WorldWideScience

Sample records for host range testing

  1. Baculovirus Host-Range

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suzanne M. Thiem; Xiao-Wen Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Baculoviruses are used as microbial insecticides, protein expression vectors, epitope display platforms, and most recently as vectors for gene therapy. Understanding the mechanisms that control baculovirus host-range and tissue tropisms are important for assessing their safety and for improving their properties for these biotechnology applications. In the past two decades some progress has been made and several baculovirus genes that influence host-range have been identified. Despite this progress, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms that restrict baculovirus host-range is still limited. Here we review what is currently known about baculovirus genes that influence virus host-range.

  2. Parasite host range and the evolution of host resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, F.A.; Hall, A.R.; A., Buckling; P.D., Scanlan

    2015-01-01

    Parasite host range plays a pivotal role in the evolution and ecology of hosts
    and the emergence of infectious disease. Although the factors that promote
    host range and the epidemiological consequences of variation in host range
    are relatively well characterized, the effect of parasite

  3. Host range expansion is density dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagneyrol, Bastien; Jactel, Hervé; Brockerhoff, Eckehard G; Perrette, Nicolas; Larter, Maximilien; Delzon, Sylvain; Piou, Dominique

    2016-11-01

    The realized host range of herbivores is expected to increase with herbivore population density. Theory also predicts that trait similarity and phylogenetic relatedness between native and exotic plants is expected to increase the susceptibility of introduced plants to feeding by native herbivores. Whether the ability of native herbivores to extend their host range to introduced species is density dependent is still unknown. We addressed this question by monitoring pine processionary moth (PPM, Thaumetopoea pityocampa) attacks during nine consecutive years on 41 pine species (8 native and 33 introduced) planted in an arboretum. The survey encompassed latent and outbreak periods. A total of 28 pine species were attacked by PPM. There was no difference in the probability of attack between native and introduced pine species. Host range increased and was more phylogenetically clustered during outbreak than latent periods. When population density increased, PPM expanded its diet breadth by attacking introduced pine species that were closely related to native hosts. This study demonstrates the density dependence of host range expansion in a common pine herbivore. Importantly, it supports the idea that the degree of phylogenetic proximity between host species can be a better predictor of attacks than the introduction status, which may help to predict the outcomes of new plant-herbivore interactions.

  4. Isolation of phages for phage therapy: a comparison of spot tests and efficiency of plating analyses for determination of host range and efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan Mirzaei, Mohammadali; Nilsson, Anders S

    2015-01-01

    Phage therapy, treating bacterial infections with bacteriophages, could be a future alternative to antibiotic treatment of bacterial infections. There are, however, several problems to be solved, mainly associated to the biology of phages, the interaction between phages and their bacterial hosts, but also to the vast variation of pathogenic bacteria which implies that large numbers of different phages are going to be needed. All of these phages must under present regulation of medical products undergo extensive clinical testing before they can be applied. It will consequently be of great economic importance that effective and versatile phages are selected and collected into phage libraries, i.e., the selection must be carried out in a way that it results in highly virulent phages with broad host ranges. We have isolated phages using the Escherichia coli reference (ECOR) collection and compared two methods, spot testing and efficiency of plating (EOP), which are frequently used to identify phages suitable for phage therapy. The analyses of the differences between the two methods show that spot tests often overestimate both the overall virulence and the host range and that the results are not correlated to the results of EOP assays. The conclusion is that single dilution spot tests cannot be used for identification and selection of phages to a phage library and should be replaced by EOP assays. The difference between the two methods can be caused by many factors. We have analysed if the differences and lack of correlation could be caused by lysis from without, bacteriocins in the phage lysate, or by the presence of prophages harbouring genes coding for phage resistance systems in the genomes of the bacteria in the ECOR collection.

  5. Host-range testing of Eucryptorrhynchus brandti (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a candidate for biological control of tree-of-heaven, Ailanthus altissima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, N J; McAvoy, T J; Snyder, A L; Salom, S M; Kok, L T

    2012-02-01

    Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle, tree-of-heaven, is an invasive species native to Asia. It first was introduced into the United States in the 1700 s and now is distributed throughout much of North America. Mechanical and chemical controls are current suppression tactics, however, implementation is costly. A weevil, Eucryptorrhynchus brandti (Harold), was identified in China and imported for quarantine testing in 2004 as a potential biological control agent. Host specificity tests on adult feeding, larval development, and oviposition of this weevil were conducted from 2007 to 2011 on A. altissima and 29 nontarget species. Eucryptorrhynchus brandti adults fed significantly more on A. altissima foliage when compared with all test species. Range of means for feeding on A. altissima was 32.5-106.5 mm(2)/adult/d. In no-choice tests, Simarouba glauca DC, Leitneria floridana Chapm., and Citrus limon (L.) Burm. F., had feeding rates of only 10, 49, and 10%, respectively, compared with the level of feeding on A. altissima. The mean range of adult feeding by E. brandti on all other test species was <7% of feeding on A. altissima (0.0-3.3 ± 5.0 mm(2)/adult/d). In the no-choice larval inoculation tests, larval development only occurred in two of 10 L. floridana seedlings compared with seven of 10 A. altissima seedlings. In the no-choice oviposition tests, oviposition and subsequent larval development did not occur in L. floridiana, whereas all seven A. altissima seedlings supported oviposition and subsequent larval development. The weevil did not appear to be a threat to L. floridana or any other nontarget species tested. Therefore, we conclude that Eucryptorrhynchus brandti is highly host specific to A. altissima.

  6. Dryden Aeronautical Test Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Recently redesignated to honor Dr. Hugh L. Dryden, NASA's Dryden Aeronautical Test Range (DATR) supports aerospace flight research and technology integration, space...

  7. Atlantic Test Range (ATR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — ATR controls fully-instrumented and integrated test ranges that provide full-service support for cradle-to-grave testing. Airspace and surface target areas are used...

  8. Scale insect host ranges are broader in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Nate B; Peterson, Daniel A; Normark, Benjamin B

    2015-12-01

    The specificity of the interactions between plants and their consumers varies considerably. The evolutionary and ecological factors underlying this variation are unclear. Several potential explanatory factors vary with latitude, for example plant species richness and the intensity of herbivory. Here, we use comparative phylogenetic methods to test the effect of latitude on host range in scale insects. We find that, on average, scale insects that occur in lower latitudes are more polyphagous. This result is at odds with the general pattern of greater host-plant specificity of insects in the tropics. We propose that this disparity reflects a high cost for host specificity in scale insects, stemming from unusual aspects of scale insect life history, for example, passive wind-driven dispersal. More broadly, the strong evidence for pervasive effects of geography on host range across insect groups stands in stark contrast to the weak evidence for constraints on host range due to genetic trade-offs.

  9. Host compatibility rather than vector-host-encounter rate determines the host range of avian Plasmodium parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Matthew C I; Hamer, Gabriel L; Ricklefs, Robert E

    2013-06-07

    Blood-feeding arthropod vectors are responsible for transmitting many parasites between vertebrate hosts. While arthropod vectors often feed on limited subsets of potential host species, little is known about the extent to which this influences the distribution of vector-borne parasites in some systems. Here, we test the hypothesis that different vector species structure parasite-host relationships by restricting access of certain parasites to a subset of available hosts. Specifically, we investigate how the feeding patterns of Culex mosquito vectors relate to distributions of avian malaria parasites among hosts in suburban Chicago, IL, USA. We show that Plasmodium lineages, defined by cytochrome b haplotypes, are heterogeneously distributed across avian hosts. However, the feeding patterns of the dominant vectors (Culex restuans and Culex pipiens) are similar across these hosts, and do not explain the distributions of Plasmodium parasites. Phylogenetic similarity of avian hosts predicts similarity in their Plasmodium parasites. This effect was driven primarily by the general association of Plasmodium parasites with particular host superfamilies. Our results suggest that a mosquito-imposed encounter rate does not limit the distribution of avian Plasmodium parasites across hosts. This implies that compatibility between parasites and their avian hosts structure Plasmodium host range.

  10. The host range of Phomopsis cirsii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Vibeke; Andreasen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    . An isolate PKDK101 of the fungus Phomopsiscirsii, which is virulent to C. arvense causing stem canker and die back was chosen to test the specificity of the fungus. A series of infection trials were successively carried out on 127 plant species (incl. ssp. and var.) belonging to 16 families in greenhouses...... echinus, Cirsiumvulgare and Cynaracardunculusvar.scolymus (artichoke) with symptoms such as restricted necrotic leaf spots and too early senescence or death of entire leaf. Eleven hosts for P. cirsii were recorded but despite the expanded range of hosts we expect that its host range will be within...... Cardueae.P.cirsii,poses multi-target potential against several annual and biennial weedy thistles from warmer climates. The pathogenicity of P. cirsii towards the artichoke, however, could limit its field of application especially in the Mediterranean area. The potential of P. cirsii as a control agent...

  11. Host range of meliolaceous fungi in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.B. Hosagoudar

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The order Meliolales comprises two families, namely, Armatellaceae and Meliolaceae. Except the genera Endomeliola and Pauhia, India represents rest of the nine genera of this group. The family Armatellaceae includes two genera, namely, Armatella and Basavamyces. The family Meliolaceae includes seven genera: Amazonia, Appendiculella, Asteridiella, Ectendomeliola, Irenopsis, Meliola and Prataprajella. All these nine genera represent 613 species and infra-specific taxa known till the year 2006, infected 766 host plants belonging to 349 host genera distributed among 104 families. All the host families and the fungal genera are arranged alphabetically with their corresponding parasite and the host plant. The corresponding number after the host family represents the number of meliolaceous taxa known on the members of that family.

  12. More Is Better: Selecting for Broad Host Range Bacteriophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Alexa; Ward, Samantha; Hyman, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria. In this perspective, we discuss several aspects of a characteristic feature of bacteriophages, their host range. Each phage has its own particular host range, the range of bacteria that it can infect. While some phages can only infect one or a few bacterial strains, other phages can infect many species or even bacteria from different genera. Different methods for determining host range may give different results, reflecting the multiple mechanisms bacteria have to resist phage infection and reflecting the different steps of infection each method depends on. This makes defining host range difficult. Another difficulty in describing host range arises from the inconsistent use of the words “narrow” and especially “broad” when describing the breadth of the host range. Nearly all bacteriophages have been isolated using a single host strain of bacteria. While this procedure is fairly standard, it may more likely produce narrow rather than broad host range phage. Our results and those of others suggest that using multiple host strains during isolation can more reliably produce broader host range phages. This challenges the common belief that most bacteriophages have a narrow host range. We highlight the implications of this for several areas that are affected by host range including horizontal gene transfer and phage therapy. PMID:27660623

  13. More Is Better: Selecting for Broad Host Range Bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Alexa; Ward, Samantha; Hyman, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria. In this perspective, we discuss several aspects of a characteristic feature of bacteriophages, their host range. Each phage has its own particular host range, the range of bacteria that it can infect. While some phages can only infect one or a few bacterial strains, other phages can infect many species or even bacteria from different genera. Different methods for determining host range may give different results, reflecting the multiple mechanisms bacteria have to resist phage infection and reflecting the different steps of infection each method depends on. This makes defining host range difficult. Another difficulty in describing host range arises from the inconsistent use of the words "narrow" and especially "broad" when describing the breadth of the host range. Nearly all bacteriophages have been isolated using a single host strain of bacteria. While this procedure is fairly standard, it may more likely produce narrow rather than broad host range phage. Our results and those of others suggest that using multiple host strains during isolation can more reliably produce broader host range phages. This challenges the common belief that most bacteriophages have a narrow host range. We highlight the implications of this for several areas that are affected by host range including horizontal gene transfer and phage therapy.

  14. Climate driven range divergence among host species affects range-wide patterns of parasitism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E. Feldman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Species interactions like parasitism influence the outcome of climate-driven shifts in species ranges. For some host species, parasitism can only occur in that part of its range that overlaps with a second host species. Thus, predicting future parasitism may depend on how the ranges of the two hosts change in relation to each other. In this study, we tested whether the climate driven species range shift of Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer accounts for predicted changes in parasitism of two other species from the family Cervidae, Alces alces (moose and Rangifer tarandus (caribou, in North America. We used MaxEnt models to predict the recent (2000 and future (2050 ranges (probabilities of occurrence of the cervids and a parasite Parelaphostrongylus tenuis (brainworm taking into account range shifts of the parasite’s intermediate gastropod hosts. Our models predicted that range overlap between A. alces/R. tarandus and P. tenuis will decrease between 2000 and 2050, an outcome that reflects decreased overlap between A. alces/R. tarandus and O. virginianus and not the parasites, themselves. Geographically, our models predicted increasing potential occurrence of P. tenuis where A. alces/R. tarandus are likely to decline, but minimal spatial overlap where A. alces/R. tarandus are likely to increase. Thus, parasitism may exacerbate climate-mediated southern contraction of A. alces and R. tarandus ranges but will have limited influence on northward range expansion. Our results suggest that the spatial dynamics of one host species may be the driving force behind future rates of parasitism for another host species.

  15. Chemical similarity between historical and novel host plants promotes range and host expansion of the mountain pine beetle in a naïve host ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbilgin, Nadir; Ma, Cary; Whitehouse, Caroline; Shan, Bin; Najar, Ahmed; Evenden, Maya

    2014-02-01

    Host plant secondary chemistry can have cascading impacts on host and range expansion of herbivorous insect populations. We investigated the role of host secondary compounds on pheromone production by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) (MPB) and beetle attraction in response to a historical (lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta var. latifolia) and a novel (jack pine, Pinus banksiana) hosts, as pheromones regulate the host colonization process. Beetles emit the same pheromones from both hosts, but more trans-verbenol, the primary aggregation pheromone, was emitted by female beetles on the novel host. The phloem of the novel host contains more α-pinene, a secondary compound that is the precursor for trans-verbenol production in beetle, than the historical host. Beetle-induced emission of 3-carene, another secondary compound found in both hosts, was also higher from the novel host. Field tests showed that the addition of 3-carene to the pheromone mixture mimicking the aggregation pheromones produced from the two host species increased beetle capture. We conclude that chemical similarity between historical and novel hosts has facilitated host expansion of MPB in jack pine forests through the exploitation of common host secondary compounds for pheromone production and aggregation on the hosts. Furthermore, broods emerging from the novel host were larger in terms of body size.

  16. Host range, host ecology, and distribution of more than 11800 fish parasite species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strona, Giovanni; Palomares, Maria Lourdes D.; Bailly, Nicholas; Galli, Paolo; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    Our data set includes 38 008 fish parasite records (for Acanthocephala, Cestoda, Monogenea, Nematoda, Trematoda) compiled from the scientific literature, Internet databases, and museum collections paired to the corresponding host ecological, biogeographical, and phylogenetic traits (maximum length, growth rate, life span, age at maturity, trophic level, habitat preference, geographical range size, taxonomy). The data focus on host features, because specific parasite traits are not consistently available across records. For this reason, the data set is intended as a flexible resource able to extend the principles of ecological niche modeling to the host–parasite system, providing researchers with the data to model parasite niches based on their distribution in host species and the associated host features. In this sense, the database offers a framework for testing general ecological, biogeographical, and phylogenetic hypotheses based on the identification of hosts as parasite habitat. Potential applications of the data set are, for example, the investigation of species–area relationships or the taxonomic distribution of host-specificity. The provided host–parasite list is that currently used by Fish Parasite Ecology Software Tool (FishPEST, http://purl.oclc.org/fishpest), which is a website that allows researchers to model several aspects of the relationships between fish parasites and their hosts. The database is intended for researchers who wish to have more freedom to analyze the database than currently possible with FishPEST. However, for readers who have not seen FishPEST, we recommend using this as a starting point for interacting with the database.

  17. Prospects for altering host range for baculovirus bioinsecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiem, S M

    1997-06-01

    Advances in the understanding of baculovirus replication and the identification of genes that affect host range set the stage for constructing recombinant baculoviruses for specific past insects. The modification of baculovirus host specificity has recently been achieved by inserting or deleting genes that affect virus replication or cellular defenses.

  18. Invasion success of a scarab beetle within its native range: host range expansion versus host-shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Caroline Lefort

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Only recently has it been formally acknowledged that native species can occasionally reach the status of ‘pest’ or ‘invasive species’ within their own native range. The study of such species has potential to help unravel fundamental aspects of biological invasions. A good model for such a study is the New Zealand native scarab beetle, Costelytra zealandica (White, which even in the presence of its natural enemies has become invasive in exotic pastures throughout the country. Because C. zealandica still occurs widely within its native habitat, we hypothesised that this species has only undergone a host range expansion (ability to use equally both an ancestral and new host onto exotic hosts rather than a host shift (loss of fitness on the ancestral host in comparison to the new host. Moreover, this host range expansion could be one of the main drivers of its invasion success. In this study, we investigated the fitness response of populations of C. zealandica from native and exotic flora, to several feeding treatments comprising its main exotic host plant as well as one of its ancestral hosts. Our results suggest that our initial hypothesis was incorrect and that C. zealandica populations occurring in exotic pastures have experienced a host-shift rather than simply a host-range expansion. This finding suggests that an exotic plant introduction can facilitate the evolution of a distinct native host-race, a phenomenon often used as evidence for speciation in phytophagous insects and which may have been instrumental to the invasion success of C. zealandica.

  19. Host range of Caloptilia triadicae (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae): an adventive herbivore of Chinese tallowtree (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In its native range the invasive weed, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa is host to a suite of herbivores. One, Strepsicrates sp. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) was collected in China in 2014, introduced under quarantine in Florida, USA and tested against related species to determine its host range and suitability ...

  20. High dynamic range subjective testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Brahim; Nilsson, Mike

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes of a set of subjective tests that the authors have carried out to assess the end user perception of video encoded with High Dynamic Range technology when viewed in a typical home environment. Viewers scored individual single clips of content, presented in High Definition (HD) and Ultra High Definition (UHD), in Standard Dynamic Range (SDR), and in High Dynamic Range (HDR) using both the Perceptual Quantizer (PQ) and Hybrid Log Gamma (HLG) transfer characteristics, and presented in SDR as the backwards compatible rendering of the HLG representation. The quality of SDR HD was improved by approximately equal amounts by either increasing the dynamic range or increasing the resolution to UHD. A further smaller increase in quality was observed in the Mean Opinion Scores of the viewers by increasing both the dynamic range and the resolution, but this was not quite statistically significant.

  1. Evolution of host range in the follicle mite Demodex kutzeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palopoli, Michael F; Tra, VAN; Matoin, Kassey; Mac, Phuong D

    2016-11-29

    The sequences of four mitochondrial genes were determined for Demodex mites isolated from two distantly related species within the family Cervidae, and identified morphologically as belonging to the species Demodex kutzeri. The sequences were used to test the hypothesis that Demodex are strictly host-specific, and hence cospeciate with their hosts: (1) The estimated divergence time between mites found on elk vs humans agreed closely with a previous estimate of the time that these host species last shared a common ancestor, suggesting cospeciation of mites and hosts, at least over long evolutionary timescales. (2) The extremely low levels of sequence divergence between the mites found on elk vs mule deer hosts indicated that these mites belong to the same species, which suggests that Demodex are able to move across host species boundaries over shorter timescales. Together, the results are consistent with the model that Demodex mites are not strict host-specialists, but instead lose the ability to move between host lineages gradually.

  2. Transcriptome dynamics of a broad host-range cyanophage and its hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doron, Shany; Fedida, Ayalla; Hernández-Prieto, Miguel A; Sabehi, Gazalah; Karunker, Iris; Stazic, Damir; Feingersch, Roi; Steglich, Claudia; Futschik, Matthias; Lindell, Debbie; Sorek, Rotem

    2016-06-01

    Cyanobacteria are highly abundant in the oceans and are constantly exposed to lytic viruses. The T4-like cyanomyoviruses are abundant in the marine environment and have broad host-ranges relative to other cyanophages. It is currently unknown whether broad host-range phages specifically tailor their infection program for each host, or employ the same program irrespective of the host infected. Also unknown is how different hosts respond to infection by the same phage. Here we used microarray and RNA-seq analyses to investigate the interaction between the Syn9 T4-like cyanophage and three phylogenetically, ecologically and genomically distinct marine Synechococcus strains: WH7803, WH8102 and WH8109. Strikingly, Syn9 led a nearly identical infection and transcriptional program in all three hosts. Different to previous assumptions for T4-like cyanophages, three temporally regulated gene expression classes were observed. Furthermore, a novel regulatory element controlled early-gene transcription, and host-like promoters drove middle gene transcription, different to the regulatory paradigm for T4. Similar results were found for the P-TIM40 phage during infection of Prochlorococcus NATL2A. Moreover, genomic and metagenomic analyses indicate that these regulatory elements are abundant and conserved among T4-like cyanophages. In contrast to the near-identical transcriptional program employed by Syn9, host responses to infection involved host-specific genes primarily located in hypervariable genomic islands, substantiating islands as a major axis of phage-cyanobacteria interactions. Our findings suggest that the ability of broad host-range phages to infect multiple hosts is more likely dependent on the effectiveness of host defense strategies than on differential tailoring of the infection process by the phage.

  3. Host plant utilization, host range oscillations and diversification in nymphalid butterflies: a phylogenetic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylin, Sören; Slove, Jessica; Janz, Niklas

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that phenotypic plasticity is a major factor in the diversification of life, and that variation in host range in phytophagous insects is a good model for investigating this claim. We explore the use of angiosperm plants as hosts for nymphalid butterflies, and in particular the evidence for past oscillations in host range and how they are linked to host shifts and to diversification. At the level of orders of plants, a relatively simple pattern of host use and host shifts emerges, despite the 100 million years of history of the family Nymphalidae. We review the evidence that these host shifts and the accompanying diversifications were associated with transient polyphagous stages, as suggested by the "oscillation hypothesis." In addition, we investigate all currently polyphagous nymphalid species and demonstrate that the state of polyphagy is rare, has a weak phylogenetic signal, and a very apical distribution in the phylogeny; we argue that these are signs of its transient nature. We contrast our results with data from the bark beetles Dendroctonus, in which a more specialized host use is instead the apical state. We conclude that plasticity in host use is likely to have contributed to diversification in nymphalid butterflies. © 2013 The Authors. Evolution published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  4. Foot-and-mouth disease: Host range and pathogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandersen, Søren; Mowat, N.

    2005-01-01

    In this chapter the host range of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) under natural and experimental conditions is reviewed. The routes and sites of infection, incubation periods and clinical and pathological findings are described and highlighted in relation to progress in understanding the pathogenesis...

  5. Genome characteristics of facultatively symbiotic Frankia sp. strains reflect host range and host plant biogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand, Philippe; Lapierre, Pascal; Tisa, Louis S.; Gogarten, Johann Peter; Alloisio, Nicole; Bagnarol, Emilie; Bassi, Carla A.; Berry, Alison M.; Bickhart, Derek M.; Choisne, Nathalie; Couloux, Arnaud; Cournoyer, Benoit; Cruveiller, Stephane; Daubin, Vincent; Demange, Nadia; Francino, Maria Pilar; Goltsman, Eugene; Huang, Ying; Kopp, Olga R.; Labarre, Laurent; Lapidus, Alla; Lavire, Celine; Marechal, Joelle; Martinez, Michele; Mastronunzio, Juliana E.; Mullin, Beth C.; Niemann, James; Pujic, Pierre; Rawnsley, Tania; Rouy, Zoe; Schenowitz, Chantal; Sellstedt, Anita; Tavares, Fernando; Tomkins, Jeffrey P.; Vallenet, David; Valverde, Claudio; Wall, Luis G.; Wang, Ying; Medigue, Claudine; Benson, David R.

    2007-01-01

    Soil bacteria that also form mutualistic symbioses in plants encounter two major levels of selection. One occurs during adaptation to and survival in soil, and the other occurs in concert with host plant speciation and adaptation. Actinobacteria from the genus Frankia are facultative symbionts that form N2-fixing root nodules on diverse and globally distributed angiosperms in the “actinorhizal” symbioses. Three closely related clades of Frankia sp. strains are recognized; members of each clade infect a subset of plants from among eight angiosperm families. We sequenced the genomes from three strains; their sizes varied from 5.43 Mbp for a narrow host range strain (Frankia sp. strain HFPCcI3) to 7.50 Mbp for a medium host range strain (Frankia alni strain ACN14a) to 9.04 Mbp for a broad host range strain (Frankia sp. strain EAN1pec.) This size divergence is the largest yet reported for such closely related soil bacteria (97.8%–98.9% identity of 16S rRNA genes). The extent of gene deletion, duplication, and acquisition is in concert with the biogeographic history of the symbioses and host plant speciation. Host plant isolation favored genome contraction, whereas host plant diversification favored genome expansion. The results support the idea that major genome expansions as well as reductions can occur in facultative symbiotic soil bacteria as they respond to new environments in the context of their symbioses. PMID:17151343

  6. Permissiveness of soil microbial communities towards broad host range plasmids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klümper, Uli

    larger than previously assumed. I was able to show abundant plasmid transfer from the Gram negative donor strains to a wide diversity of Gram positive soil bacteria, formerly thought to constitute distinct clusters of gene transfer. Moreover, among the observed transconjugants, I identified a core super...... environmental factors that modulate plasmid transfer in soil microbial communities. In order to attain these goals, I developed a high-throughput method that enabled me to evaluate the permissiveness of bacterial communities towards introduced plasmids. This new approach is based on the introduction...... fraction of soil the bacteria (up to 1 in 10,000) were able to take up any of these broad host range conjugal plasmids. The transconjugal pools comprised 11 bacterial phyla. This finding indicates that the realized transfer range of broad host range plasmids in environmental microbial communities is much...

  7. Biogeographic Variation in Host Range Phenotypes and Taxonomic Composition of Marine Cyanophage Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, China A; Marston, Marcia F; Martiny, Jennifer B H

    2016-01-01

    Despite the important role of phages in marine systems, little is understood about how their diversity is distributed in space. Biogeographic patterns of marine phages may be difficult to detect due to their vast genetic diversity, which may not be accurately represented by conserved marker genes. To investigate the spatial biogeographic structure of marine phages, we isolated over 400 cyanophages on Synechococcus host strain WH7803 at three coastal locations in the United States (Rhode Island, Washington, and southern California). Approximately 90% of the cyanophage isolates were myoviruses, while the other 10% were podoviruses. The diversity of isolates was further characterized in two ways: (i) taxonomically, using conserved marker genes and (ii) phenotypically, by testing isolates for their ability to infect a suite of hosts, or their "host range." Because host range is a highly variable trait even among closely related isolates, we hypothesized that host range phenotypes of cyanophage isolates would vary more strongly among locations than would taxonomic composition. Instead, we found evidence for strong biogeographic variation both in taxonomic composition and host range phenotypes, with little taxonomic overlap among the three coastal regions. For both taxonomic composition and host range phenotypes, cyanophage communities from California and Rhode Island were the most dissimilar, while Washington communities exhibited similarity to each of the other two locations. These results suggest that selection imposed by spatial variation in host dynamics influence the biogeographic distribution of cyanophages.

  8. Cucumis melo endornavirus: Genome organization, host range and co-divergence with the host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabanadzovic, Sead; Wintermantel, William M; Valverde, Rodrigo A; McCreight, James D; Aboughanem-Sabanadzovic, Nina

    2016-03-02

    A high molecular weight dsRNA was isolated from a Cucumis melo L. plant (referred to as 'CL01') of an unknown cultivar and completely sequenced. Sequence analyses showed that dsRNA is associated with an endornavirus for which a name Cucumis melo endornavirus (CmEV) is proposed. The genome of CmEV-CL01 consists of 15,078 nt, contains a single, 4939 codons-long ORF and terminates with a stretch of 10 cytosine residues. Comparisons of the putative CmEV-encoded polyprotein with available references in protein databases revealed a unique genome organization characterized by the presence of the following domains: viral helicase Superfamily 1 (Hel-1), three glucosyltransferases (doublet of putative capsular polysaccharide synthesis proteins and a putative C_28_Glycosyltransferase), and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). The presence of three glycome-related domains of different origin makes the genome organization of CmEV unique among endornaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses of viral RdRp domains showed that CmEV belongs to a specific lineage within the family Endornaviridae made exclusively of plant-infecting endornaviruses. An RT-PCR based survey demonstrated high incidence of CmEV among melon germplasm accession (>87% of tested samples). Analyses of partial genome sequences of CmEV isolates from 26 different melon genotypes suggest fine-tuned virus adaptation and co-divergence with the host. Finally, results of the present study revealed that CmEV is present in plants belonging to three different genera in the family Cucurbitaceae. Such diverse host range is unreported for known endornaviruses and suggests a long history of CmEV association with cucurbits predating their speciation.

  9. Construction and testing of a novel host-range defective myxoma virus vaccine with the M063 gene inactivated that is non-permissive for replication in rabbit cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mathew M; van Leeuwen, Barbara H; McFadden, Grant; Kerr, Peter J

    2008-01-01

    Deletion of the M063 gene from myxoma virus produces a virus that is unable to replicate in rabbit cells in vitro or in live rabbits but can be propagated in non-rabbit cell lines. A targeted M063 deletion mutant was constructed in the attenuated Uriarra strain of myxoma virus and the ability of this virus to act as a safe, non-transmissible vaccine against myxomatosis was tested in outbred laboratory rabbits. Immunization with the M063 deletion vaccine provided good short-term protection against lethal challenge with virulent myxoma virus. Long-term protection was similar to reported results with heterologous live virus, with some rabbits protected but others succumbing to challenge. Replication-deficient poxvirus vaccines, like the Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara (MVA) in man and the myxoma virus vaccine described here in rabbits, are very attractive from a safety perspective. Seasonal boosting would be predicted to provide long-term protection. Targeted host-range gene deletions could have potential for rapid development of poxvirus vaccines in general.

  10. Extension of the Avian Host Range of Collyriclosis in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahas, Stamatios A; Diakou, Anastasia; Dressel, Monika; Frei, Samuel; Azevedo, Fábia M Pinto; Casero, Maria V Mena; Maia, Carla; Grest, Paula; Grimm, Felix; Sitko, Jiljí; Literak, Ivan

    2017-01-18

    We describe cases of collyriclosis in apodiform and passeriform birds in Portugal, Switzerland, and Germany. We extend the host range of Collyriculm faba to include apodiform birds ( Apus apus , Apus melba , and Apus pallidus ) and the passerine Sitta europaea (Eurasian Nuthatch). Infections varied in severity from an incidental finding to severe debilitation and death. The infection route remains unclear with the apparent absence from Germany, Portugal, and Switzerland of the first intermediate host of C. faba, the aquatic gastropod Bythinella austriaca, implying that other organisms might be involved in the parasite's life cycle. Furthermore, the detection of C. faba cysts in very young passerine birds may indicate an infection during the nestling stage and a rapid development of parasite-containing subcutaneous cysts. This series of cases highlights an increased geographic range into Portugal and the potential debilitating nature of a parasite of migratory birds in Europe. However, given the rarity of cases, collyriclosis does not seem to present an important threat to migratory species preservation.

  11. Host-range Characterization of Two Pratylenchus coffeae Isolates from Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    R. A. Silva; Inomoto, M. M.

    2002-01-01

    Two isolates of Pratylenchus coffeae were collected from coffee roots (in Marília, São Paulo State, Brazil) and Aglaonema (in Rio de Janeiro City, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil) and maintained in the laboratory on alfalfa callus. Twenty-four plants were tested in the greenhouse to characterize the host preference of these isolates. The host ranges of the isolates differed from each other and, interestingly, coffee, banana, and citrus were not among the better hosts of either isolate. Rather, s...

  12. Ectomycorrhizal fungal richness declines towards the host species' range edge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankau, Richard A; Keymer, Daniel P

    2016-07-01

    Plant range boundaries are generally considered to reflect abiotic conditions; however, a rise in negative or decline in positive species interactions at range margins may contribute to these stable boundaries. While evidence suggests that pollinator mutualisms may decline near range boundaries, little is known about other important plant mutualisms, including microbial root symbionts. Here, we used molecular methods to characterize root-associated fungal communities in populations of two related temperate tree species from across the species' range in the eastern United States. We found that ectomycorrhizal fungal richness on plant roots declined with distance from the centre of the host species range. These patterns were not evident in nonmycorrhizal fungal communities on roots nor in fungal communities in bulk soil. Climatic and soil chemical variables could not explain these biogeographic patterns, although these abiotic gradients affected other components of the bulk soil and rhizosphere fungal community. Depauperate ectomycorrhizal fungal communities may represent an underappreciated challenge to marginal tree populations, especially as rapid climate change pushes these populations outside their current climate niche.

  13. Sensitivity to BST-2 restriction correlates with Orthobunyavirus host range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Mariana; Piras, Ilaria M; Mullan, Catrina; Shi, Xiaohong; Tilston-Lunel, Natasha L; Pinto, Rute Maria; Taggart, Aislynn; Welch, Stephen R; Neil, Stuart J D; Kreher, Felix; Elliott, Richard M; Palmarini, Massimo

    2017-09-01

    Orthobunyaviruses include several recently emerging viruses of significant medical and veterinary importance. There is currently very limited understanding on what determines the host species range of these pathogens. In this study we discovered that BST-2/tetherin restricts orthobunyavirus replication in a host-specific manner. We show that viruses with human tropism (Oropouche virus and La Crosse virus) are restricted by sheep BST-2 but not by the human orthologue, while viruses with ruminant tropism (Schmallenberg virus and others) are restricted by human BST-2 but not by the sheep orthologue. We also show that BST-2 blocks orthobunyaviruses replication by reducing the amount of envelope glycoprotein into viral particles egressing from infected cells. This is the first study identifying a restriction factor that correlates with species susceptibility to orthobunyavirus infection. This work provides insight to help us dissect the adaptive changes that bunyaviruses require to cross the species barrier and emerge into new species. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Structural mutants of dengue virus 2 transmembrane domains exhibit host-range phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gwynneth S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are over 700 known arboviruses and at least 80 immunologically distinct types that cause disease in humans. Arboviruses are transmitted among vertebrates by biting insects, chiefly mosquitoes and ticks. These viruses are widely distributed throughout the world, depending on the presence of appropriate hosts (birds, horses, domestic animals, humans and vectors. Mosquito-borne arboviruses present some of the most important examples of emerging and resurgent diseases of global significance. Methods A strategy has been developed by which host-range mutants of Dengue virus can be constructed by generating deletions in the transmembrane domain (TMD of the E glycoprotein. The host-range mutants produced and selected favored growth in the insect hosts. Mouse trials were conducted to determine if these mutants could initiate an immune response in an in vivo system. Results The DV2 E protein TMD defined as amino acids 452SWTMKILIGVIITWIG467 was found to contain specific residues which were required for the production of this host-range phenotype. Deletion mutants were found to be stable in vitro for 4 sequential passages in both host cell lines. The host-range mutants elicited neutralizing antibody above that seen for wild-type virus in mice and warrant further testing in primates as potential vaccine candidates. Conclusions Novel host-range mutants of DV2 were created that have preferential growth in insect cells and impaired infectivity in mammalian cells. This method for creating live, attenuated viral mutants that generate safe and effective immunity may be applied to many other insect-borne viral diseases for which no current effective therapies exist.

  15. Host-range characterization of two Pratylenchus coffeae isolates from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, R A; Inomoto, M M

    2002-06-01

    Two isolates of Pratylenchus coffeae were collected from coffee roots (in Marília, São Paulo State, Brazil) and Aglaonema (in Rio de Janeiro City, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil) and maintained in the laboratory on alfalfa callus. Twenty-four plants were tested in the greenhouse to characterize the host preference of these isolates. The host ranges of the isolates differed from each other and, interestingly, coffee, banana, and citrus were not among the better hosts of either isolate. Rather, sorghum, maize, rice, millet, okra, melon, eggplant, and lettuce were the best hosts of the Marília isolate. Poor hosts included French marigold, Rangpur lime, banana, sesame, peanut, sunflower, cotton, French bean, onion, and small onion. The best hosts of the Rio de Janeiro isolate were sesame, soybean, sorghum, castor oil plant, watermelon, squash, eggplant, and melon; the poorest hosts were French marigold, coffee, Rangpur lime, banana, sunflower, peanut, maize, millet, French bean, cotton, onion, sweet pepper, lettuce, okra, and small onion. These isolates have important molecular and morphological differences, suggesting host preference is linked to these characteristics.

  16. Characterization of host-range mutants of cyanophage N-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, T A; Kaur, B

    1997-10-01

    Fifteen host-range (h) mutants of cyanophage N-1 were characterized with reference to their efficiency of plating, time of appearance, morphology and size of plaques on Nostoc muscorum and its three phage-resistant (Nm 1/N-1, Nm 2/N-1 and Nm 8/N-1) mutants. While phage N-1 did not adsorb to the three phage-resistant mutants, the h mutants differed one from the other in having lower or higher adsorption rate constants on N. muscorum or the phage-resistant mutants. The inability of majority of h mutants isolated on Nm 1/N-1 to grow in Nm 8/N-1 was shown to be due to a failure of adsorption. The h mutants also differed one from the other in their reversion (back mutation) frequencies. The lethal doses (LD37) required to kill 37% of free phage particles after UV-irradiation, heating and ethylenediamine tetraacetate (EDTA) treatment greatly varied. Most of the h mutants were found to be considerably more sensitive to UV and thermic inactivation than N-1 while they were resistant to EDTA. The h mutants except five of them were unable to multiply at 40 degrees C. The significance of these features is discussed.

  17. Infection of non-host model plant species with the narrow-host-range Cacao swollen shoot virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friscina, Arianna; Chiappetta, Laura; Jacquemond, Mireille; Tepfer, Mark

    2017-02-01

    Cacao swollen shoot virus (CSSV) is a major pathogen of cacao (Theobroma cacao) in Africa, and long-standing efforts to limit its spread by the culling of infected trees have had very limited success. CSSV is a particularly difficult virus to study, as it has a very narrow host range, limited to several tropical tree species. Furthermore, the virus is not mechanically transmissible, and its insect vector can only be used with difficulty. Thus, the only efficient means to infect cacao plants that have been experimentally described so far are by particle bombardment or the agroinoculation of cacao plants with an infectious clone. We have genetically transformed three non-host species with an infectious form of the CSSV genome: two experimental hosts widely used in plant virology (Nicotiana tabacum and N. benthamiana) and the model species Arabidopsis thaliana. In transformed plants of all three species, the CSSV genome was able to replicate, and, in tobacco, CSSV particles could be observed by immunosorbent electron microscopy, demonstrating that the complete virus cycle could be completed in a non-host plant. These results will greatly facilitate the preliminary testing of CSSV control strategies using plants that are easy to raise and to transform genetically. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  18. The X-33 Extended Flight Test Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackall, Dale A.; Sakahara, Robert; Kremer, Steven E.

    1998-01-01

    Development of an extended test range, with range instrumentation providing continuous vehicle communications, is required to flight-test the X-33, a scaled version of a reusable launch vehicle. The extended test range provides vehicle communications coverage from California to landing at Montana or Utah. This paper provides an overview of the approaches used to meet X-33 program requirements, including using multiple ground stations, and methods to reduce problems caused by reentry plasma radio frequency blackout. The advances used to develop the extended test range show other hypersonic and access-to-space programs can benefit from the development of the extended test range.

  19. Novel application of species richness estimators to predict the host range of parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, David M; Milner, Kirsty V; Leigh, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Host range is a critical life history trait of parasites, influencing prevalence, virulence and ultimately determining their distributional extent. Current approaches to measure host range are sensitive to sampling effort, the number of known hosts increasing with more records. Here, we develop a novel application of results-based stopping rules to determine how many hosts should be sampled to yield stable estimates of the number of primary hosts within regions, then use species richness estimation to predict host ranges of parasites across their distributional ranges. We selected three mistletoe species (hemiparasitic plants in the Loranthaceae) to evaluate our approach: a strict host specialist (Amyema lucasii, dependent on a single host species), an intermediate species (Amyema quandang, dependent on hosts in one genus) and a generalist (Lysiana exocarpi, dependent on many genera across multiple families), comparing results from geographically-stratified surveys against known host lists derived from herbarium specimens. The results-based stopping rule (stop sampling bioregion once observed host richness exceeds 80% of the host richness predicted using the Abundance-based Coverage Estimator) worked well for most bioregions studied, being satisfied after three to six sampling plots (each representing 25 host trees) but was unreliable in those bioregions with high host richness or high proportions of rare hosts. Although generating stable predictions of host range with minimal variation among six estimators trialled, distribution-wide estimates fell well short of the number of hosts known from herbarium records. This mismatch, coupled with the discovery of nine previously unrecorded mistletoe-host combinations, further demonstrates the limited ecological relevance of simple host-parasite lists. By collecting estimates of host range of constrained completeness, our approach maximises sampling efficiency while generating comparable estimates of the number of primary

  20. Tonopah Test Range capabilities: technical manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manhart, R.L.

    1982-11-01

    This manual describes Tonopah Test Range (TTR), defines its testing capabilities, and outlines the steps necessary to schedule tests on the Range. Operated by Sandia National Laboratories, TTR is a major test facility for DOE-funded weapon programs. The Range presents an integrated system for ballistic test vehicle tracking and data acquisition. Multiple radars, optical trackers, telemetry stations, a central computer complex, and combined landline/RF communications systems assure full Range coverage for any type of test. Range operations are conducted by a department within Sandia's Field Engineering Directorate. While the overall Range functions as a complete system, it is operationally divided into the Test Measurements, Instrumentation Development, and Range Operations divisions. The primary function of TTR is to support DOE weapons test activities. Management, however, encourages other Government agencies and their contractors to schedule tests on the Range which can make effective use of its capabilities. Information concerning Range use by organizations outside of DOE is presented. Range instrumentation and support facilities are described in detail. This equipment represents the current state-of-the-art and reflects a continuing commitment by TTR management to field the most effective tracking and data acquisition system available.

  1. Convenient broad-host-range unstable vectors for studying stabilization cassettes in diverse bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartosik, Aneta A; Glabski, Krzysztof; Kulinska, Anna; Lewicka, Ewa; Godziszewska, Jolanta; Markowska, Aleksandra; Jagura-Burdzy, Grazyna

    2016-04-05

    Low-copy-number vectors of potential wide application in biotechnology need to encode stabilization modules ensuring their stable inheritance. The efficiency of stabilization may vary depending on the plasmid host so a thorough analysis of stabilization functions is required before use. To facilitate such analysis highly unstable, mobilizable, broad-host-range (BHR) vectors based on RK2 replicon were constructed. The vectors are suitable for testing of various stabilization functions, including plasmid and chromosomal partitioning cassettes encoding ParB homologues capable of spreading on DNA. The xylE or lacZ reporter systems facilitate easy monitoring of plasmid segregation. The range of BHR vectors with different reporter cassettes and alternative mobilization systems expands their application in diverse bacterial species.

  2. Permissiveness of soil microbial communities towards broad host range plasmids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klümper, Uli

    at high frequencies from diverse donors, I showed plasmid or donor dependence of plasmid transfer to other species. Additionally, environmental factors like stress also impact the permissiveness of phylogenetic groups towards plasmids. The developed method and results increase our ability to predict......Horizontal transfer of mobile genetic elements facilitates adaptive and evolutionary processes in bacteria. Among the known mobile genetic elements, plasmids can confer their hosts with accessory adaptive traits, such as antibiotic or heavy metal resistances, or additional metabolic pathways...... and the extent of bacterial phyla permissive towards plasmid receipt are largely unknown. Historically, methods exploring the underlying genetic and environmental factors of plasmid transfer have been heavily reliant on cultivation and expression of plasmid encoded phenotypes. This has provided an incomplete...

  3. Host range and in vitro lysis of Listeria monocytogenes seafood isolates by bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arachchi, Geevika J Ganegama; Cruz, Cristina D; Dias-Wanigasekera, Beatrice M; McIntyre, Lynn; Billington, Craig; Hudson, Andrew; Flint, Steve H; Mutukumira, Anthony N

    2014-12-01

    Listeria-infecting bacteriophages (listeriaphages) can be used to control Listeria monocytogenes in the food industry. However, the sensitivity of many of seafood-borne Listeria strains to phages has not been reported. This research investigated the host ranges of three listeriaphages (FWLLm1, FWLLm3 and FWLLm5) by the formation of lytic zones and plaques on host lawns and in vitro lysis kinetics of listeriaphage FWLLm3. The study also predicted the phage titres required to lyse host cells. The host ranges of the phages were determined using 50 L. monocytogenes strains, of which 48 were isolated from the seafood industry and two from clinical cases. Of the 50 strains, 36 were tested at 25 and 30 ℃ and the remainder (14) at 15 and 25 ℃. Based on the formation of either discrete plaques or lytic zones (host kill zones), the host ranges of FWLLm1, FWLLm3 and FWLLm5 were about 87%, 81% and 87%, respectively, at 25 ℃. Six L. monocytogenes strains from the seafood environment were insensitive to all three phages, while the other seafood strains (42) were phage-sensitive. The adsorption rate constant (k value) of listeriaphage FWLLm3 was between 1.2 × 10(-9) and 1.6 × 10(-9 )ml/min across four host strains in tryptic soy broth at 25 ℃. The cultures (at 3-4 log colony-forming unit (CFU/ml) were completely lysed ( 8.7 log phage-forming units (PFU/ml) for 30 min. Re-growth of phage-infected cultures was not detected after 24 h. The effective empirical phage titre was similar to the calculated titre using a kinetic model. Results indicate the potential use of the three phages for controlling L. monocytogenes strains in seafood processing environments. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  4. Contemporary evolution of host plant range expansion in an introduced herbivorous beetle Ophraella communa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukano, Y; Doi, H; Thomas, C E; Takata, M; Koyama, S; Satoh, T

    2016-04-01

    Host range expansion of herbivorous insects is a key event in ecological speciation and insect pest management. However, the mechanistic processes are relatively unknown because it is difficult to observe the ongoing host range expansion in natural population. In this study, we focused on the ongoing host range expansion in introduced populations of the ragweed leaf beetle, Ophraella communa, to estimate the evolutionary process of host plant range expansion of a herbivorous insect. In the native range of North America, O. communa does not utilize Ambrosia trifida, as a host plant, but this plant is extensively utilized in the beetle's introduced range. Larval performance and adult preference experiments demonstrated that native O. communa beetles show better survival on host plant individuals from introduced plant populations than those from native plant populations and they also oviposit on the introduced plant, but not on the native plant. Introduced O. communa beetles showed significantly higher performance on and preference for both introduced and native A. trifida plants, when compared with native O. communa. These results indicate the contemporary evolution of host plant range expansion of introduced O. communa and suggest that the evolutionary change of both the host plant and the herbivorous insect involved in the host range expansion.

  5. Tests of Gravity Using Lunar Laser Ranging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Merkowitz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Lunar laser ranging (LLR has been a workhorse for testing general relativity over the past four decades. The three retroreflector arrays put on the Moon by the Apollo astronauts and the French built arrays on the Soviet Lunokhod rovers continue to be useful targets, and have provided the most stringent tests of the Strong Equivalence Principle and the time variation of Newton’s gravitational constant. The relatively new ranging system at the Apache Point 3.5 meter telescope now routinely makes millimeter level range measurements. Incredibly, it has taken 40 years for ground station technology to advance to the point where characteristics of the lunar retroreflectors are limiting the precision of the range measurements. In this article, we review the gravitational science and technology of lunar laser ranging and discuss prospects for the future.

  6. Broad-Host-Range Expression Reveals Native and Host Regulatory Elements That Influence Heterologous Antibiotic Production in Gram-Negative Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia Jia; Tang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Michelle; Nguyen, Darlene; Moore, Bradley S

    2017-09-05

    Heterologous expression has become a powerful tool for studying microbial biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs). Here, we extend the transformation-associated recombination cloning and heterologous expression platform for microbial BGCs to include Gram-negative proteobacterial expression hosts. Using a broad-host-range expression platform, we test the implicit assumption that biosynthetic pathways are more successfully expressed in more closely related heterologous hosts. Cloning and expression of the violacein BGC from Pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea 2ta16 revealed robust production in two proteobacterial hosts, Pseudomonas putida KT2440 and Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404, but very little production of the antibiotic in various laboratory strains of Escherichia coli, despite their closer phylogenetic relationship. We identified a nonclustered LuxR-type quorum-sensing receptor from P. luteoviolacea 2ta16, PviR, that increases pathway transcription and violacein production in E. coli by ∼60-fold independently of acyl-homoserine lactone autoinducers. Although E. coli harbors the most similar homolog of PviR identified from all of the hosts tested, overexpression of various E. coli transcription factors did not result in a statistically significant increase in violacein production, while overexpression of two A. tumefaciens PviR homologs significantly increased production. Thus, this work not only introduces a new genetic platform for the heterologous expression of microbial BGCs, it also challenges the assumption that host phylogeny is an accurate predictor of host compatibility.IMPORTANCE Although Gram-positive heterologous hosts such as Streptomyces have been developed and optimized to support diverse secondary metabolic reactions, there has been comparatively less work on Gram-negative hosts, some of which grow faster and are easier to work with. This work presents a new genetic platform for direct cloning and broad-host-range heterologous expression of BGCs

  7. Inferring host range dynamics from comparative data: the protozoan parasites of new world monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, David; Weinert, Lucy A; Welch, John J

    2014-07-01

    Uncovering the ecological determinants of parasite host range is a central goal of comparative parasitology and infectious disease ecology. But while parasites are often distributed nonrandomly across the host phylogeny, such patterns are difficult to interpret without a genealogy for the parasite samples and without knowing what sorts of ecological dynamics might lead to what sorts of nonrandomness. We investigated inferences from comparative data, using presence/absence records from protozoan parasites of the New World monkeys. We first demonstrate several distinct types of phylogenetic signal in these data, showing, for example, that parasite species are clustered on the host tree and that closely related host species harbor similar numbers of parasite species. We then show that all of these patterns can be generated by a single, simple dynamical model, in which parasite host range changes more rapidly than host speciation/extinction and parasites preferentially colonize uninfected host species that are closely related to their existing hosts. Fitting this model to data, we then estimate its parameters. Finally, we caution that quite different ecological processes can lead to similar signatures but show how phylogenetic variation in host susceptibility can be distinguished from a tendency for parasites to colonize closely related hosts. Our new process-based analyses, which estimate meaningful parameters, should be useful for inferring the determinants of parasite host range and transmission success.

  8. WATERMELON MOSAIC VIRUS OF PUMPKIN (Cucurbita maxima FROM SULAWESI: IDENTIFICATION, TRANSMISSION, AND HOST RANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasmo Wakmana

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A mosaic disease of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima was spread widely in Sulawesi. Since the virus had not yet been identified, a study was conducted to identify the disease through mechanical inoculation, aphid vector transmission, host range, and electron microscopic test. Crude sap of infected pumpkin leaf samples was rubbed on the cotyledons of healthy pumpkin seedlings for mechanical inoculation. For insect transmission, five infective aphids were infected per seedling. Seedlings of eleven different species were inoculated mechanically for host range test. Clarified sap was examined under the electron microscope. Seeds of two pumpkin fruits from two different infected plants were planted and observed for disease transmission up to one-month old seedlings. The mosaic disease was transmitted mechanically from crude sap of different leaf samples to healthy pumpkin seedlings showing mosaic symptoms. The virus also infected eight cucurbits, i.e., cucumber (Cucumis sativus, green melon (Cucumis melo, orange/rock melon (C. melo, zucchini (Cucurbita pepo, pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima, water melon (Citrulus vulgaris, Bennicosa hispida, and blewah (Cucurbita sp.. Aphids  transmitted the disease from one to other pumpkin seedlings. The virus was not transmitted by seed. The mosaic disease of pumpkin at Maros, South Sulawesi, was associated with flexious particles of approximately 750 nm length, possibly a potyvirus, such as water melon mosaic virus rather than papaya ringspot virus or zucchini yellow mosaic virus.

  9. Host Range Specificity of Scymnus camptodromus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), A Predator of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbu, Samita; Cassidy, Katie; Keena, Melody; Tobin, Patrick; Hoover, Kelli

    2016-02-01

    Scymnus (Neopullus) camptodromus Yu and Liu (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was brought to the United States from China as a potential biological control agent for hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae). Scymnus camptodromus phenology is closely synchronized with that of A. tsugae and has several characteristics of a promising biological control agent. As a prerequisite to field release, S. camptodromus was evaluated for potential nontarget impacts. In host range studies, the predator was given the choice of sympatric adelgid and nonadelgid prey items. Nontarget testing showed that S. camptodromus will feed to some degree on other adelgid species, but highly prefers A. tsugae. We also evaluated larval development of S. camptodromus on pine bark adelgid (Pineus strobi (Hartig)) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) and larch adelgid (Adelges laricis Vallot) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae); a small proportion of predator larvae was able to develop to adulthood on P. strobi or A. laricis alone. Scymnus camptodromus showed no interest in feeding on woolly alder aphid (Paraprociphilus tessellatus Fitch) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) or woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann)) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and minimal interest in cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in choice and no-choice experiments. Scymnus camptodromus females did not oviposit on any host material other than A. tsugae-infested hemlock. Under the circumstances of the study, S. camptodromus appears to be a specific predator of A. tsugae, with minimal risk to nontarget species. Although the predator can develop on P. strobi, the likelihood that S. camptodromus would oviposit on pine hosts of this adelgid is small.

  10. Stepwise adaptation of murine cytomegalovirus to cells of a foreign host for identification of host range determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostermann, Eleonore; Pawletko, Kerstin; Indenbirken, Daniela; Schumacher, Uwe; Brune, Wolfram

    2015-06-01

    Ever since their first isolation 60 years ago, cytomegaloviruses have been recognized as being highly species specific. They replicate only in cells of their own or a closely related host species, while cells of phylogenetically more distant hosts are usually not permissive for viral replication. For instance, human cytomegalovirus replicates in human and chimpanzee fibroblasts but not in rodent cells, and murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) replicates in cells of mice and rats but not in primate cells. However, the viral and cellular factors determining the narrow host range of cytomegaloviruses have remained largely unknown. We show that MCMV can be adapted stepwise to replicate in cultured human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE-1) cells and human fibroblasts. The human RPE-1 cells used for the initial adaptation step showed a pronounced contact inhibition and produced very low level of interferon-β transcripts upon cytomegalovirus infection, suggesting that these cells provide a particularly favorable environment for adaptation. By whole genome sequencing of the 230 kbp viral genomes of several adapted mutants, a limited number of mutations were detected. Comparison of several human cell-adapted MCMV clones and introduction of specific mutations into the wild-type MCMV genome by site-directed mutagenesis allows for the identification of viral host range determinants and provides the basis for elucidating the molecular basis of the cytomegalovirus host species specificity.

  11. Characterisation of host growth after infection with a broad-range freshwater cyanopodophage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhan C Watkins

    Full Text Available Freshwater cyanophages are poorly characterised in comparison to their marine counterparts, however, the level of genetic diversity that exists in freshwater cyanophage communities is likely to exceed that found in marine environments, due to the habitat heterogeneity within freshwater systems. Many cyanophages are specialists, infecting a single host species or strain; however, some are less fastidious and infect a number of different host genotypes within the same species or even hosts from different genera. Few instances of host growth characterisation after infection by broad host-range phages have been described. Here we provide an initial characterisation of interactions between a cyanophage isolated from a freshwater fishing lake in the south of England and its hosts. Designated ΦMHI42, the phage is able to infect isolates from two genera of freshwater cyanobacteria, Planktothrix and Microcystis. Transmission Electron Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy indicate that ΦMHI42 is a member of the Podoviridae, albeit with a larger than expected capsid. The kinetics of host growth after infection with ΦMHI42 differed across host genera, species and strains in a way that was not related to the growth rate of the uninfected host. To our knowledge, this is the first characterisation of the growth of cyanobacteria in the presence of a broad host-range freshwater cyanophage.

  12. Ecological factors driving the long-term evolution of influenza's host range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobey, Sarah; Pascual, Mercedes; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of a pathogen's host range is shaped by the ecology of its hosts and by the physiological traits that determine host specificity. For many pathogen traits, there is a trade-off: a phenotype suitable for infecting one set of hosts poorly infects another. Introducing and analysing a simple evo-epidemiological model, here we study how such a trade-off is expected to affect evolution of the host ranges of influenza viruses. We examine a quantitative trait underlying host specificity, given by an influenza virus's degree of adaptation to certain conformations of sialic acid receptors, and investigate how this receptor preference evolves in a minimal network of host species, including humans, that differ in life history and receptor physiology. Using adaptive dynamics theory, we establish thresholds in interspecific transmission rates and host population sizes that govern the emergence and persistence of human-adapted viruses. These ecological thresholds turn out to be largely independent of the strength of the evolutionary trade-off, underscoring the importance of ecological conditions in determining a disease's host range. PMID:20444714

  13. Genome degradation in Brucella ovis corresponds with narrowing of its host range and tissue tropism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee M Tsolis

    Full Text Available Brucella ovis is a veterinary pathogen associated with epididymitis in sheep. Despite its genetic similarity to the zoonotic pathogens B. abortus, B. melitensis and B. suis, B. ovis does not cause zoonotic disease. Genomic analysis of the type strain ATCC25840 revealed a high percentage of pseudogenes and increased numbers of transposable elements compared to the zoonotic Brucella species, suggesting that genome degradation has occurred concomitant with narrowing of the host range of B. ovis. The absence of genomic island 2, encoding functions required for lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis, as well as inactivation of genes encoding urease, nutrient uptake and utilization, and outer membrane proteins may be factors contributing to the avirulence of B. ovis for humans. A 26.5 kb region of B. ovis ATCC25840 Chromosome II was absent from all the sequenced human pathogenic Brucella genomes, but was present in all of 17 B. ovis isolates tested and in three B. ceti isolates, suggesting that this DNA region may be of use for differentiating B. ovis from other Brucella spp. This is the first genomic analysis of a non-zoonotic Brucella species. The results suggest that inactivation of genes involved in nutrient acquisition and utilization, cell envelope structure and urease may have played a role in narrowing of the tissue tropism and host range of B. ovis.

  14. New hepatitis B virus of cranes that has an unexpected broad host range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prassolov, Alexej; Hohenberg, Heinz; Kalinina, Tatyana; Schneider, Carola; Cova, Lucyna; Krone, Oliver; Frölich, Kai; Will, Hans; Sirma, Hüseyin

    2003-02-01

    All hepadnaviruses known so far have a very limited host range, restricted to their natural hosts and a few closely related species. This is thought to be due mainly to sequence divergence in the large envelope protein and species-specific differences in host components essential for virus propagation. Here we report an infection of cranes with a novel hepadnavirus, designated CHBV, that has an unexpectedly broad host range and is only distantly evolutionarily related to avihepadnaviruses of related hosts. Direct DNA sequencing of amplified CHBV DNA as well a sequencing of cloned viral genomes revealed that CHBV is most closely related to, although distinct from, Ross' goose hepatitis B virus (RGHBV) and slightly less closely related to duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV). Phylogenetically, cranes are very distant from geese and ducks and are most closely related to herons and storks. Naturally occurring hepadnaviruses in the last two species are highly divergent in sequence from RGHBV and DHBV and do not infect ducks or do so only marginally. In contrast, CHBV from crane sera and recombinant CHBV produced from LMH cells infected primary duck hepatocytes almost as efficiently as DHBV did. This is the first report of a rather broad host range of an avihepadnavirus. Our data imply either usage of similar or identical entry pathways and receptors by DHBV and CHBV, unusual host and virus adaptation mechanisms, or divergent evolution of the host genomes and cellular components required for virus propagation.

  15. Tonopah Test Range 2030 Meeting Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-04-01

    Corrective Action Sites (CASs) and Corrective Action Units (CAUs) at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) may be placed into three categories: Closed, Closed in Place, or Closure in Progress. CASs and CAUs where contaminants were either not detected or were cleaned up to within regulatory action levels are summarized. CASs and CAUs where contaminants and/or waste have been closed in place are summarized. There is also a table that summarizes the contaminant that has been closed at each site, if land-use restrictions are present, and if post-closure inspections are required.

  16. Host range of symptomatology of Pepino mosaic virus strains occurring in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blystad, Dag-Ragnar; van der Vlugt, René; Alfaro-Fernández, Ana;

    2015-01-01

    for the three strains tested at 10 different European locations with both international and local cultivars showed that eggplant is an alternative host of PepMV. Sweet pepper is not an important host of PepMV, but potato can be infected when the right isolate is matched with a specific cultivar. Nicotiana...

  17. Structural basis for antagonizing a host restriction factor by C7 family of poxvirus host-range proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangzhi; Krumm, Brian; Li, Yongchao; Deng, Junpeng; Xiang, Yan

    2015-12-01

    Human sterile alpha motif domain-containing 9 (SAMD9) protein is a host restriction factor for poxviruses, but it can be overcome by some poxvirus host-range proteins that share homology with vaccinia virus C7 protein. To understand the mechanism of action for this important family of host-range factors, we determined the crystal structures of C7 and myxoma virus M64, a C7 family member that is unable to antagonize SAMD9. Despite their different functions and only 23% sequence identity, the two proteins have very similar overall structures, displaying a previously unidentified fold comprised of a compact 12-stranded antiparallel β-sandwich wrapped in two short α helices. Extensive structure-guided mutagenesis of C7 identified three loops clustered on one edge of the β sandwich as critical for viral replication and binding with SAMD9. The loops are characterized with functionally important negatively charged, positively charged, and hydrophobic residues, respectively, together forming a unique "three-fingered molecular claw." The key residues of the claw are not conserved in two C7 family members that do not antagonize SAMD9 but are conserved in distantly related C7 family members from four poxvirus genera that infect diverse mammalian species. Indeed, we found that all in the latter group of proteins bind SAMD9. Taken together, our data indicate that diverse mammalian poxviruses use a conserved molecular claw in a C7-like protein to target SAMD9 and overcome host restriction.

  18. Tonopah Test Range Post-Closure Inspection Annual Report, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Calendar Year 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

    2004-04-01

    This post-closure inspection report provides documentation of the semiannual inspection activities, maintenance and repair activities, and conclusions and recommendations for calendar year 2003 for eight corrective action units located on the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada.

  19. A plant virus evolved by acquiring multiple nonconserved genes to extend its host range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatineni, Satyanarayana; Robertson, Cecile J.; Garnsey, Stephen M.; Dawson, William O.

    2011-01-01

    Viruses have evolved as combinations of genes whose products interact with cellular components to produce progeny virus throughout the plants. Some viral genes, particularly those that are involved in replication and assembly, tend to be relatively conserved, whereas other genes that have evolved for interactions with the specific host for movement and to counter host–defense systems tend to be less conserved. Closteroviridae encode 1–5 nonconserved ORFs. Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), a Closterovirus, possesses nonconserved p33, p18, and p13 genes that are expendable for systemic infection of the two laboratory hosts, Citrus macrophylla and Mexican lime. In this study, we show that the extended host range of CTV requires these nonconserved genes. The p33 gene was required to systemically infect sour orange and lemon trees, whereas either the p33 or the p18 gene was sufficient for systemic infection of grapefruit trees and the p33 or the p13 gene was sufficient for systemic infection of calamondin plants. Thus, these three genes are required for systemic infection of the full host range of CTV, but different genes were specific for different hosts. Remarkably, either of two genes was sufficient for infection of some citrus hybrids. These findings suggest that CTV acquired multiple nonconserved genes (p33, p18, and p13) and, as a result, gained the ability to interact with multiple hosts, thus extending its host range during the course of evolution. These results greatly extend the complexity of known virus–plant interactions. PMID:21987809

  20. Bacteriophages isolated from Lake Michigan demonstrate broad host-range across several bacterial phyla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malki, Kema; Kula, Alex; Bruder, Katherine; Sible, Emily; Hatzopoulos, Thomas; Steidel, Stephanie; Watkins, Siobhan C; Putonti, Catherine

    2015-10-09

    The study of bacteriophages continues to generate key information about microbial interactions in the environment. Many phenotypic characteristics of bacteriophages cannot be examined by sequencing alone, further highlighting the necessity for isolation and examination of phages from environmental samples. While much of our current knowledge base has been generated by the study of marine phages, freshwater viruses are understudied in comparison. Our group has previously conducted metagenomics-based studies samples collected from Lake Michigan - the data presented in this study relate to four phages that were extracted from the same samples. Four phages were extracted from Lake Michigan on the same bacterial host, exhibiting similar morphological characteristics as shown under transmission electron microscopy. Growth characteristics of the phages were unique to each isolate. Each phage demonstrated a host-range spanning several phyla of bacteria - to date, such a broad host-range is yet to be reported. Genomic data reveals genomes of a similar size, and close similarities between the Lake Michigan phages and the Pseudomonas phage PB1, however, the majority of annotated genes present were ORFans and little insight was offered into mechanisms for host-range. The phages isolated from Lake Michigan are capable of infecting several bacterial phyla, and demonstrate varied phenotypic characteristics despite similarities in host preference, and at the genomic level. We propose that such a broad host-range is likely related to the oligotrophic nature of Lake Michigan, and the competitive benefit that this characteristic may lend to phages in nature.

  1. Testing cladograms by fossil record: the ghost range test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasnitsyn, Alexandr P.

    2000-01-01

    A method of the ghost range calculation is proposed to assess the congruence between a cladogram and the fossil record and to compare cladograms on this basis. The method is tested on a set of cladograms developed recently to reveal the phylogeny of the hymenopterous insects (Order Vespida), and the

  2. Silage Collected from Dairy Farms Harbors an Abundance of Listeriaphages with Considerable Host Range and Genome Size Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongkamjan, Kitiya; Switt, Andrea Moreno; den Bakker, Henk C.; Fortes, Esther D.

    2012-01-01

    Since the food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is common in dairy farm environments, it is likely that phages infecting this bacterium (“listeriaphages”) are abundant on dairy farms. To better understand the ecology and diversity of listeriaphages on dairy farms and to develop a diverse phage collection for further studies, silage samples collected on two dairy farms were screened for L. monocytogenes and listeriaphages. While only 4.5% of silage samples tested positive for L. monocytogenes, 47.8% of samples were positive for listeriaphages, containing up to >1.5 × 104 PFU/g. Host range characterization of the 114 phage isolates obtained, with a reference set of 13 L. monocytogenes strains representing the nine major serotypes and four lineages, revealed considerable host range diversity; phage isolates were classified into nine lysis groups. While one serotype 3c strain was not lysed by any phage isolates, serotype 4 strains were highly susceptible to phages and were lysed by 63.2 to 88.6% of phages tested. Overall, 12.3% of phage isolates showed a narrow host range (lysing 1 to 5 strains), while 28.9% of phages represented broad host range (lysing ≥11 strains). Genome sizes of the phage isolates were estimated to range from approximately 26 to 140 kb. The extensive host range and genomic diversity of phages observed here suggest an important role of phages in the ecology of L. monocytogenes on dairy farms. In addition, the phage collection developed here has the potential to facilitate further development of phage-based biocontrol strategies (e.g., in silage) and other phage-based tools. PMID:23042180

  3. Eop1 from a Rubus strain of Erwinia amylovora functions as a host-range limiting factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselin, J E; Bonasera, J M; Kim, J F; Oh, C-S; Beer, S V

    2011-08-01

    Strains of Erwinia amylovora, the bacterium causing the disease fire blight of rosaceous plants, are separated into two groups based on host range: Spiraeoideae and Rubus strains. Spiraeoideae strains have wide host ranges, infecting plants in many rosaceous genera, including apple and pear. In the field, Rubus strains infect the genus Rubus exclusively, which includes raspberry and blackberry. Based on comparisons of limited sequence data from a Rubus and a Spiraeoideae strain, the gene eop1 was identified as unusually divergent, and it was selected as a possible host specificity factor. To test this, eop1 genes from a Rubus strain and a Spiraeoideae strain were cloned and mutated. Expression of the Rubus-strain eop1 reduced the virulence of E. amylovora in immature pear fruit and in apple shoots. Sequencing the orfA-eop1 regions of several strains of E. amylovora confirmed that forms of eop1 are conserved among strains with similar host ranges. This work provides evidence that eop1 from a Rubus-specific strain can function as a determinant of host specificity in E. amylovora.

  4. Identification of FAM111A as an SV40 host range restriction and adenovirus helper factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debrah A Fine

    Full Text Available The small genome of polyomaviruses encodes a limited number of proteins that are highly dependent on interactions with host cell proteins for efficient viral replication. The SV40 large T antigen (LT contains several discrete functional domains including the LXCXE or RB-binding motif, the DNA binding and helicase domains that contribute to the viral life cycle. In addition, the LT C-terminal region contains the host range and adenovirus helper functions required for lytic infection in certain restrictive cell types. To understand how LT affects the host cell to facilitate viral replication, we expressed full-length or functional domains of LT in cells, identified interacting host proteins and carried out expression profiling. LT perturbed the expression of p53 target genes and subsets of cell-cycle dependent genes regulated by the DREAM and the B-Myb-MuvB complexes. Affinity purification of LT followed by mass spectrometry revealed a specific interaction between the LT C-terminal region and FAM111A, a previously uncharacterized protein. Depletion of FAM111A recapitulated the effects of heterologous expression of the LT C-terminal region, including increased viral gene expression and lytic infection of SV40 host range mutants and adenovirus replication in restrictive cells. FAM111A functions as a host range restriction factor that is specifically targeted by SV40 LT.

  5. Ecological Genetics and Host Range Expansion by Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, Y; Conlong, D E; Van Den Berg, J; Martin, L A

    2015-08-01

    The host plant range of pests can have important consequences for its evolution, and plays a critical role in the emergence and spread of a new pest outbreak. This study addresses the ecological genetics of the indigenous African maize stem borer, Busseola fusca (Fuller) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), in an attempt to investigate the evolutionary forces that may be involved in the recent host range expansion and establishment of this species in Ethiopian and southern African sugarcane. We used populations from Ethiopia, Zimbabwe, and South Africa to examine whether the host range expansion patterns shared by the Ethiopian and the southern African populations of B. fusca have evolved independently. Base-pair differences in the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene were used to characterize haplotype diversity and phylogenetic relationships. There were seven haplotypes among the 30 sequenced individuals collected on four host plant species from 17 localities in the four countries. Of the seven COI haplotypes identified, the two major ones occurred in both sugarcane and maize. Genetic analyses revealed no detectable genetic differentiation between southern African B. fusca populations from maize and sugarcane (FST = 0.019; P = 0.24). However, there was strong evidence of variation in genetic composition between populations of the pest from different geographic regions (FST = 0.948; P maize in southern Africa are more likely to shift to sugarcane, suggesting that ecological opportunity is an important factor in host plant range expansion by a pest.

  6. Hybridization between two cestode species and its consequences for intermediate host range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrich Tina

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many parasites show an extraordinary degree of host specificity, even though a narrow range of host species reduces the likelihood of successful transmission. In this study, we evaluate the genetic basis of host specificity and transmission success of experimental F1 hybrids from two closely related tapeworm species (Schistocephalus solidus and S. pungitii, both highly specific to their respective vertebrate second intermediate hosts (three- and nine-spined sticklebacks, respectively. Methods We used an in vitro breeding system to hybridize Schistocephalus solidus and S. pungitii; hybridization rate was quantified using microsatellite markers. We measured several fitness relevant traits in pure lines of the parental parasite species as well as in their hybrids: hatching rates, infection rates in the copepod first host, and infection rates and growth in the two species of stickleback second hosts. Results We show that the parasites can hybridize in the in vitro system, although the proportion of self-fertilized offspring was higher in the heterospecific breeding pairs than in the control pure parental species. Hybrids have a lower hatching rate, but do not show any disadvantages in infection of copepods. In fish, hybrids were able to infect both stickleback species with equal frequency, whereas the pure lines were only able to infect their normal host species. Conclusions Although not yet documented in nature, our study shows that hybridization in Schistocephalus spp. is in principle possible and that, in respect to their expanded host range, the hybrids are fitter. Further studies are needed to find the reason for the maintenance of the species boundaries in wild populations.

  7. Oxatub[4]arene: a molecular "transformer" capable of hosting a wide range of organic cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Fei; Wang, Hao-Yi; Li, Dong-Hao; Yang, Liu-Pan; Jiang, Wei

    2016-04-28

    The molecular "transformer", oxatub[4]arene, was found to be able to host a wide range of organic cations. The strong binding ability is believed to originate from its four interconvertible and deep-cavity conformers. The binding behavior of such adaptable receptors may provide implications for molecular recognition in nature.

  8. Transformation of Rhizobia with Broad-Host-Range Plasmids by Using a Freeze-Thaw Method

    OpenAIRE

    Vincze, Eva; Bowra, Steve

    2006-01-01

    Several species of rhizobia were successfully transformed with broad-host-range plasmids of different replicons by using a modified freeze-thaw method. A generic binary vector (pPZP211) was maintained in Mesorhizobium loti without selection and stably inherited during nodulation. The method could extend the potential of rhizobia as a vehicle for plant transformation.

  9. Evolution of specialization: a phylogenetic study of host range in the red milkweed beetle (Tetraopes tetraophthalmus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmann, Sergio; Agrawal, Anurag A

    2011-06-01

    Specialization is common in most lineages of insect herbivores, one of the most diverse groups of organisms on earth. To address how and why specialization is maintained over evolutionary time, we hypothesized that plant defense and other ecological attributes of potential host plants would predict the performance of a specialist root-feeding herbivore (the red milkweed beetle, Tetraopes tetraophthalmus). Using a comparative phylogenetic and functional trait approach, we assessed the determinants of insect host range across 18 species of Asclepias. Larval survivorship decreased with increasing phylogenetic distance from the true host, Asclepias syriaca, suggesting that adaptation to plant traits drives specialization. Among several root traits measured, only cardenolides (toxic defense chemicals) correlated with larval survival, and cardenolides also explained the phylogenetic distance effect in phylogenetically controlled multiple regression analyses. Additionally, milkweed species having a known association with other Tetraopes beetles were better hosts than species lacking Tetraopes herbivores, and milkweeds with specific leaf area values (a trait related to leaf function and habitat affiliation) similar to those of A. syriaca were better hosts than species having divergent values. We thus conclude that phylogenetic distance is an integrated measure of phenotypic and ecological attributes of Asclepias species, especially defensive cardenolides, which can be used to explain specialization and constraints on host shifts over evolutionary time.

  10. Long-Range Nondestructive Testing System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for the development of a long range, multi-point non-destructive system for the detection of subsurface flaws in metallic and composite materials of...

  11. Broad host range plasmids can invade an unexpectedly diverse fraction of a soil bacterial community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klümper, Uli; Riber, Leise; Dechesne, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    range of IncP- and IncPromA-type broad host range plasmids from three proteobacterial donors to a soil bacterial community. We identified transfer to many different recipients belonging to 11 different bacterial phyla. The prevalence of transconjugants belonging to diverse Gram-positive Firmicutes...... bacteria and can, therefore, directly connect large proportions of the soil bacterial gene pool. This finding reinforces the evolutionary and medical significances of these plasmids....

  12. A T3 and T7 recombinant phage acquires efficient adsorption and a broader host range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiao-Yin Lin

    Full Text Available It is usually thought that bacteriophage T7 is female specific, while phage T3 can propagate on male and female Escherichia coli. We found that the growth patterns of phages T7M and T3 do not match the above characteristics, instead showing strain dependent male exclusion. Furthermore, a T3/7 hybrid phage exhibits a broader host range relative to that of T3, T7, as well as T7M, and is able to overcome the male exclusion. The T7M sequence closely resembles that of T3. T3/7 is essentially T3 based, but a DNA fragment containing part of the tail fiber gene 17 is replaced by the T7 sequence. T3 displays inferior adsorption to strains tested herein compared to T7. The T3 and T7 recombinant phage carries altered tail fibers and acquires better adsorption efficiency than T3. How phages T3 and T7 recombine was previously unclear. This study is the first to show that recombination can occur accurately within only 8 base-pair homology, where four-way junction structures are identified. Genomic recombination models based on endonuclease I cleavages at equivalent and nonequivalent sites followed by strand annealing are proposed. Retention of pseudo-palindromes can increase recombination frequency for reviving under stress.

  13. Differential Virus Host-Ranges of the Fuselloviridae of Hyperthermophilic Archaea: Implications for Evolution in Extreme Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Michael eCeballos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An emerging model for investigating virus-host interactions in hyperthermophilic Archaea is the Fusellovirus-Sulfolobus system. The host, Sulfolobus, is a hyperthermophilic acidophile endemic to sulfuric volcanic-driven hot springs worldwide. The Fuselloviruses, also known as Sulfolobus Spindle-shaped Viruses (SSVs, are lemon or spindle shaped double-stranded DNA viruses that are also found worldwide. Although a few studies have addressed the host-range for the type virus, SSV1, using common Sulfolobus strains, a comprehensive host-range study for SSV-Sulfolobus systems has not been performed. Herein, we examine six bona fide SSV strains (SSV1, SSV2, SSV3, SSVL1, SSVK1, SSVRH and their respective infection characteristics on multiple hosts from the family Sulfolobaceae. A halo assay was used to determine virus infectivity and host susceptibility. Different SSV strains have different host-ranges with SSV1 exhibiting the narrowest host-range and SSVRH exhibiting the broadest host range. There is no correlation between geographic separation of viruses and their hosts and their relative infectivity and susceptibility. In contrast to previous reports, SSVs can infect hosts beyond the genus Sulfolobus. Furthermore, the Fusellovirus-Sulfolobus system appears to exhibit host-advantage. This work provides a foundation for understanding Fusellovirus biology and virus-host co-evolution in extreme ecosystems, a rapidly emerging field of study.

  14. The Fleas (Siphonaptera) in Iran: Diversity, Host Range, and Medical Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki-Ravasan, Naseh; Solhjouy-Fard, Samaneh; Beaucournu, Jean-Claude; Laudisoit, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Background Flea-borne diseases have a wide distribution in the world. Studies on the identity, abundance, distribution and seasonality of the potential vectors of pathogenic agents (e.g. Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, and Rickettsia felis) are necessary tools for controlling and preventing such diseases outbreaks. The improvements of diagnostic tools are partly responsible for an easier detection of otherwise unnoticed agents in the ectoparasitic fauna and as such a good taxonomical knowledge of the potential vectors is crucial. The aims of this study were to make an exhaustive inventory of the literature on the fleas (Siphonaptera) and range of associated hosts in Iran, present their known distribution, and discuss their medical importance. Methodology/Principal Findings The data were obtained by an extensive literature review related to medically significant fleas in Iran published before 31st August 2016. The flea-host specificity was then determined using a family and subfamily-oriented criteria to further realize and quantify the shared and exclusive vertebrate hosts of fleas among Iran fleas. The locations sampled and reported in the literature were primarily from human habitation, livestock farms, poultry, and rodents’ burrows of the 31 provinces of the country. The flea fauna were dominated by seven families, namely the Ceratophyllidae, Leptopsyllidae, Pulicidae, Ctenophthalmidae, Coptopsyllidae, Ischnopsyllidae and Vermipsyllidae. The hosts associated with Iran fleas ranged from the small and large mammals to the birds. Pulicidae were associated with 73% (56/77) of identified host species. Flea-host association analysis indicates that rodents are the common hosts of 5 flea families but some sampling bias results in the reduced number of bird host sampled. Analyses of flea-host relationships at the subfamily level showed that most vertebrates hosted fleas belgonging to 3 subfamilies namely Xenopsyllinae (n = 43), Ctenophthalminae (n = 20) and

  15. Limits to the host range of the highly polyphagous tephritid fruit fly Anastrepha ludens in its natural habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birke, A; Acosta, E; Aluja, M

    2015-12-01

    Anastepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a highly polyphagous fruit fly that is able to develop in a wide range of hosts. Understanding the limits of this pest's host range could provide valuable information for pest management and plant breeding for pest resistance. Previous studies have shown that guavas (Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae) L.), are not attacked under natural conditions by A. ludens. To understand this phenomenon, guavas were exposed to natural infestation by A. ludens and to other fruit fly species that infest guavas in nature (Anastrepha striata Schiner, Anastepha fraterculus (Wiedemann), Anastepha obliqua (Macquart)). Once the susceptible phenological stage of guavas was determined, fruit infestation levels were compared between A. ludens and A. striata. Choice and non-choice tests were performed under field-cage conditions. Under field conditions, guavas were susceptible to A. striata and A. fraterculus attack all the way from when fruit was undeveloped to when fruit began to ripen. No infestation by A. ludens was recorded under natural conditions. Similar results were obtained when forced exposures were performed, indicating that unripe guavas were preferred by A. striata over ripe fruit, and that infestation rates were higher at early fruit maturity stages. Under forced oviposition conditions, A. ludens larvae were unable to develop in unripe guavas but did so in fully ripe fruit. However, A. ludens fitness parameters were dramatically affected, exhibiting reduced survival and reduced pupal weight compared to conspecifics that developed in a natural host, grapefruit. We confirm that P. guajava should not be treated as a natural host of this pestiferous species, and suggest that both behavioral aspects and the fact that larvae are unable to adequately develop in this fruit, indeed represent clear limits to A. ludens's broad host range.

  16. Studies on the Host Range of Xiphinema bakeri and Its Pathogenicity to Raspberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, F D

    1972-01-01

    Thirty-one kinds of plants representing 12 families were tested for host suitability to Xiphinema bakeri. Sixteen supported a significant population increase but only members of the Rosaceae and Solanaceae were severely damaged. Eight of the 12 weed species tested were good hosts; Mouse-ear chickweed allowed the greatest population increase of all plants tested. Populations of X. bakeri declined under selected members of the Cruciferae and Cucurbitaceae more than in fallow soil after 12 weeks. Numbers of X. bakeri as low as one per 5 cc of soil reduced root and top growth of raspberry 40-50%. Where 100 and 500 nematodes per 10.5 cm-diameter pot were used the mean weight of roots was reduced 54% and 77%, the tops 59% and 78% and the linear growth 48% and 78%, respectively. This is the first report of an ectoparasitic nematode pathogenic to raspberry.

  17. Testing Lorentz symmetry with Lunar Laser Ranging

    CERN Document Server

    Bourgoin, A; Bouquillon, S; Poncin-Lafitte, C Le; Francou, G; Angonin, M -C

    2016-01-01

    Lorentz symmetry violations can be parametrized by an effective field theory framework that contains both General Relativity (GR) and the Standard Model of particle physics called the Standard-Model Extension (SME). We present new constraints on pure gravity SME coefficients obtained by analyzing Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) observations. We use a new numerical lunar ephemeris computed in the SME framework and we perform a LLR data analysis using a set of 20721 normal points covering the period August 1969 to December 2013. We emphasize that linear combination of SME coefficients to which LLR data are sensitive are not the same as those fitted in previous post-fit residuals analysis using LLR observations and based on theoretical grounds. We found no evidence for Lorentz violation at the level of $10^{-8}$ for $\\bar{s}^{TX}$, $10^{-12}$ for $\\bar{s}^{XY}$ and $\\bar{s}^{XZ}$, $10^{-11}$ for $\\bar{s}^{XX}-\\bar{s}^{YY}$ and $\\bar{s}^{XX}+\\bar{s}^{YY}-2\\bar{s}^{ZZ}-0.045\\bar{s}^{YZ}$ and $10^{-9}$ for $\\bar{s}^{TY}+...

  18. Testing Lorentz Symmetry with Lunar Laser Ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgoin, A.; Hees, A.; Bouquillon, S.; Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.; Francou, G.; Angonin, M.-C.

    2016-12-01

    Lorentz symmetry violations can be parametrized by an effective field theory framework that contains both general relativity and the standard model of particle physics called the standard-model extension (SME). We present new constraints on pure gravity SME coefficients obtained by analyzing lunar laser ranging (LLR) observations. We use a new numerical lunar ephemeris computed in the SME framework and we perform a LLR data analysis using a set of 20 721 normal points covering the period of August, 1969 to December, 2013. We emphasize that linear combination of SME coefficients to which LLR data are sensitive and not the same as those fitted in previous postfit residuals analysis using LLR observations and based on theoretical grounds. We found no evidence for Lorentz violation at the level of 10-8 for s¯T X, 10-12 for s¯X Y and s¯X Z, 10-11 for s¯X X-s¯Y Y and s¯X X+s¯Y Y-2 s¯Z Z-4.5 s¯Y Z, and 10-9 for s¯T Y+0.43 s¯T Z. We improve previous constraints on SME coefficient by a factor up to 5 and 800 compared to postfit residuals analysis of respectively binary pulsars and LLR observations.

  19. Prediction of Steps in the Evolution of Variola Virus Host Range

    OpenAIRE

    Chad Smithson; Alex Purdy; Verster, Adrian J; Chris Upton

    2014-01-01

    Variola virus, the agent of smallpox, has a severely restricted host range (humans) but a devastatingly high mortality rate. Although smallpox has been eradicated by a World Health Organization vaccination program, knowledge of the evolutionary processes by which human super-pathogens such as variola virus arise is important. By analyzing the evolution of variola and other closely related poxviruses at the level of single nucleotide polymorphisms we detected a hotspot of genome variation with...

  20. Narrow-Host-Range Bacteriophages That Infect Rhizobium etli Associate with Distinct Genomic Types

    OpenAIRE

    Santamaría, Rosa Isela; Bustos, Patricia; Sepúlveda-Robles, Omar; Lozano, Luis; Rodríguez, César; Fernández, José Luis; Juárez, Soledad; Kameyama, Luis; Guarneros, Gabriel; Dávila, Guillermo; González, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we isolated and characterized 14 bacteriophages that infect Rhizobium etli. They were obtained from rhizosphere soil of bean plants from agricultural lands in Mexico using an enrichment method. The host range of these phages was narrow but variable within a collection of 48 R. etli strains. We obtained the complete genome sequence of nine phages. Four phages were resistant to several restriction enzymes and in vivo cloning, probably due to nucleotide modifications. The genome si...

  1. Eilat virus, a unique alphavirus with host range restricted to insects by RNA replication

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Most alphaviruses and many other arboviruses are mosquito-borne and exhibit a broad host range, infecting many different vertebrates including birds, rodents, equids, humans, and nonhuman primates. Consequently, they can be propagated in most vertebrate and insect cell cultures. This ability of arboviruses to infect arthropods and vertebrates is usually essential for their maintenance in nature. However, several flaviviruses have recently been described that infect mosquitoes but not vertebra...

  2. LysM domains mediate lipochitin-oligosaccharide recognition and Nfr genes extend the symbiotic host range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radutoiu, Simona; Madsen, Lene H; Madsen, Esben B

    2007-01-01

    Legume-Rhizobium symbiosis is an example of selective cell recognition controlled by host/non-host determinants. Individual bacterial strains have a distinct host range enabling nodulation of a limited set of legume species and vice versa. We show here that expression of Lotus japonicus Nfr1...

  3. Differentiation of polyvalent bacteriophages specific to uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis strains based on the host range pattern and RFLP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maszewska, Agnieszka; Wójcik, Ewelina; Ciurzyńska, Aneta; Wojtasik, Arkadiusz; Piątkowska, Iwona; Dastych, Jarosław; Różalski, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by P. mirabilis are difficult to cure because of the increasing antimicrobial resistance of these bacteria. Phage therapy is proposed as an alternative infection treatment. The aim of this study was to isolate and differentiate uropathogenic P. mirabilis strain specific polyvalent bacteriophages producing polysaccharide depolymerases (PDs). 51 specific phages were obtained. The plaques of 29 bacteriophages were surrounded by halos, which indicated that they produced PDs. The host range analysis showed that, except phages 58B and 58C, the phage host range profiles differed from each other. Phages 35 and 45 infected all P. mirabilis strains tested. Another 10 phages lysed more than 90% of isolates. Among these phages, 65A, 70, 66 and 66A caused a complete lysis of the bacterial lawn formed by 62% to 78% of strains. Additionally, phages 39A and 70 probably produced PDs. The phages' DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis demonstrated that genomes of 51 isolated phages represented 34 different restriction profiles. DNA of phage 58A seemed to be resistant to selected EcoRV endonuclease. The 33 RFLP-EcoRV profiles showed a Dice similarity index of 38.8%. 22 RFLP patterns were obtained from single phage isolates. The remaining 12 restriction profiles consisted of 2 to 4 viruses. The results obtained from phage characterization based on the pattern of phage host range in combination with the RFLP method enabled effective differentiation of the studied phages and selection of PD producing polyvalent phages for further study.

  4. M062 is a host range factor essential for myxoma virus pathogenesis and functions as an antagonist of host SAMD9 in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Wennier, Sonia; Zhang, Leiliang; McFadden, Grant

    2011-04-01

    Myxoma virus (MYXV) M062R is a functional homolog of the C7L family of host range genes from orthopoxviruses. We constructed a targeted M062R-knockout-MYXV (vMyxM062-KO) and characterized its properties in vitro and in vivo. In European rabbits, infection by vMyxM062-KO was completely asymptomatic. The surviving rabbits did not gain full protection against the subsequent lethal-dose challenge with wild-type MYXV. We also looked for cellular tropism defects in a variety of cultured cells. In all of the rabbit cells tested, vMyxM062-KO conducts an abortive infection, although it initiates viral DNA replication. In many, but not all, human cancer cells that are permissive for wild-type MYXV, vMyxM062-KO exhibited a profound replication defect. We categorized human cells tested into two groups: (i) type A, which support productive replication for wild-type MYXV but are unable to produce significant levels of progeny virus by vMyxM062-KO, and (ii) type B, which are permissive to infections by both wild-type MYXV and vMyxM062-KO. Furthermore, using proteomic strategies, we identified sterile α motif domain containing 9 (SAMD9), an interferon-regulated cellular protein implicated in human inflammatory disorders, as a unique host binding partner of M062 in human cells. Significantly, knocking down SAMD9 in type A human cancer cells led to a substantial rescue of vMyxM062-KO infection. In summary, M062 is a novel host range factor that controls productive MYXV replication in rabbit cells and in a wide variety of human cells. M062 also binds and antagonizes cellular SAMD9 in human cells, suggesting that SAMD9 is a novel innate antiviral factor against poxviruses.

  5. Detection and Host Range Study of Virus Associated with Pepper Yellow Leaf Curl Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI SULANDARI

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available High incidence of Pepper yellow leaf curl virus (PepYLCV was observed in Indonesia since early 2000. Disease incidence in Yogyakarta, Central and West Java reached 100% on Capsicum frutescens, but only 10-35% on C. annuum. As an exception, the disease incidence on C. annuum cv. TM 999 was in the range of 70-100%. The causal agent of the disease, PepYLCV, was detected by polymerase chain reaction. Viral specific DNA fragment of the size ~1600 bp and ~550 bp was amplified from infected plants using two pairs of geminivirus universal primers pAL1v1978/pAL1c715, and pAv494/pAc1048, respectively. The PepYLCV has an intermediate host range including plants belonging to the family of Solanaceae, Leguminosae, and Compositae. The species belonging to the families of Cucurbitaceae, Malvaceae, Chenopodiaceae, and Amaranthaceae were resistant to the virus. Physalis floridana, is very prospective as a propagation host for the geminivirus infecting pepper. Nicotiana spp., cucumber, watermelon, cotton, and Sida sp. could be used as a differential host. Besides, Capsicum frutescens cv. Cakra, tomato, N. benthamiana, N. glutinosa, and Ageratum conyzoides could be used as indicator plants for the geminivirus infecting pepper.

  6. Host-Range Dynamics of Cochliobolus lunatus: From a Biocontrol Agent to a Severe Environmental Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengyella Louis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We undertook an investigation to advance understanding of the host-range dynamics and biocontrol implications of Cochliobolus lunatus in the past decade. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L farms were routinely surveyed for brown-to-black leaf spot disease caused by C. lunatus. A biphasic gene data set was assembled and databases were mined for reported hosts of C. lunatus in the last decade. The placement of five virulent strains of C. lunatus causing foliar necrosis of potato was studied with microscopic and phylogenetic tools. Analysis of morphology showed intraspecific variations in stromatic tissues among the virulent strains causing foliar necrosis of potato. A maximum likelihood inference based on GPDH locus separated C. lunatus strains into subclusters and revealed the emergence of unclustered strains. The evolving nutritional requirement of C. lunatus in the last decade is exhibited by the invasion of vertebrates, invertebrates, dicots, and monocots. Our results contribute towards a better understanding of the host-range dynamics of C. lunatus and provide useful implications on the threat posed to the environment when C. lunatus is used as a mycoherbicide.

  7. Eilat virus, a unique alphavirus with host range restricted to insects by RNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasar, Farooq; Palacios, Gustavo; Gorchakov, Rodion V; Guzman, Hilda; Da Rosa, Amelia P Travassos; Savji, Nazir; Popov, Vsevolod L; Sherman, Michael B; Lipkin, W Ian; Tesh, Robert B; Weaver, Scott C

    2012-09-04

    Most alphaviruses and many other arboviruses are mosquito-borne and exhibit a broad host range, infecting many different vertebrates including birds, rodents, equids, humans, and nonhuman primates. Consequently, they can be propagated in most vertebrate and insect cell cultures. This ability of arboviruses to infect arthropods and vertebrates is usually essential for their maintenance in nature. However, several flaviviruses have recently been described that infect mosquitoes but not vertebrates, although the mechanism of their host restriction has not been determined. Here we describe a unique alphavirus, Eilat virus (EILV), isolated from a pool of Anopheles coustani mosquitoes from the Negev desert of Israel. Phylogenetic analyses placed EILV as a sister to the Western equine encephalitis antigenic complex within the main clade of mosquito-borne alphaviruses. Electron microscopy revealed that, like other alphaviruses, EILV virions were spherical, 70 nm in diameter, and budded from the plasma membrane of mosquito cells in culture. EILV readily infected a variety of insect cells with little overt cytopathic effect. However, in contrast to typical mosquito-borne alphaviruses, EILV could not infect mammalian or avian cell lines, and viral as well as RNA replication could not be detected at 37 °C or 28 °C. Evolutionarily, these findings suggest that EILV lost its ability to infect vertebrate cells. Thus, EILV seems to be mosquito-specific and represents a previously undescribed complex within the genus Alphavirus. Reverse genetic studies of EILV may facilitate the discovery of determinants of alphavirus host range that mediate disease emergence.

  8. Salmonella phages isolated from dairy farms in Thailand show wider host range than a comparable set of phages isolated from U.S. dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsuntornpoj, Sarach; Moreno Switt, Andrea I; Bergholz, Peter; Wiedmann, Martin; Chaturongakul, Soraya

    2014-08-01

    Salmonella is a zoonotic pathogen with globally distributed serovars as well as serovars predominantly found in certain regions; for example, serovar Weltevreden is rarely isolated in the U.S., but is common in Thailand. Relative to our understanding of Salmonella diversity, our understanding of the global diversity of Salmonella phages is limited. We hypothesized that the serovar diversity in a given environment and farming system will affect the Salmonella phage diversity associated with animal hosts. We thus isolated and characterized Salmonella phages from 15 small-scale dairy farms in Thailand and compared the host ranges of the 62 Salmonella phage isolates obtained with host range diversity for 129 phage isolates obtained from dairy farms in the U.S. The 62 phage isolates from Thailand represented genome sizes ranging from 40 to 200 kb and showed lysis of 6-25 of the 26 host strains tested (mean number of strain lysed=19). By comparison, phage isolates previously obtained in a survey of 15 U.S. dairy farms showed a narrow host range (lysis of 1-17; mean number of strains lysed=4); principal coordinate analysis also confirmed U.S. and Thai phages had distinct host lysis profiles. Our data indicate that dairy farms that differ in management practices and are located on different continents can yield phage isolates that differ in their host ranges, providing an avenue for isolation of phages with desirable host range characteristics for commercial applications. Farming systems characterized by coexistence of different animals may facilitate presence of Salmonella phages with wide host ranges.

  9. Myxoma virus M063R is a host range gene essential for virus replication in rabbit cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, John W; Shun Chang, Chew; Wang, Gen; Werden, Steven J; Shao, Zhuhong; Barrett, Catherine; Gao, Xiujuan; Belsito, Tara A; Villenevue, Danielle; McFadden, Grant

    2007-04-25

    The myxoma virus M063R gene product exhibits some sequence similarity to the poxvirus host range gene, C7L, of vaccinia virus. To address the potential host range function of the M063R gene product in rabbits, a deletion mutant of myxoma virus (vMyx63KO) was generated and characterized. vMyx63KO replicated to normal titre levels and produced foci that were indistinguishable from those produced by MV in vitro in a monkey kidney cell line (BGMK) that are permissive for wild type MV. However, vMyx63KO failed to replicate in all rabbit cell lines tested, including both primary and established cells lines, as well as cells derived from a variety of tissues. M063R expression was not required for myxoma virus binding, entry or early gene expression, whereas DNA replication was aborted and late genes were not expressed in vMyx63KO infected rabbit cells. Thus, the replication block for vMyx63KO in rabbit cells preceded the stage of late gene expression and DNA replication. Finally, an in vivo pathogenesis study indicated that vMyx63KO failed to cause any signs of classic myxomatosis in infected rabbits, but functioned as a non-replicating vaccine and provided protection for subsequent challenge by wild type myxoma virus. Altogether, these observations demonstrate that M063R plays a critical role in determining the host specificity of myxoma virus in rabbit cells.

  10. Tonopah test range - outpost of Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.

    1996-03-01

    Tonopah Test Range is a unique historic site. Established in 1957 by Sandia Corporation, Tonopah Test Range in Nevada provided an isolated place for the Atomic Energy Commission to test ballistics and non-nuclear features of atomic weapons. It served this and allied purposes well for nearly forty years, contributing immeasurably to a peaceful conclusion to the long arms race remembered as the Cold War. This report is a brief review of historical highlights at Tonopah Test Range. Sandia`s Los Lunas, Salton Sea, Kauai, and Edgewood testing ranges also receive abridged mention. Although Sandia`s test ranges are the subject, the central focus is on the people who managed and operated the range. Comments from historical figures are interspersed through the narrative to establish this perspective, and at the end a few observations concerning the range`s future are provided.

  11. Development of a gene silencing DNA vector derived from a broad host range geminivirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hancock Leandria C

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene silencing is proving to be a powerful tool for genetic, developmental, and physiological analyses. The use of viral induced gene silencing (VIGS offers advantages to transgenic approaches as it can be potentially applied to non-model systems for which transgenic techniques are not readily available. However, many VIGS vectors are derived from Gemini viruses that have limited host ranges. We present a new, unipartite vector that is derived from a curtovirus that has a broad host range and will be amenable to use in many non-model systems. Results The construction of a gene silencing vector derived from the geminivirus Beet curly top virus (BCTV, named pWSRi, is reported. Two versions of the vector have been developed to allow application by biolistic techniques or by agro-infiltration. We demonstrate its ability to silence nuclear genes including ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit (rbcS, transketolase, the sulfur allele of magnesium chelatase (ChlI, and two homeotic transcription factors in spinach or tomato by generating gene-specific knock-down phenotypes. Onset of phenotypes occurred 3 to 12 weeks post-inoculation, depending on the target gene, in organs that developed after the application. The vector lacks movement genes and we found no evidence for significant spread from the site of inoculation. However, viral amplification in inoculated tissue was detected and is necessary for systemic silencing, suggesting that signals generated from active viral replicons are efficiently transported within the plant. Conclusion The unique properties of the pWSRi vector, the ability to silence genes in meristem tissue, the separation of virus and silencing phenotypes, and the broad natural host range of BCTV, suggest that it will have wide utility.

  12. Host range of enterococcal vanA plasmids among Gram-positive intestinal bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Guido; Freitas, Ana R.; Coque, Teresa M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The most prevalent type of acquired glycopeptide resistance is encoded by the vanA transposon Tn1546 located mainly on transferable plasmids in Enterococcus faecium. The limited occurrence in other species could be due to the lack of inter-species transferability and/or stability of Tn......-genus matings were performed and evaluated. In summary, intra-species transfer was far more frequent than inter-species transfer, if that was detectable at all. All recipients of the same species behaved similarly. Inter-genus transfer was shown for broad host range control plasmids (pIP501/pAMβ1) only...

  13. A Single Residue in Ebola Virus Receptor NPC1 Influences Cellular Host Range in Reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndungo, Esther; Herbert, Andrew S; Raaben, Matthijs; Obernosterer, Gregor; Biswas, Rohan; Miller, Emily Happy; Wirchnianski, Ariel S; Carette, Jan E; Brummelkamp, Thijn R; Whelan, Sean P; Dye, John M; Chandran, Kartik

    2016-01-01

    Filoviruses are the causative agents of an increasing number of disease outbreaks in human populations, including the current unprecedented Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in western Africa. One obstacle to controlling these epidemics is our poor understanding of the host range of filoviruses and their natural reservoirs. Here, we investigated the role of the intracellular filovirus receptor, Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) as a molecular determinant of Ebola virus (EBOV) host range at the cellular level. Whereas human cells can be infected by EBOV, a cell line derived from a Russell's viper (Daboia russellii) (VH-2) is resistant to infection in an NPC1-dependent manner. We found that VH-2 cells are resistant to EBOV infection because the Russell's viper NPC1 ortholog bound poorly to the EBOV spike glycoprotein (GP). Analysis of panels of viper-human NPC1 chimeras and point mutants allowed us to identify a single amino acid residue in NPC1, at position 503, that bidirectionally influenced both its binding to EBOV GP and its viral receptor activity in cells. Significantly, this single residue change perturbed neither NPC1's endosomal localization nor its housekeeping role in cellular cholesterol trafficking. Together with other recent work, these findings identify sequences in NPC1 that are important for viral receptor activity by virtue of their direct interaction with EBOV GP and suggest that they may influence filovirus host range in nature. Broader surveys of NPC1 orthologs from vertebrates may delineate additional sequence polymorphisms in this gene that control susceptibility to filovirus infection. IMPORTANCE Identifying cellular factors that determine susceptibility to infection can help us understand how Ebola virus is transmitted. We asked if the EBOV receptor Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) could explain why reptiles are resistant to EBOV infection. We demonstrate that cells derived from the Russell's viper are not susceptible to infection because EBOV cannot bind to

  14. Adaptive gene amplification as an intermediate step in the expansion of virus host range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Brennan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The majority of recently emerging infectious diseases in humans is due to cross-species pathogen transmissions from animals. To establish a productive infection in new host species, viruses must overcome barriers to replication mediated by diverse and rapidly evolving host restriction factors such as protein kinase R (PKR. Many viral antagonists of these restriction factors are species specific. For example, the rhesus cytomegalovirus PKR antagonist, RhTRS1, inhibits PKR in some African green monkey (AGM cells, but does not inhibit human or rhesus macaque PKR. To model the evolutionary changes necessary for cross-species transmission, we generated a recombinant vaccinia virus that expresses RhTRS1 in a strain that lacks PKR inhibitors E3L and K3L (VVΔEΔK+RhTRS1. Serially passaging VVΔEΔK+RhTRS1 in minimally-permissive AGM cells increased viral replication 10- to 100-fold. Notably, adaptation in these AGM cells also improved virus replication 1000- to 10,000-fold in human and rhesus cells. Genetic analyses including deep sequencing revealed amplification of the rhtrs1 locus in the adapted viruses. Supplying additional rhtrs1 in trans confirmed that amplification alone was sufficient to improve VVΔEΔK+RhTRS1 replication. Viruses with amplified rhtrs1 completely blocked AGM PKR, but only partially blocked human PKR, consistent with the replication properties of these viruses in AGM and human cells. Finally, in contrast to AGM-adapted viruses, which could be serially propagated in human cells, VVΔEΔK+RhTRS1 yielded no progeny virus after only three passages in human cells. Thus, rhtrs1 amplification in a minimally permissive intermediate host was a necessary step, enabling expansion of the virus range to previously nonpermissive hosts. These data support the hypothesis that amplification of a weak viral antagonist may be a general evolutionary mechanism to permit replication in otherwise resistant host species, providing a molecular foothold

  15. Broad-Host-Range IncP-1 plasmids and their resistance potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena ePopowska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The plasmids of the incompatibility group IncP-1, also called IncP, as extrachromosomal genetic elements can transfer and replicate virtually in all Gram-negative bacteria. They are composed of backbone genes that encode a variety of essential functions and accessory genes that have implications for human health and environmental bioremediation. Broad-host-range IncP plasmids are known to spread genes between distinct phylogenetic groups of bacteria. These genes often code for resistances to a broad spectrum of antibiotics, heavy metals and quaternary ammonium compounds used as disinfectants. The backbone of these plasmids carries modules that enable them to effectively replicate, move to a new host via conjugative transfer and to be stably maintained in bacterial cells. The adaptive, resistance and virulence genes are mainly located on mobile genetic elements integrated between the functional plasmid backbone modules. Environmental studies have demonstrated the wide distribution of IncP-like replicons in manure, soils and wastewater treatment plants. They also are present in strains of pathogenic or opportunistic bacteria, which can be a cause for concern, because they may encode multiresistance. Their broad distribution suggests that IncP plasmids play a crucial role in bacterial adaptation by utilizing horizontal gene transfer. This review summarizes the variety of genetic information and physiological functions carried by IncP plasmids, which can contribute to the spread of antibiotic and heavy metal resistance while also mediating the process of bioremediation of pollutants. Due to the location of the resistance genes on plasmids with a broad host range and the presence of transposons carrying these genes it seems that the spread of these genes would be possible and quite hazardous in infection control. Future studies are required to determine the level of risk of the spread of resistance genes located on these plasmids.

  16. Genetic mutations of avian leukosis virus subgroup J strains extended their host range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yanwei; Cai, Liming; Wang, Yanming; Wei, Rongrong; He, Menglian; Wang, Shanhui; Wang, Guihua; Cheng, Ziqiang

    2014-03-01

    The genetic diversity of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is determined not only by the env gene, but also by its 3' UTR and 3' LTR. They all play important roles in extending the host range and tumour development. In the present study, one ALV-J strain (ZB110604-6) from Black-Bone Silky Fowl (BSF) and three ALV-J strains (ZB110604-3/4/5) from grey partridge (GP), which bore multiple tumours and breed in one house of Farm A, were demonstrated extending their host to GP, while two other ALV-J strains (LC110515-3/4) from BSF of Farm B could not infect the embryo fibroblast of GP. The BSF is a unique species of chicken in China, while the GP is a close relative of the pheasant that previously demonstrated resistance to ALV-J. Histopathology showed that various tumours were induced by ALV-J in the two species. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the isolates from Farms A and B, rather than species, belong to two different clusters of ALV-J. Genetic mutations analysis revealed that the isolates obtained from Farm A showed a higher frequency of mutation in the hypervariable region 2 domain than in other variable regions of the gp85 gene. From the nucleotide alignment of the 3' UTR and 3' LTR gene, and the spectrum of tumours observed in this study, we speculate that the deletions or mutations in the redundant transmembrane region, E element and U3 (CAAT boxes, CArG box and Y box) might associate with tumour formation and development. The extension of the host range of ALV-J to the GP suggested that housing different species together provides more opportunities for ALV-J to evolve rapidly.

  17. Tonopah Test Range Post-Closure Inspection Annual Report, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Calendar Year 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. B. Jackson

    2003-08-01

    This Post-Closure Inspection Annual Report provides documentation of the semiannual inspections conducted at the following Corrective Action Units (CAU)s: CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill; CAU 404: Roller Coaster Lagoons and Trench; CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area; CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes; CAU 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches; CAU 427: Septic Waste Systems 2, 6; and CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill, all located at the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. Post-closure inspections are not required at CAU 400 but are conducted to monitor vegetation and fencing at the site. Site inspections were conducted in May and November 2002. All site inspections were made after Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) approval of the appropriate Closure Report (CR), excluding CAU 400 which did not require a CR, and were conducted in accordance with the Post-Closure Inspection Plans in the NDEP-approved CRs. Post-closure inspections conducted during 2002 identified several areas requiring maintenance/repairs. Maintenance work and proposed additional monitoring are included in the appropriate section for each CAU. This report includes copies of the Post-Closure Inspection Plans, Post-Closure Inspection Checklists, copies of the field notes, photographs, and the Post-Closure Vegetative Monitoring Report. The Post-Closure Inspection Plan for each CAU is located in Attachment A. Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are in Attachment B. Copies of the field notes from each inspection are included in Attachment C. Attachment D consists of the photographic logs and photographs of the sites. The post-closure vegetative monitoring report for calendar year 2002 is included in Attachment E.

  18. Trypanosoma rangeli uptakes the main lipoprotein from the hemolymph of its invertebrate host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folly, Evelize; Cunha e Silva, Narcisa L; Lopes, Angela H C S; Silva-Neto, Mário A C; Atella, Georgia C

    2003-10-17

    During its life cycle Trypanosoma rangeli crosses the hemolymph of its invertebrate host. In the present study, we demonstrate for the first time the uptake of lipophorin (Lp), the main lipid-transporting particle of insect hemolymph. We observed that living T. rangeli parasites uptake lipids from both 32P- and 3H-, or 125I-labeled Lp. However, the parasites do not uptake any other hemolymphatic protein such as 32P-labeled vitellogenin. The presence of a specific receptor to Lp in the parasite surface is suggested based on experiments using 125I-Lp. We also investigated the intracellular fate of lipids using Texas Red-labeled phosphatidylethanolamine-Lp. Parasites were observed under confocal microscope and displayed fluorescent-labeled lipids close to the flagellar pocket and in vesicles at the posterior region. In conclusion, this study raises a novel set of molecular events which takes place during vector-parasite interaction.

  19. Prevalence, Distribution, and Host Range of Peste des petits ruminants virus, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkul, Aykut; Akca, Yilmaz; Alkan, Feray; Barrett, Thomas; Karaoglu, Taner; Dagalp, Seval Bilge; Anderson, John; Yesilbag, Kadir; Cokcaliskan, Can; Gencay, Ayse; Burgu, Ibrahim

    2002-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV, genus Morbillivirus), which causes a severe disease in sheep and goats, has only recently been officially declared to be present in Turkey. We carried out a study to determine the prevalence, distribution, and host range of PPRV in Turkey. A total of 1,607 animals, reared in 18 different locations, were monitored for the presence of antibodies to PPRV and the related virus of large ruminants, Rinderpest virus (RPV). Only two farms had animals that were free of antibody responses to either disease. Prevalence for PPRV infection varied (range 0.87%–82.6%) and was higher in sheep (29.2%) than in goats (20%). The overall antibody responses to PPRV and RPV were 22.4% and 6.28%, respectively. Two PPRVs of lineage 4, which comprises many other PPRVs whose origins are in the Middle East, the Arabian Peninsula, and southern Asia, were isolated from Turkish sheep. PMID:12095439

  20. Genetic diversity, host range, and distribution of tomato yellow leaf curl virus in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, M; Mozafari, J; Rakhshandehroo, F; Shams-Bakhsh, M

    2014-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is considered one of the most important tomato pathogens in tropical and subtropical regions including Iran. During the years 2007 to 2009, a total number of 510 symptomatic and asymptomatic vegetable, ornamental and weed samples were collected from fields and greenhouses in ten provinces of Iran. Symptoms included stunting, yellowing, leaf curl and flower senescence. PCR with specific primers showed TYLCV infection in 184 samples (36%) such as cucumber, pepper, tomato and several weeds from seven provinces. Based on the geographical origin, host range and symptoms, twenty three representative isolates were selected for phylogenetic analysis. An amplicon with a size about 608 base pair (bp) comprising partial sequence of the coat (CP) and movement protein (MP) coding regions of the viral genome was sequenced and compared with the corresponding selected sequences available in GenBank for Iran and worldwide. Phylogenetic analyses on the basis of the nucleotide sequences indicated two geographically separated clades. Isolates collected from Hormozgan, Khuzestan and Kerman provinces were grouped together with other Iranian isolates including TYLCV-Ir2, TYLCV-Kahnooj, and an isolate from Oman. It was also revealed that isolates collected from Boushehr, Fars, Tehran, and Isfahan placed close to the Iranian isolate TYLCV-Abadeh and isolates from Israel and Egypt. No correlation was found between the genetic variation and the host species, but selected Iranian isolates were grouped on the basis of the geographical origins. Results of this study indicated a high genetic diversity among Iranian TYLCV isolates.

  1. 33 CFR 159.119 - Operability test; temperature range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operability test; temperature range. 159.119 Section 159.119 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Operability test; temperature range. The device must operate in an ambient temperature of 5 °C with...

  2. Host range characteristics of the primate coccidian, Isospora arctopitheci Rodhain 1933 (Protozoa: Eimeriidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, L D

    1977-02-01

    Studies were conducted on 35 primates, 12 carnivores, and 2 marsupials to determine their susceptibility to the primate coccidian, Isospora arctopitheci. Patent oocyst infections resulted in 12 of the 14 species of animals investigated. These included 6 genera of New World primates native to Panama: Saguinus geoffroyi, Aotus trivirgatus, Ateles fusciceps, Cebus capucinus, Alouatta villosa, and Saimiri sciureus. In addition 4 families of carnivores (2 domestic and 2 sylvatic) and 1 species of marsupial became infected following experimental exposure. These animals are represented respectively by the following 6 genera and species: Canis familiaris; Felis catus; Nasua nasua, and Potos flavus; Eiria barbara; and Didelphis marsupialis. Four Old World rhesus monkeys, Macaca mulatta, and 1 carnivore, Bassaricyon gabbii, did not become oocyst positive. This unusually large host range makes this isosporan unique among the coccidia that have been investigated to date.

  3. In vitro and in vivo host range of Anopheles gambiae densovirus (AgDNV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yasutsugu; Barik, Tapan K; Johnson, Rebecca M; Rasgon, Jason L

    2015-07-29

    AgDNV is a powerful gene transduction tool and potential biological control agent for Anopheles mosquitoes. Using a GFP reporter virus system, we investigated AgDNV host range specificity in four arthropod cell lines (derived from An. gambiae, Aedes albopictus and Drosophila melanogaster) and six mosquito species from 3 genera (An. gambiae, An. arabiensis, An. stephensi, Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegypti and Culex tarsalis). In vitro, efficient viral invasion, replication and GFP expression was only observed in MOS55 An. gambiae cells. In vivo, high levels of GFP were observed in An. gambiae mosquitoes. Intermediate levels of GFP were observed in the closely related species An. arabiensis. Low levels of GFP were observed in An. stephensi, Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegypti and Cx. tarsalis. These results suggest that AgDNV is a specific gene transduction tool for members of the An. gambiae species complex, and could be potentially developed into a biocontrol agent with minimal off-target effects.

  4. Characterization of Campylobacter phages including analysis of host range by selected Campylobacter Penner serotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vinni; Rosenquist, Hanne; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    2007-01-01

    Background: The predominant food borne pathogen in the western world today is Campylobacter. Campylobacter specific bacteriophages (phages) have been proposed as an alternative agent for reducing the burden of Campylobacter in broilers. One concern in relation to phage biocontrol is the narrow host...... range often displayed by phages. To identify the potential of phages as a Campylobacter reducing agent we needed to determine their infectivity on a panel of isolates representing the Campylobacter strains found in broilers as well as humans. Results: In this study, Campylobacter phages were isolated...... from the intestines of broilers and ducks and from abattoir sewage. Twelve phages were investigated to determine their ability to infect the Campylobacter Penner serotypes commonly present in Danish poultry and patients with campylobacteriosis. A total of 89% of the Campylobacter jejuni strains and 14...

  5. Host range, growth property, and virulence of the smallpox vaccine: vaccinia virus Tian Tan strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Qing; Yang, Lin; Zhu, Weijun; Liu, Li; Wang, Haibo; Yu, Wenbo; Xiao, Genfu; Tien, Po; Zhang, Linqi; Chen, Zhiwei

    2005-05-10

    Vaccinia Tian Tan (VTT) was used as a vaccine against smallpox in China for millions of people before 1980, yet the biological characteristics of the virus remain unclear. We have characterized VTT with respect to its host cell range, growth properties in vitro, and virulence in vivo. We found that 11 of the 12 mammalian cell lines studied are permissive to VTT infection whereas one, CHO-K1, is non-permissive. Using electron microscopy and sequence analysis, we found that the restriction of VTT replication in CHO-K1 is at a step before viral maturation probably due to the loss of the V025 gene. Moreover, VTT is significantly less virulent than vaccinia WR but remains neurovirulent in mice and causes significant body weight loss after intranasal inoculation. Our data demonstrate the need for further attenuation of VTT to serve either as a safer smallpox vaccine or as a live vaccine vector for other pathogens.

  6. MAVS-dependent host species range and pathogenicity of human hepatitis A virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai-Yuki, Asuka; Hensley, Lucinda; McGivern, David R; González-López, Olga; Das, Anshuman; Feng, Hui; Sun, Lu; Wilson, Justin E; Hu, Fengyu; Feng, Zongdi; Lovell, William; Misumi, Ichiro; Ting, Jenny P-Y; Montgomery, Stephanie; Cullen, John; Whitmire, Jason K; Lemon, Stanley M

    2016-09-30

    Hepatotropic viruses are important causes of human disease, but the intrahepatic immune response to hepatitis viruses is poorly understood because of a lack of tractable small- animal models. We describe a murine model of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection that recapitulates critical features of type A hepatitis in humans. We demonstrate that the capacity of HAV to evade MAVS-mediated type I interferon responses defines its host species range. HAV-induced liver injury was associated with interferon-independent intrinsic hepatocellular apoptosis and hepatic inflammation that unexpectedly resulted from MAVS and IRF3/7 signaling. This murine model thus reveals a previously undefined link between innate immune responses to virus infection and acute liver injury, providing a new paradigm for viral pathogenesis in the liver. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Versatile broad-host-range cosmids for construction of high quality metagenomic libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jiujun; Pinnell, Lee; Engel, Katja; Neufeld, Josh D; Charles, Trevor C

    2014-04-01

    We constructed IncP broad-host-range Gateway® entry cosmids pJC8 and pJC24, which replicate in diverse Proteobacteria. We demonstrate the functionality of these vectors by extracting, purifying, and size-selecting metagenomic DNA from agricultural corn and wheat soils, followed by cloning into pJC8. Metagenomic DNA libraries of 8×10(4) (corn soil) and 9×10(6) (wheat soil) clones were generated for functional screening. The DNA cloned in these libraries can be transferred from these recombinant cosmids to Gateway® destination vectors for specialized screening purposes. Those library clones are available from the Canadian MetaMicroBiome Library project (http://www.cm2bl.org/).

  8. Test method on infrared system range based on space compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhen-xing; Shi, Sheng-bing; Han, Fu-li

    2016-09-01

    Infrared thermal imaging system generates image based on infrared radiation difference between object and background and is a passive work mode. Range is important performance and necessary appraised test item in appraisal test for infrared system. In this paper, aim is carrying out infrared system range test in laboratory , simulated test ground is designed based on object equivalent, background analog, object characteristic control, air attenuation characteristic, infrared jamming analog and so on, repeatable and controllable tests are finished, problem of traditional field test method is solved.

  9. Global displacement of canine parvovirus by a host-adapted variant: structural comparison between pandemic viruses with distinct host ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organtini, Lindsey J; Allison, Andrew B; Lukk, Tiit; Parrish, Colin R; Hafenstein, Susan

    2015-02-01

    Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) emerged in 1978 and spread worldwide within 2 years. Subsequently, CPV-2 was completely replaced by the variant CPV-2a, which is characterized by four specific capsid (VP2) mutations. The X-ray crystal structure of the CPV-2a capsid shows that each mutation confers small local changes. The loss of a hydrogen bond and introduction of a glycine residue likely introduce flexibility to sites that control interactions with the host receptor, antibodies, and sialic acids.

  10. Testing GxG interactions between coinfecting microbial parasite genotypes within hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca D Schulte

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Host-parasite interactions represent one of the strongest selection pressures in nature. They are often governed by genotype-specific (GxG interactions resulting in host genotypes that differ in resistance and parasite genotypes that differ in virulence depending on the antagonist’s genotype. Another type of GxG interactions, which is often neglected but which certainly influences host-parasite interactions, are those between coinfecting parasite genotypes. Mechanistically, within-host parasite interactions may range from competition for limited host resources to cooperation for more efficient host exploitation. The exact type of interaction, i.e. whether competitive or cooperative, is known to affect life-history traits such as virulence. However, the latter has been shown for chosen genotype combinations only, not considering whether the specific genotype combination per se may influence the interaction (i.e. GxG interactions. Here, we want to test for the presence of GxG interactions between coinfections of the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis infecting the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans by combining two non-pathogenic and five pathogenic strains in all possible ways. Furthermore, we evaluate whether the type of interaction, reflected by the direction of virulence change of multiple compared to single infections, is genotype-specific. Generally, we found no indication for GxG interactions between non-pathogenic and pathogenic bacterial strains, indicating that virulence of pathogenic strains is equally affected by both non-pathogenic strains. Specific genotype combinations, however, differ in the strength of virulence change, indicating that the interaction type between coinfecting parasite strains and thus the virulence mechanism is specific for different genotype combinations. Such interactions are expected to influence host-parasite interactions and to have strong implications for coevolution.

  11. Seasonal alterations in host range and fidelity in the polyphagous mirid bug, Apolygus lucorum (Heteroptera: Miridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongsheng Pan

    Full Text Available In herbivorous insects, host plant switching is commonly observed and plays an important role in their annual life cycle. However, much remains to be learned about seasonal host switching of various pestiferous arthropods under natural conditions. From 2006 until 2012, we assessed Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür host plant use in successive spring, summer and winter seasons at one single location (Langfang, China. Data were used to quantify changes in host plant breadth and host fidelity between seasons. Host fidelity of A. lucorum differed between seasons, with 87.9% of spring hosts also used in the summer and 36.1% of summer hosts used in winter. In contrast, as little as 25.6% host plant species were shared between winter and spring. Annual herbaceous plants are most often used for overwintering, while perennial woody plants are relatively important for initial population build-up in the spring. Our study contributes to an improved understanding of evolutionary interactions between A. lucorum and its host plants and lays the groundwork for the design of population management strategies for this important pest in myriad crops.

  12. Tonopah Test Range Summary of Corrective Action Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald B. Jackson

    2007-05-01

    Corrective Action Sites (CASs) and Corrective Action Units (CAUs) at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) may be placed into three categories: Clean Closure/No Further Action, Closure in Place, or Closure in Progress.

  13. Testing local host adaptation and phenotypic plasticity in a herbivore when alternative related host plants occur sympatrically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Montoya, Lorena; Núñez-Farfán, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Host race formation in phytophagous insects can be an early stage of adaptive speciation. However, the evolution of phenotypic plasticity in host use is another possible outcome. Using a reciprocal transplant experiment we tested the hypothesis of local adaptation in the aphid Brevicoryne brassicae. Aphid genotypes derived from two sympatric host plants, Brassica oleracea and B. campestris, were assessed in order to measure the extent of phenotypic plasticity in morphological and life history traits in relation to the host plants. We obtained an index of phenotypic plasticity for each genotype. Morphological variation of aphids was summarized by principal components analysis. Significant effects of recipient host on morphological variation and life history traits (establishment, age at first reproduction, number of nymphs, and intrinsic growth rate) were detected. We did not detected genotype × host plant interaction; in general the genotypes developed better on B. campestris, independent of the host plant species from which they were collected. Therefore, there was no evidence to suggest local adaptation. Regarding plasticity, significant differences among genotypes in the index of plasticity were detected. Furthermore, significant selection on PC1 (general aphid body size) on B. campestris, and on PC1 and PC2 (body length relative to body size) on B. oleracea was detected. The elevation of the reaction norm of PC1 and the slope of the reaction norm for PC2 (i.e., plasticity) were under directional selection. Thus, host plant species constitute distinct selective environments for B. brassicae. Aphid genotypes expressed different phenotypes in response to the host plant with low or nil fitness costs. Phenotypic plasticity and gene flow limits natural selection for host specialization promoting the maintenance of genetic variation in host exploitation.

  14. Modulation of pPS10 Host Range by Plasmid-Encoded RepA Initiator Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestro, Beatriz; Sanz, Jesús M.; Díaz-Orejas, Ramón; Fernández-Tresguerres, Elena

    2003-01-01

    We report here the isolation and analysis of novel repA host range mutants of pPS10, a plasmid originally found in Pseudomonas savastanoi. Upon hydroxylamine treatment, five plasmid mutants were selected for their establishment in Escherichia coli at 37°C, a temperature at which the wild-type form cannot be established. The mutations were located in different functional regions of the plasmid RepA initiation protein, and the mutants differ in their stable maintenance, copy number, and ability to interact with sequences of the basic replicon. Four of them have broadened their host range, and one of them, unable to replicate in Pseudomonas, has therefore changed its host range. Moreover, the mutants also have increased their replication efficiency in strains other than E. coli such as Pseudomonas putida and Alcaligenes faecalis. None of these mutations drastically changed the structure or thermal stability of the wild-type RepA protein, but in all cases an enhanced interaction with host-encoded DnaA protein was detected by gel filtration chromatography. The effects of the mutations on the functionality of RepA protein are discussed in the framework of a three-dimensional model of the protein. We propose possible explanations for the host range effect of the different repA mutants, including the enhancement of limiting interactions of RepA with specific host replication factors such as DnaA. PMID:12562807

  15. Broad-Host Range Vector-Particle: Gene Transfer Particles From Thermal Vents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiura, H. X.; Nakamura, K.; Fukazawa, Y.; Nakata, D.; Tomaru, A.; Okita, N.; Hoaki, T.

    2002-12-01

    Viruses or virus-like particles (VLPs) are common in aquatic ecosystems, however, VLP-host interactions and its commitments to gene transfer in the environment is yet unclear. We have proposed that at least some of the widely distributed VLPs could be general gene transfer agents among a wide range of microbial host cells, and might function as a universal vector (1-4). To elucidate such a broad host range gene transfer mediated by "VLP", the sampling site was extended to the hyper hydrothermal vent, and boring cores. VLP (v) and cell (b) abundances per ml water samples from drilling holes of Suiyo seamount were: APSK04 (28°34.303'N, 140°38.618'E, 1385 m deep, 21°C, b = 8.26 *E^{6}, v = 6.03 x 10^{6}); APSK07 (28°34.299'N, 140°38.690'E, 1386 m deep, 250.5°C, b = 5.33 \\times 104, v = 2.52 \\times 104); a natural vent near APSK05 (28°34.322'N, 140°38.594'E, 1382 m deep, 304.7°C, b = 3.23 x 10^{4}, v = 1.85 x 10^{4}). A boring core sample was obtained from APSK06 (28°34.313'N, 140°38.617', 1386 m deep), from which a hyper thermophilic Archaean, Thermococcus kodakaraensis was successfully cultivated in sulphur supplemented medium between 70 and 90°C. VLP production was observed from T. kodakaraensis, whose VLP (v) and cell (b) abundances per ml at 480 h culture at 70°C were: b = 3.61 *E^{9}, v = 3.46 *E^{9}. Transduction experiment at multiplicity of infection of ca 0.2 using particles from APSK07 and T. kodakaraensis showed a plate efficiency on recipient Escherichia coli AB1157 by ca 72 % and ca 89 % regardless of UV treatment of the particle. Gene transfer frequency of APSK07 particle was (x 10^{-5} cfu/particle) between 2.4 and 0.92, and that of T. kodakaraensis particle was between x 10^{-4} and x 10^{-5}$ cfu/particle. These findings suggest the non-specific gene transfer by such particles may be a ubiquitous event in the natural environment. Such gene transfer particles may have mediated gene flux among phylogenetically diverse microbial

  16. The avian and mammalian host range of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Bryan S; Webby, Richard J

    2013-12-05

    Highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses have been isolated from a number of avian and mammalian species. Despite intensive control measures the number of human and animal cases continues to increase. A more complete understanding of susceptible species and of contributing environmental and molecular factors is crucial if we are to slow the rate of new cases. H5N1 is currently endemic in domestic poultry in only a handful of countries with sporadic and unpredictable spread to other countries. Close contact of terrestrial bird or mammalian species with infected poultry/waterfowl or their biological products is the major route for interspecies transmission. Intra-species transmission of H5N1 in mammals, including humans, has taken place on a limited scale though it remains to be seen if this will change; recent laboratory studies suggest that it is indeed possible. Here we review the avian and mammalian species that are naturally susceptible to H5N1 infection and the molecular factors associated with its expanded host range.

  17. Overview of the X-33 Extended Flight Test Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackall, D.; Sakahara, R.; Kremer, S.

    1998-01-01

    On July 1, 1996, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration signed a Cooperative Agreement No. NCC8-115 with Lockheed Martin Skunk Works to develop and flight test the X-33, a scaled version of a reusable launch vehicle. The development of an Extended Test Range, with range instrumentation providing continuous vehicle communications from Edwards Air Force Base Ca. to landing at Malmstrom Air Force Base Montana, was required to flight test the mach 15 vehicle over 950 nautical miles. The cooperative agreement approach makes Lockheed Martin Skunk Works responsible for the X-33 program. When additional Government help was required, Lockheed "subcontracted" to NASA Field Centers for certain work. It was through this mechanism that Dryden Flight Research Center became responsible for the Extended Test Range. The Extended Test Range Requirements come from two main sources: 1) Range Safety and 2) Lockheed Martin Skunk Works. The range safety requirements were the most challenging to define and meet. The X-33 represents a vehicle that launches like a rocket, reenters the atmosphere and lands autonomously like an aircraft. Historically, rockets have been launched over the oceans to allow failed rockets to be destroyed using explosive devices. Such approaches had to be reconsidered for the X-33 flying over land. Numerous range requirements come from Lockheed Martin Skunk Works for interface definitions with the vehicle communication subsystems and the primary ground operations center, defined the Operations Control Center. Another area of considerable interest was the reentry plasma shield that causes "blackout" of the radio frequency signals, such as the range safety commands. Significant work was spent to analyze and model the blackout problem using a cooperative team of experts from across the country. The paper describes the Extended Test Range a, an unique Government/industry team of personnel and range assets was established to resolve design issues and

  18. Testing local Lorentz invariance with short-range gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostelecký, V. Alan; Mewes, Matthew

    2017-03-01

    The Newton limit of gravity is studied in the presence of Lorentz-violating gravitational operators of arbitrary mass dimension. The linearized modified Einstein equations are obtained and the perturbative solutions are constructed and characterized. We develop a formalism for data analysis in laboratory experiments testing gravity at short range and demonstrate that these tests provide unique sensitivity to deviations from local Lorentz invariance.

  19. Testing local Lorentz invariance with short-range gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Kostelecky, Alan

    2016-01-01

    The Newton limit of gravity is studied in the presence of Lorentz-violating gravitational operators of arbitrary mass dimension. The linearized modified Einstein equations are obtained and the perturbative solutions are constructed and characterized. We develop a formalism for data analysis in laboratory experiments testing gravity at short range and demonstrate that these tests provide unique sensitivity to deviations from local Lorentz invariance.

  20. Novel chikungunya vaccine candidate with an IRES-based attenuation and host range alteration mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Plante

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a reemerging mosquito-borne pathogen that has recently caused devastating urban epidemics of severe and sometimes chronic arthralgia. As with most other mosquito-borne viral diseases, control relies on reducing mosquito populations and their contact with people, which has been ineffective in most locations. Therefore, vaccines remain the best strategy to prevent most vector-borne diseases. Ideally, vaccines for diseases of resource-limited countries should combine low cost and single dose efficacy, yet induce rapid and long-lived immunity with negligible risk of serious adverse reactions. To develop such a vaccine to protect against chikungunya fever, we employed a rational attenuation mechanism that also prevents the infection of mosquito vectors. The internal ribosome entry site (IRES from encephalomyocarditis virus replaced the subgenomic promoter in a cDNA CHIKV clone, thus altering the levels and host-specific mechanism of structural protein gene expression. Testing in both normal outbred and interferon response-defective mice indicated that the new vaccine candidate is highly attenuated, immunogenic and efficacious after a single dose. Furthermore, it is incapable of replicating in mosquito cells or infecting mosquitoes in vivo. This IRES-based attenuation platform technology may be useful for the predictable attenuation of any alphavirus.

  1. Testing the enemy release hypothesis in a native insect species with an expanding range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia J. Mlynarek

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The enemy release hypothesis (ERH predicts that the spread of (invasive species will be facilitated by release from their enemies as they occupy new areas. However, the ERH is rarely tested on native (non-invasive, long established species with expanding or shifting ranges. I tested the ERH for a native damselfly (Enallagma clausum whose range has recently expanded in western Canada, with respect to its water mite and gregarine parasites. Parasitism levels (prevalence and intensity were also compared between E. clausum and a closely related species, Enallagma boreale, which has long been established in the study region and whose range is not shifting. A total of 1,150 damselflies were collected at three ‘old’ sites for E. clausum in Saskatchewan, and three ‘new’ sites in Alberta. A little more than a quarter of the damselflies collected were parasitized with, on average, 18 water mite individuals, and 20% were parasitized by, on average, 10 gregarine individuals. I assessed whether the differences between levels of infection (prevalence and intensity were due to site type or host species. The ERH was not supported: Enallagma clausum has higher or the same levels of parasitism in new sites than old sites. However, E. boreale seems to be benefitting from the recent range expansion of a native, closely related species through ecological release from its parasites because the parasites may be choosing to infest the novel, potentially naïve, host instead of the well-established host.

  2. Bean yellow disorder virus: Parameters of transmission by Bemisia tabaci and host plant range

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    German Martín; Isabel Maria Cuadrado; Dirk Janssen

    2011-01-01

    Bean yellow disorder virus(BnYDV)was recently identified as the first crinivirus(family Closteroviridae)that infects members of the family Leguminosae.It was first observed during the autumn of 2003,causing heavy losses in French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)grown commercially in Spain.The virus is transmitted by the sweetpotato whitefly,Bemisia tabaci(Hemiptera:Aleyrodidae)Q-biotype,and disease symptoms resemble nutritional disorders consisting of interveinal mottling and yellowing in leaves,combined with stiffness or brittleness,and are typically produced on the middle to lower parts of the plant.Transmission experiments showed that 50% and 100% of B.tabaci adults acquired the virus after a feeding period of 3 and 7 h,respectively.Viruliferous whiteflies infected 66% and 100% of P.vulgaris plants after a feeding period of 12 and 24 h,respectively.The transmission efficiency of single whiteflies was 37% and persistence of BnYDV in the vector lasted up to 2 weeks with a half-life of 9 days.BnYDV was transmitted to P.vulgaris,Pisum sativum L.,Lens culinaris Medik.,and Vicia faba L.,but not to Vigna unguiculata L.,Glycine max(L.) Merr.,Cicer arietum L.,and to crop species belonging to families of the Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae.No virus was detected in field samples collected from 30 different species from Boraginaceae,Asteraceae,Geraniaceae,Lamiaceae,Leguminosae,Malvaceae,Scrophulariaceae,Thymelaeaceae and Verbenaceae.The restricted host range and efficient management of crops regarding whitefly infestation may be key elements in the control of BnYDV.

  3. Travelling between Two Worlds: Complement as a Gatekeeper for an Expanded Host Range of Lyme Disease Spirochetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kraiczy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Evading innate immunity is a prerequisite for pathogenic microorganisms in order to survive in their respective hosts. Concerning Lyme disease spirochetes belonging to the Borrelia (B. burgdorferi sensu lato group, a broad range of diverse vertebrates serve as reservoir or even as incidental hosts, including humans. The capability to infect multiple hosts implies that spirochetes have developed sophisticated means to counter the destructive effects of complement of humans and various animals. While the means by which spirochetes overcome the hosts immune defense are far from being completely understood, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that binding of the key regulator of the alternative pathway, Factor H, plays a pivotal role for immune evasion and that Factor H is an important determinant of host specificity. This review covers (i the contribution of complement in host-specificity and transmissibility of Lyme disease spirochetes; (ii the involvement of borrelial-derived determinants to host specificity; (iii the interplay of human and animal Factor H with complement-acquiring surface proteins of diverse borrelial species; and (iv the potential role of additional animal complement proteins in the immune evasion of spirochetes.

  4. nodSU, two new nod genes of the broad host range Rhizobium strain NGR234 encode host-specific nodulation of the tropical tree Leucaena leucocephala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, A; Cervantes, E; Chee-Hoong, W; Broughton, W J

    1990-01-01

    Rhizobium species strain NGR234 nodulates at least 35 diverse genera of legumes as well as the nonlegume Parasponia andersonii. Most nodulation genes are located on the 500-kilobase pair symbiotic plasmid, pNGR234a. Previously, three plasmid-borne host range determinants (HsnI, HsnII, and HsnIII) were identified by their ability to extend the nodulation capacity of heterologous rhizobia to include Vigna unguiculata. In this study, we show that HsnII contains two new nod-box linked hsn genes, nodS and nodU.nodS controls nodulation of the tropical tree Leucaena leucocephala, while the nodSU genes regulate nodulation of the pasture legume Desmodium intortum and the grain legume V. unguiculata. Regulation of the nod-box upstream of nodSU by the flavonoid naringenin was shown using a fusion with a promoterless lacZ gene. Determination of the nucleotide sequence of the nodS gene did not reveal homology with any gene in the EMBL library, although Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA110 contains both nodS and nodU (M. Göttfert, S. Hitz, and H. Hennecke, Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 3:308-316, 1990). We suggest that broad host range in NGR234 is controlled in part by a nodD gene which interacts with a wide range of flavonoids, and in part by host-specific nod genes such as nodS.

  5. Host Range of a Population of Pratylenchus vulnus in Commercial Fruit, Nut, Citrus, and Grape Rootstocks in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinochet, J; Verdejo, S; Soler, A; Canals, J

    1992-12-01

    In a host-range study carried out under greenhouse conditions, a total of 37 commercial fruit tree, grape, and citrus rootstocks were tested for their reaction to a population of the lesion nematode, Pratylenchus vulnus, in Spain. Twenty-five rootstocks had a Pf/Pi > 1.5. These included almond (Desmayo Rojo, 1143), apple (EM-9, EM-106), avocado (Hass), cherry (Santa Lucia 64, Camil, M x M 14, Masto de Montafiana), grape (41-B, Fercal, Ritcher 110), hazelnut (Pauetet), loquat (Nadal), peach (Montclar, GF-305), pear (OHF-333), pistachio (P. atlantica, P. vera, P. terebinthus), plum (San Julian 655-2, Montizo, Pixy, Myrobalan 605), and walnut (Serf). The peach rootstock Nemaguard and the grape 161-49 had Pf/Pi between 1.0 and 1.5 (slightly higher than inoculation level). All the tested citrus (Alemow, rough lemon, Carrizo citrange, sour orange, Troyer citrange, Citrumelo), plus three grape (SO4, Vitis rupestris, 1103-P), and the olive rootstock Arbequina had a Pf/Pi < 1.0.

  6. Host growth temperature and a conservative amino acid substitution in the replication protein of pPS10 influence plasmid host range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Tresguerres, M E; Martín, M; García de Viedma, D; Giraldo, R; Díaz-Orejas, R

    1995-01-01

    pPS10 is a replicon isolated from Pseudomonas syringe pv. savastanoi that can be established at 37 degrees C efficiently in Pseudomonas aeruginosa but very inefficiently in Escherichia coli. The establishment of the wild-type pPS10 replicon in E. coli is favored at low temperatures (30 degrees C or below). RepA protein of pPS10 promotes in vitro plasmid replication in extracts from E. coli, and this replication depends on host proteins DnaA, DnaB, DnaG, and SSB. Mutant plasmids able to efficiently replicate in E. coli at 37 degrees C were obtained. Three of four mutants whose mutations were mapped show a conservative Ala-->Val change in the amino-terminal region of the replication protein RepA. Plasmids carrying this mutation maintain the capacity to replicate in P. aeruginosa and have a fourfold increase in copy number in this host. The mutation does not substantially alter the autoregulation mediated by RepA. These results show that the physiological conditions of the host as well as subtle changes in the plasmid replication protein can modulate the host range of the pPS10 replicon. PMID:7635822

  7. Identification from diverse mammalian poxviruses of host-range regulatory genes functioning equivalently to vaccinia virus C7L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangzhi; Chao, Jie; Xiang, Yan

    2008-03-15

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) C7L is a host-range gene that regulates cellular tropism of VACV. Distantly related C7L homologues are encoded by nearly all mammalian poxviruses, but whether they are host-range genes functioning similar to VACV C7L has not been determined. Here, we used VACV as a model system to analyze five different C7L homologues from diverse mammalian poxviruses for their abilities to regulate poxvirus cellular tropism. Three C7L homologues (myxoma virus M63R, M64R and cowpox virus 020), when expressed with an epitope tag and from a VACV mutant lacking the host-range genes K1L and C7L (vK1L-C7L-), failed to support productive viral replication in human and murine cells. In nonpermissive cells, these viruses did not synthesize viral late proteins, expressed a reduced level of the early protein E3L, and were defective at suppressing cellular PKR activation. In contrast, two other C7L homologues, myxoma virus (MYXV) M62R and yaba-like disease virus (YLDV) 67R, when expressed with an epitope tag and from vK1L(-)C7L(-), supported normal viral replication in human and murine cells and restored the ability of the virus to suppress PKR activation. Furthermore, M62R rescued the defect of vK1L(-)C7L(-) at replicating and disseminating in mice following intranasal inoculation. These results show that MYXV M62R and YLDV 67R function equivalently to C7L at supporting VACV replication in mammalian hosts and suggest that a C7L-like host-range gene is essential for the replication of many mammalian poxviruses in mammalian hosts.

  8. Biology and host range of Heterapoderopsis bicallosicollis; a potential biological control agent for Chinese tallow Triadica sebifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese tallow, Triadica sebifera, is an invasive weed that infests natural and agricultural areas of the southeastern USA. A candidate for biological control of Chinese tallow has been studied under quarantine conditions. The biology and host range of a primitive leaf feeding beetle, Heterapoderops...

  9. 'Candidatus Megaira polyxenophila' gen. nov., sp. nov.: considerations on evolutionary history, host range and shift of early divergent rickettsiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Schrallhammer

    Full Text Available "Neglected Rickettsiaceae" (i.e. those harboured by non-hematophagous eukaryotic hosts display greater phylogenetic variability and more widespread dispersal than pathogenic ones; yet, the knowledge about their actual host range and host shift mechanism is scarce. The present work reports the characterization following the full-cycle rRNA approach (SSU rRNA sequence, specific in situ hybridization, and ultrastructure of a novel rickettsial bacterium, herewith proposed as 'Candidatus Megaira polyxenophila' gen. nov., sp. nov. We found it in association with four different free-living ciliates (Diophrys oligothrix, Euplotes octocarinatus, Paramecium caudatum, and Spirostomum sp., all belonging to Alveolata, Ciliophora; furthermore it was recently observed as intracellular occurring in Carteria cerasiformis and Pleodorina japonica (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated the belonging of the candidate new genus to the family Rickettsiaceae (Alphaproteobacteria, Rickettsiales as a sister group of the genus Rickettsia. In situ observations revealed the ability of the candidate new species to colonize either nuclear or cytoplasmic compartments, depending on the host organism. The presence of the same bacterial species within different, evolutionary distant, hosts indicates that 'Candidatus Megaira polyxenophila' recently underwent several distinct host shifts, thus suggesting the existence of horizontal transmission pathways. We consider these findings as indicative of an unexpected spread of rickettsial infections in aquatic communities, possibly by means of trophic interactions, and hence propose a new interpretation of the origin and phylogenetic diversification of rickettsial bacteria.

  10. Comparative genomics of the apicomplexan parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum: Coccidia differing in host range and transmission strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam James Reid

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite which infects nearly one third of the human population and is found in an extraordinary range of vertebrate hosts. Its epidemiology depends heavily on horizontal transmission, especially between rodents and its definitive host, the cat. Neospora caninum is a recently discovered close relative of Toxoplasma, whose definitive host is the dog. Both species are tissue-dwelling Coccidia and members of the phylum Apicomplexa; they share many common features, but Neospora neither infects humans nor shares the same wide host range as Toxoplasma, rather it shows a striking preference for highly efficient vertical transmission in cattle. These species therefore provide a remarkable opportunity to investigate mechanisms of host restriction, transmission strategies, virulence and zoonotic potential. We sequenced the genome of N. caninum and transcriptomes of the invasive stage of both species, undertaking an extensive comparative genomics and transcriptomics analysis. We estimate that these organisms diverged from their common ancestor around 28 million years ago and find that both genomes and gene expression are remarkably conserved. However, in N. caninum we identified an unexpected expansion of surface antigen gene families and the divergence of secreted virulence factors, including rhoptry kinases. Specifically we show that the rhoptry kinase ROP18 is pseudogenised in N. caninum and that, as a possible consequence, Neospora is unable to phosphorylate host immunity-related GTPases, as Toxoplasma does. This defense strategy is thought to be key to virulence in Toxoplasma. We conclude that the ecological niches occupied by these species are influenced by a relatively small number of gene products which operate at the host-parasite interface and that the dominance of vertical transmission in N. caninum may be associated with the evolution of reduced virulence in this species.

  11. Comparative genomics of the apicomplexan parasites Toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum: Coccidia differing in host range and transmission strategy

    KAUST Repository

    Reid, Adam James

    2012-03-22

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite which infects nearly one third of the human population and is found in an extraordinary range of vertebrate hosts. Its epidemiology depends heavily on horizontal transmission, especially between rodents and its definitive host, the cat. Neospora caninum is a recently discovered close relative of Toxoplasma, whose definitive host is the dog. Both species are tissue-dwelling Coccidia and members of the phylum Apicomplexa; they share many common features, but Neospora neither infects humans nor shares the same wide host range as Toxoplasma, rather it shows a striking preference for highly efficient vertical transmission in cattle. These species therefore provide a remarkable opportunity to investigate mechanisms of host restriction, transmission strategies, virulence and zoonotic potential. We sequenced the genome of N. caninum and transcriptomes of the invasive stage of both species, undertaking an extensive comparative genomics and transcriptomics analysis. We estimate that these organisms diverged from their common ancestor around 28 million years ago and find that both genomes and gene expression are remarkably conserved. However, in N. caninum we identified an unexpected expansion of surface antigen gene families and the divergence of secreted virulence factors, including rhoptry kinases. Specifically we show that the rhoptry kinase ROP18 is pseudogenised in N. caninum and that, as a possible consequence, Neospora is unable to phosphorylate host immunity-related GTPases, as Toxoplasma does. This defense strategy is thought to be key to virulence in Toxoplasma. We conclude that the ecological niches occupied by these species are influenced by a relatively small number of gene products which operate at the host-parasite interface and that the dominance of vertical transmission in N. caninum may be associated with the evolution of reduced virulence in this species.

  12. Test of non-Newtonian gravitational force at micrometer range

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Pengshun; Guan, Shengguo; Wu, Wenjie; Tian, Zhaoyang; Yang, Shanqing; Shao, Chenggang; Luo, Jun

    2016-01-01

    We report an experimental test of non-Newtonian gravitational forces at mi- crometer range. To experimentally subtract off the Casimir force and the electrostatic force background, differential force measurements were performed by sensing the lateral force between a gold sphere and a density modulated source mass using a soft cantilever. The current sensitivity is limited by the patch electrostatic force, which is further improved by two dimensional (2D) force mapping. The preliminary result sets a model independent constraint on the Yukawa type force at this range.

  13. Nature of hydrothermal fluids at the shale-hosted Red Dog Zn-Pb-Ag deposits, Brooks Range, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, David L.; Marsh, Erin E.; Emsbo, Poul; Rombach, Cameron; Kelley, Karen D.; Anthony, Michael W.

    2004-01-01

    The Red Dog Zn-Pb-Ag district in the western Brooks Range, northern Alaska, contains numerous shale-hosted Zn-Pb sulfide and barite deposits in organic-rich siliceous mudstone and shale, chert, and carbonate rocks of the Carboniferous Kuna Formation. The giant Red Dog shale-hosted deposits consist of a cluster of four orebodies (Main, Qanaiyaq, Aqqaluk, and Paalaaq) that lie within distinct thrust panels that offset a single ore deposit during the Mesozoic Brookian orogeny. These Zn-Pb-Ag-barite orebodies contain one of the world's largest reserves and resources of zinc.

  14. The Neuman Systems Model Institute: testing middle-range theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliotti, Eileen

    2003-07-01

    The credibility of the Neuman systems model can only be established through the generation and testing of Neuman systems model-derived middle-range theories. However, due to the number and complexity of Neuman systems model concepts/concept interrelations and the diversity of middle-range theory concepts linked to these Neuman systems model concepts by researchers, no explicit middle-range theories have yet been derived from the Neuman systems model. This article describes the development of an organized program for the systematic study of the Neuman systems model. Preliminary work, already accomplished, is detailed, and a tentative plan for the completion of further preliminary work as well as beginning the actual research conduction phase is proposed.

  15. Tonopah Test Range EGS graphics tracking display system: HP370

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, R.H.; Bauhs, K.C.

    1994-08-01

    This report describes the HP370 component of the Enhanced Graphics System (EGS) used at Tonopah Test Range (TTR). Selected Radar data is fed into the computer systems and the resulting tracking symbols are displayed on high-resolution video monitors in real time. These tracking symbols overlay background maps and are used for monitoring/controlling various flight vehicles. This report discusses both the operational aspects and the internal configuration of the HP370 Workstation portion of the EGS system.

  16. Testing amendments for remediation of military range contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebielec, Grzegorz; Chaney, Rufus L

    2012-10-15

    Military range soils are often strongly contaminated with metals. Information on the effectiveness of remediation of these soils is scarce. We tested the effectiveness of compost and mineral treatments for remediation and revegetation of military range soil collected in Aberdeen, MD. The soil was barren due to zinc (Zn) phytotoxicity while lead (Pb) posed a substantial risk to soil biota, wildlife and humans through various pathways. Seven treatments were tested: untreated control, agricultural NPK fertilization, high phosphate fertilization plus agricultural rates of NK, CaCO(3), "Orgro" biosolid compost, "Orgro" + CaCO(3), "Orgro" + CaCO(3) + Mn sulfate. All compost treatments alleviated Zn phytotoxicity to tall fescue; however compost combined with liming reduced plant Zn content up to 158-162 mg kg(-1). Compost added with lime reduced Pb in-vitro bioaccessibility from 32.5 to 20.4% of total Pb and was the most effective among the tested treatments. The study revealed the effectiveness of biosolids compost and lime mixture in the rapid stabilization of metals and revegetation of military range contaminated soils. The persistence of the remediation needs to be, however, confirmed in the long-term field study.

  17. Biogeographic Variation in Host Range Phenotypes and Taxonomic Composition of Marine Cyanophage Isolates

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Despite the important role of phages in marine systems, little is understood about how their diversity is distributed in space. Biogeographic patterns of marine phages may be difficult to detect due to their vast genetic diversity, which may not be accurately represented by conserved marker genes. To investigate the spatial biogeographic structure of marine phages, we isolated over 400 cyanophages on Synechococcus host strain WH7803 at three coastal locations in the United States (Rhode Islan...

  18. Small Ruminant Lentiviruses (SRLVs Break the Species Barrier to Acquire New Host Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Cezar Minardi da Cruz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Zoonotic events of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV from non-human primates to humans have generated the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, one of the most devastating infectious disease of the last century with more than 30 million people dead and about 40.3 million people currently infected worldwide. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 and HIV-2, the two major viruses that cause AIDS in humans are retroviruses of the lentivirus genus. The genus includes arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV and Maedi-Visna virus (MVV, and a heterogeneous group of viruses known as small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs, affecting goat and sheep. Lentivirus genome integrates into the host DNA, causing persistent infection associated with a remarkable diversity during viral replication. Direct evidence of mixed infections with these two closely related SRLVs was found in both sheep and goats. The evidence of a genetic continuum with caprine and ovine field isolates demonstrates the absence of an efficient species barrier preventing cross-species transmission. In dual-infected animals, persistent infections with both CAEV and MVV have been described, and viral chimeras have been detected. This not only complicates animal trade between countries but favors the risk that highly pathogenic variants may emerge as has already been observed in the past in Iceland and, more recently, in outbreaks with virulent strains in Spain. SRLVs affecting wildlife have already been identified, demonstrating the existence of emergent viruses adapted to new hosts. Viruses adapted to wildlife ruminants may acquire novel biopathological properties which may endanger not only the new host species but also domestic ruminants and humans. SRLVs infecting sheep and goats follow a genomic evolution similar to that observed in HIV or in other lentiviruses. Lentivirus genetic diversity and host factors leading to the establishment of naturally occurring virulent versus avirulent infections

  19. Structural mutants of dengue virus 2 transmembrane domains exhibit host-range phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background There are over 700 known arboviruses and at least 80 immunologically distinct types that cause disease in humans. Arboviruses are transmitted among vertebrates by biting insects, chiefly mosquitoes and ticks. These viruses are widely distributed throughout the world, depending on the presence of appropriate hosts (birds, horses, domestic animals, humans) and vectors. Mosquito-borne arboviruses present some of the most important examples of emerging and resurgent diseases o...

  20. Amerindian Helicobacter pylori strains go extinct, as european strains expand their host range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria G Domínguez-Bello

    Full Text Available We studied the diversity of bacteria and host in the H. pylori-human model. The human indigenous bacterium H. pylori diverged along with humans, into African, European, Asian and Amerindian groups. Of these, Amerindians have the least genetic diversity. Since niche diversity widens the sets of resources for colonizing species, we predicted that the Amerindian H. pylori strains would be the least diverse. We analyzed the multilocus sequence (7 housekeeping genes of 131 strains: 19 cultured from Africans, 36 from Spanish, 11 from Koreans, 43 from Amerindians and 22 from South American Mestizos. We found that all strains that had been cultured from Africans were African strains (hpAfrica1, all from Spanish were European (hpEurope and all from Koreans were hspEAsia but that Amerindians and Mestizos carried mixed strains: hspAmerind and hpEurope strains had been cultured from Amerindians and hpEurope and hpAfrica1 were cultured from Mestizos. The least genetically diverse H. pylori strains were hspAmerind. Strains hpEurope were the most diverse and showed remarkable multilocus sequence mosaicism (indicating recombination. The lower genetic structure in hpEurope strains is consistent with colonization of a diversity of hosts. If diversity is important for the success of H. pylori, then the low diversity of Amerindian strains might be linked to their apparent tendency to disappear. This suggests that Amerindian strains may lack the needed diversity to survive the diversity brought by non-Amerindian hosts.

  1. Novel papillomaviruses in free-ranging Iberian bats: no virus-host co-evolution, no strict host specificity, and hints for recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, Raquel; Ibáñez, Carlos; Godínez, Jose M; Aréchiga, Nidia; Garin, Inazio; Pérez-Suárez, Gonzalo; de Paz, Oscar; Juste, Javier; Echevarría, Juan E; Bravo, Ignacio G

    2014-01-01

    Papillomaviruses (PVs) are widespread pathogens. However, the extent of PV infections in bats remains largely unknown. This work represents the first comprehensive study of PVs in Iberian bats. We identified four novel PVs in the mucosa of free-ranging Eptesicus serotinus (EserPV1, EserPV2, and EserPV3) and Rhinolophus ferrumequinum (RferPV1) individuals and analyzed their phylogenetic relationships within the viral family. We further assessed their prevalence in different populations of E. serotinus and its close relative E. isabellinus. Although it is frequent to read that PVs co-evolve with their host, that PVs are highly species-specific, and that PVs do not usually recombine, our results suggest otherwise. First, strict virus-host co-evolution is rejected by the existence of five, distantly related bat PV lineages and by the lack of congruence between bats and bat PVs phylogenies. Second, the ability of EserPV2 and EserPV3 to infect two different bat species (E. serotinus and E. isabellinus) argues against strict host specificity. Finally, the description of a second noncoding region in the RferPV1 genome reinforces the view of an increased susceptibility to recombination in the E2-L2 genomic region. These findings prompt the question of whether the prevailing paradigms regarding PVs evolution should be reconsidered.

  2. Novel Papillomaviruses in Free-Ranging Iberian Bats: No Virus–Host Co-evolution, No Strict Host Specificity, and Hints for Recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, Raquel; Ibáñez, Carlos; Godínez, Jose M.; Aréchiga, Nidia; Garin, Inazio; Pérez-Suárez, Gonzalo; de Paz, Oscar; Juste, Javier; Echevarría, Juan E.; Bravo, Ignacio G.

    2014-01-01

    Papillomaviruses (PVs) are widespread pathogens. However, the extent of PV infections in bats remains largely unknown. This work represents the first comprehensive study of PVs in Iberian bats. We identified four novel PVs in the mucosa of free-ranging Eptesicus serotinus (EserPV1, EserPV2, and EserPV3) and Rhinolophus ferrumequinum (RferPV1) individuals and analyzed their phylogenetic relationships within the viral family. We further assessed their prevalence in different populations of E. serotinus and its close relative E. isabellinus. Although it is frequent to read that PVs co-evolve with their host, that PVs are highly species-specific, and that PVs do not usually recombine, our results suggest otherwise. First, strict virus–host co-evolution is rejected by the existence of five, distantly related bat PV lineages and by the lack of congruence between bats and bat PVs phylogenies. Second, the ability of EserPV2 and EserPV3 to infect two different bat species (E. serotinus and E. isabellinus) argues against strict host specificity. Finally, the description of a second noncoding region in the RferPV1 genome reinforces the view of an increased susceptibility to recombination in the E2-L2 genomic region. These findings prompt the question of whether the prevailing paradigms regarding PVs evolution should be reconsidered. PMID:24391150

  3. LysM domains mediate lipochitin-oligosaccharide recognition and Nfr genes extend the symbiotic host range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radutoiu, Simona; Madsen, Lene H; Madsen, Esben B; Jurkiewicz, Anna; Fukai, Eigo; Quistgaard, Esben M H; Albrektsen, Anita S; James, Euan K; Thirup, Søren; Stougaard, Jens

    2007-09-05

    Legume-Rhizobium symbiosis is an example of selective cell recognition controlled by host/non-host determinants. Individual bacterial strains have a distinct host range enabling nodulation of a limited set of legume species and vice versa. We show here that expression of Lotus japonicus Nfr1 and Nfr5 Nod-factor receptor genes in Medicago truncatula and L. filicaulis, extends their host range to include bacterial strains, Mesorhizobium loti or DZL, normally infecting L. japonicus. As a result, the symbiotic program is induced, nodules develop and infection threads are formed. Using L. japonicus mutants and domain swaps between L. japonicus and L. filicaulis NFR1 and NFR5, we further demonstrate that LysM domains of the NFR1 and NFR5 receptors mediate perception of the bacterial Nod-factor signal and that recognition depends on the structure of the lipochitin-oligosaccharide Nod-factor. We show that a single amino-acid variation in the LysM2 domain of NFR5 changes recognition of the Nod-factor synthesized by the DZL strain and suggests a possible binding site for bacterial lipochitin-oligosaccharide signal molecules.

  4. Solenopsis invicta virus 3: Further host-specificity tests with native Solenopsis ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A thorough understanding of host specificity is essential before pathogens can be used as biopesticides or self-sustaining biocontrol agents. In order to better define the host range of the recently discovered Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3), we collected and exposed colonies of two native fire...

  5. Phylogenetic test of speciation by host shift in leaf cone moths (Caloptilia) feeding on maples (Acer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakadai, Ryosuke; Kawakita, Atsushi

    2016-07-01

    The traditional explanation for the exceptional diversity of herbivorous insects emphasizes host shift as the major driver of speciation. However, phylogenetic studies have often demonstrated widespread host plant conservatism by insect herbivores, calling into question the prevalence of speciation by host shift to distantly related plants. A limitation of previous phylogenetic studies is that host plants were defined at the family or genus level; thus, it was unclear whether host shifts predominate at a finer taxonomic scale. The lack of a statistical approach to test the hypothesis of host-shift-driven speciation also hindered studies at the species level. Here, we analyze the radiation of leaf cone moths (Caloptilia) associated with maples (Acer) using a newly developed, phylogeny-based method that tests the role of host shift in speciation. This method has the advantage of not requiring complete taxon sampling from an entire radiation. Based on 254 host plant records for 14 Caloptilia species collected at 73 sites in Japan, we show that major dietary changes are more concentrated toward the root of the phylogeny, with host shift playing a minor role in recent speciation. We suggest that there may be other roles for host shift in promoting herbivorous insect diversification rather than facilitating speciation per se.

  6. Genome Analysis of a Novel Broad Host Range Proteobacteria Phage Isolated from a Bioreactor Treating Industrial Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, Marina; Baron, Maayan; Brenner, Asher; Kushmaro, Ariel

    2017-01-01

    Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria, and consequently they have a major impact on the development of a microbial population. In this study, the genome of a novel broad host range bacteriophage, Aquamicrobium phage P14, isolated from a wastewater treatment plant, was analyzed. The Aquamicrobium phage P14 was found to infect members of different Proteobacteria classes (Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria). This phage contains a 40,551 bp long genome and 60% of its genes had blastx hits. Furthermore, the bacteriophage was found to share more than 50% of its genes with several podoviruses and has the same gene order as other polyvalent bacteriophages. The results obtained in this study led to the conclusion that indeed general features of the genome of the Aquamicrobium phage P14 are shared with other broad host range bacteriophages, however further analysis of the genome is needed in order to identify the specific mechanisms which enable the bacteriophage to infect both Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria. PMID:28106814

  7. 1994 site environmental report, Tonopah Test Range, Tonopah, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culp, T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Forston, W. [Kirk-Mayer, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This report summarizes the environmental surveillance activities conducted by Sandia National Laboratories, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and Kirk-Mayer, Inc., for the Tonopah Test Range operated by Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia National Laboratories` responsibility for environmental surveillance results extends to those activities performed by Sandia National Laboratories or under its direction. Results from other environmental surveillance activities are included to provide a measure of completeness in reporting. Other environmental compliance programs such as the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, environmental permits, and environmental restoration and waste management programs are also included in this report, prepared for the US Department of Energy (DOE) in compliance with DOE Order 5400. 1.

  8. Integrated radar-camera security system: range test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyczkowski, M.; Szustakowski, M.; Ciurapinski, W.; Karol, M.; Markowski, P.

    2012-06-01

    The paper presents the test results of a mobile system for the protection of large-area objects, which consists of a radar and thermal and visual cameras. Radar is used for early detection and localization of an intruder and the cameras with narrow field of view are used for identification and tracking of a moving object. The range evaluation of an integrated system is presented as well as the probability of human detection as a function of the distance from radar-camera unit.

  9. Testing Gravity via Lunar Laser Ranging: Maximizing Data Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Thomas

    We propose to continue leading-edge observations with the Apache Point Observatory Lunar Laser-ranging Operation (APOLLO), in an effort to subject gravity to the most stringent tests yet. APOLLO has delivered a dramatic improvement in the measurement of the lunar orbit: now at the millimeter level. Yet incomplete models are thus far unable to confirm the accuracy. We therefore seek to build a calibration system to ensure that APOLLO meets its millimeter measurement goal. Gravity--the most evident force of nature--is in fact the weakest of the fundamental forces, and consequently the most poorly tested. Einstein’s general relativity, which is currently our best description of gravity, is fundamentally incompatible with quantum mechanics and is likely to be replaced by a more complete theory in the future. A modified theory would predict small deviations in the solar system that could have profound consequences for our understanding of the Universe as a whole. Lunar laser ranging (LLR), in which short laser pulses launched from a telescope are bounced off of reflectors placed on the Moon by U.S. astronauts and Soviet landers, has for decades produced some of the leading tests of gravity by mapping the shape of the lunar orbit to high precision. These include tests of the strong equivalence principle, the time-rate-ofchange of Newton’s gravitational constant, gravitomagnetism, the inverse-square law, and many others. Among the attributes that contribute to APOLLO’s superior observations, routine ranging to all five lunar reflectors on timescales of minutes dramatically improves our ability to gauge lunar orientation and body distortion. This information produces insights into the interior structure and dynamics of the Moon, allowing a more precise determination of the path for the Moon’s center of mass, lending to tests of fundamental gravity. Simultaneously, higher precision range measurements, together with data from a superconducting gravimeter at the

  10. Roles of host plants in boll weevil range expansion beyond tropical Mesoamerica

    Science.gov (United States)

    New findings on boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), biology and ecology have had repercussions on the current level of understanding about short- and long-range boll weevil dispersal, and range expansion from its original tropical Mesoamerican habitat. The w...

  11. Climate change may alter breeding ground distributions of eastern migratory monarchs (Danaus plexippus via range expansion of Asclepias host plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan P Lemoine

    Full Text Available Climate change can profoundly alter species' distributions due to changes in temperature, precipitation, or seasonality. Migratory monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus may be particularly susceptible to climate-driven changes in host plant abundance or reduced overwintering habitat. For example, climate change may significantly reduce the availability of overwintering habitat by restricting the amount of area with suitable microclimate conditions. However, potential effects of climate change on monarch northward migrations remain largely unknown, particularly with respect to their milkweed (Asclepias spp. host plants. Given that monarchs largely depend on the genus Asclepias as larval host plants, the effects of climate change on monarch northward migrations will most likely be mediated by climate change effects on Asclepias. Here, I used MaxEnt species distribution modeling to assess potential changes in Asclepias and monarch distributions under moderate and severe climate change scenarios. First, Asclepias distributions were projected to extend northward throughout much of Canada despite considerable variability in the environmental drivers of each individual species. Second, Asclepias distributions were an important predictor of current monarch distributions, indicating that monarchs may be constrained as much by the availability of Asclepias host plants as environmental variables per se. Accordingly, modeling future distributions of monarchs, and indeed any tightly coupled plant-insect system, should incorporate the effects of climate change on host plant distributions. Finally, MaxEnt predictions of Asclepias and monarch distributions were remarkably consistent among general circulation models. Nearly all models predicted that the current monarch summer breeding range will become slightly less suitable for Asclepias and monarchs in the future. Asclepias, and consequently monarchs, should therefore undergo expanded northern range limits in

  12. Climate change may alter breeding ground distributions of eastern migratory monarchs (Danaus plexippus) via range expansion of Asclepias host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, Nathan P

    2015-01-01

    Climate change can profoundly alter species' distributions due to changes in temperature, precipitation, or seasonality. Migratory monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) may be particularly susceptible to climate-driven changes in host plant abundance or reduced overwintering habitat. For example, climate change may significantly reduce the availability of overwintering habitat by restricting the amount of area with suitable microclimate conditions. However, potential effects of climate change on monarch northward migrations remain largely unknown, particularly with respect to their milkweed (Asclepias spp.) host plants. Given that monarchs largely depend on the genus Asclepias as larval host plants, the effects of climate change on monarch northward migrations will most likely be mediated by climate change effects on Asclepias. Here, I used MaxEnt species distribution modeling to assess potential changes in Asclepias and monarch distributions under moderate and severe climate change scenarios. First, Asclepias distributions were projected to extend northward throughout much of Canada despite considerable variability in the environmental drivers of each individual species. Second, Asclepias distributions were an important predictor of current monarch distributions, indicating that monarchs may be constrained as much by the availability of Asclepias host plants as environmental variables per se. Accordingly, modeling future distributions of monarchs, and indeed any tightly coupled plant-insect system, should incorporate the effects of climate change on host plant distributions. Finally, MaxEnt predictions of Asclepias and monarch distributions were remarkably consistent among general circulation models. Nearly all models predicted that the current monarch summer breeding range will become slightly less suitable for Asclepias and monarchs in the future. Asclepias, and consequently monarchs, should therefore undergo expanded northern range limits in summer months

  13. Poxvirus host range protein CP77 contains an F-box-like domain that is necessary to suppress NF-kappaB activation by tumor necrosis factor alpha but is independent of its host range function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Jung; Hsiao, Jye-Chian; Sonnberg, Stephanie; Chiang, Cheng-Ting; Yang, Min-Hsiang; Tzou, Der-Lii; Mercer, Andrew A; Chang, Wen

    2009-05-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) activates the nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) signaling pathway that regulates expression of many cellular factors playing important roles in innate immune responses and inflammation in infected hosts. Poxviruses employ many strategies to inhibit NF-kappaB activation in cells. In this report, we describe a poxvirus host range protein, CP77, which blocked NF-kappaB activation by TNF-alpha. Immunofluorescence analyses revealed that nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB subunit p65 protein in TNF-alpha-treated HeLa cells was blocked by CP77. CP77 did so without blocking IkappaBalpha phosphorylation, suggesting that upstream kinase activation was not affected by CP77. Using GST pull-down, we showed that CP77 bound to the NF-kappaB subunit p65 through the N-terminal six-ankyrin-repeat region in vitro. CP77 also bound to Cullin-1 and Skp1 of the SCF complex through a C-terminal 13-amino-acid F-box-like sequence. Both regions of CP77 are required to block NF-kappaB activation. We thus propose a model in which poxvirus CP77 suppresses NF-kappaB activation by two interactions: the C-terminal F-box of CP77 binding to the SCF complex and the N-terminal six ankyrins binding to the NF-kappaB subunit p65. In this way, CP77 attenuates innate immune response signaling in cells. Finally, we expressed CP77 or a CP77 F-box deletion protein from a vaccinia virus host range mutant (VV-hr-GFP) and showed that either protein was able to rescue the host range defect, illustrating that the F-box region, which is important for NF-kappaB modulation and binding to SCF complex, is not required for CP77's host range function. Consistently, knocking down the protein level of NF-kappaB did not relieve the growth restriction of VV-hr-GFP in HeLa cells.

  14. Host range and genetic relatedness of Colletotrichum acutatum isolates from fruit crops and leatherleaf fern in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, S J; Peres, N A; Barquero, M P; Arauz, L F; Timmer, L W

    2009-05-01

    Isolates of Colletotrichum acutatum were collected from anthracnose-affected strawberry, leatherleaf fern, and Key lime; ripe-rot-affected blueberry; and postbloom fruit drop (PFD)-affected sweet orange in Florida. Additional isolates from ripe-rot-affected blueberry were collected from Georgia and North Carolina and from anthracnose-affected leatherleaf fern in Costa Rica. Pathogenicity tests on blueberry and strawberry fruit; foliage of Key lime, leatherleaf fern, and strawberry; and citrus flowers showed that isolates were highly pathogenic to their host of origin. Isolates were not pathogenic on foliage of heterologous hosts; however, several nonhomologous isolates were mildly or moderately pathogenic to citrus flowers and blueberry isolates were pathogenic to strawberry fruit. Based on sequence data from the internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2 region of the rDNA repeat, the glutaraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase intron 2 (G3PD), and the glutamine synthase intron 2 (GS), isolates from the same host were identical or very similar to each other and distinct from those isolated from other hosts. Isolates from leatherleaf fern in Florida were the only exception. Among these isolates, there were two distinct G3PD and GS sequences that occurred in three of four possible combinations. Only one of these combinations occurred in Costa Rica. Although maximum parsimony trees constructed from genomic regions individually displayed little or no homoplasy, there was a lack of concordance among genealogies that was consistent with a history of recombination. This lack of concordance was particularly evident within a clade containing PFD, Key lime, and leatherleaf fern isolates. Overall, the data indicated that it is unlikely that a pathogenic strain from one of the hosts examined would move to another of these hosts and produce an epidemic.

  15. A survey of five broad-host-range plasmids in gram-negative bacilli isolated from patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guo-qiang; Yao, Yi-hui; Yu, Xiao-lu; Niu, Jian-jun

    2014-07-01

    To learn the prevalence of the primary classical broad-host-range (BHR) IncA/C, IncN, IncP, IncQ, and IncW plasmids in dominant gram-negative bacilli from inpatients in a teaching hospital in southern China. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction based on the replicons of BHR IncA/C, IncN, IncP, IncQ, and IncW plasmids was developed and used to determine these BHR plasmids. The difference in prevalence rates among the different species from three specimens was evaluated by a binary logistic regression model and the differences between multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) and non-MDRO were assessed using a chi-square test. The average positive detection percentages of the replicons were 4.3%, 3.7%, 3.0%, 2.6%, and 1.9%, respectively, for IncN, IncP, IncQ, IncW, and IncA/C in descending order. The distribution of all five BHR plasmids did not differ significantly between specimens collected from wounds and urine, although both were significantly higher than those of sputum. The prevalence rates of all five BHR plasmids in MDROs were significantly higher than those in non-MDRO for Enterobacteriaceae; however, no significant difference was seen in non-fermenting gram-negative bacilli (NFGNB). BHR IncA/C, IncN, IncP, IncQ, and IncW plasmids, which occur more often in bacilli from wound and urine specimens than those of sputum, are widespread in Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated from inpatients. The prevalence rates in MDRO are higher than those in non-MDRO for Enterobacteriaceae but not significantly different for NFGNB. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Using Cloud-Hosted Real-time Data Services for the Geosciences (CHORDS) in a range of geoscience applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, M. D.; Kerkez, B.; Chandrasekar, V.; Graves, S. J.; Stamps, D. S.; Dye, M. J.; Keiser, K.; Martin, C. L.; Gooch, S. R.

    2016-12-01

    Cloud-Hosted Real-time Data Services for the Geosciences, or CHORDS, addresses the ever-increasing importance of real-time scientific data, particularly in mission critical scenarios, where informed decisions must be made rapidly. Part of the broader EarthCube initiative, CHORDS seeks to investigate the role of real-time data in the geosciences. Many of the phenomenon occurring within the geosciences, ranging from hurricanes and severe weather, to earthquakes, volcanoes and floods, can benefit from better handling of real-time data. The National Science Foundation funds many small teams of researchers residing at Universities whose currently inaccessible measurements could contribute to a better understanding of these phenomenon in order to ultimately improve forecasts and predictions. This lack of easy accessibility prohibits advanced algorithm and workflow development that could be initiated or enhanced by these data streams. Often the development of tools for the broad dissemination of their valuable real-time data is a large IT overhead from a pure scientific perspective, and could benefit from an easy to use, scalable, cloud-based solution to facilitate access. CHORDS proposes to make a very diverse suite of real-time data available to the broader geosciences community in order to allow innovative new science in these areas to thrive. We highlight the recently developed CHORDS portal tools and processing systems aimed at addressing some of the gaps in handling real-time data, particularly in the provisioning of data from the "long-tail" scientific community through a simple interface deployed in the cloud. Examples shown include hydrology, atmosphere and solid earth sensors. Broad use of the CHORDS framework will expand the role of real-time data within the geosciences, and enhance the potential of streaming data sources to enable adaptive experimentation and real-time hypothesis testing. CHORDS enables real-time data to be discovered and accessed using

  17. Characterization of Fv-1 host range strains of murine retroviruses by titration and p30 protein characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennant, R.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN); Otten, J.A.; Brown, A.; Yang, W.K.; Kennel, S.J.

    1979-12-01

    A standardized, direct XC plaque assay was used to determine the titration hitness patterns of Fv-1 host range murine retroviruses obtained from various laboratories. The N- or B-tropic viruses were tested on a variety of cells with Fv-1/sup nn/, Fv-1/sup bb/, or Fv-1/sup nb/ genotypes, and, with one exception, a discrete two-hit pattern was obtained on cells with the restrictive genotype (i.e., N-tropic virus on BALB/c, SIM.R, and B6C3F/sub 1/ cells, and B-tropic virus on SME, SIM, and B6C3F/sub 1/ cells). The single exception to the two-hit titration effect was a strain (TOR-B) which is poorly infectious for all cells, and which does not show a clear N- or B-tropism. In addition, it was possible to convert the two-hit pattern of another B-tropic virus (OR-B) to a one-hit curve by coinfection with an XC-negative N-tropic virus. Relative to SC-1 (Fv-1/sup - -/) cells, it was possible to define three components of restriction of ecotropic virus infection of mouse cells: The first two components, the two-hit kinetics and 10/sup 2/- to 10/sup 3/-fold reduction in titer on restrictive cells, are Fv-1 determined; the third a decreased infectivity on all cells relative to SC-1 cells, is independent of Fv-1 genotype.

  18. Host and Environmental Factors Modulate the Exposure of Free-Ranging and Farmed Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) to Coxiella burnetii

    OpenAIRE

    González-Barrio, David; Velasco Ávila , Ana Luisa; Boadella, Mariana; Beltrán-Beck, Beatriz; Barasona, José Ángel; Santos, João P. V.; Queirós, João; García-Pérez, Ana L; Barral, Marta; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The control of multihost pathogens, such as Coxiella burnetii, should rely on accurate information about the roles played by the main hosts. We aimed to determine the involvement of the red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the ecology of C. burnetii. We predicted that red deer populations from broad geographic areas within a European context would be exposed to C. burnetii, and therefore, we hypothesized that a series of factors would modulate the exposure of red deer to C. burnetii. To test this hyp...

  19. Dual miRNA targeting restricts host range and attenuates neurovirulence of flaviviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin A Tsetsarkin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito-borne flaviviruses are among the most significant arboviral pathogens worldwide. Vaccinations and mosquito population control programs remain the most reliable means for flavivirus disease prevention, and live attenuated viruses remain one of the most attractive flavivirus vaccine platforms. Some live attenuated viruses are capable of infecting principle mosquito vectors, as demonstrated in the laboratory, which in combination with their intrinsic genetic instability could potentially lead to a vaccine virus reversion back to wild-type in nature, followed by introduction and dissemination of potentially dangerous viral strains into new geographic locations. To mitigate this risk we developed a microRNA-targeting approach that selectively restricts replication of flavivirus in the mosquito host. Introduction of sequences complementary to a mosquito-specific mir-184 and mir-275 miRNAs individually or in combination into the 3'NCR and/or ORF region resulted in selective restriction of dengue type 4 virus (DEN4 replication in mosquito cell lines and adult Aedes mosquitos. Moreover a combined targeting of DEN4 genome with mosquito-specific and vertebrate CNS-specific mir-124 miRNA can silence viral replication in two evolutionally distant biological systems: mosquitoes and mouse brains. Thus, this approach can reinforce the safety of newly developed or existing vaccines for use in humans and could provide an additional level of biosafety for laboratories using viruses with altered pathogenic or transmissibility characteristics.

  20. Occurrence of Belonolaimus in Sinaloa, Northwestern Mexico: A New Report on Distribution and Host Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundo-Ocampo, Manuel; Baldwin, J. G.; Pereira, T. J.; Camacho-Baez, J. R.; Armenta-Bojorquez, A. D.; Camacho-Haro, M.; Becker, J. O.

    2017-01-01

    The present study reports the occurrence of the genus Belonolaimus in the state of Sinaloa, Mexico, associated with native plants (i.e., Ziziphus amole and Stenocereus alamosensis) in a natural coastal ecosystem. Both morphological and molecular approaches were employed to characterize the Sinaloa population. Notwithstanding of some morphological and morphometric variation between Belonolaimus from Sinaloa and other valid species, the characterization indicates that this population might belong to the Belonolaimus longicaudatus species complex. Molecular analyses based on the 28S gene and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 regions of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) identified four major clades within Belonolaimus; however, none of the species including B. longicaudatus, B. gracilis, and B. euthychilus were supported as monophyletic; yet monophyly is argued to be a basic requirement of species status. Sequence divergence among different Belonolaimus populations and species varied according to the rRNA dataset (i.e., ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 > 28S > 18S) used, thus showing the importance of using genes with different rates of evolution to estimate species relationships. The fact that Belonolaimus has not been found in other cultivated (including on suitable hosts) areas in Sinaloa and that this population is relatively distant from the common B. longicaudatus groups (i.e., clades A and B) suggests that its appearance was not due to a recent introduction associated with the local agriculture. PMID:28512382

  1. 1996 Site environmental report Tonopah test range Tonopah, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culp, T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Forston, W. [Kirk-Mayer, Inc., Tonopah, NV (United States); Duncan, D. [ed.] [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sanchez, R. [Jobs Plus, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operates the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) for the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Weapons Ordnance Program. This annual report (calendar year 1996) summarizes the compliance status to environmental regulations applicable at the site including those statutes that govern air and water quality, waste management, clean-up of contaminated areas, control of toxic substances, and adherence to requirements as related to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). In compliance with DOE Orders, SNL also conducts environmental surveillance for radiological and nonradiological contaminants. SNL`s responsibility for environmentals surveillance for radiological and nonradiological contaminants. SNL`s responsibility for environmental surveillance extends only to those activities performed by SNL or under its direction. Annual radiological and nonradiological routine releases and unplanned releases (occurrences) are also summarized herein.

  2. 1998 Annual Site Environmental Report Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, D.K.; Fink, C.H.; Sanchez, R.V.

    1999-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operates the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) for the Department of Energy (DOE) Weapons Ordnance Program. This annual report (calendar year 1998) summarizes the compliance status to environmental regulations applicable at the site including those statutes that govern air and water quality, waste management cleanup of contaminated areas, control of toxic substances, and adherence to requirements as related to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). In compliance with DOE orders, SNL also conducts environmental surveillance for radiological and nonradiological contaminants. SNL's responsibility for environmental surveillance at TTR extends only to those areas where SNL activities are carried out. Annual radiological and nonradiological routine releases and unplanned releases (occurrences) are also summarized. This report has been prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program (DOE 1990a).

  3. Host Range Restriction of Insect-Specific Flaviviruses Occurs at Several Levels of the Viral Life Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junglen, Sandra; Korries, Marvin; Grasse, Wolfgang; Wieseler, Janett; Kopp, Anne; Hermanns, Kyra; León-Juárez, Moises; Drosten, Christian

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The genus Flavivirus contains emerging arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) infecting vertebrates, as well as insect-specific viruses (ISVs) (i.e., viruses whose host range is restricted to insects). ISVs are evolutionary precursors to arboviruses. Knowledge of the nature of the ISV infection block in vertebrates could identify functions necessary for the expansion of the host range toward vertebrates. Mapping of host restrictions by complementation of ISV and arbovirus genome functions could generate knowledge critical to predicting arbovirus emergence. Here we isolated a novel flavivirus, termed Niénokoué virus (NIEV), from mosquitoes sampled in Côte d’Ivoire. NIEV groups with insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFs) in phylogeny and grows in insect cells but not in vertebrate cells. We generated an infectious NIEV cDNA clone and a NIEV reporter replicon to study growth restrictions of NIEV in comparison to yellow fever virus (YFV), for which the same tools are available. Efficient RNA replication of the NIEV reporter replicon was observed in insect cells but not in vertebrate cells. Initial translation of the input replicon RNA in vertebrate cells was functional, but RNA replication did not occur. Chimeric YFV carrying the envelope proteins of NIEV was recovered via electroporation in C6/36 insect cells but did not infect vertebrate cells, indicating a block at the level of entry. Since the YF/NIEV chimera readily produced infectious particles in insect cells but not in vertebrate cells despite efficient RNA replication, restriction is also determined at the level of assembly/release. Taking the results together, the ability of ISF to infect vertebrates is blocked at several levels, including attachment/entry and RNA replication as well as assembly/release. IMPORTANCE Most viruses of the genus Flavivirus, e.g., YFV and dengue virus, are mosquito borne and transmitted to vertebrates during blood feeding of mosquitoes. Within the last decade, an

  4. Distribution, prevalence and host specificity of avian malaria parasites across the breeding range of the migratory lark sparrow (Chondestes grammacus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Bethany L; Lyons, Amanda C; Bouzat, Juan L

    2014-06-01

    The lark sparrow (Chondestes grammacus) is a ground-nesting passerine that breeds across much of the central North American steppe and sand barrens. Through genotyping and sequencing of avian malaria parasites we examined levels of malaria prevalence and determined the distribution of Haemoproteus and Plasmodium lineages across the breeding range of the lark sparrow. Analysis of 365 birds collected from five breeding locations revealed relatively high levels of malaria prevalence in adults (80 %) and juveniles (46 %), with infections being primarily of Haemoproteus (91 % of sequenced samples). Levels of genetic diversity and genetic structure of malaria parasites with respect to the avian host populations revealed distinct patterns for Haemoproteus and Plasmodium, most likely as a result of their distinct life histories, host specificity, and transmission vectors. With the exception of one common Haemoproteus haplotype detected in all populations, all other haplotypes were either population-specific or shared by two to three populations. A hierarchical analysis of molecular variance of Haemoproteus sequences revealed that 15-18 % of the genetic variation can be explained by differences among host populations/locations (p < 0.001). In contrast to the regional patterns of genetic differentiation detected for the lark sparrow populations, Haemoproteus parasites showed high levels of population-specific variation and no significant differences among regions, which suggests that the population dynamics of the parasites may be driven by evolutionary processes operating at small spatial scales (e.g., at the level of host populations). These results highlight the potential effects of host population structure on the demographic and evolutionary dynamics of parasites.

  5. All five host-range variants of Xanthomonas citri carry one pthA homolog with 17.5 repeats that determines pathogenicity on citrus, but none determine host-range variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saadi, Abdulwahid; Reddy, Joseph D; Duan, Yong P; Brunings, Asha M; Yuan, Qiaoping; Gabriel, Dean W

    2007-08-01

    Citrus canker disease is caused by five groups of Xanthomonas citri strains that are distinguished primarily by host range: three from Asia (A, A*, and A(w)) and two that form a phylogenetically distinct clade and originated in South America (B and C). Every X. citri strain carries multiple DNA fragments that hybridize with pthA, which is essential for the pathogenicity of wide-host-range X. citri group A strain 3213. DNA fragments that hybridized with pthA were cloned from a representative strain from all five groups. Each strain carried one and only one pthA homolog that functionally complemented a knockout mutation of pthA in 3213. Every complementing homolog was of identical size to pthA and carried 17.5 nearly identical, direct tandem repeats, including three new genes from narrow-host-range groups C (pthC), A(w) (pthAW), and A* (pthA*). Every noncomplementing paralog was of a different size; one of these was sequenced from group A* (pthA*-2) and was found to have an intact promoter and full-length reading frame but with 15.5 repeats. None of the complementing homologs nor any of the noncomplementing paralogs conferred avirulence to 3213 on grapefruit or suppressed avirulence of a group A* strain on grapefruit. A knockout mutation of pthC in a group C strain resulted in loss of pathogenicity on lime, but the strain was unaffected in ability to elicit an HR on grapefruit. This pthC- mutant was fully complemented by pthA, pthB, or pthC. Analysis of the predicted amino-acid sequences of all functional pthA homologs and nonfunctional paralogs indicated that the specific sequence of the 17th repeat may be essential for pathogenicity of X. citri on citrus.

  6. Kairomone utilization in the host range evaluation of potential biological control agent Trissolcus japonicus (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, is a highly polyphagous species native to Asia that has become a serious invasive agricultural and nuisance pest across North America. Its ability to feed on over 120 plant species, ranging from field crops and orchard fruit to ornamentals and nativ...

  7. First survey on ecological host range of aphid pathogenic fungi (Phylum Entomophthoromycota) in Tunisia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ben Fekih, Ibtissem; Boukhris-Bouhachem, Sonia; Allagui, Mohamed Bechir;

    2015-01-01

    sites belonging to three different bioclimatic zones. Four pathogens from the phylum Entomophthoromycota were found to occur naturally in Tunisian ecosystems: Pandora neoaphidis (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae), Entomophthora planchoniana (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae), Conidiobolus obscurus...... (Entomophthorales: Ancylistaceae) and Neozygites fresenii (Neozygitales: Neozygitaceae). The occurrence of entomophthoralean fungi depended on the sampling area, the bioclimatic zone, and aphid species. P. neoaphidis and E. planchoniana were the predominant pathogens infecting a wide range of aphid species whereas...

  8. Tests for host-associated fitness trade-offs in the milkweed-oleander aphid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeters, Francis R

    1993-03-01

    The milkweed-oleander aphid, Aphis nerii (Boyer de Fonscolombe) (Homoptera: Aphididae), feeds on different milkweed species in northern California than in Puerto Rico. The hosts vary, primarily between regions, for both identity and quantity of cardenolides that the aphid sequesters for its own defense. In tests for hostassociated fitness trade-offs only one case was found in which host plant and fitness corresponded, but the effect was not significant. However, power to detect fitness trade-offs was limited and the possibility of considerable differences in fitness on a particular host for aphids from different hosts cannot be excluded. On Californian host species, among which migration is common, generalized host use could result from selection for general-purpose genotypes. However, this explanation cannot apply to generalized host use of Californian and Puerto Rican milkweeds because the regions are isolated by distance. A cardenolide sequestration mechanism that is free of substantial energy costs could provide the basis for fitness homeostasis on variable host plants that makes trade-offs unlikely even on hosts from different regions.

  9. Dead-end hollow-fiber ultrafiltration for concentration and enumeration of Escherichia coli and broad-host-range plasmid DNA from wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfahl, Kyle L.; Savin, Mary C.

    2012-01-01

    Broad-host-range plasmids can facilitate dissemination of antibiotic resistance determinants among diverse bacterial populations. We evaluated hollow-fiber ultrafiltration for increases in detection efficiency of broad-host-range plasmids and Escherichia coli DNA in wastewater. Ultrafiltration followed by PCR showed limited increases in DNA detection and quantification in effluent compared with membrane filtration alone. PMID:22251424

  10. Characterization of JG024, a pseudomonas aeruginosa PB1-like broad host range phage under simulated infection conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohde Manfred

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes lung infections in patients suffering from the genetic disorder Cystic Fibrosis (CF. Once a chronic lung infection is established, P. aeruginosa cannot be eradicated by antibiotic treatment. Phage therapy is an alternative to treat these chronic P. aeruginosa infections. However, little is known about the factors which influence phage infection of P. aeruginosa under infection conditions and suitable broad host range phages. Results We isolated and characterized a phage, named JG024, which infects a broad range of clinical and environmental P. aeruginosa strains. Sequencing of the phage genome revealed that the phage JG024 is highly related to the ubiquitous and conserved PB1-like phages. The receptor of phage JG024 was determined as lipopolysaccharide. We used an artificial sputum medium to study phage infection under conditions similar to a chronic lung infection. Alginate production was identified as a factor reducing phage infectivity. Conclusions Phage JG024 is a suitable broad host range phage which could be used in phage therapy. Phage infection experiments under simulated chronic lung infection conditions showed that alginate production reduces phage infection efficiency.

  11. Isolation and Host Range of Bacteriophage with Lytic Activity against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Potential Use as a Fomite Decontaminant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle C Jensen

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus (SA is a commensal bacterium and opportunistic pathogen commonly associated with humans and is capable of causing serious disease and death including sepsis, pneumonia, and meningitis. Methicillin-resistant SA (MRSA isolates are typically resistant to many available antibiotics with the common exception of vancomycin. The presence of vancomycin resistance in some SA isolates combined with the current heavy use of vancomycin to treat MRSA infections indicates that MRSA may achieve broad resistance to vancomycin in the near future. New MRSA treatments are clearly needed. Bacteriophages (phages are viruses that infect bacteria, commonly resulting in death of the host bacterial cell. Phage therapy entails the use of phage to treat or prevent bacterial infections. In this study, 12 phages were isolated that can replicate in human SA and/or MRSA isolates as a potential way to control these infections. 5 phage were discovered through mitomycin C induction of prophage and 7 others as extracellular viruses. Primary SA strains were also isolated from environmental sources to be used as tools for phage discovery and isolation as well as to examine the target cell host range of the phage isolates by spot testing. Primary isolates were tested for susceptibility to oxacillin in order to determine which were MRSA. Experiments were performed to assess the host range and killing potential of newly discovered phage, and significant reductions in bacterial load were detected. We explored the utility of some phage to decontaminate fomites (glass and cloth and found a significant reduction in colony forming units of MRSA following phage treatment, including tests of a phage cocktail against a cocktail of MRSA isolates. Our findings suggest that phage treatment can be used as an effective tool to decontaminate human MRSA from both hard surfaces and fabrics.

  12. Genome Analysis of a Novel Broad Host Range Proteobacteria Phage Isolated from a Bioreactor Treating Industrial Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina de Leeuw

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria, and consequently they have a major impact on the development of a microbial population. In this study, the genome of a novel broad host range bacteriophage, Aquamicrobium phage P14, isolated from a wastewater treatment plant, was analyzed. The Aquamicrobium phage P14 was found to infect members of different Proteobacteria classes (Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria. This phage contains a 40,551 bp long genome and 60% of its genes had blastx hits. Furthermore, the bacteriophage was found to share more than 50% of its genes with several podoviruses and has the same gene order as other polyvalent bacteriophages. The results obtained in this study led to the conclusion that indeed general features of the genome of the Aquamicrobium phage P14 are shared with other broad host range bacteriophages, however further analysis of the genome is needed in order to identify the specific mechanisms which enable the bacteriophage to infect both Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria.

  13. Emerging trends in molecular interactions between plants and the broad host range fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malick eMbengue

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fungal plant pathogens are major threats to food security worldwide. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea are closely related Ascomycete plant pathogens causing mold diseases on hundreds of plant species. There is no genetic source of complete plant resistance to these broad host range pathogens known to date. Instead, natural plant populations show a continuum of resistance levels controlled by multiple genes, a phenotype designated as quantitative disease resistance. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms controlling the interaction between plants and S. sclerotiorum and B. cinerea but significant advances were made on this topic in the last years. This minireview highlights a selection of nine themes that emerged in recent research reports on the molecular bases of plant-S. sclerotiorum and plant-B. cinerea interactions. On the fungal side, this includes progress on understanding the role of oxalic acid, on the study of fungal small secreted proteins. Next, we discuss the exchanges of small RNA between organisms and the control of cell death in plant and fungi during pathogenic interactions. Finally on the plant side, we highlight defense priming by mechanical signals, the characterization of plant Receptor-like proteins and the hormone abscisic acid in the response to B. cinerea and S. sclerotiorum , the role of plant general transcription machinery and plant small bioactive peptides. These represent nine trends we selected as remarkable in our understanding of fungal molecules causing disease and plant mechanisms associated with disease resistance to two devastating broad host range fungi.

  14. Molecular characterization and experimental host range of an isolate of Wissadula golden mosaic St. Thomas virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, A M; Mujaddad-ur-Rehman, Malik; Brown, J K; Reddy, C; Wang, A; Fondong, V; Roye, M E

    2009-12-01

    Partial genome segments of a begomovirus were previously amplified from Wissadula amplissima exhibiting yellow-mosaic and leaf-curl symptoms in the parish of St. Thomas, Jamaica and this isolate assigned to a tentative begomovirus species, Wissadula golden mosaic St. Thomas virus. To clone the complete genome of this isolate of Wissadula golden mosaic St. Thomas virus, abutting primers were designed to PCR amplify its full-length DNA-A and DNA-B components. Sequence analysis of the complete begomovirus genome obtained, confirmed that it belongs to a distinct begomovirus species and this isolate was named Wissadula golden mosaic St. Thomas virus-[Jamaica:Albion:2005] (WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05]). The genome of WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05] is organized similar to that of other bipartite Western Hemisphere begomoviruses. Phylogenetic analyses placed the genome components of WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05] in the Abutilon mosaic virus clade and showed that the DNA-A component is most closely related to four begomovirus species from Cuba, Tobacco leaf curl Cuba virus, Tobacco leaf rugose virus, Tobacco mottle leaf curl virus, and Tomato yellow distortion leaf virus. The putative Rep-binding-site motif in the common region of WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05] was observed to be identical to that of Chino del tomate virus-Tomato [Mexico:Sinaloa:1983], Sida yellow mosaic Yucatan virus-[Mexico:Yucatan:2005], and Tomato leaf curl Sinaloa virus-[Nicaragua:Santa Lucia], suggesting that WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05] is capable of forming viable pseudo-recombinants with these begomoviruses, but not with other members of the Abutilon mosaic virus clade. Biolistic inoculation of test plant species with partial dimers of the WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05] DNA-A and DNA-B components showed that the virus was infectious to Nicotiana benthamiana and W. amplissima and the cultivated species Phaseolus vulgaris (kidney bean) and Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato). Infected W. amplissima plants developed symptoms similar to symptoms observed under field

  15. An interaction domain in human SAMD9 is essential for myxoma virus host-range determinant M062 antagonism of host anti-viral function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nounamo, Bernice; Li, Yibo; O'Byrne, Peter; Kearney, Aoife M; Khan, Amir; Liu, Jia

    2017-03-01

    In humans, deleterious mutations in the sterile α motif domain protein 9 (SAMD9) gene are associated with cancer, inflammation, weakening of the immune response, and developmental arrest. However, the biological function of SAMD9 and its sequence-structure relationships remain to be characterized. Previously, we found that an essential host range factor, M062 protein from myxoma virus (MYXV), antagonized the function of human SAMD9. In this study, we examine the interaction between M062 and human SAMD9 to identify regions that are critical to SAMD9 function. We also characterize the in vitro kinetics of the interaction. In an infection assay, exogenous expression of SAMD9 N-terminus leads to a potent inhibition of wild-type MYXV infection. We reason that this effect is due to the sequestration of viral M062 by the exogenously expressed N-terminal SAMD9 region. Our studies reveal the first molecular insight into viral M062-dependent mechanisms that suppress human SAMD9-associated antiviral function.

  16. High force vibration testing with wide frequency range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Edward F.; Jepsen, Richard A.; Gregory, Danny Lynn

    2013-04-02

    A shaker assembly for vibration testing includes first and second shakers, where the first shaker includes a piezo-electric material for generating vibration. A support structure permits a test object to be supported for vibration of the test object by both shakers. An input permits an external vibration controller to control vibration of the shakers.

  17. The Visual Aural Digit Span Test and Bender Gestalt Test as Predictors of Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Teresa C.; Smith, Billy L.

    1988-01-01

    Examined Visual Aural Digit Span Test (VADS) and Bender-Gestalt (BG) scores as predictors of Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised (WRAT-R) scores among 115 elementary school students referred for low academic achievement. Divided children into three age groups. Results suggest BG and VADS Test can be effective screening devices for young children…

  18. Neutron diffraction test on spin-dependent short range interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Voronin, V V

    2008-01-01

    In this short note we discuss the possibility to get the constraint on the parameters of short range pseudomagnetic interaction of free neutron with matter from the crystal-diffraction experiment. It is demonstrated that for range of $\\lambda<10^{-6}$m this constraint can be a few order better than in any other method.

  19. Input Range Testing for the General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Steven P.

    2007-01-01

    This document contains a test plan for testing input values to the General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT). The plan includes four primary types of information, which rigorously define all tests that should be performed to validate that GMAT will accept allowable inputs and deny disallowed inputs. The first is a complete list of all allowed object fields in GMAT. The second type of information, is test input to be attempted for each field. The third type of information is allowable input values for all objects fields in GMAT. The final piece of information is how GMAT should respond to both valid and invalid information. It is VERY important to note that the tests below must be performed for both the Graphical User Interface and the script!! The examples are illustrated using a scripting perspective, because it is simpler to write up. However, the test must be performed for both interfaces to GMAT.

  20. Enabling Test and Evaluation and Training for Undersea Range Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    the UTR community both for development and life-cycle support. These tools include: N ISO 9001 :2000 Certified Organization, N Doors Requirement...programs. This process, with constant continuous improvement via the ISO 9001 :2000 implementation (NUWC Code 70 Range System Development has been...certified ISO 9001 :2000) and other common tools, will provide the best range systems to the Navy. Other foreign and non-Navy customers are taking advan

  1. New host range for Hematodinium in southern Australia and novel tools for sensitive detection of parasitic dinoflagellates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornik, Sebastian G; Cranenburgh, Andrea; Waller, Ross F

    2013-01-01

    Hematodinium is a parasitic dinoflagellate and emerging pathogen of crustaceans. It preferably manifests in haemolymph of marine decapod crustaceans, killing a large variety of genera with significant impacts on fisheries worldwide. There is, however, evidence that some crustacean stocks harbor high prevalence, low intensity infections that may not result in widespread host mortality and are therefore hard to detect. The most widely used methods for detection of Hematodinium are conventional blood smears and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) against ribosomal RNAs. Blood smears demand a trained investigator, are labor intensive and not readily scalable for high-throughput sampling. PCRs only detect parasite DNA and can also suffer from false negatives and positives. In order to develop alternative detection tools for Hematodinium cells in decapod crustaceans we employed an immunological approach against a newly identified, abundant dinoflagellate-specific nuclear protein--Dinoflagellate/Viral NucleoProtein (DVNP). Both immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and Western blot methods against DVNP showed high sensitivity of detection. The Western blot detects Hematodinium parasites to levels of 25 parasites per milliliter of crustacean haemolymph, with the potential for sample pooling and screening of large samples. Using both PCR and these new tools, we have identified Hematodinium cells present in three new host crab taxa, at high prevalence but with no sign of pathogenesis. This extends the known range of Hematodinium to southern Australia.

  2. Evidence for suppression of immunity as a driver for genomic introgressions and host range expansion in races of Albugo candida, a generalist parasite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McMullan, Mark; Gardiner, Anastasia; Bailey, Kate;

    2015-01-01

    How generalist parasites with wide host ranges can evolve is a central question in parasite evolution. Albugo candida is an obligate biotrophic parasite that consists of many physiological races that each specialize on distinct Brassicaceae host species. By analyzing genome sequence assemblies of......, Darwin's finches, sunflowers and cichlid fishes, and the implications of introgression for pathogen evolution in an agro-ecological environment....

  3. Association and host selectivity in multi-host pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M Malpica

    Full Text Available The distribution of multi-host pathogens over their host range conditions their population dynamics and structure. Also, host co-infection by different pathogens may have important consequences for the evolution of hosts and pathogens, and host-pathogen co-evolution. Hence it is of interest to know if the distribution of pathogens over their host range is random, or if there are associations between hosts and pathogens, or between pathogens sharing a host. To analyse these issues we propose indices for the observed patterns of host infection by pathogens, and for the observed patterns of co-infection, and tests to analyse if these patterns conform to randomness or reflect associations. Applying these tests to the prevalence of five plant viruses on 21 wild plant species evidenced host-virus associations: most hosts and viruses were selective for viruses and hosts, respectively. Interestingly, the more host-selective viruses were the more prevalent ones, suggesting that host specialisation is a successful strategy for multi-host pathogens. Analyses also showed that viruses tended to associate positively in co-infected hosts. The developed indices and tests provide the tools to analyse how strong and common are these associations among different groups of pathogens, which will help to understand and model the population biology of multi-host pathogens.

  4. Evaluation of the Human Host Range of Bovine and Porcine Viruses that may Contaminate Bovine Serum and Porcine Trypsin Used in the Manufacture of Biological Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus-Sekura, Carol; Richardson, James C.; Harston, Rebecca K.; Sane, Nandini; Sheets, Rebecca L.

    2011-01-01

    Current U.S. requirements for testing cell substrates used in production of human biological products for contamination with bovine and porcine viruses are U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) 9CFR tests for bovine serum or porcine trypsin. 9CFR requires testing of bovine serum for seven specific viruses in six families (immunofluorescence) and at least 2 additional families non-specifically (cytopathicity and hemadsorption). 9CFR testing of porcine trypsin is for porcine parvovirus. Recent contaminations suggest these tests may not be sufficient. Assay sensitivity was not the issue for these contaminations that were caused by viruses/virus families not represented in the 9CFR screen. A detailed literature search was undertaken to determine which viruses that infect cattle or swine or bovine or porcine cells in culture also have human host range [ability to infect humans or human cells in culture] and to predict their detection by the currently used 9CFR procedures. There are more viruses of potential risk to biological products manufactured using bovine or porcine raw materials than are likely to be detected by 9CFR testing procedures; even within families, not all members would necessarily be detected. Testing gaps and alternative methodologies should be evaluated to continue to ensure safe, high quality human biologicals. PMID:22000165

  5. Broad host range plasmid-based gene transfer system in the cyanobacterium Gloeobacter violaceus which lacks thylakoids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Haitao; XU Xudong

    2004-01-01

    Gloeobacter violaceus, a cyanobacterium lack of thylakoids, is refractory to genetic manipulations because its cells are enveloped by a thick gelatinous sheath and in colonial form.In this study, a large number of single cells were obtained by repeated pumping with a syringe with the gelatinous sheath removed.And an exogenous broad host range plasmid pKT210 was conjugatively transferred into G.violaceus.Analyses with dot-blot hybridization and restriction mapping showed that the exogenous plasmid pKT210 had been introduced into G.violaceus and stably maintained with no alteration in its structure.pKT210 extracted from G.violaceus exconjugants could be transformed into the mcr- mrr- E.coli strain DH10B but not the mcr+ mrr+ strain DH5α, which suggests that a methylase system may be present in G.violaceus.

  6. Gauss's law test of gravity at short range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, M. V.; Paik, H. J.

    1993-01-01

    A null test of the gravitational inverse-square law can be performed by testing Gauss's law for the field. We have constructed a three-axis superconducting gravity gradiometer and carried out such a test. A lead pendulum weighing 1500 kg was used to produce a time-varying field. This experiment places a new (2-sigma) limit of alpha = (0.9 + or - 4.6) x 10 exp -4 at lambda of 1.5 m, where alpha and lambda are parameters for the generalized potential phi = -(GM/r)(l + alpha e exp -r/lambda).

  7. Depression as sickness behavior? A test of the host defense hypothesis in a high pathogen population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieglitz, Jonathan; Trumble, Benjamin C; Thompson, Melissa Emery; Blackwell, Aaron D; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Sadness is an emotion universally recognized across cultures, suggesting it plays an important functional role in regulating human behavior. Numerous adaptive explanations of persistent sadness interfering with daily functioning (hereafter "depression") have been proposed, but most do not explain frequent bidirectional associations between depression and greater immune activation. Here we test several predictions of the host defense hypothesis, which posits that depression is part of a broader coordinated evolved response to infection or tissue injury (i.e. "sickness behavior") that promotes energy conservation and reallocation to facilitate immune activation. In a high pathogen population of lean and relatively egalitarian Bolivian forager-horticulturalists, we test whether depression and its symptoms are associated with greater baseline concentration of immune biomarkers reliably associated with depression in Western populations (i.e. tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], interleukin-1 beta [IL-1β], interleukin-6 [IL-6], and C-reactive protein [CRP]). We also test whether greater pro-inflammatory cytokine responses to ex vivo antigen stimulation are associated with depression and its symptoms, which is expected if depression facilitates immune activation. These predictions are largely supported in a sample of older adult Tsimane (mean±SD age=53.2±11.0, range=34-85, n=649) after adjusting for potential confounders. Emotional, cognitive and somatic symptoms of depression are each associated with greater immune activation, both at baseline and in response to ex vivo stimulation. The association between depression and greater immune activation is therefore not unique to Western populations. While our findings are not predicted by other adaptive hypotheses of depression, they are not incompatible with those hypotheses and future research is necessary to isolate and test competing predictions.

  8. Role of receptor polymorphism and glycosylation in syncytium induction and host range variation of ecotropic mouse gammaretroviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Tiyun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously identified unusual variants of Moloney and Friend ecotropic mouse gammaretroviruses that have altered host range and are cytopathic in cells of the wild mouse species Mus dunni. Cytopathicity was attributed to different amino acid substitutions at the same critical env residue involved in receptor interaction: S82F in the Moloney variant Spl574, and S84A in the Friend mouse leukemia virus F-S MLV. Because M. dunni cells carry a variant CAT-1 cell surface virus receptor (dCAT-1, we examined the role of this receptor variant in cytopathicity and host range. Results We expressed dCAT-1 or mCAT-1 of NIH 3T3 origin in cells that are not normally infectible with ecotropic MLVs and evaluated the transfectants for susceptibility to virus infection and to virus-induced syncytium formation. The dCAT-1 transfectants, but not the mCAT-1 transfectants, were susceptible to virus-induced cytopathicity, and this cytopathic response was accompanied by the accumulation of unintegrated viral DNA. The dCAT-1 transfectants, however, did not also reproduce the relative resistance of M. dunni cells to Moloney MLV, and the mCAT-1 transfectants did not show the relative resistance of NIH 3T3 cells to Spl574. Western analysis, use of glycosylation inhibitors and mutagenesis to remove receptor glycosylation sites identified a possible role for cell-specific glycosylation in the modulation of virus entry. Conclusion Virus entry and virus-induced syncytium formation using the CAT-1 receptor are mediated by a small number of critical amino acid residues in receptor and virus Env. Virus entry is modulated by glycosylation of cellular proteins, and this effect is cell and virus-specific.

  9. Transformation of Azotobacter vinelandii OP with a broad host range plasmid containing a cloned chromosomal nif-DNA marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingle, W H

    1988-05-01

    The non-nitrogen-fixing (Nif-) strain UW10 of Azotobacter vinelandii OP (UW) was naturally induced to competence and transformed with broad host range plasmid pKT210 containing the cloned wild-type nif-10 locus from A. vinelandii UW (Nif+); this marker was unable to complement the nif-10 mutation in trans, but could through recombination with the chromosome. The most frequent type of transformation event observed was recombination between the homologous regions of the plasmid and chromosome (producing Nif+ transformants) with loss of the plasmid vector. At a substantially lower frequency, transformants expressing the plasmid-encoded antibiotic resistance determinants were isolated which were phenotypically Nif-. Agarose gel electrophoresis showed that these transformants contained a plasmid migrating with the same mobility as the original donor plasmid. During culture these transformants acquired a Nif+ phenotype without the loss of the plasmid, as judged by the use of a hybridization probe specific for the cloned nif-DNA fragment. These data indicate that plasmids carrying sequences homologous to chromosomal sequences could be maintained in recombination-proficient A. vinelandii UW. The introduction of plasmids containing sequences homologous to chromosomal sequences was facilitated by prelinearization of the plasmid using a restriction endonuclease generating cohesive ends. Because the site of linearization could be chosen outside the region of shared homology, it was unlikely that the route of plasmid establishment occurred via a homology-facilitated transformation mechanism. The data also indicated that A. vinelandii UW could harbor broad host range cloning vectors based on plasmid RSF1010 without significant impairment of its nitrogen-fixation ability.

  10. White Sands Missile Range Overview & Introduction: Test Capabilities Briefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    Vulnerability and Propagation • The transportable Advanced Pointer Tracker (APT) is a 60 cm beam director for the PLVTS to conduct dynamic tactical engagements...OT • High quality instrumentation & data collection of entire flight • Recovery forensics and materials performance • Scenario control and...calibration and repair support (C&RS) for WSMR and all its testing activities and organizations Test Measurement & Diagnostic Equipment Army Proven

  11. Towards an understanding of the interactions of Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli within the reduviid insect host Rhodnius prolixus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Azambuja

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This review outlines aspects on the developmental stages of Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli in the invertebrate host, Rhodnius prolixus. Special attention is given to the interactions of these parasites with gut and hemolymph molecules and the effects of the organization of midgut epithelial cells on the parasite development. The vector insect's permissiveness to T. cruzi, which develops in the vector gut, largely depends on the host nutritional state, the parasite strain and the molecular interactions with trypanolytic compounds, lectins and resident bacteria in the gut. T. rangeli invades the hemocoel and once in the hemolymph, can be recognized and activates the defense system of its insect vector, i.e., the prophenoloxidase system, phagocytosis, hemocyte microaggregation, superoxide and nitric oxide activity and the eicosanoid biosynthesis pathway. Taken together, these findings not only provide a better understanding of the interactions parasite - insect vector, but also offer new insights into basic physiological processes involved in the parasites transmission.Esta revisão destaca aspectos dos estágios do desenvolvimento de Trypanosoma cruzi e Trypanosoma rangeli em seu hospedeiro invertebrado, Rhodnius prolixus Atenção especial é dada às interações desses parasitas com moléculas presentes no tubo digestivo e na hemolinfa e efeitos da organização das células epiteliais sobre o desenvolvimento do parasita. A susceptibilidade do inseto vetor ao T. cruzi, o qual desenvolve no tubo digestivo, dependem do estado nutricional do hospedeiro, da cepa do parasita e de interações moleculares com compostos tripanolíticos, lectinas e bactérias residentes no tubo digestivo. O T. rangeli invade a hemocele e pode ser reconhecido e ativar o sistema de defesa do inseto vetor, ou seja, o sistema profenoloxidase, fagocitose, microagregação hemocitária,atividade de superóxido e óxido nítrico e a via de biossíntese dos eicosan

  12. Investigating the host-range of the rust fungus Puccinia psidii sensu lato across tribes of the family Myrtaceae present in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Morin

    Full Text Available The exotic rust fungus Puccinia psidii sensu lato was first detected in Australia in April 2010. This study aimed to determine the host-range potential of this accession of the rust by testing its pathogenicity on plants of 122 taxa, representative of the 15 tribes of the subfamily Myrtoideae in the family Myrtaceae. Each taxon was tested in two separate trials (unless indicated otherwise that comprised up to five replicates per taxon and six replicates of a positive control (Syzygium jambos. No visible symptoms were observed on the following four taxa in either trial: Eucalyptus grandis×camaldulensis, E. moluccana, Lophostemon confertus and Sannantha angusta. Only small chlorotic or necrotic flecks without any uredinia (rust fruiting bodies were observed on inoculated leaves of seven other taxa (Acca sellowiana, Corymbia calophylla 'Rosea', Lophostemon suaveolens, Psidium cattleyanum, P. guajava 'Hawaiian' and 'Indian', Syzygium unipunctatum. Fully-developed uredinia were observed on all replicates across both trials of 28 taxa from 8 tribes belonging to the following 17 genera: Agonis, Austromyrtus, Beaufortia, Callistemon, Calothamnus, Chamelaucium, Darwinia, Eucalyptus, Gossia, Kunzea, Leptospermum, Melaleuca, Metrosideros, Syzygium, Thryptomene, Tristania, Verticordia. In contrast, the remaining 83 taxa inoculated, including the majority of Corymbia and Eucalyptus species, developed a broad range of symptoms, often across the full spectrum, from fully-developed uredinia to no visible symptoms. These results were encouraging as they indicate that some levels of genetic resistance to the rust possibly exist in these taxa. Overall, our results indicated no apparent association between the presence or absence of disease symptoms and the phylogenetic relatedness of taxa. It is most likely that the majority of the thousands of Myrtaceae species found in Australia have the potential to become infected to some degree by the rust, although this

  13. Investigating the Host-Range of the Rust Fungus Puccinia psidii sensu lato across Tribes of the Family Myrtaceae Present in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Louise; Aveyard, Ruth; Lidbetter, Jonathan R.; Wilson, Peter G.

    2012-01-01

    The exotic rust fungus Puccinia psidii sensu lato was first detected in Australia in April 2010. This study aimed to determine the host-range potential of this accession of the rust by testing its pathogenicity on plants of 122 taxa, representative of the 15 tribes of the subfamily Myrtoideae in the family Myrtaceae. Each taxon was tested in two separate trials (unless indicated otherwise) that comprised up to five replicates per taxon and six replicates of a positive control (Syzygium jambos). No visible symptoms were observed on the following four taxa in either trial: Eucalyptus grandis×camaldulensis, E. moluccana, Lophostemon confertus and Sannantha angusta. Only small chlorotic or necrotic flecks without any uredinia (rust fruiting bodies) were observed on inoculated leaves of seven other taxa (Acca sellowiana, Corymbia calophylla ‘Rosea’, Lophostemon suaveolens, Psidium cattleyanum, P. guajava ‘Hawaiian’ and ‘Indian’, Syzygium unipunctatum). Fully-developed uredinia were observed on all replicates across both trials of 28 taxa from 8 tribes belonging to the following 17 genera: Agonis, Austromyrtus, Beaufortia, Callistemon, Calothamnus, Chamelaucium, Darwinia, Eucalyptus, Gossia, Kunzea, Leptospermum, Melaleuca, Metrosideros, Syzygium, Thryptomene, Tristania, Verticordia. In contrast, the remaining 83 taxa inoculated, including the majority of Corymbia and Eucalyptus species, developed a broad range of symptoms, often across the full spectrum, from fully-developed uredinia to no visible symptoms. These results were encouraging as they indicate that some levels of genetic resistance to the rust possibly exist in these taxa. Overall, our results indicated no apparent association between the presence or absence of disease symptoms and the phylogenetic relatedness of taxa. It is most likely that the majority of the thousands of Myrtaceae species found in Australia have the potential to become infected to some degree by the rust, although this wide

  14. Investigating the host-range of the rust fungus Puccinia psidii sensu lato across tribes of the family Myrtaceae present in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Louise; Aveyard, Ruth; Lidbetter, Jonathan R; Wilson, Peter G

    2012-01-01

    The exotic rust fungus Puccinia psidii sensu lato was first detected in Australia in April 2010. This study aimed to determine the host-range potential of this accession of the rust by testing its pathogenicity on plants of 122 taxa, representative of the 15 tribes of the subfamily Myrtoideae in the family Myrtaceae. Each taxon was tested in two separate trials (unless indicated otherwise) that comprised up to five replicates per taxon and six replicates of a positive control (Syzygium jambos). No visible symptoms were observed on the following four taxa in either trial: Eucalyptus grandis×camaldulensis, E. moluccana, Lophostemon confertus and Sannantha angusta. Only small chlorotic or necrotic flecks without any uredinia (rust fruiting bodies) were observed on inoculated leaves of seven other taxa (Acca sellowiana, Corymbia calophylla 'Rosea', Lophostemon suaveolens, Psidium cattleyanum, P. guajava 'Hawaiian' and 'Indian', Syzygium unipunctatum). Fully-developed uredinia were observed on all replicates across both trials of 28 taxa from 8 tribes belonging to the following 17 genera: Agonis, Austromyrtus, Beaufortia, Callistemon, Calothamnus, Chamelaucium, Darwinia, Eucalyptus, Gossia, Kunzea, Leptospermum, Melaleuca, Metrosideros, Syzygium, Thryptomene, Tristania, Verticordia. In contrast, the remaining 83 taxa inoculated, including the majority of Corymbia and Eucalyptus species, developed a broad range of symptoms, often across the full spectrum, from fully-developed uredinia to no visible symptoms. These results were encouraging as they indicate that some levels of genetic resistance to the rust possibly exist in these taxa. Overall, our results indicated no apparent association between the presence or absence of disease symptoms and the phylogenetic relatedness of taxa. It is most likely that the majority of the thousands of Myrtaceae species found in Australia have the potential to become infected to some degree by the rust, although this wide host range may

  15. The Danish Dyslexia Test. Validity of a wide-range, web-based test for dyslexia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads; Elbro, Carsten; Møller, Helene Lykke;

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Dyslexia is a long lasting problem in learning to decode written words accurately and fluently. This definition suggests that dyslexia remains sufficiently constant to be assessed reliably with just one wide-range test across all educational levels. The current study investigated...... this possibility by asking whether students who receive special support in reading differ from other students on the same scale of decoding across all educational levels. Method: Decoding and spelling measures from a newly developed, web-based Danish dyslexia test were taken from 1564 students from Grade 3...... of decoding can be a valid marker of dyslexia across educational levels. A unified test may simplify testing and facilitate a common understanding of dyslexia throughout the educational system....

  16. Methodology Investigation. Phase 1. Compact Range Test Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    incorporate a dual-axis hydraulic positioner into the existing protocol used by commercial antenna positioner controllers. The USAEPG Compact Range could not...o :0.0/ 4.,V - -$’\\ 5.3 Elevation Increments: Sin Off 0.01 deg. (𔃻v VbAi No CoAP 0.05 deg. 0.1 deg. " " 0.2 deg. < 1" .* M1At, ’ /A ., , 0,01 5.4

  17. H0LiCOW VI. Testing the fidelity of lensed quasar host galaxy reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Xuheng; Treu, Tommaso; Suyu, Sherry H; Chen, Geoff C -F; Auger, Matthew W; Marshall, Philip J; Agnello, Adriano; Courbin, Frederic; Nierenberg, Anna M; Rusu, Cristian E; Sluse, Dominique; Sonnenfeld, Alessandro; Wong, Kenneth C

    2016-01-01

    The empirical correlation between the mass of a super-massive black hole (MBH) and its host galaxy properties is widely considered to be evidence of their co-evolution. A powerful way to test the co-evolution scenario and learn about the feedback processes linking galaxies and nuclear activity is to measure these correlations as a function of redshift. Unfortunately, currently MBH can only be estimated in active galaxies at cosmological distances. At these distances, bright active galactic nuclei (AGN) can outshine the host galaxy, making it extremely difficult to measure the host's luminosity. Strongly lensed AGNs provide in principle a great opportunity to improve the sensitivity and accuracy of the host galaxy luminosity measurements as the host galaxy is magnified and more easily separated from the point source, provided the lens model is sufficiently accurate. In order to measure the MBH-L correlation with strong lensing, it is necessary to ensure that the lens modelling is accurate, and that the host ga...

  18. H0LiCOW. VI. Testing the fidelity of lensed quasar host galaxy reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xuheng; Liao, Kai; Treu, Tommaso; Suyu, Sherry H.; Chen, Geoff C.-F.; Auger, Matthew W.; Marshall, Philip J.; Agnello, Adriano; Courbin, Frederic; Nierenberg, Anna M.; Rusu, Cristian E.; Sluse, Dominique; Sonnenfeld, Alessandro; Wong, Kenneth C.

    2017-03-01

    The empirical correlation between the mass of a supermassive black hole (M_BH) and its host galaxy properties is widely considered to be an evidence of their co-evolution. A powerful way to test the co-evolution scenario and learn about the feedback processes linking galaxies and nuclear activity is to measure these correlations as a function of redshift. Unfortunately, currently M_BH can only be estimated in active galaxies at cosmological distances. At these distances, bright active galactic nuclei (AGNs) can outshine the host galaxy, making it extremely difficult to measure the host's luminosity. Strongly lensed AGNs provide in principle a great opportunity to improve the sensitivity and accuracy of the host galaxy luminosity measurements as the host galaxy is magnified and more easily separated from the point source, provided the lens model is sufficiently accurate. In order to measure the M_BH-L correlation with strong lensing, it is necessary to ensure that the lens modelling is accurate, and that the host galaxy luminosity can be recovered to at least a precision and accuracy better than that of the typical M_BH measurement. We carry out extensive and realistic simulations of deep Hubble Space Telescope observations of lensed AGNs obtained by our collaboration. We show that the host galaxy luminosity can be recovered with better accuracy and precision than the typical uncertainty in M_BH(∼0.5 dex) for hosts as faint as 2-4 mag dimmer than the AGN itself. Our simulations will be used to estimate bias and uncertainties in the actual measurements to be presented in a future paper.

  19. WIDE RANGE ACHIEVEMENT TEST IN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER: TEST-RETEST STABILITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantz, Paul B; Bigler, Erin D; Froehlich, Alyson L; Prigge, Molly B D; Cariello, Annahir N; Travers, Brittany G; Anderson, Jeffrey; Zielinski, Brandon A; Alexander, Andrew L; Lange, Nicholas; Lainhart, Janet E

    2015-06-01

    The principal goal of this descriptive study was to establish the test-retest stability of the Reading, Spelling, and Arithmetic subtest scores of the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT-3) across two administrations in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Participants (N = 31) were males ages 6-22 years (M = 15.2, SD = 4.0) who were part of a larger ongoing longitudinal study of brain development in children and adults with autism spectrum disorder (N = 185). Test-retest stability for all three subtests remained consistent across administration periods (M = 31.8 mo., SD = 4.1). Age at time of administration, time between administrations, and test form did not significantly influence test-retest stability. Results indicated that for research involving individuals with autism spectrum disorder with a full scale intelligence quotient above 75, the WRAT-3 Spelling and Arithmetic subtests have acceptable test-retest stability over time and the Reading subtest has moderate test-retest stability over time.

  20. WIDE RANGE ACHIEVEMENT TEST IN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER: TEST-RETEST STABILITY1, 2, 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    JANTZ, PAUL B.; FROEHLICH, ALYSON L.; CARIELLO, ANNAHIR N.; ANDERSON, JEFFREY; ALEXANDER, ANDREW L.; BIGLER, ERIN D.; PRIGGE, MOLLY B. D.; TRAVERS, BRITTANY G.; ZIELINSKI, BRANDON A.; LANGE, NICHOLAS; LAINHART, JANET E.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The principal goal of this descriptive study was to establish the test-retest stability of the Reading, Spelling, and Arithmetic subtest scores of the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT–3) across two administrations in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Participants (N=31) were males ages 6–22years (M=15.2, SD=4.0) who were part of a larger ongoing longitudinal study of brain development in children and adults with autism spectrum disorder (N=185). Test-retest stability for all three subtests remained consistent across administration periods (M=31.8mo., SD=4.1). Age at time of administration, time between administrations, and test form did not significantly influence test-retest stability. Results indicated that for research involving individuals with autism spectrum disorder with a full scale intelligence quotient above 75, the WRAT–3 Spelling and Arithmetic subtests have acceptable test-retest stability over time and the Reading subtest has moderate test-retest stability over time. PMID:25871566

  1. Strain Mesorhizobium sp. CCNWGX035: A Stress-Tolerant Isolate from Glycyrrhiza glabra Displaying a Wide Host Range of Nodulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Thirty-nine rhizobial isolates were isolated from the root nodules of Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Glycyrrhiza glabrca,growing in the arid and semiarid regions of northwestern China,to test their taxonomic position and stress tolerance and to select one promising putative inocnlant strain for further studies.On the basis of 113 physiological and biochemical characteristics,the isolates were clustered into three groups.One isolate CCNWGX035 was found to have high tolerance to NaCl,pH,and temperature.By sequencing the 16S rDNA,isolate CCNWGX035 was placed in genus Mesorhizobiurm.Nodulation tests demonstrated that the isolate not only formed nitrogen-fixing nodules on its original host plant Gly-cyrrhiza glabra,but also on Sophora viciifolia,Lotus cornieulatus,Trifolium reperts,Melilotus suaveolens,and Sophora alopecuroides.On the basis of sequence analysis of the nodA gene,isolate CCNWGX035 was closely related to strains of the genus Mesorhizobiurm,exhibiting some novel characteristics of root nodule bacteria.

  2. The roles of ecological fitting, phylogeny and physiological equivalence in understanding realized and fundamental host ranges in endoparasitoid wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, J A; Ximénez de Embún, M G; Bukovinszky, T; Gols, R

    2012-10-01

    Co-evolutionary theory underpins our understanding of interactions in nature involving plant-herbivore and host-parasite interactions. However, many studies that are published in the empirical literature that have explored life history and development strategies between endoparasitoid wasps and their hosts are based on species that have no evolutionary history with one another. Here, we investigated novel associations involving two closely related solitary endoparasitoids that originate from Europe and North America and several of their natural and factitious hosts from both continents. The natural hosts of both species are also closely related, all being members of the same family. We compared development and survival of both parasitoids on the four host species and predicted that parasitoid performance is better on their own natural hosts. In contrast with this expectation, survival, adult size and development time of both parasitoids were similar on all (with one exception) hosts, irrespective as to their geographic origin. Our results show that phylogenetic affinity among the natural and factitious hosts plays an important role in their nutritional suitability for related parasitoids. Evolved traits in parasitoids, such as immune suppression and development, thus enable them to successfully develop in novel host species with which they have no evolutionary history. Our results show that host suitability for specialized organisms like endoparasitoids is closely linked with phylogenetic history and macro-evolution as well as local adaptation and micro-evolution. We argue that the importance of novel interactions and 'ecological fitting' based on phylogeny is a greatly underappreciated concept in many resource-consumer studies.

  3. Pathogen-host associations and predicted range shifts of human monkeypox in response to climate change in central Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri A Thomassen

    Full Text Available Climate change is predicted to result in changes in the geographic ranges and local prevalence of infectious diseases, either through direct effects on the pathogen, or indirectly through range shifts in vector and reservoir species. To better understand the occurrence of monkeypox virus (MPXV, an emerging Orthopoxvirus in humans, under contemporary and future climate conditions, we used ecological niche modeling techniques in conjunction with climate and remote-sensing variables. We first created spatially explicit probability distributions of its candidate reservoir species in Africa's Congo Basin. Reservoir species distributions were subsequently used to model current and projected future distributions of human monkeypox (MPX. Results indicate that forest clearing and climate are significant driving factors of the transmission of MPX from wildlife to humans under current climate conditions. Models under contemporary climate conditions performed well, as indicated by high values for the area under the receiver operator curve (AUC, and tests on spatially randomly and non-randomly omitted test data. Future projections were made on IPCC 4(th Assessment climate change scenarios for 2050 and 2080, ranging from more conservative to more aggressive, and representing the potential variation within which range shifts can be expected to occur. Future projections showed range shifts into regions where MPX has not been recorded previously. Increased suitability for MPX was predicted in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Models developed here are useful for identifying areas where environmental conditions may become more suitable for human MPX; targeting candidate reservoir species for future screening efforts; and prioritizing regions for future MPX surveillance efforts.

  4. Prevalence, Genetic Characterization, and 18S Small Subunit Ribosomal RNA Diversity of Trypanosoma rangeli in Triatomine and Mammal Hosts in Endemic Areas for Chagas Disease in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocaña-Mayorga, Sofia; Aguirre-Villacis, Fernanda; Pinto, C Miguel; Vallejo, Gustavo A; Grijalva, Mario J

    2015-12-01

    Trypanosoma rangeli is a nonpathogenic parasite for humans; however, its medical importance relies in its similarity and overlapping distribution with Trypanosoma cruzi, causal agent of Chagas disease in the Americas. The genetic diversity of T. rangeli and its association with host species (triatomines and mammals) has been identified along Central and the South America; however, it has not included data of isolates from Ecuador. This study reports infection with T. rangeli in 18 genera of mammal hosts and five species of triatomines in three environments (domestic, peridomestic, and sylvatic). Higher infection rates were found in the sylvatic environment, in close association with Rhodnius ecuadoriensis. The results of this study extend the range of hosts infected with this parasite and the geographic range of the T. rangeli genotype KP1(-)/lineage C in South America. It was not possible to detect variation on T. rangeli from the central coastal region and southern Ecuador with the analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA) gene, even though these areas are ecologically different and a phenotypic subdivision of R. ecuadoriensis has been found. R. ecuadoriensis is considered one of the most important vectors for Chagas disease transmission in Ecuador due to its wide distribution and adaptability to diverse environments. An extensive knowledge of the trypanosomes circulating in this species of triatomine, and associated mammal hosts, is important for delineating transmission dynamics and preventive measures in the endemic areas of Ecuador and Northern Peru.

  5. A method for evaluating the host range of bacteriophages using phages fluorescently labeled with 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Sayaka; Okano, Hironori; Tanji, Yasunori; Ohashi, Akiyoshi; Watanabe, Kazuya; Takai, Ken; Imachi, Hiroyuki

    2012-08-01

    The evaluation of bacteriophage (phage) host range is a significant issue in understanding phage and prokaryotic community interactions. However, in conventional methods, such as plaque assay, target host strains must be isolated, although almost all environmental prokaryotes are recalcitrant to cultivation. Here, we introduce a novel phage host range evaluation method using fluorescently labeled phages (the FLP method), which consists of the following four steps: (i) Fluorescently labeled phages are added to a microbial consortium, and host cells are infected and fluorescently labeled. (ii) Fluorescent cells are sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. (iii) 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from sorted cells are analyzed, and specific oligonucleotide probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) are designed. (iv) Cells labeled with both fluorescently labeled phage and FISH probe are identified as host cells. To verify the feasibility of this method, we used T4 phage and Escherichia coli as a model. We first used nucleic acid stain reagents for phage labeling; however, the reagents also stained non-host cells. Next, we employed the Click-iT EdU (5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine) assay kit from Invitrogen for phage labeling. Using EdU-labeled T4 phage, we could specifically detect E. coli cells in a complex microbial consortium from municipal sewage. We also confirmed that FISH could be applied to the infected E. coli cells. These results suggest that this FLP method using the EdU assay kit is a useful method for evaluating phage host range and may have a potential application for various types of phages, even if their prokaryotic hosts are currently unculturable.

  6. Fundamental host range of Pseudophilothrips ichini s.l. (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae): a candidate biological control agent of Schinus terebinthifolius (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuda, J P; Medal, J C; Gillmore, J L; Habeck, D H; Pedrosa-Macedo, J H

    2009-12-01

    Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) is a non-native perennial woody plant that is one of the most invasive weeds in Florida, Hawaii, and more recently California and Texas. This plant was introduced into Florida from South America as a landscape ornamental in the late 19th century, eventually escaped cultivation, and now dominates entire ecosystems in south-central Florida. Recent DNA studies have confirmed two separate introductions of S. terebinthifolius in Florida, and there is evidence of hybridization. A thrips, Pseudophilothrips ichini s.l. (Hood) (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae), is commonly found attacking shoots and flowers of S. terebinthifolius in Brazil. Immatures and occasionally adults form large aggregations on young terminal growth (stems and leaves) of the plant. Feeding damage by P. ichini s.l. frequently kills new shoots, which reduces vigor and restricts growth of S. terebinthifolius. Greenhouse and laboratory host range tests with 46 plant species in 18 families and 10 orders were conducted in Paraná, Brazil, and Florida. Results of no-choice, paired-choice, and multiple-choice tests indicated that P. ichini s.l. is capable of reproducing only on S. terebinthifolius and possibly Schinus molle L., an ornamental introduced into California from Peru that has escaped cultivation and is considered invasive. Our results showed that P. ichini s.l. posed minimal risk to mature S. molle plants or the Florida native Metopium toxiferum L. Krug and Urb. In May 2007, the federal interagency Technical Advisory Group for Biological Control Agents of Weeds (TAG) concluded P. ichini s.l. was sufficiently host specific to recommend its release from quarantine.

  7. Recent host range expansion of canine distemper virus and variation in its receptor, the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule, in carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohishi, Kazue; Suzuki, Rintaro; Maeda, Taro; Tsuda, Miwako; Abe, Erika; Yoshida, Takao; Endo, Yasuyuki; Okamura, Maki; Nagamine, Takashi; Yamamoto, Hanae; Ueda, Miya; Maruyama, Tadashi

    2014-07-01

    The signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) is a receptor for morbilliviruses. To understand the recent host range expansion of canine distemper virus (CDV) in carnivores, we determined the nucleotide sequences of SLAMs of various carnivores and generated three-dimensional homology SLAM models. Thirty-four amino acid residues were found for the candidates binding to CDV on the interface of the carnivore SLAMs. SLAM of the domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) were similar to those of other members of the suborder Caniformia, indicating that the animals in this group have similar sensitivity to dog CDV. However, they were different at nine positions from those of felids. Among the nine residues, four of domestic cat (Felis catus) SLAM (72, 76, 82, and 129) and three of lion (Panthera leo persica) SLAM (72, 82, and 129) were associated with charge alterations, suggesting that the felid interfaces have lower affinities to dog CDV. Only the residue at 76 was different between domestic cat and lion SLAM interfaces. The domestic cat SLAM had threonine at 76, whereas the lion SLAM had arginine, a positively charged residue like that of the dog SLAM. The cat SLAM with threonine is likely to have lower affinity to CDV-H and to confer higher resistance against dog CDV. Thus, the four residues (72, 76, 82, and 129) on carnivore SLAMs are important for the determination of affinity and sensitivity with CDV. Additionally, the CDV-H protein of felid strains had a substitution of histidine for tyrosine at 549 of dog CDV-H and may have higher affinity to lion SLAM. Three-dimensional model construction is a new risk assessment method of morbillivirus infectivity. Because the method is applicable to animals that have no information about virus infection, it is especially useful for morbillivirus risk assessment and wildlife conservation.

  8. Myxoma virus M064 is a novel member of the poxvirus C7L superfamily of host range factors that controls the kinetics of myxomatosis in European rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Wennier, Sonia; Moussatche, Nissin; Reinhard, Mary; Condit, Richard; McFadden, Grant

    2012-05-01

    The myxoma virus (MYXV) carries three tandem C7L-like host range genes (M062R, M063R, and M064R). However, despite the fact that the sequences of these three genes are similar, they possess very distinctive functions in vivo. The role of M064 in MYXV pathogenesis was investigated and compared to the roles of M062 and M063. We report that M064 is a virulence factor that contributes to MYXV pathogenesis but lacks the host range properties associated with M062 and M063.

  9. Single Mutations in the VP2 300 Loop Region of the Three-Fold Spike of the Carnivore Parvovirus Capsid Can Determine Host Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organtini, Lindsey J.; Zhang, Sheng; Hafenstein, Susan L.; Holmes, Edward C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sylvatic carnivores, such as raccoons, have recently been recognized as important hosts in the evolution of canine parvovirus (CPV), a pandemic pathogen of domestic dogs. Although viruses from raccoons do not efficiently bind the dog transferrin receptor (TfR) or infect dog cells, a single mutation changing an aspartic acid to a glycine at capsid (VP2) position 300 in the prototype raccoon CPV allows dog cell infection. Because VP2 position 300 exhibits extensive amino acid variation among the carnivore parvoviruses, we further investigated its role in determining host range by analyzing its diversity and evolution in nature and by creating a comprehensive set of VP2 position 300 mutants in infectious clones. Notably, some position 300 residues rendered CPV noninfectious for dog, but not cat or fox, cells. Changes of adjacent residues (residues 299 and 301) were also observed often after cell culture passage in different hosts, and some of the mutations mimicked changes seen in viruses recovered from natural infections of alternative hosts, suggesting that compensatory mutations were selected to accommodate the new residue at position 300. Analysis of the TfRs of carnivore hosts used in the experimental evolution studies demonstrated that their glycosylation patterns varied, including a glycan present only on the domestic dog TfR that dictates susceptibility to parvoviruses. Overall, there were significant differences in the abilities of viruses with alternative position 300 residues to bind TfRs and infect different carnivore hosts, demonstrating that the process of infection is highly host dependent and that VP2 position 300 is a key determinant of host range. IMPORTANCE Although the emergence and pandemic spread of canine parvovirus (CPV) are well documented, the carnivore hosts and evolutionary pathways involved in its emergence remain enigmatic. We recently demonstrated that a region in the capsid structure of CPV, centered around VP2 position 300

  10. Calendar Year 2004 annual site environmental report : Tonopah Test Range, Nevada & Kauai Test Facility, Hawaii.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoya, Amber L.; Wagner, Katrina; Goering, Teresa Lynn; Koss, Susan I.; Salinas, Stephanie A.

    2005-09-01

    Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nevada and Kauai Test Facility (KTF) in Hawaii are government-owned, contractor-operated facilities operated by Sandia Corporation, a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), through the Sandia Site Office (SSO), in Albuquerque, NM, manages TTR and KTF's operations. Sandia Corporation conducts operations at TTR in support of DOE/NNSA's Weapons Ordnance Program and has operated the site since 1957. Westinghouse Government Services subcontracts to Sandia Corporation in administering most of the environmental programs at TTR. Sandia Corporation operates KTF as a rocket preparation launching and tracking facility. This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) summarizes data and the compliance status of the environmental protection and monitoring program at TTR and KTF through Calendar Year (CY) 2004. The compliance status of environmental regulations applicable at these sites include state and federal regulations governing air emissions, wastewater effluent, waste management, terrestrial surveillance, and Environmental Restoration (ER) cleanup activities. Sandia Corporation is responsible only for those environmental program activities related to its operations. The DOE/NNSA, Nevada Site Office (NSO) retains responsibility for the cleanup and management of ER TTR sites. Currently, there are no ER Sites at KTF. Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program (DOE 2005) and DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting (DOE 2004b).

  11. Test Operations Procedure (TOP) 05-2-543 Enhanced Flight Termination Receiver (EFTR) Range Certification Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    flight. Inter-Range Instrumentation Group ( IRIG ) Original standing groups formed by the Range Commanders Council. The IRIG is an older term...APPENDIX F. ABBREVIATIONS. ID identification IF intermediate frequency IRD Interface Requirements Document IRIG Inter-Range Instrumentation

  12. A novel test for host-symbiont codivergence indicates ancient origin of fungal endophytes in grasses

    CERN Document Server

    Schardl, Chris L; Lindstrom, Adam; Speakman, Skyler; Stromberg, Arnold; Yoshida, Ruriko

    2007-01-01

    Significant phylogenetic codivergence between plant or animal hosts ($H$) and their symbionts or parasites ($P$) indicate the importance of their interactions on evolutionary time scales. However, valid and realistic methods to test for codivergence are not fully developed. One of the systems where possible codivergence has been of interest involves the large subfamily of temperate grasses (Pooideae) and their endophytic fungi (epichloae). These widespread symbioses often help protect host plants from herbivory and stresses, and affect species diversity and food web structures. Here we introduce the MRCALink (most-recent-common-ancestor link) method and use it to investigate the possibility of grass-epichlo\\"e codivergence. MRCALink applied to ultrametric $H$ and $P$ trees identifies all corresponding nodes for pairwise comparisons of MRCA ages. The result is compared to the space of random $H$ and $P$ tree pairs estimated by a Monte Carlo method.

  13. Test technology on divergence angle of laser range finder based on CCD imaging fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Sheng-bing; Chen, Zhen-xing; Lv, Yao

    2016-09-01

    Laser range finder has been equipped with all kinds of weapons, such as tank, ship, plane and so on, is important component of fire control system. Divergence angle is important performance and incarnation of horizontal resolving power for laser range finder, is necessary appraised test item in appraisal test. In this paper, based on high accuracy test on divergence angle of laser range finder, divergence angle test system is designed based on CCD imaging, divergence angle of laser range finder is acquired through fusion technology for different attenuation imaging, problem that CCD characteristic influences divergence angle test is solved.

  14. Salivary gland hypertrophy virus of house flies in Denmark: Prevalence, host range, and comparison with a Florida isolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geden, C. J.; Steenberg, T.; Lietze, V.-U.

    2011-01-01

    House flies (Musca domestica) infected with Musca domestica salivary gland hypertrophy virus (MdSGHV) were found in fly populations collected from 12 out of 18 Danish livestock farms that were surveyed in 2007 and 2008. Infection rates ranged from 0.5% to 5% and averaged 1.2%. None of the stable...... flies (Sarcophaga bullata), black dump flies (Hydrotaea aenescens), or face flies (Musca autumnalis) that were injected with MdSGHV from Danish house flies. However, in two species (stable fly and black dump fly), virus injection resulted in suppression of ovarian development similar to that observed...... in infected house flies, and injection of house flies with homogenates prepared from the salivary glands or ovaries of these species resulted in MdSGHV infection of the challenged house flies. Mortality of virus-injected stable flies was the highest among the five species tested. Virulence of Danish...

  15. Site-specific deletions of chromosomally located DNA segments with the multimer resolution system of broad-host-range plasmid RP4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sternberg, Claus; Eberl, Leo; Sanchezromero, Juan M.

    1995-01-01

    The multimer resolution system (mrs) of the broad-host-range plasmid RP4 has been exploited to develop a general method that permits the precise excision of chromosomal segments in a variety of gram-negative bacteria. The procedure is based on the site-specific recombination between two directly ...

  16. Analysis of the multimer resolution system encoded by the parCBA operon of broad-host-range plasmid RP4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eberl, Leo; Sternberg, Claus; Givskov, Michael Christian

    1994-01-01

    The broad-host-range plasmid RP4 encodes a highly efficient partitioning function, termed par, that is capable of stabilizing plasmids in a variety of Gram-negative bacteria independently of the nature of the replicon. The mechanism responsible for plasmid stabilization by this locus appears to b...

  17. The roles of ecological fitting, phylogeny and physiological equivalence in understanding realized and fundamental host ranges in endoparasitoid wasps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harvey, J.A.; Ximenez De Embun, M.G.; Bukovinszky, T.; Gols, R.

    2012-01-01

    Co-evolutionary theory underpins our understanding of interactions in nature involving plant-herbivore and host-parasite interactions. However, many studies that are published in the empirical literature that have explored life history and development strategies between endoparasitoid wasps and thei

  18. Characterization and host range of the symbiotic fungus Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov., vectored by the invasive ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel symbiotic Fusarium euwallaceae fungus that serves as a specific nutritional source for the invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) is farmed in the galleries of host plants. This beetle-fungus complex, which has invaded Israel and California, is clo...

  19. The roles of ecological fitting, phylogeny and physiological equivalence in understanding realized and fundamental host ranges in endoparasitoid wasps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harvey, J.A.; Ximenez De Embun, M.G.; Bukovinszky, T.; Gols, R.

    2012-01-01

    Co-evolutionary theory underpins our understanding of interactions in nature involving plant-herbivore and host-parasite interactions. However, many studies that are published in the empirical literature that have explored life history and development strategies between endoparasitoid wasps and

  20. Extended geographical distribution and host range of the cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera Pyralidae)in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field exploration was conducted to confirm the southernmost distribution of Cactoblastis cactorum in Argentina. The distribution of the moth was extended to the south (40° 10´S) and west (66° 56´W). The native Opuntia penicilligera was recorded as a host for the first time. These findings should ...

  1. Detection of protozoan hosts for Legionella pneumophila in engineered water systems by using a biofilm batch test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valster, R.M.; Wullings, B.A.; Kooij, van der D.

    2010-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila proliferates in aquatic habitats within free-living protozoa, 17 species of which have been identified as hosts by using in vitro experiments. The present study aimed at identifying protozoan hosts for L. pneumophila by using a biofilm batch test (BBT). Samples (600 ml) collec

  2. Novel trypanosome Trypanosoma gilletti sp. (Euglenozoa: Trypanosomatidae) and the extension of the host range of Trypanosoma copemani to include the koala ( Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, L M; Hanger, J; Simmons, G; Reid, S A; Ryan, U M

    2011-01-01

    Trypanosoma irwini was previously described from koalas and we now report the finding of a second novel species, T. gilletti, as well as the extension of the host range of Trypanosoma copemani to include koalas. Phylogenetic analysis at the 18S rDNA and gGAPDH loci demonstrated that T. gilletti was genetically distinct with a genetic distance (± s.e.) at the 18S rDNA locus of 2.7 ± 0.5% from T. copemani (wombat). At the gGAPDH locus, the genetic distance (± s.e.) of T. gilletti was 8.7 ± 1.1% from T. copemani (wombat). Trypanosoma gilletti was detected using a nested trypanosome 18S rDNA PCR in 3/139 (∼2%) blood samples and in 2/29 (∼7%) spleen tissue samples from koalas whilst T. irwini was detected in 72/139 (∼52%) blood samples and T. copemani in 4/139 (∼3%) blood samples from koalas. In addition, naturally occurring mixed infections were noted in 2/139 (∼1.5%) of the koalas tested.

  3. Rumen microbial community composition varies with diet and host, but a core microbiome is found across a wide geographical range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Gemma; Cox, Faith; Ganesh, Siva; Jonker, Arjan; Young, Wayne; Janssen, Peter H

    2015-10-09

    Ruminant livestock are important sources of human food and global greenhouse gas emissions. Feed degradation and methane formation by ruminants rely on metabolic interactions between rumen microbes and affect ruminant productivity. Rumen and camelid foregut microbial community composition was determined in 742 samples from 32 animal species and 35 countries, to estimate if this was influenced by diet, host species, or geography. Similar bacteria and archaea dominated in nearly all samples, while protozoal communities were more variable. The dominant bacteria are poorly characterised, but the methanogenic archaea are better known and highly conserved across the world. This universality and limited diversity could make it possible to mitigate methane emissions by developing strategies that target the few dominant methanogens. Differences in microbial community compositions were predominantly attributable to diet, with the host being less influential. There were few strong co-occurrence patterns between microbes, suggesting that major metabolic interactions are non-selective rather than specific.

  4. Rumen microbial community composition varies with diet and host, but a core microbiome is found across a wide geographical range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Gemma; Cox, Faith; Ganesh, Siva; Jonker, Arjan; Young, Wayne; Abecia, Leticia; Angarita, Erika; Aravena, Paula; Nora Arenas, Graciela; Ariza, Claudia; Attwood, Graeme T.; Mauricio Avila, Jose; Avila-Stagno, Jorge; Bannink, André; Barahona, Rolando; Batistotti, Mariano; Bertelsen, Mads F.; Brown-Kav, Aya; Carvajal, Andres M.; Cersosimo, Laura; Vieira Chaves, Alexandre; Church, John; Clipson, Nicholas; Cobos-Peralta, Mario A.; Cookson, Adrian L.; Cravero, Silvio; Cristobal Carballo, Omar; Crosley, Katie; Cruz, Gustavo; Cerón Cucchi, María; de la Barra, Rodrigo; De Menezes, Alexandre B.; Detmann, Edenio; Dieho, Kasper; Dijkstra, Jan; dos Reis, William L. S.; Dugan, Mike E. R.; Hadi Ebrahimi, Seyed; Eythórsdóttir, Emma; Nde Fon, Fabian; Fraga, Martín; Franco, Francisco; Friedeman, Chris; Fukuma, Naoki; Gagić, Dragana; Gangnat, Isabelle; Javier Grilli, Diego; Guan, Le Luo; Heidarian Miri, Vahideh; Hernandez-Sanabria, Emma; Gomez, Alma Ximena Ibarra; Isah, Olubukola A.; Ishaq, Suzanne; Jami, Elie; Jelincic, Juan; Kantanen, Juha; Kelly, William J.; Kim, Seon-Ho; Klieve, Athol; Kobayashi, Yasuo; Koike, Satoshi; Kopecny, Jan; Nygaard Kristensen, Torsten; Julie Krizsan, Sophie; LaChance, Hannah; Lachman, Medora; Lamberson, William R.; Lambie, Suzanne; Lassen, Jan; Leahy, Sinead C.; Lee, Sang-Suk; Leiber, Florian; Lewis, Eva; Lin, Bo; Lira, Raúl; Lund, Peter; Macipe, Edgar; Mamuad, Lovelia L.; Cuquetto Mantovani, Hilário; Marcoppido, Gisela Ariana; Márquez, Cristian; Martin, Cécile; Martinez, Gonzalo; Eugenia Martinez, Maria; Lucía Mayorga, Olga; McAllister, Tim A.; McSweeney, Chris; Mestre, Lorena; Minnee, Elena; Mitsumori, Makoto; Mizrahi, Itzhak; Molina, Isabel; Muenger, Andreas; Munoz, Camila; Murovec, Bostjan; Newbold, John; Nsereko, Victor; O’Donovan, Michael; Okunade, Sunday; O’Neill, Brendan; Ospina, Sonia; Ouwerkerk, Diane; Parra, Diana; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro; Pinares-Patino, Cesar; Pope, Phil B.; Poulsen, Morten; Rodehutscord, Markus; Rodriguez, Tatiana; Saito, Kunihiko; Sales, Francisco; Sauer, Catherine; Shingfield, Kevin; Shoji, Noriaki; Simunek, Jiri; Stojanović-Radić, Zorica; Stres, Blaz; Sun, Xuezhao; Swartz, Jeffery; Liang Tan, Zhi; Tapio, Ilma; Taxis, Tasia M.; Tomkins, Nigel; Ungerfeld, Emilio; Valizadeh, Reza; van Adrichem, Peter; Van Hamme, Jonathan; Van Hoven, Woulter; Waghorn, Garry; John Wallace, R.; Wang, Min; Waters, Sinéad M.; Keogh, Kate; Witzig, Maren; Wright, Andre-Denis G.; Yamano, Hidehisa; Yan, Tianhai; Yanez-Ruiz, David R.; Yeoman, Carl J.; Zambrano, Ricardo; Zeitz, Johanna; Zhou, Mi; Wei Zhou, Hua; Xia Zou, Cai; Zunino, Pablo; Janssen, Peter H.

    2015-01-01

    Ruminant livestock are important sources of human food and global greenhouse gas emissions. Feed degradation and methane formation by ruminants rely on metabolic interactions between rumen microbes and affect ruminant productivity. Rumen and camelid foregut microbial community composition was determined in 742 samples from 32 animal species and 35 countries, to estimate if this was influenced by diet, host species, or geography. Similar bacteria and archaea dominated in nearly all samples, while protozoal communities were more variable. The dominant bacteria are poorly characterised, but the methanogenic archaea are better known and highly conserved across the world. This universality and limited diversity could make it possible to mitigate methane emissions by developing strategies that target the few dominant methanogens. Differences in microbial community compositions were predominantly attributable to diet, with the host being less influential. There were few strong co-occurrence patterns between microbes, suggesting that major metabolic interactions are non-selective rather than specific. PMID:26449758

  5. Biology and host range of Tecmessa elegans (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae), a leaf-feeding moth evaluated as a potential biological control agent for Schinus terebinthifolius (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleiro, Marina; Mc Kay, Fernando; Wheeler, Gregory S

    2011-06-01

    During surveys for natural enemies that could be used as classical biological control agents of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Brazilian pepper), the caterpillar, Tecmessa elegans Schaus (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae), was recorded feeding on the leaves of the shrub in South America. The biology and larval and adult host range of this species were examined to determine the insect's suitability for biological control of this invasive weed in North America and Hawaii. Biological observations indicate that the larvae have five instars. When disturbed, the late instar larvae emit formic acid from a prothoracic gland that may protect larvae from generalist predators. Larval host range tests conducted both in South and North America indicated that this species feeds and completes development primarily on members of the Anacardiaceae within the tribe Rhoeae. Oviposition tests indicated that when given a choice in large cages the adults will select the target weed over Pistacia spp. However, considering the many valued plant species in its host range, especially several North American natives, this species will not be considered further for biological control of S. terebinthifolius in North America.

  6. Discovery of novel dsRNA viral sequences by in silico cloning and implications for viral diversity, host range and evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiquan Liu

    Full Text Available Genome sequence of viruses can contribute greatly to the study of viral evolution, diversity and the interaction between viruses and hosts. Traditional molecular cloning methods for obtaining RNA viral genomes are time-consuming and often difficult because many viruses occur in extremely low titers. DsRNA viruses in the families, Partitiviridae, Totiviridae, Endornaviridae, Chrysoviridae, and other related unclassified dsRNA viruses are generally associated with symptomless or persistent infections of their hosts. These characteristics indicate that samples or materials derived from eukaryotic organisms used to construct cDNA libraries and EST sequencing might carry these viruses, which were not easily detected by the researchers. Therefore, the EST databases may include numerous unknown viral sequences. In this study, we performed in silico cloning, a procedure for obtaining full or partial cDNA sequence of a gene by bioinformatics analysis, using known dsRNA viral sequences as queries to search against NCBI Expressed Sequence Tag (EST database. From this analysis, we obtained 119 novel virus-like sequences related to members of the families, Endornaviridae, Chrysoviridae, Partitiviridae, and Totiviridae. Many of them were identified in cDNA libraries of eukaryotic lineages, which were not known to be hosts for these viruses. Furthermore, comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of these newly discovered virus-like sequences with known dsRNA viruses revealed that these dsRNA viruses may have co-evolved with respective host supergroups over a long evolutionary time while potential horizontal transmissions of viruses between different host supergroups also is possible. We also found that some of the plant partitiviruses may have originated from fungal viruses by horizontal transmissions. These findings extend our knowledge of the diversity and possible host range of dsRNA viruses and offer insight into the origin and evolution of relevant viruses with

  7. Egg-laying by the butterfly Iphiclides podalirius (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae on alien plants: a broadening of host range or oviposition mistakes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanescu, C.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Iphiclides podalirius is an oligophagous butterfly which feeds on plants of the Rosaceae family. In 2002 and 2005 in NE Spain, we recorded for the first time oviposition on two alien plant species, Cotoneaster franchetii and Spiraea cantoniensis. To ascertain if this unusual behaviour represents a broadening of host range or, alternatively, an oviposition mistake, larval performance on the new plants was investigated in the laboratory and compared with performance on the most common host plants used in the study area. Although larval performance on common hosts differed to some extent, the use of a wide range of plants of different quality at population level may in fact respond to the so-called “spreading of risk” strategy in variable environments. On the other hand, larval performance and survival to adulthood were so low on the two new hosts that our observations probably represent a case of maladaptive oviposition behaviour. This may be due to an evolutionary lag between the newly introduced plants and the insect, although other possible explanations are also taken into account.

  8. Distribution, host range, and climatic constraints on Centistes gasseni (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a South American parasitoid of cucumber beetles, Diabrotica spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera Walsh, G; Athanas, M M; Salles, L A B; Schroder, R F W

    2003-12-01

    The genus Diabrotica includes a large number of pest species, including some of the most important crop pests of the Americas. The parasitoid Centistes gasseni Shaw is the first braconid to be described parasitizing Diabrotica in South America, and high natural infestations are reported. Field and experimental observations on the host range, distribution and biology of this parasitoid are described. Centistes gasseniwas collected in southern Brazil, eastern Paraguay and northeastern Argentina, in a region comprising humid lowlands and highlands, and cool temperate to warm subtropical climates, with regular rainfall in excess of 1300 mm. Three Diabroticaspecies, D. limitata (Sahlberg), D. speciosa (Germar) and D. viridula (Fabricius) were found to host the parasitoid, with mean percent parasitism of 5.4, 2.0 and 1.0%, respectively. Diabrotica speciosa and D. viridula are the two most important pest Diabroticaspecies in South America. Laboratory experiments with field-collected beetles and parasitoid cocoons indicated that C. gasseni overwinters in adult host beetles, remaining dormant in its live host below developmental temperatures. A potential distribution of C. gasseni in North America is proposed based on its known climatic range and the distribution of the main pest species of adult overwintering North American Diabrotica.

  9. Re-Os sulfide geochronology of the Red Dog sediment-hosted Zn-Pb-Ag deposit, Brooks Range, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, R.M.; Creaser, R.A.; Selby, D.; Kelley, K.D.; Leach, D.L.; King, A.R.

    2004-01-01

    The Red Dog sediment-hosted deposit in the De Long Mountains of northern Alaska is the largest Zn producer in the world. Main stage mineralization is characterized by massive sulfide ore and crosscutting subvertical veins. Although the vein mineralization is clearly younger than the massive ore, the exact temporal relationship between the two is unclear. Re-Os geochronology of pyrite is used to determine the absolute age of main stage ore at Red Dog. A 10-point isochron on both massive and vein pyrite yields an age of 338.3 ?? 5.8 Ma and is interpreted to represent the age of main stage ore. The Re-Os data indicate that both massive and vein ore types are coeval within the resolution of the technique. Formation of the Red Dog deposit was associated with extension along a passive continental margin, and therefore the Re-Os age of main stage ore constrains the timing of rifting as well as the age of the host sedimentary rocks. Sphalerite from both massive and vein ore yields imprecise ages and shows a high degree of scatter compared to pyrite. We suggest that the Re-Os systematics of sphalerite can be disturbed and that this mineral is not reliable for Re-Os geochronology. ?? 2004 by Economic Geology.

  10. Building Energy Simulation Test for Existing Homes (BESTEST-EX): Instructions for Implementing the Test Procedure, Calibration Test Reference Results, and Example Acceptance-Range Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkoff, R.; Polly, B.; Bianchi, M.; Neymark, J.; Kennedy, M.

    2011-08-01

    This publication summarizes building energy simulation test for existing homes (BESTEST-EX): instructions for implementing the test procedure, calibration tests reference results, and example acceptance-range criteria.

  11. A Range-Based Test for the Parametric Form of the Volatility in Diffusion Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podolskij, Mark; Ziggel, Daniel

    We propose a new test for the parametric form of the volatility function in continuous time diffusion models of the type dXt = a(t;Xt)dt + (t;Xt)dWt. Our approach involves a range-based estimation of the integrated volatility and the integrated quarticity, which are used to construct the test...... present a parametric bootstrap procedure which provides a better approximation of the distribution of the test statistic. Finally, it is demonstrated by means of Monte Carlo study that the range-based test is more powerful than the return-based test when comparing at the same sampling frequency....

  12. Comparative genomics of 43 strains of Xanthomonas citri pv. citri reveals the evolutionary events giving rise to pathotypes with different host ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Jonathan L; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Escalon, Aline; Barbe, Valérie; Cruveiller, Stéphane; Gagnevin, Lionel; Pruvost, Olivier

    2015-12-23

    The identification of factors involved in the host range definition and evolution is a pivotal challenge in the goal to predict and prevent the emergence of plant bacterial disease. To trace the evolution and find molecular differences between three pathotypes of Xanthomonas citri pv. citri that may explain their distinctive host ranges, 42 strains of X. citri pv. citri and one outgroup strain, Xanthomonas citri pv. bilvae were sequenced and compared. The strains from each pathotype form monophyletic clades, with a short branch shared by the A(w) and A pathotypes. Pathotype-specific recombination was detected in seven regions of the alignment. Using Ancestral Character Estimation, 426 SNPs were mapped to the four branches at the base of the A, A*, A(w) and A/A(w) clades. Several genes containing pathotype-specific nonsynonymous mutations have functions related to pathogenicity. The A pathotype is enriched for SNP-containing genes involved in defense mechanisms, while A* is significantly depleted for genes that are involved in transcription. The pathotypes differ by four gene islands that largely coincide with regions of recombination and include genes with a role in virulence. Both A* and A(w) are missing genes involved in defense mechanisms. In contrast to a recent study, we find that there are an extremely small number of pathotype-specific gene presences and absences. The three pathotypes of X. citri pv. citri that differ in their host ranges largely show genomic differences related to recombination, horizontal gene transfer and single nucleotide polymorphism. We detail the phylogenetic relationship of the pathotypes and provide a set of candidate genes involved in pathotype-specific evolutionary events that could explain to the differences in host range and pathogenicity between them.

  13. Telemetry Ranging: Laboratory Validation Tests and End-to-End Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamkins, J.; Kinman, P.; Xie, H.; Vilnrotter, V.; Dolinar, S.; Adams, N.; Sanchez, E.; Millard, W.

    2016-08-01

    This article reports on a set of laboratory tests of telemetry ranging conducted at Development Test Facility 21 (DTF-21) in Monrovia, California. An uplink pseudorandom noise (PN) ranging signal was generated by DTF-21, acquired by the Frontier Radio designed and built at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, and downlink telemetry frames from the radio were recorded by an open-loop receiver. In four of the tests, the data indicate that telemetry ranging can resolve the two-way time delay to a standard deviation of 2.1-3.4 ns, corresponding to about 30 to 51 cm in (one-way) range accuracy, when 30 s averaging of timing estimates is used. Other tests performed worse because of unsatisfactory receiver sampling rate, quantizer resolution, dc bias, improper configuration, or other reasons. The article also presents an analysis of the expected end-to-end performance of the telemetry ranging system. In one case considered, the theoretically-predicted performance matches the test results, within 10 percent, which provides a reasonable validation that the expected performance was achieved by the test. The analysis also shows that in one typical ranging scenario, one-way range accuracy of 1 m can be achieved with telemetry ranging when the data rate is above 2 kbps.

  14. Host range restriction of vaccinia virus in Chinese hamster ovary cells: relationship to shutoff of protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drillien, R; Spehner, D; Kirn, A

    1978-12-01

    Chinese hamster ovary cells were found to be nonpermissive for vaccinia virus. Although early virus-induced events occurred in these cells (RNA and polypeptide synthesis), subsequent events appeared to be prevented by a very rapid and nonselective shutoff of protein synthesis. Within less than 2 h after infection, both host and viral protein syntheses were arrested. At low multiplicities of infection, inhibition of RNA synthesis with cordycepin resulted in failure of the virus to block protein synthesis. Moreover, infection of the cells in the presence of cycloheximide prevented the immediate onset of shutoff after reversal of cycloheximide. Inactivation of virus particles by UV irradiation also impaired the capacity of the virus to inhibit protein synthesis. These results suggested that an early vaccinia virus-coded product was implicated in the shutoff of protein synthesis. Either the nonpermissive Chinese hamster ovary cells were more sensitive to this inhibition than permissive cells, or a regulatory control of the vaccinia shutoff function was defective.

  15. Infection with host-range mutant adenovirus 5 suppresses innate immunity and induces systemic CD4+ T cell activation in rhesus macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huma Qureshi

    Full Text Available Ad5 is a common cause of respiratory disease and an occasional cause of gastroenteritis and conjunctivitis, and seroconversion before adolescence is common in humans. To gain some insight into how Ad5 infection affects the immune system of rhesus macaques (RM 18 RM were infected with a host-range mutant Ad5 (Ad5hr by 3 mucosal inoculations. There was a delay of 2 to 6 weeks after the first inoculation before plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC frequency and function increased in peripheral blood. Primary Ad5hr infection suppressed IFN-γ mRNA expression, but the second Ad5hr exposure induced a rapid increase in IFN-gamma mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. Primary Ad5hr infection suppressed CCL20, TNF and IL-1 mRNA expression in PBMC, and subsequent virus exposures further dampened expression of these pro-inflammatory cytokines. Primary, but not secondary, Ad5hr inoculation increased the frequency of CXCR3+ CD4+ T cells in blood, while secondary, but not primary, Ad5hr infection transiently increased the frequencies of Ki67+, HLADR+ and CD95+/CCR5+ CD4+ T cells in blood. Ad5hr infection induced polyfunctional CD4 and CD8+ T cells specific for the Ad5 hexon protein in all of the animals. Thus, infection with Ad5hr induced a complex pattern of innate and adaptive immunity in RM that included transient systemic CD4+ T cell activation and suppressed innate immunity on re-exposure to the virus. The complex effects of adenovirus infection on the immune system may help to explain the unexpected results of testing Ad5 vector expressing HIV antigens in Ad5 seropositive people.

  16. POST-CLOSURE INSPECTION REPORT FOR THE TONOPAH TEST RANGE, NEVADA FOR CALENDAR YEAR 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-01

    This post-closure inspection report includes the results of inspections, maintenance and repair activities, and conclusions and recommendations for Calendar Year 2005 for nine Corrective Action Units located on the Tonopah Test Range , Nevada.

  17. Fine structure and cellular responses at the host-parasite interface in a range of fish-helminth systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfuli, B S; Bo, T; Lorenzoni, M; Shinn, A P; Giari, L

    2015-03-15

    A series of ultrastructural-based studies were conducted on the interface region in different fish-helminth systems: (a) an intestinal infection of the cestode Monobothrium wageneri in tench, Tinca tinca; (b) an extensive intestinal submucosa and mucosal infection in tench by metacercariae of an unidentified digenean trematode; (c) an intestinal infection in brown trout, Salmo trutta, by the acanthocephalan Dentitruncus truttae; (d) an extraintestinal infection by larvae of the acanthocephalan, Pomphorhynchus laevis in three-spined sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus; and (e) an infection in the livers of Eurasian minnow, Phoxinus phoxinus, by larvae of the nematode Raphidascaris acus. Endoparasitic helminths frequently cause inflammation of the digestive tract and associated organs, inducing the recruitment of various immune cells to the site of infection. In each of the fish-helminth systems that were studied, a massive hyperplastic granulocyte response involving mast cells (MCs) and neutrophils in close proximity to the helminths was documented. The current study presents data on the interface region in each fish-helminth system and documents the penetration of mast cells granules within the tegument of P. laevis larvae. No extracellular vesicles containing tegumental secretions from any of the four different taxa of endoparasitic helminths species at the host-parasite interface region were seen.

  18. Testing abundance-range size relationships in European carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotze, J.; Niemelä, J.; O'Hara, R.B.; Turin, H.

    2003-01-01

    Four of the eight hypotheses proposed in the literature for explaining the relationship between abundance and range size (the sampling artifact, phylogenetic non-independence, range position and resource breadth hypotheses) were tested by using atlas data for carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae)

  19. Testing abundance-range size relationships in European carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotze, J.; Niemelä, J.; O'Hara, R.B.; Turin, H.

    2003-01-01

    Four of the eight hypotheses proposed in the literature for explaining the relationship between abundance and range size (the sampling artifact, phylogenetic non-independence, range position and resource breadth hypotheses) were tested by using atlas data for carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae)

  20. Salivary gland hypertrophy virus of house flies in Denmark: Prevalence, host range, and comparison with a Florida isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies (Musca domestica) infected with Musca domestica salivary gland hypertrophy virus (MdSGHV) were found in fly populations collected from 12 out of 18 Danish livestock farms that were surveyed in 2007 and 2008. Infection rates ranged from 0.5% to 5% and averaged 1.2% overall. None of the ...

  1. Survey of foliar monoterpenes across the range of jack pine reveal three widespread chemotypes: implications to host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer eTaft

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The secondary compounds of pines (Pinus can strongly affect the physiology, ecology and behaviors of the bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae that feed on sub-cortical tissues of hosts. Jack pine (Pinus banksiana has a wide natural distribution range in North America (Canada and USA and thus variations in its secondary compounds, particularly monoterpenes, could affect the host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae, which has recently expanded its range into the novel jack pine boreal forest. We investigated monoterpene composition of 601 jack pine trees from natural and provenance forest stands representing 63 populations from Alberta to the Atlantic coast. Throughout its range, jack pine exhibited three chemotypes characterized by high proportions of α-pinene, β-pinene, or limonene. The frequency with which the α-pinene and β-pinene chemotypes occurred at individual sites was correlated to climatic variables, such as continentality and mean annual precipitation, as were the individual α-pinene and β-pinene concentrations. However, other monoterpenes were generally not correlated to climatic variables or geographic distribution. Finally, while the enantiomeric ratios of β-pinene and limonene remained constant across jack pine’s distribution, (‒:(+-α-pinene exhibited two separate trends, thereby delineating two α-pinene phenotypes, both of which occurred across jack pine’s range. These significant variations in jack pine monoterpene composition may have cascading effects on the continued eastward spread and success of D. ponderosae in the Canadian boreal forest.

  2. Quantification of the borderline range and implications for evaluating non-animal testing methods' precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leontaridou, Maria; Urbisch, Daniel; Kolle, Susanne N; Ott, Katharina; Mulliner, Denis S; Gabbert, Silke; Landsiedel, Robert

    2017-02-23

    Testing methods to assess the skin sensitisation potential of a substance usually use threshold criteria to dichotomise continuous experimental read-outs into yes/no conclusions. The threshold criteria are prescribed in the respective OECD test guidelines and the conclusion is used for regulatory hazard assessment, i.e. classification and labelling of the substance. We can identify a borderline range (BR) around the classification threshold within which test results are non-conclusive due to a testing method's biological and technical variability. We quantify BRs in the prediction models of the non-animal testing methods DPRA, LuSens and h-CLAT, and of the animal test LLNA, respectively. Depending on the size of the BR we find that between 6% and 28% of the substances in the sets tested with these methods were considered borderline. If the results of individual non-animal test methods are combined into integrated testing strategies (ITS), borderline test results of individual tests can also affect the overall assessment of the skin sensitisation potential of the testing strategy. This was analysed for the '2-out-of-3' ITS: Four out of 40 substances (10%) were considered borderline. Based on our findings we propose expanding the standard binary classification of substances into 'positive'/'negative' or 'hazardous'/'non-hazardous' by adding a 'borderline' or 'non-conclusive' alert for cases where test results fall within the borderline range.

  3. Construction of a host range-expanded hybrid baculovirus of BmNPV and AcNPV,and knockout of cysteinase gene for more efficient expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    AcNPV(Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus)and BmNPV(Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus)are two principal insect-baculovirus expression systems,each having different characteristics.AcNPV has a wider host range and can infect a series of cell lines thus making it suitable for cell suspension culture expression,but the small size of the host insect,A.californica,makes AcNPV less suitable for large scale protein synthesis.In contrast,BmNPV can only infect the silkworm,Bornbyx rnori,which is well-known for its easy rearing and large size.These characteristics make the BmNPV system especially suitable for large-scale industrial expression.To utilize the advantages of both AcNPV and BmNPV,we tried to expand their host range through homologous recombination and successfully constructed a hybrid baculovirus of AcNPV and BmNPV,designated as HyNPV.The hybrid baculovirus can infect the hosts of both AcNPV and BmNPV.Taking the human basic fibroblast growth factor(Bfgf)gene as an application example,we constructed a recombinant,HyNPV-Bfgf.This construct is able to express the Bfgf protein both in silkworm larvae and in common-use cell lines,sf21,sf9 and High-five.Moreover,to reduce the loss of recombinant protein due to degradation by proteases that are simultaneously expressed by the baculovirus,we knocked out the cysteinase gene coding for one of the most important baculovirus proteases.This knockout mutation improves the production efficiency of the Bfgf recombinant protein.

  4. The distribution and host range of the banana Fusarium wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Agustin B.; Daniells, Jeff; Fourie, Gerda; Hermanto, Catur; Chao, Chih-Ping; Fabregar, Emily; Sinohin, Vida G.; Masdek, Nik; Thangavelu, Raman; Li, Chunyu; Yi, Ganyun; Mostert, Lizel; Viljoen, Altus

    2017-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum formae specialis cubense (Foc) is a soil-borne fungus that causes Fusarium wilt, which is considered to be the most destructive disease of bananas. The fungus is believed to have evolved with its host in the Indo-Malayan region, and from there it was spread to other banana-growing areas with infected planting material. The diversity and distribution of Foc in Asia was investigated. A total of 594 F. oxysporum isolates collected in ten Asian countries were identified by vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) analysis. To simplify the identification process, the isolates were first divided into DNA lineages using PCR-RFLP analysis. Six lineages and 14 VCGs, representing three Foc races, were identified in this study. The VCG complex 0124/5 was most common in the Indian subcontinent, Vietnam and Cambodia; whereas the VCG complex 01213/16 dominated in the rest of Asia. Sixty-nine F. oxysporum isolates in this study did not match any of the known VCG tester strains. In this study, Foc VCG diversity in Bangladesh, Cambodia and Sri Lanka was determined for the first time and VCGs 01221 and 01222 were first reported from Cambodia and Vietnam. New associations of Foc VCGs and banana cultivars were recorded in all the countries where the fungus was collected. Information obtained in this study could help Asian countries to develop and implement regulatory measures to prevent the incursion of Foc into areas where it does not yet occur. It could also facilitate the deployment of disease resistant banana varieties in infested areas. PMID:28719631

  5. Detection of protozoan hosts for Legionella pneumophila in engineered water systems by using a biofilm batch test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valster, Rinske M; Wullings, Bart A; van der Kooij, Dick

    2010-11-01

    Legionella pneumophila proliferates in aquatic habitats within free-living protozoa, 17 species of which have been identified as hosts by using in vitro experiments. The present study aimed at identifying protozoan hosts for L. pneumophila by using a biofilm batch test (BBT). Samples (600 ml) collected from 21 engineered freshwater systems, with added polyethylene cylinders to promote biofilm formation, were inoculated with L. pneumophila and subsequently incubated at 37°C for 20 days. Growth of L. pneumophila was observed in 16 of 18 water types when the host protozoan Hartmannella vermiformis was added. Twelve of the tested water types supported growth of L. pneumophila or indigenous Legionella anisa without added H. vermiformis. In 12 of 19 BBT flasks H. vermiformis was indicated as a host, based on the ratio between maximum concentrations of L. pneumophila and H. vermiformis, determined with quantitative PCR (Q-PCR), and the composition of clone libraries of partial 18S rRNA gene fragments. Analyses of 609 eukaryotic clones from the BBTs revealed that 68 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) showed the highest similarity to free-living protozoa. Forty percent of the sequences clustering with protozoa showed ≥99.5% similarity to H. vermiformis. None of the other protozoa serving as hosts in in vitro studies were detected in the BBTs. In several tests with growth of L. pneumophila, the protozoa Diphylleia rotans, Echinamoeba thermarum, and Neoparamoeba sp. were identified as candidate hosts. In vitro studies are needed to confirm their role as hosts for L. pneumophila. Unidentified protozoa were implicated as hosts for uncultured Legionella spp. grown in BBT flasks at 15°C.

  6. Complete nucleotide sequence and analysis of two conjugative broad host range plasmids from a marine microbial biofilm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Norberg

    Full Text Available The complete nucleotide sequence of plasmids pMCBF1 and pMCBF6 was determined and analyzed. pMCBF1 and pMCBF6 form a novel clade within the IncP-1 plasmid family designated IncP-1 ς. The plasmids were exogenously isolated earlier from a marine biofilm. pMCBF1 (62 689 base pairs; bp and pMCBF6 (66 729 bp have identical backbones, but differ in their mercury resistance transposons. pMCBF1 carries Tn5053 and pMCBF6 carries Tn5058. Both are flanked by 5 bp direct repeats, typical of replicative transposition. Both insertions are in the vicinity of a resolvase gene in the backbone, supporting the idea that both transposons are "res-site hunters" that preferably insert close to and use external resolvase functions. The similarity of the backbones indicates recent insertion of the two transposons and the ongoing dynamics of plasmid evolution in marine biofilms. Both plasmids also carry the insertion sequence ISPst1, albeit without flanking repeats. ISPs1is located in an unusual site within the control region of the plasmid. In contrast to most known IncP-1 plasmids the pMCBF1/pMCBF6 backbone has no insert between the replication initiation gene (trfA and the vegetative replication origin (oriV. One pMCBF1/pMCBF6 block of about 2.5 kilo bases (kb has no similarity with known sequences in the databases. Furthermore, insertion of three genes with similarity to the multidrug efflux pump operon mexEF and a gene from the NodT family of the tripartite multi-drug resistance-nodulation-division (RND system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found. They do not seem to confer antibiotic resistance to the hosts of pMCBF1/pMCBF6, but the presence of RND on promiscuous plasmids may have serious implications for the spread of antibiotic multi-resistance.

  7. Genomic and functional characterization of the modular broad-host-range RA3 plasmid, the archetype of the IncU group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulinska, Anna; Czeredys, Magdalena; Hayes, Finbarr; Jagura-Burdzy, Grazyna

    2008-07-01

    IncU plasmids are a distinctive group of mobile elements with highly conserved backbone functions and variable antibiotic resistance gene cassettes. The IncU archetype is conjugative plasmid RA3, whose sequence (45,909 bp) shows it to be a mosaic, modular replicon with a class I integron different from that of other IncU replicons. Functional analysis demonstrated that RA3 possesses a broad host range and can efficiently self-transfer, replicate, and be maintained stably in alpha-, beta-, and gammaproteobacteria. RA3 contains 50 open reading frames clustered in distinct functional modules. The replication module encompasses the repA and repB genes embedded in long repetitive sequences. RepA, which is homologous to antitoxin proteins from alpha- and gammaproteobacteria, contains a Cro/cI-type DNA-binding domain present in the XRE family of transcriptional regulators. The repA promoter is repressed by RepA and RepB. The minireplicon encompasses repB and the downstream repetitive sequence r1/r2. RepB shows up to 80% similarity to putative replication initiation proteins from environmental plasmids of beta- and gammaproteobacteria, as well as similarity to replication proteins from alphaproteobacteria and Firmicutes. Stable maintenance functions of RA3 are most like those of IncP-1 broad-host-range plasmids and comprise the active partitioning apparatus formed by IncC (ParA) and KorB (ParB), the antirestriction protein KlcA, and accessory stability components KfrA and KfrC. The RA3 origin of transfer was localized experimentally between the maintenance and conjugative-transfer operons. The putative conjugative-transfer module is highly similar in organization and in its products to transfer regions of certain broad-host-range environmental plasmids.

  8. An improved Tn7-lux reporter for broad host range, chromosomally-integrated promoter fusions in Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassing, Angela; Lewis, Thomas A

    2015-11-01

    An improved vector for chromosomally-integrated promoter-lux fusions is described. The modified vector was tested in parallel with the unmodified vector using the well-characterized Escherichia coli araBAD promoter in the Pseudomonas aeruginosa attTn7 site. The modified mini-Tn7 showed reduced background luminescence, and increased luminescence upon induction, giving >16-fold higher induction ratio.

  9. An improved Tn7-lux reporter for broad host range, chromosomally-integrated promoter fusions in Gram-negative bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassing, Angela; Lewis, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    An improved vector for chromosomally-integrated promoter-lux fusions is described. The modified vector was tested in parallel with the unmodified vector using the well-characterized E. coli araBAD promoter in the Pseudomonas aeruginosa attTn7 site. The modified mini-Tn7 showed reduced background luminescence, and increased luminescence upon induction, giving >16-fold higher induction ratio. PMID:26341612

  10. A plasmid RK2-based broad-host-range cloning vector useful for transfer of metagenomic libraries to a variety of bacterial species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aakvik, Trine; Degnes, Kristin Fløgstad; Dahlsrud, Rannveig; Schmidt, Frank; Dam, Ragnar; Yu, Lihua; Völker, Uwe; Ellingsen, Trond Erling; Valla, Svein

    2009-06-01

    The majority of microorganisms in natural environments are difficult to cultivate, but their genes can be studied via metagenome libraries. To enhance the chances that these genes become expressed we here report the construction of a broad-host-range plasmid vector (pRS44) for fosmid and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) cloning. pRS44 can be efficiently transferred to numerous hosts by conjugation. It replicates in such hosts via the plasmid RK2 origin of replication, while in Escherichia coli it replicates via the plasmid F origin. The vector was found to be remarkably stable due to the insertion of an additional stability element (parDE). The copy number of pRS44 is adjustable, allowing for easy modifications of gene expression levels. A fosmid metagenomic library consisting of 20 000 clones and BAC clones with insert sizes up to 200 kb were constructed. The 16S rRNA gene analysis of the fosmid library DNA confirmed that it represents a variety of microbial species. The entire fosmid library and the selected BAC clones were transferred to Pseudomonas fluorescens and Xanthomonas campestris (fosmids only), and heterologous proteins from the fosmid library were confirmed to be expressed in P. fluorescens. To our knowledge no other reported vector system has a comparable potential for functional screening across species barriers.

  11. Results of the long range position-determining system tests. [Field Army system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhode, F. W.

    1973-01-01

    The long range position-determining system (LRPDS) has been developed by the Corps of Engineers to provide the Field Army with a rapid and accurate positioning capability. The LRPDS consists of an airborne reference position set (RPS), up to 30 ground based positioning sets (PS), and a position computing central (PCC). The PCC calculates the position of each PS based on the range change information provided by each Set. The positions can be relayed back to the PS again via RPS. Each PS unit contains a double oven precise crystal oscillator. The RPS contains a Hewlett-Packard cesium beam standard. Frequency drifts and off-sets of the crystal oscillators are taken in account in the data reduction process. A field test program was initiated in November 1972. A total of 54 flights were made which included six flights for equipment testing and 48 flights utilizing the field test data reduction program. The four general types of PS layouts used were: short range; medium range; long range; tactical configuration. The overall RMS radial error of the unknown positions varied from about 2.3 meters for the short range to about 15 meters for the long range. The corresponding elevation RMS errors vary from about 12 meters to 37 meters.

  12. Identification and monitoring of host cell proteins by mass spectrometry combined with high performance immunochemistry testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Bomans

    Full Text Available Biotherapeutics are often produced in non-human host cells like Escherichia coli, yeast, and various mammalian cell lines. A major focus of any therapeutic protein purification process is to reduce host cell proteins to an acceptable low level. In this study, various E. coli host cell proteins were identified at different purifications steps by HPLC fractionation, SDS-PAGE analysis, and tryptic peptide mapping combined with online liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS. However, no host cell proteins could be verified by direct LC-MS analysis of final drug substance material. In contrast, the application of affinity enrichment chromatography prior to comprehensive LC-MS was adequate to identify several low abundant host cell proteins at the final drug substance level. Bacterial alkaline phosphatase (BAP was identified as being the most abundant host cell protein at several purification steps. Thus, we firstly established two different assays for enzymatic and immunological BAP monitoring using the cobas® technology. By using this strategy we were able to demonstrate an almost complete removal of BAP enzymatic activity by the established therapeutic protein purification process. In summary, the impact of fermentation, purification, and formulation conditions on host cell protein removal and biological activity can be conducted by monitoring process-specific host cell proteins in a GMP-compatible and high-throughput (> 1000 samples/day manner.

  13. Salivary gland hypertrophy virus of house flies in Denmark: Prevalence, host range, and comparison with a Florida isolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geden, C. J.; Steenberg, T.; Lietze, V.-U.;

    2011-01-01

    and Florida isolates of MdSGHV was similar with three virus delivery protocols, as a liquid food bait (in sucrose, milk, or blood), sprayed onto the flies in a Potter spray tower, or by immersiion in a crude homogenate of infected house flies. The most effective delivery system was immersion in a homogenate...... in infected house flies, and injection of house flies with homogenates prepared from the salivary glands or ovaries of these species resulted in MdSGHV infection of the challenged house flies. Mortality of virus-injected stable flies was the highest among the five species tested. Virulence of Danish...

  14. Intelligent Launch and Range Operations Virtual Test Bed (ILRO-VTB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardina, Jorge; Rajkumar, T.

    2003-01-01

    Intelligent Launch and Range Operations Virtual Test Bed (ILRO-VTB) is a real-time web-based command and control, communication, and intelligent simulation environment of ground-vehicle, launch and range operation activities. ILRO-VTB consists of a variety of simulation models combined with commercial and indigenous software developments (NASA Ames). It creates a hybrid software/hardware environment suitable for testing various integrated control system components of launch and range. The dynamic interactions of the integrated simulated control systems are not well understood. Insight into such systems can only be achieved through simulation/emulation. For that reason, NASA has established a VTB where we can learn the actual control and dynamics of designs for future space programs, including testing and performance evaluation. The current implementation of the VTB simulates the operations of a sub-orbital vehicle of mission, control, ground-vehicle engineering, launch and range operations. The present development of the test bed simulates the operations of Space Shuttle Vehicle (SSV) at NASA Kennedy Space Center. The test bed supports a wide variety of shuttle missions with ancillary modeling capabilities like weather forecasting, lightning tracker, toxic gas dispersion model, debris dispersion model, telemetry, trajectory modeling, ground operations, payload models and etc. To achieve the simulations, all models are linked using Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA). The test bed provides opportunities for government, universities, researchers and industries to do a real time of shuttle launch in cyber space.

  15. Diversity and geographical distribution of Flavobacterium psychrophilum isolates and their phages: patterns of susceptibility to phage infection and phage host range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Daniel; Christiansen, Rói Hammershaimb; Espejo, Romilio; Middelboe, Mathias

    2014-05-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum is an important fish pathogen worldwide that causes cold water disease (CWD) or rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS). Phage therapy has been suggested as an alternative method for the control of this pathogen in aquaculture. However, effective use of bacteriophages in disease control requires detailed knowledge about the diversity and dynamics of host susceptibility to phage infection. For this reason, we examined the genetic diversity of 49 F. psychrophilum strains isolated in three different areas (Chile, Denmark, and USA) through direct genome restriction enzyme analysis (DGREA) and their susceptibility to 33 bacteriophages isolated in Chile and Denmark, thus covering large geographical (>12,000 km) and temporal (>60 years) scales of isolation. An additional 40 phage-resistant isolates obtained from culture experiments after exposure to specific phages were examined for changes in phage susceptibility against the 33 phages. The F. psychrophilum and phage populations isolated from Chile and Denmark clustered into geographically distinct groups with respect to DGREA profile and host range, respectively. However, cross infection between Chilean phage isolates and Danish host isolates and vice versa was observed. Development of resistance to certain bacteriophages led to susceptibility to other phages suggesting that "enhanced infection" is potentially an important cost of resistance in F. psychrophilum, possibly contributing to the observed co-existence of phage-sensitive F. psychrophilum strains and lytic phages across local and global scales. Overall, our results showed that despite the identification of local communities of phages and hosts, some key properties determining phage infection patterns seem to be globally distributed.

  16. A Range-Based Test for the Parametric Form of the Volatility in Diffusion Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podolskij, Mark; Ziggel, Daniel

    We propose a new test for the parametric form of the volatility function in continuous time diffusion models of the type dXt = a(t,Xt)dt + s(t,Xt)dWt. Our approach involves a range-based estimation of the integrated volatility and the integrated quarticity, which are used to construct the test...... statistic. Under rather weak assumptions on the drift and volatility we prove weak convergence of the test statistic to a centered mixed Gaussian distribution. As a consequence we obtain a test, which is consistent for any fixed alternative. Moreover, we present a parametric bootstrap procedure which...

  17. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring: CY2015 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolich, George [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.; Shadel, Craig [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.; Chapman, Jenny [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.; McCurdy, Greg [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.; Etyemezian, Vicken [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.; Miller, Julianne J. [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.; Mizell, Steve [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.

    2016-09-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range). The operation resulted in radionuclide-contaminated soils at the Clean Slate I, II, and III sites. This report documents observations made during ongoing monitoring of radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions at stations installed adjacent to Clean Slate I and Clean Slate III, and at the TTR Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Range Operations Control (ROC) center. The primary objective of the monitoring effort is to determine if winds blowing across the Clean Slate sites are transporting particles of radionuclide-contaminated soil beyond the physical and administrative boundaries of the sites.

  18. Host range and distribution of small mammal fleas in South Africa, with a focus on species of medical and veterinary importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAN DER Mescht, L; Matthee, S

    2017-07-10

    The host range and distribution of flea species on rodents and insectivores across multiple vegetation types in South Africa were investigated. Habitat suitability for flea species considered as important vectors of disease in humans and domestic animals was modelled. Data originated from fleas that were recovered from small mammals captured at 29 localities during 2009-2013 and published literature searched for flea records. Climate-based predictor variables, widely used in arthropod vector distribution, were selected and habitat suitability modelled for 10 flea vector species. A total of 2469 flea individuals representing 33 species and subspecies were collected from 1185 small mammals. Ten of each of the flea and rodent species are plague vectors and reservoirs, respectively. Multiple novel flea-host associations and locality records were noted. Three vector species were recorded from insectivores. Geographic distributions of flea species ranged from broad, across-biome distributions to narrower distributions within one or two biomes. Habitat suitability models performed excellently for the majority of flea vectors and identified regions of summer and all-year rainfall as representing suitable habitats for most vector species. Current knowledge of vector and disease ecology can benefit from similar sampling approaches that will be important not only for South Africa, but also for the sub-region. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  19. Divergence of host range and biological properties between natural isolate and full-length infectious cDNA clone of the Beet mild yellowing virus 2ITB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Elodie; Brault, Véronique; Klein, Delphine; Weyens, Guy; Lefèbvre, Marc; Ziegler-Graff, Véronique; Gilmer, David

    2014-01-01

    Plant infection by poleroviruses is restricted to phloem tissues, preventing any classical leaf rub inoculation with viral RNA or virions. Efficient virus inoculation to plants is achieved by viruliferous aphids that acquire the virus by feeding on infected plants. The use of promoter-driven infectious cDNA is an alternative means to infect plants and allows reverse genetic studies to be performed. Using Beet mild yellowing virus isolate 2ITB (BMYV-2ITB), we produced a full-length infectious cDNA clone of the virus (named BMYV-EK) placed under the control of the T7 RNA polymerase and the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoters. Infectivity of the engineered BMYV-EK virus was assayed in different plant species and compared with that of the original virus. We showed that in vitro- or in planta-derived transcripts were infectious in protoplasts and in whole plants. Importantly, the natural aphid vector Myzus persicae efficiently transmitted the viral progeny produced in infected plants. By comparing agroinoculation and aphid infection in a host range assay, we showed that the engineered BMYV-EK virus displayed a similar host range to BMYV-2ITB, except for Nicotiana benthamiana, which proved to be resistant to systemic infection with BMYV-EK. Finally, both the BMYV-EK P0 and the full-length clone were able to strongly interfere with post-transcriptional gene silencing.

  20. Performance evaluation of multi-sensor data fusion technique for test range application

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shrabani Bhattacharya; R Appavu Raj

    2004-04-01

    We have adopted the state-vector fusion technique for fusing multiple sensors track data to provide complete and precise trajectory information about the flight vehicle under test, for the purpose of flight safety monitoring and decisionmaking at Test Range. The present paper brings out the performance of the algorithm for different process noise and measurement noise using simulated as well as real track data.

  1. Range Safety Real-time System for Satellite Launch Vehicle Missions–Testing Methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Varaprasad

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A real-time system plays a critical role in the range safety decision-making in a satellitelaunch mission. Real-time software, the heart of such systems, is becoming an issue of criticality.Emphasis is being laid on the development of reliable, robust, and operational system. Thispaper purports to delineate prudent testing methodologies implemented to test the real-timesystem.

  2. 10-decade wide-range neutron-monitoring system. Final test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, W.K.

    1970-10-01

    The objective of Project Agreement 49 was to design, fabricate, test, and evaluate under actual nuclear reactor operating conditions, one prototype counting-Campbelling wide-range type thermal neutron flux measurement channel. This report describes the basic system designed for PA 49, and describes and presents the results of tests conducted on the system. Individual module descriptions and schematics are contained in the instruction manual which was issued with the system.

  3. Test-Retest Reliability of the Dual-Microphone Voice Range Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Printz, Trine; Sorensen, Jesper Roed; Godballe, Christian; Grøntved, Ågot Møller

    2017-05-16

    The voice range profile (VRP) measures vocal intensity and fundamental frequency. Phonosurgical and logopedic treatment outcome studies using the VRP report voice improvements of 3-6 semitones (ST) in ST range and 4-7 decibels (dB) in sound pressure level range after treatment. These small improvements stress the importance of reliable measurements. The aim was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the dual-microphone computerized VRP on participants with healthy voices. This is a prospective test-retest reliability study. Dual-microphone VRPs were repeated twice on healthy participants (n = 37) with an interval of 6-37 days. Voice frequency and intensity (minimum, maximum, and ranges) were assessed in combination with the area of the VRP. Correlations between VRP parameters were high (r > 0.60). However, in the retest, a statistically significant increase in voice frequency range (1.4 ST [95% confidence interval {CI}: 0.8-2.1 ST], P VRP (148 cells [95% CI: 87-210 cells], P VRP is well below the differences seen after surgical or logopedic intervention, even when measuring in non-sound-treated rooms. There is a need for studies regarding inter-examiner reliability with a longer interval between test and retest before the assessment is fully reliable for clinical application. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 424: Area 3 Landfill Complex, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Nevada

    1998-08-31

    This corrective action plan provides the closure implementation methods for the Area 3 Landfill Complex, Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 424, located at the Tonopah Test Range. The Area 3 Landfill Complex consists of 8 landfill sites, each designated as a separate corrective action site.

  5. Environmental Characterization of Mine Countermeasure Test Ranges: Hydrography and Water Column Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    the performance characteristics of laser imaging systems. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as...5 IMPACT/APPLICATIONS This work is an important aspect of the transition of laser imaging systems to the fleet for mine countermeasure...Environmental Characterization of Mine Countermeasure Test Ranges: Hydrography and Water Column Optics David A. Phinney Bigelow Laboratory for

  6. Comparison of tests for the measurement of C-reactive protein in the low range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, R.; Maat, M. de

    1998-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) has recently been identified as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The published studies all used highly sensitive immunological assays that were specially designed in-house to measure CRP in the sub-clinical (normal) range. However, these tests are not

  7. Progress in sensor performance testing, modeling and range prediction using the TOD method: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijl, Piet; Hogervorst, Maarten A.; Toet, Alexander

    2017-05-01

    The Triangle Orientation Discrimination (TOD) methodology includes i) a widely applicable, accurate end-to-end EO/IR sensor test, ii) an image-based sensor system model and iii) a Target Acquisition (TA) range model. The method has been extensively validated against TA field performance for a wide variety of well- and under-sampled imagers, systems with advanced image processing techniques such as dynamic super resolution and local adaptive contrast enhancement, and sensors showing smear or noise drift, for both static and dynamic test stimuli and as a function of target contrast. Recently, significant progress has been made in various directions. Dedicated visual and NIR test charts for lab and field testing are available and thermal test benches are on the market. Automated sensor testing using an objective synthetic human observer is within reach. Both an analytical and an image-based TOD model have recently been developed and are being implemented in the European Target Acquisition model ECOMOS and in the EOSTAR TDA. Further, the methodology is being applied for design optimization of high-end security camera systems. Finally, results from a recent perception study suggest that DRI ranges for real targets can be predicted by replacing the relevant distinctive target features by TOD test patterns of the same characteristic size and contrast, enabling a new TA modeling approach. This paper provides an overview.

  8. Complete genome sequence of the N2-fixing broad host range endophyte Klebsiella pneumoniae 342 and virulence predictions verified in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrick E Fouts

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We report here the sequencing and analysis of the genome of the nitrogen-fixing endophyte, Klebsiella pneumoniae 342. Although K. pneumoniae 342 is a member of the enteric bacteria, it serves as a model for studies of endophytic, plant-bacterial associations due to its efficient colonization of plant tissues (including maize and wheat, two of the most important crops in the world, while maintaining a mutualistic relationship that encompasses supplying organic nitrogen to the host plant. Genomic analysis examined K. pneumoniae 342 for the presence of previously identified genes from other bacteria involved in colonization of, or growth in, plants. From this set, approximately one-third were identified in K. pneumoniae 342, suggesting additional factors most likely contribute to its endophytic lifestyle. Comparative genome analyses were used to provide new insights into this question. Results included the identification of metabolic pathways and other features devoted to processing plant-derived cellulosic and aromatic compounds, and a robust complement of transport genes (15.4%, one of the highest percentages in bacterial genomes sequenced. Although virulence and antibiotic resistance genes were predicted, experiments conducted using mouse models showed pathogenicity to be attenuated in this strain. Comparative genomic analyses with the presumed human pathogen K. pneumoniae MGH78578 revealed that MGH78578 apparently cannot fix nitrogen, and the distribution of genes essential to surface attachment, secretion, transport, and regulation and signaling varied between each genome, which may indicate critical divergences between the strains that influence their preferred host ranges and lifestyles (endophytic plant associations for K. pneumoniae 342 and presumably human pathogenesis for MGH78578. Little genome information is available concerning endophytic bacteria. The K. pneumoniae 342 genome will drive new research into this less-understood, but

  9. C7L family of poxvirus host range genes inhibits antiviral activities induced by type I interferons and interferon regulatory factor 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangzhi; Schoggins, John; Rose, Lloyd; Cao, Jingxin; Ploss, Alexander; Rice, Charles M; Xiang, Yan

    2012-04-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) K1L and C7L function equivalently in many mammalian cells to support VACV replication and antagonize antiviral activities induced by type I interferons (IFNs). While K1L is limited to orthopoxviruses, genes that are homologous to C7L are found in diverse mammalian poxviruses. In this study, we showed that the C7L homologues from sheeppox virus and swinepox virus could rescue the replication defect of a VACV mutant deleted of both K1L and C7L (vK1L(-)C7L(-)). Interestingly, the sheeppox virus C7L homologue could rescue the replication of vK1L(-)C7L(-) in human HeLa cells but not in murine 3T3 and LA-4 cells, in contrast to all other C7L homologues. Replacing amino acids 134 and 135 of the sheeppox virus C7L homologue, however, made it functional in the two murine cell lines, suggesting that these two residues are critical for antagonizing a putative host restriction factor which has some subtle sequence variation in human and murine cells. Furthermore, the C7L family of host range genes from diverse mammalian poxviruses were all capable of antagonizing type I IFN-induced antiviral activities against VACV. Screening of a library of more than 350 IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) identified interferon-regulated factor 1 (IRF1) as an inhibitor of vK1L(-)C7L(-) but not wild-type VACV. Expression of either K1L or C7L, however, rendered vK1L(-)C7L(-) resistant to IRF1-induced antiviral activities. Altogether, our data show that K1L and C7L antagonize IRF1-induced antiviral activities and that the host modulation function of C7L is evolutionally conserved in all poxviruses that can readily replicate in tissue-cultured mammalian cells.

  10. CFD Simulations of the Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (SIAD) Ballistic Range Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Joseph; Stern, Eric; Wilder, Michael

    2017-01-01

    A series of ballistic range tests were performed on a scaled model of the Supersonic Flight Demonstration Test (SFDT) intended to test the Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (SIAD) geometry. The purpose of these experiments were to provide aerodynamic coefficients of the vehicle to aid in mission and vehicle design. The experimental data spans the moderate Mach number range, $3.8-2.0$, with a total angle of attack ($alpha_T$) range, $10o-20o$. These conditions are intended to span the Mach-$alpha$ space for the majority of the SFDT experiment. In an effort to validate the predictive capabilities of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for free-flight aerodynamic behavior, numerical simulations of the ballistic range experiment are performed using the unstructured finite volume Navier-Stokes solver, US3D. Comparisons to raw vehicle attitude, and post-processed aerodynamic coefficients are made between simulated results and experimental data. The resulting comparisons for both raw model attitude and derived aerodynamic coefficients show good agreement with experimental results. Additionally, near body pressure field values for each trajectory simulated are investigated. Extracted surface and wake pressure data gives further insights into dynamic flow coupling leading to a potential mechanism for dynamic instability.

  11. Ensifer meliloti bv. lancerottense establishes nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with Lotus endemic to the Canary Islands and shows distinctive symbiotic genotypes and host range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Barrios, Milagros; Lorite, María José; Donate-Correa, Javier; Sanjuán, Juan

    2009-09-01

    Eleven strains were isolated from root nodules of Lotus endemic to the Canary Islands and they belonged to the genus Ensifer, a genus never previously described as a symbiont of Lotus. According to their 16S rRNA and atpD gene sequences, two isolates represented minority genotypes that could belong to previously undescribed Ensifer species, but most of the isolates were classified within the species Ensifer meliloti. These isolates nodulated Lotus lancerottensis, Lotus corniculatus and Lotus japonicus, whereas Lotus tenuis and Lotus uliginosus were more restrictive hosts. However, effective nitrogen fixation only occurred with the endemic L. lancerottensis. The E. meliloti strains did not nodulate Medicago sativa, Medicago laciniata Glycine max or Glycine soja, but induced non-fixing nodules on Phaseolus vulgaris roots. nodC and nifH symbiotic gene phylogenies showed that the E. meliloti symbionts of Lotus markedly diverged from strains of Mesorhizobium loti, the usual symbionts of Lotus, as well as from the three biovars (bv. meliloti, bv. medicaginis, and bv. mediterranense) so far described within E. meliloti. Indeed, the nodC and nifH genes from the E. meliloti isolates from Lotus represented unique symbiotic genotypes. According to their symbiotic gene sequences and host range, the Lotus symbionts would represent a new biovar of E. meliloti for which bv. lancerottense is proposed.

  12. Disentangling Peronospora on Papaver: phylogenetics, taxonomy, nomenclature and host range of downy mildew of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum and related species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Voglmayr

    Full Text Available Based on sequence data from ITS rDNA, cox1 and cox2, six Peronospora species are recognised as phylogenetically distinct on various Papaver species. The host ranges of the four already described species P. arborescens, P. argemones, P. cristata and P. meconopsidis are clarified. Based on sequence data and morphology, two new species, P. apula and P. somniferi, are described from Papaver apulum and P. somniferum, respectively. The second Peronospora species parasitizing Papaver somniferum, that was only recently recorded as Peronospora cristata from Tasmania, is shown to represent a distinct taxon, P. meconopsidis, originally described from Meconopsis cambrica. It is shown that P. meconopsidis on Papaver somniferum is also present and widespread in Europe and Asia, but has been overlooked due to confusion with P. somniferi and due to less prominent, localized disease symptoms. Oospores are reported for the first time for P. meconopsidis from Asian collections on Papaver somniferum. Morphological descriptions, illustrations and a key are provided for all described Peronospora species on Papaver. cox1 and cox2 sequence data are confirmed as equally good barcoding loci for reliable Peronospora species identification, whereas ITS rDNA does sometimes not resolve species boundaries. Molecular phylogenetic data reveal high host specificity of Peronospora on Papaver, which has the important phytopathological implication that wild Papaver spp. cannot play any role as primary inoculum source for downy mildew epidemics in cultivated opium poppy crops.

  13. Expanding the host range of small insect RNA viruses: Providence virus (Carmotetraviridae) infects and replicates in a human tissue culture cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiwaji, Meesbah; Short, James Roswell; Dorrington, Rosemary Ann

    2016-10-01

    Tetraviruses are small, positive (+ve)-sense ssRNA viruses that infect the midgut cells of lepidopteran larvae. Providence virus (PrV) is the only member of the family Carmotetraviridae (previously Tetraviridae). PrV particles exhibit the characteristic tetraviral T=4 icosahedral symmetry, but PrV is distinct from other tetraviruses with respect to genome organization and viral non-structural proteins. Currently, PrV is the only tetravirus known to infect and replicate in lepidopteran cell culture lines. In this report we demonstrate, using immunofluorescence microscopy, that PrV infects and replicates in a human tissue culture cell line (HeLa), producing infectious virus particles. We also provide evidence for PrV replication in vitro in insect, mammalian and plant cell-free systems. This study challenges the long-held view that tetraviruses have a narrow host range confined to one or a few lepidopteran species and highlights the need to consider the potential for apparently non-infectious viruses to be transferred to new hosts in the laboratory.

  14. Broad host range ProUSER vectors enable fast characterization of inducible promoters and optimization of p-coumaric acid production in Pseudomonas putida KT2440

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calero Valdayo, Patricia; Ingemann Jensen, Sheila; Nielsen, Alex Toftgaard

    2016-01-01

    of ProUSER-reporter vectors was further created to characterize different inducible promoters. The PrhaB and Pm promoters were orthogonal and showed titratable, high, and homogeneous expression. To optimize the production of p-coumaric acid, P. putida was engineered to prevent degradation of tyrosine...... and p-coumaric acid. Pm and PrhaB were used to control the expression of a tyrosine ammonia lyase or AroG* and TyrA* involved in tyrosine production, respectively. Pathway expression was optimized by modulating inductions, resulting in small-scale p-coumaric acid production of 1.2 mM, the highest...... achieved in Pseudomonads under comparable conditions. With broad-host-range compatibility, the ProUSER vectors will serve as useful tools for optimizing gene expression in a variety of bacteria....

  15. Complete Genome sequence of Burkholderia phymatum STM815T, a broad host range and efficient nitrogen-fixing symbiont of Mimosa species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, Lionel; Klonowska, Agnieszka; Caroline, Bournaud; Booth, Kristina; Vriezen, Jan A.C.; Melkonian, Rémy; James, Euan K.; Young, J. Peter W.; Bena, Gilles; Hauser, Loren; Land, Miriam; Kyrpides, Nikos; Bruce, David; Chain, Patrick; Copeland, Alex; Pitluck, Sam; Woyke, Tanja; Lizotte-Waniewski, Michelle; Bristow, Jim; Riley, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Burkholderia phymatum is a soil bacterium able to develop a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with species of the legume genus Mimosa, and is frequently found associated specifically with Mimosa pudica. The type strain of the species, STM 815T, was isolated from a root nodule in French Guiana in 2000. The strain is an aerobic, motile, non-spore forming, Gram-negative rod, and is a highly competitive strain for nodulation compared to other Mimosa symbionts, as it also nodulates a broad range of other legume genera and species. The 8,676,562 bp genome is composed of two chromosomes (3,479,187 and 2,697,374 bp), a megaplasmid (1,904,893 bp) and a plasmid hosting the symbiotic functions (595,108 bp). PMID:25197461

  16. Complete Genome sequence of Burkholderia phymatum STM815, a broad host range and efficient nitrogen-fixing symbiont of Mimosa species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulin, Lionel [UMR, France; Klonowska, Agnieszka [UMR, France; Caroline, Bournaud [UMR, France; Booth, Kristina [University of Massachusetts; Vriezen, Jan A.C. [University of Massachusetts; Melkonian, Remy [UMR, France; James, Euan [James Hutton Institute, Dundee, United Kingdom; Young, Peter W. [University of York, United Kingdom; Bena, Gilles [UMR, France; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Chain, Patrick S. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lizotte-Waniewski, Michelle [University of Massachusetts; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Riley, Monica [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), Woods Hole

    2014-01-01

    Burkholderia phymatum is a soil bacterium able to develop a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with species of the legume genus Mimosa, and is frequently found associated specifically with Mimosa pudica. The type strain of the species, STM 815T, was isolated from a root nodule in French Guiana in 2000. The strain is an aerobic, motile, non-spore forming, Gram-negative rod, and is a highly competitive strain for nodulation compared to other Mimosa symbionts, as it also nodulates a broad range of other legume genera and species. The 8,676,562 bp genome is composed of two chromosomes (3,479,187 and 2,697,374 bp), a megaplasmid (1,904,893 bp) and a plasmid hosting the symbiotic functions (595,108 bp).

  17. Complete Genome sequence of Burkholderia phymatum STM815(T), a broad host range and efficient nitrogen-fixing symbiont of Mimosa species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, Lionel; Klonowska, Agnieszka; Caroline, Bournaud; Booth, Kristina; Vriezen, Jan A C; Melkonian, Rémy; James, Euan K; Young, J Peter W; Bena, Gilles; Hauser, Loren; Land, Miriam; Kyrpides, Nikos; Bruce, David; Chain, Patrick; Copeland, Alex; Pitluck, Sam; Woyke, Tanja; Lizotte-Waniewski, Michelle; Bristow, Jim; Riley, Margaret

    2014-06-15

    Burkholderia phymatum is a soil bacterium able to develop a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with species of the legume genus Mimosa, and is frequently found associated specifically with Mimosa pudica. The type strain of the species, STM 815(T), was isolated from a root nodule in French Guiana in 2000. The strain is an aerobic, motile, non-spore forming, Gram-negative rod, and is a highly competitive strain for nodulation compared to other Mimosa symbionts, as it also nodulates a broad range of other legume genera and species. The 8,676,562 bp genome is composed of two chromosomes (3,479,187 and 2,697,374 bp), a megaplasmid (1,904,893 bp) and a plasmid hosting the symbiotic functions (595,108 bp).

  18. Testing adaptive regime shifts for range size evolution of endemic birds of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youhua Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this brief report, adaptive regime shifts for the range size evolution of the endemic birds of China were identified. Four models with different biological meanings were tested and compared through maximum likelihood models, including the Brownian motion model, one global optimal range size model for all lineages in the phylogeny, two optimal regime model of range sizes for lineages with large and small range sizes (OU2, and three optimal regime model in which an additional regime is added to the ancestral lineages. The results of model evaluation and comparison using the maximum likelihood technique show that over 48 endemic taxa, two optimal regimes (the OU2 model were observed for bird lineages with large and small range sizes in the country. The possible reasons for such an observation were outlined accordingly, including the different evolutionary times, which were subjected to different historical and geological conditions, heterogeneous environmental conditions, and complex climatic fluctuations. Overall, the range size evolution of the endemic taxa was subjected to multiple selective stresses. For future implications, more studies are desired to provide a holistic view of the evolution and divergence of endemic taxa.

  19. A baseline analysis of the distribution, host-range, and severity of the rust Puccinia Psidii in the Hawaiian islands, 2005-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    Puccinia psidii was first described by Winter (1884) on guava (Psidium guajava L.) in Brazil. The rust is still a major pest of native guava in Brazil and is often referred to as “guava rust” internationally. It is unusual among rust fungi because of its broad and ever-expanding host-range within the Myrtaceae plant family (Simpson et al. 2006). The pathogen is regarded as a major threat to Eucalyptus plantations and other Myrtaceae worldwide (Coutinho et al. 1998, Grgurinovic et al. 2006, Glen et al. 2007). Infections of leaves and meristems are particularly severe on susceptible seedlings, cuttings, young trees, and coppice, causing plants to be stunted and multi-branched, inhibiting normal growth and development, and sometimes causing death to young seedlings (Booth et al. 2000, Rayachhetry et al. 2001). The fungus has expanded its host-range in Brazil, affecting both native and introduced Myrtaceae (Coutinho et al. 1998). Since its discovery in 1884, P. psidii has continually been discovered to have an expanding host-range within the Myrtaceae, affecting hosts throughout much of South and Central America and the Caribbean. Spreading out originally from Brazil in 1884, the fungus has been reported on hosts in the following countries (first record in parentheses): Paraguay (1884), Uruguay (1889), Ecuador (1891), Colombia (1913), Puerto Rico (1913), Cuba (1926), Dominican Republic (1933), Venezuela (1934), Jamaica (1936), Argentina (1946), Dominica (1948), Trinidad and Tobago (1951), Guatemala (1968), United States (Florida; 1977), Mexico (1981), El Salvador (1987), and Costa Rica (1998) (Simpson et al. 2006). It is possible that P. psidii was present in El Salvador and Costa Rica prior to 1980, but was not reported until 1987 and 1998, respectively. Until recently, Puccinia psidii was restricted to the Neotropics, Mexico, and the state of Florida in the United States. While the rust has been present in Florida for over 30 years, only recently has it spread

  20. Air Monitoring Network at Tonopah Test Range: Network Description and Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey Tappen; George Nikolich; Ken Giles; David Shafer; Tammy Kluesner

    2010-05-18

    During the period April to June 2008, at the behest of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO); the Desert Research Institute (DRI) constructed and deployed two portable environmental monitoring stations at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) as part of the Environmental Restoration Project Soils Sub-Project. The TTR is located within the boundaries of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) near the northern edge, and covers an area of approximately 725.20 km2 (179,200 acres). The primary objective of the monitoring stations is to evaluate whether and under what conditions there is wind transport of radiological contaminants from one of the three Soil Sub-Project Corrective Action Units (CAUs) associated with Operation Roller Coaster on TTR. Operation Roller Coaster was a series of tests, conducted in 1963, designed to examine the stability and dispersal of plutonium in storage and transportation accidents. These tests did not result in any nuclear explosive yield. However, the tests did result in the dispersal of plutonium and contamination of surface soils in the surrounding area.

  1. Air Monitoring Network at Tonopah Test Range: Network Description, Capabilities, and Analytical Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwell, William T.; Daniels, Jeffrey; Nikolich, George; Shadel, Craig; Giles, Ken; Karr, Lynn; Kluesner, Tammy

    2012-01-01

    During the period April to June 2008, at the behest of the Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO); the Desert Research Institute (DRI) constructed and deployed two portable environmental monitoring stations at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) as part of the Environmental Restoration Project Soils Activity. DRI has operated these stations since that time. A third station was deployed in the period May to September 2011. The TTR is located within the northwest corner of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR), and covers an area of approximately 725.20 km2 (280 mi2). The primary objective of the monitoring stations is to evaluate whether and under what conditions there is wind transport of radiological contaminants from Soils Corrective Action Units (CAUs) associated with Operation Roller Coaster on TTR. Operation Roller Coaster was a series of tests, conducted in 1963, designed to examine the stability and dispersal of plutonium in storage and transportation accidents. These tests did not result in any nuclear explosive yield. However, the tests did result in the dispersal of plutonium and contamination of surface soils in the surrounding area.

  2. The Detection and Sequencing of a Broad-Host-Range Conjugative IncP-1β Plasmid in an Epidemic Strain of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leão, Sylvia Cardoso; Matsumoto, Cristianne Kayoko; Carneiro, Adriana; Ramos, Rommel Thiago; Nogueira, Christiane Lourenço; Junior, James Daltro Lima; Lima, Karla Valéria; Lopes, Maria Luiza; Schneider, Horacio; Azevedo, Vasco Ariston; da Costa da Silva, Artur

    2013-01-01

    Background An extended outbreak of mycobacterial surgical infections occurred in Brazil during 2004–2008. Most infections were caused by a single strain of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii, which was characterized by a specific rpoB sequevar and two highly similar pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns differentiated by the presence of a ∼50 kb band. The nature of this band was investigated. Methodology/Principal Findings Genomic sequencing of the prototype outbreak isolate INCQS 00594 using the SOLiD platform demonstrated the presence of a 56,264-bp circular plasmid, designated pMAB01. Identity matrices, genetic distances and phylogeny analyses indicated that pMAB01 belongs to the broad-host-range plasmid subgroup IncP-1β and is highly related to BRA100, pJP4, pAKD33 and pB10. The presence of pMAB01-derived sequences in 41 M. abscessus subsp. bolletii isolates was evaluated using PCR, PFGE and Southern blot hybridization. Sixteen of the 41 isolates showed the presence of the plasmid. The plasmid was visualized as a ∼50-kb band using PFGE and Southern blot hybridization in 12 isolates. The remaining 25 isolates did not exhibit any evidence of this plasmid. The plasmid was successfully transferred to Escherichia coli by conjugation and transformation. Lateral transfer of pMAB01 to the high efficient plasmid transformation strain Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2155 could not be demonstrated. Conclusions/Significance The occurrence of a broad-host-range IncP-1β plasmid in mycobacteria is reported for the first time. Thus, genetic exchange could result in the emergence of specific strains that might be better adapted to cause human disease. PMID:23565273

  3. The Moon as a Laser-ranged Test Body for General Relativity and New Gravitational Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Agnello, Simone; Currie, Douglas

    Since the 1970s Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) to the Apollo/Lunokhod Cube Corner Retroreflector (CCR) Arrays supplied some of the best tests of General Relativity (GR): possible changes in the gravitational constant, gravitational self-energy (PPN parameter beta), weak equivalence principle, geodetic precession, inverse-square force-law. Secondly, LLR has provided significant information on the composition of the deep interior of the Moon. LLR physics analysis also allows to set constraints on extensions of GR (like spacetime torsion) and, possibly, on new gravitational physics which may explain the gravitational universe without Dark Matter and Dark Energy (like, for example, Non-Minimally Coupled gravity, NMC). LLR is the only Apollo/Lunokhod experiment still in operation, since 45 years. In the 1970s Apollo/Lunokohd LLR Arrays contributed a negligible fraction of the ranging error budget. Since the ranging capabilities of ground stations improved by more than two orders of magnitude, now, because of the lunar librations, Apollo/Lunokhod CCR arrays dominate the error budget. With the US/Italy project "LLRRA21/MoonLIGHT (Lunar Laser Ranging Retroreflector Array for the 21st century / Moon Laser Instrumentation for General relativity High accuracy Tests)", University of Maryland and INFN-LNF developed and tested a next-generation LLR payload made by a single, large CCR (100 mm diameter), unaffected by the effect of librations. In fact, we will show that MoonLIGHT reflectors will improve the LLR accuracy by a factor of ten to one hundred in a few years. INFN-LNF also developed a laser retroreflector micropayload to be deployed on the lunar surface to be laser-ranged by lunar orbiters. The latter micropayload will further extend the physics reach of Apollo, Lunokhod and MoonLIGHT CCRs to improve all precision tests of GR and new gravitational physics using LLR data. As an added value for the LRR and SLR (Satellite Laser ranging) disciplines INFN-LNF built and is

  4. 33 CFR 334.1410 - Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii, Makai Undersea Test Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii, Makai Undersea Test Range. 334.1410 Section 334.1410 Navigation and..., Makai Undersea Test Range. (a) The restricted area. The waters within an area beginning at a point in..., the operating officials of the Makai Test Range will mark in a conspicuous manner the location of...

  5. Testing for time-varying long-range dependence in volatility for emerging markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajueiro, Daniel O.; Tabak, Benjamin M.

    2005-02-01

    This paper tests whether volatility for equity returns for emerging markets possesses long-range dependence. Furthermore, the assertion of whether long-range dependence is time-varying is checked through a rolling sample approach. The empirical results suggest that there exists long-range dependence in emerging equity returns' volatility and also that it is time-varying. This assertion also holds true for Japan and the US, which are considered more developed markets. Moreover, these results are robust to “shuffling” the data to eliminate short-term autocorrelation. Therefore, they suggest that the class of GARCH processes, which are currently employed to analyze volatility of financial time series, is misspecified.

  6. Relative Navigation Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) Sensor Development Test Objective (DTO) Performance Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) received a request from the NASA Associate Administrator (AA) for Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD), to quantitatively evaluate the individual performance of three light detection and ranging (LIDAR) rendezvous sensors flown as orbiter's development test objective on Space Transportation System (STS)-127, STS-133, STS-134, and STS-135. This document contains the outcome of the NESC assessment.

  7. Search for Lorentz Violation using Short-Range Tests of Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Long, J

    2016-01-01

    Experimental tests of the newtonian inverse square law at short range, one at Indiana University and the other at the Huazhong University of Science and Technology, have been used to set limits on Lorentz violation in the pure gravity sector of the nonminimal Standard-Model Extension. In the nonrelativistic limit, the constraints derived for the 14 independent SME coefficients for Lorentz violation acting simultaneously are of order $10^{-9}$ m$^{2}$.

  8. Upper extremity neurodynamic tests: range of motion asymmetry may not indicate impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covill, Laura G; Petersen, Shannon M

    2012-10-01

    Upper extremity (UE) neurodynamic tests are used to examine neural tissue in patients with neuro-musculoskeletal disorders. Although comparisons between involved and uninvolved limbs are made clinically, minimal data exist reflecting the normal variation between sides. The purpose of this study was to determine if within-subject differences exist between limbs in the UE component of neurodynamic tests of the median, radial, and ulnar nerves. Sixty-one healthy subjects were examined. Difference between limbs for the median nerve-biased test was significant (right=16.4° ± 11.4°, left=20.1° ± 13.7°; p=0.045). There was no significant difference between limbs for the radial or ulnar nerve-biased tests. Correlation between limbs was poor for all tests (median r(2) =0.14; radial r(2) =0.20; ulnar r(2) =0.13). Lower-bound scores were calculated to determine the amount of difference needed to consider asymmetry beyond measurement error; the scores for each neurodynamic test were as follows: median 27°, radial 20°, and ulnar 21°. The results of this study show that between-limb values have low correlation and that it may be normal for an individual to have range of motion differences between limbs with neurodynamic tests.

  9. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring: CY2015 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolich, George [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.; Shadel, Craig [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.; Chapman, Jenny [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.; McCurdy, Greg [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.; Etyemezian, Vicken [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.; Miller, Julianne J. [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.; Mizell, Steve [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.

    2016-09-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range). The operation resulted in radionuclide-contaminated soils at the Clean Slate I, II, and III sites. This report documents observations made during ongoing monitoring of radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions at stations installed adjacent to Clean Slate I and Clean Slate III, and at the TTR Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Range Operations Control (ROC) center. The primary objective of the monitoring effort is to determine if winds blowing across the Clean Slate sites are transporting particles of radionuclide-contaminated soil beyond the physical and administrative boundaries of the sites. Radionuclide assessment of airborne particulates in 2015 found the gross alpha and gross beta values of dust collected from the filters at the monitoring stations are consistent with background conditions. The meteorological and particle monitoring indicate that conditions for wind-borne contaminant movement exist at the Clean Slate sites and that, although the transport of radionuclide-contaminated soil by suspension has not been detected, movement by saltation is occurring.

  10. Laboratory host specificicty testing of the fire ant microsporidian pathogen Vairimorpha invictae (Microsporidia: Burenellidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The host specificity of Vairimorpha invictae, a microsporidian pathogen of fire ants in South America, was assessed in the laboratory with the tropical fire ant, Solenopsis geminata, the southern fire ant, Solenopsis xyloni, and the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile. The two fire ant species are fo...

  11. Contribution to interplay between a delamination test and a sensory analysis of mid-range lipsticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, C; Tillé-Salmon, B; Mofid, Y

    2016-02-01

    Lipstick is currently one of the most sold products of cosmetics industry, and the competition between the various manufacturers is significant. Customers mainly seek products with high spreadability, especially long-lasting or long wear on the lips. Evaluation tests of cosmetics are usually performed by sensory analysis. This can then represent a considerable cost. The object of this study was to develop a fast and simple test of delamination (objective method with calibrated instruments) and to interplay the obtained results with those of a discriminative sensory analysis (subjective method) in order to show the relevance of the instrumental test. Three mid-range lipsticks were randomly chosen and were tested. They were made of compositions as described by the International Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients (INCI). Instrumental characterization was performed by texture profile analysis and by a special delamination test. The sensory analysis was voluntarily conducted with an untrained panel as blind test to confirm or reverse the possible interplay. The two approaches or methods gave the same type of classification. The high-fat lipstick had the worst behaviour with the delamination test and the worst notation of the intensity of descriptors with the sensory analysis. There is a high correlation between the sensory analysis and the instrumental measurements in this study. The delamination test carried out should permit to quickly determine the lasting (screening test) and in consequence optimize the basic formula of lipsticks. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  12. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring: CY2013 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizell, Steve A [DRI; Nikolich, George [DRI; Shadel, Craig [DRI; McCurdy, Greg [DRI; Etyemezian, Vicken [DRI; Miller, Julianne J [DRI

    2014-10-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range). This test resulted in radionuclide-contaminated soils at Clean Slate I, II, and III. This report documents observations made during on-going monitoring of radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions at stations installed adjacent to Clean Slate I and Clean Slate III and at the TTR Range Operations Control center. The primary objective of the monitoring effort is to determine if winds blowing across the Clean Slate sites are transporting particles of radionuclide-contaminated soils beyond both the physical and administrative boundaries of the sites. Results for the calendar year (CY) 2013 monitoring include: (1) the gross alpha and gross beta values from the monitoring stations are approximately equivalent to the highest values observed during the CY2012 reporting at the surrounding Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) stations (this was the latest documented data available at the time of this writing); (2) only naturally occurring radionuclides were identified in the gamma spectral analyses; (3) the ambient gamma radiation measurements indicate that the average annual gamma exposure is similar at all three monitoring stations and periodic intervals of increased gamma values appear to be associated with storm fronts passing through the area; and (4) the concentrations of both resuspended dust and saltated sand particles generally increase with increasing wind speed. However, differences in the observed dust concentrations are likely due to differences in the soil characteristics immediately adjacent to the monitoring stations. Neither the resuspended particulate radiological analyses nor the ambient gamma radiation measurements suggest wind transport of radionuclide-contaminated soils.

  13. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring. CY2014 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikoloch, George [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Shadel, Craig [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Chapman, Jenny [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Mizell, Steve A. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); McCurdy, Greg [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Etyemezian, Vicken [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Miller, Julianne J. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-10-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range). This test resulted in radionuclide-contaminated soils at Clean Slate I, II, and III. This report documents observations made during ongoing monitoring of radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions at stations installed adjacent to Clean Slate I and Clean Slate III and at the TTR Range Operations Control center. The primary objective of the monitoring effort is to determine if winds blowing across the Clean Slate sites are transporting particles of radionuclide-contaminated soils beyond both the physical and administrative boundaries of the sites. Results for the calendar year (CY) 2014 monitoring are: (1) the gross alpha and gross beta values from the monitoring stations are approximately equivalent to the highest values observed during the CY2014 reporting at the surrounding Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) stations; (2) only naturally occurring radionuclides were identified in the gamma spectral analyses; (3) the ambient gamma radiation measurements indicate that the average annual gamma exposure is similar at all three monitoring stations and periodic intervals of increased gamma values appear to be associated with storm fronts passing through the area; and (4) the concentrations of both resuspended dust and saltated sand particles generally increase with increasing wind speed. Differences in the observed dust concentrations are likely the result of differences in the soil characteristics immediately adjacent to the monitoring stations. Neither the resuspended particulate radiological analyses nor the ambient gamma radiation measurements suggest wind transport of radionuclide-contaminated soils.

  14. Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) assisted migration potential: testing establishment north of the species range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLane, Sierra C; Aitken, Sally N

    2012-01-01

    The translocation of species into habitable locations outside of their current ranges, termed assisted migration, has been proposed as a means of saving vulnerable species from extinction as a result of climate change. We explore the use of this controversial technique using a threatened keystone species in western North America, whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), as a case study. Species distribution models predict that whitebark pine will be extirpated from most of its current range as temperatures rise over the next 70 years. However, the same models indicate that a large area within northwestern British Columbia, Canada, is climatically suitable for the species under current conditions and will remain so throughout the 21st century. To test the capacity of whitebark pine to establish relative to climatic and habitat features within its predicted climatic range, we planted seeds from seven populations in eight locations spanning from 600 km southeast to 800 km northwest of the northern boundary of the current species range. During the first three growing seasons, germination occurred in all locations. Nearly three times as many treated (induced maturation and broken dormancy) than untreated seeds germinated, and most treated seeds germinated a year earlier than the untreated seeds. Germination, survival, and growth were primarily influenced by seed mass, site climate conditions related to the duration of snow cover, and provenance temperature. Our experiment provides a preliminary test of models predicting the existence of climatically suitable whitebark pine habitat north of the current species ranges. More broadly, our techniques and results inform the development of scientific guidelines for assisting the migration of other species that are highly threatened by climate change. Applied case studies of this kind are critical for assessing the utility of species distribution models as conservation planning tools.

  15. Six host range variants of the xenotropic/polytropic gammaretroviruses define determinants for entry in the XPR1 cell surface receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozak Christine A

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evolutionary interactions between retroviruses and their receptors result in adaptive selection of restriction variants that can allow natural populations to evade retrovirus infection. The mouse xenotropic/polytropic (X/PMV gammaretroviruses rely on the XPR1 cell surface receptor for entry into host cells, and polymorphic variants of this receptor have been identified in different rodent species. Results We screened a panel of X/PMVs for infectivity on rodent cells carrying 6 different XPR1 receptor variants. The X/PMVs included 5 well-characterized laboratory and wild mouse virus isolates as well as a novel cytopathic XMV-related virus, termed Cz524, isolated from an Eastern European wild mouse-derived strain, and XMRV, a xenotropic-like virus isolated from human prostate cancer. The 7 viruses define 6 distinct tropisms. Cz524 and another wild mouse isolate, CasE#1, have unique species tropisms. Among the PMVs, one Friend isolate is restricted by rat cells. Among the XMVs, two isolates, XMRV and AKR6, differ from other XMVs in their PMV-like restriction in hamster cells. We generated a set of Xpr1 mutants and chimeras, and identified critical amino acids in two extracellular loops (ECLs that mediate entry of these different viruses, including 3 residues in ECL3 that are involved in PMV entry (E500, T507, and V508 and can also influence infectivity by AKR6 and Cz524. Conclusion We used a set of natural variants and mutants of Xpr1 to define 6 distinct host range variants among naturally occurring X/PMVs (2 XMV variants, 2 PMVs, 2 different wild mouse variants. We identified critical amino acids in XPR1 that mediate entry of these viruses. These gammaretroviruses and their XPR1 receptor are thus highly functionally polymorphic, a consequence of the evolutionary pressures that favor both host resistance and virus escape mutants. This variation accounts for multiple naturally occurring virus resistance phenotypes and

  16. High dynamic range hyperspectral imaging for camouflage performance test and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, D.; Feenan, J.

    2016-10-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of high dynamic range processing applied to the specific technique of hyper-spectral imaging with linescan spectrometers. The technique provides an improvement in signal to noise for reflectance estimation. This is demonstrated for field measurements of rural imagery collected from a ground-based linescan spectrometer of rural scenes. Once fully developed, the specific application is expected to improve the colour estimation approaches and consequently the test and evaluation accuracy of camouflage performance tests. Data are presented on both field and laboratory experiments that have been used to evaluate the improvements granted by the adoption of high dynamic range data acquisition in the field of hyperspectral imaging. High dynamic ranging imaging is well suited to the hyperspectral domain due to the large variation in solar irradiance across the visible and short wave infra-red (SWIR) spectrum coupled with the wavelength dependence of the nominal silicon detector response. Under field measurement conditions it is generally impractical to provide artificial illumination; consequently, an adaptation of the hyperspectral imaging and re ectance estimation process has been developed to accommodate the solar spectrum. This is shown to improve the signal to noise ratio for the re ectance estimation process of scene materials in the 400-500 nm and 700-900 nm regions.

  17. PREDICTION OF FUNCTIONAL MOVEMENT SCREEN™ PERFORMANCE FROM LOWER EXTREMITY RANGE OF MOTION AND CORE TESTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimera, Nicole J; Knoeller, Shelby; Cooper, Ron; Kothe, Nicholas; Smith, Craig; Warren, Meghan

    2017-04-01

    There are varied reports in the literature regarding the association of the Functional Movement Screen™ (FMS™) with injury. The FMS™ has been correlated with hamstring range of motion and plank hold times; however, limited research is available on the predictability of lower extremity range of motion (ROM) and core function on FMS™ performance. The purpose of this study was to examine whether active lower extremity ROM measurements and core functional tests predict FMS™ performance. The authors hypothesized that lower extremity ROM and core functional tests would predict FMS™ composite score (CS) and performance on individual FMS™ fundamental movement patterns. Descriptive cohort study. Forty recreationally active participants had active lower extremity ROM measured, performed two core functional tests, the single leg wall sit hold (SLWS) and the repetitive single leg squat (RSLS), and performed the FMS™. Independent t tests were used to assess differences between right and left limb ROM measures and outcomes of core functional tests. Linear and ordinal logistic regressions were used to determine the best predictors of FMS™ CS and fundamental movement patterns, respectively. On the left side, reduced DF and SLWS significantly predicted lower FMS™ CS. On the right side only reduced DF significantly predicted lower FMS™ CS. Ordinal logistic regression models for the fundamental movement patterns demonstrated that reduced DF ROM was significantly associated with lower performance on deep squat. Reduced left knee extension was significantly associated with better performance in left straight leg raise; while reduced right hip flexion was significantly associated with reduced right straight leg raise. Lower SLWS was associated with reduced trunk stability performance. FMS™ movement patterns were affected by lower extremity ROM and core function. Researchers should consider lower FMS™ performance as indicative of underlying issues in ROM and

  18. Standard test method for determination of reference temperature, to, for ferritic steels in the transition range

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of a reference temperature, To, which characterizes the fracture toughness of ferritic steels that experience onset of cleavage cracking at elastic, or elastic-plastic KJc instabilities, or both. The specific types of ferritic steels (3.2.1) covered are those with yield strengths ranging from 275 to 825 MPa (40 to 120 ksi) and weld metals, after stress-relief annealing, that have 10 % or less strength mismatch relative to that of the base metal. 1.2 The specimens covered are fatigue precracked single-edge notched bend bars, SE(B), and standard or disk-shaped compact tension specimens, C(T) or DC(T). A range of specimen sizes with proportional dimensions is recommended. The dimension on which the proportionality is based is specimen thickness. 1.3 Median KJc values tend to vary with the specimen type at a given test temperature, presumably due to constraint differences among the allowable test specimens in 1.2. The degree of KJc variability among specimen types i...

  19. Lunar Laser Ranging Tests of the Equivalence Principle with the Earth and Moon

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, J G; Boggs, D H; Williams, James G.; Turyshev, Slava G.; Boggs, Dale H.

    2005-01-01

    A primary objective of the Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) experiment is to provide precise observations of the lunar orbit that contribute to a wide range of science investigations. Time series of the highly accurate measurements of the distance between the Earth and Moon provide unique information used to determine whether, in accordance with the Equivalence Principle (EP), both of these celestial bodies are falling towards the Sun at the same rate, despite their different masses, compositions, and gravitational self-energies. Current LLR solutions give $(-1.0 \\pm 1.4) \\times 10^{-13}$ for any possible inequality in the ratios of the gravitational and inertial masses for the Earth and Moon, $\\Delta(M_G/M_I)$. This result, in combination with laboratory experiments on the weak equivalence principle, yields a strong equivalence principle (SEP) test of $\\Delta(M_G/M_I)_{\\tt SEP} = (-2.0 \\pm 2.0) \\times 10^{-13}$. Such an accurate result allows other tests of gravitational theories. The result of the SEP test transla...

  20. Testing gravity with Lunar Laser Ranging: An update on the APOLLO experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battat, James; Colmenares, Nick; Davis, Rodney; Ruixue, Louisa Huang; Murphy, Thomas W., Jr.; Apollo Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The mystery of dark energy and the incompatibility of quantum mechanics and General Relativity indicate the need for precision experimental probes of gravitational physics. The Earth-Moon-Sun system is a fertile laboratory for such tests. The Apache Point Observatory Lunar Laser-ranging Operation (APOLLO) makes optical range measurements to retro-reflectors on the Moon with one millimeter precision. These measurements of the lunar orbit enable incisive constraints on gravitational phenomena such as the Strong Equivalence Principle and dG / dt (among others). Until now, the APOLLO team had not been able to assess the accuracy of our data, in large part because known limitations to lunar range models ensure data-model residuals at the centimeter scale. To directly measure the APOLLO system timing accuracy, we have built an Absolute timing Calibration System (ACS) that delivers photons to our detector at known, stable time intervals using a pulsed fiber laser locked to a cesium frequency standard. This scheme provides real-time calibration of the APOLLO system timing, synchronous with the range measurements. We installed the calibration system in August, 2016. In this talk, we will describe the ACS design, and present present preliminary results from the ACS calibration campaign. We acknowledge the support of both NSF and NASA

  1. Testing the Strong Equivalence Principle with spacecraft ranging towards the nearby Lagrangian points

    CERN Document Server

    Congedo, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    General relativity is supported by great experimental evidence. Yet there is a lot of interest in precisely setting its limits with on going and future experiments. A question to answer is about the validity of the Strong Equivalence Principle. Ground experiments and Lunar Laser Ranging have provided the best upper limit on the Nordtvedt parameter $\\sigma[\\eta]=4.4\\times 10^{-4}$. With the future planetary mission BepiColombo, this parameter will be further improved by at least an order of magnitude. In this paper we envisage yet another possible testing environment with spacecraft ranging towards the nearby Sun-Earth collinear Lagrangian points. Neglecting errors in planetary masses and ephemerides, we forecast $\\sigma[\\eta]=6.4\\text{-}2.0\\times10^{-4}$ (5 yr integration time) via ranging towards $L_1$ in realistic and optimistic scenarios depending on current and future range capabilities and knowledge of the Earth's ephemerides. A combined measurement, $L_1$+$L_2$, gives instead $4.8\\text{-}1.7\\times10^{-4...

  2. Corrective action investigation plan for CAU No. 424: Area 3 Landfill Complex, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This Correction Action Investigation Plan contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the Area 3 Landfill Complex, CAU No. 424, which is located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 255 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, nevada. The CAU 424 is comprised of eight individual landfill sites that are located around and within the perimeter of the Area 3 Compound. Due to the unregulated disposal activities commonly associated with early landfill operations, an investigation will be conducted at each CAS to complete the following tasks: identify the presence and nature of possible contaminant migration from the landfills; determine the vertical and lateral extent of possible contaminant migration; ascertain the potential impact to human health and the environment; and provide sufficient information and data to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective action strategies for each CAS.

  3. Benchmark tests of a strongly constrained semilocal functional with a long-range dispersion correction

    CERN Document Server

    Brandenburg, J G; Ruzsinszky, A; Sun, J; Perdew, J P

    2016-01-01

    The strongly constrained and appropriately normed (SCAN) semilocal density functional [J. Sun, A. Ruzsinszky, J. P. Perdew \\textit{Phys. Rev. Lett.} {\\bf 115}, 036402 (2015)] obeys all 17 known exact constraints for meta-generalized-gradient approximations (meta-GGA) and includes some medium range correlation effects. Long-range London dispersion interactions are still missing, but can be accounted for via an appropriate correction scheme. In this study, we combine SCAN with an efficient London dispersion correction and show that lattice energies of simple organic crystals can be improved with the applied correction by 50\\%. The London-dispersion corrected SCAN meta-GGA outperforms all other tested London-dispersion corrected meta-GGAs for molecular geometries. Our new method delivers mean absolute deviations (MADs) for main group bond lengths that are consistently below 1\\,pm, rotational constants with MADs of 0.2\\%, and noncovalent distances with MADs below 1\\%. For a large database of general main group th...

  4. Testing fault growth models with low-temperature thermochronology in the northwest Basin and Range, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Magdalena A. E.; Barnes, Jason B.; Colgan, Joseph P.

    2016-10-01

    Common fault growth models diverge in predicting how faults accumulate displacement and lengthen through time. A paucity of field-based data documenting the lateral component of fault growth hinders our ability to test these models and fully understand how natural fault systems evolve. Here we outline a framework for using apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronology (AHe) to quantify the along-strike growth of faults. To test our framework, we first use a transect in the normal fault-bounded Jackson Mountains in the Nevada Basin and Range Province, then apply the new framework to the adjacent Pine Forest Range. We combine new and existing cross sections with 18 new and 16 existing AHe cooling ages to determine the spatiotemporal variability in footwall exhumation and evaluate models for fault growth. Three age-elevation transects in the Pine Forest Range show that rapid exhumation began along the range-front fault between approximately 15 and 11 Ma at rates of 0.2-0.4 km/Myr, ultimately exhuming approximately 1.5-5 km. The ages of rapid exhumation identified at each transect lie within data uncertainty, indicating concomitant onset of faulting along strike. We show that even in the case of growth by fault-segment linkage, the fault would achieve its modern length within 3-4 Myr of onset. Comparison with the Jackson Mountains highlights the inadequacies of spatially limited sampling. A constant fault-length growth model is the best explanation for our thermochronology results. We advocate that low-temperature thermochronology can be further utilized to better understand and quantify fault growth with broader implications for seismic hazard assessments and the coevolution of faulting and topography.

  5. Construction and use of a versatile set of broad-host-range cloning and expression vectors based on the RK2 replicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatny, J M; Brautaset, T; Winther-Larsen, H C; Haugan, K; Valla, S

    1997-01-01

    The plasmid vectors described in this report are derived from the broad-host-range RK2 replicon and can be maintained in many gram-negative bacterial species. The complete nucleotide sequences of all of the cloning and expression vectors are known. Important characteristics of the cloning vectors are as follows: a size range of 4.8 to 7.1 kb, unique cloning sites, different antibiotic resistance markers for selection of plasmid-containing cells, oriT-mediated conjugative plasmid transfer, plasmid stabilization functions, and a means for a simple method for modification of plasmid copy number. Expression vectors were constructed by insertion of the inducible Pu or Pm promoter together with its regulatory gene xylR or xylS, respectively, from the TOL plasmid of Pseudomonas putida. One of these vectors was used in an analysis of the correlation between phosphoglucomutase activity and amylose accumulation in Escherichia coli. The experiments showed that amylose synthesis was only marginally affected by the level of basal expression from the Pm promoter of the Acetobacter xylinum phosphoglucomutase gene (celB). In contrast, amylose accumulation was strongly reduced when transcription from Pm was induced. CelB was also expressed with a very high induction ratio in Xanthomonas campestris. These experiments showed that the A. xylinum celB gene could not complement the role of the bifunctional X. campestris phosphoglucomutase-phosphomannomutase gene in xanthan biosynthesis. We believe that the vectors described here are useful for cloning experiments, gene expression, and physiological studies with a wide range of bacteria and presumably also for analysis of gene transfer in the environment. PMID:9023917

  6. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, For Calendar Year 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2011-03-30

    This report provides the results of the annual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Units (CAUs) located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2010 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following seven CAUs: · CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR) · CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR) · CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR) · CAU 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (TTR) · CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR) · CAU 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and Burn Area (TTR) · CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR)

  7. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, for Calendar Year 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2013-01-28

    This report provides the results of the annual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Units (CAUs) located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2012 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following CAUs: · CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR) · CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR) · CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR) · CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR) · CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR)

  8. Approach for the Realtime Received Signal Processing in Magnetostrictive Long-Range Ultrasonic Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Won Nyoung; Lim, Hyung Taik; Kim, Tae Gyung [Department of Physics, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Myoung Seon [ANSCO, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Like the phase array based ultrasonic system, complicated electronics has been used for real time signal processing in the magnetostrictive long-range ultrasonic testing(LRUT) system. This study shows that the software approach including the phase compensation, noise filtering and waveform transformation takes advantage rather than the previous hardware approach. Furthermore, it is possible for the software approach to be able more flexible and efficient realtime signal processing. These results will contribute to a cost-effective LRUT system and analysis of the inspection data.

  9. NESHAP Annual Report for CY 2015 Sandia National Laboratories Tonopah Test Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evelo, Stacie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-05-01

    This National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) Annual Report has been prepared in a format to comply with the reporting requirements of 40 CFR 61.94 and the April 5, 1995 Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) between the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). According to the EPA approved NESHAP Monitoring Plan for the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), 40 CFR 61, subpart H, and the MOA, no additional monitoring or measurements are required at TTR in order to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP regulation.

  10. Design and testing of magnetorheological valve with fast force response time and great dynamic force range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubík, M.; Macháček, O.; Strecker, Z.; Roupec, J.; Mazůrek, I.

    2017-04-01

    The paper deals with design, simulation and experimental testing of a magnetorheological (MR) valve with short response time. The short response time is achieved by a suitable design of an active zone in combination with use of a ferrite material for magnetic circuit. The magneto-static model and the simplified hydraulic model of the MR valve are examined and experimentally verified. The development the MR valve achieves an average response time 4.1 ms and the maximum dynamic force range of eight.

  11. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. B. Campbell

    2002-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 490, Station 44 Burn Area is located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). CAU 490 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) and includes for Corrective Action Sites (CASs): (1) Fire Training Area (CAS 03-56-001-03BA); (2) Station 44 Burn Area (CAS RG-56-001-RGBA); (3) Sandia Service Yard (CAS 03-58-001-03FN); and (4) Gun Propellant Burn Area (CAS 09-54-001-09L2).

  12. Test environments for the GRACE follow-on laser ranging interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görth, A.; Sanjuan, J.; Gohlke, M.; Rasch, S.; Abich, K.; Braxmaier, C.; Heinzel, G.

    2016-05-01

    In the year 2017 a follow-on mission to the very successful joint German/US mission GRACE (Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment) will be launched. As of this day the two GRACE satellites have successfully been mapping the spatial and temporal varitations of the gravitational field of the Earth by satellite-to-satellite tracking for over a decade. The main science instrument on GRACE and its successor mission GRACE Follow-On which is used to measure the inter-satellite distance changes is a microwave link sensor. However, an additional instrument, the laser ranging interferometer (LRI), will be implemented into the architecture of the GRACE Follow-On satellites as a technology demonstrator. In this paper we will give a brief overview of a fiber-based test environment which is currently used during the assembly, integration and test of the LRI flight hardware.

  13. Evidence of expanded host range and mammalian-associated genetic changes in a duck H9N2 influenza virus following adaptation in quail and chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Jaber Hossain

    Full Text Available H9N2 avian influenza viruses continue to circulate worldwide; in Asia, H9N2 viruses have caused disease outbreaks and established lineages in land-based poultry. Some H9N2 strains are considered potentially pandemic because they have infected humans causing mild respiratory disease. In addition, some of these H9N2 strains replicate efficiently in mice without prior adaptation suggesting that H9N2 strains are expanding their host range. In order to understand the molecular basis of the interspecies transmission of H9N2 viruses, we adapted in the laboratory a wildtype duck H9N2 virus, influenza A/duck/Hong Kong/702/79 (WT702 virus, in quail and chickens through serial lung passages. We carried out comparative analysis of the replication and transmission in quail and chickens of WT702 and the viruses obtained after 23 serial passages in quail (QA23 followed by 10 serial passages in chickens (QA23CkA10. Although the WT702 virus can replicate and transmit in quail, it replicates poorly and does not transmit in chickens. In contrast, the QA23CkA10 virus was very efficient at replicating and transmitting in quail and chickens. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the QA23 and QA23CkA10 viruses compared to the WT702 virus indicated several nucleotide substitutions resulting in amino acid changes within the surface and internal proteins. In addition, a 21-amino acid deletion was found in the stalk of the NA protein of the QA23 virus and was maintained without further modification in the QA23CkA10 adapted virus. More importantly, both the QA23 and the QA23CkA10 viruses, unlike the WT702 virus, were able to readily infect mice, produce a large-plaque phenotype, showed faster replication kinetics in tissue culture, and resulted in the quick selection of the K627 amino acid mammalian-associated signature in PB2. These results are in agreement with the notion that adaptation of H9 viruses to land-based birds can lead to strains with expanded host range.

  14. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring: CY2012 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizell, Steve A; Nikolich, George; Shadel, Craig; McCurdy, Greg; Miller, Julianne J

    2013-07-01

    In 1963, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), predecessor to the US Department of Energy (DOE), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR)). Operation Roller Coaster consisted of four tests in which chemical explosions were detonated in the presence of nuclear devices to assess the dispersal of radionuclides and evaluate the effectiveness of storage structures to contain the ejected radionuclides. These tests resulted in dispersal of plutonium over the ground surface downwind of the test ground zero. Three tests, Clean Slate 1, 2, and 3, were conducted on the TTR in Cactus Flat; the fourth, Double Tracks, was conducted in Stonewall Flat on the NTTR. DOE is working to clean up and close all four sites. Substantial cleaned up has been accomplished at Double Tracks and Clean Slate 1. Cleanup of Clean Slate 2 and 3 is on the DOE planning horizon for some time in the next several years. The Desert Research Institute installed two monitoring stations, number 400 at the Sandia National Laboratories Range Operations Center and number 401 at Clean Slate 3, in 2008 and a third monitoring station, number 402 at Clean Slate 1, in 2011 to measure radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions. The primary objectives of the data collection and analysis effort are to (1) monitor the concentration of radiological parameters in dust particles suspended in air, (2) determine whether winds are re-distributing radionuclides or contaminated soil material, (3) evaluate the controlling meteorological conditions if wind transport is occurring, and (4) measure ancillary radiological, meteorological, and environmental parameters that might provide insight to the above assessments. The following observations are based on data collected during CY2012. The mean annual concentration of gross alpha and gross beta is highest at Station 400 and lowest at Station

  15. Calibrating and testing a gap model for simulating forest management in the Oregon Coast Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabst, R.J.; Goslin, M.N.; Garman, S.L.; Spies, T.A.

    2008-01-01

    The complex mix of economic and ecological objectives facing today's forest managers necessitates the development of growth models with a capacity for simulating a wide range of forest conditions while producing outputs useful for economic analyses. We calibrated the gap model ZELIG to simulate stand-level forest development in the Oregon Coast Range as part of a landscape-scale assessment of different forest management strategies. Our goal was to incorporate the predictive ability of an empirical model with the flexibility of a forest succession model. We emphasized the development of commercial-aged stands of Douglas-fir, the dominant tree species in the study area and primary source of timber. In addition, we judged that the ecological approach of ZELIG would be robust to the variety of other forest conditions and practices encountered in the Coast Range, including mixed-species stands, small-scale gap formation, innovative silvicultural methods, and reserve areas where forests grow unmanaged for long periods of time. We parameterized the model to distinguish forest development among two ecoregions, three forest types and two site productivity classes using three data sources: chronosequences of forest inventory data, long-term research data, and simulations from an empirical growth-and-yield model. The calibrated model was tested with independent, long-term measurements from 11 Douglas-fir plots (6 unthinned, 5 thinned), 3 spruce-hemlock plots, and 1 red alder plot. ZELIG closely approximated developmental trajectories of basal area and large trees in the Douglas-fir plots. Differences between simulated and observed conifer basal area for these plots ranged from -2.6 to 2.4 m2/ha; differences in the number of trees/ha ???50 cm dbh ranged from -8.8 to 7.3 tph. Achieving these results required the use of a diameter-growth multiplier, suggesting some underlying constraints on tree growth such as the temperature response function. ZELIG also tended to overestimate

  16. Testing accuracy of long-range ultrasonic sensors for olive tree canopy measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamarra-Diezma, Juan Luis; Miranda-Fuentes, Antonio; Llorens, Jordi; Cuenca, Andrés; Blanco-Roldán, Gregorio L; Rodríguez-Lizana, Antonio

    2015-01-28

    Ultrasonic sensors are often used to adjust spray volume by allowing the calculation of the crown volume of tree crops. The special conditions of the olive tree require the use of long-range sensors, which are less accurate and faster than the most commonly used sensors. The main objectives of the study were to determine the suitability of the sensor in terms of sound cone determination, angle errors, crosstalk errors and field measurements. Different laboratory tests were performed to check the suitability of a commercial long-range ultrasonic sensor, as were the experimental determination of the sound cone diameter at several distances for several target materials, the determination of the influence of the angle of incidence of the sound wave on the target and distance on the accuracy of measurements for several materials and the determination of the importance of the errors due to interference between sensors for different sensor spacings and distances for two different materials. Furthermore, sensor accuracy was tested under real field conditions. The results show that the studied sensor is appropriate for olive trees because the sound cone is narrower for an olive tree than for the other studied materials, the olive tree canopy does not have a large influence on the sensor accuracy with respect to distance and angle, the interference errors are insignificant for high sensor spacings and the sensor's field distance measurements were deemed sufficiently accurate.

  17. Testing Accuracy of Long-Range Ultrasonic Sensors for Olive Tree Canopy Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Luis Gamarra-Diezma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic sensors are often used to adjust spray volume by allowing the calculation of the crown volume of tree crops. The special conditions of the olive tree require the use of long-range sensors, which are less accurate and faster than the most commonly used sensors. The main objectives of the study were to determine the suitability of the sensor in terms of sound cone determination, angle errors, crosstalk errors and field measurements. Different laboratory tests were performed to check the suitability of a commercial long-range ultrasonic sensor, as were the experimental determination of the sound cone diameter at several distances for several target materials, the determination of the influence of the angle of incidence of the sound wave on the target and distance on the accuracy of measurements for several materials and the determination of the importance of the errors due to interference between sensors for different sensor spacings and distances for two different materials. Furthermore, sensor accuracy was tested under real field conditions. The results show that the studied sensor is appropriate for olive trees because the sound cone is narrower for an olive tree than for the other studied materials, the olive tree canopy does not have a large influence on the sensor accuracy with respect to distance and angle, the interference errors are insignificant for high sensor spacings and the sensor’s field distance measurements were deemed sufficiently accurate.

  18. Statistical testing of the full-range leadership theory in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanste, Outi; Kääriäinen, Maria; Kyngäs, Helvi

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study is to test statistically the structure of the full-range leadership theory in nursing. The data were gathered by postal questionnaires from nurses and nurse leaders working in healthcare organizations in Finland. A follow-up study was performed 1 year later. The sample consisted of 601 nurses and nurse leaders, and the follow-up study had 78 respondents. Theory was tested through structural equation modelling, standard regression analysis and two-way anova. Rewarding transformational leadership seems to promote and passive laissez-faire leadership to reduce willingness to exert extra effort, perceptions of leader effectiveness and satisfaction with the leader. Active management-by-exception seems to reduce willingness to exert extra effort and perception of leader effectiveness. Rewarding transformational leadership remained as a strong explanatory factor of all outcome variables measured 1 year later. The data supported the main structure of the full-range leadership theory, lending support to the universal nature of the theory.

  19. Normal range of cambridge low contrast test; a population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostadimoghaddam, Hadi; Fotouhi, Akbar; Hashemi, Hassan; Yekta, Abbas Ali; Heravian, Javad; Abdolahinia, Tahereh; Norouzi Rad, Reza; Asgari, Soheila; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    To determine the range of contrast sensitivity (CS) and its determinants in a normal population, Mashhad, Iran. In this cross-sectional population based study, 4,453 individuals were invited of whom 3,132 persons agreed to participate (response rate, 70.4%). CS data from 2,449 eligible individuals were analyzed. CS was determined using the Cambridge low contrast square-wave grating test, and its associations with age, gender, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and manifest refraction spherical equivalent (MRSE) refractive error, were analyzed. Mean age of the participants was 29.1±17.3 (range, 4-89) years and 66.4% were female. Mean CS was 239.6±233.3 and 234.6±228.6 cps in right and left eyes, respectively. Mean binocular CS was 310.9±249.0 cps. Multiple linear regression showed that CS was inversely correlated with older age (β=-1.1, PCambridge low-contrast grating test reported herein may serve as a reference for the general population in Iran. Our findings can be used for both research and clinical applications, particularly for evaluations of the outcomes of refractive surgery. In the current study, CS was lower in older subjects, myopic individuals and patients with lower BCVA.

  20. Testing fundamental physics with laser ranged satellites: perspectives and goals of the LARASE experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchesi, David; Anselmo, Luciano; Pardini, Carmen; Peron, Roberto; Pucacco, Giuseppe; Visco, Massimo

    Passive laser-ranged satellites, launched for geodynamics and geophysics purposes, not only have contributed to significant measurements in space geodesy that enabled, among several aspects, a deeper knowledge of the Earth's geopotential (both in its static and dynamic behavior), as well as of the geocenter motion and GM value up to the definition of the terrestrial reference frame, but they also provided an outstanding test bench to fundamental physics, as in the case of the first measurement of the Lense-Thirring precession on the combined nodes of the two LAGEOS satellites, or in the case of the total relativistic precession of the argument of pericenter of LAGEOS II. Indeed, the physical characteristics of such satellites -- such as their low area-to-mass ratio -- as well as those of their orbits, and the availability of high-quality tracking data provided by the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS), allow for precise tests of gravitational theories. The aim of LARASE (LAser RAnged Satellites Experiment) is to go a step further in the tests of the gravitational interaction in the field of Earth, i.e. in the weak-field and-slow motion limit of general relativity, by the joint analysis of the orbits of the two LAGEOS satellites and that of the most recent LARES satellite. One of the key ingredients to reach such a goal is to provide high-quality updated models for the perturbing non-gravitational forces acting on the surface of such satellites. A large amount of Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) data of LAGEOS and LAGEOS II has been analyzed using a set of dedicated models for satellite dynamics, and the related post-fit residuals have been analyzed. A parallel work is on-going in the case of LARES that, due to its much lower altitude, is subject to larger gravitational and non-gravitational effects; the latter are mitigated in part by its much lower area-to-mass ratio. Recent work on the data analysis of the orbit of such satellites will be presented together

  1. Harnessing prions as test agents for the development of broad-range disinfectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenführ, Katja; Beekes, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The development of disinfectants with broad-range efficacy against bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa and prions constitutes an ongoing challenge. Prions, the causative agents of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) or its variant (vCJD) rank among the pathogens with the highest resistance to disinfection. Pilot studies have shown that procedures devised for prion disinfection were also highly effective against microbial pathogens. This fueled the idea to systematically exploit prions as test pathogens for the identification of new potential broad-range disinfectants. Prions essentially consist of misfolded, aggregated prion protein (PrP) and putatively replicate by nucleation-dependent, or seeded PrP polymerization. Recently, we have been able to establish PrP seeding activity as a quantitative in vitro indicator for the disinfection of 263K scrapie prions on steel wires used as surrogates for medical instruments. The seeding activity on wires re-processed in different disinfectants could be (1) biochemically determined by quantitative protein misfolding cyclic amplification (qPMCA), (2) biologically detected after qPMCA in a cell assay and (3) correctly translated into residual titres of scrapie infectivity. Our approach will substantially facilitate the identification of disinfectants with efficacy against prions as promising candidates for a further microbiological validation of broad-range activity.

  2. Benchmark tests of a strongly constrained semilocal functional with a long-range dispersion correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenburg, J. G.; Bates, J. E.; Sun, J.; Perdew, J. P.

    2016-09-01

    The strongly constrained and appropriately normed (SCAN) semilocal density functional [J. Sun, A. Ruzsinszky, and J. P. Perdew, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 036402 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.036402] obeys all 17 known exact constraints for meta-generalized-gradient approximations (meta-GGAs), and it includes some medium-range correlation effects. Long-range London dispersion interactions are still missing, but they can be accounted for via an appropriate correction scheme. In this study, we combine SCAN with an efficient London dispersion correction and show that lattice energies of simple organic crystals can be improved with the applied correction by 50%. The London-dispersion corrected SCAN meta-GGA outperforms all other tested London-dispersion corrected meta-GGAs for molecular geometries. Our method yields mean absolute deviations (MADs) for main group bond lengths that are consistently below 1 pm, rotational constants with MADs of 0.2%, and noncovalent distances with MADs below 1%. For a large database of general main group thermochemistry and kinetics (˜800 chemical species), one of the lowest weighted mean absolute deviations for long-range corrected meta-GGA functionals is achieved. Noncovalent interactions are of average quality, and hydrogen bonded systems in particular seem to suffer from overestimated polarization related to the self-interaction error of SCAN. We also discuss some consequences of numerical sensitivity encountered for meta-GGAs.

  3. Estimation of host rock thermal conductivities using thetemperature data from the drift-scale test at Yucca Mountain,Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sumitra; Tsang, Y.W.

    2003-11-25

    A large volume of temperature data has been collected from a very large, underground heater test, the Drift Scale Test (DST) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The DST was designed to obtain thermal, hydrological, mechanical, and chemical (THMC) data in the unsaturated fractured rock of Yucca Mountain. Sophisticated numerical models have been developed to analyze the collected THMC data. In these analyses, thermal conductivities measured from core samples have been used as input parameters to the model. However, it was not known whether these core measurements represented the true field-scale thermal conductivity of the host rock. Realizing these difficulties, elaborate, computationally intensive geostatistical simulations have also been performed to obtain field-scale thermal conductivity of the host rock from the core measurements. In this paper, we use the temperature data from the DST as the input (instead of the measured core-scale thermal conductivity values) to develop an estimate of the field-scale thermal conductivity values. Assuming a conductive thermal regime, we develop an analytical solution for the temperature rise in the host rock of the DST; and using a nonlinear fitting routine, we obtain a best-fit estimate of field-scale thermal conductivity for the DST host rock. The temperature data collected from the DST shows clear evidence of two distinct thermal regimes: a zone below boiling (wet) and a zone above boiling (dry). We obtain estimates of thermal conductivity for both the wet and dry zones. We also analyze the sensitivity of these estimates to the input heating power of the DST.

  4. Environmental domains and range-limiting mechanisms: testing the Abundant Centre Hypothesis using southern African sandhoppers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Baldanzi

    Full Text Available Predicting shifts of species geographical ranges is a fundamental challenge for conservation ecologists given the great complexity of factors involved in setting range limits. Distributional patterns are frequently modelled to "simplify" species responses to the environment, yet the central mechanisms that drive a particular pattern are rarely understood. We evaluated the distributions of two sandhopper species (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Talitridae, Talorchestia capensis and Africorchestia quadrispinosa along the Namibian and South African coasts, encompassing three biogeographic regions influenced by two different oceanographic systems, the Benguela and Agulhas currents. We aimed to test whether the Abundant Centre Hypothesis (ACH can explain the distributions of these species' abundances, sizes and sex ratios and examined which environmental parameters influence/drive these distributions. Animals were collected during a once-off survey at 29 sites over c.3500 km of coastline. The ACH was tested using a non-parametric constraint space analysis of the goodness of fit of five hypothetical models. Distance Based Linear Modelling (DistLM was performed to evaluate which environmental traits influenced the distribution data. Abundance, size and sex ratio showed different patterns of distribution. A ramped model fitted the abundance (Ramped North and size (Ramped South distribution for A. quadrispinosa. The Inverse Quadratic model fitted the size distribution of T. capensis. Beach slope, salinity, sand temperature and percentage of detritus found on the shore at the time of collection played important roles in driving the abundance of A. quadrispinosa. T. capensis was mainly affected by salinity and the morphodynamic state of the beach. Our results provided only some support for the ACH predictions. The DistLM confirmed that the physical state of the beach is an important factor for sandy beach organisms. The effect of salinity and temperature suggest

  5. Isolation and characterization of insertion sequence elements from gram-negative bacteria by using new broad-host-range, positive selection vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, R; Hötte, B; Klauke, B; Kosier, B

    1991-01-01

    On the basis of an RSF1010-derived broad-host-range vector, three different systems which enable positive detection and isolation of insertion sequence (IS) elements from gram-negative bacteria were constructed. Vectors pSUP104-pheS, pSUP104-rpsL, and pSUP104-sac were used successfully in a number of Rhizobium strains and in Xanthomonas campestris. More than 20 different IS elements were isolated and characterized. The 16 IS elements from Rhizobium meliloti were further used to characterize various R. meliloti strains by hybridization. The resulting hybridization patterns were different for every strain and gave a clear and definite IS fingerprint of each strain. These IS fingerprints can be used to identify and characterize R. meliloti strains rapidly and unequivocally, as they proved to be relatively stable. Some of the IS elements were found to be identical when the IS fingerprints from a given strain were compared. This method of IS fingerprinting can also establish whether IS elements are the same, related, or different. Images PMID:1847366

  6. Isolation and characterization of insertion sequence elements from gram-negative bacteria by using new broad-host-range, positive selection vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, R; Hötte, B; Klauke, B; Kosier, B

    1991-02-01

    On the basis of an RSF1010-derived broad-host-range vector, three different systems which enable positive detection and isolation of insertion sequence (IS) elements from gram-negative bacteria were constructed. Vectors pSUP104-pheS, pSUP104-rpsL, and pSUP104-sac were used successfully in a number of Rhizobium strains and in Xanthomonas campestris. More than 20 different IS elements were isolated and characterized. The 16 IS elements from Rhizobium meliloti were further used to characterize various R. meliloti strains by hybridization. The resulting hybridization patterns were different for every strain and gave a clear and definite IS fingerprint of each strain. These IS fingerprints can be used to identify and characterize R. meliloti strains rapidly and unequivocally, as they proved to be relatively stable. Some of the IS elements were found to be identical when the IS fingerprints from a given strain were compared. This method of IS fingerprinting can also establish whether IS elements are the same, related, or different.

  7. A characterization of non-biotic environmental features of prairies hosting the Dakota Skipper (Hesperia dacotae, Hesperiidae) across its remaining U.S. range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, R.A.; McKenney, R.A.; Newton, W.E.

    2008-01-01

    Within the United States, the Dakota Skipper now occurs only in Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota. In these states it has been associated with margins of glacial lakes and calcareous mesic prairies that host warm-season native grasses. Preliminary geographic information system (GIS) analysis in North Dakota has indicated a close congruency between historic distribution of the Dakota Skipper and that of specific near-shore glacial lake features and related soil associations. This study analyzed humidity-related non-biotic microhabitat characteristics within three remaining occupied Dakota Skipper sites in each state during the larval growth period in 2000. Measured parameters included topographic relief, soil compaction, soil pH, moisture, and temperature at various depths, soil bulk density, soil texture, and temperature and humidity within the larval nest zone. Results of these efforts reveal two distinctive habitat substrates, one of relatively low surface relief with dense but relatively less compact soils, and another of relatively high relief with less dense but more compact soils. In the low-relief habitat, grazing appears to compact soils unfavorably in otherwise similar prairies in the more xeric western portion of the range, potentially by affecting ground-water buffering of larval nest zone humidity.

  8. Construction and use of a broad-host-range plasmid expressing the lamB gene for utilization of bacteriophage lambda vectors in the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasiecki, J; Czy, A; Gabig, M; Wegrzyn, G

    2001-07-01

    The remarkable success of Escherichia coli as a model organism in molecular genetics was dependent, among other things, on its susceptibility to genetic manipulation. Many versatile and sophisticated genetic tools for molecular biology studies are derived from bacteriophage lambda. However, this bacteriophage is specific for E. coli, and thus lambda-based techniques have been restricted to this bacterium. Plasmids expressing the E. coli gene coding for bacteriophage lambda receptor were reported previously, and introduction of such plasmids into cells of some other bacteria made them sensitive to phage lambda infection. However, we found that these systems were not efficient for Vibrio harveyi, one of the most frequently investigated species of marine bacteria. Here we describe construction of a broad-host-range plasmid expressing the lamB gene. Introduction of this plasmid to V. harveyi cells and expression of lamB made this strain susceptible to bacteriophage lambda adsorption and lambda DNA injection. Foreign genetic material could be introduced into cells of this strain using a cosmid vector.

  9. The Cotesia sesamiae story: insight into host-range evolution in a Hymenoptera parasitoid and implication for its use in biological control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, L; Dupas, S; Branca, A; Herniou, E A; Clarke, C W; Capdevielle Dulac, C; Obonyo, J; Benoist, R; Gauthier, J; Calatayud, P A; Silvain, J F; Le Ru, B P

    2017-09-22

    This review covers nearly 20 years of studies on the ecology, physiology and genetics of the Hymenoptera Cotesia sesamiae, an African parasitoid of Lepidoptera that reduces populations of common maize borers in East and South Africa. The first part of the review presents studies based on sampling of C. sesamiae from maize crops in Kenya. From this agrosystem including one host plant and three main host borer species, studies revealed two genetically differentiated populations of C. sesamiae species adapted to their local host community, and showed that their differentiation involved the joint evolution of virulence genes and sensory mechanisms of host acceptance, reinforced by reproductive incompatibility due to Wolbachia infection status and natural inbreeding. In the second part, we consider the larger ecosystem of wild Poales plant species hosting many Lepidoptera stem borer species that are potential hosts for C. sesamiae. The hypothesis of other host-adapted C. sesamiae populations was investigated based on a large sampling of stem borer larvae on various Poales across sub-Saharan Africa. The sampling provided information on the respective contribution of local hosts, biogeography and Wolbachia in the genetic structure of C. sesamiae populations. Molecular evolution analyses highlighted that several bracovirus genes were under positive selection, some of them being under different selection pressure in C. sesamiae populations adapted to different hosts. This suggests that C. sesamiae host races result from co-evolution acting at the local scale on different bracovirus genes. The third part considers the mechanisms driving specialization. C. sesamiae host races are more or less host-specialized. This character is crucial for efficient and environmentally-safe use of natural enemies for biological control of pests. One method to get an insight in the evolutionary stability of host-parasite associations is to characterize the phylogenetic relationships between

  10. Calendar year 2002 annual site environmental report for Tonopah Test Range, Nevada and Kauai Test Facility, Hawaii.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Katrina; Sanchez, Rebecca V.; Mayeux, Lucie; Koss, Susan I.; Salinas, Stephanie A.

    2003-09-01

    Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nevada and Kauai Test Facility (KTF) in Hawaii are government-owned, contractor-operated facilities operated by Sandia Corporation, a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), through the Sandia Site Office (SSO), in Albuquerque, NM, oversees TTR and KTF's operations. Sandia Corporation conducts operations at TTR in support of DOE/NNSA's Weapons Ordnance Program and has operated the site since 1957. Westinghouse Government Services subcontracts to Sandia Corporation in administering most of the environmental programs at TTR. Sandia Corporation operates KTF as a rocket preparation launching and tracking facility. This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) summarizes data and the compliance status of the environmental protection and monitoring program at TTR and KTF through Calendar Year (CY) 2002. The compliance status of environmental regulations applicable at these sites include state and federal regulations governing air emissions, wastewater effluent, waste management, terrestrial surveillance, and Environmental Restoration (ER) cleanup activities. Sandia Corporation is responsible only for those environmental program activities related to its operations. The DOE/NNSA, Nevada Site Office (NSO) retains responsibility for the cleanup and management of ER TTR sites. Currently, there are no ER Sites at KTF. Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program (DOE 1990) and DOE Order 231.1, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting (DOE 1996).

  11. Calendar year 2003 : annual site enviromental report for Tonopah Test Range, Nevada and Kauai Test Facility, Hawaii.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Katrina; Sanchez, Rebecca V.; Mayeux, Lucie; Koss, Susan I.; Salinas, Stephanie A.

    2004-09-01

    Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nevada and Kauai Test Facility (KTF) in Hawaii are government-owned, contractor-operated facilities operated by Sandia Corporation, a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), through the Sandia Site Office (SSO), in Albuquerque, NM, manages TTR and KTF's operations. Sandia Corporation conducts operations at TTR in support of DOE/NNSA's Weapons Ordnance Program and has operated the site since 1957. Westinghouse Government Services subcontracts to Sandia Corporation in administering most of the environmental programs at TTR. Sandia Corporation operates KTF as a rocket preparation launching and tracking facility. This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) summarizes data and the compliance status of the environmental protection and monitoring program at TTR and KTF through Calendar Year (CY) 2003. The compliance status of environmental regulations applicable at these sites include state and federal regulations governing air emissions, wastewater effluent, waste management, terrestrial surveillance, and Environmental Restoration (ER) cleanup activities. Sandia Corporation is responsible only for those environmental program activities related to its operations. The DOE/NNSA, Nevada Site Office (NSO) retains responsibility for the cleanup and management of ER TTR sites. Currently, there are no ER Sites at KTF. Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program (DOE 2003) and DOE Order 231.1 Chg 2., Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting (DOE 1996).

  12. Calendar year 2007 annual site environmental report for Tonopah Test Range, Nevada and Kauai Test Facility, Hawaii,

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agogino, Karen [Department of Energy, Albuquerque, NM (United States). National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA); Sanchez, Rebecca [Sandia Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2008-09-30

    Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nevada and Kauai Test Facility (KTF) in Hawaii are government-owned, contractor-operated facilities operated by Sandia Corporation (Sandia), a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), through the Sandia Site Offi ce (SSO), in Albuquerque, NM, administers the contract and oversees contractor operations at TTR and KTF. Sandia manages and conducts operations at TTR in support of the DOE/NNSA’s Weapons Ordnance Program and has operated the site since 1957. Washington Group International subcontracts to Sandia in administering most of the environmental programs at TTR. Sandia operates KTF as a rocket preparation launching and tracking facility. This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) summarizes data and the compliance status of the environmental protection and monitoring program at TTR and KTF through Calendar Year (CY) 2007. The compliance status of environmental regulations applicable at these sites include state and federal regulations governing air emissions, wastewater effluent, waste management, terrestrial surveillance, and Environmental Restoration (ER) cleanup activities. Sandia is responsible only for those environmental program activities related to its operations. The DOE/NNSA/Nevada Site Offi ce (NSO) retains responsibility for the cleanup and management of ER TTR sites. Currently, there are no ER Sites at KTF. Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program (DOE 2007a) and DOE Manual 231.1-1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting Manual (DOE 2007).

  13. 2013 Annual Site Environmental Report for Sandia National Laboratories Tonopah Test Range Nevada & Kauai Test Facility Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, Stacy Rene [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Agogino, Karen [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States); Li, Jun [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); White, Nancy [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Minitrez, Alexandra [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Avery, Penny [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bailey-White, Brenda [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bonaguidi, Joseph [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Catechis, Christopher [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); duMond, Michael [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Eckstein, Joanna [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Evelo, Stacie [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Forston, William [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Herring, III, Allen [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lantow, Tiffany [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Martinez, Reuben [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mauser, Joseph [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, Amy [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, Mark [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Payne, Jennifer [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Peek, Dennis [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reiser, Anita [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ricketson, Sherry [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roma, Charles [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Salinas, Stephanie [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ullrich, Rebecca [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nevada and Kauai Test Facility (KTF) in Hawaii are government-owned, contractor-operated facilities managed and operated by Sandia Corporation (Sandia), a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), through the Sandia Field Office (SFO), in Albuquerque, New Mexico, administers the contract and oversees contractor operations at TTR and KTF. Sandia manages and conducts operations at TTR in support of the DOE/NNSA’s Weapons Ordnance Program and has operated the site since 1957. Navarro Research and Engineering subcontracts to Sandia in administering most of the environmental programs at TTR. Sandia operates KTF as a rocket preparation launching and tracking facility. This Annual Site Environmental Report summarizes data and the compliance status of the sustainability, environmental protection, and monitoring program at TTR and KTF through Calendar Year 2013. The compliance status of environmental regulations applicable at these sites include state and federal regulations governing air emissions, wastewater effluent, waste management, terrestrial surveillance, Environmental Restoration (ER) cleanup activities, and the National Environmental Policy Act. Sandia is responsible only for those environmental program activities related to its operations. The DOE/NNSA/Nevada Field Office retains responsibility for the cleanup and management of TTR ER sites. Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 231.1B, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting (DOE 2012).

  14. Disruption of M-T5, a novel myxoma virus gene member of poxvirus host range superfamily, results in dramatic attenuation of myxomatosis in infected European rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossman, K; Lee, S F; Barry, M; Boshkov, L; McFadden, G

    1996-07-01

    Myxoma virus is a pathogenic poxvirus that induces a lethal myxomatosis disease profile in European rabbits, which is characterized by fulminating lesions at the primary site of inoculation, rapid dissemination to secondary internal organs and peripheral external sites, and supervening gram-negative bacterial infection. Here we describe the role of a novel myxoma virus protein encoded by the M-T5 open reading frame during pathogenesis. The myxoma virus M-T5 protein possesses no significant sequence homology to nonviral proteins but is a member of a larger poxviral superfamily designated host range proteins. An M-T5- mutant virus was constructed by disruption of both copies of the M-T5 gene followed by insertion of the selectable marker p7.5Ecogpt. Although the M-T5- deletion mutant replicated with wild-type kinetics in rabbit fibroblasts, infection of a rabbit CD4+ T-cell line (RL5) with the myxoma virus M-T5- mutant virus resulted in the rapid and complete cessation of both host and viral protein synthesis, accompanied by the manifestation of all the classical features of programmed cell death. Infection of primary rabbit peripheral mononuclear cells with the myxoma virus M-T5-mutant virus resulted in the apoptotic death of nonadherent lymphocytes but not adherent monocytes. Within the European rabbit, disruption of the M-T5 open reading frame caused a dramatic attenuation of the rapidly lethal myxomatosis infection, and none of the infected rabbits displayed any of the characteristic features of myxomatosis. The two most significant histological observations in rabbits infected with the M-T5-mutant virus were (i) the lack of progression of the infection past the primary site of inoculation, coupled with the establishment of a rapid and effective inflammatory reaction, and (ii) the inability of the virus to initiate a cellular reaction within secondary immune organs. We conclude that M-T5 functions as a critical virulence factor by allowing productive infection of

  15. Complete Host Range Testing on Common Reed with Potential Biological Control Agents and Investigation into Biological Control for Flowering Rush

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    nearly monospecific stands in wetlands and along rivers and lakesides. Due to its high genetic and morphological variability, P. australis is able to...the origin of Gulf Coast Phragmites ( Poaceae ): a story of long-distance dispersal and hybridization. American Journal of Botany 99:538-551. Lui, K...Saltonstall, K., and D. P. Hauber, 2007. Notes on Phragmites australis ( Poaceae : Arundinodeae) in North America. Journal of the Botanical Research

  16. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, For Calendar Year 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-03-19

    This report provides the results of the annual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Unit (CAU) sites located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2008 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following ten CAUs: CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR) CAU 404: Roller Coaster Lagoons and Trench (TTR) CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR) CAU 423: Area 3 Underground Discharge Point, Building 0360 (TTR) CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR) CAU 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (TTR) CAU 427: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 2, 6 (TTR) CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR) CAU 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and Burn Area (TTR) CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR)

  17. Design, calibration and tests of an extended-range Bonner sphere spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Mitaroff, Angela; Silari, Marco

    2001-01-01

    Stray radiation fields outside the shielding of hadron accelerators are of complex nature. They consist of a multiplicity of radiation components (neutrons, photons, electrons, pions, muons, ...) which extend over a wide range of energies. Since the dose equivalent in these mixed fields is mainly due to neutrons, neutron dosimetry is a particularly important task. The neutron energy in these fields ranges from thermal up to several hundreds of MeV, thus making dosimetry difficult. A well known instrument for measuring neutron energy distributions from thermal energies up to about E=10 MeV is the Bonner sphere spectrometer (BSS). It consists of a set of moderating spheres of different radii made of polyethylene, with a thermal neutron counter in the centre. Each detector (sphere plus counter) has a maximum response at a certain energy value depending on its size, but the overall response of the conventional BSS drops sharply between E=10-20 MeV. This thesis focuses on the development, the calibration and tests...

  18. Increased range of ultrasonic guided wave testing of overhead transmission line cables using dispersion compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, Mathew; Yücel, Mehmet K; Kappatos, Vassilios; Selcuk, Cem; Gan, Tat-Hean

    2015-09-01

    Overhead Transmission Line (OVTL) cables can experience structural defects and are, therefore, inspected using Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) techniques. Ultrasonic Guided Waves (UGW) is one NDT technique that has been investigated for inspection of these cables. For practical use, it is desirable to be able to inspect as long a section of cable as possible from a single location. This paper investigates increasing the UGW inspection range on Aluminium Conductor Steel Reinforced (ACSR) cables by compensating for dispersion using dispersion curve data. For ACSR cables, it was considered to be difficult to obtain accurate dispersion curves using modelling due to the complex geometry and unknown coupling between wire strands. Group velocity dispersion curves were, therefore, measured experimentally on an untensioned, 26.5m long cable and a method of calculating theoretical dispersion curves was obtained. Attenuation and dispersion compensation were then performed for a broadband Maximum Length Sequence (MLS) excitation signal. An increase in the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) of about 4-8dB compared to that of the dispersed signal was obtained. However, the main benefit was the increased ability to resolve the individual echoes from the end of the cable and an introduced defect in the form of a cut, which was 7 to at least 13dB greater than that of the dispersed signal. Five echoes were able to be clearly detected using MLS excitation signal, indicating the potential for an inspection range of up to 130m in each direction. To the best of the authors knowledge, this is the longest inspection range for ACSR cables reported in the literature, where typically cables, which were only one or two meter long, have been investigated previously. Narrow band tone burst and Hann windowed tone burst excitation signal also showed increased SNR and ability to resolve closely spaced echoes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Confidence Intervals: From tests of statistical significance to confidence intervals, range hypotheses and substantial effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Beaulieu-Prévost

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available For the last 50 years of research in quantitative social sciences, the empirical evaluation of scientific hypotheses has been based on the rejection or not of the null hypothesis. However, more than 300 articles demonstrated that this method was problematic. In summary, null hypothesis testing (NHT is unfalsifiable, its results depend directly on sample size and the null hypothesis is both improbable and not plausible. Consequently, alternatives to NHT such as confidence intervals (CI and measures of effect size are starting to be used in scientific publications. The purpose of this article is, first, to provide the conceptual tools necessary to implement an approach based on confidence intervals, and second, to briefly demonstrate why such an approach is an interesting alternative to an approach based on NHT. As demonstrated in the article, the proposed CI approach avoids most problems related to a NHT approach and can often improve the scientific and contextual relevance of the statistical interpretations by testing range hypotheses instead of a point hypothesis and by defining the minimal value of a substantial effect. The main advantage of such a CI approach is that it replaces the notion of statistical power by an easily interpretable three-value logic (probable presence of a substantial effect, probable absence of a substantial effect and probabilistic undetermination. The demonstration includes a complete example.

  20. Insect-Specific Flaviviruses: A Systematic Review of Their Discovery, Host Range, Mode of Transmission, Superinfection Exclusion Potential and Genomic Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley J. Blitvich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available There has been a dramatic increase in the number of insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFs discovered in the last decade. Historically, these viruses have generated limited interest due to their inability to infect vertebrate cells. This viewpoint has changed in recent years because some ISFs have been shown to enhance or suppress the replication of medically important flaviviruses in co-infected mosquito cells. Additionally, comparative studies between ISFs and medically important flaviviruses can provide a unique perspective as to why some flaviviruses possess the ability to infect and cause devastating disease in humans while others do not. ISFs have been isolated exclusively from mosquitoes in nature but the detection of ISF-like sequences in sandflies and chironomids indicates that they may also infect other dipterans. ISFs can be divided into two distinct phylogenetic groups. The first group currently consists of approximately 12 viruses and includes cell fusing agent virus, Kamiti River virus and Culex flavivirus. These viruses are phylogenetically distinct from all other known flaviviruses. The second group, which is apparently not monophyletic, currently consists of nine viruses and includes Chaoyang virus, Nounané virus and Lammi virus. These viruses phylogenetically affiliate with mosquito/vertebrate flaviviruses despite their apparent insect-restricted phenotype. This article provides a review of the discovery, host range, mode of transmission, superinfection exclusion ability and genomic organization of ISFs. This article also attempts to clarify the ISF nomenclature because some of these viruses have been assigned more than one name due to their simultaneous discoveries by independent research groups.

  1. Transcriptome mapping of pAR060302, a blaCMY-2-positive broad-host-range IncA/C plasmid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Kevin S; Danzeisen, Jessica L; Xu, Wayne; Johnson, Timothy J

    2012-05-01

    The multidrug resistance-encoding plasmids belonging to the IncA/C incompatibility group have recently emerged among Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica strains in the United States. These plasmids have a unique genetic structure compared to other enterobacterial plasmid types, a broad host range, and a propensity to acquire large numbers of antimicrobial resistance genes via their accessory regions. Using E. coli strain DH5α harboring the prototype IncA/C plasmid pAR060302, we sought to define the baseline transcriptome of IncA/C plasmids under laboratory growth and in the face of selective pressure. The effects of ampicillin, florfenicol, or streptomycin exposure were compared to those on cells left untreated at logarithmic phase using Illumina platform-based RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). Under growth in Luria-Bertani broth lacking antibiotics, much of the backbone of pAR060302 was transcriptionally inactive, including its putative transfer regions. A few plasmid backbone genes of interest were highly transcribed, including genes of a putative toxin-antitoxin system and an H-NS-like transcriptional regulator. In contrast, numerous genes within the accessory regions of pAR060302 were highly transcribed, including the resistance genes floR, bla(CMY-2), aadA, and aacA. Treatment with ampicillin or streptomycin resulted in no genes being differentially expressed compared to controls lacking antibiotics, suggesting that many of the resistance-associated genes are not differentially expressed due to exposure to these antibiotics. In contrast, florfenicol treatment resulted in the upregulation of floR and numerous chromosomal genes. Overall, the transcriptome mapping of pAR060302 suggests that it mitigates the fitness costs of carrying resistance-associated genes through global regulation with its transcriptional regulators.

  2. Distribution and Fate of Energetics on DoD Test and Training Ranges: Interim Report 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    by the external laboratory, Enviro -Test Laboratory (ETL) from Edmonton, Alberta. All of the parameters available by this method were included in the...testing, penetration testing for various munitions, fragmentation testing, smoke testing, infrared testing of tank heat signatures, propellant and waste

  3. Airborne Dust Cloud Measurements at the INL National Security Test Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael L. Abbott; Norm Stanley; Larry Radke; Charles Smeltzer

    2007-09-01

    On July 11, 2007, a surface, high-explosive test (<20,000 lb TNT-equivalent) was carried out at the National Security Test Range (NSTR) on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site. Aircraft-mounted rapid response (1-sec) particulate monitors were used to measure airborne PM-10 concentrations directly in the dust cloud and to develop a PM-10 emission factor that could be used for subsequent tests at the NSTR. The blast produced a mushroom-like dust cloud that rose approximately 2,500–3,000 ft above ground level, which quickly dissipated (within 5 miles of the source). In general, the cloud was smaller and less persistence than expected, or that might occur in other areas, likely due to the coarse sand and subsurface conditions that characterize the immediate NSTR area. Maximum short time-averaged (1-sec) PM-10 concentrations at the center of the cloud immediately after the event reached 421 µg m-3 but were rapidly reduced (by atmospheric dispersion and fallout) to near background levels (~10 µg m-3) after about 15 minutes. This occurred well within the INL Site boundary, about 8 km (5 miles) from the NSTR source. These findings demonstrate that maximum concentrations in ambient air beyond the INL Site boundary (closest is 11.2 km from NSTR) from these types of tests would be well within the 150 µg m-3 24-hour National Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM-10. Aircraft measurements and geostatistical techniques were used to successfully quantify the initial volume (1.64E+9 m3 or 1.64 km3) and mass (250 kg) of the PM-10 dust cloud, and a PM-10 emission factor (20 kg m-3 crater soil volume) was developed for this specific type of event at NSTR. The 250 kg of PM-10 mass estimated from this experiment is almost seven-times higher than the 36 kg estimated for the environmental assessment (DOE-ID 2007) using available Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1995) emission factors. This experiment demonstrated that advanced aircraft-mounted instruments operated by

  4. Biology, host specificity tests, and risk assessment of the sawfly Heteroperreyia hubrichi, a potential biological control agent of Schinus terebinthifolius in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract. Heteroperreyia hubrichi Malaise (Hymenoptera: Pergidae), a foliage feeding sawfly of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae), was studied to assess its suitability as a classical biological control agent of this invasive weed in Hawaii. Nochoice host-specificity tests we...

  5. Corrective action decision document, Second Gas Station, Tonopah test range, Nevada (Corrective Action Unit No. 403)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) for Second Gas Station (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] No. 403) has been developed for the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Nevada Environmental Restoration Project to meet the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 as stated in Appendix VI, {open_quotes}Corrective Action Strategy{close_quotes} (FFACO, 1996). The Second Gas Station Corrective Action Site (CAS) No. 03-02-004-0360 is the only CAS in CAU No. 403. The Second Gas Station CAS is located within Area 3 of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), west of the Main Road at the location of former Underground Storage Tanks (USTs) and their associated fuel dispensary stations. The TTR is approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air and approximately 56 km (35 mi) southeast of Tonopah, Nevada, by road. The TTR is bordered on the south, east, and west by the Nellis Air Force Range and on the north by sparsely populated public land administered by the Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Forest Service. The Second Gas Station CAS was formerly known as the Underground Diesel Tank Site, Sandia Environmental Restoration Site Number 118. The gas station was in use from approximately 1965 to 1980. The USTs were originally thought to be located 11 meters (m) (36 feet [ft]) east of the Old Light Duty Shop, Building 0360, and consisted of one gasoline UST (southern tank) and one diesel UST (northern tank) (DOE/NV, 1996a). The two associated fuel dispensary stations were located northeast (diesel) and southeast (gasoline) of Building 0360 (CAU 423). Presently the site is used as a parking lot, Building 0360 is used for mechanical repairs of vehicles.

  6. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 499: Hydrocarbon Spill Site, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. B. Campbell

    2002-07-01

    This Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 499: Hydrocarbon Spill Site, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for CAU 499: Hydrocarbon Spill Site, Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada (US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV], 2001). CAU 499 consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS): RG-25-001-RD24: Radar 24 Diesel Spill Site which is approximately 4.0 kilometers (2.5 miles) southwest of the Area 3 Compound at the end of Avenue 24. The Hydrocarbon Spill Site is a diesel fuel release site that is assumed to have been caused by numerous small historical over-fillings, spills, and leaks from an above-ground storage tank (AST) over a period of approximately 36 years. The tank was located on the east side of Building 24-50 on the TTR.

  7. Comparison of range of motion tests with throwing kinematics in elite team handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Tillaar, Roland

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the active and passive range of motion (ROM) of the glenohumeral external rotation with the maximal external rotation and throwing performance during different throws with different wind-up techniques in elite team handball players. Twenty-two elite team handball players participated in the study in which the maximal ball release velocity and maximal external rotation during standing, with run-up and jump throws with two types of wind-ups were measured together with the maximal active and passive glenohumeral ROM of the external rotation, lying supine on a bench. Higher maximal external rotation was found during the throws with the whip-like wind-up in comparison to circular-like wind-up throws together with a lower external rotation during the active ROM test. No correlations were found between the ROM of the external rotation with the maximal ball release velocity and the maximal external rotation measured during the throws. It was concluded that ROM of the external rotation measured on the bench does not give any information about the maximal throwing performance or the external rotation angle during throwing and therefore cannot be used to identify potential fast throwers or injuries in elite team handball players.

  8. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, for Calendar Year 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvas, A. J. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Nevada Test Site; Lantow, Tiffany A. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Nevada Test Site

    2015-03-25

    This report provides the results of the annual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Units (CAUs) located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2014 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following CAUs; CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR); CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR); CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR); CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR); and CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR) Inspections were conducted according to the post-closure plans in the approved Closure Reports and subsequent correspondence with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. The post-closure inspection plans and subsequent correspondence modifying the requirements for each CAU are included in Appendix B. The inspection checklists are included in Appendix C. Photographs taken during inspections are included in Appendix D. The annual post-closure inspections were conducted on May 28, 2014. Maintenance was required at CAU 407. Animal burrows were backfilled and erosion repairs were performed. Vegetation monitoring was performed at CAU 407 in June 2014. The vegetation monitoring report is included in Appendix E.

  9. Testing and validation of high density resequencing microarray for broad range biothreat agents detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz A Leski

    Full Text Available Rapid and effective detection and identification of emerging microbiological threats and potential biowarfare agents is very challenging when using traditional culture-based methods. Contemporary molecular techniques, relying upon reverse transcription and/or polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR/PCR provide a rapid and effective alternative, however, such assays are generally designed and optimized to detect only a limited number of targets, and seldom are capable of differentiation among variants of detected targets. To meet these challenges, we have designed a broad-range resequencing pathogen microarray (RPM for detection of tropical and emerging infectious agents (TEI including biothreat agents: RPM-TEI v 1.0 (RPM-TEI. The scope of the RPM-TEI assay enables detection and differential identification of 84 types of pathogens and 13 toxin genes, including most of the class A, B and C select agents as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, Atlanta, GA. Due to the high risks associated with handling these particular target pathogens, the sensitivity validation of the RPM-TEI has been performed using an innovative approach, in which synthetic DNA fragments are used as templates for testing the assay's limit of detection (LOD. Assay specificity and sensitivity was subsequently confirmed by testing with full-length genomic nucleic acids of selected agents. The LOD for a majority of the agents detected by RPM-TEI was determined to be at least 10(4 copies per test. Our results also show that the RPM-TEI assay not only detects and identifies agents, but is also able to differentiate near neighbors of the same agent types, such as closely related strains of filoviruses of the Ebola Zaire group, or the Machupo and Lassa arenaviruses. Furthermore, each RPM-TEI assay results in specimen-specific agent gene sequence information that can be used to assess pathogenicity, mutations, and virulence markers, results that are not generally

  10. A general approach for combining diverse rare variant association tests provides improved robustness across a wider range of genetic architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Brian; Hainline, Allison; Arbet, Jaron; Grinde, Kelsey; Benitez, Alejandra; Tintle, Nathan

    2016-05-01

    The widespread availability of genome sequencing data made possible by way of next-generation technologies has yielded a flood of different gene-based rare variant association tests. Most of these tests have been published because they have superior power for particular genetic architectures. However, for applied researchers it is challenging to know which test to choose in practice when little is known a priori about genetic architecture. Recently, tests have been proposed which combine two particular individual tests (one burden and one variance components) to minimize power loss while improving robustness to a wider range of genetic architectures. In our analysis we propose an expansion of these approaches, yielding a general method that works for combining any number of individual tests. We demonstrate that running multiple different tests on the same data set and using a Bonferroni correction for multiple testing is never better than combining tests using our general method. We also find that using a test statistic that is highly robust to the inclusion of non-causal variants (joint-infinity) together with a previously published combined test (sequence kernel adaptive test-optimal) provides improved robustness to a wide range of genetic architectures and should be considered for use in practice. Software for this approach is supplied. We support the increased use of combined tests in practice - as well as further exploration of novel combined testing approaches using the general framework provided here - to maximize robustness of rare variant testing strategies against a wide range of genetic architectures.

  11. Sex differences in spatial ability: a test of the range size hypothesis in the order Carnivora

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Sex differences in spatial cognition have been reported for many species ranging from voles to humans. The range size hypothesis predicts that sex differences in spatial ability will only occur in species in which the mating system selects for differential range size. Consistent with this prediction, we observed sex differences in spatial ability in giant pandas, a promiscuous species in which males inhabit larger ranges than females, but did not observe sex differences in Asian small-clawed ...

  12. Climax Granite, Nevada Test Site, as a host for a rock mechanics test facility related to the geologic disposal of high level nuclear wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuze, F.E.

    1981-02-01

    This document discusses the potential of the Climax pluton, at the Nevada Test Site, as the host for a granite mechanics test facility related to the geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The Climax granitic pluton has been the site of three nuclear weapons effects tests: Hard Hat, Tiny Tot, and Piledriver. Geologic exploration and mapping of the granite body were performed at the occasion of these tests. Currently, it is the site Spent Fuel Test (SFT-C) conducted in the vicinity of and at the same depth as that of the Piledriver drifts. Significant exploration, mapping, and rock mechanics work have been performed and continue at this Piledriver level - the 1400 (ft) level - in the context of SFT-C. Based on our technical discussions, and on the review of the significant geological and rock mechanics work already achieved in the Climax pluton, based also on the ongoing work and the existing access and support, it is concluded that the Climax site offers great opportunities for a rock mechanics test facility. It is not claimed, however, that Climax is the only possible site or the best possible site, since no case has been made for another granite test facility in the United States. 12 figures, 3 tables.

  13. First report on the occurrence of the uncultivated cluster 2 Frankia microsymbionts in soil outside the native actinorhizal host range area

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Imen Nouioui; Imed Sbissi; Faten Ghodhbane-Gtari; Kawtar Fikri Benbrahim; Philippe Normand; Maher Gtari

    2013-11-01

    The occurrence of uncultivated Frankia was evaluated in Tunisian soils by a plant-trapping assay using Coriaria myrtifolia seedlings. Despite the lack of this compatible host plant for more than two centuries, soil-borne Frankia cells were detected in one sampled soil as shown by the development of root nodules on 2-year-old seedlings. Based on glnA sequences, Tunisian trapped Frankia strains belong to the uncultivated cluster 2 strains that associate with other Coriaria species and also with Ceanothus, Datisca and Rosaceae actinorhizal species. This is the first report on the occurrence of Frankia cluster 2 strains in soils from areas lacking compatible host plant groups.

  14. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, For Calendar Year 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2012-02-21

    This report provides the results of the annual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Units (CAUs) located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2011 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following CAUs: (1) CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR); (2) CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR); (3) CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR); (4) CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR); and (5) CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR) Inspections were conducted according to the post-closure plans in the approved Closure Reports. The post-closure inspection plan for each CAU is included in Appendix B. The inspection checklists are included in Appendix C, field notes are included in Appendix D, and photographs taken during inspections are included in Appendix E. The annual post-closure inspections were conducted May 3 and 4, 2011. Maintenance was performed at CAU 424, CAU 453, and CAU 487. At CAU 424, two surface grade monuments at Landfill Cell A3-3 could not be located during the inspection. The two monuments were located and marked with lava rock on July 13, 2011. At CAU 453, there was evidence of animal burrowing. Animal burrows were backfilled on July 13, 2011. At CAU 487, one use restriction warning sign was missing, and wording was faded on the remaining signs. A large animal burrow was also present. The signs were replaced, and the animal burrow was backfilled on July 12, 2011. As a best management practice, the use restriction warning signs at CAU 407 were replaced with standard Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order signs on July 13, 2011. Vegetation monitoring was performed at the CAU 400 Five Points Landfill and CAU 407 in June 2011, and the vegetation monitoring report is included in Appendix F.

  15. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, for Calendar Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvas, A. J.

    2014-03-03

    This report provides the results of the annual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Units (CAUs) located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2013 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following CAUs: • CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR) • CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR) • CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR) • CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR) • CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR) Inspections were conducted according to the post-closure plans in the approved Closure Reports and subsequent correspondence with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. The post-closure inspection plans and subsequent correspondence modifying the requirements for each CAU are included in Appendix B. The inspection checklists are included in Appendix C. Field notes are included in Appendix D. Photographs taken during inspections are included in Appendix E. The annual post-closure inspections were conducted on May 14, 2013. Maintenance was performed at CAU 400, CAU 424, and CAU 453. At CAU 400, animal burrows were backfilled. At CAU 424, erosion repairs were completed at Landfill Cell A3-3, subsidence was repaired at Landfill Cell A3-4, and additional lava rock was placed in high-traffic areas to mark the locations of the surface grade monuments at Landfill Cell A3-3 and Landfill Cell A3-8. At CAU 453, two areas of subsidence were repaired and animal burrows were backfilled. Vegetation monitoring was performed at the CAU 400 Five Points Landfill and CAU 407 in June 2013. The vegetation monitoring report is included in Appendix F.

  16. Dynamic properties of Indiana, Fort Knox and Utah test range limestones and Danby Marble over the stress range 1 to 20 GPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furnish, M.D.

    1994-12-01

    The responses of the following carbonate materials to shock loading and release have been measured: Indiana limestone (18% porosity; saturated and dry), Jeffersonville/Louisville Limestones (Fort Knox limestone) (variable dolomitization, low porosity), Danby Marble (essentially pure calcite; low porosity), and a limestone from the Utah Test and Training Range (low porosity, with 22% silica). Various experimental configurations were used, some optimized to yield detailed waveform information, others to yield a clean combination of Hugoniot states and release paths. All made use of velocity interferometry as a primary diagnostic. The stress range of 0 - 20 GPa was probed (in most cases, emphasizing the stress range 0 -10 GPa). The primary physical processes observed in this stress regime were material strength, porosity, and polymorphic phase transitions between the CaCO{sub 3} phases I, II, III and VI. Hydration was also a significant reaction under certain conditions. The Indiana Limestone studies in particular represent a significant addition to the low-pressure database for porous limestone. Temperature dependence and the effect of freezing were assessed for the Fort Knox limestone. Experimental parameters and detailed results are provided for the 42 impact tests in this series.

  17. In situ photobiology of corals over large depth ranges: A multivariate analysis on the roles of environment, host, and algal symbiont

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frade, P.R.; Bongaerts, P.; Winkelhagen, A.J.S.; Tonk, L.; Bak, R.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    We applied a multivariate analysis to investigate the roles of host and symbiont on the in situ physiological response of genus Madracis holobionts towards light. Across a large depth gradient (5-40 m) and for four Madracis species and three symbiont genotypes, we assessed several variables by

  18. Utility of Filter Paper for Preserving Insects, Bacteria, and Host Reservoir DNA for Molecular Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Karimian

    2011-12-01

    Methods: Total body or haemolymph of individual mosquitoes, sand flies or cockroaches squashed or placed on the paper respectively. Extracted DNA of five different bacteria species as well as blood specimens of human and great gerbil Rhombomys opimus was pipetted directly onto filter paper. The papers were stored in room temperature up to 12 months during 2009 until 2011. At monthly intervals, PCR was conducted using a 1-mm disk from the DNA impregnated filter paper as target DNA. PCR amplification was performed against different target genes of the organisms including the ITS2-rDNA of mosquitoes, mtDNA-COI of the sand flies and cockroaches, 16SrRNA gene of the bacteria, and the mtDNA-CytB of the vertebrates. Results: Successful PCR amplification was observed for all of the specimens regardless of the loci, taxon, or time of storage. The PCR amplification were ranged from 462 to 1500 bp and worked well for the specified target gene/s. Time of storage did not affect the amplification up to one year. Conclusion: The filter paper method is a simple and economical way to store, to preserve, and to distribute DNA samples for PCR analysis.

  19. Task 7: Die soldering during host site testing. Final report, January1--December 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodwin, F.E. [International Lead Zinc Research Organization, Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Walkington, W.G. [Walkington (William G.), Cottage Grove, WI (United States)

    1998-01-31

    To provide industrial confirmation of laboratory results produced in Task 6 of this project, five industrial trials were organized with cooperative die casters in the USA. Components cast during these trials ranged from functional electronic heat sinks to decorative household plumbing components. Whereas laboratory work indicated that die temperature and draft angle were the most important process factors influencing solder accumulation, it was not possible to vary draft angle on the established production dies used for these trials. Substantial variations in die temperature were realized however and also die surface conditions were varied, confirming the influence of a secondary variable in the laboratory investigation. Substantial evidence from the trials indicated that die surface temperature is the most important factor for controlling solder build up. The surface roughness of the die casting die greatly influenced the number of castings that could be run before solder initially appeared. Development of careful thermal management techniques, now judged to be beyond the capabilities of most US die casters, will be necessary to control incidences of die soldering found in typical production. Thermal control will involve both control of the bulk die temperature through use of thermally controlled cooling lines, and also regulation of surface temperature by well controlled cooling lines, and also regulation of surface temperature by well controlled die spraying (lubrication) techniques. Further research, development and technology transfer to enhance thermal control capabilities of US die casters is recommended.

  20. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 496: Buried Rocket Site, Antelope Lake, Tonopah Test Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

    2004-05-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) plan details the activities necessary to close Corrective Action Unit 496: Buried Rocket Site, Antelope Lake. CAU 496 consists of one site located at the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada.

  1. Remote control and navigation tests for application to long-range lunar surface exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastin, W. C.; White, P. R.; Vinz, F. L.

    1971-01-01

    Tests conducted with a vehicle system built at the Marshall Space Flight Center to investigate some of the unknown factors associated with remote controlled teleoperated vehicles on the lunar surface are described. Test data are summarized and conclusions are drawn from these data which indicate that futher testing will be required.

  2. Sandia National Laboratories, Tonopah Test Range Askania Tower (Building 02-00): Photographs and Written Historical and Descriptive Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullrich, Rebecca A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Corporate Archives and History Program

    2017-08-01

    The Askania Tower (Building 02-00) was built in 1956 as part of the first wave of construction at the newly established Tonopah Test Range (TTR). Located at Station 2, near the primary target area at the range, the tower was one of the first four built to house Askania phototheodolites used in tracking test units dropped from aircraft. This report includes historical information, architectural information, sources of information, project information, maps, blueprints, and photographs.

  3. DC to DC Converter Testing for Space Applications: Use of EMI Filters and Thermal Range of Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Rosa

    2008-01-01

    Several tests were performed on Interpoint and International Rectifier (IR) direct current (DC) to DC converters to evaluate potential performance and reliability issues in space use of DC to DC converters and to determine if the use of electromagnetic interference (EMI) filters mitigates concerns observed during previous tests. Test findings reported here include those done up until September - October 2008. Tests performed include efficiency, regulation, cross-regulation, power consumption with inhibit on, load transient response, synchronization, and turn-on tests. Some of the test results presented here span the thermal range -55 C to 125 C. Lower range was extended to -120 C in some tested converters. Determination of failure root cause in DC/DC converters that failed at thermal extremes is also included.

  4. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-06-01

    This report provides the results of the semiannual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Unit (CAU) sites located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2006 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following nine CAUs: CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR); CAU 404: Roller Coaster Lagoons and Trench (TTR); CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR); CAU 423: Area 3 Underground Discharge Point, Building 0360 (TTR); CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR); CAU 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (TTR); CAU 427: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 2, 6 (TTR); CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR); and CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR). Post-closure inspections were conducted on May 9, 2006, May 31, 2006, and November 15, 2006. All inspections were conducted according to the post-closure plans in the approved Closure Reports. The post-closure inspection plan for each CAU is included in Attachment B, with the exception of CAU 400. CAU 400 does not require post-closure inspections, but inspections of the vegetation and fencing are conducted as a best management practice. The inspection checklists for each site inspection are included in Attachment C, the field notes are included in Attachment D, and the site photographs are included in Attachment E. Vegetation monitoring of CAU 400, CAU 404, CAU 407, and CAU 426 was performed in June 2006, and the vegetation monitoring report is included in Attachment F. Maintenance and/or repairs were performed at CAU 400, CAU 407, CAU 426, CAU 453, and CAU 487 in 2006. During the May inspection of CAU 400, it was identified that the east and west sections of chickenwire fencing beyond the standard fencing were damaged; they were repaired in June 2006. Also in June 2006, the southeast corner fence post and one warning sign at CAU 407 were reinforced and reattached, the perimeter fencing adjacent to the gate at CAU 426 was tightened, and large animal

  5. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, For Calendar Year 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-06-01

    This report provides the results of the semiannual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Unit (CAU) sites located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2007 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following nine CAUs: (1) CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR); (2) CAU 404: Roller Coaster Lagoons and Trench (TTR); (3) CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR); (4) CAU 423: Area 3 Underground Discharge Point, Building 0360 (TTR); (5) CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR); (6) CAU 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (TTR); (7) CAU 427: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 2, 6 (TTR); (8) CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR); and (9) CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR). In a letter from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) dated December 5, 2006, NDEP concurred with the request to reduce the frequency of post-closure inspections of CAUs at TTR to an annual frequency. This letter is included in Attachment B. Post-closure inspections were conducted on May 15-16, 2007. All inspections were conducted according to the post-closure plans in the approved Closure Reports. The post-closure inspection plan for each CAU is included in Attachment B, with the exception of CAU 400. CAU 400 does not require post-closure inspections, but inspections of the vegetation and fencing are conducted as a best management practice. The inspection checklists for each site inspection are included in Attachment C, the field notes are included in Attachment D, and the site photographs are included in Attachment E. Vegetation monitoring of CAU 400, CAU 404, CAU 407, and CAU 426 was performed in May 2007, and the vegetation monitoring report is included in Attachment F. Maintenance and/or repairs were performed at CAU 453. Animal burrows observed during the annual inspection at CAU 453 were backfilled on August 1, 2007. At this time, the TTR post-closure site inspections should continue as

  6. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, for Calendar Year 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2010-05-28

    This report provides the results of the annual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Unit (CAU) sites located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2009 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following seven CAUs: · CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR) · CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR) · CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR) · CAU 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (TTR) · CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR) · CAU 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and Burn Area (TTR) · CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR) The annual post-closure inspections were conducted May 5–6, 2009. All inspections were conducted according to the post-closure plans in the approved Closure Reports. The post-closure inspection plan for each CAU is included in Attachment B, with the exception of CAU 400. CAU 400 does not require post-closure inspections, but inspections of the vegetation and fencing are conducted as a best management practice. The inspection checklists for each site inspection are included in Attachment C, the field notes are included in Attachment D, and the site photographs are included in Attachment E. Vegetation monitoring of CAU 400, CAU 404, CAU 407, and CAU 426 was performed in June 2009, and the vegetation monitoring report is included in Attachment F. Maintenance was performed at CAU 453. Animal burrows observed during the annual inspection were backfilled, and a depression was restored to grade on June 25, 2009. Post-closure site inspections should continue as scheduled. Vegetation survey inspections have been conducted annually at CAUs 400, 404, 407, and 426. Discontinuation of vegetation surveys is recommended at the CAU 400 Bomblet Pit and CAU 426, which have been successfully revegetated. Discontinuation of vegetation surveys is also recommended at CAU 404, which has been changed to an administrative closure with no inspections required. Vegetation

  7. Challenge testing the lactoperoxidase system against a range of bacteria using different activation agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fweja, L W T; Lewis, M J; Grandison, A S

    2008-07-01

    Lactoperoxidase (LP) exerts antimicrobial effects in combination with H(2)O(2) and either thiocyanate (SCN(-)) or a halide (e.g., I(-)). Garlic extract in the presence of ethanol has also been used to activate the LP system. This study aimed to determine the effects of 3 LP activation systems (LP+SCN(-)+H(2)O(2); LP+I(-)+H(2)O(2); LP + garlic extract + ethanol) on the growth and activity of 3 test organisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Bacillus cereus). Sterilized milk was used as the reaction medium, and the growth pattern of the organisms and a range of keeping quality (KQ) indicators (pH, titratable acidity, ethanol stability, clot on boiling) were monitored during storage at the respective optimum growth temperature for each organism. The LP+I(-)+ H(2)O(2) system reduced bacterial counts below the detection limit shortly after treatment for all 3 organisms, and no bacteria could be detected for the duration of the experiment (35 to 55 h). The KQ data confirmed that the milk remained unspoiled at the end of the experiments. The LP + garlic extract + ethanol system, on the other hand, had no effect on the growth or KQ with P. aeruginosa, but showed a small retardation of growth of the other 2 organisms, accompanied by small increases (5 to 10 h) in KQ. The effects of the LP+SCN(-)+H(2)O(2) system were intermediate between those of the other 2 systems and differed between organisms. With P. aeruginosa, the system exerted total inhibition within 10 h of incubation, but the bacteria regained viability after a further 5 h, following a logarithmic growth curve. This was reflected in the KQ indicators, which implied an extension of 15 h. With the other 2 bacterial species, LP+SCN(-)+H(2)O(2) exerted an obvious inhibitory effect, giving a lag phase in the growth curve of 5 to 10 h and KQ extension of 10 to 15 h. When used in combination, I(-) and SCN(-) displayed negative synergy.

  8. Environmental Assessment for Changes to Reveille Airspace at Nevada Test and Training Range Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    Alrcr.rt SOUnd Source Level (SEL) 125 Oxy/~ene Torch I B-2 & F-18 at200 feel =121 Rock Band 120 I B-1 at 200 feet =119 8-52 at 200 feet =115...County; N Range (Kawich Range). Beatley milk vetch Astragalus beatle )’<JC soc CB G2S2 Nye County; N Range, NAI’R (Pohute Mesa) and Nevada Test Site (NTS

  9. The impact of compressive force magnitude on the in vitro neutral zone range and passive stiffness during a flexion–extension range of motion test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamiko Noguchi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to examine the influence of compressive force magnitude on a functional spinal unit’s (FSU flexion–extension neutral zone measured during pure moment (PM tests. Each porcine cervical FSU received four repeats of a PM test with 10, 300, 900 and 1,800 N of compressive force, in a randomized order. Increasing the magnitude of compression significantly decreased the neutral zone range (p < 0.001, while increasing passive stiffness (p < 0.001. The flexion limit at 10 N was significantly lower (p < 0.05 than the other loading conditions. Reporting the compressive force magnitude is important when posture is a standardized experimental factor considered in the design of in vitro spine biomechanics studies.

  10. Air STAR Beyond Visual Range UAS Description and Preliminary Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kevin; Cox, David E.; Foster, John V.; Riddick, Stephen E.; Laughter, Sean A.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research Unmanned Aerial System project's capabilities were expanded by updating the system design and concept of operations. The new remotely piloted airplane system design was flight tested to assess integrity and operational readiness of the design to perform flight research. The purpose of the system design is to improve aviation safety by providing a capability to validate, in high-risk conditions, technologies to prevent airplane loss of control. Two principal design requirements were to provide a high degree of reliability and that the new design provide a significant increase in test volume (relative to operations using the previous design). The motivation for increased test volume is to improve test efficiency and allow new test capabilities that were not possible with the previous design and concept of operations. Three successful test flights were conducted from runway 4-22 at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility.

  11. Physics and technology in the ion-cyclotron range of frequency on Tore Supra and TITAN test facility: implication for ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litaudon, X.; Bernard, J. M.; Colas, L.; Dumont, R.; Argouarch, A.; Bottollier-Curtet, H.; Brémond, S.; Champeaux, S.; Corre, Y.; Dumortier, P.; Firdaouss, M.; Guilhem, D.; Gunn, J. P.; Gouard, Ph.; Hoang, G. T.; Jacquot, J.; Klepper, C. C.; Kubič, M.; Kyrytsya, V.; Lombard, G.; Milanesio, D.; Messiaen, A.; Mollard, P.; Meyer, O.; Zarzoso, D.

    2013-08-01

    To support the design of an ITER ion-cyclotron range of frequency heating (ICRH) system and to mitigate risks of operation in ITER, CEA has initiated an ambitious Research & Development program accompanied by experiments on Tore Supra or test-bed facility together with a significant modelling effort. The paper summarizes the recent results in the following areas: Comprehensive characterization (experiments and modelling) of a new Faraday screen concept tested on the Tore Supra antenna. A new model is developed for calculating the ICRH sheath rectification at the antenna vicinity. The model is applied to calculate the local heat flux on Tore Supra and ITER ICRH antennas. Full-wave modelling of ITER ICRH heating and current drive scenarios with the EVE code. With 20 MW of power, a current of ±400 kA could be driven on axis in the DT scenario. Comparison between DT and DT(3He) scenario is given for heating and current drive efficiencies. First operation of CW test-bed facility, TITAN, designed for ITER ICRH components testing and could host up to a quarter of an ITER antenna. R&D of high permittivity materials to improve load of test facilities to better simulate ITER plasma antenna loading conditions.

  12. Development of bioassay for pathogenecity testing of Ureaplasma urealyticum as part of host-pathogen communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnomo Soeharso

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Bioassay of Ureaplasma urealyticum is necessary for detection as well as determination of pathogenic factors in order to understand the pathogenesis of diseases associate with ureaplasma infection. Cultivation and verification of ureaplasma is the first step of this study in the purpose of discovering sensitive method for ureaplasma detection. Cultivation of ureaplasma either in liquid or in solid media are able to detect the existence of ureaplasma in samples analyzed. However, application of PCR using specific primers to be compatible with urease gene (ure would confirm the presence of ureaplasma. The pathogenicity of ureaplasma is potentially monitored using reporter gene as a marker for gene expression. IceC was chosen as reporter gene for ureaplasma pathogenic determination as the gene has great sensitivity, easily detectable and quantitated in simple method of ice nucleation assay. Transposon 916 (Tn916 was selected as a vector for iceC gene to transform ureaplasma. The application of recombinant Tn916-iceC which is considered as pUI, allow detection of ureaplasma activities when transform ureaplasma is tested by ice nucleation assay. It was expected that ureaplasma transformation is the manifestation of mutagenesis which interfere genes responsible for bacterial pathogenicity, in order pathogenesis of bacterial infection to be analyzed accurately. IgA1 protease is considered to be an important factor for ureaplasma pathogenicity as the enzyme is required for successful colonization. Identification of iga gene and  determination of IgA1 protease activity are important for understanding the pathogenesis of ureaplasma infection. Putative iga gene of Mycoplasma genitalium was used as a reference to identify the presence of iga nucleotide sequence in U. urealyticum. Convincing evidence were obtained after PCR amplification of ureaplasma DNA using primers designed to be compatible with putative iga gene of M. genitalium followed by the

  13. The RepA_N replicons of Gram-positive bacteria: a family of broadly distributed but narrow host range plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Keith E; Kwong, Stephen M; Firth, Neville; Francia, Maria Victoria

    2009-03-01

    The pheromone-responsive conjugative plasmids of Enterococcus faecalis and the multiresistance plasmids pSK1 and pSK41 of Staphylococcus aureus are among the best studied plasmids native to Gram-positive bacteria. Although these plasmids seem largely restricted to their native hosts, protein sequence comparison of their replication initiator proteins indicates that they are clearly related. Homology searches indicate that these replicons are representatives of a large family of plasmids and a few phage that are widespread among the low G+C Gram-positive bacteria. We propose to name this family the RepA_N family of replicons after the annotated conserved domain that the initiator protein contains. Detailed sequence comparisons indicate that the initiator protein phylogeny is largely congruent with that of the host, suggesting that the replicons have evolved along with their current hosts and that intergeneric transfer has been rare. However, related proteins were identified on chromosomal regions bearing characteristics indicative of ICE elements, and the phylogeny of these proteins displayed evidence of more frequent intergeneric transfer. Comparison of stability determinants associated with the RepA_N replicons suggests that they have a modular evolution as has been observed in other plasmid families.

  14. POST-CLOSURE INSPECTION REPORT FOR THE TONOPAH TEST RANGE, NEVADA, FOR CALENDAR YEAR 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BECHTEL NEVADA

    2005-04-01

    This Post-Closure Inspection Report provides an analysis and summary of the semi-annual inspections conducted at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) during Calendar Year 2004. The report includes the inspection and/or repair activities completed at the following nine Corrective Action Units (CAUs) located at TTR, Nevada: (1) CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR); (2) CAU 404: Roller Coaster Lagoons and Trench (TTR); (3) CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR); (4) CAU 423: Area 3 Underground Discharge Point, Building 0360 (TTR) (5) CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR); (6) CAU 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (TTR); (7) CAU 427: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 2,6 (TTR); (8) CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR); and (9) CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR). Site inspections were conducted on July 7,2004, and November 9-10,2004. All inspections were conducted according to the post-closure plans in the approved Closure Reports (CRs). The post-closure inspection plan for each CAU is included in Appendix B, with the exception of CAU 400 and CAU 423. CAU 400 does not require post-closure inspections, but inspections of the vegetation and fencing are conducted as a best management practice. In addition, post-closure inspections are not currently required at CAU 423; however, the CR is being revised to include inspection requirements. The inspection checklists for each site inspection are included in Appendix C, the field notes are included in Appendix D, and the site photographs are included in Appendix E. Vegetation monitoring of CAU 400, CAU 404, CAU 407, and CAU 426 was performed in June 2004, and the vegetation monitoring report is included in Appendix F. In addition, topographic survey results of two repaired landfill cells in CAU 424 are included in Appendix G. Maintenance and/or repairs were performed at the CAU 400 Five Points Landfill, CAU 407, CAU 424, CAU 427, and CAU 487. CAU 400 repairs included mending the fence, reseeding of a flood damaged area, and

  15. Testing Long-Range Beam-Beam Compensation for the LHC Luminosity Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Rijoff, T L

    2012-01-01

    The performance of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN and its minimum crossing angle are limited by the effect of long-range beam-beam collisions. A wire compensators can mitigate part of the long-range effects and may allow for smaller crossing angles, or higher beam intensity. A prototype long-range wire compensator could be installed in the LHC by 2014/15. Since the originally reserved position for such a wire compensator is not available for this first step, we explore other possible options. Our investigations consider various longitudinal and transverse locations, different wire shapes, different optics configurations and several crossing angles between the two colliding beams. Simulations are carried out with the weak-strong code BBtrack. New postprocessing tools are introduced to analyse tune footprints and particle stability. In particular, a new method for the Lyapunov coefficient calculation is implemented. Submitted as "Tesi di laurea" at the University of Milano, 2012.

  16. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of host-range (E3L, K3L, and C7L) and structural protein (B5R) genes of buffalopox virus isolates from buffalo, cattle, and human in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Bidhan Ch; Shanmugasundaram, K; Barua, Sanjay; Anand, Taruna; Riyesh, T; Vaid, Rajesh K; Virmani, Nitin; Bansal, Manish; Shukla, Brihaspati N; Malik, Praveen; Singh, Raj K

    2012-12-01

    Buffalopox virus (BPXV), a close variant of vaccinia virus (VACV) has emerged as a zoonotic pathogen. The host tropism of poxviruses is governed by host-range genes. Among the host-range genes: E3L, K3L, and C7L are essential for virus replication by preventing interferon resistance, whereas B5R is essential for spread of the virus and evasion from the host's immune response as in VACV. We report sequence analysis of host-range genes: E3L, K3L, C7L, and membrane protein gene (B5R) of BPXVs from buffalo, cattle, and human from recent outbreaks in India-their phylogenetic relationship with reference strain (BP4) and other Orthopoxviruses. BPXVs revealed a sequence homology with VACVs including zoonotic Brazilian VACV-like viruses. The aa sequences of E3L and K3L genes were 100 % similar in buffalo, cattle, and human isolates. However, four significant point mutations (I11K; N12K and S36F in C7L gene and D249G in B5R gene) were observed specific to buffalo isolate only. This signifies that different strains of BPXV were circulated during the outbreak. The mutations in C7L and B5R could play an important role in adaptation of BPXV in human and cattle which needs further functional studies. The strain of BPXV isolated from buffalo may not be adopted in human and cow. Various point mutations were observed in the host-range genes of reference strain (BPXV-BP4) which may be due to several passages of virus in cell culture. The phylogeny constructed based on concatenated gene sequences revealed that BPXVs are not as closely related to vaccine strain (Lister and Lister-derived strain-LC16m8), as hypothesized earlier, rather they are more closely related to reference strain (BPXV-BP4) and other vaccinia and vaccinia-like viruses such as Passatempo and Aracatuba viruses. The availability of information regarding host tropism determinants would allow us to understand molecular mechanism of species tropism of poxviruses which would be useful in unveiling new strategies to

  17. Pacific Missile Range Facility Intercept Test Support. Environmental Assessment/Overseas Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Portable hair dryer 86 to 77 At 1 foot Vacuum cleaner 85 to 78 At 5 feet Long range airplane 80 to 70 Inside Conversation 60 Typical suburban...missile unstable, causing it to tumble and fall to the earth prior to reaching populated areas. Other strategies to cause a vehicle to tumble may also

  18. Response of brown-headed cowbirds and three host species to thinning treatments in low-elevation ponderosa pine forests along the northern Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, W.H.; Germaine, Stephen S.; Stanley, Thomas R.; Spaulding, Sarah A.; Wanner, C.E.

    2013-01-01

    Thinning ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests to achieve desired ecological conditions remains a priority in the North American west. In addition to reducing the risk of high-severity wildfires in unwanted areas, stand thinning may increase wildlife and plant diversity and provide increased opportunity for seedling recruitment. We initiated conservative (i.e. minimal removal of trees) ponderosa stand thinning treatments with the goals of reducing fire risk and improving habitat conditions for native wildlife and flora. We then compared site occupancy of brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), chipping sparrows (Spizella passerina), plumbeous vireos (Vireo plumbeus), and western wood-pewees (Contopus sordidulus) in thinned and unthinned (i.e., control) forest stands from 2007 to 2009. Survey stations located in thinned stands had 64% fewer trees/ha, 25% less canopy cover, and 23% less basal area than stations in control stands. Occupancy by all three host species was negatively associated with tree density, suggesting that these species respond favorably to forest thinning treatments in ponderosa pine forests. We also encountered plumbeous vireos more frequently in plots closer to an ecotonal (forest/grassland) edge, an association that may increase their susceptibility to edge-specialist, brood parasites like brown-headed cowbirds. Occupancy of brown-headed cowbirds was not related to forest metrics but was related to occupancy by plumbeous vireos and the other host species in aggregate, supporting previous reports on the affiliation between these species. Forest management practices that promote heterogeneity in forest stand structure may benefit songbird populations in our area, but these treatments may also confer costs associated with increased cowbird occupancy. Further research is required to understand more on the complex relationships between occupancy of cowbirds and host species, and between cowbird occupancy and realized rates of nest parasitism.

  19. Host range and genetic diversity of croton yellow vein mosaic virus, a weed-infecting monopartite begomovirus causing leaf curl disease in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramesh, D; Mandal, Bikash; Phaneendra, Chigurupati; Muniyappa, V

    2013-03-01

    Croton yellow vein mosaic virus (CYVMV) is a widely occurring begomovirus in Croton bonplandianum, a common weed in the Indian subcontinent. In this study, CYVMV (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) was transmitted by whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci) to as many as 35 plant species belonging to 11 families, including many vegetables, tobacco varieties, ornamentals and weeds. CYVMV produced bright yellow vein symptoms in croton, whereas in all the other host species, the virus produced leaf curl symptoms. CYVMV produced leaf curl in 13 tobacco species and 22 cultivars of Nicotiana tabacum and resembled tobacco leaf curl virus (TobLCV) in host reactions. However, CYVMV was distinguished from TobLCV in four differential hosts, Ageratum conyzoides, C. bonplandianum, Euphorbia geniculata and Sonchus bracyotis. The complete genome sequences of four isolates originating from northern, eastern and southern India revealed that a single species of DNA-A and a betasatellite, croton yellow vein mosaic betasatellite (CroYVMB) were associated with the yellow vein mosaic disease of croton. The sequence identity among the isolates of CYVMV DNA-A and CroYVMB occurring in diverse plant species was 91.8-97.9 % and 83.3-100 %, respectively. The CYVMV DNA-A and CroYVMB generated through rolling-circle amplification of the cloned DNAs produced typical symptoms of yellow vein mosaic and leaf curling in croton and tomato, respectively. The progeny virus from both the croton and tomato plants was transmitted successfully by B. tabaci. The present study establishes the etiology of yellow vein mosaic disease of C. bonplandianum and provides molecular evidence that a weed-infecting monopartite begomovirus causes leaf curl in tomato.

  20. Gama de hospedeiros e reação de genótipos de tomateiro a Pseudomonas cichorii Host range and genotypes reaction to Pseudomonas cichorii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeu Antônio Fernandes da Silva Júnior

    2009-06-01

    in two commercial tomato fields in the State of São Paulo in 2005. In view of this, studies were carried out in order to determine the host range of Pseudomonas cichorii isolates (IBSBF 2309 and IBSBF 2323, obtained from tomato plants at commercial fields located in the cities of Bragança Paulista and Mogi Guaçú, SP, Brazil. Caserta pumpkin, lettuce, purslane, eggplant, beet, broccoli, carrot, Jimson weed, sunflower, tobacco, scarlet eggplant, melon, cucumber, petunia, green pepper, radish, cabbage, arugula, parsley, and tomato plants were spray-inoculated separately with two isolates of P. cichorii obtained from tomato and one from sunflower (GIR-1. The isolates IBSBF 2309 and IBSBF 2323 were pathogenic to purslane, Jimson weed, sunflower, green pepper, and tomato; GIR-1 was only pathogenic to purslane, Jimson weed, and sunflower, but not pathogenic to green pepper or tomato. In Brazil, no sources of resistance to this bacterium are known within the Lycopersicon genus. The reaction of tomato cultivars to the bacterium is also unknown. Twenty-eight tomato genotypes from the Sakata Seed Sudamerica Ltda. Germplasm Bank were evaluated for their reaction to P. cichorii isolates IBSBF 2309 and IBSBF 2323, using the leaf inoculation method. The highest resistance levels were observed in tomato genotypes AF 11768, AF 2521, AF 11766, AF 11772, AF 229, AF 5719-1, and AF 8162. The genotype AF 5719-1, wich has the Pto gene imparting resistance to P. syringae pv. tomato, showed a good level of resistance to P. cichorii. The identification of genotypes with good levels of resistance to this pathogen is important, since they represent potential resources to be used in tomato breeding programs for incorporation of resistance genes against P. cichorii.

  1. Casimir Effect as a Test for Thermal Corrections and Hypothetical Long-Range Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Klimchitskaya, G L; Fischbach, E; Krause, D E; López, D; Mostepanenko, V M

    2005-01-01

    We have performed a precise experimental determination of the Casimir pressure between two gold-coated parallel plates by means of a micromachined oscillator. In contrast to all previous experiments on the Casimir effect, where a small relative error (varying from 1% to 15%) was achieved only at the shortest separation, our smallest experimental error ($\\sim 0.5$%) is achieved over a wide separation range from 170 nm to 300 nm at 95% confidence. We have formulated a rigorous metrological procedure for the comparison of experiment and theory without resorting to the previously used root-mean-square deviation, which has been criticized in the literature. This enables us to discriminate among different competing theories of the thermal Casimir force, and to resolve a thermodynamic puzzle arising from the application of Lifshitz theory to real metals. Our results lead to a more rigorous approach for obtaining constraints on hypothetical long-range interactions predicted by extra-dimensional physics and other exte...

  2. Resource Selection by an Endangered Ungulate: A Test of Predator-Induced Range Abandonment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey T. Villepique

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated influences of risk of predation by mountain lions (Puma concolor, topographic metrics at multiple scales, and vegetation, land, and snow cover on resource selection by Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis sierrae, an endangered taxon, during winters 2002–2007, in the Sierra Nevada, California, USA. We hypothesized that those mountain ungulates would trade off rewards accrued from using critical low-elevation habitat in winter for the safety of areas with reduced risk of predation. Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep did not trade off benefits of forage for reduced risk of predation but selected areas of high solar radiation, a correlate of vegetation productivity, where risk of predation by mountain lions was greatest, while mitigating indirect risk of predation by selecting for steep, rugged terrain. Bighorn sheep selected more strongly for areas where mountain lions were active, than for low-elevation habitat in winter, likely because mountain lions were most active in those areas of bighorn sheep winter ranges overlapping ranges of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus, where both ungulates accrued forage benefits. We demonstrated reduced benefit of migration to low elevation during drought years, providing an alternative explanation to the predator-induced abandonment hypothesis for the disuse of low-elevation winter range observed during drought years.

  3. Life Before Tests: A District's Coordinated Health Approach for Addressing Children's Full Range of Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    Chronic illnesses, depression, abuse of drugs, alcohol and tobacco. Sugary snacks and drinks, vending machines, obesity and bullying. Guns, gang violence, school shootings and test scores. Teen-age birth rates, one-parent households, lack of health or dental care, and, dropouts. All of these issues are interconnected and intertwined with education…

  4. A Range-Null Hypothesis Approach for Testing DIF under the Rasch Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Craig S.; Cohen, Allan S.; Patton, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    A primary concern with testing differential item functioning (DIF) using a traditional point-null hypothesis is that a statistically significant result does not imply that the magnitude of DIF is of practical interest. Similarly, for a given sample size, a non-significant result does not allow the researcher to conclude the item is free of DIF. To…

  5. Field test of a paradigm: hysteresis of heart rate in thermoregulation by a free-ranging lizard (Pogona barbata).

    OpenAIRE

    Grigg, G C; Seebacher, F.

    1999-01-01

    The discovery that changes in heart rate and blood flow allow some reptiles to heat faster than they cool has become a central paradigm in our understanding of reptilian thermoregulation. However, this hysteresis in heart rate has been demonstrated only in simplistic laboratory heating and cooling trials, leaving its functional significance in free-ranging animals unproven. To test the validity of this paradigm, we measured heart rate and body temperature (Tb) in undisturbed, free-ranging bea...

  6. Development and testing of a novel single-wire sensor for wide range flow velocity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Salaymeh, A.; Durst, F.

    2004-05-01

    Thermal flow sensors with a wide dynamic range, e.g. 1:1000 and more, are currently not available in spite of the great demand for such sensors in practical fluid flow measurements. The present paper introduces a sensor of this kind. The new sensor is mechanically the same as the 'sending' wire of the two-wire thermal flow sensor described by Durst et al, but it is excited by discrete, widely separated, square waves of electrical current rather than a continuous sinusoidal current. The nominal 'output' of the new sensor is the increase in wire temperature so that an integral of the resistance over the pulse length can be used for measurements. This 'output' is a function of the time constant ('thermal inertia') of the heated wire and thus also of the velocity of flow. The time constant decreases as the flow velocity increases, while the heat transfer increases. At very low flow velocities the response is determined almost entirely by the time constant of the wire while at high velocities the device acts almost like a 'constant current' hot-wire anemometer. That is, the effect of thermal inertia augments the output signal of the basic hot wire, thus increasing the flow rate range/sensitivity of the device, especially at the low-velocity end, above than that of a simple hot-wire flowmeter. The sensor described here was developed for slowly changing unidirectional flows, and uses one wire of 12.5 µm diameter. It is excited at 30 Hz frequency and its usable flow velocity range is 0.01-25 m s-1.

  7. Identification of powdery mildew resistance genes in Polish common oat (Avena sativa L. cultivars using host-pathogen tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Okoń

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to characterize and identify powdery mildew resistance genes in Polish common oat cultivars using host-pathogen tests. A differential set of six Blumeria graminis f.sp. avenae isolates virulent or avirulent to four cultivars and one line that has known resistance to powdery mildew were used. Among the investigated cultivars, only four of them (13.3% had resistance patterns similar to genotypes belonging to the differential set. The resistance of OMR group 1 was found in the cultivar ‘Dragon’, while that of OMR2 in the cultivar ‘Skrzat’. The cultivars ‘Deresz’ and ‘Hetman’ showed a resistance pattern that corresponded with OMR group 3. The resistance corresponding to OMR4 was not found, which suggests that until now this gene has not been used in Polish oat breeding programmes. The cultivar ‘Canyon’ had a different pat- tern of resistance than the genotypes that have already known OMR genes, which indicates that the resistance of this cultivar is determined by a new gene or a combination of known genes.

  8. Characterization and Fate of Gun and Rocket Propellant Residues on Testing and Training Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Other additives can be included to lower wear of the gun barrel liners. Examples include wax, talc , and titanium dioxide. Grain Size and Shape...nitroglycerin ethyl centralite triacetin 2,6-dinitrotoluene nitroguanidine akardite wax ethyl centralite diethylene glycol dinitrate talc Flash reducers...of exposure to the wind and sun. The means and medians are quite close, with RSDs averaging around 12%. Table 3-6. Sampler variation test results

  9. Testing for Lorentz violation: constraints on standard-model-extension parameters via lunar laser ranging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battat, James B R; Chandler, John F; Stubbs, Christopher W

    2007-12-14

    We present constraints on violations of Lorentz invariance based on archival lunar laser-ranging (LLR) data. LLR measures the Earth-Moon separation by timing the round-trip travel of light between the two bodies and is currently accurate to the equivalent of a few centimeters (parts in 10(11) of the total distance). By analyzing this LLR data under the standard-model extension (SME) framework, we derived six observational constraints on dimensionless SME parameters that describe potential Lorentz violation. We found no evidence for Lorentz violation at the 10(-6) to 10(-11) level in these parameters. This work constitutes the first LLR constraints on SME parameters.

  10. Genomic basis of broad host range and environmental adaptability of Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 and Rhizobium sp. PRF 81 which are used in inoculants for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Menna, Pâmela; Almeida, Luiz Gonzaga P; Ollero, Francisco Javier; Nicolás, Marisa Fabiana; Pains Rodrigues, Elisete; Shigueyoshi Nakatani, Andre; Silva Batista, Jesiane Stefânia; Oliveira Chueire, Ligia Maria; Souza, Rangel Celso; Ribeiro Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza; Megías, Manuel; Hungria, Mariangela; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2012-12-27

    Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 and Rhizobium sp. PRF 81 are α-Proteobacteria that establish nitrogen-fixing symbioses with a range of legume hosts. These strains are broadly used in commercial inoculants for application to common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in South America and Africa. Both strains display intrinsic resistance to several abiotic stressful conditions such as low soil pH and high temperatures, which are common in tropical environments, and to several antimicrobials, including pesticides. The genetic determinants of these interesting characteristics remain largely unknown. Genome sequencing revealed that CIAT 899 and PRF 81 share a highly-conserved symbiotic plasmid (pSym) that is present also in Rhizobium leucaenae CFN 299, a rhizobium displaying a similar host range. This pSym seems to have arisen by a co-integration event between two replicons. Remarkably, three distinct nodA genes were found in the pSym, a characteristic that may contribute to the broad host range of these rhizobia. Genes for biosynthesis and modulation of plant-hormone levels were also identified in the pSym. Analysis of genes involved in stress response showed that CIAT 899 and PRF 81 are well equipped to cope with low pH, high temperatures and also with oxidative and osmotic stresses. Interestingly, the genomes of CIAT 899 and PRF 81 had large numbers of genes encoding drug-efflux systems, which may explain their high resistance to antimicrobials. Genome analysis also revealed a wide array of traits that may allow these strains to be successful rhizosphere colonizers, including surface polysaccharides, uptake transporters and catabolic enzymes for nutrients, diverse iron-acquisition systems, cell wall-degrading enzymes, type I and IV pili, and novel T1SS and T5SS secreted adhesins. Availability of the complete genome sequences of CIAT 899 and PRF 81 may be exploited in further efforts to understand the interaction of tropical rhizobia with common bean and other legume hosts.

  11. Experimental Testing of Rockfall Barriers Designed for the Low Range of Impact Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzi, O.; Spadari, M.; Giacomini, A.; Fityus, S.; Sloan, S. W.

    2013-07-01

    Most of the recent research on rockfall and the development of protective systems, such as flexible rockfall barriers, have been focused on medium to high levels of impacting energy. However, in many regions of the world, the rockfall hazard involves low levels of energy. This is particularly the case in New South Wales, Australia, because of the nature of the geological environments. The state Road and Traffic Authority (RTA) has designed various types of rockfall barriers, including some of low capacity, i.e. 35 kJ. The latter were tested indoors using a pendulum equipped with an automatic block release mechanism triggered by an optical beam. Another three systems were also tested, including two products designed by rockfall specialised companies and one modification of the initial design of the RTA. The research focused on the influence of the system's stiffness on the transmission of load to components of the barrier such as posts and cables. Not surprisingly, the more compliant the system, the less loaded the cables and posts. It was also found that removing the intermediate cables and placing the mesh downslope could reduce the stiffness of the system designed by the RTA. The paper concludes with some multi-scale considerations on the capacity of a barrier to absorb the energy based on experimental evidence.

  12. Laboratory Diagnosis of Syphilis: A Survey to Examine the Range of Tests Used in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond SW. Tsang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory diagnosis of syphilis has undergone major changes in the past decade with the introduction of immunoassays and recombinant Treponema pallidum antigens as screening tools for syphilis infection. To address this change in laboratory practice, a national syphilis laboratory working group was established with members from the Public Health Agency of Canada, provincial public health laboratories across the country as well as sexually transmitted infection researchers, clinicians and epidemiologists. This working group aims to examine how the use of newer immunoassays will affect syphilis diagnosis, surveillance and disease management. To provide a baseline for this work, an e-mail survey was conducted in the fall of 2009 to determine current laboratory practices for syphilis diagnosis in Canada. The most commonly used tests were rapid plasma reagin, enzyme immunoassay, T pallidum passive particle agglutination, venereal disease research laboratory, fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption, line immunoassay and polymerase chain reaction with 92%, 36%, 32%, 20%, 12%, 12% and 12% of the responding laboratories reporting using these tests, respectively. The ultimate goal of this working group will be to update laboratory guidelines for the diagnosis of syphilis, and to identify syphilis surveillance and research priorities in Canada.

  13. Laboratory diagnosis of syphilis: A survey to examine the range of tests used in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Raymond Sw; Radons, Sandra Michelle; Morshed, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    Laboratory diagnosis of syphilis has undergone major changes in the past decade with the introduction of immunoassays and recombinant Treponema pallidum antigens as screening tools for syphilis infection. To address this change in laboratory practice, a national syphilis laboratory working group was established with members from the Public Health Agency of Canada, provincial public health laboratories across the country as well as sexually transmitted infection researchers, clinicians and epidemiologists. This working group aims to examine how the use of newer immunoassays will affect syphilis diagnosis, surveillance and disease management. To provide a baseline for this work, an e-mail survey was conducted in the fall of 2009 to determine current laboratory practices for syphilis diagnosis in Canada. The most commonly used tests were rapid plasma reagin, enzyme immunoassay, T pallidum passive particle agglutination, venereal disease research laboratory, fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption, line immunoassay and polymerase chain reaction with 92%, 36%, 32%, 20%, 12%, 12% and 12% of the responding laboratories reporting using these tests, respectively. The ultimate goal of this working group will be to update laboratory guidelines for the diagnosis of syphilis, and to identify syphilis surveillance and research priorities in Canada.

  14. Women's Attitudes Regarding Prenatal Testing for a Range of Congenital Disorders of Varying Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Mary E; Nakagawa, Sanae; Kuppermann, Miriam

    2014-01-21

    Little is known about women's comparative attitudes towards prenatal testing for different categories of genetic disorders. We interviewed women who delivered healthy infants within the past year and assessed attitudes towards prenatal screening and diagnostic testing, as well as pregnancy termination, for Down syndrome (DS), fragile X (FraX), cystic fibrosis (CF), spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), phenylketonuria (PKU) and congenital heart defects (CHD). Ninety-five women aged 21 to 48 years participated, of whom 60% were Caucasian, 23% Asian, 10% Latina and 7% African American; 82% were college graduates. Ninety-five to ninety-eight percent indicated that they would have screening for each condition, and the majority would have amniocentesis (64% for PKU to 72% for SMA). Inclinations regarding pregnancy termination varied by condition: Whereas only 10% reported they would probably or definitely terminate a pregnancy for CHD, 41% indicated they would do so for DS and 62% for SMA. Most women in this cohort reported that they would undergo screening for all six conditions presented, the majority without the intent to terminate an affected pregnancy. These women were least inclined to terminate treatable disorders (PKU, CHD) versus those associated with intellectual disability (DS, FraX) and were most likely to terminate for SMA, typically lethal in childhood.

  15. Women’s Attitudes Regarding Prenatal Testing for a Range of Congenital Disorders of Varying Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E. Norton

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about women’s comparative attitudes towards prenatal testing for different categories of genetic disorders. We interviewed women who delivered healthy infants within the past year and assessed attitudes towards prenatal screening and diagnostic testing, as well as pregnancy termination, for Down syndrome (DS, fragile X (FraX, cystic fibrosis (CF, spinal muscular atrophy (SMA, phenylketonuria (PKU and congenital heart defects (CHD. Ninety-five women aged 21 to 48 years participated, of whom 60% were Caucasian, 23% Asian, 10% Latina and 7% African American; 82% were college graduates. Ninety-five to ninety-eight percent indicated that they would have screening for each condition, and the majority would have amniocentesis (64% for PKU to 72% for SMA. Inclinations regarding pregnancy termination varied by condition: Whereas only 10% reported they would probably or definitely terminate a pregnancy for CHD, 41% indicated they would do so for DS and 62% for SMA. Most women in this cohort reported that they would undergo screening for all six conditions presented, the majority without the intent to terminate an affected pregnancy. These women were least inclined to terminate treatable disorders (PKU, CHD versus those associated with intellectual disability (DS, FraX and were most likely to terminate for SMA, typically lethal in childhood.

  16. Content Range and Precision of a Computer Adaptive Test of Upper Extremity Function for Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montpetit, Kathleen; Haley, Stephen; Bilodeau, Nathalie; Ni, Pengsheng; Tian, Feng; Gorton, George, III; Mulcahey, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the content range and measurement precision of an upper extremity (UE) computer adaptive testing (CAT) platform of physical function in children with cerebral palsy. Upper extremity items representing skills of all abilities were administered to 305 parents. These responses were compared with two traditional standardized…

  17. Quality control ranges for testing broth microdilution susceptibility of Flavobacterium columnare and F. psychrophilum to nine antimicrobials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gieseker, Charles M.; Mayer, Tamara D.; Crosby, Tina C.

    2012-01-01

    . These data and their associated QC ranges have been approved by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), and will be included in the next edition of the CLSI M49-A Guideline. This method represents the first standardized reference method for testing fish pathogenic Flavobacterium spp....

  18. Content Range and Precision of a Computer Adaptive Test of Upper Extremity Function for Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montpetit, Kathleen; Haley, Stephen; Bilodeau, Nathalie; Ni, Pengsheng; Tian, Feng; Gorton, George, III; Mulcahey, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the content range and measurement precision of an upper extremity (UE) computer adaptive testing (CAT) platform of physical function in children with cerebral palsy. Upper extremity items representing skills of all abilities were administered to 305 parents. These responses were compared with two traditional standardized…

  19. 33 CFR 334.650 - Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range. 334.650 Section 334.650 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.650 Gulf of Mexico, south of St....

  20. Sandia National Laboratories, Tonopah Test Range Fire Control Bunker (Building 09-51): Photographs and Written Historical and Descriptive Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullrich, Rebecca A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Corporate Archives and History Program

    2017-08-01

    The Fire Control Bunker (Building 09-51) is a contributing element to the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Tonopah Test Range (TTR) Historic District. The SNL TTR Historic District played a significant role in U.S. Cold War history in the areas of stockpile surveillance and non-nuclear field testing of nuclear weapons design. The district covers approximately 179,200 acres and illustrates Cold War development testing of nuclear weapons components and systems. This report includes historical information, architectural information, sources of information, project information, maps, blueprints, and photographs.

  1. TESTING THE LONG RANGE-DEPENDENCE FOR THE CENTRAL EASTERN EUROPEAN AND THE BALKANS STOCK MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pece Andreea Maria

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study we tested the existence of long memory in the the return series for major Central Eastern European and Balkans stock markets, using the following statistical methods: Hurst Exponent, GPH method, Andrews and Guggenberger method, Reisen method, Willinger, Taqqu and Teverovsky method and ARFIMA model. The results obtained are mixed. The Hurst Exponent showed the existence of long memory in all indices, except PX. After applying the GPH method, the results showed that BET, ATHEX, SOFIX and CROBEX have a predictable behavior. The ARFIMA model results support the existence of long memory for BUX, SAX and BELEX. The predictable behavior of index returns may suggest that the CEE and Balkans stock markets are not weak form efficient.

  2. Estimating Ancestral Ranges: Testing Methods with a Clade of Neotropical Lizards (Iguania: Liolaemidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Gómez, Juan Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Establishing the ancestral ranges of distribution of a monophyletic clade, called the ancestral area, is one of the central objectives of historical biogeography. In this study, I used three common methodologies to establish the ancestral area of an important clade of Neotropical lizards, the family Liolaemidae. The methods used were: Fitch optimization, Weighted Ancestral Area Analysis and Dispersal-Vicariance Analysis (DIVA). A main difference from previous studies is that the areas used in the analysis are defined based on actual distributions of the species of Liolaemidae, instead of areas defined arbitrarilyor based on other taxa. The ancestral area of Liolaemidae found by Fitch optimization is Prepuna on Argentina, Central Chile and Coastal Peru. Weighted Ancestral Area Analysis found Central Chile, Coquimbo, Payunia, Austral Patagonia and Coastal Peru. Dispersal-Vicariance analysis found an ancestral area that includes almost all the areas occupied by Liolaemidae, except Atacama, Coquimbo and Austral Patagonia. The results can be resumed on two opposing hypothesis: a restricted ancestral area for the ancestor of Liolaemidae in Central Chile and Patagonia, or a widespread ancestor distributed along the Andes. Some limitations of the methods were identified, for example the excessive importance of plesiomorphic areas in the cladograms. PMID:22028873

  3. Computer-Based Internet-Hosted Assessment of L2 Literacy: Computerizing and Administering of the Oxford Quick Placement Test in ExamView and Moodle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurant, Robert C.

    Sorting of Korean English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) university students by Second Language (L2) aptitude allocates students to classes of compatible ability level, and was here used to screen candidates for interview. Paper-and-pen versions of the Oxford Quick Placement Test were adapted to computer-based testing via online hosting using FSCreations ExamView. Problems with their online hosting site led to conversion to the popular computer-based learning management system Moodle, hosted on www.ninehub.com. 317 sophomores were tested online to encourage L2 digital literacy. Strategies for effective hybrid implementation of Learning Management Systems in L2 tertiary education include computer-based Internet-hosted L2 aptitude tests. These potentially provide a convenient measure of student progress in developing L2 fluency, and offer a more objective and relevant means of teacher- and course-assessment than student evaluations, which tend to confuse entertainment value and teacher popularity with academic credibility and pedagogical effectiveness.

  4. Immigrant self-employment : testing hypotheses about the role of origin- and host country human capital and bonding and bridging social capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanas, A.M.; Tubergen, F.A. van; Lippe, T. van der

    2009-01-01

    Using large-scale data on immigrants in the Netherlands, the authors tested competing arguments about the role of origin- and host-country human capital and bonding and bridging social capital in immigrants’ self-employment. When taking job-skill level into account, immigrants with a higher level of

  5. Immigrant self-employment : testing hypotheses about the role of origin- and host country human capital and bonding and bridging social capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanas, A.M.; Tubergen, F.A. van; Lippe, T. van der

    2009-01-01

    Using large-scale data on immigrants in the Netherlands, the authors tested competing arguments about the role of origin- and host-country human capital and bonding and bridging social capital in immigrants’ self-employment. When taking job-skill level into account, immigrants with a higher level of

  6. Immigrant self-employment: Testing hypotheses about the role of origin- and host-country human capital and bonding and bridging social capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanas, A.M.; Tubergen, F.A. van; Lippe, A.G. van der

    2009-01-01

    Using large-scale data on immigrants in the Netherlands, the authors tested competing arguments about the role of origin- and host-country human capital and bonding and bridging social capital in immigrants' self-employment. When taking job-skill level into account, immigrants with a higher level of

  7. Differential validity for cognitive ability tests in employment and educational settings: not much more than range restriction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Philip L; Le, Huy; Oh, In-Sue; Van Iddekinge, Chad H; Buster, Maury A; Robbins, Steve B; Campion, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    The concept of differential validity suggests that cognitive ability tests are associated with varying levels of validity across ethnic groups, such that validity is lower in certain ethnic subgroups than in others. A recent meta-analysis has revived the viability of this concept. Unfortunately, data were not available in this meta-analysis to correct for range restriction within ethnic groups. We reviewed the differential validity literature and conducted 4 studies. In Study 1, we empirically demonstrated that using a cognitive ability test with a common cutoff decreases variance in test scores of Black subgroup samples more than in White samples. In Study 2, we developed a simulation that examined the effects of range restriction on estimates of differential validity. Results demonstrated that different levels of range restriction for subgroups can explain the apparent observed differential validity results in employment and educational settings (but not military settings) when no differential validity exists in the population. In Study 3, we conducted a simulation in which we examined how one corrects for range restriction affects the accuracy of these corrections. Results suggest that the correction approach using a common range restriction ratio for various subgroups may create or perpetuate the illusion of differential validity and that corrections are most accurate when done within each subgroup. Finally, in Study 4, we conducted a simulation in which we assumed differential validity in the population. We found that range restriction artificially increased the size of observed differential validity estimates when the validity of cognitive ability tests was assumed to be higher among Whites. Overall, we suggest that the concept of differential validity may be largely artifactual and current data are not definitive enough to suggest such effects exist.

  8. System for performing site characterization for test ranges containing unexploded ordnance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, H. Edward; Crane, Carl D., III

    1996-05-01

    Wright Laboratory has been tasked by the Naval Explosive Ordnance Technical Division to develop robotic platforms to perform characterization of areas set aside for ordnance testing. These areas require the identification and removal of the unexploded ordnance before they can be utilized for safe, productive use. The characterization task is performed by autonomously sweeping a designated area with the autonomous tow vehicle (ATV). The ATV tows the multiple sensor platform containing a magnetometer array and a ground penetrating radar. The ATV provides the time and position stamp for sensor data. Analysts then review the post survey sensor data to determine ordnance position. The ATV makes use of several advanced technologies. A hybrid navigation and guidance system using an external Kalman filter delivers vehicle position based on information from a real time centimeter level differential global positioning system and a strapped down laser gyro inertial navigation system. A vision-based obstacle avoidance system helps to account for unknown obstacles during survey. Sophisticated path planning algorithms, and an intelligent software architecture for planning and behavior provide a measure of autonomy. A data collection system controls the functions of the various sensors used for the characterization process and manipulates the data stream to conform to an open ASCII data format and stores it to rugged removable hard disks for later analysis.

  9. Bayesian estimation of sensitivity and specificity of the modified agglutination test and bioassay for detection of Toxoplasma gondii in free-range chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii infects virtually all warm-blooded animals worldwide. Serological tests, including the modified agglutination test (MAT), are often used to determine exposure to the parasite. The MAT can be used for all hosts because it does not need species-specific reagents and has been shown to...

  10. A test of the nest sanitation hypothesis for the evolution of foreign egg rejection in an avian brood parasite rejecter host species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luro, Alec B.; Hauber, Mark E.

    2017-04-01

    Hosts of avian brood parasites have evolved diverse defenses to avoid the costs associated with raising brood parasite nestlings. In egg ejection, the host recognizes and removes foreign eggs laid in its nest. Nest sanitation, a behavior similar in motor pattern to egg ejection, has been proposed repeatedly as a potential pre-adaptation to egg ejection. Here, we separately placed blue 3D-printed, brown-headed cowbird ( Molothrus ater) eggs known to elicit interindividual variation in ejection responses and semi-natural leaves into American robins' ( Turdus migratorius) nests to test proximate predictions that (1) rejecter hosts should sanitize debris from nests more frequently and consistently than accepter hosts and (2) hosts that sanitize their nests of debris prior to the presentation of a foreign egg will be more likely to eject the foreign egg. Egg ejection responses were highly repeatable within individuals yet variable between them, but were not influenced by prior exposure to debris, nor related to sanitation tendencies as a whole, because nearly all individuals sanitized their nests. Additionally, we collected published data for eight different host species to test for a potential positive correlation between sanitation and egg ejection. We found no significant correlation between nest sanitation and egg ejection rates; however, our comparative analysis was limited to a sample size of 8, and we advise that more data from additional species are necessary to properly address interspecific tests of the pre-adaptation hypothesis. In lack of support for the nest sanitation hypothesis, our study suggests that, within individuals, foreign egg ejection is distinct from nest sanitation tendencies, and sanitation and foreign egg ejection may not correlate across species.

  11. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 407: Roller Coaster RADSAFE Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. M. Fitzmaurice

    2000-05-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) has been prepared for the Roller Coaster RADSAFE Area Corrective Action Unit 407 in accordance with the Federal Facility and Consent Order (Nevada Division of Environmental Protection [NDEP] et al., 1996). This CAP provides the methodology for implementing the approved Corrective Action Alternative as listed in the Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, 1999). The RCRSA was used during May and June of 1963 to decontaminate vehicles, equipment, and personnel from the Clean Slate tests. The Constituents of Concern (COCs) identified during the site characterization include plutonium, uranium, and americium. No other COCS were identified. The following closure actions will be implemented under this plan: (1) Remove and dispose of surface soils which are over three times background for the area. Soils identified for removal will be disposed of at an approved disposal facility. Excavated areas will be backfilled with clean borrow soil fi-om a nearby location. (2) An engineered cover will be constructed over the waste disposal pit area where subsurface COCS will remain. (3) Upon completion of the closure and approval of the Closure Report by NDEP, administrative controls, use restrictions, and site postings will be used to prevent intrusive activities at the site. Barbed wire fencing will be installed along the perimeter of this unit. Post closure monitoring will consist of site inspections to determine the condition of the engineered cover. Any identified maintenance and repair requirements will be remedied within 90 working days of discovery and documented in writing at the time of repair. Results of all inspections/repairs for a given year will be addressed in a single report submitted annually to the NDEP.

  12. Complete Genome Sequences of Broad-Host-Range Pseudomonas aeruginosa Bacteriophages ΦR18 and ΦS12-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusawa, Takaaki; Iwano, Hidetomo; Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Usui, Masaru; Maruyama, Fumito; Nakagawa, Ichiro; Yokota, Hiroshi; Tamura, Yutaka

    2016-05-05

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important cause of racehorse keratitis. Bacteriophage therapy has the potential to aid in the prevention and treatment of diseases caused by P. aeruginosa We present here the complete genome sequences of two phages, ΦR18 and ΦS12-1, which exhibit infectivity for a broad range of P. aeruginosa isolates.

  13. Microbial rock inhabitants survive hypervelocity impacts on Mars-like host planets: first phase of lithopanspermia experimentally tested.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneck, Gerda; Stöffler, Dieter; Ott, Sieglinde; Hornemann, Ulrich; Cockell, Charles S; Moeller, Ralf; Meyer, Cornelia; de Vera, Jean-Pierre; Fritz, Jörg; Schade, Sara; Artemieva, Natalia A

    2008-02-01

    The scenario of lithopanspermia describes the viable transport of microorganisms via meteorites. To test the first step of lithopanspermia, i.e., the impact ejection from a planet, systematic shock recovery experiments within a pressure range observed in martian meteorites (5-50 GPa) were performed with dry layers of microorganisms (spores of Bacillus subtilis, cells of the endolithic cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis, and thalli and ascocarps of the lichen Xanthoria elegans) sandwiched between gabbro discs (martian analogue rock). Actual shock pressures were determined by refractive index measurements and Raman spectroscopy, and shock temperature profiles were calculated. Pressure-effect curves were constructed for survival of B. subtilis spores and Chroococcidiopsis cells from the number of colony-forming units, and for vitality of the photobiont and mycobiont of Xanthoria elegans from confocal laser scanning microscopy after live/dead staining (FUN-I). A vital launch window for the transport of rock-colonizing microorganisms from a Mars-like planet was inferred, which encompasses shock pressures in the range of 5 to about 40 GPa for the bacterial endospores and the lichens, and a more limited shock pressure range for the cyanobacterium (from 5-10 GPa). The results support concepts of viable impact ejections from Mars-like planets and the possibility of reseeding early Earth after asteroid cataclysms.

  14. Multi-locus genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in captive Asiatic black bears in southwestern China: High genetic diversity, broad host range, and zoonotic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xuefeng; Song, Yuan; Wang, Wuyou; Huang, Xiangming; Liu, Xuehan; Hu, Yanchun; Fu, Hualin; He, Min; Wang, Ya; Zhang, Yue; Wu, Kongju; Peng, Guangneng

    2017-01-01

    Enterocytozoon bieneusi is an obligate eukaryotic intracellular parasite that infects a wide variety of vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. Although considerable research has been conducted on this organism, relatively little information is available on the occurrence of E. bieneusi in captive Asiatic black bears. The present study was performed to determine the prevalence, genetic diversity, and zoonotic potential of E. bieneusi in captive Asiatic black bears in zoos in southwestern China. Fecal specimens from Asiatic black bears in four zoos, located in four different cities, were collected and analyzed for the prevalence of E. bieneusi. The average prevalence of E. bieneusi was 27.4% (29/106), with the highest prevalence in Guiyang Zoo (36.4%, 16/44). Altogether, five genotypes of E. bieneusi were identified among the 29 E. bieneusi-positive samples, including three known genotypes (CHB1, SC02, and horse2) and two novel genotypes named ABB1 and ABB2. Multi-locus sequence typing using three microsatellites (MS1, MS3, and MS7) and one minisatellite (MS4) revealed V, III, V, and IV genotypes at these four loci, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the genotypes SC02 and ABB2 were clustered into group 1 of zoonotic potential, the genotypes CHB1 and ABB1 were clustered into a new group, and the genotype horse2 was clustered into group 6 of unclear zoonotic potential. In conclusion, this study identified two novel E. bieneusi genotypes in captive Asiatic black bears, and used microsatellite and minisatellite markers to reveal E. bieneusi genetic diversity. Moreover, our findings show that genotypes SC02 (identified in humans) and ABB2 belong to group 1 with zoonotic potential, suggesting the risk of transmission of E. bieneusi from Asiatic black bears to humans and other animals. PMID:28182656

  15. Estimating Premorbid Functioning in Huntington's Disease: The Relationship between Disease Progression and the Wide Range Achievement Test Reading Subtest

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Justin J.F.; Adams, William H.; Duff, Kevin; Byars, Joanne; Nopoulos, Peg; Paulsen, Jane S.; Beglinger, Leigh J.

    2011-01-01

    The estimation of premorbid abilities is an essential part of a neuropsychological evaluation, especially in neurodegenerative conditions. Although word pronunciation tests are one standard method for estimating the premorbid level, research suggests that these tests may not be valid in neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, the current study sought to examine two estimates of premorbid intellect, the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT) Reading subtest and the Barona formula, in 93 patients with mild to moderate Huntington's disease (HD) to determine their utility and to investigate how these measures relate to signs and symptoms of disease progression. In 89% of participants, WRAT estimates were below the Barona estimates. WRAT estimates were related to worsening memory and motor functioning, whereas the Barona estimates had weaker relationships. Neither estimate was related to depression or functional capacity. Irregular word reading tests appear to decline with HD progression, whereas estimation methods based on demographic factors may be more robust but overestimate premorbid functioning. PMID:21147861

  16. Radiochemical data collected on events from which radioactivity escaped beyond the borders of the Nevada test range complex. [NONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, H.G.

    1981-02-12

    This report identifies all nuclear events in Nevada that are known to have sent radioactivity beyond the borders of the test range complex. There have been 177 such tests, representing seven different types: nuclear detonations in the atmosphere, nuclear excavation events, nuclear safety events, underground nuclear events that inadvertently seeped or vented to the atmosphere, dispersion of plutonium and/or uranium by chemical high explosives, nuclear rocket engine tests, and nuclear ramjet engine tests. The source term for each of these events is given, together with the data base from which it was derived (except where the data are classified). The computer programs used for organizing and processing the data base and calculating radionuclide production are described and included, together with the input and output data and details of the calculations. This is the basic formation needed to make computer modeling studies of the fallout from any of these 177 events.

  17. Phase 1 Environmental Baseline Survey for the Leasing of Nevada Test and Training Range, EC-South Range, Well Site ER-EC-11, for the Underground Test Area Pahute Mesa Phase 2 Drilling and Testing Program Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    radioactive sites. The FFACO serves as the fundamental clean-up agreement for the execution of the NNSA/NSO Environmental Restoration Project (ERP...m (1,477 ft). Groundwater chemistry at the subject property and adjacent NTS ranges from a sodium-potassium-bicarbonate type to a calcium-magnesium...ID: 110007979697 PONOERQSA DAIRY ICP: NVA000041 I n!a n!a TOWNSHIP 17 S RANGE 49 E SECTION 9, 10& 15 [ AMARGOSA VAl. LEY. NV 89020 ICP

  18. Pedestrian headform testing: inferring performance at impact speeds and for headform masses not tested, and estimating average performance in a range of real-world conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, T Paul; Anderson, Robert W G; Searson, Daniel J

    2012-01-01

    Tests are routinely conducted where instrumented headforms are projected at the fronts of cars to assess pedestrian safety. Better information would be obtained by accounting for performance over the range of expected impact conditions in the field. Moreover, methods will be required to integrate the assessment of secondary safety performance with primary safety systems that reduce the speeds of impacts. Thus, we discuss how to estimate performance over a range of impact conditions from performance in one test and how this information can be combined with information on the probability of different impact speeds to provide a balanced assessment of pedestrian safety. Theoretical consideration is given to 2 distinct aspects to impact safety performance: the test impact severity (measured by the head injury criterion, HIC) at a speed at which a structure does not bottom out and the speed at which bottoming out occurs. Further considerations are given to an injury risk function, the distribution of impact speeds likely in the field, and the effect of primary safety systems on impact speeds. These are used to calculate curves that estimate injuriousness for combinations of test HIC, bottoming out speed, and alternative distributions of impact speeds. The injuriousness of a structure that may be struck by the head of a pedestrian depends not only on the result of the impact test but also the bottoming out speed and the distribution of impact speeds. Example calculations indicate that the relationship between the test HIC and injuriousness extends over a larger range than is presently used by the European New Car Assessment Programme (Euro NCAP), that bottoming out at speeds only slightly higher than the test speed can significantly increase the injuriousness of an impact location and that effective primary safety systems that reduce impact speeds significantly modify the relationship between the test HIC and injuriousness. Present testing regimes do not take fully into

  19. Can you hear me now? Range-testing a submerged passive acoustic receiver array in a Caribbean coral reef habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, Thomas H.; Hart, Kristen M.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Smith, Brian J.; Pollock, Clayton J; Hillis-Star, Zandy M; Lundgren, Ian; Oli, Madan K.

    2016-01-01

    Submerged passive acoustic technology allows researchers to investigate spatial and temporal movement patterns of many marine and freshwater species. The technology uses receivers to detect and record acoustic transmissions emitted from tags attached to an individual. Acoustic signal strength naturally attenuates over distance, but numerous environmental variables also affect the probability a tag is detected. Knowledge of receiver range is crucial for designing acoustic arrays and analyzing telemetry data. Here, we present a method for testing a relatively large-scale receiver array in a dynamic Caribbean coastal environment intended for long-term monitoring of multiple species. The U.S. Geological Survey and several academic institutions in collaboration with resource management at Buck Island Reef National Monument (BIRNM), off the coast of St. Croix, recently deployed a 52 passive acoustic receiver array. We targeted 19 array-representative receivers for range-testing by submersing fixed delay interval range-testing tags at various distance intervals in each cardinal direction from a receiver for a minimum of an hour. Using a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM), we estimated the probability of detection across the array and assessed the effect of water depth, habitat, wind, temperature, and time of day on the probability of detection. The predicted probability of detection across the entire array at 100 m distance from a receiver was 58.2% (95% CI: 44.0–73.0%) and dropped to 26.0% (95% CI: 11.4–39.3%) 200 m from a receiver indicating a somewhat constrained effective detection range. Detection probability varied across habitat classes with the greatest effective detection range occurring in homogenous sand substrate and the smallest in high rugosity reef. Predicted probability of detection across BIRNM highlights potential gaps in coverage using the current array as well as limitations of passive acoustic technology within a complex coral reef

  20. 40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C of... - Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specification C Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53 Protection of... Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Table C-1 Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Concentration Ranges... 0.25 to 0.35 2 2 .03 Total 7 8 Effective Date Note: At 75 FR 35601, June 22, 2010, table C-1 to...

  1. Production of test gases in the ppb range for round-robin tests and quality assurance measures during the measurement of VOCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Andreas; Breuer, Dietmar

    2008-12-01

    Workers exposed to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) very often suffer damage to health, and VOC odours may also represent a serious nuisance. The compounds concerned may be numerous and highly diverse; the concentrations of the individual substances however are generally relatively low. Quality assurance measures such as round-robin tests for the measurement of VOCs in indoor areas or at workplaces have not so far been available. A particular reason for this is the challenge presented by the production of test gases in the necessary concentrations. The BGIA test gas facility has therefore been modified for the production of test gases in the microg/m(3) range. A two-stage primary gas purifier, a continuous test gas generator with multi-stage dilution, a capillary evaporator for low-volatility compounds and an online thermodesorber have been installed specifically for this purpose.Purification of the primary gas proved to be particularly difficult: the available pre-purified compressed air contained organic trace impurities which fluctuated over time. The essential requirement, i.e. the injection into the test gas stream of a primary gas which was constant over time and exhibited the lowest possible contamination, could be satisfied only by catalytic decomposition of the organic residual impurities and with a supplementary adsorber unit. Even with these measures in place, small quantities of organic substances remain present, and the blank readings must still be monitored continuously. Following completion of all modifications, it proved possible to produce test gases with a high degree of reproducibility with substance concentrations in the range of 1 to 500 microg/m(3).Since 2007, the BGIA has been offering round-robin tests for VOCs with local sampling in the range from 5 to 50 microg/m(3). The first round-robin tests show that good results are obtained at concentrations from 10 to 50 microg/m(3). At the lower concentration of round-robin tests also involved the

  2. Why does Rhinopithecus bieti prefer the highest elevation range in winter? A test of the sunshine hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Chang Quan

    Full Text Available Environmental factors that affect spatiotemporal distribution patterns of animals usually include resource availability, temperature, and the risk of predation. However, they do not explain the counterintuitive preference of high elevation range in winter by the black-and-white snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus bieti. We asked whether variation of sunshine along with elevations is the key driving force. To test this hypothesis, we conducted field surveys to demonstrate that there was a statistically significant pattern of high elevation use during winter. We then asked whether this pattern can be explained by certain environmental factors, namely temperature, sunshine duration and solar radiation. Finally, we concluded with a possible ecological mechanism for this pattern. In this study, we employed GIS technology to quantify solar radiation and sunshine duration across the monkey's range. Our results showed that: 1 R. bieti used the high altitude range between 4100-4400 m in winter although the yearly home range spanned from 3500-4500 m; 2 both solar radiation and sunshine duration increased with elevation while temperature decreased with elevation; 3 within the winter range, the use of range was significantly correlated with solar radiation and sunshine duration; 4 monkeys moved to the areas with high solar radiation and duration following a snowfall, where the snow melts faster and food is exposed earlier. We concluded that sunshine was the main factor that influences selection of high elevation habitat for R. bieti in winter. Since some other endotherms in the area exhibit similar winter distributional patterns, we developed a sunshine hypothesis to explain this phenomenon. In addition, our work also represented a new method of integrating GIS models into traditional field ecology research to study spatiotemporal distribution pattern of wildlife. We suggest that further theoretical and empirical studies are necessary for better understanding

  3. Dissection of tumour and host cells from target organs of metastasis for testing gene expression directly ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, M.; Hexel, K.; Bucur, M.; Schirrmacher, V.; Umansky, V.

    1996-01-01

    We report on a new methodology which allows the direct analysis ex vivo of tumour cells and host cells (lymphocytes, macrophages, endothelial cells) from a metastasised organ (liver or spleen) at any time point during the metastatic process and without any further in vitro culture. First, we used a tumour cell line transduced with the bacterial gene lacZ, which permits the detection of the procaryotic enzyme beta-galactosidase in eukaryotic cells at the single cell level thus allowing flow adhesion cell sorting (FACS) analysis of tumour cells from metastasised target organs. Second, we established a method for the separation and enrichment of tumour and host cells from target organs of metastasis with a high viability and reproducibility. As exemplified with the murine lymphoma ESb, this new methodology permits the study of molecules of importance for metastasis or anti-tumour immunity (adhesion, costimulatory and cytotoxic molecules, cytokines, etc.) at the RNA or protein level in tumour and host cells during the whole process of metastasis. This novel approach may open new possibilities of developing strategies for intervention in tumour progression, since it allows the determination of the optimal window in time for successful treatments. The possibility of direct analysis of tumour and host cell properties also provides a new method for the evaluation of the effects of immunisation with tumour vaccines or of gene therapy. Images Figure 3 PMID:8883407

  4. Common garden test of range limits as predicted by a species distribution model in the annual plant Mimulus bicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Andrea L; Busch, Jeremiah W

    2017-06-01

    Direct tests of a species distribution model (SDM) were used to evaluate the hypothesis that the northern and southern edges of Mimulus bicolor's geographical range are limited by temperature and precipitation. Climatic suitability was predicted using an SDM informed only by temperature and precipitation variables. These predictions were tested by growing plants in growth chambers with temperature and watering treatments informed by weather stations characteristic of environments at the geographic center, edges, and outside the range. An Aster analysis was used to assess whether treatments significantly affected lifetime flower production and to test for local adaptation. The relationship between climatic suitability and lifetime flower number in the growth chambers was also evaluated. The temperature and watering treatments significantly affected lifetime flower number, although local adaptation was not detected. Flower production was significantly lower under the two edge treatments compared to the central treatment. While no flowers were produced under the beyond-south treatments, flower production was greatest under the beyond-north treatment. These results suggest a hard abiotic limit at the southern edge, and suitable temperature and precipitation conditions beyond the northern edge. While predicted climatic suitability was significantly lower at the range edges, there was no correlation between the climatic suitability of the weather stations' locations and flower production. These results suggest that temperature and precipitation play a significant role in defining the distribution of M. bicolor, but also indicate that dispersal limitation or metapopulation dynamics are likely important factors restricting access to habitable sites beyond the northern range limit. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  5. Genomic basis of broad host range and environmental adaptability of Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 and Rhizobium sp. PRF 81 which are used in inoculants for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ormeño-Orrillo Ernesto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 and Rhizobium sp. PRF 81 are α-Proteobacteria that establish nitrogen-fixing symbioses with a range of legume hosts. These strains are broadly used in commercial inoculants for application to common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris in South America and Africa. Both strains display intrinsic resistance to several abiotic stressful conditions such as low soil pH and high temperatures, which are common in tropical environments, and to several antimicrobials, including pesticides. The genetic determinants of these interesting characteristics remain largely unknown. Results Genome sequencing revealed that CIAT 899 and PRF 81 share a highly-conserved symbiotic plasmid (pSym that is present also in Rhizobium leucaenae CFN 299, a rhizobium displaying a similar host range. This pSym seems to have arisen by a co-integration event between two replicons. Remarkably, three distinct nodA genes were found in the pSym, a characteristic that may contribute to the broad host range of these rhizobia. Genes for biosynthesis and modulation of plant-hormone levels were also identified in the pSym. Analysis of genes involved in stress response showed that CIAT 899 and PRF 81 are well equipped to cope with low pH, high temperatures and also with oxidative and osmotic stresses. Interestingly, the genomes of CIAT 899 and PRF 81 had large numbers of genes encoding drug-efflux systems, which may explain their high resistance to antimicrobials. Genome analysis also revealed a wide array of traits that may allow these strains to be successful rhizosphere colonizers, including surface polysaccharides, uptake transporters and catabolic enzymes for nutrients, diverse iron-acquisition systems, cell wall-degrading enzymes, type I and IV pili, and novel T1SS and T5SS secreted adhesins. Conclusions Availability of the complete genome sequences of CIAT 899 and PRF 81 may be exploited in further efforts to understand the interaction of tropical

  6. A Proposal for a Genome Similarity-Based Taxonomy for Plant-Pathogenic Bacteria that Is Sufficiently Precise to Reflect Phylogeny, Host Range, and Outbreak Affiliation Applied to Pseudomonas syringae sensu lato as a Proof of Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinatzer, Boris A; Weisberg, Alexandra J; Monteil, Caroline L; Elmarakeby, Haitham A; Sheppard, Samuel K; Heath, Lenwood S

    2017-01-01

    Taxonomy of plant pathogenic bacteria is challenging because pathogens of different crops often belong to the same named species but current taxonomy does not provide names for bacteria below the subspecies level. The introduction of the host range-based pathovar system in the 1980s provided a temporary solution to this problem but has many limitations. The affordability of genome sequencing now provides the opportunity for developing a new genome-based taxonomic framework. We already proposed to name individual bacterial isolates based on pairwise genome similarity. Here, we expand on this idea and propose to use genome similarity-based codes, which we now call life identification numbers (LINs), to describe and name bacterial taxa. Using 93 genomes of Pseudomonas syringae sensu lato, LINs were compared with a P. syringae genome tree whereby the assigned LINs were found to be informative of a majority of phylogenetic relationships. LINs also reflected host range and outbreak association for strains of P. syringae pathovar actinidiae, a pathovar for which many genome sequences are available. We conclude that LINs could provide the basis for a new taxonomic framework to address the shortcomings of the current pathovar system and to complement the current taxonomic system of bacteria in general.

  7. Test of the Practicality and Feasibility of EDoF-Empowered Image Sensors for Long-Range Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Hsun Hsieh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available For many practical applications of image sensors, how to extend the depth-of-field (DoF is an important research topic; if successfully implemented, it could be beneficial in various applications, from photography to biometrics. In this work, we want to examine the feasibility and practicability of a well-known “extended DoF” (EDoF technique, or “wavefront coding,” by building real-time long-range iris recognition and performing large-scale iris recognition. The key to the success of long-range iris recognition includes long DoF and image quality invariance toward various object distance, which is strict and harsh enough to test the practicality and feasibility of EDoF-empowered image sensors. Besides image sensor modification, we also explored the possibility of varying enrollment/testing pairs. With 512 iris images from 32 Asian people as the database, 400-mm focal length and F/6.3 optics over 3 m working distance, our results prove that a sophisticated coding design scheme plus homogeneous enrollment/testing setups can effectively overcome the blurring caused by phase modulation and omit Wiener-based restoration. In our experiments, which are based on 3328 iris images in total, the EDoF factor can achieve a result 3.71 times better than the original system without a loss of recognition accuracy.

  8. Codivergence of mycoviruses with their hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Göker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The associations between pathogens and their hosts are complex and can result from any combination of evolutionary events such as codivergence, switching, and duplication of the pathogen. Mycoviruses are RNA viruses which infect fungi and for which natural vectors are so far unknown. Thus, lateral transfer might be improbable and codivergence their dominant mode of evolution. Accordingly, mycoviruses are a suitable target for statistical tests of virus-host codivergence, but inference of mycovirus phylogenies might be difficult because of low sequence similarity even within families. METHODOLOGY: We analyzed here the evolutionary dynamics of all mycovirus families by comparing virus and host phylogenies. Additionally, we assessed the sensitivity of the co-phylogenetic tests to the settings for inferring virus trees from their genome sequences and approximate, taxonomy-based host trees. CONCLUSIONS: While sequence alignment filtering modes affected branch support, the overall results of the co-phylogenetic tests were significantly influenced only by the number of viruses sampled per family. The trees of the two largest families, Partitiviridae and Totiviridae, were significantly more similar to those of their hosts than expected by chance, and most individual host-virus links had a significant positive impact on the global fit, indicating that codivergence is the dominant mode of virus diversification. However, in this regard mycoviruses did not differ from closely related viruses sampled from non-fungus hosts. The remaining virus families were either dominated by other evolutionary modes or lacked an apparent overall pattern. As this negative result might be caused by insufficient taxon sampling, the most parsimonious hypothesis still is that host-parasite evolution is basically the same in all mycovirus families. This is the first study of mycovirus-host codivergence, and the results shed light not only on how mycovirus biology

  9. Development and testing of a fast Fourier transform high dynamic-range spectral diagnostics for millimeter wave characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoen, D. J.; Bongers, W. A.; Westerhof, E.; Baar, M. R. de; Berg, M. A. van den; Beveren, V. van; Goede, A. P. H.; Graswinckel, M. F.; Schueller, F. C. [Association EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Oosterbeek, J. W.; Buerger, A. [Association EURATOM-FZJ, Institut fuer Energieforschung-Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GMBH, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Hennen, B. A. [Association EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Control Systems Technology Group, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, NL-5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2009-10-15

    A fast Fourier transform (FFT) based wide range millimeter wave diagnostics for spectral characterization of scattered millimeter waves in plasmas has been successfully brought into operation. The scattered millimeter waves are heterodyne downconverted and directly digitized using a fast analog-digital converter and a compact peripheral component interconnect computer. Frequency spectra are obtained by FFT in the time domain of the intermediate frequency signal. The scattered millimeter waves are generated during high power electron cyclotron resonance heating experiments on the TEXTOR tokamak and demonstrate the performance of the diagnostics and, in particular, the usability of direct digitizing and Fourier transformation of millimeter wave signals. The diagnostics is able to acquire 4 GHz wide spectra of signals in the range of 136-140 GHz. The rate of spectra is tunable and has been tested between 200 000 spectra/s with a frequency resolution of 100 MHz and 120 spectra/s with a frequency resolution of 25 kHz. The respective dynamic ranges are 52 and 88 dB. Major benefits of the new diagnostics are a tunable time and frequency resolution due to postdetection, near-real time processing of the acquired data. This diagnostics has a wider application in astrophysics, earth observation, plasma physics, and molecular spectroscopy for the detection and analysis of millimeter wave radiation, providing high-resolution spectra at high temporal resolution and large dynamic range.

  10. Cycle life testing and modeling of graphite/LiCoO2 cells under different state of charge ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Saurabh; Hendricks, Christopher; Pecht, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are used for energy storage in a wide array of applications, and do not always undergo full charge and discharge cycling. This study quantifies the effect of partial charge-discharge cycling on Li-ion battery capacity loss by means of cycling tests conducted on graphite/LiCoO2 pouch cells under different state of charge (SOC) ranges and discharge currents. The results are used to develop a model of capacity fade for batteries under full or partial cycling conditions. This study demonstrates that all of the variables studied including mean SOC, change in SOC (ΔSOC) and discharge rate have a significant impact on capacity loss rate during the cycling operation. This study is useful in identifying the SOC ranges with slow degradation rates.

  11. 靶场试验关键过程控制%Key Process Control for Range Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈冬科; 张迪

    2013-01-01

    Quality control of key process is important and difficult in the quality management system GJB9001B. Ac-cording to the problems in the key process of range test found in system internal audit and considering the actual situa-tion of range test, a practical method for interpreting key process definition and identification is proposed in this paper. Taking an acceptance trial for example, this study presents the operations for the key process, such as the identification, the list preparation and evaluation, and the control, in order to provide a reference for the quality control of range test.%  关键过程是 GJB9001B 质量管理体系的质量控制重点和难点,本文以体系内审中发现靶场试验关键过程存在的一些问题为契机,从靶场试验的实际特点出发,对解读关键过程定义以及关键过程识别方法等提出了具体且可操作的方法,并结合定型试验,给出了试验关键过程识别结果、关键过程明细表编制与评审、关键过程控制等具体操作过程,为靶场试验的质量控制提供参考。

  12. U.S. Department of Energy NESHAP Annual Report for CY 2014 Sandia National Laboratories Tonopah Test Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evelo, Stacie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, Mark L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) Annual Report has been prepared in a format to comply with the reporting requirements of 40 CFR 61.94 and the April 5, 1995 Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) between the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). According to the EPA approved NESHAP Monitoring Plan for the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), 40 CFR 61, subpart H, and the MOA, no additional monitoring or measurements are required at TTR in order to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP regulation.

  13. Calibration of the modulation transfer function of surface profilometers with binary pseudo-random test standards: expanding the application range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Anderson, Erik H.; Barber, Samuel K.; Bouet, Nathalie; Cambie, Rossana; Conley, Raymond; McKinney, Wayne R.; Takacs, Peter Z.; Voronov, Dmitriy L.

    2011-03-14

    A modulation transfer function (MTF) calibration method based on binary pseudo-random (BPR) gratings and arrays [Proc. SPIE 7077-7 (2007), Opt. Eng. 47, 073602 (2008)] has been proven to be an effective MTF calibration method for a number of interferometric microscopes and a scatterometer [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A616, 172 (2010)]. Here we report on a further expansion of the application range of the method. We describe the MTF calibration of a 6 inch phase shifting Fizeau interferometer. Beyond providing a direct measurement of the interferometer's MTF, tests with a BPR array surface have revealed an asymmetry in the instrument's data processing algorithm that fundamentally limits its bandwidth. Moreover, the tests have illustrated the effects of the instrument's detrending and filtering procedures on power spectral density measurements. The details of the development of a BPR test sample suitable for calibration of scanning and transmission electron microscopes are also presented. Such a test sample is realized as a multilayer structure with the layer thicknesses of two materials corresponding to BPR sequence. The investigations confirm the universal character of the method that makes it applicable to a large variety of metrology instrumentation with spatial wavelength bandwidths from a few nanometers to hundreds of millimeters.

  14. Comparison between precipitin and ELISA tests in the bloodmeal detection of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus and Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz mosquitoes experimentally fed on feline, canine and human hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana AM Gomes

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The identification of arthropod bloodmeals is important in many epidemiological studies, as, the understanding of the life cycle of vectors and the patogens they transmit, as well as helping to define arthropods' control strategies. The precipitin test has been used for decades, but ELISA is slowly becoming more popular. To compare the two tests for sensitivity, specificity and accuracy to detect small insect bloodmeals, Aedes aegypti or Ae. fluviatilis mosquitoes were fed either on feline, canine or human hosts. Mosquitoes were frozen at 6, 12, 24, 48 or 72 h after feeding. Precipitin test showed better specificity and accuracy and ELISA test showed higher sensitivity. Better results with both tests were achieved when mosquitoes were frozen within 48 h from feeding.

  15. Analytical performances of d-ROMs test and BAP test in canine plasma. Definition of the normal range in healthy Labrador dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquini, A; Luchetti, E; Marchetti, V; Cardini, G; Iorio, E L

    2008-02-01

    An high level of ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species), due to an increased production of oxidant species and/or a decreased efficacy of antioxidant system, can lead to oxidative stress, an emerging health risk factor involved in the aging and in many diseases, including inflammatory, infectious and degenerative disorders, either in humans or in animals. In the last years some assays panels have been developed to globally evaluate the oxidative balance by means of the concomitant assessment of ROS production and antioxidant system capability. In this report, the validation trials of d-ROMs (Reactive Oxygen Metabolites- derived compounds) and BAP (Biological Antioxidant Potential) tests in canine specie are described and also the specific referral ranges are calculated in a Labrador population. The results of linearity, precision and accuracy trials show that both tests exhibit good to excellent analytical performances. The possibility of measuring oxidative stress in vivo with simple, cheap and accurate tests, d-ROMs test and BAP test, provides for the veterinarians a very suitable tool to monitor oxidative stress and to correctly choice of eventual antioxidant supplementations in diseases proven related to oxidative stress in animals and particularly in dogs. Further studies will be useful to confirm this possibility.

  16. Phylogenetic signal in the community structure of host-specific microbiomes of tropical marine sponges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cole G Easson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Sponges (Porifera can host diverse and abundant communities of microbial symbionts that make crucial contributions to host metabolism. Although these communities are often host-specific and hypothesized to co-evolve with their hosts, correlations between host phylogeny and microbiome community structure are rarely tested. As part of the Earth Microbiome Project, we surveyed the microbiomes associated with 20 species of tropical marine sponges collected over a narrow geographic range. We tested whether (1 univariate metrics of microbiome diversity displayed significant phylogenetic signal across the host phylogeny; (2 host identity and host phylogeny were significant factors in multivariate analyses of taxonomic and phylogenetic dissimilarity; and (3 different minimum read thresholds impacted these results. We observed significant differences in univariate metrics of diversity among host species for all read thresholds, with strong phylogenetic signal in the inverse Simpson’s index of diversity (D. We observed a surprisingly wide range of variability in community dissimilarity within host species (4% to 73%; this variability was not related to microbial abundance within a host species. Taxonomic and phylogenetic dissimilarity were significantly impacted by host identity and host phylogeny when these factors were considered individually; when tested together, the effect of host phylogeny was reduced, but remained significant. In our dataset, this outcome is largely due to closely related host sponges harboring distinct microbial taxa. Although the identity of specific microbial taxa varied substantially among host sponges, closely related hosts tended to harbor microbial communities with similar patterns of relative abundance. We hypothesize that microbiomes with low D might be structured by regulation of the microbial community by the host or by the presence of competitively dominant symbionts that are themselves under selection for host

  17. Validity and test-retest reliability of manual goniometers for measuring passive hip range of motion in femoroacetabular impingement patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nussbaumer Silvio

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of this study were to evaluate the construct validity (known group, concurrent validity (criterion based and test-retest (intra-rater reliability of manual goniometers to measure passive hip range of motion (ROM in femoroacetabular impingement patients and healthy controls. Methods Passive hip flexion, abduction, adduction, internal and external rotation ROMs were simultaneously measured with a conventional goniometer and an electromagnetic tracking system (ETS on two different testing sessions. A total of 15 patients and 15 sex- and age-matched healthy controls participated in the study. Results The goniometer provided greater hip ROM values compared to the ETS (range 2.0-18.9 degrees; P P Conclusions The present study suggests that goniometer-based assessments considerably overestimate hip joint ROM by measuring intersegmental angles (e.g., thigh flexion on trunk for hip flexion rather than true hip ROM. It is likely that uncontrolled pelvic rotation and tilt due to difficulties in placing the goniometer properly and in performing the anatomically correct ROM contribute to the overrating of the arc of these motions. Nevertheless, conventional manual goniometers can be used with confidence for longitudinal assessments in the clinic.

  18. Corrective action plan for CAU No. 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) provides the selected corrective action alternative and proposes the closure implementation methodology for the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 404. The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range. CAU 404 consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CAS): the Roller Coaster Lagoons (CAS No TA-03-001-TA-RC) and the North Disposal Trench (CAS No TA-21-001-TA-RC). A site map of the lagoons and trench is provided. The Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons are comprised of two unlined lagoons that received liquid sanitary waste in 1963 from the Operation Roller Coaster Man Camp and debris from subsequent construction and range cleanup activities. The North Disposal Trench was excavated in approximately 1963 and received solid waste and debris from the man camp and subsequent construction and range cleanup activities. A small hydrocarbon spill occurred during the 1995 Voluntary Corrective Action (VCA) activities in an area associated with the North Disposal Trench CAS.

  19. Field test of a paradigm: hysteresis of heart rate in thermoregulation by a free-ranging lizard (Pogona barbata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigg, G C; Seebacher, F

    1999-06-22

    The discovery that changes in heart rate and blood flow allow some reptiles to heat faster than they cool has become a central paradigm in our understanding of reptilian thermoregulation. However, this hysteresis in heart rate has been demonstrated only in simplistic laboratory heating and cooling trials, leaving its functional significance in free-ranging animals unproven. To test the validity of this paradigm, we measured heart rate and body temperature (Tb) in undisturbed, free-ranging bearded dragons (Pogona barbata), the species in which this phenomenon was first described. Our field data confirmed the paradigm and we found that heart rate during heating usually exceeded heart rate during cooling at any Tb. Importantly, however, we discovered that heart rate was proportionally faster in cool lizards whose Tb was still well below the 'preferred Tb range' compared to lizards whose Tb was already close to it. Similarly, heart rate during cooling was proportionally slower the warmer the lizard and the greater its cooling potential compared to lizards whose Tb was already near minimum operative temperature. Further, we predicted that, if heart rate hysteresis has functional significance, a 'reverse hysteresis' pattern should be observable when lizards risked overheating. This was indeed the case and, during heating on those occasions when Tb reached very high levels (> 40 degrees C), heart rate was significantly lower than heart rate during the immediately following cooling phase. These results demonstrate that physiological control of thermoregulation in reptiles is more complex than has been previously recognized.

  20. Host Range and Banana Variety Resistance to Bacterial Soft Rot Pathogens%香蕉细菌性软腐病菌的寄主范围及香蕉品种的抗性测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁月; 陈雪凤; 李华平; 梁家杰; 刘琼光

    2013-01-01

    以分离获得的3个香蕉细菌性软腐病菌为接种菌株,采用针刺和注射等接种方法进行了香蕉细菌性软腐病菌寄主范围的鉴定,并对香蕉不同品种的抗性进行了测定.结果表明,在供试的15科22种植物中有21种植物可以被病原菌侵染而发病,表明该病原菌寄主范围广泛.对我国普遍栽种的7个香蕉品种的抗性测定结果表明,不同香蕉品种抗性存在差异,其中皇帝蕉为高抗品种;农科1号、大蕉和巴西蕉为中抗品种;而金粉、广粉和威廉斯B6为中感品种.%Banana soft rot, a serious disease caused by Dickeya sp., was found in Guangdong and Hainan provinces. The host range of banana soft rot pathogens in China and the disease resistance of different banana varieties were not reported. Three isolates of banana soft rot pathogens and 22 species of plants from 15 families were investigated for pathogen-host range by using artificial inoculation methods. The results indicated that three isolates had a wide host range. In addition, seven banana varieties, which widely grew in China, were used to identify the resistance to banana soft rot. The results showed that Musa AA Pisang Mas had a high resistance; Musa AAA Cavendish cv. Brazil, Musa AAA Cavendish cv. Nongke No. 1, and Musa ABB Pisang had a moderate resistance; Musa ABB Pisang Awak cv. Jinfen, Musa AAA Cavendish cv. Williams, Musa ABB Pisang Awak cv. Guangfen were moderately susceptible.

  1. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 412: Clean Slate I Plutonium Dispersion (TTR) Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick [Navarro, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-08-22

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the clean closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 412: Clean Slate I Plutonium Dispersion (TTR), located on the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. CAU 412 consists of a release of radionuclides to the surrounding soil from a storage–transportation test conducted on May 25, 1963. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed in April and May 2015, as set forth in the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 412: Clean Slate I Plutonium Dispersion (TTR), Tonopah Test Range, Nevada; and in accordance with the Soils Activity Quality Assurance Plan. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the data quality objectives process. The CAU 412 dataset of investigation results was evaluated based on a data quality assessment. This assessment demonstrated the dataset is complete and acceptable for use in fulfilling the data needs identified by the data quality objectives process. This CR provides documentation and justification for the clean closure of CAU 412 under the FFACO without further corrective action. This justification is based on historical knowledge of the site, previous site investigations, implementation of the 1997 interim corrective action, and the results of the CAI. The corrective action of clean closure was confirmed as appropriate for closure of CAU 412 based on achievement of the following closure objectives: Radiological contamination at the site is less than the final action level using the ground troops exposure scenario (i.e., the radiological dose is less than the final action level): Removable alpha contamination is less than the high contamination area criterion: No potential source material is present at the site, and any impacted soil associated with potential source material has been removed so that remaining soil contains contaminants at concentrations less than the final action levels: and There is

  2. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 412: Clean Slate I Plutonium Dispersion (TTR) Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick [Navarro, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the clean closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 412: Clean Slate I Plutonium Dispersion (TTR), located on the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. CAU 412 consists of a release of radionuclides to the surrounding soil from a storage–transportation test conducted on May 25, 1963. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed in April and May 2015, as set forth in the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 412: Clean Slate I Plutonium Dispersion (TTR), Tonopah Test Range, Nevada; and in accordance with the Soils Activity Quality Assurance Plan. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the data quality objectives process. The CAU 412 dataset of investigation results was evaluated based on a data quality assessment. This assessment demonstrated the dataset is complete and acceptable for use in fulfilling the data needs identified by the data quality objectives process. This CR provides documentation and justification for the clean closure of CAU 412 under the FFACO without further corrective action. This justification is based on historical knowledge of the site, previous site investigations, implementation of the 1997 interim corrective action, and the results of the CAI. The corrective action of clean closure was confirmed as appropriate for closure of CAU 412 based on achievement of the following closure objectives: • Radiological contamination at the site is less than the final action level using the ground troops exposure scenario (i.e., the radiological dose is less than the final action level). • Removable alpha contamination is less than the high contamination area criterion. • No potential source material is present at the site, and any impacted soil associated with potential source material has been removed so that remaining soil contains contaminants at concentrations less than the final action levels.

  3. Testing for bias in a sentinel species: contaminants in free-ranging domestic, wild, and hybrid mink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Jeff; Kidd, Anne G; Martin, Pamela A; McDaniel, Tana V; Nituch, Larissa A; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I

    2012-01-01

    Sentinel species are important tools for studies of biodiversity and environmental health. The American mink (Neovison vison) has long been considered a sentinel of environmental contamination, since the species is known to be sensitive to a number of common contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and mercury. Mink may not always satisfy an important criterion of sentinels however--that they are continuous residents of the environment being sampled. This is because domestic mink commonly escape from farms, and can be confused with wild mink in areas where mink ranching is prevalent, biasing estimates of environmental contamination taken from free-ranging mink samples. We tested for bias in a sample of free-ranging mink from Ontario, Canada, where both genetic ancestry (domestic, wild, and domestic-wild hybrid) and contaminant burdens (PCBs and mercury) were known. Of 133 mink sampled for both contaminants and genetic ancestry, 9% were determined to be domestic and 10.5% hybrid animals. We found that including domestic and hybrid mink in our analysis resulted in overestimating mean PCB burdens in wild mink by 27%, and underestimating mercury by 13%. We also investigated morphological methods to aid in excluding domestic mink from free-ranging mink samples and found that we had the highest classification success using skull size (condylobasal length), which was 15% and 12% greater in male and female domestic than wild mink, respectively. Given the potential use of mink as sentinels, and also the potential for bias, we recommend that researchers take steps to exclude domestic mink from free-ranging mink samples in studies of environmental health.

  4. Host range, symbiotic effectiveness and nodulation competitiveness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-17

    Apr 17, 2008 ... were surface sterilized according to the method described by. Somasegaran ... ton and Dilworth nitrogen-free nutrient solution (Broughton and. Dilworth ..... the plants and for the use of the experimental facility. ... characteristics, uses and nodulation. ... USG Publishers and distribution, Ludhiana. pp 120-125.

  5. Chemical analyses of soil samples collected from the Sandia National Laboratories/NM, Tonopah Test Range environs, 1994-2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deola, Regina Anne; Oldewage, Hans D.; Herrera, Heidi M.; Miller, Mark Laverne

    2006-05-01

    From 1994 through 2005, the Environmental Management Department of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), NV, has collected soil samples at numerous locations on-site, on the perimeter, and off-site for the purpose of determining potential impacts to the environs from operations at TTR. These samples were submitted to an analytical laboratory of metal-in-soil analyses. Intercomparisons of these results were then made to determine if there was any statistical difference between on-site, perimeter, and off-site samples, or if there were increasing or decreasing trends which indicated that further investigation may be warranted. This work provided the SNL Environmental Management Department with a sound baseline data reference against which to compare future operational impacts. In addition, it demonstrates the commitment that the Laboratories have to go beyond mere compliance to achieve excellence in its operations. This data is presented in graphical format with narrative commentaries on particular items of interest.

  6. Short-range test of the universality of gravitational constant G at the millimeter scale using a digital image sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, K.; Akiyama, T.; Hata, M.; Hatori, M.; Iguri, T.; Ikeda, Y.; Inaba, S.; Kawamura, H.; Kishi, R.; Murakami, H.; Nakaya, Y.; Nishio, H.; Ogawa, N.; Onishi, J.; Saiba, S.; Sakuta, T.; Tanaka, S.; Tanuma, R.; Totsuka, Y.; Tsutsui, R.; Watanabe, K.; Murata, J.

    2017-09-01

    The composition dependence of gravitational constant G is measured at the millimeter scale to test the weak equivalence principle, which may be violated at short range through new Yukawa interactions such as the dilaton exchange force. A torsion balance on a turning table with two identical tungsten targets surrounded by two different attractor materials (copper and aluminum) is used to measure gravitational torque by means of digital measurements of a position sensor. Values of the ratios \\tilde{G}_Al-W/\\tilde{G}_Cu-W -1 and \\tilde{G}_Cu-W/GN -1 were (0.9 +/- 1.1sta +/- 4.8sys) × 10-2 and (0.2 +/- 0.9sta +/- 2.1sys) × 10-2 , respectively; these were obtained at a center to center separation of 1.7 cm and surface to surface separation of 4.5 mm between target and attractor, which is consistent with the universality of G. A weak equivalence principle (WEP) violation parameter of η_Al-Cu(r∼ 1 cm)=(0.9 +/- 1.1sta +/- 4.9sys) × 10-2 at the shortest range of around 1 cm was also obtained.

  7. Corrective action decision document second gas station, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (Corrective Action Unit No. 403). Revision No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) for Second Gas Station has been developed for the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Nevada Environmental Restoration Project to meet the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 as stated in Appendix VI, {open_quotes}Corrective Action Strategy{close_quotes}. The Second Gas Station Corrective Action Site (CAS) No. 03-02-004-03 is the only CAS in CAU No. 403. The Second Gas Station CAS is located within Area 3 of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), west of the Main Road at the location of former Underground Storage Tanks (USTs) and their associated fuel dispensary stations. The TTR is approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air and approximately 56 km (3 5 mi) southeast of Tonopah, Nevada, by road. The TTR is bordered on the south, east, and west by the Nellis Air Force Range and on the north by sparsely populated public land administered by the Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Forest Service.

  8. Using ATCOM to enhance long-range imagery collected by NASA's flight test tracking cameras at Armstrong Flight Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolini, Aaron; Tow, David; Kelmelis, Eric

    2014-06-01

    Located at Edwards Air Force Base, Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) is NASA's premier site for aeronautical research and operates some of the most advanced aircraft in the world. As such, flight tests for advanced manned and unmanned aircraft are regularly performed there. All such tests are tracked through advanced electro-optic imaging systems to monitor the flight status in real-time and to archive the data for later analysis. This necessitates the collection of imagery from long-range camera systems of fast moving targets from a significant distance away. Such imagery is severely degraded due to the atmospheric turbulence between the camera and the object of interest. The result is imagery that becomes blurred and suffers a substantial reduction in contrast, causing significant detail in the video to be lost. In this paper, we discuss the image processing techniques located in the ATCOM software, which uses a multi-frame method to compensate for the distortions caused by the turbulence.

  9. Quality of Education Predicts Performance on the Wide Range Achievement Test-4th Edition Word Reading Subtest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayegh, Philip; Arentoft, Alyssa; Thaler, Nicholas S.; Dean, Andy C.; Thames, April D.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined whether self-rated education quality predicts Wide Range Achievement Test-4th Edition (WRAT-4) Word Reading subtest and neurocognitive performance, and aimed to establish this subtest's construct validity as an educational quality measure. In a community-based adult sample (N = 106), we tested whether education quality both increased the prediction of Word Reading scores beyond demographic variables and predicted global neurocognitive functioning after adjusting for WRAT-4. As expected, race/ethnicity and education predicted WRAT-4 reading performance. Hierarchical regression revealed that when including education quality, the amount of WRAT-4's explained variance increased significantly, with race/ethnicity and both education quality and years as significant predictors. Finally, WRAT-4 scores, but not education quality, predicted neurocognitive performance. Results support WRAT-4 Word Reading as a valid proxy measure for education quality and a key predictor of neurocognitive performance. Future research should examine these findings in larger, more diverse samples to determine their robust nature. PMID:25404004

  10. First tests of twisted-pair HTS 1 kA range cables for use in superconducting links

    CERN Document Server

    Ballarino, A; Hurte, J; Sitko, M; Willering, G

    2011-01-01

    The requirement at CERN for 1 kA range High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cables optimized for long electrical transfer has led to the design and assembly of a novel type of cable that can be made from pre-reacted MgB2, Bi-2223 or YBCO tapes. The cable consists of an assembly of twisted pairs, each of which is made from three superconducting tapes with the required copper stabilizer. The twisted pair cable is designed to transfer a DC current of ± 600 A in helium gas environment. The paper reports on the results of the electrical tests performed on twisted-pair cables of identical structure and made from commercially available MgB2, Bi-2223 and YBCO tapes. The twist pitch of the cables is adapted to match the mechanical properties of the different superconductors. Critical current tests were performed at both liquid helium and liquid nitrogen temperature. The electrical performance of several cables made from different conductors is reported and compared.

  11. 46 CFR 57.04-1 - Test specimen requirements and definition of ranges (modifies QW 202, QW 210, QW 451, and QB 202).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Test specimen requirements and definition of ranges (modifies QW 202, QW 210, QW 451, and QB 202). 57.04-1 Section 57.04-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING WELDING AND BRAZING Procedure Qualification Range § 57.04-1 Test specimen requirements...

  12. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 408: Bomblet Target Area Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Krauss

    2010-09-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 408: Bomblet Target Area (TTR), Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. Corrective Action Unit 408 is located at the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, and consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) TA-55-002-TAB2, Bomblet Target Areas. This CAS includes the following seven target areas: • Mid Target • Flightline Bomblet Location • Strategic Air Command (SAC) Target Location 1 • SAC Target Location 2 • South Antelope Lake • Tomahawk Location 1 • Tomahawk Location 2 The purpose of this CR is to provide documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and data confirming that the closure objectives for the CAS within CAU 408 were met. To achieve this, the following actions were performed: • Review the current site conditions, including the concentration and extent of contamination. • Implement any corrective actions necessary to protect human health and the environment. • Properly dispose of corrective action and investigation wastes. • Document Notice of Completion and closure of CAU 408 issued by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. From July 2009 through August 2010, closure activities were performed as set forth in the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for CAU 408: Bomblet Target Area, Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. The purposes of the activities as defined during the data quality objectives process were as follows: • Identify and remove munitions of explosive concern (MEC) associated with DOE activities. • Investigate potential disposal pit locations. • Remove depleted uranium-contaminated fragments and soil. • Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are

  13. Testing the Climate Sensitivity of Mountain Hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana (Bong.) Carr.) Near the Southern Limit of Its Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, S.; St George, S.

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates the climate sensitivity of mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana (Bong.) Carr.) near the southern limit of its range, tests the stability of its climate-tree relations over the last few decades, and explores its potential as a hydroclimatic proxy for Crater Lake National Park. We collected tree cores at seven locations around the caldera rim, focusing on hemlock growing at higher elevations (2000-2400 masl). The median length of all ring-width series is 283 years, and the oldest hemlock sample extends back to C.E. 1450. Several types of anatomical anomalies, including frost rings, traumatic resin ducts, false rings, and light late-wood bands were observed within the specimens, the most common feature being a false ring in C.E. 1810. Each set of standardized ring-width measurements has a strong common signal, with between-tree correlations (r-bar) ranging from 0.31 to 0.49. Preliminary analysis suggests hemlock growth across the park is strongly and inversely related to total cool-season precipitation, and is also influenced positively (albeit more weakly) by mean summer temperature. Most sites are significantly and negatively correlated with total December-to-February precipitation (r = -0.41) and total precipitation from December to August (r = -0.48). Compared to other ring-width records exhibiting similar negative responses to winter precipitation, these hemlocks appear to track that specific signal quite clearly and, as a result, these data may be suitable to reconstruct past changes in cool-season moisture in Crater Lake National Park and across the broader southern Cascades.

  14. Globular clusters as tracers of the host galaxy mass distribution: the Fornax dSph test case

    CERN Document Server

    Arca-Sedda, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    The Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy is the most massive satellites of the Milky Way, claimed to be embedded in a huge dark matter halo, and the only among the Milky Way satellites hosting five globular clusters. Interestingly, their estimated masses, ages and positions seem hardly compatible with the presence of a significant dark matter component, as expected in the $\\Lambda$ CDM scheme. Indeed, if Fornax would have a CDM halo with a standard density profile, all its globular clusters should have sunk to the galactic centre many Gyr ago due to dynamical friction. Due to this, some authors proposed that the most massive clusters may have formed out of Fornax and later tidally captured. In this paper we investigate the past evolution of the Fornax GC system by using both a recently developed, semi-analytical treatment of dynamical friction and direct $N$-body simulations of the orbital evolution of the globular clusters within Fornax and of Fornax galaxy around the Milky Way. Our results suggest that an "in-sit...

  15. Design of a Kaplan turbine for a wide range of operating head -Curved draft tube design and model test verification-

    Science.gov (United States)

    KO, Pohan; MATSUMOTO, Kiyoshi; OHTAKE, Norio; DING, Hua

    2016-11-01

    As for turbomachine off-design performance improvement is challenging but critical for maximising the performing area. In this paper, a curved draft tube for a medium head Kaplan type hydro turbine is introduced and discussed for its significant effect on expanding operating head range. Without adding any extra structure and working fluid for swirl destruction and damping, a carefully designed outline shape of draft tube with the selected placement of center-piers successfully supresses the growth of turbulence eddy and the transport of the swirl to the outlet. Also, more kinetic energy is recovered and the head lost is improved. Finally, the model test results are also presented. The obvious performance improvement was found in the lower net head area, where the maximum efficiency improvement was measured up to 20% without compromising the best efficiency point. Additionally, this design results in a new draft tube more compact in size and so leads to better construction and manufacturing cost performance for prototype. The draft tube geometry parameter designing process was concerning the best efficiency point together with the off-design points covering various water net heads and discharges. The hydraulic performance and flow behavior was numerically previewed and visualized by solving Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations with Shear Stress Transport turbulence model. The simulation was under the assumption of steady-state incompressible turbulence flow inside the flow passage, and the inlet boundary condition was the carefully simulated flow pattern from the runner outlet. For confirmation, the corresponding turbine efficiency performance of the entire operating area was verified by model test.

  16. Development and Short-Range Testing of a 100 kW Side-Illuminated Millimeter-Wave Thermal Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruccoleri, Alexander; Eilers, James A.; Lambot, Thomas; Parkin, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the phase described here of the Millimeter-Wave Thermal Launch System (MTLS) Project was to launch a small thermal rocket into the air using millimeter waves. The preliminary results of the first MTLS flight vehicle launches are presented in this work. The design and construction of a small thermal rocket with a planar ceramic heat exchanger mounted along the axis of the rocket is described. The heat exchanger was illuminated from the side by a millimeter-wave beam and fed propellant from above via a small tank containing high pressure argon or nitrogen. Short-range tests where the rocket was launched, tracked, and heated with the beam are described. The rockets were approximately 1.5 meters in length and 65 millimeters in diameter, with a liftoff mass of 1.8 kilograms. The rocket airframes were coated in aluminum and had a parachute recovery system activated via a timer and Pyrodex. At the rocket heat exchanger, the beam distance was 40 meters with a peak power intensity of 77 watts per square centimeter. and a total power of 32 kilowatts in a 30 centimeter diameter circle. An altitude of approximately 10 meters was achieved. Recommendations for improvements are discussed.

  17. Globular clusters as tracers of the host galaxy mass distribution: the Fornax dSph test case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arca-Sedda, M.; Capuzzo-Dolcetta, R.

    2016-10-01

    The Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy is the most massive satellites of the Milky Way, claimed to be embedded in a huge dark matter halo, and the only among the Milky Way satellites hosting five globular clusters. Interestingly, their estimated masses, ages and positions seem hardly compatible with the presence of a significant dark matter component, as expected in the ΛCDM scheme. Indeed, if Fornax would have a CDM halo with a standard density profile, all its globular clusters should have sunk to the galactic centre many Gyr ago due to dynamical friction. Due to this, some authors proposed that the most massive clusters may have formed out of Fornax and later tidally captured. In this paper, we investigate the past evolution of the Fornax GC system by using both a recently developed, semi-analytical treatment of dynamical friction and direct N-body simulations of the orbital evolution of the globular clusters within Fornax and of Fornax galaxy around the Milky Way. Our results suggest that an `in situ' origin for all the clusters is likely if their observed positions are close to their spatial ones and their orbits are almost circular. Moreover, the Milky Way seems to accelerate the GC decay reducing the decay time of 15 per cent. Nevertheless, our results indicate that the GCs survival probability exceeds 50 per cent, even in the case of cuspy density profiles. We conclude that more detailed data are required to shed light on the Fornax dark matter content, to distinguish between a cuspy or a cored profile.

  18. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 409: Other Waste Sites, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (Rev. 0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    2000-10-05

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 409 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 409 consists of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs): TA-53-001-TAB2, Septic Sludge Disposal Pit No.1; TA-53-002-TAB2, Septic Sludge Disposal Pit No.2; and RG-24-001-RGCR, Battery Dump Site. The Septic Sludge Disposal Pits are located near Bunker Two, close to Area 3, on the Tonopah Test Range. The Battery Dump Site is located at the abandoned Cactus Repeater Station on Cactus Peak. The Cactus Repeater Station was a remote, battery-powered, signal repeater station. The two Septic Sludge Disposal Pits were suspected to be used through the late 1980s as disposal sites for sludge from septic tanks located in Area 3. Based on site history collected to support the Data Quality Objectives process, contaminants of potential concern are the same for the disposal pits and include: volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) as gasoline- and diesel-range organics, polychlorinated biphenyls, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, and radionuclides (including plutonium and depleted uranium). The Battery Dump Site consists of discarded lead-acid batteries and associated construction debris, placing the site in a Housekeeping Category and, consequently, no contaminants are expected to be encountered during the cleanup process. The corrective action the at this CAU will include collection of discarded batteries and construction debris at the Battery Dump Site for proper disposal and recycling, along with photographic documentation as the process progresses. The corrective action for the remaining CASs involves the collection of background radiological data through borings drilled

  19. Gramíneas hospedeiras de Xanthomonas sp., agente causal da falsa estria vermelha da cana-de-açúcar Host range of Xanthomonas sp., causal agent of the false red stripe of sugarcane, among grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Spindola Mantovani

    2006-06-01

    from any other sugarcane disease already described. It is distributed throughout the main sugarcane areas of the Center-South of Brazil but has not been reported in the Northeast and North of Brazil or any other country. The present work determined the host range of the FRS bacterium among grasses crops and weeds, through artificial inoculation by injection and spraying of bacterial suspension. From the 31 different species inoculated with the FRS bacterium, only sorghum, maize and oat expressed symptoms 15 days after inoculation. Sorghum presented coalescent red stripes at the injection point. Under and above the injection point, at the adaxial face of the leaves, bacterial exudates were observed on the narrow red stripes (1 mm. The symptoms in sorghum were very similar to those observed in sugarcane; however, no yellowish flex were observed on the stripes. Maize plants presented a generalized discoloration of tissues near the inoculation point and the appearance long chlorotic stripes with 2-3 mm, but no bacterial exudation. Only oat plants expressed symptoms after inoculation by spraying. The FRS bacterium was recovered by re-isolation from the symptomatic leaves of sorghum, maize and oat and its identity was confirmed by serological and Rep-PCR tests. A survey of sorghum, maize and oat fields should be carried out in order to determine whether or not the FRS bacterium can infect these crops naturally.

  20. 2016 Annual Site Environmental report Sandia National Laboratories Tonopah Test Range Nevada & Kaua'i Test Facility Hawai'i.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salas, Angela Maria [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Griffith, Stacy R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology & Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) under contract DE-NA0003525. The DOE/NNSA Sandia Field Office administers the contract and oversees contractor operations at the SNL, Tonopah Test Range (SNL/TTR) in Nevada and the SNL, Kaua‘i Test Facility (SNL/KTF) in Hawai‘i. SNL personnel manage and conduct operations at SNL/TTR in support of the DOE/NNSA’s Weapons Ordnance Program and have operated the site since 1957. Navarro Research and Engineering personnel perform most of the environmental programs activities at SNL/TTR. The DOE/NNSA/Nevada Field Office retains responsibility for cleanup and management of SNL/TTR Environmental Restoration sites. SNL personnel operate SNL/KTF as a rocket preparation launching and tracking facility. This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) summarizes data and the compliance status of sustainability, environmental protection, and monitoring programs at SNL/TTR and SNL/KTF during calendar year 2016. Major environmental programs include air quality, water quality, groundwater protection, terrestrial and biological surveillance, waste management, pollution prevention, environmental restoration, oil and chemical spill prevention, and implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act. This ASER is prepared in accordance with and as required by DOE O 231.1B, Admin Change 1, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting.

  1. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 428: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5 Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. S. Tobiason

    2000-08-01

    Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5 are located in Area 3 of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) (Figure 1). The site is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 428 and includes Corrective Action Sites 03-05-002-SW01 (Septic Waste System 1 [SWS 1]), and 03-05-002-SW05 (Septic Waste System 5 [SWS 5]). The site history for the CAU is provided in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV], 1999). SWS 1 consists of two leachfields and associated septic tanks. SWS 1 received effluent from both sanitary and industrial sources from various buildings in Area 3 of the TTR (Figure 2). SWS 5 is comprised of one leachfield and outfall with an associated septic tank. SWS 5 received effluent from sources in Building 03-50 in Area 3 of the TTR (Figure 2). Both systems were active until 1990 when a consolidated sewer system was installed. The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to provide the strategy and methodology to close the Area 3 SWS 1 and 5. The CAU will be closed following state and federal regulations and the FFACO (1996). Site characterization was done during May and June 1999. Samples of the tank contents, leachfield soil, and soil under the tanks and pipes were collected. The results of the characterization were reported in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (DOE/NV, 2000). Additional sampling was done in May 2000, the results of which are presented in this plan. Soil sample results indicated that two constituents of concern were detected above Preliminary Action Levels (PALs). Total arsenic was detected at a concentration of 68.7 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg). The arsenic was found under the center distribution line at the proximal end of the SWS 5 Leachfield (Figure 3). Total benzo(a)pyrene was detected at a concentration of 480 micrograms per kilogram ({micro}g/kg). The benzo(a)pyrene was found in the soil under the

  2. Long-range tropospheric transport of uranium and plutonium weapons fallout from Semipalatinsk nuclear test site to Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Cato Christian; Fifield, L Keith; Oughton, Deborah H; Lind, Ole Christian; Skipperud, Lindis; Bartnicki, Jerzy; Tims, Stephen G; Høibråten, Steinar; Salbu, Brit

    2013-09-01

    A combination of state-of-the-art isotopic fingerprinting techniques and atmospheric transport modelling using real-time historical meteorological data has been used to demonstrate direct tropospheric transport of radioactive debris from specific nuclear detonations at the Semipalatinsk test site in Kazakhstan to Norway via large areas of Europe. A selection of archived air filters collected at ground level at 9 stations in Norway during the most intensive atmospheric nuclear weapon testing periods (1957-1958 and 1961-1962) has been screened for radioactive particles and analysed with respect to the concentrations and atom ratios of plutonium (Pu) and uranium (U) using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Digital autoradiography screening demonstrated the presence of radioactive particles in the filters. Concentrations of (236)U (0.17-23nBqm(-3)) and (239+240)Pu (1.3-782μBqm(-3)) as well as the atom ratios (240)Pu/(239)Pu (0.0517-0.237) and (236)U/(239)Pu (0.0188-0.7) varied widely indicating several different sources. Filter samples from autumn and winter tended to have lower atom ratios than those sampled in spring and summer, and this likely reflects a tropospheric influence in months with little stratospheric fallout. Very high (236)U, (239+240)Pu and gross beta activity concentrations as well as low (240)Pu/(239)Pu (0.0517-0.077), (241)Pu/(239)Pu (0.00025-0.00062) and (236)U/(239)Pu (0.0188-0.046) atom ratios, characteristic of close-in and tropospheric fallout, were observed in filters collected at all stations in Nov 1962, 7-12days after three low-yield detonations at Semipalatinsk (Kazakhstan). Atmospheric transport modelling (NOAA HYSPLIT_4) using real-time meteorological data confirmed that long range transport of radionuclides, and possibly radioactive particles, from Semipalatinsk to Norway during this period was plausible. The present work shows that direct tropospheric transport of fallout from atmospheric nuclear detonations periodically may have

  3. The Red Queen race between parasitic chytrids and their host, Planktothrix: a test using a time series reconstructed from sediment DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Kyle

    Full Text Available Parasitic chytrid fungi (phylum Chytridiomycota are known to infect specific phytoplankton, including the filamentous cyanobacterium Planktothrix. Subspecies, or chemotypes of Planktothrix can be identified by the presence of characteristic oligopeptides. Some of these oligopeptides can be associated with important health concerns due to their potential for toxin production. However, the relationship between chytrid parasite and Planktothrix host is not clearly understood and more research is needed. To test the parasite-host relationship over time, we used a sediment core extracted from a Norwegian lake known to contain both multiple Planktothrix chemotype hosts and their parasitic chytrid. Sediment DNA of chytrids and Planktothrix was amplified and a 35-year coexistence was found. It is important to understand how these two antagonistic species can coexistence in a lake. Reconstruction of the time series showed that between 1979-1990 at least 2 strains of Planktothrix were present and parasitic pressure exerted by chytrids was low. After this period one chemotype became dominant and yet showed continued low susceptibility to chytrid parasitism. Either environmental conditions or intrinsic characteristics of Planktothrix could have been responsible for this continued dominance. One possible explanation could be found in the shift of Planktothrix to the metalimnion, an environment that typically consists of low light and decreased temperatures. Planktothrix are capable of growth under these conditions while the chytrid parasites are constrained. Another potential explanation could be due to the differences between cellular oligopeptide variations found between Planktothrix chemotypes. These oligopeptides can function as defense systems against chytrids. Our findings suggest that chytrid driven diversity was not maintained over time, but that the combination of environmental constraints and multiple oligopeptide production to combat chytrids

  4. The Red Queen race between parasitic chytrids and their host, Planktothrix: a test using a time series reconstructed from sediment DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Marcia; Haande, Sigrid; Ostermaier, Veronika; Rohrlack, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic chytrid fungi (phylum Chytridiomycota) are known to infect specific phytoplankton, including the filamentous cyanobacterium Planktothrix. Subspecies, or chemotypes of Planktothrix can be identified by the presence of characteristic oligopeptides. Some of these oligopeptides can be associated with important health concerns due to their potential for toxin production. However, the relationship between chytrid parasite and Planktothrix host is not clearly understood and more research is needed. To test the parasite-host relationship over time, we used a sediment core extracted from a Norwegian lake known to contain both multiple Planktothrix chemotype hosts and their parasitic chytrid. Sediment DNA of chytrids and Planktothrix was amplified and a 35-year coexistence was found. It is important to understand how these two antagonistic species can coexistence in a lake. Reconstruction of the time series showed that between 1979-1990 at least 2 strains of Planktothrix were present and parasitic pressure exerted by chytrids was low. After this period one chemotype became dominant and yet showed continued low susceptibility to chytrid parasitism. Either environmental conditions or intrinsic characteristics of Planktothrix could have been responsible for this continued dominance. One possible explanation could be found in the shift of Planktothrix to the metalimnion, an environment that typically consists of low light and decreased temperatures. Planktothrix are capable of growth under these conditions while the chytrid parasites are constrained. Another potential explanation could be due to the differences between cellular oligopeptide variations found between Planktothrix chemotypes. These oligopeptides can function as defense systems against chytrids. Our findings suggest that chytrid driven diversity was not maintained over time, but that the combination of environmental constraints and multiple oligopeptide production to combat chytrids could have allowed one

  5. Design, Fabrication and Prototype testing of a Chip Integrated Micro PEM Fuel Cell Accumulator combined On-Board Range Extender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, A.; Mueller, C.; Reinecke, H.

    2014-11-01

    In this work we present the design, fabrication and prototype testing of Chip Integrated Micro PEM Fuel Cell Accumulator (CIμ-PFCA) combined On-Board Range Extender (O-BRE). CIμ-PFCA is silicon based micro-PEM fuel cell system with an integrated hydrogen storage feature (palladium metal hydride), the run time of CIμ-PFCA is dependent on the stored hydrogen, and in order to extend its run time an O-BRE is realized (catalytic hydrolysis of chemical hydride, NaBH4. Combining the CIμ-PFCA and O-BRE on a system level have few important design requirements to be considered; hydrogen regulation, gas -liquid separator between the CIμ-PFCA and the O-RE. The usage of traditional techniques to regulate hydrogen (tubes), gas-liquid phase membranes (porous membrane separators) are less desirable in the micro domain, due to its space constraint. Our approach is to use a passive hydrogen regulation and gas-liquid phase separation concept; to use palladium membrane. Palladium regulates hydrogen by concentration diffusion, and its property to selectively adsorb only hydrogen is used as a passive gas-liquid phase separator. Proof of concept is shown by realizing a prototype system. The system is an assembly of CIμ-PFCA, palladium membrane and the O-BRE. The CIμ-PFCA consist of 2 individually processed silicon chips, copper supported palladium membrane realized by electroplating followed by high temperature annealing process under inter atmosphere and the O-BRE is realized out of a polymer substrate by micromilling process with platinum coated structures, which functions as a catalyst for the hydrolysis of NaBH4. The functionality of the assembled prototype system is demonstrated by the measuring a unit cell (area 1 mm2) when driven by the catalytic hydrolysis of chemical hydride (NaBH4 and the prototype system shows run time more than 15 hours.

  6. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. For Calendar Year 2015, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick [Navarro, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Petrello, Jaclyn [Navarro, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This report provides the results of the annual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed corrective action units (CAUs) located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2015 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following CAUs; CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR); CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR); CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR); CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR); and CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR) Inspections were conducted according to the post-closure plans in the approved closure reports and subsequent correspondence with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. The post-closure inspection plans and subsequent correspondence modifying the requirements for each CAU are included in Appendix B. The inspection checklists are included in Appendix C. Field notes are included in Appendix D. The annual post-closure inspections were conducted on May 12, 2015. Maintenance was required at CAU 453. Cracking along the north trench was repaired. One monument is missing at CAU 424; it will be replaced in 2016. Postings at CAUs 407, 424, 453, and 487 contain contact information for TTR Security. It was noted that protocols may not be in place to ensure that the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) is notified if access is needed at these sites. NNSA/NFO is working with the U.S. Air Force and Sandia to determine whether more appropriate contact information or new protocols are warranted for each CAU. Based on these inspections, there has not been a significant change in vegetation, and vegetation monitoring was not recommended at CAU 400 or CAU 407 in 2015.

  7. Differences in inferred genome-wide signals of positive selection during the evolution of Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp. lineages: A result of disparities in host and tissue infection ranges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-López, Carlos A; Machado, Carlos A

    2015-07-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp. are kinetoplastids responsible for Chagas disease and Leishmaniasis, neglected tropical diseases for which there are no effective methods of control. These two human pathogens differ widely in the range of mammal species they can infect, their cell/tissue tropism and cell invasion mechanisms. Whether such major biological differences have had any impact on genome-wide patterns of genetic diversification in both pathogens has not been explored. The recent genome sequencing projects of medically important species of Leishmania and T. cruzi lineages provide unique resources for performing comparative evolutionary analyses to address that question. We show that inferred genome-wide signals of positive selection are higher in T. cruzi proteins than in Leishmania spp. proteins. We report significant differences in the fraction of protein-coding genes showing evidence of positive selection in the two groups of parasites, and also report that the intensity of positive selection and the proportion of sites under selection are higher in T. cruzi than in Leishmania spp. The pattern is unlikely to be the result of confounding factors like differences in GC content, average gene length or differences in reproductive mode between the two taxa. We propose that the greater versatility of T. cruzi in its host range, cell tropism and cell invasion mechanisms may explain the observed differences between the two groups of parasites. Genes showing evidence of positive selection within each taxonomic group may be under diversifying selection to evade the immune system and thus, depending on their functions, could represent viable candidates for the development of drugs or vaccines for these neglected human diseases.

  8. Identification of two lineages of host-associated eriophyoid mites predisposed to different levels of host diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao-Sen; Hoffmann, Ary A; Guo, Jing-Feng; Zuo, Yun; Xue, Xiao-Feng; Pang, Hong; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2016-12-01

    Herbivorous arthropods can diversify as a consequence of evolutionary changes in response to their plant hosts. Current patterns of host association of herbivores are likely to reflect a long evolutionary history of herbivore-plant co-evolution. Here, we used molecular phylogenetics to track the evolutionary history of host shifts and diversification of 66 eriophyoid mites (Acari, Eriophyoidea), and linked past patterns of evolutionary diversification to more recent patterns of divergence by tracking population genetic variation in 13 of the eriophyoid mite species feeding on different gymnosperm hosts. This allowed us to explore the relationship between a past history of diversification and the current potential of mites to undergo host range shifts. We found that population-level diversity across gymnosperm hosts as measured by 28S rRNA markers was greater in species from the mite clade that had radiated across evolutionary time to utilize a variety of hosts including angiosperms, compared to species from the clade that has remained restricted to ancestral gymnosperm hosts. Species from the radiated clade exhibited higher variation in host use. Lineages of mites that have in the past been able to radiate and adapt to diverse plants may therefore be predisposed to continue their expansion on new hosts, although additional clades need to be tested.

  9. Quality control ranges for testing broth microdilution susceptibility of Flavobacterium columnare and F. psychrophilium to nine antimicrobials

    Science.gov (United States)

    A multi-laboratory broth microdilution method trial was performed to standardize the specialized test conditions required for fish pathogens Flavobacterium columnare and F. pyschrophilum. Nine laboratories tested the quality control (QC) strains Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Aeromonas salmonicid...

  10. Mountain Pine Beetle Host Selection Between Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pines in the Southern Rocky Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Daniel R; Briggs, Jennifer S; Jacobi, William R; Negrón, José F

    2016-02-01

    Recent evidence of range expansion and host transition by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins; MPB) has suggested that MPB may not primarily breed in their natal host, but will switch hosts to an alternate tree species. As MPB populations expanded in lodgepole pine forests in the southern Rocky Mountains, we investigated the potential for movement into adjacent ponderosa pine forests. We conducted field and laboratory experiments to evaluate four aspects of MPB population dynamics and host selection behavior in the two hosts: emergence timing, sex ratios, host choice, and reproductive success. We found that peak MPB emergence from both hosts occurred simultaneously between late July and early August, and the sex ratio of emerging beetles did not differ between hosts. In two direct tests of MPB host selection, we identified a strong preference by MPB for ponderosa versus lodgepole pine. At field sites, we captured naturally emerging beetles from both natal hosts in choice arenas containing logs of both species. In the laboratory, we offered sections of bark and phloem from both species to individual insects in bioassays. In both tests, insects infested ponderosa over lodgepole pine at a ratio of almost 2:1, regardless of natal host species. Reproductive success (offspring/female) was similar in colonized logs of both hosts. Overall, our findings suggest that MPB may exhibit equally high rates of infestation and fecundity in an alternate host under favorable conditions.

  11. Hosts are ahead in a marine host-parasite coevolutionary arms race: innate immune system adaptation in pipefish Syngnathus typhle against Vibrio phylotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Olivia; Keller, Isabel; Landis, Susanne H; Salzburger, Walter; Reusch, Thorsten B H

    2012-08-01

    Microparasites have a higher evolutionary potential than their hosts due to an increased mutation rate and a shorter generation time that usually results in parasites being locally adapted to their sympatric hosts. This pattern may not apply to generalist pathogens as adaptation to sympatric host genotypes is disadvantageous due to a narrowing of the host range, in particular under strong gene flow among host populations. Under this scenario, we predict that the immune defense of hosts reveals adaptation to locally common pathogen phylotypes. This was tested in four host populations of the pipefish Syngnathus typhle and associated bacteria of the genus Vibrio. We investigated the population divergence among host and bacteria populations and verified that gene flow is higher among host populations than among parasite populations. Next, we experimentally assessed the strength of innate immune defense of pipefish hosts using in vitro assays that measured antimicrobial activity of blood plasma against sympatric and allopatric Vibrio phylotypes. Pipefish plasma displays stronger antimicrobial activity against sympatric Vibrio phylotypes compared to allopatric ones. This suggests that host defense is genetically adapted against local bacteria with a broad and unspecialized host spectrum, a situation that is typical for marine systems with weak host population structure.

  12. Development of a standardized susceptibility test for Campylobacter with quality control ranges for ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, erythromycin, gentamicin, and meropenem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McDermott, P. F.; Bodeis, S. M.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2004-01-01

    -control (QC) strain. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) QC ranges were determined for two incubation time/temperature combinations: 36degreesC for 48 hr and 42degreesC for 24 hr. Quality-control ranges were determined for ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, erythromycin, gentamicin, and meropenem. For all...

  13. Measured In Situ Atmospheric Ambient Aerosol Size-Distributions, Particle Concentrations, and Turbulence Data for RSA TA-6 Test Range, Redstone Arsenal, AL, April-May 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Concentrations, and Turbulence Data for RSA TA-6 Test Range, Redstone Arsenal , AL, April–May 2015 by Kristan Gurton, Stephanie Cunningham, and...Aerosol Size-Distributions, Particle Concentrations, and Turbulence Data for RSA TA-6 Test Range, Redstone Arsenal , AL, April–May 2015 by Kristan...Redstone Arsenal , AL Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. ii REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188

  14. Forced flow He vapor cooled critical current testing facility for measurements of superconductors in a wide temperature and magnetic field range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskys, Algirdas; Hopkins, Simon C.; Bader, Jakob; Glowacki, Bartek A.

    2016-10-01

    As superconducting materials find their way into applications, there is increasing need to verify their performance at operating conditions. Testing of critical current with respect to temperature and magnetic field is of particular importance. However, testing facilities covering a range of temperatures and magnetic fields can be costly, especially when considering the cooling power required in the cryogenic system in the temperature range below 65 K (inaccessible for LN2). Critical currents in excess of 500 A are common for commercial samples, making the testing of such samples difficult in setups cooled via a cryocooler, moreover it often does not represent the actual cooling conditions that the sample will experience in service. This work reports the design and operation of a low-cost critical current testing facility, capable of testing samples in a temperature range of 10-65 K, with magnetic field up to 1.6 T and measuring critical currents up to 900 A with variable cooling power.

  15. Cross-species infection trials reveal cryptic parasite varieties and a putative polymorphism shared among host species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luijckx, Pepijn; Duneau, David; Andras, Jason P; Ebert, Dieter

    2014-02-01

    A parasite's host range can have important consequences for ecological and evolutionary processes but can be difficult to infer. Successful infection depends on the outcome of multiple steps and only some steps of the infection process may be critical in determining a parasites host range. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the host range of the bacterium Pasteuria ramosa, a Daphnia parasite, and determined the parasites success in different stages of the infection process. Multiple genotypes of Daphnia pulex, Daphnia longispina and Daphnia magna were tested with four Pasteuria genotypes using infection trials and an assay that determines the ability of the parasite to attach to the hosts esophagus. We find that attachment is not specific to host species but is specific to host genotype. This may suggest that alleles on the locus controlling attachment are shared among different host species that diverged 100 million year. However, in our trials, Pasteuria was never able to reproduce in nonnative host species, suggesting that Pasteuria infecting different host species are different varieties, each with a narrow host range. Our approach highlights the explanatory power of dissecting the steps of the infection process and resolves potentially conflicting reports on parasite host ranges.

  16. Probe-hosted silicon photomultipliers for time-domain functional near-infrared spectroscopy: phantom and in vivo tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, Rebecca; Martinenghi, Edoardo; Mora, Alberto Dalla; Contini, Davide; Pifferi, Antonio; Torricelli, Alessandro

    2016-10-01

    We report the development of a compact probe for time-domain (TD) functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) based on a fast silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) that can be put directly in contact with the sample without the need of optical fibers for light collection. We directly integrated an avalanche signal amplification stage close to the SiPM, thus reducing the size of the detection channel and optimizing the signal immunity to electromagnetic interferences. The whole detection electronics was placed in a plastic screw holder compatible with the electroencephalography standard cap for measurement on brain or with custom probe holders. The SiPM is inserted into a transparent and insulating resin to avoid the direct contact of the scalp with the 100-V bias voltage. The probe was integrated in an instrument for TD fNIRS spectroscopy. The system was characterized on tissue phantoms in terms of temporal resolution, responsivity, linearity, and capability to detect deep absorption changes. Preliminary in vivo tests on adult volunteers were performed to monitor hemodynamic changes in the arm during a cuff occlusion and in the brain cortex during a motor task.

  17. Final Environmental Assessment for the Installation of New JDAM and High Fidelity Targets for the Nevada Test and Training Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-11-01

    mountains where pinyon collection was held in the fall, and along the bases of hills and mountains where food sources such as Yucca and Agave plants were...Antelope (Antilocapra Americana ), common coyote (Canis latrans), and kit fox (Vulpes macrotis) migrate through or forage in the proposed project area...Desert National Wildlife Range (Air Force 1981, USFWS 1998). Pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana ) winter range and/or breeding grounds are

  18. A ground-based magnetic survey of Frenchman Flat, Nevada National Security Site and Nevada Test and Training Range, Nevada: data release and preliminary interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Burton, Bethany L.; Curry-Elrod, Erika; Drellack, Sigmund

    2014-01-01

    The Nevada National Security Site (NNSS, formerly the Nevada Test Site) is located in southern Nevada approximately 105 kilometers (km) (65 miles) northwest of Las Vegas. Frenchman Flat is a sedimentary basin located on the eastern edge of NNSS and extending eastward into the adjacent Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR).

  19. The galectin-3-binding protein of Cynoglossus semilaevis is a secreted protein of the innate immune system that binds a wide range of bacteria and is involved in host phagocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Chi, Heng; Sun, Bo-guang; Sun, Li

    2013-04-01

    Galectin-3 binding protein (G3BP) is a secreted glycoprotein that binds galectin-3 and is involved in various pathological conditions including cancer and viral infection. In fish, G3BP-like sequences have been identified in very few species and their biological properties are entirely unknown. In this work, we reported for the first time the identification and analysis of a teleost G3BP, CsG3BP, from half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis). CsG3BP is composed of 565 amino acids and possesses a Scavenger Receptor Cysteine-rich (SRCR) domain, the latter containing six conserved cysteine residues that were predicted to form three intramolecular disulfide bridges. Expression of CsG3BP was detected in a wide range of tissues and upregulated by bacterial and megalocytivirus infection in a time-dependent manner. Immunoblot analysis detected CsG3BP in the culture medium of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and in serum following bacterial stimulation. Purified recombinant CsG3BP (rCsG3BP) exhibited bacterial binding ability in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, the mutant forms of CsG3BP that bear deletion of the SRCR domain or serine substitutions at three cysteine residues involved in disulfide bond formation lost the capacity of bacterial interaction. rCsG3BP displayed a certain substrate preference and bound more effectively to Gram-negative bacteria than to Gram-positive bacteria. Further study showed that when the CsG3BP produced by PBL was blocked by anti-rCsG3BP antibodies, the phagocytic activity of the cells was significantly reduced. Taken together, these results indicate that CsG3BP is a secreted protein that probably plays a role in innate immune defense by binding to bacterial cells via the SRCR domain and thereby facilitating host phagocytosis.

  20. Environmental Knowledge and Behavioural Outcomes of Tourism Students in Australia: Towards Testing a Range of Mediation and Moderated Mediation Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Johra Kayeser; Khan, Habib Zaman; Goh, Edmund

    2016-01-01

    Our study examines the environmental knowledge (EK) and behavioural outcomes of students studying ecotourism in Sydney, Australia. Three competing models were tested to examine the relationships between EK, participation intention (PI) in ecotourism programs, landscape likeability (LL) and social interactions (SI); and the study also tested the…

  1. Environmental Knowledge and Behavioural Outcomes of Tourism Students in Australia: Towards Testing a Range of Mediation and Moderated Mediation Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Johra Kayeser; Khan, Habib Zaman; Goh, Edmund

    2016-01-01

    Our study examines the environmental knowledge (EK) and behavioural outcomes of students studying ecotourism in Sydney, Australia. Three competing models were tested to examine the relationships between EK, participation intention (PI) in ecotourism programs, landscape likeability (LL) and social interactions (SI); and the study also tested the…

  2. Pepper weevil attraction to volatiles from host and nonhost plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addesso, Karla M; McAuslane, Heather J

    2009-02-01

    The location of wild and cultivated host plants by pepper weevil (Anthonomus eugenii Cano) may be aided by visual cues, the male-produced aggregation pheromone, herbivore-induced, or constitutive host plant volatiles. The attractiveness of constitutive plant volatiles to pioneer weevils is important in understanding, and perhaps controlling, dispersal of this insect between wild and cultivated hosts. Ten-day-old male and 2- and 10-day-old female weevils were tested in short-range Y-tube assays. Ten-day-old male and female weevils were attracted to the volatiles released by whole plants of three known oviposition hosts, 'Jalapeno' pepper, American black nightshade, and eggplant, as well as tomato, a congener, which supports feeding but not oviposition. Two-day-old females were attracted to all plants tested, including lima bean, an unrelated, nonhost plant. Fruit volatiles from all three hosts and flower volatiles from nightshade and eggplant were also attractive. In choice tests, weevils showed different preferences for the oviposition hosts, depending on age and sex. Upwind response of 10-day-old male and female weevils to host plant volatiles was also tested in long-range wind tunnel assays. Weevils responded to pepper, nightshade, and eggplant volatiles by moving upwind. There was no difference in the observed upwind response of the weevils to the three host plants under no-choice conditions. Reproductively mature pepper weevils can detect, orient to, and discriminate between the volatile plumes of host plants in the absence of visual cues, conspecific feeding damage, or the presence of their aggregation pheromone.

  3. Kinetic Testing of Nitrate-Based Sodalite Formation Over the Temperature Range of 40 to 100 Degrees Centigrade (Final Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattus, A.J.

    2001-09-07

    The focus of this study was the desilication kinetics of a Savannah River Site (SRS) tank farm 2H simulant over the temperature range of 40 to 100 C. Results showed that the formation of nitrate-nitrite-based sodalite over aluminum-to-silicon (Al:Si) molar ratios ranging from 1:1 to 20:1 exhibited overall-second order kinetics. The Arrhenius apparent activation energy associated with the crystal growth process of the sodalite was determined to be 35 kJ/mol over the temperature range investigated. Second-order rate constants were extrapolated to the 2H evaporator working temperature of {approx} 130 C and were found to be 0.012 L mol{sup -1} s{sup -1}. At this operating temperature, the half-life of a limiting reactant with a 0.1 M feed would be 14 min.

  4. Good test--retest reliability for standard and advanced false-belief tasks across a wide range of abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, C; Adlam, A; Happé, F; Jackson, J; Taylor, A; Caspi, A

    2000-05-01

    Although tests of young children's understanding of mind have had a remarkable impact upon developmental and clinical psychological research over the past 20 years, very little is known about their reliability. Indeed, the only existing study of test-retest reliability suggests unacceptably poor results for first-order false-belief tasks (Mayes, Klin, Tercyak, Cicchetti, & Cohen, 1996), although this may in part reflect the nonstandard (video-based) procedures adopted by these authors. The present study had four major aims. The first was to re-examine the reliability of false-belief tasks, using more standard (puppet and storybook) procedures. The second was to assess whether the test-retest reliability of false-belief task performance is equivalent for children of contrasting ability levels. The third aim was to explore whether adopting an aggregate approach improves the reliability with which children's early mental-state awareness can be measured. The fourth aim was to examine for the first time the test-retest reliability of children's performances on more advanced theory-of-mind tasks. Our results suggest that most standard and advanced false-belief tasks do in fact show good test-retest reliability and internal consistency, with very strong test-retest correlations between aggregate scores for children of all levels of ability.

  5. Development and testing of a fast Fourier transform high dynamic-range spectral diagnostics for millimeter wave characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoen, D. J.; Bongers, W. A.; Westerhof, E.; Oosterbeek, J. W.; M.R. de Baar,; van den Berg, M. A.; van Beveren, V.; Burger, A.; Goede, A. P. H.; Graswinckel, M. F.; Hennen, B.A.; Schüller, F. C.

    2009-01-01

    A fast Fourier transform (FFT) based wide range millimeter wave diagnostics for spectral characterization of scattered millimeter waves in plasmas has been successfully brought into operation. The scattered millimeter waves are heterodyne downconverted and directly digitized using a fast analog-digi

  6. An Analysis of Short- to Medium-Range Seismic Attenuation Tests Using a Multilayered Viscoelastic Seismic Propagation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-01

    based on available data. One was near the Oscuro gate in the northeast area of the US Army White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), New Mexico. ’The second...was near the Trinity site in the northwest area of WSMR. The Oscuro site was the most desirable because of low background noise. Dur- ing preliminary

  7. Range-wide determinants of plague distribution in North America.