant, Hygrophila pogonocalyx, leads to an adaptive host shift of the chocolate pansy (Junonia iphita iphita).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wen-Hao; Liu, Tsui-Hua; Lin, Y Kirk; Hsu, Yu-Feng

    2014-08-01

    Anthropogenic introduction of a plant species may cause novel encounters between the plant and local herbivores, and initiate evolutionary changes in host plant usage by herbivores. Until recently the endemic aquatic plant Hygrophila pogonocalyx was endangered and had a restricted distribution in Taiwan. Massive restoration efforts since 1997 have led to an expansion of the plant's distribution and a novel encounter between it and an Asian butterfly, the chocolate pansy, Junonia iphita (Nymphalidae). This butterfly appears to have colonized H. pogonocalyx, switching from its original host, Strobilanthes penstemonoides var. formosana. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether the utilization of H. pogonocalyx as a host plant has initiated a differentiation between butterflies using the novel and the original hosts. To this purpose we collected butterflies from patches of the two host plants which grow sympatrically. We tested oviposition preference for the two hosts and larval performance on them. Female adults exhibited distinct oviposition preference toward the host plant their mothers preferred. Offspring showed greater survivorship and pupal weight when fed on the host plant their mothers preferred. Male adults displayed territorial behaviors on the host plant that their mothers had preferred. Finally, the survival rate of offspring produced from cross-mating between individuals with different host plant preference was lower than that of non-hybrids. Taken together, we suggest that genetic differentiation has occurred between individuals preferring H. pogonocalyx versus S. penstemonoides as host plants via host shifting. This process was likely induced by the mass restoration of the formerly rare and endangered plant species.

  8. 'Candidatus Megaira polyxenophila' gen. nov., sp. nov.: considerations on evolutionary history, host range and shift of early divergent rickettsiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Schrallhammer

    Full Text Available "Neglected Rickettsiaceae" (i.e. those harboured by non-hematophagous eukaryotic hosts display greater phylogenetic variability and more widespread dispersal than pathogenic ones; yet, the knowledge about their actual host range and host shift mechanism is scarce. The present work reports the characterization following the full-cycle rRNA approach (SSU rRNA sequence, specific in situ hybridization, and ultrastructure of a novel rickettsial bacterium, herewith proposed as 'Candidatus Megaira polyxenophila' gen. nov., sp. nov. We found it in association with four different free-living ciliates (Diophrys oligothrix, Euplotes octocarinatus, Paramecium caudatum, and Spirostomum sp., all belonging to Alveolata, Ciliophora; furthermore it was recently observed as intracellular occurring in Carteria cerasiformis and Pleodorina japonica (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated the belonging of the candidate new genus to the family Rickettsiaceae (Alphaproteobacteria, Rickettsiales as a sister group of the genus Rickettsia. In situ observations revealed the ability of the candidate new species to colonize either nuclear or cytoplasmic compartments, depending on the host organism. The presence of the same bacterial species within different, evolutionary distant, hosts indicates that 'Candidatus Megaira polyxenophila' recently underwent several distinct host shifts, thus suggesting the existence of horizontal transmission pathways. We consider these findings as indicative of an unexpected spread of rickettsial infections in aquatic communities, possibly by means of trophic interactions, and hence propose a new interpretation of the origin and phylogenetic diversification of rickettsial bacteria.

  9. Correlation between host specificity and genetic diversity for the muscle-dwelling fish parasite Myxobolus pseudodispar: examples of myxozoan host-shift?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forro, Barbara; Eszterbauer, Edit

    2016-06-02

    Myxobolus pseudodispar Gorbunova, 1936 (Myxozoa) is capable of infecting and developing mature myxospores in several cyprinid species. However, M. pseudodispar isolates from different fish show up to 5% differences in the SSU rDNA sequences. This is an unusually large intraspecific difference for myxozoans and only some of the muscle-dwelling myxozoan species possess such a high genetic variability. We intended to study the correlation between the host specificity and the phylogenetic relationship of the parasite isolates, and to find experimental proof for the putatively wide host range of M. pseudodispar with cross-infection experiments and phylogenetic analyses based on SSU rDNA. The experimental findings distinguished 'primary' and less-susceptible 'secondary' hosts. With some exceptions, M. pseudodispar isolates showed a tendency to cluster according to the fish host on the phylogenetic tree. Experimental and phylogenetic findings suggest the cryptic nature of the species. It is likely that host-shift occurred for M. pseudodispar and the parasite speciation in progress might explain the high genetic diversity among isolates which are morphologically indistinguishable.

  10. The Post-Starburst Evolution of Tidal Disruption Event Host Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    French, K Decker; Zabludoff, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Tidal Disruption Events (TDEs) favor quiescent host galaxies with strong Balmer absorption lines. Here we study eight hosts of optical/UV-detected TDEs to determine the duration of the recent star formation episode, the time elapsed since it ended, and the fraction of stellar mass produced. Most hosts (6/8) have had short recent starbursts of <200 Myr as opposed to a slower decline in star formation. TDE host galaxies span a wide range of post-starburst ages (60-600 Myr for 6/8 galaxies), indicating that TDEs are not limited to a specific time in their hosts' post-starburst evolution. If the disrupted star was a main sequence star that formed in the burst or before, the post-burst ages provide an independent constraint on its likely mass, excluding O, B and the most massive A stars. If the starburst arose from a galaxy merger, the time elapsed since the starburst began constrains the coalescence timescale and thus limits the merger mass ratio to more equal than 12:1 in most (7/8) TDE hosts. This uncommon r...

  11. Host Intracellular Signaling Events and Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Production in African Trypanosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriakose, Shiby M; Singh, Rani; Uzonna, Jude E

    2016-01-01

    Pathogens, such as bacteria, viruses, and parasites, possess specific molecules or proteins that are recognized by several host innate immune receptors, leading to the activation of several intracellular signaling molecules and pathways. The magnitude and quality of these events significantly affect the outcome of infection. African trypanosomes, including Trypanosoma congolense, are capable of manipulating the host immune response, including the activity of macrophages, which are the key immune cells that contribute to the immunopathogenesis of African trypanosomiasis. Although it is known that immune hyperactivation and excessive pro-inflammatory cytokine production are the hallmarks of African trypanosomiasis, the mechanisms through which these events are triggered are poorly defined. However, it is known that macrophages may play a significant role in these processes, because phagocytosis of trypanosomes by macrophages initiates intracellular signal transduction cascades that lead to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and alteration in cell function. This review highlights recent progress in our understanding of the innate immune receptors, signaling pathways, and transcription factors involved in T. congolense-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production in macrophages. It will reveal the existence of complex signaling events through which the parasite modulates the host immune response, thus identifying novel targets that could aid in designing strategies to effectively control the disease.

  12. Hostplant change and paleoclimatic events explain diversification shifts in skipper butterflies (Family: Hesperiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Ranjit Kumar; Warren, Andrew D; Collins, Steve C; Kodandaramaiah, Ullasa

    2017-08-02

    Skippers (Family: Hesperiidae) are a large group of butterflies with ca. 4000 species under 567 genera. The lack of a time-calibrated higher-level phylogeny of the group has precluded understanding of its evolutionary past. We here use a 10-gene dataset to reconstruct the most comprehensive time-calibrated phylogeny of the group, and explore factors that affected the diversification of these butterflies. Ancestral state reconstructions show that the early hesperiid lineages utilized dicots as larval hostplants. The ability to feed on monocots evolved once at the K-Pg boundary (ca. 65 million years ago (Mya)), and allowed monocot-feeders to diversify much faster on average than dicot-feeders. The increased diversification rate of the monocot-feeding clade is specifically attributed to rate shifts in two of its descendant lineages. The first rate shift, a four-fold increase compared to background rates, happened ca. 50 Mya, soon after the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum, in a lineage of the subfamily Hesperiinae that mostly fed on forest monocots. The second rate shift happened ca. 40 Mya in a grass-feeding lineage of Hesperiinae when open-habitat grasslands appeared in the Neotropics owing to gradual cooling of the atmospheric temperature. The evolution of monocot feeding strongly influenced diversification of skippers. We hypothesize that although monocot feeding was an intrinsic trait that allowed exploration of novel niches, the lack of extensive availability of monocots comprised an extrinsic limitation for niche exploration. The shifts in diversification rate coincided with paleoclimatic events during which grasses and forest monocots were diversified.

  13. How Stokes Shift Relaxation Reports on Poincar\\'e Recurrences in Host Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Mazur, Alexey K

    2016-01-01

    Recently it has been revealed that the equilibrium hydrogen-bond breathing dynamics of terminal base pairs in short DNA exhibit a power-law relaxation similar to that in the time-resolved Stokes shift experiments with an intercalated coumarin probe. Here a simple theory is proposed that relates the Stokes shift signal to the statistics of Poincar\\'e recurrences in the base-pair breathing. This theory can explain the origin of the observed slow non-exponential relaxation in time-resolved Stokes shift data for DNA as well as other complex systems. It turns out that an intercalated coumarin greatly increases the breathing fluctuations in the neighboring base pairs. This motion is qualitatively similar to that in terminal residues, with the same exponent in the power-law relaxation decay. The breathing dynamics is transmitted to the photoprobe by direct contacts between aromatic $\\pi$ orbitals of stacked bases.

  14. City Branding : The effects of hosting sporting events: An empirical study of Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Matthew; Lee, Yen Wiee

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing amount of literature that investigates the various strategies and effects of city branding, but only a limited amount of research has been carried out pertaining to how sporting events can be used as a tool for city branding in a real world setting. By conducting an empirical study of Singapore, this study aims to contribute to the ongoing discussion on city branding by identifying how evaluations of a city differ for certain dimensions of its overall brand when it hosts di...

  15. Quality of life of residents living in a city hosting mega-sport events: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfitzner, Rebecca; Koenigstorfer, Joerg

    2016-10-21

    It remains unknown whether and when the hosting of mega-sport events increases quality of life of host city residents. The aim of this study is to assess the changes in quality of life of host city residents over the course of hosting a mega-sport event until three months after the event, depending on residents' perception of the atmosphere during the event. The study was conducted in Rio de Janeiro, one of the host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup in soccer. Participants were recruited from a Brazilian market research agency's panel and surveyed online. The WHOQOL-BREF was used to measure quality of life of residents of Rio de Janeiro (n = 281) in three waves in the context of the 2014 FIFA World Cup. Perceived atmosphere at the event was measured via an established scale. Piecewise latent growth models were used to analyze individual changes in the four domains of quality of life per se and depending on perceived atmosphere. There was no change in quality of life with respect to physical, social, psychological, and environmental health for all participants during the course of the event. However, residents who perceived a positive atmosphere rated the social and environmental domains of quality of life more positively right after the end (vs. at the beginning) of the World Cup. This increase sustained until three months after the event. Physical health (particularly at high levels of perceived atmosphere) and psychological health decreased from right after the event until three months after. There was no positive effect of the hosting of the mega-sport event on the four quality of life domains of the panel members (who were residents of a city hosting a mega-sport event) per se. The individual changes in quality of life vary by perception of atmosphere and by domain of quality of life.

  16. Cuckoo hosts shift from accepting to rejecting parasitic eggs across their lifetime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Morales, Mercedes; Martínez, Juan G; Martín-Gálvez, David; Dawson, Deborah A; Burke, Terry; Avilés, Jesús M

    2014-10-01

    One of the best-known outcomes of coevolution between species is the rejection of mimetic parasite eggs by avian hosts, which has evolved to reduce costly cuckoo parasitism. How this behavioral adaptation varies along the life of individual hosts remains poorly understood. Here, we identify for the first time, lifetime patterns of egg rejection in a parasitized long-lived bird, the magpie Pica pica and show that, during the years they were studied, some females accept, others reject, and some others modify their response to model eggs, in all cases switching from acceptance to rejection. Females tested in their first breeding attempt always accepted the model egg, even those individuals whose mothers were egg rejecters. A longitudinal analysis showed that the probability of egg rejection increased with the relative age of the female, but was not related to the risk of parasitism in the population. We conclude that ontogeny plays a fundamental role in the process leading to egg rejection in magpies. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  17. Expression Divergence of Chemosensory Genes between Drosophila sechellia and Its Sibling Species and Its Implications for Host Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiao, Meng-Shin; Chang, Jia-Ming; Fan, Wen-Lang; Lu, Mei-Yeh Jade; Notredame, Cedric; Fang, Shu; Kondo, Rumi; Li, Wen-Hsiung

    2015-01-01

    Drosophila sechellia relies exclusively on the fruits of Morinda citrifolia, which are toxic to most insects, including its sibling species Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila simulans. Although several odorant binding protein (Obp) genes and olfactory receptor (Or) genes have been suggested to be associated with the D. sechellia host shift, a broad view of how chemosensory genes have contributed to this shift is still lacking. We therefore studied the transcriptomes of antennae, the main organ responsible for detecting food resource and oviposition, of D. sechellia and its two sibling species. We wanted to know whether gene expression, particularly chemosensory genes, has diverged between D. sechellia and its two sibling species. Using a very stringent definition of differential gene expression, we found a higher percentage of chemosensory genes differentially expressed in the D. sechellia lineage (7.8%) than in the D. simulans lineage (5.4%); for upregulated chemosensory genes, the percentages were 8.8% in D. sechellia and 5.2% in D. simulans. Interestingly, Obp50a exhibited the highest upregulation, an approximately 100-fold increase, and Or85c—previously reported to be a larva-specific gene—showed approximately 20-fold upregulation in D. sechellia. Furthermore, Ir84a (ionotropic receptor 84a), which has been proposed to be associated with male courtship behavior, was significantly upregulated in D. sechellia. We also found expression divergence in most of the chemosensory gene families between D. sechellia and the two sibling species. Our observations suggest that the host shift of D. sechellia was associated with the enrichment of differentially expressed, particularly upregulated, chemosensory genes. PMID:26430061

  18. Host Plant Physiology and Mycorrhizal Functioning Shift across a Glacial through Future [CO2] Gradient1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullinix, George W.R.; Ward, Joy K.

    2016-01-01

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) may modulate the functioning of mycorrhizal associations by altering the relative degree of nutrient and carbohydrate limitations in plants. To test this, we grew Taraxacum ceratophorum and Taraxacum officinale (native and exotic dandelions) with and without mycorrhizal fungi across a broad [CO2] gradient (180–1,000 µL L−1). Differential plant growth rates and vegetative plasticity were hypothesized to drive species-specific responses to [CO2] and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. To evaluate [CO2] effects on mycorrhizal functioning, we calculated response ratios based on the relative biomass of mycorrhizal (MBio) and nonmycorrhizal (NMBio) plants (RBio = [MBio − NMBio]/NMBio). We then assessed linkages between RBio and host physiology, fungal growth, and biomass allocation using structural equation modeling. For T. officinale, RBio increased with rising [CO2], shifting from negative to positive values at 700 µL L−1. [CO2] and mycorrhizal effects on photosynthesis and leaf growth rates drove shifts in RBio in this species. For T. ceratophorum, RBio increased from 180 to 390 µL L−1 and further increases in [CO2] caused RBio to shift from positive to negative values. [CO2] and fungal effects on plant growth and carbon sink strength were correlated with shifts in RBio in this species. Overall, we show that rising [CO2] significantly altered the functioning of mycorrhizal associations. These symbioses became more beneficial with rising [CO2], but nonlinear effects may limit plant responses to mycorrhizal fungi under future [CO2]. The magnitude and mechanisms driving mycorrhizal-CO2 responses reflected species-specific differences in growth rate and vegetative plasticity, indicating that these traits may provide a framework for predicting mycorrhizal responses to global change. PMID:27573369

  19. Differential nitric oxide synthesis and host apoptotic events correlate with bleaching susceptibility in reef corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, T. D.; Krueger, T.; Becker, S.; Fisher, P. L.; Davy, S. K.

    2014-03-01

    suggest that early events in the host may be important in the collapse of the coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis.

  20. Predicting paramagnetic 1H NMR chemical shifts and state-energy separations in spin-crossover host-guest systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isley, William C; Zarra, Salvatore; Carlson, Rebecca K; Bilbeisi, Rana A; Ronson, Tanya K; Nitschke, Jonathan R; Gagliardi, Laura; Cramer, Christopher J

    2014-06-14

    The behaviour of metal-organic cages upon guest encapsulation can be difficult to elucidate in solution. Paramagnetic metal centres introduce additional dispersion of signals that is useful for characterisation of host-guest complexes in solution using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). However, paramagnetic centres also complicate spectral assignment due to line broadening, signal integration error, and large changes in chemical shifts, which can be difficult to assign even for known compounds. Quantum chemical predictions can provide information that greatly facilitates the assignment of NMR signals and identification of species present. Here we explore how the prediction of paramagnetic NMR spectra may be used to gain insight into the spin crossover (SCO) properties of iron(II)-based metal organic coordination cages, specifically examining how the structure of the local metal coordination environment affects SCO. To represent the tetrahedral metal-organic cage, a model system is generated by considering an isolated metal-ion vertex: fac-ML3(2+) (M = Fe(II), Co(II); L = N-phenyl-2-pyridinaldimine). The sensitivity of the (1)H paramagnetic chemical shifts to local coordination environments is assessed and utilised to shed light on spin crossover behaviour in iron complexes. Our data indicate that expansion of the metal coordination sphere must precede any thermal SCO. An attempt to correlate experimental enthalpies of SCO with static properties of bound guests shows that no simple relationship exists, and that effects are likely due to nuanced dynamic response to encapsulation.

  1. Innovative Engagement with NASA Data: Best Practices in Hosting a Space-Themed Game Jam Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    Planetary mission milestones provide key opportunities to engage the public in the day to day work and showcase the value, wonder, and innovative technologies of planetary exploration. The Royal Ontario Museum (ROM), Canada, is designing unique experiences that will allow new audiences to relate to planetary mission results, through direct interaction with planetary materials and data. Through co-creation and collaboration, we aim to encourage STEM and STEAM learning through interactive programs that are interest driven by the participants. Based on these principles, the ROM, in collaboration with the University of Toronto, is hosting a Game Jam event (see http://www.rom.on.ca/en/activities-programs/programs/game-jam). A Game Jam invites creative, motivated, and inspired game developers to work in a collaborative environment over the course of 3 days to create games linked to a theme. This year's theme is "Space Rocks". Video games, fuelled by actual mission data, capture public interest in space and science in a unique and powerful way, giving us new insight into the real challenges we have on Earth and in space. The ROM Game Jam will allow 100 game developers to draw inspiration from our collection of over 100,000 rocks, minerals, and gems, including over 500 martian, lunar, and asteroidal meteorites. Participants will learn about the history of these specimens directly from ROM experts. NASA datasets related to our collection will be highlighted and curated for this event. The games produced during the Game Jam will live on and be featured online and at numerous ROM events throughout the year. Our presentation will highlight lessons learned from this experience, best practices, and future plans.

  2. Concurrently examining unrealistic absolute and comparative optimism: Temporal shifts, individual-difference and event-specific correlates, and behavioural outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthig, Joelle C; Gamblin, Bradlee W; Jones, Kelly; Vanderzanden, Karen; Kehn, Andre

    2017-02-01

    Researchers have spent considerable effort examining unrealistic absolute optimism and unrealistic comparative optimism, yet there is a lack of research exploring them concurrently. This longitudinal study repeatedly assessed unrealistic absolute and comparative optimism within a performance context over several months to identify the degree to which they shift as a function of proximity to performance and performance feedback, their associations with global individual difference and event-specific factors, and their link to subsequent behavioural outcomes. Results showed similar shifts in unrealistic absolute and comparative optimism based on proximity to performance and performance feedback. Moreover, increases in both types of unrealistic optimism were associated with better subsequent performance beyond the effect of prior performance. However, several differences were found between the two forms of unrealistic optimism in their associations with global individual difference factors and event-specific factors, highlighting the distinctiveness of the two constructs. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Extensive remodeling of the Pseudomonas syringae pv. avellanae type III secretome associated with two independent host shifts onto hazelnut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Brien Heath E

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hazelnut (Corylus avellana decline disease in Greece and Italy is caused by the convergent evolution of two distantly related lineages of Pseudomonas syringae pv. avellanae (Pav. We sequenced the genomes of three Pav isolates to determine if their convergent virulence phenotype had a common genetic basis due to either genetic exchange between lineages or parallel evolution. Results We found little evidence for horizontal transfer (recombination of genes between Pav lineages, but two large genomic islands (GIs have been recently acquired by one of the lineages. Evolutionary analyses of the genes encoding type III secreted effectors (T3SEs that are translocated into host cells and are important for both suppressing and eliciting defense responses show that the two Pav lineages have dramatically different T3SE profiles, with only two shared putatively functional T3SEs. One Pav lineage has undergone unprecedented secretome remodeling, including the acquisition of eleven new T3SEs and the loss or pseudogenization of 15, including five of the six core T3SE families that are present in the other Pav lineage. Molecular dating indicates that divergence within both of the Pav lineages predates their observation in the field. This suggest that both Pav lineages have been cryptically infecting hazelnut trees or wild relatives for many years, and that the emergence of hazelnut decline in the 1970s may have been due to changes in agricultural practice. Conclusions These data show that divergent lineages of P. syringae can converge on identical disease etiology on the same host plant using different virulence mechanisms and that dramatic shifts in the arsenal of T3SEs can accompany disease emergence.

  4. Does a shift in host plants trigger speciation in the Alpine leaf beetle Oreina speciosissima (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borer Matthias

    2011-10-01

    clustered with one of the two ecotypes or formed separate clusters consistent with habitat differences. These results were discussed in an ecological speciation framework. Conclusions The question of whether this case of ecological differentiation occurred in sympatry or allopatry remains open. Still, the observed pattern points towards ongoing divergence between the two ecotypes which is likely driven by a recent shift in host plant use.

  5. Shifting gears in hippocampus: temporal dissociation between familiarity and novelty signatures in a single event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Yakov, Aya; Rubinson, Mica; Dudai, Yadin

    2014-09-24

    The hippocampus is known to be involved in encoding and retrieval of episodes. However, real-life experiences are expected to involve both encoding and retrieval, and it is unclear how the human hippocampus subserves both functions in the course of a single event. We presented participants with brief movie clips multiple times and examined the effect of familiarity on the hippocampal response at event onset versus event offset. Increased familiarity resulted in a decreased offset response, indicating that the offset response is a novelty-related signature. The magnitude of this offset response was correlated, across hippocampal voxels, with an independent measure of successful encoding, based on nonrepeated clips. This suggests that the attenuated offset response to familiar clips reflects reduced encoding. In addition, the posterior hippocampus exhibited an increased onset response to familiar events, switching from an online familiarity signal to an offline novelty signal during a single event. Moreover, participants with stronger memory exhibited increased reactivation of online activity during familiar events, in line with a retrieval signature. Our results reveal a spatiotemporal dissociation between novelty/encoding and familiarity/retrieval signatures, assumed to reflect different computational modes, in response to the same stimulus.

  6. Time-Shift Correlation Algorithm for P300 Event Related Potential Brain-Computer Interface Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Chi Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A high efficient time-shift correlation algorithm was proposed to deal with the peak time uncertainty of P300 evoked potential for a P300-based brain-computer interface (BCI. The time-shift correlation series data were collected as the input nodes of an artificial neural network (ANN, and the classification of four LED visual stimuli was selected as the output node. Two operating modes, including fast-recognition mode (FM and accuracy-recognition mode (AM, were realized. The proposed BCI system was implemented on an embedded system for commanding an adult-size humanoid robot to evaluate the performance from investigating the ground truth trajectories of the humanoid robot. When the humanoid robot walked in a spacious area, the FM was used to control the robot with a higher information transfer rate (ITR. When the robot walked in a crowded area, the AM was used for high accuracy of recognition to reduce the risk of collision. The experimental results showed that, in 100 trials, the accuracy rate of FM was 87.8% and the average ITR was 52.73 bits/min. In addition, the accuracy rate was improved to 92% for the AM, and the average ITR decreased to 31.27 bits/min. due to strict recognition constraints.

  7. Time-Shift Correlation Algorithm for P300 Event Related Potential Brain-Computer Interface Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ju-Chi; Chou, Hung-Chyun; Chen, Chien-Hsiu; Lin, Yi-Tseng; Kuo, Chung-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    A high efficient time-shift correlation algorithm was proposed to deal with the peak time uncertainty of P300 evoked potential for a P300-based brain-computer interface (BCI). The time-shift correlation series data were collected as the input nodes of an artificial neural network (ANN), and the classification of four LED visual stimuli was selected as the output node. Two operating modes, including fast-recognition mode (FM) and accuracy-recognition mode (AM), were realized. The proposed BCI system was implemented on an embedded system for commanding an adult-size humanoid robot to evaluate the performance from investigating the ground truth trajectories of the humanoid robot. When the humanoid robot walked in a spacious area, the FM was used to control the robot with a higher information transfer rate (ITR). When the robot walked in a crowded area, the AM was used for high accuracy of recognition to reduce the risk of collision. The experimental results showed that, in 100 trials, the accuracy rate of FM was 87.8% and the average ITR was 52.73 bits/min. In addition, the accuracy rate was improved to 92% for the AM, and the average ITR decreased to 31.27 bits/min. due to strict recognition constraints.

  8. Sport tourism event impacts on the host community – a case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article specifically evaluates the Red Bull Big Wave Africa (RBBWA) event as a case ... and direct observations were carried out as methods of obtaining data. ... The results indicated the event has entertainment value; provides economic ...

  9. From cuckoos to chickens: a caught-in-the-act case of host shift in feather mites (Arachnida: Acari: Psoroptoididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandes, Fabio Akashi; Pedroso, Luiz Gustavo A; Mironov, Sergey V

    2014-12-01

    Feather mites are highly specialized permanent ectosymbionts recorded from all recently recognized bird orders. These mites, specialized to live in the plumage of their hosts, rarely cause any visible damage to their specific hosts. Recently described feather mite Allopsoroptoides galli Mironov (Acariformes: Psoroptoididae) was reported to cause severe mange in chickens in Brazil, leading to unprecedented economic losses. Until now, the natural host of A. galli remained unknown. In this paper, we report its true wild host, the Guira cuckoo Guira guira (Cuculiformes: Cuculidae). In addition, a previously unknown heteromorphic form of males is described from the mite population distributed on its natural host. We also speculate a possible scenario by which this mite species could have been horizontally transferred from the wild populations of the natural host to the secondary hosts.

  10. Economic Impact of Events and Festivals on Host Regions - Methods in Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diedering Madlen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The topic of economic significance of sport events attracts substantial attention in the fields of sport event management and economics. The main objective of this article is to review international literature on economic impact of sport events, and in particular, to give a special thought to key features of primary economic impact studies and potential sources of bias.

  11. Economic Impact of Events and Festivals on Host Regions - Methods in Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Diedering Madlen; Kwiatkowski Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The topic of economic significance of sport events attracts substantial attention in the fields of sport event management and economics. The main objective of this article is to review international literature on economic impact of sport events, and in particular, to give a special thought to key features of primary economic impact studies and potential sources of bias.

  12. Membrane cholesterol regulates lysosome-plasma membrane fusion events and modulates Trypanosoma cruzi invasion of host cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Hissa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi are able to invade several types of non-phagocytic cells through a lysosomal dependent mechanism. It has been shown that, during invasion, parasites trigger host cell lysosome exocytosis, which initially occurs at the parasite-host contact site. Acid sphingomyelinase released from lysosomes then induces endocytosis and parasite internalization. Lysosomes continue to fuse with the newly formed parasitophorous vacuole until the parasite is completely enclosed by lysosomal membrane, a process indispensable for a stable infection. Previous work has shown that host membrane cholesterol is also important for the T. cruzi invasion process in both professional (macrophages and non-professional (epithelial phagocytic cells. However, the mechanism by which cholesterol-enriched microdomains participate in this process has remained unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: In the present work we show that cardiomyocytes treated with MβCD, a drug able to sequester cholesterol from cell membranes, leads to a 50% reduction in invasion by T. cruzi trypomastigotes, as well as a decrease in the number of recently internalized parasites co-localizing with lysosomal markers. Cholesterol depletion from host membranes was accompanied by a decrease in the labeling of host membrane lipid rafts, as well as excessive lysosome exocytic events during the earlier stages of treatment. Precocious lysosomal exocytosis in MβCD treated cells led to a change in lysosomal distribution, with a reduction in the number of these organelles at the cell periphery, and probably compromises the intracellular pool of lysosomes necessary for T. cruzi invasion. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Based on these results, we propose that cholesterol depletion leads to unregulated exocytic events, reducing lysosome availability at the cell cortex and consequently compromise T. cruzi entry into host cells. The results also suggest that two different pools of

  13. Multiple host switching events shape the evolution of symbiotic palaemonid shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horká, Ivona; De Grave, Sammy; Fransen, Charles H J M; Petrusek, Adam; Ďuriš, Zdeněk

    2016-06-01

    The majority of the almost 1,000 species of Palaemonidae, the most speciose family of caridean shrimp, largely live in symbioses with marine invertebrates of different phyla. These associations range from weak epibiosis to obligatory endosymbiosis and from restricted commensalism to semi-parasitism, with the specialisation to particular hosts likely playing a role in the diversification of this shrimp group. Our study elucidates the evolutionary history of symbiotic palaemonids based on a phylogenetic analysis of 87 species belonging to 43 genera from the Indo-West Pacific and the Atlantic using two nuclear and two mitochondrial markers. A complementary three-marker analysis including taxa from GenBank raises this number to 107 species from 48 genera. Seven larger clades were recovered in the molecular phylogeny; the basal-most one includes mostly free-living shrimp, albeit with a few symbiotic species. Ancestral state reconstruction revealed that free-living forms likely colonised cnidarian hosts initially, and switching between different host phyla occurred multiple times in palaemonid evolutionary history. In some cases this was likely facilitated by the availability of analogous microhabitats in unrelated but morphologically similar host groups. Host switching and adaptations to newly colonised host groups must have played an important role in the evolution of this diverse shrimp group.

  14. Evolution of habitat preference and nutrition mode in a cosmopolitan fungal genus with evidence of interkingdom host jumps and major shifts in ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaverri, Priscila; Samuels, Gary J

    2013-10-01

    Host jumps by microbial symbionts are often associated with bursts of species diversification driven by the exploitation of new adaptive zones. The objective of this study was to infer the evolution of habitat preference (decaying plants, soil, living fungi, and living plants), and nutrition mode (saprotrophy and mycoparasitism) in the fungal genus Trichoderma to elucidate possible interkingdom host jumps and shifts in ecology. Host and ecological role shifts were inferred by phylogenetic analyses and ancestral character reconstructions. The results support several interkingdom host jumps and also show that the preference for a particular habitat was gained or lost multiple times. Diversification analysis revealed that mycoparasitism is associated with accelerated speciation rates, which then suggests that this trait may be linked to the high number of species in Trichoderma. In this study it was also possible to infer the cryptic roles that endophytes or soil inhabitants play in their hosts by evaluating their closest relatives and determining their most recent ancestors. Findings from this study may have implications for understanding certain evolutionary processes such as species radiations in some hyperdiverse groups of fungi, and for more applied fields such as the discovery and development of novel biological control strategies. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  15. The Effects of City Image, Event Fit, and Word-of-mouth Intention towards the Host City of an International Sporting Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daichi Oshimi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study (1 develops a structure of host city image, (2 verifies the antecedents and consequences of host city image, and (3 predicts spectators’ positive word-of-mouth (WOM intention towards the host city through structural equation modeling. With the cooperation of the local city government, questionnaires were distributed to spectators of the 2014 Tour de France Saitama Criterium in Japan. Convenience sampling was utilized, and 274 usable questionnaires were obtained. First, the results produced a city image scale comprised of six factors and 21 items with reliability and validity. This scale incorporates the sports image into the city image to enable a comparison between the sports image and other city images, which is original to this paper. Second, the results indicated that affect toward the event (ATE was an antecedent variable to city image, image fit, and WOM intention as a consequent variable. Third, the theoretical model could predict positive WOM intention towards the host city with a 23% explanatory rate. These results provide evidence about the role of ATE, city image, and image fit, which is an important new contribution, as few studies have focused on city image or image fit.

  16. Immunocompromised host: from the early events until the impact of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Sylvio Celso Gonçalves da

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept that microorganisms can modulate the host resistance was historically reviewed in the present article. The importance of African trypanosomiasis in the development of the research on immunosuppression as well as the impact of human immunodeficiency virus infection are discussed. Each day new opportunistic organisms establish a constant challenge for the correct diagnosis of concomitant infections in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The importance of parasite infection in the balance of host resistance in the third world was emphasized. Finally, some aspects of Leishmania as opportunistic organisms were presented.

  17. Process Flow Features as a Host-Based Event Knowledge Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    Detection System . . . . . . . . . . . 2 VMI virtual machine introspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 CMAT Compiled Memory Analysis Tool...4 GA genetic algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 VMI virtual machine introspection...use virtual machine introspection( VMI )to eval- uate the novel use of host based process flow feature clustering to model processes behaviors. The

  18. Studying the impacts of event tourism on the host communities in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toneva Petya Ivanova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The research interest is directed towards assessing the impacts of event tourism in Bulgaria as a popular and dynamic element of the tourism supply and demand, which is has a potential for combinations, development and creation. The article outlines the main theoretical and methodological principles of assessing the impacts of event tourism. Based on the existing achievements in the specialized literature, the study offers a model for assessing these effects. The developed instrument is applied empirically and the collected data is analysed. The impacts of the contemporary event tourism on destination Bulgaria are assessed at the aggregate level.

  19. Using temporally aligned event-related potentials for the investigation of attention shifts prior to and during saccades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber-Huber, Christoph; Ditye, Thomas; Marchante Fernández, María; Ansorge, Ulrich

    2016-11-01

    According to the pre-motor theory of attention, attention is shifted to a saccade's landing position before the saccade is executed. Such pre-saccadic attention shifts are usually studied in psychophysical dual-task conditions, with a target-discrimination task before saccade onset. Here, we present a novel approach to investigate pre-saccadic attention shifts with the help of event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants executed one or two saccades to color-defined targets while ERPs and eye-movements were recorded. In single-target blocks participants executed a single saccade. In two-targets blocks participants made either a single saccade to one of the targets, or two successive saccades to both targets. Importantly, in two-targets blocks, targets could appear on the same or on opposite sides of the vertical midline. This allowed us to study contra-to-ipsilateral ERP differences (such as the N2pc or PCN) that reflect attention shifts to the targets, prior to saccade onset and during saccades. If pre-saccadic attention shifts to saccade target locations are necessary for saccade execution and if searched-for saccade targets capture attention, there should be enhanced attentional competition (1) between two targets compared to single targets; (2) between two opposite-sides targets compared to two same-side targets; and (3) in two saccades rather than one saccade conditions: More attentional competition was expected to delay saccade latency and to weaken pre-saccadic laterality effects in ERPs. Hypotheses were tested by means of temporally aligned ERPs that were simultaneously time-locked to stimulus onsets, saccade onsets, and saccade offsets. Predictions (1) and (2) were partly and fully confirmed, respectively, but no evidence was found for (3). We explain the implications of our results for the role of attention during saccade preparation, and we point out how temporally aligned ERPs compare to ICA-based electroencephalogram (EEG) artifact correction

  20. Economic Impact of Events and Festivals on Host Regions - Methods in Practice & Potential Sources of Bias

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Madlen Diedering; Grzegorz Kwiatkowski

    2015-01-01

    .... The main objective of this article is to review international literature on economic impact of sport events, and in particular, to give a special thought to key features of primary economic impact...

  1. Local Residents Perceptions of the Impacts of Hosting National and International Sporting Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin ÜNGÜREN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was aimed to determine the perceptions of local residents for national and international sports events . Study was conducted in Alanya which is home to many sports events each ye ar. As a result of analyses, it was determined that the deception of local residents for national and international sports events held at Alanya under eight aspects. These aspects were entitled as “Economical Contribution”, “Sports Culture Imbuing”, “ Traf fic Congestion Problems”, “Promotion Instrument and Increasing Brand Value”, “Environmental Harms”, “Social Interaction”, “Infrastructure Development and Bringing Sportive Investment” and “Financial Burden and Underused Capacity Problem”. Within the findin gs of the study, it was determined that large majority of the participants, even though partially, have information related to the sports events held at Alanya, whereas a lesser part of them attend to the sports events held at Alanya regularly or frequentl y. In addition to this, it was determined that the participants have a perception that the sports events held at Alanya are imbuing sports culture to local residents, causing traffic congestion problems, increasing the brand value o f the destination and pr ocuring social interaction whereas partially providing economical contribution, partially harming the environment, partially developing the infrastructure and bringing sportive investment, partially bringing financial burden to destination and partially ca using underused capacity problem.

  2. Dietary shift in corallivorous Drupella snails following a major bleaching event at Koh Tao, Gulf of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeksema, B. W.; Scott, C.; True, J. D.

    2013-06-01

    The island Koh Tao in the western Gulf of Thailand suffered severe coral bleaching in 2010. Its mushroom coral fauna of 20 species was surveyed during the bleaching in 2010 and after the bleaching in 2011. Multi-species assemblages of free-living mushroom corals occurred around the island, two of which were invaded by corallivorous Drupella snails after the bleaching. Previously these gastropods were known to mainly consume branching corals and hardly any mushroom corals. The snails were found preying on four fungiid species, three of which were susceptible to bleaching. The dietary shift became apparent after populations of preferred prey species (Acroporidae and Pocilloporidae) had died during the bleaching event. It seems that bleaching mortality reduced the availability of preferred prey, causing the corallivores to switch to less preferred species that occur in dense aggregations.

  3. The bid, the lead-up, the event and the legacy: global cultural politics and hosting the Olympics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, David

    2012-06-01

    Hosting mega sport events, especially the Olympics, demands an extensive engagement with global civil society given the voluntary, highly mediated exposure of host cities and nations to the world. The philosophy of Olympism requires ethical authority in demonstrating 'fitness' to host the Games, so demanding intensive strategic image management. Offensive and defensive mobilization of image-dependent 'species of power' in the field of sport (in a Bourdieusian sense) in conducting 'wars of position and movement' (following Gramsci) within global civil society are, then, crucial features of competitive manoeuvres around staging major sport events. The main empirical focus of this article is on the case of the Sydney 2000 ('Millennial') Games, in illustrating the socio-political dynamics of bidding and hosting in the context of a major civil societal matter of concern - Australia's continuing failure to achieve reconciliation with, and equality for, its indigenous peoples. Ironically, though, it was in the domain of human rights that Sydney had an advantage over its closest competitor in the 1993 bidding process - China. The strategies deployed to secure the consent of Australian Aborigines to the Games are addressed in analysing the means by which the Sydney 2000 Games avoided major disruption and international criticism. A second, briefer case analysis is then presented of the disputation concerning Beijing's successful bid for the 2008 Olympics, which saw them influentially described by one (US) political activist as the 'Genocide Games' and the subject of international protests surrounding the Torch Relay. It is concluded that the contrasting levels of public, mediated discord in these two Olympiads in which human rights were key issues related, significantly though not exclusively, to the Chinese authorities' difficulties in 'winning consent' through strategic incorporation of the most conspicuous, non-state oppositional forces within Western-dominated global

  4. Clinical handover as an interactive event: informational and interactional communication strategies in effective shift-change handovers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggins, Suzanne; Slade, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Clinical handover -- the transfer between clinicians of responsibility and accountability for patients and their care (AMA 2006) -- is a pivotal and high-risk communicative event in hospital practice. Studies focusing on critical incidents, mortality, risk and patient harm in hospitals have highlighted ineffective communication -- including incomplete and unstructured clinical handovers -- as a major contributing factor (NSW Health 2005; ACSQHC 2010). In Australia, as internationally, Health Departments and hospital management have responded by introducing standardised handover communication protocols. This paper problematises one such protocol - the ISBAR tool - and argues that the narrow understanding of communication on which such protocols are based may seriously constrain their ability to shape effective handovers. Based on analysis of audio-recorded shift-change clinical handovers between medical staff we argue that handover communication must be conceptualised as inherently interactive and that attempts to describe, model and teach handover practice must recognise both informational and interactive communication strategies. By comparing the communicative performance of participants in authentic handover events we identify communication strategies that are more and less likely to lead to an effective handover and demonstrate the importance of focusing close up on communication to improve the quality and safety of healthcare interactions.

  5. Genetic structure in the seabuckthorn carpenter moth (Holcocerus hippophaecolus in China: the role of outbreak events, geographical and host factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Tao

    Full Text Available Understanding factors responsible for structuring genetic diversity is of fundamental importance in evolutionary biology. The seabuckthorn carpenter moth (Holcocerus hippophaecolus Hua is a native species throughout the north of China and is considered the main threat to seabuckthorn, Hippophae rhamnoides L. We assessed the influence of outbreaks, environmental factors and host species in shaping the genetic variation and structure of H. hippophaecolus by using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP markers. We rejected the hypothesis that outbreak-associated genetic divergence exist, as evidenced by genetic clusters containing a combination of populations from historical outbreak areas, as well as non-outbreak areas. Although a small number of markers (4 of 933 loci were identified as candidates under selection in response to population densities. H. hippophaecolus also did not follow an isolation-by-distance pattern. We rejected the hypothesis that outbreak and drought events were driving the genetic structure of H. hippophaecolus. Rather, the genetic structure appears to be influenced by various confounding bio-geographical factors. There were detectable genetic differences between H. hippophaecolus occupying different host trees from within the same geographic location. Host-associated genetic divergence should be confirmed by further investigation.

  6. Thanks-a-Latte, Seniors: The Library Hosts an Election Day Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repp, Anne

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the Louisa County High School Library's annual Thanks-a-Latte Day, an event that introduces the American political process to LCHS seniors in a real way. Thanks-a-Latte Day was born from an idea found in a "School Library Journal" article by Charli O'Dell published in 1999. Her basic idea was to promote the school library by…

  7. Thanks-a-Latte, Seniors: The Library Hosts an Election Day Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repp, Anne

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the Louisa County High School Library's annual Thanks-a-Latte Day, an event that introduces the American political process to LCHS seniors in a real way. Thanks-a-Latte Day was born from an idea found in a "School Library Journal" article by Charli O'Dell published in 1999. Her basic idea was to promote the school library by…

  8. Extreme star formation events in quasar hosts over 0.5 < z < 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchford, L. K.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Feltre, A.; Farrah, D.; Clarke, C.; Harris, K. A.; Hurley, P.; Oliver, S.; Page, M.; Wang, L.

    2016-11-01

    We explore the relationship between active galactic nuclei (AGN) and star formation in a sample of 513 optically luminous type 1 quasars up to redshifts of ˜4 hosting extremely high star formation rates (SFRs). The quasars are selected to be individually detected by the Herschel SPIRE instrument at >3σ at 250 μm, leading to typical SFRs of order of 1000 M⊙ yr-1. We find the average SFRs to increase by almost a factor 10 from z ˜ 0.5 to z ˜ 3, mirroring the rise in the comoving SFR density over the same epoch. However, we find that the SFRs remain approximately constant with increasing accretion luminosity for accretion luminosities above 1012 L⊙. We also find that the SFRs do not correlate with black hole mass. Both of these results are most plausibly explained by the existence of a self-regulation process by the starburst at high SFRs, which controls SFRs on time-scales comparable to or shorter than the AGN or starburst duty cycles. We additionally find that SFRs do not depend on Eddington ratio at any redshift, consistent with no relation between SFR and black hole growth rate per unit black hole mass. Finally, we find that high-ionization broad absorption line (HiBAL) quasars have indistinguishable far-infrared properties to those of classical quasars, consistent with HiBAL quasars being normal quasars observed along a particular line of sight, with the outflows in HiBAL quasars not having any measurable effect on the star formation in their hosts.

  9. Mass Mortality Events in the NW Adriatic Sea: Phase Shift from Slow- to Fast-Growing Organisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Gioia Di Camillo

    Full Text Available Massive outbreaks are increasing all over the world, which are likely related to climate change. The North Adriatic Sea, a sub-basin of the Mediterranean Sea, is a shallow semi-closed sea receiving high nutrients inputs from important rivers. These inputs sustain the highest productive basin of the Mediterranean Sea. Moreover, this area shows a high number of endemisms probably due to the high diversity of environmental conditions and the conspicuous food availability. Here, we documented two massive mortalities (2009 and 2011 and the pattern of recovery of the affected biocoenoses in the next two years. Results show an impressive and fast shift of the benthic assemblage from a biocoenosis mainly composed of slow-growing and long-lived species to a biocoenosis dominated by fast-growing and short-lived species. The sponge Chondrosia reniformis, one of the key species of this assemblage, which had never been involved in previous massive mortality events in the Mediterranean Sea, reduced its coverage by 70%, and only few small specimens survived. All the damaged sponges, together with many associated organisms, were detached by rough-sea conditions, leaving large bare areas on the rocky wall. Almost three years after the disease, the survived specimens of C. reniformis did not increase significantly in size, while the bare areas were colonized by fast-growing species such as stoloniferans, hydrozoans, mussels, algae, serpulids and bryozoans. Cnidarians were more resilient than massive sponges since they quickly recovered in less than one month. In the study area, the last two outbreaks caused a reduction in the filtration efficiency of the local benthic assemblage by over 60%. The analysis of the times series of wave heights and temperature revealed that the conditions in summer 2011 were not so extreme as to justify severe mass mortality, suggesting the occurrence of other factors which triggered the disease. The long-term observations of a

  10. Host plant shifts and transitions into new adaptive zones in leafhoppers: the example of Macropsinae (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae) of Russia and adjacent countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishechkin, Dmitri Yu

    2016-06-08

    The modes of diversification of Palaearctic Macropsinae (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae) are reconstructed based on data on their host plants and distribution in Russia and the adjacent territories. Macropsinae (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae) is originally an Oriental group, which penetrated into the Palaearctic from Southeast Asia. The genus Pediopsoides and species of the genus Macropsis that feed on East Asian oaks have not dispersed beyond broadleaf forests of the Eastern Palaearctic. Apparently, Pediopsis and elm-feeding species of Macropsis initially dispersed throughout the entire broadleaf forest zone. Division of this zone into two widely separated parts in temperate areas of Europe and East Asia (nemoral disjunction), produced closely related vicariant pairs of sister species. The genus Oncopsis and species of Macropsis feeding on Salicaceae dispersed throughout the entire Palaearctic following their host plants. Both lineages penetrated into riparian forests of the foothills and midlands of Central Asia, where they produced endemic species. The Central Asian Macropsis lineage shifted from Salicaceae to trees and shrubs of unrelated families (wild roses, barberry, oleaster, and sea-buckthorn) growing in the same biotopes. Subsequent diversification on those plants produced several separate host-associated species-groups, some of which penetrated following their hosts from riparian forests into arid habitats. One such lineage apparently shifted from shrubs to wormwood species (Artemisia spp.) and thus gave rise to the genus Macropsidius. This genus underwent adaptive radiation on wormwood species in the plains of South Kazakhstan and Central Asia; advancing westward, it formed secondary centres of diversity in Transcaucasia and the Mediterranean. Finally, some lineage of Macropsidius (or its sister-group) switched from feeding on Artemisia to polyphagy, yielding the ancestral form of the genus Hephathus. In general, the evolution of

  11. Microevolutionary events involving narrow host plasmids influences local fixation of vancomycin-resistance in Enterococcus populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana R Freitas

    Full Text Available Vancomycin-resistance in enterococci (VRE is associated with isolates within ST18, ST17, ST78 Enterococcus faecium (Efm and ST6 Enterococcus faecalis (Efs human adapted lineages. Despite of its global spread, vancomycin resistance rates in enterococcal populations greatly vary temporally and geographically. Portugal is one of the European countries where Tn1546 (vanA is consistently found in a variety of environments. A comprehensive multi-hierarchical analysis of VRE isolates (75 Efm and 29 Efs from Portuguese hospitals and aquatic surroundings (1996-2008 was performed to clarify the local dynamics of VRE. Clonal relatedness was established by PFGE and MLST while plasmid characterization comprised the analysis of known relaxases, rep initiator proteins and toxin-antitoxin systems (TA by PCR-based typing schemes, RFLP comparison, hybridization and sequencing. Tn1546 variants were characterized by PCR overlapping/sequencing. Intra- and inter-hospital dissemination of Efm ST18, ST132 and ST280 and Efs ST6 clones, carrying rolling-circle (pEFNP1/pRI1 and theta-replicating (pCIZ2-like, Inc18, pHTβ-like, two pRUM-variants, pLG1-like, and pheromone-responsive plasmids was documented. Tn1546 variants, mostly containing ISEf1 or IS1216, were located on plasmids (30-150 kb with a high degree of mosaicism and heterogeneous RFLP patterns that seem to have resulted from the interplay between broad host Inc18 plasmids (pIP501, pRE25, pEF1, and narrow host RepA_N plasmids (pRUM, pAD1-like. TAs of Inc18 (ω-ε-ζ and pRUM (Axe-Txe plasmids were infrequently detected. Some plasmid chimeras were persistently recovered over years from different clonal lineages. This work represents the first multi-hierarchical analysis of VRE, revealing a frequent recombinatorial diversification of a limited number of interacting clonal backgrounds, plasmids and transposons at local scale. These interactions provide a continuous process of parapatric clonalization driving a full

  12. Microevolutionary Events Involving Narrow Host Plasmids Influences Local Fixation of Vancomycin-Resistance in Enterococcus Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Ana R.; Novais, Carla; Tedim, Ana P.; Francia, María Victoria; Baquero, Fernando; Peixe, Luísa; Coque, Teresa M.

    2013-01-01

    Vancomycin-resistance in enterococci (VRE) is associated with isolates within ST18, ST17, ST78 Enterococcus faecium (Efm) and ST6 Enterococcus faecalis (Efs) human adapted lineages. Despite of its global spread, vancomycin resistance rates in enterococcal populations greatly vary temporally and geographically. Portugal is one of the European countries where Tn1546 (vanA) is consistently found in a variety of environments. A comprehensive multi-hierarchical analysis of VRE isolates (75 Efm and 29 Efs) from Portuguese hospitals and aquatic surroundings (1996–2008) was performed to clarify the local dynamics of VRE. Clonal relatedness was established by PFGE and MLST while plasmid characterization comprised the analysis of known relaxases, rep initiator proteins and toxin-antitoxin systems (TA) by PCR-based typing schemes, RFLP comparison, hybridization and sequencing. Tn1546 variants were characterized by PCR overlapping/sequencing. Intra- and inter-hospital dissemination of Efm ST18, ST132 and ST280 and Efs ST6 clones, carrying rolling-circle (pEFNP1/pRI1) and theta-replicating (pCIZ2-like, Inc18, pHTβ-like, two pRUM-variants, pLG1-like, and pheromone-responsive) plasmids was documented. Tn1546 variants, mostly containing ISEf1 or IS1216, were located on plasmids (30–150 kb) with a high degree of mosaicism and heterogeneous RFLP patterns that seem to have resulted from the interplay between broad host Inc18 plasmids (pIP501, pRE25, pEF1), and narrow host RepA_N plasmids (pRUM, pAD1-like). TAs of Inc18 (ω-ε-ζ) and pRUM (Axe-Txe) plasmids were infrequently detected. Some plasmid chimeras were persistently recovered over years from different clonal lineages. This work represents the first multi-hierarchical analysis of VRE, revealing a frequent recombinatorial diversification of a limited number of interacting clonal backgrounds, plasmids and transposons at local scale. These interactions provide a continuous process of parapatric clonalization driving a full

  13. Extreme star formation events in quasar hosts over ${\\bf0.5<\\textit{z}<4}$

    CERN Document Server

    Pitchford, Lura K; Feltre, Anna; Farrah, Duncan; Clarke, Charlotte; Harris, Kathryn; Hurley, Peter; Oliver, Sebastian; Page, Mathew; Wang, Lingyu

    2016-01-01

    We explore the relationship between active galactic nuclei and star formation in a sample of 513 optically luminous type 1 quasars up to redshifts of $\\sim$4 hosting extremely high star formation rates (SFRs). The quasars are selected to be individually detected by the \\textit{Herschel} SPIRE instrument at $> $3$\\sigma$ at 250 $\\mu$m, leading to typical SFRs of order of 1000 M$_{\\odot}$yr$^{-1}$. We find the average SFRs to increase by almost a factor 10 from $z\\sim0.5$ to $z\\sim3$, mirroring the rise in the comoving SFR density over the same epoch. However, we find that the SFRs remain approximately constant with increasing accretion luminosity for accretion luminosities above 10$^{12}$ L$_{\\odot}$. We also find that the SFRs do not correlate with black hole mass. Both of these results are most plausibly explained by the existence of a self-regulation process by the starburst at high SFRs, which controls SFRs on time-scales comparable to or shorter than the AGN or starburst duty cycles. We additionally find ...

  14. Host genes related to paneth cells and xenobiotic metabolism are associated with shifts in human ileum-associated microbial composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyi Zhang

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to integrate human clinical, genotype, mRNA microarray and 16 S rRNA sequence data collected on 84 subjects with ileal Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis or control patients without inflammatory bowel diseases in order to interrogate how host-microbial interactions are perturbed in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD. Ex-vivo ileal mucosal biopsies were collected from the disease unaffected proximal margin of the ileum resected from patients who were undergoing initial intestinal surgery. Both RNA and DNA were extracted from the mucosal biopsy samples. Patients were genotyped for the three major NOD2 variants (Leufs1007, R702W, and G908R and the ATG16L1T300A variant. Whole human genome mRNA expression profiles were generated using Agilent microarrays. Microbial composition profiles were determined by 454 pyrosequencing of the V3-V5 hypervariable region of the bacterial 16 S rRNA gene. The results of permutation based multivariate analysis of variance and covariance (MANCOVA support the hypothesis that host mucosal Paneth cell and xenobiotic metabolism genes play an important role in host microbial interactions.

  15. Ecological Regime Shifts in Lake Kälksjön, Sweden, in Response to Abrupt Climate Change Around the 8.2 ka Cooling Event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randsalu-Wendrup, L.; Conley, D.J.; Snowball, I.;

    2012-01-01

    periphytic to planktonic diatom dominance over a 250-year period and a gradual diversification of the periphytic community that spanned c. 150 years. Rapid climate warming following the 8.2 ka event likely caused these changes and both regime shifts are examples of externally driven abrupt ecological change......A detailed diatom record from Lake Ka¨ lksjo¨ n, westcentral Sweden, reveals two periods of abrupt ecological change correlative with the 8.2 ka cooling event. Using a combination of abrupt step changes and piece-wise linear regressions, the diatom data were analyzed for change points over time...... increase in nutrient supply to the lake. The second event was characterized by a substantial shift within the planktonic diatom community from taxa indicative of colder conditions to those indicating warm over 5–10 years at c. 7850 cal. y BP. This event was superimposed on a successive change from...

  16. Proteomics indicators of the rapidly shifting physiology from whole mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), adults during early host colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Caitlin; Robert, Jeanne A; Bonnett, Tiffany R; Keeling, Christopher I; Bohlmann, Jörg; Huber, Dezene P W

    2014-01-01

    We developed proteome profiles for host colonizing mountain pine beetle adults, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Adult insects were fed in pairs on fresh host lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud, phloem tissue. The proteomes of fed individuals were monitored using iTRAQ and compared to those of starved beetles, revealing 757 and 739 expressed proteins in females and males, respectively, for which quantitative information was obtained. Overall functional category distributions were similar for males and females, with the majority of proteins falling under carbohydrate metabolism (glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, citric acid cycle), structure (cuticle, muscle, cytoskeleton), and protein and amino acid metabolism. Females had 23 proteins with levels that changed significantly with feeding (p<0.05, FDR<0.20), including chaperones and enzymes required for vitellogenesis. In males, levels of 29 proteins changed significantly with feeding (p<0.05, FDR<0.20), including chaperones as well as motor proteins. Only two proteins, both chaperones, exhibited a significant change in both females and males with feeding. Proteins with differential accumulation patterns in females exhibited higher fold changes with feeding than did those in males. This difference may be due to major and rapid physiological changes occurring in females upon finding a host tree during the physiological shift from dispersal to reproduction. The significant accumulation of chaperone proteins, a cytochrome P450, and a glutathione S-transferase, indicate secondary metabolite-induced stress physiology related to chemical detoxification during early host colonization. The females' activation of vitellogenin only after encountering a host indicates deliberate partitioning of resources and a balancing of the needs of dispersal and reproduction.

  17. Proteomics indicators of the rapidly shifting physiology from whole mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, adults during early host colonization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin Pitt

    Full Text Available We developed proteome profiles for host colonizing mountain pine beetle adults, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae. Adult insects were fed in pairs on fresh host lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud, phloem tissue. The proteomes of fed individuals were monitored using iTRAQ and compared to those of starved beetles, revealing 757 and 739 expressed proteins in females and males, respectively, for which quantitative information was obtained. Overall functional category distributions were similar for males and females, with the majority of proteins falling under carbohydrate metabolism (glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, citric acid cycle, structure (cuticle, muscle, cytoskeleton, and protein and amino acid metabolism. Females had 23 proteins with levels that changed significantly with feeding (p<0.05, FDR<0.20, including chaperones and enzymes required for vitellogenesis. In males, levels of 29 proteins changed significantly with feeding (p<0.05, FDR<0.20, including chaperones as well as motor proteins. Only two proteins, both chaperones, exhibited a significant change in both females and males with feeding. Proteins with differential accumulation patterns in females exhibited higher fold changes with feeding than did those in males. This difference may be due to major and rapid physiological changes occurring in females upon finding a host tree during the physiological shift from dispersal to reproduction. The significant accumulation of chaperone proteins, a cytochrome P450, and a glutathione S-transferase, indicate secondary metabolite-induced stress physiology related to chemical detoxification during early host colonization. The females' activation of vitellogenin only after encountering a host indicates deliberate partitioning of resources and a balancing of the needs of dispersal and reproduction.

  18. Pathogen-host associations and predicted range shifts of human monkeypox in response to climate change in central Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri A Thomassen

    Full Text Available Climate change is predicted to result in changes in the geographic ranges and local prevalence of infectious diseases, either through direct effects on the pathogen, or indirectly through range shifts in vector and reservoir species. To better understand the occurrence of monkeypox virus (MPXV, an emerging Orthopoxvirus in humans, under contemporary and future climate conditions, we used ecological niche modeling techniques in conjunction with climate and remote-sensing variables. We first created spatially explicit probability distributions of its candidate reservoir species in Africa's Congo Basin. Reservoir species distributions were subsequently used to model current and projected future distributions of human monkeypox (MPX. Results indicate that forest clearing and climate are significant driving factors of the transmission of MPX from wildlife to humans under current climate conditions. Models under contemporary climate conditions performed well, as indicated by high values for the area under the receiver operator curve (AUC, and tests on spatially randomly and non-randomly omitted test data. Future projections were made on IPCC 4(th Assessment climate change scenarios for 2050 and 2080, ranging from more conservative to more aggressive, and representing the potential variation within which range shifts can be expected to occur. Future projections showed range shifts into regions where MPX has not been recorded previously. Increased suitability for MPX was predicted in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Models developed here are useful for identifying areas where environmental conditions may become more suitable for human MPX; targeting candidate reservoir species for future screening efforts; and prioritizing regions for future MPX surveillance efforts.

  19. Ultrafast evolution and loss of CRISPRs following a host shift in a novel wildlife pathogen, Mycoplasma gallisepticum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel F Delaney

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Measureable rates of genome evolution are well documented in human pathogens but are less well understood in bacterial pathogens in the wild, particularly during and after host switches. Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG is a pathogenic bacterium that has evolved predominantly in poultry and recently jumped to wild house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus, a common North American songbird. For the first time we characterize the genome and measure rates of genome evolution in House Finch isolates of MG, as well as in poultry outgroups. Using whole-genome sequences of 12 House Finch isolates across a 13-year serial sample and an additional four newly sequenced poultry strains, we estimate a nucleotide diversity in House Finch isolates of only ∼2% of ancestral poultry strains and a nucleotide substitution rate of 0.8-1.2×10(-5 per site per year both in poultry and in House Finches, an exceptionally fast rate rivaling some of the highest estimates reported thus far for bacteria. We also found high diversity and complete turnover of CRISPR arrays in poultry MG strains prior to the switch to the House Finch host, but after the invasion of House Finches there is progressive loss of CRISPR repeat diversity, and recruitment of novel CRISPR repeats ceases. Recent (2007 House Finch MG strains retain only ∼50% of the CRISPR repertoire founding (1994-95 strains and have lost the CRISPR-associated genes required for CRISPR function. Our results suggest that genome evolution in bacterial pathogens of wild birds can be extremely rapid and in this case is accompanied by apparent functional loss of CRISPRs.

  20. Ultrafast evolution and loss of CRISPRs following a host shift in a novel wildlife pathogen, Mycoplasma gallisepticum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel F Delaney

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Measureable rates of genome evolution are well documented in human pathogens but are less well understood in bacterial pathogens in the wild, particularly during and after host switches. Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG is a pathogenic bacterium that has evolved predominantly in poultry and recently jumped to wild house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus, a common North American songbird. For the first time we characterize the genome and measure rates of genome evolution in House Finch isolates of MG, as well as in poultry outgroups. Using whole-genome sequences of 12 House Finch isolates across a 13-year serial sample and an additional four newly sequenced poultry strains, we estimate a nucleotide diversity in House Finch isolates of only ∼2% of ancestral poultry strains and a nucleotide substitution rate of 0.8-1.2×10(-5 per site per year both in poultry and in House Finches, an exceptionally fast rate rivaling some of the highest estimates reported thus far for bacteria. We also found high diversity and complete turnover of CRISPR arrays in poultry MG strains prior to the switch to the House Finch host, but after the invasion of House Finches there is progressive loss of CRISPR repeat diversity, and recruitment of novel CRISPR repeats ceases. Recent (2007 House Finch MG strains retain only ∼50% of the CRISPR repertoire founding (1994-95 strains and have lost the CRISPR-associated genes required for CRISPR function. Our results suggest that genome evolution in bacterial pathogens of wild birds can be extremely rapid and in this case is accompanied by apparent functional loss of CRISPRs.

  1. Potassium permanganate elicits a shift of the external fish microbiome and increases host susceptibility to columnaris disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Haitham H; Arias, Covadonga R

    2015-07-15

    The external microbiome of fish is thought to benefit the host by hindering the invasion of opportunistic pathogens and/or stimulating the immune system. Disruption of those microbial communities could increase susceptibility to diseases. Traditional aquaculture practices include the use of potent surface-acting disinfectants such as potassium permanganate (PP, KMnO4) to treat external infections. This study evaluated the effect of PP on the external microbiome of channel catfish and investigated if dysbiosis leads to an increase in disease susceptibility. Columnaris disease, caused by Flavobacterium columnare, was used as disease model. Four treatments were compared in the study: (I) negative control (not treated with PP nor challenged with F. columnare), (II) treated but not challenged, (III) not treated but challenged, and (IV) treated and challenged. Ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA) and pyrosequencing were used to analyze changes in the external microbiome during the experiment. Exposure to PP significantly disturbed the external microbiomes and increased catfish mortality following the experimental challenge. Analysis of similarities of RISA profiles showed statistically significant changes in the skin and gill microbiomes based on treatment and sampling time. Characterization of the microbiomes using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing confirmed the disruption of the skin microbiome by PP at different phylogenetic levels. Loss of diversity occurred during the study, even in the control group, but was more noticeable in fish subjected to PP than in those challenged with F. columnare. Fish treated with PP and challenged with the pathogen exhibited the least diverse microbiome at the end of the study.

  2. The Effects of City Image, Event Fit, and Word-of-mouth Intention towards the Host City of an International Sporting Event

    OpenAIRE

    Daichi Oshimi; Munehiko Harada

    2016-01-01

    This study (1) develops a structure of host city image, (2) verifies the antecedents and consequences of host city image, and (3) predicts spectators’ positive word-of-mouth (WOM) intention towards the host city through structural equation modeling. With the cooperation of the local city government, questionnaires were distributed to spectators of the 2014 Tour de France Saitama Criterium in Japan. Convenience sampling was utilized, and 274 usable questionnaires were obtained. First, the resu...

  3. Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The 9th ARRCN Symposium 2015 was held during 21st–25th October 2015 at the Novotel Hotel, Chumphon, Thailand, one of the most favored travel destinations in Asia. The 10th ARRCN Symposium 2017 will be held during October 2017 in the Davao, Philippines. International Symposium on the Montagu's Harrier (Circus pygargus «The Montagu's Harrier in Europe. Status. Threats. Protection», organized by the environmental organization «Landesbund für Vogelschutz in Bayern e.V.» (LBV was held on November 20-22, 2015 in Germany. The location of this event was the city of Wurzburg in Bavaria.

  4. Lichenoid Variant of Chronic Cutaneous Graft Versus Host Reaction Post Blood Transfusion: A Rare Event Post Blood Transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnaiah, Pushpa Kodipalya; Lakshman, Archana; Aradhya, Sacchidanand Sarvajnamurthy; Veerabhadrappa, Nataraja Holavanahally

    2015-01-01

    Chronic graft versus host disease (GVHD) is a less frequently seen disease that occurs post solid organ or bone marrow transplantation. Chronic GVHD occurring post blood transfusion is an even more uncommon disease. It can present either as a lichenoid disease or as a sclerodermatous disease involving multiple systems. In this article, we report a case of chronic graft versus host reaction occurring in skin secondary to blood transfusion.

  5. A Statistical Framework for Microbial Source Attribution: Measuring Uncertainty in Host Transmission Events Inferred from Genetic Data (Part 2 of a 2 Part Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, J; Velsko, S

    2009-11-16

    This report explores the question of whether meaningful conclusions can be drawn regarding the transmission relationship between two microbial samples on the basis of differences observed between the two sample's respective genomes. Unlike similar forensic applications using human DNA, the rapid rate of microbial genome evolution combined with the dynamics of infectious disease require a shift in thinking on what it means for two samples to 'match' in support of a forensic hypothesis. Previous outbreaks for SARS-CoV, FMDV and HIV were examined to investigate the question of how microbial sequence data can be used to draw inferences that link two infected individuals by direct transmission. The results are counter intuitive with respect to human DNA forensic applications in that some genetic change rather than exact matching improve confidence in inferring direct transmission links, however, too much genetic change poses challenges, which can weaken confidence in inferred links. High rates of infection coupled with relatively weak selective pressure observed in the SARS-CoV and FMDV data lead to fairly low confidence for direct transmission links. Confidence values for forensic hypotheses increased when testing for the possibility that samples are separated by at most a few intermediate hosts. Moreover, the observed outbreak conditions support the potential to provide high confidence values for hypothesis that exclude direct transmission links. Transmission inferences are based on the total number of observed or inferred genetic changes separating two sequences rather than uniquely weighing the importance of any one genetic mismatch. Thus, inferences are surprisingly robust in the presence of sequencing errors provided the error rates are randomly distributed across all samples in the reference outbreak database and the novel sequence samples in question. When the number of observed nucleotide mutations are limited due to characteristics of the

  6. SHI Wenlei, The pattern shift of the motion event integration in Chinese: A typological study based on morpho-syntactic features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the typological shift of comparing the morpho-syntactic features of Chinese the motion event integration in Chinese by and Romance languages diachronically and typologically. The results indicate that 1 ) Chinese shows more and more characteristics of the satellite-framed languages (S-language) and less and less characteristics of the verb-framed languages (VAanguage), while Romance languages show an opposite tendency; 2) unlike Spanish, a typical V-language, ancient Chinese uses most single PATH verb constructions; 3) not only the evolutionary directions of Chinese and Romance languages are opposite, the evolutionary mechanisms are also opposite, i.e. grammaticalization and separation of semantic components in Chinese vs. strong lexicalization and incorporation of semantic elements in Romance languages; 4) modern Chinese and Modern Romance both show a diversity of motion event integration types, which are resulted from the preservation of some constructions of ancient languages

  7. Genome analysis and gene nblA identification of Microcystis aeruginosa myovirus (MaMV-DC) reveal the evidence for horizontal gene transfer events between cyanomyovirus and host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Tong; Gao, Xiao-Chan; Li, San-Hua; Zhang, Qi-Ya

    2015-12-01

    The genome sequence, genetic characterization and nblA gene function of Microcystis aeruginosa myovirus isolated from Lake Dianchi in China (MaMV-DC) have been analysed. The genome DNA is 169 223 bp long, with 170 predicted protein-coding genes (001L–170L) and a tRNA gene. About one-sixth of these genes have homologues in the host cyanobacteria M. aeruginosa. The genome carries a gene homologous to host nblA, which encodes a protein involved in the degradation of cyanobacterial phycobilisome. Its expression during MaMV-DC infection was confirmed by reverse transcriptase PCR and Western blot detection and abundant expression was companied by the significant decline of phycocyanin content and massive release of progeny MaMV-DC. In addition, expressing MaMV-DC nblA reduced the phycocyanin peak and the phycocyanin to chlorophyll ratio in model cyanobacteria. These results confirm that horizontal gene transfer events have occurred between cyanobacterial host and cyanomyovirus and suggest that MaMV-DC carrying host-derived genes (such as 005L, that codes for NblA) is responsible for more efficient expression of cyanophage genes and release of progeny cyanophage. This study provides novel insight into the horizontal gene transfer in cyanophage and the interactions between cyanophage and their host.

  8. 我国举办极限运动赛事的价值分析%Value of Extreme Sports Events Hosted in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑瑾; 刘美凤

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of elaborating on extreme sports and competitions,the paper discusses the sports value,culture value as well as economic value of extreme sports events and puts forward some reasonable suggestions on the development of extreme sports events in China.The extreme sports can be popularized and promoted among teenagers through hosting the extreme sports events.Small and medium-sized cities should bid actively for hosting extreme sports events.Necessary tangible supports and guarantee should be available to speed up the construction of the theme park of extreme sports.%在对极限运动及赛事阐述的基础上,对极限运动赛事的体育价值、文化价值、经济价值进行探讨,并对我国极限运动赛事的发展提出合理性建议:通过极限运动赛事,在青少年中推广和普及极限运动;中小城市应积极申办极限运动赛事;加快极限运动主题公园建设,为赛事举办提供必要的硬件支持与保障。

  9. Events at the host-microbial interface of the gastrointestinal tract III. Cell-to-cell signaling among microbial flora, host, and pathogens: there is a whole lot of talking going on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Marcie B; Sperandio, Vanessa

    2005-06-01

    Humans have an important association with their intestinal microbial flora. The microbial flora helps to shape the mammalian innate immune system, absorbs nutrients, and plays an intricate role on intestinal development. Microbes and mammals communicate with each other through an array of hormone and hormonelike chemical compounds. These "signals," however, are hijacked by bacterial pathogens, such as enterohemorrhagic Eschrichia coli (EHEC), to activate its virulence genes, colonize the host, and start the disease process. This review explores the cell-to-cell signaling events in the gastrointestinal tract that lead EHEC to regulate its virulence genes in a coordinate manner.

  10. Research on the Image Correspondence between Sport Events and Host Cities%体育赛事与举办城市的形象契合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆晨; 黄海燕

    2014-01-01

    体育赛事是城市营销的重要手段之一。研究体育赛事与城市形象的契合,不仅可以帮助城市营销者选择适当的体育赛事,同时也可以作为城市营销活动成功与否的检验标准。从体育赛事形象与城市形象的定义、构成和衡量方法、体育赛事与城市形象的契合及其作用等方面进行了研究,尤其是体育赛事与城市形象的定量测量方法和指标选择,并对形象契合理论的发展历程进行了梳理,为今后进一步对体育赛事和举办城市的形象契合做定量研究打下基础。%Sport event is one of the major strategies of city marketing. Study on the image correspondence between sport events and host cities can not only help city marketers choose appropriate sport events, but also serve as a criterion for evaluating the result of city marketing activities. The article focuses on the deifnition of the images of sport event and city, the formation and measuring methods of both the images, the image correspondence between sport events and host cities and the effects of image correspondence, especially the quantitative measurement and index selection for the images. It also analyzes the development process of image correspondence theory.

  11. Research on the co-branding and match-up of mega-sports event and host city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, Q.; Duijsters, Geert

    2015-01-01

    Against the background of economic transformation and globalization, the impact of sports industrialization on economic development has become a hot spot. The relationship between sports events and urban development, which lies at the core of sports industrialization, is receiving growing attention

  12. Research on the co-branding and match-up of mega-sports event and host city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, Q.; Duijsters, Geert

    2015-01-01

    Against the background of economic transformation and globalization, the impact of sports industrialization on economic development has become a hot spot. The relationship between sports events and urban development, which lies at the core of sports industrialization, is receiving growing attention

  13. Putative alternative polyadenylation (APA) events in the early interaction of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium and human host cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso-Grunz, Fabian

    2015-12-01

    The immune response of epithelial cells upon infection is mediated by changing activity levels of a variety of proteins along with changes in mRNA, and also ncRNA abundance. Alternative polyadenylation (APA) represents a mechanism that diversifies gene expression similar to alternative splicing. T-cell activation, neuronal activity, development and several human diseases including viral infections involve APA, but at present it remains unclear if this mechanism is also implicated in the response to bacterial infections. Our recently published study of interacting Salmonella enterica Typhimurium and human host cells includes genome-wide expression profiles of human epithelial cells prior and subsequent to infection with the invasive pathogen. The generated dataset (GEO accession number: GSE61730) covers several points of time post infection, and one of these interaction stages was additionally profiled with MACE-based dual 3'Seq, which allows for identification of polyadenylation (PA) sites. The present study features the polyadenylation landscape in early interacting cells based on this data, and provides a comparison of the identified PA sites with those of a corresponding 3P-Seq dataset of non-interacting cells. Differential PA site usage of FTL, PRDX1 and VAPA results in transcription of mRNA isoforms with distinct sets of miRNA and protein binding sites that influence processing, localization, stability, and translation of the respective mRNA. APA of these candidate genes consequently harbors the potential to modulate the host cell response to bacterial infection.

  14. Putative alternative polyadenylation (APA events in the early interaction of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium and human host cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Afonso-Grunz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The immune response of epithelial cells upon infection is mediated by changing activity levels of a variety of proteins along with changes in mRNA, and also ncRNA abundance. Alternative polyadenylation (APA represents a mechanism that diversifies gene expression similar to alternative splicing. T-cell activation, neuronal activity, development and several human diseases including viral infections involve APA, but at present it remains unclear if this mechanism is also implicated in the response to bacterial infections. Our recently published study of interacting Salmonella enterica Typhimurium and human host cells includes genome-wide expression profiles of human epithelial cells prior and subsequent to infection with the invasive pathogen. The generated dataset (GEO accession number: GSE61730 covers several points of time post infection, and one of these interaction stages was additionally profiled with MACE-based dual 3'Seq, which allows for identification of polyadenylation (PA sites. The present study features the polyadenylation landscape in early interacting cells based on this data, and provides a comparison of the identified PA sites with those of a corresponding 3P-Seq dataset of non-interacting cells. Differential PA site usage of FTL, PRDX1 and VAPA results in transcription of mRNA isoforms with distinct sets of miRNA and protein binding sites that influence processing, localization, stability, and translation of the respective mRNA. APA of these candidate genes consequently harbors the potential to modulate the host cell response to bacterial infection.

  15. Comparative genomics of 43 strains of Xanthomonas citri pv. citri reveals the evolutionary events giving rise to pathotypes with different host ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Jonathan L; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Escalon, Aline; Barbe, Valérie; Cruveiller, Stéphane; Gagnevin, Lionel; Pruvost, Olivier

    2015-12-23

    The identification of factors involved in the host range definition and evolution is a pivotal challenge in the goal to predict and prevent the emergence of plant bacterial disease. To trace the evolution and find molecular differences between three pathotypes of Xanthomonas citri pv. citri that may explain their distinctive host ranges, 42 strains of X. citri pv. citri and one outgroup strain, Xanthomonas citri pv. bilvae were sequenced and compared. The strains from each pathotype form monophyletic clades, with a short branch shared by the A(w) and A pathotypes. Pathotype-specific recombination was detected in seven regions of the alignment. Using Ancestral Character Estimation, 426 SNPs were mapped to the four branches at the base of the A, A*, A(w) and A/A(w) clades. Several genes containing pathotype-specific nonsynonymous mutations have functions related to pathogenicity. The A pathotype is enriched for SNP-containing genes involved in defense mechanisms, while A* is significantly depleted for genes that are involved in transcription. The pathotypes differ by four gene islands that largely coincide with regions of recombination and include genes with a role in virulence. Both A* and A(w) are missing genes involved in defense mechanisms. In contrast to a recent study, we find that there are an extremely small number of pathotype-specific gene presences and absences. The three pathotypes of X. citri pv. citri that differ in their host ranges largely show genomic differences related to recombination, horizontal gene transfer and single nucleotide polymorphism. We detail the phylogenetic relationship of the pathotypes and provide a set of candidate genes involved in pathotype-specific evolutionary events that could explain to the differences in host range and pathogenicity between them.

  16. Spectroscopy of superluminous supernova host galaxies. A preference of hydrogen-poor events for extreme emission line galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Leloudas, G; Kruehler, T; Gorosabel, J; Christensen, L; Mehner, A; Postigo, A de Ugarte; Amorin, R; Thoene, C C; Anderson, J P; Bauer, F E; Gallazzi, A; Helminiak, K G; Hjorth, J; Ibar, E; Malesani, D; Morell, N; Vinko, J; Wheeler, J C

    2014-01-01

    Superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) were only discovered recently due to their preference for occurring in faint dwarf galaxies. Understanding why stellar evolution yields different types of stellar explosions in these environments is fundamental in order to both uncover the elusive progenitors of SLSNe and to study star formation in dwarf galaxies. In this paper, we present the first results of our project to study SUperluminous Supernova Host galaxIES (SUSHIES), focusing on the sample for which we have obtained spectroscopy. We show that SLSNe-I and SLSNe-R (hydrogen-poor) often (~50% in our sample) occur in a class of galaxies that is known as Extreme Emission Line Galaxies (EELGs). The probability of this happening by chance is negligible and we therefore conclude that the extreme environmental conditions and the SLSN phenomenon are related. In contrast, SLSNe-II (hydrogen-rich) occur in more massive, more metal-rich galaxies with softer radiation fields. Therefore, if SLSNe-II constitute a uniform class, th...

  17. Trying to Learn Lessons for Response to Extreme Events: Paradigm Shifts Affecting Civil Defense in the Trinational Region of Southwestern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, G. L. P.

    2015-12-01

    The last ten years have seen several extreme climate events in southwestern Amazonia with historic impacts. The City of Rio Branco, Capital of Acre, Brazil´s westernmost State, suffered its seventh consecutive annual flooding and its worst in March 2015. The city of Tarauacá, also in Acre, registered 12 flooding events between November 2014 and April 2015. The most recent flood of the trinational Acre River in 2015 set historic records for flood stage and number of displaced persons in Cobija, the Capital of Pando, Bolivia. From February to April 2014, floods of the Madeira River disrupted the one highway between Acre and southern Brazil. Puerto Maldonado, the capital in Madre de Dios Region of Peru had its worst flood in 50 years during 2014. In 2005 and 2010, prolonged droughts combined with ignition sources resulted in tens to hundreds of thousands of hectares of fire-damaged rainforests in the Madre de Dios, Acre and Pando (MAP) Region. The Civil Defenses in these three contiguous political units faced several abrupt paradigm shifts that affected their responses: 1) The drought of 2005 showed dramatically that regional rainforests do burn; 2) The recent flooding history, particularly in 2012 and 2015, demolished the cultural icon of a nine-year recurrence interval; 3) What happens outside your territory can be devastating. The Madeira River flood impeded an estimated 200 million dollars from circulating in Acre; 4) The past can be a terrible guide. For Cobija and Rio Branco, the 2015 flood was on the order of a meter higher than any other. Many home dwellers did not evacuate in time because they used past floods as a guide; 5) A collapse in communication - cell phones, land lines, and Internet - can get worse. In 2012, such a collapse occurred in two border towns for 5 days, yet in 2015 it lasted more than 11 days. Research is needed to address how institutions linked to Civil Defense can shift paradigms in time to be more effective.

  18. OpenShift cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Gulati, Shekhar

    2014-01-01

    If you are a web application developer who wants to use the OpenShift platform to host your next big idea but are looking for guidance on how to achieve this, then this book is the first step you need to take. This is a very accessible cookbook where no previous knowledge of OpenShift is needed.

  19. Phylogeography and the geographic cline in the armament of a seed-predatory weevil: effects of historical events vs. natural selection from the host plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toju, Hirokazu; Sota, Teiji

    2006-11-01

    Japanese camellia (Camellia japonica) and its seed predator, the camellia weevil (Curculio camelliae), provide a notable example of a geographic mosaic of coevolution. In the species interaction, the offensive trait of the weevil (rostrum length) and the defensive trait of the plant (pericarp thickness) are involved in a geographically-structured arms race, and these traits and selective pressures acting on the plant defence vary greatly across a geographical landscape. To further explore the geographical structure of this interspecific interaction, we tested whether the geographical variation in the weevil rostrum over an 800-km range along latitude is attributed to local natural selection or constrained by historical (phylogeographical) events of local populations. Phylogeographical analyses of the mitochondrial DNA sequences of the camellia weevil revealed that this species has experienced differentiation into two regions, with a population bottleneck and subsequent range and/or population expansion within each region. Although these phylogeographical factors have affected the variation in rostrum length, analyses of competing factors for the geographical variation revealed that this pattern is primarily determined by the defensive trait of the host plant rather than by the effects of historical events of populations and a climatic factor (annual mean temperature). Thus, our study suggests the overwhelming strength of coevolutionary selection against the effect of historical events, which may have limited local adaptation.

  20. Shifts in Host Mucosal Innate Immune Function Are Associated with Ruminal Microbial Succession in Supplemental Feeding and Grazing Goats at Different Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzhen Jiao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal microbiota may play an important role in regulating host mucosal innate immune function. This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that age (non-rumination, transition and rumination and feeding type [Supplemental feeding (S vs. Grazing (G] could alter ruminal microbial diversity and maturation of host mucosal innate immune system in goat kids. MiSeq sequencing was applied to investigate ruminal microbial composition and diversity, and RT-PCR was used to test expression of immune-related genes in ruminal mucosa. Results showed that higher (P < 0.05 relative abundances of Prevotella, Butyrivibrio, Pseudobutyrivibrio, Methanobrevibacter.gottschalkii, Neocallimastix, Anoplodinium–Diplodinium, and Polyplastron, and lower relative abundance of Methanosphaera (P = 0.042 were detected in the rumen of S kids when compared to those in G kids. The expression of genes encoding TLRs, IL1α, IL1β and TICAM2 was down-regulated (P < 0.01, while expression of genes encoding tight junction proteins was up-regulated (P < 0.05 in the ruminal mucosa of S kids when compared to that in G kids. Moreover, irrespective of feeding type, relative abundances of ruminal Prevotella, Fibrobacter, Ruminococcus, Butyrivibrio, Methanobrevibacter, Neocallimastix, and Entodinium increased with age. The expression of most genes encoding TLRs and cytokines increased (P < 0.05 from day 0 to 7, while expression of genes encoding tight junction proteins declined with age (P < 0.05. This study revealed that the composition of each microbial domain changed as animals grew, and these changes might be associated with variations in host mucosal innate immune function. Moreover, supplementing goat kids with concentrate could modulate ruminal microbial composition, enhance barrier function and decrease local inflammation. The findings provide useful information in interpreting microbiota and host interactions, and developing nutritional strategies to improve the

  1. Potential Interference Among The Campanian Ignimbrite Eruption, Heinrich Event 4 and The Middle/upper Palaeolithic Shift In Late Pleistocene Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedele, F. G.; Giaccio, B.; Isaia, R.; Orsi, G.

    The Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) eruption (Phlegraean Fields Caldera) was the largest volcanic eruption in the Greater Mediterranean area over the past 200 Ka (at least 150 km3 DRE). Ash layers correlated with CI have been found in sediments of the eastern Mediterranean Sea (Y5) and East Europe, from Italy to the former USSR. The recent dating of the CI eruption at 39.3 Ka BP draws attention to the coincidence be- tween this volcanic catastrophe and the suite of coeval biocultural modifications in Old World prehistory, here termed the European Late Pleistocene shift (ELPS). These included the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic cultural transition and the supposed change from Neanderthal to "modern" Homo sapiens anatomy, still a subject of sustained de- bate. The first results of our investigations show that: (1) at several archaeological sites of peninsular Italy a distinct tephra layer corresponding to the CI is regularly interbedded between the last documented Middle Palaeolithic and the earliest appear- ance of unquestionable Upper Palaeolithic assemblages; (2) at the same sites the CI tephra coincides with a interruption of occupation, several millennia long; (3) in the GISP2 Greenland ice-core, Lago Grande di Monticchio (southern Italy) lacustrine se- quences, and KET 8003 Tyrrhenian sea-core, a large volcanogenic sulfate signal (375 ppb, at 40,062 yr BP) to be correlated with the CI eruption and/or CI tephra layer occurs just before a sharp climatic shift which coincides with the onset of Heinrich event 4 (HE4). The concurrence of the CI eruption, Palaeolithic site abandonment and beginning of HE4 suggests that the overlapping of CI eruption and HE4 climatic im- pacts induced ecosystem crisis on a fairly large scale - human systems included - and well beyond the direct-impact zone. Moreover, the occurrence of the CI eruption just before HE4 probably corroborates the positive climate-volcanism feedback supposed for other high magnitude eruptions (e.g. Toba, 74 Ka

  2. Melon chlorotic leaf curl virus: characterization and differential reassortment with closest relatives reveal adaptive virulence in the squash leaf curl virus clade and host shifting by the host-restricted bean calico mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, A M; Mills-Lujan, K; Martin, K; Brown, J K

    2008-02-01

    The genome components of the Melon chlorotic leaf curl virus (MCLCuV) were cloned from symptomatic cantaloupe leaves collected in Guatemala during 2002. The MCLCuV DNA-A and DNA-B components shared their closest nucleotide identities among begomoviruses, at approximately 90 and 81%, respectively, with a papaya isolate of MCLCuV from Costa Rica. The closest relatives at the species level were other members of the Squash leaf curl virus (SLCV) clade, which is endemic in the southwestern United States and Mexico. Biolistic inoculation of cantaloupe seedlings with the MCLCuV DNA-A and -B components resulted in the development of characteristic disease symptoms, providing definitive evidence of causality. MCLCuV experimentally infected species within the Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, and Solanaceae. The potential for interspecific reassortment was examined for MCLCuV and its closest relatives, including the bean-restricted Bean calico mosaic virus (BCaMV), and three other cucurbit-infecting species, Cucurbit leaf crumple virus (CuLCrV), SLCV, and SMLCV. The cucurbit viruses have distinct but overlapping host ranges. All possible reassortants were established using heterologous combinations of the DNA-A or DNA-B components. Surprisingly, only certain reassortants arising from MCLCuV and BCaMV, or MCLCuV and CuLCrV, were viable in bean, even though it is a host of all of the "wild-type" (parent) viruses. The bean-restricted BCaMV was differentially assisted in systemically infecting the cucurbit test species by the components of the four cucurbit-adapted begomoviruses. In certain heterologous combinations, the BCaMV DNA-A or -B component was able to infect one or more cucurbit species. Generally, the reassortants were less virulent in the test hosts than the respective wild-type (parent) viruses, strongly implicating adaptive modulation of virulence. This is the first illustration of reassortment resulting in the host range expansion of a host-restricted begomovirus.

  3. News Conference: The Big Bangor Day Meeting Lecture: Charterhouse plays host to a physics day Festival: Science on Stage festival 2013 arrives in Poland Event: Scottish Physics Teachers' Summer School Meeting: Researchers and educators meet at Lund University Conference: Exeter marks the spot Recognition: European Physical Society uncovers an historic site Education: Initial teacher education undergoes big changes Forthcoming events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Conference: The Big Bangor Day Meeting Lecture: Charterhouse plays host to a physics day Festival: Science on Stage festival 2013 arrives in Poland Event: Scottish Physics Teachers' Summer School Meeting: Researchers and educators meet at Lund University Conference: Exeter marks the spot Recognition: European Physical Society uncovers an historic site Education: Initial teacher education undergoes big changes Forthcoming events

  4. Sport tourism in Romania and the Romanian experience in organizing and hosting an international sport event. Case study: Bucharest International Marathon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA CHIVU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Sport and tourism are worldwide considered to be the modern niches for economic development, but only high developed countries have realized that to maximize their economic impact, sport and tourism must be considered as a whole. The tourism in Romania is currently under continuous development, due to several investments in general and touristic infrastructure and also due to the strategies of capitalization and promotion of the Romanian tourist potential. Different sports are practiced in Romania from ancient times and the Romanian sport made the country known worldwide through its legendary sportsmen, but only recently sport became also an element of tourist attraction. The rebirth of physical culture and Romania’s accession to European Union, offered to Romania the opportunity to exploit sport as a touristic product, generating tourist flows and tourist services consumption. Even if sport tourism is a new concept in Romania, in order to grow the economical impact of this new form of tourism, the development strategies are counting on the rehabilitation of general and specific (both touristic and sporting infrastructure and on the exploiting of the most efficient form of sport tourism, the one related to organizing and hosting a sport event with international participation.

  5. News Event: UK to host Science on Stage Travel: Gaining a more global perspective on physics Event: LIYSF asks students to 'cross scientific boundaries' Competition: Young Physicists' tournament is international affair Conference: Learning in a changing world of new technologies Event: Nordic physical societies meet in Lund Conference: Tenth ESERA conference to publish ebook Meeting: Rugby meeting brings teachers together Note: Remembering John L Lewis OBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Event: UK to host Science on Stage Travel: Gaining a more global perspective on physics Event: LIYSF asks students to 'cross scientific boundaries' Competition: Young Physicists' tournament is international affair Conference: Learning in a changing world of new technologies Event: Nordic physical societies meet in Lund Conference: Tenth ESERA conference to publish ebook Meeting: Rugby meeting brings teachers together Note: Remembering John L Lewis OBE

  6. Extreme winter warming events more negatively impact small rather than large soil fauna: shift in community composition explained by traits not taxa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, S.; Phoenix, G.K.; Berke, J.W.; Callaghan, T.V.; Huyer-Brugman, F.; Berg, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Extreme weather events can have negative impacts on species survival and community structure when surpassinglethal thresholds. Extreme winter warming events in the Arctic rapidly melt snow and expose ecosystems to unseasonablywarm air (2–10 °C for 2–14 days), but returning to cold winter climate exp

  7. A Research on AMT Gear Shift Control Strategy Based on Event Trigger%基于事件触发器的AMT换挡控制策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文光; 何仁; 陆炜; 柯童童

    2014-01-01

    鉴于车辆油门开度和发动机转矩的急速变化容易引起频繁换挡,提出了采用事件触发器来识别油门开度变化率,并作为控制参数的控制策略,依据事件触发器的开闭可防止车辆频繁换挡。试验结果表明,所提出的控制策略能有效减少频繁换挡现象的发生,提高车辆的乘坐舒适性。%In view of that the rapid change of throttle opening and engine torque is prone to cause frequent gear shifting, a control strategy is proposed of using an event trigger to identify the changing rate of throttle opening and take it as control parameter. Frequent gear shifting can be prevented by means of the opening and closing of e-vent trigger. The results of test show that the control strategy proposed can effectively reduce the occurrence of fre-quent shifting, enhancing the ride comfort of vehicles.

  8. Dynamics of small RNA profiles of virus and host origin in wheat cultivars synergistically infected by Wheat streak mosaic virus and Triticum mosaic virus: virus infection caused a drastic shift in the endogenous small RNA profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatineni, Satyanarayana; Riethoven, Jean-Jack M; Graybosch, Robert A; French, Roy; Mitra, Amitava

    2014-01-01

    Co-infection of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV, a Tritimovirus) and Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV, a Poacevirus) of the family Potyviridae causes synergistic interaction. In this study, the effects of the synergistic interaction between WSMV and TriMV on endogenous and virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) were examined in susceptible ('Arapahoe') and temperature-sensitive resistant ('Mace') wheat cultivars at 18°C and 27°C. Single and double infections in wheat caused a shift in the profile of endogenous small RNAs from 24 nt being the most predominant in healthy plants to 21 nt in infected wheat. Massive amounts of 21 and 22 nt vsiRNAs accumulated in singly and doubly infected Arapahoe at both temperatures and in Mace at 27°C but not 18°C. The plus- and minus-sense vsiRNAs were distributed throughout the genomic RNAs in Arapahoe at both temperature regimens and in Mace at 27°C, although some regions served as hot-spots, spawning an excessive number of vsiRNAs. The vsiRNA peaks were conserved among cultivars, suggesting that the Dicer-like enzymes in susceptible and resistant cultivars similarly accessed the genomic RNAs of WSMV or TriMV. Accumulation of large amounts of vsiRNAs in doubly infected plants suggests that the silencing suppressor proteins encoded by TriMV and WSMV do not prevent the formation of vsiRNAs; thus, the synergistic effect observed is independent from RNA-silencing mediated vsiRNA biogenesis. The high-resolution map of endogenous and vsiRNAs from WSMV- and/or TriMV-infected wheat cultivars may form a foundation for understanding the virus-host interactions, the effect of synergistic interactions on host defense, and virus resistance mechanisms in wheat.

  9. Host Phylogeny Determines Viral Persistence and Replication in Novel Hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longdon, Ben; Hadfield, Jarrod D.; Webster, Claire L.

    2011-01-01

    Pathogens switching to new hosts can result in the emergence of new infectious diseases, and determining which species are likely to be sources of such host shifts is essential to understanding disease threats to both humans and wildlife. However, the factors that determine whether a pathogen can infect a novel host are poorly understood. We have examined the ability of three host-specific RNA-viruses (Drosophila sigma viruses from the family Rhabdoviridae) to persist and replicate in 51 different species of Drosophilidae. Using a novel analytical approach we found that the host phylogeny could explain most of the variation in viral replication and persistence between different host species. This effect is partly driven by viruses reaching a higher titre in those novel hosts most closely related to the original host. However, there is also a strong effect of host phylogeny that is independent of the distance from the original host, with viral titres being similar in groups of related hosts. Most of this effect could be explained by variation in general susceptibility to all three sigma viruses, as there is a strong phylogenetic correlation in the titres of the three viruses. These results suggest that the source of new emerging diseases may often be predictable from the host phylogeny, but that the effect may be more complex than simply causing most host shifts to occur between closely related hosts. PMID:21966271

  10. Shifting Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Jenni

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the shifts in attention and focus as one teacher introduces and explains an image that represents the processes involved in a numeric problem that his students have been working on. This paper takes a micro-analytic approach to examine how the focus of attention shifts through what the teacher and students do and say in the…

  11. Shifting Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Jenni

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the shifts in attention and focus as one teacher introduces and explains an image that represents the processes involved in a numeric problem that his students have been working on. This paper takes a micro-analytic approach to examine how the focus of attention shifts through what the teacher and students do and say in the…

  12. Tough Shift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brewer, Robert S.; Verdezoto, Nervo; Holst, Thomas;

    2015-01-01

    in a student dormitory and found that players did not shift their electricity use, because they were unwilling to change their schedules and found it easier to focus on reducing electricity use. Based on our findings, we discuss the implications for encouraging shifting, and also the challenges of integrating...

  13. Post-invasion events after infection with Staphylococcus aureus are strongly dependent on both the host cell type and the infecting S. aureus strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, M; Pförtner, H; Tuchscherr, L; Völker, U; Schmidt, F; Kramko, N; Schnittler, H-J; Fraunholz, M J; Löffler, B; Peters, G; Niemann, S

    2016-09-01

    Host cell invasion is a major feature of Staphylococcus aureus and contributes to infection development. The intracellular metabolically active bacteria can induce host cell activation and death but they can also persist for long time periods. In this study a comparative analysis was performed of different well-characterized S. aureus strains in their interaction with a variety of host cell types. Staphylococcus aureus (strains 6850, USA300, LS1, SH1000, Cowan1) invasion was compared in different human cell types (epithelial and endothelial cells, keratinocytes, fibroblasts, osteoblasts). The number of intracellular bacteria was determined, cell inflammation was investigated, as well as cell death and phagosomal escape of bacteria. To explain strain-dependent differences in the secretome, a proteomic approach was used. Barrier cells took up high amounts of bacteria and were killed by aggressive strains. These strains expressed high levels of toxins, and possessed the ability to escape from phagolysosomes. Osteoblasts and keratinocytes ingested less bacteria, and were not killed, even though the primary osteoblasts were strongly activated by S. aureus. In all cell types S. aureus was able to persist. Strong differences in uptake, cytotoxicity, and inflammatory response were observed between primary cells and their corresponding cell lines, demonstrating that cell lines reflect only partially the functions and physiology of primary cells. This study provides a contribution for a better understanding of the pathomechanisms of S. aureus infections. The proteomic data provide important basic knowledge on strains commonly used in the analysis of S. aureus-host cell interaction.

  14. Power Shift

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ "We are entering a new era of world history: the end of Western domination and the arrival of the Asian century. The question is: will Washington wake up to this reality?" This is the central premise of Kishore Mahbubani's provocative new book The New Asian Hemisphere: The Irresistible Shift of Global Power to the East.

  15. Analysis of Grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus in Slovakia Reveals Differences in Intra-Host Population Diversity and Naturally Occurring Recombination Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasa, Miroslav; Predajňa, Lukáš; Šoltys, Katarína; Sihelská, Nina; Nagyová, Alžbeta; Wetzel, Thierry; Sabanadzovic, Sead

    2017-01-01

    Grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus (GRSPaV) is a worldwide-distributed pathogen in grapevines with a high genetic variability. Our study revealed differences in the complexity of GRSPaV population in a single host. A single-variant GRSPaV infection was detected from the SK30 grapevine plant. On the contrary, SK704 grapevine was infected by three different GRSPaV variants. Variant-specific RT-PCR detection protocols have been developed in this work to study distribution of the three different variants in the same plant during the season. This study showed their randomized distribution in the infected SK704 grapevine plant. Comparative analysis of fulllength genome sequences of four Slovak GRSPaV isolates determined in this work and 14 database sequences showed that population of the virus cluster into four major phylogenetic lineages. Moreover, our analyses suggest that genetic recombination along with point mutations could play a significant role in shaping evolutionary history of GRSPaV and contributed to its extant genetic diversification. PMID:28167886

  16. Fluid Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A. R.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R. W.; Ebert, D. J.; Garcia, K. M.; Johnston, S. L.; Laurie, S. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Liu, J.; Macias, B.; Martin, D. S.; Minkoff, L.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Ribeiro, L. C.; Sargsyan, A.; Smith, S. M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. NASA's Human Research Program is focused on addressing health risks associated with long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but now more than 50 percent of ISS astronauts have experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural findings such as optic disc edema, globe flattening and choroidal folds. These structural and functional changes are referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. Development of VIIP symptoms may be related to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) secondary to spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight and to determine if a relation exists with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as any VIIP-related effects of those shifts, are predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight status and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations, specifically posture changes and lower body negative pressure. Methods. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, and calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound); (3) vascular dimensions by ultrasound (jugular veins, cerebral and carotid arteries, vertebral arteries and veins, portal vein); (4) vascular dynamics by MRI (head/neck blood flow, cerebrospinal fluid

  17. 体育赛事对举办地旅游影响的实证研究%An empirical study on the sports events to the tourism effect of the host

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢双鹏; 曹娜

    2011-01-01

    Literature review indicates that sports events can have many tourism impacts on the tourism of the host, but little attention has been paid to the empirical study. The paper first analyzes the tourism impacts on sports events according to its impact analysis system, and then takes Qinghai Lake International Cycling Road Races as an example for an empirical study, analyzes its tourism impacts on Qinghai province and Qinghai Lake, and comments on the partial impacts tentatively according to statistics and scientific method and mature model.%文献综述表明,体育赛事对举办地旅游有诸多方面的影响。缺憾之一是实证研究较少。文章先依据体育赛事对举办地旅游影响分析体系分析了其对举办地的旅游影响,进而以环湖赛作为实证研究对象,分析了环湖赛对青海及青海湖景区的影响,并搜集相关统计数据应用成熟的模型和科学的方法对环湖赛的部分旅游影响做了尝试性的评析。

  18. Stennis hosts 2010 Special Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Sarah Johnson, 28, of Gulfport, carries in the Olympic torch to signal the start of the 2010 Area III Special Olympic games at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center on March 27. Stennis volunteers hosted special needs athletes from across the area for the event. Stennis is an annual host of the games.

  19. Catastrophic shifts in ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, Marten; Carpenter, Steve; Foley, Jonathan A.; Folke, Carl; Walker, Brian

    2001-10-01

    All ecosystems are exposed to gradual changes in climate, nutrient loading, habitat fragmentation or biotic exploitation. Nature is usually assumed to respond to gradual change in a smooth way. However, studies on lakes, coral reefs, oceans, forests and arid lands have shown that smooth change can be interrupted by sudden drastic switches to a contrasting state. Although diverse events can trigger such shifts, recent studies show that a loss of resilience usually paves the way for a switch to an alternative state. This suggests that strategies for sustainable management of such ecosystems should focus on maintaining resilience.

  20. Narrative event boundaries, reading times, and expectation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettijohn, Kyle A; Radvansky, Gabriel A

    2016-10-01

    During text comprehension, readers create mental representations of the described events, called situation models. When new information is encountered, these models must be updated or new ones created. Consistent with the event indexing model, previous studies have shown that when readers encounter an event shift, reading times often increase. However, such increases are not consistently observed. This paper addresses this inconsistency by examining the extent to which reading-time differences observed at event shifts reflect an unexpectedness in the narrative rather than processes involved in model updating. In two reassessments of prior work, event shifts known to increase reading time were rated as less expected, and expectedness ratings significantly predicted reading time. In three new experiments, participants read stories in which an event shift was or was not foreshadowed, thereby influencing expectedness of the shift. Experiment 1 revealed that readers do not expect event shifts, but foreshadowing eliminates this. Experiment 2 showed that foreshadowing does not affect identification of event shifts. Finally, Experiment 3 found that, although reading times increased when an event shift was not foreshadowed, they were not different from controls when it was. Moreover, responses to memory probes were slower following an event shift regardless of foreshadowing, suggesting that situation model updating had taken place. Overall, the results support the idea that previously observed reading time increases at event shifts reflect, at least in part, a reader's unexpected encounter with a shift rather than an increase in processing effort required to update a situation model.

  1. The thermal mismatch hypothesis explains host susceptibility to an emerging infectious disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jeremy M; Venesky, Matthew D; Sauer, Erin L; Civitello, David J; McMahon, Taegan A; Roznik, Elizabeth A; Rohr, Jason R

    2017-02-01

    Parasites typically have broader thermal limits than hosts, so large performance gaps between pathogens and their cold- and warm-adapted hosts should occur at relatively warm and cold temperatures, respectively. We tested this thermal mismatch hypothesis by quantifying the temperature-dependent susceptibility of cold- and warm-adapted amphibian species to the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) using laboratory experiments and field prevalence estimates from 15 410 individuals in 598 populations. In both the laboratory and field, we found that the greatest susceptibility of cold- and warm-adapted hosts occurred at relatively warm and cool temperatures, respectively, providing support for the thermal mismatch hypothesis. Our results suggest that as climate change shifts hosts away from their optimal temperatures, the probability of increased host susceptibility to infectious disease might increase, but the effect will depend on the host species and the direction of the climate shift. Our findings help explain the tremendous variation in species responses to Bd across climates and spatial, temporal and species-level variation in disease outbreaks associated with extreme weather events that are becoming more common with climate change.

  2. Host-Associated Differentiation: The Gape-and-Pinch Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen B. Heard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecological speciation via host shifting has contributed to the astonishing diversity of phytophagous insects. The importance for host shifting of trait differences between alternative host plants is well established, but much less is known about trait variation within hosts. I outline a conceptual model, the “gape-and-pinch” (GAP model, of insect response to host-plant trait variation during host shifting and host-associated differentiation. I offer four hypotheses about insect use of plant trait variation on two alternative hosts, for insects at different stages of host-associated differentiation. Collectively, these hypotheses suggest that insect responses to plant trait variation can favour or oppose critical steps in herbivore diversification. I provide statistical tools for analysing herbivore trait-space use, demonstrate their application for four herbivores of the goldenrods Solidago altissima and S. gigantea, and discuss their broader potential to advance our understanding of diet breadth and ecological speciation in phytophagous insects.

  3. Effects of extended work shifts and shift work on patient safety, productivity, and employee health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Simone M

    2009-12-01

    It is estimated 1.3 million health care errors occur each year and of those errors 48,000 to 98,000 result in the deaths of patients (Barger et al., 2006). Errors occur for a variety of reasons, including the effects of extended work hours and shift work. The need for around-the-clock staff coverage has resulted in creative ways to maintain quality patient care, keep health care errors or adverse events to a minimum, and still meet the needs of the organization. One way organizations have attempted to alleviate staff shortages is to create extended work shifts. Instead of the standard 8-hour shift, workers are now working 10, 12, 16, or more hours to provide continuous patient care. Although literature does support these staffing patterns, it cannot be denied that shifts beyond the traditional 8 hours increase staff fatigue, health care errors, and adverse events and outcomes and decrease alertness and productivity. This article includes a review of current literature on shift work, the definition of shift work, error rates and adverse outcomes related to shift work, health effects on shift workers, shift work effects on older workers, recommended optimal shift length, positive and negative effects of shift work on the shift worker, hazards associated with driving after extended shifts, and implications for occupational health nurses.

  4. Disentangling hybridization and host colonization in parasitic roundworms of humans and pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscione, Charles D; Anderson, Joel D; Sudimack, Dan; Peng, Weidong; Jha, Bharat; Williams-Blangero, Sarah; Anderson, Timothy J C

    2007-11-07

    Knowledge of cross-transmission and hybridization between parasites of humans and reservoir hosts is critical for understanding the evolution of the parasite and for implementing control programmes. There is now a consensus that populations of pig and human Ascaris (roundworms) show significant genetic subdivision. However, it is unclear whether this has resulted from a single or multiple host shift(s). Furthermore, previous molecular data have not been sufficient to determine whether sympatric populations of human and pig Ascaris can exchange genes. To disentangle patterns of host colonization and hybridization, we used 23 microsatellite loci to conduct Bayesian clustering analyses of individual worms collected from pigs and humans. We observed strong differentiation between populations which was primarily driven by geography, with secondary differentiation resulting from host affiliation within locations. This pattern is consistent with multiple host colonization events. However, there is low support for the short internal branches of the dendrograms. In part, the relationships among clusters may result from current hybridization among sympatric human and pig roundworms. Indeed, congruence in three Bayesian methods indicated that 4 and 7% of roundworms sampled from Guatemala and China, respectively, were hybrids. These results indicate that there is contemporary cross-transmission between populations of human and pig Ascaris.

  5. Large-Scale Phylogenomic Analysis Reveals the Complex Evolutionary History of Rabies Virus in Multiple Carnivore Hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Troupin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The natural evolution of rabies virus (RABV provides a potent example of multiple host shifts and an important opportunity to determine the mechanisms that underpin viral emergence. Using 321 genome sequences spanning an unprecedented diversity of RABV, we compared evolutionary rates and selection pressures in viruses sampled from multiple primary host shifts that occurred on various continents. Two major phylogenetic groups, bat-related RABV and dog-related RABV, experiencing markedly different evolutionary dynamics were identified. While no correlation between time and genetic divergence was found in bat-related RABV, the evolution of dog-related RABV followed a generally clock-like structure, although with a relatively low evolutionary rate. Subsequent molecular clock dating indicated that dog-related RABV likely underwent a rapid global spread following the intensification of intercontinental trade starting in the 15th century. Strikingly, although dog RABV has jumped to various wildlife species from the order Carnivora, we found no clear evidence that these host-jumping events involved adaptive evolution, with RABV instead characterized by strong purifying selection, suggesting that ecological processes also play an important role in shaping patterns of emergence. However, specific amino acid changes were associated with the parallel emergence of RABV in ferret-badgers in Asia, and some host shifts were associated with increases in evolutionary rate, particularly in the ferret-badger and mongoose, implying that changes in host species can have important impacts on evolutionary dynamics.

  6. Host reproductive phenology drives seasonal patterns of host use in mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan D Burkett-Cadena

    Full Text Available Seasonal shifts in host use by mosquitoes from birds to mammals drive the timing and intensity of annual epidemics of mosquito-borne viruses, such as West Nile virus, in North America. The biological mechanism underlying these shifts has been a matter of debate, with hypotheses falling into two camps: (1 the shift is driven by changes in host abundance, or (2 the shift is driven by seasonal changes in the foraging behavior of mosquitoes. Here we explored the idea that seasonal changes in host use by mosquitoes are driven by temporal patterns of host reproduction. We investigated the relationship between seasonal patterns of host use by mosquitoes and host reproductive phenology by examining a seven-year dataset of blood meal identifications from a site in Tuskegee National Forest, Alabama USA and data on reproduction from the most commonly utilized endothermic (white-tailed deer, great blue heron, yellow-crowned night heron and ectothermic (frogs hosts. Our analysis revealed that feeding on each host peaked during periods of reproductive activity. Specifically, mosquitoes utilized herons in the spring and early summer, during periods of peak nest occupancy, whereas deer were fed upon most during the late summer and fall, the period corresponding to the peak in births for deer. For frogs, however, feeding on early- and late-season breeders paralleled peaks in male vocalization. We demonstrate for the first time that seasonal patterns of host use by mosquitoes track the reproductive phenology of the hosts. Peaks in relative mosquito feeding on each host during reproductive phases are likely the result of increased tolerance and decreased vigilance to attacking mosquitoes by nestlings and brooding adults (avian hosts, quiescent young (avian and mammalian hosts, and mate-seeking males (frogs.

  7. Compressive Shift Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Henrik; Eldar, Yonina C.; Yang, Allen Y.; Sastry, S. Shankar

    2014-08-01

    The classical shift retrieval problem considers two signals in vector form that are related by a shift. The problem is of great importance in many applications and is typically solved by maximizing the cross-correlation between the two signals. Inspired by compressive sensing, in this paper, we seek to estimate the shift directly from compressed signals. We show that under certain conditions, the shift can be recovered using fewer samples and less computation compared to the classical setup. Of particular interest is shift estimation from Fourier coefficients. We show that under rather mild conditions only one Fourier coefficient suffices to recover the true shift.

  8. Host plant utilization, host range oscillations and diversification in nymphalid butterflies: a phylogenetic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylin, Sören; Slove, Jessica; Janz, Niklas

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that phenotypic plasticity is a major factor in the diversification of life, and that variation in host range in phytophagous insects is a good model for investigating this claim. We explore the use of angiosperm plants as hosts for nymphalid butterflies, and in particular the evidence for past oscillations in host range and how they are linked to host shifts and to diversification. At the level of orders of plants, a relatively simple pattern of host use and host shifts emerges, despite the 100 million years of history of the family Nymphalidae. We review the evidence that these host shifts and the accompanying diversifications were associated with transient polyphagous stages, as suggested by the "oscillation hypothesis." In addition, we investigate all currently polyphagous nymphalid species and demonstrate that the state of polyphagy is rare, has a weak phylogenetic signal, and a very apical distribution in the phylogeny; we argue that these are signs of its transient nature. We contrast our results with data from the bark beetles Dendroctonus, in which a more specialized host use is instead the apical state. We conclude that plasticity in host use is likely to have contributed to diversification in nymphalid butterflies. © 2013 The Authors. Evolution published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  9. Mosquito host selection varies seasonally with host availability and mosquito density.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara C Thiemann

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Host selection by vector mosquitoes is a critical component of virus proliferation, particularly for viruses such as West Nile (WNV that are transmitted enzootically to a variety of avian hosts, and tangentially to dead-end hosts such as humans. Culex tarsalis is a principal vector of WNV in rural areas of western North America. Based on previous work, Cx. tarsalis utilizes a variety of avian and mammalian hosts and tends to feed more frequently on mammals in the late summer than during the rest of the year. To further explore this and other temporal changes in host selection, bloodfed females were collected at a rural farmstead and heron nesting site in Northern California from May 2008 through May 2009, and bloodmeal hosts identified using either a microsphere-based array or by sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI gene. Host composition during summer was dominated by four species of nesting Ardeidae. In addition, the site was populated with various passerine species as well as domestic farm animals and humans. When present, Cx. tarsalis fed predominantly (>80% upon the ardeids, with Black-crowned Night-Herons, a highly competent WNV host, the most prevalent summer host. As the ardeids fledged and left the area and mosquito abundance increased in late summer, Cx. tarsalis feeding shifted to include more mammals, primarily cattle, and a high diversity of avian species. In the winter, Yellow-billed Magpies and House Sparrows were the predominant hosts, and Yellow-billed Magpies and American Robins were fed upon more frequently than expected given their relative abundance. These data demonstrated that host selection was likely based both on host availability and differences in utilization, that the shift of bloodfeeding to include more mammalian hosts was likely the result of both host availability and increased mosquito abundance, and that WNV-competent hosts were fed upon by Cx. tarsalis throughout the year.

  10. Event Management

    OpenAIRE

    Havlenová, Tereza

    2016-01-01

    Event is an experience that is perceived by all the senses. Event management is a process involving the various activities that are assigned to staffers. Organizing special events became an individual field. If the manager understand the events as a communication platform gets into the hands of a modern, multifunctional and very impressive tool. The procedure to implement a successful event in a particular area is part of this work. The first part explains the issues of event management on th...

  11. Event marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Novotná, Michaela

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to analyze event-marketing activities of the small firm and propose new events. At first the theoretical part describes marketing and communication mix and then especially planning and development of event marketing campaign. Research data were collected by the method of survey to propose the new events. Randomly selected customers were asked to fill the questionnaire. Its results were integrated into the proposal of the new events. The interview was realized with the owner of...

  12. EVENT PLANNING USING FUNCTION ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lori Braase; Jodi Grgich

    2011-06-01

    Event planning is expensive and resource intensive. Function analysis provides a solid foundation for comprehensive event planning (e.g., workshops, conferences, symposiums, or meetings). It has been used at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to successfully plan events and capture lessons learned, and played a significant role in the development and implementation of the “INL Guide for Hosting an Event.” Using a guide and a functional approach to planning utilizes resources more efficiently and reduces errors that could be distracting or detrimental to an event. This integrated approach to logistics and program planning – with the primary focus on the participant – gives us the edge.

  13. Implementing OpenShift

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Adam

    2013-01-01

    A standard tutorial-based approach to using OpenShift and deploying custom or pre-built web applications to the OpenShift Online cloud.This book is for software developers and DevOps alike who are interested in learning how to use the OpenShift Platform-as-a-Service for developing and deploying applications, how the environment works on the back end, and how to deploy their very own open source Platform-as-a-Service based on the upstream OpenShift Origin project.

  14. Quantized beam shifts

    CERN Document Server

    Kort-Kamp, W J M; Dalvit, D A R

    2015-01-01

    We predict quantized Imbert-Fedorov, Goos-H\\"anchen, and photonic spin Hall shifts for light beams impinging on a graphene-on-substrate system in an external magnetic field. In the quantum Hall regime the Imbert-Fedorov and photonic spin Hall shifts are quantized in integer multiples of the fine structure constant $\\alpha$, while the Goos- H\\"anchen ones in multiples of $\\alpha^2$. We investigate the influence on these shifts of magnetic field, temperature, and material dispersion and dissipation. An experimental demonstration of quantized beam shifts could be achieved at terahertz frequencies for moderate values of the magnetic field.

  15. PROMOTING TOURIST DESTINATIONS THROUGH SPORT EVENTS. THE CASE OF BRASOV

    OpenAIRE

    Adina Nicoleta CANDREA; Ana ISPAS

    2010-01-01

    Sport event tourism is a huge and growing global industry with important economic implications for both the sport, the event and the impact of travel and tourism related benefits on host destinations. A primary function of a sport event is to provide the host community with an opportunity to secure high prominence in the tourism market place. However, international or regional prominence may be gained with significant social and environmental costs. Hosting sport events has been a focus of de...

  16. Effects of shifts in the rate of repetitive stimulation on sustained attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krulewitz, J. E.; Warm, J. S.; Wohl, T. H.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of shifts in the rate of presentation of repetitive neutral events (background event rate) were studied in a visual vigilance task. Four groups of subjects experienced either a high (21 events/min) or a low (6 events/min) event rate for 20 min and then experienced either the same or the alternate event rate for an additional 40 min. The temporal occurrence of critical target signals was identical for all groups, irrespective of event rate. The density of critical signals was 12 signals/20 min. By the end of the session, shifts in event rate were associated with changes in performance which resembled contrast effects found in other experimental situations in which shift paradigms were used. Relative to constant event rate control conditions, a shift from a low to a high event rate depressed the probability of signal detections, while a shift in the opposite direction enhanced the probability of signal detections.

  17. Shifting employment revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Jan; Gramuglia, Alessia

    2014-01-01

    The CLR-network examined in 2006 the phenomenon of undeclared labour, with specific regard to the construction sector. The resulting study, Shifting Employment: undeclared labour in construction (Shifting-study hereafter), gave evidence that this is an area particularly affected by undeclared activi

  18. Making Shifts toward Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGatha, Maggie B.; Bay-Williams, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    The Leading for Mathematical Proficiency (LMP) Framework (Bay-Williams et al.) has three components: (1) The Standards for Mathematical Practice; (2) Shifts in classroom practice; and (3) Teaching skills. This article briefly describes each component of the LMP framework and then focuses more in depth on the second component, the shifts in…

  19. Shifted Independent Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2007-01-01

    Delayed mixing is a problem of theoretical interest and practical importance, e.g., in speech processing, bio-medical signal analysis and financial data modelling. Most previous analyses have been based on models with integer shifts, i.e., shifts by a number of samples, and have often been carrie...

  20. Uncovering Wolbachia diversity upon artificial host transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela I Schneider

    Full Text Available The common endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria influence arthropod hosts in multiple ways. They are mostly recognized for their manipulations of host reproduction, yet, more recent studies demonstrate that Wolbachia also impact host behavior, metabolic pathways and immunity. Besides their biological and evolutionary roles, Wolbachia are new potential biological control agents for pest and vector management. Importantly, Wolbachia-based control strategies require controlled symbiont transfer between host species and predictable outcomes of novel Wolbachia-host associations. Theoretically, this artificial horizontal transfer could inflict genetic changes within transferred Wolbachia populations. This could be facilitated through de novo mutations in the novel recipient host or changes of haplotype frequencies of polymorphic Wolbachia populations when transferred from donor to recipient hosts. Here we show that Wolbachia resident in the European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi, exhibit ancestral and cryptic sequence polymorphism in three symbiont genes, which are exposed upon microinjection into the new hosts Drosophila simulans and Ceratitis capitata. Our analyses of Wolbachia in microinjected D. simulans over 150 generations after microinjection uncovered infections with multiple Wolbachia strains in trans-infected lines that had previously been typed as single infections. This confirms the persistence of low-titer Wolbachia strains in microinjection experiments that had previously escaped standard detection techniques. Our study demonstrates that infections by multiple Wolbachia strains can shift in prevalence after artificial host transfer driven by either stochastic or selective processes. Trans-infection of Wolbachia can claim fitness costs in new hosts and we speculate that these costs may have driven the shifts of Wolbachia strains that we saw in our model system.

  1. Marketing research for organizers of sports events

    OpenAIRE

    Gašović Milan

    2012-01-01

    Marketing research, which provide the data and the information for the decision making process, are essential for organizers of sport events, especially to the organizers of the most significant ones. The mentioned marketing research involves: research of the local market, visitors satisfaction research, evaluation of sponsorship effectiveness, research of the sport events economic influence on the local community or host cities, event host attitudes examination-local population and so on. Th...

  2. Storm pulse chemographs of saturation index and carbon dioxide pressure: implications for shifting recharge sources during storm events in the karst aquifer at Fort Campbell, Kentucky/Tennessee, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesper, Dorothy J.; White, William B.

    Continuous records of discharge, specific conductance, and temperature were collected through a series of storm pulses on two limestone springs at Fort Campbell, western Kentucky/Tennessee, USA. Water samples, collected at short time intervals across the same storm pulses, were analyzed for calcium, magnesium, bicarbonate, total organic carbon, and pH. Chemographs of calcium, calcite saturation index, and carbon dioxide partial pressure were superimposed on the storm hydrographs. Calcium concentration and specific conductance track together and dip to a minimum either coincident with the peak of the hydrograph or lag slightly behind it. The CO2 pressure continues to rise on the recession limb of the hydrograph and, as a result, the saturation index decreases on the recession limb of the hydrograph. These results are interpreted as being due to dispersed infiltration through CO2-rich soils lagging the arrival of quickflow from sinkhole recharge in the transport of storm flow to the springs. Karst spring hydrographs reflect not only the changing mix of base flow and storm flow but also a shift in source of recharge water over the course of the storm. L'enregistrement en continu du débit, de la conductivité et de la température de l'eau a été réalisé au cours d'une série de crues à deux sources émergeant de calcaires, à Fort Campbell (Kentucky occidental, Tennessee, États-Unis). Des échantillons d'eau, prélevés à de courts pas de temps lors de ces crues, ont été analysés pour le calcium, le magnésium, les bicarbonates, le carbone organique total et le pH. Les chimiogrammes de calcium, d'indice de saturation de la calcite et de la pression partielle en CO2 ont été superposés aux hydrogrammes de crue. La concentration en calcium et la conductivité de l'eau se suivent bien et passent par un minimum correspondant au pic de l'hydrogramme ou légèrement retardé. La pression partielle en CO2 continue de croître au cours de la récession de l

  3. The affective shift model of work engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledow, Ronald; Schmitt, Antje; Frese, Michael; Kühnel, Jana

    2011-11-01

    On the basis of self-regulation theories, the authors develop an affective shift model of work engagement according to which work engagement emerges from the dynamic interplay of positive and negative affect. The affective shift model posits that negative affect is positively related to work engagement if negative affect is followed by positive affect. The authors applied experience sampling methodology to test the model. Data on affective events, mood, and work engagement was collected twice a day over 9 working days among 55 software developers. In support of the affective shift model, negative mood and negative events experienced in the morning of a working day were positively related to work engagement in the afternoon if positive mood in the time interval between morning and afternoon was high. Individual differences in positive affectivity moderated within-person relationships. The authors discuss how work engagement can be fostered through affect regulation.

  4. Divergence in olfactory host plant preference in D. mojavensis in response to cactus host use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date, Priya; Dweck, Hany K M; Stensmyr, Marcus C; Shann, Jodi; Hansson, Bill S; Rollmann, Stephanie M

    2013-01-01

    Divergence in host adaptive traits has been well studied from an ecological and evolutionary perspective, but identification of the proximate mechanisms underlying such divergence is less well understood. Behavioral preferences for host plants are often mediated by olfaction and shifts in preference may be accompanied by changes in the olfactory system. In this study, we examine the evolution of host plant preferences in cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis that feeds and breeds on different cacti throughout its range. We show divergence in electrophysiological responses and olfactory behavior among populations with host plant shifts. Specifically, significant divergence was observed in the Mojave Desert population that specializes on barrel cactus. Differences were observed in electrophysiological responses of the olfactory organs and in behavioral responses to barrel cactus volatiles. Together our results suggest that the peripheral nervous system has changed in response to different ecological environments and that these changes likely contribute to divergence among D. mojavensis populations.

  5. Investigation of the genotype III to genotype I shift in Japanese encephalitis virus and the impact on human cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Na; Adams, James; Fang, Wei; Liu, Si-Qing; Rayner, Simon

    2015-08-01

    Japanese encephalitis is a mosquito borne disease and is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in the Asia-Pacific area. The causative agent, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) can be phylogenetically classified into five genotypes based on nucleotide sequence. In recent years, genotype I (GI) has displaced genotype III (GIII) as the dominant lineage, but the mechanisms behind this displacement event requires elucidation. In an earlier study, we compared host variation over time between the two genotypes and observed that GI appears to have evolved to achieve more efficient infection in hosts in the replication cycle, with the tradeoff of reduced infectivity in secondary hosts such as humans. To further investigate this phenomenon, we collected JEV surveillance data on human cases and, together with sequence data, and generated genotype/case profiles from seven Asia-Pacific countries and regions to characterize the GI/GIII displacement event. We found that, when comprehensive and consistent vaccination and surveillance data was available, and the GIII to GI shift occurred within a well-defined time period, there was a statistically significant drop in JEV human cases. Our findings provide further support for the argument that GI is less effective in infecting humans, who represent a dead end host. However, experimental investigation is necessary to confirm this hypothesis. The study highlights the value of alternative approaches to investigation of epidemics, as well as the importance of effective data collection for disease surveillance and control.

  6. 大型体育赛事对主办城市经济发展的影响--以沈阳市第十二届全运会为例%IMPACT OF LARGE SPORTS EVENTS ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE HOST CITY---TAKING THE TWELFTH NATIONAL GAMES IN SHENYANG AS AN EXAMPLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘声东

    2015-01-01

    大型体育赛事对举办城市经济的发展、城市形象的提升以及城市软环境的优化等具有重要影响。因此,大型体育赛事与城市发展关系一直是体育学、经济学和社会学研究的热点之一。运用文献资料和逻辑分析法,从大型体育赛事概念的界定切入,重点论述了大型体育赛事对主办城市经济发展的影响及其特征,并结合近三届全运会(九、十、十一)的研究结论,以GDP、产业结构、基础建设、旅游人数与收入和就业岗位等为参考变量,简要分析了第十二届全运会对沈阳经济发展的影响。研究结果可为其他城市举办大型体育赛事提供决策依据。%Large sports events play an important role in the development of economy, promotion of image, and optimization of soft environment of the host city. Therefore, the relationship between large sports events and urban development has become one of the research hot topics in economics, sociology and sociology. In this paper, on the basis of the definition of large sports events, its impact on the economic development of the host city and its features are discussed in detail through literature col-lection and logical analysis. Then, combined with the conclusion of the study on recent three Natinal Games (the 9th, 10th, 11th), the role of the 12th National Games in Shenyang economic development is briefly analyzed with GDP, industrial struc-ture, infrastructure, tourism numbers and revenue and employment as reference variables. The results can provide an important reference for other cities making decision to host large sports events.

  7. Shift Verification and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandya, Tara M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Evans, Thomas M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Davidson, Gregory G [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Seth R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Godfrey, Andrew T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-07

    This documentation outlines the verification and validation of Shift for the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). Five main types of problems were used for validation: small criticality benchmark problems; full-core reactor benchmarks for light water reactors; fixed-source coupled neutron-photon dosimetry benchmarks; depletion/burnup benchmarks; and full-core reactor performance benchmarks. We compared Shift results to measured data and other simulated Monte Carlo radiation transport code results, and found very good agreement in a variety of comparison measures. These include prediction of critical eigenvalue, radial and axial pin power distributions, rod worth, leakage spectra, and nuclide inventories over a burn cycle. Based on this validation of Shift, we are confident in Shift to provide reference results for CASL benchmarking.

  8. Shift Verification and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandya, Tara M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Evans, Thomas M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Davidson, Gregory G [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Seth R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Godfrey, Andrew T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-07

    This documentation outlines the verification and validation of Shift for the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of LightWater Reactors (CASL). Fivemain types of problems were used for validation: small criticality benchmark problems; full-core reactor benchmarks for light water reactors; fixed source coupled neutron-photon dosimetry benchmarks; depletion/burnup benchmarks; and full-core reactor performance benchmarks. We compared Shift results to measured data and other simulated Monte Carlo radiation transport code results and found very good agreement in a variety of comparison measures. These include prediction of critical eigenvalue, radial and axial pin power distributions, rod worth, leakage spectra, and nuclide inventories over a burn cycle. Based on this validation of Shift, we are confident in Shift to provide reference results for CASL benchmarking.

  9. SENTINEL EVENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Robida

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Objective of the article is a two year statistics on sentinel events in hospitals. Results of a survey on sentinel events and the attitude of hospital leaders and staff are also included. Some recommendations regarding patient safety and the handling of sentinel events are given.Methods. In March 2002 the Ministry of Health introduce a voluntary reporting system on sentinel events in Slovenian hospitals. Sentinel events were analyzed according to the place the event, its content, and root causes. To show results of the first year, a conference for hospital directors and medical directors was organized. A survey was conducted among the participants with the purpose of gathering information about their view on sentinel events. One hundred questionnaires were distributed.Results. Sentinel events. There were 14 reports of sentinel events in the first year and 7 in the second. In 4 cases reports were received only after written reminders were sent to the responsible persons, in one case no reports were obtained. There were 14 deaths, 5 of these were in-hospital suicides, 6 were due to an adverse event, 3 were unexplained. Events not leading to death were a suicide attempt, a wrong side surgery, a paraplegia after spinal anaesthesia, a fall with a femoral neck fracture, a damage of the spleen in the event of pleural space drainage, inadvertent embolization with absolute alcohol into a femoral artery and a physical attack on a physician by a patient. Analysis of root causes of sentinel events showed that in most cases processes were inadequate.Survey. One quarter of those surveyed did not know about the sentinel events reporting system. 16% were having actual problems when reporting events and 47% beleived that there was an attempt to blame individuals. Obstacles in reporting events openly were fear of consequences, moral shame, fear of public disclosure of names of participants in the event and exposure in mass media. The majority of

  10. Simultaneous measurement of quality factor and wavelength shift by phase shift microcavity ring down spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Cheema, M Imran; Hayat, Ahmad A; Peter, Yves-Alain; Armani, Andrea M; Kirk, Andrew G

    2012-01-01

    Optical resonant microcavities with ultra high quality factors are widely used for biosensing. Until now, the primary method of detection has been based upon tracking the resonant wavelength shift as a function of biological events. One of the sources of noise in all resonant-wavelength shift measurements is the noise due to intensity fluctuations of the laser source. An alternative approach is to track the change in the quality factor of the optical cavity by using phase shift cavity ring down spectroscopy, a technique which is insensitive to the intensity fluctuations of the laser source. Here, using biotinylated microtoroid resonant cavities, we show simultaneous measurement of the quality factor and the wavelength shift by using phase shift cavity ring down spectroscopy. These measurements were performed for disassociation phase of biotin-streptavidin reaction. We found that the disassociation curves are in good agreement with the previously published results. Hence, we demonstrate not only the applicatio...

  11. Plant-soil interactions in the expansion and native range of a poleward shifting plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grunsven, van R.H.A.; Putten, van der W.H.; Bezemer, T.M.; Berendse, F.; Veenendaal, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    Climate warming causes range shifts of many species toward higher latitudes and altitudes. However, range shifts of host species do not necessarily proceed at the same rates as those of their enemies and symbionts. Here, we examined how a range shifting plant species performs in soil from its

  12. Plant–soil interactions in the expansion and native range of a poleward shifting plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Grunsven, R.H.A.; Van der Putten, W.H.; Bezemer, T.M.; Berendse, F.; Veenendaal, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    Climate warming causes range shifts of many species toward higher latitudes and altitudes. However, range shifts of host species do not necessarily proceed at the same rates as those of their enemies and symbionts. Here, we examined how a range shifting plant species performs in soil from its

  13. Event Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to discuss conceptual event modeling within a context of information modeling. Traditionally, information modeling has been concerned with the modeling of a universe of discourse in terms of information structures. However, most interesting universes of discourse...... are dynamic and we present a modeling approach that can be used to model such dynamics. We characterize events as both information objects and change agents (Bækgaard 1997). When viewed as information objects events are phenomena that can be observed and described. For example, borrow events in a library can...

  14. Event Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to discuss conceptual event modeling within a context of information modeling. Traditionally, information modeling has been concerned with the modeling of a universe of discourse in terms of information structures. However, most interesting universes of discourse...... are dynamic and we present a modeling approach that can be used to model such dynamics.We characterize events as both information objects and change agents (Bækgaard 1997). When viewed as information objects events are phenomena that can be observed and described. For example, borrow events in a library can...

  15. Host Galaxy Identification for Supernova Surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Ravi R.; Kuhlmann, Steve; Kovacs, Eve; Spinka, Harold; Kessler, Richard; Goldstein, Daniel A.; Liotine, Camille; Pomian, Katarzyna; D’Andrea, Chris B.; Sullivan, Mark; Carretero, Jorge; Castander, Francisco J.; Nichol, Robert C.; Finley, David A.; Fischer, John A.; Foley, Ryan J.; Kim, Alex G.; Papadopoulos, Andreas; Sako, Masao; Scolnic, Daniel M.; Smith, Mathew; Tucker, Brad E.; Uddin, Syed; Wolf, Rachel C.; Yuan, Fang; Abbott, Tim M. C.; Abdalla, Filipe B.; Benoit-Lévy, Aurélien; Bertin, Emmanuel; Brooks, David; Rosell, Aurelio Carnero; Kind, Matias Carrasco; Cunha, Carlos E.; Costa, Luiz N. da; Desai, Shantanu; Doel, Peter; Eifler, Tim F.; Evrard, August E.; Flaugher, Brenna; Fosalba, Pablo; Gaztañaga, Enrique; Gruen, Daniel; Gruendl, Robert; James, David J.; Kuehn, Kyler; Kuropatkin, Nikolay; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Miquel, Ramon; Plazas, Andrés A.; Romer, A. Kathy; Sánchez, Eusebio; Schubnell, Michael; Sevilla-Noarbe, Ignacio; Sobreira, Flávia; Suchyta, Eric; Swanson, Molly E. C.; Tarle, Gregory; Walker, Alistair R.; Wester, William

    2016-11-08

    Host galaxy identification is a crucial step for modern supernova (SN) surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), which will discover SNe by the thousands. Spectroscopic resources are limited, so in the absence of real-time SN spectra these surveys must rely on host galaxy spectra to obtain accurate redshifts for the Hubble diagram and to improve photometric classification of SNe. In addition, SN luminosities are known to correlate with host-galaxy properties. Therefore, reliable identification of host galaxies is essential for cosmology and SN science. We simulate SN events and their locations within their host galaxies to develop and test methods for matching SNe to their hosts. We use both real and simulated galaxy catalog data from the Advanced Camera for Surveys General Catalog and MICECATv2.0, respectively. We also incorporate "hostless" SNe residing in undetected faint hosts into our analysis, with an assumed hostless rate of 5%. Our fully automated algorithm is run on catalog data and matches SNe to their hosts with 91% accuracy. We find that including a machine learning component, run after the initial matching algorithm, improves the accuracy (purity) of the matching to 97% with a 2% cost in efficiency (true positive rate). Although the exact results are dependent on the details of the survey and the galaxy catalogs used, the method of identifying host galaxies we outline here can be applied to any transient survey.

  16. Host Galaxy Identification for Supernova Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ravi R.; Kuhlmann, Steve; Kovacs, Eve; Spinka, Harold; Kessler, Richard; Goldstein, Daniel A.; Liotine, Camille; Pomian, Katarzyna; D'Andrea, Chris B.; Sullivan, Mark; Carretero, Jorge; Castander, Francisco J.; Nichol, Robert C.; Finley, David A.; Fischer, John A.; Foley, Ryan J.; Kim, Alex G.; Papadopoulos, Andreas; Sako, Masao; Scolnic, Daniel M.; Smith, Mathew; Tucker, Brad E.; Uddin, Syed; Wolf, Rachel C.; Yuan, Fang; Abbott, Tim M. C.; Abdalla, Filipe B.; Benoit-Lévy, Aurélien; Bertin, Emmanuel; Brooks, David; Carnero Rosell, Aurelio; Carrasco Kind, Matias; Cunha, Carlos E.; da Costa, Luiz N.; Desai, Shantanu; Doel, Peter; Eifler, Tim F.; Evrard, August E.; Flaugher, Brenna; Fosalba, Pablo; Gaztañaga, Enrique; Gruen, Daniel; Gruendl, Robert; James, David J.; Kuehn, Kyler; Kuropatkin, Nikolay; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Miquel, Ramon; Plazas, Andrés A.; Romer, A. Kathy; Sánchez, Eusebio; Schubnell, Michael; Sevilla-Noarbe, Ignacio; Sobreira, Flávia; Suchyta, Eric; Swanson, Molly E. C.; Tarle, Gregory; Walker, Alistair R.; Wester, William

    2016-12-01

    Host galaxy identification is a crucial step for modern supernova (SN) surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, which will discover SNe by the thousands. Spectroscopic resources are limited, and so in the absence of real-time SN spectra these surveys must rely on host galaxy spectra to obtain accurate redshifts for the Hubble diagram and to improve photometric classification of SNe. In addition, SN luminosities are known to correlate with host-galaxy properties. Therefore, reliable identification of host galaxies is essential for cosmology and SN science. We simulate SN events and their locations within their host galaxies to develop and test methods for matching SNe to their hosts. We use both real and simulated galaxy catalog data from the Advanced Camera for Surveys General Catalog and MICECATv2.0, respectively. We also incorporate “hostless” SNe residing in undetected faint hosts into our analysis, with an assumed hostless rate of 5%. Our fully automated algorithm is run on catalog data and matches SNe to their hosts with 91% accuracy. We find that including a machine learning component, run after the initial matching algorithm, improves the accuracy (purity) of the matching to 97% with a 2% cost in efficiency (true positive rate). Although the exact results are dependent on the details of the survey and the galaxy catalogs used, the method of identifying host galaxies we outline here can be applied to any transient survey.

  17. Host Galaxy Identification for Supernova Surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Ravi R.; et al.

    2016-04-20

    Host galaxy identification is a crucial step for modern supernova (SN) surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), which will discover SNe by the thousands. Spectroscopic resources are limited, so in the absence of real-time SN spectra these surveys must rely on host galaxy spectra to obtain accurate redshifts for the Hubble diagram and to improve photometric classification of SNe. In addition, SN luminosities are known to correlate with host-galaxy properties. Therefore, reliable identification of host galaxies is essential for cosmology and SN science. We simulate SN events and their locations within their host galaxies to develop and test methods for matching SNe to their hosts. We use both real and simulated galaxy catalog data from the Advanced Camera for Surveys General Catalog and MICECATv2.0, respectively. We also incorporate "hostless" SNe residing in undetected faint hosts into our analysis, with an assumed hostless rate of 5%. Our fully automated algorithm is run on catalog data and matches SNe to their hosts with 91% accuracy. We find that including a machine learning component, run after the initial matching algorithm, improves the accuracy (purity) of the matching to 97% with a 2% cost in efficiency (true positive rate). Although the exact results are dependent on the details of the survey and the galaxy catalogs used, the method of identifying host galaxies we outline here can be applied to any transient survey.

  18. Shift work and occupational stress in police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Claudia C; Andrew, Michael E; Fekedulegn, Desta; Gu, Ja K; Hartley, Tara A; Charles, Luenda E; Violanti, John M; Burchfiel, Cecil M

    2015-03-01

    Shift work has been associated with occupational stress in health providers and in those working in some industrial companies. The association is not well established in the law enforcement workforce. Our objective was to examine the association between shift work and police work-related stress. The number of stressful events that occurred in the previous month and year was obtained using the Spielberger Police Stress Survey among 365 police officers aged 27-66 years. Work hours were derived from daily payroll records. A dominant shift (day, afternoon, or night) was defined for each participant as the shift with the largest percentage of total time a participant worked (starting time from 4:00 AM to 11:59 AM, from 12 PM to 7:59 PM, and from 8:00 PM to 3:59 AM for day, afternoon, and night shift, respectively) in the previous month or year. Analysis of variance and covariance were used to examine the number of total and subscale (administrative/professional pressure, physical/psychological danger, or organizational support) stressful events across the shift. During the previous month and year, officers working the afternoon and night shifts reported more stressful events than day shift officers for total stress, administrative/professional pressure, and physical/psychological danger (p stressful events did not differ significantly between officers working the afternoon and night shifts. Non-day shift workers may be exposed to more stressful events in this cohort. Interventions to reduce or manage police stress that are tailored by shift may be considered.

  19. Host preference of the bean weevil Zabrotes subfasciatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Isabel Ribeiro do Valle Teixeira; Angel Roberto Barchuk; Fernando Sérgio Zucoloto

    2008-01-01

    It is largely known that the range of an insect diet is mostly determined by oviposition behavior, mainly in species with endophytic larvae such as Zabrotes subfasciatus.However, the proximate factors determining host choice and the subsequent steps leading to the expansion or reduction of the host number and occasional host shifts are largelyun known. We analyzed various factors determining host preference of Z. subfasciatus through the evaluation of: (i) oviposition preference of a wild population of Z. subfasciatus on the usual host (bean) and unusual hosts (lentil, chickpea and soy), and the performance of the offspring; (ii) artificial selection for increasing preference for hosts initially less frequently chosen; (iii) comparison of oviposition behavior between two different popula-tions (reared for~30 generations in beans or chickpeas, respectively); (iv) oviposition timing on usual and unusual hosts; and (v) identification of preference hierarchies. We found that when using unusual hosts, there is no correlation between performance and preference and that the preference hierarchy changes only slightly when the population passes through several generations on the less frequently accepted host. We also found a positive response to artificial selection for increasing oviposition on the less preferred host; however, when the host-choice experiment involved two varieties of the usual host, the response was faster than when the choice involved usual and unusual hosts. Finally, beetles reared on an unusual host (chickpea) for 26 generations showed similar good fitness on both usual and unusual hosts,indicating that the use of a new host does not necessarily result in the loss of performance on the original host. Nevertheless, this population showed lower fitness on the usual host than that of the original population, suggesting an underlying partial trade-off phenomenon which may contribute to a broadening of diet of this insect species.

  20. Dual Mutation Events in the Haemagglutinin-Esterase and Fusion Protein from an Infectious Salmon Anaemia Virus HPR0 Genotype Promote Viral Fusion and Activation by an Ubiquitous Host Protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourrier, Mickael; Lester, Katherine; Markussen, Turhan; Falk, Knut; Secombes, Christopher J; McBeath, Alastair; Collet, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    In Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV), deletions in the highly polymorphic region (HPR) in the near membrane domain of the haemagglutinin-esterase (HE) stalk, influence viral fusion. It is suspected that selected mutations in the associated Fusion (F) protein may also be important in regulating fusion activity. To better understand the underlying mechanisms involved in ISAV fusion, several mutated F proteins were generated from the Scottish Nevis and Norwegian SK779/06 HPR0. Co-transfection with constructs encoding HE and F were performed, fusion activity assessed by content mixing assay and the degree of proteolytic cleavage by western blot. Substitutions in Nevis F demonstrated that K276 was the most likely cleavage site in the protein. Furthermore, amino acid substitutions at three sites and two insertions, all slightly upstream of K276, increased fusion activity. Co-expression with HE harbouring a full-length HPR produced high fusion activities when trypsin and low pH were applied. In comparison, under normal culture conditions, groups containing a mutated HE with an HPR deletion were able to generate moderate fusion levels, while those with a full length HPR HE could not induce fusion. This suggested that HPR length may influence how the HE primes the F protein and promotes fusion activation by an ubiquitous host protease and/or facilitate subsequent post-cleavage refolding steps. Variations in fusion activity through accumulated mutations on surface glycoproteins have also been reported in other orthomyxoviruses and paramyxoviruses. This may in part contribute to the different virulence and tissue tropism reported for HPR0 and HPR deleted ISAV genotypes.

  1. Protein Chemical Shift Prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Larsen, Anders S

    2014-01-01

    The protein chemical shifts holds a large amount of information about the 3-dimensional structure of the protein. A number of chemical shift predictors based on the relationship between structures resolved with X-ray crystallography and the corresponding experimental chemical shifts have been developed. These empirical predictors are very accurate on X-ray structures but tends to be insensitive to small structural changes. To overcome this limitation it has been suggested to make chemical shift predictors based on quantum mechanical(QM) calculations. In this thesis the development of the QM derived chemical shift predictor Procs14 is presented. Procs14 is based on 2.35 million density functional theory(DFT) calculations on tripeptides and contains corrections for hydrogen bonding, ring current and the effect of the previous and following residue. Procs14 is capable at performing predictions for the 13CA, 13CB, 13CO, 15NH, 1HN and 1HA backbone atoms. In order to benchmark Procs14, a number of QM NMR calculatio...

  2. 事件旅游城市居民分类及影响因素研究——以常州花博会为例%Segmentation and Influential Factors of Residents in an Event Tourism Host City ——A Case Study of China Flower Expo in Changzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓艳; 黄震方; 胡小海; 张子昂

    2016-01-01

    针对事件旅游举办城市的旅游影响感知居民分类及影响因素在文献中讨论较少.以常州2013年中国花卉博览会为例,首先对事件旅游影响感知测量指标进行因子分析,然后以5个事件旅游影响因子作为分类依据,利用快速聚类法对居民群体进行聚类分析,最后采用多项名义变量逻辑斯回归模型分析居民事件旅游影响感知群体分类的影响因素.研究发现,可以将被调查居民分为淡漠支持者、矛盾支持者、理性支持者和热情支持者;居民分类的显著影响因素为性别、年龄和居住时间、与旅游业的相关程度、居住区域,同时结合深度访谈分析相关因素的影响机制.识别旅游地具有不同特征的群体,最小化潜在的消极影响,可以最大化居民的支持程度,对事件旅游的成功举办有一定的影响.%It hasn't been discussed more about segmentation and influential factors of residents in an event tourism host city until now. Based on a questionnaire survey on event tourism host city,taking 2013 China Flower Expo in Changzhou as an example,such research techniques as factor analysis,K-means cluster,multinomial logistic regression,crosstabs and non-structural in-depth interviews are employed on segmentation and influential factors of host city. The results show that host city residents are classified into indifferent supporters,ambivalent supporters,rational supporters and enthusiastic supporters. Significant influential factors of residents'segmentation are gender,age and residence time,the degree related to tourism,residence area. Furthermore,this paper provides a thorough analysis to formation mechanism beyond segmentation of host city residents. Identifying residents groups with different characteristics can minimize the potential negative impact and maximize the support degree of residents,which has a certain influence on success of event tourism.

  3. The coevolutionary implications of host tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Alex; White, Andy; Boots, Mike

    2014-05-01

    Host tolerance to infectious disease, whereby hosts do not directly "fight" parasites but instead ameliorate the damage caused, is an important defense mechanism in both plants and animals. Because tolerance to parasite virulence may lead to higher prevalence of disease in a population, evolutionary theory tells us that while the spread of resistance genes will result in negative frequency dependence and the potential for diversification, the evolution of tolerance is instead likely to result in fixation. However, our understanding of the broader implications of tolerance is limited by a lack of fully coevolutionary theory. Here we examine the coevolution of tolerance across a comprehensive range of classic coevolutionary host-parasite frameworks, including equivalents of gene-for-gene and matching allele and evolutionary invasion models. Our models show that the coevolution of host tolerance and parasite virulence does not lead to the generation and maintenance of diversity through either static polymorphisms or through "Red-queen" cycles. Coevolution of tolerance may however lead to multiple stable states leading to sudden shifts in parasite impacts on host health. More broadly, we emphasize that tolerance may change host-parasite interactions from antagonistic to a form of "apparent commensalism," but may also lead to the evolution of parasites that are highly virulent in nontolerant hosts.

  4. Event boundaries and memory improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettijohn, Kyle A; Thompson, Alexis N; Tamplin, Andrea K; Krawietz, Sabine A; Radvansky, Gabriel A

    2016-03-01

    The structure of events can influence later memory for information that is embedded in them, with evidence indicating that event boundaries can both impair and enhance memory. The current study explored whether the presence of event boundaries during encoding can structure information to improve memory. In Experiment 1, memory for a list of words was tested in which event structure was manipulated by having participants walk through a doorway, or not, halfway through the word list. In Experiment 2, memory for lists of words was tested in which event structure was manipulated using computer windows. Finally, in Experiments 3 and 4, event structure was manipulated by having event shifts described in narrative texts. The consistent finding across all of these methods and materials was that memory was better when the information was distributed across two events rather than combined into a single event. Moreover, Experiment 4 demonstrated that increasing the number of event boundaries from one to two increased the memory benefit. These results are interpreted in the context of the Event Horizon Model of event cognition.

  5. Marketing research for organizers of sports events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašović Milan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Marketing research, which provide the data and the information for the decision making process, are essential for organizers of sport events, especially to the organizers of the most significant ones. The mentioned marketing research involves: research of the local market, visitors satisfaction research, evaluation of sponsorship effectiveness, research of the sport events economic influence on the local community or host cities, event host attitudes examination-local population and so on. The marketing research process, for the sport event organizers of needs, involves several steps, such as: goal definition, choice of the research method, research instruments determination, interviewer education, information gathering, data processing, data report, conclusions.

  6. A Shift of Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Administrative reforms are shifting prefecture government powers to the county level in an effort to boost local economies on July 8, the government of China’s southernmost Hainan Province announced that it was to hand over 177 of its administrative powers to county-level governments. The move practically dismantled the powers of the

  7. Bidirectional soliton spectral tunneling effects in the regime of optical event horizon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Jie; Guo, Hairun; Wang, Shaofei

    2015-01-01

    We study the cross-phase-modulation-induced soliton spectral shifting in the regime of the optical event horizon. The perturbed soliton to either red-shifting or blue-shifting is controllable, which could evoke bidirectional soliton spectral tunneling effects.......We study the cross-phase-modulation-induced soliton spectral shifting in the regime of the optical event horizon. The perturbed soliton to either red-shifting or blue-shifting is controllable, which could evoke bidirectional soliton spectral tunneling effects....

  8. Identification of two lineages of host-associated eriophyoid mites predisposed to different levels of host diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao-Sen; Hoffmann, Ary A; Guo, Jing-Feng; Zuo, Yun; Xue, Xiao-Feng; Pang, Hong; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2016-12-01

    Herbivorous arthropods can diversify as a consequence of evolutionary changes in response to their plant hosts. Current patterns of host association of herbivores are likely to reflect a long evolutionary history of herbivore-plant co-evolution. Here, we used molecular phylogenetics to track the evolutionary history of host shifts and diversification of 66 eriophyoid mites (Acari, Eriophyoidea), and linked past patterns of evolutionary diversification to more recent patterns of divergence by tracking population genetic variation in 13 of the eriophyoid mite species feeding on different gymnosperm hosts. This allowed us to explore the relationship between a past history of diversification and the current potential of mites to undergo host range shifts. We found that population-level diversity across gymnosperm hosts as measured by 28S rRNA markers was greater in species from the mite clade that had radiated across evolutionary time to utilize a variety of hosts including angiosperms, compared to species from the clade that has remained restricted to ancestral gymnosperm hosts. Species from the radiated clade exhibited higher variation in host use. Lineages of mites that have in the past been able to radiate and adapt to diverse plants may therefore be predisposed to continue their expansion on new hosts, although additional clades need to be tested.

  9. Exploring Insight: Focus on Shifts of Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatnik, Alik; Koichu, Boris

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents and analyses a sequence of events that preceded an insight solution to a challenging problem in the context of numerical sequences. A three­week long solution process by a pair of ninth­-grade students is analysed by means of the theory of shifts of attention. The goal for this article is to reveal the potential of this theory…

  10. Complex inheritance of larval adaptation in Plutella xylostella to a novel host plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Henniges-Janssen; A. Reineke; D.G. Heckel; A.T. Groot

    2011-01-01

    Studying the genetics of host shifts and range expansions in phytophagous insects contributes to our understanding of the evolution of host plant adaptation. We investigated the recent host range expansion to pea, in the pea-adapted strain (P-strain) of the crucifer-specialist diamondback moth, Plut

  11. Resolved Host Studies of Stellar Explosions

    CERN Document Server

    Levesque, Emily M

    2016-01-01

    The host galaxies of nearby (z<0.3) core-collapse supernovae and long-duration gamma-ray bursts offer an excellent means of probing the environments and populations that produce these events' varied massive progenitors. These same young stellar progenitors make LGRBs and SNe valuable and potentially powerful tracers of star formation, metallicity, the IMF, and the end phases of stellar evolution. However, properly utilizing these progenitors as tools requires a thorough understanding of their formation and, consequently, the physical properties of their parent host environments. This review looks at some of the recent work on LGRB and SN hosts with resolved environments that allows us to probe the precise explosion sites and surrounding environments of these events in incredible detail.

  12. On the Lamb shift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villarroel, D. [Av. Tobalaba 3696, Puente Alto, Santiago, Metropolitana (Chile)

    2008-02-15

    The Lamb shift is calculated, in an approximate way, considering the hydrogen atom as an isolated physical system; the quantized radiation field does not play any role in the present approach. Our formalism is based on the generalization of the Dirac wave equation that incorporates the effects of the electron self-fields directly into it. Both the physical picture as well as the mathematical formalism have their roots in the classical theory of the electron. (author)

  13. Baculovirus Host-Range

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suzanne M. Thiem; Xiao-Wen Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Baculoviruses are used as microbial insecticides, protein expression vectors, epitope display platforms, and most recently as vectors for gene therapy. Understanding the mechanisms that control baculovirus host-range and tissue tropisms are important for assessing their safety and for improving their properties for these biotechnology applications. In the past two decades some progress has been made and several baculovirus genes that influence host-range have been identified. Despite this progress, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms that restrict baculovirus host-range is still limited. Here we review what is currently known about baculovirus genes that influence virus host-range.

  14. Hosting anions. The energetic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtchen, Franz P

    2010-10-01

    Hosting anions addresses the widely spread molecular recognition event of negatively charged species by dedicated organic compounds in condensed phases at equilibrium. The experimentally accessible energetic features comprise the entire system including the solvent, any buffers, background electrolytes or other components introduced for e.g. analysis. The deconvolution of all these interaction types and their dependence on subtle structural variation is required to arrive at a structure-energy correlation that may serve as a guide in receptor construction. The focus on direct host-guest interactions (lock-and-key complementarity) that have dominated the binding concepts of artificial receptors in the past must be widened in order to account for entropic contributions which constitute very significant fractions of the total free energy of interaction. Including entropy necessarily addresses the ambiguity and fuzziness of the host-guest structural ensemble and requires the appreciation of the fact that most liquid phases possess distinct structures of their own. Apparently, it is the perturbation of the intrinsic solvent structure occurring upon association that rules ion binding in polar media where ions are soluble and abundant. Rather than specifying peculiar structural elements useful in anion binding this critical review attempts an illumination of the concepts and individual energetic contributions resulting in the final observation of specific anion recognition (95 references).

  15. Codivergence of mycoviruses with their hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Göker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The associations between pathogens and their hosts are complex and can result from any combination of evolutionary events such as codivergence, switching, and duplication of the pathogen. Mycoviruses are RNA viruses which infect fungi and for which natural vectors are so far unknown. Thus, lateral transfer might be improbable and codivergence their dominant mode of evolution. Accordingly, mycoviruses are a suitable target for statistical tests of virus-host codivergence, but inference of mycovirus phylogenies might be difficult because of low sequence similarity even within families. METHODOLOGY: We analyzed here the evolutionary dynamics of all mycovirus families by comparing virus and host phylogenies. Additionally, we assessed the sensitivity of the co-phylogenetic tests to the settings for inferring virus trees from their genome sequences and approximate, taxonomy-based host trees. CONCLUSIONS: While sequence alignment filtering modes affected branch support, the overall results of the co-phylogenetic tests were significantly influenced only by the number of viruses sampled per family. The trees of the two largest families, Partitiviridae and Totiviridae, were significantly more similar to those of their hosts than expected by chance, and most individual host-virus links had a significant positive impact on the global fit, indicating that codivergence is the dominant mode of virus diversification. However, in this regard mycoviruses did not differ from closely related viruses sampled from non-fungus hosts. The remaining virus families were either dominated by other evolutionary modes or lacked an apparent overall pattern. As this negative result might be caused by insufficient taxon sampling, the most parsimonious hypothesis still is that host-parasite evolution is basically the same in all mycovirus families. This is the first study of mycovirus-host codivergence, and the results shed light not only on how mycovirus biology

  16. Bartonella entry mechanisms into mammalian host cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicher, Simone C; Dehio, Christoph

    2012-08-01

    The Gram-negative genus Bartonella comprises arthropod-borne pathogens that typically infect mammals in a host-specific manner. Bartonella bacilliformis and Bartonella quintana are human-specific pathogens, while several zoonotic bartonellae specific for diverse animal hosts infect humans as an incidental host. Clinical manifestations of Bartonella infections range from mild symptoms to life-threatening disease. Following transmission by blood-sucking arthropods or traumatic contact with infected animals, bartonellae display sequential tropisms towards endothelial and possibly other nucleated cells and erythrocytes, the latter in a host-specific manner. Attachment to the extracellular matrix (ECM) and to nucleated cells is mediated by surface-exposed bacterial adhesins, in particular trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs). The subsequent engulfment of the pathogen into a vacuolar structure follows a unique series of events whereby the pathogen avoids the endolysosomal compartments. For Bartonella henselae and assumingly most other species, the infection process is aided at different steps by Bartonella effector proteins (Beps). They are injected into host cells through the type IV secretion system (T4SS) VirB/D4 and subvert host cellular functions to favour pathogen uptake. Bacterial binding to erythrocytes is mediated by Trw, another T4SS, in a strictly host-specific manner, followed by pathogen-forced uptake involving the IalB invasin and subsequent replication and persistence within a membrane-bound intra-erythrocytic compartment.

  17. Host Galaxy Identification for Supernova Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Ravi R; Kovacs, Eve; Spinka, Harold; Kessler, Richard; Goldstein, Daniel A; Liotine, Camille; Pomian, Katarzyna; D'Andrea, Chris B; Sullivan, Mark; Carretero, Jorge; Castander, Francisco J; Nichol, Robert C; Finley, David A; Fischer, John A; Foley, Ryan J; Kim, Alex G; Papadopoulos, Andreas; Sako, Masao; Scolnic, Daniel M; Smith, Mathew; Tucker, Brad E; Uddin, Syed; Wolf, Rachel C; Yuan, Fang; Abbott, Tim M C; Abdalla, Filipe B; Benoit-Levy, Aurelien; Bertin, Emmanuel; Brooks, David; Rosell, Aurelio Carnero; Kind, Matias Carrasco; Cunha, Carlos E; da Costa, Luiz N; Desai, Shantanu; Doel, Peter; Eifler, Tim F; Evrard, August E; Flaugher, Brenna; Fosalba, Pablo; Gaztanaga, Enrique; Gruen, Daniel; Gruendl, Robert; James, David J; Kuehn, Kyler; Kuropatkin, Nikolay; Maia, Marcio A G; Marshall, Jennifer L; Miquel, Ramon; Plazas, Andres A; Romer, A Kathy; Sanchez, Eusebio; Schubnell, Michael; Sevilla-Noarbe, Ignacio; Sobreira, Flavia; Suchyta, Eric; Swanson, Molly E C; Tarle, Gregory; Walker, Alistair R; Wester, William

    2016-01-01

    Host galaxy identification is a crucial step for modern supernova (SN) surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), which will discover SNe by the thousands. Spectroscopic resources are limited, so in the absence of real-time SN spectra these surveys must rely on host galaxy spectra to obtain accurate redshifts for the Hubble diagram and to improve photometric classification of SNe. In addition, SN luminosities are known to correlate with host-galaxy properties. Therefore, reliable identification of host galaxies is essential for cosmology and SN science. We simulate SN events and their locations within their host galaxies to develop and test methods for matching SNe to their hosts. We use both real and simulated galaxy catalog data from the Advanced Camera for Surveys General Catalog and MICECATv2.0, respectively. We also incorporate "hostless" SNe residing in undetected faint hosts into our analysis, with an assumed hostless rate of 5%. Our fully automated alg...

  18. The shifting beverage landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Maureen

    2010-04-26

    STOREY, M.L. The shifting beverage landscape. PHYSIOL BEHAV, 2010. - Simultaneous lifestyle changes have occurred in the last few decades, creating an imbalance in energy intake and energy expenditure that has led to overweight and obesity. Trends in the food supply show that total daily calories available per capita increased 28% since 1970. Total energy intake among men and women has also increased dramatically since that time. Some have suggested that intake of beverages has had a disproportional impact on obesity. Data collected by the Beverage Marketing Corporation between 1988-2008 demonstrate that, in reality, fewer calories per ounce are being produced by the beverage industry. Moreover, data from the National Cancer Institute show that soft drink intake represents 5.5% of daily calories. Data from NHANES 1999-2003 vs. 2003-06 may demonstrate a shift in beverage consumption for age/gender groups, ages 6 to>60years. The beverages provided in schools have significantly changed since 2006 when the beverage industry implemented School Beverage Guidelines. This voluntary action has removed full-calorie soft drinks from participating schools across the country. This shift to lower-calorie and smaller-portion beverages in school has led to a significant decrease in total beverage calories in schools. These data support the concept that to prevent and treat obesity, public health efforts should focus on energy balance and that a narrow focus on sweetened beverages is unlikely to have any meaningful impact on this complex problem. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Transfer of genetic information between parasite and its host

    OpenAIRE

    Soukal, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is considered a rare evolutionary event. It can take place between unrelated organisms that coexist in an intimate symbiotic relationship. Such relationship have some parasites with its host. HGT between eukaryotic parasite and its host was identified in some holoparazitic and hemiparazitic plants, the most important human protozoan parasites, microsporidias, human blood-flukes, parasitoids and fruit flies.

  20. Cytokines in lethal graft-versus-host disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knulst, A.C.; Bril-Bazuin, C.; Tibbe, G.J.M.; Oudenaren, van A.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Benner, R.

    1992-01-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is caused by donor T lymphocytes that recognize foreign antigens on host tissues. This leads to T cell activation, which involves a cascade of events including the transcription of genes for cytokines and their receptors and the production of cytokines. One of the fi

  1. Personality factors related to shift work tolerance in two- and three-shift workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natvik, Sylvia; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Moen, Bente Elisabeth; Magerøy, Nils; Sivertsen, Børge; Pallesen, Ståle

    2011-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether different personality variables were associated with shift work tolerance, and whether these potential associations were moderated by various types of shift work. The sample comprised 1505 nurses who worked either two or three rotating shifts. Personality traits were measured in terms of morningness, flexibility, languidity and hardiness. Morningness reflects the tendency to be alert relatively early in the morning and sleepy relatively early in the evening. Flexibility denotes the ability to both work and sleep at odd times of the day, while languidity concerns the tendency to become tired/sleepy when cutting down on sleep. Hardiness relates to resilience to stressful life events. The dependent variables in this study comprised of measures of insomnia, sleepiness, depression and anxiety. Hierarchical regression analyses, which controlled for demographic variables and work load, revealed that Morningness was significantly and negatively related to insomnia. The Morningness by Shift type interaction was overall significant for depressive symptoms. Morningness was near significantly associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms in three-shift workers, but unrelated to depressive symptoms in two-shift workers. Flexibility was associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. Flexibility by Shift type interaction was significant for insomnia, indicating that flexibility was negatively associated with insomnia for three-shift workers and unrelated with insomnia for two-shift workers. Languidity was associated with higher levels of sleepiness, depressive and anxiety symptoms. Hardiness was associated with lower levels of all four dependent variables. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Varroa destructor changes its cuticular hydrocarbons to mimic new hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Conte, Y; Huang, Z Y; Roux, M; Zeng, Z J; Christidès, J-P; Bagnères, A-G

    2015-06-01

    Varroa destructor (Vd) is a honeybee ectoparasite. Its original host is the Asian honeybee, Apis cerana, but it has also become a severe, global threat to the European honeybee, Apis mellifera. Previous studies have shown that Varroa can mimic a host's cuticular hydrocarbons (HC), enabling the parasite to escape the hygienic behaviour of the host honeybees. By transferring mites between the two honeybee species, we further demonstrate that Vd is able to mimic the cuticular HC of a novel host species when artificially transferred to this new host. Mites originally from A. cerana are more efficient than mites from A. mellifera in mimicking HC of both A. cerana and A. mellifera. This remarkable adaptability may explain their relatively recent host-shift from A. cerana to A. mellifera.

  3. Repetition and Translation Shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Zupan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Repetition manifests itself in different ways and at different levels of the text. The first basic type of repetition involves complete recurrences; in which a particular textual feature repeats in its entirety. The second type involves partial recurrences; in which the second repetition of the same textual feature includes certain modifications to the first occurrence. In the article; repetitive patterns in Edgar Allan Poe’s short story “The Fall of the House of Usher” and its Slovene translation; “Konec Usherjeve hiše”; are compared. The author examines different kinds of repetitive patterns. Repetitions are compared at both the micro- and macrostructural levels. As detailed analyses have shown; considerable microstructural translation shifts occur in certain types of repetitive patterns. Since these are not only occasional; sporadic phenomena; but are of a relatively high frequency; they reduce the translated text’s potential for achieving some of the gothic effects. The macrostructural textual property particularly affected by these shifts is the narrator’s experience as described by the narrative; which suffers a reduction in intensity.

  4. Events and mega events: leisure and business in tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Alexandre Paiva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The promotion of events and mega events mobilizes at the same time, in a concatenated way or not, leisure and business practices, which are captured by the tourism industry as a stimulus for the reproduction of capitalism, by the amount of other activities which raise (primary, secondary and tertiary , placing the architecture and the city as protagonists in contemporary urban development. In this sense, the article analyzes the articulation of events and mega events to the provision of architecture and urban infrastructure, as well as the construction of the tourist image of the places, motivated by leisure and business activities. The methodological procedures have theoretical and exploratory character and have multidisciplinary intentions. This will be discussed, in a historical perspective, the concepts of leisure and business activities that raise as moving or traveling; next it will be delimited similarities and differences between tourism events and business tourism, entering after the analysis of the distinctions between events and mega events, highlighting the complexity and the role of mega-events as a major symptom of globalization; finally it will be presented the spatial scale developments in architecture and the city in the realization of (mega events, as well as its impact on the city's image. As a synthesis, it is important to notice that spatial developments business tourism, events and mega events are manifested in various scales and with different levels of complexity, revealing the strengths and / or weaknesses of the places. The urban planning, architecture and urbanism are important objects of knowledge and spatial intervention to ensure infrastructure and urban and architectural structures appropriate for events, which should be sensitive to the demands of tourists and host communities.

  5. Metabolic crosstalk between host and pathogen: sensing, adapting and competing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, Andrew J; Sassetti, Christopher M

    2016-04-01

    Our understanding of bacterial pathogenesis is dominated by the cell biology of the host-pathogen interaction. However, the majority of metabolites that are used in prokaryotic and eukaryotic physiology and signalling are chemically similar or identical. Therefore, the metabolic crosstalk between pathogens and host cells may be as important as the interactions between bacterial effector proteins and their host targets. In this Review we focus on host-pathogen interactions at the metabolic level: chemical signalling events that enable pathogens to sense anatomical location and the local physiology of the host; microbial metabolic pathways that are dedicated to circumvent host immune mechanisms; and a few metabolites as central points of competition between the host and bacterial pathogens.

  6. The role of viral population diversity in adaptation of bovine coronavirus to new host environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica K Borucki

    Full Text Available The high mutation rate of RNA viruses enables a diverse genetic population of viral genotypes to exist within a single infected host. In-host genetic diversity could better position the virus population to respond and adapt to a diverse array of selective pressures such as host-switching events. Multiple new coronaviruses, including SARS, have been identified in human samples just within the last ten years, demonstrating the potential of coronaviruses as emergent human pathogens. Deep sequencing was used to characterize genomic changes in coronavirus quasispecies during simulated host-switching. Three bovine nasal samples infected with bovine coronavirus were used to infect human and bovine macrophage and lung cell lines. The virus reproduced relatively well in macrophages, but the lung cell lines were not infected efficiently enough to allow passage of non lab-adapted samples. Approximately 12 kb of the genome was amplified before and after passage and sequenced at average coverages of nearly 950×(454 sequencing and 38,000×(Illumina. The consensus sequence of many of the passaged samples had a 12 nucleotide insert in the consensus sequence of the spike gene, and multiple point mutations were associated with the presence of the insert. Deep sequencing revealed that the insert was present but very rare in the unpassaged samples and could quickly shift to dominate the population when placed in a different environment. The insert coded for three arginine residues, occurred in a region associated with fusion entry into host cells, and may allow infection of new cell types via heparin sulfate binding. Analysis of the deep sequencing data indicated that two distinct genotypes circulated at different frequency levels in each sample, and support the hypothesis that the mutations present in passaged strains were "selected" from a pre-existing pool rather than through de novo mutation and subsequent population fixation.

  7. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    McMichael, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental c...

  8. Task 1.5 Genomic Shift and Drift Trends of Emerging Pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borucki, M

    2010-01-05

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Bioinformatics group has recently taken on a role in DTRA's Transformation Medical Technologies Initiative (TMTI). The high-level goal of TMTI is to accelerate the development of broad-spectrum countermeasures. To achieve those goals, TMTI has a near term need to conduct analyses of genomic shift and drift trends of emerging pathogens, with a focused eye on select agent pathogens, as well as antibiotic and virulence markers. Most emerging human pathogens are zoonotic viruses with a genome composed of RNA. The high mutation rate of the replication enzymes of RNA viruses contributes to sequence drift and provides one mechanism for these viruses to adapt to diverse hosts (interspecies transmission events) and cause new human and zoonotic diseases. Additionally, new viral pathogens frequently emerge due to genetic shift (recombination and segment reassortment) which allows for dramatic genotypic and phenotypic changes to occur rapidly. Bacterial pathogens also evolve via genetic drift and shift, although sequence drift generally occurs at a much slower rate for bacteria as compared to RNA viruses. However, genetic shift such as lateral gene transfer and inter- and intragenomic recombination enables bacteria to rapidly acquire new mechanisms of survival and antibiotic resistance. New technologies such as rapid whole genome sequencing of bacterial genomes, ultra-deep sequencing of RNA virus populations, metagenomic studies of environments rich in antibiotic resistance genes, and the use of microarrays for the detection and characterization of emerging pathogens provide mechanisms to address the challenges posed by the rapid emergence of pathogens. Bioinformatic algorithms that enable efficient analysis of the massive amounts of data generated by these technologies as well computational modeling of protein structures and evolutionary processes need to be developed to allow the technology to fulfill its potential.

  9. Pathogen mimicry of host protein-protein interfaces modulates immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven-Maiorov, Emine; Tsai, Chung-Jung; Nussinov, Ruth

    2016-10-01

    Signaling pathways shape and transmit the cell's reaction to its changing environment; however, pathogens can circumvent this response by manipulating host signaling. To subvert host defense, they beat it at its own game: they hijack host pathways by mimicking the binding surfaces of host-encoded proteins. For this, it is not necessary to achieve global protein homology; imitating merely the interaction surface is sufficient. Different protein folds often interact via similar protein-protein interface architectures. This similarity in binding surfaces permits the pathogenic protein to compete with a host target protein. Thus, rather than binding a host-encoded partner, the host protein hub binds the pathogenic surrogate. The outcome can be dire: rewiring or repurposing the host pathways, shifting the cell signaling landscape and consequently the immune response. They can also cause persistent infections as well as cancer by modulating key signaling pathways, such as those involving Ras. Mapping the rewired host-pathogen 'superorganism' interaction network - along with its structural details - is critical for in-depth understanding of pathogenic mechanisms and developing efficient therapeutics. Here, we overview the role of molecular mimicry in pathogen host evasion as well as types of molecular mimicry mechanisms that emerged during evolution.

  10. PROMOTING TOURIST DESTINATIONS THROUGH SPORT EVENTS. THE CASE OF BRAŞOV

    OpenAIRE

    Ana ISPAS; Adina Nicoleta CANDREA

    2010-01-01

    Sport event tourism is a huge and growing global industry with important economic implications for both the sport, the event and the impact of travel and tourism related benefits on host destinations. A primary function of a sport event is to provide the host community with an opportunity to secure high prominence in the tourism market place. However, international or regional prominence may be gained with significant social and environmental costs. Hosting sport events has been a focus of de...

  11. PROMOTING TOURIST DESTINATIONS THROUGH SPORT EVENTS. THE CASE OF BRAŞOV

    OpenAIRE

    ISPAS Ana; Adina Nicoleta CANDREA

    2010-01-01

    Sport event tourism is a huge and growing global industry with important economic implications for both the sport, the event and the impact of travel and tourism related benefits on host destinations. A primary function of a sport event is to provide the host community with an opportunity to secure high prominence in the tourism market place. However, international or regional prominence may be gained with significant social and environmental costs. Hosting sport events has been a focus of de...

  12. Association and host selectivity in multi-host pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M Malpica

    Full Text Available The distribution of multi-host pathogens over their host range conditions their population dynamics and structure. Also, host co-infection by different pathogens may have important consequences for the evolution of hosts and pathogens, and host-pathogen co-evolution. Hence it is of interest to know if the distribution of pathogens over their host range is random, or if there are associations between hosts and pathogens, or between pathogens sharing a host. To analyse these issues we propose indices for the observed patterns of host infection by pathogens, and for the observed patterns of co-infection, and tests to analyse if these patterns conform to randomness or reflect associations. Applying these tests to the prevalence of five plant viruses on 21 wild plant species evidenced host-virus associations: most hosts and viruses were selective for viruses and hosts, respectively. Interestingly, the more host-selective viruses were the more prevalent ones, suggesting that host specialisation is a successful strategy for multi-host pathogens. Analyses also showed that viruses tended to associate positively in co-infected hosts. The developed indices and tests provide the tools to analyse how strong and common are these associations among different groups of pathogens, which will help to understand and model the population biology of multi-host pathogens.

  13. Pendulum Shifts, Context, Error, and Personal Accountability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold Blackman; Oren Hester

    2011-09-01

    This paper describes a series of tools that were developed to achieve a balance in under-standing LOWs and the human component of events (including accountability) as the INL continues its shift to a learning culture where people report, are accountable and interested in making a positive difference - and want to report because information is handled correctly and the result benefits both the reporting individual and the organization. We present our model for understanding these interrelationships; the initiatives that were undertaken to improve overall performance.

  14. Parasite host range and the evolution of host resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, F.A.; Hall, A.R.; A., Buckling; P.D., Scanlan

    2015-01-01

    Parasite host range plays a pivotal role in the evolution and ecology of hosts
    and the emergence of infectious disease. Although the factors that promote
    host range and the epidemiological consequences of variation in host range
    are relatively well characterized, the effect of parasite

  15. Events diary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    as Imperial College, the Royal Albert Hall, the Royal College of Art, the Natural History and Science Museums and the Royal Geographical Society. Under the heading `Shaping the future together' BA2000 will explore science, engineering and technology in their wider cultural context. Further information about this event on 6 - 12 September may be obtained from Sandra Koura, BA2000 Festival Manager, British Association for the Advancement of Science, 23 Savile Row, London W1X 2NB (tel: 0171 973 3075, e-mail: sandra.koura@britassoc.org.uk ). Details of the creating SPARKS events may be obtained from creating.sparks@britassoc.org.uk or from the website www.britassoc.org.uk . Other events 3 - 7 July, Porto Alegre, Brazil VII Interamerican conference on physics education: The preparation of physicists and physics teachers in contemporary society. Info: IACPE7@if.ufrgs.br or cabbat1.cnea.gov.ar/iacpe/iacpei.htm 27 August - 1 September, Barcelona, Spain GIREP conference: Physics teacher education beyond 2000. Info: www.blues.uab.es/phyteb/index.html

  16. Lensed Quasar Hosts

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, C Y; Rix, H W; Keeton, C R; Falco, E E; Kochanek, C S; Lehár, J; McLeod, B A; Peng, Chien Y.; Impey, Chris D.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Keeton, Charles R.; Falco, Emilio E.; Kochanek, Chris S.; Lehar, Joseph; Leod, Brian A. Mc

    2006-01-01

    Gravitational lensing assists in the detection of quasar hosts by amplifying and distorting the host light away from the unresolved quasar core images. We present the results of HST observations of 30 quasar hosts at redshifts 1 1.7 is a factor of 3--6 higher than the local value. But, depending on the stellar content the ratio may decline at z>4 (if E/S0-like), flatten off to 6--10 times the local value (if Sbc-like), or continue to rise (if Im-like). We infer that galaxy bulge masses must have grown by a factor of 3--6 over the redshift range 3>z>1, and then changed little since z~1. This suggests that the peak epoch of galaxy formation for massive galaxies is above z~1. We also estimate the duty cycle of luminous AGNs at z>1 to be ~1%, or 10^7 yrs, with sizable scatter.

  17. Quantized beam shifts in graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Melo Kort-Kamp, Wilton Junior [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sinitsyn, Nikolai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dalvit, Diego Alejandro Roberto [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-08

    We predict the existence of quantized Imbert-Fedorov, Goos-Hanchen, and photonic spin Hall shifts for light beams impinging on a graphene-on-substrate system in an external magnetic field. In the quantum Hall regime the Imbert-Fedorov and photonic spin Hall shifts are quantized in integer multiples of the fine structure constant α, while the Goos-Hanchen ones in multiples of α2. We investigate the influence on these shifts of magnetic field, temperature, and material dispersion and dissipation. An experimental demonstration of quantized beam shifts could be achieved at terahertz frequencies for moderate values of the magnetic field.

  18. Beam shifts and distribution functions

    CERN Document Server

    Aiello, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    When a beam of light is reflected by a smooth surface its behavior deviates from geometrical optics predictions. Such deviations are quantified by the so-called spatial and angular Goos-Haenchen (GH) and Imbert-Fedorov (IF) shifts of the reflected beam. These shifts depend upon the shape of the incident beam, its polarization and on the material composition of the reflecting surface. In this article we suggest a novel approach that allows one to unambiguously isolate the beam-shape dependent aspects of GH and IF shifts. We show that this separation is possible as a result of some universal features of shifted distribution functions which are presented and discussed.

  19. Charting the host adaptation of influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Reis, Mario; Tamuri, Asif U; Hay, Alan J; Goldstein, Richard A

    2011-06-01

    Four influenza pandemics have struck the human population during the last 100 years causing substantial morbidity and mortality. The pandemics were caused by the introduction of a new virus into the human population from an avian or swine host or through the mixing of virus segments from an animal host with a human virus to create a new reassortant subtype virus. Understanding which changes have contributed to the adaptation of the virus to the human host is essential in assessing the pandemic potential of current and future animal viruses. Here, we develop a measure of the level of adaptation of a given virus strain to a particular host. We show that adaptation to the human host has been gradual with a timescale of decades and that none of the virus proteins have yet achieved full adaptation to the selective constraints. When the measure is applied to historical data, our results indicate that the 1918 influenza virus had undergone a period of preadaptation prior to the 1918 pandemic. Yet, ancestral reconstruction of the avian virus that founded the classical swine and 1918 human influenza lineages shows no evidence that this virus was exceptionally preadapted to humans. These results indicate that adaptation to humans occurred following the initial host shift from birds to mammals, including a significant amount prior to 1918. The 2009 pandemic virus seems to have undergone preadaptation to human-like selective constraints during its period of circulation in swine. Ancestral reconstruction along the human virus tree indicates that mutations that have increased the adaptation of the virus have occurred preferentially along the trunk of the tree. The method should be helpful in assessing the potential of current viruses to found future epidemics or pandemics.

  20. Fish assemblage shifts in the Powder River of Wyoming: an unregulated prairie river system previously considered to be relatively pristine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senecal, Anna C.; Walters, Annika W.; Hubert, Wayne A.

    2016-01-01

    Wyoming’s Powder River is considered an example of a pristine prairie river system. While the river hosts a largely native fish assemblage and remains unimpounded over its 1,146-km course to the Yellowstone River confluence, the hydrologic regime has been altered through water diversion for agriculture and natural gas extraction and there has been limited study of fish assemblage structure. We analyzed fish data collected from the mainstem Powder River in Wyoming between 1896 and 2008. Shifts in presence/absence and relative abundance of fish species, as well as fish assemblage composition, were assessed among historical and recent samples. The recent Powder River fish assemblage was characterized by increased relative abundances of sand shiner Notropis stramineus and plains killifish Fundulus zebrinus, and decreases in sturgeon chub Macrhybopsis gelida. Shifts in fish species relative abundance are linked to their reproductive ecology with species with adhesive eggs generally increasing in relative abundance while those with buoyant drifting eggs are decreasing. Assemblage shifts could be the result of landscape level changes, such as the loss of extreme high and low flow events and changing land use practices.

  1. Deconstructing host-pathogen interactions in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethan Bier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many of the cellular mechanisms underlying host responses to pathogens have been well conserved during evolution. As a result, Drosophila can be used to deconstruct many of the key events in host-pathogen interactions by using a wealth of well-developed molecular and genetic tools. In this review, we aim to emphasize the great leverage provided by the suite of genomic and classical genetic approaches available in flies for decoding details of host-pathogen interactions; these findings can then be applied to studies in higher organisms. We first briefly summarize the general strategies by which Drosophila resists and responds to pathogens. We then focus on how recently developed genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi screens conducted in cells and flies, combined with classical genetic methods, have provided molecular insight into host-pathogen interactions, covering examples of bacteria, fungi and viruses. Finally, we discuss novel strategies for how flies can be used as a tool to examine how specific isolated virulence factors act on an intact host.

  2. CityEvents : Place Selling in a Media Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rennen, Ward

    2007-01-01

    Large international events like the Olympic Games put cities on the world map. CityEvents, place selling in a Media Age addresses the question how cities have been raising their profile internationally by hosting large international events throughout the twentieth century. It explores this question

  3. Managing mega event strategy: the case of Rotterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Using mega event to increase competitiveness and position cities on the world stage has been an important strategy for many Dutch cities in the post industrial era. However, how mega event works in the practice and to what extent these mega events stimulate urban transformation process of the host c

  4. Managing mega event strategy: the case of Rotterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Using mega event to increase competitiveness and position cities on the world stage has been an important strategy for many Dutch cities in the post industrial era. However, how mega event works in the practice and to what extent these mega events stimulate urban transformation process of the host c

  5. Disentangling hybridization and host colonization in parasitic roundworms of humans and pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Criscione, Charles D.; Anderson, Joel D; Sudimack, Dan; Peng, Weidong; Jha, Bharat; Williams-Blangero, Sarah; Timothy J C Anderson

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of cross-transmission and hybridization between parasites of humans and reservoir hosts is critical for understanding the evolution of the parasite and for implementing control programmes. There is now a consensus that populations of pig and human Ascaris (roundworms) show significant genetic subdivision. However, it is unclear whether this has resulted from a single or multiple host shift(s). Furthermore, previous molecular data have not been sufficient to determine whether sympatr...

  6. Economic impact of cultural events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Saayman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of events can hardly be described as a new one.  The aim of this paper is to determine the economic benefits of three major cultural events in South Africa to the host community.  Measuring the economic impact normally entails some estimation of the cash injection into a region by visitors and applying the relevant multiplier to arrive at a monetary estimate of the economic impact.  But few regions or municipal areas have detailed economic data to construct a type of input-output model and derive a multiplier.  The purpose of the methods used in this research were firstly to determine the estimated cash injection, secondly to estimate the size of leakages in the local economy and thirdly to derive an appropriate multiplier to estimate the economic impact of the event.

  7. International Sport Events: Improving Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Kerzaitė

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The report and the article will be a comprehensive analysis ofthe needs to improve the international sport events marketing.Highlighting the role of international sport events in contemporarysociety and the challenges in the context of globalization,comparing opinions of various authors about aspects of classificationand the benefits for host country. The article and the reportreveals the main existing problem encountered in organizinginternational sport events, estimated perspectives for solutionof this problem. Summarizes the international sport eventsopportunities, basically modernize marketing tools according tothe marketing mix correction based on systematic synthesis ofmarketing concepts and adaptation/standardization needs, themost important factors in the marketing mix for the excretion ofthe main marketing objectives. The article is based on the latestscientific literature analysis.

  8. Hijacking host cell highways: manipulation of the host actin cytoskeleton by obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punsiri M Colonne

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular bacterial pathogens replicate within eukaryotic cells and display unique adaptations that support key infection events including invasion, replication, immune evasion, and dissemination. From invasion to dissemination, all stages of the intracellular bacterial life cycle share the same three-dimensional cytosolic space containing the host cytoskeleton. For successful infection and replication, many pathogens hijack the cytoskeleton using effector proteins introduced into the host cytosol by specialized secretion systems. A subset of effectors contains eukaryotic-like motifs that mimic host proteins to exploit signaling and modify specific cytoskeletal components such as actin and microtubules. Cytoskeletal rearrangement promotes numerous events that are beneficial to the pathogen, including internalization of bacteria, subversion of cell intrinsic immunity, structural support for bacteria-containing vacuoles, altered vesicular trafficking, actin-dependent bacterial movement, and pathogen dissemination. This review highlights a diverse group of obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens that manipulate the host cytoskeleton to thrive within eukaryotic cells and discusses underlying molecular mechanisms that promote these dynamic host-pathogen interactions.

  9. Avian host defense peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuperus, Tryntsje; Coorens, M.; van Dijk, A.; Haagsman, H.P.

    2013-01-01

    Host defense peptides (HDPs) are important effector molecules of the innate immune system of vertebrates. These antimicrobial peptides are also present in invertebrates, plants and fungi. HDPs display broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities and fulfill an important role in the first line of defense

  10. SARS Pathogenesis: Host Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. de Lang (Anna)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWhile it is hypothesized that Sever Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in humans is caused by a disproportional immune response illustrated by inappropriate induction of inflammatory cytokines, the exact nature of the host response to SARS coronavirus (CoV) infection causing severe

  11. BEYOND RETROSPECTIVE ASSESSMENT SPORT EVENT ECONOMIC IMPACT STUDIES AS A MANAGEMENT TOOL FOR INFORMING EVENT ORGANIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Barajas, Angel; Coates, Dennis; Sanchez-Fernandez, Patricio

    2016-01-01

    Sport event promoters aim to organize them to get the best return on their investment. The purpose of this study is to learn better how to manage the event to maximize the benefit to the host area. Most studies on economic impact of sporting events focus on mega events or look for an impact in medium to large size cities. This study estimates the effect of a two-day event, the Rally Ourense, that takes place in a small town in Spain. Economic impact is estimated based on surveys of spectators...

  12. Neural correlates of cognitive set shifting in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Florian; Lange, Christian; Joop, Max; Seer, Caroline; Dengler, Reinhard; Kopp, Bruno; Petri, Susanne

    2016-12-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has been associated with executive dysfunction, particularly in the domain of cognitive set shifting. In a recent event-related potential (ERP) study, shifting-related cortical activity on a complex set-shifting paradigm was found to be attenuated in patients with ALS. Here, we investigated whether this ERP change could also be observed in a simplified set-shifting task adapted for potential clinical use, and in ALS patients without overt cognitive impairment. Twenty-six patients and 28 matched healthy controls (HC) completed a set-shifting paradigm involving two task rules and explicit task cues. Cue-locked ERPs were analyzed. ALS patients and HC did not differ in response latency or accuracy. In HC, cues that required shifting task rules elicited more positive parietal ERP waveforms than cues that signaled a rule repetition. This shifting-related amplitude modulation was absent in patients with ALS. The attenuation of ERP activity in ALS patients remained significant when participants with possible cognitive impairment were excluded. Electrophysiological measures can detect ALS-related changes in the neural substrates of set shifting even when these changes do not become apparent in neuropsychological assessment. These findings illustrate the potential utility of ERPs as indicators of cognitive change in ALS. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Shifts in flowering phenology reshape a subalpine plant community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CaraDonna, Paul J; Iler, Amy M; Inouye, David W

    2014-04-01

    Phenology--the timing of biological events--is highly sensitive to climate change. However, our general understanding of how phenology responds to climate change is based almost solely on incomplete assessments of phenology (such as first date of flowering) rather than on entire phenological distributions. Using a uniquely comprehensive 39-y flowering phenology dataset from the Colorado Rocky Mountains that contains more than 2 million flower counts, we reveal a diversity of species-level phenological shifts that bring into question the accuracy of previous estimates of long-term phenological change. For 60 species, we show that first, peak, and last flowering rarely shift uniformly and instead usually shift independently of one another, resulting in a diversity of phenological changes through time. Shifts in the timing of first flowering on average overestimate the magnitude of shifts in the timing of peak flowering, fail to predict shifts in the timing of last flowering, and underrepresent the number of species changing phenology in this plant community. Ultimately, this diversity of species-level phenological shifts contributes to altered coflowering patterns within the community, a redistribution of floral abundance across the season, and an expansion of the flowering season by more than I mo during the course of our study period. These results demonstrate the substantial reshaping of ecological communities that can be attributed to shifts in phenology.

  14. Regime shifts in resource management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zeeuw, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Resource management has to take account of the possibility of tipping points and regime shifts in ecological systems that provide the resources. This article focuses on the typical model of regime shifts in the ecological literature and analyzes optimal management and common-property issues when tra

  15. Work shifts in Emergency Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Recupero

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Emergency Medicine is known as a high stress specialty. The adverse effect of constantly rotating shifts is the single most important reason given for premature attrition from the field. In this work problems tied with night shift work will be taken into account and some solutions to reduce the impact of night work on the emergency physicians will be proposed.

  16. When unforeseen event become strategic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Vinther; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl

    2017-01-01

    This article acknowledges that strategising processes revolve around allowing for continual shifts in an uncertain environment to constructively shape the ways in which managers strategise. The research question pursued in this article is: ‘How do unforeseen events shape managerial strategising......?’ The theoretical background for this article is inspired by research done within the strategy-as-practice and strategy-in-practice communities and uses concepts such as strategic intent, wayfinding/wayfaring and temporal work to explore how the managers from the small Danish Software Company cooperated with actors...... in the mining industry. This cooperation was initially perceived as an unforeseen event but, incrementally and retrospectively, it became strategic. The main theoretical and practice-anchored findings draw attention to the roles that unforeseen events can play in shaping strategising. These findings underline...

  17. Metabolic impact of shift work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimberg, Ioná Zalcman; Fernandes Junior, Silvio A; Crispim, Cibele Aparecida; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Tulio

    2012-01-01

    In developing countries, shift work represents a considerable contingent workforce. Recently, studies have shown that overweight and obesity are more prevalent in shift workers than day workers. In addition, shift work has been associated with a higher propensity for the development of many metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance, diabetes, dislipidemias and metabolic syndrome. Recent data have pointed that decrease of the sleep time, desynchronization of circadian rhythm and alteration of environmental aspects are the main factors related to such problems. Shortened or disturbed sleep is among the most common health-related effects of shift work. The plausible physiological and biological mechanisms are related to the activation of the autonomic nervous system, inflammation, changes in lipid and glucose metabolism, and related changes in the risk for atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, and type II diabetes. The present review will discuss the impact of shift work on obesity and metabolic disorders and how disruption of sleep and circadian misalignment may contribute to these metabolic dysfunctions.

  18. Event Normalization Through Dynamic Log Format Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christoph Meinel

    2014-01-01

    The analytical and monitoring capabilities of central event re-positories, such as log servers and intrusion detection sys-tems, are limited by the amount of structured information ex-tracted from the events they receive. Diverse networks and ap-plications log their events in many different formats, and this makes it difficult to identify the type of logs being received by the central repository. The way events are logged by IT systems is problematic for developers of host-based intrusion-detection systems (specifically, host-based systems), develop-ers of security-information systems, and developers of event-management systems. These problems preclude the develop-ment of more accurate, intrusive security solutions that obtain results from data included in the logs being processed. We propose a new method for dynamically normalizing events into a unified super-event that is loosely based on the Common Event Expression standard developed by Mitre Corporation. We explain how our solution can normalize seemingly unrelat-ed events into a single, unified format.

  19. Regime shifts limit the predictability of land-system change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Daniel; Sun, Zhanli; Vongvisouk, Thoumthone

    2014-01-01

    (China, Laos, Vietnam and Indonesia). The results show how sudden events and gradual changes in underlying drivers caused rapid, surprising and widespread land-system changes, including shifts to different regimes in China, Vietnam and Indonesia, whereas land systems in Laos remained stable in the study...

  20. Decreased heart rate variability in surgeons during night shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amirian, Ilda; Toftegård Andersen, Lærke; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Heart rate variability (HRV) has been used as a measure of stress and mental strain in surgeons. Low HRV has been associated with death and increased risk of cardiac events in the general population. The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of a 17-hour night shift on surgeons'...

  1. A System to Integrate Unmanned Undersea Vehicles with a Submarine Host Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-06

    UUV/HostSub X X F.3.2 Transfer data from/to UUV X F.3.3 Transfer data from/to HostSub X F.3.4 Repower UUV X F.3.5 Release connection with UUV/HostSub X...HostSub, along with repowering of the UUV. These events may occur in parallel. Once the system has determined that the UUV is repowered and all

  2. Temporal isolation explains host-related genetic differentiation in a group of widespread mycoparasitic fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, Levente; Pintye, Alexandra; Kovács, Gábor M; Jankovics, Tünde; Fontaine, Michael C; Harvey, Nick; Xu, Xiangming; Nicot, Philippe C; Bardin, Marc; Shykoff, Jacqui A; Giraud, Tatiana

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms responsible for divergence and specialization of pathogens on different hosts is of fundamental importance, especially in the context of the emergence of new diseases via host shifts. Temporal isolation has been reported in a few plants and parasites, but is probably one

  3. Characterization of exoplanet hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valenti Jeff A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Spectroscopic analysis of exoplanet hosts and the stellar sample from which they are drawn provides abundances and other properties that quantitively constrain models of planet formation. The program Spectroscopy Made Easy (SME determines stellar parameters by fitting observed spectra, though line lists must be selected wisely. For giant planets, it is now well established that stars with higher metallicity are more likely to have detected companions. Stellar metallicity does not seem to affect the formation and/or migration of detectable planets less massive than Neptune, especially when considering only the most massive planet in the system. In systems with at least one planet less than 10 times the mass of Earth, the mass of the most massive planet increases dramatically with host star metallicity. This may reflect metallicity dependent timescales for core formation, envelope accretion, and/or migration into the detection zone.

  4. Explaining (Missing) Regulator Paradigm Shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigger, Angela; Buch-Hansen, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    of competition regulation is heaving into sight. It sets out to explain this from the vantage point of a critical political economy perspective, which identifies the circumstances under which a crisis can result in a regulatory paradigm shift. Contrasting the current situation with the shift in EC/EU competition...... capitalism; the social power configuration underpinning the neoliberal order remains unaltered; no clear counter-project has surfaced; the European Commission has been (and remains) in a position to oppose radical changes; and finally, there are no signs of a wider paradigm shift in the EU's regulatory...

  5. HostPhinder: A Phage Host Prediction Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villarroel, Julia; Kleinheinz, Kortine Annina; Jurtz, Vanessa Isabell

    2016-01-01

    The current dramatic increase of antibiotic resistant bacteria has revitalised the interest in bacteriophages as alternative antibacterial treatment. Meanwhile, the development of bioinformatics methods for analysing genomic data places high-throughput approaches for phage characterization within...... reach. Here, we present HostPhinder, a tool aimed at predicting the bacterial host of phages by examining the phage genome sequence. Using a reference database of 2196 phages with known hosts, HostPhinder predicts the host species of a query phage as the host of the most genomically similar reference...... phages. As a measure of genomic similarity the number of co-occurring k-mers (DNA sequences of length k) is used. Using an independent evaluation set, HostPhinder was able to correctly predict host genus and species for 81% and 74% of the phages respectively, giving predictions for more phages than BLAST...

  6. Event Index - an LHCb Event Search System

    CERN Document Server

    Ustyuzhanin, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    During LHC Run 1, the LHCb experiment recorded around 1011 collision events. This paper describes Event Index | an event search system. Its primary function is to quickly select subsets of events from a combination of conditions, such as the estimated decay channel or number of hits in a subdetector. Event Index is essentially Apache Lucene [1] optimized for read-only indexes distributed over independent shards on independent nodes.

  7. Improve Your Wine Sales:Host a Wine Tasting Evening

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, James Peter

    2011-01-01

    Wine sales have grown in Ireland, wine distributors have improved their portfolios in response to heightened competition in the marketplace. For publicans the increased interest in wine has created new opportunities for bars to form small wine clubs or host regular wine tasting evenings for customers. This article highlights the points to remember when hosting regular wine tasting events. Remember wine tasting is intelligent drinking for customers it is an exercise in verbalising what they ar...

  8. Digeneans of cetaceans: taxonomy, evolutionary history and host specificity.

    OpenAIRE

    Fraija Fernández, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Parasitism is an extremely successful lifestyle among animals. In fact, every free-living organism is believed to harbour at least a parasite species, and cetaceans are not the exception. Host-parasite systems offer a suitable model for studying systematics, evolution, biogeography and ecology because the evolutionary fate of parasites is linked to that of their hosts. In particular, present-day associations between cetaceans and their parasites have been shaped by unique historical events. T...

  9. Confounding effects of spatial variation on shifts in phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Keyzer, Charlotte W; Rafferty, Nicole E; Inouye, David W; Thomson, James D

    2017-05-01

    Shifts in the timing of life history events have become an important source of information about how organisms are responding to climate change. Phenological data have generally been treated as purely temporal, with scant attention to the inherent spatial aspects of such data. However, phenological data are tied to a specific location, and considerations of sampling design, both over space and through time, can critically affect the patterns that emerge. Focusing on flowering phenology, we describe how purely spatial shifts, such as adding new study plots, or the colonization of a study plot by a new species, can masquerade as temporal shifts. Such shifts can look like responses to climate change but are not. Furthermore, the same aggregate phenological curves can be composed of individuals with either very different or very similar phenologies. We conclude with a set of recommendations to avoid ambiguities arising from the spatiotemporal duality of phenological data.

  10. Spacecraft-to-Earth Communications for Juno and Mars Science Laboratory Critical Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Melissa; Finley, Susan; Jongeling, Andre; Fort, David; Goodhart, Charles; Rogstad, David; Navarro, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Deep Space communications typically utilize closed loop receivers and Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) or Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK). Critical spacecraft events include orbit insertion and entry, descent, and landing.---Low gain antennas--> low signal -to-noise-ratio.---High dynamics such as parachute deployment or spin --> Doppler shift. During critical events, open loop receivers and Multiple Frequency Shift Keying (MFSK) used. Entry, Descent, Landing (EDL) Data Analysis (EDA) system detects tones in real-time.

  11. Spacecraft-to-Earth Communications for Juno and Mars Science Laboratory Critical Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Melissa; Finley, Susan; Jongeling, Andre; Fort, David; Goodhart, Charles; Rogstad, David; Navarro, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Deep Space communications typically utilize closed loop receivers and Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) or Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK). Critical spacecraft events include orbit insertion and entry, descent, and landing.---Low gain antennas--> low signal -to-noise-ratio.---High dynamics such as parachute deployment or spin --> Doppler shift. During critical events, open loop receivers and Multiple Frequency Shift Keying (MFSK) used. Entry, Descent, Landing (EDL) Data Analysis (EDA) system detects tones in real-time.

  12. Gastrointestinal events with clopidogrel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grove, Erik Lerkevang; Würtz, Morten; Schwarz, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Clopidogrel prevents cardiovascular events, but has been linked with adverse gastrointestinal (GI) complications, particularly bleeding events.......Clopidogrel prevents cardiovascular events, but has been linked with adverse gastrointestinal (GI) complications, particularly bleeding events....

  13. VP Anaphors and Object Shift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsnes, Bjarne

    2013-01-01

    The article discusses the placement of the VP anaphor det ‘it’ as a complement of verbs selecting VP complements in Danish. With verbs that only allow a VP complement, the VP anaphor must be in SpecCP regardless of its information structure properties. If SpecCP is occupied by an operator, the an...... be in situ. The article argues that a shifted pronominal in Danish must be categorially licensed by the verb and extends this analysis to shifting locatives. An Optimality Theory analysis is proposed that accounts for the observed facts......., the anaphor can be in situ, but it cannot shift. With verbs that allow its VP complement to alternate with an NP complement, the VP anaphor can be in SpecCP, shifted or in situ according to the information structural properties of the anaphor. Only if SpecCP is occupied by an operator, must a topical anaphor...

  14. Shift Work: Improving Daytime Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sleeping during the day. Do you have any sleep tips for shift workers? Answers from Timothy Morgenthaler, ... to be awake during the day and to sleep at night. Good daytime sleep is possible, though, ...

  15. Radio Afterglows and Host Galaxies of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Long-Biao; Huang, Yong-Feng; Wu, Xue-Feng; Kong, Si-Wei; Li, Di; Chang, Heon-Young; Choi, Chul-Sung

    2015-01-01

    Considering the contribution of the emission from the host galaxies of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) to the radio afterglows, we investigate the effect of host galaxies on observations statistically. For the three types of events, e.g. low-luminosity, standard and high-luminosity GRBs, it is found that a tight correlation exists between the ratio of the radio flux (RRF) of host galaxy to the total radio peak emission and the observational frequency. Especially, toward lower frequencies, the contribution from the host increases significantly. The correlation can be used to get a useful estimate for the radio brightness of those host galaxies which only have very limited radio afterglow data. Using this prediction, we re-considered the theoretical radio afterglow light curves for four kinds of events, i.e. high-luminosity, low-luminosity, standard and failed GRBs, taking into account the contribution from the host galaxies and aiming at exploring the detectability of these events by the Five-hundred-meter Aperture Sp...

  16. Goos-Hänchen shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, A W; Love, J D

    1976-01-01

    An extremely simple derivation of the Goos-Hänchen shift is presented for total internal reflection at a plane interface between two semiinfinite dielectric media, as well as for optical waveguides of plane arid circular cross section. The derivation is based on energy considerations, requires knowledge of Fresnel's equation only, and shows explicitly that the shift is due to the flow of energy across the dielectric boundary.

  17. Colonization dynamics of ciliate morphotypes modified by shifting sandy sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risse-Buhl, Ute; Felsmann, Katja; Mutz, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Sandy stream-bed sediments colonized by a diverse ciliate community are subject to various disturbance regimes. In microcosms, we investigated the effect of sediment shifting on the colonization dynamics of 3 ciliate morphotypes differing in morphology, behavior and feeding strategy. The dynamics of the ciliate morphotypes inhabiting sediment pore water and overlying water were observed at 3 sediment shifting frequencies: (1) stable sediments, (2) periodically shifting sediments such as migrating ripples, and (3) continuously shifting sediments as occurring during scour events of the uppermost sediment. Sediment shifting significantly affected the abundance and growth rate of the ciliate morphotypes. The free-swimming filter feeder Dexiostoma campylum was vulnerable to washout by sediment shifting since significantly higher numbers occurred in the overlying water than in pore water. Abundance of D. campylum only increased in pore water of stable sediments. On the contrary, the vagile grasper feeder Chilodonella uncinata and the sessile filter feeder Vorticella convallaria had positive growth rates and successfully colonized sediments that shifted periodically and continuously. Thus, the spatio-temporal pattern of sediment dynamics acts as an essential factor of impact on the structure, distribution and function of ciliate communities in sand-bed streams.

  18. Creating Special Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    deLisle, Lee

    2009-01-01

    "Creating Special Events" is organized as a systematic approach to festivals and events for students who seek a career in event management. This book looks at the evolution and history of festivals and events and proceeds to the nuts and bolts of event management. The book presents event management as the means of planning, organizing, directing,…

  19. Ancient DNA from coral-hosted Symbiodinium reveal a static mutualism over the last 172 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Baker

    Full Text Available Ancient DNA (aDNA provides powerful evidence for detecting the genetic basis for adaptation to environmental change in many taxa. Among the greatest of changes in our biosphere within the last century is rapid anthropogenic ocean warming. This phenomenon threatens corals with extinction, evidenced by the increasing observation of widespread mortality following mass bleaching events. There is some evidence and conjecture that coral-dinoflagellate symbioses change partnerships in response to changing external conditions over ecological and evolutionary timescales. Until now, we have been unable to ascertain the genetic identity of Symbiodinium hosted by corals prior to the rapid global change of the last century. Here, we show that Symbiodinium cells recovered from dry, century old specimens of 6 host species of octocorals contain sufficient DNA for amplification of the ITS2 subregion of the nuclear ribosomal DNA, commonly used for genotyping within this genus. Through comparisons with modern specimens sampled from similar locales we show that symbiotic associations among several species have been static over the last century, thereby suggesting that adaptive shifts to novel symbiont types is not common among these gorgonians, and perhaps, symbiotic corals in general.

  20. Population mixing promotes arms race host-parasite coevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Pedro; Ashby, Ben; Buckling, Angus

    2015-01-07

    The consequences of host-parasite coevolution are highly contingent on the qualitative coevolutionary dynamics: whether selection fluctuates (fluctuating selection dynamic; FSD), or is directional towards increasing infectivity/resistance (arms race dynamic; ARD). Both genetics and ecology can play an important role in determining whether coevolution follows FSD or ARD, but the ecological conditions under which FSD shifts to ARD, and vice versa, are not well understood. The degree of population mixing is thought to increase host exposure to parasites, hence selecting for greater resistance and infectivity ranges, and we hypothesize this promotes ARD. We tested this by coevolving bacteria and viruses in soil microcosms and found that population mixing shifted bacteria-virus coevolution from FSD to ARD. A simple theoretical model produced qualitatively similar results, showing that mechanisms that increase host exposure to parasites tend to push dynamics towards ARD. The shift from FSD to ARD with increased population mixing may help to explain variation in coevolutionary dynamics between different host-parasite systems, and more specifically the observed discrepancies between laboratory and field bacteria-virus coevolutionary studies.

  1. Illuminating coronavirus-host interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaben, M.

    2009-01-01

    Viruses are infectious agents incapable of growing or reproducing outside a host cell. They are completely dependent on the cellular machinery of the host for their multiplication. On the other hand, however, viruses also have to deal with the immune defences of the host. Apparently, viruses are wal

  2. HostPhinder: A Phage Host Prediction Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Villarroel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The current dramatic increase of antibiotic resistant bacteria has revitalised the interest in bacteriophages as alternative antibacterial treatment. Meanwhile, the development of bioinformatics methods for analysing genomic data places high-throughput approaches for phage characterization within reach. Here, we present HostPhinder, a tool aimed at predicting the bacterial host of phages by examining the phage genome sequence. Using a reference database of 2196 phages with known hosts, HostPhinder predicts the host species of a query phage as the host of the most genomically similar reference phages. As a measure of genomic similarity the number of co-occurring k-mers (DNA sequences of length k is used. Using an independent evaluation set, HostPhinder was able to correctly predict host genus and species for 81% and 74% of the phages respectively, giving predictions for more phages than BLAST and significantly outperforming BLAST on phages for which both had predictions. HostPhinder predictions on phage draft genomes from the INTESTI phage cocktail corresponded well with the advertised targets of the cocktail. Our study indicates that for most phages genomic similarity correlates well with related bacterial hosts. HostPhinder is available as an interactive web service [1] and as a stand alone download from the Docker registry [2].

  3. Adaptive radiation of gall-inducing insects within a single host-plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Jeffrey B; Crespi, Bernard J

    2007-04-01

    Speciation of plant-feeding insects is typically associated with host-plant shifts, with subsequent divergent selection and adaptation to the ecological conditions associated with the new plant. However, a few insect groups have apparently undergone speciation while remaining on the same host-plant species, and such radiations may provide novel insights into the causes of adaptive radiation. We used mitochondrial and nuclear DNA to infer a phylogeny for 14 species of gall-inducing Asphondylia flies (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) found on Larrea tridentata (creosote bush), which have been considered to be monophyletic based on morphological evidence. Our phylogenetic analyses provide strong support for extensive within-host plant speciation in this group, and it demonstrates that diversification has involved numerous shifts between different plant organs (leaves, buds, flowers, and stems) of the same host-plant species. Within-plant speciation of Asphondylia is thus apparently facilitated by the opportunity to partition the plant ecologically. One clade exhibits temporal isolation among species, which may have facilitated divergence via allochronic shifts. Using a novel method based on Bayesian reconstruction, we show that the rate of change in an ecomorphological trait, ovipositor length, was significantly higher along branches with inferred shifts between host-plant organs than along branches without such shifts. This finding suggests that Larrea gall midges exhibit close morphological adaptation to specific host-plant parts, which may mediate ecological transitions via disruptive selection.

  4. CERN hosts Physics and Society Forum

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    On 28-29 March, CERN hosted the fifth edition of the European Physical Society's “Physics and Society” forum. The forum addresses the role of physicists in general society – be they in education, politics, industry or communication. This year, attendees looked at how physicists have adapted - and can continue to adapt - to work in the economic marketplace.   “The forums began back in 2006, as a special closing event for the 2005 World Year of Physics,” explains Martial Ducloy, former President of the French Physical Society and Chair of the EPS Forum Physics and Society. “We decided to keep the sessions going, as they gave physicists a venue to discuss the non-scientific issues that influence their daily work. As the world's largest international physics laboratory – and the venue for this year's EPS Council – CERN seemed the ideal place to host this year's forum.” The forum ...

  5. Parasite zoonoses and climate change: molecular tools for tracking shifting boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polley, Lydden; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2009-06-01

    For human, domestic animal and wildlife health, key effects of directional climate change include the risk of the altered occurrence of infectious diseases. Many parasite zoonoses have high potential for vulnerability to the new climate, in part because their free-living life-cycle stages and ectothermic hosts are directly exposed to climatic conditions. For these zoonoses, climate change can shift boundaries for ecosystem components and processes integral to parasite transmission and persistence, and these shifts can impact host health. Vulnerable boundaries include those for spatial distributions, host-parasite assemblages, demographic rates, life-cycle phenologies, associations within ecosystems, virulence, and patterns of infection and disease. This review describes these boundary shifts and how molecular techniques can be applied to defining the new boundaries.

  6. The Drosophila melanogaster host model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igboin, Christina O.; Griffen, Ann L.; Leys, Eugene J.

    2012-01-01

    The deleterious and sometimes fatal outcomes of bacterial infectious diseases are the net result of the interactions between the pathogen and the host, and the genetically tractable fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has emerged as a valuable tool for modeling the pathogen–host interactions of a wide variety of bacteria. These studies have revealed that there is a remarkable conservation of bacterial pathogenesis and host defence mechanisms between higher host organisms and Drosophila. This review presents an in-depth discussion of the Drosophila immune response, the Drosophila killing model, and the use of the model to examine bacterial–host interactions. The recent introduction of the Drosophila model into the oral microbiology field is discussed, specifically the use of the model to examine Porphyromonas gingivalis–host interactions, and finally the potential uses of this powerful model system to further elucidate oral bacterial-host interactions are addressed. PMID:22368770

  7. The Drosophila melanogaster host model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina O. Igboin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The deleterious and sometimes fatal outcomes of bacterial infectious diseases are the net result of the interactions between the pathogen and the host, and the genetically tractable fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has emerged as a valuable tool for modeling the pathogen–host interactions of a wide variety of bacteria. These studies have revealed that there is a remarkable conservation of bacterial pathogenesis and host defence mechanisms between higher host organisms and Drosophila. This review presents an in-depth discussion of the Drosophila immune response, the Drosophila killing model, and the use of the model to examine bacterial–host interactions. The recent introduction of the Drosophila model into the oral microbiology field is discussed, specifically the use of the model to examine Porphyromonas gingivalis–host interactions, and finally the potential uses of this powerful model system to further elucidate oral bacterial-host interactions are addressed.

  8. Past climate-driven range shifts and population genetic diversity in arctic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pellissier, Loïc; Eidesen, Pernille Bronken; Ehrich, Dorothee

    2016-01-01

    High intra-specific genetic diversity is necessary for species adaptation to novel environments under climate change, but species tracking suitable conditions are losing alleles through successive founder events during range shift. Here, we investigated the relationship between range shift since ...

  9. Shifting visual perspective during memory retrieval reduces the accuracy of subsequent memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotti, Petra; St Jacques, Peggy L

    2017-05-28

    Memories for events can be retrieved from visual perspectives that were never experienced, reflecting the dynamic and reconstructive nature of memories. Characteristics of memories can be altered when shifting from an own eyes perspective, the way most events are initially experienced, to an observer perspective, in which one sees oneself in the memory. Moreover, recent evidence has linked these retrieval-related effects of visual perspective to subsequent changes in memories. Here we examine how shifting visual perspective influences the accuracy of subsequent memories for complex events encoded in the lab. Participants performed a series of mini-events that were experienced from their own eyes, and were later asked to retrieve memories for these events while maintaining the own eyes perspective or shifting to an alternative observer perspective. We then examined how shifting perspective during retrieval modified memories by influencing the accuracy of recall on a final memory test. Across two experiments, we found that shifting visual perspective reduced the accuracy of subsequent memories and that reductions in vividness when shifting visual perspective during retrieval predicted these changes in the accuracy of memories. Our findings suggest that shifting from an own eyes to an observer perspective influences the accuracy of long-term memories.

  10. Solar Eruptive Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Gordon D.

    2012-01-01

    It s long been known that the Sun plays host to the most energetic explosions in the solar system. But key insights into the forms that energy takes have only recently become available. Solar flares have been phenomena of both academic and practical interest since their discovery in 1859. From the academic point of view, they are the nearest events for studying the explosive release of energy in astrophysical magnetized plasmas. From the practical point of view, they disrupt communication channels on Earth, from telegraph communications in 1859 to radio and television signals today. Flares also wreak havoc on the electrical power grid, satellite operations, and GPS signals, and energetic charged particles and radiation are dangerous to passengers on high-altitude polar flights and to astronauts. Flares are not the only explosive phenomena on the Sun. More difficult to observe but equally energetic are the large coronal mass ejections (CMEs), the ejection of up to ten billion tons of magnetized plasma into the solar wind at speeds that can exceed 1000 km/s. CMEs are primarily observed from the side, with coronagraphs that block out the bright disk of the Sun and lower solar atmosphere so that light scattered from the ejected mass can be seen. Major geomagnetic storms are now known to arise from the interaction of CMEs with Earth's magnetosphere. Solar flares are observed without CMEs, and CMEs are observed without flares. The two phenomena often occur together, however, and almost always do in the case of large flares and fast CMEs. The term solar eruptive event refers to the combination of a flare and a CME. Solar eruptive events generate a lot of heat: They can heat plasma to temperatures as high at 50 million Kelvin, producing radiation across the electromagnetic spectrum. But that s not all. A fascinating aspect of solar eruptive events is the acceleration of electrons and ions to suprathermal often relativistic energies. The accelerated particles are primarily

  11. Does the ARFIMA really shift?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monache, Davide Delle; Grassi, Stefano; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    Short memory models contaminated by level shifts have long-memory features similar to those associated to processes generated under fractional integration. In this paper, we propose a robust testing procedure, based on an encompassing parametric specification, that allows to disentangle the level...... the highest power compared to other existing tests for spurious long-memory. Finally, we illustrate the usefulness of the proposed approach on the daily series of bipower variation and share turnover and on the monthly inflation series of G7 countries....... shift term from the ARFIMA component. The estimation is carried out via a state-space methodology and it leads to a robust estimate of the fractional integration parameter also in presence of level shifts.The Monte Carlo simulations show that this approach produces unbiased estimates of the fractional...

  12. A chemical level in the coevolutionary arms race between an ant social parasite and its hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, M; Heinze, J; Schmitt, T; Foitzik, S

    2005-05-01

    Here we investigate the coevolutionary interactions between the slavemaking ant Protomognathus americanus and its Temnothorax hosts on a chemical level. We show that, although this social parasite is principally well-adapted to its hosts' cuticular hydrocarbon profile, there are pronounced differences in the fine-tuning of this adaptation. Between populations, chemical adaptation varies with host community composition, as the parasite faces a trade-off when confronted with more than one host species. In addition to adaptation of its own chemical signature, the slavemaker causes a reciprocal adjustment in its slaves' cuticular profile, the degree of which depends on the slave species. On the host side, successful parasite defence requires efficient enemy recognition, and in behavioural aggression trials, host colonies could indeed discriminate between invading slaves, which commonly accompany slavemakers on raids, and free-living conspecifics. Furthermore, hosts shifted their acceptance threshold over the seasons, presumably to reduce the costs of defence.

  13. Butterfly community shifts over two centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habel, Jan Christian; Segerer, Andreas; Ulrich, Werner; Torchyk, Olena; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Schmitt, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Environmental changes strongly impact the distribution of species and subsequently the composition of species assemblages. Although most community ecology studies represent temporal snap shots, long-term observations are rather rare. However, only such time series allow the identification of species composition shifts over several decades or even centuries. We analyzed changes in the species composition of a southeastern German butterfly and burnet moth community over nearly 2 centuries (1840-2013). We classified all species observed over this period according to their ecological tolerance, thereby assessing their degree of habitat specialisation. This classification was based on traits of the butterfly and burnet moth species and on their larval host plants. We collected data on temperature and precipitation for our study area over the same period. The number of species declined substantially from 1840 (117 species) to 2013 (71 species). The proportion of habitat specialists decreased, and most of these are currently endangered. In contrast, the proportion of habitat generalists increased. Species with restricted dispersal behavior and species in need of areas poor in soil nutrients had severe losses. Furthermore, our data indicated a decrease in species composition similarity between different decades over time. These data on species composition changes and the general trends of modifications may reflect effects from climate change and atmospheric nitrogen loads, as indicated by the ecological characteristics of host plant species and local changes in habitat configuration with increasing fragmentation. Our observation of major declines over time of currently threatened and protected species shows the importance of efficient conservation strategies. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  14. Event Segmentation Ability Uniquely Predicts Event Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Jesse Q.; Zacks, Jeffrey M.; Hambrick, David Z.; Zacks, Rose T.; Kurby, Christopher A.; Bailey, Heather R.; Eisenberg, Michelle L.; Beck, Taylor M.

    2013-01-01

    Memory for everyday events plays a central role in tasks of daily living, autobiographical memory, and planning. Event memory depends in part on segmenting ongoing activity into meaningful units. This study examined the relationship between event segmentation and memory in a lifespan sample to answer the following question: Is the ability to segment activity into meaningful events a unique predictor of subsequent memory, or is the relationship between event perception and memory accounted for by general cognitive abilities? Two hundred and eight adults ranging from 20 to 79 years old segmented movies of everyday events and attempted to remember the events afterwards. They also completed psychometric ability tests and tests measuring script knowledge for everyday events. Event segmentation and script knowledge both explained unique variance in event memory above and beyond the psychometric measures, and did so as strongly in older as in younger adults. These results suggest that event segmentation is a basic cognitive mechanism, important for memory across the lifespan. PMID:23942350

  15. Host niches and defensive extended phenotypes structure parasitoid wasp communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Bailey

    2009-08-01

    spatiotemporal traits on community structure can be high, reaching 62% in one analysis. The observed patterns derive mainly from partial niche specialisation of highly generalist parasitoids with broad host ranges (>20 hosts, rather than strict separation of enemies with narrower host ranges, and so may contribute to maintenance of the richness of generalist parasitoids in gallwasp communities. Though evolutionary escape from parasitoids might most effectively be achieved via changes in host oak taxon, extreme conservatism in this trait for gallwasps suggests that selection is more likely to have acted on gall morphology and location. Any escape from parasitoids associated with evolutionary shifts in these traits has probably only been transient, however, due to subsequent recruitment of parasitoid species already attacking other host galls with similar trait combinations.

  16. Avian host defense peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuperus, Tryntsje; Coorens, Maarten; van Dijk, Albert; Haagsman, Henk P

    2013-11-01

    Host defense peptides (HDPs) are important effector molecules of the innate immune system of vertebrates. These antimicrobial peptides are also present in invertebrates, plants and fungi. HDPs display broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities and fulfill an important role in the first line of defense of many organisms. It is becoming increasingly clear that in the animal kingdom the functions of HDPs are not confined to direct antimicrobial actions. Research in mammals has indicated that HDPs have many immunomodulatory functions and are also involved in other physiological processes ranging from development to wound healing. During the past five years our knowledge about avian HDPs has increased considerably. This review addresses our current knowledge on the evolution, regulation and biological functions of HDPs of birds.

  17. Host Integration Server 2004

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PaulThurrott; 杨岩

    2005-01-01

    微软发布的Host Integration Server(HIS)2004,是IBM大型主机集成服务器的一个重要的更新,添加了一些重要的新特点和改进。与大多数微软公司协同工作的产品不同,HIS 2004的设计目的是为了移植,而不是纯粹的集成,事实上它将会帮助客户从现有的传统平台中得到更多的价值——在这种情况下,所指的产品就是IBM大型主机和iSeries(也就是以前的AS/400)系列机型。

  18. Holter and Event Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Holter and Event Monitors Also known as ambulatory EKG; continuous EKG; EKG event monitors. Holter and event monitors are small, portable electrocardiogram devices ...

  19. Magnetospheric state of sawtooth events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Shing F.; Tepper, Julia A.; Cai, Xia

    2016-08-01

    Magnetospheric sawtooth events, first identified in the early 1990s, are named for their characteristic appearance of multiple quasiperiodic intervals of slow decrease followed by sharp increase of proton differential energy fluxes in the geosynchronous region. The successive proton flux oscillations have been interpreted as recurrences of stretching and dipolarization of the nightside geomagnetic field. Due to their often extended intervals with 2-10 cycles, sawteeth occurrences are sometimes referred to as a magnetospheric mode. While studies of sawtooth events over the past two decades have yielded a wealth of information about such events, the magnetospheric state conditions for the occurrence of sawtooth events and how sawtooth oscillations may depend on the magnetospheric state conditions remain unclear. In this study, we investigate the characteristic magnetospheric state conditions (specified by Psw interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Btot, IMF Bz Vsw, AE, Kp and Dst, all time shifted with respect to one another) associated with the intervals before, during, and after sawteeth occurrences. Applying a previously developed statistical technique, we have determined the most probable magnetospheric states propitious for the development and occurrence of sawtooth events, respectively. The statistically determined sawtooth magnetospheric state has also been validated by using out-of-sample events, confirming the notion that sawtooth intervals might represent a particular global state of the magnetosphere. We propose that the "sawtooth state" of the magnetosphere may be a state of marginal stability in which a slight enhancement in the loading rate of an otherwise continuous loading process can send the magnetosphere into the marginally unstable regime, causing it to shed limited amount of energy quickly and return to the marginally stable regime with the loading process continuing. Sawtooth oscillations result as the magnetosphere switches between the marginally

  20. Spatial methods for event reconstruction in CLEAN

    CERN Document Server

    Coakley, K J; Coakley, Kevin J.; Kinsey, Daniel N. Mc

    2004-01-01

    In CLEAN (Cryogenic Low Energy Astrophysics with Noble gases), a proposed neutrino and dark matter detector, background discrimination is possible if one can determine the location of an ionizing radiation event with high accuracy. We simulate ionizing radiation events that produce multiple scintillation photons within a spherical detection volume filled with liquid neon. We estimate the radial location of a particular ionizing radiation event based on the observed count data corresponding to that event. The count data are collected by detectors mounted at the spherical boundary of the detection volume. We neglect absorption, but account for Rayleigh scattering. To account for wavelength-shifting of the scintillation light, we assume that photons are absorbed and re-emitted at the detectors. Here, we develop spatial Maximum Likelihood methods for event reconstruction, and study their performance in computer simulation experiments. We also study a method based on the centroid of the observed count data. We cal...

  1. Keterlibatan Event Stakeholders pada Keberhasilan Event PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidya Wati Evelina

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to determine how event organizers collaborate with stakeholders including the media, particular community, sponsors, participants, venue providers, accommodation providers, carteres, legal and finance personnel, production, local trade, transportation providers, government and associations for implementation Public Relations event. This paper discusses about the things that must be done for the cooperation and the benefits of cooperation undertaken. The method used in this paper is qualitative research method based on observations, literature and case studies. The results of this research note that the event organizers or companies can together with the stakeholders (the other party make an event as mutually beneficial Public Relations. This means that all parties can achieve through the event. At the conclusion of an event Public Relations, all stakeholders involved for their own purposes. Event organizer must ensure that all stakeholders work together effectively in accordance with the agreed schedule and budget. One important feature of the agreement is to maintain a good flow of communication according to the needs of its stakeholders. All information is documented to avoid misunderstandings. Collaboration between stakeholders continuously until the event is completed. Discussion of issues that arise during the event takes place between the committee with various stakeholders is an important thing for the evaluation and response to the events that occurred.

  2. Anthropometric changes and fluid shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, W. E.; Hoffler, G. W.; Rummel, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    Several observations of body size, shape, posture, and configuration were made to document changes resulting from direct effects of weightlessness during the Skylab 4 mission. After the crewmen were placed in orbit, a number of anatomical and anthropometric changes occurred including a straightening of the thoracolumbar spine, a general decrease in truncal girth, and an increase in height. By the time of the earliest in-flight measurement on mission day 3, all crewmen had lost more than two liters of extravascular fluid from the calf and thigh. The puffy facies, the bird legs effect, the engorgement of upper body veins, and the reduced volume of lower body veins were all documented with photographs. Center-of-mass measurements confirmed a fluid shift cephalad. This shift remained throughout the mission until recovery, when a sharp reversal occurred; a major portion of the reversal was completed in a few hours. The anatomical changes are of considerable scientific interest and of import to the human factors design engineer, but the shifts of blood and extravascular fluid are of more consequence. It is hypothesized that the driving force for the fluid shift is the intrinsic and unopposed lower limb elasticity that forces venous blood and then other fluid cephalad.

  3. Environmental Protection: a shifting focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. ir. Jan Venselaar

    2004-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a fundamental change in the way chemistry handles environmental issues. A shift in focus has occurred from 'end-of-pipe' to prevention and process integration. Presently an even more fundamental change is brought about by the need for sustainable development. It is

  4. Wavelength-shifted Cherenkov radiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krider, E. P.; Jacobson, V. L.; Pifer, A. E.; Polakos, P. A.; Kurz, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The scintillation and Cherenkov responses of plastic Cherenkov radiators containing different wavelength-shifting fluors in varying concentrations have been studied in beams of low energy protons and pions. For cosmic ray applications, where large Cherenkov to scintillation ratios are desired, the optimum fluor concentrations are 0.000025 by weight or less.

  5. The Shift Needed for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter A. C.; Sharicz, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this action research is to begin to assess to what extent organizations have in practice begun to make the shift towards triple bottom line (TBL) sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: A definition of TBL sustainability is provided, and key elements of TBL sustainability considered necessary to success are identified…

  6. Crichton's phase-shift ambiguity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atkinson, D.; Johnson, P.W.; Mehta, N.; Roo, M. de

    1973-01-01

    A re-examination of the SPD phase-shift ambiguity is made with a view to understanding certain singular features of the elastic unitarity constraint. An explicit solution of Crichton's equations is presented, and certain features of this solution are displayed graphically. In particular, it is shown

  7. Size-Dependent Raman Shifts for nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yukun; Zhao, Xinmei; Yin, Penggang; Gao, Faming

    2016-04-22

    Raman spectroscopy is a very sensitive tool for probing semiconductor nanocrystals. The underlying mechanism behind the size-dependent Raman shifts is still quite controversial. Here we offer a new theoretical method for the quantum confinement effects on the Raman spectra of semiconductor nanocrystals. We propose that the shift of Raman spectra in nanocrystals can result from two overlapping effects: the quantum effect shift and surface effect shift. The quantum effect shift is extracted from an extended Kubo formula, the surface effect shift is determined via the first principles calculations. Fairly good prediction of Raman shifts can be obtained without the use of any adjustable parameter. Closer analysis shows that the size-dependent Raman shifts in Si nanocrystals mainly result from the quantum effect shifts. For nanodiamond, the proportion of surface effect shift in Raman shift is up to about 40%. Such model can also provide a good baseline for using Raman spectroscopy as a tool to measure size.

  8. Cardiac event monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ECG) - ambulatory; Continuous electrocardiograms (EKGs); Holter monitors; Transtelephonic event monitors ... attached. You can carry or wear a cardiac event monitor up to 30 days. You carry the ...

  9. Hosting a Family Literacy Night at Your School

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGahey, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    The idea for a family literacy event resulted because teachers wanted more time to share reading strategies with parents, and parents wanted more information on how they could support and encourage their children with reading at home. With great success, Holy Cross School, Kemptville, Ontario, hosted a Family Literacy Night that coincided with the…

  10. The dark GRB080207 in an extremely red host and the implications for GRBs in highly obscured environments

    CERN Document Server

    Svensson, K M; Perley, D A; Michalowski, M J; Page, K L; Bloom, J S; Cenko, S B; Hjorth, J; Jakobsson, P; Watson, D; Wheatley, P J

    2011-01-01

    [Abridged] We present comprehensive X-ray, optical, near- and mid-infrared, and sub-mm observations of GRB 080207 and its host galaxy. The afterglow was undetected in the optical and near-IR, implying an optical to X-ray index 2 are at lower metallicity than the sub-mm galaxy population, offering a likely explanation for the dearth of sub-mm detected GRB hosts. However, we also show that the dark GRB hosts are systematically more massive than those hosting optically bright events, perhaps implying that previous host samples are severely biased by the exclusion of dark events.

  11. Effects of Verbal Event Structure on Online Thematic Role Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaia, Evie; Wilbur, Ronnie B.; Weber-Fox, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Event structure describes the relationships between general semantics ("Aktionsart") of the verb and its syntactic properties, separating verbs into two classes: telic verbs, which denote change of state events with an inherent end-point or boundary ("catch, rescue"), and atelic, which refer to homogenous activities ("tease, host"). As telic verbs…

  12. Urban strategies and post-event legacy: the case of summer Olympic cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Mega-event strategies and their impact on host cities have drawn increasing interest, as organising large-scale urban events has become part of a deliberate urban policy strategy to promote local economic growth, improve the city image and put the host city on the world agenda. Most cities stressed

  13. Mega-event strategy as a tool of urban transformation: Sydney's experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.; Spaans, M.

    2009-01-01

    Mega-event strategies and their impact on host cities have drawn increasing interest, as organising large-scale urban events has become part of a deliberate urban policy strategy to promote local economic growth and put the host city on the world agenda. Thus far, the research addressing what strate

  14. Urban strategies and post-event legacy: the case of summer Olympic cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Mega-event strategies and their impact on host cities have drawn increasing interest, as organising large-scale urban events has become part of a deliberate urban policy strategy to promote local economic growth, improve the city image and put the host city on the world agenda. Most cities stressed

  15. BEYOND RETROSPECTIVE ASSESSMENT SPORT EVENT ECONOMIC IMPACT STUDIES AS A MANAGEMENT TOOL FOR INFORMING EVENT ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barajas, Angel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sport event promoters aim to organize them to get the best return on their investment. The purpose of this study is to learn better how to manage the event to maximize the benefit to the host area. Most studies on economic impact of sporting events focus on mega events or look for an impact in medium to large size cities. This study estimates the effect of a two-day event, the Rally Ourense, that takes place in a small town in Spain. Economic impact is estimated based on surveys of spectators and interviews of competitors in the 2009, 2010, and 2011 editions of the rally. The results show that the race has favorable effects, but also suggest that the impact could be increased with some simple changes to the event structure

  16. The Lamb Shift and Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Xue, S S

    2002-01-01

    On the analogy with the Lamb shift, we study the vacuum effects that a proton interacts with virtual particles when it travels through the vacuum. We find that a moving proton is accelerated by gaining the zero-point energy from the vacuum (~10^{-5} eV/cm). Such an effect possibly accounts for the mysterious origin and spectrum of ultra high-energy cosmic ray events above 10^{20}eV, and explains the puzzle why the GZK cutoff is absent. The candidates of these events could be protons from early Universe.

  17. Tidal disruption event demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanek, C. S.

    2016-09-01

    We survey the properties of stars destroyed in tidal disruption events (TDEs) as a function of black hole (BH) mass, stellar mass and evolutionary state, star formation history and redshift. For M_{BH} ≲ 10^7 M_{⊙}, the typical TDE is due to a M* ˜ 0.3 M⊙ M-dwarf, although the mass function is relatively flat for M_{ast } ≲ M_{⊙}. The contribution from older main-sequence stars and sub-giants is small but not negligible. From MBH ≃ 107.5-108.5 M⊙, the balance rapidly shifts to higher mass stars and a larger contribution from evolved stars, and is ultimately dominated by evolved stars at higher BH masses. The star formation history has little effect until the rates are dominated by evolved stars. TDE rates should decline very rapidly towards higher redshifts. The volumetric rate of TDEs is very high because the BH mass function diverges for low masses. However, any emission mechanism which is largely Eddington-limited for low BH masses suppresses this divergence in any observed sample and leads to TDE samples dominated by MBH ≃ 106.0-107.5 M⊙ BHs with roughly Eddington peak accretion rates. The typical fall-back time is relatively long, with 16 per cent having tfb plausible if tfb has any relation to the transient rise time. For almost any BH mass function, systematic searches for fainter, faster time-scale TDEs in smaller galaxies, and longer time-scale TDEs in more massive galaxies are likely to be rewarded.

  18. From Ephemeral Planning to Permanent Urbanism: An Urban Planning Theory of Mega-Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Kassens-Noor

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mega-events like the Olympic Games are powerful forces that shape cities. In the wake of mega-events, a variety of positive and negative legacies have remained in host cities. In order to bring some theoretical clarity to debates about legacy creation, I introduce the concepts of the mega-event utopia, dystopia and heterotopia. A mega-event utopia is ideal and imaginary urbanism embracing abstract concepts about economies, socio-political systems, spaces, and societies in the host during events. The mega-event utopia (in contrast to other utopian visions other stakeholders may hold is dictated by the desires of the mega-event owners irrespective of the realities in the event host. In short, a mega-event utopia is the perfect event host from the owner’s perspective. Mega-event utopias are suggested as a theoretical model for the systematic transformation of their host cities. As large-scale events progress as ever more powerful transformers into this century, mega-event dystopias have emerged as negatives of these idealistic utopias. As hybrid post-event landscapes, mega-event heterotopias manifest the temporary mega-event utopia as legacy imprints into the long-term realities in hosting cities. Using the Olympic utopia as an example of a mega-event utopia, I theorize utopian visions around four urban traits: economy, image, infrastructure and society. Through the concept of the mega-event legacy utopia, I also provide some insight toward the operationalization of the four urban traits for a city’s economic development, local place marketing, urban development, and public participation.

  19. Looping through the Lamb Shift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazi, A U

    2007-02-06

    Sometimes in science, a small measurement can have big ramifications. For a team of Livermore scientists, such was the case when they measured a small shift in the spectrum of extremely ionized atoms of uranium. The measurement involves the Lamb shift, a subtle change in the energy of an electron orbiting an atom's nucleus. The precision of the Livermore result was 10 times greater than that of existing measurements, making it the best measurement to date of a complicated correction to the simplest quantum description of how atoms behave. The measurement introduces a new realm in the search for deviations between the theory of quantum electrodynamics (QED), which is an extension of quantum mechanics, and the real world. Such deviations, if discovered, would have far-reaching consequences, indicating that QED is not a fundamental theory of nature.

  20. Lamb shift in muonic deuterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorchtein, Mikhail; Vanderhaeghen, Marc [Institut für Kernphysik, Universität Mainz, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Carlson, Carl E. [Department of Physics, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia 23187 (United States)

    2013-11-07

    We consider the two-photon exchange contribution to the 2P-2S Lamb shift in muonic deuterium in the framework of forward dispersion relations. The dispersion integrals are evaluated with minimal model dependence using experimental data on elastic deuteron form factors and inelastic electron-deuteron scattering, both in the quasielastic and hadronic range. The subtraction constant that is required to ensure convergence of the dispersion relation for the forward Compton amplitude T{sub 1} (ν,Q{sup 2}) is related to the deuteron magnetic polarizability β(Q{sup 2}) and represents the main source of uncertainty in our analysis. We obtain for the Lamb shift ΔE{sub 2P-2S} = 1.620±0.190 meV and discuss ways to further reduce this uncertainty.

  1. Anthropometric changes and fluid shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, W. E.; Hoffler, G. W.; Rummel, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    In an effort to obtain the most comprehensive and coherent picture of changes under weightlessness, a set of measurements on Skylab 2 was initiated and at every opportunity, additional studies were added. All pertinent information from ancillary sources were gleaned and collated. On Skylab 2, the initial anthropometric studies were scheduled in conjunction with muscle study. A single set of facial photographs was made in-flight. Additional measurements were made on Skylab 3, with photographs and truncal and limb girth measurements in-flight. Prior to Skylab 4, it was felt there was considerable evidence for large and rapid fluid shifts, so a series of in-flight volume and center of mass measurements and infrared photographs were scheduled to be conducted in the Skylab 4 mission. A number of changes were properly documented for the first time, most important of which were the fluid shifts. The following description of Skylab anthropometrics address work done on Skylab 4 primarily.

  2. Molecular phylogenies reveal host-specific divergence of Ophiocordyceps unilateralis sensu lato following its host ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobmoo, N; Mongkolsamrit, S; Tasanathai, K; Thanakitpipattana, D; Luangsa-Ard, J J

    2012-06-01

    Ophiocordyceps unilateralis (Hypocreales, Ascomycetes) is an entomopathogenic fungus specific to formicine ants (Formicinae, Hymenoptera). Previous works have shown that the carpenter ant Camponotus leonardi acts as the principal host with occasional infections of ants from the genus Polyrhachis (sister genus of Camponotus). Observations were made on the permanent plots of Mo Singto, Khao Yai National Park of Thailand according to which O. unilateralis was found to occur predominantly on three host species: C. leonardi, C. saundersi and P. furcata. Molecular phylogenies of the elongation factor 1-α and β-Tubulin genes indicate a separation of O. unilateralis samples into three clades, reflecting specificity to each of the three different ant species. Samples collected from P. furcata and from C. leonardi were found to form sister groups with samples from C. saundersi forming an outgroup to the latter. Additional samples collected from unidentified ant species of Camponotus and Polyrhachis were positioned as outgroups to those samples on identified species. These results demonstrate that O. unilateralis is clearly not a single phylogenetic species and comprises at least three species that are specific to different host ant species. These cryptic species may arise through recent events of speciation driven by their specificity to host ant species.

  3. Debt Shifting and Ownership Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Dirk Schindler; Guttorm Schjelderup

    2011-01-01

    Previous theoretical studies on the debt shifting behavior of multinationals have assumed affiliates of multinationals to be wholly owned. We develop a model that allows a multinational firm to determine both the leverage and ownership structure in affiliates endogenously. A main finding is that affiliates with minority owners have less debt than wholly owned affiliates and therefore a less tax efficient financing structure. This is due to an externality that arises endogenously in our model,...

  4. Lamb shift in muonic deuterium

    CERN Document Server

    Carboni, G

    1973-01-01

    The author has calculated the various contributions to 2s-2p splitting for muonic deuterium. An instantaneous potential is constructed between the muon and the nucleus. Except for the Coulomb potential, all the remaining terms are treated as a perturbation. The effects taken into account are fine structure, magnetic and electric hyperfine structure, muonic Lamb shift, vacuum polarisation, nuclear polarisation and nuclear size. (11 refs).

  5. Frequency shifts in gravitational resonance spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Baeßler, S; Pignol, G; Protasov, K V; Rebreyend, D; Kupriyanova, E A; Voronin, A Yu

    2015-01-01

    Quantum states of ultracold neutrons in the gravitational field are to be characterized through gravitational resonance spectroscopy. This paper discusses systematic effects that appear in the spectroscopic measurements. The discussed frequency shifts, which we call Stern-Gerlach shift, interference shift, and spectator state shift, appear in conceivable measurement schemes and have general importance. These shifts have to be taken into account in precision experiments.

  6. Shift work and endocrine disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulhôa, M A; Marqueze, E C; Burgos, L G A; Moreno, C R C

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this review was to investigate the impact of shift and night work on metabolic processes and the role of alterations in the sleep-wake cycle and feeding times and environmental changes in the occurrence of metabolic disorders. The literature review was performed by searching three electronic databases for relevant studies published in the last 10 years. The methodological quality of each study was assessed, and best-evidence synthesis was applied to draw conclusions. The literature has shown changes in concentrations of melatonin, cortisol, ghrelin, and leptin among shift workers. Melatonin has been implicated for its role in the synthesis and action of insulin. The action of this hormone also regulates the expression of transporter glucose type 4 or triggers phosphorylation of the insulin receptor. Therefore, a reduction in melatonin can be associated with an increase in insulin resistance and a propensity for the development of diabetes. Moreover, shift work can negatively affect sleep and contribute to sedentarism, unhealthy eating habits, and stress. Recent studies on metabolic processes have increasingly revealed their complexity. Physiological changes induced in workers who invert their activity-rest cycle to fulfill work hours include disruptions in metabolic processes.

  7. Shift Work and Endocrine Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Ulhôa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review was to investigate the impact of shift and night work on metabolic processes and the role of alterations in the sleep-wake cycle and feeding times and environmental changes in the occurrence of metabolic disorders. The literature review was performed by searching three electronic databases for relevant studies published in the last 10 years. The methodological quality of each study was assessed, and best-evidence synthesis was applied to draw conclusions. The literature has shown changes in concentrations of melatonin, cortisol, ghrelin, and leptin among shift workers. Melatonin has been implicated for its role in the synthesis and action of insulin. The action of this hormone also regulates the expression of transporter glucose type 4 or triggers phosphorylation of the insulin receptor. Therefore, a reduction in melatonin can be associated with an increase in insulin resistance and a propensity for the development of diabetes. Moreover, shift work can negatively affect sleep and contribute to sedentarism, unhealthy eating habits, and stress. Recent studies on metabolic processes have increasingly revealed their complexity. Physiological changes induced in workers who invert their activity-rest cycle to fulfill work hours include disruptions in metabolic processes.

  8. Host factors in nidovirus replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, Adriaan Hugo de

    2013-01-01

    The interplay between nidoviruses and the infected host cell was investigated. Arterivirus RNA-synthesising activity was shown to depend on intact membranes and on a cytosolic host protein which does not cosediment with the RTC. Furthermore, the immunosuppressant drug cyclosporin A (CsA) blocks repl

  9. Host Adaptation of Staphylococcal Leukocidins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, M.

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a human and animal pathogen of global importance and has the capacity to cause disease in distinct host populations, using a large arsenal of secreted proteins to evade the host immune response. Amongst the immune evasion proteins of S. aureus, secreted cytotoxins play a pre

  10. Larval helminths in intermediate hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredensborg, Brian Lund; Poulin, R

    2005-01-01

    a reduction in size, caused by crowding, virtually nothing is known about longer-lasting effects after transmission to the definitive host. This study is the first to use in vitro cultivation with feeding of adult trematodes to investigate how numbers of parasites in the intermediate host affect the size......Density-dependent effects on parasite fitness have been documented from adult helminths in their definitive hosts. There have, however, been no studies on the cost of sharing an intermediate host with other parasites in terms of reduced adult parasite fecundity. Even if larval parasites suffer...... and fecundity of adult parasites. For this purpose, we examined two different infracommunities of parasites in crustacean hosts. Firstly, we used experimental infections of Maritrema novaezealandensis in the amphipod, Paracalliope novizealandiae, to investigate potential density-dependent effects in single...

  11. Salmonellae interactions with host processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRock, Doris L; Chaudhary, Anu; Miller, Samuel I

    2015-04-01

    Salmonellae invasion and intracellular replication within host cells result in a range of diseases, including gastroenteritis, bacteraemia, enteric fever and focal infections. In recent years, considerable progress has been made in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that salmonellae use to alter host cell physiology; through the delivery of effector proteins with specific activities and through the modulation of defence and stress response pathways. In this Review, we summarize our current knowledge of the complex interplay between bacterial and host factors that leads to inflammation, disease and, in most cases, control of the infection by its animal hosts, with a particular focus on Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. We also highlight gaps in our knowledge of the contributions of salmonellae and the host to disease pathogenesis, and we suggest future avenues for further study.

  12. Behavioral evidence for fruit odor discrimination and sympatric host races of Rhagoletis pomonella flies in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recent shift of Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) from its native host downy hawthorn, Crataegus mollis, to introduced domesticated apple, Malus domestica, in the eastern U.S. is a model for sympatric host race formation. However, the fly is also present in the western U.S. where it ma...

  13. Diversity and spation distribution of vectors and hosts of T. brucei gambiense in forest zones of Southern Cameroon: Epidemiological implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massussi, J.A.; Mbida Mbida, J.A.; Djieto-Lordon, C.; Njiokou, F.; Laveissière, C.; Ploeg, van der J.D.

    2010-01-01

    Host and vector distribution of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense was studied in relation to habitat types and seasons. Six (19.35%) of the 31 mammal species recorded in Bipindi were reservoir hosts. Cercopithecus nictitans was confined to the undisturbed forest and the low intensive shifting cultivation

  14. Diversity and spation distribution of vectors and hosts of T. brucei gambiense in forest zones of Southern Cameroon: Epidemiological implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massussi, J.A.; Mbida Mbida, J.A.; Djieto-Lordon, C.; Njiokou, F.; Laveissière, C.; Ploeg, van der J.D.

    2010-01-01

    Host and vector distribution of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense was studied in relation to habitat types and seasons. Six (19.35%) of the 31 mammal species recorded in Bipindi were reservoir hosts. Cercopithecus nictitans was confined to the undisturbed forest and the low intensive shifting cultivation

  15. Sectoral Shifts and Cyclical Fluctuations Sectoral Shifts and Cyclical Fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Rogerson

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available Sectoral Shifts and Cyclical Fluctuations This paper studies a two sector real business cycle model in which the sectors experience different trend rates of growth and labor mobility is costly. Predictions are derived concerning the correlation between sectoral reallocation of workers and the cycle. This correlation may be positive or negative depending upon whether the growing sector displays larger or smaller fluctuations than the shrinking sector. The post- World War II period has witnessed two major patterns of sectoral change in industrialized countries: movement out of agriculture and movement out of the industrial sector. The model's basic prediction is shown to be consistent with the observed pattern of reallocation.

  16. Acute stress impairs set-shifting but not reversal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, K A; Floresco, S B; Phillips, A G

    2013-09-01

    The ability to update and modify previously learned behavioral responses in a changing environment is essential for successful utilization of promising opportunities and for coping with adverse events. Valid models of cognitive flexibility that contribute to behavioral flexibility include set-shifting and reversal learning. One immediate effect of acute stress is the selective impairment of performance on higher-order cognitive control tasks mediated by the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) but not the hippocampus. Previous studies show that the mPFC is required for set-shifting but not for reversal learning, therefore the aim of the present experiment is to assess whether exposure to acute stress (15 min of mild tail-pinch stress) given immediately before testing on either a set-shifting or reversal learning tasks would impair performance selectively on the set-shifting task. An automated operant chamber-based task, confirmed that exposure to acute stress significantly disrupts set-shifting but has no effect on reversal learning. Rats exposed to an acute stressor require significantly more trials to reach criterion and make significantly more perseverative errors. Thus, these data reveal that an immediate effect of acute stress is to impair mPFC-dependent cognition selectively by disrupting the ability to inhibit the use of a previously relevant cognitive strategy.

  17. Elevated Extinction Rates as a Trigger for Diversification Rate Shifts: Early Amniotes as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocklehurst, Neil; Ruta, Marcello; Müller, Johannes; Fröbisch, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Tree shape analyses are frequently used to infer the location of shifts in diversification rate within the Tree of Life. Many studies have supported a causal relationship between shifts and temporally coincident events such as the evolution of “key innovations”. However, the evidence for such relationships is circumstantial. We investigated patterns of diversification during the early evolution of Amniota from the Carboniferous to the Triassic, subjecting a new supertree to analyses of tree balance in order to infer the timing and location of diversification shifts. We investigated how uneven origination and extinction rates drive diversification shifts, and use two case studies (herbivory and an aquatic lifestyle) to examine whether shifts tend to be contemporaneous with evolutionary novelties. Shifts within amniotes tend to occur during periods of elevated extinction, with mass extinctions coinciding with numerous and larger shifts. Diversification shifts occurring in clades that possess evolutionary innovations do not coincide temporally with the appearance of those innovations, but are instead deferred to periods of high extinction rate. We suggest such innovations did not cause increases in the rate of cladogenesis, but allowed clades to survive extinction events. We highlight the importance of examining general patterns of diversification before interpreting specific shifts. PMID:26592209

  18. Elevated Extinction Rates as a Trigger for Diversification Rate Shifts: Early Amniotes as a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocklehurst, Neil; Ruta, Marcello; Müller, Johannes; Fröbisch, Jörg

    2015-11-23

    Tree shape analyses are frequently used to infer the location of shifts in diversification rate within the Tree of Life. Many studies have supported a causal relationship between shifts and temporally coincident events such as the evolution of "key innovations". However, the evidence for such relationships is circumstantial. We investigated patterns of diversification during the early evolution of Amniota from the Carboniferous to the Triassic, subjecting a new supertree to analyses of tree balance in order to infer the timing and location of diversification shifts. We investigated how uneven origination and extinction rates drive diversification shifts, and use two case studies (herbivory and an aquatic lifestyle) to examine whether shifts tend to be contemporaneous with evolutionary novelties. Shifts within amniotes tend to occur during periods of elevated extinction, with mass extinctions coinciding with numerous and larger shifts. Diversification shifts occurring in clades that possess evolutionary innovations do not coincide temporally with the appearance of those innovations, but are instead deferred to periods of high extinction rate. We suggest such innovations did not cause increases in the rate of cladogenesis, but allowed clades to survive extinction events. We highlight the importance of examining general patterns of diversification before interpreting specific shifts.

  19. PROMOTING TOURIST DESTINATIONS THROUGH SPORT EVENTS. THE CASE OF BRAŞOV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana ISPAS

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sport event tourism is a huge and growing global industry with important economic implications for both the sport, the event and the impact of travel and tourism related benefits on host destinations. A primary function of a sport event is to provide the host community with an opportunity to secure high prominence in the tourism market place. However, international or regional prominence may be gained with significant social and environmental costs. Hosting sport events has been a focus of destination marketers as a strategy to enhance its destination image and differentiate its tourism products. Communities are attracted to hosting sport events to draw marketing benefits that will contribute to the success of the destination in the long run by creating awareness, improving their image with visitors and attracting tourism business to generate future inbound travel. As such, destination images can be influenced by the hosting of a sport event and the attributes associated with this event. The purpose of this paper is to outline the role of sport event tourism in the promotion of tourist destinations. A case study has been chosen in order to illustrate the interdependence between event and destination marketing: Braşov, hosting the winter edition of The European Youth Olympic Festival in 2013. The paper includes a series of recommendations for destination managers in order to maximise the benefits of this event and take this opportunity to promote Braşov on the international market.

  20. PROMOTING TOURIST DESTINATIONS THROUGH SPORT EVENTS. THE CASE OF BRAŞOV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Nicoleta CANDREA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sport event tourism is a huge and growing global industry with important economic implications for both the sport, the event and the impact of travel and tourism related benefits on host destinations. A primary function of a sport event is to provide the host community with an opportunity to secure high prominence in the tourism market place. However, international or regional prominence may be gained with significant social and environmental costs. Hosting sport events has been a focus of destination marketers as a strategy to enhance its destination image and differentiate its tourism products. Communities are attracted to hosting sport events to draw marketing benefits that will contribute to the success of the destination in the long run by creating awareness, improving their image with visitors and attracting tourism business to generate future inbound travel. As such, destination images can be influenced by the hosting of a sport event and the attributes associated with this event. The purpose of this paper is to outline the role of sport event tourism in the promotion of tourist destinations. A case study has been chosen in order to illustrate the interdependence between event and destination marketing: Braşov, hosting the winter edition of The European Youth Olympic Festival in 2013. The paper includes a series of recommendations for destination managers in order to maximise the benefits of this event and take this opportunity to promote Braşov on the international market.

  1. Between Discourse and Reality: The Un-Sustainability of Mega-Event Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Gaffney

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The zero-sum nature of mega-event hosting encourages cities to escalate investment with an eye towards convincing event rights holders that a positive outcome will result. The discursive frameworks of “legacy” and “sustainability”, the global competition to attract events and the compressed event horizon make for mega-event preparation regimes that may seriously compromise long-term urban planning agendas in mega-event hosts. By examining the sustainable urban planning literature, the discursive frameworks of sustainability in the International Olympic Committee (IOC and the discursive framing of the Rio 2016 bid, this paper will examine the Olympic Golf project being implemented in Rio de Janeiro. Through this case study the paper argues that unless mega-event rights holders change their candidacy and selection processes, these events will inevitably be detrimental to their hosts.

  2. Episodes, events, and models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeet eKhemlani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe a novel computational theory of how individuals segment perceptual information into representations of events. The theory is inspired by recent findings in the cognitive science and cognitive neuroscience of event segmentation. In line with recent theories, it holds that online event segmentation is automatic, and that event segmentation yields mental simulations of events. But it posits two novel principles as well: first, discrete episodic markers track perceptual and conceptual changes, and can be retrieved to construct event models. Second, the process of retrieving and reconstructing those episodic markers is constrained and prioritized. We describe a computational implementation of the theory, as well as a robotic extension of the theory that demonstrates the processes of online event segmentation and event model construction. The theory is the first unified computational account of event segmentation and temporal inference. We conclude by demonstrating now neuroimaging data can constrain and inspire the construction of process-level theories of human reasoning.

  3. The global event system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winans, J.

    1994-03-02

    The support for the global event system has been designed to allow an application developer to control the APS event generator and receiver boards. This is done by the use of four new record types. These records are customized and are only supported by the device support modules for the APS event generator and receiver boards. The use of the global event system and its associated records should not be confused with the vanilla EPICS events and the associated event records. They are very different.

  4. LAN attack detection using Discrete Event Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubballi, Neminath; Biswas, Santosh; Roopa, S; Ratti, Ritesh; Nandi, Sukumar

    2011-01-01

    Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is used for determining the link layer or Medium Access Control (MAC) address of a network host, given its Internet Layer (IP) or Network Layer address. ARP is a stateless protocol and any IP-MAC pairing sent by a host is accepted without verification. This weakness in the ARP may be exploited by malicious hosts in a Local Area Network (LAN) by spoofing IP-MAC pairs. Several schemes have been proposed in the literature to circumvent these attacks; however, these techniques either make IP-MAC pairing static, modify the existing ARP, patch operating systems of all the hosts etc. In this paper we propose a Discrete Event System (DES) approach for Intrusion Detection System (IDS) for LAN specific attacks which do not require any extra constraint like static IP-MAC, changing the ARP etc. A DES model is built for the LAN under both a normal and compromised (i.e., spoofed request/response) situation based on the sequences of ARP related packets. Sequences of ARP events in normal and spoofed scenarios are similar thereby rendering the same DES models for both the cases. To create different ARP events under normal and spoofed conditions the proposed technique uses active ARP probing. However, this probing adds extra ARP traffic in the LAN. Following that a DES detector is built to determine from observed ARP related events, whether the LAN is operating under a normal or compromised situation. The scheme also minimizes extra ARP traffic by probing the source IP-MAC pair of only those ARP packets which are yet to be determined as genuine/spoofed by the detector. Also, spoofed IP-MAC pairs determined by the detector are stored in tables to detect other LAN attacks triggered by spoofing namely, man-in-the-middle (MiTM), denial of service etc. The scheme is successfully validated in a test bed.

  5. Eating secret (event at Falafel Road Residency)

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    As part of Falafel Road Residency (LADA/INIVA, February 2010) interdisciplinary artists Oreet Ashery and Larissa Sansour, hosted presentations and discussions on the many different ways in which artists consider food in a political context. Contributing artists included Bobby Baker, Blanch and Shock, Richard DeDomenici, DoEAT, Antonia Grant, Mad for Real, Scottee, Shabnam Shabazi, Caroline Smith, Superflex and Ali Zaidi. Residency culminated in an event titled ‘Food, Glorious Food’ with pres...

  6. Towards host-to-host meeting scheduling negotiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Megasari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a different scheme of meeting scheduling negotiation among a large number of personnel in a heterogeneous community. This scheme, named Host-to-Host Negotiation, attempts to produce a stable schedule under uncertain personnel preferences. By collecting information from hosts’ inter organizational meeting, this study intends to guarantee personnel availability. As a consequence, personnel’s and meeting’s profile in this scheme are stored in a centralized manner. This study considers personnel preferences by adapting the Clarke Tax Mechanism, which is categorized as a non manipulated mechanism design. Finally, this paper introduces negotiation strategies based on the conflict handling mode. A host-to-host scheme can give notification if any conflict exist and lead to negotiation process with acceptable disclosed information. Nevertheless, a complete negotiation process will be more elaborated in the future works.

  7. Event dependent sampling of recurrent events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Tine Kajsa; Andersen, Per Kragh; Angst, Jules

    2010-01-01

    The effect of event-dependent sampling of processes consisting of recurrent events is investigated when analyzing whether the risk of recurrence increases with event count. We study the situation where processes are selected for study if an event occurs in a certain selection interval. Motivation...... retrospective and prospective disease course histories are used. We examine two methods to correct for the selection depending on which data are used in the analysis. In the first case, the conditional distribution of the process given the pre-selection history is determined. In the second case, an inverse......-probability-of-selection weighting scheme is suggested. The ability of the methods to correct for the bias due to selection is investigated with simulations. Furthermore, the methods are applied to affective disease data from a register-based study (Kessing et al. Br J Psychiatry 185:372-377, 2004a) and from a long-term clinical...

  8. Geometric Baryogenesis from Shift Symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Simone, Andrea; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Liberati, Stefano

    2017-03-31

    We present a new scenario for generating the baryon asymmetry of the Universe that is induced by a Nambu-Goldstone (NG) boson. The shift symmetry naturally controls the operators in the theory while allowing the NG boson to couple to the spacetime geometry as well as to the baryons. The cosmological background thus sources a coherent motion of the NG boson, which leads to baryogenesis. Good candidates of the baryon-generating NG boson are the QCD axion and axionlike fields. In these cases, the axion induces baryogenesis in the early Universe and can also serve as dark matter in the late Universe.

  9. Host factors influencing viral persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Nansen, A; Ørding Andreasen, Susanne

    2000-01-01

    host were used. Our results reveal that very different outcomes may be observed depending on virus strain and immunocompetence of the host. Thus while CD4+ cells are not critical during the initial phase of virus control, infectious virus reappear in mice lacking CD4+ cells, B cells or CD40 ligand...... that these different outcomes may be explained in relatively simple mathematical terms. This suggests that modelling may be used as a means to predict critical host and virus parameters. Therefore, combining mathematical modelling with precise, quantitative, in vivo analyses looks to be a promising approach...

  10. Shifting fungal endophyte communities colonize Bouteloua gracilis: effect of host tissue and geographical distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, José; Khidir, Hana H; Eudy, Douglas M; Porras-Alfaro, Andrea; Natvig, Donald O; Sinsabaugh, Robert L

    2010-01-01

    Communities of root-associated fungi (RAF) commonly have been studied under the auspices of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) or ectomycorrhizal fungi. However many studies now indicate that other groups of endophytic RAF, including dark septate endophytes (DSE) are more abundant in some plants and environments. The common forage grass, Bouteloua gracilis, was used as a model to examine whether RAF also colonize different organs within the same plant and to compare RAF communities from sites across North America, spanning the latitudinal range of B. gracilis (from Canada to Mexico). We compared the RAF communities of organs within individual plants at one site and within plant roots among six sites. With the possible exception of one group related to genus Paraphaeosphaeria there was little evidence that RAF colonized vertically beyond the crowns. Furthermore, although there was some variation in the constitution of rare members of the RAF communities, several taxonomically related groups dominated the RAF community at all sites. These dominant taxa included members in the Pleosporales (related to the DSE, Paraphaeosphaeria spp.), Agaricales (related to Moniliophthora spp., or Campanella spp.) and Hypocreales (related to Fusarium spp.). AMF were notable by their near absence. Similar phylotypes from the dominant groups clustered around adjacent sites so that similarity of the RAF communities was negatively correlated to site inter-distance and the RAF communities appeared to group by country. These results increase the possibility that at least some of these common and widely distributed core members of the RAF community form important, intimate and long lasting relationships with grasses.

  11. Host responses to the pathogen Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and beneficial microbes exhibit host sex specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunasena, Enusha; McMahon, K Wyatt; Chang, David; Brashears, Mindy M

    2014-08-01

    Differences between microbial pathogenesis in male and female hosts are well characterized in disease conditions connected to sexual transmission. However, limited biological insight is available on variances attributed to sex specificity in host-microbe interactions, and it is most often a minimized variable outside these transmission events. In this work, we studied two gut microbes-a pathogen, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, and a probiotic, Lactobacillus animalis NP-51-and the interaction between each agent and the male and female gastrointestinal systems. This trial was conducted in BALB/c mice (n=5 per experimental group and per sex at a given time point), with analysis at four time points over 180 days. Host responses to M.avium subsp. paratuberculosis and L. animalis were sensitive to sex. Cytokines that were significantly different (P ≤ 0.05) betweenthe sexes included interleukin-1α/β (IL-1α/β), IL-17, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, and gamma interferon (IFN-) and were dependent on experimental conditions. However, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and IL-13/23 showed no sex specificity. A metabolomics study indicated a 0.5- to 2.0-fold (log2 scale) increase in short-chain fatty acids (butyrate and acetate) in males and greater increases in o-phosphocholine or histidine from female colon tissues; variances distinct to each sex were observed with age or long-term probiotic consumption. Two genera, Staphylococcus and Roseburia, were consistently overrepresented in females compared to males; other species were specific to one sex but fluctuated depending on experimental conditions. The differences observed suggest that male and female gut tissues and microbiota respond to newly introduced microorganisms differently and that gut-associated microorganisms with host immune system responses and metabolic activity are supported by biology distinct to the host sex.

  12. Urban strategies and post-event legacy: the case of summer Olympic cities

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Y

    2012-01-01

    Mega-event strategies and their impact on host cities have drawn increasing interest, as organising large-scale urban events has become part of a deliberate urban policy strategy to promote local economic growth, improve the city image and put the host city on the world agenda. Most cities stressed exploring city marketing and reimaging effect of these mega events, like the construction of iconic flagship projects or large scale facilities and infrastructures; however, limited attention has b...

  13. The genetic structure of hawthorn-infesting Rhagoletis pomonella populations in Mexico: implications for sympatric host race formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Andrew P; Rull, Juan; Aluja, Martin; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2007-07-01

    The genetic origins of species may not all trace to the same time and place as the proximate cause(s) for population divergence. Moreover, inherent gene-flow barriers separating populations may not all have evolved under the same geographical circumstances. These considerations have lead to a greater appreciation of the plurality of speciation: that one geographical mode for divergence may not always be sufficient to describe a speciation event. The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella, a model system for sympatric speciation via host-plant shifting, has been a surprising contributor to the concept of speciation mode plurality. Previous studies have suggested that past introgression of inversion polymorphism from a hawthorn-fly population in the trans-Mexican volcanic belt (EVTM) introduced diapause life-history variation into a more northern fly population that subsequently contributed to sympatric host race formation and speciation in the United States (US). Here, we report results from a microsatellite survey implying (i) that volcanic activity in the eastern EVTM may have been responsible for the initial geographical isolation of the Mexican and northern hawthorn-fly populations c. 1.57 mya; and (ii) that flies in the Sierra Madre Oriental Mountains (SMO) likely served as a conduit for past gene flow from the EVTM into the US. Indeed, the microsatellite data suggest that the current US population may represent a range expansion from the northern SMO. We discuss the implications of these findings for sympatric race formation in Rhagoletis and speciation theory.

  14. Cerebral malaria: insights from host-parasite protein-protein interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulusu Gopalakrishnan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebral malaria is a form of human malaria wherein Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells adhere to the blood capillaries in the brain, potentially leading to coma and death. Interactions between parasite and host proteins are important in understanding the pathogenesis of this deadly form of malaria. It is, therefore, necessary to study available protein-protein interactions to identify lesser known interactions that could throw light on key events of cerebral malaria. Methods Sequestration, haemostasis dysfunction, systemic inflammation and neuronal damage are key processes of cerebral malaria. Key events were identified from literature as being crucial to these processes. An integrated interactome was created using available experimental and predicted datasets as well as from literature. Interactions from this interactome were filtered based on Gene Ontology and tissue-specific annotations, and further analysed for relevance to the key events. Results PfEMP1 presentation, platelet activation and astrocyte dysfunction were identified as the key events influencing the disease. 48896 host-parasite along with other host-parasite, host-host and parasite-parasite protein-protein interactions obtained from a disease-specific corpus were combined to form an integrated interactome. Filtering of the interactome resulted in five host-parasite PPI, six parasite-parasite and two host-host PPI. The analysis of these interactions revealed the potential significance of apolipoproteins and temperature/Hsp expression on efficient PfEMP1 presentation; role of MSP-1 in platelet activation; effect of parasite proteins in TGF-β regulation and the role of albumin in astrocyte dysfunction. Conclusions This work links key host-parasite, parasite-parasite and host-host protein-protein interactions to key processes of cerebral malaria and generates hypotheses for disease pathogenesis based on a filtered interaction dataset. These

  15. Traumatic events and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stabbing of a person Sudden death of a parent or trusted caregiver Hospitalization Examples of traumatic events that your child experiences over and over are: Physical or emotional abuse Sexual abuse Gang violence War Terrorist events

  16. Mistletoe ecophysiology: Host-parasite interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Glatzel; B. W. Geils

    2009-01-01

    Mistletoes are highly specialized perennial flowering plants adapted to parasitic life on aerial parts of their hosts. In our discussion on the physiological interactions between parasite and host, we focus on water relations, mineral nutrition, and the effect of host vigour. When host photosynthesis is greatest, the xylem water potential of the host is most negative....

  17. Changes in coral-associated microbial communities during a bleaching event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, David; Iida, Yuki; Uthicke, Sven; Smith-Keune, Carolyn

    2008-04-01

    Environmental stressors such as increased sea surface temperatures are well-known for contributing to coral bleaching; however, the effect of increased temperatures and subsequent bleaching on coral-associated microbial communities is poorly understood. Colonies of the hard coral Acropora millepora were tagged on a reef flat off Magnetic Island (Great Barrier Reef) and surveyed over 2.5 years, which included a severe bleaching event in January/February 2002. Daily average water temperatures exceeded the previous 10-year average by more than 1 degrees C for extended periods with field-based visual surveys recording all tagged colonies displaying signs of bleaching. During the bleaching period, direct counts of coral zooxanthellae densities decreased by approximately 64%, before recovery to pre-bleaching levels after the thermal stress event. A subset of three tagged coral colonies were sampled through the bleaching event and changes in the microbial community elucidated. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis demonstrated conserved bacterial banding profiles between the three coral colonies, confirming previous studies highlighting specific microbial associations. As coral colonies bleached, the microbial community shifted and redundancy analysis (RDA) of DGGE banding patterns revealed a correlation of increasing temperature with the appearance of Vibrio-affiliated sequences. Interestingly, this shift to a Vibrio-dominated community commenced prior to visual signs of bleaching. Clone libraries hybridized with Vibrio-specific oligonucleotide probes confirmed an increase in the fraction of Vibrio-affiliated clones during the bleaching period. Post bleaching, the coral microbial associations again shifted, returning to a profile similar to the fingerprints prior to bleaching. This provided further evidence for corals selecting and shaping their microbial partners. For non-bleached samples, a close association with Spongiobacter-related sequences were

  18. Cortisol shifts financial risk preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Narayanan; Hardy, Ben; Page, Lionel; Schaffner, Markus; Graggaber, Johann; Powlson, Andrew S.; Fletcher, Paul C.; Gurnell, Mark; Coates, John

    2014-01-01

    Risk taking is central to human activity. Consequently, it lies at the focal point of behavioral sciences such as neuroscience, economics, and finance. Many influential models from these sciences assume that financial risk preferences form a stable trait. Is this assumption justified and, if not, what causes the appetite for risk to fluctuate? We have previously found that traders experience a sustained increase in the stress hormone cortisol when the amount of uncertainty, in the form of market volatility, increases. Here we ask whether these elevated cortisol levels shift risk preferences. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over protocol we raised cortisol levels in volunteers over 8 d to the same extent previously observed in traders. We then tested for the utility and probability weighting functions underlying their risk taking and found that participants became more risk-averse. We also observed that the weighting of probabilities became more distorted among men relative to women. These results suggest that risk preferences are highly dynamic. Specifically, the stress response calibrates risk taking to our circumstances, reducing it in times of prolonged uncertainty, such as a financial crisis. Physiology-induced shifts in risk preferences may thus be an underappreciated cause of market instability. PMID:24550472

  19. Core shifts in blazar jets

    CERN Document Server

    Zdziarski, Andrzej A; Pjanka, Patryk; Tchekhovskoy, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We study the effect of core shift in jets, which is the dependence of the position of the jet radio core on the frequency. We derive a new method to measure the jet magnetic field based on both the value of the shift and the observed flux, which compliments the standard method assuming equipartition. Using both methods, we re-analyse the blazar sample of Zamaninasab et al. We find that equipartition is satisfied only if the jet opening angle in the radio core region is close to the values found observationally, $\\simeq$0.1--0.2 divided by the bulk Lorentz factor, $\\Gamma_{\\rm j}$. Larger values, e.g., $1/\\Gamma_{\\rm j}$, would imply very strong departures from equipartition. A small jet opening angle implies in turn the magnetization parameter of $\\ll 1$. We determine the jet magnetic flux taking this effect into account. We find that the average jet magnetic flux is compatible with the model of jet formation due to black-hole spin energy extraction and accretion being magnetically arrested. We calculate the ...

  20. Advertising Effectiveness In Events

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Sushilkumar

    2012-01-01

    Confronted with decreasing effectiveness of the classic marketing communications, events have become an increasingly popular alternative for marketers. Events constitute one of the most exciting and fastest growing forms of leisure and business. With time, the decreasing effectiveness of classical marketing communications boosted the use of events for marketing and making brand awareness. Event marketing is seen as the unique opportunity to integrate the firm’s communication activities like p...

  1. Helicobacter pylori virulence genes and microevolution in host and the clinical outcome: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Zahra Bakhti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is the causative agent in development of gastroduode-nal diseases, such as chronic atrophic gastritis, peptic ulcers, mucosa associated lym-phoid tissue (MALT lymphoma, and gastric cancer. H. pylori has been associated with inflammation in cardia, showing the fact that infection with this bacterium could also be a risk factor for gastric cardia cancer. Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer worldwide. This is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths, and ap-proximately 700,000 people succumb each year to gastric adenocarcinoma. It has been estimated that 69% of the Iranian population currently harbor H. pylori infection. The prevalence of duodenal ulcer and gastric cancer is high in Iranian populations. However, this has been largely influenced by geographic and/or ethnic origin. Epidemi-ology studies have shown that host, environmental, and bacterial factors determine the outcome of H. pylori infection. The bacterium contains allelic diversity and high genet-ic variability into core- and virulence-genes and that this diversity is geographically and ethnically structured. The genetic diversity within H. pylori is greater than within most other bacteria, and its diversity is more than 50-fold higher than that of human DNA. The maintenance of high diversification makes this bacterium to cope with particular challenges in individual hosts. It has been reported that the recombination contributed to the creation of new genes and gene family. Furthermore, the microevolution in cagA and vacA genes is a common event, leading to a change in the virulence phenotype. These factors contribute to the bacterial survival in acidic conditions in stomach and protect it from host immune system, causing tissue damage and clinical disease. In this review article, we discussed the correlation between H. pylori virulence factors and clin-ical outcomes, microevolution of H. pylori virulence genes in a single host

  2. Meningococcal interactions with the host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonnelle, Etienne; Hill, Darryl J; Morand, Philippe; Griffiths, Natalie J; Bourdoulous, Sandrine; Murillo, Isabel; Nassif, Xavier; Virji, Mumtaz

    2009-06-24

    Neisseria meningitidis interacts with host tissues through hierarchical, concerted and co-ordinated actions of a number of adhesins; many of which undergo antigenic and phase variation, a strategy that helps immune evasion. Three major structures, pili, Opa and Opc predominantly influence bacterial adhesion to host cells. Pili and Opa proteins also determine host and tissue specificity while Opa and Opc facilitate efficient cellular invasion. Recent studies have also implied a role of certain adhesin-receptor pairs in determining increased host susceptibility to infection. This chapter examines our current knowledge of meningococcal adhesion and invasion mechanisms particularly related to human epithelial and endothelial cells which are of primary importance in the disease process.

  3. Event generators at BESⅢ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PING Rong-Gang

    2008-01-01

    We present a brief remark and introduction to event generators for tau-charm physics currently used at BESⅢ,including KKMC,BesEvtGen,Bhlumi,Bhwide,Babayaga and inclusive Monte-Carlo event generators.This paper provides basic information on event generators for BESⅢ users.

  4. Viral video: Live imaging of virus-host encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Kwangmin; Guasto, Jeffrey S.; Cubillos-Ruiz, Andres; Chisholm, Sallie W.; Sullivan, Matthew B.; Stocker, Roman

    2014-11-01

    Viruses are non-motile infectious agents that rely on Brownian motion to encounter and subsequently adsorb to their hosts. Paradoxically, the viral adsorption rate is often reported to be larger than the theoretical limit imposed by the virus-host encounter rate, highlighting a major gap in the experimental quantification of virus-host interactions. Here we present the first direct quantification of the viral adsorption rate, obtained using live imaging of individual host cells and viruses for thousands of encounter events. The host-virus pair consisted of Prochlorococcus MED4, a 800 nm small non-motile bacterium that dominates photosynthesis in the oceans, and its virus PHM-2, a myovirus that has a 80 nm icosahedral capsid and a 200 nm long rigid tail. We simultaneously imaged hosts and viruses moving by Brownian motion using two-channel epifluorescent microscopy in a microfluidic device. This detailed quantification of viral transport yielded a 20-fold smaller adsorption efficiency than previously reported, indicating the need for a major revision in infection models for marine and likely other ecosystems.

  5. Integration of plastids with their hosts: Lessons learned from dinoflagellates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrell, Richard G; Howe, Christopher J

    2015-08-18

    After their endosymbiotic acquisition, plastids become intimately connected with the biology of their host. For example, genes essential for plastid function may be relocated from the genomes of plastids to the host nucleus, and pathways may evolve within the host to support the plastid. In this review, we consider the different degrees of integration observed in dinoflagellates and their associated plastids, which have been acquired through multiple different endosymbiotic events. Most dinoflagellate species possess plastids that contain the pigment peridinin and show extreme reduction and integration with the host biology. In some species, these plastids have been replaced through serial endosymbiosis with plastids derived from a different phylogenetic derivation, of which some have become intimately connected with the biology of the host whereas others have not. We discuss in particular the evolution of the fucoxanthin-containing dinoflagellates, which have adapted pathways retained from the ancestral peridinin plastid symbiosis for transcript processing in their current, serially acquired plastids. Finally, we consider why such a diversity of different degrees of integration between host and plastid is observed in different dinoflagellates and how dinoflagellates may thus inform our broader understanding of plastid evolution and function.

  6. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental conditions of extreme weather events. This review article examines infectious disease risks associated with extreme weather events; it draws on recent experiences including Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the 2010 Pakistan mega-floods, and historical examples from previous centuries of epidemics and 'pestilence' associated with extreme weather disasters and climatic changes. A fuller understanding of climatic change, the precursors and triggers of extreme weather events and health consequences is needed in order to anticipate and respond to the infectious disease risks associated with human-driven climate change. Post-event risks to human health can be constrained, nonetheless, by reducing background rates of persistent infection, preparatory action such as coordinated disease surveillance and vaccination coverage, and strengthened disaster response. In the face of changing climate and weather conditions, it is critically important to think in ecological terms about the determinants of health, disease and death in human populations.

  7. Both host-plant phylogeny and chemistry have shaped the African seed-beetle radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kergoat, Gaël J; Delobel, Alex; Fédière, Gilles; Rü, Bruno Le; Silvain, Jean-François

    2005-06-01

    For the last 40 years, many authors have attempted to characterize the main patterns of plant-insect evolutionary interactions and understand their causes. In the present work on African seed-beetles (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), we have performed a 10-year field work to sample seeds of more than 300 species of potential host-plants (from the family Fabaceae), to obtain bruchids by rearing. This seed sampling in the field was followed by the monitoring of adult emergences which gave us the opportunity to identify host-plant use accurately. Then, by using molecular phylogenetics (on a combined data set of four genes), we have investigated the relationships between host-plant preferences and insect phylogeny. Our objectives were to investigate the level of taxonomic conservatism in host-plant fidelity and host-plant chemistry. Our results indicate that phylogenetically related insects are associated with phylogenetically related host-plants but the phylogeny of the latter cannot alone explain the observed patterns. Major host shifts from Papilionoideae to Mimosoideae subfamilies have happened twice independently suggesting that feeding specialization on a given host-plant group is not always a dead end in seed-beetles. If host-plant taxonomy and chemistry in legumes generally provide consistent data, it appears that the nature of the seed secondary compounds may be the major factor driving the diversification of a large clade specializing on the subfamily Mimosoideae in which host-plant taxonomy is not consistent with chemical similarity.

  8. The evolution of mutualism in gut microbiota via host epithelial selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Schluter

    Full Text Available The human gut harbours a large and genetically diverse population of symbiotic microbes that both feed and protect the host. Evolutionary theory, however, predicts that such genetic diversity can destabilise mutualistic partnerships. How then can the mutualism of the human microbiota be explained? Here we develop an individual-based model of host-associated microbial communities. We first demonstrate the fundamental problem faced by a host: The presence of a genetically diverse microbiota leads to the dominance of the fastest growing microbes instead of the microbes that are most beneficial to the host. We next investigate the potential for host secretions to influence the microbiota. This reveals that the epithelium-microbiota interface acts as a selectivity amplifier: Modest amounts of moderately selective epithelial secretions cause a complete shift in the strains growing at the epithelial surface. This occurs because of the physical structure of the epithelium-microbiota interface: Epithelial secretions have effects that permeate upwards through the whole microbial community, while lumen compounds preferentially affect cells that are soon to slough off. Finally, our model predicts that while antimicrobial secretion can promote host epithelial selection, epithelial nutrient secretion will often be key to host selection. Our findings are consistent with a growing number of empirical papers that indicate an influence of host factors upon microbiota, including growth-promoting glycoconjugates. We argue that host selection is likely to be a key mechanism in the stabilisation of the mutualism between a host and its microbiota.

  9. Shift-invariant optical associative memories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Psaltis, D.; Hong, J.

    1987-01-01

    Shift invariance in the context of associative memories is discussed. Two optical systems that exhibit shift invariance are described in detail with attention given to the analysis of storage capacities. It is shown that full shift invariance cannot be achieved with systems that employ only linear interconnections to store the associations.

  10. Continuous-data FIFO bubble shift register

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T. T.

    1977-01-01

    Simple loop first-in-first-out (FIFO) bubble memory shift register has continuous storage capability. Bubble shift register simplifies chip-control electronics by enabling all control functions to be alined at same bit. FIFO shift register is constructed from passive replicator and annihilator combinations.

  11. Uniqueness and Zeros of -Shift Difference Polynomials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kai Liu; Xin-Ling Liu; Ting-Bin Cao

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we consider the zero distributions of -shift difference polynomials of meromorphic functions with zero order, and obtain two theorems that extend the classical Hayman results on the zeros of differential polynomials to -shift difference polynomials. We also investigate the uniqueness problem of -shift difference polynomials that share a common value.

  12. Event studies in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulkem Basdas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of this paper is to review the event studies conducted for Turkey to in order to identify the common components in their designs. This paper contributes to the existing literature by reviewing all event studies for Turkey for the first time, but more importantly; this review leads to the upcoming event studies on Turkey by highlighting main components of a proper design. Based on the review of 75 studies, it is observed that event studies generally choose BIST-100 (formerly, ISE-100 market index and market adjusted returns with the parametric tests. In general, the studies prefer to rely on one type of model to calculate abnormal returns without discussing the selection of the underlying model. Especially for the event studies focusing on the impact of political events or macroeconomic announcements in Turkey, there is a risk of clustering due to the application of same event date for all observations.

  13. PARADIGM SHIFT IN ISLAMIC STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor Al-Jami'ah: Journal of Islamic Studies

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In the early 1990s, there was a heated debate among students ofIAIN (the State Institute for Islamic Studies Sunan KalijagaYogyakarta about the future of Islamic studies, focusing on the possibilityof incorporating Thomas Kuhn’s paradigm to the discourse ofIslamic studies. Kuhn explains in detail the rise and decline of scientificparadigm in his classic work, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions,firstly published in 1970. Paradigm is defined as a set of beliefs thatguides the researchers to address some important problems or issuesunder a certain theoretical framework and provides procedures how tosolve those problems. A paradigm shift is a process whereby a newway of perceiving the world comes into existence and is accepted byscholars in a given time. Kuhn proposed two conditions for paradigmshift; first, the presence of anomalies in ‘normal science’, and secondly,the presence of alternative paradigm.

  14. Host Genotype and Harvest Practices Shape the Leaf and Root Microbiomes of the Biofuel Crop Switchgrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, E.; Gonzalez, J.; Juenger, T. E.; Woyke, T.

    2016-12-01

    Growing energy demands and concerns for climate change have urgently pushed forward the timeline for the implementation of biofuel energies. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is a leading biofuel crop in the United States. Bacteria living on and inside leaves and roots affect plant health, hence a plant's genetic control over its microbiota is of great interest to crop breeders and evolutionary biologists. We present a large-scale field experiment to untangle the effects of genotype, environment, soil horizon and harvest treatment practices on prokaryotic and fungal communities associated with leaves and roots of switchgrass. Using V4 16S rRNA and ITS gene as well as metagenome sequencing, we show that host genotype is significant in both, leaves and roots, and varies among sites. Microbiome composition along the rhizosphere also shifts with soil depth. Furthermore, plant harvest significantly changes both, leaf surface and rhizosphere communities, which can be seen a year after the harvest event. Gene function analysis shows that rhizosphere communities are enriched in genes encoding nitrate reduction, carbohydrate transport and metabolism, motility, and sensory and signal transduction proteins relative to leaf surface communities. Our results demonstrate how genotype-environment interactions contribute to the complexity of microbiome assembly in natural environments.

  15. Event Management for Teacher-Coaches: Risk and Supervision Considerations for School-Based Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiement, Craig A.; Payment, Matthew P.

    2011-01-01

    A professional sports event requires considerable planning in which years are devoted to the success of that single activity. School-based sports events do not have that luxury, because high schools across the country host athletic events nearly every day. It is not uncommon during the fall sports season for a combination of boys' and girls'…

  16. Event Management for Teacher-Coaches: Risk and Supervision Considerations for School-Based Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiement, Craig A.; Payment, Matthew P.

    2011-01-01

    A professional sports event requires considerable planning in which years are devoted to the success of that single activity. School-based sports events do not have that luxury, because high schools across the country host athletic events nearly every day. It is not uncommon during the fall sports season for a combination of boys' and girls'…

  17. Superresolved phase-shifting Gabor holography by CCD shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micó, V.; Granero, L.; Zalevsky, Z.; García, J.

    2009-12-01

    Holography in the Gabor regime is restricted to weak diffraction assumptions. Otherwise, diffraction prevents an accurate recovery of the object's complex wavefront. We have recently proposed a modified Gabor-like setup to extend Gabor's concept to any sample provided that it be non-diffusive. However, the resolution of the final image becomes limited as a consequence of the additional elements considered in the proposed setup. In this paper we present an experimental approach to overcome such a limitation in which the former configuration is used while the CCD camera is shifted to different off-axis positions in order to generate a synthetic aperture. Thus, once the whole image set is recorded and digitally processed for each camera position, we merge the resulting band-pass images into one image by assembling a synthetic aperture. Finally, a superresolved image is recovered by Fourier transformation of the information contained in the generated synthetic aperture. Experimental results validate our concepts for a gain in resolution of close to 2.

  18. Dynamics and computation in functional shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namikawa, Jun; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2004-07-01

    We introduce a new type of shift dynamics as an extended model of symbolic dynamics, and investigate the characteristics of shift spaces from the viewpoints of both dynamics and computation. This shift dynamics is called a functional shift, which is defined by a set of bi-infinite sequences of some functions on a set of symbols. To analyse the complexity of functional shifts, we measure them in terms of topological entropy, and locate their languages in the Chomsky hierarchy. Through this study, we argue that considering functional shifts from the viewpoints of both dynamics and computation gives us opposite results about the complexity of systems. We also describe a new class of shift spaces whose languages are not recursively enumerable.

  19. Model Learning for Probabilistic Simulation on Rare Events and Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-06

    observed data only. This is a problem called covariate shift in statistics . We need to calibrate the probability to avoid the underestimation of our...fall records causing the events/scenarios. This is called a covariate shift problem in statistics . We need to calibrate the probability to avoid the...their causes and consequences. Their probabilities are also quantitatively provided based on the mathematically rigorous and probabilistic inference

  20. The Strait of Gibraltar poses an effective barrier to host-specialised but not to host-generalised lineages of avian Haemosporidia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Vanessa A; da Silva, Luís P; Lopes, Ricardo J; Drovetski, Sergei V

    2015-09-01

    One of the major concerns with ongoing environmental global change is the ability of parasites to shift their distribution (both geographically and across hosts) and to increase in virulence. To understand the structure, diversity and connectivity of parasite communities across the Mediterranean Sea, we used avian haemosporidian communities associated with forest birds of northwestern Africa and northwestern Iberia as a model system. We characterised host specificity of lineages and tested whether host generalists are more likely to cross the biogeographic barrier imposed by the Strait of Gibraltar than host specialists. We sampled 321 birds of 43 species in northwestern Africa and 735 birds of 49 species in northwestern Iberia. Using a PCR-based approach to amplify Plasmodium, Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon parasites, we retrieved 969 sequences representing 200 unique cytochrome-b lineages. Haemosporidians infected a significantly higher proportion of birds in northwestern Africa (78.5%) than in northwestern Iberia (50.5%). Relative diversity of different haemosporidian genera did not differ between our study areas, but Plasmodium was overrepresented among individual infections in northwestern Iberia. Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon lineages were predominantly host-specialised and Plasmodium lineages were host-generalised. The number of regions occupied by lineages was significantly associated with their host specificity and abundance. These data are consistent with the positive abundance-occupancy relationship and patterns of host specificity among different haemosporidian genera observed in other studies.

  1. A NEW ALGORITHM FOR ELIMINATING PHASE-SHIFT ERROR IN PHASE SHIFTING INTERFEROMETRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The effect of phase-shift error in phase shifting interferometry is investigated. A new algorithm with two sets of 4 samples for eliminating phase-shift error is presented. The computer simulation and experiment result show that the phase-shift offset should be π when the algorithm is used, and this algorithm has gotten better result than the original 4-sample algorithm.

  2. Plant ecological strategies shift across the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonder, Benjamin; Royer, Dana L; Johnson, Kirk R; Miller, Ian; Enquist, Brian J

    2014-09-01

    The Chicxulub bolide impact caused the end-Cretaceous mass extinction of plants, but the associated selectivity and ecological effects are poorly known. Using a unique set of North Dakota leaf fossil assemblages spanning 2.2 Myr across the event, we show among angiosperms a reduction of ecological strategies and selection for fast-growth strategies consistent with a hypothesized recovery from an impact winter. Leaf mass per area (carbon investment) decreased in both mean and variance, while vein density (carbon assimilation rate) increased in mean, consistent with a shift towards "fast" growth strategies. Plant extinction from the bolide impact resulted in a shift in functional trait space that likely had broad consequences for ecosystem functioning.

  3. Plant ecological strategies shift across the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Blonder

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Chicxulub bolide impact caused the end-Cretaceous mass extinction of plants, but the associated selectivity and ecological effects are poorly known. Using a unique set of North Dakota leaf fossil assemblages spanning 2.2 Myr across the event, we show among angiosperms a reduction of ecological strategies and selection for fast-growth strategies consistent with a hypothesized recovery from an impact winter. Leaf mass per area (carbon investment decreased in both mean and variance, while vein density (carbon assimilation rate increased in mean, consistent with a shift towards "fast" growth strategies. Plant extinction from the bolide impact resulted in a shift in functional trait space that likely had broad consequences for ecosystem functioning.

  4. Plant Ecological Strategies Shift Across the Cretaceous–Paleogene Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonder, Benjamin; Royer, Dana L.; Johnson, Kirk R.; Miller, Ian; Enquist, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    The Chicxulub bolide impact caused the end-Cretaceous mass extinction of plants, but the associated selectivity and ecological effects are poorly known. Using a unique set of North Dakota leaf fossil assemblages spanning 2.2 Myr across the event, we show among angiosperms a reduction of ecological strategies and selection for fast-growth strategies consistent with a hypothesized recovery from an impact winter. Leaf mass per area (carbon investment) decreased in both mean and variance, while vein density (carbon assimilation rate) increased in mean, consistent with a shift towards “fast” growth strategies. Plant extinction from the bolide impact resulted in a shift in functional trait space that likely had broad consequences for ecosystem functioning. PMID:25225914

  5. Frequency shifting approach towards textual transcription of heartbeat sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safar Khorasani Ehsan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Auscultation is an approach for diagnosing many cardiovascular problems. Automatic analysis of heartbeat sounds and extraction of its audio features can assist physicians towards diagnosing diseases. Textual transcription allows recording a continuous heart sound stream using a text format which can be stored in very small memory in comparison with other audio formats. In addition, a text-based data allows applying indexing and searching techniques to access to the critical events. Hence, the transcribed heartbeat sounds provides useful information to monitor the behavior of a patient for the long duration of time. This paper proposes a frequency shifting method in order to improve the performance of the transcription. The main objective of this study is to transfer the heartbeat sounds to the music domain. The proposed technique is tested with 100 samples which were recorded from different heart diseases categories. The observed results show that, the proposed shifting method significantly improves the performance of the transcription.

  6. Frequency shifting approach towards textual transcription of heartbeat sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvin, Farshad; Doraisamy, Shyamala; Safar Khorasani, Ehsan

    2011-10-04

    Auscultation is an approach for diagnosing many cardiovascular problems. Automatic analysis of heartbeat sounds and extraction of its audio features can assist physicians towards diagnosing diseases. Textual transcription allows recording a continuous heart sound stream using a text format which can be stored in very small memory in comparison with other audio formats. In addition, a text-based data allows applying indexing and searching techniques to access to the critical events. Hence, the transcribed heartbeat sounds provides useful information to monitor the behavior of a patient for the long duration of time. This paper proposes a frequency shifting method in order to improve the performance of the transcription. The main objective of this study is to transfer the heartbeat sounds to the music domain. The proposed technique is tested with 100 samples which were recorded from different heart diseases categories. The observed results show that, the proposed shifting method significantly improves the performance of the transcription.

  7. Modeled Influence of East Asian Black Carbon on Inter-Decadal Shifts in East China Summer Rainfall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rashed MAHMOOD; LI Shuang-Lin

    2011-01-01

    Two inter-decadal shifts in East China sum- mer rainfall during the last three decades of the 20th century have been identified. One shift occurred in the late 1970s and featured more rainfall in the Yangtze River valley and prolonged drought in North China. The other shift occurred in the early 1990s and featured increased rainfall in South China. The role of black carbon (BC) aerosol in the first shift event is controversial, and it has not been documented for the second event. In this study, the authors used Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's (GFDL's) atmospheric general circulation model known as Atmosphere and Land Model (AM2.1), which has been shown to capture East Asian climate variability well, to investigate these issues by conducting sensitive experiments with or without historical BC in East Asia. The results suggest that the model reproduces the first shift well, including intensified rainfall in the Yangtze River and weakened monsoonal circulation. However, the model captures only a fraction of the observed variations for the second shift event. Thus, the role of BC in modu- lating the two shift events is different, and its impact is relatively less important for the early 1990s event.

  8. Using NLM exhibits and events to engage library users and reach the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auten, Beth; Norton, Hannah F; Tennant, Michele R; Edwards, Mary E; Stoyan-Rosenzweig, Nina; Daley, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to reach out to library users and make the library a more relevant, welcoming place, the University of Florida's Health Science Center Library hosted exhibits from the National Library of Medicine's (NLM) Traveling Exhibition Program. From 2010 through 2012, the library hosted four NLM exhibits and created event series for each. Through reflection and use of a participant survey, lessons were learned concerning creating relevant programs, marketing events, and forming new partnerships. Each successive exhibit added events and activities to address different audiences. A survey of libraries that have hosted NLM exhibits highlights lessons learned at those institutions.

  9. Detecting rare gene transfer events in bacterial populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaare Magne Nielsen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Horizontal gene transfer (HGT enables bacteria to access, share, and recombine genetic variation, resulting in genetic diversity that cannot be obtained through mutational processes alone. In most cases, the observation of evolutionary successful HGT events relies on the outcome of initially rare events that lead to novel functions in the new host, and that exhibit a positive effect on host fitness. Conversely, the large majority of HGT events occurring in bacterial populations will go undetected due to lack of replication success of transformants. Moreover, other HGT events that would be highly beneficial to new hosts can fail to ensue due to lack of physical proximity to the donor organism, lack of a suitable gene transfer mechanism, genetic compatibility, and stochasticity in tempo-spatial occurrence. Experimental attempts to detect HGT events in bacterial populations have typically focused on the transformed cells or their immediate offspring. However, rare HGT events occurring in large and structured populations are unlikely to reach relative population sizes that will allow their immediate identification; the exception being the unusually strong positive selection conferred by antibiotics. Most HGT events are not expected to alter the likelihood of host survival to such an extreme extent, and will confer only minor changes in host fitness. Due to the large population sizes of bacteria and the time scales involved, the process and outcome of HGT are often not amenable to experimental investigation. Population genetic modeling of the growth dynamics of bacteria with differing HGT rates and resulting fitness changes is therefore necessary to guide sampling design and predict realistic time frames for detection of HGT, as it occurs in laboratory or natural settings. Here we review the key population genetic parameters, consider their complexity and highlight knowledge gaps for further research.

  10. Soundscapes, events, resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mubi Brighenti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Put it bluntly, a soundscape is the sonic counterpart, or component, of landscape. From such minimal assumption, some interesting consequences follow: just as landscape is far from being a simple stage-set upon which events take place, soundscape, too, is itself evental, i.e., it consists of events. Not only because its nature, far from being acoustics is always ‘psychoacoustics’, as Murray Schafer (1977/1994 first argued. Processes of environmental perception are of course there.

  11. The Smallest AGN Host Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Greene, J E; Ho, L C

    2005-01-01

    We describe our efforts to study dwarf galaxies with active nuclei, whose black holes, with masses < 10^6 M_sun, provide the best current observational constraints on the mass distribution of primordial seed black holes. Although these low-mass galaxies do not necessarily contain classical bulges, Barth, Greene, & Ho (2005) show that their stellar velocity dispersions and black hole masses obey the same relation as more massive systems. In order to characterize the properties of the dwarf hosts without the glare of the active nucleus, we have compiled a complementary sample of narrow-line active galaxies with low-mass hosts. The host galaxy properties, both their structures and stellar populations, are consistent with the general properties of low-mass, blue galaxies from Sloan. The black holes in these galaxies are probably radiating close to their Eddington limits, suggesting we may have found Type 2 analogues of narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies.

  12. Asteroseismology of Exoplanet Host Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Asteroseismology is among the most powerful observational tools to determine fundamental properties of stars. Space-based photometry has recently enabled the systematic detection of oscillations in exoplanet host stars, allowing a combination of asteroseismology with transit and radial-velocity measurements to characterize planetary systems. In this contribution I will review the key synergies between asteroseismology and exoplanet science such as the precise determination of radii and ages of exoplanet host stars, as well as applications of asteroseismology to measure spin-orbit inclinations in multiplanet systems and orbital eccentricities of small planets. Finally I will give a brief outlook on asteroseismic studies of exoplanet hosts with current and future space-based missions such as K2 and TESS.

  13. The Terrorist Event

    OpenAIRE

    Nichols, Bill

    2007-01-01

    In his article "The Terrorist Event," Bill Nichols examines how the US media attempted to make meaning of the events of 9/11. How were news anchors and producers to explain an event that escaped their comprehension? Without context or historical equivalence in the US, news outlets groped for a narrative in which to frame the event even if that meant creating the meaning themselves. In their attempt to create meaning, what sorts of fetishes and fantasies did they draw-on and in turn create? Th...

  14. The PHENIX Event Builder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, David

    2004-10-01

    The PHENIX Event Builder is a critical part of the back-end of the PHENIX DAQ. It is reponsible for assembling event fragments from each subsystem into complete events ready for archiving. It allows subsystems to be read out either in parallel or simultaneously while supporting a high rate of archiving. Additionally, it implements an environment where Level-2 trigger algorithms may be optionally executed, providing the ability to tag and/or filter rare physics events. Up to and including RHIC Run-4, the Event Builder was implemented as a set of three Windows NT/2000 multithreaded executables that run on a farm of over 100 dual-cpu 1U servers connected via a Foundry Layer2/3 Gigabit switch. Under this architecture it has been capable of recording a wide range of event sizes from central Au-Au to p-p interactions, with data archiving rates of over 400 MB/s at 2 KHz event rates. Between Runs 4 and 5, the Event Builder will be ported to Linux. Preliminary work has shown we can expect great improvements in performance when moving to this platform for Run 5. The PHENIX Event Builder design and implementation, as well as performance and plans for future development, will be discussed.

  15. Raiders from the sky: slavemaker founding queens select for aggressive host colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamminger, Tobias; Modlmeier, Andreas P.; Suette, Stefan; Pennings, Pleuni S.; Foitzik, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Reciprocal selection pressures in host–parasite systems drive coevolutionary arms races that lead to advanced adaptations in both opponents. In the interactions between social parasites and their hosts, aggression is one of the major behavioural traits under selection. In a field manipulation, we aimed to disentangle the impact of slavemaking ants and nest density on aggression of Temnothorax longispinosus ants. An early slavemaker mating flight provided us with the unique opportunity to study the influence of host aggression and demography on founding decisions and success. We discovered that parasite queens avoided colony foundation in parasitized areas and were able to capture more brood from less aggressive host colonies. Host colony aggression remained consistent over the two-month experiment, but did not respond to our manipulation. However, as one-fifth of all host colonies were successfully invaded by parasite queens, slavemaker nest foundation acts as a strong selection event selecting for high aggression in host colonies. PMID:22809720

  16. A Systems Survey of Progressive Host-Cell Reorganization during Rotavirus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Victoria A; Pelkmans, Lucas

    2016-07-13

    Pathogen invasion is often accompanied by widespread alterations in cellular physiology, which reflects the hijacking of host factors and processes for pathogen entry and replication. Although genetic perturbation screens have revealed the complexity of host factors involved for numerous pathogens, it has remained challenging to temporally define the progression of events in host cell reorganization during infection. We combine high-confidence genome-scale RNAi screening of host factors required for rotavirus infection in human intestinal cells with an innovative approach to infer the trajectory of virus infection from fixed cell populations. This approach reveals a comprehensive network of host cellular processes involved in rotavirus infection and implicates AMPK in initiating the development of a rotavirus-permissive environment. Our work provides a powerful approach that can be generalized to order complex host cellular requirements along a trajectory of cellular reorganization during pathogen invasion.

  17. Dynamics of host plant use and species diversity in Polygonia butterflies (Nymphalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingartner, E; Wahlberg, N; Nylin, S

    2006-03-01

    The ability of insects to utilize different host plants has been suggested to be a dynamic and transient phase. During or after this phase, species can shift to novel host plants or respecialize on ancestral ones. Expanding the range of host plants might also be a factor leading to higher levels of net speciation rates. In this paper, we have studied the possible importance of host plant range for diversification in the genus Polygonia (Nymphalidae, Nymphalini). We have compared species richness between sistergroups in order to find out if there are any differences in number of species between clades including species that utilize only the ancestral host plants ('urticalean rosids') and their sisterclades with a broader (or in some cases potentially broader) host plant repertoire. Four comparisons could be made, and although these are not all phylogenetically or statistically independent, all showed clades including butterfly species using other or additional host plants than the urticalean rosids to be more species-rich than their sisterclade restricted to the ancestral host plants. These results are consistent with the theory that expansions in host plant range are involved in the process of diversification in butterflies and other phytophagous insects, in line with the general theory that plasticity may drive speciation.

  18. Patterns of host plant utilization and diversification in the brush-footed butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Christopher A; Fordyce, James A

    2015-03-01

    Herbivorous insects represent one of the most successful animal radiations known. They occupy a wide range of niches, feed on a great variety of plants, and are species rich; yet the factors that influence their diversification are poorly understood. Host breadth is often cited as a major factor influencing diversification, and, according to the Oscillation Hypothesis, shifts from generalist to specialist feeding states increase the diversification rate for a clade. We explored the relationship between host breadth and diversification within the Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera) and explicitly tested predictions of the Oscillation Hypothesis. We found strong evidence of diversification rate heterogeneity, but no difference in host breadth between clades with a higher diversification rate compared to their sisters. We also found some clades exhibited phylogenetic nonindependence in host breadth and these clades had lower host plant turnover than expected by chance, suggesting host breadth is evolutionarily constrained. Finally, we found that transitions among host breadth categories varied, but the likelihood of reductions in host breadth was greater than that of increases. Our results indicate host breadth is decoupled from diversification rate within the Nymphalidae, and that constraints on diet breadth might play an important role in the evolution of herbivorous insects. © 2015 The Author(s).

  19. Shifting boundaries in professional care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, A; Solomon, J; Abelson, J

    1996-07-01

    The nature of the work undertaken by different health professionals and inter-professional boundaries are constantly shifting. The greater knowledge of users of health care, and the increasing technical and organizational complexity of modern medicine, have partly eroded the control of health professionals over the substance of their work. The definition of a field of work as lying within the province of any one profession is culturally rather than scientifically determined. It is evident that care of good quality should be delivered at the lowest possible cost. This might include delivery of care by a less trained person than heretofore, or by someone with limited but focused training. Sharing of skills is a more sensible subject for discussion than transfer of tasks. We review a number of studies which show the effectiveness of inter-professional substitution in various care settings, and also the effectiveness of substitution by those other than health professionals. The views of users of health services on inter-professional substitution need to be considered. Health professionals and others need to work together to devise innovative ways of delivering effective health care. The legal issues need clarification.

  20. Core shift effect in blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, A.; Mohan, P.; Gupta, Alok C.; Mangalam, A.; Volvach, A. E.; Aller, M. F.; Aller, H. D.; Gu, M. F.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Tornikoski, M.; Volvach, L. N.

    2017-07-01

    We studied the pc-scale core shift effect using radio light curves for three blazars, S5 0716+714, 3C 279 and BL Lacertae, which were monitored at five frequencies (ν) between 4.8 and 36.8 GHz using the University of Michigan Radio Astronomical Observatory (UMRAO), the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (CrAO) and Metsähovi Radio Observatory for over 40 yr. Flares were Gaussian fitted to derive time delays between observed frequencies for each flare (Δt), peak amplitude (A) and their half width. Using A ∝ να, we infer α in the range of -16.67-2.41 and using Δ t ∝ ν ^{1/k_r}, we infer kr ∼ 1, employed in the context of equipartition between magnetic and kinetic energy density for parameter estimation. From the estimated core position offset (Ωrν) and the core radius (rcore), we infer that opacity model may not be valid in all cases. The mean magnetic field strengths at 1 pc (B1) and at the core (Bcore) are in agreement with previous estimates. We apply the magnetically arrested disc model to estimate black hole spins in the range of 0.15-0.9 for these blazars, indicating that the model is consistent with expected accretion mode in such sources. The power-law-shaped power spectral density has slopes -1.3 to -2.3 and is interpreted in terms of multiple shocks or magnetic instabilities.

  1. The Inflammasome in Host Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Chen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nod-like receptors have emerged as an important family of sensors in host defense. These receptors are expressed in macrophages, dendritic cells and monocytes and play an important role in microbial immunity. Some Nod-like receptors form the inflammasome, a protein complex that activates caspase-1 in response to several stimuli. Caspase-1 activation leads to processing and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL-1β and IL-18. Here, we discuss recent advances in the inflammasome field with an emphasis on host defense. We also compare differential requirements for inflammasome activation in dendritic cells, macrophages and monocytes.

  2. Supramolecular guest relay using host-protein nanocavities: an application of host-induced guest protonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Falguni; Pal, Kaushik; Lathwal, Sushil; Koner, Apurba L

    2016-08-16

    Small drug molecules and other important metabolites are delivered via a suitable carrier protein-mediated transport through a specific receptor. The process is highly coordinated and associated with complexation induced properties of deliverable molecules. To get a molecular insight, in this report, we tried to mimic the delivery process to know how the carrier protein relocates the drug molecule from the macrocyclic host cavity to its binding pocket and how the electronic and the chemical properties of the guest get altered. Bovine and human serum albumin (BSA and HSA) were used as the model carrier proteins which can snatch out 6-propanoyl-2-(N,N-dimethylamino)naphthalene (PRO), dye used as a drug model (known to bind at the drug-binding pocket of the carrier protein), from the cucurbit[7]uril (CB7) cavity, a potential drug delivery carrier. Prior to performing the fluorescence-based bio-supramolecular relocation assay using BSA and HSA, CB7 and PRO, we have investigated the effect of CB7 encapsulation and protonation on the fluorescence properties of PRO. A significant shift in the pKa value from 3.4 to 6.6 (ca. 3.2 logarithmic units) of PRO was observed upon encapsulation with CB7, which causes a huge fluorescence quenching even at neutral pH. The binding affinity of protonated and neutral PRO for CB7 also confirms a 3.2 unit shift in the acid-dissociation constant. A displacement assay using a strong CB7 binder, viz., 1,6-diaminohexane, confirms encapsulation of PRO in the CB7 cavity. Encapsulation of neutral PRO by CB7 shows a significant fluorescence enhancement accompanied by a ∼35 nm blue shift in the emission maxima.

  3. Geography and host species shape the evolutionary dynamics of U genogroup infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Allison; Breyta, Rachel; Bedford, Trevor; Kurath, Gael

    2016-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a negative-sense RNA virus that infects wild and cultured salmonids throughout the Pacific Coastal United States and Canada, from California to Alaska. Although infection of adult fish is usually asymptomatic, juvenile infections can result in high mortality events that impact salmon hatchery programs and commercial aquaculture. We used epidemiological case data and genetic sequence data from a 303 nt portion of the viral glycoprotein gene to study the evolutionary dynamics of U genogroup IHNV in the Pacific Northwestern United States from 1971 to 2013. We identified 114 unique genotypes among 1,219 U genogroup IHNV isolates representing 619 virus detection events. We found evidence for two previously unidentified, broad subgroups within the U genogroup, which we designated ‘UC’ and ‘UP’. Epidemiologic records indicated that UP viruses were detected more frequently in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) and in coastal waters of Washington and Oregon, whereas UC viruses were detected primarily in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Columbia River Basin, which is a large, complex watershed extending throughout much of interior Washington, Oregon, and Idaho. These findings were supported by phylogenetic analysis and by FST. Ancestral state reconstruction indicated that early UC viruses in the Columbia River Basin initially infected sockeye salmon but then emerged via host shifts into Chinook salmon and steelhead trout sometime during the 1980s. We postulate that the development of these subgroups within U genogroup was driven by selection pressure for viral adaptation to Chinook salmon and steelhead trout within the Columbia River Basin.

  4. Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. King

    2004-03-31

    The primary purpose of this analysis is to evaluate seismic- and igneous-related features, events, and processes (FEPs). These FEPs represent areas of natural system processes that have the potential to produce disruptive events (DE) that could impact repository performance and are related to the geologic processes of tectonism, structural deformation, seismicity, and igneous activity. Collectively, they are referred to as the DE FEPs. This evaluation determines which of the DE FEPs are excluded from modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for license application (TSPA-LA). The evaluation is based on the data and results presented in supporting analysis reports, model reports, technical information, or corroborative documents that are cited in the individual FEP discussions in Section 6.2 of this analysis report.

  5. Hosting providers' liability: Cour de cassation puts an end to the notice and stay down rule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jasserand, C.

    2013-01-01

    In applying the rules on hosting providers' liability, French lower courts have shifted from a notice and take down rule (provided by Article 14 of the E-Commerce Directive and Article 6 of the French implementing law) to a notice and stay down rule (created by the judges). This interpretation was c

  6. The Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nebel, Tobias

    2010-06-25

    The subject of this thesis is the first measurement of the 2S-2P Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen ({mu}p). In this project, which has been performed at the proton-accelerator facility of the Paul-Scherrer-Institute in Switzerland, the exotic analogon to the classical Lamb shift in hydrogen has been examined by laser spectroscopy. Negative muons are produced at a specially developed low-energy muon beam at a rate of 330 s{sup -1} and are stopped in 1 hPa of H{sub 2} gas. In the gas, highly excited {mu}p atoms are formed, most of which promptly cascade to the ground state within {proportional_to}100 ns. Only a fraction of 1.1% forms {mu}p atoms in the long-lived 2S state with a lifetime of 1.0 {mu}s. An elaborate laser system triggered on every incoming muon delivers 0.2 mJ laser pulses at {lambda}{approx_equal}6 {mu}m with 500 s{sup -1} repetition rate. The laser illuminates the {mu}p atoms 900 ns after the prompt muon cascade inducing the 2S-2P transition when on resonance. A 1.9 keV K{sub {alpha}} X-ray is emitted in the subsequent deexcitation to the 1S ground state and is recorded by large area avalanche photodiodes. The laser induced K{sub {alpha}} events are clearly distinguishable from the exponential background. For the 2S{sub 1/2}{sup F=1} - 2P{sub 3/2}{sup F=2} transition in {mu}p, it is given by {nu}{sub 2S-2P}=49 881 695 (711)MHz with a relative accuracy of 1.4 x 10{sup -5}. Assuming the correctness of the bound-state QED calculations of the Lamb shift in {mu}p, a new value for the rms proton charge radius r{sub p} can be derived: r{sub p}=0:84192(65) fm. Using the precisely measured 1S-2S transition frequency in hydrogen (relative accuracy of 1.4 parts in 10{sup 14}) and combining it with our new value of r{sub p}, a new value for the Rydberg constant R{sub {infinity}} can be derived with a relative accuracy of 1.5 parts in 10{sup 12}: R{sub {infinity}}=10 973 731.568 161(16)m{sup -1}. Beside the 2S{sub 1/2}{sup F=1}-2P{sub 3/2}{sup F=2} transition in {mu

  7. Greater migratory propensity in hosts lowers pathogen transmission and impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Richard J; Altizer, Sonia; Bartel, Rebecca A

    2014-09-01

    Animal migrations are spectacular and migratory species have been shown to transmit pathogens that pose risks to human health. Although migration is commonly assumed to enhance pathogen dispersal, empirical work indicates that migration can often have the opposite effect of lowering disease risk. Key to assessing disease threats to migratory species is the ability to predict how migratory behaviour influences pathogen invasion success and impacts on migratory hosts, thus motivating a mechanistic understanding of migratory host-pathogen interactions. Here, we develop a quantitative framework to examine pathogen transmission in animals that undergo two-way directed migrations between wintering and breeding grounds annually. Using the case of a pathogen transmitted during the host's breeding season, we show that a more extreme migratory strategy (defined by the time spent away from the breeding site and the total distance migrated) lowers the probability of pathogen invasion. Moreover, if migration substantially lowers the survival probability of infected animals, then populations that spend comparatively less time at the breeding site or that migrate longer distances are less vulnerable to pathogen-induced population declines. These findings provide theoretical support for two non-exclusive mechanisms proposed to explain how seasonal migration can lower infection risk: (i) escape from habitats where parasite transmission stages have accumulated and (ii) selective removal of infected hosts during strenuous journeys. Our work further suggests that barriers to long-distance movement could increase pathogen prevalence for vulnerable species, an effect already seen in some animal species undergoing anthropogenically induced migratory shifts.

  8. Aquatic viruses induce host cell death pathways and its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshi, Latif; Wu, Jen-Leih; Wang, Hao-Ven; Hong, Jiann-Ruey

    2016-01-04

    Virus infections of mammalian and animal cells consist of a series of events. As intracellular parasites, viruses rely on the use of host cellular machinery. Through the use of cell culture and molecular approaches over the past decade, our knowledge of the biology of aquatic viruses has grown exponentially. The increase in aquaculture operations worldwide has provided new approaches for the transmission of aquatic viruses that include RNA and DNA viruses. Therefore, the struggle between the virus and the host for control of the cell's death machinery is crucial for survival. Viruses are obligatory intracellular parasites and, as such, must modulate apoptotic pathways to control the lifespan of their host to complete their replication cycle. This paper updates the discussion on the detailed mechanisms of action that various aquatic viruses use to induce cell death pathways in the host, such as Bad-mediated, mitochondria-mediated, ROS-mediated and Fas-mediated cell death circuits. Understanding how viruses exploit the apoptotic pathways of their hosts may provide great opportunities for the development of future potential therapeutic strategies and pathogenic insights into different aquatic viral diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Host-parasite interactions under extreme climatic conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. MARTINEZ; S. MERINO

    2011-01-01

    The effect that climatic changes can exert on parasitic interactions represents a multifactor problem whose results are difficult to predict. The actual impact of changes will depend on their magnitude and the physiological tolerance of affected organisms. When the change is considered extreme (I.e. Unusual weather events that are at the extremes of the historical distribution for a given area), the probability of an alteration in an organisms' homeostasis increases dramatically. However, factors determining the altered dynamics of host-parasite interactions due to an extreme change are the same as those acting in response to changes of lower magnitude. Only a deep knowledge of these factors will help to produce more accurate predictive models for the effects of extreme changes on parasitic interactions. Extreme environmental conditions may affect pathogens directly when they include free-living stages in their life-cycles and indirectly through reduced resource availability for hosts and thus reduced ability to produce efficient anti-parasite defenses, or by effects on host density affecting transmission dynamics of diseases or the frequency of intraspecific contact. What are the consequences for host-parasite interactions? Here we summarize the present knowledge on three principal factors in determining host-parasite associations; biodiversity, population density and immunocompetence. In addition, we analyzed examples of the effects of environmental alteration of anthropogenic origin on parasitic systems because the effects are analogous to that exerted by an extreme climatic change.

  10. Mental health in humanitarian settings: shifting focus to care systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordans, Mark J D; Tol, Wietse A

    2013-03-01

    Mental health in low- and middle income countries has received increasing attention. This attention has shifted focus, roughly moving from demonstrating the burden of mental health problems, to establishing an evidence base for interventions, to thinking about care delivery frameworks. This paper reviews these trends specifically for humanitarian settings and discusses lessons learned. Notably, that mental health assessments need to go beyond measuring the impact of traumatic events on circumscribed psychiatric disorders; that evidence for effectiveness of interventions is still too weak and its focus too limited; and that development of service delivery in the context of instable community and health systems should be an area of key priority.

  11. Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Sanchez

    2004-11-08

    The purpose of this analysis report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of the disruptive events features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for license application (TSPA-LA). A screening decision, either ''Included'' or ''Excluded,'' is given for each FEP, along with the technical basis for screening decisions. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.114 (d), (e), and (f) [DIRS 156605]. The FEPs addressed in this report deal with both seismic and igneous disruptive events, such as fault displacements through the repository and an igneous intrusion into the repository. For included FEPs, this analysis summarizes the implementation of the FEP in TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). Previous versions of this report were developed to support the total system performance assessments (TSPA) for various prior repository designs. This revision addresses the repository design for the license application (LA).

  12. Últimamente: functional and semantic shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mònica Vidal Díez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The twenty-second edition of DRAE notes that últimamente has two adverbial type meanings, i. e. one adverbial meaning of manner - por ultimo - and another adverbial meaning of time that links with hace poco tiempo, recientemente. However, the time value does not appear in the dictionary until 1985, when, initially, the following formulation is used: hace poco, en el tiempo que acaba de transcurrir. This value, clearly the central or prototypical in modern Peninsular Spanish, contrasts, however, with the earlier functions assumed by this particle. Thus últimamente was equivalent to finalmente, por último término and therefore was used to insert either the closing segment of a multiple event chain arranged according to chronological criteria, or to indicate a sequence of elements in discourse without temporal marking. This research focuses on analyzing the changes in the particle últimamente until it acquired its current temporal function, i.e. recientemente, de un tiempo a esta parte. For the study we set up and analyzed a corpus formed ad hoc with samples taken from the CORDE and CREA (RAE, examining (i the potential connection between diachronic uses of últimamente and the tense of the sentence in which it appears, (ii its use as a discourse sequencing marker and (iii the semantic shift of these functions towards the contemporary meaning i.e. recientemente, de un tiempo a esta parte. The analysis provided shows the time at which the particle reaches the innovative semantic function and the semantic process of substitution or reduction of the original meaning.

  13. Stay tuned: what is special about not shifting attention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durk Talsma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: When studying attentional orienting processes, brain activity elicited by symbolic cue is usually compared to a neutral condition in which no information is provided about the upcoming target location. It is generally assumed that when a neutral cue is provided, participants do not shift their attention. The present study sought to validate this assumption. We further investigated whether anticipated task demands had an impact on brain activity related to processing symbolic cues. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two experiments were conducted, during which event-related potentials were elicited by symbolic cues that instructed participants to shift their attention to a particular location on a computer screen. In Experiment 1, attention shift-inducing cues were compared to non-informative cues, while in both conditions participants were required to detect target stimuli that were subsequently presented at peripheral locations. In Experiment 2, a non-ambiguous "stay-central" cue that explicitly required participants not to shift their attention was used instead. In the latter case, target stimuli that followed a stay-central cue were also presented at a central location. Both experiments revealed enlarged early latency contralateral ERP components to shift-inducing cues compared to those elicited by either non-informative (exp. 1 or stay-central cues (exp. 2. In addition, cueing effects were modulated by the anticipated difficulty of the upcoming target, particularly so in Experiment 2. A positive difference, predominantly over the posterior contralateral scalp areas, could be observed for stay-central cues, especially for those predicting that the upcoming target would be easy. This effect was not present for non-informative cues. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We interpret our result in terms of a more rapid engagement of attention occurring in the presence of a more predictive instruction (i.e. stay-central easy target. Our results

  14. Practices Surrounding Event Photos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vyas, Dhaval; Nijholt, Antinus; van der Veer, Gerrit C.; Kotzé, P.; Marsden, G.; Lindgaard, G.; Wesson, J.; Winckler, M.

    Sharing photos through mobile devices has a great potential for creating shared experiences of social events between co-located as well as remote participants. In order to design novel event sharing tools, we need to develop indepth understanding of current practices surrounding these so called

  15. Committed Sport Event Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Keunsu; Quarterman, Jerome; Strigas, Ethan; Ha, Jaehyun; Lee, Seungbum

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among selected demographic characteristics (income, education and age), motivation and commitment of volunteers at a sporting event. Three-hundred and five questionnaires were collected from volunteers in a marathon event and analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). Based on…

  16. CHED Events: Philadelphia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, Donald J.

    2008-08-01

    These Division of Chemical Education (CHED) Committee meetings and events are planned for the Fall 2008 ACS Meeting in Philadelphia. Most will take place in the Sheraton Philadelphia City Center Hotel, 17th and Race Streets: This includes the Sunday evening Reception and Social Event; there will be no CHED Banquet.

  17. The Agency of Event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholas, Paul; Tamke, Martin; Riiber, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the notion of agency within event-based models. We present an event-based modeling approach that links interdependent generative, analytic and decision making sub-models within a system of exchange. Two case study projects demonstrate the underlying modeling concepts...

  18. The Agency of Event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholas, Paul; Tamke, Martin; Riiber, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the notion of agency within event-based models. We present an event-based modeling approach that links interdependent generative, analytic and decision making sub-models within a system of exchange. Two case study projects demonstrate the underlying modeling concepts and metho...

  19. Activating Event Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Mary; Jones, Michael; Thomson, Caroline; Kelly, Sarah; McRae, Ken

    2009-01-01

    An increasing number of results in sentence and discourse processing demonstrate that comprehension relies on rich pragmatic knowledge about real-world events, and that incoming words incrementally activate such knowledge. If so, then even outside of any larger context, nouns should activate knowledge of the generalized events that they denote or…

  20. The ATLAS Event Builder

    CERN Document Server

    Vandelli, W; Battaglia, A; Beck, H P; Blair, R; Bogaerts, A; Bosman, M; Ciobotaru, M; Cranfield, R; Crone, G; Dawson, J; Dobinson, Robert W; Dobson, M; Dos Anjos, A; Drake, G; Ermoline, Y; Ferrari, R; Ferrer, M L; Francis, D; Gadomski, S; Gameiro, S; Gorini, B; Green, B; Haberichter, W; Haberli, C; Hauser, R; Hinkelbein, C; Hughes-Jones, R; Joos, M; Kieft, G; Klous, S; Korcyl, K; Kordas, K; Kugel, A; Leahu, L; Lehmann, G; Martin, B; Mapelli, L; Meessen, C; Meirosu, C; Misiejuk, A; Mornacchi, G; Müller, M; Nagasaka, Y; Negri, A; Pasqualucci, E; Pauly, T; Petersen, J; Pope, B; Schlereth, J L; Spiwoks, R; Stancu, S; Strong, J; Sushkov, S; Szymocha, T; Tremblet, L; Ünel, G; Vermeulen, J; Werner, P; Wheeler-Ellis, S; Wickens, F; Wiedenmann, W; Yu, M; Yasu, Y; Zhang, J; Zobernig, H; 2007 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference

    2008-01-01

    Event data from proton-proton collisions at the LHC will be selected by the ATLAS experiment in a three-level trigger system, which, at its first two trigger levels (LVL1+LVL2), reduces the initial bunch crossing rate of 40~MHz to $sim$3~kHz. At this rate, the Event Builder collects the data from the readout system PCs (ROSs) and provides fully assembled events to the Event Filter (EF). The EF is the third trigger level and its aim is to achieve a further rate reduction to $sim$200~Hz on the permanent storage. The Event Builder is based on a farm of O(100) PCs, interconnected via a Gigabit Ethernet to O(150) ROSs. These PCs run Linux and multi-threaded software applications implemented in C++. All the ROSs, and substantial fractions of the Event Builder and Event Filter PCs have been installed and commissioned. We report on performance tests on this initial system, which is capable of going beyond the required data rates and bandwidths for Event Building for the ATLAS experiment.

  1. Pneumatic, PLC Controlled, Automotive Gear Shifting Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muntaser Momani

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a gear shifting mechanism was designed and applied to make the shifting process faster and less destructible for the driver. The new device must be reliable, has a small dimensions, low construction and maintenance cost. This paper aims to improve gear shifting process using devices as: a manual four speed gear box, four pneumatic double acting cylinders, four pneumatic two position five ways directional control valves, Programmable Logic Controller (PLC LOGO unit, an electrical motor, an electrical clutch, a belt, two pulleys, limit switches, push buttons, bulbs, a table (holder and power supply. According to suggested gear_ shifting method the driver can select the transmission gear ratio without moving his hands from the steering wheel by putting the gear shifting push buttons on the steering wheel. Using this method leaves to the driver the excitement of choosing the shifting moment.

  2. Visual mimicry of host nestlings by cuckoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmore, Naomi E.; Stevens, Martin; Maurer, Golo; Heinsohn, Robert; Hall, Michelle L.; Peters, Anne; Kilner, Rebecca M.

    2011-01-01

    Coevolution between antagonistic species has produced instances of exquisite mimicry. Among brood-parasitic cuckoos, host defences have driven the evolution of mimetic eggs, but the evolutionary arms race was believed to be constrained from progressing to the chick stage, with cuckoo nestlings generally looking unlike host young. However, recent studies on bronze-cuckoos have confounded theoretical expectations by demonstrating cuckoo nestling rejection by hosts. Coevolutionary theory predicts reciprocal selection for visual mimicry of host young by cuckoos, although this has not been demonstrated previously. Here we show that, in the eyes of hosts, nestlings of three bronze-cuckoo species are striking visual mimics of the young of their morphologically diverse hosts, providing the first evidence that coevolution can select for visual mimicry of hosts in cuckoo chicks. Bronze-cuckoos resemble their own hosts more closely than other host species, but the accuracy of mimicry varies according to the diversity of hosts they exploit. PMID:21227972

  3. Empirical isotropic chemical shift surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czinki, Eszter; Csaszar, Attila G. [Eoetvoes University, Laboratory of Molecular Spectroscopy, Institute of Chemistry (Hungary)], E-mail: csaszar@chem.elte.hu

    2007-08-15

    A list of proteins is given for which spatial structures, with a resolution better than 2.5 A, are known from entries in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) and isotropic chemical shift (ICS) values are known from the RefDB database related to the Biological Magnetic Resonance Bank (BMRB) database. The structures chosen provide, with unknown uncertainties, dihedral angles {phi} and {psi} characterizing the backbone structure of the residues. The joint use of experimental ICSs of the same residues within the proteins, again with mostly unknown uncertainties, and ab initio ICS({phi},{psi}) surfaces obtained for the model peptides For-(l-Ala){sub n}-NH{sub 2}, with n = 1, 3, and 5, resulted in so-called empirical ICS({phi},{psi}) surfaces for all major nuclei of the 20 naturally occurring {alpha}-amino acids. Out of the many empirical surfaces determined, it is the 13C{sup {alpha}} ICS({phi},{psi}) surface which seems to be most promising for identifying major secondary structure types, {alpha}-helix, {beta}-strand, left-handed helix ({alpha}{sub D}), and polyproline-II. Detailed tests suggest that Ala is a good model for many naturally occurring {alpha}-amino acids. Two-dimensional empirical 13C{sup {alpha}}-{sup 1}H{sup {alpha}} ICS({phi},{psi}) correlation plots, obtained so far only from computations on small peptide models, suggest the utility of the experimental information contained therein and thus they should provide useful constraints for structure determinations of proteins.

  4. Biosignatures of Pathogen and Host

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitch, J P; Chromy, B A; Forde, C E; Garcia, E; Gardner, S N; Gu, P P; Kuczmarksi, T A; Melius, C F; McCutchen-Maloney, S L; Milanovich, F P; Motin, V L; Ott, L L; Quong, A A; Quong, J N; Rocco, J M; Slezak, T R; Sokhansanj, B A; Vitalis, E A; Zemla, A T; McCready, P M

    2002-08-27

    In information theory, a signature is characterized by the information content as well as noise statistics of the communication channel. Biosignatures have analogous properties. A biosignature can be associated with a particular attribute of a pathogen or a host. However, the signature may be lost in backgrounds of similar or even identical signals from other sources. In this paper, we highlight statistical and signal processing challenges associated with identifying good biosignatures for pathogens in host and other environments. In some cases it may be possible to identify useful signatures of pathogens through indirect but amplified signals from the host. Discovery of these signatures requires new approaches to modeling and data interpretation. For environmental biosignal collections, it is possible to use signal processing techniques from other applications (e.g., synthetic aperture radar) to track the natural progression of microbes over large areas. We also present a computer-assisted approach to identify unique nucleic-acid based microbial signatures. Finally, an understanding of host-pathogen interactions will result in better detectors as well as opportunities in vaccines and therapeutics.

  5. Gastrointestinal mucormycosis in immunocompromised hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dioverti, M Veronica; Cawcutt, Kelly A; Abidi, Maheen; Sohail, M Rizwan; Walker, Randall C; Osmon, Douglas R

    2015-12-01

    Invasive mucormycosis is a rare fungal infection in immunocompromised hosts, but it carries a high mortality rate. Primary gastrointestinal disease is the least frequent form of presentation. Early diagnosis and treatment are critical in the management; however, symptoms are typically non-specific in gastrointestinal disease, leading to delayed therapy. To describe the clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment and outcomes of gastrointestinal mucormycosis in immunocompromised hosts, we reviewed all cases of primary gastrointestinal mucormycosis in immunocompromised hosts reported in English literature as well as in our Institution from January 1st 1991 to December 31st 2013 for a total of 31 patients. About 52% of patients underwent solid organ transplant (SOT), while the rest had an underlying haematologic malignancy. Abdominal pain was the most common presenting symptom, followed by gastrointestinal bleeding and fever. Gastric disease was more common in SOT, whereas those with haematologic malignancy presented with intestinal disease (P = 0.002). Although gastrointestinal mucormycosis remains an uncommon condition in immunocompromised hosts, it carries significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in cases with intestinal involvement. A high index of suspicion is of utmost importance to institute early and appropriate therapy and improve outcomes.

  6. Host Defence to Pulmonary Mycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher H Mody

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To provide a basic understanding of the mechanisms of host defense to pathogenic fungi. This will help physicians understand why some patients are predisposed to fungal infections and update basic scientists on how microbial immunology applies to fungal disease.

  7. SHIFT: Shared Information Framework and Technology Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    As a result, the information has often been unsystematically gathered, has often been insufficient to meet needs, and in some cases has even led to...unnecessary risk -taking and overlapping or counterproductive actions. SHIFT differs from most of the earlier initiatives because of its emphasis on a...idea is that the SHIFT community will constitute a self- correcting environment. The SHIFT philosophy holds that the risk of false information is

  8. Night shift work and modifiable lifestyle factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Pepłońska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Night shift work has been linked to some chronic diseases. Modification of lifestyle by night work may partially contribute to the development of these diseases, nevertheless, so far epidemiological evidence is limited. The aim of the study was to explore association between night shift work and lifestyle factors using data from a cross-sectional study among blue-collar workers employed in industrial plants in Łódź, Poland. Material and Methods: The anonymous questionnaire was self-administered among 605 employees (236 women and 369 men, aged 35 or more - 434 individuals currently wor­king night shifts. Distribution of the selected lifestyle related factors such as smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, body mass index (BMI, number of main meals and the hour of the last meal was compared between current, former, and never night shift workers. Adjusted ORs or predicted means were calculated, as a measure of the associations between night shift work and lifestyle factors, with age, marital status and education included in the models as covariates. Results: Recreational inactivity (defined here as less than one hour per week of recreational physical activity was associated with current night shift work when compared to never night shift workers (OR = 2.43, 95% CI: 1.13-5.22 among men. Alcohol abstinence and later time of the last meal was associated with night shift work among women. Statistically significant positive relationship between night shift work duration and BMI was observed among men (p = 0.029. Conclusions: This study confirms previous studies reporting lower exercising among night shift workers and tendency to increase body weight. This finding provides important public health implication for the prevention of chronic diseases among night shift workers. Initiatives promoting physical activity addressed in particular to the night shift workers are recommended.

  9. Shifting currents: Progress, setbacks, and shifts in policy and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; Dunning, Charles; Robertson, Dale

    2016-01-01

    clean water future. More than a decade has passed since our first statewide WOW conversation and the report that captured recommendations from its participants: Waters of Wisconsin: The Future of Our Aquatic Ecosystems and Resources. Drawing from a diverse and growing set of stakeholders from across the state, the Wisconsin Academy initiated a new conversation in 2012 (known as WOW II) to assess progress in regard to our 2003 recommendations. We also sought to review the status of waters in Wisconsin today. The result of this renewed conversation is Shifting Currents: Progress, Setbacks, and Shifts in Policy and Practice. The new report assesses progress in brief, and explores in greater depth the continuing and emerging challenges to water quality, supply, and aquatic ecosystems in Wisconsin.In this report, we first review the context and frameworks for public decision-making about water and then examine some of the root causes—or “drivers”—and ecological stressors that underlie many of the symptoms we see in the form of pollution or ecosystem degradation in Wisconsin. This is followed by a summary of current water issues, many of which had been identified in the 2003 report and remain relevant today. We examine progress since 2003 but also setbacks, and discuss issues that we are likely to continue to face in the coming decades, including controlling agricultural runoff, mitigating climate change and grappling with its effects on the state’s waters, protecting groundwater from bacterial contamination and other pollutants, and preventing groundwater depletion. We also attempt to anticipate issues on the horizon. We offer a deeper look at some particular challenges, such as phosphorus pollution and groundwater contamination. We then consider the current decision-making framework and how it is shaping our capacity to respond to water challenges in Wisconsin. Finally, we offer recommendations and identify opportunities to safeguard Wisconsin’s waters in the

  10. Unbounded subnormal weighted shifts on directed trees

    CERN Document Server

    Budzynski, Piotr; Jung, Il Bong; Stochel, Jan

    2011-01-01

    A new method of verifying the subnormality of unbounded Hilbert space operators based on an approximation technique is proposed. Diverse sufficient conditions for subnormality of unbounded weighted shifts on directed trees are established. An approach to this issue via consistent systems of probability measures is invented. The role played by determinate Stieltjes moment sequences is elucidated. Lambert's characterization of subnormality of bounded operators is shown to be valid for unbounded weighted shifts on directed trees that have sufficiently many quasi-analytic vectors, which is a new phenomenon in this area. The cases of classical weighted shifts and weighted shifts on leafless directed trees with one branching vertex are studied.

  11. Goos-Haenchen shift in complex crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhi, Stefano; Della Valle, Giuseppe; Staliunas, Kestutis [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Departament de Fisica i Enginyeria Nuclear, Instituci Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avanats (ICREA), Universitat Politcnica de Catalunya, Colom 11, E-08222 Terrassa, Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    The Goos-Haenchen (GH) effect for wave scattering from complex PT-symmetric periodic potentials (complex crystals) is theoretically investigated, with specific reference to optical GH shift in photonic crystal slabs with a sinusoidal periodic modulation of both real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant. The analysis highlights some distinct and rather unique features as compared to the GH shift found in ordinary crystals. In particular, as opposed to GH shift in ordinary crystals, which is large at the band gap edges, in complex crystals the GH shift can be large inside the reflection (amplification) band and becomes extremely large as the PT symmetry-breaking threshold is approached.

  12. Shift work and the risk of ischemic heart disease - a systematic review of the epidemiologic evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, P.; Kolstad, H.A.; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2009-01-01

    disease in relation to shift work. The quality of included papers was evaluated with respect to design, exposure and outcome information, bias, and exposure response assessment. Results Of the 16 studies examined, relevant information was retrieved from 14. Seven of these analyzed fatal events, six......Objective The objective of this review was to evaluate the epidemiologic evidence for a causal relation between shift work and ischemic heart disease. Methods We conducted a systematic search until the end of March 2008 for studies providing information on the relative risk of ischemic heart...... combined fatal and non-fatal events, while one study reported separately on both types of events. Relative risks ranged from 0.6-1.4 in 12 papers while two papers reported relative risks around 2.0. Most studies based on fatal events showed no or weak associations while studies that combined fatal and non...

  13. Comparing host and parasite phylogenies: gyrodactylus flatworms jumping from goby to goby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyse, Tine; Volckaert, Filip A M

    2005-10-01

    The combination of exceptionally high species diversity, high host specificity, and a complex reproduction system raises many questions about the underlying mechanisms triggering speciation in the flatworm genus Gyrodactylus. The coevolutionary history with their goby hosts was investigated using both topology- and distance-based approaches; phylogenies were constructed of the V4 region of the 18S rRNA and the complete ITS rDNA region for the parasites, and 12S and 16S mtDNA fragments for the hosts. The overall fit between both trees was significant according to the topology-based programs (TreeMap 1.0, 2.0 beta and TreeFitter), but not according to the timed analysis in TreeMap 2.0 beta and the distance-based method (ParaFit). An absolute timing of speciation events in host and parasite ruled out the possibility of synchronous speciation for the gill parasites, favouring the distance-based result. Based on this information together with the biological background of host and parasite, the following TreeMap solution was selected. The group of gill parasites evolved from a host switch from G. arcuatus, parasitizing the three-spined stickleback onto the gobies, followed by several host-switching events among the respective goby hosts. The timing of these events is estimated to date back to the Late Pleistocene, suggesting a role for refugia-mediated mixing of parasite species. In contrast, it is suggested that co-speciation in the fin-parasites resulted in several host-associated species complexes. This illustrates that phylogenetically conserved host-switching mimics the phylogenetic signature of co-speciation, confounding topology-based programs.

  14. Influence of previous experience on the preference, food utilization and performance of Ascia monuste orseis wild larvae (Godart) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) for three different hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, A F K; Zucoloto, F S

    2011-01-01

    The exhaustion of food resources which occurs during the ontogenetic growth of Ascia monuste orseis (Godart) results in the dispersion of older larvae to nearby plants in order to complete their development, which might expose these animals to the nutritional variation of the hosts found. This study aimed to verify whether the food ingested in the beginning of the development influences the larvae host preference and whether the shift to a new host can affect the digestion and performance of A. monuste orseis, using two natural hosts: kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) and rocket (Eruca sativa), or kale and cabbage (B. oleracea var. capitata). Larvae were reared throughout their larval development on a single host or on two different hosts. When a host change was tested, larvae were reared for four instars on a host, and offered the other host plant in the fifth instar. Development time, percentage of pupation and emergence, pupal weight, fecundity and digestive indices were evaluated. The change in feeding preference for kale and for rocket in the fourth instar, when those were the original hosts, respectively, shows that prior experience plays a major role in food preference of immature A. monuste orseis. The shift can be beneficial for larval development, depending on the order of the hosts; in general, larvae fed on kale at the end of the development showed better performance. Our results presented strong evidence of a considerable phenotypic plasticity in A. monuste orseis for host preferences.

  15. In-line phase shift tomosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammonds, Jeffrey C.; Price, Ronald R.; Pickens, David R.; Donnelly, Edwin F. [Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to (1) demonstrate laboratory measurements of phase shift images derived from in-line phase-contrast radiographs using the attenuation-partition based algorithm (APBA) of Yan et al.[Opt. Express 18(15), 16074–16089 (2010)], (2) verify that the APBA reconstructed images obey the linearity principle, and (3) reconstruct tomosynthesis phase shift images from a collection of angularly sampled planar phase shift images.Methods: An unmodified, commercially available cabinet x-ray system (Faxitron LX-60) was used in this experiment. This system contains a tungsten anode x-ray tube with a nominal focal spot size of 10 μm. The digital detector uses CsI/CMOS with a pixel size of 50 × 50 μm. The phantoms used consisted of one acrylic plate, two polystyrene plates, and a habanero pepper. Tomosynthesis images were reconstructed from 51 images acquired over a ±25° arc. All phase shift images were reconstructed using the APBA.Results: Image contrast derived from the planar phase shift image of an acrylic plate of uniform thickness exceeded the contrast of the traditional attenuation image by an approximate factor of two. Comparison of the planar phase shift images from a single, uniform thickness polystyrene plate with two polystyrene plates demonstrated an approximate linearity of the estimated phase shift with plate thickness (−1600 rad vs −2970 rad). Tomographic phase shift images of the habanero pepper exhibited acceptable spatial resolution and contrast comparable to the corresponding attenuation image.Conclusions: This work demonstrated the feasibility of laboratory-based phase shift tomosynthesis and suggests that phase shift imaging could potentially provide a new imaging biomarker. Further investigation will be needed to determine if phase shift contrast will be able to provide new tissue contrast information or improved clinical performance.

  16. Location of Host and Host Habitat by Fruit Fly Parasitoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Rousse

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Augmentative releases of parasitoids may be a useful tool for the area-wide management of tephritid pests. The latter are parasitized by many wasp species, though only a few of them are relevant for augmentative biocontrol purposes. To date, nearly all the actual or potential biocontrol agents for such programs are egg or larval Opiinae parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae. Here, we review the literature published on their habitat and host location behavior, as well as the factors that modulate this behavior, which is assumed to be sequential; parasitoids forage first for the host habitat and then for the host itself. Parasitoids rely on chemical, visual, and mechanical stimuli, often strongly related to their ecology. Behavioral modulation factors include biotic and abiotic factors including learning, climatic conditions and physiological state of the insect. Finally, conclusions and perspectives for future research are briefly highlighted. A detailed knowledge of this behavior may be very useful for selecting the release sites for both inundative/augmentative releases of mass-reared parasitoids and inoculative releases for classical biocontrol.

  17. Sequential Utilization of Hosts from Different Fly Families by Genetically Distinct, Sympatric Populations within the Entomophthora muscae Species Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Gryganskyi, Andrii P.; Humber, Richard A.; Stajich, Jason E.; Bradley Mullens; Anishchenko, Iryna M.; Rytas Vilgalys

    2013-01-01

    The fungus Entomophthora muscae (Entomophthoromycota, Entomophthorales, Entomophthoraceae) is a widespread insect pathogen responsible for fatal epizootic events in many dipteran fly hosts. During epizootics in 2011 and 2012 in Durham, North Carolina, we observed a transition of fungal infections from one host, the plant-feeding fly Delia radicum, to a second host, the predatory fly Coenosia tigrina. Infections first appeared on Delia in the middle of March, but by the end of May, Coenosia co...

  18. Resource dependence in a new ecosystem: A host plant and its colonizing community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, K. Tímea; László, Zoltán; Tóthmérész, Béla

    2016-05-01

    The introduced black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) has become an invasive plant species in Europe. The introduction of alien plants such as the black locust may modify ecosystem composition and functioning. In response to the presence of a potential host plant, herbivores can adapt and shift to the consumption of the new host plant. In Eastern-Central Europe, the seed predator Bruchophagus robiniae (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae) is an important consumer of black locust seeds which presumably shifted from its formerly host species to black locust. We tested the influence of host plant abundance on a seed predator - parasitoid community. We found that the seed predator B. robiniae was present in higher numbers in woodlots than in small patches of black locust. The density of the specialist parasitoid Mesopolobus sp. was lower in woodlots than in small patches, while the generalist parasitoid Eupelmus urozonos was evenly distributed between woodlots and small patches of black locust. We found that parasitoid species are influenced by the patch size of host plants, thus characteristics of introduced host plants can also manifest in higher trophic levels.

  19. Transcriptional variation associated with cactus host plant adaptation in Drosophila mettleri populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Kim; Matzkin, Luciano M; Bono, Jeremy M

    2015-10-01

    Although the importance of host plant chemistry in plant-insect interactions is widely accepted, the genetic basis of adaptation to host plants is not well understood. Here, we investigate transcriptional changes associated with a host plant shift in Drosophila mettleri. While D. mettleri is distributed mainly throughout the Sonoran Desert where it specializes on columnar cacti (Carnegiea gigantea and Pachycereus pringleii), a population on Santa Catalina Island has shifted to chemically divergent coastal prickly pear cactus (Opuntia littoralis). We compared gene expression of larvae from the Sonoran Desert and Santa Catalina Island when reared on saguaro (C. gigantea), coastal prickly pear and laboratory food. Consistent with expectations based on the complexity and toxicity of cactus relative to laboratory food, within-population comparisons between larvae reared on these food sources revealed transcriptional differences in detoxification and other metabolic pathways. The majority of transcriptional differences between populations on the cactus hosts were independent of the rearing environment and included a disproportionate number of genes involved in processes relevant to host plant adaptation (e.g. detoxification, central metabolism and chemosensory pathways). Comparisons of transcriptional reaction norms between the two populations revealed extensive shared plasticity that likely allowed colonization of coastal prickly pear on Santa Catalina Island. We also found that while plasticity may have facilitated subsequent adaptive divergence in gene expression between populations, the majority of genes that differed in expression on the novel host were not transcriptionally plastic in the presumed ancestral state.

  20. Engineering Competition--A Win-Win Event for All

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Preston

    2010-01-01

    Hosting an engineering competition can bring great success to a technology department. Development and planning of an event can prove frustrating at times, but it pays off in the end. The author describes the first-ever engineering competition held at Maple Avenue Middle School in Saratoga Springs, New York, which provided an evening of creative…

  1. Engineering Competition--A Win-Win Event for All

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Preston

    2010-01-01

    Hosting an engineering competition can bring great success to a technology department. Development and planning of an event can prove frustrating at times, but it pays off in the end. The author describes the first-ever engineering competition held at Maple Avenue Middle School in Saratoga Springs, New York, which provided an evening of creative…

  2. Optical image hiding based on dual-channel simultaneous phase-shifting interferometry and compressive sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiaosheng; Zhong, Liyun; Zhang, Qinnan; Zhou, Yunfei; Xiong, Jiaxiang; Tian, Jindong; Lu, Xiaoxu

    2017-01-01

    We propose an optical image hiding method based on dual-channel simultaneous phase-shifting interferometry (DCSPSI) and compressive sensing (CS) in all-optical domain. In the DCSPSI architecture, a secret image is firstly embedded in the host image without destroying the original host's form, and a pair of interferograms with the phase shifts of π/2 is simultaneously generated by the polarization components and captured by two CCDs. Then, the holograms are further compressed sampling to the less data by CS. The proposed strategy will provide a useful solution for the real-time optical image security transmission and largely reducing data volume of interferogram. The experimental result demonstrates the validity and feasibility of the proposed method.

  3. Language Shift in a Singapore Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anthea Fraser; Yeok, Siew Pui

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the major language shift in Singapore from the familial use of varieties of Chinese other than Mandarin towards the languages of education, English and Mandarin. An ethnographic study is presented of a Singaporean Chinese family that has moved from Cantonese to English, and the underlying pressures leading to this shift are examined. (19…

  4. On the calculation of Mossbauer isomer shift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filatov, Michael

    2007-01-01

    A quantum chemical computational scheme for the calculation of isomer shift in Mossbauer spectroscopy is suggested. Within the described scheme, the isomer shift is treated as a derivative of the total electronic energy with respect to the radius of a finite nucleus. The explicit use of a finite nuc

  5. Lamb Shift in Nonrelativistic Quantum Electrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotch, Howard

    1981-01-01

    The bound electron self-energy or Lamb shift is calculated in nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics. Retardation is retained and also an interaction previously dropped in other nonrelativistic approaches is kept. Results are finite without introducing a cutoff and lead to a Lamb shift in hydrogen of 1030.9 MHz. (Author/JN)

  6. Pole Inflation - Shift Symmetry and Universal Corrections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broy, Benedict J.; Galante, Mario; Roest, Diederik; Westphal, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    An appealing explanation for the Planck data is provided by inflationary models with a singular non-canonical kinetic term: a Laurent expansion of the kinetic function translates into a potential with a nearly shift-symmetric plateau in canonical fields. The shift symmetry can be broken at large

  7. Multiscale regime shifts and planetary boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hughes, T.P.; Carpenter, S.; Rockstrom, J.; Scheffer, M.; Walker, B.

    2013-01-01

    Life on Earth has repeatedly displayed abrupt and massive changes in the past, and there is no reason to expect that comparable planetary-scale regime shifts will not continue in the future. Different lines of evidence indicate that regime shifts occur when the climate or biosphere transgresses a ti

  8. Characteristics of Menstrual Cycle in Shift Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attarchi, Mirsaeed; Darkhi, Hamidreza; Kashanian, Maryam; khodarahmian, Mahshad; Dolati, Mandana; Ghaffari, Mostafa; Mirzamohammadi, Elham; Mohammadi, Saber

    2013-01-01

    Background: In this study, the characteristics of menstrual cycle in shift workers employed in the pharmaceutical industry are investigated. Method: This study was conducted in a pharmaceutical industrial complex in Tehran in 2012. 406 female workers in packaging units were studied on the menstrual cycle characteristics. The studied workers were divided into two groups of shift workers and non-shift workers and were compared in terms of the frequency of menstrual disorder (short-term cycle, long-term cycle, irregular cycle and bleeding during menstrual cycle) as well as hormonal values (FSH, LH, TSH, and Prolactin). Results: The odds ratio (OR) for menstrual disorder in the shift workers was 5.54 (95% CI=2.78-11.02) compared to the non-shift workers. The mean difference of hormonal values (except prolactin) between shift workers and non-shift workers was not significant (P> 0.05). Conclusion: This study suggests that shift work may disrupt the menstrual cycle. PMID:23618486

  9. Social Change and Language Shift: South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamwangamalu, Nkonko M.

    2003-01-01

    Examines language shift from majority African languages, such as Sotho, Xhosa, and Zulu to English in South Africa. Examines the extent to which sociopolitical changes that have taken place in South Africa have impacted everyday linguistic interaction and have contributed to language shift from the indigenous African language to English,…

  10. Machiavellianism, Discussion Time, and Group Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Helmut; Myers, David G.

    1976-01-01

    Social-emotional and rational-cognitive explanations of group risky shift on choice dilemmas (hypothetical life situations) were evaluated by comparing shift in groups of low Mach (emotional) and high Mach (non-emotional) subjects. Effects of Machiavellian beliefs on social functioning are examined. Group composition was not observed to affect…

  11. Gain Shift Corrections at Chi-Nu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Tristan Brooks [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Applied Physics; Devlin, Matthew James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-30

    Ambient conditions have the potential to cause changes in liquid scintillator detector gain that vary with time and temperature. These gain shifts can lead to poor resolution in both energy as well as pulse shape discrimination. In order to correct for these shifts in the Chi-Nu high energy array, a laser system has been developed for calibration of the pulse height signals.

  12. Set Shifting Among Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Kathleen Kara; Darcy, Alison; Colborn, Danielle; Gudorf, Caroline; Lock, James

    2012-01-01

    Objective Set shifting difficulties are documented for adults with anorexia nervosa (AN). However, AN typically onsets in adolescents and it is unclear if set-shifting difficulties are a result of chronic AN or present earlier in its course. This study examined whether adolescents with short duration AN demonstrated set shifting difficulties compared to healthy controls (HC). Method Data on set shifting collected from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Functioning System (DKEFS) and Wisconsin Card Sort Task (WCST) as well as eating psychopathology were collected from 32 adolescent inpatients with AN and compared to those from 22 HCs. Results There were no differences in set-shifting in adolescents with AN compared to HCs on most measures. Conclusion The findings suggest that set-shifting difficulties in AN may be a consequence of AN. Future studies should explore set-shifting difficulties in a larger sample of adolescents with the AN to determine if there is sub-set of adolescents with these difficulties and determine any relationship of set-shifting to the development of a chronic from of AN. PMID:22692985

  13. Hippocampal theta frequency shifts and operant behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopes da Silva, F.H.; Kamp, A.

    1. 1. A shift of hippocampal dominant theta frequency to 6 c/sec has been demonstrated in the post-reward period in two dogs, which occurs consistently related in time to a well defined behavioural pattern in the course of an operant conditioning paradigm. 2. 2. The frequency shift was detected and

  14. Globally disruptive events show predictable timing patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, Michael P.; Erenler, Hilary E.

    2017-01-01

    Globally disruptive events include asteroid/comet impacts, large igneous provinces and glaciations, all of which have been considered as contributors to mass extinctions. Understanding the overall relationship between the timings of the largest extinctions and their potential proximal causes remains one of science's great unsolved mysteries. Cycles of about 60 Myr in both fossil diversity and environmental data suggest external drivers such as the passage of the Solar System through the galactic plane. While cyclic phenomena are recognized statistically, a lack of coherent mechanisms and a failure to link key events has hampered wider acceptance of multi-million year periodicity and its relevance to earth science and evolution. The generation of a robust predictive model of timings, with a clear plausible primary mechanism, would signal a paradigm shift. Here, we present a model of the timings of globally disruptive events and a possible explanation of their ultimate cause. The proposed model is a symmetrical pattern of 63 Myr sequences around a central value, interpreted as the occurrence of events along, and parallel to, the galactic midplane. The symmetry is consistent with multiple dark matter disks, aligned parallel to the midplane. One implication of the precise pattern of timings and the underlying physical model is the ability to predict future events, such as a major extinction in 1-2 Myr.

  15. CCG - News & Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI's Center for Cancer Genomics (CCG) has been widely recognized for its research efforts to facilitiate advances in cancer genomic research and improve patient outcomes. Find the latest news about and events featuring CCG.

  16. RAS Initiative - Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI RAS Initiative has organized multiple events with outside experts to discuss how the latest scientific and technological breakthroughs can be applied to discover vulnerabilities in RAS-driven cancers.

  17. Paroxysmal Nonepileptic Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Paroxysmal events that mimic epilepsy, and their precipitants, prodromes, and distinguishing features are reviewed by researchers at Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, and American University of Beirut, New York.

  18. Event visualization in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    At the beginning, HEP experiments made use of photographical images both to record and store experimental data and to illustrate their findings. Then the experiments evolved and needed to find ways to visualize their data. With the availability of computer graphics, software packages to display event data and the detector geometry started to be developed. Here, an overview of the usage of event display tools in HEP is presented. Then the case of the ATLAS experiment is considered in more detail and two widely used event display packages are presented, Atlantis and VP1, focusing on the software technologies they employ, as well as their strengths, differences and their usage in the experiment: from physics analysis to detector development, and from online monitoring to outreach and communication. Towards the end, the other ATLAS visualization tools will be briefly presented as well. Future development plans and improvements in the ATLAS event display packages will also be discussed.

  19. Analysis of extreme events

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khuluse, S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ) determination of the distribution of the damage and (iii) preparation of products that enable prediction of future risk events. The methodology provided by extreme value theory can also be a powerful tool in risk analysis...

  20. "Universe" event at AIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Report of event of 11 May 2008 held at the African Institute of Mathematical Sciences (Muizenberg, Cape), with speakers Michael Griffin (Administrator of NASA), Stephen Hawking (Cambridge), David Gross (Kavli Institute, Santa Barbara) and George Smoot (Berkeley).

  1. Electrifying Current Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Philip

    1980-01-01

    The author describes how he has adapted the television quiz show format of "College Bowl" to current events study for junior high school students. An insert explains use of the same technique with fourth graders. (SJL)

  2. Transcriptome analysis of host-associated differentiation in Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen eXie

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Host-associated differentiation is one of the driving forces behind the diversification of phytophagous insects. In this study, host induced transcriptomic differences were investigated in the sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci, an invasive agricultural pest worldwide. Comparative transcriptomic analyses using coding sequence (CDS, 5’ and 3’ untranslated regions (UTR showed that sequence divergences between the original host plant, cabbage, and the derived hosts, including cotton, cucumber and tomato, were 0.11%-0.14%, 0.19%-0.26% and 0.15%-0.21%, respectively. In comparison to the derived hosts, 418 female and 303 male transcripts, respectively, were up-regulated in the original cabbage strain. Among them, 17 transcripts were consistently up-regulated in both female and male whiteflies originated from the cabbage host. Specifically, two ESTs annotated as Cathepsin B or Cathepsin B-like genes were significantly up-regulated in the original cabbage strain, representing a transcriptomic response to the dietary challenges imposed by the host shifting. Results from our transcriptome analysis, in conjunction with previous reports documenting the minor changes in their reproductive capacity, insecticide susceptibility, symbiotic composition and feeding behavior, suggest that the impact of host-associated differentiation in whiteflies is limited. Furthermore, it is unlikely the major factor contributing to their rapid range expansion/invasiveness.

  3. Adapting to the Shifting Intent of Search Queries

    CERN Document Server

    Syed, Umar; Mishra, Nina

    2010-01-01

    Search engines today present results that are often oblivious to abrupt shifts in intent. For example, the query `independence day' usually refers to a US holiday, but the intent of this query abruptly changed during the release of a major film by that name. While no studies exactly quantify the magnitude of intent-shifting traffic, studies suggest that news events, seasonal topics, pop culture, etc account for 50% of all search queries. This paper shows that the signals a search engine receives can be used to both determine that a shift in intent has happened, as well as find a result that is now more relevant. We present a meta-algorithm that marries a classifier with a bandit algorithm to achieve regret that depends logarithmically on the number of query impressions, under certain assumptions. We provide strong evidence that this regret is close to the best achievable. Finally, via a series of experiments, we demonstrate that our algorithm outperforms prior approaches, particularly as the amount of intent-...

  4. Significance of Cuscutain, a cysteine protease from Cuscuta reflexa, in host-parasite interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuchsbauer Hans-Lothar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant infestation with parasitic weeds like Cuscuta reflexa induces morphological as well as biochemical changes in the host and the parasite. These modifications could be caused by a change in protein or gene activity. Using a comparative macroarray approach Cuscuta genes specifically upregulated at the host attachment site were identified. Results One of the infestation specific Cuscuta genes encodes a cysteine protease. The protein and its intrinsic inhibitory peptide were heterologously expressed, purified and biochemically characterized. The haustoria specific enzyme was named cuscutain in accordance with similar proteins from other plants, e.g. papaya. The role of cuscutain and its inhibitor during the host parasite interaction was studied by external application of an inhibitor suspension, which induced a significant reduction of successful infection events. Conclusions The study provides new information about molecular events during the parasitic plant - host interaction. Inhibition of cuscutain cysteine proteinase could provide means for antagonizing parasitic plants.

  5. Event Filter Dataflow Software

    CERN Document Server

    Meessen, C; Bosman, M; Karr, K M; Pacheco, A; Qian, Z; Touchard, F

    2000-01-01

    This document describes the software handling the flow of events through the Event Filter. This is the fourth iteration of the implementation of the code. When compared to previous versions, enhancements come from the feedback by users and can be seen as simplifications while the interfaces have been kept identical. The high level design of the dataflow is briefly reminded. Then, the details of the implementation of the components are given.

  6. Gargamelle: neutral current event

    CERN Multimedia

    1973-01-01

    This event shows real tracks of particles from the 1200 litre Gargamelle bubble chamber that ran on the PS from 1970 to 1976 and on the SPS from 1976 to 1979. In this image a neutrino passes close to a nucleon and reemerges as a neutrino. Such events are called neutral curent, as they are mediated by the Z0 boson which has no electric charge.

  7. CHED Events: New Orleans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, Donald J.

    2008-03-01

    These Division of Chemical Education (CHED) Committee meetings and events are planned for the Spring 2008 ACS Meeting in New Orleans. Most will take place in the Hilton Riverside Hotel, 2 Poydras Street; this includes the Sunday evening Reception and Social Event; there will be no CHED Banquet. Exceptions are the Sunday evening Poster Session and the Undergraduate Poster Sessions, which will be in Hall A of the Morial Convention Center.

  8. Does workplace health promotion reach shift workers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Garde, Anne Helene; Clausen, Thomas;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: One reason for health disparities between shift and day workers may be that workplace health promotion does not reach shift workers to the same extent as it reaches day workers. This study aimed to investigate the association between shift work and the availability of and participation...... in workplace health promotion. METHODS: We used cross-sectional questionnaire data from a large representative sample of all employed people in Denmark. We obtained information on the availability of and participation in six types of workplace health promotion. We also obtained information on working hours, ie......). RESULTS: In the general working population, fixed evening and fixed night workers, and employees working variable shifts including night work reported a higher availability of health promotion, while employees working variable shifts without night work reported a lower availability of health promotion...

  9. Design principles for shift current photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Ashley M; M Fregoso, Benjamin; de Juan, Fernando; Coh, Sinisa; Moore, Joel E

    2017-01-25

    While the basic principles of conventional solar cells are well understood, little attention has gone towards maximizing the efficiency of photovoltaic devices based on shift currents. By analysing effective models, here we outline simple design principles for the optimization of shift currents for frequencies near the band gap. Our method allows us to express the band edge shift current in terms of a few model parameters and to show it depends explicitly on wavefunctions in addition to standard band structure. We use our approach to identify two classes of shift current photovoltaics, ferroelectric polymer films and single-layer orthorhombic monochalcogenides such as GeS, which display the largest band edge responsivities reported so far. Moreover, exploring the parameter space of the tight-binding models that describe them we find photoresponsivities that can exceed 100 mA W(-1). Our results illustrate the great potential of shift current photovoltaics to compete with conventional solar cells.

  10. Quality of life in shift work syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puca, F M; Perrucci, S; Prudenzano, M P; Savarese, M; Misceo, S; Perilli, S; Palumbo, M; Libro, G; Genco, S

    1996-01-01

    Air Force radar controllers represent an excellent example of night shift workers, as they are obliged to demonstrate perfect alertness during working hours. We set out: a) to assess the quality of life in these shift workers; b) to identify those with shift work syndrome and c) to evaluate the possible effects of triazolam both on their quality of life and sleep. The results reveal an impairment of the quality of life in shift workers, independently of the presence of a circadian rhythm sleep disorder. Quality of life was more severely impaired in subjects with circadian rhythm sleep disorder. Hypnotic therapy brought about an improvement both in the sleep disorder and in the quality of life of subjects affected by shift work syndrome. Selective alertness tests failed to demonstrate any "sedative carry-over" in the treated patients.

  11. World Manufacturing Industry: Structural and Spatial Shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRINA RODIONOVA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article estimates countries’ and regions’ posit ions on the world ranking hierarchy in the manufacturing industry. The research is focusing on the characteristic of structural and spatial shift s of the world manufacturing industry. These trends have led to the restructuring of the world economy and main shifts in the manufacturing locations both at regional and global levels occurred. Developing countries have got a great chance to become active players in the world economy. Structural shifts occ ur suddenly both in manufacturing location and in the industrial composition in the recent decades. There have been shifts in the HT-industry compositi on. The shift to developing Asian countries is reve aled.

  12. Design principles for shift current photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Ashley M.; M. Fregoso, Benjamin; de Juan, Fernando; Coh, Sinisa; Moore, Joel E.

    2017-01-01

    While the basic principles of conventional solar cells are well understood, little attention has gone towards maximizing the efficiency of photovoltaic devices based on shift currents. By analysing effective models, here we outline simple design principles for the optimization of shift currents for frequencies near the band gap. Our method allows us to express the band edge shift current in terms of a few model parameters and to show it depends explicitly on wavefunctions in addition to standard band structure. We use our approach to identify two classes of shift current photovoltaics, ferroelectric polymer films and single-layer orthorhombic monochalcogenides such as GeS, which display the largest band edge responsivities reported so far. Moreover, exploring the parameter space of the tight-binding models that describe them we find photoresponsivities that can exceed 100 mA W-1. Our results illustrate the great potential of shift current photovoltaics to compete with conventional solar cells.

  13. Host modulation by therapeutic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugumari Elavarasu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease susceptible group present advanced periodontal breakdown even though they achieve a high standard of oral hygiene. Various destructive enzymes and inflammatory mediators are involved in destruction. These are elevated in case of periodontal destruction. Host modulation aims at bringing these enzymes and mediators to normal level. Doxycycline, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, bisphosphonates, nitrous oxide (NO synthase inhibitors, recombinant human interleukin-11 (rhIL-11, omega-3 fatty acid, mouse anti-human interleukin-6 receptor antibody (MRA, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK inhibitors, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kb inhibitors, osteoprotegerin, and tumor necrosis factor antagonist (TNF-α are some of the therapeutic agents that have host modulation properties.

  14. Detecting Priming News Events

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Di; Yu, Jeffrey Xu; Liu, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    We study a problem of detecting priming events based on a time series index and an evolving document stream. We define a priming event as an event which triggers abnormal movements of the time series index, i.e., the Iraq war with respect to the president approval index of President Bush. Existing solutions either focus on organizing coherent keywords from a document stream into events or identifying correlated movements between keyword frequency trajectories and the time series index. In this paper, we tackle the problem in two major steps. (1) We identify the elements that form a priming event. The element identified is called influential topic which consists of a set of coherent keywords. And we extract them by looking at the correlation between keyword trajectories and the interested time series index at a global level. (2) We extract priming events by detecting and organizing the bursty influential topics at a micro level. We evaluate our algorithms on a real-world dataset and the result confirms that ou...

  15. Host thin films incorporating nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Uzma

    The focus of this research project was the investigation of the functional properties of thin films that incorporate a secondary nanoparticulate phase. In particular to assess if the secondary nanoparticulate material enhanced a functional property of the coating on glass. In order to achieve this, new thin film deposition methods were developed, namely use of nanopowder precursors, an aerosol assisted transport technique and an aerosol into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition system. Aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) was used to deposit 8 series of thin films on glass. Five different nanoparticles silver, gold, ceria, tungsten oxide and zinc oxide were tested and shown to successfully deposit thin films incorporating nanoparticles within a host matrix. Silver nanoparticles were synthesised and doped within a titania film by AACVD. This improved solar control properties. A unique aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition (APCVD) system was used to deposit films of Au nanoparticles and thin films of gold nanoparticles incorporated within a host titania matrix. Incorporation of high refractive index contrast metal oxide particles within a host film altered the film colour. The key goal was to test the potential of nanopowder forms and transfer the suspended nanopowder via an aerosol to a substrate in order to deposit a thin film. Discrete tungsten oxide nanoparticles or ceria nanoparticles within a titanium dioxide thin film enhanced the self-cleaning and photo-induced super-hydrophilicity. The nanopowder precursor study was extended by deposition of zinc oxide thin films incorporating Au nanoparticles and also ZnO films deposited from a ZnO nanopowder precursor. Incorporation of Au nanoparticles within a VO: host matrix improved the thermochromic response, optical and colour properties. Composite VC/TiC and Au nanoparticle/V02/Ti02 thin films displayed three useful

  16. Do symbiotic bacteria subvert host immunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Lora V

    2009-05-01

    The mammalian intestine is home to dense and complex indigenous bacterial communities. Most of these bacteria establish beneficial symbiotic relationships with their hosts, making important contributions to host metabolism and digestive efficiency. The vast numbers of intestinal bacteria and their proximity to host tissues raise the question of how symbiotic host-bacterial relationships are established without eliciting potentially harmful immune responses. In light of the varied ways in which pathogenic bacteria manipulate host immunity, this Opinion article explores the role of immune suppression, subversion and evasion in the establishment of symbiotic host-bacterial associations.

  17. Predicting climate-driven regime shifts versus rebound potential in coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Nicholas A J; Jennings, Simon; MacNeil, M Aaron; Mouillot, David; Wilson, Shaun K

    2015-02-05

    Climate-induced coral bleaching is among the greatest current threats to coral reefs, causing widespread loss of live coral cover. Conditions under which reefs bounce back from bleaching events or shift from coral to algal dominance are unknown, making it difficult to predict and plan for differing reef responses under climate change. Here we document and predict long-term reef responses to a major climate-induced coral bleaching event that caused unprecedented region-wide mortality of Indo-Pacific corals. Following loss of >90% live coral cover, 12 of 21 reefs recovered towards pre-disturbance live coral states, while nine reefs underwent regime shifts to fleshy macroalgae. Functional diversity of associated reef fish communities shifted substantially following bleaching, returning towards pre-disturbance structure on recovering reefs, while becoming progressively altered on regime shifting reefs. We identified threshold values for a range of factors that accurately predicted ecosystem response to the bleaching event. Recovery was favoured when reefs were structurally complex and in deeper water, when density of juvenile corals and herbivorous fishes was relatively high and when nutrient loads were low. Whether reefs were inside no-take marine reserves had no bearing on ecosystem trajectory. Although conditions governing regime shift or recovery dynamics were diverse, pre-disturbance quantification of simple factors such as structural complexity and water depth accurately predicted ecosystem trajectories. These findings foreshadow the likely divergent but predictable outcomes for reef ecosystems in response to climate change, thus guiding improved management and adaptation.

  18. Multistate characters and diet shifts: evolution of Erotylidae (Coleoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leschen, Richard A B; Buckley, Thomas R

    2007-02-01

    The dominance of angiosperms has played a direct role in the diversification of insects, especially Coleoptera. The shift to angiosperm feeding from other diets is likely to have increased the rate of speciation in Phytophaga. However, Phytophaga is only one of many hyperdiverse lineages of beetles and studies of host-shift proliferation have been somewhat limited to groups that primitively feed on plants. We have studied the diet-diverse beetle family Erotylidae (Cucujoidea) to determine if diet is correlated with high diversification rates and morphological evolution by first reconstructing ancestral diets and then testing for associations between diet and species number and diet and ovipositor type. A Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of morphological data that was previously published in Leschen (2003, Pages 1-108 in Fauna of New Zealand, 47; 53 terminal taxa and 1 outgroup, 120 adult characters and 1 diet character) yielded results that are similar to the parsimony analyses of Leschen (2003). Ancestral state reconstructions based on Bayesian and parsimony inference were largely congruent and both reconstructed microfungal feeding (the diet of the outgroup Biphyllidae) at the root of the Erotylidae tree. Shifts among microfungal, saprophagous, and phytophagous diets were most frequent. The largest numbers of species are contained in lineages that are macrofungal feeders (subfamily Erotylinae) and phytophagous (derived Languriinae), although the Bayesian posterior predictive tests of character state correlation were unable to detect any significant associations. Ovipositor morphology correlated with diet (i.e., acute forms were associated with phytophagy and unspecialized forms were associated with a mixture of diets). Although there is a general trend to increased species number associated with the shift from microfungal feeding to phytophagy (based on character mapping and mainly restricted to shifts in Languriinae), there is a large radiation of taxa feeding on

  19. Glastonbury Festival 2007: The Socio-Economic Impacts on the Host Community

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, Eleanor

    2008-01-01

    Event tourism, particularly festival tourism, is increasingly becoming a focus for tourism research. There are numerous impacts of festival tourism to the tourism industry and they often have numerous effects upon the host community. This research investigates the economic and social impacts of Glastonbury Festival 2007 on the host community. The research estimates a total economic impact on the immediate and the wider geographical area and gains an insight into the social impacts of the F...

  20. Circadian Rhythm Shapes the Gut Microbiota Affecting Host Radiosensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ming; Xiao, Huiwen; Luo, Dan; Zhang, Xin; Zhao, Shuyi; Zheng, Qisheng; Li, Yuan; Zhao, Yu; Dong, Jiali; Li, Hang; Wang, Haichao; Fan, Saijun

    2016-10-26

    Modern lifestyles, such as shift work, nocturnal social activities, and jet lag, disturb the circadian rhythm. The interaction between mammals and the co-evolved intestinal microbiota modulates host physiopathological processes. Radiotherapy is a cornerstone of modern management of malignancies; however, it was previously unknown whether circadian rhythm disorder impairs prognosis after radiotherapy. To investigate the effect of circadian rhythm on radiotherapy, C57BL/6 mice were housed in different dark/light cycles, and their intestinal bacterial compositions were compared using high throughput sequencing. The survival rate, body weight, and food intake of mice in diverse cohorts were measured following irradiation exposure. Finally, the enteric bacterial composition of irradiated mice that experienced different dark/light cycles was assessed using 16S RNA sequencing. Intriguingly, mice housed in aberrant light cycles harbored a reduction of observed intestinal bacterial species and shifts of gut bacterial composition compared with those of the mice kept under 12 h dark/12 h light cycles, resulting in a decrease of host radioresistance. Moreover, the alteration of enteric bacterial composition of mice in different groups was dissimilar. Our findings provide novel insights into the effects of biological clocks on the gut bacterial composition, and underpin that the circadian rhythm influences the prognosis of patients after radiotherapy in a preclinical setting.

  1. Working the Night Shift: The Impact of Compensating Wages and Local Economic Conditions on Shift Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colene Trent

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The theory of compensating differentials asserts that night shift workers should receive compensating wage differentials due to undesirable work conditions. In weak local economies, workers may have difficulty finding jobs; thus, these workers might be more likely to accept night shift work and be less concerned with the size of the compensating differential for night shifts. Using CPS data from 2001, this paper employs maximum likelihood estimation of an endogenous switching regression model to analyze wages of day and night shift workers and shift choice. The findings indicate the presence of selection bias, thus emphasizing the importance of correcting for self-selection into night shifts. The average of the estimated wage differentials for night shift work is negative for the overall sample, with differentials varying by worker characteristics. The shift differential is found to be a statistically significant predictor of shift choice, indicating that shift premiums play an important role in motivating individuals to select night shift work. Using two measures of local economic conditions and a new method of analyzing interaction effects in the context of an endogenous switching regression model, this paper finds limited evidence that weak local economic conditions lessen the impact of compensating differentials on shift choice.

  2. Concepts of event-by-event analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroebele, H. [Universitaet Frankfurt (Germany)

    1995-07-15

    The particles observed in the final state of nuclear collisions can be divided into two classes: those which are susceptible to strong interactions and those which are not, like leptons and the photon. The bulk properties of the {open_quotes}matter{close_quotes} in the reaction zone may be read-off the kinematical characteristics of the particles observable in the final state. These characteristics are strongly dependent on the last interaction these particles have undergone. In a densly populated reaction zone strongly interacting particles will experience many collisions after they have been formed and before they emerge into the asymptotic final state. For the particles which are not sensitive to strong interactions their formation is also their last interaction. Thus photons and leptons probe the period during which they are produced whereas hadrons reflect the so called freeze-out processes, which occur during the late stage in the evolution of the reaction when the population density becomes small and the mean free paths long. The disadvantage of the leptons and photons is their small production cross section; they cannot be used in an analysis of the characteristics of individual collision events, because the number of particles produced per event is too small. The hadrons, on the other hand, stem from the freeze-out period. Information from earlier periods requires multiparticle observables in the most general sense. It is one of the challenges of present day high energy nuclear physics to establish and understand global observables which differentiate between mere hadronic scenarios, i.e superposition of hadronic interactions, and the formation of a partonic (short duration) steady state which can be considered a new state of matter, the Quark-Gluon Plasma.

  3. Enhancing spectral shifts of plasmon-coupled noble metal nanoparticles for sensing applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goeken, K.L.; Subramaniam, V.; Gill, R.

    2015-01-01

    Noble metal nanoparticles possess very large scattering cross-sections, which make them useful as tags in biosensing assays with the potential to detect even single binding events. In this study, we investigated the effects of nanoparticle size on the shift in the light scattering spectrum following

  4. Gamma Oscillations as a Neural Signature of Shifting Times in Narrative Language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brederoo, Sanne Goren; Bos, Laura Simone; Dragoy, Olga; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Baggio, Giosue

    2015-01-01

    Verbs and other temporal expressions allow speakers to specify the location of events in time, as well as to move back and forth in time, shifting in a narrative between past, present and future. The referential flexibility of temporal expressions is well understood in linguistics but its neurocogni

  5. West Nile virus adaptation to ixodid tick cells is associated with phenotypic trade-offs in primary hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciota, Alexander T; Payne, Anne F; Kramer, Laura D

    2015-08-01

    West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) is the most geographically widespread arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) in the world and is found in multiple ecologically distinct settings. Despite the likelihood of frequent exposure to novel hosts, studies evaluating the capacity and correlates of host range expansions or shifts of WNV and other arboviruses are generally lacking. We utilized experimental evolution of WNV in an Amblyomma americanum tick cell line to model an invertebrate host shift and evaluate the adaptive potential of WNV outside of its primary transmission cycle. Our results demonstrate that highly significant gains in replicative ability in ixodid tick cells are attainable for WNV but are also associated with widespread genetic change and significant phenotypic costs in vitro. Decreased fitness in primary hosts could represent a barrier to frequent exploitation of hard ticks by WNV in nature.

  6. Contemporary evolution of host plant range expansion in an introduced herbivorous beetle Ophraella communa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukano, Y; Doi, H; Thomas, C E; Takata, M; Koyama, S; Satoh, T

    2016-04-01

    Host range expansion of herbivorous insects is a key event in ecological speciation and insect pest management. However, the mechanistic processes are relatively unknown because it is difficult to observe the ongoing host range expansion in natural population. In this study, we focused on the ongoing host range expansion in introduced populations of the ragweed leaf beetle, Ophraella communa, to estimate the evolutionary process of host plant range expansion of a herbivorous insect. In the native range of North America, O. communa does not utilize Ambrosia trifida, as a host plant, but this plant is extensively utilized in the beetle's introduced range. Larval performance and adult preference experiments demonstrated that native O. communa beetles show better survival on host plant individuals from introduced plant populations than those from native plant populations and they also oviposit on the introduced plant, but not on the native plant. Introduced O. communa beetles showed significantly higher performance on and preference for both introduced and native A. trifida plants, when compared with native O. communa. These results indicate the contemporary evolution of host plant range expansion of introduced O. communa and suggest that the evolutionary change of both the host plant and the herbivorous insect involved in the host range expansion.

  7. Host compatibility rather than vector-host-encounter rate determines the host range of avian Plasmodium parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Matthew C I; Hamer, Gabriel L; Ricklefs, Robert E

    2013-06-07

    Blood-feeding arthropod vectors are responsible for transmitting many parasites between vertebrate hosts. While arthropod vectors often feed on limited subsets of potential host species, little is known about the extent to which this influences the distribution of vector-borne parasites in some systems. Here, we test the hypothesis that different vector species structure parasite-host relationships by restricting access of certain parasites to a subset of available hosts. Specifically, we investigate how the feeding patterns of Culex mosquito vectors relate to distributions of avian malaria parasites among hosts in suburban Chicago, IL, USA. We show that Plasmodium lineages, defined by cytochrome b haplotypes, are heterogeneously distributed across avian hosts. However, the feeding patterns of the dominant vectors (Culex restuans and Culex pipiens) are similar across these hosts, and do not explain the distributions of Plasmodium parasites. Phylogenetic similarity of avian hosts predicts similarity in their Plasmodium parasites. This effect was driven primarily by the general association of Plasmodium parasites with particular host superfamilies. Our results suggest that a mosquito-imposed encounter rate does not limit the distribution of avian Plasmodium parasites across hosts. This implies that compatibility between parasites and their avian hosts structure Plasmodium host range.

  8. Scalar Field Theories with Polynomial Shift Symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Griffin, Tom; Horava, Petr; Yan, Ziqi

    2014-01-01

    We continue our study of naturalness in nonrelativistic QFTs of the Lifshitz type, focusing on scalar fields that can play the role of Nambu-Goldstone (NG) modes associated with spontaneous symmetry breaking. Such systems allow for an extension of the constant shift symmetry to a shift by a polynomial of degree $P$ in spatial coordinates. These "polynomial shift symmetries" in turn protect the technical naturalness of modes with a higher-order dispersion relation, and lead to a refinement of the proposed classification of infrared Gaussian fixed points available to describe NG modes in nonrelativistic theories. Generic interactions in such theories break the polynomial shift symmetry explicitly to the constant shift. It is thus natural to ask: Given a Gaussian fixed point with polynomial shift symmetry of degree $P$, what are the lowest-dimension operators that preserve this symmetry, and deform the theory into a self-interacting scalar field theory with the shift symmetry of degree $P$? To answer this (essen...

  9. Constraining the Deep Origin of Parasitic Flatworms and Host-Interactions with Fossil Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Baets, Kenneth; Dentzien-Dias, Paula; Upeniece, Ieva; Verneau, Olivier; Donoghue, Philip C J

    2015-01-01

    Novel fossil discoveries have contributed to our understanding of the evolutionary appearance of parasitism in flatworms. Furthermore, genetic analyses with greater coverage have shifted our views on the coevolution of parasitic flatworms and their hosts. The putative record of parasitic flatworms is consistent with extant host associations and so can be used to put constraints on the evolutionary origin of the parasites themselves. The future lies in new molecular clock analyses combined with additional discoveries of exceptionally preserved flatworms associated with hosts and coprolites. Besides direct evidence, the host fossil record and biogeography have the potential to constrain their evolutionary history, albeit with caution needed to avoid circularity, and a need for calibrations to be implemented in the most conservative way. This might result in imprecise, but accurate divergence estimates for the evolution of parasitic flatworms.

  10. Preferential host switching and codivergence shaped radiation of bark beetle symbionts, nematodes of Micoletzkya (Nematoda: Diplogastridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susoy, V; Herrmann, M

    2014-05-01

    Host-symbiont systems are of particular interest to evolutionary biology because they allow testable inferences of diversification processes while also providing both a historical basis and an ecological context for studies of adaptation. Our investigations of bark beetle symbionts, predatory nematodes of the genus Micoletzkya, have revealed remarkable diversity of the group along with a high level of host specificity. Cophylogenetic analyses suggest that evolution of the nematodes was largely influenced by the evolutionary history of beetles. The diversification of the symbionts, however, could not be attributed to parallel divergence alone; our results indicate that adaptive radiation of the nematodes was shaped by preferential host shifts among closely related beetles along with codivergence. Whereas ecological and geographic isolation have played a major role in the diversification of Micoletzkya at shallow phylogenetic depths, adaptations towards related hosts have played a role in shaping cophylogenetic structure at a larger evolutionary scale.

  11. Disruptive Events and Demographic Behaviour : Explaining the Shifts in Fertility in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutayisire, P.C.

    2015-01-01

    The fertility transition of Rwanda stagnated between 1992 and 2005 at a total fertility rate (TFR) of 6 children per woman. After 2005 the fertility decline resumed its course and the TFR dropped remarkably fast till 4.6. The period of the fertility stall coincided with a very disruptive period in R

  12. Temperature-driven shifts in the epibiotic bacterial community composition of the brown macroalga Fucus vesiculosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratil, Stephanie B; Neulinger, Sven C; Knecht, Henrik; Friedrichs, Anette K; Wahl, Martin

    2013-04-01

    The thallus surface of the brown macroalga Fucus vesiculosus is covered by a specific biofilm community. This biofilm supposedly plays an important role in the interaction between host and environment. So far, we know little about compositional or functional shifts of this epibiotic bacterial community under changing environmental conditions. In this study, the response of the microbiota to different temperatures with respect to cell density and community composition was analyzed by nonculture-based methods (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene). Redundancy analysis showed that despite high variability among host individuals temperature accounted for 20% of the variation in the bacterial community composition, whereas cell density did not differ between groups. Across all samples, 4341 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at a 97% similarity level were identified. Eight percent of OTUs were significantly correlated with low, medium, and high temperatures. Notably, the family Rhodobacteraceae increased in relative abundance from 20% to 50% with increasing temperature. OTU diversity (evenness and richness) was higher at 15 °C than at the lower and higher temperatures. Considering their known and presumed ecological functions for the host, change in the epibacterial community may entail shifts in the performance of the host alga.

  13. Vibrio fischeri-derived outer membrane vesicles trigger host development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschtgen, Marie-Stephanie; Wetzel, Keith; Goldman, William; McFall-Ngai, Margaret; Ruby, Edward

    2016-04-01

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMV) are critical elements in many host-cell/microbe interactions. Previous studies of the symbiotic association between Euprymna scolopes and Vibrio fischeri had shown that within 12 h of colonizing crypts deep within the squid's light organ, the symbionts trigger an irreversible programme of tissue development in the host. Here, we report that OMV produced by V. fischeri are powerful contributors to this process. The first detectable host response to the OMV is an increased trafficking of macrophage-like cells called haemocytes into surface epithelial tissues. We showed that exposing the squid to other Vibrio species fails to induce this trafficking; however, addition of a high concentration of their OMV, which can diffuse into the crypts, does. We also provide evidence that tracheal cytotoxin released by the symbionts, which can induce haemocyte trafficking, is not part of the OMV cargo, suggesting two distinct mechanisms to induce the same morphogenesis event. By manipulating the timing and localization of OMV signal delivery, we showed that haemocyte trafficking is fully induced only when V. fischeri, the sole species able to reach and grow in the crypts, succeeds in establishing a sustained colonization. Further, our data suggest that the host's detection of OMV serves as a symbiotic checkpoint prior to inducing irreversible morphogenesis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Host entry by gamma-herpesviruses--lessons from animal viruses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet, Laurent; Frederico, Bruno; Stevenson, Philip G

    2015-12-01

    The oncogenicity of gamma-herpesviruses (γHVs) motivates efforts to control them and their persistence makes early events key targets for intervention. Human γHVs are often assumed to enter naive hosts orally and infect B cells directly. However, neither assumption is supported by direct evidence, and vaccination with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) gp350, to block virion binding to B cells, failed to reduce infection rates. Thus, there is a need to re-evaluate assumptions about γHV host entry. Given the difficulty of analysing early human infections, potentially much can be learned from animal models. Genomic comparisons argue that γHVs colonized mammals long before humans speciation, and so that human γHVs are unlikely to differ dramatically in behaviour from those of other mammals. Murid Herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4), which like EBV and the Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus (KSHV) persists in memory B cells, enters new hosts via olfactory neurons and exploits myeloid cells to spread. Integrating these data with existing knowledge of human and veterinary γHVs suggests a new model of host entry, with potentially important implications for infection control.

  15. Viral Mimicry to Usurp Ubiquitin and SUMO Host Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wimmer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Posttranslational modifications (PTMs of proteins include enzymatic changes by covalent addition of cellular regulatory determinants such as ubiquitin (Ub and small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO moieties. These modifications are widely used by eukaryotic cells to control the functional repertoire of proteins. Over the last decade, it became apparent that the repertoire of ubiquitiylation and SUMOylation regulating various biological functions is not restricted to eukaryotic cells, but is also a feature of human virus families, used to extensively exploit complex host-cell networks and homeostasis. Intriguingly, besides binding to host SUMO/Ub control proteins and interfering with the respective enzymatic cascade, many viral proteins mimic key regulatory factors to usurp this host machinery and promote efficient viral outcomes. Advanced detection methods and functional studies of ubiquitiylation and SUMOylation during virus-host interplay have revealed that human viruses have evolved a large arsenal of strategies to exploit these specific PTM processes. In this review, we highlight the known viral analogs orchestrating ubiquitin and SUMO conjugation events to subvert and utilize basic enzymatic pathways.

  16. Early detection of ecosystem regime shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin; Dakos, Vasilis; Groeger, Joachim P.;

    2012-01-01

    methods may have limited utility in ecosystem-based management as they show no or weak potential for early-warning. We therefore propose a multiple method approach for early detection of ecosystem regime shifts in monitoring data that may be useful in informing timely management actions in the face......Critical transitions between alternative stable states have been shown to occur across an array of complex systems. While our ability to identify abrupt regime shifts in natural ecosystems has improved, detection of potential early-warning signals previous to such shifts is still very limited...

  17. Forecasting interest rates with shifting endpoints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Dijk, Dick; Koopman, Siem Jan; Wel, Michel van der

    2014-01-01

    We consider forecasting the term structure of interest rates with the assumption that factors driving the yield curve are stationary around a slowly time-varying mean or ‘shifting endpoint’. The shifting endpoints are captured using either (i) time series methods (exponential smoothing) or (ii......) long-range survey forecasts of either interest rates or inflation and output growth, or (iii) exponentially smoothed realizations of these macro variables. Allowing for shifting endpoints in yield curve factors provides substantial and significant gains in out-of-sample predictive accuracy, relative...... to stationary and random walk benchmarks. Forecast improvements are largest for long-maturity interest rates and for long-horizon forecasts....

  18. Limits to superweak amplification of beam shifts

    CERN Document Server

    Götte, Jörg B

    2013-01-01

    The magnitudes of beam shifts (Goos-H\\"anchen and Imbert-Fedorov, spatial and angular) are greatly enhanced when a reflected light beam is postselected by an analyzer, by analogy with superweak measurements in quantum theory. Particularly strong enhancements can be expected close to angles at which no light is transmitted for a fixed initial and final polarizations. We derive a formula for the angular and spatial shifts at such angles (which includes the Brewster angle), and we show that their maximum size is limited by higher-order terms from the reflection coefficients occurring in the Artmann shift formula.

  19. Competition for FDI and Profit Shifting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Jie; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis

    When countries compete for the location of a new multinational plant they need to be aware of the profit shifting opportunities this new plant creates for the global multinational firm. By modelling explicitly the multinational’s intra-firm transactions, we show that the home market advantage...... that large countries have due to their size will be counteracted by such profit shifting opportunities. As a result of this, large countries will not be able to capitalize on their size and sustain high corporate taxes. We show that, on the basis of these profit shifting opportunities, a small country can...

  20. Search for Higgs shifts in white dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onofrio, Roberto [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia " Galileo Galilei," Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Wegner, Gary A., E-mail: onofrior@gmail.com, E-mail: gary.a.wegner@dartmouth.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)

    2014-08-20

    We report on a search for differential shifts between electronic and vibronic transitions in carbon-rich white dwarfs BPM 27606 and Procyon B. The absence of differential shifts within the spectral resolution and taking into account systematic effects such as space motion and pressure shifts allows us to set the first upper bound of astrophysical origin on the coupling between the Higgs field and the Kreschmann curvature invariant. Our analysis provides the basis for a more general methodology to derive bounds to the coupling of long-range scalar fields to curvature invariants in an astrophysical setting complementary to the ones available from high-energy physics or table-top experiments.

  1. Phase shifting in the spatial frequency domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Roghayeh; Petsch, Sebastian; Fallah, Hamidreza; Hajimahmoodzadeh, Morteza; Zappe, Hans

    2016-03-01

    We present a simple mathematical method for phase shifting that overcomes some phase shift errors and limitations of commonly used methods. The method is used to generate a sequence of phase-shifted interferograms from a single interferogram. The generated interferograms are employed to reconstruct the wavefront aberrations, as an application. The approach yields results with only very small deviations compared to both simulated wavefront aberrations, including the first 25 Zernike polynomials (0.05%) and those measured with a Shack-Hartmann sensor (0.5%).

  2. Giant Compton Shifts in Hyperbolic Metamaterial

    CERN Document Server

    Iorsh, Ivan; Ginzburg, Pavel; Belov, Pavel; Kivshar, Yuri

    2014-01-01

    We study the Compton scattering of light by free electrons inside a hyperbolic medium. We demonstrate that the unconventional dispersion and local density of states of the electromagnetic modes in such media can lead to a giant Compton shift and dramatic enhancement of the scattering cross section. We develop an universal approach for the study of coupled multi-photon processes in nanostructured media and derive the spectral intensity function of the scattered radiation for realistic metamaterial structures. We predict the Compton shift of the order of a few meVs for the infrared spectrum that is at least one order of magnitude larger than the Compton shift in any other system.

  3. Scandinavian Object Shift and Optimality Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engels, Eva; Vikner, Sten

    This study presents an account of object shift, a word order phenomenon found in most of the Scandinavian languages where an object occurs unexpectedly to the left and not to the right of a sentential adverbial. The book examines object shift across many of the Scandinavian languages and dialects...... for the variation as well as the interaction of object shift with other syntactic constructions such as verb second, other verb movements, double object constructions, particle verbs and causative verbs. The book moves on to investigate the interaction with remnant VP-topicalisation in great detail. With new...

  4. Carp erythrodermatitis: host defense-pathogen interaction.

    OpenAIRE

    Pourreau, C.N.

    1990-01-01

    The outcome of a bacterial infection depends on the interaction between pathogen and host. The ability of the microbe to survive in the host depends on its invasive potential (i.e. spreading and multiplication), and its ability to obtain essential nutrients and to resist the host's defense system. On the other hand, the host's resistance to a bacterial attack depends on its physiological state, the intensity of the bacterial attack and the efficacy of the defense system to neutralize toxins a...

  5. Space Borne Event Timer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turko, B.

    1980-01-01

    The Space Borne Event Timer is a part of the NASA laser ranging system that is intended to operate aboard the Space Shuttle orbiting over California. The object is to measure, by laser ranging, the earth movement along the San Andreas fault and possibly forecast future earthquakes. A number of cube reflector targets will be placed along both sides of the fault. The ranging system aboard the Space Shuttle will fire a burst of laser pulses at each target and detect the reflected light. Time differences between pulses from the two sides of the fault will indicate earth displacements. The Space Borne Event Timer is a CAMAC compatible system that provides extremely accurate timing data and controls the operation of the ranging system. For each event the time is given in 19.53 increments from the instant of firing the laser to the instant the reflected light is received back, within a range of 130 days.

  6. Forecasting Turbine Icing Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Neil; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Clausen, Niels-Erik;

    2012-01-01

    is not shut down for its protection. We also found that there is a a large spread across the various turbines within a wind park, in the amount of icing. This is currently not taken into account by our model. Evaluating and adding these small scale differences to the model will be undertaken as future work....... accumulations, which have not been seen in observations. In addition to the model evaluation we were able to investigate the potential occurrence of ice induced power loss at two wind parks in Europe using observed data. We found that the potential loss during an icing event is large even when the turbine......In this study, we present a method for forecasting icing events. The method is validated at two European wind farms in with known icing events. The icing model used was developed using current ice accretion methods, and newly developed ablation algorithms. The model is driven by inputs from the WRF...

  7. Discrete-Event Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateek Sharma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Simulation can be regarded as the emulation of the behavior of a real-world system over an interval of time. The process of simulation relies upon the generation of the history of a system and then analyzing that history to predict the outcome and improve the working of real systems. Simulations can be of various kinds but the topic of interest here is one of the most important kind of simulation which is Discrete-Event Simulation which models the system as a discrete sequence of events in time. So this paper aims at introducing about Discrete-Event Simulation and analyzing how it is beneficial to the real world systems.

  8. Detection of anomalous events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferragut, Erik M.; Laska, Jason A.; Bridges, Robert A.

    2016-06-07

    A system is described for receiving a stream of events and scoring the events based on anomalousness and maliciousness (or other classification). The system can include a plurality of anomaly detectors that together implement an algorithm to identify low-probability events and detect atypical traffic patterns. The anomaly detector provides for comparability of disparate sources of data (e.g., network flow data and firewall logs.) Additionally, the anomaly detector allows for regulatability, meaning that the algorithm can be user configurable to adjust a number of false alerts. The anomaly detector can be used for a variety of probability density functions, including normal Gaussian distributions, irregular distributions, as well as functions associated with continuous or discrete variables.

  9. Ecological and genetic factors influencing the transition between host-use strategies in sympatric Heliconius butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, R M; Naisbit, R E; Mallet, J; Jiggins, C D

    2013-09-01

    Shifts in host-plant use by phytophagous insects have played a central role in their diversification. Evolving host-use strategies will reflect a trade-off between selection pressures. The ecological niche of herbivorous insects is partitioned along several dimensions, and if populations remain in contact, recombination will break down associations between relevant loci. As such, genetic architecture can profoundly affect the coordinated divergence of traits and subsequently the ability to exploit novel habitats. The closely related species Heliconius cydno and H. melpomene differ in mimetic colour pattern, habitat and host-plant use. We investigate the selection pressures and genetic basis underlying host-use differences in these two species. Host-plant surveys reveal that H. melpomene specializes on a single species of Passiflora. This is also true for the majority of other Heliconius species in secondary growth forest at our study site, as expected under a model of interspecific competition. In contrast, H. cydno, which uses closed-forest habitats where both Heliconius and Passiflora are less common, appears not to be restricted by competition and uses a broad selection of the available Passiflora. However, other selection pressures are likely involved, and field experiments reveal that early larval survival of both butterfly species is highest on Passiflora menispermifolia, but most markedly so for H. melpomene, the specialist on that host. Finally, we demonstrate an association between host-plant acceptance and colour pattern amongst interspecific hybrids, suggesting that major loci underlying these important ecological traits are physically linked in the genome. Together, our results reveal ecological and genetic associations between shifts in habitat, host use and mimetic colour pattern that have likely facilitated both speciation and coexistence.

  10. Highly red-shifted NIR emission from a novel anthracene conjugated polymer backbone containing Pt( ii ) porphyrins

    KAUST Repository

    Freeman, D. M. E.

    2015-11-30

    © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016. We present the synthesis of a novel diphenylanthracene (DPA) based semiconducting polymer. The polymer is solubilised by alkoxy groups attached directly to a DPA monomer, meaning the choice of co-monomer is not limited to exclusively highly solubilising moieties. Interestingly, the polymer shows a red-shifted elecroluminescence maximum (510 nm) when compared to its photoluminescence maximum (450 nm) which we attribute to excimer formation. The novel polymer was utilised as a host for a covalently-linked platinum(ii) complexed porphyrin dopant. Emission from these polymers was observed in the NIR and again showed almost a 100 nm red shift from photoluminescence to electroluminescence. This work demonstrates that utilising highly aggregating host materials is an effective tool for inducing red-shifted emission in OLEDs.

  11. Kinematics and Host-Galaxy Properties Suggest a Nuclear Origin for Calcium-Rich Supernova Progenitors

    CERN Document Server

    Foley, Ryan J

    2015-01-01

    Calcium-rich supernovae (Ca-rich SNe) are peculiar low-luminosity SNe Ib with relatively strong Ca spectral lines at ~2 months after peak brightness. This class also has an extended projected offset distribution, with several members of the class offset from their host galaxies by 30 - 150 kpc. There is no indication of any stellar population at the SN positions. Using a sample of 13 Ca-rich SNe, we present kinematic evidence that the progenitors of Ca-rich SNe originate near the centers of their host galaxies and are kicked to the locations of the SN explosions. Specifically, SNe with small projected offsets have large line-of-sight velocity shifts as determined by nebular lines, while those with large projected offsets have no significant velocity shifts. Therefore, the velocity shifts must not be primarily the result of the SN explosion. There is an excess of SNe with blueshifted velocity shifts within two isophotal radii (5/6 SNe), indicating that the SNe are moving away from their host galaxies and redsh...

  12. Host body size and the diversity of tick assemblages on Neotropical vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen J. Esser

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the factors that influence the species diversity and distribution of ticks (Acari: Ixodida across vertebrate host taxa is of fundamental ecological and medical importance. Host body size is considered one of the most important determinants of tick abundance, with larger hosts having higher tick burdens. The species diversity of tick assemblages should also be greater on larger-bodied host species, but empirical studies testing this hypothesis are lacking. Here, we evaluate this relationship using a comparative dataset of feeding associations from Panama between 45 tick species and 171 host species that range in body size by three orders of magnitude. We found that tick species diversity increased with host body size for adult ticks but not for immature ticks. We also found that closely related host species tended to have similar tick species diversity, but correcting for host phylogeny did not alter the relationships between host body size and tick species diversity. The distribution of tick species was highly aggregated, with approximately 20% of the host species harboring 80% of all tick species, following the Pareto principle or 20/80 Rule. Thus, the aggregated pattern commonly observed for tick burdens and disease transmission also holds for patterns of tick species richness. Our finding that the adult ticks in this system preferentially parasitize large-bodied host species suggests that the ongoing anthropogenic loss of large-bodied vertebrates is likely to result in host-tick coextinction events, even when immature stages feed opportunistically. As parasites play critical roles in ecological and evolutionary processes, such losses may profoundly affect ecosystem functioning and services.

  13. Orienteering World Cup hosted by CERN Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Elite runners took to the streets of Geneva for the last leg of the Orienteering World Cup, from 8-10 October. The Geneva finals were hosted by the CERN Orienteering Club and concluded months of competitions held across 5 countries.   Women's World-Cup winner, Simone Niggli (centre).  © Ilknur Colak The final events of the Orienteering World Cup took place in the Old Town of Geneva and Saint-Cergue, with runners following routes prepared by the CERN Orienteering Club. Orienteering is a sport of navigation, using only a compass, map and your sense of direction. The objective is to get to all the points on the map as quickly as possible, choosing your own paths as you run. This was the CERN club’s first successful participation in the World Cup, cementing its reputation as a fixture in the international orienteering world. Orienteering is not your typical Swiss pastime. Developed in Scandinavia, the sport has been gaining popularity internationally. “...

  14. A Fast Radio Burst Host Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Keane, E F; Bhandari, S; Barr, E; Bhat, N D R; Burgay, M; Caleb, M; Flynn, C; Jameson, A; Kramer, M; Petroff, E; Possenti, A; van Straten, W; Bailes, M; Burke-Spolaor, S; Eatough, R P; Stappers, B W; Totani, T; Honma, M; Furusawa, H; Hattori, T; Morokuma, T; Niino, Y; Sugai, H; Terai, T; Tominaga, N; Yamasaki, S; Yasuda, N; Allen, R; Cooke, J; Jencson, J; Kasliwal, M M; Kaplan, D L; Tingay, S J; Williams, A; Wayth, R; Chandra, P; Perrodin, D; Berezina, M; Mickaliger, M; Bassa, C

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, millisecond duration radio signals originating from distant galaxies appear to have been discovered in the so-called Fast Radio Bursts. These signals are dispersed according to a precise physical law and this dispersion is a key observable quantity which, in tandem with a redshift measurement, can be used for fundamental physical investigations. While every fast radio burst has a dispersion measurement, none before now have had a redshift measurement, due to the difficulty in pinpointing their celestial coordinates. Here we present the discovery of a fast radio burst and the identification of a fading radio transient lasting $\\sim 6$ days after the event, which we use to identify the host galaxy; we measure the galaxy's redshift to be $z=0.492\\pm0.008$. The dispersion measure and redshift, in combination, provide a direct measurement of the cosmic density of ionised baryons in the intergalactic medium of $\\Omega_{\\mathrm{IGM}}=4.9 \\pm 1.3\\%$, in agreement with the expectation from WMAP, and i...

  15. Modified host cells with efflux pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Mary J.; Keasling, Jay D.; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2016-08-30

    The present invention provides for a modified host cell comprising a heterologous expression of an efflux pump capable of transporting an organic molecule out of the host cell wherein the organic molecule at a sufficiently high concentration reduces the growth rate of or is lethal to the host cell.

  16. Carp erythrodermatitis: host defense-pathogen interaction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pourreau, C.N.

    1990-01-01

    The outcome of a bacterial infection depends on the interaction between pathogen and host. The ability of the microbe to survive in the host depends on its invasive potential (i.e. spreading and multiplication), and its ability to obtain essential nutrients and to resist the host's defense syste

  17. Carp erythrodermatitis : host defense-pathogen interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pourreau, C.N.

    1990-01-01

    The outcome of a bacterial infection depends on the interaction between pathogen and host. The ability of the microbe to survive in the host depends on its invasive potential (i.e. spreading and multiplication), and its ability to obtain essential nutrients and to resist the host'

  18. Events and Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Mikkel

    2010-01-01

    Analyzing the period of ‘intensive transnationalism’ among Pakistani migrants in Denmark precipitated by the 2005 earthquake in Kashmir, this article explores the relationship between events and effects on a global scale. One significant initiative after the disaster was the founding of an ad hoc......, and national identity politics in Denmark. Despite the medical doctors’ efforts and intentions, the out- come was framed by 9/11, which has become the major critical event of the decade—one that has supported a developing cleavage between the Danish majority and Denmark’s Muslim immigrant minority....

  19. Forecasting Turbine Icing Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Neil; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    In this study, we present a method for forecasting icing events. The method is validated at two European wind farms in with known icing events. The icing model used was developed using current ice accretion methods, and newly developed ablation algorithms. The model is driven by inputs from the WRF...... mesoscale model, allowing for both climatological estimates of icing and short term icing forecasts. The current model was able to detect periods of icing reasonably well at the warmer site. However at the cold climate site, the model was not able to remove ice quickly enough leading to large ice...

  20. Acute graft versus host disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogelsang Georgia B

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD occurs after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant and is a reaction of donor immune cells against host tissues. Activated donor T cells damage host epithelial cells after an inflammatory cascade that begins with the preparative regimen. About 35%–50% of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT recipients will develop acute GVHD. The exact risk is dependent on the stem cell source, age of the patient, conditioning, and GVHD prophylaxis used. Given the number of transplants performed, we can expect about 5500 patients/year to develop acute GVHD. Patients can have involvement of three organs: skin (rash/dermatitis, liver (hepatitis/jaundice, and gastrointestinal tract (abdominal pain/diarrhea. One or more organs may be involved. GVHD is a clinical diagnosis that may be supported with appropriate biopsies. The reason to pursue a tissue biopsy is to help differentiate from other diagnoses which may mimic GVHD, such as viral infection (hepatitis, colitis or drug reaction (causing skin rash. Acute GVHD is staged and graded (grade 0-IV by the number and extent of organ involvement. Patients with grade III/IV acute GVHD tend to have a poor outcome. Generally the patient is treated by optimizing their immunosuppression and adding methylprednisolone. About 50% of patients will have a solid response to methylprednisolone. If patients progress after 3 days or are not improved after 7 days, they will get salvage (second-line immunosuppressive therapy for which there is currently no standard-of-care. Well-organized clinical trials are imperative to better define second-line therapies for this disease. Additional management issues are attention to wound infections in skin GVHD and fluid/nutrition management in gastrointestinal GVHD. About 50% of patients with acute GVHD will eventually have manifestations of chronic GVHD.