WorldWideScience

Sample records for host shift events

  1. Host Event Based Network Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonathan Chugg

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of INL’s research on this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of a host event based network monitoring tool and the effects on host performance. Current host based network monitoring tools work on polling which can miss activity if it occurs between polls. Instead of polling, a tool could be developed that makes use of event APIs in the operating system to receive asynchronous notifications of network activity. Analysis and logging of these events will allow the tool to construct the complete real-time and historical network configuration of the host while the tool is running. This research focused on three major operating systems commonly used by SCADA systems: Linux, WindowsXP, and Windows7. Windows 7 offers two paths that have minimal impact on the system and should be seriously considered. First is the new Windows Event Logging API, and, second, Windows 7 offers the ALE API within WFP. Any future work should focus on these methods.

  2. Shifts in diversification rates and host jump frequencies shaped the diversity of host range among Sclerotiniaceae fungal plant pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Andrew; Clarkson, John; Raffaele, Sylvain; Navaud, Olivier; Barbacci, Adelin

    2017-01-01

    The range of hosts that a parasite can infect in nature is a trait determined by its own evolutionary history and that of its potential hosts. However, knowledge on host range diversity and evolution at the family level is often lacking. Here, we investigate host range variation and diversification trends within the Sclerotiniaceae , a family of Ascomycete fungi. Using a phylogenetic framework, we associate diversification rates, the frequency of host jump events, and host range variation dur...

  3. CERN hosts training event on international management

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    CERN held its first training event on international management at the Globe on 2 October, sharing its expertise with high-level Swiss managers as part of their year-long part-time executive training programme on advanced management. CERN is often talked about in terms of impressive statistics: the coldest place in the universe, the largest accelerator, the greatest volume of data. Whilst the science is undeniably remarkable, it is backed by a management infrastructure that has to be as cutting-edge as the research it supports. On 2 October, the Learning and Development section of HR organised an event for 60 delegates to come to CERN to learn about international management from those who have taken on the management challenges at the heart of this unique institution. It was the first time that CERN had prepared such an event. SKU, a non-profit organisation, approached our management training team to arrange the event as part of a wee...

  4. Molecular phylogeny of Pompilinae (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae): Evidence for rapid diversification and host shifts in spider wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Juanita; Pitts, James P; Florez, Jaime A; Bond, Jason E; von Dohlen, Carol D

    2016-01-01

    Pompilinae is one of the largest subfamilies of spider wasps (Pompilidae). Most pompilines are generalist spider predators at the family level, but some taxa exhibit ecological specificity (i.e., to spider-host guild). Here we present the first molecular phylogenetic analysis of Pompilinae, toward the aim of evaluating the monophyly of tribes and genera. We further test whether changes in the rate of diversification are associated with host-guild shifts. Molecular data were collected from five nuclear loci (28S, EF1-F2, LWRh, Wg, Pol2) for 76 taxa in 39 genera. Data were analyzed using maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI). The phylogenetic results were compared with previous hypotheses of subfamilial and tribal classification, as well as generic relationships in the subfamily. The classification of Pompilus and Agenioideus is also discussed. A Bayesian relaxed molecular clock analysis was used to examine divergence times. Diversification rate-shift tests accounted for taxon-sampling bias using ML and BI approaches. Ancestral host family and host guild were reconstructed using MP and ML methods. Ancestral host guild for all Pompilinae, for the ancestor at the node where a diversification rate-shift was detected, and two more nodes back in time was inferred using BI. In the resulting phylogenies, Aporini was the only previously proposed monophyletic tribe. Several genera (e.g., Pompilus, Microphadnus and Schistonyx) are also not monophyletic. Dating analyses produced a well-supported chronogram consistent with topologies from BI and ML results. The BI ancestral host-use reconstruction inferred the use of spiders belonging to the guild "other hunters" (frequenting the ground and vegetation) as the ancestral state for Pompilinae. This guild had the highest probability for the ML reconstruction and was equivocal for the MP reconstruction; various switching events to other guilds occurred throughout the evolution of the group. The diversification of

  5. Shifts in diversification rates and host jump frequencies shaped the diversity of host range among Sclerotiniaceae fungal plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaud, Olivier; Barbacci, Adelin; Taylor, Andrew; Clarkson, John P; Raffaele, Sylvain

    2018-03-01

    The range of hosts that a parasite can infect in nature is a trait determined by its own evolutionary history and that of its potential hosts. However, knowledge on host range diversity and evolution at the family level is often lacking. Here, we investigate host range variation and diversification trends within the Sclerotiniaceae, a family of Ascomycete fungi. Using a phylogenetic framework, we associate diversification rates, the frequency of host jump events and host range variation during the evolution of this family. Variations in diversification rate during the evolution of the Sclerotiniaceae define three major macro-evolutionary regimes with contrasted proportions of species infecting a broad range of hosts. Host-parasite cophylogenetic analyses pointed towards parasite radiation on distant hosts long after host speciation (host jump or duplication events) as the dominant mode of association with plants in the Sclerotiniaceae. The intermediate macro-evolutionary regime showed a low diversification rate, high frequency of duplication events and the highest proportion of broad host range species. Our findings suggest that the emergence of broad host range fungal pathogens results largely from host jumps, as previously reported for oomycete parasites, probably combined with low speciation rates. These results have important implications for our understanding of fungal parasites evolution and are of particular relevance for the durable management of disease epidemics. © 2018 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Geographically structured host specificity is caused by the range expansions and host shifts of a symbiotic fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Benjamin E; Pringle, Anne

    2012-04-01

    The inability to associate with local species may constrain the spread of mutualists arriving to new habitats, but the fates of introduced, microbial mutualists are largely unknown. The deadly poisonous ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita phalloides (the death cap) is native to Europe and introduced to the East and West Coasts of North America. By cataloging host associations across the two continents, we record dramatic changes in specificity among the three ranges. On the East Coast, where the fungus is restricted in its distribution, it associates almost exclusively with pines, which are rarely hosts of A. phalloides in its native range. In California, where the fungus is widespread and locally abundant, it associates almost exclusively with oaks, mirroring the host associations observed in Europe. The most common host of the death cap in California is the endemic coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia), and the current distribution of A. phalloides appears constrained within the distribution of Q. agrifolia. In California, host shifts to native plants are also associated with a near doubling in the resources allocated to sexual reproduction and a prolonged fruiting period; mushrooms are twice as large as they are elsewhere and mushrooms are found throughout the year. Host and niche shifts are likely to shape the continuing range expansion of A. phalloides and other ectomycorrhizal fungi introduced across the world.

  7. Simulation of climate-tick-host-landscape interactions: Effects of shifts in the seasonality of host population fluctuations on tick densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiao-Hsuan; Grant, W E; Teel, P D; Hamer, S A

    2015-12-01

    Tick vector systems are comprised of complex climate-tick-host-landscape interactions that are difficult to identify and estimate from empirical observations alone. We developed a spatially-explicit, individual-based model, parameterized to represent ecological conditions typical of the south-central United States, to examine effects of shifts in the seasonal occurrence of fluctuations of host densities on tick densities. Simulated shifts in the seasonal occurrence of periods of high and low host densities affected both the magnitude of unfed tick densities and the seasonality of tick development. When shifting the seasonal densities of all size classes of hosts (small, medium, and large) synchronously, densities of nymphs were affected more by smaller shifts away from the baseline host seasonality than were densities of larval and adult life stages. When shifting the seasonal densities of only a single size-class of hosts while holding other size classes at their baseline levels, densities of larval, nymph, and adult life stages responded differently. Shifting seasonal densities of any single host-class earlier resulted in a greater increase in adult tick density than when seasonal densities of all host classes were shifted earlier simultaneously. The mean densities of tick life stages associated with shifts in host densities resulted from system-level interactions of host availability with tick phenology. For example, shifting the seasonality of all hosts ten weeks earlier resulted in an approximately 30% increase in the relative degree of temporal co-occurrence of actively host-seeking ticks and hosts compared to baseline, whereas shifting the seasonality of all hosts ten weeks later resulted in an approximately 70% decrease compared to baseline. Differences among scenarios in the overall presence of active host-seeking ticks in the system were due primarily to the degree of co-occurrence of periods of high densities of unfed ticks and periods of high densities

  8. Host shifts enhance diversification of ectomycorrhizal fungi: diversification rate analysis of the ectomycorrhizal fungal genera Strobilomyces and Afroboletus with an 80-gene phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hirotoshi; Tanabe, Akifumi S; Toju, Hirokazu

    2017-04-01

    Mutualisms with new host lineages can provide symbionts with novel ecological opportunities to expand their geographical distribution, thereby leading to evolutionary diversification. Because ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi provide ideal opportunities to test the relationship between host shifts and diversification, we tested whether mutualism with new host lineages could increase the diversification rates of ECM fungi. Using a Bayesian tree inferred from 23 027-base nucleotide sequences of 80 single-copy genes, we tested whether the diversification rate had changed through host-shift events in the monophyletic clade containing the ECM fungal genera Strobilomyces and Afroboletus. The results indicated that these fungi were initially associated with Caesalpinioideae/Monotoideae in Africa, acquired associations with Dipterocarpoideae in tropical Asia, and then switched to Fagaceae/Pinaceae and Nothofagaceae/Eucalyptus. Fungal lineages associated with Fagaceae/Pinaceae were inferred to have approximately four-fold and two-fold greater diversification rates than those associated with Caesalpinioideae/Monotoideae and Dipterocarpoideae or Nothofagaceae/Eucalyptus, respectively. Moreover, the diversification rate shift was inferred to follow the host shift to Fagaceae/Pinaceae. Our study suggests that host-shift events, particularly those occurring with respect to Fagaceae/Pinaceae, can provide ecological opportunities for the rapid diversification of Strobilomyces-Afroboletus. Although further studies are needed for generalization, we propose a possible diversification scenario of ECM fungi. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Collective defence portfolios of ant hosts shift with social parasite pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongepier, Evelien; Kleeberg, Isabelle; Job, Sylwester; Foitzik, Susanne

    2014-09-22

    Host defences become increasingly costly as parasites breach successive lines of defence. Because selection favours hosts that successfully resist parasitism at the lowest possible cost, escalating coevolutionary arms races are likely to drive host defence portfolios towards ever more expensive strategies. We investigated the interplay between host defence portfolios and social parasite pressure by comparing 17 populations of two Temnothorax ant species. When successful, collective aggression not only prevents parasitation but also spares host colonies the cost of searching for and moving to a new nest site. However, once parasites breach the host's nest defence, host colonies should resort to flight as the more beneficial resistance strategy. We show that under low parasite pressure, host colonies more likely responded to an intruding Protomognathus americanus slavemaker with collective aggression, which prevented the slavemaker from escaping and potentially recruiting nest-mates. However, as parasite pressure increased, ant colonies of both host species became more likely to flee rather than to fight. We conclude that host defence portfolios shift consistently with social parasite pressure, which is in accordance with the degeneration of frontline defences and the evolution of subsequent anti-parasite strategies often invoked in hosts of brood parasites. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Fast event recorder utilizing a CCD analog shift register

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducar, R.J.; McIntyre, P.M.

    1978-01-01

    A system of electronics has been developed to allow the capture and recording of relatively fast, low-amplitude analog events. The heart of the system is a dual 455-cell analog shift register charge-coupled device, Fairchild CCD321ADC-3. The CCD is operated in a dual clock mode. The input is sampled at a selectable clock rate of .25-20 MHz. The stored analog data is then clocked out at a slower rate, typically about .25 MHz. The time base expansion of the analog data allows for analog-to-digital conversion and memory storage using conventional medium-speed devices. The digital data is sequentially loaded into a static RAM and may then be block transferred to a computer. The analog electronics are housed in a single-width NIM module, and the RAM memory in a single-width CAMAC module. Each pair of modules provides six parallel channels. Cost is about $200.00 per channel. Applications are described for ionization imaging (TPC, IRC) and long-drift calorimetry in liquid argon

  11. Diversification rates, host plant shifts and an updated molecular phylogeny of Andean Eois moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Strutzenberger

    Full Text Available Eois is one of the best-investigated genera of tropical moths. Its close association with Piper plants has inspired numerous studies on life histories, phylogeny and evolutionary biology. This study provides an updated view on phylogeny, host plant use and temporal patterns of speciation in Eois. Using sequence data (2776 bp from one mitochondrial (COI and one nuclear gene (Ef1-alpha for 221 Eois species, we confirm and reinforce previous findings regarding temporal patterns of diversification. Deep diversification within Andean Eois took place in the Miocene followed by a sustained high rate of diversification until the Pleistocene when a pronounced slowdown of speciation is evident. In South America, Eois diversification is very likely to be primarily driven by the Andean uplift which occurred concurrently with the entire evolutionary history of Eois. A massively expanded dataset enabled an in-depth look into the phylogenetic signal contained in host plant usage. This revealed several independent shifts from Piper to other host plant genera and families. Seven shifts to Peperomia, the sister genus of Piper were detected, indicating that the shift to Peperomia was an easy one compared to the singular shifts to the Chloranthaceae, Siparunaceae and the Piperacean genus Manekia. The potential for close co-evolution of Eois with Piper host plants is therefore bound to be limited to smaller subsets within Neotropical Eois instead of a frequently proposed genus-wide co-evolutionary scenario. In regards to Eois systematics we confirm the monophyly of Neotropical Eois in relation to their Old World counterparts. A tentative biogeographical hypothesis is presented suggesting that Eois originated in tropical Asia and subsequently colonized the Neotropics and Africa. Within Neotropical Eois we were able to identify the existence of six clades not recognized in previous studies and confirm and reinforce the monophyly of all 9 previously delimited

  12. Ecological genomics in Xanthomonas: the nature of genetic adaptation with homologous recombination and host shifts

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Chao-Li

    2015-03-15

    Background: Comparative genomics provides insights into the diversification of bacterial species. Bacterial speciation usually takes place with lasting homologous recombination, which not only acts as a cohering force between diverging lineages but brings advantageous alleles favored by natural selection, and results in ecologically distinct species, e.g., frequent host shift in Xanthomonas pathogenic to various plants. Results: Using whole-genome sequences, we examined the genetic divergence in Xanthomonas campestris that infected Brassicaceae, and X. citri, pathogenic to a wider host range. Genetic differentiation between two incipient races of X. citri pv. mangiferaeindicae was attributable to a DNA fragment introduced by phages. In contrast to most portions of the genome that had nearly equivalent levels of genetic divergence between subspecies as a result of the accumulation of point mutations, 10% of the core genome involving with homologous recombination contributed to the diversification in Xanthomonas, as revealed by the correlation between homologous recombination and genomic divergence. Interestingly, 179 genes were under positive selection; 98 (54.7%) of these genes were involved in homologous recombination, indicating that foreign genetic fragments may have caused the adaptive diversification, especially in lineages with nutritional transitions. Homologous recombination may have provided genetic materials for the natural selection, and host shifts likely triggered ecological adaptation in Xanthomonas. To a certain extent, we observed positive selection nevertheless contributed to ecological divergence beyond host shifting. Conclusion: Altogether, mediated with lasting gene flow, species formation in Xanthomonas was likely governed by natural selection that played a key role in helping the deviating populations to explore novel niches (hosts) or respond to environmental cues, subsequently triggering species diversification. © Huang et al.

  13. Ecological genomics in Xanthomonas: the nature of genetic adaptation with homologous recombination and host shifts

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Chao-Li; Pu, Pei-Hua; Huang, Hao-Jen; Sung, Huang-Mo; Liaw, Hung-Jiun; Chen, Yi-Min; Chen, Chien-Ming; Huang, Ming-Ban; Osada, Naoki; Gojobori, Takashi; Pai, Tun-Wen; Chen, Yu-Tin; Hwang, Chi-Chuan; Chiang, Tzen-Yuh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Comparative genomics provides insights into the diversification of bacterial species. Bacterial speciation usually takes place with lasting homologous recombination, which not only acts as a cohering force between diverging lineages but brings advantageous alleles favored by natural selection, and results in ecologically distinct species, e.g., frequent host shift in Xanthomonas pathogenic to various plants. Results: Using whole-genome sequences, we examined the genetic divergence in Xanthomonas campestris that infected Brassicaceae, and X. citri, pathogenic to a wider host range. Genetic differentiation between two incipient races of X. citri pv. mangiferaeindicae was attributable to a DNA fragment introduced by phages. In contrast to most portions of the genome that had nearly equivalent levels of genetic divergence between subspecies as a result of the accumulation of point mutations, 10% of the core genome involving with homologous recombination contributed to the diversification in Xanthomonas, as revealed by the correlation between homologous recombination and genomic divergence. Interestingly, 179 genes were under positive selection; 98 (54.7%) of these genes were involved in homologous recombination, indicating that foreign genetic fragments may have caused the adaptive diversification, especially in lineages with nutritional transitions. Homologous recombination may have provided genetic materials for the natural selection, and host shifts likely triggered ecological adaptation in Xanthomonas. To a certain extent, we observed positive selection nevertheless contributed to ecological divergence beyond host shifting. Conclusion: Altogether, mediated with lasting gene flow, species formation in Xanthomonas was likely governed by natural selection that played a key role in helping the deviating populations to explore novel niches (hosts) or respond to environmental cues, subsequently triggering species diversification. © Huang et al.

  14. Evolution of larval competitiveness and associated life-history traits in response to host shifts in a seed beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, C W; Messina, F J

    2018-02-01

    Resource competition is frequently strong among parasites that feed within small discrete resource patches, such as seeds or fruits. The properties of a host can influence the behavioural, morphological and life-history traits of associated parasites, including traits that mediate competition within the host. For seed parasites, host size may be an especially important determinant of competitive ability. Using the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus, we performed replicated, reciprocal host shifts to examine the role of seed size in determining larval competitiveness and associated traits. Populations ancestrally associated with either a small host (mung bean) or a large one (cowpea) were switched to each other's host for 36 generations. Compared to control lines (those remaining on the ancestral host), lines switched from the small host to the large host evolved greater tolerance of co-occurring larvae within seeds (indicated by an increase in the frequency of small seeds yielding two adults), smaller egg size and higher fecundity. Each change occurred in the direction predicted by the traits of populations already adapted to cowpea. However, we did not observe the expected decline in adult mass following the shift to the larger host. Moreover, lines switched from the large host (cowpea) to the small host (mung bean) did not evolve the predicted increase in larval competitiveness or egg size, but did exhibit the predicted increase in body mass. Our results thus provide mixed support for the hypothesis that host size determines the evolution of competition-related traits of seed beetles. Evolutionary responses to the two host shifts were consistent among replicate lines, but the evolution of larval competition was asymmetric, with larval competitiveness evolving as predicted in one direction of host shift, but not the reverse. Nevertheless, our results indicate that switching hosts is sufficient to produce repeatable and rapid changes in the competition strategy

  15. Sport tourism event impacts on the host community – a case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and ... Sport tourism event impacts on the host community – a case study of Red Bull Big Wave Africa ... and direct observations were carried out as methods of obtaining data.

  16. Host Plant Physiology and Mycorrhizal Functioning Shift across a Glacial through Future [CO2] Gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becklin, Katie M; Mullinix, George W R; Ward, Joy K

    2016-10-01

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO 2 ]) may modulate the functioning of mycorrhizal associations by altering the relative degree of nutrient and carbohydrate limitations in plants. To test this, we grew Taraxacum ceratophorum and Taraxacum officinale (native and exotic dandelions) with and without mycorrhizal fungi across a broad [CO 2 ] gradient (180-1,000 µL L -1 ). Differential plant growth rates and vegetative plasticity were hypothesized to drive species-specific responses to [CO 2 ] and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. To evaluate [CO 2 ] effects on mycorrhizal functioning, we calculated response ratios based on the relative biomass of mycorrhizal (M Bio ) and nonmycorrhizal (NM Bio ) plants (R Bio = [M Bio - NM Bio ]/NM Bio ). We then assessed linkages between R Bio and host physiology, fungal growth, and biomass allocation using structural equation modeling. For T. officinale, R Bio increased with rising [CO 2 ], shifting from negative to positive values at 700 µL L -1 [CO 2 ] and mycorrhizal effects on photosynthesis and leaf growth rates drove shifts in R Bio in this species. For T. ceratophorum, R Bio increased from 180 to 390 µL L -1 and further increases in [CO 2 ] caused R Bio to shift from positive to negative values. [CO 2 ] and fungal effects on plant growth and carbon sink strength were correlated with shifts in R Bio in this species. Overall, we show that rising [CO 2 ] significantly altered the functioning of mycorrhizal associations. These symbioses became more beneficial with rising [CO 2 ], but nonlinear effects may limit plant responses to mycorrhizal fungi under future [CO 2 ]. The magnitude and mechanisms driving mycorrhizal-CO 2 responses reflected species-specific differences in growth rate and vegetative plasticity, indicating that these traits may provide a framework for predicting mycorrhizal responses to global change. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  17. CERN openlab to host innovation and entrepreneurship event | 26 November

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN openlab

    2015-01-01

    Do you have a bright idea for a business? The first-of-its-kind ‘CERN openlab Innovation and Entrepreneurship Event’ is a great opportunity for you to explore it further. The event, which is being organised in collaboration with the CERN Knowledge Transfer Group and IdeaSquare, will take place on Thursday, 26 November. This full-day event is also supported by CERN openlab partner company Intel as part of a joint project (see here) on innovation and entrepreneurship.   During the morning session, experts from a variety of organisations will speak on diverse subjects related to both innovation and entrepreneurship. From commercialisation and start-up funding to marketing and social impact, the broad range of topics covered by these talks will provide a valuable learning opportunity. CERN personnel and users are encouraged to come forward with their own innovative ideas for the event. There will be the opportunity to privately discuss these ideas on a one-to-one basis with the ex...

  18. Brucella abortus Induces a Warburg Shift in Host Metabolism That Is Linked to Enhanced Intracellular Survival of the Pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyż, Daniel M; Willett, Jonathan W; Crosson, Sean

    2017-08-01

    Intracellular bacterial pathogens exploit host cell resources to replicate and survive inside the host. Targeting these host systems is one promising approach to developing novel antimicrobials to treat intracellular infections. We show that human macrophage-like cells infected with Brucella abortus undergo a metabolic shift characterized by attenuated tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolism, reduced amino acid consumption, altered mitochondrial localization, and increased lactate production. This shift to an aerobic glycolytic state resembles the Warburg effect, a change in energy production that is well described in cancer cells and also occurs in activated inflammatory cells. B. abortus efficiently uses lactic acid as its sole carbon and energy source and requires the ability to metabolize lactate for normal survival in human macrophage-like cells. We demonstrate that chemical inhibitors of host glycolysis and lactate production do not affect in vitro growth of B. abortus in axenic culture but decrease its survival in the intracellular niche. Our data support a model in which infection shifts host metabolism to a Warburg-like state, and B. abortus uses this change in metabolism to promote intracellular survival. Pharmacological perturbation of these features of host cell metabolism may be a useful strategy to inhibit infection by intracellular pathogens. IMPORTANCE Brucella spp. are intracellular bacterial pathogens that cause disease in a range of mammals, including livestock. Transmission from livestock to humans is common and can lead to chronic human disease. Human macrophage-like cells infected with Brucella abortus undergo a Warburg-like metabolic shift to an aerobic glycolytic state where the host cells produce lactic acid and have reduced amino acid catabolism. We provide evidence that the pathogen can exploit this change in host metabolism to support growth and survival in the intracellular niche. Drugs that inhibit this shift in host cell metabolism

  19. High risk of near-crash driving events following night-shift work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael L; Howard, Mark E; Horrey, William J; Liang, Yulan; Anderson, Clare; Shreeve, Michael S; O'Brien, Conor S; Czeisler, Charles A

    2016-01-05

    Night-shift workers are at high risk of drowsiness-related motor vehicle crashes as a result of circadian disruption and sleep restriction. However, the impact of actual night-shift work on measures of drowsiness and driving performance while operating a real motor vehicle remains unknown. Sixteen night-shift workers completed two 2-h daytime driving sessions on a closed driving track at the Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety: (i) a postsleep baseline driving session after an average of 7.6 ± 2.4 h sleep the previous night with no night-shift work, and (ii) a postnight-shift driving session following night-shift work. Physiological measures of drowsiness were collected, including infrared reflectance oculography, electroencephalography, and electrooculography. Driving performance measures included lane excursions, near-crash events, and drives terminated because of failure to maintain control of the vehicle. Eleven near-crashes occurred in 6 of 16 postnight-shift drives (37.5%), and 7 of 16 postnight-shift drives (43.8%) were terminated early for safety reasons, compared with zero near-crashes or early drive terminations during 16 postsleep drives (Fishers exact: P = 0.0088 and P = 0.0034, respectively). Participants had a significantly higher rate of lane excursions, average Johns Drowsiness Scale, blink duration, and number of slow eye movements during postnight-shift drives compared with postsleep drives (3.09/min vs. 1.49/min; 1.71 vs. 0.97; 125 ms vs. 100 ms; 35.8 vs. 19.1; respectively, P Night-shift work increases driver drowsiness, degrading driving performance and increasing the risk of near-crash drive events. With more than 9.5 million Americans working overnight or rotating shifts and one-third of United States commutes exceeding 30 min, these results have implications for traffic and occupational safety.

  20. Temperature shift and host cell contact up-regulate sporozoite expression of Plasmodium falciparum genes involved in hepatocyte infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Siau

    proteins involved in hepatocyte invasion, while the other two were predominantly expressed during hepatic parasite development. The genome-wide up-regulation of expression observed supports the hypothesis that the shift from the mosquito to the mammalian host contributes to activate quiescent salivary gland sporozoites into a state of readiness for the hepatic stages. Functional studies on four of the up-regulated genes validated our approach as one means to determine the repertoire of proteins implicated during the early events of the Plasmodium infection, and in this case that of P. falciparum, the species responsible for the severest forms of malaria.

  1. Facilitators and Inhibitors of Bidding and Hosting Mega Sporting Events in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Koosha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Legacies of hosting mega sporting events have been attempting idea for both the developed and the developing nations to participate in "bidding" competitions. Through mega sporting events bid process, despite all defined essentials infrastructures, the viewpoint of local organizing committee play a significant role to propose a winning bid and delivery of successful games. This research aims to identify the facilitators and inhibitors of bidding and hosting mega sporting events in Iran from the viewpoints of the Iranian distinguished professors in the sport management and the sport executive managers. Researcher questionnaire and Semi-structure interviews were conducted to gain in depth data. The results indicated that Iran currently has limitations to have winning bid and successful host mega sporting events; even though, it possesses the potential to do so. Public interest and support for hosting the sport events, good security condition against terrorism and tourist attractions are known as the strong points and he challenges and inhibitors which Iran is faced with includes: the qualitative and quantitative weakness in the transportation infrastructures and sport venues, west countries economic boycott, unstable government support and the lack of long-run planning for the events.

  2. A global phylogeny of leafmining Ectoedemia moths (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae): exploring host plant family shifts and allopatry as drivers of speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorenweerd, Camiel; van Nieukerken, Erik J; Menken, Steph B J

    2015-01-01

    Host association patterns in Ectoedemia (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae) are also encountered in other insect groups with intimate plant relationships, including a high degree of monophagy, a preference for ecologically dominant plant families (e.g. Fagaceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae, and Betulaceae) and a tendency for related insect species to feed on related host plant species. The evolutionary processes underlying these patterns are only partly understood, we therefore assessed the role of allopatry and host plant family shifts in speciation within Ectoedemia. Six nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers with a total aligned length of 3692 base pairs were used to infer phylogenetic relationships among 92 species belonging to the subgenus Ectoedemia of the genus Ectoedemia, representing a thorough taxon sampling with a global coverage. The results support monophyletic species groups that are congruent with published findings based on morphology. We used the obtained phylogeny to explore host plant family association and geographical distribution to investigate if host shifts and allopatry have been instrumental in the speciation of these leafmining insects. We found that, even though most species within species groups commonly feed on plants from one family, shifts to a distantly related host family have occasionally occurred throughout the phylogeny and such shifts are most commonly observed towards Betulaceae. The largest radiations have occurred within species groups that feed on Fagaceae, Rosaceae, and Salicaceae. Most species are restricted to one of the seven global biogeographic regions, but within species groups representatives are commonly found in different biogeographic regions. Although we find general patterns with regard to host use and biogeography, there are differences between clades that suggest that different drivers of speciation, and perhaps drivers that we did not examine, have shaped diversity patterns in different clades.

  3. Integrative analyses unveil speciation linked to host plant shift in Spialia butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Roldán, Juan L; Dapporto, Leonardo; Dincă, Vlad; Vicente, Juan C; Hornett, Emily A; Šíchová, Jindra; Lukhtanov, Vladimir A; Talavera, Gerard; Vila, Roger

    2016-09-01

    Discovering cryptic species in well-studied areas and taxonomic groups can have profound implications in understanding eco-evolutionary processes and in nature conservation because such groups often involve research models and act as flagship taxa for nature management. In this study, we use an array of techniques to study the butterflies in the Spialia sertorius species group (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae). The integration of genetic, chemical, cytogenetic, morphological, ecological and microbiological data indicates that the sertorius species complex includes at least five species that differentiated during the last three million years. As a result, we propose the restitution of the species status for two taxa often treated as subspecies, Spialia ali (Oberthür, 1881) stat. rest. and Spialia therapne (Rambur, 1832) stat. rest., and describe a new cryptic species Spialia rosae Hernández-Roldán, Dapporto, Dincă, Vicente & Vila sp. nov. Spialia sertorius (Hoffmannsegg, 1804) and S. rosae are sympatric and synmorphic, but show constant differences in mitochondrial DNA, chemical profiles and ecology, suggesting that S. rosae represents a case of ecological speciation involving larval host plant and altitudinal shift, and apparently associated with Wolbachia infection. This study exemplifies how a multidisciplinary approach can reveal elusive cases of hidden diversity. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Probe-controlled soliton frequency shift in the regime of optical event horizon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Jie; Guo, Hairun; Wang, Shaofei

    2015-01-01

    In optical analogy of the event horizon, temporal pulse collision and mutual interactions are mainly between an intense solitary wave (soliton) and a dispersive probe wave. In such a regime, here we numerically investigate the probe-controlled soliton frequency shift as well as the soliton self...

  5. 'Candidatus Megaira polyxenophila' gen. nov., sp. nov.: considerations on evolutionary history, host range and shift of early divergent rickettsiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Schrallhammer

    Full Text Available "Neglected Rickettsiaceae" (i.e. those harboured by non-hematophagous eukaryotic hosts display greater phylogenetic variability and more widespread dispersal than pathogenic ones; yet, the knowledge about their actual host range and host shift mechanism is scarce. The present work reports the characterization following the full-cycle rRNA approach (SSU rRNA sequence, specific in situ hybridization, and ultrastructure of a novel rickettsial bacterium, herewith proposed as 'Candidatus Megaira polyxenophila' gen. nov., sp. nov. We found it in association with four different free-living ciliates (Diophrys oligothrix, Euplotes octocarinatus, Paramecium caudatum, and Spirostomum sp., all belonging to Alveolata, Ciliophora; furthermore it was recently observed as intracellular occurring in Carteria cerasiformis and Pleodorina japonica (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated the belonging of the candidate new genus to the family Rickettsiaceae (Alphaproteobacteria, Rickettsiales as a sister group of the genus Rickettsia. In situ observations revealed the ability of the candidate new species to colonize either nuclear or cytoplasmic compartments, depending on the host organism. The presence of the same bacterial species within different, evolutionary distant, hosts indicates that 'Candidatus Megaira polyxenophila' recently underwent several distinct host shifts, thus suggesting the existence of horizontal transmission pathways. We consider these findings as indicative of an unexpected spread of rickettsial infections in aquatic communities, possibly by means of trophic interactions, and hence propose a new interpretation of the origin and phylogenetic diversification of rickettsial bacteria.

  6. The impact of shifting vantage perspective when recalling and imagining positive events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Nicholas C; Moulds, Michelle L

    2014-01-01

    The vantage perspective from which memories are recalled influences their emotional impact. To date, however, the impact of vantage perspective on the emotions elicited by positive memories and images of positive future events has been minimally explored. We experimentally manipulated the vantage perspective from which a sample of undergraduate students (n =80) recalled positive memories and imagined positive future events. Participants who naturally recalled their positive memories from a field perspective reported decreased vividness and positive affect (i.e., happiness, optimism, hopefulness) when they were instructed to shift to an observer perspective. The same pattern of emotionality ratings was observed when participants' vantage perspective of imagined future events was manipulated. In contrast, shifting participants from observer to field perspective recall of positive memories did not result in changes in ratings of memory-related emotion, although we found an unexpected trend towards reduced vividness. For positive future events, shifting from an observer to a field perspective resulted in decreased vividness but did not lead to any changes in positive emotion. Our findings confirm that vantage perspective plays a key role in determining the emotional impact of positive memories, and demonstrate that this relationship is also evident for images of future positive events.

  7. Mammal decline, linked to invasive Burmese python, shifts host use of vector mosquito towards reservoir hosts of a zoonotic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, Isaiah J; Blosser, Erik M; Acevedo, Carolina; Thompson, Anna Carels; Reeves, Lawrence E; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D

    2017-10-01

    Invasive apex predators have profound impacts on natural communities, yet the consequences of these impacts on the transmission of zoonotic pathogens are unexplored. Collapse of large- and medium-sized mammal populations in the Florida Everglades has been linked to the invasive Burmese python, Python bivittatus Kuhl. We used historic and current data to investigate potential impacts of these community effects on contact between the reservoir hosts (certain rodents) and vectors of Everglades virus, a zoonotic mosquito-borne pathogen that circulates in southern Florida. The percentage of blood meals taken from the primary reservoir host, the hispid cotton rat, Sigmodon hispidus Say and Ord, increased dramatically (422.2%) from 1979 (14.7%) to 2016 (76.8%), while blood meals from deer, raccoons and opossums decreased by 98.2%, reflecting precipitous declines in relative abundance of these larger mammals, attributed to python predation. Overall species diversity of hosts detected in Culex cedecei blood meals from the Everglades declined by 40.2% over the same period ( H (1979) = 1.68, H (2016) = 1.01). Predictions based upon the dilution effect theory suggest that increased relative feedings upon reservoir hosts translate into increased abundance of infectious vectors, and a corresponding upsurge of Everglades virus occurrence and risk of human exposure, although this was not tested in the current study. This work constitutes the first indication that an invasive predator can increase contact between vectors and reservoirs of a human pathogen and highlights unrecognized indirect impacts of invasive predators. © 2017 The Author(s).

  8. Rates for parallax-shifted microlensing events from ground-based observations of the galactic bulge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchalter, A.; Kamionkowski, M.

    1997-01-01

    The parallax effect in ground-based microlensing (ML) observations consists of a distortion to the standard ML light curve arising from the Earth's orbital motion. This can be used to partially remove the degeneracy among the system parameters in the event timescale, t 0 . In most cases, the resolution in current ML surveys is not accurate enough to observe this effect, but parallax could conceivably be detected with frequent follow-up observations of ML events in progress, providing the photometric errors are small enough. We calculate the expected fraction of ML events where the shape distortions will be observable by such follow-up observations, adopting Galactic models for the lens and source distributions that are consistent with observed microlensing timescale distributions. We study the dependence of the rates for parallax-shifted events on the frequency of follow-up observations and on the precision of the photometry. For example, we find that for hourly observations with typical photometric errors of 0.01 mag, 6% of events where the lens is in the bulge, and 31% of events where the lens is in the disk (or ∼10% of events overall), will give rise to a measurable parallax shift at the 95% confidence level. These fractions may be increased by improved photometric accuracy and increased sampling frequency. While long-duration events are favored, the surveys would be effective in picking out such distortions in events with timescales as low as t 0 ∼20 days. We study the dependence of these fractions on the assumed disk mass function and find that a higher parallax incidence is favored by mass functions with higher mean masses. Parallax measurements yield the reduced transverse speed, v, which gives both the relative transverse speed and lens mass as a function of distance. We give examples of the accuracies with which v may be measured in typical parallax events. (Abstract Truncated)

  9. Frequency shifting at fiber-optical event horizons: The effect of Raman deceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, S.; Leonhardt, U.

    2010-01-01

    Pulses in fibers establish analogs of the event horizon [Philbin et al., Science 319, 1367 (2008)]. At a group-velocity horizon, the frequency of a probe wave is shifted. We present a theoretical model of this frequency shifting, taking into account the deceleration of the pulse caused by the Raman effect. The theory shows that the probe-wave spectrum is sensitive to details of the probe-pulse interaction. Our results indicate an additional loss mechanism in the experiment [Philbin et al., Science 319, 1367 (2008)] that has not been accounted for. Our analysis is also valid for more general cases of the interaction of dispersive waves with decelerated solitons.

  10. Agriculture sows pests: how crop domestication, host shifts, and agricultural intensification can create insect pests from herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Julio S; Medina, Raul F

    2018-04-01

    We argue that agriculture as practiced creates pests. We use three examples (Corn leafhopper, Dalbulus maidis; Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera; Cotton fleahopper, Pseudatomoscelis seriatus) to illustrate: firstly, how since its origins, agriculture has proven conducive to transforming selected herbivores into pests, particularly through crop domestication and spread, and agricultural intensification, and; secondly, that the herbivores that became pests were among those hosted by crop wild relatives or associates, and were pre-adapted either as whole species or component subpopulations. Two of our examples, Corn leafhopper and Western corn rootworm, illustrate how following a host shift to a domesticated host, emergent pests 'hopped' onto crops and rode expansion waves to spread far beyond the geographic ranges of their wild hosts. Western corn rootworm exemplifies how an herbivore-tolerant crop was left vulnerable when it was bred for yield and protected with insecticides. Cotton fleahopper illustrates how removing preferred wild host plants from landscapes and replacing them with crops, allows herbivores with flexible host preferences to reach pest-level populations. We conclude by arguing that in the new geological epoch we face, the Anthropocene, we can improve agriculture by looking to our past to identify and avoid missteps of early and recent farmers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Large-scale intersubspecific recombination in the plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa is associated with the host shift to mulberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunney, Leonard; Schuenzel, Erin L; Scally, Mark; Bromley, Robin E; Stouthamer, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Homologous recombination plays an important role in the structuring of genetic variation of many bacteria; however, its importance in adaptive evolution is not well established. We investigated the association of intersubspecific homologous recombination (IHR) with the shift to a novel host (mulberry) by the plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. Mulberry leaf scorch was identified about 25 years ago in native red mulberry in the eastern United States and has spread to introduced white mulberry in California. Comparing a sequence of 8 genes (4,706 bp) from 21 mulberry-type isolates to published data (352 isolates representing all subspecies), we confirmed previous indications that the mulberry isolates define a group distinct from the 4 subspecies, and we propose naming the taxon X. fastidiosa subsp. morus. The ancestry of its gene sequences was mixed, with 4 derived from X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa (introduced from Central America), 3 from X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex (considered native to the United States), and 1 chimeric, demonstrating that this group originated by large-scale IHR. The very low within-type genetic variation (0.08% site polymorphism), plus the apparent inability of native X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex to infect mulberry, suggests that this host shift was achieved after strong selection acted on genetic variants created by IHR. Sequence data indicate that a single ancestral IHR event gave rise not only to X. fastidiosa subsp. morus but also to the X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex recombinant group which infects several hosts but is the only type naturally infecting blueberry, thus implicating this IHR in the invasion of at least two novel native hosts, mulberry and blueberry.

  12. The Post-starburst Evolution of Tidal Disruption Event Host Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, K. Decker; Zabludoff, Ann [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Arcavi, Iair [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    We constrain the recent star formation histories of the host galaxies of eight optical/UV-detected tidal disruption events (TDEs). Six hosts had quick starbursts of <200 Myr duration that ended 10–1000 Myr ago, indicating that TDEs arise at different times in their hosts’ post-starburst evolution. If the disrupted star formed in the burst or before, the post-burst age constrains its mass, generally excluding O, most B, and highly massive A stars. If the starburst arose from a galaxy merger, the time since the starburst began limits the coalescence timescale and thus the merger mass ratio to more equal than 12:1 in most hosts. This uncommon ratio, if also that of the central supermassive black hole (SMBH) binary, disfavors the scenario in which the TDE rate is boosted by the binary but is insensitive to its mass ratio. The stellar mass fraction created in the burst is 0.5%–10% for most hosts, not enough to explain the observed 30–200× boost in TDE rates, suggesting that the host’s core stellar concentration is more important. TDE hosts have stellar masses 10{sup 9.4}–10{sup 10.3} M {sub ☉}, consistent with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey volume-corrected, quiescent Balmer-strong comparison sample and implying SMBH masses of 10{sup 5.5}–10{sup 7.5} M {sub ☉}. Subtracting the host absorption line spectrum, we uncover emission lines; at least five hosts have ionization sources inconsistent with star formation that instead may be related to circumnuclear gas, merger shocks, or post-AGB stars.

  13. Molecular inferences suggest multiple host shifts of rabies viruses from bats to mesocarnivores in Arizona during 2001-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan V Kuzmin

    Full Text Available In nature, rabies virus (RABV; genus Lyssavirus, family Rhabdoviridae represents an assemblage of phylogenetic lineages, associated with specific mammalian host species. Although it is generally accepted that RABV evolved originally in bats and further shifted to carnivores, mechanisms of such host shifts are poorly understood, and examples are rarely present in surveillance data. Outbreaks in carnivores caused by a RABV variant, associated with big brown bats, occurred repeatedly during 2001-2009 in the Flagstaff area of Arizona. After each outbreak, extensive control campaigns were undertaken, with no reports of further rabies cases in carnivores for the next several years. However, questions remained whether all outbreaks were caused by a single introduction and further perpetuation of bat RABV in carnivore populations, or each outbreak was caused by an independent introduction of a bat virus. Another question of concern was related to adaptive changes in the RABV genome associated with host shifts. To address these questions, we sequenced and analyzed 66 complete and 20 nearly complete RABV genomes, including those from the Flagstaff area and other similar outbreaks in carnivores, caused by bat RABVs, and representatives of the major RABV lineages circulating in North America and worldwide. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that each Flagstaff outbreak was caused by an independent introduction of bat RABV into populations of carnivores. Positive selection analysis confirmed the absence of post-shift changes in RABV genes. In contrast, convergent evolution analysis demonstrated several amino acids in the N, P, G and L proteins, which might be significant for pre-adaptation of bat viruses to cause effective infection in carnivores. The substitution S/T₂₄₂ in the viral glycoprotein is of particular merit, as a similar substitution was suggested for pathogenicity of Nishigahara RABV strain. Roles of the amino acid changes, detected in our

  14. Hostplant change and paleoclimatic events explain diversification shifts in skipper butterflies (Family: Hesperiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Ranjit Kumar; Warren, Andrew D; Collins, Steve C; Kodandaramaiah, Ullasa

    2017-08-02

    Skippers (Family: Hesperiidae) are a large group of butterflies with ca. 4000 species under 567 genera. The lack of a time-calibrated higher-level phylogeny of the group has precluded understanding of its evolutionary past. We here use a 10-gene dataset to reconstruct the most comprehensive time-calibrated phylogeny of the group, and explore factors that affected the diversification of these butterflies. Ancestral state reconstructions show that the early hesperiid lineages utilized dicots as larval hostplants. The ability to feed on monocots evolved once at the K-Pg boundary (ca. 65 million years ago (Mya)), and allowed monocot-feeders to diversify much faster on average than dicot-feeders. The increased diversification rate of the monocot-feeding clade is specifically attributed to rate shifts in two of its descendant lineages. The first rate shift, a four-fold increase compared to background rates, happened ca. 50 Mya, soon after the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum, in a lineage of the subfamily Hesperiinae that mostly fed on forest monocots. The second rate shift happened ca. 40 Mya in a grass-feeding lineage of Hesperiinae when open-habitat grasslands appeared in the Neotropics owing to gradual cooling of the atmospheric temperature. The evolution of monocot feeding strongly influenced diversification of skippers. We hypothesize that although monocot feeding was an intrinsic trait that allowed exploration of novel niches, the lack of extensive availability of monocots comprised an extrinsic limitation for niche exploration. The shifts in diversification rate coincided with paleoclimatic events during which grasses and forest monocots were diversified.

  15. Quality of life of residents living in a city hosting mega-sport events: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfitzner, Rebecca; Koenigstorfer, Joerg

    2016-10-21

    It remains unknown whether and when the hosting of mega-sport events increases quality of life of host city residents. The aim of this study is to assess the changes in quality of life of host city residents over the course of hosting a mega-sport event until three months after the event, depending on residents' perception of the atmosphere during the event. The study was conducted in Rio de Janeiro, one of the host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup in soccer. Participants were recruited from a Brazilian market research agency's panel and surveyed online. The WHOQOL-BREF was used to measure quality of life of residents of Rio de Janeiro (n = 281) in three waves in the context of the 2014 FIFA World Cup. Perceived atmosphere at the event was measured via an established scale. Piecewise latent growth models were used to analyze individual changes in the four domains of quality of life per se and depending on perceived atmosphere. There was no change in quality of life with respect to physical, social, psychological, and environmental health for all participants during the course of the event. However, residents who perceived a positive atmosphere rated the social and environmental domains of quality of life more positively right after the end (vs. at the beginning) of the World Cup. This increase sustained until three months after the event. Physical health (particularly at high levels of perceived atmosphere) and psychological health decreased from right after the event until three months after. There was no positive effect of the hosting of the mega-sport event on the four quality of life domains of the panel members (who were residents of a city hosting a mega-sport event) per se. The individual changes in quality of life vary by perception of atmosphere and by domain of quality of life.

  16. Probe-controlled soliton frequency shift in the regime of optical event horizon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jie; Guo, Hairun; Wang, Shaofei; Zeng, Xianglong

    2015-08-24

    In optical analogy of the event horizon, temporal pulse collision and mutual interactions are mainly between an intense solitary wave (soliton) and a dispersive probe wave. In such a regime, here we numerically investigate the probe-controlled soliton frequency shift as well as the soliton self-compression. In particular, in the dispersion landscape with multiple zero dispersion wavelengths, bi-directional soliton spectral tunneling effects is possible. Moreover, we propose a mid-infrared soliton self-compression to the generation of few-cycle ultrashort pulses, in a bulk of quadratic nonlinear crystals in contrast to optical fibers or cubic nonlinear media, which could contribute to the community with a simple and flexible method to experimental implementations.

  17. Small steps or giant leaps for male-killers? Phylogenetic constraints to male-killer host shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majerus Michael EN

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arthropods are infected by a wide diversity of maternally transmitted microbes. Some of these manipulate host reproduction to facilitate population invasion and persistence. Such parasites transmit vertically on an ecological timescale, but rare horizontal transmission events have permitted colonisation of new species. Here we report the first systematic investigation into the influence of the phylogenetic distance between arthropod species on the potential for reproductive parasite interspecific transfer. Results We employed a well characterised reproductive parasite, a coccinellid beetle male-killer, and artificially injected the bacterium into a series of novel species. Genetic distances between native and novel hosts were ascertained by sequencing sections of the 16S and 12S mitochondrial rDNA genes. The bacterium colonised host tissues and transmitted vertically in all cases tested. However, whilst transmission efficiency was perfect within the native genus, this was reduced following some transfers of greater phylogenetic distance. The bacterium's ability to distort offspring sex ratios in novel hosts was negatively correlated with the genetic distance of transfers. Male-killing occurred with full penetrance following within-genus transfers; but whilst sex ratio distortion generally occurred, it was incomplete in more distantly related species. Conclusion This study indicates that the natural interspecific transmission of reproductive parasites might be constrained by their ability to tolerate the physiology or genetics of novel hosts. Our data suggest that horizontal transfers are more likely between closely related species. Successful bacterial transfer across large phylogenetic distances may require rapid adaptive evolution in the new species. This finding has applied relevance regarding selection of suitable bacteria to manipulate insect pest and vector populations by symbiont gene-drive systems.

  18. Host Plant Physiology and Mycorrhizal Functioning Shift across a Glacial through Future [CO2] Gradient1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullinix, George W.R.; Ward, Joy K.

    2016-01-01

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) may modulate the functioning of mycorrhizal associations by altering the relative degree of nutrient and carbohydrate limitations in plants. To test this, we grew Taraxacum ceratophorum and Taraxacum officinale (native and exotic dandelions) with and without mycorrhizal fungi across a broad [CO2] gradient (180–1,000 µL L−1). Differential plant growth rates and vegetative plasticity were hypothesized to drive species-specific responses to [CO2] and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. To evaluate [CO2] effects on mycorrhizal functioning, we calculated response ratios based on the relative biomass of mycorrhizal (MBio) and nonmycorrhizal (NMBio) plants (RBio = [MBio − NMBio]/NMBio). We then assessed linkages between RBio and host physiology, fungal growth, and biomass allocation using structural equation modeling. For T. officinale, RBio increased with rising [CO2], shifting from negative to positive values at 700 µL L−1. [CO2] and mycorrhizal effects on photosynthesis and leaf growth rates drove shifts in RBio in this species. For T. ceratophorum, RBio increased from 180 to 390 µL L−1 and further increases in [CO2] caused RBio to shift from positive to negative values. [CO2] and fungal effects on plant growth and carbon sink strength were correlated with shifts in RBio in this species. Overall, we show that rising [CO2] significantly altered the functioning of mycorrhizal associations. These symbioses became more beneficial with rising [CO2], but nonlinear effects may limit plant responses to mycorrhizal fungi under future [CO2]. The magnitude and mechanisms driving mycorrhizal-CO2 responses reflected species-specific differences in growth rate and vegetative plasticity, indicating that these traits may provide a framework for predicting mycorrhizal responses to global change. PMID:27573369

  19. Differential gene expression in Varroa jacobsoni mites following a host shift to European honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andino, Gladys K; Gribskov, Michael; Anderson, Denis L; Evans, Jay D; Hunt, Greg J

    2016-11-16

    expression in mites on the A. mellifera host, including putative transcription factors and digestive tract developmental genes. The vast majority of differentially expressed genes were up-regulated in this host. This gene set showed enrichment for genes associated with mitochondrial respiratory function and apoptosis, suggesting that mites on this host may be experiencing higher stress, and may be less optimally adapted to parasitize it. Some genes involved in reproduction and oogenesis were also overexpressed, which should be further studied in regards to this host shift.

  20. Innovative Engagement with NASA Data: Best Practices in Hosting a Space-Themed Game Jam Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    Planetary mission milestones provide key opportunities to engage the public in the day to day work and showcase the value, wonder, and innovative technologies of planetary exploration. The Royal Ontario Museum (ROM), Canada, is designing unique experiences that will allow new audiences to relate to planetary mission results, through direct interaction with planetary materials and data. Through co-creation and collaboration, we aim to encourage STEM and STEAM learning through interactive programs that are interest driven by the participants. Based on these principles, the ROM, in collaboration with the University of Toronto, is hosting a Game Jam event (see http://www.rom.on.ca/en/activities-programs/programs/game-jam). A Game Jam invites creative, motivated, and inspired game developers to work in a collaborative environment over the course of 3 days to create games linked to a theme. This year's theme is "Space Rocks". Video games, fuelled by actual mission data, capture public interest in space and science in a unique and powerful way, giving us new insight into the real challenges we have on Earth and in space. The ROM Game Jam will allow 100 game developers to draw inspiration from our collection of over 100,000 rocks, minerals, and gems, including over 500 martian, lunar, and asteroidal meteorites. Participants will learn about the history of these specimens directly from ROM experts. NASA datasets related to our collection will be highlighted and curated for this event. The games produced during the Game Jam will live on and be featured online and at numerous ROM events throughout the year. Our presentation will highlight lessons learned from this experience, best practices, and future plans.

  1. A novel pathogenic aviadenovirus from red-bellied parrots (Poicephalus rufiventris) unveils deep recombination events among avian host lineages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Shubhagata; Fearnside, Kathleen; Sarker, Subir; Forwood, Jade K.; Raidal, Shane R.

    2017-01-01

    Competing roles of coevolution, selective pressure and recombination are an emerging interest in virus evolution. We report a novel aviadenovirus from captive red-bellied parrots (Poicephalus rufiventris) that uncovers evidence of deep recombination among aviadenoviruses. The sequence identity of the virus was most closely related to Turkey adenovirus D (42% similarity) and other adenoviruses in chickens, turkeys and pigeons. Sequencing and comparative analysis showed that the genome comprised 40,930 nucleotides containing 42 predicted open reading frames (ORFs) 19 of which had strong similarity with genes from other adenovirus species. The new genome unveiled a lineage that likely participated in deep recombination events across the genus Aviadenovirus accounting for an ancient evolutionary relationship. We hypothesize frequent host switch events and recombination among adenovirus progenitors in Galloanserae hosts caused the radiation of extant aviadenoviruses and the newly assembled Poicephalus adenovirus genome points to a potentially broader host range of these viruses among birds. - Highlights: •Shows how a single new genome can change overall phylogeny. •Reveals host switch events among adenovirus progenitors in Galloanserae hosts. •Points to a potentially broader host range of adenoviruses among birds and wildlife .

  2. A novel pathogenic aviadenovirus from red-bellied parrots (Poicephalus rufiventris) unveils deep recombination events among avian host lineages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Shubhagata, E-mail: sdas@csu.edu.au [School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Science, Charles Sturt University, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); Fearnside, Kathleen, E-mail: kathyfearnside@exemail.com.au [Hills District Veterinary Hospital, Unit 1, 276 New Line Road, Dural, NSW 2158 (Australia); Sarker, Subir, E-mail: S.Sarker@latrobe.edu.au [Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Microbiology, School of Life Sciences, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC 3086 (Australia); Forwood, Jade K., E-mail: jforwood@csu.edu.au [School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2650 (Australia); Raidal, Shane R., E-mail: shraidal@csu.edu.au [School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Science, Charles Sturt University, New South Wales 2678 (Australia)

    2017-02-15

    Competing roles of coevolution, selective pressure and recombination are an emerging interest in virus evolution. We report a novel aviadenovirus from captive red-bellied parrots (Poicephalus rufiventris) that uncovers evidence of deep recombination among aviadenoviruses. The sequence identity of the virus was most closely related to Turkey adenovirus D (42% similarity) and other adenoviruses in chickens, turkeys and pigeons. Sequencing and comparative analysis showed that the genome comprised 40,930 nucleotides containing 42 predicted open reading frames (ORFs) 19 of which had strong similarity with genes from other adenovirus species. The new genome unveiled a lineage that likely participated in deep recombination events across the genus Aviadenovirus accounting for an ancient evolutionary relationship. We hypothesize frequent host switch events and recombination among adenovirus progenitors in Galloanserae hosts caused the radiation of extant aviadenoviruses and the newly assembled Poicephalus adenovirus genome points to a potentially broader host range of these viruses among birds. - Highlights: •Shows how a single new genome can change overall phylogeny. •Reveals host switch events among adenovirus progenitors in Galloanserae hosts. •Points to a potentially broader host range of adenoviruses among birds and wildlife .

  3. Mortality, recovery, and community shifts of scleractinian corals in Puerto Rico one decade after the 2005 regional bleaching event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge R. García-Sais

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzes the mortality, recovery, and shifts in the composition of scleractinian corals from Puerto Rico one decade after the 2005 regional coral bleaching event. Temporal and spatial patterns of coral community structure were examined using a stratified, non-random sampling approach based on five permanent transects per reef at 16 reef stations. A negative correlation between percent coral cover loss and light attenuation coefficient (Kd490 was observed, suggesting that light attenuation, as influenced by water turbidity and depth, played a major role in coral protection during the bleaching event (“sunblock effect”. Responses of coral assemblages varied after the bleaching event, including shifts of cover from massive corals (Orbicella spp. to opportunistic (Porites astreoides and branching corals (Madracis auretenra, P. porites and/or turf algae; partial recovery of reef substrate cover by O. annularis complex; and no measurable changes in coral assemblages before and after the event.

  4. Mortality, recovery, and community shifts of scleractinian corals in Puerto Rico one decade after the 2005 regional bleaching event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sais, Jorge R; Williams, Stacey M; Amirrezvani, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This work analyzes the mortality, recovery, and shifts in the composition of scleractinian corals from Puerto Rico one decade after the 2005 regional coral bleaching event. Temporal and spatial patterns of coral community structure were examined using a stratified, non-random sampling approach based on five permanent transects per reef at 16 reef stations. A negative correlation between percent coral cover loss and light attenuation coefficient (Kd 490 ) was observed, suggesting that light attenuation, as influenced by water turbidity and depth, played a major role in coral protection during the bleaching event ("sunblock effect"). Responses of coral assemblages varied after the bleaching event, including shifts of cover from massive corals ( Orbicella spp.) to opportunistic ( Porites astreoides ) and branching corals ( Madracis auretenra , P. porites ) and/or turf algae; partial recovery of reef substrate cover by O. annularis complex; and no measurable changes in coral assemblages before and after the event.

  5. The changing use of the ovipositor in host shifts by ichneumonid ectoparasitoids of spiders (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Pimplinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takasuka Keizo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate egg placement into or onto a living host is an essential ability for many parasitoids, and changes in associated phenotypes, such as ovipositor morphology and behaviour, correlate with significant host shifts. Here, we report that in the ichneumonid group of koinobiont spider-ectoparasitoids (“polysphinctines”, several putatively ancestral taxa (clade I here, parasitic on ground-dwelling RTA-spiders (a group characterised by retrolateral tibial apophysis on male palpal tibiae, lay their eggs in a specific way. They tightly bend their metasoma above the spider’s cephalothorax, touching the carapace with the dorsal side of the ovipositor apically (“dorsal-press”. The egg slips out from the middle part of the ventral side of the ovipositor and moves towards its apex with the parted lower valves acting as rails. Deposition occurs as the parasitoid draws the ovipositor backwards from under the egg. Oviposition upon the tough carapace of the cephalothorax, presumably less palatable than the abdomen, is conserved in these taxa, and presumed adaptive through avoiding physical damage to the developing parasitoid. This specific way of oviposition is reversed in the putatively derived clade of polysphinctines (clade II here parasitic on Araneoidea spiders with aerial webs, which is already known. They bend their metasoma along the spider’s abdomen, grasping the abdomen with their fore/mid legs, pressing the ventral tip of the metasoma and the lower valves of the ovipositor against the abdomen (“ventral-press”. The egg is expelled through an expansion of the lower valves, which is developed only in this clade and evident in most species, onto the softer and presumably more nutritious abdomen.

  6. Does night-shift work induce apnea events in obstructive sleep apnea patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudencka, A; Klawe, J J; Tafil-Klawe, M; Złomańczuk, P

    2007-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the direct effect of night-work on the occurrence of obstructive apneas during sleep after a night shift in fast-rotating shift workers with sleep-related breathing disorders. Eight obstructive sleep apnea patients were examined with the use of a polysomnograph during sleep under two conditions: after day-shift work and after night-shift work. Both sleep studies were conducted within 2 to 3 weeks of each other. In four of the 8 subjects, during sleep after a night-shift, an increase in apnea/hypopnea index was found. Night work significantly increased several breathing variables: total duration of obstructive apneas during REM sleep, mean duration of obstructive apneas during arousal, and apnea index during arousal. We conclude that in a subpopulation of sleep apnea patients, acute sleep deprivation may worsen obstructive sleep apnea index.

  7. A shift in perspective: Decentering through mindful attention to imagined stressful events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebois, Lauren A M; Papies, Esther K; Gopinath, Kaundinya; Cabanban, Romeo; Quigley, Karen S; Krishnamurthy, Venkatagiri; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Barsalou, Lawrence W

    Ruminative thoughts about a stressful event can seem subjectively real, as if the imagined event were happening in the moment. One possibility is that this subjective realism results from simulating the self as engaged in the stressful event (immersion). If so, then the process of

  8. Topic shift impairs pronoun resolution during sentence comprehension: Evidence from event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaodong; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated how topic shift and topic continuation influence pronoun interpretation in Chinese. ERPs recorded on pronouns in topic structure showed stronger and earlier late positive responses (P600) for the topic-shift than for the topic-continuation conditions. However, in nontopic structure where the subject (denoting only subjecthood), rather than the topic (denoting both topichood and subjecthood), acted as the antecedent of the pronoun, almost indistinguishable P600 responses were obtained on the pronoun regardless of whether it was referring to the subject (i.e., subject continuation) or the object (i.e., subject shift). Moreover, stronger and earlier P600 responses were elicited by pronouns in the topic-shift than in the subject-shift conditions, although there was no difference between the topic-continuation and the subject-continuation conditions. These findings suggest that topic shift results in greater difficulty in the resolution stage of referential processing, although the bonding process is not sensitive to the manipulation of topic status, and that topic has a privileged cognitive status relative to other nontopic entities (e.g., subject) in real-time language processing. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  9. Concurrently examining unrealistic absolute and comparative optimism: Temporal shifts, individual-difference and event-specific correlates, and behavioural outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthig, Joelle C; Gamblin, Bradlee W; Jones, Kelly; Vanderzanden, Karen; Kehn, Andre

    2017-02-01

    Researchers have spent considerable effort examining unrealistic absolute optimism and unrealistic comparative optimism, yet there is a lack of research exploring them concurrently. This longitudinal study repeatedly assessed unrealistic absolute and comparative optimism within a performance context over several months to identify the degree to which they shift as a function of proximity to performance and performance feedback, their associations with global individual difference and event-specific factors, and their link to subsequent behavioural outcomes. Results showed similar shifts in unrealistic absolute and comparative optimism based on proximity to performance and performance feedback. Moreover, increases in both types of unrealistic optimism were associated with better subsequent performance beyond the effect of prior performance. However, several differences were found between the two forms of unrealistic optimism in their associations with global individual difference factors and event-specific factors, highlighting the distinctiveness of the two constructs. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Membrane cholesterol regulates lysosome-plasma membrane fusion events and modulates Trypanosoma cruzi invasion of host cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Hissa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi are able to invade several types of non-phagocytic cells through a lysosomal dependent mechanism. It has been shown that, during invasion, parasites trigger host cell lysosome exocytosis, which initially occurs at the parasite-host contact site. Acid sphingomyelinase released from lysosomes then induces endocytosis and parasite internalization. Lysosomes continue to fuse with the newly formed parasitophorous vacuole until the parasite is completely enclosed by lysosomal membrane, a process indispensable for a stable infection. Previous work has shown that host membrane cholesterol is also important for the T. cruzi invasion process in both professional (macrophages and non-professional (epithelial phagocytic cells. However, the mechanism by which cholesterol-enriched microdomains participate in this process has remained unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: In the present work we show that cardiomyocytes treated with MβCD, a drug able to sequester cholesterol from cell membranes, leads to a 50% reduction in invasion by T. cruzi trypomastigotes, as well as a decrease in the number of recently internalized parasites co-localizing with lysosomal markers. Cholesterol depletion from host membranes was accompanied by a decrease in the labeling of host membrane lipid rafts, as well as excessive lysosome exocytic events during the earlier stages of treatment. Precocious lysosomal exocytosis in MβCD treated cells led to a change in lysosomal distribution, with a reduction in the number of these organelles at the cell periphery, and probably compromises the intracellular pool of lysosomes necessary for T. cruzi invasion. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Based on these results, we propose that cholesterol depletion leads to unregulated exocytic events, reducing lysosome availability at the cell cortex and consequently compromise T. cruzi entry into host cells. The results also suggest that two different pools of

  11. Experimental assemblage of novel plant-herbivore interactions: ecological host shifts after 40 million years of isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Robledo, Carlos; Horvitz, Carol C; Kress, W John; Carvajal-Acosta, A Nalleli; Erwin, Terry L; Staines, Charles L

    2017-11-01

    Geographic isolation is the first step in insect herbivore diet specialization. Such specialization is postulated to increase insect fitness, but may simultaneously reduce insect ability to colonize novel hosts. During the Paleocene-Eocene, plants from the order Zingiberales became isolated either in the Paleotropics or in the Neotropics. During the Cretaceous, rolled-leaf beetles diversified in the Neotropics concurrently with Neotropical Zingiberales. Using a community of Costa Rican rolled-leaf beetles and their Zingiberales host plants as study system, we explored if previous geographic isolation precludes insects to expand their diets to exotic hosts. We recorded interactions between rolled-leaf beetles and native Zingiberales by combining DNA barcodes and field records for 7450 beetles feeding on 3202 host plants. To determine phylogenetic patterns of diet expansions, we set 20 field plots including five exotic Zingiberales, recording beetles feeding on these exotic hosts. In the laboratory, using both native and exotic host plants, we reared a subset of insect species that had expanded their diets to the exotic plants. The original plant-herbivore community comprised 24 beetle species feeding on 35 native hosts, representing 103 plant-herbivore interactions. After exotic host plant introduction, 20% of the beetle species expanded their diets to exotic Zingiberales. Insects only established on exotic hosts that belong to the same plant family as their native hosts. Laboratory experiments show that beetles are able to complete development on these novel hosts. In conclusion, rolled-leaf beetles are pre-adapted to expand their diets to novel host plants even after millions of years of geographic isolation.

  12. The genetic basis for fruit odor discrimination in Rhagoletis flies and its significance for sympatric host shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambroski, Hattie R; Linn, Charles; Berlocher, Stewart H; Forbes, Andrew A; Roelofs, Wendell; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2005-09-01

    Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) use volatile compounds emitted from the surface of ripening fruit as important chemosensory cues for recognizing and distinguishing among alternative host plants. Host choice is of evolutionary significance in Rhagoletis because these flies mate on or near the fruit of their respective host plants. Differences in host choice based on fruit odor discrimination therefore result in differential mate choice and prezygotic reproductive isolation, facilitating sympatric speciation in the absence of geographic isolation. We test for a genetic basis for host fruit odor discrimination through an analysis of F2 and backcross hybrids constructed between apple-, hawthorn-, and flowering dogwood-infesting Rhagoletis flies. We recovered a significant proportion (30-65%) of parental apple, hawthorn, and dogwood fly response phenotypes in F2 hybrids, despite the general failure of F1 hybrids to reach odor source spheres. Segregation patterns in F2 and backcross hybrids suggest that only a modest number of allelic differences at a few loci may underlie host fruit odor discrimination. In addition, a strong bias was observed for F2 and backcross flies to orient to the natal fruit blend of their maternal grandmother, implying the existence of cytonuclear gene interactions. We explore the implications of our findings for the evolutionary dynamics of sympatric host race formation and speciation.

  13. Preparing for novel versus familiar events: shifts in global and local processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Förster, J.; Liberman, N.; Shapiro, O.

    2009-01-01

    Six experiments examined whether novelty versus familiarity influences global versus local processing styles. Novelty and familiarity were manipulated by either framing a task as new versus familiar or by asking participants to reflect upon novel versus familiar events prior to the task (i.e.,

  14. Time-Shift Correlation Algorithm for P300 Event Related Potential Brain-Computer Interface Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Chi Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A high efficient time-shift correlation algorithm was proposed to deal with the peak time uncertainty of P300 evoked potential for a P300-based brain-computer interface (BCI. The time-shift correlation series data were collected as the input nodes of an artificial neural network (ANN, and the classification of four LED visual stimuli was selected as the output node. Two operating modes, including fast-recognition mode (FM and accuracy-recognition mode (AM, were realized. The proposed BCI system was implemented on an embedded system for commanding an adult-size humanoid robot to evaluate the performance from investigating the ground truth trajectories of the humanoid robot. When the humanoid robot walked in a spacious area, the FM was used to control the robot with a higher information transfer rate (ITR. When the robot walked in a crowded area, the AM was used for high accuracy of recognition to reduce the risk of collision. The experimental results showed that, in 100 trials, the accuracy rate of FM was 87.8% and the average ITR was 52.73 bits/min. In addition, the accuracy rate was improved to 92% for the AM, and the average ITR decreased to 31.27 bits/min. due to strict recognition constraints.

  15. Time-Shift Correlation Algorithm for P300 Event Related Potential Brain-Computer Interface Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ju-Chi; Chou, Hung-Chyun; Chen, Chien-Hsiu; Lin, Yi-Tseng; Kuo, Chung-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    A high efficient time-shift correlation algorithm was proposed to deal with the peak time uncertainty of P300 evoked potential for a P300-based brain-computer interface (BCI). The time-shift correlation series data were collected as the input nodes of an artificial neural network (ANN), and the classification of four LED visual stimuli was selected as the output node. Two operating modes, including fast-recognition mode (FM) and accuracy-recognition mode (AM), were realized. The proposed BCI system was implemented on an embedded system for commanding an adult-size humanoid robot to evaluate the performance from investigating the ground truth trajectories of the humanoid robot. When the humanoid robot walked in a spacious area, the FM was used to control the robot with a higher information transfer rate (ITR). When the robot walked in a crowded area, the AM was used for high accuracy of recognition to reduce the risk of collision. The experimental results showed that, in 100 trials, the accuracy rate of FM was 87.8% and the average ITR was 52.73 bits/min. In addition, the accuracy rate was improved to 92% for the AM, and the average ITR decreased to 31.27 bits/min. due to strict recognition constraints.

  16. A global phylogeny of leafmining Ectoedemia moths (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae): host plant family shifts and allopatry as drivers of speciation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorenweerd, C.; van Nieukerken, E.J.; Menken, S.B.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Host association patterns in Ectoedemia (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae) are also encountered in other insect groups with intimate plant relationships, including a high degree of monophagy, a preference for ecologically dominant plant families (e.g. Fagaceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae, and

  17. A global phylogeny of leafmining Ectoedemia moths (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae): exploring host plant family shifts and allopatry as drivers of speciation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorenweerd, C.; Nieukerken, van E.J.; Menken, S.B.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Host association patterns in Ectoedemia (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae) are also encountered in other insect groups with intimate plant relationships, including a high degree of monophagy, a preference for ecologically dominant plant families (e.g. Fagaceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae, and

  18. Studying the impacts of event tourism on the host communities in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toneva Petya Ivanova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The research interest is directed towards assessing the impacts of event tourism in Bulgaria as a popular and dynamic element of the tourism supply and demand, which is has a potential for combinations, development and creation. The article outlines the main theoretical and methodological principles of assessing the impacts of event tourism. Based on the existing achievements in the specialized literature, the study offers a model for assessing these effects. The developed instrument is applied empirically and the collected data is analysed. The impacts of the contemporary event tourism on destination Bulgaria are assessed at the aggregate level.

  19. The effects of host obscuration on searches for tidal disruption events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Nathaniel; Mushotzky, Richard; Gezari, Suvi; van Velzen, Sjoert

    2018-01-01

    Tidal disruptions of stars by super-massive black holes (TDEs) offer opportunities to learn about black hole demographics and stellar dynamics. However, matching the observed TDE rate to that predicted by theory has remained a challenge, as most surveys to-date have found fewer flares than expected. Some of this discrepancy may relate to nuclear obscuration in host galaxies. This includes the effects of dust at optical and ultraviolet wavelengths, and the effects of neutral gas at x-ray wavelengths. I will discuss procedures to correct the observed TDE rate within existing and upcoming surveys to the intrinsic per-galaxy rate by accounting for host obscuration. I will also discuss how reddening might affect TDE selection criteria, and I will make predictions for the population of infrared TDE light echoes.

  20. The bid, the lead-up, the event and the legacy: global cultural politics and hosting the Olympics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, David

    2012-06-01

    Hosting mega sport events, especially the Olympics, demands an extensive engagement with global civil society given the voluntary, highly mediated exposure of host cities and nations to the world. The philosophy of Olympism requires ethical authority in demonstrating 'fitness' to host the Games, so demanding intensive strategic image management. Offensive and defensive mobilization of image-dependent 'species of power' in the field of sport (in a Bourdieusian sense) in conducting 'wars of position and movement' (following Gramsci) within global civil society are, then, crucial features of competitive manoeuvres around staging major sport events. The main empirical focus of this article is on the case of the Sydney 2000 ('Millennial') Games, in illustrating the socio-political dynamics of bidding and hosting in the context of a major civil societal matter of concern - Australia's continuing failure to achieve reconciliation with, and equality for, its indigenous peoples. Ironically, though, it was in the domain of human rights that Sydney had an advantage over its closest competitor in the 1993 bidding process - China. The strategies deployed to secure the consent of Australian Aborigines to the Games are addressed in analysing the means by which the Sydney 2000 Games avoided major disruption and international criticism. A second, briefer case analysis is then presented of the disputation concerning Beijing's successful bid for the 2008 Olympics, which saw them influentially described by one (US) political activist as the 'Genocide Games' and the subject of international protests surrounding the Torch Relay. It is concluded that the contrasting levels of public, mediated discord in these two Olympiads in which human rights were key issues related, significantly though not exclusively, to the Chinese authorities' difficulties in 'winning consent' through strategic incorporation of the most conspicuous, non-state oppositional forces within Western-dominated global

  1. Mistletoe infection alters the transpiration flow path and suppresses water regulation of host trees during extreme events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebel, A.; Maier, C.; Barton, C. V.; Metzen, D.; Renchon, A.; Boer, M. M.; Pendall, E.

    2017-12-01

    Mistletoe is a globally distributed group of parasitic plants that infiltrates the vascular tissue of its host trees to acquire water, carbon and nutrients, making it a leading agent of biotic disturbance. Many mistletoes occur in water-limited ecosystems, thus mistletoe infection in combination with increased climatic stress may exacerbate water stress and potentially accelerate mortality rates of infected trees during extreme events. This is an emerging problem in Australia, as mistletoe distribution is increasing and clear links between mistletoe infection and mortality have been established. However, direct observations about how mistletoes alter host physiological processes during extreme events are rare, which impedes our understanding of mechanisms underlying increased tree mortality rates. We addressed this gap by continuously monitoring stem and branch sap flow and a range of leaf traits of infected and uninfected trees of two co-occurring eucalypt species during a severe heatwave in south-eastern Australia. We demonstrate that mistletoes' leaf water potentials were maintained 30% lower than hosts' to redirect the trees' transpiration flow path towards mistletoe leaves. Eucalypt leaves reduced water loss through stomatal regulation when atmospheric dryness exceeded 2 kPa, but the magnitude of stomatal regulation in non-infected eucalypts differed by species (between 40-80%). Remarkably, when infected, sap flow rates of stems and branches of both eucalypt species remained unregulated even under extreme atmospheric dryness (>8 kPa). Our observations indicate that excessive water use of mistletoes likely increases xylem cavitation rates in hosts during prolonged droughts and supports that hydraulic failure contributes to increased mortality of infected trees. Hence, in order to accurately model the contribution of biotic disturbances to tree mortality under a changing climate, it will be crucial to increase our process-based understanding of the interaction

  2. Early prediction of adverse events in enhanced recovery based upon the host systemic inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, J C; Wright, S; Burch, J; Kennedy, R H; Jenkins, J T

    2013-02-01

    Early identification of patients experiencing postoperative complications is imperative for successful management. C-reactive protein (CRP) is a nonspecific marker of inflammation used in many specialties to monitor patient condition. The role of CRP measurement early in the elective postoperative colorectal patient is unclear, particularly in the context of enhanced recovery (ERAS). Five hundred and thirty-three consecutive patients who underwent elective colorectal surgery between October 2008 and October 2010 within an established ERAS programme were studied. Patients were separated into a development group of 265 patients and a validation group of 268 patients by chronological order. CRP and white cell count were added to a prospectively maintained ERAS database. The primary outcome of the study was all adverse events (including infective complications, postoperative organ dysfunction and prolonged length of stay) during the initial hospital admission. Significant predictors for adverse events on univariate analysis were submitted to multivariate regression analysis and the resulting model applied to the validation group. The validity and predictive accuracy of the regression model was assessed using receiver operating characteristic curve/area under the curve (AUC) analysis. CRP levels >150 mg/l on postoperative day 2 and a rising CRP on day 3 were independently associated with all adverse events during the hospital admission. A weighted model was applied to the validation group yielding an AUC of 0.65 (95% CI 0.58-0.73) indicating, at best, modest discrimination and predictive accuracy for adverse events. Measurement of CRP in patients after elective colorectal surgery in the first few days after surgery within ERAS can assist in identifying those at risk of adverse events and a prolonged hospital stay. A CRP value of >150 mg/l on day 2 and a rising CRP on day 3 should alert the surgeon to an increased likelihood of such events. © 2012 The Authors

  3. Interferences and events on epistemic shifts in physics through computer simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Warnke, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Computer simulations are omnipresent media in today's knowledge production. For scientific endeavors such as the detection of gravitational waves and the exploration of subatomic worlds, simulations are essential; however, the epistemic status of computer simulations is rather controversial as they are neither just theory nor just experiment. Therefore, computer simulations have challenged well-established insights and common scientific practices as well as our very understanding of knowledge. This volume contributes to the ongoing discussion on the epistemic position of computer simulations in a variety of physical disciplines, such as quantum optics, quantum mechanics, and computational physics. Originating from an interdisciplinary event, it shows that accounts of contemporary physics can constructively interfere with media theory, philosophy, and the history of science.

  4. Thanks-a-Latte, Seniors: The Library Hosts an Election Day Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repp, Anne

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the Louisa County High School Library's annual Thanks-a-Latte Day, an event that introduces the American political process to LCHS seniors in a real way. Thanks-a-Latte Day was born from an idea found in a "School Library Journal" article by Charli O'Dell published in 1999. Her basic idea was to promote the school library by…

  5. Host genes related to paneth cells and xenobiotic metabolism are associated with shifts in human ileum-associated microbial composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyi Zhang

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to integrate human clinical, genotype, mRNA microarray and 16 S rRNA sequence data collected on 84 subjects with ileal Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis or control patients without inflammatory bowel diseases in order to interrogate how host-microbial interactions are perturbed in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD. Ex-vivo ileal mucosal biopsies were collected from the disease unaffected proximal margin of the ileum resected from patients who were undergoing initial intestinal surgery. Both RNA and DNA were extracted from the mucosal biopsy samples. Patients were genotyped for the three major NOD2 variants (Leufs1007, R702W, and G908R and the ATG16L1T300A variant. Whole human genome mRNA expression profiles were generated using Agilent microarrays. Microbial composition profiles were determined by 454 pyrosequencing of the V3-V5 hypervariable region of the bacterial 16 S rRNA gene. The results of permutation based multivariate analysis of variance and covariance (MANCOVA support the hypothesis that host mucosal Paneth cell and xenobiotic metabolism genes play an important role in host microbial interactions.

  6. Proteomics indicators of the rapidly shifting physiology from whole mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, adults during early host colonization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin Pitt

    Full Text Available We developed proteome profiles for host colonizing mountain pine beetle adults, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae. Adult insects were fed in pairs on fresh host lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud, phloem tissue. The proteomes of fed individuals were monitored using iTRAQ and compared to those of starved beetles, revealing 757 and 739 expressed proteins in females and males, respectively, for which quantitative information was obtained. Overall functional category distributions were similar for males and females, with the majority of proteins falling under carbohydrate metabolism (glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, citric acid cycle, structure (cuticle, muscle, cytoskeleton, and protein and amino acid metabolism. Females had 23 proteins with levels that changed significantly with feeding (p<0.05, FDR<0.20, including chaperones and enzymes required for vitellogenesis. In males, levels of 29 proteins changed significantly with feeding (p<0.05, FDR<0.20, including chaperones as well as motor proteins. Only two proteins, both chaperones, exhibited a significant change in both females and males with feeding. Proteins with differential accumulation patterns in females exhibited higher fold changes with feeding than did those in males. This difference may be due to major and rapid physiological changes occurring in females upon finding a host tree during the physiological shift from dispersal to reproduction. The significant accumulation of chaperone proteins, a cytochrome P450, and a glutathione S-transferase, indicate secondary metabolite-induced stress physiology related to chemical detoxification during early host colonization. The females' activation of vitellogenin only after encountering a host indicates deliberate partitioning of resources and a balancing of the needs of dispersal and reproduction.

  7. Pathogen-Host Associations and Predicted Range Shifts of Human Monkeypox in Response to Climate Change in Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomassen, Henri A.; Fuller, Trevon; Asefi-Najafabady, Salvi; Shiplacoff, Julia A. G.; Mulembakani, Prime M.; Blumberg, Seth; Johnston, Sara C.; Kisalu, Neville K.; Kinkela, Timothée L.; Fair, Joseph N.; Wolfe, Nathan D.; Shongo, Robert L.; LeBreton, Matthew; Meyer, Hermann; Wright, Linda L.; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Buermann, Wolfgang; Okitolonda, Emile; Hensley, Lisa E.; Lloyd-Smith, James O.; Smith, Thomas B.; Rimoin, Anne W.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is predicted to result in changes in the geographic ranges and local prevalence of infectious diseases, either through direct effects on the pathogen, or indirectly through range shifts in vector and reservoir species. To better understand the occurrence of monkeypox virus (MPXV), an emerging Orthopoxvirus in humans, under contemporary and future climate conditions, we used ecological niche modeling techniques in conjunction with climate and remote-sensing variables. We first created spatially explicit probability distributions of its candidate reservoir species in Africa's Congo Basin. Reservoir species distributions were subsequently used to model current and projected future distributions of human monkeypox (MPX). Results indicate that forest clearing and climate are significant driving factors of the transmission of MPX from wildlife to humans under current climate conditions. Models under contemporary climate conditions performed well, as indicated by high values for the area under the receiver operator curve (AUC), and tests on spatially randomly and non-randomly omitted test data. Future projections were made on IPCC 4th Assessment climate change scenarios for 2050 and 2080, ranging from more conservative to more aggressive, and representing the potential variation within which range shifts can be expected to occur. Future projections showed range shifts into regions where MPX has not been recorded previously. Increased suitability for MPX was predicted in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Models developed here are useful for identifying areas where environmental conditions may become more suitable for human MPX; targeting candidate reservoir species for future screening efforts; and prioritizing regions for future MPX surveillance efforts. PMID:23935820

  8. Clinical handover as an interactive event: informational and interactional communication strategies in effective shift-change handovers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggins, Suzanne; Slade, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Clinical handover -- the transfer between clinicians of responsibility and accountability for patients and their care (AMA 2006) -- is a pivotal and high-risk communicative event in hospital practice. Studies focusing on critical incidents, mortality, risk and patient harm in hospitals have highlighted ineffective communication -- including incomplete and unstructured clinical handovers -- as a major contributing factor (NSW Health 2005; ACSQHC 2010). In Australia, as internationally, Health Departments and hospital management have responded by introducing standardised handover communication protocols. This paper problematises one such protocol - the ISBAR tool - and argues that the narrow understanding of communication on which such protocols are based may seriously constrain their ability to shape effective handovers. Based on analysis of audio-recorded shift-change clinical handovers between medical staff we argue that handover communication must be conceptualised as inherently interactive and that attempts to describe, model and teach handover practice must recognise both informational and interactive communication strategies. By comparing the communicative performance of participants in authentic handover events we identify communication strategies that are more and less likely to lead to an effective handover and demonstrate the importance of focusing close up on communication to improve the quality and safety of healthcare interactions.

  9. The Distance to NGC 4993: The Host Galaxy of the Gravitational-wave Event GW170817

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, Jens; Levan, Andrew J.; Tanvir, Nial R.; Lyman, Joe D.; Wojtak, Radosław; Schrøder, Sophie L.; Mandel, Ilya; Gall, Christa; Bruun, Sofie H.

    2017-10-01

    The historic detection of gravitational waves from a binary neutron star merger (GW170817) and its electromagnetic counterpart led to the first accurate (sub-arcsecond) localization of a gravitational-wave event. The transient was found to be ˜10″ from the nucleus of the S0 galaxy NGC 4993. We report here the luminosity distance to this galaxy using two independent methods. (1) Based on our MUSE/VLT measurement of the heliocentric redshift (z helio = 0.009783 ± 0.000023), we infer the systemic recession velocity of the NGC 4993 group of galaxies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) frame to be v CMB = 3231 ± 53 km s-1. Using constrained cosmological simulations we estimate the line-of-sight peculiar velocity to be v pec = 307 ± 230 km s-1, resulting in a cosmic velocity of v cosmic = 2924 ± 236 km s-1 (z cosmic = 0.00980 ± 0.00079) and a distance of D z = 40.4 ± 3.4 Mpc assuming a local Hubble constant of H 0 = 73.24 ± 1.74 km s-1 Mpc-1. (2) Using Hubble Space Telescope measurements of the effective radius (15.″5 ± 1.″5) and contained intensity and MUSE/VLT measurements of the velocity dispersion, we place NGC 4993 on the Fundamental Plane (FP) of E and S0 galaxies. Comparing to a frame of 10 clusters containing 226 galaxies, this yields a distance estimate of D FP = 44.0 ± 7.5 Mpc. The combined redshift and FP distance is D NGC 4993 = 41.0 ± 3.1 Mpc. This “electromagnetic” distance estimate is consistent with the independent measurement of the distance to GW170817 as obtained from the gravitational-wave signal ({D}{GW}={43.8}-6.9+2.9 Mpc) and confirms that GW170817 occurred in NGC 4993.

  10. Ultrafast evolution and loss of CRISPRs following a host shift in a novel wildlife pathogen, Mycoplasma gallisepticum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel F Delaney

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Measureable rates of genome evolution are well documented in human pathogens but are less well understood in bacterial pathogens in the wild, particularly during and after host switches. Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG is a pathogenic bacterium that has evolved predominantly in poultry and recently jumped to wild house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus, a common North American songbird. For the first time we characterize the genome and measure rates of genome evolution in House Finch isolates of MG, as well as in poultry outgroups. Using whole-genome sequences of 12 House Finch isolates across a 13-year serial sample and an additional four newly sequenced poultry strains, we estimate a nucleotide diversity in House Finch isolates of only ∼2% of ancestral poultry strains and a nucleotide substitution rate of 0.8-1.2×10(-5 per site per year both in poultry and in House Finches, an exceptionally fast rate rivaling some of the highest estimates reported thus far for bacteria. We also found high diversity and complete turnover of CRISPR arrays in poultry MG strains prior to the switch to the House Finch host, but after the invasion of House Finches there is progressive loss of CRISPR repeat diversity, and recruitment of novel CRISPR repeats ceases. Recent (2007 House Finch MG strains retain only ∼50% of the CRISPR repertoire founding (1994-95 strains and have lost the CRISPR-associated genes required for CRISPR function. Our results suggest that genome evolution in bacterial pathogens of wild birds can be extremely rapid and in this case is accompanied by apparent functional loss of CRISPRs.

  11. Mass Mortality Events in the NW Adriatic Sea: Phase Shift from Slow- to Fast-Growing Organisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Gioia Di Camillo

    Full Text Available Massive outbreaks are increasing all over the world, which are likely related to climate change. The North Adriatic Sea, a sub-basin of the Mediterranean Sea, is a shallow semi-closed sea receiving high nutrients inputs from important rivers. These inputs sustain the highest productive basin of the Mediterranean Sea. Moreover, this area shows a high number of endemisms probably due to the high diversity of environmental conditions and the conspicuous food availability. Here, we documented two massive mortalities (2009 and 2011 and the pattern of recovery of the affected biocoenoses in the next two years. Results show an impressive and fast shift of the benthic assemblage from a biocoenosis mainly composed of slow-growing and long-lived species to a biocoenosis dominated by fast-growing and short-lived species. The sponge Chondrosia reniformis, one of the key species of this assemblage, which had never been involved in previous massive mortality events in the Mediterranean Sea, reduced its coverage by 70%, and only few small specimens survived. All the damaged sponges, together with many associated organisms, were detached by rough-sea conditions, leaving large bare areas on the rocky wall. Almost three years after the disease, the survived specimens of C. reniformis did not increase significantly in size, while the bare areas were colonized by fast-growing species such as stoloniferans, hydrozoans, mussels, algae, serpulids and bryozoans. Cnidarians were more resilient than massive sponges since they quickly recovered in less than one month. In the study area, the last two outbreaks caused a reduction in the filtration efficiency of the local benthic assemblage by over 60%. The analysis of the times series of wave heights and temperature revealed that the conditions in summer 2011 were not so extreme as to justify severe mass mortality, suggesting the occurrence of other factors which triggered the disease. The long-term observations of a

  12. A northward colonisation of the Andes by the potato cyst nematode during geological times suggests multiple host-shifts from wild to cultivated potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Damien; Sempere, Thierry; Plantard, Olivier

    2007-02-01

    The cyst nematode Globodera pallida is a major pest of potato in South America where this specialist parasite is native. To investigate its phylogeography, we have genotyped individuals from 42 Peruvian populations using mitochondrial and nuclear molecular markers. A clear south-to-north phylogeographical pattern was revealed with five well-supported clades. The clade containing the southern populations is genetically more diverse and forms the most basal branch. The large divergence among cytochrome b haplotypes suggests that they diverged before human domestication of potato. As the nematodes studied have been sampled on cultivated potato, multiple host-shifts from wild to cultivated potatoes must have occurred independently in each clade. We hypothesise that this south-to-north pattern took place during the uplift of the Andes beginning 20 My ago and following the same direction. To our knowledge, this is the first study of a plant parasite sampled on cultivated plants revealing an ancient phylogeographical pattern.

  13. Identification of the same polyomavirus species in different African horseshoe bat species is indicative of short-range host-switching events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Michael; Gonzalez, Gabriel; Sasaki, Michihito; Dool, Serena E; Ito, Kimihito; Ishii, Akihiro; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Mweene, Aaron S; Teeling, Emma C; Hall, William W; Orba, Yasuko; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2017-10-06

    Polyomaviruses (PyVs) are considered to be highly host-specific in different mammalian species, with no well-supported evidence for host-switching events. We examined the species diversity and host specificity of PyVs in horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus spp.), a broadly distributed and highly speciose mammalian genus. We annotated six PyV genomes, comprising four new PyV species, based on pairwise identity within the large T antigen (LTAg) coding region. Phylogenetic comparisons revealed two instances of highly related PyV species, one in each of the Alphapolyomavirus and Betapolyomavirus genera, present in different horseshoe bat host species (Rhinolophus blasii and R. simulator), suggestive of short-range host-switching events. The two pairs of Rhinolophus PyVs in different horseshoe bat host species were 99.9 and 88.8 % identical with each other over their respective LTAg coding sequences and thus constitute the same virus species. To corroborate the species identification of the bat hosts, we analysed mitochondrial cytb and a large nuclear intron dataset derived from six independent and neutrally evolving loci for bat taxa of interest. Bayesian estimates of the ages of the most recent common ancestors suggested that the near-identical and more distantly related PyV species diverged approximately 9.1E4 (5E3-2.8E5) and 9.9E6 (4E6-18E6) years before the present, respectively, in contrast to the divergence times of the bat host species: 12.4E6 (10.4E6-15.4E6). Our findings provide evidence that short-range host-switching of PyVs is possible in horseshoe bats, suggesting that PyV transmission between closely related mammalian species can occur.

  14. Recombinant Brugia malayi pepsin inhibitor (rBm33) exploits host signaling events to regulate inflammatory responses associated with lymphatic filarial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivas, Kirthika; Kalyanaraman, Haripriya; Babu, Subash; Narayanan, Rangarajan Badri

    2017-11-01

    Prolonged existence of filarial parasites and their molecules within the host modulate the host immune system to instigate their survival and induce inflammatory responses that contribute to disease progression. Recombinant Brugia malayi pepsin inhibitor (rBm33) modulates the host immune responses by skewing towards Th1 responses characterized by secretion of inflammatory molecules such as TNF-α, IL-6, nitric oxide (NO). Here we also specified the molecular signaling events triggered by rBm33 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of filarial endemic normals (EN). rBm33 predominantly enhanced the levels of nitric oxide in cultured PBMCs but did not result in oxidative stress to the host cells. Further, rBm33 treatment of human PBMCs resulted in higher GSH/GSSG levels. MYD88 dependent activation was found to be associated with rBm33 specific inflammatory cytokine production. rBm33 triggered intracellular signaling events also involved JNK activation in host PBMCs. In addition, c-Fos and not NF-κB was identified as the transcription factor regulating the expression of inflammatory cytokines in rBm33 stimulated PBMCs. rBm33 marked its role in filarial pathology by altered levels of growth factors but did not have a significant impact on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs) activity of host PBMCs. Thus, the study outlines the signaling network of rBm33 induced inflammatory responses within the host immune cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A Statistical Framework for Microbial Source Attribution: Measuring Uncertainty in Host Transmission Events Inferred from Genetic Data (Part 2 of a 2 Part Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, J; Velsko, S

    2009-11-16

    This report explores the question of whether meaningful conclusions can be drawn regarding the transmission relationship between two microbial samples on the basis of differences observed between the two sample's respective genomes. Unlike similar forensic applications using human DNA, the rapid rate of microbial genome evolution combined with the dynamics of infectious disease require a shift in thinking on what it means for two samples to 'match' in support of a forensic hypothesis. Previous outbreaks for SARS-CoV, FMDV and HIV were examined to investigate the question of how microbial sequence data can be used to draw inferences that link two infected individuals by direct transmission. The results are counter intuitive with respect to human DNA forensic applications in that some genetic change rather than exact matching improve confidence in inferring direct transmission links, however, too much genetic change poses challenges, which can weaken confidence in inferred links. High rates of infection coupled with relatively weak selective pressure observed in the SARS-CoV and FMDV data lead to fairly low confidence for direct transmission links. Confidence values for forensic hypotheses increased when testing for the possibility that samples are separated by at most a few intermediate hosts. Moreover, the observed outbreak conditions support the potential to provide high confidence values for hypothesis that exclude direct transmission links. Transmission inferences are based on the total number of observed or inferred genetic changes separating two sequences rather than uniquely weighing the importance of any one genetic mismatch. Thus, inferences are surprisingly robust in the presence of sequencing errors provided the error rates are randomly distributed across all samples in the reference outbreak database and the novel sequence samples in question. When the number of observed nucleotide mutations are limited due to characteristics of the

  16. Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The 9th ARRCN Symposium 2015 was held during 21st–25th October 2015 at the Novotel Hotel, Chumphon, Thailand, one of the most favored travel destinations in Asia. The 10th ARRCN Symposium 2017 will be held during October 2017 in the Davao, Philippines. International Symposium on the Montagu's Harrier (Circus pygargus «The Montagu's Harrier in Europe. Status. Threats. Protection», organized by the environmental organization «Landesbund für Vogelschutz in Bayern e.V.» (LBV was held on November 20-22, 2015 in Germany. The location of this event was the city of Wurzburg in Bavaria.

  17. Spectroscopy of superluminous supernova host galaxies. A preference of hydrogen-poor events for extreme emission line galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Leloudas, G.; Schulze, S.; Kruehler, T.; Gorosabel, J.; Christensen, L.; Mehner, A.; Postigo, A. de Ugarte; Amorin, R.; Thoene, C. C.; Anderson, J. P.; Bauer, F. E.; Gallazzi, A.; Helminiak, K. G.; Hjorth, J.; Ibar, E.

    2014-01-01

    Superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) are very bright explosions that were only discovered recently and that show a preference for occurring in faint dwarf galaxies. Understanding why stellar evolution yields different types of stellar explosions in these environments is fundamental in order to both uncover the elusive progenitors of SLSNe and to study star formation in dwarf galaxies. In this paper, we present the first results of our project to study SUperluminous Supernova Host galaxIES, focusi...

  18. Experimental shifts in intraclutch egg color variation do not affect egg rejection in a host of a non-egg-mimetic avian brood parasite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Croston

    Full Text Available Avian brood parasites lay their eggs in the nests of other birds, and impose the costs associated with rearing parasitic young onto these hosts. Many hosts of brood parasites defend against parasitism by removing foreign eggs from the nest. In systems where parasitic eggs mimic host eggs in coloration and patterning, extensive intraclutch variation in egg appearances may impair the host's ability to recognize and reject parasitic eggs, but experimental investigation of this effect has produced conflicting results. The cognitive mechanism by which hosts recognize parasitic eggs may vary across brood parasite hosts, and this may explain variation in experimental outcome across studies investigating egg rejection in hosts of egg-mimicking brood parasites. In contrast, for hosts of non-egg-mimetic parasites, intraclutch egg color variation is not predicted to co-vary with foreign egg rejection, irrespective of cognitive mechanism. Here we tested for effects of intraclutch egg color variation in a host of nonmimetic brood parasite by manipulating egg color in American robins (Turdus migratorius, hosts of brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater. We recorded robins' behavioral responses to simulated cowbird parasitism in nests where color variation was artificially enhanced or reduced. We also quantified egg color variation within and between unmanipulated robin clutches as perceived by robins themselves using spectrophotometric measures and avian visual modeling. In unmanipulated nests, egg color varied more between than within robin clutches. As predicted, however, manipulation of color variation did not affect rejection rates. Overall, our results best support the scenario wherein egg rejection is the outcome of selective pressure by a nonmimetic brood parasite, because robins are efficient rejecters of foreign eggs, irrespective of the color variation within their own clutch.

  19. Experimental shifts in egg-nest contrasts do not alter egg rejection responses in an avian host-brood parasite system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauber, Mark E; Aidala, Zachary; Igic, Branislav; Shawkey, Matthew D; Moskát, Csaba

    2015-09-01

    Obligate brood parasitic birds exploit their hosts to provide care for unrelated young in the nest. Potential hosts can reduce the cost of parasitism by rejecting foreign eggs from the nest. Observational, comparative, and experimental studies have concluded that most hosts use the coloration and patterning of eggshells to discriminate between own and foreign eggs in the nest. However, an alternative hypothesis is that birds use the colour contrasts between eggshells and the nest lining to identify parasitic eggs (egg-nest contrast hypothesis). In support of this hypothesis, we found that the avian perceivable chromatic contrasts between dyed eggs and unmanipulated nest linings significantly and negatively covaried with the rejection rates of different dyed eggs of the great reed warbler Acrocephalus arundinaceus, a frequently parasitized host of the common cuckoo Cuculus canorus. To experimentally test whether egg-nest contrasts influence rejection, we reciprocally dyed both eggs and the nest lining of this host species with one of two colours: orange and green. Contrary to the egg-nest contrast hypothesis, host rejection patterns in response to dyed eggs were not altered by dyeing nests, relative to unmanipulated control eggs and nests. In turn, experimental egg colour was the only significant predictor of egg rejection rate. Our results demonstrate that egg-nest contrast is a collateral, not a causal factor in egg rejection, and confirm the conclusions of previous studies that hosts can rely on the parasitic egg's appearance itself to recognize the foreign egg in the nest.

  20. Experimental Shifts in Intraclutch Egg Color Variation Do Not Affect Egg Rejection in a Host of a Non-Egg-Mimetic Avian Brood Parasite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croston, Rebecca; Hauber, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Avian brood parasites lay their eggs in the nests of other birds, and impose the costs associated with rearing parasitic young onto these hosts. Many hosts of brood parasites defend against parasitism by removing foreign eggs from the nest. In systems where parasitic eggs mimic host eggs in coloration and patterning, extensive intraclutch variation in egg appearances may impair the host’s ability to recognize and reject parasitic eggs, but experimental investigation of this effect has produced conflicting results. The cognitive mechanism by which hosts recognize parasitic eggs may vary across brood parasite hosts, and this may explain variation in experimental outcome across studies investigating egg rejection in hosts of egg-mimicking brood parasites. In contrast, for hosts of non-egg-mimetic parasites, intraclutch egg color variation is not predicted to co-vary with foreign egg rejection, irrespective of cognitive mechanism. Here we tested for effects of intraclutch egg color variation in a host of nonmimetic brood parasite by manipulating egg color in American robins (Turdus migratorius), hosts of brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater). We recorded robins’ behavioral responses to simulated cowbird parasitism in nests where color variation was artificially enhanced or reduced. We also quantified egg color variation within and between unmanipulated robin clutches as perceived by robins themselves using spectrophotometric measures and avian visual modeling. In unmanipulated nests, egg color varied more between than within robin clutches. As predicted, however, manipulation of color variation did not affect rejection rates. Overall, our results best support the scenario wherein egg rejection is the outcome of selective pressure by a nonmimetic brood parasite, because robins are efficient rejecters of foreign eggs, irrespective of the color variation within their own clutch. PMID:25831051

  1. Hosting mega sport events in a small country: The (real impact on the development - cases of Croatia and Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šimić-Banović Ružica

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Majority of studies on the impact of the sports events on country's development are produced before the events take place and as such are in favour of the bidding process. When comparing these ex ante analyses to the ex post evidence, it has been in most cases obvious that they have been overly optimistic. This paper analyses the ex ante analysis provided by the Croatian bidding committee for the European Football Championship 2012. In addition to that, the ex ante study for the World Handball Championship 2009 in Croatia and (insufficient data for the handball championships that took place in Serbia were analysed as well. This paper contributes both to the debate on the realistic approach of several failed and won bids, and the debate on the future bids for the other sport events.

  2. Putative alternative polyadenylation (APA) events in the early interaction of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium and human host cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso-Grunz, Fabian

    2015-12-01

    The immune response of epithelial cells upon infection is mediated by changing activity levels of a variety of proteins along with changes in mRNA, and also ncRNA abundance. Alternative polyadenylation (APA) represents a mechanism that diversifies gene expression similar to alternative splicing. T-cell activation, neuronal activity, development and several human diseases including viral infections involve APA, but at present it remains unclear if this mechanism is also implicated in the response to bacterial infections. Our recently published study of interacting Salmonella enterica Typhimurium and human host cells includes genome-wide expression profiles of human epithelial cells prior and subsequent to infection with the invasive pathogen. The generated dataset (GEO accession number: GSE61730) covers several points of time post infection, and one of these interaction stages was additionally profiled with MACE-based dual 3'Seq, which allows for identification of polyadenylation (PA) sites. The present study features the polyadenylation landscape in early interacting cells based on this data, and provides a comparison of the identified PA sites with those of a corresponding 3P-Seq dataset of non-interacting cells. Differential PA site usage of FTL , PRDX1 and VAPA results in transcription of mRNA isoforms with distinct sets of miRNA and protein binding sites that influence processing, localization, stability, and translation of the respective mRNA. APA of these candidate genes consequently harbors the potential to modulate the host cell response to bacterial infection.

  3. Putative alternative polyadenylation (APA events in the early interaction of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium and human host cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Afonso-Grunz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The immune response of epithelial cells upon infection is mediated by changing activity levels of a variety of proteins along with changes in mRNA, and also ncRNA abundance. Alternative polyadenylation (APA represents a mechanism that diversifies gene expression similar to alternative splicing. T-cell activation, neuronal activity, development and several human diseases including viral infections involve APA, but at present it remains unclear if this mechanism is also implicated in the response to bacterial infections. Our recently published study of interacting Salmonella enterica Typhimurium and human host cells includes genome-wide expression profiles of human epithelial cells prior and subsequent to infection with the invasive pathogen. The generated dataset (GEO accession number: GSE61730 covers several points of time post infection, and one of these interaction stages was additionally profiled with MACE-based dual 3'Seq, which allows for identification of polyadenylation (PA sites. The present study features the polyadenylation landscape in early interacting cells based on this data, and provides a comparison of the identified PA sites with those of a corresponding 3P-Seq dataset of non-interacting cells. Differential PA site usage of FTL, PRDX1 and VAPA results in transcription of mRNA isoforms with distinct sets of miRNA and protein binding sites that influence processing, localization, stability, and translation of the respective mRNA. APA of these candidate genes consequently harbors the potential to modulate the host cell response to bacterial infection.

  4. Research on the co-branding and match-up of mega-sports event and host city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, Q.; Duijsters, Geert

    2015-01-01

    Against the background of economic transformation and globalization, the impact of sports industrialization on economic development has become a hot spot. The relationship between sports events and urban development, which lies at the core of sports industrialization, is receiving growing attention

  5. Shifts in Host Mucosal Innate Immune Function Are Associated with Ruminal Microbial Succession in Supplemental Feeding and Grazing Goats at Different Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzhen Jiao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal microbiota may play an important role in regulating host mucosal innate immune function. This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that age (non-rumination, transition and rumination and feeding type [Supplemental feeding (S vs. Grazing (G] could alter ruminal microbial diversity and maturation of host mucosal innate immune system in goat kids. MiSeq sequencing was applied to investigate ruminal microbial composition and diversity, and RT-PCR was used to test expression of immune-related genes in ruminal mucosa. Results showed that higher (P < 0.05 relative abundances of Prevotella, Butyrivibrio, Pseudobutyrivibrio, Methanobrevibacter.gottschalkii, Neocallimastix, Anoplodinium–Diplodinium, and Polyplastron, and lower relative abundance of Methanosphaera (P = 0.042 were detected in the rumen of S kids when compared to those in G kids. The expression of genes encoding TLRs, IL1α, IL1β and TICAM2 was down-regulated (P < 0.01, while expression of genes encoding tight junction proteins was up-regulated (P < 0.05 in the ruminal mucosa of S kids when compared to that in G kids. Moreover, irrespective of feeding type, relative abundances of ruminal Prevotella, Fibrobacter, Ruminococcus, Butyrivibrio, Methanobrevibacter, Neocallimastix, and Entodinium increased with age. The expression of most genes encoding TLRs and cytokines increased (P < 0.05 from day 0 to 7, while expression of genes encoding tight junction proteins declined with age (P < 0.05. This study revealed that the composition of each microbial domain changed as animals grew, and these changes might be associated with variations in host mucosal innate immune function. Moreover, supplementing goat kids with concentrate could modulate ruminal microbial composition, enhance barrier function and decrease local inflammation. The findings provide useful information in interpreting microbiota and host interactions, and developing nutritional strategies to improve the

  6. OpenShift cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Gulati, Shekhar

    2014-01-01

    If you are a web application developer who wants to use the OpenShift platform to host your next big idea but are looking for guidance on how to achieve this, then this book is the first step you need to take. This is a very accessible cookbook where no previous knowledge of OpenShift is needed.

  7. Trying to Learn Lessons for Response to Extreme Events: Paradigm Shifts Affecting Civil Defense in the Trinational Region of Southwestern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, G. L. P.

    2015-12-01

    The last ten years have seen several extreme climate events in southwestern Amazonia with historic impacts. The City of Rio Branco, Capital of Acre, Brazil´s westernmost State, suffered its seventh consecutive annual flooding and its worst in March 2015. The city of Tarauacá, also in Acre, registered 12 flooding events between November 2014 and April 2015. The most recent flood of the trinational Acre River in 2015 set historic records for flood stage and number of displaced persons in Cobija, the Capital of Pando, Bolivia. From February to April 2014, floods of the Madeira River disrupted the one highway between Acre and southern Brazil. Puerto Maldonado, the capital in Madre de Dios Region of Peru had its worst flood in 50 years during 2014. In 2005 and 2010, prolonged droughts combined with ignition sources resulted in tens to hundreds of thousands of hectares of fire-damaged rainforests in the Madre de Dios, Acre and Pando (MAP) Region. The Civil Defenses in these three contiguous political units faced several abrupt paradigm shifts that affected their responses: 1) The drought of 2005 showed dramatically that regional rainforests do burn; 2) The recent flooding history, particularly in 2012 and 2015, demolished the cultural icon of a nine-year recurrence interval; 3) What happens outside your territory can be devastating. The Madeira River flood impeded an estimated 200 million dollars from circulating in Acre; 4) The past can be a terrible guide. For Cobija and Rio Branco, the 2015 flood was on the order of a meter higher than any other. Many home dwellers did not evacuate in time because they used past floods as a guide; 5) A collapse in communication - cell phones, land lines, and Internet - can get worse. In 2012, such a collapse occurred in two border towns for 5 days, yet in 2015 it lasted more than 11 days. Research is needed to address how institutions linked to Civil Defense can shift paradigms in time to be more effective.

  8. Shift Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Publications & News Shift Colors Pages default Sign In NPC Logo Banner : Shift Colors Search Navy Personnel Command > Reference Library > Publications & News > Shift Colors Top Link Bar Navy Personnel Library Expand Reference Library Quick Launch Shift Colors Shift Colors Archives Mailing Address How to

  9. Ecological Regime Shifts in Lake Kälksjön, Sweden, in Response to Abrupt Climate Change Around the 8.2 ka Cooling Event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randsalu-Wendrup, L.; Conley, D.J.; Snowball, I.

    2012-01-01

    . This study demonstrates that it is possible to detect, quantify and test for regime shifts in paleoecological data, and it highlights the need for high sampling resolution and precise chronological control. High-resolution paleoecological reconstructions of ecological regime shifts in response to climate...

  10. News Event: UK to host Science on Stage Travel: Gaining a more global perspective on physics Event: LIYSF asks students to 'cross scientific boundaries' Competition: Young Physicists' tournament is international affair Conference: Learning in a changing world of new technologies Event: Nordic physical societies meet in Lund Conference: Tenth ESERA conference to publish ebook Meeting: Rugby meeting brings teachers together Note: Remembering John L Lewis OBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Event: UK to host Science on Stage Travel: Gaining a more global perspective on physics Event: LIYSF asks students to 'cross scientific boundaries' Competition: Young Physicists' tournament is international affair Conference: Learning in a changing world of new technologies Event: Nordic physical societies meet in Lund Conference: Tenth ESERA conference to publish ebook Meeting: Rugby meeting brings teachers together Note: Remembering John L Lewis OBE

  11. Host phylogeny determines viral persistence and replication in novel hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Longdon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Pathogens switching to new hosts can result in the emergence of new infectious diseases, and determining which species are likely to be sources of such host shifts is essential to understanding disease threats to both humans and wildlife. However, the factors that determine whether a pathogen can infect a novel host are poorly understood. We have examined the ability of three host-specific RNA-viruses (Drosophila sigma viruses from the family Rhabdoviridae to persist and replicate in 51 different species of Drosophilidae. Using a novel analytical approach we found that the host phylogeny could explain most of the variation in viral replication and persistence between different host species. This effect is partly driven by viruses reaching a higher titre in those novel hosts most closely related to the original host. However, there is also a strong effect of host phylogeny that is independent of the distance from the original host, with viral titres being similar in groups of related hosts. Most of this effect could be explained by variation in general susceptibility to all three sigma viruses, as there is a strong phylogenetic correlation in the titres of the three viruses. These results suggest that the source of new emerging diseases may often be predictable from the host phylogeny, but that the effect may be more complex than simply causing most host shifts to occur between closely related hosts.

  12. Host Phylogeny Determines Viral Persistence and Replication in Novel Hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longdon, Ben; Hadfield, Jarrod D.; Webster, Claire L.

    2011-01-01

    Pathogens switching to new hosts can result in the emergence of new infectious diseases, and determining which species are likely to be sources of such host shifts is essential to understanding disease threats to both humans and wildlife. However, the factors that determine whether a pathogen can infect a novel host are poorly understood. We have examined the ability of three host-specific RNA-viruses (Drosophila sigma viruses from the family Rhabdoviridae) to persist and replicate in 51 different species of Drosophilidae. Using a novel analytical approach we found that the host phylogeny could explain most of the variation in viral replication and persistence between different host species. This effect is partly driven by viruses reaching a higher titre in those novel hosts most closely related to the original host. However, there is also a strong effect of host phylogeny that is independent of the distance from the original host, with viral titres being similar in groups of related hosts. Most of this effect could be explained by variation in general susceptibility to all three sigma viruses, as there is a strong phylogenetic correlation in the titres of the three viruses. These results suggest that the source of new emerging diseases may often be predictable from the host phylogeny, but that the effect may be more complex than simply causing most host shifts to occur between closely related hosts. PMID:21966271

  13. Extreme winter warming events more negatively impact small rather than large soil fauna: shift in community composition explained by traits not taxa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, S.F.; Phoenix, G.K.; Bjerke, J.W.; Callaghan, T.V.; Huyer-Brugman, F.A.; Berg, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Extreme weather events can have negative impacts on species survival and community structure when surpassing lethal thresholds. Extreme winter warming events in the Arctic rapidly melt snow and expose ecosystems to unseasonably warm air (2-10 °C for 2-14 days), but returning to cold winter climate

  14. Lead-Lag relationships? Asynchrounous and Abrupt Shifts in Atmospheric Circulation, Temperature, and Vegetation during the 8.2 ka Event in the Eastern Mediterranean at Tenaghi Philippon, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermeyer, E. M.; Mulch, A.; Pross, J.

    2017-12-01

    The "8.2 ka event" has been an abrupt and prominent climate perturbation during the Holocene, and is characterized by an episode of generally colder and dryer conditions in the Northern Hemisphere realm. However, evidence to what extent this event has had an impact on climate in the Mediterranean region is ambiguous, in particular with respect to rainfall, temperature and vegetation change on land. Here we present a new, high-resolution record (ø 15 years during the event) of paleotemperatures from the Tenaghi Philippon peat deposit, Eastern Macedonia, Greece, using the MBT'/CBT index based on brGDGTs (branched Glycerol-Dialkyl-Glycerol-Tetraethers). Our data show fairly stable temperatures before the event, which is initiated at 8.1 ka by an abrupt and continuous cooling during the first 35 years of the event. After a short, 10-year episode of minimum temperatures, the event is ended by a similarly abrupt and continuous warming within 38 years. Comparison of our record with a previous study of the stable hydrogen isotopic composition of higher-plant waxes (δDwax) on the same core1 shows that changes in temperature occurred simultaneously with shifts in atmospherics moisture sources (Mediterranean vs Atlantic). Interestingly, further comparison of our data with a previous palynological study of the same core2 reveals that changes in vegetation associated with the 8.2 ka event precede shifts in hydrology and temperature by 100 years. This suggests either pronounced changes in seasonality of temperature and rainfall after the onset of the 8.2 ka event, i.e. at the peak of the event, or that changes in local atmospheric circulation (moisture sources) and temperature where not the initial trigger of changes in vegetation. References: Pross, J., Kotthoff, U., Müller, U.C., Peyron, O., Dormoy, I., Schmiedl, G., Kalaitzidis, S. and Smith, A.M. (2009): Massive perturbation in terrestrial ecosystems of the Eastern Mediterranean region associated with the 8.2 kyr B

  15. Shifting Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Jenni

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the shifts in attention and focus as one teacher introduces and explains an image that represents the processes involved in a numeric problem that his students have been working on. This paper takes a micro-analytic approach to examine how the focus of attention shifts through what the teacher and students do and say in the…

  16. Host conservatism, geography, and elevation in the evolution of a Neotropical moth radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahner, Joshua P; Forister, Matthew L; Parchman, Thomas L; Smilanich, Angela M; Miller, James S; Wilson, Joseph S; Walla, Thomas R; Tepe, Eric J; Richards, Lora A; Quijano-Abril, Mario Alberto; Glassmire, Andrea E; Dyer, Lee A

    2017-12-01

    The origins of evolutionary radiations are often traced to the colonization of novel adaptive zones, including unoccupied habitats or unutilized resources. For herbivorous insects, the predominant mechanism of diversification is typically assumed to be a shift onto a novel lineage of host plants. However, other drivers of diversification are important in shaping evolutionary history, especially for groups residing in regions with complex geological histories. We evaluated the contributions of shifts in host plant clade, bioregion, and elevation to diversification in Eois (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), a hyper-diverse genus of moths found throughout the Neotropics. Relationships among 107 taxa were reconstructed using one mitochondrial and two nuclear genes. In addition, we used a genotyping-by-sequencing approach to generate 4641 SNPs for 137 taxa. Both datasets yielded similar phylogenetic histories, with relationships structured by host plant clade, bioregion, and elevation. While diversification of basal lineages often coincided with host clade shifts, more recent speciation events were more typically associated with shifts across bioregions or elevational gradients. Overall, patterns of diversification in Eois are consistent with the perspective that shifts across multiple adaptive zones synergistically drive diversification in hyper-diverse lineages. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  17. Market shifting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forst, Michael

    2013-11-01

    After years of oversupply and artificially low module pricing, market analysts believe that the solar industry will begin to stabilize by 2017. While the market activities are shifting from Europe to the Asia Pacific region and the United States, the solar shakeout continues to be in full swing including solar cell and module manufacturing. (orig.)

  18. Tough Shift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brewer, Robert S.; Verdezoto, Nervo; Holst, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    people to change their behavior at home. Leveraging prior research on encouraging reductions in residential energy use through game play, we introduce ShareBuddy: a casual mobile game intended to encourage players not only to reduce, but also to shift their electricity use. We conducted two field studies...... real-world resource use into a game....

  19. Host jumps shaped the diversity of extant rust fungi (Pucciniales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTaggart, Alistair R; Shivas, Roger G; van der Nest, Magriet A; Roux, Jolanda; Wingfield, Brenda D; Wingfield, Michael J

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the evolutionary time line for rust fungi and date key speciation events using a molecular clock. Evidence is provided that supports a contemporary view for a recent origin of rust fungi, with a common ancestor on a flowering plant. Divergence times for > 20 genera of rust fungi were studied with Bayesian evolutionary analyses. A relaxed molecular clock was applied to ribosomal and mitochondrial genes, calibrated against estimated divergence times for the hosts of rust fungi, such as Acacia (Fabaceae), angiosperms and the cupressophytes. Results showed that rust fungi shared a most recent common ancestor with a mean age between 113 and 115 million yr. This dates rust fungi to the Cretaceous period, which is much younger than previous estimations. Host jumps, whether taxonomically large or between host genera in the same family, most probably shaped the diversity of rust genera. Likewise, species diversified by host shifts (through coevolution) or via subsequent host jumps. This is in contrast to strict coevolution with their hosts. Puccinia psidii was recovered in Sphaerophragmiaceae, a family distinct from Raveneliaceae, which were regarded as confamilial in previous studies. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Historical biogeography among species of Varestrongylus lungworms (Nematoda: Protostrongylidae) in ungulates: episodic expansion and host colonization linking Eurasia and North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verocai, Guilherme G; Kutz, Susan J; Hoberg, Eric P

    2018-05-03

    Varestrongylus lungworms (Nematoda: Protostrongylidae) include 10 nominal species that parasitize wild and domesticated artiodactyles. Eight species are endemic to the western Palearctic and Eurasia, whereas two are limited in distribution to the Nearctic. Complex host associations, primarily among Cervidae and Bovidae (Caprinae), and biogeography were explored based on direct comparisons of parasite and host phylogenies to reveal the historical development of this fauna. Diversification among Varestrongylus species has an intricate history extending over the Pliocene and Quaternary involving episodic processes for geographic and host colonization: (1) Varestrongylus has origins in Eurasia with independent expansion events into bordering ecozones; (2) cervids are ancestral hosts; (3) the caprine-associated V. pneumonicus is basal and a result of an independent host colonization event; (4) secondary diversification, linked to sequential and independent host colonization events, occurred within cervids (V. sagittatus + V. tuvae; V. alpenae; and V. capreoli, V. alces + V. eleguneniensis); (5) at least two additional host colonization events into caprines occurred, followed or not by diversification (V. qinghaiensis + V. longispiculatus; V. capricola, respectively); (6) two independent events of geographic expansion into North America from Eurasia with cervids in the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene are postulated (V. alpenae, V. eleguneniensis). Comparisons based on phylogenetic hypotheses derived from comparative morphology and molecular inference for these nematodes are consistent with the postulated history for coevolutionary and biogeographic history. Episodes of geographic and host colonization, often in relation to rapid shifts in climate and habitat perturbation, have dominated the history of diversification of Varestrongylus.

  1. Fluid Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A. R.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R. W.; Ebert, D. J.; Garcia, K. M.; Johnston, S. L.; Laurie, S. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. NASA's Human Research Program is focused on addressing health risks associated with long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but now more than 50 percent of ISS astronauts have experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural findings such as optic disc edema, globe flattening and choroidal folds. These structural and functional changes are referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. Development of VIIP symptoms may be related to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) secondary to spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight and to determine if a relation exists with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as any VIIP-related effects of those shifts, are predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight status and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations, specifically posture changes and lower body negative pressure. Methods. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, and calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound); (3) vascular dimensions by ultrasound (jugular veins, cerebral and carotid arteries, vertebral arteries and veins, portal vein); (4) vascular dynamics by MRI (head/neck blood flow, cerebrospinal fluid

  2. Host-Associated Differentiation: The Gape-and-Pinch Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen B. Heard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecological speciation via host shifting has contributed to the astonishing diversity of phytophagous insects. The importance for host shifting of trait differences between alternative host plants is well established, but much less is known about trait variation within hosts. I outline a conceptual model, the “gape-and-pinch” (GAP model, of insect response to host-plant trait variation during host shifting and host-associated differentiation. I offer four hypotheses about insect use of plant trait variation on two alternative hosts, for insects at different stages of host-associated differentiation. Collectively, these hypotheses suggest that insect responses to plant trait variation can favour or oppose critical steps in herbivore diversification. I provide statistical tools for analysing herbivore trait-space use, demonstrate their application for four herbivores of the goldenrods Solidago altissima and S. gigantea, and discuss their broader potential to advance our understanding of diet breadth and ecological speciation in phytophagous insects.

  3. Shifting Sugars and Shifting Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    No organism lives in a constant environment. Based on classical studies in molecular biology, many have viewed microbes as following strict rules for shifting their metabolic activities when prevailing conditions change. For example, students learn that the bacterium Escherichia coli makes proteins for digesting lactose only when lactose is available and glucose, a better sugar, is not. However, recent studies, including three PLOS Biology papers examining sugar utilization in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, show that considerable heterogeneity in response to complex environments exists within and between populations. These results join similar recent results in other organisms that suggest that microbial populations anticipate predictable environmental changes and hedge their bets against unpredictable ones. The classical view therefore represents but one special case in a range of evolutionary adaptations to environmental changes that all organisms face. PMID:25688600

  4. Shifting sugars and shifting paradigms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L Siegal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available No organism lives in a constant environment. Based on classical studies in molecular biology, many have viewed microbes as following strict rules for shifting their metabolic activities when prevailing conditions change. For example, students learn that the bacterium Escherichia coli makes proteins for digesting lactose only when lactose is available and glucose, a better sugar, is not. However, recent studies, including three PLOS Biology papers examining sugar utilization in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, show that considerable heterogeneity in response to complex environments exists within and between populations. These results join similar recent results in other organisms that suggest that microbial populations anticipate predictable environmental changes and hedge their bets against unpredictable ones. The classical view therefore represents but one special case in a range of evolutionary adaptations to environmental changes that all organisms face.

  5. Host reproductive phenology drives seasonal patterns of host use in mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan D Burkett-Cadena

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal shifts in host use by mosquitoes from birds to mammals drive the timing and intensity of annual epidemics of mosquito-borne viruses, such as West Nile virus, in North America. The biological mechanism underlying these shifts has been a matter of debate, with hypotheses falling into two camps: (1 the shift is driven by changes in host abundance, or (2 the shift is driven by seasonal changes in the foraging behavior of mosquitoes. Here we explored the idea that seasonal changes in host use by mosquitoes are driven by temporal patterns of host reproduction. We investigated the relationship between seasonal patterns of host use by mosquitoes and host reproductive phenology by examining a seven-year dataset of blood meal identifications from a site in Tuskegee National Forest, Alabama USA and data on reproduction from the most commonly utilized endothermic (white-tailed deer, great blue heron, yellow-crowned night heron and ectothermic (frogs hosts. Our analysis revealed that feeding on each host peaked during periods of reproductive activity. Specifically, mosquitoes utilized herons in the spring and early summer, during periods of peak nest occupancy, whereas deer were fed upon most during the late summer and fall, the period corresponding to the peak in births for deer. For frogs, however, feeding on early- and late-season breeders paralleled peaks in male vocalization. We demonstrate for the first time that seasonal patterns of host use by mosquitoes track the reproductive phenology of the hosts. Peaks in relative mosquito feeding on each host during reproductive phases are likely the result of increased tolerance and decreased vigilance to attacking mosquitoes by nestlings and brooding adults (avian hosts, quiescent young (avian and mammalian hosts, and mate-seeking males (frogs.

  6. Large-Scale Phylogenomic Analysis Reveals the Complex Evolutionary History of Rabies Virus in Multiple Carnivore Hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Troupin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The natural evolution of rabies virus (RABV provides a potent example of multiple host shifts and an important opportunity to determine the mechanisms that underpin viral emergence. Using 321 genome sequences spanning an unprecedented diversity of RABV, we compared evolutionary rates and selection pressures in viruses sampled from multiple primary host shifts that occurred on various continents. Two major phylogenetic groups, bat-related RABV and dog-related RABV, experiencing markedly different evolutionary dynamics were identified. While no correlation between time and genetic divergence was found in bat-related RABV, the evolution of dog-related RABV followed a generally clock-like structure, although with a relatively low evolutionary rate. Subsequent molecular clock dating indicated that dog-related RABV likely underwent a rapid global spread following the intensification of intercontinental trade starting in the 15th century. Strikingly, although dog RABV has jumped to various wildlife species from the order Carnivora, we found no clear evidence that these host-jumping events involved adaptive evolution, with RABV instead characterized by strong purifying selection, suggesting that ecological processes also play an important role in shaping patterns of emergence. However, specific amino acid changes were associated with the parallel emergence of RABV in ferret-badgers in Asia, and some host shifts were associated with increases in evolutionary rate, particularly in the ferret-badger and mongoose, implying that changes in host species can have important impacts on evolutionary dynamics.

  7. HOST PLANT UTILIZATION, HOST RANGE OSCILLATIONS AND DIVERSIFICATION IN NYMPHALID BUTTERFLIES: A PHYLOGENETIC INVESTIGATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylin, Sören; Slove, Jessica; Janz, Niklas

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that phenotypic plasticity is a major factor in the diversification of life, and that variation in host range in phytophagous insects is a good model for investigating this claim. We explore the use of angiosperm plants as hosts for nymphalid butterflies, and in particular the evidence for past oscillations in host range and how they are linked to host shifts and to diversification. At the level of orders of plants, a relatively simple pattern of host use and host shifts emerges, despite the 100 million years of history of the family Nymphalidae. We review the evidence that these host shifts and the accompanying diversifications were associated with transient polyphagous stages, as suggested by the “oscillation hypothesis.” In addition, we investigate all currently polyphagous nymphalid species and demonstrate that the state of polyphagy is rare, has a weak phylogenetic signal, and a very apical distribution in the phylogeny; we argue that these are signs of its transient nature. We contrast our results with data from the bark beetles Dendroctonus, in which a more specialized host use is instead the apical state. We conclude that plasticity in host use is likely to have contributed to diversification in nymphalid butterflies. PMID:24372598

  8. Effects of extended work shifts and shift work on patient safety, productivity, and employee health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Simone M

    2009-12-01

    It is estimated 1.3 million health care errors occur each year and of those errors 48,000 to 98,000 result in the deaths of patients (Barger et al., 2006). Errors occur for a variety of reasons, including the effects of extended work hours and shift work. The need for around-the-clock staff coverage has resulted in creative ways to maintain quality patient care, keep health care errors or adverse events to a minimum, and still meet the needs of the organization. One way organizations have attempted to alleviate staff shortages is to create extended work shifts. Instead of the standard 8-hour shift, workers are now working 10, 12, 16, or more hours to provide continuous patient care. Although literature does support these staffing patterns, it cannot be denied that shifts beyond the traditional 8 hours increase staff fatigue, health care errors, and adverse events and outcomes and decrease alertness and productivity. This article includes a review of current literature on shift work, the definition of shift work, error rates and adverse outcomes related to shift work, health effects on shift workers, shift work effects on older workers, recommended optimal shift length, positive and negative effects of shift work on the shift worker, hazards associated with driving after extended shifts, and implications for occupational health nurses. Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Social Host Ordinances and Policies. Prevention Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Social host liability laws (also known as teen party ordinances, loud or unruly gathering ordinances, or response costs ordinances) target the location in which underage drinking takes place. Social host liability laws hold noncommercial individuals responsible for underage drinking events on property they own, lease, or otherwise control. They…

  10. Event Structure and Cognitive Control

    OpenAIRE

    Reimer, Jason F.; Radvansky, Gabriel A.; Lorsbach, Thomas C.; Armendarez, Joseph J.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a great deal of research has demonstrated that although everyday experience is continuous in nature, it is parsed into separate events. The aim of the present study was to examine whether event structure can influence the effectiveness of cognitive control. Across five experiments we varied the structure of events within the AX-CPT by shifting the spatial location of cues and probes on a computer screen. When location shifts were present, a pattern of AX-CPT performance consistent w...

  11. Micropatch Antenna Phase Shifting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thursby, Michael

    2000-01-01

    .... We have been looking at the ability of embedded element to adjust the phase shift seen by the element with the goal of being able to remove the phase shifting devices from the antenna and replace...

  12. Micropatch Antenna Phase Shifting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thursby, Michael

    1999-01-01

    .... We have been looking at the ability of embedded element to adjust the phase shift seen by the element wit the goal of being able to remove the phase shifting devices from the antenna and replace...

  13. OpenShift Workshop

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Rodriguez Peon, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Workshop to introduce developers to the OpenShift platform available at CERN. Several use cases will be shown, including deploying an existing application into OpenShift. We expect attendees to realize about OpenShift features and general architecture of the service.

  14. Directional Selection from Host Plants Is a Major Force Driving Host Specificity in Magnaporthe Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhenhui; Norvienyeku, Justice; Chen, Meilian; Bao, Jiandong; Lin, Lianyu; Chen, Liqiong; Lin, Yahong; Wu, Xiaoxian; Cai, Zena; Zhang, Qi; Lin, Xiaoye; Hong, Yonghe; Huang, Jun; Xu, Linghong; Zhang, Honghong; Chen, Long; Tang, Wei; Zheng, Huakun; Chen, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yanli; Lian, Bi; Zhang, Liangsheng; Tang, Haibao; Lu, Guodong; Ebbole, Daniel J; Wang, Baohua; Wang, Zonghua

    2016-05-06

    One major threat to global food security that requires immediate attention, is the increasing incidence of host shift and host expansion in growing number of pathogenic fungi and emergence of new pathogens. The threat is more alarming because, yield quality and quantity improvement efforts are encouraging the cultivation of uniform plants with low genetic diversity that are increasingly susceptible to emerging pathogens. However, the influence of host genome differentiation on pathogen genome differentiation and its contribution to emergence and adaptability is still obscure. Here, we compared genome sequence of 6 isolates of Magnaporthe species obtained from three different host plants. We demonstrated the evolutionary relationship between Magnaporthe species and the influence of host differentiation on pathogens. Phylogenetic analysis showed that evolution of pathogen directly corresponds with host divergence, suggesting that host-pathogen interaction has led to co-evolution. Furthermore, we identified an asymmetric selection pressure on Magnaporthe species. Oryza sativa-infecting isolates showed higher directional selection from host and subsequently tends to lower the genetic diversity in its genome. We concluded that, frequent gene loss or gain, new transposon acquisition and sequence divergence are host adaptability mechanisms for Magnaporthe species, and this coevolution processes is greatly driven by directional selection from host plants.

  15. HOST GALAXY IDENTIFICATION FOR SUPERNOVA SURVEYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Ravi R.; Kuhlmann, Steve; Kovacs, Eve; Spinka, Harold; Kessler, Richard; Goldstein, Daniel A.; Liotine, Camille; Pomian, Katarzyna; D’Andrea, Chris B.; Sullivan, Mark; Carretero, Jorge; Castander, Francisco J.; Nichol, Robert C.; Finley, David A.; Fischer, John A.; Foley, Ryan J.; Kim, Alex G.; Papadopoulos, Andreas; Sako, Masao; Scolnic, Daniel M.; Smith, Mathew; Tucker, Brad E.; Uddin, Syed; Wolf, Rachel C.; Yuan, Fang; Abbott, Tim M. C.; Abdalla, Filipe B.; Benoit-Lévy, Aurélien; Bertin, Emmanuel; Brooks, David; Rosell, Aurelio Carnero; Kind, Matias Carrasco; Cunha, Carlos E.; Costa, Luiz N. da; Desai, Shantanu; Doel, Peter; Eifler, Tim F.; Evrard, August E.; Flaugher, Brenna; Fosalba, Pablo; Gaztañaga, Enrique; Gruen, Daniel; Gruendl, Robert; James, David J.; Kuehn, Kyler; Kuropatkin, Nikolay; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Miquel, Ramon; Plazas, Andrés A.; Romer, A. Kathy; Sánchez, Eusebio; Schubnell, Michael; Sevilla-Noarbe, Ignacio; Sobreira, Flávia; Suchyta, Eric; Swanson, Molly E. C.; Tarle, Gregory; Walker, Alistair R.; Wester, William

    2016-11-08

    Host galaxy identification is a crucial step for modern supernova (SN) surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, which will discover SNe by the thousands. Spectroscopic resources are limited, and so in the absence of real-time SN spectra these surveys must rely on host galaxy spectra to obtain accurate redshifts for the Hubble diagram and to improve photometric classification of SNe. In addition, SN luminosities are known to correlate with host-galaxy properties. Therefore, reliable identification of host galaxies is essential for cosmology and SN science. We simulate SN events and their locations within their host galaxies to develop and test methods for matching SNe to their hosts. We use both real and simulated galaxy catalog data from the Advanced Camera for Surveys General Catalog and MICECATv2.0, respectively. We also incorporate "hostless" SNe residing in undetected faint hosts into our analysis, with an assumed hostless rate of 5%. Our fully automated algorithm is run on catalog data and matches SNe to their hosts with 91% accuracy. We find that including a machine learning component, run after the initial matching algorithm, improves the accuracy (purity) of the matching to 97% with a 2% cost in efficiency (true positive rate). Although the exact results are dependent on the details of the survey and the galaxy catalogs used, the method of identifying host galaxies we outline here can be applied to any transient survey.

  16. HOST GALAXY IDENTIFICATION FOR SUPERNOVA SURVEYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Ravi R.; Kuhlmann, Steve; Kovacs, Eve; Spinka, Harold; Liotine, Camille; Pomian, Katarzyna [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Kessler, Richard; Scolnic, Daniel M. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Goldstein, Daniel A. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, 501 Campbell Hall #3411, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); D’Andrea, Chris B.; Nichol, Robert C.; Papadopoulos, Andreas [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Sullivan, Mark [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Carretero, Jorge; Castander, Francisco J. [Institut de Ciències de l’Espai, IEEC-CSIC, Campus UAB, Carrer de Can Magrans, s/n, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Finley, David A. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Fischer, John A.; Sako, Masao [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Foley, Ryan J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, 1002 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Kim, Alex G., E-mail: raviryan@gmail.com [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); and others

    2016-12-01

    Host galaxy identification is a crucial step for modern supernova (SN) surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, which will discover SNe by the thousands. Spectroscopic resources are limited, and so in the absence of real-time SN spectra these surveys must rely on host galaxy spectra to obtain accurate redshifts for the Hubble diagram and to improve photometric classification of SNe. In addition, SN luminosities are known to correlate with host-galaxy properties. Therefore, reliable identification of host galaxies is essential for cosmology and SN science. We simulate SN events and their locations within their host galaxies to develop and test methods for matching SNe to their hosts. We use both real and simulated galaxy catalog data from the Advanced Camera for Surveys General Catalog and MICECATv2.0, respectively. We also incorporate “hostless” SNe residing in undetected faint hosts into our analysis, with an assumed hostless rate of 5%. Our fully automated algorithm is run on catalog data and matches SNe to their hosts with 91% accuracy. We find that including a machine learning component, run after the initial matching algorithm, improves the accuracy (purity) of the matching to 97% with a 2% cost in efficiency (true positive rate). Although the exact results are dependent on the details of the survey and the galaxy catalogs used, the method of identifying host galaxies we outline here can be applied to any transient survey.

  17. Host preference of the bean weevil Zabrotes subfasciatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Isabel Ribeiro do Valle Teixeira; Angel Roberto Barchuk; Fernando Sérgio Zucoloto

    2008-01-01

    It is largely known that the range of an insect diet is mostly determined by oviposition behavior, mainly in species with endophytic larvae such as Zabrotes subfasciatus.However, the proximate factors determining host choice and the subsequent steps leading to the expansion or reduction of the host number and occasional host shifts are largelyun known. We analyzed various factors determining host preference of Z. subfasciatus through the evaluation of: (i) oviposition preference of a wild population of Z. subfasciatus on the usual host (bean) and unusual hosts (lentil, chickpea and soy), and the performance of the offspring; (ii) artificial selection for increasing preference for hosts initially less frequently chosen; (iii) comparison of oviposition behavior between two different popula-tions (reared for~30 generations in beans or chickpeas, respectively); (iv) oviposition timing on usual and unusual hosts; and (v) identification of preference hierarchies. We found that when using unusual hosts, there is no correlation between performance and preference and that the preference hierarchy changes only slightly when the population passes through several generations on the less frequently accepted host. We also found a positive response to artificial selection for increasing oviposition on the less preferred host; however, when the host-choice experiment involved two varieties of the usual host, the response was faster than when the choice involved usual and unusual hosts. Finally, beetles reared on an unusual host (chickpea) for 26 generations showed similar good fitness on both usual and unusual hosts,indicating that the use of a new host does not necessarily result in the loss of performance on the original host. Nevertheless, this population showed lower fitness on the usual host than that of the original population, suggesting an underlying partial trade-off phenomenon which may contribute to a broadening of diet of this insect species.

  18. Choice Shifts in Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Kfir Eliaz; Debraj Ray

    2004-01-01

    The phenomenon of "choice shifts" in group decision-making is fairly ubiquitous in the social psychology literature. Faced with a choice between a ``safe" and ``risky" decision, group members appear to move to one extreme or the other, relative to the choices each member might have made on her own. Both risky and cautious shifts have been identified in different situations. This paper demonstrates that from an individual decision-making perspective, choice shifts may be viewed as a systematic...

  19. Implementing OpenShift

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Adam

    2013-01-01

    A standard tutorial-based approach to using OpenShift and deploying custom or pre-built web applications to the OpenShift Online cloud.This book is for software developers and DevOps alike who are interested in learning how to use the OpenShift Platform-as-a-Service for developing and deploying applications, how the environment works on the back end, and how to deploy their very own open source Platform-as-a-Service based on the upstream OpenShift Origin project.

  20. Insomnia in shift work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallières, Annie; Azaiez, Aïda; Moreau, Vincent; LeBlanc, Mélanie; Morin, Charles M

    2014-12-01

    Shift work disorder involves insomnia and/or excessive sleepiness associated with the work schedule. The present study examined the impact of insomnia on the perceived physical and psychological health of adults working on night and rotating shift schedules compared to day workers. A total of 418 adults (51% women, mean age 41.4 years), including 51 night workers, 158 rotating shift workers, and 209 day workers were selected from an epidemiological study. An algorithm was used to classify each participant of the two groups (working night or rotating shifts) according to the presence or absence of insomnia symptoms. Each of these individuals was paired with a day worker according to gender, age, and income. Participants completed several questionnaires measuring sleep, health, and psychological variables. Night and rotating shift workers with insomnia presented a sleep profile similar to that of day workers with insomnia. Sleep time was more strongly related to insomnia than to shift work per se. Participants with insomnia in the three groups complained of anxiety, depression, and fatigue, and reported consuming equal amounts of sleep-aid medication. Insomnia also contributed to chronic pain and otorhinolaryngology problems, especially among rotating shift workers. Work productivity and absenteeism were more strongly related to insomnia. The present study highlights insomnia as an important component of the sleep difficulties experienced by shift workers. Insomnia may exacerbate certain physical and mental health problems of shift workers, and impair their quality of life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. EVENT PLANNING USING FUNCTION ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lori Braase; Jodi Grgich

    2011-06-01

    Event planning is expensive and resource intensive. Function analysis provides a solid foundation for comprehensive event planning (e.g., workshops, conferences, symposiums, or meetings). It has been used at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to successfully plan events and capture lessons learned, and played a significant role in the development and implementation of the “INL Guide for Hosting an Event.” Using a guide and a functional approach to planning utilizes resources more efficiently and reduces errors that could be distracting or detrimental to an event. This integrated approach to logistics and program planning – with the primary focus on the participant – gives us the edge.

  2. Shifted Independent Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2007-01-01

    Delayed mixing is a problem of theoretical interest and practical importance, e.g., in speech processing, bio-medical signal analysis and financial data modelling. Most previous analyses have been based on models with integer shifts, i.e., shifts by a number of samples, and have often been carried...

  3. Homogeneous bilateral block shifts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Douglas class were classified in [3]; they are unilateral block shifts of arbitrary block size (i.e. dim H(n) can be anything). However, no examples of irreducible homogeneous bilateral block shifts of block size larger than 1 were known until now.

  4. Josephson shift registers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przybysz, J.X.

    1989-01-01

    This paper gives a review of Josephson shift register circuits that were designed, fabricated, or tested, with emphasis on work in the 1980s. Operating speed is most important, since it often limits system performance. Older designs used square-wave clocks, but most modern designs use offset sine waves, with either two or three phases. Operating margins and gate bias uniformity are key concerns. The fastest measured Josephson shift register operated at 2.3 GHz, which compares well with a GaAs shift register that consumes 250 times more power. The difficulties of high-speed testing have prevented many Josephson shift registers from being operated at their highest speeds. Computer simulations suggest that 30-GHz operation is possible with current Nb/Al 2 O 3 /Nb technology. Junctions with critical current densities near 10 kA/cm 2 would make 100-GHz shift registers feasible

  5. Economic Multipliers and Mega-Event Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Matheson

    2004-01-01

    Critics of economic impact studies that purport to show that mega-events such as the Olympics bring large benefits to the communities “lucky” enough to host them frequently cite the use of inappropriate multipliers as a primary reason why these impact studies overstate the true economic gains to the hosts of these events. This brief paper shows in a numerical example how mega-events may lead to inflated multipliers and exaggerated claims of economic benefits.

  6. The affective shift model of work engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledow, Ronald; Schmitt, Antje; Frese, Michael; Kühnel, Jana

    2011-11-01

    On the basis of self-regulation theories, the authors develop an affective shift model of work engagement according to which work engagement emerges from the dynamic interplay of positive and negative affect. The affective shift model posits that negative affect is positively related to work engagement if negative affect is followed by positive affect. The authors applied experience sampling methodology to test the model. Data on affective events, mood, and work engagement was collected twice a day over 9 working days among 55 software developers. In support of the affective shift model, negative mood and negative events experienced in the morning of a working day were positively related to work engagement in the afternoon if positive mood in the time interval between morning and afternoon was high. Individual differences in positive affectivity moderated within-person relationships. The authors discuss how work engagement can be fostered through affect regulation. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Plant-soil interactions in the expansion and native range of a poleward shifting plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grunsven, van R.H.A.; Putten, van der W.H.; Bezemer, T.M.; Berendse, F.; Veenendaal, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    Climate warming causes range shifts of many species toward higher latitudes and altitudes. However, range shifts of host species do not necessarily proceed at the same rates as those of their enemies and symbionts. Here, we examined how a range shifting plant species performs in soil from its

  8. Plant–soil interactions in the expansion and native range of a poleward shifting plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Grunsven, R.H.A.; Van der Putten, W.H.; Bezemer, T.M.; Berendse, F.; Veenendaal, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    Climate warming causes range shifts of many species toward higher latitudes and altitudes. However, range shifts of host species do not necessarily proceed at the same rates as those of their enemies and symbionts. Here, we examined how a range shifting plant species performs in soil from its

  9. Storm pulse chemographs of saturation index and carbon dioxide pressure: implications for shifting recharge sources during storm events in the karst aquifer at Fort Campbell, Kentucky/Tennessee, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesper, Dorothy J.; White, William B.

    Continuous records of discharge, specific conductance, and temperature were collected through a series of storm pulses on two limestone springs at Fort Campbell, western Kentucky/Tennessee, USA. Water samples, collected at short time intervals across the same storm pulses, were analyzed for calcium, magnesium, bicarbonate, total organic carbon, and pH. Chemographs of calcium, calcite saturation index, and carbon dioxide partial pressure were superimposed on the storm hydrographs. Calcium concentration and specific conductance track together and dip to a minimum either coincident with the peak of the hydrograph or lag slightly behind it. The CO2 pressure continues to rise on the recession limb of the hydrograph and, as a result, the saturation index decreases on the recession limb of the hydrograph. These results are interpreted as being due to dispersed infiltration through CO2-rich soils lagging the arrival of quickflow from sinkhole recharge in the transport of storm flow to the springs. Karst spring hydrographs reflect not only the changing mix of base flow and storm flow but also a shift in source of recharge water over the course of the storm. L'enregistrement en continu du débit, de la conductivité et de la température de l'eau a été réalisé au cours d'une série de crues à deux sources émergeant de calcaires, à Fort Campbell (Kentucky occidental, Tennessee, États-Unis). Des échantillons d'eau, prélevés à de courts pas de temps lors de ces crues, ont été analysés pour le calcium, le magnésium, les bicarbonates, le carbone organique total et le pH. Les chimiogrammes de calcium, d'indice de saturation de la calcite et de la pression partielle en CO2 ont été superposés aux hydrogrammes de crue. La concentration en calcium et la conductivité de l'eau se suivent bien et passent par un minimum correspondant au pic de l'hydrogramme ou légèrement retardé. La pression partielle en CO2 continue de croître au cours de la récession de l

  10. Nurses' shift reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels; Hoeck, Bente; Hamilton, Bridget Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To identify reporting practices that feature in studies of nurses' shift reports across diverse nursing specialities. The objectives were to perform an exhaustive systematic literature search and to critically review the quality and findings of qualitative field studies...... of nurses' shift reports. BACKGROUND: Nurses' shift reports are routine occurrences in healthcare organisations that are viewed as crucial for patient outcomes, patient safety and continuity of care. Studies of communication between nurses attend primarily to 1:1 communication and analyse the adequacy...... and accuracy of patient information and feature handovers at the bedside. Still, verbal reports between groups of nurses about patients are commonplace. Shift reports are obvious sites for studying the situated accomplishment of professional nursing at the group level. This review is focused exclusively...

  11. Shift Verification and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandya, Tara M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Evans, Thomas M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Davidson, Gregory G [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Seth R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Godfrey, Andrew T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-07

    This documentation outlines the verification and validation of Shift for the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). Five main types of problems were used for validation: small criticality benchmark problems; full-core reactor benchmarks for light water reactors; fixed-source coupled neutron-photon dosimetry benchmarks; depletion/burnup benchmarks; and full-core reactor performance benchmarks. We compared Shift results to measured data and other simulated Monte Carlo radiation transport code results, and found very good agreement in a variety of comparison measures. These include prediction of critical eigenvalue, radial and axial pin power distributions, rod worth, leakage spectra, and nuclide inventories over a burn cycle. Based on this validation of Shift, we are confident in Shift to provide reference results for CASL benchmarking.

  12. Complex inheritance of larval adaptation in Plutella xylostella to a novel host plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henniges-Janssen, K.; Reineke, A.; Heckel, D.G.; Groot, A.T.

    2011-01-01

    Studying the genetics of host shifts and range expansions in phytophagous insects contributes to our understanding of the evolution of host plant adaptation. We investigated the recent host range expansion to pea, in the pea-adapted strain (P-strain) of the crucifer-specialist diamondback moth,

  13. Molecular Electronic Shift Registers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beratan, David N.; Onuchic, Jose N.

    1990-01-01

    Molecular-scale shift registers eventually constructed as parts of high-density integrated memory circuits. In principle, variety of organic molecules makes possible large number of different configurations and modes of operation for such shift-register devices. Several classes of devices and implementations in some specific types of molecules proposed. All based on transfer of electrons or holes along chains of repeating molecular units.

  14. The potential for host switching via ecological fitting in the emerald ash borer-host plant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollini, Don; Peterson, Donnie L

    2018-02-27

    The traits used by phytophagous insects to find and utilize their ancestral hosts can lead to host range expansions, generally to closely related hosts that share visual and chemical features with ancestral hosts. Host range expansions often result from ecological fitting, which is the process whereby organisms colonize and persist in novel environments, use novel resources, or form novel associations with other species because of the suites of traits that they carry at the time they encounter the novel environment. Our objective in this review is to discuss the potential and constraints on host switching via ecological fitting in emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, an ecologically and economically important invasive wood boring beetle. Once thought of as an ash (Fraxinus spp.) tree specialist, recent studies have revealed a broader potential host range than was expected for this insect. We discuss the demonstrated host-use capabilities of this beetle, as well as the potential for and barriers to the adoption of additional hosts by this beetle. We place our observations in the context of biochemical mechanisms that mediate the interaction of these beetles with their host plants and discuss whether evolutionary host shifts are a possible outcome of the interaction of this insect with novel hosts.

  15. Codivergence of mycoviruses with their hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Göker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The associations between pathogens and their hosts are complex and can result from any combination of evolutionary events such as codivergence, switching, and duplication of the pathogen. Mycoviruses are RNA viruses which infect fungi and for which natural vectors are so far unknown. Thus, lateral transfer might be improbable and codivergence their dominant mode of evolution. Accordingly, mycoviruses are a suitable target for statistical tests of virus-host codivergence, but inference of mycovirus phylogenies might be difficult because of low sequence similarity even within families. METHODOLOGY: We analyzed here the evolutionary dynamics of all mycovirus families by comparing virus and host phylogenies. Additionally, we assessed the sensitivity of the co-phylogenetic tests to the settings for inferring virus trees from their genome sequences and approximate, taxonomy-based host trees. CONCLUSIONS: While sequence alignment filtering modes affected branch support, the overall results of the co-phylogenetic tests were significantly influenced only by the number of viruses sampled per family. The trees of the two largest families, Partitiviridae and Totiviridae, were significantly more similar to those of their hosts than expected by chance, and most individual host-virus links had a significant positive impact on the global fit, indicating that codivergence is the dominant mode of virus diversification. However, in this regard mycoviruses did not differ from closely related viruses sampled from non-fungus hosts. The remaining virus families were either dominated by other evolutionary modes or lacked an apparent overall pattern. As this negative result might be caused by insufficient taxon sampling, the most parsimonious hypothesis still is that host-parasite evolution is basically the same in all mycovirus families. This is the first study of mycovirus-host codivergence, and the results shed light not only on how mycovirus biology

  16. Event Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korosec, D.

    2000-01-01

    The events in the nuclear industry are investigated from the license point of view and from the regulatory side too. It is well known the importance of the event investigation. One of the main goals of such investigation is to prevent the circumstances leading to the event and the consequences of the event. The protection of the nuclear workers against nuclear hazard, and the protection of general public against dangerous effects of an event could be achieved by systematic approach to the event investigation. Both, the nuclear safety regulatory body and the licensee shall ensure that operational significant events are investigated in a systematic and technically sound manner to gather information pertaining to the probable causes of the event. One of the results should be appropriate feedback regarding the lessons of the experience to the regulatory body, nuclear industry and general public. In the present paper a general description of systematic approach to the event investigation is presented. The systematic approach to the event investigation works best where cooperation is present among the different divisions of the nuclear facility or regulatory body. By involving management and supervisors the safety office can usually improve their efforts in the whole process. The end result shall be a program which serves to prevent events and reduce the time and efforts solving the root cause which initiated each event. Selection of the proper method for the investigation and an adequate review of the findings and conclusions lead to the higher level of the overall nuclear safety. (author)

  17. Bartonella entry mechanisms into mammalian host cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicher, Simone C; Dehio, Christoph

    2012-08-01

    The Gram-negative genus Bartonella comprises arthropod-borne pathogens that typically infect mammals in a host-specific manner. Bartonella bacilliformis and Bartonella quintana are human-specific pathogens, while several zoonotic bartonellae specific for diverse animal hosts infect humans as an incidental host. Clinical manifestations of Bartonella infections range from mild symptoms to life-threatening disease. Following transmission by blood-sucking arthropods or traumatic contact with infected animals, bartonellae display sequential tropisms towards endothelial and possibly other nucleated cells and erythrocytes, the latter in a host-specific manner. Attachment to the extracellular matrix (ECM) and to nucleated cells is mediated by surface-exposed bacterial adhesins, in particular trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs). The subsequent engulfment of the pathogen into a vacuolar structure follows a unique series of events whereby the pathogen avoids the endolysosomal compartments. For Bartonella henselae and assumingly most other species, the infection process is aided at different steps by Bartonella effector proteins (Beps). They are injected into host cells through the type IV secretion system (T4SS) VirB/D4 and subvert host cellular functions to favour pathogen uptake. Bacterial binding to erythrocytes is mediated by Trw, another T4SS, in a strictly host-specific manner, followed by pathogen-forced uptake involving the IalB invasin and subsequent replication and persistence within a membrane-bound intra-erythrocytic compartment. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. News Teaching Support: New schools network launched Competition: Observatory throws open doors to a select few Festival: Granada to host 10th Ciencia en Acción Centenary: Science Museum celebrates 100 years Award: Queen's birthday honour for science communicator Teacher Training: Training goes where it's needed Conference: Physics gets creative in Christchurch Conference: Conference is packed with ideas Poster Campaign: Bus passengers learn about universe Forthcoming events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Teaching Support: New schools network launched Competition: Observatory throws open doors to a select few Festival: Granada to host 10th Ciencia en Acción Centenary: Science Museum celebrates 100 years Award: Queen's birthday honour for science communicator Teacher Training: Training goes where it's needed Conference: Physics gets creative in Christchurch Conference: Conference is packed with ideas Poster Campaign: Bus passengers learn about universe Forthcoming events

  19. Event structure and cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Jason F; Radvansky, Gabriel A; Lorsbach, Thomas C; Armendarez, Joseph J

    2015-09-01

    Recently, a great deal of research has demonstrated that although everyday experience is continuous in nature, it is parsed into separate events. The aim of the present study was to examine whether event structure can influence the effectiveness of cognitive control. Across 5 experiments we varied the structure of events within the AX-CPT by shifting the spatial location of cues and probes on a computer screen. When location shifts were present, a pattern of AX-CPT performance consistent with enhanced cognitive control was found. To test whether the location shift effects were caused by the presence of event boundaries per se, other aspects of the AX-CPT were manipulated, such as the color of cues and probes and the inclusion of a distractor task during the cue-probe delay. Changes in cognitive control were not found under these conditions, suggesting that the location shift effects were specifically related to the formation of separate event models. Together, these results can be accounted for by the Event Horizon Model and a representation-based theory of cognitive control, and suggest that cognitive control can be influenced by the surrounding environmental structure. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. SENTINEL EVENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Robida

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Objective of the article is a two year statistics on sentinel events in hospitals. Results of a survey on sentinel events and the attitude of hospital leaders and staff are also included. Some recommendations regarding patient safety and the handling of sentinel events are given.Methods. In March 2002 the Ministry of Health introduce a voluntary reporting system on sentinel events in Slovenian hospitals. Sentinel events were analyzed according to the place the event, its content, and root causes. To show results of the first year, a conference for hospital directors and medical directors was organized. A survey was conducted among the participants with the purpose of gathering information about their view on sentinel events. One hundred questionnaires were distributed.Results. Sentinel events. There were 14 reports of sentinel events in the first year and 7 in the second. In 4 cases reports were received only after written reminders were sent to the responsible persons, in one case no reports were obtained. There were 14 deaths, 5 of these were in-hospital suicides, 6 were due to an adverse event, 3 were unexplained. Events not leading to death were a suicide attempt, a wrong side surgery, a paraplegia after spinal anaesthesia, a fall with a femoral neck fracture, a damage of the spleen in the event of pleural space drainage, inadvertent embolization with absolute alcohol into a femoral artery and a physical attack on a physician by a patient. Analysis of root causes of sentinel events showed that in most cases processes were inadequate.Survey. One quarter of those surveyed did not know about the sentinel events reporting system. 16% were having actual problems when reporting events and 47% beleived that there was an attempt to blame individuals. Obstacles in reporting events openly were fear of consequences, moral shame, fear of public disclosure of names of participants in the event and exposure in mass media. The majority of

  1. Event Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to discuss conceptual event modeling within a context of information modeling. Traditionally, information modeling has been concerned with the modeling of a universe of discourse in terms of information structures. However, most interesting universes of discourse...... are dynamic and we present a modeling approach that can be used to model such dynamics.We characterize events as both information objects and change agents (Bækgaard 1997). When viewed as information objects events are phenomena that can be observed and described. For example, borrow events in a library can...

  2. Securing Major Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeoef, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    When asked why the IAEA should provide nuclear security support to countries that organize large public events, Nuclear Security Officer Sophia Miaw answers quickly and without hesitation. ''Imagine any major public event such as the Olympics, a football championship, or an Expo. If a dirty bomb were to be exploded at a site where tens of thousands of people congregate, the radioactive contamination would worsen the effects of the bomb, increase the number of casualties, impede a rapid emergency response, and cause long term disruption in the vicinity,'' she said. Avoiding such nightmarish scenarios is the driving purpose behind the assistance the IAEA offers States that host major sporting or other public events. The support can range from a single training course to a comprehensive programme that includes threat assessment, training, loaned equipment and exercises. The type and scope of assistance depends on the host country's needs. ''We incorporate nuclear security measures into their security plan. We don't create anything new,'' Miaw said

  3. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, D.G.; Wilson, J.F.; Salton, R.B.; Fensterer, H.F.

    1981-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift reactor comprises apparatus for inserting and withdrawing water displacer elements from the reactor core for selectively changing the water-moderator volume in the core thereby changing the reactivity of the core. The apparatus includes drivemechanisms for moving the displacer elements relative to the core and guide mechanisms for guiding the displayer rods through the reactor vessel

  4. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, D.G.; Wilson, J.F.; Salton, R.B.; Fensterer, H.F.

    1982-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift reactor comprises apparatus for inserting and withdrawing water displacer elements from the reactor core for selectively changing the water-moderator volume in the core thereby changing the reactivity of the core. The apparatus includes drive mechanisms for moving the displacer elements relative to the core and guide mechanisms for guiding the displacer rods through the reactor vessel. (author)

  5. Marketing research for organizers of sports events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašović Milan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Marketing research, which provide the data and the information for the decision making process, are essential for organizers of sport events, especially to the organizers of the most significant ones. The mentioned marketing research involves: research of the local market, visitors satisfaction research, evaluation of sponsorship effectiveness, research of the sport events economic influence on the local community or host cities, event host attitudes examination-local population and so on. The marketing research process, for the sport event organizers of needs, involves several steps, such as: goal definition, choice of the research method, research instruments determination, interviewer education, information gathering, data processing, data report, conclusions.

  6. Ecosystem regime shifts disrupt trophic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempson, Tessa N; Graham, Nicholas A J; MacNeil, M Aaron; Hoey, Andrew S; Wilson, Shaun K

    2018-01-01

    Regime shifts between alternative stable ecosystem states are becoming commonplace due to the combined effects of local stressors and global climate change. Alternative states are characterized as substantially different in form and function from pre-disturbance states, disrupting the delivery of ecosystem services and functions. On coral reefs, regime shifts are typically characterized by a change in the benthic composition from coral to macroalgal dominance. Such fundamental shifts in the benthos are anticipated to impact associated fish communities that are reliant on the reef for food and shelter, yet there is limited understanding of how regime shifts propagate through the fish community over time, relative to initial or recovery conditions. This study addresses this knowledge gap using long-term data of coral reef regime shifts and recovery on Seychelles reefs following the 1998 mass bleaching event. It shows how trophic structure of the reef fish community becomes increasingly dissimilar between alternative reef ecosystem states (regime-shifted vs. recovering) with time since disturbance. Regime-shifted reefs developed a concave trophic structure, with increased biomass in base trophic levels as herbivorous species benefitted from increased algal resources. Mid trophic level species, including specialists such as corallivores, declined with loss of coral habitat, while biomass was retained in upper trophic levels by large-bodied, generalist invertivores. Recovering reefs also experienced an initial decline in mid trophic level biomass, but moved toward a bottom-heavy pyramid shape, with a wide range of feeding groups (e.g., planktivores, corallivores, omnivores) represented at mid trophic levels. Given the importance of coral reef fishes in maintaining the ecological function of coral reef ecosystems and their associated fisheries, understanding the effects of regime shifts on these communities is essential to inform decisions that enhance ecological

  7. The role of viral population diversity in adaptation of bovine coronavirus to new host environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica K Borucki

    Full Text Available The high mutation rate of RNA viruses enables a diverse genetic population of viral genotypes to exist within a single infected host. In-host genetic diversity could better position the virus population to respond and adapt to a diverse array of selective pressures such as host-switching events. Multiple new coronaviruses, including SARS, have been identified in human samples just within the last ten years, demonstrating the potential of coronaviruses as emergent human pathogens. Deep sequencing was used to characterize genomic changes in coronavirus quasispecies during simulated host-switching. Three bovine nasal samples infected with bovine coronavirus were used to infect human and bovine macrophage and lung cell lines. The virus reproduced relatively well in macrophages, but the lung cell lines were not infected efficiently enough to allow passage of non lab-adapted samples. Approximately 12 kb of the genome was amplified before and after passage and sequenced at average coverages of nearly 950×(454 sequencing and 38,000×(Illumina. The consensus sequence of many of the passaged samples had a 12 nucleotide insert in the consensus sequence of the spike gene, and multiple point mutations were associated with the presence of the insert. Deep sequencing revealed that the insert was present but very rare in the unpassaged samples and could quickly shift to dominate the population when placed in a different environment. The insert coded for three arginine residues, occurred in a region associated with fusion entry into host cells, and may allow infection of new cell types via heparin sulfate binding. Analysis of the deep sequencing data indicated that two distinct genotypes circulated at different frequency levels in each sample, and support the hypothesis that the mutations present in passaged strains were "selected" from a pre-existing pool rather than through de novo mutation and subsequent population fixation.

  8. Plasmon Geometric Phase and Plasmon Hall Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Li-kun; Song, Justin C. W.

    2018-04-01

    The collective plasmonic modes of a metal comprise a simple pattern of oscillating charge density that yields enhanced light-matter interaction. Here we unveil that beneath this familiar facade plasmons possess a hidden internal structure that fundamentally alters its dynamics. In particular, we find that metals with nonzero Hall conductivity host plasmons with an intricate current density configuration that sharply departs from that of ordinary zero Hall conductivity metals. This nontrivial internal structure dramatically enriches the dynamics of plasmon propagation, enabling plasmon wave packets to acquire geometric phases as they scatter. At boundaries, these phases accumulate allowing plasmon waves that reflect off to experience a nonreciprocal parallel shift. This plasmon Hall shift, tunable by Hall conductivity as well as plasmon wavelength, displaces the incident and reflected plasmon trajectories and can be readily probed by near-field photonics techniques. Anomalous plasmon geometric phases dramatically enrich the nanophotonics toolbox, and yield radical new means for directing plasmonic beams.

  9. Dynamics of coral-associated microbiomes during a thermal bleaching event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pootakham, Wirulda; Mhuantong, Wuttichai; Putchim, Lalita; Yoocha, Thippawan; Sonthirod, Chutima; Kongkachana, Wasitthee; Sangsrakru, Duangjai; Naktang, Chaiwat; Jomchai, Nukoon; Thongtham, Nalinee; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke

    2018-03-23

    Coral-associated microorganisms play an important role in their host fitness and survival. A number of studies have demonstrated connections between thermal tolerance in corals and the type/relative abundance of Symbiodinium they harbor. More recently, the shifts in coral-associated bacterial profiles were also shown to be linked to the patterns of coral heat tolerance. Here, we investigated the dynamics of Porites lutea-associated bacterial and algal communities throughout a natural bleaching event, using full-length 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer sequences (ITS) obtained from PacBio circular consensus sequencing. We provided evidence of significant changes in the structure and diversity of coral-associated microbiomes during thermal stress. The balance of the symbiosis shifted from a predominant association between corals and Gammaproteobacteria to a predominance of Alphaproteobacteria and to a lesser extent Betaproteobacteria following the bleaching event. On the contrary, the composition and diversity of Symbiodinium communities remained unaltered throughout the bleaching event. It appears that the switching and/or shuffling of Symbiodinium types may not be the primary mechanism used by P. lutea to cope with increasing seawater temperature. The shifts in the structure and diversity of associated bacterial communities may contribute more to the survival of the coral holobiont under heat stress. © 2018 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Event boundaries and memory improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettijohn, Kyle A; Thompson, Alexis N; Tamplin, Andrea K; Krawietz, Sabine A; Radvansky, Gabriel A

    2016-03-01

    The structure of events can influence later memory for information that is embedded in them, with evidence indicating that event boundaries can both impair and enhance memory. The current study explored whether the presence of event boundaries during encoding can structure information to improve memory. In Experiment 1, memory for a list of words was tested in which event structure was manipulated by having participants walk through a doorway, or not, halfway through the word list. In Experiment 2, memory for lists of words was tested in which event structure was manipulated using computer windows. Finally, in Experiments 3 and 4, event structure was manipulated by having event shifts described in narrative texts. The consistent finding across all of these methods and materials was that memory was better when the information was distributed across two events rather than combined into a single event. Moreover, Experiment 4 demonstrated that increasing the number of event boundaries from one to two increased the memory benefit. These results are interpreted in the context of the Event Horizon Model of event cognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Bidirectional soliton spectral tunneling effects in the regime of optical event horizon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Jie; Guo, Hairun; Wang, Shaofei

    2015-01-01

    We study the cross-phase-modulation-induced soliton spectral shifting in the regime of the optical event horizon. The perturbed soliton to either red-shifting or blue-shifting is controllable, which could evoke bidirectional soliton spectral tunneling effects.......We study the cross-phase-modulation-induced soliton spectral shifting in the regime of the optical event horizon. The perturbed soliton to either red-shifting or blue-shifting is controllable, which could evoke bidirectional soliton spectral tunneling effects....

  12. Exploring Insight: Focus on Shifts of Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatnik, Alik; Koichu, Boris

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents and analyses a sequence of events that preceded an insight solution to a challenging problem in the context of numerical sequences. A three­week long solution process by a pair of ninth­-grade students is analysed by means of the theory of shifts of attention. The goal for this article is to reveal the potential of this theory…

  13. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.F.; Sherwood, D.G.

    1982-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift reactor comprises a reactive core having fuel assemblies accommodating both water displacer elements and neutron absorbing control rods for selectively changing the volume of water-moderator in the core. The fuel assemblies with displacer and control rods are arranged in alternating fashion so that one displacer element drive mechanism may move displacer elements in more than one fuel assembly without interfering with the movement of control rods of a corresponding control rod drive mechanisms. (author)

  14. Event horizon image within black hole shadow

    OpenAIRE

    Dokuchaev, V. I.; Nazarova, N. O.

    2018-01-01

    The external border of the black hole shadow is washed out by radiation from matter plunging into black hole and approaching the event horizon. This effect will crucially influence the results of future observations by the Event Horizon Telescope. We show that gravitational lensing of the luminous matter plunging into black hole provides the event horizon visualization within black hole shadow. The lensed image of the event horizon is formed by the last highly red-shifted photons emitted by t...

  15. Timing of host feeding drives rhythms in parasite replication

    KAUST Repository

    Prior, Kimberley F

    2017-12-07

    Circadian rhythms enable organisms to synchronise the processes underpinning survival and reproduction to anticipate daily changes in the external environment. Recent work shows that daily (circadian) rhythms also enable parasites to maximise fitness in the context of ecological interactions with their hosts. Because parasite rhythms matter for their fitness, understanding how they are regulated could lead to innovative ways to reduce the severity and spread of diseases. Here, we examine how host circadian rhythms influence rhythms in the asexual replication of malaria parasites. Asexual replication is responsible for the severity of malaria and fuels transmission of the disease, yet, how parasite rhythms are driven remains a mystery. We perturbed feeding rhythms of hosts by 12 hours (i.e. diurnal feeding in nocturnal mice) to desynchronise the host\\'s peripheral oscillators from the central, light-entrained oscillator in the brain and their rhythmic outputs. We demonstrate that the rhythms of rodent malaria parasites in day-fed hosts become inverted relative to the rhythms of parasites in night-fed hosts. Our results reveal that the host\\'s peripheral rhythms (associated with the timing of feeding and metabolism), but not rhythms driven by the central, light-entrained circadian oscillator in the brain, determine the timing (phase) of parasite rhythms. Further investigation reveals that parasite rhythms correlate closely with blood glucose rhythms. In addition, we show that parasite rhythms resynchronise to the altered host feeding rhythms when food availability is shifted, which is not mediated through rhythms in the host immune system. Our observations suggest that parasites actively control their developmental rhythms. Finally, counter to expectation, the severity of disease symptoms expressed by hosts was not affected by desynchronisation of their central and peripheral rhythms. Our study at the intersection of disease ecology and chronobiology opens up a new

  16. Modulation of Host Learning in Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinauger, Clément; Lahondère, Chloé; Wolff, Gabriella H; Locke, Lauren T; Liaw, Jessica E; Parrish, Jay Z; Akbari, Omar S; Dickinson, Michael H; Riffell, Jeffrey A

    2018-02-05

    How mosquitoes determine which individuals to bite has important epidemiological consequences. This choice is not random; most mosquitoes specialize in one or a few vertebrate host species, and some individuals in a host population are preferred over others. Mosquitoes will also blood feed from other hosts when their preferred is no longer abundant, but the mechanisms mediating these shifts between hosts, and preferences for certain individuals within a host species, remain unclear. Here, we show that olfactory learning may contribute to Aedes aegypti mosquito biting preferences and host shifts. Training and testing to scents of humans and other host species showed that mosquitoes can aversively learn the scent of specific humans and single odorants and learn to avoid the scent of rats (but not chickens). Using pharmacological interventions, RNAi, and CRISPR gene editing, we found that modification of the dopamine-1 receptor suppressed their learning abilities. We further show through combined electrophysiological and behavioral recordings from tethered flying mosquitoes that these odors evoke changes in both behavior and antennal lobe (AL) neuronal responses and that dopamine strongly modulates odor-evoked responses in AL neurons. Not only do these results provide direct experimental evidence that olfactory learning in mosquitoes can play an epidemiological role, but collectively, they also provide neuroanatomical and functional demonstration of the role of dopamine in mediating this learning-induced plasticity, for the first time in a disease vector insect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Staffing, overtime, and shift scheduling project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, P.M.

    1989-01-01

    Recent events at the Peach Bottom nuclear power plant have demonstrated the need to establish a quantifiable basis for assessing the safety significance of long work hours on nuclear power plant operators. The incidents at TMI-2, Chernobyl, and Bhopal, which all occurred during the late evening/night shift, further highlight the importance of the relationship between shift scheduling and performance. The objective of this project is to estimate, using statistical analysis on data from the nuclear industry, the effects on safety of staffing levels, overtime, and shift scheduling for operators and maintenance personnel. Regarding staffing levels, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) currently has no explicit regulation concerning the minimum acceptable levels of staffing in a plant that has an operating license. The NRC has no systematic method for collecting data on the number of licensed operators on the operating crews. In 1982 the NRC recommended that plants write into their technical specifications a model policy on overtime. Currently, 77 nuclear power plant units have the model policy or a modification of it written into their technical specifications; 33 units have no policy on overtime. The model policy sets limits on overtime for safety related personnel, although these limits can be exceeded with plant manger approval. The US nuclear power industry has three types of shift schedules: (1) forward-rotating 8-hour/day shift schedules, (2) backward-rotating 8-hour/day schedules, and (3) 12-hour/day schedules

  18. Host age modulates within-host parasite competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izhar, Rony; Routtu, Jarkko; Ben-Ami, Frida

    2015-05-01

    In many host populations, one of the most striking differences among hosts is their age. While parasite prevalence differences in relation to host age are well known, little is known on how host age impacts ecological and evolutionary dynamics of diseases. Using two clones of the water flea Daphnia magna and two clones of its bacterial parasite Pasteuria ramosa, we examined how host age at exposure influences within-host parasite competition and virulence. We found that multiply-exposed hosts were more susceptible to infection and suffered higher mortality than singly-exposed hosts. Hosts oldest at exposure were least often infected and vice versa. Furthermore, we found that in young multiply-exposed hosts competition was weak, allowing coexistence and transmission of both parasite clones, whereas in older multiply-exposed hosts competitive exclusion was observed. Thus, age-dependent parasite exposure and host demography (age structure) could together play an important role in mediating parasite evolution. At the individual level, our results demonstrate a previously unnoticed interaction of the host's immune system with host age, suggesting that the specificity of immune function changes as hosts mature. Therefore, evolutionary models of parasite virulence might benefit from incorporating age-dependent epidemiological parameters. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. The shifting beverage landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Maureen

    2010-04-26

    STOREY, M.L. The shifting beverage landscape. PHYSIOL BEHAV, 2010. - Simultaneous lifestyle changes have occurred in the last few decades, creating an imbalance in energy intake and energy expenditure that has led to overweight and obesity. Trends in the food supply show that total daily calories available per capita increased 28% since 1970. Total energy intake among men and women has also increased dramatically since that time. Some have suggested that intake of beverages has had a disproportional impact on obesity. Data collected by the Beverage Marketing Corporation between 1988-2008 demonstrate that, in reality, fewer calories per ounce are being produced by the beverage industry. Moreover, data from the National Cancer Institute show that soft drink intake represents 5.5% of daily calories. Data from NHANES 1999-2003 vs. 2003-06 may demonstrate a shift in beverage consumption for age/gender groups, ages 6 to>60years. The beverages provided in schools have significantly changed since 2006 when the beverage industry implemented School Beverage Guidelines. This voluntary action has removed full-calorie soft drinks from participating schools across the country. This shift to lower-calorie and smaller-portion beverages in school has led to a significant decrease in total beverage calories in schools. These data support the concept that to prevent and treat obesity, public health efforts should focus on energy balance and that a narrow focus on sweetened beverages is unlikely to have any meaningful impact on this complex problem. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Deconstructing host-pathogen interactions in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethan Bier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many of the cellular mechanisms underlying host responses to pathogens have been well conserved during evolution. As a result, Drosophila can be used to deconstruct many of the key events in host-pathogen interactions by using a wealth of well-developed molecular and genetic tools. In this review, we aim to emphasize the great leverage provided by the suite of genomic and classical genetic approaches available in flies for decoding details of host-pathogen interactions; these findings can then be applied to studies in higher organisms. We first briefly summarize the general strategies by which Drosophila resists and responds to pathogens. We then focus on how recently developed genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi screens conducted in cells and flies, combined with classical genetic methods, have provided molecular insight into host-pathogen interactions, covering examples of bacteria, fungi and viruses. Finally, we discuss novel strategies for how flies can be used as a tool to examine how specific isolated virulence factors act on an intact host.

  1. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doshi, P.K.; George, R.A.; Dollard, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift arrangement for controlling a nuclear reactor includes a plurality of reactor coolant displacer members which are inserted into a reactor core at the beginning of the core life to reduce the volume of reactor coolant-moderator in the core at start-up. However, as the reactivity of the core declines with fuel depletion, selected displacer members are withdrawn from the core at selected time intervals to increase core moderation at a time when fuel reactivity is declining. (author)

  2. Spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, W.R.; Piplica, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    A spectral shift pressurized water reactor comprising apparatus for inserting and withdrawing water displacer elements having differing neutron absorbing capabilities for selectively changing the water-moderator volume in the core thereby changing the reactivity of the core. The displacer elements comprise substantially hollow cylindrical low neutron absorbing rods and substantially hollow cylindrical thick walled stainless rods. Since the stainless steel displacer rods have greater neutron absorbing capability, they can effect greater reactivity change per rod. However, by arranging fewer stainless steel displacer rods in a cluster, the reactivity worth of the stainless steel displacer rod cluster can be less than a low neutron absorbing displacer rod cluster. (author)

  3. Fusion events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboufirassi, M; Angelique, J.C.; Bizard, G.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Buta, A.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Durand, D.; Genoux-Lubain, A.; Horn, D.; Kerambrun, A.; Laville, J.L.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lefebvres, F.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Meslin, C.; Metivier, V.; Nakagawa, T.; Peter, J.; Popescu, R.; Regimbart, R.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.; Wieloch, A.; Yuasa-Nakagawa, K.

    1998-01-01

    The fusion reactions between low energy heavy ions have a very high cross section. First measurements at energies around 30-40 MeV/nucleon indicated no residue of either complete or incomplete fusion, thus demonstrating the disappearance of this process. This is explained as being due to the high amount o energies transferred to the nucleus, what leads to its total dislocation in light fragments and particles. Exclusive analyses have permitted to mark clearly the presence of fusion processes in heavy systems at energies above 30-40 MeV/nucleon. Among the complete events of the Kr + Au reaction at 60 MeV/nucleon the majority correspond to binary collisions. Nevertheless, for the most considerable energy losses, a class of events do occur for which the detected fragments appears to be emitted from a unique source. These events correspond to an incomplete projectile-target fusion followed by a multifragmentation. Such events were singled out also in the reaction Xe + Sn at 50 MeV/nucleon. For the events in which the energy dissipation was maximal it was possible to isolate an isotropic group of events showing all the characteristics of fusion nuclei. The fusion is said to be incomplete as pre-equilibrium Z = 1 and Z = 2 particles are emitted. The cross section is of the order of 25 mb. Similar conclusions were drown for the systems 36 Ar + 27 Al and 64 Zn + nat Ti. A cross section value of ∼ 20 mb was determined at 55 MeV/nucleon in the first case, while the measurement of evaporation light residues in the last system gave an upper limit of 20-30 mb for the cross section at 50 MeV/nucleon

  4. The Potential for Hosted Payloads at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andraschko, Mark; Antol, Jeffrey; Baize, Rosemary; Horan, Stephen; Neil, Doreen; Rinsland, Pamela; Zaiceva, Rita

    2012-01-01

    The 2010 National Space Policy encourages federal agencies to actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including...hosting government capabilities on commercial spacecraft. NASA's Science Mission Directorate has taken an important step towards this goal by adding an option for hosted payload responses to its recent Announcement of Opportunity (AO) for Earth Venture-2 missions. Since NASA selects a significant portion of its science missions through a competitive process, it is useful to understand the implications that this process has on the feasibility of successfully proposing a commercially hosted payload mission. This paper describes some of the impediments associated with proposing a hosted payload mission to NASA, and offers suggestions on how these impediments might be addressed. Commercially hosted payloads provide a novel way to serve the needs of the science and technology demonstration communities at a fraction of the cost of a traditional Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) mission. The commercial communications industry launches over 20 satellites to GEO each year. By exercising this repeatable commercial paradigm of privately financed access to space with proven vendors, NASA can achieve science goals at a significantly lower cost than the current dedicated spacecraft and launch vehicle approach affords. Commercial hosting could open up a new realm of opportunities for NASA science missions to make measurements from GEO. This paper also briefly describes two GEO missions recommended by the National Academies of Science Earth Science Decadal Survey, the Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission and the Precipitation and All-weather Temperature and Humidity (PATH) mission. Hosted payload missions recently selected for implementation by the Office of the Chief Technologist are also discussed. Finally, there are

  5. Repetition and Translation Shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Zupan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Repetition manifests itself in different ways and at different levels of the text. The first basic type of repetition involves complete recurrences; in which a particular textual feature repeats in its entirety. The second type involves partial recurrences; in which the second repetition of the same textual feature includes certain modifications to the first occurrence. In the article; repetitive patterns in Edgar Allan Poe’s short story “The Fall of the House of Usher” and its Slovene translation; “Konec Usherjeve hiše”; are compared. The author examines different kinds of repetitive patterns. Repetitions are compared at both the micro- and macrostructural levels. As detailed analyses have shown; considerable microstructural translation shifts occur in certain types of repetitive patterns. Since these are not only occasional; sporadic phenomena; but are of a relatively high frequency; they reduce the translated text’s potential for achieving some of the gothic effects. The macrostructural textual property particularly affected by these shifts is the narrator’s experience as described by the narrative; which suffers a reduction in intensity.

  6. Shift Work: Improving Daytime Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... night. Good daytime sleep is possible, though, if shift work is a necessary part of your work life. ... mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/adult-health/expert-answers/shift-work/faq-20057991 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  7. Task 1.5 Genomic Shift and Drift Trends of Emerging Pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borucki, M

    2010-01-05

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Bioinformatics group has recently taken on a role in DTRA's Transformation Medical Technologies Initiative (TMTI). The high-level goal of TMTI is to accelerate the development of broad-spectrum countermeasures. To achieve those goals, TMTI has a near term need to conduct analyses of genomic shift and drift trends of emerging pathogens, with a focused eye on select agent pathogens, as well as antibiotic and virulence markers. Most emerging human pathogens are zoonotic viruses with a genome composed of RNA. The high mutation rate of the replication enzymes of RNA viruses contributes to sequence drift and provides one mechanism for these viruses to adapt to diverse hosts (interspecies transmission events) and cause new human and zoonotic diseases. Additionally, new viral pathogens frequently emerge due to genetic shift (recombination and segment reassortment) which allows for dramatic genotypic and phenotypic changes to occur rapidly. Bacterial pathogens also evolve via genetic drift and shift, although sequence drift generally occurs at a much slower rate for bacteria as compared to RNA viruses. However, genetic shift such as lateral gene transfer and inter- and intragenomic recombination enables bacteria to rapidly acquire new mechanisms of survival and antibiotic resistance. New technologies such as rapid whole genome sequencing of bacterial genomes, ultra-deep sequencing of RNA virus populations, metagenomic studies of environments rich in antibiotic resistance genes, and the use of microarrays for the detection and characterization of emerging pathogens provide mechanisms to address the challenges posed by the rapid emergence of pathogens. Bioinformatic algorithms that enable efficient analysis of the massive amounts of data generated by these technologies as well computational modeling of protein structures and evolutionary processes need to be developed to allow the technology to fulfill its potential.

  8. Lanthanide shift reagents, binding, shift mechanisms and exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, J.W.M. de

    1977-01-01

    Paramagnetic lanthanide shift reagents, when added to a solution of a substrate, induce shifts in the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum of the substrate molecules. The induced shifts contain information about the structure of the shift reagent substrate complex. The structural information, however, may be difficult to extract because of the following effects: (1) different complexes between shift reagent and substrate may be present in solution, e.g. 1:1 and 1:2 complexes, and the shift observed is a weighed average of the shifts of the substrate nuclei in the different complexes; (2) the Fermi contact interaction, arising from the spin density at the nucleus, contributes to the induced shift; (3) chemical exchange effects may complicate the NMR spectrum. In this thesis, the results of an investigation into the influence of these effects on the NMR spectra of solutions containing a substrate and LSR are presented. The equations describing the pseudo contact and the Fermi contact shift are derived. In addition, it is shown how the modified Bloch equations describing the effect of the chemical exchange processes occurring in the systems studied can be reduced to the familiar equations for a two-site exchange case. The binding of mono- and bifunctional ethers to the shift reagent are reported. An analysis of the induced shifts is given. Finally, the results of the experiments performed to study the exchange behavior of dimethoxyethane and heptafluorodimethyloctanedionato ligands are presented

  9. Faktor Dan Penjadualan Shift Kerja

    OpenAIRE

    Maurits, Lientje Setyawati; Widodo, Imam Djati

    2008-01-01

    Work shift has negative effect in physical and mental health, work performance and job accident. Disturbance of circadian rhythms is indicated as source of the problems. This article explores some researches related to the impacts of work shift and establishes basic principles of work shift scheduling that considers human need and limitation.

  10. Isotope shifting capacity of rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blattner, P.; Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Lower Hutt

    1980-01-01

    Any oxygen isotope shifted rock volume exactly defines a past throughput of water. An expression is derived that relates the throughput of an open system to the isotope shift of reservoir rock and present-day output. The small isotope shift of Ngawha reservoir rock and the small, high delta oxygen-18 output are best accounted for by a magmatic water source

  11. Shift work in a security environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhouser, G.A. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Human beings are diurnal species, normally active by day and asleep by night. Yet over thirty million Americans struggle with work schedules that include an off-normal work effort. The railroads, law enforcement, health services, Department of Defense, factory workers, chemical plants and public services, communications and utility workers must provide some form of around-the-clock effort. Shift work has been around since the advent of recorded history. There has always been a need for some type of off-normal service and assistance. The impact of shift work is replete with tales and factual evidence of an increased personnel error rate; disorders, both personal and family, and of course, increased accident events. In recent memory, the Three Mile Island Nuclear Plant incident, Union Carbide's explosion in Bhopal, and the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant catastrophe all occurred during off-normal working hours. Yet management overall has done little to correct the production-driven twelve hour, seven day week shift mentality of the nineteenth century. Most schedules in use today are nothing more than cosmetic variations of the old production schedules. This could be driven by a management consideration of the worker's response to change coupled with a reluctant buy-in of responsibility for the effects of change. Florida Power Corporation has developed for its nuclear security force, a unique work schedule which attempts to employ the sound principles of circadian rhythms coupled with a comprehensive training program to counter the problems associated with shift work. The results over the last four years have seen a marked reduction in the generic problems of personnel errors, absenteeism, unscheduled overtime and turnover rates. Utilization and understanding of this scheduling process for rotational shift work needs to be assessed to determine if the benefits are site specific or provide an expected response to the problems of shift work

  12. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  13. Differential divergences of obligately insect-pathogenic Entomophthora species from fly and aphid hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Annette Bruun; Eilenberg, Jørgen; López Lastra, Claudia

    2009-11-01

    Three DNA regions (ITS 1, LSU rRNA and GPD) of isolates from the insect-pathogenic fungus genus Entomophthora originating from different fly (Diptera) and aphid (Hemiptera) host taxa were sequenced. The results documented a large genetic diversity among the fly-pathogenic Entomophthora and only minor differences among aphid-pathogenic Entomophthora. The evolutionary time of divergence of the fly and the aphid host taxa included cannot account for this difference. The host-driven divergence of Entomophthora, therefore, has been much greater in flies than in aphids. Host-range differences or a recent host shift to aphid are possible explanations.

  14. The shift in windpower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gipe, P.

    1992-01-01

    Despite new production records, the near-term market for new windpower projects in the US remains bleak. Congressional incentives and project proposals in the mid-1990s offer promise, but for now most development has shifted to Europe. During 1992 and 1993 the largest wind projects developed by US companies will not be in the US, but in the United Kingdom and Spain. Indeed, most of the US's windpower industry is going abroad, establishing offices overseas. This move toward Europe comes as little surprise. New project development for US firms has faltered at home while the European market has burgeoned. The topics of the article include the move to Europe, a reduction in California's share of producing wind power plants, a rise in Europe's share of producing wind power plants, the future market for wind power in the US, and reawakening California's market

  15. Phenological shifts conserve thermal niches in North American birds and reshape expectations for climate-driven range shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socolar, Jacob B; Epanchin, Peter N; Beissinger, Steven R; Tingley, Morgan W

    2017-12-05

    Species respond to climate change in two dominant ways: range shifts in latitude or elevation and phenological shifts of life-history events. Range shifts are widely viewed as the principal mechanism for thermal niche tracking, and phenological shifts in birds and other consumers are widely understood as the principal mechanism for tracking temporal peaks in biotic resources. However, phenological and range shifts each present simultaneous opportunities for temperature and resource tracking, although the possible role for phenological shifts in thermal niche tracking has been widely overlooked. Using a canonical dataset of Californian bird surveys and a detectability-based approach for quantifying phenological signal, we show that Californian bird communities advanced their breeding phenology by 5-12 d over the last century. This phenological shift might track shifting resource peaks, but it also reduces average temperatures during nesting by over 1 °C, approximately the same magnitude that average temperatures have warmed over the same period. We further show that early-summer temperature anomalies are correlated with nest success in a continental-scale database of bird nests, suggesting avian thermal niches might be broadly limited by temperatures during nesting. These findings outline an adaptation surface where geographic range and breeding phenology respond jointly to constraints imposed by temperature and resource phenology. By stabilizing temperatures during nesting, phenological shifts might mitigate the need for range shifts. Global change ecology will benefit from further exploring phenological adjustment as a potential mechanism for thermal niche tracking and vice versa.

  16. Public support for hosting the Olympic Summer Games in Germany: The CVM approach

    OpenAIRE

    Pamela Wicker; John C. Whitehead; Daniel S. Mason; Bruce K. Johnson

    2015-01-01

    Cities throughout the world continue to weigh the merits of hosting major sport events, including the Olympic Games. These events are considered desirable due to a range of benefits, including economic and/or tourism development. In addition, previous research has shown that hosting the Olympics may confer intangible benefits for cities and their residents. This paper presents the results of a contingent valuation method estimate of the monetary value of intangible benefits to Germans of host...

  17. Events and mega events: leisure and business in tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Alexandre Paiva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The promotion of events and mega events mobilizes at the same time, in a concatenated way or not, leisure and business practices, which are captured by the tourism industry as a stimulus for the reproduction of capitalism, by the amount of other activities which raise (primary, secondary and tertiary , placing the architecture and the city as protagonists in contemporary urban development. In this sense, the article analyzes the articulation of events and mega events to the provision of architecture and urban infrastructure, as well as the construction of the tourist image of the places, motivated by leisure and business activities. The methodological procedures have theoretical and exploratory character and have multidisciplinary intentions. This will be discussed, in a historical perspective, the concepts of leisure and business activities that raise as moving or traveling; next it will be delimited similarities and differences between tourism events and business tourism, entering after the analysis of the distinctions between events and mega events, highlighting the complexity and the role of mega-events as a major symptom of globalization; finally it will be presented the spatial scale developments in architecture and the city in the realization of (mega events, as well as its impact on the city's image. As a synthesis, it is important to notice that spatial developments business tourism, events and mega events are manifested in various scales and with different levels of complexity, revealing the strengths and / or weaknesses of the places. The urban planning, architecture and urbanism are important objects of knowledge and spatial intervention to ensure infrastructure and urban and architectural structures appropriate for events, which should be sensitive to the demands of tourists and host communities.

  18. Guidelines for Hosted Payload Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-06

    reduces risk. Need to consider mass simulator to protect host launch window. Average Payload Power Both BOL and EOL . Host must consider orbit...acceptance testing. Peak Payload Power Both BOL and EOL . Host must consider orbit constraints. Typically driven by Payload operations but must...post-retirement failure might cause damage to the Spacecraft Host or its payloads. Safe conditions at EOL should consider thermal and radiation

  19. HostPhinder: A Phage Host Prediction Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Villarroel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The current dramatic increase of antibiotic resistant bacteria has revitalised the interest in bacteriophages as alternative antibacterial treatment. Meanwhile, the development of bioinformatics methods for analysing genomic data places high-throughput approaches for phage characterization within reach. Here, we present HostPhinder, a tool aimed at predicting the bacterial host of phages by examining the phage genome sequence. Using a reference database of 2196 phages with known hosts, HostPhinder predicts the host species of a query phage as the host of the most genomically similar reference phages. As a measure of genomic similarity the number of co-occurring k-mers (DNA sequences of length k is used. Using an independent evaluation set, HostPhinder was able to correctly predict host genus and species for 81% and 74% of the phages respectively, giving predictions for more phages than BLAST and significantly outperforming BLAST on phages for which both had predictions. HostPhinder predictions on phage draft genomes from the INTESTI phage cocktail corresponded well with the advertised targets of the cocktail. Our study indicates that for most phages genomic similarity correlates well with related bacterial hosts. HostPhinder is available as an interactive web service [1] and as a stand alone download from the Docker registry [2].

  20. Chemical shift imaging: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brateman, L.

    1986-01-01

    Chemical shift is the phenomenon that is seen when an isotope possessing a nuclear magnetic dipole moment resonates at a spectrum of resonance frequencies in a given magnetic field. These resonance frequencies, or chemical shifts, depend on the chemical environments of particular nuclei. Mapping the spatial distribution of nuclei associated with a particular chemical shift (e.g., hydrogen nuclei associated with water molecules or with lipid groups) is called chemical shift imaging. Several techniques of proton chemical shift imaging that have been applied in vivo are presented, and their clinical findings are reported and summarized. Acquiring high-resolution spectra for large numbers of volume elements in two or three dimensions may be prohibitive because of time constraints, but other methods of imaging lipid of water distributions (i.e., selective excitation, selective saturation, or variations in conventional magnetic resonance imaging pulse sequences) can provide chemical shift information. These techniques require less time, but they lack spectral information. Since fat deposition seen by chemical shift imaging may not be demonstrated by conventional magnetic resonance imaging, certain applications of chemical shift imaging, such as in the determination of fatty liver disease, have greater diagnostic utility than conventional magnetic resonance imaging. Furthermore, edge artifacts caused by chemical shift effects can be eliminated by certain selective methods of data acquisition employed in chemical shift imaging

  1. Chemical shift homology in proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potts, Barbara C.M.; Chazin, Walter J.

    1998-01-01

    The degree of chemical shift similarity for homologous proteins has been determined from a chemical shift database of over 50 proteins representing a variety of families and folds, and spanning a wide range of sequence homologies. After sequence alignment, the similarity of the secondary chemical shifts of C α protons was examined as a function of amino acid sequence identity for 37 pairs of structurally homologous proteins. A correlation between sequence identity and secondary chemical shift rmsd was observed. Important insights are provided by examining the sequence identity of homologous proteins versus percentage of secondary chemical shifts that fall within 0.1 and 0.3 ppm thresholds. These results begin to establish practical guidelines for the extent of chemical shift similarity to expect among structurally homologous proteins

  2. Topological congruence between phylogenies of Anacanthorus spp. (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) and their Characiformes (Actinopterygii) hosts: A case of host-parasite cospeciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Graça, Rodrigo J; Fabrin, Thomaz M C; Gasques, Luciano S; Prioli, Sônia M A P; Balbuena, Juan A; Prioli, Alberto J; Takemoto, Ricardo M

    2018-01-01

    Cophylogenetic studies aim at testing specific hypotheses to understand the nature of coevolving associations between sets of organisms, such as host and parasites. Monogeneans and their hosts provide and interesting platform for these studies due to their high host specificity. In this context, the objective of the present study was to establish whether the relationship between Anacanthorus spp. with their hosts from the upper Paraná River and its tributaries can be explained by means of cospeciation processes. Nine fish species and 14 monogenean species, most of them host specific, were studied. Partial DNA sequences of the genes RAG1, 16S and COI of the fish hosts and of the genes ITS2, COI and 5.8S of the parasite species were used for phylogenetic reconstruction. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees of the host and parasite species were built and used for analyses of topological congruence with PACo and ParaFit. The program Jane was used to estimate the nature of cospeciation events. The comparison of the two phylogenies revealed high topological congruence between them. Both PACo and ParaFit supported the hypothesis of global cospeciation. Results from Jane pointed to duplications as the most frequent coevolutionary event, followed by cospeciation, whereas duplications followed by host-switching were the least common event in Anacanthorus spp. studied. Host-sharing (spreading) was also identified but only between congeneric host species.

  3. Pendulum Shifts, Context, Error, and Personal Accountability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold Blackman; Oren Hester

    2011-09-01

    This paper describes a series of tools that were developed to achieve a balance in under-standing LOWs and the human component of events (including accountability) as the INL continues its shift to a learning culture where people report, are accountable and interested in making a positive difference - and want to report because information is handled correctly and the result benefits both the reporting individual and the organization. We present our model for understanding these interrelationships; the initiatives that were undertaken to improve overall performance.

  4. Linking spring phenology with mechanistic models of host movement to predict disease transmission risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkle, Jerod A.; Cross, Paul C.; Scurlock, Brandon M.; Cole, Eric K.; Courtemanch, Alyson B.; Dewey, Sarah R.; Kauffman, Matthew J.

    2018-01-01

    Disease models typically focus on temporal dynamics of infection, while often neglecting environmental processes that determine host movement. In many systems, however, temporal disease dynamics may be slow compared to the scale at which environmental conditions alter host space-use and accelerate disease transmission.Using a mechanistic movement modelling approach, we made space-use predictions of a mobile host (elk [Cervus Canadensis] carrying the bacterial disease brucellosis) under environmental conditions that change daily and annually (e.g., plant phenology, snow depth), and we used these predictions to infer how spring phenology influences the risk of brucellosis transmission from elk (through aborted foetuses) to livestock in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem.Using data from 288 female elk monitored with GPS collars, we fit step selection functions (SSFs) during the spring abortion season and then implemented a master equation approach to translate SSFs into predictions of daily elk distribution for five plausible winter weather scenarios (from a heavy snow, to an extreme winter drought year). We predicted abortion events by combining elk distributions with empirical estimates of daily abortion rates, spatially varying elk seroprevelance and elk population counts.Our results reveal strong spatial variation in disease transmission risk at daily and annual scales that is strongly governed by variation in host movement in response to spring phenology. For example, in comparison with an average snow year, years with early snowmelt are predicted to have 64% of the abortions occurring on feedgrounds shift to occurring on mainly public lands, and to a lesser extent on private lands.Synthesis and applications. Linking mechanistic models of host movement with disease dynamics leads to a novel bridge between movement and disease ecology. Our analysis framework offers new avenues for predicting disease spread, while providing managers tools to proactively mitigate

  5. Shifted-modified Chebyshev filters

    OpenAIRE

    ŞENGÜL, Metin

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a new type of filter approximation method that utilizes shifted-modified Chebyshev filters. Construction of the new filters involves the use of shifted-modified Chebyshev polynomials that are formed using the roots of conventional Chebyshev polynomials. The study also includes 2 tables containing the shifted-modified Chebyshev polynomials and the normalized element values for the low-pass prototype filters up to degree 6. The transducer power gain, group dela...

  6. Portable shift register

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbig, J.K.; Bourret, S.C.; Hansen, W.J.; Hicks, D.V.; Klosterbuer, S.F.; Krick, M.S.

    1994-01-01

    An electronics package for a small, battery-operated, self-contained, neutron coincidence counter based on a portable shift-register (PSR) has been developed. The counter was developed for applications not adequately addressed by commercial packages, including in-plant measurements to demonstrate compliance with regulations (domestic and international), in-plant process control, and in-field measurements (environmental monitoring or safeguards). Our package's features, which address these applications, include the following: Small size for portability and ease of installation;battery or mains operation; a built-in battery to power the unit and a typical detector such as a small sample counter, for over 6 h if power lines are bad or noisy, if there is a temporary absence of power, or if portability is desired; complete support, including bias, for standard neutron detectors; a powerful communications package to easily facilitate robust external control over a serial port; and a C-library to simplify creating external control programs in computers or other controllers. Whereas the PSR specifically addresses the applications mentioned above, it also performs all the measurements made by previous electronics packages for neutron coincidence counters developed at Los Alamos and commercialized. The PSR electronics package, exclusive of carrying handle, is 8 by 10 by 20 cm; it contains the circuit boards, battery, and bias supply and weighs less than 2 kg. This instrument package is the second in an emerging family of portable measurement instruments being developed; the first was the Miniature and Modular Multichannel Analyzer (M 3 CA). The PSR makes extensive use of hardware and software developed for the M 3 CA; like the M 3 CA, it is intended primarily for use with an external controller interfaced over a serial channel

  7. The Drosophila melanogaster host model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igboin, Christina O.; Griffen, Ann L.; Leys, Eugene J.

    2012-01-01

    The deleterious and sometimes fatal outcomes of bacterial infectious diseases are the net result of the interactions between the pathogen and the host, and the genetically tractable fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has emerged as a valuable tool for modeling the pathogen–host interactions of a wide variety of bacteria. These studies have revealed that there is a remarkable conservation of bacterial pathogenesis and host defence mechanisms between higher host organisms and Drosophila. This review presents an in-depth discussion of the Drosophila immune response, the Drosophila killing model, and the use of the model to examine bacterial–host interactions. The recent introduction of the Drosophila model into the oral microbiology field is discussed, specifically the use of the model to examine Porphyromonas gingivalis–host interactions, and finally the potential uses of this powerful model system to further elucidate oral bacterial-host interactions are addressed. PMID:22368770

  8. The Drosophila melanogaster host model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina O. Igboin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The deleterious and sometimes fatal outcomes of bacterial infectious diseases are the net result of the interactions between the pathogen and the host, and the genetically tractable fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has emerged as a valuable tool for modeling the pathogen–host interactions of a wide variety of bacteria. These studies have revealed that there is a remarkable conservation of bacterial pathogenesis and host defence mechanisms between higher host organisms and Drosophila. This review presents an in-depth discussion of the Drosophila immune response, the Drosophila killing model, and the use of the model to examine bacterial–host interactions. The recent introduction of the Drosophila model into the oral microbiology field is discussed, specifically the use of the model to examine Porphyromonas gingivalis–host interactions, and finally the potential uses of this powerful model system to further elucidate oral bacterial-host interactions are addressed.

  9. The Drosophila melanogaster host model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igboin, Christina O; Griffen, Ann L; Leys, Eugene J

    2012-01-01

    The deleterious and sometimes fatal outcomes of bacterial infectious diseases are the net result of the interactions between the pathogen and the host, and the genetically tractable fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has emerged as a valuable tool for modeling the pathogen-host interactions of a wide variety of bacteria. These studies have revealed that there is a remarkable conservation of bacterial pathogenesis and host defence mechanisms between higher host organisms and Drosophila. This review presents an in-depth discussion of the Drosophila immune response, the Drosophila killing model, and the use of the model to examine bacterial-host interactions. The recent introduction of the Drosophila model into the oral microbiology field is discussed, specifically the use of the model to examine Porphyromonas gingivalis-host interactions, and finally the potential uses of this powerful model system to further elucidate oral bacterial-host interactions are addressed.

  10. Event Index - a LHCb Event Search System

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00392208; Kazeev, Nikita; Redkin, Artem

    2015-12-23

    LHC experiments generate up to $10^{12}$ events per year. This paper describes Event Index - an event search system. Event Index's primary function is quickly selecting subsets of events from a combination of conditions, such as the estimated decay channel or stripping lines output. Event Index is essentially Apache Lucene optimized for read-only indexes distributed over independent shards on independent nodes.

  11. CERN hosts Physics and Society Forum

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    On 28-29 March, CERN hosted the fifth edition of the European Physical Society's “Physics and Society” forum. The forum addresses the role of physicists in general society – be they in education, politics, industry or communication. This year, attendees looked at how physicists have adapted - and can continue to adapt - to work in the economic marketplace.   “The forums began back in 2006, as a special closing event for the 2005 World Year of Physics,” explains Martial Ducloy, former President of the French Physical Society and Chair of the EPS Forum Physics and Society. “We decided to keep the sessions going, as they gave physicists a venue to discuss the non-scientific issues that influence their daily work. As the world's largest international physics laboratory – and the venue for this year's EPS Council – CERN seemed the ideal place to host this year's forum.” The forum ...

  12. Training to handle unexpected events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamlin, K.W.

    1987-01-01

    The importance of conducting hands-on training to deal with complex situations is well recognized. Since most utilities now own or have ordered their own control room simulators, access to simulator training facilities has improved greatly. Most utilities now have a control room shift rotation that includes a dedicated training shift. The opportunities for practicing operational control over unexpected and off-normal events are just beginning to be recognized. Areas that are being enhanced include teamwork training, diagnostics training, expanded simulator training programs, improvements in simulator instructor training, emergency procedures training, and training on the use of probabilistic risk assessment studies. All these efforts are aimed at the goal of improving the plant staff's ability to cope with unexpected and off-normal events

  13. Host genetics affect microbial ecosystems via host immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kafsi, Hela; Gorochov, Guy; Larsen, Martin

    2016-10-01

    Genetic evolution of multicellular organisms has occurred in response to environmental challenges, including competition for nutrients, climate change, physical and chemical stressors, and pathogens. However, fitness of an organism is dependent not only on defense efficacy, but also on the ability to take advantage of symbiotic organisms. Indeed, microbes not only encompass pathogenicity, but also enable efficient nutrient uptake from diets nondegradable by the host itself. Moreover, microbes play important roles in the development of host immunity. Here we review associations between specific host genes and variance in microbiota composition and compare with interactions between microbes and host immunity. Recent genome-wide association studies reveal that symbiosis between host and microbiota is the exquisite result of genetic coevolution. Moreover, a subset of microbes from human and mouse microbiota have been identified to interact with humoral and cellular immunity. Interestingly, microbes associated with both host genetics and host immunity are taxonomically related. Most involved are Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Akkermansia, which are dually associated with both host immunity and host genetics. We conclude that future therapeutics targeting microbiota in the context of chronic inflammatory diseases need to consider both immune and genetic host features associated with microbiota homeostasis.

  14. Quantized beam shifts in graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Melo Kort-Kamp, Wilton Junior [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sinitsyn, Nikolai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dalvit, Diego Alejandro Roberto [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-08

    We predict the existence of quantized Imbert-Fedorov, Goos-Hanchen, and photonic spin Hall shifts for light beams impinging on a graphene-on-substrate system in an external magnetic field. In the quantum Hall regime the Imbert-Fedorov and photonic spin Hall shifts are quantized in integer multiples of the fine structure constant α, while the Goos-Hanchen ones in multiples of α2. We investigate the influence on these shifts of magnetic field, temperature, and material dispersion and dissipation. An experimental demonstration of quantized beam shifts could be achieved at terahertz frequencies for moderate values of the magnetic field.

  15. Simulating events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferretti, C; Bruzzone, L [Techint Italimpianti, Milan (Italy)

    2000-06-01

    The Petacalco Marine terminal on the Pacific coast in the harbour of Lazaro Carclenas (Michoacan) in Mexico, provides coal to the thermoelectric power plant at Pdte Plutarco Elias Calles in the port area. The plant is being converted from oil to burn coal to generate 2100 MW of power. The article describes the layout of the terminal and equipment employed in the unloading, coal stacking, coal handling areas and the receiving area at the power plant. The contractor Techint Italimpianti has developed a software system, MHATIS, for marine terminal management which is nearly complete. The discrete event simulator with its graphic interface provides a real-type decision support system for simulating changes to the terminal operations and evaluating impacts. The article describes how MHATIS is used. 7 figs.

  16. Event generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, D.; Gulminelli, F.; Lopez, O.; Vient, E.

    1998-01-01

    The results concerning the heavy ion collision simulations at Fermi energies by means of phenomenological models obtained in the last two years ar presented. The event generators are essentially following the phase of elaboration of analysis methods of data obtained by INDRA or NAUTILUS 4 π multidetectors. To identify and correctly quantify a phenomenon or a physical quantity it is necessary to verify by simulation the feasibility and validity of the analysis and also to estimate the bias introduced by the experimental filter. Many studies have shown this, for instance: the determination of the collision reaction plan for flow studies, determination of kinematical characteristics of the quasi-projectiles, and the excitation energy measurement stored in the hot nuclei. To Eugene, the currently utilised generator, several improvements were added: introduction of space-time correlations between the different products emitted in the decay of excited nuclei by calculating the trajectories of the particles in the final phase of the reaction; taking into account in the decay cascade of the discrete levels of the lighter fragments; the possibility of the schematically description of the explosion of the nucleus by simultaneous emission of multi-fragments. Thus, by comparing the calculations with the data relative to heavy systems studied with the NAUTILUS assembly it was possible to extract the time scales in the nuclear fragmentation. The utilisation of these event generators was extended to the analysis of INDRA data concerning the determination of the vaporization threshold in the collisions Ar + Ni and also the research of the expansion effects in the collisions Xe + Sn at 50 MeV/u

  17. Work shifts in Emergency Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Recupero

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Emergency Medicine is known as a high stress specialty. The adverse effect of constantly rotating shifts is the single most important reason given for premature attrition from the field. In this work problems tied with night shift work will be taken into account and some solutions to reduce the impact of night work on the emergency physicians will be proposed.

  18. Flexible Schedules and Shift Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, Thomas M.

    2000-01-01

    Flexible work hours have gained prominence, as more than 25 million workers (27.6% of all full-time workers) can now vary their schedules. However, there has been little change since the mid-1980s in the proportion who work a shift other than a regular daytime shift. (JOW)

  19. Events diary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    as Imperial College, the Royal Albert Hall, the Royal College of Art, the Natural History and Science Museums and the Royal Geographical Society. Under the heading `Shaping the future together' BA2000 will explore science, engineering and technology in their wider cultural context. Further information about this event on 6 - 12 September may be obtained from Sandra Koura, BA2000 Festival Manager, British Association for the Advancement of Science, 23 Savile Row, London W1X 2NB (tel: 0171 973 3075, e-mail: sandra.koura@britassoc.org.uk ). Details of the creating SPARKS events may be obtained from creating.sparks@britassoc.org.uk or from the website www.britassoc.org.uk . Other events 3 - 7 July, Porto Alegre, Brazil VII Interamerican conference on physics education: The preparation of physicists and physics teachers in contemporary society. Info: IACPE7@if.ufrgs.br or cabbat1.cnea.gov.ar/iacpe/iacpei.htm 27 August - 1 September, Barcelona, Spain GIREP conference: Physics teacher education beyond 2000. Info: www.blues.uab.es/phyteb/index.html

  20. A three-genome phylogeny of malaria parasites (Plasmodium and closely related genera): evolution of life-history traits and host switches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsen, Ellen S; Perkins, Susan L; Schall, Jos J

    2008-04-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of genomic data allows insights into the evolutionary history of pathogens, especially the events leading to host switching and diversification, as well as alterations of the life cycle (life-history traits). Hundreds, perhaps thousands, of malaria parasite species exploit squamate reptiles, birds, and mammals as vertebrate hosts as well as many genera of dipteran vectors, but the evolutionary and ecological events that led to this diversification and success remain unresolved. For a century, systematic parasitologists classified malaria parasites into genera based on morphology, life cycle, and vertebrate and insect host taxa. Molecular systematic studies based on single genes challenged the phylogenetic significance of these characters, but several significant nodes were not well supported. We recovered the first well resolved large phylogeny of Plasmodium and related haemosporidian parasites using sequence data for four genes from the parasites' three genomes by combining all data, correcting for variable rates of substitution by gene and site, and using both Bayesian and maximum parsimony analyses. Major clades are associated with vector shifts into different dipteran families, with other characters used in traditional parasitological studies, such as morphology and life-history traits, having variable phylogenetic significance. The common parasites of birds now placed into the genus Haemoproteus are found in two divergent clades, and the genus Plasmodium is paraphyletic with respect to Hepatocystis, a group of species with very different life history and morphology. The Plasmodium of mammal hosts form a well supported clade (including Plasmodium falciparum, the most important human malaria parasite), and this clade is associated with specialization to Anopheles mosquito vectors. The Plasmodium of birds and squamate reptiles all fall within a single clade, with evidence for repeated switching between birds and squamate hosts.

  1. Experience with the shift technical advisor position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melber, B.D.; Olson, J.; Schreiber, R.E.; Winges, L.

    1984-03-01

    The provision of engineering expertise on shift at commercial nuclear power plants has mainly taken the form of the Shift Technical Advisor (STA). This person, acting in a capacity that is part engineer and part operator, is expected to advise the operations crew in the event of an emergency and review plant operating experience during normal circumstances. The position was mandated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission following the incident at Three Mile Island. This report expands on a growing body of knowledge regarding the effectiveness of the STA. The new data presented here come from interviews with plant personnel and utility officials from nine sites. Researchers from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) interviewed plant personnel, including the STA and immediate management, the shift supervisor and management, the training department, and ancillary staff, all of whom affect the intended performance of the STA. The conclusions of the report are that the design of the STA position results in limited contribution during emergencies; more comprehensive ways should be sought to provide the variety and specificity of engineering expertise needed during such times

  2. Experience with the shift technical advisor position

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melber, B.D.; Olson, J.; Schreiber, R.E.; Winges, L.

    1984-03-01

    The provision of engineering expertise on shift at commercial nuclear power plants has mainly taken the form of the Shift Technical Advisor (STA). This person, acting in a capacity that is part engineer and part operator, is expected to advise the operations crew in the event of an emergency and review plant operating experience during normal circumstances. The position was mandated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission following the incident at Three Mile Island. This report expands on a growing body of knowledge regarding the effectiveness of the STA. The new data presented here come from interviews with plant personnel and utility officials from nine sites. Researchers from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) interviewed plant personnel, including the STA and immediate management, the shift supervisor and management, the training department, and ancillary staff, all of whom affect the intended performance of the STA. The conclusions of the report are that the design of the STA position results in limited contribution during emergencies; more comprehensive ways should be sought to provide the variety and specificity of engineering expertise needed during such times.

  3. Evaluating the traditional day and night shift in an acute care surgery fellowship: Is the swing shift a better choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chestovich, Paul J; McNicoll, Christopher F; Ingalls, Nichole K; Kuhls, Deborah A; Fraser, Douglas R; Morrissey, Shawna L; Fildes, John J

    2018-01-01

    Fellowship trainees in acute care surgery require experience in the management of complex and operative trauma cases. Trauma center staffing usually follows standard 12-hour or 24-hour shifts, with resident and fellow trainees following a similar schedule. Although trauma admissions can be generally unpredictable, we analyzed temporal trends of trauma patient arrival times to determine the best time frame to maximize trainee experience during each day. We reviewed 10 years (2007-2016) of trauma registry data for blunt and penetrating trauma activations. Hourly volumetric trends were observed, and three specific events were chosen for detailed analysis: (1) trauma activation with Injury Severity Score (ISS) greater than 15, (2) laparotomy for trauma, and (3) thoracotomy for trauma. A retrospective shift log was created, which included day (7:00 AM to 7:00 PM), night (7:00 PM to 7:00 AM), and swing (noon to midnight) shifts. A swing shift was chosen because it captures the peak volume for all three events. Means and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, and comparisons were made between shifts using the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test with Bonferroni correction, and p less than 0.05 considered significant. During the 10-year study period, 28,287 patients were treated at our trauma center. This included the evaluation and management of 7,874 patients with ISS greater than 15, performance of 1,766 laparotomies, and 392 thoracotomies for trauma. Swing shift was superior to both day and night shifts for ISS greater than 15 (p night shifts were superior to day shift for laparotomies (p day shift (p night shift (p = 0.031). Shifts with the highest yield of ISS greater than 15, laparotomies, and thoracotomies include night and swing shifts on Fridays and Saturdays. Projected experience of acute care surgery fellows in managing complex trauma patients increases with the integration of swing shifts into the schedule. Daily trauma volume follows a temporal pattern

  4. Geophysical events

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a summary of SEAN Bulletin, 13(3), March 31, 1988, a publication of the Smithsonian Institution's Scientific Event Alert Network. The complete bulletin is available in the microfiche edition of Eos as a microfiche supplement or as a paper reprint. For the microfiche, order document E88-002 at $2.50 (U.S.) by writing to AGU Orders, 2000 Florida Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20009 or by calling toll free on 800-424-2488. For the paper reprint, order SEAN Bulletin (giving volume and issue numbers and issue date) through the same address; the price is $3.50 for one copy of each issue number for those who do not have a deposit account, $2 for those who do; additional copies of each issue number are $1. Subscriptions to SEAN Bulletin are also available from AGU-Orders; the price is $18 for 12 monthly issues mailed to a U.S. address, $28 if mailed elsewhere, and must be prepaid.

  5. Economic impact of cultural events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Saayman

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of events can hardly be described as a new one.  The aim of this paper is to determine the economic benefits of three major cultural events in South Africa to the host community.  Measuring the economic impact normally entails some estimation of the cash injection into a region by visitors and applying the relevant multiplier to arrive at a monetary estimate of the economic impact.  But few regions or municipal areas have detailed economic data to construct a type of input-output model and derive a multiplier.  The purpose of the methods used in this research were firstly to determine the estimated cash injection, secondly to estimate the size of leakages in the local economy and thirdly to derive an appropriate multiplier to estimate the economic impact of the event.

  6. International Sport Events: Improving Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Kerzaitė

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The report and the article will be a comprehensive analysis ofthe needs to improve the international sport events marketing.Highlighting the role of international sport events in contemporarysociety and the challenges in the context of globalization,comparing opinions of various authors about aspects of classificationand the benefits for host country. The article and the reportreveals the main existing problem encountered in organizinginternational sport events, estimated perspectives for solutionof this problem. Summarizes the international sport eventsopportunities, basically modernize marketing tools according tothe marketing mix correction based on systematic synthesis ofmarketing concepts and adaptation/standardization needs, themost important factors in the marketing mix for the excretion ofthe main marketing objectives. The article is based on the latestscientific literature analysis.

  7. Survival relative to new and ancestral host plants, phytoplasma infection, and genetic constitution in host races of a polyphagous insect disease vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maixner, Michael; Albert, Andreas; Johannesen, Jes

    2014-01-01

    Dissemination of vectorborne diseases depends strongly on the vector's host range and the pathogen's reservoir range. Because vectors interact with pathogens, the direction and strength of a vector's host shift is vital for understanding epidemiology and is embedded in the framework of ecological specialization. This study investigates survival in host-race evolution of a polyphagous insect disease vector, Hyalesthes obsoletus, whether survival is related to the direction of the host shift (from field bindweed to stinging nettle), the interaction with plant-specific strains of obligate vectored pathogens/symbionts (stolbur phytoplasma), and whether survival is related to genetic differentiation between the host races. We used a twice repeated, identical nested experimental design to study survival of the vector on alternative hosts and relative to infection status. Survival was tested with Kaplan–Meier analyses, while genetic differentiation between vector populations was quantified with microsatellite allele frequencies. We found significant direct effects of host plant (reduced survival on wrong hosts) and sex (males survive longer than females) in both host races and relative effects of host (nettle animals more affected than bindweed animals) and sex (males more affected than females). Survival of bindweed animals was significantly higher on symptomatic than nonsymptomatic field bindweed, but in the second experiment only. Infection potentially had a positive effect on survival in nettle animals but due to low infection rates the results remain suggestive. Genetic differentiation was not related to survival. Greater negative plant-transfer effect but no negative effect of stolbur in the derived host race suggests preadaptation to the new pathogen/symbiont strain before strong diversifying selection during the specialization process. Physiological maladaptation or failure to accept the ancestral plant will have similar consequences, namely positive assortative

  8. Host Factors in Ebola Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Angela L

    2016-08-31

    Ebola virus (EBOV) emerged in West Africa in 2014 to devastating effect, and demonstrated that infection can cause a broad range of severe disease manifestations. As the virus itself was genetically similar to other Zaire ebolaviruses, the spectrum of pathology likely resulted from variable responses to infection in a large and genetically diverse population. This review comprehensively summarizes current knowledge of the host response to EBOV infection, including pathways hijacked by the virus to facilitate replication, host processes that contribute directly to pathogenesis, and host-pathogen interactions involved in subverting or antagonizing host antiviral immunity.

  9. Recurring events - Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-04-01

    The feedback of operating experience from nuclear power plants (NPP) is intended to help avoid occurrence or recurrence of safety significant events. Regulatory bodies, and utilities operating nuclear power plants, have established operating experience feedback systems since the beginning of commercial nuclear power production. Well-established operating experience feedback systems exist on national and international level. An example of an international system is the Incident Reporting System (IRS) jointly operated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). There also are systems maintained by the operating organizations, including the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO), and owner groups of different NPP vendors. Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) Working Group on Operating Experience (WGOE; formerly Principal Working Group No. 1, PWG1) carried out a study on recurring events some years ago. This report, published in 1999, highlighted some areas of safety significance involving recurrent events in different NPPs around the world. Based on the important findings of this report, CSNI requested two additional studies: 1. first an international workshop should be organized and second, 2. a task group should be established to develop a second report on the topic and to evaluate the findings of the workshop. The workshop, hosted by the Swiss Regulatory Authority, HSK, was held in Switzerland in March 2002. It was attended by 32 experts representing the regulatory, nuclear power plant, vendor, and international agency communities. Several insights and recommendations were presented and are integrated in this report with respect to causes of recurring events: - Operating experience feedback processes had not always been effective, that is, the existing operating experiences had not been effectively applied, - Actions to be taken were not implemented in a timely manner, - The root cause was not

  10. Timing of host feeding drives rhythms in parasite replication

    KAUST Repository

    Prior, Kimberley F.

    2018-02-26

    Circadian rhythms enable organisms to synchronise the processes underpinning survival and reproduction to anticipate daily changes in the external environment. Recent work shows that daily (circadian) rhythms also enable parasites to maximise fitness in the context of ecological interactions with their hosts. Because parasite rhythms matter for their fitness, understanding how they are regulated could lead to innovative ways to reduce the severity and spread of diseases. Here, we examine how host circadian rhythms influence rhythms in the asexual replication of malaria parasites. Asexual replication is responsible for the severity of malaria and fuels transmission of the disease, yet, how parasite rhythms are driven remains a mystery. We perturbed feeding rhythms of hosts by 12 hours (i.e. diurnal feeding in nocturnal mice) to desynchronise the host’s peripheral oscillators from the central, light-entrained oscillator in the brain and their rhythmic outputs. We demonstrate that the rhythms of rodent malaria parasites in day-fed hosts become inverted relative to the rhythms of parasites in night-fed hosts. Our results reveal that the host’s peripheral rhythms (associated with the timing of feeding and metabolism), but not rhythms driven by the central, light-entrained circadian oscillator in the brain, determine the timing (phase) of parasite rhythms. Further investigation reveals that parasite rhythms correlate closely with blood glucose rhythms. In addition, we show that parasite rhythms resynchronise to the altered host feeding rhythms when food availability is shifted, which is not mediated through rhythms in the host immune system. Our observations suggest that parasites actively control their developmental rhythms. Finally, counter to expectation, the severity of disease symptoms expressed by hosts was not affected by desynchronisation of their central and peripheral rhythms. Our study at the intersection of disease ecology and chronobiology opens up a new

  11. SHIFT: server for hidden stops analysis in frame-shifted translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arun; Singh, Tiratha Raj

    2013-02-23

    Frameshift is one of the three classes of recoding. Frame-shifts lead to waste of energy, resources and activity of the biosynthetic machinery. In addition, some peptides synthesized after frame-shifts are probably cytotoxic which serve as plausible cause for innumerable number of diseases and disorders such as muscular dystrophies, lysosomal storage disorders, and cancer. Hidden stop codons occur naturally in coding sequences among all organisms. These codons are associated with the early termination of translation for incorrect reading frame selection and help to reduce the metabolic cost related to the frameshift events. Researchers have identified several consequences of hidden stop codons and their association with myriad disorders. However the wealth of information available is speckled and not effortlessly acquiescent to data-mining. To reduce this gap, this work describes an algorithmic web based tool to study hidden stops in frameshifted translation for all the lineages through respective genetic code systems. This paper describes SHIFT, an algorithmic web application tool that provides a user-friendly interface for identifying and analyzing hidden stops in frameshifted translation of genomic sequences for all available genetic code systems. We have calculated the correlation between codon usage frequencies and the plausible contribution of codons towards hidden stops in an off-frame context. Markovian chains of various order have been used to model hidden stops in frameshifted peptides and their evolutionary association with naturally occurring hidden stops. In order to obtain reliable and persuasive estimates for the naturally occurring and predicted hidden stops statistical measures have been implemented. This paper presented SHIFT, an algorithmic tool that allows user-friendly exploration, analysis, and visualization of hidden stop codons in frameshifted translations. It is expected that this web based tool would serve as a useful complement for

  12. Effect of a 12-hour/day shift on performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, P.M.; Swaim, D.J.

    1988-06-01

    The operating crews at the Fast Flux Facility near Richland, Washington, changed their rotating shift schedule from an 8- to 12- hour/day work schedule. The primary reason for the change was to reduce the attrition of operators by increasing their job satisfaction. Eighty-four percent of the operators favored the change. Plant performance and safety were not adversely affected. A statistical analysis of 53 operator-related, off-normal events in 28 months concluded that there was no significant difference in either the number or the severity of off-normal events on the 12-hour shift. A statistical analysis of 200,000 log entries concluded that the error rate in completing logs actually declined by 25 percent on the 12-hour shift. Alertness, which was measured using computerized tests of mathematics and logical reasoning, reach a nadir on the first night shift for the 8- and 12-hour schedules alike, which indicates that the primary cause of fatigue was sleep disruption, not cumulative hours of work. All supervisors and 52 percent of the operators believe their crews work more effectively on the 12-hour shift; only 12 percent of the operators believe that their crews work less effectively. The evaluation indicated that the 12-hour shift scheduled is a reasonable alternative to an 8-hour schedule at this facility. 2 refs

  13. HostPhinder: A Phage Host Prediction Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villarroel, Julia; Kleinheinz, Kortine Annina; Jurtz, Vanessa Isabell

    2016-01-01

    The current dramatic increase of antibiotic resistant bacteria has revitalised the interest in bacteriophages as alternative antibacterial treatment. Meanwhile, the development of bioinformatics methods for analysing genomic data places high-throughput approaches for phage characterization within...... bacterial hosts. HostPhinder is available as an interactive web service [1] and as a stand alone download from the Docker registry [2]....

  14. Host density drives the postglacial migration of the tree parasite, Epifagus virginiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yi-Hsin Erica; Manos, Paul S

    2010-09-28

    To survive changes in climate, successful species shift their geographic ranges to remain in suitable habitats. For parasites and other highly specialized species, distributional changes not only are dictated by climate but can also be engineered by their hosts. The extent of host control on parasite range expansion is revealed through comparisons of host and parasite migration and demographic histories. However, understanding the codistributional history of entire forest communities is complicated by challenges in synthesizing datasets from multiple interacting species of differing datatypes. Here we integrate genetic and fossil pollen datasets from a host-parasite pair; specifically, the population structure of the parasitic plant (Epifagus virginiana) was compared with both its host (Fagus grandifolia) genetic patterns and abundance data from the paleopollen record of the last 21,000 y. Through tests of phylogeographic structure and spatial linear regression models we find, surprisingly, host range changes had little effect on the parasite's range expansion and instead host density is the main driver of parasite spread. Unlike other symbionts that have been used as proxies to track their host's movements, this parasite's migration routes are incongruent with the host and instead reflect the greater importance of host density in this community's assembly. Furthermore, these results confirm predictions of disease ecological models regarding the role of host density in the spread of pathogens. Due to host density constraints, highly specialized species may have low migration capacities and long lag times before colonization of new areas.

  15. HOST liner cyclic facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, D.

    1983-01-01

    The HOST Liner Cyclic Program is utilizing two types of test apparatus, rectangular box rigs and a full annular rig. To date two quartz lamp cyclic box rigs have been tested and a third is to begin testing in late October 1983. The box rigs are used to evaluate 5x8 inch rectangular linear samples. A 21 inch diameter outer liner simulator is also being built up for testing beginning in April 1984. All rigs are atmospheric rigs. The first box rig, a three 6-kVA lamp installation, was operated under adverse conditions to determine feasibility of using quartz lamps for cyclic testing. This work was done in December 1981 and looked promising. The second box rig, again using three 6-kVA lamps, was operated to obtain instrumentation durability information and initial data input to a Finite Element Model. This limited test program was conducted in August 1983. Five test plates were run. Instrumentation consisted of strain gages, thermocouples and thermal paint. The strain gages were found to fail at 1200 F as expected though plates were heated to 1700 F. The third box rig, containing four 6-kVA lamps, is in build up for testing to begin in late October 1983. In addition to 33 percent greater power input, this rig has provision for 400 F backside line cooling air and a viewing port suitable for IR camera viewing. The casing is also water cooled for extended durability.

  16. [Tuberculosis in compromised hosts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    Recent development of tuberculosis in Japan tends to converge on a specific high risk group. The proportion of tuberculosis developing particularly from the compromised hosts in the high risk group is especially high. At this symposium, therefore, we took up diabetes mellitus, gastrectomy, dialysis, AIDS and the elderly for discussion. Many new findings and useful reports for practical medical treatment are submitted; why these compromised hosts are predisposed to tuberculosis, tuberculosis diagnostic and remedial notes of those compromised hosts etc. It is an important question for the future to study how to prevent tuberculosis from these compromised hosts. 1. Tuberculosis in diabetes mellitus: aggravation and its immunological mechanism: Kazuyoshi KAWAKAMI (Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Graduate School and Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus). It has been well documented that diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major aggravating factor in tuberculosis. The onset of this disease is more frequent in DM patients than in individuals with any underlying diseases. However, the precise mechanism of this finding remains to be fully understood. Earlier studies reported that the migration, phagocytosis and bactericidal activity of neutrophils are all impaired in DM patients, which is related to their reduced host defense to infection with extracellular bacteria, such as S. aureus and E. colli. Host defense to mycobacterial infection is largely mediated by cellular immunity, and Th1-related cytokines, such as IFN-gamma and IL-12, play a central role in this response. It is reported that serum level of these cytokines and their production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) are reduced in tuberculosis patients with DM, and this is supposed to be involved in the high incidence of tuberculosis in DM. Our study observed similar findings and furthermore indicated that IFN-gamma and IL-12 production by BCG-stimulated PBMC was lower

  17. Decreased heart rate variability in surgeons during night shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amirian, Ilda; Toftegård Andersen, Lærke; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Heart rate variability (HRV) has been used as a measure of stress and mental strain in surgeons. Low HRV has been associated with death and increased risk of cardiac events in the general population. The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of a 17-hour night shift on surgeons'...

  18. Reported Speech in Conversational Storytelling during Nursing Shift Handover Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangerter, Adrian; Mayor, Eric; Pekarek Doehler, Simona

    2011-01-01

    Shift handovers in nursing units involve formal transmission of information and informal conversation about non-routine events. Informal conversation often involves telling stories. Direct reported speech (DRS) was studied in handover storytelling in two nursing care units. The study goal is to contribute to a better understanding of conversation…

  19. Transient shifts in bacterial communities associated with the temperate gorgonian Paramuricea clavata in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie La Rivière

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bacterial communities that are associated with tropical reef-forming corals are being increasingly recognized for their role in host physiology and health. However, little is known about the microbial diversity of the communities associated with temperate gorgonian corals, even though these communities are key structural components of the ecosystem. In the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, gorgonians undergo recurrent mass mortalities, but the potential relationship between these events and the structure of the associated bacterial communities remains unexplored. Because microbial assemblages may contribute to the overall health and disease resistance of their host, a detailed baseline of the associated bacterial diversity is required to better understand the functioning of the gorgonian holobiont. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The bacterial diversity associated with the gorgonian Paramuricea clavata was determined using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism and the construction of clone libraries of the bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA. Three study sites were monitored for 4 years to assess the variability of communities associated with healthy colonies. Bacterial assemblages were highly dominated by one Hahellaceae-related ribotype and exhibited low diversity. While this pattern was mostly conserved through space and time, in summer 2007, a deep shift in microbiota structure toward increased bacterial diversity and the transient disappearance of Hahellaceae was observed. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first spatiotemporal study to investigate the bacterial diversity associated with a temperate shallow gorgonian. Our data revealed an established relationship between P. clavata and a specific bacterial group within the Oceanospirillales. These results suggest a potential symbiotic role of Hahellaceae in the host-microbe association, as recently suggested for tropical corals

  20. SEU-hardened design for shift register in CMOS APS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Liya; Liu Zedong; Hu Dajiang; Wang Qingxiang

    2012-01-01

    The inverter-based quasi-static shift register in CMOS APS, which is used in ionizing radiation environment, is susceptible to single event upset (SEU), thus affecting the CMOS active pixel sensor (APS) working. The analysis of the SEU for inverter-based quasi-static shift register concludes that the most sensitive node to single event transient (SET) exists in the input of inverter, and the threshold voltage and capacitance of input node of inverter determine the capability of anti-SEU. A new method was proposed, which replaced the inverter with Schmitt trigger in shift register. Because there is a hysteresis on voltage transfer characteristic of Schmitt trigger, there is high flip threshold, thus better capability of anti-SEU can be achieved. Simulation results show that the anti-SEU capability of Schmitt trigger is 10 times more than that of inverter. (authors)

  1. When unforeseen event become strategic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Vinther; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl

    2017-01-01

    This article acknowledges that strategising processes revolve around allowing for continual shifts in an uncertain environment to constructively shape the ways in which managers strategise. The research question pursued in this article is: ‘How do unforeseen events shape managerial strategising......?’ The theoretical background for this article is inspired by research done within the strategy-as-practice and strategy-in-practice communities and uses concepts such as strategic intent, wayfinding/wayfaring and temporal work to explore how the managers from the small Danish Software Company cooperated with actors...... in the mining industry. This cooperation was initially perceived as an unforeseen event but, incrementally and retrospectively, it became strategic. The main theoretical and practice-anchored findings draw attention to the roles that unforeseen events can play in shaping strategising. These findings underline...

  2. The Influence of Host Galaxies in Type Ia Supernova Cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uddin, Syed A. [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangshu (China); Mould, Jeremy [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Lidman, Chris; Zhang, Bonnie R. [Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO) (Australia); Ruhlmann-Kleider, Vanina, E-mail: saushuvo@gmail.com [CEA, Centre de Saclay, Irfu/SPP, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, Paris (France)

    2017-10-10

    We use a sample of 1338 spectroscopically confirmed and photometrically classified Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) sourced from Carnegie Supernova Project, Center for Astrophysics Supernova Survey, Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II, and SuperNova Legacy Survey SN samples to examine the relationships between SNe Ia and the galaxies that host them. Our results provide confirmation with improved statistical significance that SNe Ia, after standardization, are on average more luminous in massive hosts (significance >5 σ ), and decline more rapidly in massive hosts (significance >9 σ ) and in hosts with low specific star formation rates (significance >8 σ ). We study the variation of these relationships with redshift and detect no evolution. We split SNe Ia into pairs of subsets that are based on the properties of the hosts and fit cosmological models to each subset. Including both systematic and statistical uncertainties, we do not find any significant shift in the best-fit cosmological parameters between the subsets. Among different SN Ia subsets, we find that SNe Ia in hosts with high specific star formation rates have the least intrinsic scatter ( σ {sub int} = 0.08 ± 0.01) in luminosity after standardization.

  3. Cuscuta reflexa invasion induces Ca2+ release in its host

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albert, M.; Krol, van der A.R.; Kaldenhoff, R.

    2010-01-01

    Cuscuta reflexa induces a variety of reaction in its hosts. Some of these are visual reactions, and it is clear that these morphological changes are preceded by events at the molecular level, where signal transduction is one of the early processes. Calcium (Ca(2+)) release is the major second

  4. Shift technical advisors: in the eyes of the NRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crocker, L.P.

    1981-01-01

    Since January 1, 1980, the NRC has required that Shift Technical Advisors be on-shift at all operating nuclear power plants. The objective of the requirement is to assure that technical expertise is immediately available to each operating shift to assess off-normal events and to provide advice to control room personnel. Further, this advice and assistance is to be provided by an individual not responsible for control manipulations or for directing the activities of reactor operators. The long-term requirement for on-shift technical expertise is firm. However, the exact manner in which this expertise must be furnished has not been determined. Licensees have proposed various alternatives to meet this requirement. These proposals still are being reviewed by the NRC staff

  5. Host factors in nidovirus replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, Adriaan Hugo de

    2013-01-01

    The interplay between nidoviruses and the infected host cell was investigated. Arterivirus RNA-synthesising activity was shown to depend on intact membranes and on a cytosolic host protein which does not cosediment with the RTC. Furthermore, the immunosuppressant drug cyclosporin A (CsA) blocks

  6. Larval helminths in intermediate hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredensborg, Brian Lund; Poulin, R

    2005-01-01

    Density-dependent effects on parasite fitness have been documented from adult helminths in their definitive hosts. There have, however, been no studies on the cost of sharing an intermediate host with other parasites in terms of reduced adult parasite fecundity. Even if larval parasites suffer a ...

  7. Host Adaptation of Staphylococcal Leukocidins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, M

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a human and animal pathogen of global importance and has the capacity to cause disease in distinct host populations, using a large arsenal of secreted proteins to evade the host immune response. Amongst the immune evasion proteins of S. aureus, secreted cytotoxins play a

  8. Inequalities for scattering phase shifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartner, B.; Grosse, H.

    1985-01-01

    A recently developed method, which was used to derive bounds on energy levels, is applied to continuous spectra and gives relations between scattering phase shifts of various angular momenta. (Author)

  9. Isotope shifts in unstable nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebel, H.

    1980-05-01

    Current experimental investigations of isotope shifts in atomic spectra of unstable nuclei and the resulting information about size and shape of nuclei far off stability are discussed with reference to some representative examples. (orig.)

  10. Novel approach for identification of influenza virus host range and zoonotic transmissible sequences by determination of host-related associative positions in viral genome segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargarfard, Fatemeh; Sami, Ashkan; Mohammadi-Dehcheshmeh, Manijeh; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil

    2016-11-16

    Recent (2013 and 2009) zoonotic transmission of avian or porcine influenza to humans highlights an increase in host range by evading species barriers. Gene reassortment or antigenic shift between viruses from two or more hosts can generate a new life-threatening virus when the new shuffled virus is no longer recognized by antibodies existing within human populations. There is no large scale study to help understand the underlying mechanisms of host transmission. Furthermore, there is no clear understanding of how different segments of the influenza genome contribute in the final determination of host range. To obtain insight into the rules underpinning host range determination, various supervised machine learning algorithms were employed to mine reassortment changes in different viral segments in a range of hosts. Our multi-host dataset contained whole segments of 674 influenza strains organized into three host categories: avian, human, and swine. Some of the sequences were assigned to multiple hosts. In point of fact, the datasets are a form of multi-labeled dataset and we utilized a multi-label learning method to identify discriminative sequence sites. Then algorithms such as CBA, Ripper, and decision tree were applied to extract informative and descriptive association rules for each viral protein segment. We found informative rules in all segments that are common within the same host class but varied between different hosts. For example, for infection of an avian host, HA14V and NS1230S were the most important discriminative and combinatorial positions. Host range identification is facilitated by high support combined rules in this study. Our major goal was to detect discriminative genomic positions that were able to identify multi host viruses, because such viruses are likely to cause pandemic or disastrous epidemics.

  11. Switchable host-guest systems on surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying-Wei; Sun, Yu-Long; Song, Nan

    2014-07-15

    CONSPECTUS: For device miniaturization, nanotechnology follows either the "top-down" approach scaling down existing larger-scale devices or the "bottom-up' approach assembling the smallest possible building blocks to functional nanoscale entities. For synthetic nanodevices, self-assembly on surfaces is a superb method to achieve useful functions and enable their interactions with the surrounding world. Consequently, adaptability and responsiveness to external stimuli are other prerequisites for their successful operation. Mechanically interlocked molecules such as rotaxanes and catenanes, and their precursors, that is, molecular switches and supramolecular switches including pseudorotaxanes, are molecular machines or prototypes of machines capable of mechanical motion induced by chemical signals, biological inputs, light or redox processes as the external stimuli. Switching of these functional host-guest systems on surfaces becomes a fundamental requirement for artificial molecular machines to work, mimicking the molecular machines in nature, such as proteins and their assemblies operating at dynamic interfaces such as the surfaces of cell membranes. Current research endeavors in material science and technology are focused on developing either a new class of materials or materials with novel/multiple functionalities by shifting host-guest chemistry from solution phase to surfaces. In this Account, we present our most recent attempts of building monolayers of rotaxanes/pseudorotaxanes on surfaces, providing stimuli-induced macroscopic effects and further understanding on the switchable host-guest systems at interfaces. Biocompatible versions of molecular machines based on synthetic macrocycles, such as cucurbiturils, pillararenes, calixarenes, and cyclodextrins, have been employed to form self-assembled monolayers of gates on the surfaces of mesoporous silica nanoparticles to regulate the controlled release of cargo/drug molecules under a range of external stimuli

  12. ENGAGING STUDENTS THROUGH EVENT MARKETING: AN EXAMPLE OF UNIVERSITY ENTREPRENEURSHIP EVENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alev KOÇAK ALAN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the growing importance of event marketing, this study investigated the impact of entrepreneurship event on university students which was hosting by one of the leading university in Turkey. Three different assets of event image (event inventiveness, event appropriateness, event adequacy were proposed to influence students’ satisfaction and revisit intentions. Research conducted to 468 students which participate in the entrepreneurship event for two days. For the analyses structural equation modeling technique was used. It was found that (i the dimensions of event image (inventiveness, appropriateness, and adequacy have an impact on students’ satisfaction and (ii students’ satisfaction was a main driver of their revisit intention. Results, future researches and managerial implications were addressed.

  13. HIV protein sequence hotspots for crosstalk with host hub proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Sarmady

    Full Text Available HIV proteins target host hub proteins for transient binding interactions. The presence of viral proteins in the infected cell results in out-competition of host proteins in their interaction with hub proteins, drastically affecting cell physiology. Functional genomics and interactome datasets can be used to quantify the sequence hotspots on the HIV proteome mediating interactions with host hub proteins. In this study, we used the HIV and human interactome databases to identify HIV targeted host hub proteins and their host binding partners (H2. We developed a high throughput computational procedure utilizing motif discovery algorithms on sets of protein sequences, including sequences of HIV and H2 proteins. We identified as HIV sequence hotspots those linear motifs that are highly conserved on HIV sequences and at the same time have a statistically enriched presence on the sequences of H2 proteins. The HIV protein motifs discovered in this study are expressed by subsets of H2 host proteins potentially outcompeted by HIV proteins. A large subset of these motifs is involved in cleavage, nuclear localization, phosphorylation, and transcription factor binding events. Many such motifs are clustered on an HIV sequence in the form of hotspots. The sequential positions of these hotspots are consistent with the curated literature on phenotype altering residue mutations, as well as with existing binding site data. The hotspot map produced in this study is the first global portrayal of HIV motifs involved in altering the host protein network at highly connected hub nodes.

  14. Spacecraft-to-Earth Communications for Juno and Mars Science Laboratory Critical Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Melissa; Finley, Susan; Jongeling, Andre; Fort, David; Goodhart, Charles; Rogstad, David; Navarro, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Deep Space communications typically utilize closed loop receivers and Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) or Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK). Critical spacecraft events include orbit insertion and entry, descent, and landing.---Low gain antennas--> low signal -to-noise-ratio.---High dynamics such as parachute deployment or spin --> Doppler shift. During critical events, open loop receivers and Multiple Frequency Shift Keying (MFSK) used. Entry, Descent, Landing (EDL) Data Analysis (EDA) system detects tones in real-time.

  15. Ebola virus host cell entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yasuteru

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus is an enveloped virus with filamentous structure and causes a severe hemorrhagic fever in human and nonhuman primates. Host cell entry is the first essential step in the viral life cycle, which has been extensively studied as one of the therapeutic targets. A virus factor of cell entry is a surface glycoprotein (GP), which is an only essential viral protein in the step, as well as the unique particle structure. The virus also interacts with a lot of host factors to successfully enter host cells. Ebola virus at first binds to cell surface proteins and internalizes into cells, followed by trafficking through endosomal vesicles to intracellular acidic compartments. There, host proteases process GPs, which can interact with an intracellular receptor. Then, under an appropriate circumstance, viral and endosomal membranes are fused, which is enhanced by major structural changes of GPs, to complete host cell entry. Recently the basic research of Ebola virus infection mechanism has markedly progressed, largely contributed by identification of host factors and detailed structural analyses of GPs. This article highlights the mechanism of Ebola virus host cell entry, including recent findings.

  16. Shifting schedules: the health effects of reorganizing shift work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambra, Clare L; Whitehead, Margaret M; Sowden, Amanda J; Akers, Joanne; Petticrew, Mark P

    2008-05-01

    Approximately one fifth of workers are engaged in some kind of shift work. The harmful effects of shift work on the health and work-life balance of employees are well known. A range of organizational interventions has been suggested to address these negative effects. This study undertook the systematic review (following Quality Of Reporting Of Meta [QUORUM] analyses guidelines) of experimental and quasi-experimental studies, from any country (in any language) that evaluated the effects on health and work-life balance of organizational-level interventions that redesign shift work schedules. Twenty-seven electronic databases (medical, social science, economic) were searched. Data extraction and quality appraisal were carried out by two independent reviewers. Narrative synthesis was performed. The review was conducted between October 2005 and November 2006. Twenty-six studies were found relating to a variety of organizational interventions. No one type of intervention was found to be consistently harmful to workers. However, three types were found to have beneficial effects on health and work-life balance: (1) switching from slow to fast rotation, (2) changing from backward to forward rotation, and (3) self-scheduling of shifts. Improvements were usually at little or no direct organizational cost. However, there were concerns about the generalizability of the evidence, and no studies reported on impacts on health inequalities. This review reinforces the findings of epidemiologic and laboratory-based research by suggesting that certain organizational-level interventions can improve the health of shift workers, their work-life balance, or both. This evidence could be useful when designing interventions to improve the experience of shift work.

  17. Vaccine Adverse Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Biologics Evaluation & Research Vaccine Adverse Events Vaccine Adverse Events Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... in the primary immunization series in infants Report Adverse Event Report a Vaccine Adverse Event Contact FDA ( ...

  18. Genetic divergence and evidence for sympatric host-races in the highly polyphagous brown tail moth, Euproctis chrysorrhoea (Lepidoptera: Erebidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marques, J.F.; Wang, H.L.; Svensson, G.P.; Frago Clols, E.; Anderbrant, O.

    2014-01-01

    The brown tail moth (BTM) Euproctis chrysorrhoea (Linnaeus 1758) (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) is a forest and ornamental pest in Europe and the United States. Its extreme polyphagy, and documented phenological shift associated with host use suggest the presence of distinct host-races. To test this

  19. Diversity and spation distribution of vectors and hosts of T. brucei gambiense in forest zones of Southern Cameroon: Epidemiological implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massussi, J.A.; Mbida Mbida, J.A.; Djieto-Lordon, C.; Njiokou, F.; Laveissière, C.; Ploeg, van der J.D.

    2010-01-01

    Host and vector distribution of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense was studied in relation to habitat types and seasons. Six (19.35%) of the 31 mammal species recorded in Bipindi were reservoir hosts. Cercopithecus nictitans was confined to the undisturbed forest and the low intensive shifting cultivation

  20. SAT in shift manager training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecuyer, F.

    1995-01-01

    EDF has improved the organization of the operation shift teams with the replacement of shift supervisor in shift manager function. The shift manager is not only responsible for tasks associated to plant operation (production), but he is also responsible for safety of these tasks and for management of shift team members. A job analysis of this new job position has been performed in order to design the training programme. It resulted in a 10-month training programme that includes 8 weeks in safety-related topics and 12 weeks in soft-skills related topics. The safety related training courses are mandatory, the other courses are optional courses depending on individual trainee needs. The training also includes the development of management competencies. During the 10 month period, each trainee develops an individual project that is evaluated by NPP manager. As well, as group project is undertaken by the trainees and overseen by a steering committee. The steering committee participates in the evaluation process and provides operational experience feedback to the trainee groups and to the overall programme

  1. Modality shift effects mimic multisensory interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondan, Matthias; Vorberg, D.; Greenlee, M.W.

    2007-01-01

    be avoided using an additional tactile stimulus (T) and evaluating the ERP difference (T + TAV) - (TA + TV). A second possible confound is the modality shift effect (MSE): for example, the auditory N1 is increased if an auditory stimulus follows a visual stimulus, whereas it is smaller if the modality......A frequent approach to study interactions of the auditory and the visual system is to measure event-related potentials (ERPs) to auditory, visual, and auditory-visual stimuli (A, V, AV). A nonzero result of the AV - (A + V) comparison indicates that the sensory systems interact at a specific...... processing stage. Two possible biases weaken the conclusions drawn by this approach: first, subtracting two ERPs from one requires that A, V, and AV do not share any common activity. We have shown before (Gondan and Röder in Brain Res 1073-1074:389-397, 2006) that the problem of common activity can...

  2. Does the ARFIMA really shift?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monache, Davide Delle; Grassi, Stefano; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    Short memory models contaminated by level shifts have long-memory features similar to those associated to processes generated under fractional integration. In this paper, we propose a robust testing procedure, based on an encompassing parametric specification, that allows to disentangle the level...... the highest power compared to other existing tests for spurious long-memory. Finally, we illustrate the usefulness of the proposed approach on the daily series of bipower variation and share turnover and on the monthly inflation series of G7 countries....... shift term from the ARFIMA component. The estimation is carried out via a state-space methodology and it leads to a robust estimate of the fractional integration parameter also in presence of level shifts.The Monte Carlo simulations show that this approach produces unbiased estimates of the fractional...

  3. Digbeth hosts the Big Bang

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Birminham museum of science and discovery, Thinktank, is hosting 'Building The Universe', a free exhibition about the work undertaken at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics, in Geneva (3 paragraphs).

  4. Enormous periodic doppler shifts in SS 433

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margon, B.; Ford, H.C.; Grandi, S.A.; Stone, R.P.S.

    1979-01-01

    We have previously reported prominent ''moving' emission lines in the visible spectrum of Stephenson-Sanduleak 433, the optical counterpart of a variable radio and X-ray source. Further observations show that despite the implausible velocities and changes in velocities implied if the moving features are interpreted as Doppler-shifted Balmer lines, this explanation is indeed correct. Spectroscopy of SS 433 on 51 mights in 1978--1979 reveals that the unidentified features are two sets of Balmer and He I lines, one with large and changing redshift, and the other with large and changing blueshift. Combining our data with published earlier observations, we obtain Doppler shifts on 80 nights in the period 1978 June to 1979 June. These data indicate that the velocity variations are cyclical, repeating in both the blueshift and redshift systems with a period of 164 +- 3 days. The two systems have thus far been observed to reach maximum positive and negative radial velocities of +50,000 and -35,000 km s -1 , respectively, are always symmetric about redshift z=0.04, and follow roughly sinusoidal velocity curves. We discuss in addition a variety of interesting short-term spectroscopic details, including minor but highly significant deviations of the radial velocity from the sinusoid, and nightly line profile changes, sometimes appearing as mirror-image events in the redshift and blueshift systems. The behavior of SS 433 is unprecedented

  5. Paradigm Shifts in Ophthalmic Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebag, J; Sadun, Alfredo A; Pierce, Eric A

    2016-08-01

    Future advances in ophthalmology will see a paradigm shift in diagnostics from a focus on dysfunction and disease to better measures of psychophysical function and health. Practical methods to define genotypes will be increasingly important and non-invasive nanotechnologies are needed to detect molecular changes that predate histopathology. This is not a review nor meant to be comprehensive. Specific topics have been selected to illustrate the principles of important paradigm shifts that will influence the future of ophthalmic diagnostics. It is our impression that future evaluation of vision will go beyond visual acuity to assess ocular health in terms of psychophysical function. The definition of disease will incorporate genotype into what has historically been a phenotype-centric discipline. Non-invasive nanotechnologies will enable a paradigm shift from disease detection on a cellular level to a sub-cellular molecular level. Vision can be evaluated beyond visual acuity by measuring contrast sensitivity, color vision, and macular function, as these provide better insights into the impact of aging and disease. Distortions can be quantified and the psychophysical basis of vision can be better evaluated than in the past by designing tests that assess particular macular cell function(s). Advances in our understanding of the genetic basis of eye diseases will enable better characterization of ocular health and disease. Non-invasive nanotechnologies can assess molecular changes in the lens, vitreous, and macula that predate visible pathology. Oxygen metabolism and circulatory physiology are measurable indices of ocular health that can detect variations of physiology and early disease. This overview of paradigm shifts in ophthalmology suggests that the future will see significant improvements in ophthalmic diagnostics. The selected topics illustrate the principles of these paradigm shifts and should serve as a guide to further research and development. Indeed

  6. Past climate-driven range shifts and population genetic diversity in arctic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pellissier, Loïc; Eidesen, Pernille Bronken; Ehrich, Dorothee

    2016-01-01

    High intra-specific genetic diversity is necessary for species adaptation to novel environments under climate change, but species tracking suitable conditions are losing alleles through successive founder events during range shift. Here, we investigated the relationship between range shift since ...... the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and extant population genetic diversity across multiple plant species to understand variability in species responses...

  7. Effect of gear shift and engine start losses on control strategies for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo, V.; Hofman, T.; Steinbuch, M.; Serrarens, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, energetic loss models in the events of shifting gear and starting engine in a parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle equipped with an Automated Manual Transmission (AMT) will be introduced. The optimal control algorithm for the start-stop, power split and gear shift problem based on Dynamic

  8. Morphisms Between Sofic Shift Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jan Agentoft

    The lower entropy factor problem asks for necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a factor map from a (mixing) sofic shift space onto another (mixing) sofic subshift of lower entropy. The problem was posed by Mike Boyle in 1984. It remains an open problem, but the present thesis...... gives a re-formulation which can be used to effectively decide the question for a larger class of sofic shifts than all previous results. In addition, the methods are used to make progress on the corresponding embedding problem which asks for necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence...

  9. Shift-Variant Multidimensional Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-29

    x,y;u,v) is the system response at (x,y) to an unit impulse applied at (u,v). The presence of additive noise in the preceding input-output model of a...space model developed works very effi- ciently to deblur images affected by 2-D linear shift- varying blurs, its use, in presence of noise needs to be...causal linear shift-variant (LSV) system, whose impulse res- ponse is a K-th order degenerate sequence, a K-th order state-space model was obtained

  10. Explaining (Missing) Regulator Paradigm Shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigger, Angela; Buch-Hansen, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    The global financial and economic crisis has prompted some scholars to suggest that a fundamental regulatory shift away from neoliberalism will take place – both in general and in the field of EU competition regulation. This paper shows that so far no radical break with the neoliberal type...... regulation after the crisis in the 1970s, the paper argues that the preconditions for a fundamental shift in this issue area are not present this time around. Several reasons account for this: the current crisis has been construed by economic and political elites as a crisis within and not of neoliberal...

  11. Shifting visual perspective during memory retrieval reduces the accuracy of subsequent memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotti, Petra; St Jacques, Peggy L

    2018-03-01

    Memories for events can be retrieved from visual perspectives that were never experienced, reflecting the dynamic and reconstructive nature of memories. Characteristics of memories can be altered when shifting from an own eyes perspective, the way most events are initially experienced, to an observer perspective, in which one sees oneself in the memory. Moreover, recent evidence has linked these retrieval-related effects of visual perspective to subsequent changes in memories. Here we examine how shifting visual perspective influences the accuracy of subsequent memories for complex events encoded in the lab. Participants performed a series of mini-events that were experienced from their own eyes, and were later asked to retrieve memories for these events while maintaining the own eyes perspective or shifting to an alternative observer perspective. We then examined how shifting perspective during retrieval modified memories by influencing the accuracy of recall on a final memory test. Across two experiments, we found that shifting visual perspective reduced the accuracy of subsequent memories and that reductions in vividness when shifting visual perspective during retrieval predicted these changes in the accuracy of memories. Our findings suggest that shifting from an own eyes to an observer perspective influences the accuracy of long-term memories.

  12. Perspectives on the Trypanosoma cruzi–host cell receptor interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalta, Fernando; Scharfstein, Julio; Ashton, Anthony W.; Tyler, Kevin M.; Guan, Fangxia; Mukherjee, Shankar; Lima, Maria F.; Alvarez, Sandra; Weiss, Louis M.; Huang, Huan; Machado, Fabiana S.

    2009-01-01

    Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. The critical initial event is the interaction of the trypomastigote form of the parasite with host receptors. This review highlights recent observations concerning these interactions. Some of the key receptors considered are those for thromboxane, bradykinin, and for the nerve growth factor TrKA. Other important receptors such as galectin-3, thrombospondin, and laminin are also discussed. Investigation into the molecular biology and cell biology of host receptors for T. cruzi may provide novel therapeutic targets. PMID:19283409

  13. The Three Parties in the Race to the Bottom: Host Governments, Home Governments and Multinational Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Rosanne Altshuler; Harry Grubert

    2005-01-01

    Most studies of tax competition and the race to the bottom focus on potential host countries competing for mobile capital, neglecting the role of corporate tax planning and of home governments that facilitate this planning. This neglect in part reflects the narrow view frequently taken of the policy instruments that countries have available in tax competition. For example, high-tax host governments can permit income to be shifted out to tax havens as a way of attracting mobile companies. Home...

  14. Random coil chemical shifts in acidic 8 M urea: Implementation of random coil shift data in NMRView

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarzinger, Stephan; Kroon, Gerard J.A.; Foss, Ted R.; Wright, Peter E.; Dyson, H. Jane

    2000-01-01

    Studies of proteins unfolded in acid or chemical denaturant can help in unraveling events during the earliest phases of protein folding. In order for meaningful comparisons to be made of residual structure in unfolded states, it is necessary to use random coil chemical shifts that are valid for the experimental system under study. We present a set of random coil chemical shifts obtained for model peptides under experimental conditions used in studies of denatured proteins. This new set, together with previously published data sets, has been incorporated into a software interface for NMRView, allowing selection of the random coil data set that fits the experimental conditions best

  15. The specificity of host-bat fly interaction networks across vegetation and seasonal variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarazúa-Carbajal, Mariana; Saldaña-Vázquez, Romeo A; Sandoval-Ruiz, César A; Stoner, Kathryn E; Benitez-Malvido, Julieta

    2016-10-01

    Vegetation type and seasonality promote changes in the species composition and abundance of parasite hosts. However, it is poorly known how these variables affect host-parasite interaction networks. This information is important to understand the dynamics of parasite-host relationships according to biotic and abiotic changes. We compared the specialization of host-bat fly interaction networks, as well as bat fly and host species composition between upland dry forest and riparian forest and between dry and rainy seasons in a tropical dry forest in Jalisco, Mexico. Bat flies were surveyed by direct collection from bats. Our results showed that host-bat fly interaction networks were more specialized in upland dry forest compared to riparian forest. Bat fly species composition was different between the dry and rainy seasons, while host species composition was different between upland dry forest and riparian forest. The higher specialization in upland dry forest could be related to the differences in bat host species composition and their respective roosting habits. Variation in the composition of bat fly species between dry and rainy seasons coincides with the seasonal shifts in their species richness. Our study confirms the high specialization of host-bat fly interactions and shows the importance of biotic and abiotic factors to understand the dynamics of parasite-host interactions.

  16. Leadership Shifts in Changing Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrzycki, Jaclyn

    2013-01-01

    As groups representing local and state education players struggle to remain relevant in a policy conversation often dominated by foundations, think tanks, new advocacy groups, and political and business figures, a shift in leadership has been under way at major associations. Most of the changes have come as part of the natural churn; former…

  17. Crichton's phase-shift ambiguity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atkinson, D.; Johnson, P.W.; Mehta, N.; Roo, M. de

    1973-01-01

    A re-examination of the SPD phase-shift ambiguity is made with a view to understanding certain singular features of the elastic unitarity constraint. An explicit solution of Crichton's equations is presented, and certain features of this solution are displayed graphically. In particular, it is shown

  18. Environmental Protection: a shifting focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. ir. Jan Venselaar

    2004-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a fundamental change in the way chemistry handles environmental issues. A shift in focus has occurred from 'end-of-pipe' to prevention and process integration. Presently an even more fundamental change is brought about by the need for sustainable development. It is

  19. Anthropometric changes and fluid shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, W. E.; Hoffler, G. W.; Rummel, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    Several observations of body size, shape, posture, and configuration were made to document changes resulting from direct effects of weightlessness during the Skylab 4 mission. After the crewmen were placed in orbit, a number of anatomical and anthropometric changes occurred including a straightening of the thoracolumbar spine, a general decrease in truncal girth, and an increase in height. By the time of the earliest in-flight measurement on mission day 3, all crewmen had lost more than two liters of extravascular fluid from the calf and thigh. The puffy facies, the bird legs effect, the engorgement of upper body veins, and the reduced volume of lower body veins were all documented with photographs. Center-of-mass measurements confirmed a fluid shift cephalad. This shift remained throughout the mission until recovery, when a sharp reversal occurred; a major portion of the reversal was completed in a few hours. The anatomical changes are of considerable scientific interest and of import to the human factors design engineer, but the shifts of blood and extravascular fluid are of more consequence. It is hypothesized that the driving force for the fluid shift is the intrinsic and unopposed lower limb elasticity that forces venous blood and then other fluid cephalad.

  20. Topology of Event Horizon

    OpenAIRE

    Siino, Masaru

    1997-01-01

    The topologies of event horizons are investigated. Considering the existence of the endpoint of the event horizon, it cannot be differentiable. Then there are the new possibilities of the topology of the event horizon though they are excluded in smooth event horizons. The relation between the topology of the event horizon and the endpoint of it is revealed. A torus event horizon is caused by two-dimensional endpoints. One-dimensional endpoints provide the coalescence of spherical event horizo...

  1. Helicobacter pylori virulence genes and microevolution in host and the clinical outcome: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Zahra Bakhti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is the causative agent in development of gastroduode-nal diseases, such as chronic atrophic gastritis, peptic ulcers, mucosa associated lym-phoid tissue (MALT lymphoma, and gastric cancer. H. pylori has been associated with inflammation in cardia, showing the fact that infection with this bacterium could also be a risk factor for gastric cardia cancer. Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer worldwide. This is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths, and ap-proximately 700,000 people succumb each year to gastric adenocarcinoma. It has been estimated that 69% of the Iranian population currently harbor H. pylori infection. The prevalence of duodenal ulcer and gastric cancer is high in Iranian populations. However, this has been largely influenced by geographic and/or ethnic origin. Epidemi-ology studies have shown that host, environmental, and bacterial factors determine the outcome of H. pylori infection. The bacterium contains allelic diversity and high genet-ic variability into core- and virulence-genes and that this diversity is geographically and ethnically structured. The genetic diversity within H. pylori is greater than within most other bacteria, and its diversity is more than 50-fold higher than that of human DNA. The maintenance of high diversification makes this bacterium to cope with particular challenges in individual hosts. It has been reported that the recombination contributed to the creation of new genes and gene family. Furthermore, the microevolution in cagA and vacA genes is a common event, leading to a change in the virulence phenotype. These factors contribute to the bacterial survival in acidic conditions in stomach and protect it from host immune system, causing tissue damage and clinical disease. In this review article, we discussed the correlation between H. pylori virulence factors and clin-ical outcomes, microevolution of H. pylori virulence genes in a single host

  2. Mega-event strategy as a tool of urban transformation : Sydney's experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.; Spaans, M.

    2009-01-01

    Mega-event strategies and their impact on host cities have drawn increasing interest, as organising large-scale urban events has become part of a deliberate urban policy strategy to promote local economic growth and put the host city on the world agenda. Thus far, the research addressing what

  3. Urban strategies and post-event legacy : The case of summer Olympic cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Mega-event strategies and their impact on host cities have drawn increasing interest, as organising large-scale urban events has become part of a deliberate urban policy strategy to promote local economic growth, improve the city image and put the host city on the world agenda. Most cities stressed

  4. Continental-Scale Estimates of Runoff Using Future Climate Storm Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent runoff events have had serious repercussions to both natural ecosystems and human infrastructure. Understanding how shifts in storm event intensities are expected to change runoff responses are valuable for local, regional, and landscape planning. To address this challenge...

  5. Theta–gamma coordination between anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortex indexes correct attention shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voloh, Benjamin; Valiante, Taufik A.; Everling, Stefan; Womelsdorf, Thilo

    2015-01-01

    Anterior cingulate and lateral prefrontal cortex (ACC/PFC) are believed to coordinate activity to flexibly prioritize the processing of goal-relevant over irrelevant information. This between-area coordination may be realized by common low-frequency excitability changes synchronizing segregated high-frequency activations. We tested this coordination hypothesis by recording in macaque ACC/PFC during the covert utilization of attention cues. We found robust increases of 5–10 Hz (theta) to 35–55 Hz (gamma) phase–amplitude correlation between ACC and PFC during successful attention shifts but not before errors. Cortical sites providing theta phases (i) showed a prominent cue-induced phase reset, (ii) were more likely in ACC than PFC, and (iii) hosted neurons with burst firing events that synchronized to distant gamma activity. These findings suggest that interareal theta–gamma correlations could follow mechanistically from a cue-triggered reactivation of rule memory that synchronizes theta across ACC/PFC. PMID:26100868

  6. Two different strategies of host manipulation allow parasites to persist in intermediate-definitive host systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de L.J.; Langevelde, van F.

    2018-01-01

    Trophically transmitted parasites start their development in an intermediate host, before they finish the development in their definitive host when the definitive host preys on the intermediate host. In intermediate-definitive host systems, two strategies of host manipulation have been evolved:

  7. Host-associated genetic differentiation in the goldenrod elliptical-gall moth, Gnorimoschema gallaesolidaginis (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nason, John D; Heard, Stephen B; Williams, Frederick R

    2002-07-01

    and for assigning individuals to genealogical classes. We describe these new methods in the context of their application to genetic structure in G. gallaesolidaginis. Population phenograms are consistent with the origin of the host forms (at least in the midwestern United States) via a single host shift: altissima and gigantea moth populations form distinct lineages with 100% bootstrap support. Genetic structure in Gnorimoschema is of particular interest because another gallmaking insect attacking the same pair of hosts, the tephritid fly Eurosta solidaginis, includes a pair of host races with partial reproductive isolation. Gnorimoschema gallaesolidaginis and E. solidaginis therefore represent the first reported case of parallel host-associated differentiation, that is, differentiation by evolutionarily independent insect lineages across the same pair of host plants.

  8. Sport events and their socio-economic impact: residents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sport events have become big business as countries as well as cities are competing fi ercely to host major events. The purpose of this article is to determine the economic impact of visitor spending during the annual Cape Argus Pick 'n Pay Cycle Tour. Direct spending was determined based on a survey consisting of 583 ...

  9. Shift of graft-versus-host-disease target organ tropism by dietary vitamin A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Koenecke

    Full Text Available Gut-homing of donor T cells is causative for the development of intestinal GvHD in recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT. Expression of the gut-specific homing receptors integrin-α4β7 and chemokine receptor CCR9 on T cells is imprinted in gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT under the influence of the vitamin A metabolite retinoic acid. Here we addressed the role of vitamin A deficiency in HSCT-recipients for donor T cell migration in the course of experimental GvHD. Vitamin A-deficient (VAD mice were prepared by feeding them a vitamin A-depleted diet. Experiments were performed in a C57BL/6 into BALB/c model of acute GvHD. We found that expression of integrin-α4β7 and CCR9 in GALT was reduced in VAD recipients after HSCT. Competitive in vivo homing assays showed that allogeneic T cells primed in VAD mice did not home as efficiently to the intestine as T cells primed in mice fed with standard diet (STD. The course of GvHD was ameliorated in VAD HSCT-recipients and, consequently, their survival was prolonged compared to recipients receiving STD. However, VAD-recipients were not protected and died of clinical GvHD. We found reduced numbers of donor T cells in the intestine but increased cell counts and tissue damage in other organs of VAD-recipients. Furthermore, we observed high IFN-γ(+CD4(+ and low FoxP3(+CD4(+ frequencies of total donor CD4(+ T cells in VAD as compared to STD recipients. Taken together, these results indicate that dietary vitamin A deficiency in HSCT-recipients changed target organ tropism in GvHD but also resulted in fatal inflammation after HSCT.

  10. Integrative analyses unveil speciation linked to host plant shift in Spialia butterflies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hernández-Roldán, J. L.; Dapporto, L.; Dincă, V.; Vicente, J. C.; Hornett, E. A.; Šíchová, Jindra; Lukhtanov, V. A.; Talavera, G.; Vila, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 17 (2016), s. 4267-4284 ISSN 0962-1083 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22765S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : biogeography * butterflies * Lepidoptera Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 6.086, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/mec.13756/abstract

  11. Event segmentation ability uniquely predicts event memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Jesse Q; Zacks, Jeffrey M; Hambrick, David Z; Zacks, Rose T; Kurby, Christopher A; Bailey, Heather R; Eisenberg, Michelle L; Beck, Taylor M

    2013-11-01

    Memory for everyday events plays a central role in tasks of daily living, autobiographical memory, and planning. Event memory depends in part on segmenting ongoing activity into meaningful units. This study examined the relationship between event segmentation and memory in a lifespan sample to answer the following question: Is the ability to segment activity into meaningful events a unique predictor of subsequent memory, or is the relationship between event perception and memory accounted for by general cognitive abilities? Two hundred and eight adults ranging from 20 to 79years old segmented movies of everyday events and attempted to remember the events afterwards. They also completed psychometric ability tests and tests measuring script knowledge for everyday events. Event segmentation and script knowledge both explained unique variance in event memory above and beyond the psychometric measures, and did so as strongly in older as in younger adults. These results suggest that event segmentation is a basic cognitive mechanism, important for memory across the lifespan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Burden and health effects of shift work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmann, Jörg

    2010-10-01

    In Germany aprox. 15% of all employees have irregular or flexible working hours. Disturbed sleep and/or hypersomnia are direct consequences of shift work and therefore described as shift work disorder. Beyond this, shift work can also be associated with specific pathological disorders. There are individual differences in tolerance to shift work. Optimization of both shift schedules and sleep to "non-physiological" times of the day are measures to counteract the negative effects of shift work. There is still not enough evidence to recommend drugs for routine use in shift workers. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Multiply imaged Transient Events in Cluster Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimha, Delampady

    2018-04-01

    ARIES had a successful gravitational microlens project during 1998-2002. A similar monitor for Transient Events in galaxies at high redshift lensed by rich galaxy-clusters provides a challenging possibility with important cosmological implications. Rich galaxy-clusters at intermediate redshifts are powerful gravitational lenses which produce multiple images, in the shape of giant arcs of 5-20" extent, of distant background galaxies in their field. Weak lens shear of the background galaxy distribution can reliably trace the lens mass profile. Multiple images of supernovae or GRBs in the background galaxies can be recorded in a systematic monitor of the system. An unlensed high redshift supernova might not be observable, but when lensed by a galaxy-cluster, it will stand out because the point event brightens relative to the host. The color profile of a high redshift lensed point event will be much more reliable than an unlensed one due to much less host contamination. An estimate of the time delay enables observation of the full light curve of the subsequent images of the event. ARIES can have outside collaboration for multiband simultaneous lightcurves of other images. The measured time delay and position of images of the transient event provide better cosmological constraints including distance scale of the Universe. The Devasthal telescope can detect one or more events by monitoring half a dozen cluster fields over three years time.

  14. From Ephemeral Planning to Permanent Urbanism: An Urban Planning Theory of Mega-Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Kassens-Noor

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mega-events like the Olympic Games are powerful forces that shape cities. In the wake of mega-events, a variety of positive and negative legacies have remained in host cities. In order to bring some theoretical clarity to debates about legacy creation, I introduce the concepts of the mega-event utopia, dystopia and heterotopia. A mega-event utopia is ideal and imaginary urbanism embracing abstract concepts about economies, socio-political systems, spaces, and societies in the host during events. The mega-event utopia (in contrast to other utopian visions other stakeholders may hold is dictated by the desires of the mega-event owners irrespective of the realities in the event host. In short, a mega-event utopia is the perfect event host from the owner’s perspective. Mega-event utopias are suggested as a theoretical model for the systematic transformation of their host cities. As large-scale events progress as ever more powerful transformers into this century, mega-event dystopias have emerged as negatives of these idealistic utopias. As hybrid post-event landscapes, mega-event heterotopias manifest the temporary mega-event utopia as legacy imprints into the long-term realities in hosting cities. Using the Olympic utopia as an example of a mega-event utopia, I theorize utopian visions around four urban traits: economy, image, infrastructure and society. Through the concept of the mega-event legacy utopia, I also provide some insight toward the operationalization of the four urban traits for a city’s economic development, local place marketing, urban development, and public participation.

  15. Nuclear magnetic resonance microscopy of the development of the parasitoid wasp Venturia canescens within its host moth Plodia interpunctella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudek, J A; Crook, A M; Hubbard, S F; Hunter, G

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance microscopy was used to image the parasitoid wasp Venturia canescens (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) within larval and pupal instars of its host, the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The images were obtained using gradient-echo and chemical shift selective pulse sequences and clearly showed the location and shapes of the parasitoid as it developed from the L1 larva to a pupal stage within the host. The digestive, nervous, and tracheal systems of the host were identified and changes were observed as the host underwent metamorphosis. Destruction of the host tissues by the parasitoid was visible. It was found that the parasitoid first ate the fat body and digestive system of the host, allowing the host to continue to grow, and only progressed to the vital organs when its own development had neared pupation.

  16. Special training of shift personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, H.D.

    1981-01-01

    The first step of on-the-job training is practical observation phase in an operating Nuclear Plant, where the participants are assigned to shift work. The simulator training for operating personnel, for key personnel and, to some extent, also for maintenance personnel and specialists give the practical feeling for Nuclear Power Plant behaviour during normal and abnormal conditions. During the commissioning phase of the own Nuclear Power Plant, which is the most important practical training, the participants are integrated into the commissioning staff and assisted during their process of practical learning by special instructors. The preparation for the licensing exams is vitally important for shift personnel and special courses are provided after the first non-nuclear trial operation of the plant. Personnel training also includes performance of programmes and material for retraining, training of instructors and assistance in building up special training programmes and material as well as training centers. (orig./RW)

  17. Shift work as an oxidative stressor

    OpenAIRE

    Pasalar Parvin; Farahani Saeed; Sharifian Akbar; Gharavi Marjan; Aminian Omid

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Some medical disorders have higher prevalence in shift workers than others. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of night-shift-working on total plasma antioxidant capacity, with respect to the causative role of oxidative stress in induction of some of these disorders. Methods Two blood samples were taken from 44 workers with a rotational shift schedule, one after their day shift and one after their night shift. The total plasma antioxidant capacity of each worke...

  18. The Inflammasome in Host Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Chen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nod-like receptors have emerged as an important family of sensors in host defense. These receptors are expressed in macrophages, dendritic cells and monocytes and play an important role in microbial immunity. Some Nod-like receptors form the inflammasome, a protein complex that activates caspase-1 in response to several stimuli. Caspase-1 activation leads to processing and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL-1β and IL-18. Here, we discuss recent advances in the inflammasome field with an emphasis on host defense. We also compare differential requirements for inflammasome activation in dendritic cells, macrophages and monocytes.

  19. Host factors influencing viral persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Nansen, A; Ørding Andreasen, Susanne

    2000-01-01

    host were used. Our results reveal that very different outcomes may be observed depending on virus strain and immunocompetence of the host. Thus while CD4+ cells are not critical during the initial phase of virus control, infectious virus reappear in mice lacking CD4+ cells, B cells or CD40 ligand...... replication, mice lacking the ability to produce interferon-gamma may develop either a severe, mostly fatal, T-cell mediated wasting syndrome or a chronic infection characterized by long-term coexistence of antiviral cytotoxic T lymphocytes and infectious virus. Mathematical modelling indicates...

  20. Perihelium shifts in central potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorim, A.E.A.; Ferreira, P.L.

    1987-01-01

    Motivated by the rigorous results on level ordering for arbitrary central potentials recently derived in the literature a classical treatment of the perihelium shifts is presented, based on the consideration of those orbits which lie in the vicinity of a circular orbit. The role played by the Laplacian of the potential is emphasized. By the same approach Bertrand's theorem is also discussed, in connection with Arnold's proof. (Author) [pt

  1. Multicolor Holography With Phase Shifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikram, Chandra S.

    1996-01-01

    Prototype apparatus constructed to test feasibility of two-color holographic interferometric scheme in which data for reconstructing holographic wavefront obtained with help of phase-shifting technique. Provides two sets of data needed to solve equations for effects of temperature and concentration. Concept extended to holography at three or more wavelengths to measure three or more phenomena associated with significant variations in index of refraction

  2. Shift Work and Endocrine Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Ulhôa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review was to investigate the impact of shift and night work on metabolic processes and the role of alterations in the sleep-wake cycle and feeding times and environmental changes in the occurrence of metabolic disorders. The literature review was performed by searching three electronic databases for relevant studies published in the last 10 years. The methodological quality of each study was assessed, and best-evidence synthesis was applied to draw conclusions. The literature has shown changes in concentrations of melatonin, cortisol, ghrelin, and leptin among shift workers. Melatonin has been implicated for its role in the synthesis and action of insulin. The action of this hormone also regulates the expression of transporter glucose type 4 or triggers phosphorylation of the insulin receptor. Therefore, a reduction in melatonin can be associated with an increase in insulin resistance and a propensity for the development of diabetes. Moreover, shift work can negatively affect sleep and contribute to sedentarism, unhealthy eating habits, and stress. Recent studies on metabolic processes have increasingly revealed their complexity. Physiological changes induced in workers who invert their activity-rest cycle to fulfill work hours include disruptions in metabolic processes.

  3. PSYCHE Pure Shift NMR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroozandeh, Mohammadali; Morris, Gareth; Nilsson, Mathias

    2018-03-13

    Broadband homodecoupling techniques in NMR, also known as "pure shift" methods, aim to enhance spectral resolution by suppressing the effects of homonuclear coupling interactions to turn multiplet signals into singlets. Such techniques typically work by selecting a subset of "active" nuclear spins to observe, and selectively inverting the remaining, "passive", spins to reverse the effects of coupling. Pure Shift Yielded by Chirp Excitation (PSYCHE) is one such method; it is relatively recent, but has already been successfully implemented in a range of different NMR experiments. Paradoxically, PSYCHE is one of the trickiest of pure shift NMR techniques to understand but one of the easiest to use. Here we offer some insights into theoretical and practical aspects of the method, and into the effects and importance of the experimental parameters. Some recent improvements that enhance the spectral purity of PSYCHE spectra will be presented, and some experimental frameworks including examples in 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, for the implementation of PSYCHE will be introduced. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. PROMOTING TOURIST DESTINATIONS THROUGH SPORT EVENTS. THE CASE OF BRAŞOV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Nicoleta CANDREA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sport event tourism is a huge and growing global industry with important economic implications for both the sport, the event and the impact of travel and tourism related benefits on host destinations. A primary function of a sport event is to provide the host community with an opportunity to secure high prominence in the tourism market place. However, international or regional prominence may be gained with significant social and environmental costs. Hosting sport events has been a focus of destination marketers as a strategy to enhance its destination image and differentiate its tourism products. Communities are attracted to hosting sport events to draw marketing benefits that will contribute to the success of the destination in the long run by creating awareness, improving their image with visitors and attracting tourism business to generate future inbound travel. As such, destination images can be influenced by the hosting of a sport event and the attributes associated with this event. The purpose of this paper is to outline the role of sport event tourism in the promotion of tourist destinations. A case study has been chosen in order to illustrate the interdependence between event and destination marketing: Braşov, hosting the winter edition of The European Youth Olympic Festival in 2013. The paper includes a series of recommendations for destination managers in order to maximise the benefits of this event and take this opportunity to promote Braşov on the international market.

  5. Event dependent sampling of recurrent events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Tine Kajsa; Andersen, Per Kragh; Angst, Jules

    2010-01-01

    The effect of event-dependent sampling of processes consisting of recurrent events is investigated when analyzing whether the risk of recurrence increases with event count. We study the situation where processes are selected for study if an event occurs in a certain selection interval. Motivation...... retrospective and prospective disease course histories are used. We examine two methods to correct for the selection depending on which data are used in the analysis. In the first case, the conditional distribution of the process given the pre-selection history is determined. In the second case, an inverse...

  6. Host Defence to Pulmonary Mycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher H Mody

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To provide a basic understanding of the mechanisms of host defense to pathogenic fungi. This will help physicians understand why some patients are predisposed to fungal infections and update basic scientists on how microbial immunology applies to fungal disease.

  7. Intercultural Competence in Host Students?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egekvist, Ulla Egidiussen; Lyngdorf, Niels Erik; Du, Xiangyun

    2016-01-01

    Although substantial work in intercultural education has been done on the intercultural competences of mobile students engaging in international study visits, there is a need to explore intercultural competences in host students. This chapter seeks to answer questions about the challenges...

  8. Q&A: Friends (but sometimes foes) within: the complex evolutionary ecology of symbioses between host and microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardo, Nicole; Hurst, Gregory

    2017-12-27

    Over the past decade, there has been a pronounced shift in the study of host-microbe associations, with recognition that many of these associations are beneficial, and often critical, for a diverse array of hosts. There may also be pronounced benefits for the microbes, though this is less well empirically understood. Significant progress has been made in understanding how ecology and evolution shape simple associations between hosts and one or a few microbial species, and this work can serve as a foundation to study the ecology and evolution of host associations with their often complex microbial communities (microbiomes).

  9. Elevated Extinction Rates as a Trigger for Diversification Rate Shifts: Early Amniotes as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocklehurst, Neil; Ruta, Marcello; Müller, Johannes; Fröbisch, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Tree shape analyses are frequently used to infer the location of shifts in diversification rate within the Tree of Life. Many studies have supported a causal relationship between shifts and temporally coincident events such as the evolution of “key innovations”. However, the evidence for such relationships is circumstantial. We investigated patterns of diversification during the early evolution of Amniota from the Carboniferous to the Triassic, subjecting a new supertree to analyses of tree balance in order to infer the timing and location of diversification shifts. We investigated how uneven origination and extinction rates drive diversification shifts, and use two case studies (herbivory and an aquatic lifestyle) to examine whether shifts tend to be contemporaneous with evolutionary novelties. Shifts within amniotes tend to occur during periods of elevated extinction, with mass extinctions coinciding with numerous and larger shifts. Diversification shifts occurring in clades that possess evolutionary innovations do not coincide temporally with the appearance of those innovations, but are instead deferred to periods of high extinction rate. We suggest such innovations did not cause increases in the rate of cladogenesis, but allowed clades to survive extinction events. We highlight the importance of examining general patterns of diversification before interpreting specific shifts. PMID:26592209

  10. Diet dominates host genotype in shaping the murine gut microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, Rachel N.; Gerber, Georg K.; Luevano, Jesus M.; Gatti, Daniel M.; Somes, Lisa; Svenson, Karen L.; Turnbaugh, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Mammals exhibit marked inter-individual variations in their gut microbiota, but it remains unclear if this is primarily driven by host genetics or by extrinsic factors like dietary intake. To address this, we examined the effect of dietary perturbations on the gut microbiota of five inbred mouse strains, mice deficient for genes relevant to host-microbial interactions (MyD88−/−, NOD2−/−, ob/ob, and Rag1−/−), and >200 outbred mice. In each experiment, consumption of a high-fat, high-sugar diet reproducibly altered the gut microbiota despite differences in host genotype. The gut microbiota exhibited a linear dose response to dietary perturbations, taking an average of 3.5 days for each diet-responsive bacterial groups to reach a new steady state. Repeated dietary shifts demonstrated that most changes to the gut microbiota are reversible, while also uncovering bacteria whose abundance depends on prior consumption. These results emphasize the dominant role that diet plays in shaping inter-individual variations in host-associated microbial communities. PMID:25532804

  11. Event generators for address event representation transmitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Gotarredona, Rafael; Serrano-Gotarredona, Teresa; Linares Barranco, Bernabe

    2005-06-01

    Address Event Representation (AER) is an emergent neuromorphic interchip communication protocol that allows for real-time virtual massive connectivity between huge number neurons located on different chips. By exploiting high speed digital communication circuits (with nano-seconds timings), synaptic neural connections can be time multiplexed, while neural activity signals (with mili-seconds timings) are sampled at low frequencies. Also, neurons generate 'events' according to their activity levels. More active neurons generate more events per unit time, and access the interchip communication channel more frequently, while neurons with low activity consume less communication bandwidth. In a typical AER transmitter chip, there is an array of neurons that generate events. They send events to a peripheral circuitry (let's call it "AER Generator") that transforms those events to neurons coordinates (addresses) which are put sequentially on an interchip high speed digital bus. This bus includes a parallel multi-bit address word plus a Rqst (request) and Ack (acknowledge) handshaking signals for asynchronous data exchange. There have been two main approaches published in the literature for implementing such "AER Generator" circuits. They differ on the way of handling event collisions coming from the array of neurons. One approach is based on detecting and discarding collisions, while the other incorporates arbitration for sequencing colliding events . The first approach is supposed to be simpler and faster, while the second is able to handle much higher event traffic. In this article we will concentrate on the second arbiter-based approach. Boahen has been publishing several techniques for implementing and improving the arbiter based approach. Originally, he proposed an arbitration squeme by rows, followed by a column arbitration. In this scheme, while one neuron was selected by the arbiters to transmit his event out of the chip, the rest of neurons in the array were

  12. Visual attention shifting in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Annette E; Lajiness-O'Neill, Renee

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal visual attention has been frequently observed in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Abnormal shifting of visual attention is related to abnormal development of social cognition and has been identified as a key neuropsychological finding in ASD. Better characterizing attention shifting in ASD and its relationship with social functioning may help to identify new targets for intervention and improving social communication in these disorders. Thus, the current study investigated deficits in attention shifting in ASD as well as relationships between attention shifting and social communication in ASD and neurotypicals (NT). To investigate deficits in visual attention shifting in ASD, 20 ASD and 20 age- and gender-matched NT completed visual search (VS) and Navon tasks with attention-shifting demands as well as a set-shifting task. VS was a feature search task with targets defined in one of two dimensions; Navon required identification of a target letter presented at the global or local level. Psychomotor and processing speed were entered as covariates. Relationships between visual attention shifting, set shifting, and social functioning were also examined. ASD and NT showed comparable costs of shifting attention. However, psychomotor and processing speed were slower in ASD than in NT, and psychomotor and processing speed were positively correlated with attention-shifting costs on Navon and VS, respectively, for both groups. Attention shifting on VS and Navon were correlated among NT, while attention shifting on Navon was correlated with set shifting among ASD. Attention-shifting costs on Navon were positively correlated with restricted and repetitive behaviors among ASD. Relationships between attention shifting and psychomotor and processing speed, as well as relationships between measures of different aspects of visual attention shifting, suggest inefficient top-down influences over preattentive visual processing in ASD. Inefficient attention shifting may be

  13. Bright fluorescent Streptococcus pneumoniae for live cell imaging of host-pathogen interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kjos, M.; Aprianto, R.; Fernandes, V.E.; Andrew, P.W.; Strijp, van J.A.G.; Nijland, R.; Veening, J.W.

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common nasopharyngeal resident in healthy people, but at the same time one of the major causes of infectious diseases such as pneumonia, meningitis and sepsis. The shift from commensal to pathogen and its interaction with host cells is poorly understood. One of the

  14. Bright Fluorescent Streptococcus pneumoniae for Live-Cell Imaging of Host-Pathogen Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kjos, Morten; Aprianto, Rieza; Fernandes, Vitor E.; Andrew, Peter W.; van Strijp, Jos A. G.; Nijland, Reindert; Veening, Jan-Willem

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common nasopharyngeal resident in healthy people but, at the same time, one of the major causes of infectious diseases such as pneumonia, meningitis, and sepsis. The shift from commensal to pathogen and its interaction with host cells are poorly understood. One of the

  15. Event-by-event jet quenching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fries, R.J.; Rodriguez, R.; Ramirez, E.

    2010-08-14

    High momentum jets and hadrons can be used as probes for the quark gluon plasma (QGP) formed in nuclear collisions at high energies. We investigate the influence of fluctuations in the fireball on jet quenching observables by comparing propagation of light quarks and gluons through averaged, smooth QGP fireballs with event-by-event jet quenching using realistic inhomogeneous fireballs. We find that the transverse momentum and impact parameter dependence of the nuclear modification factor R{sub AA} can be fit well in an event-by-event quenching scenario within experimental errors. However the transport coefficient {cflx q} extracted from fits to the measured nuclear modification factor R{sub AA} in averaged fireballs underestimates the value from event-by-event calculations by up to 50%. On the other hand, after adjusting {cflx q} to fit R{sub AA} in the event-by-event analysis we find residual deviations in the azimuthal asymmetry v{sub 2} and in two-particle correlations, that provide a possible faint signature for a spatial tomography of the fireball. We discuss a correlation function that is a measure for spatial inhomogeneities in a collision and can be constrained from data.

  16. Event-by-event jet quenching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, R. [Cyclotron Institute and Physics Department, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Fries, R.J., E-mail: rjfries@comp.tamu.ed [Cyclotron Institute and Physics Department, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); RIKEN/BNL Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Ramirez, E. [Physics Department, University of Texas El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States)

    2010-09-27

    High momentum jets and hadrons can be used as probes for the quark gluon plasma (QGP) formed in nuclear collisions at high energies. We investigate the influence of fluctuations in the fireball on jet quenching observables by comparing propagation of light quarks and gluons through averaged, smooth QGP fireballs with event-by-event jet quenching using realistic inhomogeneous fireballs. We find that the transverse momentum and impact parameter dependence of the nuclear modification factor R{sub AA} can be fit well in an event-by-event quenching scenario within experimental errors. However the transport coefficient q extracted from fits to the measured nuclear modification factor R{sub AA} in averaged fireballs underestimates the value from event-by-event calculations by up to 50%. On the other hand, after adjusting q to fit R{sub AA} in the event-by-event analysis we find residual deviations in the azimuthal asymmetry v{sub 2} and in two-particle correlations, that provide a possible faint signature for a spatial tomography of the fireball. We discuss a correlation function that is a measure for spatial inhomogeneities in a collision and can be constrained from data.

  17. Event-by-event fluctuations at SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Appelshauser, Harald; Adamova, D.; Agakichiev, G.; Belaga, V.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Castillo, A.; Cherlin, A.; Damjanovic, S.; Dietel, T.; Dietrich, L.; Drees, A.; Esumi, S.I.; Filimonov, K.; Fomenko, K.; Fraenkel, Z.; Garabatos, C.; Glassel, P.; Hering, G.; Holeczek, J.; Kushpil, V.; Lenkeit, B.; Ludolphs, W.; Maas, A.; Marn, A.; Milosevic, J.; Milov, A.; Miskowiec, D.; Panebrattsev, Yu.; Petchenova, O.; Petracek, V.; Pfeiffer, A.; Rak, J.; Ravinovich, I.; Rehak, P.; Schmitz, W.; Schukraft, J.; Sedykh, S.; Shimansky, S.; Slvova, J.; Stachel, J.; Sumbera, M.; Tilsner, H.; Tserruya, Itzhak; Wessels, J.P.; Wienold, T.; Windelband, B.; Wurm, J.P.; Xie, W.; Yurevich, S.; Yurevich, V.; Appelshauser, Harald; Sako, Hiro

    2005-01-01

    Results on event-by-event fluctuations of the mean transverse momentum and net charge in Pb-Au collisions, measured by the CERES Collaboration at CERN-SPS, are presented. We discuss the centrality and beam energy dependence and compare our data to cascade calculations.

  18. Location of Host and Host Habitat by Fruit Fly Parasitoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Rousse

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Augmentative releases of parasitoids may be a useful tool for the area-wide management of tephritid pests. The latter are parasitized by many wasp species, though only a few of them are relevant for augmentative biocontrol purposes. To date, nearly all the actual or potential biocontrol agents for such programs are egg or larval Opiinae parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae. Here, we review the literature published on their habitat and host location behavior, as well as the factors that modulate this behavior, which is assumed to be sequential; parasitoids forage first for the host habitat and then for the host itself. Parasitoids rely on chemical, visual, and mechanical stimuli, often strongly related to their ecology. Behavioral modulation factors include biotic and abiotic factors including learning, climatic conditions and physiological state of the insect. Finally, conclusions and perspectives for future research are briefly highlighted. A detailed knowledge of this behavior may be very useful for selecting the release sites for both inundative/augmentative releases of mass-reared parasitoids and inoculative releases for classical biocontrol.

  19. LAN attack detection using Discrete Event Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubballi, Neminath; Biswas, Santosh; Roopa, S; Ratti, Ritesh; Nandi, Sukumar

    2011-01-01

    Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is used for determining the link layer or Medium Access Control (MAC) address of a network host, given its Internet Layer (IP) or Network Layer address. ARP is a stateless protocol and any IP-MAC pairing sent by a host is accepted without verification. This weakness in the ARP may be exploited by malicious hosts in a Local Area Network (LAN) by spoofing IP-MAC pairs. Several schemes have been proposed in the literature to circumvent these attacks; however, these techniques either make IP-MAC pairing static, modify the existing ARP, patch operating systems of all the hosts etc. In this paper we propose a Discrete Event System (DES) approach for Intrusion Detection System (IDS) for LAN specific attacks which do not require any extra constraint like static IP-MAC, changing the ARP etc. A DES model is built for the LAN under both a normal and compromised (i.e., spoofed request/response) situation based on the sequences of ARP related packets. Sequences of ARP events in normal and spoofed scenarios are similar thereby rendering the same DES models for both the cases. To create different ARP events under normal and spoofed conditions the proposed technique uses active ARP probing. However, this probing adds extra ARP traffic in the LAN. Following that a DES detector is built to determine from observed ARP related events, whether the LAN is operating under a normal or compromised situation. The scheme also minimizes extra ARP traffic by probing the source IP-MAC pair of only those ARP packets which are yet to be determined as genuine/spoofed by the detector. Also, spoofed IP-MAC pairs determined by the detector are stored in tables to detect other LAN attacks triggered by spoofing namely, man-in-the-middle (MiTM), denial of service etc. The scheme is successfully validated in a test bed. Copyright © 2010 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cortisol shifts financial risk preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Narayanan; Hardy, Ben; Page, Lionel; Schaffner, Markus; Graggaber, Johann; Powlson, Andrew S; Fletcher, Paul C; Gurnell, Mark; Coates, John

    2014-03-04

    Risk taking is central to human activity. Consequently, it lies at the focal point of behavioral sciences such as neuroscience, economics, and finance. Many influential models from these sciences assume that financial risk preferences form a stable trait. Is this assumption justified and, if not, what causes the appetite for risk to fluctuate? We have previously found that traders experience a sustained increase in the stress hormone cortisol when the amount of uncertainty, in the form of market volatility, increases. Here we ask whether these elevated cortisol levels shift risk preferences. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over protocol we raised cortisol levels in volunteers over 8 d to the same extent previously observed in traders. We then tested for the utility and probability weighting functions underlying their risk taking and found that participants became more risk-averse. We also observed that the weighting of probabilities became more distorted among men relative to women. These results suggest that risk preferences are highly dynamic. Specifically, the stress response calibrates risk taking to our circumstances, reducing it in times of prolonged uncertainty, such as a financial crisis. Physiology-induced shifts in risk preferences may thus be an underappreciated cause of market instability.

  1. Cortisol shifts financial risk preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Narayanan; Hardy, Ben; Page, Lionel; Schaffner, Markus; Graggaber, Johann; Powlson, Andrew S.; Fletcher, Paul C.; Gurnell, Mark; Coates, John

    2014-01-01

    Risk taking is central to human activity. Consequently, it lies at the focal point of behavioral sciences such as neuroscience, economics, and finance. Many influential models from these sciences assume that financial risk preferences form a stable trait. Is this assumption justified and, if not, what causes the appetite for risk to fluctuate? We have previously found that traders experience a sustained increase in the stress hormone cortisol when the amount of uncertainty, in the form of market volatility, increases. Here we ask whether these elevated cortisol levels shift risk preferences. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over protocol we raised cortisol levels in volunteers over 8 d to the same extent previously observed in traders. We then tested for the utility and probability weighting functions underlying their risk taking and found that participants became more risk-averse. We also observed that the weighting of probabilities became more distorted among men relative to women. These results suggest that risk preferences are highly dynamic. Specifically, the stress response calibrates risk taking to our circumstances, reducing it in times of prolonged uncertainty, such as a financial crisis. Physiology-induced shifts in risk preferences may thus be an underappreciated cause of market instability. PMID:24550472

  2. Geography and host species shape the evolutionary dynamics of U genogroup infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Allison; Breyta, Rachel; Bedford, Trevor; Kurath, Gael

    2016-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a negative-sense RNA virus that infects wild and cultured salmonids throughout the Pacific Coastal United States and Canada, from California to Alaska. Although infection of adult fish is usually asymptomatic, juvenile infections can result in high mortality events that impact salmon hatchery programs and commercial aquaculture. We used epidemiological case data and genetic sequence data from a 303 nt portion of the viral glycoprotein gene to study the evolutionary dynamics of U genogroup IHNV in the Pacific Northwestern United States from 1971 to 2013. We identified 114 unique genotypes among 1,219 U genogroup IHNV isolates representing 619 virus detection events. We found evidence for two previously unidentified, broad subgroups within the U genogroup, which we designated ‘UC’ and ‘UP’. Epidemiologic records indicated that UP viruses were detected more frequently in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) and in coastal waters of Washington and Oregon, whereas UC viruses were detected primarily in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Columbia River Basin, which is a large, complex watershed extending throughout much of interior Washington, Oregon, and Idaho. These findings were supported by phylogenetic analysis and by FST. Ancestral state reconstruction indicated that early UC viruses in the Columbia River Basin initially infected sockeye salmon but then emerged via host shifts into Chinook salmon and steelhead trout sometime during the 1980s. We postulate that the development of these subgroups within U genogroup was driven by selection pressure for viral adaptation to Chinook salmon and steelhead trout within the Columbia River Basin.

  3. Changes in coral-associated microbial communities during a bleaching event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, David; Iida, Yuki; Uthicke, Sven; Smith-Keune, Carolyn

    2008-04-01

    Environmental stressors such as increased sea surface temperatures are well-known for contributing to coral bleaching; however, the effect of increased temperatures and subsequent bleaching on coral-associated microbial communities is poorly understood. Colonies of the hard coral Acropora millepora were tagged on a reef flat off Magnetic Island (Great Barrier Reef) and surveyed over 2.5 years, which included a severe bleaching event in January/February 2002. Daily average water temperatures exceeded the previous 10-year average by more than 1 degrees C for extended periods with field-based visual surveys recording all tagged colonies displaying signs of bleaching. During the bleaching period, direct counts of coral zooxanthellae densities decreased by approximately 64%, before recovery to pre-bleaching levels after the thermal stress event. A subset of three tagged coral colonies were sampled through the bleaching event and changes in the microbial community elucidated. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis demonstrated conserved bacterial banding profiles between the three coral colonies, confirming previous studies highlighting specific microbial associations. As coral colonies bleached, the microbial community shifted and redundancy analysis (RDA) of DGGE banding patterns revealed a correlation of increasing temperature with the appearance of Vibrio-affiliated sequences. Interestingly, this shift to a Vibrio-dominated community commenced prior to visual signs of bleaching. Clone libraries hybridized with Vibrio-specific oligonucleotide probes confirmed an increase in the fraction of Vibrio-affiliated clones during the bleaching period. Post bleaching, the coral microbial associations again shifted, returning to a profile similar to the fingerprints prior to bleaching. This provided further evidence for corals selecting and shaping their microbial partners. For non-bleached samples, a close association with Spongiobacter-related sequences were

  4. Hosting the first EDRS payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncet, D.; Glynn, S.; Heine, F.

    2017-11-01

    The European Data Relay System (EDRS) will provide optical and microwave data relay services between Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites at altitudes up to 2000 km and the ground through geostationary (GEO) satellite nodes. Currently, two such nodes have been procured as part of a Public Private Partnership (PPP) between Astrium (now Airbus Defence and Space) and ESA. The first node (EDRS-A) is a hosted payload embarked upon the Eutelsat 9B satellite and scheduled for launch in early 2015.

  5. Host thin films incorporating nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Uzma

    The focus of this research project was the investigation of the functional properties of thin films that incorporate a secondary nanoparticulate phase. In particular to assess if the secondary nanoparticulate material enhanced a functional property of the coating on glass. In order to achieve this, new thin film deposition methods were developed, namely use of nanopowder precursors, an aerosol assisted transport technique and an aerosol into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition system. Aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) was used to deposit 8 series of thin films on glass. Five different nanoparticles silver, gold, ceria, tungsten oxide and zinc oxide were tested and shown to successfully deposit thin films incorporating nanoparticles within a host matrix. Silver nanoparticles were synthesised and doped within a titania film by AACVD. This improved solar control properties. A unique aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition (APCVD) system was used to deposit films of Au nanoparticles and thin films of gold nanoparticles incorporated within a host titania matrix. Incorporation of high refractive index contrast metal oxide particles within a host film altered the film colour. The key goal was to test the potential of nanopowder forms and transfer the suspended nanopowder via an aerosol to a substrate in order to deposit a thin film. Discrete tungsten oxide nanoparticles or ceria nanoparticles within a titanium dioxide thin film enhanced the self-cleaning and photo-induced super-hydrophilicity. The nanopowder precursor study was extended by deposition of zinc oxide thin films incorporating Au nanoparticles and also ZnO films deposited from a ZnO nanopowder precursor. Incorporation of Au nanoparticles within a VO: host matrix improved the thermochromic response, optical and colour properties. Composite VC/TiC and Au nanoparticle/V02/Ti02 thin films displayed three useful

  6. Episodes, events, and models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeet eKhemlani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe a novel computational theory of how individuals segment perceptual information into representations of events. The theory is inspired by recent findings in the cognitive science and cognitive neuroscience of event segmentation. In line with recent theories, it holds that online event segmentation is automatic, and that event segmentation yields mental simulations of events. But it posits two novel principles as well: first, discrete episodic markers track perceptual and conceptual changes, and can be retrieved to construct event models. Second, the process of retrieving and reconstructing those episodic markers is constrained and prioritized. We describe a computational implementation of the theory, as well as a robotic extension of the theory that demonstrates the processes of online event segmentation and event model construction. The theory is the first unified computational account of event segmentation and temporal inference. We conclude by demonstrating now neuroimaging data can constrain and inspire the construction of process-level theories of human reasoning.

  7. Individual differences in shift work tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers-van der Holst, H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Shift work is a key feature of our contemporary 24/7 society, employing several successive work teams to sustain around-the-clock operations. However, numerous studies imply that frequently shifting the periods of sleep and wakefulness poses a serious threat to the shift worker’s physical, mental

  8. Shifting Cultivation : Promoting Innovative Policy and Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Shifting Cultivation : Promoting Innovative Policy and Development Options in the Eastern Himalayas. Shifting ... pressure and market forces. The idea is to share good policies and practices related to shifting cultivation and alternative options through regional exchange. ... Les chaînes de valeur comme leviers stratégiques.

  9. Dynamics of Charged Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachas, Constantin; Bunster, Claudio; Henneaux, Marc

    2009-01-01

    In three spacetime dimensions the world volume of a magnetic source is a single point, an event. We make the event dynamical by regarding it as the imprint of a flux-carrying particle impinging from an extra dimension. This can be generalized to higher spacetime dimensions and to extended events. We exhibit universal observable consequences of the existence of events and argue that events are as important as particles or branes. We explain how events arise on the world volume of membranes in M theory, and in a Josephson junction in superconductivity.

  10. The global event system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winans, J.

    1994-01-01

    The support for the global event system has been designed to allow an application developer to control the APS event generator and receiver boards. This is done by the use of four new record types. These records are customized and are only supported by the device support modules for the APS event generator and receiver boards. The use of the global event system and its associated records should not be confused with the vanilla EPICS events and the associated event records. They are very different

  11. Large-scale gene expression reveals different adaptations of Hyalopterus persikonus to winter and summer host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Na; Yang, Peng-Cheng; Guo, Kun; Kang, Le; Cui, Feng

    2017-06-01

    Host alternation, an obligatory seasonal shifting between host plants of distant genetic relationship, has had significant consequences for the diversification and success of the superfamily of aphids. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, the molecular mechanism of host alternation was explored through a large-scale gene expression analysis of the mealy aphid Hyalopterus persikonus on winter and summer host plants. More than four times as many unigenes of the mealy aphid were significantly upregulated on summer host Phragmites australis than on winter host Rosaceae plants. In order to identify gene candidates related to host alternation, the differentially expressed unigenes of H. persikonus were compared to salivary gland expressed genes and secretome of Acyrthosiphon pisum. Genes involved in ribosome and oxidative phosphorylation and with molecular functions of heme-copper terminal oxidase activity, hydrolase activity and ribosome binding were potentially upregulated in salivary glands of H. persikonus on the summer host. Putative secretory proteins, such as detoxification enzymes (carboxylesterases and cytochrome P450s), antioxidant enzymes (peroxidase and superoxide dismutase), glutathione peroxidase, glucose dehydrogenase, angiotensin-converting enzyme, cadherin, and calreticulin, were highly expressed in H. persikonus on the summer host, while a SCP GAPR-1-like family protein and a salivary sheath protein were highly expressed in the aphids on winter hosts. These results shed light on phenotypic plasticity in host utilization and seasonal adaptation of aphids. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  12. Tilt shift determinations with spatial-carrier phase-shift method in temporal phase-shift interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qian; Wang, Yang; He, Jianguo; Ji, Fang; Wang, Baorui

    2014-01-01

    An algorithm is proposed to deal with tilt-shift errors in temporal phase-shift interferometry (PSI). In the algorithm, the tilt shifts are detected with the spatial-carrier phase-shift (SCPS) method and then the tilt shifts are applied as priori information to the least-squares fittings of phase retrieval. The algorithm combines the best features of the SCPS and the temporal PSI. The algorithm could be applied to interferograms of arbitrary aperture without data extrapolation for the Fourier transform is not involved. Simulations and experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm. The statistics of simulation results show a satisfied accuracy in detecting tilt-shift errors. Comparisons of the measurements with and without environmental vibration show that the proposed algorithm could compensate tilt-shift errors and retrieve wavefront phase accurately. The algorithm provides an approach to retrieve wavefront phase for the temporal PSI in vibrating environment. (paper)

  13. Steady State Shift Damage Localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sekjær, Claus; Bull, Thomas; Markvart, Morten Kusk

    2017-01-01

    The steady state shift damage localization (S3DL) method localizes structural deterioration, manifested as either a mass or stiffness perturbation, by interrogating the damage-induced change in the steady state vibration response with damage patterns cast from a theoretical model. Damage is, thus...... the required accuracy when examining complex structures, an extensive amount of degrees of freedom (DOF) must often be utilized. Since the interrogation matrix for each damage pattern depends on the size of the system matrices constituting the FE-model, the computational time quickly becomes of first......-order importance. The present paper investigates two sub-structuring approaches, in which the idea is to employ Craig-Bampton super-elements to reduce the amount of interrogation distributions while still providing an acceptable localization resolution. The first approach operates on a strict super-element level...

  14. Identical and shifted identical bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodder, R.S; Jones, E.F.; Hamilton, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    Spontaneous fission of 252 Cm was studied with 72 large Compton suppressed Ge detectors in Gamma sphere. New isotopes 160 Sm and 162 Gd were identified. Through X-ray-γ and γ-γ-γ) coincidence measurements, level energies were established to spins 14 + to 20 + in 152 , 154 156 60 Nd 92 94 96 , 156 , 158 , 160 62 Sm 94 , 96 , 98 , and 160 , 162 64 Gd 96 , 98 . These nuclei exhibit a remarkable variety of identical bands and bands where the energies and moments of inertia are shifted by the same constant amount for every spin state from 2 + to 12 + for various combinations of nuclei differing by 2n, 4n, 2p, 4p, and α

  15. Event by event physics in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Christakoglou, Panos

    2009-01-01

    Fluctuations of thermodynamic quantities are fundamental for the study of the QGP phase transition. The ALICE experiment is well suited for precise event-by-event measurements of various quantities. In this article, we review the capabilities of ALICE to study the fluctuations of several key observables such as the net charge, the temperature, and the particle ratios. Among the observables related to correlations, we review the balance functions and the long range correlations.

  16. Organization of international sporting events as a country’s promotional economic image tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božo Skoko

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The article concentrates on the important aspect of image in a country’s political and economic objectives and deals with the role of sports in managing countries as brands. Analyzing the biggest sporting events in the world, such as the Olympic Games, football (soccer championships and others, authors attempt to detect and display their economic and promotional potential for host cities and countries as well as for participating nations. Special focus is on global media, which are essential in "creating" the events, transferring images and communicating impressions of the host city/country to the global public. The authors conclude that the most important role is that of the organizers, whose creativity and capabilities will for the most part determine the promotional and economic contribution of hosting such a sporting event. Activities prior to the main event and those following the event are also of great importance for the host country.

  17. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental conditions of extreme weather events. This review article examines infectious disease risks associated with extreme weather events; it draws on recent experiences including Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the 2010 Pakistan mega-floods, and historical examples from previous centuries of epidemics and 'pestilence' associated with extreme weather disasters and climatic changes. A fuller understanding of climatic change, the precursors and triggers of extreme weather events and health consequences is needed in order to anticipate and respond to the infectious disease risks associated with human-driven climate change. Post-event risks to human health can be constrained, nonetheless, by reducing background rates of persistent infection, preparatory action such as coordinated disease surveillance and vaccination coverage, and strengthened disaster response. In the face of changing climate and weather conditions, it is critically important to think in ecological terms about the determinants of health, disease and death in human populations.

  18. Conferences and Events

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    André Lavoie

    2016-06-14

    Jun 14, 2016 ... Approved by the Management Executive Committee. - 1 - ... Event ‒ represents activities related to IDRC operations and may include both ... Events include business meetings; corporate, branch or divisional management.

  19. Initiating events frequency determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simic, Z.; Mikulicic, V.; Vukovic, I.

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes work performed for the Nuclear Power Station (NPS). Work is related to the periodic initiating events frequency update for the Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). Data for all relevant NPS initiating events (IE) were reviewed. The main focus was on events occurring during most recent operating history (i.e., last four years). The final IE frequencies were estimated by incorporating both NPS experience and nuclear industry experience. Each event was categorized according to NPS individual plant examination (IPE) initiating events grouping approach. For the majority of the IE groups, few, or no events have occurred at the NPS. For those IE groups with few or no NPS events, the final estimate was made by means of a Bayesian update with general nuclear industry values. Exceptions are rare loss-of-coolant-accidents (LOCA) events, where evaluation of engineering aspects is used in order to determine frequency.(author)

  20. Significance of Cuscutain, a cysteine protease from Cuscuta reflexa, in host-parasite interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuchsbauer Hans-Lothar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant infestation with parasitic weeds like Cuscuta reflexa induces morphological as well as biochemical changes in the host and the parasite. These modifications could be caused by a change in protein or gene activity. Using a comparative macroarray approach Cuscuta genes specifically upregulated at the host attachment site were identified. Results One of the infestation specific Cuscuta genes encodes a cysteine protease. The protein and its intrinsic inhibitory peptide were heterologously expressed, purified and biochemically characterized. The haustoria specific enzyme was named cuscutain in accordance with similar proteins from other plants, e.g. papaya. The role of cuscutain and its inhibitor during the host parasite interaction was studied by external application of an inhibitor suspension, which induced a significant reduction of successful infection events. Conclusions The study provides new information about molecular events during the parasitic plant - host interaction. Inhibition of cuscutain cysteine proteinase could provide means for antagonizing parasitic plants.

  1. Significance of Cuscutain, a cysteine protease from Cuscuta reflexa, in host-parasite interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleischwitz, Marc; Albert, Markus; Fuchsbauer, Hans-Lothar; Kaldenhoff, Ralf

    2010-10-22

    Plant infestation with parasitic weeds like Cuscuta reflexa induces morphological as well as biochemical changes in the host and the parasite. These modifications could be caused by a change in protein or gene activity. Using a comparative macroarray approach Cuscuta genes specifically upregulated at the host attachment site were identified. One of the infestation specific Cuscuta genes encodes a cysteine protease. The protein and its intrinsic inhibitory peptide were heterologously expressed, purified and biochemically characterized. The haustoria specific enzyme was named cuscutain in accordance with similar proteins from other plants, e.g. papaya. The role of cuscutain and its inhibitor during the host parasite interaction was studied by external application of an inhibitor suspension, which induced a significant reduction of successful infection events. The study provides new information about molecular events during the parasitic plant--host interaction. Inhibition of cuscutain cysteine proteinase could provide means for antagonizing parasitic plants.

  2. Circadian Rhythm Shapes the Gut Microbiota Affecting Host Radiosensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ming; Xiao, Huiwen; Luo, Dan; Zhang, Xin; Zhao, Shuyi; Zheng, Qisheng; Li, Yuan; Zhao, Yu; Dong, Jiali; Li, Hang; Wang, Haichao; Fan, Saijun

    2016-10-26

    Modern lifestyles, such as shift work, nocturnal social activities, and jet lag, disturb the circadian rhythm. The interaction between mammals and the co-evolved intestinal microbiota modulates host physiopathological processes. Radiotherapy is a cornerstone of modern management of malignancies; however, it was previously unknown whether circadian rhythm disorder impairs prognosis after radiotherapy. To investigate the effect of circadian rhythm on radiotherapy, C57BL/6 mice were housed in different dark/light cycles, and their intestinal bacterial compositions were compared using high throughput sequencing. The survival rate, body weight, and food intake of mice in diverse cohorts were measured following irradiation exposure. Finally, the enteric bacterial composition of irradiated mice that experienced different dark/light cycles was assessed using 16S RNA sequencing. Intriguingly, mice housed in aberrant light cycles harbored a reduction of observed intestinal bacterial species and shifts of gut bacterial composition compared with those of the mice kept under 12 h dark/12 h light cycles, resulting in a decrease of host radioresistance. Moreover, the alteration of enteric bacterial composition of mice in different groups was dissimilar. Our findings provide novel insights into the effects of biological clocks on the gut bacterial composition, and underpin that the circadian rhythm influences the prognosis of patients after radiotherapy in a preclinical setting.

  3. Hosting and operation of world nuclear University Radiation School

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, T. J.; Nam, Y. M.; Sun, J. B.; Lee, B. J.; Kim, H. J.; Yoo, B. D.; Noh, S. P.; Lee, Y. K.

    2012-07-15

    The purpose of this project is to cultivate new-generation global leaders in the radiation fields through hosting and managing WNU RT School and create globalization foundation in the radiation technology and industry. The scope of this project is to develop the WNU RT school programme, strengthen the promotion for oversea participants' involvement, open the WNU RT School on the endeavor, and thus analyze and evaluate the result of the WNU RT School. The WNU RT school, so as to change radiation-field young scientists in the world to new global leaders in the future, successfully opened from May 12 to June 1 at Deajeon. The WNU, WNA(World Nuclear Association) leads, managed the event, and KAERI, KINS, KHNP, and KRA co-holded the event as well. Many 39 scientists from Russia, Australia, Netherlands, and other 16 countries joined in the event and they were satisfied with a lot of lectures, practices, lab-training, etc.

  4. Advertising Effectiveness In Events

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Sushilkumar

    2012-01-01

    Confronted with decreasing effectiveness of the classic marketing communications, events have become an increasingly popular alternative for marketers. Events constitute one of the most exciting and fastest growing forms of leisure and business. With time, the decreasing effectiveness of classical marketing communications boosted the use of events for marketing and making brand awareness. Event marketing is seen as the unique opportunity to integrate the firm’s communication activities like p...

  5. Effect of Shift Work on Nocturia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Wook

    2016-01-01

    To identify the circadian sensitive component of nocturia by comparing nocturia in patients who voluntarily choose a disrupted circadian rhythm, that is, shift workers, with those who maintain normal day-night cycles. Between 2011 and 2013, a total of 1741 untreated patients, 1376 nonshift workers and 365 shift workers, were compared for nocturia indices based on frequency volume charts (FVCs). General linear model of 8-hour interval urine production and frequency were compared between FVCs of nonshift workers, FVCs of night-shift workers, and FVCs of day-shift workers. Nocturia frequency was increased in the night-shift workers (2.38 ± 1.44) compared with nonshift workers (2.18 ± 1.04) (P night-shift workers, 0.34 ± 0.13 for nonshift workers, P = .24), nocturnal bladder capacity index increased significantly (1.41 ± 1.06 for night-shift workers, 1.26 ± 0.92 for nonshift workers, P shift (P shift changes (P = .35). Patients in alternating work shifts showed increased nocturia, especially during their night shift. These changes tended to be more associated with decreased nocturnal bladder capacity than increased nocturnal polyuria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Real life working shift assignment problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, San-Nah; Kwek, Yeek-Ling; Tiong, Wei-King; Chiew, Kang-Leng

    2017-07-01

    This study concerns about the working shift assignment in an outlet of Supermarket X in Eastern Mall, Kuching. The working shift assignment needs to be solved at least once in every month. Current approval process of working shifts is too troublesome and time-consuming. Furthermore, the management staff cannot have an overview of manpower and working shift schedule. Thus, the aim of this study is to develop working shift assignment simulation and propose a working shift assignment solution. The main objective for this study is to fulfill manpower demand at minimum operation cost. Besides, the day off and meal break policy should be fulfilled accordingly. Demand based heuristic is proposed to assign working shift and the quality of the solution is evaluated by using the real data.

  7. Dynamics and computation in functional shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namikawa, Jun; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2004-07-01

    We introduce a new type of shift dynamics as an extended model of symbolic dynamics, and investigate the characteristics of shift spaces from the viewpoints of both dynamics and computation. This shift dynamics is called a functional shift, which is defined by a set of bi-infinite sequences of some functions on a set of symbols. To analyse the complexity of functional shifts, we measure them in terms of topological entropy, and locate their languages in the Chomsky hierarchy. Through this study, we argue that considering functional shifts from the viewpoints of both dynamics and computation gives us opposite results about the complexity of systems. We also describe a new class of shift spaces whose languages are not recursively enumerable.

  8. Carp erythrodermatitis : host defense-pathogen interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Pourreau, C.N.

    1990-01-01

    The outcome of a bacterial infection depends on the interaction between pathogen and host. The ability of the microbe to survive in the host depends on its invasive potential (i.e. spreading and multiplication), and its ability to obtain essential nutrients and to resist the host's defense system. On the other hand, the host's resistance to a bacterial attack depends on its physiological state, the intensity of the bacterial attack and the efficacy of the defense system to ...

  9. A Mosque event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten; Neergaard, Maja de; Koefoed, Lasse Martin

    2017-01-01

    and public imaginations attached to it. And they are connected to a specific event – the opening of the mosque. In the first part, a conceptual framework is presented bringing together literature on three notions: encounters, visibility and the event. Following this, the paper explores the opening event...

  10. On semirecurrent events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvurechenskij, A.

    1984-01-01

    In some problems of the mathematical theory of particle counters, film or filmless measurements of track ionization in high energy physics,queueing theory, random walks, etc., the classes of emirecurrent and m-semirecurrent events, which generalize the recurrent events and the recurrent events with delay, appeared. In the paper their basic properties, and some relationships between them are shown

  11. Using NLM exhibits and events to engage library users and reach the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auten, Beth; Norton, Hannah F; Tennant, Michele R; Edwards, Mary E; Stoyan-Rosenzweig, Nina; Daley, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to reach out to library users and make the library a more relevant, welcoming place, the University of Florida's Health Science Center Library hosted exhibits from the National Library of Medicine's (NLM) Traveling Exhibition Program. From 2010 through 2012, the library hosted four NLM exhibits and created event series for each. Through reflection and use of a participant survey, lessons were learned concerning creating relevant programs, marketing events, and forming new partnerships. Each successive exhibit added events and activities to address different audiences. A survey of libraries that have hosted NLM exhibits highlights lessons learned at those institutions.

  12. Event Management for Teacher-Coaches: Risk and Supervision Considerations for School-Based Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiement, Craig A.; Payment, Matthew P.

    2011-01-01

    A professional sports event requires considerable planning in which years are devoted to the success of that single activity. School-based sports events do not have that luxury, because high schools across the country host athletic events nearly every day. It is not uncommon during the fall sports season for a combination of boys' and girls'…

  13. Mega-events in India, Brazil, and South Africa: Lessons for safer cities

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    13 déc. 2016 ... Hosting global events is a popular strategy for boosting city profiles and spurring economic development. But these mega-events produce winners and losers, as infrastructure projects and private sector development compete for space in established neighbourhoods. Most research on mega-events has ...

  14. Mega-events in India, Brazil, and South Africa: Lessons for safer cities

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-12-13

    Dec 13, 2016 ... Hosting global events is a popular strategy for boosting city profiles and spurring economic development. But these mega-events produce winners and losers, as infrastructure projects and private sector development compete for space in established neighbourhoods. Most research on mega-events has ...

  15. Glastonbury Festival 2007: The Socio-Economic Impacts on the Host Community

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, Eleanor

    2008-01-01

    Event tourism, particularly festival tourism, is increasingly becoming a focus for tourism research. There are numerous impacts of festival tourism to the tourism industry and they often have numerous effects upon the host community. This research investigates the economic and social impacts of Glastonbury Festival 2007 on the host community. The research estimates a total economic impact on the immediate and the wider geographical area and gains an insight into the social impacts of the F...

  16. Viral Mimicry to Usurp Ubiquitin and SUMO Host Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wimmer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Posttranslational modifications (PTMs of proteins include enzymatic changes by covalent addition of cellular regulatory determinants such as ubiquitin (Ub and small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO moieties. These modifications are widely used by eukaryotic cells to control the functional repertoire of proteins. Over the last decade, it became apparent that the repertoire of ubiquitiylation and SUMOylation regulating various biological functions is not restricted to eukaryotic cells, but is also a feature of human virus families, used to extensively exploit complex host-cell networks and homeostasis. Intriguingly, besides binding to host SUMO/Ub control proteins and interfering with the respective enzymatic cascade, many viral proteins mimic key regulatory factors to usurp this host machinery and promote efficient viral outcomes. Advanced detection methods and functional studies of ubiquitiylation and SUMOylation during virus-host interplay have revealed that human viruses have evolved a large arsenal of strategies to exploit these specific PTM processes. In this review, we highlight the known viral analogs orchestrating ubiquitin and SUMO conjugation events to subvert and utilize basic enzymatic pathways.

  17. Cancer: shift of the paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Anatoly V

    2008-12-01

    Cancer is usually considered to be a by-product of design limitations of a multicellular organism and its intrinsic fallibility. However, recent data prompt a revision of some established notions about carcinogenesis and form a new paradigm of carcinogenesis as a highly conserved biological phenomenon - a programmed death of an organism. This altruistic program, which is unleashed when mutagenesis surpasses a certain critical threshold, gives a population the important benefit acting as a guardian of the gene pool against the spread of certain mutant genes. A growing body of evidence supports this point of view: (i) epigenetic changes leading to cancer arise early, simultaneously in many cells and look like deterministic regulation; (ii) concept of cancer stem cell suggests a view of carcinogenesis not as vague transformation but as well known differentiation; (iii) tumor/host relations usually perceived as antagonistic are, in reality, synergistic; (iv) death of an individual from cancer is predetermined and results apparently from a specific activity (killer function) of cancer cell and (v) evolutionary conservation indicates that cancer comes with a general advantage that explains its evolutionary success. A holistic approach to carcinogenesis suggests new avenues of research and new therapeutic strategy.

  18. Frequency shifting approach towards textual transcription of heartbeat sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvin, Farshad; Doraisamy, Shyamala; Safar Khorasani, Ehsan

    2011-10-04

    Auscultation is an approach for diagnosing many cardiovascular problems. Automatic analysis of heartbeat sounds and extraction of its audio features can assist physicians towards diagnosing diseases. Textual transcription allows recording a continuous heart sound stream using a text format which can be stored in very small memory in comparison with other audio formats. In addition, a text-based data allows applying indexing and searching techniques to access to the critical events. Hence, the transcribed heartbeat sounds provides useful information to monitor the behavior of a patient for the long duration of time. This paper proposes a frequency shifting method in order to improve the performance of the transcription. The main objective of this study is to transfer the heartbeat sounds to the music domain. The proposed technique is tested with 100 samples which were recorded from different heart diseases categories. The observed results show that, the proposed shifting method significantly improves the performance of the transcription.

  19. Frequency shifting approach towards textual transcription of heartbeat sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safar Khorasani Ehsan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Auscultation is an approach for diagnosing many cardiovascular problems. Automatic analysis of heartbeat sounds and extraction of its audio features can assist physicians towards diagnosing diseases. Textual transcription allows recording a continuous heart sound stream using a text format which can be stored in very small memory in comparison with other audio formats. In addition, a text-based data allows applying indexing and searching techniques to access to the critical events. Hence, the transcribed heartbeat sounds provides useful information to monitor the behavior of a patient for the long duration of time. This paper proposes a frequency shifting method in order to improve the performance of the transcription. The main objective of this study is to transfer the heartbeat sounds to the music domain. The proposed technique is tested with 100 samples which were recorded from different heart diseases categories. The observed results show that, the proposed shifting method significantly improves the performance of the transcription.

  20. Plant Ecological Strategies Shift Across the Cretaceous–Paleogene Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonder, Benjamin; Royer, Dana L.; Johnson, Kirk R.; Miller, Ian; Enquist, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    The Chicxulub bolide impact caused the end-Cretaceous mass extinction of plants, but the associated selectivity and ecological effects are poorly known. Using a unique set of North Dakota leaf fossil assemblages spanning 2.2 Myr across the event, we show among angiosperms a reduction of ecological strategies and selection for fast-growth strategies consistent with a hypothesized recovery from an impact winter. Leaf mass per area (carbon investment) decreased in both mean and variance, while vein density (carbon assimilation rate) increased in mean, consistent with a shift towards “fast” growth strategies. Plant extinction from the bolide impact resulted in a shift in functional trait space that likely had broad consequences for ecosystem functioning. PMID:25225914

  1. James Madison and a Shift in Precipitation Seasonality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druckenbrod, D. L.; Mann, M. E.; Stahle, D. W.; Cleaveland, M. K.; Therrell, M. D.; Shugart, H. H.

    2001-12-01

    An eighteen-year meteorological diary and tree ring data from James Madison's Montpelier plantation provide a consistent reconstruction of early summer and prior fall rainfall for the 18th Century Virginia piedmont. The Madison meteorological diary suggests a seasonal shift in monthly rainfall towards an earlier wet season relative to 20th Century norms. Furthermore, dendroclimatic reconstructions of early summer and prior fall rainfall reflect this shift in the seasonality of summer rainfall. The most pronounced early summer drought during the Madison diary period is presented as a case study. This 1792 drought occurs during one of the strongest El Niño events on record and is highlighted in the correspondence of James Madison.

  2. Non-occupational physical activity levels of shift workers compared with non-shift workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loef, Bette; Hulsegge, Gerben; Wendel-Vos, G C Wanda; Verschuren, W M Monique; Bakker, Marije F; van der Beek, Allard J; Proper, Karin I

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Lack of physical activity (PA) has been hypothesised as an underlying mechanism in the adverse health effects of shift work. Therefore, our aim was to compare non-occupational PA levels between shift workers and non-shift workers. Furthermore, exposure–response relationships for frequency of night shifts and years of shift work regarding non-occupational PA levels were studied. Methods Data of 5980 non-shift workers and 532 shift workers from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands (EPIC-NL) were used in these cross-sectional analyses. Time spent (hours/week) in different PA types (walking/cycling/exercise/chores) and intensities (moderate/vigorous) were calculated based on self-reported PA. Furthermore, sports were operationalised as: playing sports (no/yes), individual versus non-individual sports, and non-vigorous-intensity versus vigorous-intensity sports. PA levels were compared between shift workers and non-shift workers using Generalized Estimating Equations and logistic regression. Results Shift workers reported spending more time walking than non-shift workers (B=2.3 (95% CI 1.2 to 3.4)), but shift work was not associated with other PA types and any of the sports activities. Shift workers who worked 1–4 night shifts/month (B=2.4 (95% CI 0.6 to 4.3)) and ≥5 night shifts/month (B=3.7 (95% CI 1.8 to 5.6)) spent more time walking than non-shift workers. No exposure–response relationships were found between years of shift work and PA levels. Conclusions Shift workers spent more time walking than non-shift workers, but we observed no differences in other non-occupational PA levels. To better understand if and how PA plays a role in the negative health consequences of shift work, our findings need to be confirmed in future studies. PMID:27872151

  3. Orienteering World Cup hosted by CERN Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Elite runners took to the streets of Geneva for the last leg of the Orienteering World Cup, from 8-10 October. The Geneva finals were hosted by the CERN Orienteering Club and concluded months of competitions held across 5 countries.   Women's World-Cup winner, Simone Niggli (centre).  © Ilknur Colak The final events of the Orienteering World Cup took place in the Old Town of Geneva and Saint-Cergue, with runners following routes prepared by the CERN Orienteering Club. Orienteering is a sport of navigation, using only a compass, map and your sense of direction. The objective is to get to all the points on the map as quickly as possible, choosing your own paths as you run. This was the CERN club’s first successful participation in the World Cup, cementing its reputation as a fixture in the international orienteering world. Orienteering is not your typical Swiss pastime. Developed in Scandinavia, the sport has been gaining popularity internationally. “...

  4. Ecological and genetic factors influencing the transition between host-use strategies in sympatric Heliconius butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, R M; Naisbit, R E; Mallet, J; Jiggins, C D

    2013-09-01

    Shifts in host-plant use by phytophagous insects have played a central role in their diversification. Evolving host-use strategies will reflect a trade-off between selection pressures. The ecological niche of herbivorous insects is partitioned along several dimensions, and if populations remain in contact, recombination will break down associations between relevant loci. As such, genetic architecture can profoundly affect the coordinated divergence of traits and subsequently the ability to exploit novel habitats. The closely related species Heliconius cydno and H. melpomene differ in mimetic colour pattern, habitat and host-plant use. We investigate the selection pressures and genetic basis underlying host-use differences in these two species. Host-plant surveys reveal that H. melpomene specializes on a single species of Passiflora. This is also true for the majority of other Heliconius species in secondary growth forest at our study site, as expected under a model of interspecific competition. In contrast, H. cydno, which uses closed-forest habitats where both Heliconius and Passiflora are less common, appears not to be restricted by competition and uses a broad selection of the available Passiflora. However, other selection pressures are likely involved, and field experiments reveal that early larval survival of both butterfly species is highest on Passiflora menispermifolia, but most markedly so for H. melpomene, the specialist on that host. Finally, we demonstrate an association between host-plant acceptance and colour pattern amongst interspecific hybrids, suggesting that major loci underlying these important ecological traits are physically linked in the genome. Together, our results reveal ecological and genetic associations between shifts in habitat, host use and mimetic colour pattern that have likely facilitated both speciation and coexistence. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  5. Shift work-related health problems in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khavaji

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and aimsShift work is a major feature of working life that affects diverse aspects of human life. The main purposes of this study were to investigate shift work-related health problems and their risk factors among workers of "12-hour shift" schedule.MethodsThis cross-sectional study was carried out at 8 petrochemical industries in Asalooyeh area. Study population consisted of 1203 workers including 549 shift worker (46% and 654 day worker (54%. Data on personal details, shift schedule and adverse effects of shift work werecollected by anonymous questionnaire. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS, version 11.5. The level of significance was set at 5%.ResultsAlthough, the results showed that health problems among shift workers was more prevalent than day workers, but the differences were just significant in gastrointestinal and musculoskeletal disorders (p<0.05. Multiple linear regressions indicated that in addition to shift working, other variants such as long work hours, type of employment, second job, number of children and job title were associated with health problems.ConclusionPrevalence rates of gastrointestinal and musculoskeletal problems among shift workers were significantly higher than that of day workers. Although, working in shift system was the main significant factor associated with the reported problems, but other demographic andwork variables were also found to have association.

  6. Shift work as an oxidative stressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasalar Parvin

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some medical disorders have higher prevalence in shift workers than others. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of night-shift-working on total plasma antioxidant capacity, with respect to the causative role of oxidative stress in induction of some of these disorders. Methods Two blood samples were taken from 44 workers with a rotational shift schedule, one after their day shift and one after their night shift. The total plasma antioxidant capacity of each worker was measured through the FRAP method. The impacts of age and weight were also assessed. Results The total plasma antioxidant capacity was measured in 44 shift-workers with a mean age of 36.57 years (SD: 10.18 and mean BMI of 26.06 (SD: 4.37 after their day and night shifts. The mean reduction of total plasma antioxidant capacity after the night shift was 105.8 μmol/L (SD: 146.39. Also, a significant correlation was shown between age and weight and total plasma antioxidant capacity. Age and weight were found to be inversely related to total plasma antioxidant capacity; as age and weight increased, the total plasma antioxidant capacity decreased. Conclusion Shift work can act as an oxidative stressor and may induce many medical disorders. Aging and obesity in shift workers makes them more sensitive to this hazardous effect.

  7. Host body size and the diversity of tick assemblages on Neotropical vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen J. Esser

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the factors that influence the species diversity and distribution of ticks (Acari: Ixodida across vertebrate host taxa is of fundamental ecological and medical importance. Host body size is considered one of the most important determinants of tick abundance, with larger hosts having higher tick burdens. The species diversity of tick assemblages should also be greater on larger-bodied host species, but empirical studies testing this hypothesis are lacking. Here, we evaluate this relationship using a comparative dataset of feeding associations from Panama between 45 tick species and 171 host species that range in body size by three orders of magnitude. We found that tick species diversity increased with host body size for adult ticks but not for immature ticks. We also found that closely related host species tended to have similar tick species diversity, but correcting for host phylogeny did not alter the relationships between host body size and tick species diversity. The distribution of tick species was highly aggregated, with approximately 20% of the host species harboring 80% of all tick species, following the Pareto principle or 20/80 Rule. Thus, the aggregated pattern commonly observed for tick burdens and disease transmission also holds for patterns of tick species richness. Our finding that the adult ticks in this system preferentially parasitize large-bodied host species suggests that the ongoing anthropogenic loss of large-bodied vertebrates is likely to result in host-tick coextinction events, even when immature stages feed opportunistically. As parasites play critical roles in ecological and evolutionary processes, such losses may profoundly affect ecosystem functioning and services.

  8. Host evasion by Burkholderia cenocepacia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamala eGanesan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia cenocepacia is an opportunistic respiratory pathogen of individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF. It is one of the highly transmissible species of Burkholderia cepacia complex and very resistant to almost all the antibiotics. Approximately 1/3rd of B. cenocepacia infected CF patients go on to develop fatal ‘cepacia syndrome’. During the last two decades, substantial progress has been made with regards to evasion of host innate defense mechanisms by B. cenocepacia. Almost all strains of B. cenocepacia has capacity to survive and replicate intracellularly in both airway epithelial cells and macrophages, which are primary centennials of the lung and play a pivotal role in clearance of infecting bacteria. Some strains of B. cenocepaica, which express cable pili and the associated 22kDa adhesin are also capable of transmigrating across airway epithelium and persist in mouse models of infection. In this review, we will discuss how this type of interaction between B. cenocepacia and host may lead to persistence of bacteria and contribute to lung inflammation in CF patients.

  9. Empirical isotropic chemical shift surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czinki, Eszter; Csaszar, Attila G.

    2007-01-01

    A list of proteins is given for which spatial structures, with a resolution better than 2.5 A, are known from entries in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) and isotropic chemical shift (ICS) values are known from the RefDB database related to the Biological Magnetic Resonance Bank (BMRB) database. The structures chosen provide, with unknown uncertainties, dihedral angles φ and ψ characterizing the backbone structure of the residues. The joint use of experimental ICSs of the same residues within the proteins, again with mostly unknown uncertainties, and ab initio ICS(φ,ψ) surfaces obtained for the model peptides For-(l-Ala) n -NH 2 , with n = 1, 3, and 5, resulted in so-called empirical ICS(φ,ψ) surfaces for all major nuclei of the 20 naturally occurring α-amino acids. Out of the many empirical surfaces determined, it is the 13C α ICS(φ,ψ) surface which seems to be most promising for identifying major secondary structure types, α-helix, β-strand, left-handed helix (α D ), and polyproline-II. Detailed tests suggest that Ala is a good model for many naturally occurring α-amino acids. Two-dimensional empirical 13C α - 1 H α ICS(φ,ψ) correlation plots, obtained so far only from computations on small peptide models, suggest the utility of the experimental information contained therein and thus they should provide useful constraints for structure determinations of proteins

  10. Red Shifts and Existing Speculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisenberg, Sol

    2009-03-01

    There are many current flaws, mysteries, and errors in the standard model of the universe - all based upon speculative interpretation of many excellent and verified observations. The most serious cause of some errors is the speculation about the meaning of the redshifts observed in the 1930s by Hubble. He ascribed the redshifts as due to ``an apparent Doppler effect''. This led to speculation that the remote stars were receding, and the universe was expanding -- although without observational proof of the actual receding velocity of the stars. The age of the universe, based upon the Hubble constant is pure speculation because of lack of velocity demonstration. The belief in expansion, the big bang, and of inflation should be reexamined. Also, the redshift cannot always be used as a distance measure, particularly for photons from quasars containing massive black holes that can reduce photon energy through gravitational attraction. If the linear Hubble constant is extrapolated to the most remote super novae and beyond, it would eventually require that the corresponding photon energy go to zero or become negative -- according to Hubble linear relationship. This should require a reexamination of the meaning of the red shift and the speculative consequences and give a model with fewer mysteries.

  11. Core shift effect in blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, A.; Mohan, P.; Gupta, Alok C.; Mangalam, A.; Volvach, A. E.; Aller, M. F.; Aller, H. D.; Gu, M. F.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Tornikoski, M.; Volvach, L. N.

    2017-07-01

    We studied the pc-scale core shift effect using radio light curves for three blazars, S5 0716+714, 3C 279 and BL Lacertae, which were monitored at five frequencies (ν) between 4.8 and 36.8 GHz using the University of Michigan Radio Astronomical Observatory (UMRAO), the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (CrAO) and Metsähovi Radio Observatory for over 40 yr. Flares were Gaussian fitted to derive time delays between observed frequencies for each flare (Δt), peak amplitude (A) and their half width. Using A ∝ να, we infer α in the range of -16.67-2.41 and using Δ t ∝ ν ^{1/k_r}, we infer kr ∼ 1, employed in the context of equipartition between magnetic and kinetic energy density for parameter estimation. From the estimated core position offset (Ωrν) and the core radius (rcore), we infer that opacity model may not be valid in all cases. The mean magnetic field strengths at 1 pc (B1) and at the core (Bcore) are in agreement with previous estimates. We apply the magnetically arrested disc model to estimate black hole spins in the range of 0.15-0.9 for these blazars, indicating that the model is consistent with expected accretion mode in such sources. The power-law-shaped power spectral density has slopes -1.3 to -2.3 and is interpreted in terms of multiple shocks or magnetic instabilities.

  12. Event-by-Event Observables and Fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    In this talk the status and open questions of the phenomenological description of all the stages of a heavy ion reaction are highlighted. Special emphasis is put on event-by-event fluctuations and associated observables. The first part is concentrated on high RHIC and LHC energies and the second part reviews the challenges for modeling heavy ion reactions at lower beam energies in a more realistic fashion. Overall, the main conclusion is that sophisticated theoretical dynamical approaches that describe many observables in the same framework are essential for the quantitative understanding of the properties of hot and dense nuclear matter

  13. Host feeding in insect parasitoids: why destructively feed upon a host that excretes an alternative?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, J.S.M.; Reijnen, T.M.; Van Lenteren, J.C.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2004-01-01

    Host feeding is the consumption of host tissue by the adult female parasitoid. We studied the function of destructive host feeding and its advantage over non-destructive feeding on host-derived honeydew in the whitefly parasitoid Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). We allowed

  14. Burial history of two potential clay host formations in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertens, J.; Wouters, L.; Van Marcke, Ph.

    2004-01-01

    When dealing with long term stability of repository host rocks, it is important to consider and learn from all past geological events since the deposition of the formations. The burial history of the Boom Clay and Ypresian Clays, both considered as potential host rocks in Belgium, illustrates that the North Belgian region was tectonically relatively stable since deposition. In Northern Belgium, where both formations are located at a few hundreds meters of depth, tectonic movements were relatively small and no significant uplifts took place. The burial history of the Boom Clay in Mol, where the HADES underground research facility is located illustrates this. On the poster, the burial history for both formations is presented at two locations each: one location in the outcrop region and one research site location, where the formation is currently buried under a few 100 metres of sediment. (authors)

  15. Cuscuta reflexa invasion induces Ca release in its host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, M; van der Krol, S; Kaldenhoff, R

    2010-05-01

    Cuscuta reflexa induces a variety of reaction in its hosts. Some of these are visual reactions, and it is clear that these morphological changes are preceded by events at the molecular level, where signal transduction is one of the early processes. Calcium (Ca(2+)) release is the major second messenger during signal transduction, and we therefore studied Ca(2+) spiking in tomato during infection with C. reflexa. Bioluminescence in aequorin-expressing tomato was monitored for 48 h after the onset of Cuscuta infestation. Signals at the attachment sites were observed from 30 to 48 h. Treatment of aequorin-expressing tomato leaf disks with Cuscuta plant extracts suggested that the substance that induced Ca(2+) release from the host was closely linked to parasite haustoria.

  16. The Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nebel, Tobias

    2010-06-25

    The subject of this thesis is the first measurement of the 2S-2P Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen ({mu}p). In this project, which has been performed at the proton-accelerator facility of the Paul-Scherrer-Institute in Switzerland, the exotic analogon to the classical Lamb shift in hydrogen has been examined by laser spectroscopy. Negative muons are produced at a specially developed low-energy muon beam at a rate of 330 s{sup -1} and are stopped in 1 hPa of H{sub 2} gas. In the gas, highly excited {mu}p atoms are formed, most of which promptly cascade to the ground state within {proportional_to}100 ns. Only a fraction of 1.1% forms {mu}p atoms in the long-lived 2S state with a lifetime of 1.0 {mu}s. An elaborate laser system triggered on every incoming muon delivers 0.2 mJ laser pulses at {lambda}{approx_equal}6 {mu}m with 500 s{sup -1} repetition rate. The laser illuminates the {mu}p atoms 900 ns after the prompt muon cascade inducing the 2S-2P transition when on resonance. A 1.9 keV K{sub {alpha}} X-ray is emitted in the subsequent deexcitation to the 1S ground state and is recorded by large area avalanche photodiodes. The laser induced K{sub {alpha}} events are clearly distinguishable from the exponential background. For the 2S{sub 1/2}{sup F=1} - 2P{sub 3/2}{sup F=2} transition in {mu}p, it is given by {nu}{sub 2S-2P}=49 881 695 (711)MHz with a relative accuracy of 1.4 x 10{sup -5}. Assuming the correctness of the bound-state QED calculations of the Lamb shift in {mu}p, a new value for the rms proton charge radius r{sub p} can be derived: r{sub p}=0:84192(65) fm. Using the precisely measured 1S-2S transition frequency in hydrogen (relative accuracy of 1.4 parts in 10{sup 14}) and combining it with our new value of r{sub p}, a new value for the Rydberg constant R{sub {infinity}} can be derived with a relative accuracy of 1.5 parts in 10{sup 12}: R{sub {infinity}}=10 973 731.568 161(16)m{sup -1}. Beside the 2S{sub 1/2}{sup F=1}-2P{sub 3/2}{sup F=2} transition in {mu

  17. Ability of a Generalist Seed Beetle to Colonize an Exotic Host: Effects of Host Plant Origin and Oviposition Host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarillo-Suárez, A; Repizo, A; Robles, J; Diaz, J; Bustamante, S

    2017-08-01

    The colonization of an exotic species by native herbivores is more likely to occur if that herbivore is a generalist. There is little information on the life-history mechanisms used by native generalist insects to colonize exotic hosts and how these mechanisms are affected by host properties. We examined the ability of the generalist seed beetle Stator limbatus Horn to colonize an exotic species. We compared its host preference, acceptability, performance, and egg size when ovipositing and developing on two native (Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth and Senegalia riparia (Kunth)) and one exotic legume species (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.)). We also analyzed the seed chemistry. We found that females recognize the exotic species as an unfavorable host for larval development and that they delayed oviposition and laid fewer and larger eggs on the exotic species than on the native species. Survivorship on the exotic host was 0%. Additionally, seeds of the native species contain five chemical compounds that are absent in the exotic species, and the exotic species contains three sterols, which are absent in the native legumes. Genetically based differences between beetles adapted to different hosts, plastic responses toward new hosts, and chemical differences among seeds are important in host colonization and recognition of the exotic host. In conclusion, the generalist nature of S. limbatus does not influence its ability to colonize L. leucocephala. Explanations for the colonization of exotic hosts by generalist native species and for the success of invasive species must be complemented with studies measuring local adaptation and plasticity.

  18. Historical zoonoses and other changes in host tropism of Staphylococcus aureus, identified by phylogenetic analysis of a population dataset.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus A Shepheard

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus exhibits tropisms to many distinct animal hosts. While spillover events can occur wherever there is an interface between host species, changes in host tropism only occur with the establishment of sustained transmission in the new host species, leading to clonal expansion. Although the genomic variation underpinning adaptation in S. aureus genotypes infecting bovids and poultry has been well characterized the frequency of switches from one host to another remains obscure. We sought to identify sustained switches in host tropism in the S. aureus population, both anthroponotic and zoonotic, and their distribution over the species phylogeny. METHODOLOGIES/RESULTS: We have used a sample of 3042 isolates, representing 696 distinct MLST genotypes, from a well-established database (www.mlst.net. Using an empirical parsimony approach (AdaptML we have investigated the distribution of switches in host association between both human and non-human (henceforth referred to as animal hosts. We reconstructed a credible description of past events in the form of a phylogenetic tree; the nodes and leaves of which are statistically associated with either human or animal habitats, estimated from extant host-association and the degree of sequence divergence between genotypes. We identified 15 likely historical switching events; 13 anthroponoses and two zoonoses. Importantly, we identified two human-associated clade candidates (CC25 and CC59 that have arisen from animal-associated ancestors; this demonstrates that a human-specific lineage can emerge from an animal host. We also highlight novel rabbit-associated genotypes arising from a human ancestor.S. aureus is an organism with the capacity to switch into and adapt to novel hosts, even after long periods of isolation in a single host species. Based on this evidence, animal-adapted S. aureus lineages exhibiting resistance to antibiotics must be considered a major threat to public health, as they

  19. Identifying jet quantum numbers event by event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teper, M.J.

    1979-12-01

    A method is proposed to identify the parton that gives rise to any particular jet. The method improves with the number of particles in the jet, and should indicate which of the jets in a three jet event at PETRA is the gluon jet. (author)

  20. Cost effective shift schedules enhance utility operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    This article describes how new shift scheduling concepts can save utility operations millions of dollars every year and yet maintain safety and improve employee morale. The key to scheduling is to define and match the work load. This includes discretionary as well as daily, weekly, and yearly core work loads. In most power plants the overall work load (including maintenance, operations, materials handling, etc.) on day shift is greater than on other shifts, hence an unbalanced schedule would be appropriate

  1. Stochastic dynamical models for ecological regime shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jan Kloppenborg; Carstensen, Jacob; Madsen, Henrik

    the physical and biological knowledge of the system, and nonlinearities introduced here can generate regime shifts or enhance the probability of regime shifts in the case of stochastic models, typically characterized by a threshold value for the known driver. A simple model for light competition between...... definition and stability of regimes become less subtle. Ecological regime shifts and their modeling must be viewed in a probabilistic manner, particularly if such model results are to be used in ecosystem management....

  2. Time Zones, Shift Working and International Outsourcing

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuoka, Yuji; Fukushima, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    We build a trade model with two identical countries located in different time zones and a monopolistically competitive sector of which production requires differentiated goods produced in two successive stages. We introduce shift working disutility and allow consumers to choose between day and night shifts. Shift working disutility raises the cost of night production and firms can reduce costs by “virtually” outsourcing foreign labor. We found that firms only outsource if relat...

  3. Night shift work and modifiable lifestyle factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepłońska, Beata; Burdelak, Weronika; Krysicka, Jolanta; Bukowska, Agnieszka; Marcinkiewicz, Andrzej; Sobala, Wojciech; Klimecka-Muszyńska, Dorota; Rybacki, Marcin

    2014-10-01

    Night shift work has been linked to some chronic diseases. Modification of lifestyle by night work may partially contribute to the development of these diseases, nevertheless, so far epidemiological evidence is limited. The aim of the study was to explore association between night shift work and lifestyle factors using data from a cross-sectional study among blue-collar workers employed in industrial plants in Łódź, Poland. The anonymous questionnaire was self-administered among 605 employees (236 women and 369 men, aged 35 or more) - 434 individuals currently working night shifts. Distribution of the selected lifestyle related factors such as smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, body mass index (BMI), number of main meals and the hour of the last meal was compared between current, former, and never night shift workers. Adjusted ORs or predicted means were calculated, as a measure of the associations between night shift work and lifestyle factors, with age, marital status and education included in the models as covariates. Recreational inactivity (defined here as less than one hour per week of recreational physical activity) was associated with current night shift work when compared to never night shift workers (OR = 2.43, 95% CI: 1.13-5.22) among men. Alcohol abstinence and later time of the last meal was associated with night shift work among women. Statistically significant positive relationship between night shift work duration and BMI was observed among men (p = 0.029). This study confirms previous studies reporting lower exercising among night shift workers and tendency to increase body weight. This finding provides important public health implication for the prevention of chronic diseases among night shift workers. Initiatives promoting physical activity addressed in particular to the night shift workers are recommended.

  4. Night shift work and modifiable lifestyle factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Pepłońska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Night shift work has been linked to some chronic diseases. Modification of lifestyle by night work may partially contribute to the development of these diseases, nevertheless, so far epidemiological evidence is limited. The aim of the study was to explore association between night shift work and lifestyle factors using data from a cross-sectional study among blue-collar workers employed in industrial plants in Łódź, Poland. Material and Methods: The anonymous questionnaire was self-administered among 605 employees (236 women and 369 men, aged 35 or more - 434 individuals currently wor­king night shifts. Distribution of the selected lifestyle related factors such as smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, body mass index (BMI, number of main meals and the hour of the last meal was compared between current, former, and never night shift workers. Adjusted ORs or predicted means were calculated, as a measure of the associations between night shift work and lifestyle factors, with age, marital status and education included in the models as covariates. Results: Recreational inactivity (defined here as less than one hour per week of recreational physical activity was associated with current night shift work when compared to never night shift workers (OR = 2.43, 95% CI: 1.13-5.22 among men. Alcohol abstinence and later time of the last meal was associated with night shift work among women. Statistically significant positive relationship between night shift work duration and BMI was observed among men (p = 0.029. Conclusions: This study confirms previous studies reporting lower exercising among night shift workers and tendency to increase body weight. This finding provides important public health implication for the prevention of chronic diseases among night shift workers. Initiatives promoting physical activity addressed in particular to the night shift workers are recommended.

  5. Examining paid sickness absence by shift workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catano, V M; Bissonnette, A B

    2014-06-01

    Shift workers are at greater risk than day workers with respect to psychological and physical health, yet little research has linked shift work to increased sickness absence. To investigate the relationship between shift work and sickness absence while controlling for organizational and individual characteristics and shift work attributes that have confounded previous research. The study used archive data collected from three national surveys in Canada, each involving over 20000 employees and 6000 private-sector firms in 14 different occupational groups. The employees reported the number of paid sickness absence days in the past 12 months. Data were analysed using both chi-squared statistics and hierarchical regressions. Contrary to previous research, shift workers took less paid sickness absence than day workers. There were no differences in the length of the sickness absence between both groups or in sickness absence taken by female and male workers whether working days or shifts. Only job tenure, the presence of a union in the workplace and working rotating shifts predicted sickness absence in shift workers. The results were consistent across all three samples. In general, shift work does not seem to be linked to increased sickness absence. However, such associations may be true for specific industries. Male and female workers did not differ in the amount of sickness absence taken. Rotating shifts, regardless of industry, predicted sickness absence among shift workers. Consideration should be given to implementing scheduled time off between shift changes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Gas transmission : a paradigm shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelson, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    The evolution of energy markets in North America was discussed. The investment opportunities that are possible in a deregulated energy market, be it in production or in the generation of energy commodities, in the development of midstream infrastructure, or in the provision of energy services, were outlined. Deregulation of crude oil, natural gas and electricity has resulted in significant changes in the structure of energy markets and the way in which customers are served. One of the advantages of competition regarding power generation is that it has turned energy into a commodity which has resulted in greater customer choice and efficiency. As one example of midstream infrastructure development, the Alliance Pipeline project was described. This project was conceived as a means to enhance the value of western Canadian natural gas. The 1,900 mile pipeline will run from British Columbia, through Alberta into Chicago where it will interconnect with the North American gas transmission grid. The pipeline is an efficient means of transporting energy from Western Canada to North American markets, and Alliance, as a lowest cost transporter, will continue to put pressure on the traditional infrastructure to become even more competitive at the margin. As such, Alliance represents a paradigm shift in energy transportation, and serves as an excellent example of the type of investment opportunity that a deregulated market can provide. It was suggested that innovation and competition in a deregulated North American energy market will continue to increase. As electricity is deregulated, the energy market will respond more quickly to changes in supply and demand than it did in the past, in an effort to satisfy the needs of investors and customers. This will provide increased opportunities for restructuring and further competition

  7. Nonlinear optics of fibre event horizons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Karen E; Erkintalo, Miro; Xu, Yiqing; Broderick, Neil G R; Dudley, John M; Genty, Goëry; Murdoch, Stuart G

    2014-09-17

    The nonlinear interaction of light in an optical fibre can mimic the physics at an event horizon. This analogue arises when a weak probe wave is unable to pass through an intense soliton, despite propagating at a different velocity. To date, these dynamics have been described in the time domain in terms of a soliton-induced refractive index barrier that modifies the velocity of the probe. Here we complete the physical description of fibre-optic event horizons by presenting a full frequency-domain description in terms of cascaded four-wave mixing between discrete single-frequency fields, and experimentally demonstrate signature frequency shifts using continuous wave lasers. Our description is confirmed by the remarkable agreement with experiments performed in the continuum limit, reached using ultrafast lasers. We anticipate that clarifying the description of fibre event horizons will significantly impact on the description of horizon dynamics and soliton interactions in photonics and other systems.

  8. Climate driven range divergence among host species affects range-wide patterns of parasitism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E. Feldman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Species interactions like parasitism influence the outcome of climate-driven shifts in species ranges. For some host species, parasitism can only occur in that part of its range that overlaps with a second host species. Thus, predicting future parasitism may depend on how the ranges of the two hosts change in relation to each other. In this study, we tested whether the climate driven species range shift of Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer accounts for predicted changes in parasitism of two other species from the family Cervidae, Alces alces (moose and Rangifer tarandus (caribou, in North America. We used MaxEnt models to predict the recent (2000 and future (2050 ranges (probabilities of occurrence of the cervids and a parasite Parelaphostrongylus tenuis (brainworm taking into account range shifts of the parasite’s intermediate gastropod hosts. Our models predicted that range overlap between A. alces/R. tarandus and P. tenuis will decrease between 2000 and 2050, an outcome that reflects decreased overlap between A. alces/R. tarandus and O. virginianus and not the parasites, themselves. Geographically, our models predicted increasing potential occurrence of P. tenuis where A. alces/R. tarandus are likely to decline, but minimal spatial overlap where A. alces/R. tarandus are likely to increase. Thus, parasitism may exacerbate climate-mediated southern contraction of A. alces and R. tarandus ranges but will have limited influence on northward range expansion. Our results suggest that the spatial dynamics of one host species may be the driving force behind future rates of parasitism for another host species.

  9. Shifting currents: Progress, setbacks, and shifts in policy and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; Dunning, Charles; Robertson, Dale M.

    2016-01-01

    clean water future. More than a decade has passed since our first statewide WOW conversation and the report that captured recommendations from its participants: Waters of Wisconsin: The Future of Our Aquatic Ecosystems and Resources. Drawing from a diverse and growing set of stakeholders from across the state, the Wisconsin Academy initiated a new conversation in 2012 (known as WOW II) to assess progress in regard to our 2003 recommendations. We also sought to review the status of waters in Wisconsin today. The result of this renewed conversation is Shifting Currents: Progress, Setbacks, and Shifts in Policy and Practice. The new report assesses progress in brief, and explores in greater depth the continuing and emerging challenges to water quality, supply, and aquatic ecosystems in Wisconsin.In this report, we first review the context and frameworks for public decision-making about water and then examine some of the root causes—or “drivers”—and ecological stressors that underlie many of the symptoms we see in the form of pollution or ecosystem degradation in Wisconsin. This is followed by a summary of current water issues, many of which had been identified in the 2003 report and remain relevant today. We examine progress since 2003 but also setbacks, and discuss issues that we are likely to continue to face in the coming decades, including controlling agricultural runoff, mitigating climate change and grappling with its effects on the state’s waters, protecting groundwater from bacterial contamination and other pollutants, and preventing groundwater depletion. We also attempt to anticipate issues on the horizon. We offer a deeper look at some particular challenges, such as phosphorus pollution and groundwater contamination. We then consider the current decision-making framework and how it is shaping our capacity to respond to water challenges in Wisconsin. Finally, we offer recommendations and identify opportunities to safeguard Wisconsin’s waters in the

  10. Goos-Haenchen shift in complex crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhi, Stefano; Della Valle, Giuseppe; Staliunas, Kestutis [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Departament de Fisica i Enginyeria Nuclear, Instituci Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avanats (ICREA), Universitat Politcnica de Catalunya, Colom 11, E-08222 Terrassa, Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    The Goos-Haenchen (GH) effect for wave scattering from complex PT-symmetric periodic potentials (complex crystals) is theoretically investigated, with specific reference to optical GH shift in photonic crystal slabs with a sinusoidal periodic modulation of both real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant. The analysis highlights some distinct and rather unique features as compared to the GH shift found in ordinary crystals. In particular, as opposed to GH shift in ordinary crystals, which is large at the band gap edges, in complex crystals the GH shift can be large inside the reflection (amplification) band and becomes extremely large as the PT symmetry-breaking threshold is approached.

  11. Soundscapes, events, resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mubi Brighenti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Put it bluntly, a soundscape is the sonic counterpart, or component, of landscape. From such minimal assumption, some interesting consequences follow: just as landscape is far from being a simple stage-set upon which events take place, soundscape, too, is itself evental, i.e., it consists of events. Not only because its nature, far from being acoustics is always ‘psychoacoustics’, as Murray Schafer (1977/1994 first argued. Processes of environmental perception are of course there.

  12. Reduced Tolerance to Night Shift in Chronic Shift Workers: Insight From Fractal Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Morris, Christopher J; Patxot, Melissa; Yugay, Tatiana; Mistretta, Joseph; Purvis, Taylor E; Scheer, Frank A J L; Hu, Kun

    2017-07-01

    Healthy physiology is characterized by fractal regulation (FR) that generates similar structures in the fluctuations of physiological outputs at different time scales. Perturbed FR is associated with aging and age-related pathological conditions. Shift work, involving repeated and chronic exposure to misaligned environmental and behavioral cycles, disrupts circadian coordination. We tested whether night shifts perturb FR in motor activity and whether night shifts affect FR in chronic shift workers and non-shift workers differently. We studied 13 chronic shift workers and 14 non-shift workers as controls using both field and in-laboratory experiments. In the in-laboratory study, simulated night shifts were used to induce a misalignment between the endogenous circadian pacemaker and the sleep-wake cycles (ie, circadian misalignment) while environmental conditions and food intake were controlled. In the field study, we found that FR was robust in controls but broke down in shift workers during night shifts, leading to more random activity fluctuations as observed in patients with dementia. The night shift effect was present even 2 days after ending night shifts. The in-laboratory study confirmed that night shifts perturbed FR in chronic shift workers and showed that FR in controls was more resilience to the circadian misalignment. Moreover, FR during real and simulated night shifts was more perturbed in those who started shift work at older ages. Chronic shift work causes night shift intolerance, which is probably linked to the degraded plasticity of the circadian control system. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Olympic Health Legacy; Essentials for Lasting Development of Host City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Hee; Kim, Jung Moon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the Olympic Games should be to contribute to the social development by leaving behind economic, cultural and environmental legacies to the hosting region. While tangible examples such as venues are often recognized as representative legacies of the Olympics, intangible aspects such as the environment, culture, policy and human resources have been gaining in importance. The Olympic Games, at its most fundamental level, is a sporting event. Sports not only is closely related to the physical health, but is also instrumental to fostering mental health through inspiration. One of the most important sports legacies was the general change in the population’s perception on sports and physical activities; due to such change, people were able to enjoy sports as part of healthy and active everyday life and benefit physically. However, compared to tangible legacies such as the facilities, social legacies such as the general health and their planning, execution and achievements are hard to monitor. Therefore, for the Olympics to leave behind socio-cultural legacies that contribute to the development of the hosting region, there must be a thorough business plan that takes into account region-specific purpose, and is divided into stages such as before, during and after the Games. Should the 2018 Winter Olympic Games hope to create continuing contribution to its hosting region, it must leave behind ‘Health Legacies’ that will enhance the happiness of the hosting region’s population. To this end, establishment of region-specific purpose and systematic promotion of business via detailed analysis of precedents are a must. This article aim to review the health legacy endeavors of past host cities and suggest the appropriate forms of health legacy of 2018 Pyeongchang Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games. PMID:26064832

  14. Olympic Health Legacy; Essentials for Lasting Development of Host City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Hee; Kim, Jung Moon

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of the Olympic Games should be to contribute to the social development by leaving behind economic, cultural and environmental legacies to the hosting region. While tangible examples such as venues are often recognized as representative legacies of the Olympics, intangible aspects such as the environment, culture, policy and human resources have been gaining in importance. The Olympic Games, at its most fundamental level, is a sporting event. Sports not only is closely related to the physical health, but is also instrumental to fostering mental health through inspiration. One of the most important sports legacies was the general change in the population's perception on sports and physical activities; due to such change, people were able to enjoy sports as part of healthy and active everyday life and benefit physically. However, compared to tangible legacies such as the facilities, social legacies such as the general health and their planning, execution and achievements are hard to monitor. Therefore, for the Olympics to leave behind socio-cultural legacies that contribute to the development of the hosting region, there must be a thorough business plan that takes into account region-specific purpose, and is divided into stages such as before, during and after the Games. Should the 2018 Winter Olympic Games hope to create continuing contribution to its hosting region, it must leave behind 'Health Legacies' that will enhance the happiness of the hosting region's population. To this end, establishment of region-specific purpose and systematic promotion of business via detailed analysis of precedents are a must. This article aim to review the health legacy endeavors of past host cities and suggest the appropriate forms of health legacy of 2018 Pyeongchang Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games.

  15. Effects of shortened host life span on the evolution of parasite life history and virulence in a microbial host-parasite system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koella Jacob C

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ecological factors play an important role in the evolution of parasite exploitation strategies. A common prediction is that, as shorter host life span reduces future opportunities of transmission, parasites compensate with an evolutionary shift towards earlier transmission. They may grow more rapidly within the host, have a shorter latency time and, consequently, be more virulent. Thus, increased extrinsic (i.e., not caused by the parasite host mortality leads to the evolution of more virulent parasites. To test these predictions, we performed a serial transfer experiment, using the protozoan Paramecium caudatum and its bacterial parasite Holospora undulata. We simulated variation in host life span by killing hosts after 11 (early killing or 14 (late killing days post inoculation; after killing, parasite transmission stages were collected and used for a new infection cycle. Results After 13 cycles (≈ 300 generations, parasites from the early-killing treatment were less infectious, but had shorter latency time and higher virulence than those from the late-killing treatment. Overall, shorter latency time was associated with higher parasite loads and thus presumably with more rapid within-host replication. Conclusion The analysis of the means of the two treatments is thus consistent with theory, and suggests that evolution is constrained by trade-offs between virulence, transmission and within-host growth. In contrast, we found little evidence for such trade-offs across parasite selection lines within treatments; thus, to some extent, these traits may evolve independently. This study illustrates how environmental variation (experienced by the host can lead to the evolution of distinct parasite strategies.

  16. Scenario aggregation and analysis via Mean-Shift Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandelli, D.; Yilmaz, A.; Metzroth, K.; Aldemir, T.; Denning, R.

    2010-01-01

    A new generation of dynamic methodologies is being developed for nuclear reactor probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) which explicitly account for the time element in modeling the probabilistic system evolution and use numerical simulation tools to account for possible dependencies between failure events. The dynamic event tree (DET) approach is one of these methodologies. One challenge with dynamic PRA methodologies is the large amount of data they produce which may be difficult to analyze without appropriate software tools. The concept of 'data mining' is well known in the computer science community and several methodologies have been developed in order to extract useful information from a dataset with a large number of records. Using the dataset generated by the DET analysis of the reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system (RVACS) of an ABR-1000 for an aircraft crash recovery scenario and the Mean-Shift Methodology for data mining, it is shown how clusters of transients with common characteristics can be identified and classified. (authors)

  17. ON THE HOST GALAXY OF GRB 150101B AND THE ASSOCIATED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Chen [Department of Physics, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); Fang, Taotao; Wang, Junfeng; Liu, Tong; Jiang, Xiaochuan, E-mail: fangt@xmu.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China)

    2016-06-20

    We present a multi-wavelength analysis of the host galaxy of short-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) 150101B. Follow-up optical and X-ray observations suggested that the host galaxy, 2MASX J12320498-1056010, likely harbors low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Our modeling of the spectral energy distribution has confirmed the nature of the AGN, making it the first reported GRB host that contains an AGN. We have also found the host galaxy is a massive elliptical galaxy with stellar population of ∼5.7 Gyr, one of the oldest among the short-duration GRB hosts. Our analysis suggests that the host galaxy can be classified as an X-ray bright, optically normal galaxy, and the central AGN is likely dominated by a radiatively inefficient accretion flow. Our work explores an interesting connection that may exist between GRB and AGN activities of the host galaxy, which can help in understanding the host environment of the GRB events and the roles of AGN feedback.

  18. ON THE HOST GALAXY OF GRB 150101B AND THE ASSOCIATED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Chen; Fang, Taotao; Wang, Junfeng; Liu, Tong; Jiang, Xiaochuan

    2016-01-01

    We present a multi-wavelength analysis of the host galaxy of short-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) 150101B. Follow-up optical and X-ray observations suggested that the host galaxy, 2MASX J12320498-1056010, likely harbors low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Our modeling of the spectral energy distribution has confirmed the nature of the AGN, making it the first reported GRB host that contains an AGN. We have also found the host galaxy is a massive elliptical galaxy with stellar population of ∼5.7 Gyr, one of the oldest among the short-duration GRB hosts. Our analysis suggests that the host galaxy can be classified as an X-ray bright, optically normal galaxy, and the central AGN is likely dominated by a radiatively inefficient accretion flow. Our work explores an interesting connection that may exist between GRB and AGN activities of the host galaxy, which can help in understanding the host environment of the GRB events and the roles of AGN feedback.

  19. Host Jumps and Radiation, Not Co‐Divergence Drives Diversification of Obligate Pathogens. A Case Study in Downy Mildews and Asteraceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young-Joon; Thines, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Even though the microevolution of plant hosts and pathogens has been intensely studied, knowledge regarding macro-evolutionary patterns is limited. Having the highest species diversity and host-specificity among Oomycetes, downy mildews are a useful a model for investigating long-term host-pathogen coevolution. We show that phylogenies of Bremia and Asteraceae are significantly congruent. The accepted hypothesis is that pathogens have diverged contemporarily with their hosts. But maximum clade age estimation and sequence divergence comparison reveal that congruence is not due to long-term coevolution but rather due to host-shift driven speciation (pseudo-cospeciation). This pattern results from parasite radiation in related hosts, long after radiation and speciation of the hosts. As large host shifts free pathogens from hosts with effector triggered immunity subsequent radiation and diversification in related hosts with similar innate immunity may follow, resulting in a pattern mimicking true co-divergence, which is probably limited to the terminal nodes in many pathogen groups. PMID:26230508

  20. The bidding paradox : how economists and politicians might agree on the attractiveness of mega sports events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Marcel; de Nooij, Michiel

    The ambition to host mega sports events is (or can be) perfectly justifiable with various arguments. The most persistently used argument is the supposed financial or direct economic gain for the host economy, of which the compelling body of evidence is discouraging. This implies that the

  1. Host Galaxy Spectra and Consequences for SN Typing from the SDSS SN Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olmstead, Matthew D.; Brown, Peter J.; Sako, Masao; Bassett, Bruce; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brinkmann, J.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Brewington, Howard; Campbell, Heather; D’Andrea, Chris B.; Dawson, Kyle S.; Ebelke, Garrett L.; Frieman, Joshua A.; Galbany, Lluís; Garnavich, Peter; Gupta, Ravi R.; Hlozek, Renee; Jha, Saurabh W.; Kunz, Martin; Lampeitl, Hubert; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Marriner, John; Miquel, Ramon; Montero-Dorta, Antonio D.; Nichol, Robert C.; Oravetz, Daniel J.; Pan, Kaike; Schneider, Donald P.; Simmons, Audrey E.; Smith, Mathew; Snedden, Stephanie A.

    2014-03-06

    We present the spectroscopy from 5254 galaxies that hosted supernovae (SNe) or other transient events in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey II (SDSS-II). Obtained during SDSS-I, SDSS-II, and the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS), this sample represents the largest systematic, unbiased, magnitude limited spectroscopic survey of supernova (SN) host galaxies. Using the host galaxy redshifts, we test the impact of photometric SN classification based on SDSS imaging data with and without using spectroscopic redshifts of the host galaxies. Following our suggested scheme, there are a total of 1166 photometrically classified SNe Ia when using a flat redshift prior and 1126 SNe Ia when the host spectroscopic redshift is assumed. For 1024 (87.8%) candidates classified as likely SNe Ia without redshift information, we find that the classification is unchanged when adding the host galaxy redshift. Using photometry from SDSS imaging data and the host galaxy spectra, we also report host galaxy properties for use in future nalysis of SN astrophysics. Finally, we investigate the differences in the interpretation of the light curve properties with and without knowledge of the redshift. When using the SALT2 light curve fitter, we find a 21% increase in the number of fits that converge when using the spectroscopic redshift. Without host galaxy redshifts, we find that SALT2 light curve fits are systematically biased towards lower photometric redshift estimates and redder colors in the limit of low signal-to-noise data. The general improvements in performance of the light curve fitter and the increased diversity of the host galaxy sample highlights the importance of host galaxy spectroscopy for current photometric SN surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey and future surveys such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  2. Host galaxy spectra and consequences for supernova typing from the SDSS SN survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olmstead, Matthew D.; Brown, Peter J.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Dawson, Kyle S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Sako, Masao; Gupta, Ravi R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Bassett, Bruce; Kunz, Martin [African Institute for Mathematical Sciences, 6 Melrose Road, Muizenberg, 7945 (South Africa); Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brinkmann, J.; Brewington, Howard; Ebelke, Garrett L. [Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Campbell, Heather [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB4 0HA (United Kingdom); D' Andrea, Chris B.; Lampeitl, Hubert [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Dennis Sciama Building, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Frieman, Joshua A. [Center for Particle Astrophysics, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Galbany, Lluís [Institut de Física d' Altes Energies, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Garnavich, Peter [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Hlozek, Renee [Department of Astrophysics, Peyton Hall, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Jha, Saurabh W., E-mail: olmstead@physics.utah.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); and others

    2014-04-01

    We present the spectroscopy from 5254 galaxies that hosted supernovae (SNe) or other transient events in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey II (SDSS-II). Obtained during SDSS-I, SDSS-II, and the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey, this sample represents the largest systematic, unbiased, magnitude limited spectroscopic survey of SN host galaxies. Using the host galaxy redshifts, we test the impact of photometric SN classification based on SDSS imaging data with and without using spectroscopic redshifts of the host galaxies. Following our suggested scheme, there are a total of 1166 photometrically classified SNe Ia when using a flat redshift prior and 1126 SNe Ia when the host spectroscopic redshift is assumed. For 1024 (87.8%) candidates classified as likely SNe Ia without redshift information, we find that the classification is unchanged when adding the host galaxy redshift. Using photometry from SDSS imaging data and the host galaxy spectra, we also report host galaxy properties for use in future analysis of SN astrophysics. Finally, we investigate the differences in the interpretation of the light curve properties with and without knowledge of the redshift. Without host galaxy redshifts, we find that SALT2 light curve fits are systematically biased toward lower photometric redshift estimates and redder colors in the limit of low signal-to-noise data. The general improvements in performance of the light curve fitter and the increased diversity of the host galaxy sample highlights the importance of host galaxy spectroscopy for current photometric SN surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey and future surveys such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  3. Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. King

    2004-01-01

    The primary purpose of this analysis is to evaluate seismic- and igneous-related features, events, and processes (FEPs). These FEPs represent areas of natural system processes that have the potential to produce disruptive events (DE) that could impact repository performance and are related to the geologic processes of tectonism, structural deformation, seismicity, and igneous activity. Collectively, they are referred to as the DE FEPs. This evaluation determines which of the DE FEPs are excluded from modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for license application (TSPA-LA). The evaluation is based on the data and results presented in supporting analysis reports, model reports, technical information, or corroborative documents that are cited in the individual FEP discussions in Section 6.2 of this analysis report

  4. Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. King

    2004-03-31

    The primary purpose of this analysis is to evaluate seismic- and igneous-related features, events, and processes (FEPs). These FEPs represent areas of natural system processes that have the potential to produce disruptive events (DE) that could impact repository performance and are related to the geologic processes of tectonism, structural deformation, seismicity, and igneous activity. Collectively, they are referred to as the DE FEPs. This evaluation determines which of the DE FEPs are excluded from modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for license application (TSPA-LA). The evaluation is based on the data and results presented in supporting analysis reports, model reports, technical information, or corroborative documents that are cited in the individual FEP discussions in Section 6.2 of this analysis report.

  5. Safeguards summary event list (SSEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.J.; MacMurdy, P.H.

    1980-12-01

    The List contains nine categories of events involving NRC licensed material or licensees. It is deliberately broad in scope for two main reasons. First, the list is designed to serve as a reference document. It is as complete and accurate as possible. Second, the list is intended to provide as broad a perspective of the nature of licensee-related events as possible. The nine categories of events are as follows: bomb-related events; intrusion events; missing and/or allegedly stolen events; transportation-related events; vandalism events; arson events; firearms-related events; sabotage events; and miscellaneous events

  6. Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Sanchez

    2004-11-08

    The purpose of this analysis report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of the disruptive events features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for license application (TSPA-LA). A screening decision, either ''Included'' or ''Excluded,'' is given for each FEP, along with the technical basis for screening decisions. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.114 (d), (e), and (f) [DIRS 156605]. The FEPs addressed in this report deal with both seismic and igneous disruptive events, such as fault displacements through the repository and an igneous intrusion into the repository. For included FEPs, this analysis summarizes the implementation of the FEP in TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). Previous versions of this report were developed to support the total system performance assessments (TSPA) for various prior repository designs. This revision addresses the repository design for the license application (LA).

  7. Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P. Sanchez

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of the disruptive events features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for license application (TSPA-LA). A screening decision, either ''Included'' or ''Excluded,'' is given for each FEP, along with the technical basis for screening decisions. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.114 (d), (e), and (f) [DIRS 156605]. The FEPs addressed in this report deal with both seismic and igneous disruptive events, such as fault displacements through the repository and an igneous intrusion into the repository. For included FEPs, this analysis summarizes the implementation of the FEP in TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). Previous versions of this report were developed to support the total system performance assessments (TSPA) for various prior repository designs. This revision addresses the repository design for the license application (LA)

  8. Host-to-host variation of ecological interactions in polymicrobial infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sayak; Weimer, Kristin E.; Seok, Sang-Cheol; Ray, Will C.; Jayaprakash, C.; Vieland, Veronica J.; Swords, W. Edward; Das, Jayajit

    2015-02-01

    Host-to-host variability with respect to interactions between microorganisms and multicellular hosts are commonly observed in infection and in homeostasis. However, the majority of mechanistic models used to analyze host-microorganism relationships, as well as most of the ecological theories proposed to explain coevolution of hosts and microbes, are based on averages across a host population. By assuming that observed variations are random and independent, these models overlook the role of differences between hosts. Here, we analyze mechanisms underlying host-to-host variations of bacterial infection kinetics, using the well characterized experimental infection model of polymicrobial otitis media (OM) in chinchillas, in combination with population dynamic models and a maximum entropy (MaxEnt) based inference scheme. We find that the nature of the interactions between bacterial species critically regulates host-to-host variations in these interactions. Surprisingly, seemingly unrelated phenomena, such as the efficiency of individual bacterial species in utilizing nutrients for growth, and the microbe-specific host immune response, can become interdependent in a host population. The latter finding suggests a potential mechanism that could lead to selection of specific strains of bacterial species during the coevolution of the host immune response and the bacterial species.

  9. Host-to-host variation of ecological interactions in polymicrobial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sayak; Weimer, Kristin E; Seok, Sang-Cheol; Ray, Will C; Jayaprakash, C; Vieland, Veronica J; Swords, W Edward; Das, Jayajit

    2014-12-04

    Host-to-host variability with respect to interactions between microorganisms and multicellular hosts are commonly observed in infection and in homeostasis. However, the majority of mechanistic models used to analyze host-microorganism relationships, as well as most of the ecological theories proposed to explain coevolution of hosts and microbes, are based on averages across a host population. By assuming that observed variations are random and independent, these models overlook the role of differences between hosts. Here, we analyze mechanisms underlying host-to-host variations of bacterial infection kinetics, using the well characterized experimental infection model of polymicrobial otitis media (OM) in chinchillas, in combination with population dynamic models and a maximum entropy (MaxEnt) based inference scheme. We find that the nature of the interactions between bacterial species critically regulates host-to-host variations in these interactions. Surprisingly, seemingly unrelated phenomena, such as the efficiency of individual bacterial species in utilizing nutrients for growth, and the microbe-specific host immune response, can become interdependent in a host population. The latter finding suggests a potential mechanism that could lead to selection of specific strains of bacterial species during the coevolution of the host immune response and the bacterial species.

  10. Local host specialization, host-switching, and dispersal shape the regional distributions of avian haemosporidian parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Vincenzo A; Collins, Michael D; Medeiros, Matthew C I; Sari, Eloisa H R; Coffey, Elyse D; Dickerson, Rebecca C; Lugarini, Camile; Stratford, Jeffrey A; Henry, Donata R; Merrill, Loren; Matthews, Alix E; Hanson, Alison A; Roberts, Jackson R; Joyce, Michael; Kunkel, Melanie R; Ricklefs, Robert E

    2015-09-08

    The drivers of regional parasite distributions are poorly understood, especially in comparison with those of free-living species. For vector-transmitted parasites, in particular, distributions might be influenced by host-switching and by parasite dispersal with primary hosts and vectors. We surveyed haemosporidian blood parasites (Plasmodium and Haemoproteus) of small land birds in eastern North America to characterize a regional parasite community. Distributions of parasite populations generally reflected distributions of their hosts across the region. However, when the interdependence between hosts and parasites was controlled statistically, local host assemblages were related to regional climatic gradients, but parasite assemblages were not. Moreover, because parasite assemblage similarity does not decrease with distance when controlling for host assemblages and climate, parasites evidently disperse readily within the distributions of their hosts. The degree of specialization on hosts varied in some parasite lineages over short periods and small geographic distances independently of the diversity of available hosts and potentially competing parasite lineages. Nonrandom spatial turnover was apparent in parasite lineages infecting one host species that was well-sampled within a single year across its range, plausibly reflecting localized adaptations of hosts and parasites. Overall, populations of avian hosts generally determine the geographic distributions of haemosporidian parasites. However, parasites are not dispersal-limited within their host distributions, and they may switch hosts readily.

  11. Sympatric diversification vs. immigration: deciphering host-plant specialization in a polyphagous insect, the stolbur phytoplasma vector Hyalesthes obsoletus (Cixiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imo, Miriam; Maixner, Michael; Johannesen, Jes

    2013-04-01

    The epidemiology of vector transmitted plant diseases is highly influenced by dispersal and the host-plant range of the vector. Widening the vector's host range may increase transmission potential, whereas specialization may induce specific disease cycles. The process leading to a vector's host shift and its epidemiological outcome is therefore embedded in the frameworks of sympatric evolution vs. immigration of preadapted populations. In this study, we analyse whether a host shift of the stolbur phytoplasma vector, Hyalesthes obsoletus from field bindweed to stinging nettle in its northern distribution range evolved sympatrically or by immigration. The exploitation of stinging nettle has led to outbreaks of the grapevine disease bois noir caused by a stinging nettle-specific phytoplasma strain. Microsatellite data from populations from northern and ancestral ranges provide strong evidence for sympatric host-race evolution in the northern range: Host-plant associated populations were significantly differentiated among syntopic sites (0.054 nettle-specific phytoplasma strain by plant-unspecific vectors. The evolution of host races in the northern range has led to specific vector-based bois noir disease cycles. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Bacterial pathogen manipulation of host membrane trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrat, Seblewongel; de Jesús, Dennise A; Hempstead, Andrew D; Ramabhadran, Vinay; Isberg, Ralph R

    2014-01-01

    Pathogens use a vast number of strategies to alter host membrane dynamics. Targeting the host membrane machinery is important for the survival and pathogenesis of several extracellular, vacuolar, and cytosolic bacteria. Membrane manipulation promotes bacterial replication while suppressing host responses, allowing the bacterium to thrive in a hostile environment. This review provides a comprehensive summary of various strategies used by both extracellular and intracellular bacteria to hijack host membrane trafficking machinery. We start with mechanisms used by bacteria to alter the plasma membrane, delve into the hijacking of various vesicle trafficking pathways, and conclude by summarizing bacterial adaptation to host immune responses. Understanding bacterial manipulation of host membrane trafficking provides insights into bacterial pathogenesis and uncovers the molecular mechanisms behind various processes within a eukaryotic cell.

  13. Road MAPs to engineer host microbiomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyserman, Ben O; Medema, Marnix H; Raaijmakers, Jos M

    2017-12-02

    Microbiomes contribute directly or indirectly to host health and fitness. Thus far, investigations into these emergent traits, referred to here as microbiome-associated phenotypes (MAPs), have been primarily qualitative and taxonomy-driven rather than quantitative and trait-based. We present the MAPs-first approach, a theoretical and experimental roadmap that involves quantitative profiling of MAPs across genetically variable hosts and subsequent identification of the underlying mechanisms. We outline strategies for developing 'modular microbiomes'-synthetic microbial consortia that are engineered in concert with the host genotype to confer different but mutually compatible MAPs to a single host or host population. By integrating host and microbial traits, these strategies will facilitate targeted engineering of microbiomes to the benefit of agriculture, human/animal health and biotechnology. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Vibrational spectroscopic and quantum theoretical study of host-guest interactions in clathrates: I. Hofmann type clathrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMIR M. PETRUSEVSKI

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Hofmann type clatharates are host-guest compounds with the general formula M(NH32M'(CN4·2G, in which M(NH32M'(CN4 is the host lattice and G is benzene, the guest molecule. In previous studies, host-guest interactions have been investigated by analyzing the RT and LNT vibrational (infrared, far infrared and Raman spectra of these clathrates. All the observed changes in the vibrational spectra of these clathrates are referred to a host-guest interaction originating from weak hydrogen bonding between the ammonia hydrogen atoms from the host lattice and the p electron cloud of the guest (benzene molecules. In order to obtain an insight into the relative importance of the local crystalline field vs. the anharmonicity effects on the spectroscopic properties of the guest species upon enclathration, as well as to explain the observed band shifts and splittings, several quantum theoretical approaches are proposed.

  15. Hacking events. Project development practices and technology use at hackathons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richterich, Annika

    2017-01-01

    Hackathons are techno-creative events during which participants get together in a physical location. They may be hosted by civic communities, corporations or public institutions. Working individually or in teams, usually for several days, participants develop projects such as hardware or software

  16. Nonradioactive RNA mobility shift with chemiluminescent detection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hesham

    RNA mobility shift is one among many procedures used to study RNA-protein interaction. Yet, there are some limitations for the radioactive RNA mobility shift including; 1) the risk of using radiolabeled nucleotides, 2) the long time to get the results; this could range from days to weeks, and 3) its high cost as compared to ...

  17. Pole Inflation - Shift Symmetry and Universal Corrections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broy, Benedict J.; Galante, Mario; Roest, Diederik; Westphal, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    An appealing explanation for the Planck data is provided by inflationary models with a singular non-canonical kinetic term: a Laurent expansion of the kinetic function translates into a potential with a nearly shift-symmetric plateau in canonical fields. The shift symmetry can be broken at large

  18. Machiavellianism, Discussion Time, and Group Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Helmut; Myers, David G.

    1976-01-01

    Social-emotional and rational-cognitive explanations of group risky shift on choice dilemmas (hypothetical life situations) were evaluated by comparing shift in groups of low Mach (emotional) and high Mach (non-emotional) subjects. Effects of Machiavellian beliefs on social functioning are examined. Group composition was not observed to affect…

  19. Gain Shift Corrections at Chi-Nu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Tristan Brooks [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Applied Physics; Devlin, Matthew James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-30

    Ambient conditions have the potential to cause changes in liquid scintillator detector gain that vary with time and temperature. These gain shifts can lead to poor resolution in both energy as well as pulse shape discrimination. In order to correct for these shifts in the Chi-Nu high energy array, a laser system has been developed for calibration of the pulse height signals.

  20. Lamb Shift in Nonrelativistic Quantum Electrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotch, Howard

    1981-01-01

    The bound electron self-energy or Lamb shift is calculated in nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics. Retardation is retained and also an interaction previously dropped in other nonrelativistic approaches is kept. Results are finite without introducing a cutoff and lead to a Lamb shift in hydrogen of 1030.9 MHz. (Author/JN)

  1. Shifting identities : the musician as theatrical perfomer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hübner, Falk

    2013-01-01

    The artistic PhD research "Shifting Identities" investigates the musicians' professional identity and how this identity might shift when musicians start acting as theatrical performers. In most of the theatrical situations where musicians "perform", their profession is extended by additional tasks

  2. Social Change and Language Shift: South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamwangamalu, Nkonko M.

    2003-01-01

    Examines language shift from majority African languages, such as Sotho, Xhosa, and Zulu to English in South Africa. Examines the extent to which sociopolitical changes that have taken place in South Africa have impacted everyday linguistic interaction and have contributed to language shift from the indigenous African language to English,…

  3. Hippocampal theta frequency shifts and operant behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopes da Silva, F.H.; Kamp, A.

    1. 1. A shift of hippocampal dominant theta frequency to 6 c/sec has been demonstrated in the post-reward period in two dogs, which occurs consistently related in time to a well defined behavioural pattern in the course of an operant conditioning paradigm. 2. 2. The frequency shift was detected and

  4. Lambda shifted photonic crystal cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubert, Martin; Skovgård, Troels Suhr; Ek, Sara

    2010-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate an alternative type of photonic crystal laser design that shifts all the holes in the lattice by a fixed fraction of the targeted emission wavelength. The structures are realized in InGaAsP =1.15 with InGaAsP quantum wells =1.52 as gain material. Cavities with shifts of...

  5. Multiscale regime shifts and planetary boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hughes, T.P.; Carpenter, S.; Rockstrom, J.; Scheffer, M.; Walker, B.

    2013-01-01

    Life on Earth has repeatedly displayed abrupt and massive changes in the past, and there is no reason to expect that comparable planetary-scale regime shifts will not continue in the future. Different lines of evidence indicate that regime shifts occur when the climate or biosphere transgresses a

  6. Human Performance Event Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trager, E. A.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe several aspects of a Human Performance Event Database (HPED) that is being developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. These include the background, the database structure and basis for the structure, the process for coding and entering event records, the results of preliminary analyses of information in the database, and plans for the future. In 1992, the Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) within the NRC decided to develop a database for information on human performance during operating events. The database was needed to help classify and categorize the information to help feedback operating experience information to licensees and others. An NRC interoffice working group prepared a list of human performance information that should be reported for events and the list was based on the Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP) that had been developed by the NRC as an aid in investigating events. The structure of the HPED was based on that list. The HPED currently includes data on events described in augmented inspection team (AIT) and incident investigation team (IIT) reports from 1990 through 1996, AEOD human performance studies from 1990 through 1993, recent NRR special team inspections, and licensee event reports (LERs) that were prepared for the events. (author)

  7. The Agency of Event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholas, Paul; Tamke, Martin; Riiber, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the notion of agency within event-based models. We present an event-based modeling approach that links interdependent generative, analytic and decision making sub-models within a system of exchange. Two case study projects demonstrate the underlying modeling concepts and metho...

  8. Intermediate mass dimuon events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, H.-G.

    1985-01-01

    We report the observation of 67 dimuon events at the CERN p anti p collider with the UA1 detector. The events will be interpreted in terms of the Drell-Yan mechanism, J/PSI and UPSILON decays and heavy flavour production. (author)

  9. The Blayais event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This document provides the main events occurred to the Blayais installation during the year 2000. For each events, the detailed chronology, the situation analysis, the crisis management and the public information are provided. Some recommendations are also provided by the nuclear safety authorities. (A.L.B.)

  10. Plasticity in host utilization by two host-associated populations of Aphis gossypii Glover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, A K; Gadhave, K R; Dutta, B; Srinivasan, R

    2018-06-01

    Biological and morphological plasticity in polyphagous insect herbivores allow them to exploit diverse host plant species. Geographical differences in resource availability can lead to preferential host exploitation and result in inconsistent host specialization. Biological and molecular data provide insights into specialization and plasticity of such herbivore populations. In agricultural landscapes, Aphis gossypii encounters several crop and non-crop hosts, which exist in temporal and spatial proximity. We investigated the host-specialization of two A. gossypii host-associated populations (HAPs), which were field collected from cotton and squash (cotton-associated population and melon-associated population), and later maintained separately in the greenhouse. The two aphid populations were exposed to seven plant species (cotton, okra, watermelon, squash, cucumber, pigweed, and morning glory), and evaluated for their host utilization plasticity by estimating aphid's fitness parameters (nymphal period, adult period, fecundity, and intrinsic rate of increase). Four phenotypical characters (body length, head capsule width, hind tibia length and cornicle length) were also measured from the resulting 14 different HAP × host plant combinations. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial COI sequences showed no genetic variation between the two HAPs. Fitness parameters indicated a significant variation between the two aphid populations, and the variation was influenced by host plants. The performance of melon-aphids was poor (up to 89% reduction in fecundity) on malvaceous hosts, cotton and okra. However, cotton-aphids performed better on cucurbitaceous hosts, squash and watermelon (up to 66% increased fecundity) compared with the natal host, cotton. Both HAPs were able to reproduce on two weed hosts. Cotton-aphids were smaller than melon-aphids irrespective of their host plants. Results from this study suggest that the two HAPs in the study area do not have strict host

  11. Shift work and age in the offshore petroleum industry

    OpenAIRE

    Waage, Siri; Pallesen, Ståle; Moen, Bente Elisabeth; Bjorvatn, Bjørn

    2010-01-01

    Background. Shift work is associated with sleep and health problems. Tolerance to shift work is reported to decrease with age. Shift work tolerance should be considered in different shift work populations. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between age, shift work exposure, shift type, and morningness and sleep/health problems in oil rig shift workers. Material and methods. A total of 199 workers participated. They worked either two weeks of 12-h day shifts (n = 96) or tw...

  12. Does workplace health promotion reach shift workers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Garde, Anne Helene; Clausen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: One reason for health disparities between shift and day workers may be that workplace health promotion does not reach shift workers to the same extent as it reaches day workers. This study aimed to investigate the association between shift work and the availability of and participation...... in workplace health promotion. METHODS: We used cross-sectional questionnaire data from a large representative sample of all employed people in Denmark. We obtained information on the availability of and participation in six types of workplace health promotion. We also obtained information on working hours, ie......). RESULTS: In the general working population, fixed evening and fixed night workers, and employees working variable shifts including night work reported a higher availability of health promotion, while employees working variable shifts without night work reported a lower availability of health promotion...

  13. Doppler interpretation of quasar red shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapolsky, H S

    1966-08-05

    The hypothesis that the quasistellar sources (quasars) are local objects moving with velocities close to the speed of light is examined. Provided there is no observational cutoff on apparent bolometric magnitude for the quasars, the transverse Doppler effect leads to the expectation of fewer blue shifts than red shifts for an isotropic distribution of velocities. Such a distribution also yields a function N(z), the number of objects with red shift less than z which is not inconsistent with the present data. On the basis of two extreme assumptions concerning the origin of such rapidly moving sources, we computed curves of red shift plotted against magnitude. In particular, the curve obtained on the assumption that the quasars originated from an explosion in or nearby our own galaxy is in as good agreement with the observations as the curve of cosmological red shift plotted against magnitude.

  14. Methodological aspects of shift-work research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsson, Anders

    2004-01-01

    A major issue in shift-work research is to understand the possible ways in which shift work can impact performance and health. Nearly all body functions, from those of the cellular level to those of the entire body, are circadian rhythmic. Disturbances of these rhythms as well as the social consequences of odd work hours are of importance for the health and well-being of shift workers. This article reviews a number of common methodological issues which are of relevance to epidemiological studies in this area of research. It discusses conceptual problems regarding the use of the term "shift work," and it underscores the need to develop models that explain the mechanisms of disease in shift workers.

  15. Host plant adaptation in Drosophila mettleri populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Castrezana

    Full Text Available The process of local adaptation creates diversity among allopatric populations, and may eventually lead to speciation. Plant-feeding insect populations that specialize on different host species provide an excellent opportunity to evaluate the causes of ecological specialization and the subsequent consequences for diversity. In this study, we used geographically separated Drosophila mettleri populations that specialize on different host cacti to examine oviposition preference for and larval performance on an array of natural and non-natural hosts (eight total. We found evidence of local adaptation in performance on saguaro cactus (Carnegiea gigantea for populations that are typically associated with this host, and to chemically divergent prickly pear species (Opuntia spp. in a genetically isolated population on Santa Catalina Island. Moreover, each population exhibited reduced performance on the alternative host. This finding is consistent with trade-offs associated with adaptation to these chemically divergent hosts, although we also discuss alternative explanations for this pattern. For oviposition preference, Santa Catalina Island flies were more likely to oviposit on some prickly pear species, but all populations readily laid eggs on saguaro. Experiments with non-natural hosts suggest that factors such as ecological opportunity may play a more important role than host plant chemistry in explaining the lack of natural associations with some hosts.

  16. Pseudomonas aeruginosa host-adaptation in cystic fibrosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rau, Martin Holm

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen capable of transition from an environmental lifestyle to a host-associated lifestyle, as exemplified in the life-long airway infection of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Long-term infection is associated with extensive genetic adaptation of P...... the framework upon which this thesis is based. Early P. aeruginosa colonization of the CF airways is the period in which the outcome of infection is determined, i.e. if the bacteria are eventually eradicated or persist. In three patient cases the evolutionary events from initiation of infection were explored...... to unravel the early adaptive processes possibly securing bacterial persistence. In this early stage, clinical isolates displayed few adaptive events however these included phenotypes often observed in late chronic infection isolates including the conversion to a mucoid phenotype and increased antibiotic...

  17. Public affairs events at Fall Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlenbrock, Kristan

    2012-02-01

    AGU's Public Affairs team presented two workshop luncheons and hosted 17 oral and poster sessions at the 2011 Fall Meeting. Topics ranged from defining the importance of the geosciences, to climate change science for communities and institutions. The workshop luncheon "How to Be a Congressional Science Fellow or Mass Media Fellow" was a well-attended event with more than 115 participants. The luncheon provided the opportunity for audience members to ask fellow scientists about their experiences working either in Congress or as a reporter for a news organization. For scientists looking to expand their expertise outside the academic environment, these AGU fellowships are fantastic opportunities.

  18. [Sleep quality of nurses working in shifts - Hungarian adaptation of the Bergen Shift Work Sleep Questionnaire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusz, Katalin; Tóth, Ákos; Fullér, Noémi; Müller, Ágnes; Oláh, András

    2015-12-06

    Sleep disorders among shift workers are common problems due to the disturbed circadian rhythm. The Bergen Shift Work Sleep Questionnaire assesses discrete sleep problems related to work shifts (day, evening and night shifts) and rest days. The aim of the study was to develop the Hungarian version of this questionnaire and to compare the sleep quality of nurses in different work schedules. 326 nurses working in shifts filled in the questionnaire. The authors made convergent and discriminant validation of the questionnaire with the Athens Insomnia Scale and the Perceived Stress Questionnaire. The questionnaire based on psychometric characteristics was suitable to assess sleep disorders associated with shift work in a Hungarian sample. The frequency of discrete symptoms significantly (pshifts. Nurses experienced the worst sleep quality and daytime fatigue after the night shift. Nurses working in irregular shift system had worse sleep quality than nurses working in regular and flexible shift system (pworking in shifts should be assessed with the Hungarian version of the Bergen Shift Work Sleep Questionnaire on a nationally representative sample, and the least burdensome shift system could be established.

  19. Non-occupational physical activity levels of shift workers compared with non-shift workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loef, Bette; Hulsegge, Gerben; Wendel-Vos, G C Wanda; Verschuren, W M Monique; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Bakker, Marije F.; van der Beek, Allard J.; Proper, Karin I

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Lack of physical activity (PA) has been hypothesised as an underlying mechanism in the adverse health effects of shift work. Therefore, our aim was to compare non-occupational PA levels between shift workers and non-shift workers. Furthermore, exposure-response relationships for

  20. Highly red-shifted NIR emission from a novel anthracene conjugated polymer backbone containing Pt( ii ) porphyrins

    KAUST Repository

    Freeman, D. M. E.

    2015-11-30

    © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016. We present the synthesis of a novel diphenylanthracene (DPA) based semiconducting polymer. The polymer is solubilised by alkoxy groups attached directly to a DPA monomer, meaning the choice of co-monomer is not limited to exclusively highly solubilising moieties. Interestingly, the polymer shows a red-shifted elecroluminescence maximum (510 nm) when compared to its photoluminescence maximum (450 nm) which we attribute to excimer formation. The novel polymer was utilised as a host for a covalently-linked platinum(ii) complexed porphyrin dopant. Emission from these polymers was observed in the NIR and again showed almost a 100 nm red shift from photoluminescence to electroluminescence. This work demonstrates that utilising highly aggregating host materials is an effective tool for inducing red-shifted emission in OLEDs.

  1. Predicting climate-driven regime shifts versus rebound potential in coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Nicholas A J; Jennings, Simon; MacNeil, M Aaron; Mouillot, David; Wilson, Shaun K

    2015-02-05

    Climate-induced coral bleaching is among the greatest current threats to coral reefs, causing widespread loss of live coral cover. Conditions under which reefs bounce back from bleaching events or shift from coral to algal dominance are unknown, making it difficult to predict and plan for differing reef responses under climate change. Here we document and predict long-term reef responses to a major climate-induced coral bleaching event that caused unprecedented region-wide mortality of Indo-Pacific corals. Following loss of >90% live coral cover, 12 of 21 reefs recovered towards pre-disturbance live coral states, while nine reefs underwent regime shifts to fleshy macroalgae. Functional diversity of associated reef fish communities shifted substantially following bleaching, returning towards pre-disturbance structure on recovering reefs, while becoming progressively altered on regime shifting reefs. We identified threshold values for a range of factors that accurately predicted ecosystem response to the bleaching event. Recovery was favoured when reefs were structurally complex and in deeper water, when density of juvenile corals and herbivorous fishes was relatively high and when nutrient loads were low. Whether reefs were inside no-take marine reserves had no bearing on ecosystem trajectory. Although conditions governing regime shift or recovery dynamics were diverse, pre-disturbance quantification of simple factors such as structural complexity and water depth accurately predicted ecosystem trajectories. These findings foreshadow the likely divergent but predictable outcomes for reef ecosystems in response to climate change, thus guiding improved management and adaptation.

  2. Host-to-host variation of ecological interactions in polymicrobial infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, Sayak; Seok, Sang-Cheol; Ray, Will C; Jayaprakash, C; Vieland, Veronica J; Das, Jayajit; Weimer, Kristin E; Swords, W Edward

    2015-01-01

    Host-to-host variability with respect to interactions between microorganisms and multicellular hosts are commonly observed in infection and in homeostasis. However, the majority of mechanistic models used to analyze host–microorganism relationships, as well as most of the ecological theories proposed to explain coevolution of hosts and microbes, are based on averages across a host population. By assuming that observed variations are random and independent, these models overlook the role of differences between hosts. Here, we analyze mechanisms underlying host-to-host variations of bacterial infection kinetics, using the well characterized experimental infection model of polymicrobial otitis media (OM) in chinchillas, in combination with population dynamic models and a maximum entropy (MaxEnt) based inference scheme. We find that the nature of the interactions between bacterial species critically regulates host-to-host variations in these interactions. Surprisingly, seemingly unrelated phenomena, such as the efficiency of individual bacterial species in utilizing nutrients for growth, and the microbe-specific host immune response, can become interdependent in a host population. The latter finding suggests a potential mechanism that could lead to selection of specific strains of bacterial species during the coevolution of the host immune response and the bacterial species. (paper)

  3. Perspective on the northwestward shift of autumn tropical cyclogenesis locations over the western North Pacific from shifting ENSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chundi; Zhang, Chengyang; Yang, Song; Chen, Dake; He, Shengping

    2017-11-01

    During the recent decades of satellite era, more tropical cyclogenesis locations (TCLs) were observed over the northwestern part of the western North Pacific (WNP), relative to the southeastern part, during the boreal autumn. This increase in TCLs over the northwestern WNP is largely attributed to the synergy of shifting El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the 1998 Pacific climate regime shift. Both central Pacific (CP) La Niña and CP El Niño have occurred more frequently since 1998, with only one eastern Pacific El Niño observed in autumn 2015. The change in the mean longitude of TCLs is closely linked to the ENSO diversity, whereas the change in the mean latitude is dominated by the warming of the WNP induced by an interdecadal tendency of CP La Niña-like events. The physical mechanisms responsible for this shifting ENSO-TCL linkage can be potentially explained by the tacit-and-mutual configurations between tropical upper-tropospheric trough and monsoon trough, on both interannual and interdecadal timescales, which is mainly due to the ENSO-related large-scale environment changes in ocean and atmosphere that modulate the WNP TCL.

  4. A Virtual Hosting Environment for Distributed Online Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossard, David; Prieto Martinez, Juan Luis

    With enterprise boundaries becoming fuzzier, it’s become clear that businesses need to share resources, expose services, and interact in many different ways. In order to achieve such a distribution in a dynamic, flexible, and secure way, we have designed and implemented a virtual hosting environment (VHE) which aims at integrating business services across enterprise boundaries and virtualising the ICT environment within which these services operate in order to exploit economies of scale for the businesses as well as achieve shorter concept-to-market time scales. To illustrate the relevance of the VHE, we have applied it to the online gaming world. Online gaming is an early adopter of distributed computing and more than 30% of gaming developer companies, being aware of the shift, are focusing on developing high performance platforms for the new online trend.

  5. SCALES OF FLOWS: Qatar and the Urban Legacies of Mega Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Grichting

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2022, Qatar will become the first Middle Eastern and Arab country to host such an  important Mega-Event as the FIFA World Cup. Global cultural and sporting Mega Events  ave driven the urban transformation of cities such as Barcelona, London, Rio, Beijing,Shanghai, and Lisbon and the spectacle and economic boosterism encourages cities to  compete on the World Stage for these events. The best practices of successful bids and  their enduring legacies create a knowledge and policy flow of Mega Event strategies for global branding and sustainable Urban, Social, and Economic Development at the local and regional scales. This paper discusses the urban legacies that will result from Qatar hosting the World Cup and other Mega Events, and questions how an emerging global host city like Doha will benefit on the long and short term.

  6. Easily Processed Host-Guest Polymer Systems with High-Tg Characteristics (First-year Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    manner such that the effective electro- optical coefficient is maximized. Unfortunately, relaxation of the chromophore in the host polymer leads to...polished stainless steel facing plates (0.25 in thickness, McMaster ) and window molds cut from aluminum stock (1 mm thickness, McMaster ). Both facing...plasticization from the chromophore. Both chromophores resulted in substantial red-shifted absorption compared to a sample prepared in virgin PMMA. We expect

  7. Evolution of specialization: a phylogenetic study of host range in the red milkweed beetle (Tetraopes tetraophthalmus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmann, Sergio; Agrawal, Anurag A

    2011-06-01

    Specialization is common in most lineages of insect herbivores, one of the most diverse groups of organisms on earth. To address how and why specialization is maintained over evolutionary time, we hypothesized that plant defense and other ecological attributes of potential host plants would predict the performance of a specialist root-feeding herbivore (the red milkweed beetle, Tetraopes tetraophthalmus). Using a comparative phylogenetic and functional trait approach, we assessed the determinants of insect host range across 18 species of Asclepias. Larval survivorship decreased with increasing phylogenetic distance from the true host, Asclepias syriaca, suggesting that adaptation to plant traits drives specialization. Among several root traits measured, only cardenolides (toxic defense chemicals) correlated with larval survival, and cardenolides also explained the phylogenetic distance effect in phylogenetically controlled multiple regression analyses. Additionally, milkweed species having a known association with other Tetraopes beetles were better hosts than species lacking Tetraopes herbivores, and milkweeds with specific leaf area values (a trait related to leaf function and habitat affiliation) similar to those of A. syriaca were better hosts than species having divergent values. We thus conclude that phylogenetic distance is an integrated measure of phenotypic and ecological attributes of Asclepias species, especially defensive cardenolides, which can be used to explain specialization and constraints on host shifts over evolutionary time.

  8. Endogenous and Exogenous Attention Shifts are Mediated by the Same Large-Scale Neural Network.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peelen, M.V.; Heslenfeld, D.J.; Theeuwes, J.

    2004-01-01

    Event-related fMRI was used to examine the neural basis of endogenous (top-down) and exogenous (bottom-up) spatial orienting. Shifts of attention were induced by central (endogenous) or peripheral (exogenous) cues. Reaction times on subsequently presented targets showed the expected pattern of

  9. Synchronous Parallel System for Emulation and Discrete Event Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Jeffrey S. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A synchronous parallel system for emulation and discrete event simulation having parallel nodes responds to received messages at each node by generating event objects having individual time stamps, stores only the changes to the state variables of the simulation object attributable to the event object and produces corresponding messages. The system refrains from transmitting the messages and changing the state variables while it determines whether the changes are superseded, and then stores the unchanged state variables in the event object for later restoral to the simulation object if called for. This determination preferably includes sensing the time stamp of each new event object and determining which new event object has the earliest time stamp as the local event horizon, determining the earliest local event horizon of the nodes as the global event horizon, and ignoring events whose time stamps are less than the global event horizon. Host processing between the system and external terminals enables such a terminal to query, monitor, command or participate with a simulation object during the simulation process.

  10. Shift work and the risk of ischemic heart disease - a systematic review of the epidemiologic evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, P.; Kolstad, H.A.; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2009-01-01

    Objective The objective of this review was to evaluate the epidemiologic evidence for a causal relation between shift work and ischemic heart disease. Methods We conducted a systematic search until the end of March 2008 for studies providing information on the relative risk of ischemic heart...... disease in relation to shift work. The quality of included papers was evaluated with respect to design, exposure and outcome information, bias, and exposure response assessment. Results Of the 16 studies examined, relevant information was retrieved from 14. Seven of these analyzed fatal events, six......-fatal events showed modest positive associations. In a majority of studies, we could not reasonably rule out negative or positive bias due to the quality of outcome or exposure information, or confounder control. Five studies used years in shift work for exposure response analysis and no consistent pattern...

  11. Non-occupational physical activity levels of shift workers compared with non-shift workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loef, Bette; Hulsegge, Gerben; Wendel-Vos, G C Wanda; Verschuren, W M Monique; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Bakker, Marije F; van der Beek, Allard J; Proper, Karin I

    2017-05-01

    Lack of physical activity (PA) has been hypothesised as an underlying mechanism in the adverse health effects of shift work. Therefore, our aim was to compare non-occupational PA levels between shift workers and non-shift workers. Furthermore, exposure-response relationships for frequency of night shifts and years of shift work regarding non-occupational PA levels were studied. Data of 5980 non-shift workers and 532 shift workers from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands (EPIC-NL) were used in these cross-sectional analyses. Time spent (hours/week) in different PA types (walking/cycling/exercise/chores) and intensities (moderate/vigorous) were calculated based on self-reported PA. Furthermore, sports were operationalised as: playing sports (no/yes), individual versus non-individual sports, and non-vigorous-intensity versus vigorous-intensity sports. PA levels were compared between shift workers and non-shift workers using Generalized Estimating Equations and logistic regression. Shift workers reported spending more time walking than non-shift workers (B=2.3 (95% CI 1.2 to 3.4)), but shift work was not associated with other PA types and any of the sports activities. Shift workers who worked 1-4 night shifts/month (B=2.4 (95% CI 0.6 to 4.3)) and ≥5 night shifts/month (B=3.7 (95% CI 1.8 to 5.6)) spent more time walking than non-shift workers. No exposure-response relationships were found between years of shift work and PA levels. Shift workers spent more time walking than non-shift workers, but we observed no differences in other non-occupational PA levels. To better understand if and how PA plays a role in the negative health consequences of shift work, our findings need to be confirmed in future studies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Data from: Two different strategies of host manipulation allow parasites to persist in intermediate-definitive host systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Lana; Langevelde, van F.

    2017-01-01

    Trophically-transmitted parasites start their development in an intermediate host, before they finish the development in their definitive host when the definitive host preys on the intermediate host. In intermediate-definitive host systems, two strategies of host manipulation have been evolved:

  13. Studying the impact of academic events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Trøst; Pedersen, David Budtz

    2018-01-01

    of scholarly work, to increase collaboration with non-academic partners and to achieve a broad range of socio-economic benefits. Impact assessment frameworks are occupied with documenting the effects of science on a large number of variables. However, the participation and hosting of academic events have......Demands that publicly funded scientific research should demonstrate its academic and societal impact have been commonplace for some time. Research communities, university administrators and policy-makers are looking to impact assessments and impact toolkits to better communicate the value...... not been included in most frameworks. In this scoping review, we demonstrate that academic events are an important vehicle for academic and societal value-creation that should be integrated in future impact studies. The review presents the main trends in the literature by categorizing the impact...

  14. MR chemical shift imaging of human atheroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohiaddin, R.H.; Underwood, R.; Firmin, D.; Abdulla, A.K.; Rees, S.; Longmore, D.

    1988-01-01

    The lipid content of atheromatous plaques has been measured with chemical shift MR imaging by taking advantage of the different resonance frequencies of protons in lipid and water. Fifteen postmortem aortic specimens of the human descending aorta and the aortae of seven patients with documented peripheral vascular disease were studied at 0.5 T. Spin-echo images were used to localize the lesions before acquisition of the chemical shift images. The specimens were examined histologically, and the lipid distribution in the plaque showed good correlation with the chemical shift data. Validation in vivo and clinical applications remain to be established

  15. Giant Lamb shift in photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xuehua; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Gu Benyuan

    2004-01-01

    We obtain a general result for the Lamb shift of excited states of multilevel atoms in inhomogeneous electromagnetic structures and apply it to study atomic hydrogen in inverse-opal photonic crystals. We find that the photonic-crystal environment can lead to very large values of the Lamb shift, as compared to the case of vacuum. We also suggest that the position-dependent Lamb shift should extend from a single level to a miniband for an assembly of atoms with random distribution in space, similar to the velocity-dependent Doppler effect in atomic/molecular gases

  16. Forecasting interest rates with shifting endpoints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Dijk, Dick; Koopman, Siem Jan; Wel, Michel van der

    2014-01-01

    We consider forecasting the term structure of interest rates with the assumption that factors driving the yield curve are stationary around a slowly time-varying mean or ‘shifting endpoint’. The shifting endpoints are captured using either (i) time series methods (exponential smoothing) or (ii......) long-range survey forecasts of either interest rates or inflation and output growth, or (iii) exponentially smoothed realizations of these macro variables. Allowing for shifting endpoints in yield curve factors provides substantial and significant gains in out-of-sample predictive accuracy, relative...... to stationary and random walk benchmarks. Forecast improvements are largest for long-maturity interest rates and for long-horizon forecasts....

  17. Search for Higgs shifts in white dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onofrio, Roberto [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia " Galileo Galilei," Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Wegner, Gary A., E-mail: onofrior@gmail.com, E-mail: gary.a.wegner@dartmouth.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)

    2014-08-20

    We report on a search for differential shifts between electronic and vibronic transitions in carbon-rich white dwarfs BPM 27606 and Procyon B. The absence of differential shifts within the spectral resolution and taking into account systematic effects such as space motion and pressure shifts allows us to set the first upper bound of astrophysical origin on the coupling between the Higgs field and the Kreschmann curvature invariant. Our analysis provides the basis for a more general methodology to derive bounds to the coupling of long-range scalar fields to curvature invariants in an astrophysical setting complementary to the ones available from high-energy physics or table-top experiments.

  18. Beta-shifts, their languages and computability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2011-01-01

    they give into the dynamics of the underlying system. We prove that the language of the ß-shift is recursive iff ß is a computable real number. That fact yields a precise characterization of the reals: The real numbers ß for which we can compute arbitrarily good approximations—hence in particular......For every real number ß >1, the ß-shift is a dynamical system describing iterations of the map x ¿ ßx mod 1 and is studied intensively in number theory. Each ß-shift has an associated language of finite strings of characters; properties of this language are studied for the additional insight...

  19. Examining the Conservative Shift from Harsh Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joycelyn Pollock

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a political shift has been observed, in that some political conservatives are now advocating, adjusting, or abandoning draconian drug laws, including mandatory minimums, and funding diversion, re-entry, and drug programs. Vocal proponents of this movement include Grover Norquist, Rand Paul, Edwin Meese, and Mark Levin, from the Texas Public Policy Council. Any movement away from the mass incarceration that has characterized the U.S. correctional policy for the last 30 years is welcomed; however, it is important to note carefully the philosophical foundation of the conservative’s interest in shifting correctional policy. This paper explores the potential factors contributing to this philosophical shift.

  20. Do working environment interventions reach shift workers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Garde, Anne Helene

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Shift workers are exposed to more physical and psychosocial stressors in the working environment as compared to day workers. Despite the need for targeted prevention, it is likely that workplace interventions less frequently reach shift workers. The aim was therefore to investigate whether...... the reach of workplace interventions varied between shift workers and day workers and whether such differences could be explained by the quality of leadership exhibited at different times of the day. METHODS: We used questionnaire data from 5361 female care workers in the Danish eldercare sector...

  1. Soft theorems for shift-symmetric cosmologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finelli, Bernardo; Goon, Garrett; Pajer, Enrico; Santoni, Luca

    2018-03-01

    We derive soft theorems for single-clock cosmologies that enjoy a shift symmetry. These so-called consistency conditions arise from a combination of a large diffeomorphism and the internal shift symmetry and fix the squeezed limit of all correlators with a soft scalar mode. As an application, we show that our results reproduce the squeezed bispectrum for ultra-slow-roll inflation, a particular shift-symmetric, nonattractor model which is known to violate Maldacena's consistency relation. Similar results have been previously obtained by Mooij and Palma using background-wave methods. Our results shed new light on the infrared structure of single-clock cosmological spacetimes.

  2. The Prerequisites for a Degrowth Paradigm Shift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Hubert

    2018-01-01

    What would it take for a degrowth paradigm shift to take place? Drawing on contemporary critical political economy scholarship, this article identifies four prerequisites for socio-economic paradigm shifts: deep crisis, an alternative political project, a comprehensive coalition of social forces...... currently facing humanity. On the other hand, the prospects for a degrowth paradigm shift remain bleak: unlike political projects that became hegemonic in the past, degrowth has neither support from a comprehensive coalition of social forces nor any consent to its agenda among the broader population....

  3. Event shape sorting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopecna, Renata; Tomasik, Boris

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel method for sorting events of multiparticle production according to the azimuthal anisotropy of their momentum distribution. Although the method is quite general, we advocate its use in analysis of ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions where a large number of hadrons is produced. The advantage of our method is that it can automatically sort out samples of events with histograms that indicate similar distributions of hadrons. It takes into account the whole measured histograms with all orders of anisotropy instead of a specific observable (e.g., v 2 , v 3 , q 2 ). It can be used for more exclusive experimental studies of flow anisotropies which are then more easily compared to theoretical calculations. It may also be useful in the construction of mixed-events background for correlation studies as it allows to select events with similar momentum distribution. (orig.)

  4. "Universe" event at AIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Report of event of 11 May 2008 held at the African Institute of Mathematical Sciences (Muizenberg, Cape), with speakers Michael Griffin (Administrator of NASA), Stephen Hawking (Cambridge), David Gross (Kavli Institute, Santa Barbara) and George Smoot (Berkeley).

  5. Event visualization in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00211497; The ATLAS collaboration; Boudreau, Joseph; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Martyniuk, Alex; Moyse, Edward; Thomas, Juergen; Waugh, Ben; Yallup, David

    2017-01-01

    At the beginning, HEP experiments made use of photographical images both to record and store experimental data and to illustrate their findings. Then the experiments evolved and needed to find ways to visualize their data. With the availability of computer graphics, software packages to display event data and the detector geometry started to be developed. Here, an overview of the usage of event display tools in HEP is presented. Then the case of the ATLAS experiment is considered in more detail and two widely used event display packages are presented, Atlantis and VP1, focusing on the software technologies they employ, as well as their strengths, differences and their usage in the experiment: from physics analysis to detector development, and from online monitoring to outreach and communication. Towards the end, the other ATLAS visualization tools will be briefly presented as well. Future development plans and improvements in the ATLAS event display packages will also be discussed.

  6. Analysis of extreme events

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khuluse, S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ) determination of the distribution of the damage and (iii) preparation of products that enable prediction of future risk events. The methodology provided by extreme value theory can also be a powerful tool in risk analysis...

  7. RAS Initiative - Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI RAS Initiative has organized multiple events with outside experts to discuss how the latest scientific and technological breakthroughs can be applied to discover vulnerabilities in RAS-driven cancers.

  8. Nestedness of ectoparasite-vertebrate host networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean P Graham

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Determining the structure of ectoparasite-host networks will enable disease ecologists to better understand and predict the spread of vector-borne diseases. If these networks have consistent properties, then studying the structure of well-understood networks could lead to extrapolation of these properties to others, including those that support emerging pathogens. Borrowing a quantitative measure of network structure from studies of mutualistic relationships between plants and their pollinators, we analyzed 29 ectoparasite-vertebrate host networks--including three derived from molecular bloodmeal analysis of mosquito feeding patterns--using measures of nestedness to identify non-random interactions among species. We found significant nestedness in ectoparasite-vertebrate host lists for habitats ranging from tropical rainforests to polar environments. These networks showed non-random patterns of nesting, and did not differ significantly from published estimates of nestedness from mutualistic networks. Mutualistic and antagonistic networks appear to be organized similarly, with generalized ectoparasites interacting with hosts that attract many ectoparasites and more specialized ectoparasites usually interacting with these same "generalized" hosts. This finding has implications for understanding the network dynamics of vector-born pathogens. We suggest that nestedness (rather than random ectoparasite-host associations can allow rapid transfer of pathogens throughout a network, and expand upon such concepts as the dilution effect, bridge vectors, and host switching in the context of nested ectoparasite-vertebrate host networks.

  9. Host selection by the shiny cowbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Factors important in Shiny Cowbird (Molothrus bonariensis) host selection were examined within the mangrove community in Puerto Rico. Cowbirds did not parasitize birds in proportion to their abundance. The cowbird breeding season coincided with those of its major hosts, which were 'high-quality' foster species (i.e., species that fledge .gtoreq. 55% of cowbirds hatched: Yellow Warbler, Dendroica petechia; Yellow-shouldered Blackbird, Agelaius xanthomus; Black-whiskered Vireo, Vireo altiloquus; Black-cowled Oriole, Icterus dominicensis; Peurto Rican Flycatcher, Myiarchus antillarum; Troupial, Icterus icterus), and did not extend into other periods even though nests of 'low-quality: species (i.e., species that fledge < 55% of cowbird chicks that hatched: Bronze Mannikin, Lonchura cucullata; Greater Antillean Grackle, Quiscalus niger; Gray Kingbird, Tyrannus dominicensis; Northern Mockingbird, Mimus polyglottos; Red-legged Thrush, Turdus plumbeus) were available. Shiny Cowbird food habits and egg size were similar to those of their hosts, suggesting that cowbirds choose hosts partly on the basis of this combination. Cowbirds located host nests primarily by cryptically watching activities of birds in likely habitats. Other nest locating strategies were active searching of suitable habitat and 'flushing' of hosts by the cowbird's noisy approach. Cowbirds closely monitored nest status with frequent visits that peaked on the host's first day of egg laying. Hosts using covered nests (e.g., cavities, domed nests) were as vulnerable to cowbird parasitism as those building open nests.

  10. Biofilms and host response - helpful or harmful

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moser, Claus; Pedersen, Hannah Trøstrup; Lerche, Christian Johann

    2017-01-01

    infections can present in numerous ways, one common feature is involvement of the host response with significant impact on the course. A special characteristic is the synergy of the innate and the acquired immune responses for the induced pathology. Here, we review the impact of the host response...

  11. Host tree resistance against the polyphagous

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. D. Morewood; K. Hoover; P. R. Neiner; J.R. McNeil; J. C. Sellmer

    2004-01-01

    Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Lamiini) is an invasive wood-boring beetle with an unusually broad host range and a proven ability to increase its host range as it colonizes new areas and encounters new tree species. The beetle is native to eastern Asia and has become an invasive pest in North America and Europe,...

  12. Carp erythrodermatitis : host defense-pathogen interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pourreau, C.N.

    1990-01-01

    The outcome of a bacterial infection depends on the interaction between pathogen and host. The ability of the microbe to survive in the host depends on its invasive potential (i.e. spreading and multiplication), and its ability to obtain essential nutrients and to resist the

  13. Disentangling the influence of parasite genotype, host genotype and maternal environment on different stages of bacterial infection in Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Matthew D; Ebert, Dieter

    2012-08-22

    Individuals naturally vary in the severity of infectious disease when exposed to a parasite. Dissecting this variation into genetic and environmental components can reveal whether or not this variation depends on the host genotype, parasite genotype or a range of environmental conditions. Complicating this task, however, is that the symptoms of disease result from the combined effect of a series of events, from the initial encounter between a host and parasite, through to the activation of the host immune system and the exploitation of host resources. Here, we use the crustacean Daphnia magna and its parasite Pasteuria ramosa to show how disentangling genetic and environmental factors at different stages of infection improves our understanding of the processes shaping infectious disease. Using compatible host-parasite combinations, we experimentally exclude variation in the ability of a parasite to penetrate the host, from measures of parasite clearance, the reduction in host fecundity and the proliferation of the parasite. We show how parasite resistance consists of two components that vary in environmental sensitivity, how the maternal environment influences all measured aspects of the within-host infection process and how host-parasite interactions following the penetration of the parasite into the host have a distinct temporal component.

  14. Host genetics and dengue fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier-Carvalho, Caroline; Cardoso, Cynthia Chester; de Souza Kehdy, Fernanda; Pacheco, Antonio Guilherme; Moraes, Milton Ozório

    2017-12-01

    Dengue is a major worldwide problem in tropical and subtropical areas; it is caused by four different viral serotypes, and it can manifest as asymptomatic, mild, or severe. Many factors interact to determine the severity of the disease, including the genetic profile of the infected patient. However, the mechanisms that lead to severe disease and eventually death have not been determined, and a great challenge is the early identification of patients who are more likely to progress to a worse health condition. Studies performed in regions with cyclic outbreaks such as Cuba, Brazil, and Colombia have demonstrated that African ancestry confers protection against severe dengue. Highlighting the host genetics as an important factor in infectious diseases, a large number of association studies between genetic polymorphisms and dengue outcomes have been published in the last two decades. The most widely used approach involves case-control studies with candidate genes, such as the HLA locus and genes for receptors, cytokines, and other immune mediators. Additionally, a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) identified SNPs associated with African ethnicity that had not previously been identified in case-control studies. Despite the increasing number of publications in America, Africa, and Asia, the results are quite controversial, and a meta-analysis is needed to assess the consensus among the studies. SNPs in the MICB, TNF, CD209, FcγRIIA, TPSAB1, CLEC5A, IL10 and PLCE1 genes are associated with the risk or protection of severe dengue, and the findings have been replicated in different populations. A thorough understanding of the viral, human genetic, and immunological mechanisms of dengue and how they interact is essential for effectively preventing dengue, but also managing and treating patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Gargamelle: neutral current event

    CERN Multimedia

    1973-01-01

    This event shows real tracks of particles from the 1200 litre Gargamelle bubble chamber that ran on the PS from 1970 to 1976 and on the SPS from 1976 to 1979. In this image a neutrino passes close to a nucleon and reemerges as a neutrino. Such events are called neutral curent, as they are mediated by the Z0 boson which has no electric charge.

  16. Small Business Procurement Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-13

    Small Business Procurement Event 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Department of the Navy,Office of Small Business Programs,720 Kennon...distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES NDIA 27th Navy Gold Coast Small Business Procurement Event, 12-13 Aug 2014, San Diego, CA. 14. ABSTRACT

  17. The ALEPH event builder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benetta, R.; Marchioro, A.; McPherson, G.; Rueden, W. von

    1986-01-01

    The data acquisition system for the ALEPH experiment at CERN is organised in a hierarchical fashion within FASTBUS. The detector consists of a number of sub-detectors whose data must be individually assembled and formatted in real time. This task of 'event building' will be performed by a FASTBUS module in which a powerful microprocessor running high level software is embedded. Such a module, called an Event Builder, has been constructed by the ALEPH Online Group at CERN. (Auth.)

  18. Third ventricle midline shift on computed tomography as an alternative to septum pellucidum shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiago, Carlos Francis A.; Oropilla, Jean Quint L; Alvarez, Victor M.

    2000-01-01

    The cerebral midline shift is measured using the displacement from midline of the third ventricle. It is an easily determined criterion from which CT scans of patients with spontaneous intracerebral hematoma may be investigated. Midline shift is a significant criteria in which to gauge the neurological status of patients. In a retrospective study of 32 patients with spontaneous unilateral intracerebral hemorrhage, a midline third ventricle shift correlated well with septum pellucidum shift. A greater than 7 mm midline third ventricle shift was associated with a significantly lower Glasgow Coma scale score compared a shift less than 7mm. For the septum pellucidum, a greater than 10 mm shift was similarly associated with a significantly lower Glasgow Coma scale score. (Author)

  19. Importance of host feeding for parasitoids that attack honeydew-producing hosts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, J.M.S.; Komany, A.; Lenteren, van J.C.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2005-01-01

    Insect parasitoids lay their eggs in arthropods. Some parasitoid species not only use their arthropod host for oviposition but also for feeding. Host feeding provides nutrients to the adult female parasitoid. However, in many species, host feeding destroys an opportunity to oviposit. For parasitoids

  20. Adaptation to shift work: physiologically based modeling of the effects of lighting and shifts' start time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Postnova

    Full Text Available Shift work has become an integral part of our life with almost 20% of the population being involved in different shift schedules in developed countries. However, the atypical work times, especially the night shifts, are associated with reduced quality and quantity of sleep that leads to increase of sleepiness often culminating in accidents. It has been demonstrated that shift workers' sleepiness can be improved by a proper scheduling of light exposure and optimizing shifts timing. Here, an integrated physiologically-based model of sleep-wake cycles is used to predict adaptation to shift work in different light conditions and for different shift start times for a schedule of four consecutive days of work. The integrated model combines a model of the ascending arousal system in the brain that controls the sleep-wake switch and a human circadian pacemaker model. To validate the application of the integrated model and demonstrate its utility, its dynamics are adjusted to achieve a fit to published experimental results showing adaptation of night shift workers (n = 8 in conditions of either bright or regular lighting. Further, the model is used to predict the shift workers' adaptation to the same shift schedule, but for conditions not considered in the experiment. The model demonstrates that the intensity of shift light can be reduced fourfold from that used in the experiment and still produce good adaptation to night work. The model predicts that sleepiness of the workers during night shifts on a protocol with either bright or regular lighting can be significantly improved by starting the shift earlier in the night, e.g.; at 21:00 instead of 00:00. Finally, the study predicts that people of the same chronotype, i.e. with identical sleep times in normal conditions, can have drastically different responses to shift work depending on their intrinsic circadian and homeostatic parameters.

  1. Adaptation to shift work: physiologically based modeling of the effects of lighting and shifts' start time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postnova, Svetlana; Robinson, Peter A; Postnov, Dmitry D

    2013-01-01

    Shift work has become an integral part of our life with almost 20% of the population being involved in different shift schedules in developed countries. However, the atypical work times, especially the night shifts, are associated with reduced quality and quantity of sleep that leads to increase of sleepiness often culminating in accidents. It has been demonstrated that shift workers' sleepiness can be improved by a proper scheduling of light exposure and optimizing shifts timing. Here, an integrated physiologically-based model of sleep-wake cycles is used to predict adaptation to shift work in different light conditions and for different shift start times for a schedule of four consecutive days of work. The integrated model combines a model of the ascending arousal system in the brain that controls the sleep-wake switch and a human circadian pacemaker model. To validate the application of the integrated model and demonstrate its utility, its dynamics are adjusted to achieve a fit to published experimental results showing adaptation of night shift workers (n = 8) in conditions of either bright or regular lighting. Further, the model is used to predict the shift workers' adaptation to the same shift schedule, but for conditions not considered in the experiment. The model demonstrates that the intensity of shift light can be reduced fourfold from that used in the experiment and still produce good adaptation to night work. The model predicts that sleepiness of the workers during night shifts on a protocol with either bright or regular lighting can be significantly improved by starting the shift earlier in the night, e.g.; at 21:00 instead of 00:00. Finally, the study predicts that people of the same chronotype, i.e. with identical sleep times in normal conditions, can have drastically different responses to shift work depending on their intrinsic circadian and homeostatic parameters.

  2. Disruptive Events and Demographic Behaviour : Explaining the Shifts in Fertility in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutayisire, P.C.

    2015-01-01

    The fertility transition of Rwanda stagnated between 1992 and 2005 at a total fertility rate (TFR) of 6 children per woman. After 2005 the fertility decline resumed its course and the TFR dropped remarkably fast till 4.6. The period of the fertility stall coincided with a very disruptive period in

  3. Along for the ride or missing it altogether: exploring the host specificity and diversity of haemogregarines in the Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomé, Beatriz; Pereira, Ana; Jorge, Fátima; Carretero, Miguel A; Harris, D James; Perera, Ana

    2018-03-19

    Host-parasite relationships are expected to be strongly shaped by host specificity, a crucial factor in parasite adaptability and diversification. Because whole host communities have to be considered to assess host specificity, oceanic islands are ideal study systems given their simplified biotic assemblages. Previous studies on insular parasites suggest host range broadening during colonization. Here, we investigate the association between one parasite group (haemogregarines) and multiple sympatric hosts (of three lizard genera: Gallotia, Chalcides and Tarentola) in the Canary Islands. Given haemogregarine characteristics and insular conditions, we hypothesized low host specificity and/or occurrence of host-switching events. A total of 825 samples were collected from the three host taxa inhabiting the seven main islands of the Canarian Archipelago, including locations where the different lizards occurred in sympatry. Blood slides were screened to assess prevalence and parasitaemia, while parasite genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships were inferred from 18S rRNA gene sequences. Infection levels and diversity of haplotypes varied geographically and across host groups. Infections were found in all species of Gallotia across the seven islands, in Tarentola from Tenerife, La Gomera and La Palma, and in Chalcides from Tenerife, La Gomera and El Hierro. Gallotia lizards presented the highest parasite prevalence, parasitaemia and diversity (seven haplotypes), while the other two host groups (Chalcides and Tarentola) harbored one haplotype each, with low prevalence and parasitaemia levels, and very restricted geographical ranges. Host-sharing of the same haemogregarine haplotype was only detected twice, but these rare instances likely represent occasional cross-infections. Our results suggest that: (i) Canarian haemogregarine haplotypes are highly host-specific, which might have restricted parasite host expansion; (ii) haemogregarines most probably reached the

  4. Malagasy bats shelter a considerable genetic diversity of pathogenic Leptospira suggesting notable host-specificity patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomard, Yann; Dietrich, Muriel; Wieseke, Nicolas; Ramasindrazana, Beza; Lagadec, Erwan; Goodman, Steven M; Dellagi, Koussay; Tortosa, Pablo

    2016-04-01

    Pathogenic Leptospira are the causative agents of leptospirosis, a disease of global concern with major impact in tropical regions. Despite the importance of this zoonosis for human health, the evolutionary and ecological drivers shaping bacterial communities in host reservoirs remain poorly investigated. Here, we describe Leptospira communities hosted by Malagasy bats, composed of mostly endemic species, in order to characterize host-pathogen associations and investigate their evolutionary histories. We screened 947 individual bats (representing 31 species, 18 genera and seven families) for Leptospira infection and subsequently genotyped positive samples using three different bacterial loci. Molecular identification showed that these Leptospira are notably diverse and include several distinct lineages mostly belonging to Leptospira borgpetersenii and L. kirschneri. The exploration of the most probable host-pathogen evolutionary scenarios suggests that bacterial genetic diversity results from a combination of events related to the ecology and the evolutionary history of their hosts. Importantly, based on the data set presented herein, the notable host-specificity we have uncovered, together with a lack of geographical structuration of bacterial genetic diversity, indicates that the Leptospira community at a given site depends on the co-occurring bat species assemblage. The implications of such tight host-specificity on the epidemiology of leptospirosis are discussed. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Effect of Intermediate Hosts on Emerging Zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jing-An; Chen, Fangyuan; Fan, Shengjie

    2017-08-01

    Most emerging zoonotic pathogens originate from animals. They can directly infect humans through natural reservoirs or indirectly through intermediate hosts. As a bridge, an intermediate host plays different roles in the transmission of zoonotic pathogens. In this study, we present three types of pathogen transmission to evaluate the effect of intermediate hosts on emerging zoonotic diseases in human epidemics. These types are identified as follows: TYPE 1, pathogen transmission without an intermediate host for comparison; TYPE 2, pathogen transmission with an intermediate host as an amplifier; and TYPE 3, pathogen transmission with an intermediate host as a vessel for genetic variation. In addition, we established three mathematical models to elucidate the mechanisms underlying zoonotic disease transmission according to these three types. Stability analysis indicated that the existence of intermediate hosts increased the difficulty of controlling zoonotic diseases because of more difficult conditions to satisfy for the disease to die out. The human epidemic would die out under the following conditions: TYPE 1: [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]; TYPE 2: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text]; and TYPE 3: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text] Simulation with similar parameters demonstrated that intermediate hosts could change the peak time and number of infected humans during a human epidemic; intermediate hosts also exerted different effects on controlling the prevalence of a human epidemic with natural reservoirs in different periods, which is important in addressing problems in public health. Monitoring and controlling the number of natural reservoirs and intermediate hosts at the right time would successfully manage and prevent the prevalence of emerging zoonoses in humans.

  6. Rotaxane and catenane host structures for sensing charged guest species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langton, Matthew J; Beer, Paul D

    2014-07-15

    anion-induced conformational change can be used as a means of signal transduction. Electrochemical sensing has been realized by integration of the redox-active ferrocene functionality within a range of rotaxane and catenanes; binding of an anion perturbs the metallocene, leading to a cathodic shift in the ferrocene/ferrocenium redox couple. In order to obtain practical sensors for target charged guest species, confinement of receptors at a surface is necessary in order to develop robust, reuseable devices. Surface confinement also offers advantages over solution based receptors, including amplification of signal, enhanced guest binding thermodynamics and the negation of solubility problems. We have fabricated anion-templated rotaxanes and catenanes on gold electrode surfaces and demonstrated that the resulting mechanically bonded self-assembled monolayers are electrochemically responsive to the binding of anions, a crucial first step toward the advancement of sophisticated, highly selective, anion sensory devices. Rotaxane and catenane host molecules may be engineered to offer a superior level of molecular recognition, and the incorporation of optical or electrochemical reporter groups within these interlocked frameworks can allow for guest sensing. Advances in synthetic templation strategies has facilitated the synthesis of interlocked architectures and widened their interest as prototype molecular machines. However, their unique host-guest properties are only now beginning to be exploited as a sophisticated approach to chemical sensing. The development of functional host-guest sensory systems such as these is of great interest to the interdisciplinary field of supramolecular chemistry.

  7. Proteomic analyses of host and pathogen responses during bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehmer, Jamie L

    2011-12-01

    The pursuit of biomarkers for use as clinical screening tools, measures for early detection, disease monitoring, and as a means for assessing therapeutic responses has steadily evolved in human and veterinary medicine over the past two decades. Concurrently, advances in mass spectrometry have markedly expanded proteomic capabilities for biomarker discovery. While initial mass spectrometric biomarker discovery endeavors focused primarily on the detection of modulated proteins in human tissues and fluids, recent efforts have shifted to include proteomic analyses of biological samples from food animal species. Mastitis continues to garner attention in veterinary research due mainly to affiliated financial losses and food safety concerns over antimicrobial use, but also because there are only a limited number of efficacious mastitis treatment options. Accordingly, comparative proteomic analyses of bovine milk have emerged in recent years. Efforts to prevent agricultural-related food-borne illness have likewise fueled an interest in the proteomic evaluation of several prominent strains of bacteria, including common mastitis pathogens. The interest in establishing biomarkers of the host and pathogen responses during bovine mastitis stems largely from the need to better characterize mechanisms of the disease, to identify reliable biomarkers for use as measures of early detection and drug efficacy, and to uncover potentially novel targets for the development of alternative therapeutics. The following review focuses primarily on comparative proteomic analyses conducted on healthy versus mastitic bovine milk. However, a comparison of the host defense proteome of human and bovine milk and the proteomic analysis of common veterinary pathogens are likewise introduced.

  8. Shift manager workload assessment - A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berntson, K.; Kozak, A.; Malcolm, J. S.

    2006-01-01

    In early 2003, Bruce Power restarted two of its previously laid up units in the Bruce A generating station, Units 3 and 4. However, due to challenges relating to the availability of personnel with active Shift Manager licenses, an alternate shift structure was proposed to ensure the safe operation of the station. This alternate structure resulted in a redistribution of responsibility, and a need to assess the resulting changes in workload. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited was contracted to perform a workload assessment based on the new shift structure, and to provide recommendations, if necessary, to ensure Shift Managers had sufficient resources available to perform their required duties. This paper discusses the performance of that assessment, and lessons learned as a result of the work performed during the Restart project. (authors)

  9. Isotope shift studies in gadolinium spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.A.; Saksena, G.D.; Venugopalan, A.

    1976-01-01

    Isotope shift studies have been carried out in the gadolinium spectrum using a recording Fabry-Perot spectrometer and gadolinium samples enriched in 156 Gd and 160 Gd isotopes. Isotope shifts Δsigma(156-160) have been recorded in 134 lines in the region 3930-4140 A. Some of these lines involve the recently identified even configuration 4f 8 5d6s of Gd I and the newly classified transition 4f 8 6s-4f 8 6p of Gd II. From the isotope shift measurements of lines involving the 4f 8 6s-4f 8 6p transition in Gd II, the isotope shift, ΔT(156-160)=87 mK, has been obtained for the 4f 8 6s configuration. Electronic configurations have been suggested for a number of energy levels and configuration mixing has been pointed out in certain cases. (Auth.)

  10. Achieving excellence on shift through teamwork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, L.

    1988-01-01

    Anyone familiar with the nuclear industry realizes the importance of operators. Operators can achieve error-free plant operations, i.e., excellence on shift through teamwork. As a shift supervisor (senior reactor operator/shift technical advisor) the author went through the plant's first cycle of operations with no scrams and no equipment damaged by operator error, having since changed roles (and companies) to one of assessing plant operations. This change has provided the opportunity to see objectively the importance of operators working together and of the team building and teamwork that contribute to the shift's success. This paper uses examples to show the effectiveness of working together and outlines steps for building a group of operators into a team

  11. Comparison of worm development and host immune responses in natural hosts of schistosoma japonicum, yellow cattle and water buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jianmei

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yellow cattle and water buffalo are two of the most important natural hosts for Schistosoma japonicum in China. Previous observation has revealed that yellow cattle are more suited to the development of S. japonicum than water buffalo. Understanding more about the molecular mechanisms involved in worm development, as well as the pathological and immunological differences between yellow cattle and water buffalo post infection with S japonicum will provide useful information for the vaccine design and its delivery procedure. Results The worm length (p p p + T cells was higher in yellow cattle, while the percentage of CD8+ T cells was higher in water buffalo from pre-infection to 7 w post infection. The CD4/CD8 ratios were decreased in both species after challenge with schistosomes. Comparing with water buffalo, the IFN-γ level was higher and decreased significantly, while the IL-4 level was lower and increased gradually in yellow cattle from pre-infection to 7 w post infection. Conclusions In this study, we confirmed that yellow cattle were more suited to the development of S. japonicum than water buffalo, and more serious pathological damage was observed in infected yellow cattle. Immunological analysis suggested that CD4+ T cells might be an integral component of the immune response and might associate with worm development in yellow cattle. A shift from Th1 to Th2 type polarized immunity was only shown clearly in schistosome-infected yellow cattle, but no shift in water buffalo. The results provide valuable information for increased understanding of host-schistosome interactions, and for control of schistosomiasis.

  12. [Sleep disorders among physicians on shift work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlafer, O; Wenzel, V; Högl, B

    2014-11-01

    Sleep disorders in physicians who perform shift work can result in increased risks of health problems that negatively impact performance and patient safety. Even those who cope well with shift work are likely to suffer from sleep disorders. The aim of this manuscript is to discuss possible causes, contributing factors and consequences of sleep disorders in physicians and to identify measures that can improve adaptation to shift work and treatment strategies for shift work-associated sleep disorders. The risk factors that influence the development of sleep disorders in physicians are numerous and include genetic factors (15 % of the population), age (> 50 years), undiagnosed sleep apnea,, alcohol abuse as well as multiple stress factors inherent in clinical duties (including shift work), research, teaching and family obligations. Several studies have reported an increased risk for medical errors in sleep-deprived physicians. Shift workers have an increased risk for psychiatric and cardiovascular diseases and shift work may also be a contributing factor to cancer. A relationship has been reported not only with sleep deprivation and changes in food intake but also with diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypertension and coronary heart disease. Nicotine and alcohol consumption are more frequent among shift workers. Increased sickness and accident rates among physicians when commuting (especially after night shifts) have a socioeconomic impact. In order to reduce fatigue and to improve performance, short naps during shiftwork or naps plus caffeine, have been proposed as coping strategies; however, napping during adverse circadian phases is less effective, if not impossible when unable to fall asleep. Bright and blue light supports alertness during a night shift. After shiftwork, direct sunlight exposure to the retina can be avoided by using dark sunglasses or glasses with orange lenses for commuting home. The home environment for daytime sleeping after a night shift should be

  13. Analytic matrix elements with shifted correlated Gaussians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorov, D. V.

    2017-01-01

    Matrix elements between shifted correlated Gaussians of various potentials with several form-factors are calculated analytically. Analytic matrix elements are of importance for the correlated Gaussian method in quantum few-body physics.......Matrix elements between shifted correlated Gaussians of various potentials with several form-factors are calculated analytically. Analytic matrix elements are of importance for the correlated Gaussian method in quantum few-body physics....

  14. Heuristic Approach for Balancing Shift Schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae Ho; Yun, Young Su; Lee, Yong Hee

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a heuristic approach for balancing shift schedules is proposed. For the shift schedules, various constraints which have usually been considered in realworld industry are used, and the objective is to minimize the differences of the workloads in each workgroup. The constraints and objective function are implemented in the proposed heuristic approach. Using a simple instance, the efficiency of the proposed heuristic approach is proved

  15. The electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA)

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    The electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), also known as “gel shift assay”, is used to examine the binding parameters and relative affinities of protein and DNA interactions. We produced recombinant CCA1 protein and tested its binding affinity for the promoter fragments that contain CBS (AAAAATCT) or evening element (EE, AAAATATCT) (1) using a modified procedure adopted from published protocols (2,3).

  16. Metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Canuto; Marcos Pascoal Pattussi; Jamile Block Araldi Macagnan; Ruth Liane Henn; Maria Teresa Anselmo Olinto

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if metabolic syndrome and its altered components are associated with demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral factors in fixed-shift workers. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 902 shift workers of both sexes in a poultry processing plant in Southern Brazil in 2010. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was determined according to the recommendations from Harmonizing the Metabolic Syndrome. Its frequency was evaluated according to the demographic ...

  17. Metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers

    OpenAIRE

    Canuto, Raquel; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal; Macagnan, Jamile Block Araldi; Henn, Ruth Liane; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if metabolic syndrome and its altered components are associated with demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral factors in fixed-shift workers.METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 902 shift workers of both sexes in a poultry processing plant in Southern Brazil in 2010. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was determined according to the recommendations from Harmonizing the Metabolic Syndrome. Its frequency was evaluated according to the demographic (...

  18. Health effects of the shift work system

    OpenAIRE

    Yüzügüllü, Didem Ata; Aytaç, Necdet; Akbaba, Muhsin

    2018-01-01

    Technological advances and the changes to methods ofproduction in many industrialized countries led to the introduction of shiftwork systems to ensure the continuity in operation of industries. Shift workhas long been known to disrupt circadian rhythm,sleep, and work-life balance.Alfredsson et al. carried out a study of 334 cases with myocardial infarctionand 882 controls, who were selected randomly from the general population in thesame region. The shift-work exposure was assessed from the o...

  19. Management Ownership and Risk-Shifting Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Nobuyuki Teshima

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the relationship between management ownership and its risk-shifting incentive. We first present a simple model showing that the risk-shifting incentive of management of financially distressed firms increases as the management ownership of the firm increases. Empirically, we test the hypothesis that under the former Japanese Corporate Reorganization Law, firms with higher management ownership are more likely to use legal rather than private reorganization. Since the reorgan...

  20. THE LOCAL HOSTS OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neill, James D.; Martin, D. Christopher; Barlow, Tom A.; Foster, Karl; Friedman, Peter G.; Morrissey, Patrick; Wyder, Ted K.; Sullivan, Mark; Howell, D. Andrew; Conley, Alex; Seibert, Mark; Madore, Barry F.; Neff, Susan G.; Schiminovich, David; Bianchi, Luciana; Donas, Jose; Milliard, Bruno; Heckman, Timothy M.; Lee, Young-Wook; Rich, R. Michael

    2009-01-01

    We use multi-wavelength, matched aperture, integrated photometry from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and the RC3 to estimate the physical properties of 166 nearby galaxies hosting 168 well-observed Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). The ultraviolet (UV) imaging of local SN Ia hosts from GALEX allows a direct comparison with higher-redshift hosts measured at optical wavelengths that correspond to the rest-frame UV. Our data corroborate well-known features that have been seen in other SN Ia samples. Specifically, hosts with active star formation produce brighter and slower SNe Ia on average, and hosts with luminosity-weighted ages older than 1 Gyr produce on average more faint, fast, and fewer bright, slow SNe Ia than younger hosts. New results include that in our sample, the faintest and fastest SNe Ia occur only in galaxies exceeding a stellar mass threshold of ∼10 10 M sun , leading us to conclude that their progenitors must arise in populations that are older and/or more metal rich than the general SN Ia population. A low host extinction subsample hints at a residual trend in peak luminosity with host age, after correcting for light-curve shape, giving the appearance that older hosts produce less-extincted SNe Ia on average. This has implications for cosmological fitting of SNe Ia, and suggests that host age could be useful as a parameter in the fitting. Converting host mass to metallicity and computing 56 Ni mass from the supernova light curves, we find that our local sample is consistent with a model that predicts a shallow trend between stellar metallicity and the 56 Ni mass that powers the explosion, but we cannot rule out the absence of a trend. We measure a correlation between 56 Ni mass and host age in the local universe that is shallower and not as significant as that seen at higher redshifts. The details of the age- 56 Ni mass correlations at low and higher redshift imply a luminosity-weighted age threshold of ∼3 Gyr

  1. Characteristics of shift work and their impact on employee performance and wellbeing: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Ora, Chiara; Ball, Jane; Recio-Saucedo, Alejandra; Griffiths, Peter

    2016-05-01

    To identify the characteristics of shift work that have an effect on employee's performance (including job performance, productivity, safety, quality of care delivered, errors, adverse events and client satisfaction) and wellbeing (including burnout, job satisfaction, absenteeism, intention to leave the job) in all sectors including healthcare. A scoping review of the literature was undertaken. We searched electronic databases (CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, SCOPUS) to identify primary quantitative studies. The search was conducted between January and March 2015. Studies were drawn from all occupational sectors (i.e. health and non health), meeting the inclusion criteria: involved participants aged ≥18 who have been working shifts or serve as control group for others working shifts, exploring the association of characteristics of shift work with at least one of the selected outcomes. Reference lists from retrieved studies were checked to identify any further studies. 35 studies were included in the review; 25 studies were performed in the health sector. A variety of shift work characteristics are associated with compromised employee's performance and wellbeing. Findings from large multicentre studies highlight that shifts of 12h or longer are associated with jeopardised outcomes. Working more than 40h per week is associated with adverse events, while no conclusive evidence was found regarding working a 'Compressed Working Week'; working overtime was associated with decreased job performance. Working rotating shifts was associated with worse job performance outcomes, whilst fixed night shifts appeared to enable resynchronisation. However, job satisfaction of employees working fixed nights was reduced. Timely breaks had a positive impact on employee fatigue and alertness, whilst quick returns between shifts appeared to increase pathologic fatigue. The effect of shift work characteristics on outcomes in the studies reviewed is consistent across occupational sectors

  2. Fierce competition between Toxoplasma and Chlamydia for host cell structures in dually infected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Julia D; de Beaumont, Catherine; Carrasco, Jose A; Ehrenman, Karen; Bavoil, Patrik M; Coppens, Isabelle

    2013-02-01

    The prokaryote Chlamydia trachomatis and the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, two obligate intracellular pathogens of humans, have evolved a similar modus operandi to colonize their host cell and salvage nutrients from organelles. In order to gain fundamental knowledge on the pathogenicity of these microorganisms, we have established a cell culture model whereby single fibroblasts are coinfected by C. trachomatis and T. gondii. We previously reported that the two pathogens compete for the same nutrient pools in coinfected cells and that Toxoplasma holds a significant competitive advantage over Chlamydia. Here we have expanded our coinfection studies by examining the respective abilities of Chlamydia and Toxoplasma to co-opt the host cytoskeleton and recruit organelles. We demonstrate that the two pathogen-containing vacuoles migrate independently to the host perinuclear region and rearrange the host microtubular network around each vacuole. However, Toxoplasma outcompetes Chlamydia to the host microtubule-organizing center to the detriment of the bacterium, which then shifts to a stress-induced persistent state. Solely in cells preinfected with Chlamydia, the centrosomes become associated with the chlamydial inclusion, while the Toxoplasma parasitophorous vacuole displays growth defects. Both pathogens fragment the host Golgi apparatus and recruit Golgi elements to retrieve sphingolipids. This study demonstrates that the productive infection by both Chlamydia and Toxoplasma depends on the capability of each pathogen to successfully adhere to a finely tuned developmental program that aims to remodel the host cell for the pathogen's benefit. In particular, this investigation emphasizes the essentiality of host organelle interception by intravacuolar pathogens to facilitate access to nutrients.

  3. Host response to biomaterials the impact of host response on biomaterial selection

    CERN Document Server

    Badylak, Stephen F

    2015-01-01

    Host Response to Biomaterials: The Impact of Host Response on Biomaterial Selection explains the various categories of biomaterials and their significance for clinical applications, focusing on the host response to each biomaterial. It is one of the first books to connect immunology and biomaterials with regard to host response. The text also explores the role of the immune system in host response, and covers the regulatory environment for biomaterials, along with the benefits of synthetic versus natural biomaterials, and the transition from simple to complex biomaterial solutions. Fiel

  4. RETRIEVAL EVENTS EVALUATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, T.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate impacts to the retrieval concept presented in the Design Analysis ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy'' (Reference 6), from abnormal events based on Design Basis Events (DBE) and Beyond Design Basis Events (BDBE) as defined in two recent analyses: (1) DBE/Scenario Analysis for Preclosure Repository Subsurface Facilities (Reference 4); and (2) Preliminary Preclosure Design Basis Event Calculations for the Monitored Geologic Repository (Reference 5) The objective of this task is to determine what impacts the DBEs and BDBEs have on the equipment developed for retrieval. The analysis lists potential impacts and recommends changes to be analyzed in subsequent design analyses for developed equipment, or recommend where additional equipment may be needed, to allow retrieval to be performed in all DBE or BDBE situations. This analysis supports License Application design and therefore complies with the requirements of Systems Description Document input criteria comparison as presented in Section 7, Conclusions. In addition, the analysis discusses the impacts associated with not using concrete inverts in the emplacement drifts. The ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy'' analysis was based on a concrete invert configuration in the emplacement drift. The scope of the analysis, as presented in ''Development Plan for Retrieval Events Evaluation'' (Reference 3) includes evaluation and criteria of the following: Impacts to retrieval from the emplacement drift based on DBE/BDBEs, and changes to the invert configuration for the preclosure period. Impacts to retrieval from the main drifts based on DBE/BDBEs for the preclosure period

  5. Revisiting event horizon finders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Michael I; Pfeiffer, Harald P; Scheel, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    Event horizons are the defining physical features of black hole spacetimes, and are of considerable interest in studying black hole dynamics. Here, we reconsider three techniques to find event horizons in numerical spacetimes: integrating geodesics, integrating a surface, and integrating a level-set of surfaces over a volume. We implement the first two techniques and find that straightforward integration of geodesics backward in time is most robust. We find that the exponential rate of approach of a null surface towards the event horizon of a spinning black hole equals the surface gravity of the black hole. In head-on mergers we are able to track quasi-normal ringing of the merged black hole through seven oscillations, covering a dynamic range of about 10 5 . Both at late times (when the final black hole has settled down) and at early times (before the merger), the apparent horizon is found to be an excellent approximation of the event horizon. In the head-on binary black hole merger, only some of the future null generators of the horizon are found to start from past null infinity; the others approach the event horizons of the individual black holes at times far before merger.

  6. Mechanisms of host seeking by parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, Spencer S; Hallem, Elissa A

    2016-07-01

    The phylum Nematoda comprises a diverse group of roundworms that includes parasites of vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants. Human-parasitic nematodes infect more than one billion people worldwide and cause some of the most common neglected tropical diseases, particularly in low-resource countries [1]. Parasitic nematodes of livestock and crops result in billions of dollars in losses each year [1]. Many nematode infections are treatable with low-cost anthelmintic drugs, but repeated infections are common in endemic areas and drug resistance is a growing concern with increasing therapeutic and agricultural administration [1]. Many parasitic nematodes have an environmental infective larval stage that engages in host seeking, a process whereby the infective larvae use sensory cues to search for hosts. Host seeking is a complex behavior that involves multiple sensory modalities, including olfaction, gustation, thermosensation, and humidity sensation. As the initial step of the parasite-host interaction, host seeking could be a powerful target for preventative intervention. However, host-seeking behavior remains poorly understood. Here we review what is currently known about the host-seeking behaviors of different parasitic nematodes, including insect-parasitic nematodes, mammalian-parasitic nematodes, and plant-parasitic nematodes. We also discuss the neural bases of these behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Associate host in single-layer co-host polymer electrophosphorescent devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuanmin; Teng Feng; Feng Bin; Wang Yongsheng; Xu Xurong

    2006-01-01

    The definition and role of 'host' in polymer LED materials are studied in the present work. 'Primary host' and 'associate host' have been proposed and the rules of how to select an associate host are reported. Based on our experiments and the analysis of the energy scheme of the devices, we suggest that the values of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) are critical determinant in selecting a suitable associate host. On one hand, the associate host should be a hole-blocking material. This can confine the excitons in the active layer. On the other hand, the associate host should have a suitable LUMO that is convenient for electrons to transport

  8. Shifts in metabolomic profiles of the parasitoid Nasonia vitripennis associated with elevated cold tolerance induced by the parasitoid's diapause, host diapause and host diet augmentation with proline

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Li, Y.; Zhang, L.; Chen, H.; Košťál, Vladimír; Šimek, Petr; Moos, Martin; Denlinger, D. L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 63, AUG 01 (2015), s. 34-46 ISSN 0965-1748 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12103 Grant - others:National Science Foundation Grant(US) IOS-08440772 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : metabolomics * cold tolerance * proline Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.767, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0965174815001022

  9. Host conservatism or host specialization? Patterns of fungal diversification are influenced by host specificity in Ophiognomonia (Gnomoniaceae, Diaporthales)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Species of Ophiognomonia (Gnomoniaceae) are perithecial fungi that occur as endophytes, pathogens, and latent saprobes on leaf and stem tissue of plants in the Betulaceae, Fagaceae, Juglandaceae, Lauraceae, Malvaceae, Platanaceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae, and Sapindaceae. In this study host plant patte...

  10. Host specificity and genealogy of the louse Polyplax serrata on field mice, Apodemus species: a case of parasite duplication or colonisation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefka, Jan; Hypsa, Václav

    2008-05-01

    The genealogy, population structure and population dynamics of the sucking louse Polyplax serrata were analysed across four host species of the genus Apodemus. An analysis of 126 sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I using phylogenetic approaches and haplotype networking revealed a clear structure of European samples, forming three distinct and genetically distant clades with different host specificities. Although a clear connection was detected between the host and parasite genealogies/phylogenies, a uniform pattern of co-speciation was not found. For example, a dramatic shift in the degree of host specificity was demonstrated for two related louse lineages living in sympatry and sharing one of their host species. While one of the louse lineages frequently parasitised two different host taxa (Apodemus sylvaticus and Apodemus flavicollis), the other louse lineage was strictly specific to A. flavicollis. The estimate of divergence time between the two louse lineages indicates that they may have arisen due to parasite duplication on A. flavicollis.

  11. Use of Circadian Lighting System to improve night shift alertness and performance of NRC Headquarters Operations Officers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, T.L.; Morisseau, D.; Murphy, N.M. [ShiftWork Systems, Cambridge, MA (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) Headquarters Operations Officers (HOOs) receive and respond to events reported in the nuclear industry on a 24-hour basis. The HOOs have reported reduced alertness on the night shift, leading to a potential deterioration in their on-shift cognitive performance during the early morning hours. For some HOOs, maladaptation to the night shift was also reported to be the principal cause of: (a) reduced alertness during the commute to and from work, (b) poor sleep quality, and (c) personal lifestyle problems. ShiftWork Systems, Inc. (SWS) designed and installed a Circadian Lighting System (CLS) at both the Bethesda and Rockville HOO stations with the goal of facilitating the HOOs physiological adjustment to their night shift schedules. The data indicate the following findings: less subjective fatigue on night shifts; improved night shift alertness and mental performance; higher HOO confidence in their ability to assess event reports; longer, deeper and more restorative day sleep after night duty shifts; swifter adaptation to night work; and a safer commute, particularly for those with extensive drives.

  12. Use of Circadian Lighting System to improve night shift alertness and performance of NRC Headquarters Operations Officers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, T.L.; Morisseau, D.; Murphy, N.M.

    1995-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) Headquarters Operations Officers (HOOs) receive and respond to events reported in the nuclear industry on a 24-hour basis. The HOOs have reported reduced alertness on the night shift, leading to a potential deterioration in their on-shift cognitive performance during the early morning hours. For some HOOs, maladaptation to the night shift was also reported to be the principal cause of: (a) reduced alertness during the commute to and from work, (b) poor sleep quality, and (c) personal lifestyle problems. ShiftWork Systems, Inc. (SWS) designed and installed a Circadian Lighting System (CLS) at both the Bethesda and Rockville HOO stations with the goal of facilitating the HOOs physiological adjustment to their night shift schedules. The data indicate the following findings: less subjective fatigue on night shifts; improved night shift alertness and mental performance; higher HOO confidence in their ability to assess event reports; longer, deeper and more restorative day sleep after night duty shifts; swifter adaptation to night work; and a safer commute, particularly for those with extensive drives

  13. Mesoscale spatiotemporal variability in a complex host-parasite system influenced by intermediate host body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Sara M; Valdivia, Nelson

    2017-01-01

    Parasites are essential components of natural communities, but the factors that generate skewed distributions of parasite occurrences and abundances across host populations are not well understood. Here, we analyse at a seascape scale the spatiotemporal relationships of parasite exposure and host body-size with the proportion of infected hosts (i.e., prevalence) and aggregation of parasite burden across ca. 150 km of the coast and over 22 months. We predicted that the effects of parasite exposure on prevalence and aggregation are dependent on host body-sizes. We used an indirect host-parasite interaction in which migratory seagulls, sandy-shore molecrabs, and an acanthocephalan worm constitute the definitive hosts, intermediate hosts, and endoparasite, respectively. In such complex systems, increments in the abundance of definitive hosts imply increments in intermediate hosts' exposure to the parasite's dispersive stages. Linear mixed-effects models showed a significant, albeit highly variable, positive relationship between seagull density and prevalence. This relationship was stronger for small (cephalothorax length >15 mm) than large molecrabs (analysis of the variance-to-mean ratio of per capita parasite burden showed no relationship between seagull density and mean parasite aggregation across host populations. However, the amount of unexplained variability in aggregation was strikingly higher in larger than smaller intermediate hosts. This unexplained variability was driven by a decrease in the mean-variance scaling in heavily infected large molecrabs. These results show complex interdependencies between extrinsic and intrinsic population attributes on the structure of host-parasite interactions. We suggest that parasite accumulation-a characteristic of indirect host-parasite interactions-and subsequent increasing mortality rates over ontogeny underpin size-dependent host-parasite dynamics.

  14. Reporting of safeguards events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, P.A.; Ervin, N.E.

    1988-02-01

    On June 9, 1987, the Commission published in the Federal Register a final rule revising the reporting requirements for safeguards events. Safeguards events include actual or attempted theft of special nuclear material (SNM); actual or attempted acts or events which interrupt normal operations at power reactors due to unauthorized use of or tampering with machinery, components, or controls; certain threats made against facilities possessing SNM; and safeguards system failures impacting the effectiveness of the system. The revised rule was effective October 8, 1987. On September 14, 1987, the NRC held a workshop in Bethesda, MD, to answer affected licensees' questions on the final rule. This report documents questions discussed at the September 14 meeting, reflects a completed staff review of the answers, and supersedes previous oral comment on the topics covered

  15. Discrete-Event Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateek Sharma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Simulation can be regarded as the emulation of the behavior of a real-world system over an interval of time. The process of simulation relies upon the generation of the history of a system and then analyzing that history to predict the outcome and improve the working of real systems. Simulations can be of various kinds but the topic of interest here is one of the most important kind of simulation which is Discrete-Event Simulation which models the system as a discrete sequence of events in time. So this paper aims at introducing about Discrete-Event Simulation and analyzing how it is beneficial to the real world systems.

  16. First Indico Virtual Event

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The first Indico virtual event will take place on February 4th 15:00 and will focus on two main topics The release of Indico v1.2 The migration of the OO Indico backend database (ZODB) to a more standard DBMS It will be fully virtual using the CERN Vidyo service and will foster discussions between developers and administrators of Indico servers worldwide. Connections to the virtual room will be open, but attendees are encouraged to register to the event, in order to be informed of any changes in the organisation if any. If you would like to add a topic of discussion or propose yourself a contribution, please let us know at indico-team@cern.ch. Connection to Vidyo Vidyo connection details are available here CERN Vidyo service documentation can be found here First-time users are encouraged to try the service before connecting to the real event

  17. Detection of anomalous events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferragut, Erik M.; Laska, Jason A.; Bridges, Robert A.

    2016-06-07

    A system is described for receiving a stream of events and scoring the events based on anomalousness and maliciousness (or other classification). The system can include a plurality of anomaly detectors that together implement an algorithm to identify low-probability events and detect atypical traffic patterns. The anomaly detector provides for comparability of disparate sources of data (e.g., network flow data and firewall logs.) Additionally, the anomaly detector allows for regulatability, meaning that the algorithm can be user configurable to adjust a number of false alerts. The anomaly detector can be used for a variety of probability density functions, including normal Gaussian distributions, irregular distributions, as well as functions associated with continuous or discrete variables.

  18. Shift systems in nuclear power plants - aspects for planning, shift systems, utility practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grauf, E.

    1986-01-01

    This lecture contains the most important aspects of shift structure and shift organisation. The criteria for shift planning involving essential tasks, duties, laws and regulations, medical aspects, social aspects, will be presented. In the Federal Republic of Germany some basic models were established, which will be shown and explained with special reference to the number of teams, size of shift crews and absence regulations. Moreover, the lecture will deal with rotation systems and provisions for the transfer of shift responsibilities. By example of a utility plant commissioning time scale (1300 MW PWR) the practice of shift installations will be shown as well as the most important points of education and training. Within this compass the criteria and requirements for training and education of operational personnel in the Federal Republic of Germany will also be touched. (orig.)

  19. A NEW APPLICATION OF THE ASTROMETRIC METHOD TO BREAK SEVERE DEGENERACIES IN BINARY MICROLENSING EVENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Sun-Ju; Park, Byeong-Gon; Humphrey, Andrew; Ryu, Yoon-Hyun

    2009-01-01

    When a source star is microlensed by one stellar component of widely separated binary stellar components, after finishing the lensing event, the event induced by the other binary star can be additionally detected. In this paper, we investigate whether the close/wide degeneracies in binary lensing events can be resolved by detecting the additional centroid shift of the source images induced by the secondary binary star in wide binary lensing events. From this investigation, we find that if the source star passes close to the Einstein ring of the secondary companion, the degeneracy can be easily resolved by using future astrometric follow-up observations with high astrometric precision. We determine the probability of detecting the additional centroid shift in binary lensing events with high magnification. From this, we find that the degeneracy of binary lensing events with a separation of ∼<20.0 AU can be resolved with a significant efficiency. We also estimate the waiting time for the detection of the additional centroid shift in wide binary lensing events. We find that for typical Galactic lensing events with a separation of ∼<20.0 AU, the additional centroid shift can be detected within 100 days, and thus the degeneracy of those events can be sufficiently broken within a year.

  20. DER 83: outstanding events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The DER's activity is presented through 82 ''outstanding events''. Each one is a stage in the effort of research and development of the DER. These events concern the following fields: new applications of electric power for customers; environment protection and new energy sources; improvements of electric power production units; electrical materials; electric network planning and control; computer codes. In the production field, one deals more particularly with nuclear reactor safety studies: analysis of the behaviour of different components; reactor safety experiments; reliability of different systems (safety, communications...) [fr