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Sample records for host iron status

  1. Deferoxamine inhibition of malaria is independent of host iron status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershko, C.; Peto, T.E.

    1988-01-01

    The mechanism whereby deferoxamine (DF) inhibits the growth of malaria parasites was studied in rats infected with Plasmodium berghei. Peak parasitemia was 32.6% (day 14) in untreated controls and 0.15% (day 7) in rats receiving 0.33 mg/g in 8 hourly DF injections, subcutaneously. DF inhibition of parasite growth was achieved without any reduction in transferrin saturation or hemoglobin synthesis and with only a partial (56%) depletion of hepatic iron stores. Dietary iron depletion resulted in anemia (hematocrit 25 vs. 46%), microcytosis (MCV 54 vs. 60 fl), and reduced transferrin saturation (17 vs. 96%) without any effect on infection (peak parasitemia 30 vs. 36%). Similarly, parenteral iron loading with ferric citrate over 10 d (75 mg iron/kg) failed to aggravate infection. In a search for evidence of direct interaction between DF and parasitized erythrocytes, gel filtration and ultrafiltration was performed on hemolysates obtained from in vivo 59 Fe-labeled parasitized erythrocytes. This showed that 1.1-1.9% of the intracellular radioiron was located in a chelatable, labile iron pool. Incubation of intact cells with 0-500 microM DF resulted in a proportional increase in intracellular iron chelation, and the chelation of all available labile intracellular iron was completed within 6 h. These observations indicate that the severity of P. berghei infection in rats and its in vivo suppression by DF are independent of host iron status and suggest that DF inhibition of malaria involves intracellular chelation of a labile iron pool in parasitized erythrocytes

  2. Iron absorption in relation to iron status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, B.; Bjoern-Rasmussen, E.; Hallberg, L.; Rossander, L.

    1981-01-01

    The absorption from a 3 mg dose of ferrous iron was measured in 250 male subjects. The absorption was related to the log concentration of serum ferritin in 186 subjects of whom 99 were regular blood donors (r= -0.76), and to bone marrow haemosiderin grading in 52 subjects with varying iron status. The purpose was to try and establish a percentage absorption from such a dose that is representative of subjects who are borderline iron deficient. This information is necessary for food iron absorption studies in order (1) to calculate the absorption of iron from the diet at a given iron status and (2) compare the absorption of iron from different meals studied in different groups of subjects by different investigarors. The results suggest that an absorption of about 40% of a 3 mg reference dose of ferrous iron is given in a fasting state, roughly corresponds to the absorption in borderline-iron-deficient subjects. The results indicate that this 40% absorption value corresponds to a serum ferritin level of 30 μg/l and that food iron absorption in a group of subjects should be expressed preferably as the absorption corresponding to a reference-dose absorption of 45%, or possibly a serum ferritin level of 30 μg/l. (author)

  3. Dietary iron intake, iron status, and gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cuilin; Rawal, Shristi

    2017-12-01

    Pregnant women are particularly vulnerable to iron deficiency and related adverse pregnancy outcomes and, as such, are routinely recommended for iron supplementation. Emerging evidence from both animal and population-based studies, however, has raised potential concerns because significant associations have been observed between greater iron stores and disturbances in glucose metabolism, including increased risk of type 2 diabetes among nonpregnant individuals. Yet, the evidence is uncertain regarding the role of iron in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), a common pregnancy complication which has short-term and long-term adverse health ramifications for both women and their children. In this review, we critically and systematically evaluate available data examining the risk of GDM associated with dietary iron, iron supplementation, and iron status as measured by blood concentrations of several indicators. We also discuss major methodologic concerns regarding the available epidemiologic studies on iron and GDM. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Iron status of young children in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, Liandré F; Eussen, Simone R

    2017-12-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) is common in young children aged 6-36 mo. Although the hazards associated with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) are well known, concerns about risks associated with excess iron intake in young children are emerging. To characterize iron status in Europe, we describe the prevalence of ID, IDA, iron repletion, and excess stores with the use of published data from a systematic review on iron intake and deficiency rates, combined with other selected iron status data in young European children. Various definitions for ID and IDA were applied across studies. ID prevalence varied depending on socioeconomic status and type of milk fed (i.e., human or cow milk or formula). Without regard to these factors, ID was reported in 3-48% of children aged ≥12 mo across the countries. For 6- to 12-mo-old infants, based on studies that did not differentiate these factors, ID prevalence was 4-18%. IDA was iron status data from a sample of healthy Western European children aged 12-36 mo, 69% were iron replete, and the 97.5th percentile for serum ferritin (SF) was 64.3 μg/L. In another sample, 79% of 24-mo-old children were iron replete, and the 97.5th percentile for SF was 57.3 μg/L. Average iron intake in most countries studied was close to or below the UK's Recommended Dietary Allowance. In conclusion, even in healthy European children aged 6-36 mo, ID is still common. In Western European populations for whom data were available, approximately three-quarters of children were found to be iron replete, and excess iron stores (SF >100 μg/L) did not appear to be a concern. Consensus on the definitions of iron repletion and excess stores, as well as on ID and IDA, is needed. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Ironing Out the Wrinkles in Host Defense: Interactions between Iron Homeostasis and Innate Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijian; Cherayil, Bobby J.

    2009-01-01

    Iron is an essential micronutrient for both microbial pathogens and their mammalian hosts. Changes in iron availability and distribution have significant effects on pathogen virulence and on the immune response to infection. Recent advances in our understanding of the molecular regulation of iron metabolism have shed new light on how alterations in iron homeostasis both contribute to and influence innate immunity. In this article, we review what is currently known about the role of iron in the response to infection. PMID:20375603

  6. Iron status in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankowiak-Kulpa, Hanna; Kargulewicz, Angelika; Styszyński, Arkadiusz; Swora-Cwynar, Ewelina; Grzymisławski, Marian

    2017-12-23

    A decreased concentration of iron, and consecutively haemoglobin, ferritin and decreased level of saturated transferrin, were observed in obese individuals more often than in healthy subjects. The purpose of this study was to determine whether iron, ferritin, transferrin saturation are significantly diminished in obese female patients compared to non-obese counterparts, and whether excess adiposity and inflammation were associated with depleted iron. Female patients (n=48) diagnosed with obesity (BMI > 30 kg/m2), aged 18-40 were accepted for the study. A control group (n=30) encompassed normal weight women, aged 18-30. All obese women obtained an individually adjusted dietary plan with an energy content of 1,500 kcal. Blood glucose, insulin, lipids, ferritin, TIBC and iron concentrations were assayed in serum twice, initially and after 8 weeks of dieting. The obese women at the initial evaluation, in comparison to non-obese control women, were characterized by a significantly lower mean red blood cell volume (MCV; 84.2±12.4 vs. 91.3±9.3 fL; piron level (92.6±42.4 vs. 119.8±44.0 μg/dL; piron homeostasis. Weight loss leads to decrease in the CRP level, but it does not change haematologic parameters in the period of 8 weeks.

  7. Laboratory assessment of iron status in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Thomas

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Efforts to improve maternal nutrition during pregnancy prompted an observational study of the occurrence of maternal iron deficiency and its laboratory diagnosis in almost 500 pregnancies. METHODS: In this longitudinal study, the biochemical and haematological iron indices of women (n=492) attending a prenatal clinic in a Dublin maternity hospital were assessed at first booking (mean 15.9 weeks), and after 24 weeks, and 36 weeks of gestation. Full blood counts were measured. Serum ferritin (SF), zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), and transferrin receptor (sTfR) concentrations were assayed and transferrin receptor index (sTfR-Index) was calculated. The occurrence of low values and their diagnostic values were considered. RESULTS: A high occurrence iron deficiency (ID) at first booking (SF<12 mug\\/L) had increased over six-fold by 24 weeks, and all biochemical iron indices reflected progressive iron depletion right up to term. The WHO recommended anaemia "cut-off" (Hb<110 g\\/L) was insensitive to biochemical iron deficiency at booking, missing over 90% of the low SF values (SF<12 mug\\/L) which were mostly associated with much higher Hb levels. CONCLUSIONS: This study stresses the importance of including a biochemical index of iron status in prenatal screening and supports SF as the best indicator of biochemical ID overall. sTfR was insensitive to iron deficiency in early pregnancy, whereas the sTfR-Index, as a ratio, has the potential to distinguish between ID and physiological anaemia, and may offer stability in the assessment of iron stores from early pregnancy to full term. A policy of early screening of both Hb and SF concentrations is recommended as the minimum requirement for surveillance of maternal iron status in pregnancy.

  8. Effect of dietary iron source and iron status on iron bioavailability tests in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, D.; Hendricks, D.G.; Mahoney, A.W.

    1986-01-01

    Weanling male rats were made anemic in 7 days by feeding a low iron diet and bleeding. Healthy rats were fed the low iron diet supplemented with ferrous sulfate (29 ppm Fe). Each group was subdivided and fed for 10 days on test diets containing about 29 ppm iron that were formulated with meat:spinach mixtures or meat:soy mixtures to provided 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, or 0:100% of the dietary iron from these sources or from a ferrous sulfate diet. After 3 days on the diets all rats were dosed orally with 2 or 5 micro curries of 59 Fe after a 18 hour fast and refeeding for 1.5 hours. Iron status influenced liver iron, carcass iron, liver radio activity and percent of radioactive dose retained. Diet influenced fecal iron and apparent absorption of iron. In iron bioavailability studies assessment methodology and iron status of the test subject greatly influences the estimates of the value of dietary sources of iron

  9. Within-host evolution of Pseudomonas aeruginosa toward iron acquisition from hemoglobin in polymicrobial CF infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khademi, Seyed Mohammad Hossein; Marvig, Rasmus Lykke; Pedersen, Søren Damkiær

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens require iron to survive and colonize a human host but their access to free iron is often limited by iron-withholding process where free iron is bound by proteins such as hemoglobin. Although most pathogens have developed tactics to acquire iron from host proteins, little is kn...

  10. Iron status and cardiovascular disease risk in black South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-03-29

    Mar 29, 2011 ... Keywords: iron status, cardiovascular disease, African women, PURE study. Iron status and .... sponsored Arlie Conference.20 Body circumferences of participants ...... cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice.

  11. Iron Status of Vegetarian Children: A Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Roman; Bell, Kami

    2017-01-01

    Iron is considered a nutrient of concern for vegetarians. In children, inadequate iron status may lead to anemia and poor growth. Thirteen original manuscripts met the inclusion criteria. Various biochemical markers of iron status, such as hemoglobin (Hb) and serum ferritin, were used. Seven of the 13 studies reported the prevalence of iron deficiency separately for vegetarians and non-vegetarians. Five out of 7 showed a higher prevalence of iron deficiency among the vegetarian participants, while the other 2 showed a higher prevalence of iron deficiency among non-vegetarians. A wide range of iron deficiency prevalence, from 4.3% of vegetarian participants in one study to 73% having ferritin vegetarian children varies considerably from one study to another. The wide variation in the prevalence of inadequate iron status was consistent for studies from industrial and developing countries. The physiological significance of low iron status among vegetarians reported in some studies is unknown. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Iron nutrition and premenopausal women: effects of poor iron status on physical and neuropsychological performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClung, James P; Murray-Kolb, Laura E

    2013-01-01

    Iron is a nutritionally essential trace element that functions through incorporation into proteins and enzymes, many of which contribute to physical and neuropsychological performance. Poor iron status, including iron deficiency (ID; diminished iron stores) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA; poor iron stores and diminished hemoglobin), affects billions of people worldwide. This review focuses on physical and neuropsychological outcomes associated with ID and IDA in premenopausal women, as the prevalence of ID and IDA is often greater in premenopausal women than other population demographics. Recent studies addressing the physiological effects of poor iron status on physical performance, including work productivity, voluntary activity, and athletic performance, are addressed. Similarly, the effects of iron status on neurological performance, including cognition, affect, and behavior, are summarized. Nutritional countermeasures for the prevention of poor iron status and the restoration of decrements in performance outcomes are described.

  13. Vitamin A status affects the efficacy of iron repletion in rats with mild iron deficiency.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roodenburg, A.J.C.; West, C.E.; Beynen, A.C.

    1996-01-01

    In populations with vitamin A deficiency, vitamin A administration in addition to supplemental iron has been shown to further improve blood indicators of iron status. To obtain clues to associated changes at the level of organ indicators of iron status, we have attempted to mimic previous human

  14. The effect of nutrition knowledge and dietary iron intake on iron status in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Alecia J; Chalmers, Kerry A; Collins, Clare E; Patterson, Amanda J

    2014-10-01

    Previous research on the relationships between general nutrition knowledge and dietary intake, and dietary iron intake and iron status has produced inconsistent results. Currently, no study has focused on knowledge of dietary iron and its effect on dietary iron intake. This study aimed to determine whether nutrition knowledge of iron is related to dietary iron intake in young women, and subsequently whether greater knowledge and intake translates into better iron status. A cross-sectional assessment of nutrition knowledge of iron, dietary iron intake and iron status was conducted in women aged 18-35 years living in Newcastle, NSW, Australia. Iron status was assessed by serum ferritin, haemoglobin, soluble transferrin receptor and alpha-1-glycoprotein. One hundred and seven women (27.8 ± 4.7 years) completed the nutrition knowledge questionnaire and FFQ. Of these, 74 (70%) also had biomarkers of iron status measured. Mean iron intake was 11.2 ± 3.8 mg/day. There was no association between nutrition knowledge score and whether the women met the RDI for iron (F (1, 102) = .40, P = .53). A positive correlation was shown between nutrition knowledge score and iron intake (mg/day) (r = 0.25, P = .01). Serum ferritin was positively associated with the frequency of flesh food intake (r = .27 P = .02). Vegetarians (including partial vegetarians) had significantly lower serum ferritin levels than non-vegetarians (F (1, 71) = 7.44, P = .01). Significant positive correlations found between higher flesh food intake and biomarkers of iron status suggest that educating non-vegetarians about the benefits of increased flesh food consumption and vegetarians about dietary iron enhancers and inhibitors may have potential for addressing the high rates of iron deficiency among young women. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dietary iron intake and iron status of German female vegans: results of the German vegan study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldmann, Annika; Koschizke, Jochen W; Leitzmann, Claus; Hahn, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    As shown in previous studies vegetarians and especially vegans are at risk for iron deficiency. Our study evaluated the iron status of German female vegans. In this cross-sectional study, the dietary intakes of 75 vegan women were assessed by two 9-day food frequency questionnaires. The iron status was analyzed on the basis of blood parameters. Mean daily iron intake was higher than recommended by the German Nutrition Society. Still 42% of the female vegans or = 50 years (old women, OW). In all, 40% (tri-index model (TIM) 20%) of the YW and 12% (TIM 12%) of the OW were considered iron-deficient based on either serum ferritin levels of vegan diet should have their iron status monitored and should consider taking iron supplements in case of a marginal status. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  16. Iron status markers in 224 indigenous Greenlanders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, N; Byg, K E; Mulvad, G

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate iron status in indigenous Greenlanders and its relationship to gender, age and intake of traditional Greenlandic foods. Methods: Serum ferritin, serum transferrin saturation and haemoglobin were evaluated in a population survey in 1993-1994 comprising 224 Greenlandic...... of living. Consumption of traditional foods was assessed by questionnaire. RESULTS: Intake of traditional foods was more prevalent among elderly than among young individuals and more frequent in Uummannaq than in Ilulissat and Nuuk. Ferritin levels were higher in men than in women (p....06; women, r(s)=0.73, ptraditional foods was correlated with ferritin in men (r(s)=0.29, p=0.01) and women (r(s)=0.40, p

  17. Iron status determination in pregnancy using the Thomas plot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyers, R; Coetzee, M J; Nel, M

    2016-04-01

    Physiological changes during pregnancy affect routine tests for iron deficiency. The reticulocyte haemoglobin equivalent (RET-He) and serum-soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) assay are newer diagnostic parameters for the detection of iron deficiency, combined in the Thomas diagnostic plot. We used this plot to determine the iron status of pregnant women presenting for their first visit to an antenatal clinic in Bloemfontein, South Africa. Routine laboratory tests (serum ferritin, full blood count and C-reactive protein) and RET-He and sTfR were performed. The iron status was determined using the Thomas plot. For this study, 103 pregnant women were recruited. According to the Thomas plot, 72.8% of the participants had normal iron stores and erythropoiesis. Iron-deficient erythropoiesis was detected in 12.6%. A third of participants were anaemic. Serum ferritin showed excellent sensitivity but poor specificity for detecting depleted iron stores. HIV status had no influence on the iron status of the participants. Our findings reiterate that causes other than iron deficiency should be considered in anaemic individuals. When compared with the Thomas plot, a low serum ferritin is a sensitive but nonspecific indicator of iron deficiency. The Thomas plot may provide useful information to identify pregnant individuals in whom haematologic parameters indicate limited iron availability for erythropoiesis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Efficacy of iron-fortified whole maize flour on iron status of schoolchildren in Kenya: a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andang'o, P.E.A.; Osendarp, S.J.M.; Ayah, R.; West, C.E.; Mwaniki, D.; Wolf, de C.A.; Kraaijenhagen, R.; Kok, F.J.; Verhoef, H.

    2007-01-01

    Background Sodium iron edetic acid (NaFeEDTA) might be a more bioavailable source of iron than electrolytic iron, when added to maize flour. We aimed to assess the effect, on children's iron status, of consumption of whole maize flour fortified with iron as NaFeEDTA or electrolytic iron. Methods 516

  19. U-shaped curve for risk associated with maternal hemoglobin, iron status, or iron supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Kathryn G; Oaks, Brietta M

    2017-12-01

    Both iron deficiency (ID) and excess can lead to impaired health status. There is substantial evidence of a U-shaped curve between the risk of adverse birth outcomes and maternal hemoglobin concentrations during pregnancy; however, it is unclear whether those relations are attributable to conditions of low and high iron status or to other mechanisms. We summarized current evidence from human studies regarding the association between birth outcomes and maternal hemoglobin concentrations or iron status. We also reviewed effects of iron supplementation on birth outcomes among women at low risk of ID and the potential mechanisms for adverse effects of high iron status during pregnancy. Overall, we confirmed a U-shaped curve for the risk of adverse birth outcomes with maternal hemoglobin concentrations, but the relations differ by trimester. For low hemoglobin concentrations, the link with adverse outcomes is more evident when hemoglobin concentrations are measured in early pregnancy. These relations generally became weaker or nonexistent when hemoglobin concentrations are measured in the second or third trimesters. Associations between high hemoglobin concentration and adverse birth outcomes are evident in all 3 trimesters but evidence is mixed. There is less evidence for the associations between maternal iron status and adverse birth outcomes. Most studies used serum ferritin (SF) concentrations as the indicator of iron status, which makes the interpretation of results challenging because SF concentrations increase in response to inflammation or infection. The effect of iron supplementation during pregnancy may depend on initial iron status. There are several mechanisms through which high iron status during pregnancy may have adverse effects on birth outcomes, including oxidative stress, increased blood viscosity, and impaired systemic response to inflammation and infection. Research is needed to understand the biological processes that underlie the U-shaped curves

  20. Restless legs syndrome, pica, and iron status in blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Bryan R; Kleinman, Steven; Wright, David J; Glynn, Simone A; Rye, David B; Kiss, Joseph E; Mast, Alan E; Cable, Ritchard G

    2013-08-01

    The association of blood donation-related iron deficiency with pica or restless legs syndrome (RLS) remains poorly elucidated. This study evaluated the prevalence of RLS and pica in blood donors completing the REDS-II Iron Status Evaluation (RISE) study. RISE enrolled 2425 blood donors in a prospective cohort study; 1334 donors provided blood samples to characterize iron status and answered a questionnaire inquiring into symptoms of RLS and pica at a final visit after 15 to 24 months of follow-up. Associations between both conditions and iron status were evaluated. There were 9 and 20% of donors reporting symptoms of probable or probable/possible RLS, respectively. Iron depletion and donation intensity were not predictive of RLS. Pica was reported by 65 donors (5.5%), half of whom reported daily cravings. Prevalence of pica increased with degree of iron depletion in women (2% in iron-replete females, 13% in those with ferritin high prevalence of RLS in frequent blood donors but shows no association with iron status or donation intensity. Low iron stores were associated with higher prevalence of pica, but only in females. Furthermore, the results are incompatible with RLS and pica sharing a common pathophysiology. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  1. Host iron binding proteins acting as niche indicators for Neisseria meningitidis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip W Jordan

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis requires iron, and in the absence of iron alters its gene expression to increase iron acquisition and to make the best use of the iron it has. During different stages of colonization and infection available iron sources differ, particularly the host iron-binding proteins haemoglobin, transferrin, and lactoferrin. This study compared the transcriptional responses of N. meningitidis, when grown in the presence of these iron donors and ferric iron, using microarrays.Specific transcriptional responses to the different iron sources were observed, including genes that are not part of the response to iron restriction. Comparisons between growth on haemoglobin and either transferrin or lactoferrin identified changes in 124 and 114 genes, respectively, and 33 genes differed between growth on transferrin or lactoferrin. Comparison of gene expression from growth on haemoglobin or ferric iron showed that transcription is also affected by the entry of either haem or ferric iron into the cytoplasm. This is consistent with a model in which N. meningitidis uses the relative availability of host iron donor proteins as niche indicators.Growth in the presence of haemoglobin is associated with a response likely to be adaptive to survival within the bloodstream, which is supported by serum killing assays that indicate growth on haemoglobin significantly increases survival, and the response to lactoferrin is associated with increased expression of epithelial cell adhesins and oxidative stress response molecules. The transferrin receptor is the most highly transcribed receptor and has the fewest genes specifically induced in its presence, suggesting this is the favoured iron source for the bacterium. Most strikingly, the responses to haemoglobin, which is associated with unrestricted growth, indicates a low iron transcriptional profile, associated with an aggressive phenotype that may be adaptive to access host iron sources but which may also

  2. Whole-body iron-59 retention measurements for estimating the iron status of piglets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfau, A.; Rudolphi, K.; Heinrich, H.C.; Gabbe, E.E.

    1976-01-01

    A large-volume, 4π whole-body liquid scintillation detector was used to determine 59 Fe absorption in 173 one-to-six-weeks-old piglets with normal and depleted iron stores. Values of intestinal absorption from a 10 μmole (corresponds to 0.558 mg) 59 Fe 2+ test dose were compared with levels of haemoglobin, haematocrit, and serum iron as well as with stainable diffuse iron of bone marrow reticuloendothelial cells, and the dose relationship of intestinal iron absorption from 59 Fe-labelled FeSO 4 and methaemoglobin was measured. The investigations indicated that neither blood parameters, cytochemical gradings nor absorption levels from the 59 Fe test dose alone were sufficient to describe quantitatively the various stages of iron deficiency in piglets. A synopsis of all parameters appeared to be necessary for defining normal iron status and prelatent, latent and manifest iron deficiency. Piglets fed on sows' milk only developed manifest iron deficiency within the first three weeks of age. After an access to soil and/or creep feed from the eighth day of age, or intramuscular injections of 200 mg Fe as iron-dextran at three days of age, or injections of 200 or 400 mg Fe combined with access to creep feed, stages of manifest, latent or prelatent iron deficiency could be observed. For an iron-dextran dose of 800 mg Fe injected in amounts of 400 mg Fe at 3 and 10 days of age, a normal iron status was obtained in three-week-old piglets. The iron dose relationship indicated that 20 mg Fe administered orally as FeSO 4 or 40 mg Fe as methaemoglobin-Fe daily should cover the iron requirement of piglets for the first three weeks of life, whereas a three-week total of iron given orally in a single dose would lead to unphysiological or fatal conditions in nursing pigs. (author)

  3. Assessment of iron status of Filipino pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuizon, M D; Tajaon, R T; Madriaga, J R; Perlas, L A; Desnacido, J A

    1989-09-01

    Plasma ferritin (PF), erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) and hemoglobin (Hb) were used to assess the iron status of 158 Filipino pregnant women included as subjects in the third national nutrition survey conducted by the Food and Nutrition Research Institute in 1987. The prevalence of iron depletion was 39.9% based on PF (less than 12 ng/ml). Iron deficient erythropoiesis was present in 36.1% based on EP of greater than 28 micrograms/dl whole blood and 40.5% based on EP/Hb ratio of greater than 2.4. When the criterion of iron deficiency was that both PF and EP were abnormal, the prevalence of deficiency was lower and only 16.4%. Iron deficiency anemia was present in 14.6% based on Hb less than 11 g/dl in addition to abnormal PF and EP. Significantly lower mean values for PF were obtained in women on the 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy indicating decreasing iron stores and the need for iron therapy to prevent anemia during those periods. The iron status of 38 women who reported taking iron supplements was not significantly different from those who did not take supplements.

  4. Assessment of iron deficiency in pregnant women by determining iron status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raza, N.; Munazza, B.; Ayub, M.; Sarwar, I

    2011-01-01

    Background: Pregnant women constitute a high risk group for iron deficiency. Maternal iron deficiency and particularly iron deficiency anaemia may be associated with detrimental effects on maternal and infant function and particularly with a higher risk of preterm delivery and delivery of low birth weight neonates. Objective of this study was to assess and compare the iron status of normal healthy non-pregnant women with that of pregnant women of Hazara Division. Methods: This study was conducted at Faculty of Health Sciences, Hazara University, and Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad from first March to /31 August 2006. Altogether 120 women, 90 pregnant at various stages of pregnancy and 30 non-pregnant women as control group were included in this study by convenience sampling. Their iron status was assessed by determination of haemoglobin (Hb), Serum ferritin, Serum-iron, Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC), Unsaturated Iron Binding Capacity (UIBC), and Percentage saturation of transferrin. Data generated on these variables were subjected to ANOVA and correlation analysis. Results: The salient finding of this study is a significant decrease in Hb, Serum ferritin, Serum iron, percentage saturation of transferrin and a significant increase in values of TIBC and a pronounced increase in UIBC in second and third trimester compared to first trimester in iron deficient pregnant women. The mean values of Hb, SF, and Fe/TIBC% were significantly lower in the cases than in the control and significantly higher values of TIBC and UIBC were observed in the cases compared to controls. Significant correlations were observed for TIBC, UIBC and Fe/TIBC% against serum iron in different trimesters of pregnancy. Conclusion: A high percentage of the pregnant women are iron deficient due to factors such as high parity, poor dietary habits and socioeconomic status. (author)

  5. Long-term intake of iron fortified wholemeal rye bread appears to benefit iron status of young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Nielsen, Sussi Bæch; Thomsen, A.D.

    2005-01-01

    The efficacy of intake of iron fortified, wholemeal rye bread on iron status of young women with low iron stores was evaluated in a 5 month single-blind intervention study. Two parallel groups of women (20-38 y) were given 144 g of rye bread/d either fortified with 6 mg iron as ferrous fumarate/100...... stores of young women with poor iron status which were otherwise reduced by intake of the unfortified control bread....

  6. Associations between Dietary Iron and Zinc Intakes, and between Biochemical Iron and Zinc Status in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Lim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Iron and zinc are found in similar foods and absorption of both may be affected by food compounds, thus biochemical iron and zinc status may be related. This cross-sectional study aimed to: (1 describe dietary intakes and biochemical status of iron and zinc; (2 investigate associations between dietary iron and zinc intakes; and (3 investigate associations between biochemical iron and zinc status in a sample of premenopausal women aged 18–50 years who were recruited in Melbourne and Sydney, Australia. Usual dietary intakes were assessed using a 154-item food frequency questionnaire (n = 379. Iron status was assessed using serum ferritin and hemoglobin, zinc status using serum zinc (standardized to 08:00 collection, and presence of infection/inflammation using C-reactive protein (n = 326. Associations were explored using multiple regression and logistic regression. Mean (SD iron and zinc intakes were 10.5 (3.5 mg/day and 9.3 (3.8 mg/day, respectively. Median (interquartile range serum ferritin was 22 (12–38 μg/L and mean serum zinc concentrations (SD were 12.6 (1.7 μmol/L in fasting samples and 11.8 (2.0 μmol/L in nonfasting samples. For each 1 mg/day increase in dietary iron intake, zinc intake increased by 0.4 mg/day. Each 1 μmol/L increase in serum zinc corresponded to a 6% increase in serum ferritin, however women with low serum zinc concentration (AM fasting < 10.7 μmol/L; AM nonfasting < 10.1 μmol/L were not at increased risk of depleted iron stores (serum ferritin <15 μg/L; p = 0.340. Positive associations were observed between dietary iron and zinc intakes, and between iron and zinc status, however interpreting serum ferritin concentrations was not a useful proxy for estimating the likelihood of low serum zinc concentrations and women with depleted iron stores were not at increased risk of impaired zinc status in this cohort.

  7. Iron Status of Deployed Military Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-04

    ready force Deploy with and care for the warrior Care for all entrusted to our care Nursing Competencies and Practice: Patient outcomes...duties, physical activities, iron intake through diet ). This additional information would improve the ability to determine factors associated with

  8. Influence of iron status on risk of maternal or neonatal infection and on neonatal mortality with an emphasis on developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brabin, Loretta; Brabin, Bernard J.; Gies, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Infection is a major cause of neonatal death in developing countries. This review investigates whether host iron status affects the risk of maternal and/or neonatal infection, potentially contributing to neonatal death, and summarizes the iron acquisition mechanisms described for pathogens causing

  9. The Influence of Vitamin A Supplementation on Iron Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia H. C. Rondó

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A (VA and iron deficiencies are important nutritional problems, affecting particularly preschool children, as well as pregnant and lactating women. A PubMed (National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA literature review was carried out to search for clinical trials published from 1992 to 2013 that assessed the influence of vitamin A supplementation on iron status. Simultaneous use of iron and vitamin A supplements seemed to be more effective to prevent iron deficiency anemia than the use of these micronutrients alone. Some studies did not include a placebo group and only a few of them assessed vitamin A status of the individuals at baseline. Moreover, the studies did not consider any inflammatory marker and a reasonable number of iron parameters. Another important limitation was the lack of assessment of hemoglobin variants, especially in regions with a high prevalence of anemia. Assessment of hemoglobin variants, inflammatory markers and anemia of chronic inflammation would be important to the studies investigated. Studies involving different populations are necessary to elucidate the interaction between the two micronutrients, especially regarding iron absorption and modulation of erythropoiesis.

  10. The influence of vitamin A supplementation on iron status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelazzo, Fernanda B; Oliveira, Julicristie M; Stefanello, Juliana; Luzia, Liania A; Rondó, Patricia H C

    2013-11-07

    Vitamin A (VA) and iron deficiencies are important nutritional problems, affecting particularly preschool children, as well as pregnant and lactating women. A PubMed (National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA) literature review was carried out to search for clinical trials published from 1992 to 2013 that assessed the influence of vitamin A supplementation on iron status. Simultaneous use of iron and vitamin A supplements seemed to be more effective to prevent iron deficiency anemia than the use of these micronutrients alone. Some studies did not include a placebo group and only a few of them assessed vitamin A status of the individuals at baseline. Moreover, the studies did not consider any inflammatory marker and a reasonable number of iron parameters. Another important limitation was the lack of assessment of hemoglobin variants, especially in regions with a high prevalence of anemia. Assessment of hemoglobin variants, inflammatory markers and anemia of chronic inflammation would be important to the studies investigated. Studies involving different populations are necessary to elucidate the interaction between the two micronutrients, especially regarding iron absorption and modulation of erythropoiesis.

  11. Iron status in Danish women, 1984-1994: a cohort comparison of changes in iron stores and the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron overload

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, N.; Byg, K.E.; Ovesen, Lars

    2003-01-01

    Background and objectives: From 1954 to 1986, flour in Denmark was fortified with 30 mg carbonyl iron per kilogram. This mandatory enrichment of cereal products was abolished in 1987. The aim was to evaluate iron status in the Danish female population before and after abolishment of iron...... fortification. Methods: Iron status, serum ferritin and haemoglobin, was assessed in population surveys in 1983-1984 comprising 1221 Caucasian women (1089 non-blood-donors, 130 donors) and in 1993-1994 comprising 1261 women (1155 non-blood-donors, 104 donors) equally distributed in age cohorts of 40, 50, 60......, postmenopausal women had median ferritin of 75 mug/L and in 1994 of 93 mug/L (P iron stores (ferritin iron stores (ferritin less...

  12. Evaluation of Serum Iron Status of Lactating Mothers on Exclusive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Serum Iron Status of Lactating Mothers on Exclusive Breastfeeding in Enugu, South East Nigeria. F.F Ejezie, U.I Nwagha, J.E Ikekpeazu, I.C Maduka, E Neboh, D.C Nwachukwu, T.U Nwagha ...

  13. Redox, iron, and nutritional status of children during swimming training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabasakalis, Athanasios; Kalitsis, Konstantinos; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Tsalis, George; Kouretas, Dimitris; Loupos, Dimitris; Mougios, Vassilis

    2009-11-01

    Effects of exercise training on important determinants of children's long-term health, such as redox and iron status, have not been adequately investigated. The aim of the present study was to examine changes in markers of the redox, iron and nutritional status of boy and girl swimmers during a prolonged period of training. 11 boys and 13 girls, aged 10-11 years, were members of a swimming club. They were assessed at the beginning of the training season, at 13 weeks and at 23 weeks through blood sampling and recording of the diet. Reduced glutathione increased at 13 and 23 weeks, whereas oxidised glutathione decreased at 13 weeks, resulting in an increase of the reduced/oxidised glutathione ratio at 13 and 23 weeks. Total antioxidant capacity, catalase, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, hemoglobin, transferrin saturation and ferritin did not change significantly. Carbohydrate intake was below 50% of energy and fat intake was above 40% of energy. Intakes of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol were excessive. Iron intake was adequate but intakes of folate, vitamin E, calcium and magnesium did not meet the recommended daily allowances. No significant differences were found between sexes in any of the parameters measured. In conclusion, child swimmers improved the redox status of glutathione during training, although the intake of antioxidant nutrients did not change. The iron status was not impaired by training. Suboptimal intake of several nutrients suggests the need for nutritional monitoring and education of children athletes.

  14. Iron Status in Diffuse Telogen Hair Loss among Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moeinvaziri, Mojdeh; Mansoori, Parvin; Holakooee, Koorosh; Naraghi, Zahra Safaee; Abbasi, Ali

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between iron body status and different types of hair loss has been investigated in a number of studies, however, with relatively discrepant findings. Therefore we conducted an analytical case-control study to assess whether diffuse telogen hair loss in women of childbearing age (15

  15. Iron status and reproduction in US women: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M Miller

    Full Text Available Women experience significant changes in iron status throughout their reproductive lifespans. While this is evident in regions with high rates of malnutrition and infectious disease, the extent of reproductive-related changes is less well known in countries with low rates of iron deficiency anemia, such as the United States. The goal of this study is determine the relationship between women's reproductive variables (pregnancy, parity, currently breastfeeding, regular menstruation, hormonal contraceptive use, and age at menarche and iron status (hemoglobin, ferritin, transferrin receptor, and % transferrin saturation using an anthropological framework for interpreting the results. Data from women aged 18-49 were taken from the 1999-2006 US NHANES, a nationally representative cross-sectional sample of US women. Using multiple imputation and complex survey statistics, women's reproductive variables were regressed against indicators of iron status. Pregnant women had significantly poorer iron status, by most indicators, than non-pregnant women. All biomarkers demonstrated significantly lower iron levels with increasing parity. Women who were having regular periods had iron indicators that suggested decreased iron levels, while women who used hormonal contraceptives had iron indicators that suggested increased iron levels. Despite relatively good iron status and widespread availability of iron-rich foods in the US, women still exhibit patterns of iron depletion across several reproductive variables of interest. These results contribute to an ecological approach to iron status that seeks to understand variation in iron status, with the hopes that appropriate, population-specific recommendations can be developed to improve women's health.

  16. HFE gene mutations and iron status of Brazilian blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, P C J L; Cançado, R D; Terada, C T; Rostelato, S; Gonzales, I; Hirata, R D C; Hirata, M H; Chiattone, C S; Guerra-Shinohara, E M

    2010-01-01

    Mutations of the HFE and TFR2 genes have been associated with iron overload. HFE and TFR2 mutations were assessed in blood donors, and the relationship with iron status was evaluated. Subjects (N = 542) were recruited at the Hemocentro da Santa Casa de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Iron status was not influenced by HFE mutations in women and was independent of blood donation frequency. In contrast, men carrying the HFE 282CY genotype had lower total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) than HFE 282CC genotype carriers. Men who donated blood for the first time and were carriers of the HFE 282CY genotype had higher transferrin saturation values and lower TIBC concentrations than those with the homozygous wild genotype for the HFE C282Y mutation. Moreover, in this group of blood donors, carriers of HFE 63DD plus 63HD genotypes had higher serum ferritin values than those with the homozygous wild genotype for HFE H63D mutation. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that HFE 282CY leads to a 17.21% increase (P = 0.018) and a 83.65% decrease (P = 0.007) in transferrin saturation and TIBC, respectively. In addition, serum ferritin is influenced by age (3.91%, P = 0.001) and the HFE 63HD plus DD genotype (55.84%, P = 0.021). In conclusion, the HFE 282Y and 65C alleles were rare, while the HFE 63D allele was frequent in Brazilian blood donors. The HFE C282Y and H63D mutations were associated with alterations in iron status in blood donors in a gender-dependent manner.

  17. HFE gene mutations and iron status of Brazilian blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C.J.L. Santos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutations of the HFE and TFR2 genes have been associated with iron overload. HFE and TFR2 mutations were assessed in blood donors, and the relationship with iron status was evaluated. Subjects (N = 542 were recruited at the Hemocentro da Santa Casa de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Iron status was not influenced by HFE mutations in women and was independent of blood donation frequency. In contrast, men carrying the HFE 282CY genotype had lower total iron-binding capacity (TIBC than HFE 282CC genotype carriers. Men who donated blood for the first time and were carriers of the HFE 282CY genotype had higher transferrin saturation values and lower TIBC concentrations than those with the homozygous wild genotype for the HFE C282Y mutation. Moreover, in this group of blood donors, carriers of HFE 63DD plus 63HD genotypes had higher serum ferritin values than those with the homozygous wild genotype for HFE H63D mutation. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that HFE 282CY leads to a 17.21% increase (P = 0.018 and a 83.65% decrease (P = 0.007 in transferrin saturation and TIBC, respectively. In addition, serum ferritin is influenced by age (3.91%, P = 0.001 and the HFE 63HD plus DD genotype (55.84%, P = 0.021. In conclusion, the HFE 282Y and 65C alleles were rare, while the HFE 63D allele was frequent in Brazilian blood donors. The HFE C282Y and H63D mutations were associated with alterations in iron status in blood donors in a gender-dependent manner.

  18. Effectiveness of nutrition education, iron supplementation or both on iron status in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, D; Sharma, S; Agarwal, K N

    2003-12-01

    A community-based, randomized trial was designed to compare the effect of nutrition education and/or iron supplementation (weekly) on iron status of children in an urban slum in Delhi. Four hundred and fifty one children, 9-36 months of age and their caretakers (mothers), assigned to one of the following groups were included in the cohort. Group 1, nutrition education. Group 2, supplementation (with 20 mg elemental iron). Group 3, nutrition education with supplementation (with 20 mg elemental iron) and Group 4, control given placebo. The intervention program was of four months duration, with a treatment phase of 8 wk followed by 8 wk of no treatment. Post intervention, at 8 wk and at 16 wk, the hemoglobin change in the nutrition education, supplementation, nutrition education with supplementation and control groups was 2.9, 1.9, 3.8 and -5.9%, respectively and 2.1, -1.9, 0 and -9.3%, respectively (as compared to initial values). There was no significant effect of any of the intervention at 8 weeks. At 16 wk, there was significant positive effect of nutrition education group (p less than 0.05). The percent change in serum ferritin value at 16 wk in the nutrition education, supplementation, nutrition education with supplementation and control groups was 5.7, -2.3, -3.4 and -40%, respectively. Serum ferritin values were significantly higher for the nutrition education group (p nutrition education group mothers showed significantly higher nutrition knowledge and the dietary iron intake of children was significantly higher than their control group counterparts (p nutrition education did have a positive effect on the iron status possibly by improving the dietary iron intake.

  19. Zinc and iron status during pregnancy of Filipino women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Nynke; Romano, Aurora B Ampong; Gibson, Rosalind S

    2002-01-01

    Low birthweight is associated with maternal anaemia and, in some circumstances, with low iron and zinc status, but this relationship has not been investigated in the Philippines. In this study, we assessed the prevalence of anaemia and suboptimal iron and zinc status in pregnant women from three geographical regions (mountain, coast, city) of Zamboanga del Sur province at 24 weeks (n = 305). and again at 36 weeks (n = 127), gestation. At 24 weeks, 34% were anaemic (i.e., haemoglobin values (i.e., 11 x 10(9)/L; 19%) and serum C-reactive protein (> 15 mg/L; 3%). Of the women surveyed, 20% were iron depleted but not anaemic, and 15% were zinc deficient (i.e., serum zinc values at 24 weeks gestation had infants with lower birthweights than those with values > or = 105 g/L and > or = 7.1 micromol/L, respectively. However, in the multivariate model, the contribution of maternal haemoglobin to the variance in birthweight at 24 weeks gestation was non-significant, although modest for serum zinc. Anaemia and/or suboptimal zinc status during pregnancy may be related to low birthweight in the Philippines, and their aetiology deserves further study.

  20. Ascorbate status modulates reticuloendothelial iron stores and response to deferasirox iron chelation in ascorbate-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brewer, Casey; Otto-Duessel, Maya; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Iron chelation is essential to patients on chronic blood transfusions to prevent toxicity from iron overload and remove excess iron. Deferasirox (DFX) is the most commonly used iron chelator in the United States; however, some patients are relatively refractory to DFX therapy. We postulated...... that vitamin C supplementation would improve the availability of transfusional iron to DFX treatment by promoting iron's redox cycling, increasing its soluble ferrous form and promoting its release from reticuloendothelial cells. Osteogenic dystrophy rats (n = 54) were given iron dextran injections for 10...... 12 weeks of sham chelation. Most importantly, ascorbate supplementation at 2250 ppm improved DFX efficiency, allowing DFX to remove 21% more hepatic iron than ascorbate supplementation with 900 ppm or 150 ppm (p vitamin C status modulates the release of iron from...

  1. Effects of Protein-Iron Complex Concentrate Supplementation on Iron Metabolism, Oxidative and Immune Status in Preweaning Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kupczyński

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding protein-iron complex (PIC on productive performance and indicators of iron metabolism, hematology parameters, antioxidant and immune status during first 35 days of a calf’s life. Preparation of the complex involved enzymatic hydrolysis of milk casein (serine protease from Yarrowia lipolytica yeast. Iron chloride was then added to the hydrolyzate and lyophilizate. Calves were divided into treated groups: LFe (low iron dose 10 g/day calf of protein-iron complex, HFe (height iron dose 20 g/day calf, and control group. Dietary supplements containing the lower dose of concentrate had a significant positive effect on iron metabolism, while the higher dose of concentrate resulted in increase of total iron binding capacity (TIBC, saturation of transferrin and decrease of and unsaturated iron binding capacity (UIBC, which suggest iron overload. Additionally, treatment with the lower dose of iron remarkably increased the antioxidant parameters, mainly total antioxidant (TAS and glutathione peroxidase activity (GPx. Higher doses of PIC were related to lower total antioxidant status. IgG, IgM, insulin, glucose, TNFα and IGF-1 concentration did not change significantly in either group after supplementation. In practice, the use of protein-iron complex concentrate requires taking into account the iron content in milk replacers and other feedstuffs.

  2. Effect of iron status on iron absorption in different habitual meals in young south Indian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneeta Kalasuramath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Iron deficiency (ID affects a large number of women in India. An inverse relationship exists between iron (Fe status and Fe absorption. Dietary inhibitory and enhancing factors exert a profound influence on bioavailability of Fe. Although the current recommended dietary allowance (RDA for Fe is based on 8 per cent bioavailability, it is not clear if this holds good for the usual highly inhibitory Indian diet matrix. This study was aimed to determine Fe absorption from several habitually consumed south Indian food and to evaluate the interaction of Fe status with absorption. Methods: Four Fe absorption studies were performed on 60 apparently healthy young women, aged 18-35 years. Based on blood biochemistry, 45 of them were ID and 15 were iron replete (IR. The habitual meals assessed were rice, millet and wheat based meals in the ID subjects and rice based meal alone in the IR subjects. Each subject received the test meal labelled with 3 mg of [57] Fe and Fe absorption was measured based on erythrocyte incorporation of isotope label 14 days following administration. Results: Mean fractional Fe absorption from the rice, wheat and millet based meals in the ID subjects were 8.3, 11.2 and 4.6 per cent, respectively. Fe absorption from the rice-based meals was 2.5 per cent in IR subjects. Interpretation & conclusions: Fe absorption is dictated by Fe status from low bioavailability meals. Millet based meals have the lowest bioavailability, while the rice and wheat based meals had moderate to good bioavailability. In millet based meals, it is prudent to consider ways to improve Fe absorption.

  3. Efficacy of iron supplementation may be misinterpreted using conventional measures of iron status in iron-depleted, nonanemic women undergoing aerobic exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompano, Laura M; Haas, Jere D

    2017-12-01

    Background: Despite its known detrimental effects, iron deficiency remains the most common micronutrient deficiency in the world. Many interventions that aim to improve iron status involve physically active populations. Intense aerobic exercise training negatively affects iron status; however, the impact of regular moderate aerobic exercise on the effectiveness of iron supplementation remains unclear. Objective: This study aimed to determine whether aerobic training modifies the assessment of the effectiveness of iron supplementation in improving conventional iron status measures. Design: Seventy-two iron-depleted, nonanemic Chinese women [serum ferritin (sFer) 110 g/L] were included in an 8-wk, partially blinded, randomized controlled trial with a 2 × 2 factorial design including iron supplements (42 mg elemental Fe/d) or placebo and aerobic training (five 25-min sessions/wk at 75-85% of maximum heart rate) or no training. Linear mixed models were used to evaluate the relation between supplement type, training, and changes in iron status over time, measured by sFer, hemoglobin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and estimated total body iron. Results: After treatment, both the iron-supplemented trained and untrained groups showed significantly improved sFer, sTfR, and body iron values compared with either of the placebo groups. Similarly, trained participants had significantly higher aerobic fitness measures than untrained participants. Training modified the sFer response to supplementation (training by supplement interaction, P = 0.07), with the iron-supplemented trained group having significantly lower sFer than the iron-supplemented untrained group at week 8 (mean ± SD: 31.8 ± 13.5 and 47.6 ± 15.7 μg/L, respectively; P = 0.042), whereas there was no significant difference between the placebo trained and untrained groups (21.3 ± 12.2 and 20.3 ± 7.0 μg/L, respectively; P = 1.00). Conclusions: Regular aerobic training reduces the apparent effectiveness

  4. Iron status as a covariate in methylmercury-associated neurotoxicity risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonseca, Márlon de Freitas; De Souza Hacon, Sandra; Grandjean, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Intrauterine methylmercury exposure and prenatal iron deficiency negatively affect offspring's brain development. Since fish is a major source of both methylmercury and iron, occurrence of negative confounding may affect the interpretation of studies concerning cognition. We assessed relationship...... between methylmercury exposure and iron-status in childbearing females from a population naturally exposed to methylmercury through fish intake (Amazon). We concluded a census (refuse...

  5. Iron Status and Inflammation in Early Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Łukaszyk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: One of the most common causes of anemia of chronic disease (ACD is chronic kidney disease. The main pathomechanism responsible for ACD is subclinical inflammation. The key element involved in iron metabolism is hepcidin, however, studies on new indices of iron status are in progress.The aim of the study was to assess the iron status in patients in early stages of chronic kidney disease, iron correlation with inflammation parameters and novel biomarkers of iron metabolism. Methods: The study included 69 patients. Standard laboratory measurements were used to measure the iron status, complete blood count, fibrinogen, prothrombin index, C-reactive protein concentration (CRP, creatinine, urea, uric acid. Commercially available kits were used to measure high-sensitivity CRP, interleukin 6 (IL-6, hepcidin-25, hemojuvelin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR, growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15 and zonulin. Results: Absolute iron deficiency was present in 17% of the patients, functional iron deficiency was present in 12% of the patients. Functional iron deficiency was associated with significantly higher serum levels of fibrinogen, ferritin, transferrin saturation, total iron binding capacity, hepcidin and older age relative to patients with absolute iron deficiency. In comparison with patients without iron deficiency, patients with functional iron deficiency were older, with lower prothrombin index, higher fibrinogen, CRP, hsCRP, sTfR, GDF-15, urea and lower eGFR. Hepcidin was predicted by markers of inflammation:ferritin, fibrinogen and IL-6. Conclusion: Inflammation is correlated with iron status. Novel biomarkers of iron metabolism might be useful to distinguish iron deficiency anemia connected with inflammation and absolute iron deficiency.

  6. Comparison of food habits, iron intake and iron status in adolescents before and after the withdrawal of the general iron fortification in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöberg, A; Hulthén, L

    2015-04-01

    Sifted flour was fortified with carbonyl iron for 50 years in Sweden. This study evaluates changes in food habits, intake of iron, factors affecting iron absorption and iron status after the discontinuation of the general iron fortification in adolescents with the highest requirements. A total of 2285 15- to 16-year-old students in 1994 (634 girls and 611 boys) and in 2000 (534 girls and 486 boys) in 13 schools in Gothenburg, Sweden, were included in two cross-sectional surveys assessing food habits with diet history interviews and iron deficiency defined with serum ferritin stores ⩽ 15 μg/l and no preceding infection. In girls, iron deficiency increased from 37 to 45%, while in boys, it was stable at 23%. Total iron intake decreased from 15.7 to 9.5 mg/day and 22.5 to 13.9 mg/day in girls and boys, respectively. Cereals were the main iron source. Among girls, the increase of fish and decrease of calcium intake may not counteract the effect of decreased intake of fortification iron. Among boys, more meat, less calcium and more vitamin C may have favoured the bioavailability of iron. The discontinuation of the general iron fortification resulted in a 39% decrease in total iron intake and iron deficiency increased substantially in girls. However, in boys no change in iron deficiency was observed. Whether this was a result of changed bioavailability of dietary iron or simultaneous changes of non-dietary factors remains to be explored.

  7. The Study of HFE Genotypes and Its Expression Effect on Iron Status of Iranian Haemochromatosis, Iron Deficiency Anemia Patients, Iron-Taker and Non Iron-Taker Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiranvand, Elham; Abediankenari, Saeid; Rostamian, Mosayeb; Beiranvand, Behnoush; Naazeri, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    The role of HFE gene mutations or its expression in regulation of iron metabolism of hereditary haemochromatosis (HH) patients is remained controversial. Therefore here the correlation between two common HFE genotype (p.C282Y, p.H63D) and HFE gene expression with iron status in HH, iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and healthy Iranian participants was studied. For this purpose genotype determination was done by polymerase chain reaction--restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Real-Time PCR was applied for evaluation of HFE gene expression. Biochemical parameters and iron consumption were also assessed. Homozygote p.H63D mutation was seen in all HH patients and p.C282Y was not observed in any member of the population. A significant correlation was observed between serum ferritin (SF) level and gender or age of HH patients. p.H63D homozygote was seen to be able to significantly increase SF and transferrin saturation (TS) level without affecting on liver function. Our results also showed that iron consumption affects on TS level increasing. HFE gene expression level of IDA patients was significantly higher than other groups. Also the HFE gene expression was negatively correlated with TS. Finally, the main result of our study showed that loss of HFE function in HH is not derived from its gene expression inhibition and much higher HFE gene expression might lead to IDA. However we propose repeating of the study for more approval of our finding.

  8. Effects of a reduced dose of injected iron on health, iron status and growth of suckling piglets with access to iron enriched soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanner, S; Gutzwiller, A

    2018-02-01

    The effects of the recommended dose of 200 mg iron and of half that dose injected on the first day of life on health, iron status and performance during the 4 week suckling period were studied in 2'123 piglets. All piglets received creep feed and soil which was supplemented with 14 g iron per kg. Neither mortality nor the prevalence of arthritis, meningitis and foot abscess (each disease affecting about 1% of the piglets) differed between the two groups. The low dose of 100 mg iron decreased blood haemoglobin concentration at weaning (110 ± 19 vs.120 ± 15 g/l), but did not affect growth rate.

  9. Urinary Hepcidin Levels in Iron-Deficient and Iron-Supplemented Piglets Correlate with Hepcidin Hepatic mRNA and Serum Levels and with Body Iron Status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Staroń

    Full Text Available Among livestock, domestic pig (Sus scrofa is a species, in which iron metabolism has been most intensively examined during last decade. The obvious reason for studying the regulation of iron homeostasis especially in young pigs is neonatal iron deficiency anemia commonly occurring in these animals. Moreover, supplementation of essentially all commercially reared piglets with iron entails a need for monitoring the efficacy of this routine practice followed in the swine industry for several decades. Since the discovery of hepcidin many studies confirmed its role as key regulator of iron metabolism and pointed out the assessment of its concentrations in biological fluids as diagnostic tool for iron-related disorder. Here we demonstrate that urine hepcidin-25 levels measured by a combination of weak cation exchange chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (WCX-TOF MS are highly correlated with mRNA hepcidin expression in the liver and plasma hepcidin-25 concentrations in anemic and iron-supplemented 28-day old piglets. We also found a high correlation between urine hepcidin level and hepatic non-heme iron content. Our results show that similarly to previously described transgenic mouse models of iron disorders, young pigs constitute a convenient animal model to explore accuracy and relationship between indicators for assessing systemic iron status.

  10. 38 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE IRON STATUS OF PREGNANT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sys01

    The study investigated the factors that influence iron ... approaches employed for promotion of girl-child education and prevention of adolescent .... purchase food items rich in haem iron such as ... decision making, life style options, and control.

  11. Laboratory methodologies for indicators of iron status: strengths, limitations, and analytical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Christine M; Looker, Anne C

    2017-12-01

    Biochemical assessment of iron status relies on serum-based indicators, such as serum ferritin (SF), transferrin saturation, and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), as well as erythrocyte protoporphyrin. These indicators present challenges for clinical practice and national nutrition surveys, and often iron status interpretation is based on the combination of several indicators. The diagnosis of iron deficiency (ID) through SF concentration, the most commonly used indicator, is complicated by concomitant inflammation. sTfR concentration is an indicator of functional ID that is not an acute-phase reactant, but challenges in its interpretation arise because of the lack of assay standardization, common reference ranges, and common cutoffs. It is unclear which indicators are best suited to assess excess iron status. The value of hepcidin, non-transferrin-bound iron, and reticulocyte indexes is being explored in research settings. Serum-based indicators are generally measured on fully automated clinical analyzers available in most hospitals. Although international reference materials have been available for years, the standardization of immunoassays is complicated by the heterogeneity of antibodies used and the absence of physicochemical reference methods to establish "true" concentrations. From 1988 to 2006, the assessment of iron status in NHANES was based on the multi-indicator ferritin model. However, the model did not indicate the severity of ID and produced categorical estimates. More recently, iron status assessment in NHANES has used the total body iron stores (TBI) model, in which the log ratio of sTfR to SF is assessed. Together, sTfR and SF concentrations cover the full range of iron status. The TBI model better predicts the absence of bone marrow iron than SF concentration alone, and TBI can be analyzed as a continuous variable. Additional consideration of methodologies, interpretation of indicators, and analytic standardization is important for further

  12. Iron status in pregnant women and women of reproductive age in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milman, Nils; Taylor, Christine L; Merkel, Joyce; Brannon, Patsy M

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the iron status in pregnant women in Europe provides a foundation for considering the role of iron screening and supplementation. However, available reports and studies have used different approaches that challenge the devising of overall summaries. Moreover, data on pregnant women are limited, and thus, data on women of reproductive age provide useful background information including baseline iron stores in pregnant women. This review considered data that are available from >15 European countries including national surveys and relevant clinical studies. In European women of reproductive age, median or geometric mean serum ferritin (SF) concentrations were estimated at 26-38 μg/L. Approximately 40-55% of this population had small or depleted iron stores (i.e., SF concentration ≤30 μg/L), and 45-60% of this population had apparently replete iron stores. The prevalence of iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) was 10-32% and 2-5%, respectively, depending on the cutoffs used. Approximately 20-35% of European women of reproductive age had sufficient iron stores (SF concentration >70 μg/L) to complete a pregnancy without supplementary iron. During pregnancy, European women in controlled supplementation trials who were not receiving iron supplements displayed increasing prevalences of ID and IDA during pregnancy, which peaked in the middle to late third trimester. Available evidence has suggested that, in gestational weeks 32-39, the median or geometric mean SF concentrations were 6-21 μg/L, and prevalences of ID and IDA were 28-85% and 21-35%, respectively. Women who were taking iron supplements had higher iron status and lower prevalences of ID and IDA, which were dependent on the dose of iron and compliance. The data suggest that, in Europe, the iron status of reproductive-aged women varies by region and worsens in pregnancy without iron supplementation. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Iron status in 358 apparently healthy 80-year-old Danish men and women: relation to food composition and dietary and supplemental iron intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, Nils; Pedersen, Agnes Nadelmann; Ovesen, Lars

    2004-01-01

    of age from a 1914 cohort study. Blood samples included serum ferritin and hemoglobin (Hb). A dietary survey was performed in 232 subjects (120 men, 112 women) using a dietary history method. Median serum ferritin was 100 mug/l in men and 78 mug/l in women (p300 mug/l (i.e., iron overload) were found......In Denmark, the intake of dietary iron has decreased since 1987, when the mandatory iron fortification of flour (30 mg carbonyl iron/kg) was stopped. Since there have been no studies of iron status in elderly Danes after the abolishment of iron fortification, there is a need to assess actual iron...... status in the elderly population. The objective was to evaluate iron status and the relationship with food composition and dietary and supplemental iron intake in an elderly population in Copenhagen County. Participants in this health examination survey were 358 subjects (171 men, 187 women) 80 years...

  14. Iron uptake and increased intracellular enzyme activity follow host lactoferrin binding by Trichomonas vaginalis receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, K.M.; Alderete, J.F.

    1984-08-01

    Lactoferrin acquisition and iron uptake by pathogenic Trichomonas vaginalis was examined. Saturation binding kinetics were obtained for trichomonads using increasing amounts of radioiodinated lactoferrin, while no significant binding by transferrin under similar conditions was achieved. Only unlabeled lactoferrin successfully and stoichiometrically competed with 125I-labeled lactoferrin binding. Time course studies showed maximal lactoferrin binding by 30 min at 37 degrees C. Data suggest no internalization of bound lactoferrin. The accumulation of radioactivity in supernatants after incubation of T. vaginalis with 125I-labeled lactoferrin and washing in PBS suggested the presence of low affinity sites for this host macromolecule. Scatchard analysis indicated the presence of 90,000 receptors per trichomonad with an apparent Kd of 1.0 microM. Two trichomonad lactoferrin binding proteins were identified by affinity chromatography and immunoprecipitation of receptor-ligand complexes. A 30-fold accumulation of iron was achieved using 59Fe-lactoferrin when compared to the steady state concentration of bound lactoferrin. The activity of pyruvate/ferrodoxin oxidoreductase, an enzyme involved in trichomonal energy metabolism, increased more than sixfold following exposure of the parasites to lactoferrin, demonstrating a biologic response to the receptor-mediated binding of lactoferrin. These data suggest that T. vaginalis possesses specific receptors for biologically relevant host proteins and that these receptors contribute to the metabolic processes of the parasites.

  15. Iron uptake and increased intracellular enzyme activity follow host lactoferrin binding by Trichomonas vaginalis receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, K.M.; Alderete, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    Lactoferrin acquisition and iron uptake by pathogenic Trichomonas vaginalis was examined. Saturation binding kinetics were obtained for trichomonads using increasing amounts of radioiodinated lactoferrin, while no significant binding by transferrin under similar conditions was achieved. Only unlabeled lactoferrin successfully and stoichiometrically competed with 125I-labeled lactoferrin binding. Time course studies showed maximal lactoferrin binding by 30 min at 37 degrees C. Data suggest no internalization of bound lactoferrin. The accumulation of radioactivity in supernatants after incubation of T. vaginalis with 125I-labeled lactoferrin and washing in PBS suggested the presence of low affinity sites for this host macromolecule. Scatchard analysis indicated the presence of 90,000 receptors per trichomonad with an apparent Kd of 1.0 microM. Two trichomonad lactoferrin binding proteins were identified by affinity chromatography and immunoprecipitation of receptor-ligand complexes. A 30-fold accumulation of iron was achieved using 59Fe-lactoferrin when compared to the steady state concentration of bound lactoferrin. The activity of pyruvate/ferrodoxin oxidoreductase, an enzyme involved in trichomonal energy metabolism, increased more than sixfold following exposure of the parasites to lactoferrin, demonstrating a biologic response to the receptor-mediated binding of lactoferrin. These data suggest that T. vaginalis possesses specific receptors for biologically relevant host proteins and that these receptors contribute to the metabolic processes of the parasites

  16. Influence of iron and zinc status on cadmium accumulation in Bangladeshi women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kippler, Maria; Ekstroem, Eva-Charlotte; Loennerdal, Bo; Goessler, Walter; Akesson, Agneta; El Arifeen, Shams; Persson, Lars-Ake; Vahter, Marie

    2007-01-01

    Cadmium is a widespread environmental contaminant present in food. The absorption in the intestine increases in individuals with low iron stores, but the effect of zinc deficiency is not clear. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of iron and zinc status on cadmium accumulation in pregnant Bangladeshi women. We measured cadmium in urine from 890 women using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Further, we also measured ferritin and zinc in plasma. The median cadmium concentration in urine was 0.59 μg/L (adjusted to mean specific gravity of 1.012 g/mL). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) showed that urinary cadmium was associated with plasma ferritin and plasma zinc via a significant interaction between dichotomized plasma ferritin and plasma zinc. The analysis was adjusted for age and socioeconomic status. Women with low iron stores and adequate zinc status had significantly higher urinary cadmium compared to women with both adequate iron stores and zinc status. There was no difference in urinary cadmium between women with both low iron stores and zinc status compared to those with both adequate iron stores and zinc status. In conclusion, low iron stores were associated with increased cadmium accumulation, but only at adequate zinc status

  17. The Role of Eating Habits on the Iron Status of Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivolarska, Anelia V; Gatseva, Penka D; Maneva, Ana I

    2016-01-01

    This study highlights the relationship between some eating habits and iron status during pregnancy. The study included 219 healthy pregnant women aged 27.6 ± 5.7 years from southern Bulgaria. Subjects' iron status was assessed on the basis of the following iron indicators: hemoglobin (Hb), serum ferritin (SF), serum transferrin receptor (sTfR), and body iron index (mg/kg). Severe anemia among the women from southern Bulgaria was not observed. Advanced pregnancy and some eating habits are factors that deteriorate iron status. Women who had consumed fish at least 3 times a week had lower levels of sTfR (р = 0.008), higher levels of SF (р = 0.05), and lower levels of body iron (р = 0.018). Frequent legume consumption was related to increased levels of sTfR (р = 0.036). Pregnant women with a high frequency of coffee consumption had lower values of body iron (р < 0.0001). Women who had consumed cow's milk at least 3 times a week had lower levels of SF (р = 0.026) and body iron (р = 0.042). Regular consumption of fish and legumes, rarely drinking coffee, and milk consumption during the intervals between food intake are conditions for optimization of iron status during pregnancy.

  18. Diet and iron status of nonpregnant women in rural Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backstrand, Jeffrey R; Allen, Lindsay H; Black, Anne K; de Mata, Margarita; Pelto, Gretel H

    2002-07-01

    Few studies have examined the relation of iron status to diet in populations from developing countries with high levels of iron deficiency and diets of poor quality. The objective was to identify nutrients, dietary constituents, and foods that are associated with better iron status in a rural Mexican population. A prospective cohort study was conducted in rural central Mexico. The subjects were 125 nonpregnant women aged 16-44 y. During the 12 mo before blood collection, food intakes were assessed repeatedly by a combination of dietary recalls, food weighing, and food diaries [mean (+/-SD) days of food intake data: 18.8 +/- 5.9 d]. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, and plasma ferritin were measured at the end of the study. Higher plasma ferritin concentrations were associated with greater intakes of nonheme iron and ascorbic acid after control for age, BMI, breast-feeding, season, and the time since the birth of the last child. Higher ascorbic acid intakes, but not higher intakes of heme and nonheme iron, predicted a lower risk of low hemoglobin and hematocrit values after control for the background variables. Consumption of the alcoholic beverage pulque predicted a lower risk of low ferritin and low hemoglobin values. Seasonal variation in ferritin, hemoglobin, and hematocrit values was observed. Better iron status was associated with greater intakes of foods containing nonheme iron and ascorbic acid. PULQUE:a beverage containing iron, ascorbic acid, and alcohol-may influence the iron status of women in rural central Mexico.

  19. Quantification of body iron and iron absorption in the REDS-II Donor Iron Status Evaluation (RISE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Joseph E; Birch, Rebecca J; Steele, Whitney R; Wright, David J; Cable, Ritchard G

    2017-07-01

    Repeated blood donation alters the iron balance of blood donors. We quantified these effects by analyzing changes in body iron as well as calculating iron absorbed per day for donors enrolled in a prospective study. For 1308 donors who completed a final study visit, we calculated total body iron at the enrollment and final visits and the change in total body iron over the course of the study. Taking into account iron lost from blood donations during the study and obligate losses, we also calculated the average amount of iron absorbed per day. First-time/reactivated donors at enrollment had iron stores comparable to previous general population estimates. Repeat donors had greater donation intensity and greater mean iron losses than first-time/reactivated donors, yet they had little change in total body iron over the study period, whereas first-time/reactivated donors had an average 35% drop. There was higher estimated iron absorption in the repeat donors (men: 4.49 mg/day [95% confidence interval [CI], 4.41-4.58 mg/day]; women: 3.75 mg/day [95% CI, 3.67-3.84 mg/day]) compared with estimated iron absorption in first-time/reactivated donors (men: 2.89 mg/day [95% CI, 2.75-3.04 mg/day]; women: 2.76 mg/day [95% CI, 2.64-2.87 mg/day]). The threshold for negative estimated iron stores (below "0" mg/kg stores) was correlated with the development of anemia at a plasma ferritin value of 10 ng/mL. These analyses provide quantitative data on changes in estimated total body iron for a broad spectrum of blood donors. In contrast to using ferritin alone, this model allows assessment of the iron content of red blood cells and the degree of both iron surplus and depletion over time. © 2017 AABB.

  20. Within-host evolution of Pseudomonas aeruginosa reveals adaptation toward iron acquisition from hemoglobin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marvig, Rasmus Lykke; Pedersen, Søren Damkiær; Khademi, Seyed Mohammad Hossein

    2014-01-01

    the within-host evolution of the transmissible P. aeruginosa DK2 lineage. We found positive selection for promoter mutations leading to increased expression of the phu system. By mimicking conditions of the CF airways in vitro, we experimentally demonstrate that increased expression of phuR confers a growth...... advantage in the presence of hemoglobin, thus suggesting that P. aeruginosa evolves toward iron acquisition from hemoglobin. To rule out that this adaptive trait is specific to the DK2 lineage, we inspected the genomes of additional P. aeruginosa lineages isolated from CF airways and found similar adaptive...... might therefore be a promising strategy for the treatment of P. aeruginosa infections in CF patients. IMPORTANCE Most bacterial pathogens depend on scavenging iron within their hosts, which makes the battle for iron between pathogens and hosts a hallmark of infection. Accordingly, the ability...

  1. Iron Supplementation Effects on Redox Status following Aseptic Skeletal Muscle Trauma in Adults and Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chariklia K. Deli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise-induced skeletal muscle microtrauma is characterized by loss of muscle cell integrity, marked aseptic inflammatory response, and oxidative stress. We examined if iron supplementation would alter redox status after eccentric exercise. In a randomized, double blind crossover study, that was conducted in two cycles, healthy adults (n=14 and children (n=11 received daily either 37 mg of elemental iron or placebo for 3 weeks prior to and up to 72 h after an acute eccentric exercise bout. Blood was drawn at baseline, before exercise, and 72 h after exercise for the assessment of iron status, creatine kinase activity (CK, and redox status. Iron supplementation at rest increased iron concentration and transferrin saturation (p<0.01. In adults, CK activity increased at 72 h after exercise, while no changes occurred in children. Iron supplementation increased TBARS at 72 h after exercise in both adults and children; no changes occurred under placebo condition. Eccentric exercise decreased bilirubin concentration at 72 h in all groups. Iron supplementation can alter redox responses after muscle-damaging exercise in both adults and children. This could be of great importance not only for healthy exercising individuals, but also in clinical conditions which are characterized by skeletal muscle injury and inflammation, yet iron supplementation is crucial for maintaining iron homeostasis. This study was registered at Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02374619.

  2. Iron Supplementation Effects on Redox Status following Aseptic Skeletal Muscle Trauma in Adults and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deli, Chariklia K; Fatouros, Ioannis G; Paschalis, Vassilis; Tsiokanos, Athanasios; Georgakouli, Kalliopi; Zalavras, Athanasios; Avloniti, Alexandra; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z

    2017-01-01

    Exercise-induced skeletal muscle microtrauma is characterized by loss of muscle cell integrity, marked aseptic inflammatory response, and oxidative stress. We examined if iron supplementation would alter redox status after eccentric exercise. In a randomized, double blind crossover study, that was conducted in two cycles, healthy adults ( n = 14) and children ( n = 11) received daily either 37 mg of elemental iron or placebo for 3 weeks prior to and up to 72 h after an acute eccentric exercise bout. Blood was drawn at baseline, before exercise, and 72 h after exercise for the assessment of iron status, creatine kinase activity (CK), and redox status. Iron supplementation at rest increased iron concentration and transferrin saturation ( p exercise, while no changes occurred in children. Iron supplementation increased TBARS at 72 h after exercise in both adults and children; no changes occurred under placebo condition. Eccentric exercise decreased bilirubin concentration at 72 h in all groups. Iron supplementation can alter redox responses after muscle-damaging exercise in both adults and children. This could be of great importance not only for healthy exercising individuals, but also in clinical conditions which are characterized by skeletal muscle injury and inflammation, yet iron supplementation is crucial for maintaining iron homeostasis. This study was registered at Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02374619.

  3. Body iron status and gastric cancer risk in the EURGAST study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fonseca-Nunes, Ana; Agudo, Antonio; Aranda, Núria; Arija, Victoria; Cross, Amanda J.; Molina, Esther; Sanchez, Maria Jose; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H. B.; Siersema, Peter; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Krogh, Vittorio; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Saieva, Calogero; Naccarati, Alessio; Ohlsson, Bodil; Sjöberg, Klas; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Cadeau, Claire; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boeing, Heiner; Steffen, Annika; Kühn, Tilman; Katzke, Verena; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Khaw, Kay Tee; Wareham, Nick; Key, Tim; Lu, Yunxia; Riboli, Elio; Peeters, Petra H.; Gavrila, Diana; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirõs, José Ramõn; Barricarte, Aurelio; Jenab, Mazda; Zamora-Ros, Raúl; Freisling, Heinz; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Bamia, Christina; Jakszyn, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Although it appears biologically plausible for iron to be associated with gastric carcinogenesis, the evidence is insufficient to lead to any conclusions. To further investigate the relationship between body iron status and gastric cancer risk, we conducted a nested case-control study in the

  4. Relationship between indices of iron status and metabolic syndrome in an Iranian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloofar Tavakoli-Hoseini

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Iron overload may contribute to the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome (MS. A growing body of evidence indicates that the oxidative stress that results from excess tissue iron can leads to insulin resistance, tissue damage, and other complications observed in MS. The objective of this study was to investigate indices of iron status including serum ferritin, iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC levels, and full blood cell count, together with demographic and anthropometric characteristics, lipid profile components, and other biochemical parameters in subjects with and with-out MS. Methods: A total of, 385 individuals (176 with and 209 subjects without MS according to the International Diabetes Federation’s (IDF criteria were recruited. Indices of iron status and other clinical and biochemical parameters were determined in MS patients and healthy controls using standard methods. Results: Higher serum iron and ferritin values were observed in subjects with MS in compared to healthy controls (P 0.050. Among the other indices, only red blood cell (RBC was associated considerably with the presence of MS (P < 0.050. Conclusion: Our data indicate that even in a country with a comparatively high prevalence of iron deficiency, serum iron and ferritin values in MS patients are higher than healthy controls. The reason why ferritin and iron are higher in MS patient may be related to dietary factors.

  5. Phytic acid concentration influences iron bioavailability from biofortified beans in Rwandese women with low iron status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Nicolai; Egli, Ines; Gahutu, Jean B; Tugirimana, Pierrot L; Boy, Erick; Hurrell, Richard

    2014-11-01

    The common bean is a staple crop in many African and Latin American countries and is the focus of biofortification initiatives. Bean iron concentration has been doubled by selective plant breeding, but the additional iron is reported to be of low bioavailability, most likely due to high phytic acid (PA) concentrations. The present study evaluated the impact of PA on iron bioavailability from iron-biofortified beans. Iron absorption, based on erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes, was measured in 22 Rwandese women who consumed multiple, composite bean meals with potatoes or rice in a crossover design. Iron absorption from meals containing biofortified beans (8.8 mg Fe, 1320 mg PA/100 g) and control beans (5.4 mg Fe, 980 mg PA/100 g) was measured with beans containing either their native PA concentration or with beans that were ∼50% dephytinized or >95% dephytinized. The iron concentration of the cooked composite meals with biofortified beans was 54% higher than in the same meals with control beans. With native PA concentrations, fractional iron absorption from the control bean meals was 9.2%, 30% higher than that from the biofortified bean meals (P bean meals (406 μg) was 19% higher (P bean meals. With ∼50% and >95% dephytinization, the quantity of iron absorbed from the biofortified bean meals increased to 599 and 746 μg, respectively, which was 37% (P bean meals. PA strongly decreases iron bioavailability from iron-biofortified beans, and a high PA concentration is an important impediment to the optimal effectiveness of bean iron biofortification. Plant breeders should focus on lowering the PA concentration of high-iron beans. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01521273. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Iron Status in Toddlerhood Predicts Sensitivity to Psychostimulants in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Catharyn A.; Xie, Diqiong; Zimmerman, Bridget M.; Calarge, Chadi A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Iron deficiency is associated with impaired dopaminergic signaling and externalizing behavior. The authors examine, whether iron stores in toddlerhood influence later response to psychostimulants. Method: Youth participating in a study monitoring the long-term safety of risperidone were included in this analysis if they had received…

  7. Associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms in iron-related genes and iron status in multiethnic populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine E McLaren

    Full Text Available The existence of multiple inherited disorders of iron metabolism suggests genetic contributions to iron deficiency. We previously performed a genome-wide association study of iron-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs using DNA from white men aged ≥ 25 y and women ≥ 50 y in the Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening (HEIRS Study with serum ferritin (SF ≤ 12 µg/L (cases and controls (SF >100 µg/L in men, SF >50 µg/L in women. We report a follow-up study of white, African-American, Hispanic, and Asian HEIRS participants, analyzed for association between SNPs and eight iron-related outcomes. Three chromosomal regions showed association across multiple populations, including SNPs in the TF and TMPRSS6 genes, and on chromosome 18q21. A novel SNP rs1421312 in TMPRSS6 was associated with serum iron in whites (p = 3.7 × 10(-6 and replicated in African Americans (p = 0.0012.Twenty SNPs in the TF gene region were associated with total iron-binding capacity in whites (p<4.4 × 10(-5; six SNPs replicated in other ethnicities (p<0.01. SNP rs10904850 in the CUBN gene on 10p13 was associated with serum iron in African Americans (P = 1.0 × 10(-5. These results confirm known associations with iron measures and give unique evidence of their role in different ethnicities, suggesting origins in a common founder.

  8. The association between iron status and some immunological factors in the pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadereh Naderi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anemia (IDA is a common problem in many developing countries. It is still considered the most common nutrition deficiency worldwide. Apart from its direct hematologic importance, IDA affects cellular and humoral immunity and predisposes the host to infections (1.Pregnant women are highly prone to IDA. Controversial results are reported in studies targeting this group of patients. Tang et al showed a direct association between hemoglobin concentration and the count of CD4+ T-cell lymphocytes, serum levels of IL-2 and IgG, and an inverse association with susceptibility to infection (2. Ironically, Leush et al reported an increase in IgM and IgG in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy in women with IDA (3.With regard to controversial results and the scarcity of studies focusing on pregnant women, we aimed to enlighten the relation between iron status and some immunological factors include some component of complement system, IgA, IgM, IgG subclasses of immunoglobulins and pro-inflammatory cytokines during the third trimester of pregnancy.In a descriptive-analytic study participants were recruited using convenient sampling from the women in the third trimester of pregnancyCorresponding author:Nadereh Naderi, Faculty of Medicine, First of Nabovat minicity, opposite of Workers Welfare Community, First of Imam Hossein Blv., Bandarabbas, Iran.Email: msbhnadereh@yahoo.comreferred to the labor room of gynecology and obstetrics ward of Dr. Shariati Hospital of Bandar Abbas, Iran. Patients with signs and symptoms of thalassemia, infectious diseases or autoimmune diseases were excluded.IDA were defined with two criteria, hemoglobin concentration of less than 10 mg/dL (its normal range during the third trimesters of pregnancy is 11-14mg/dL (4 and ferritin less than 40 ng/dL. Patients were categorized into two groups: those with iron deficiency anemia (IDA and those without this condition (no IDA.Red cell indices including hemoglobin

  9. The contribution of diet and genotype to iron status in women: a classical twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairweather-Tait, Susan J; Guile, Geoffrey R; Valdes, Ana M; Wawer, Anna A; Hurst, Rachel; Skinner, Jane; Macgregor, Alexander J

    2013-01-01

    This is the first published report examining the combined effect of diet and genotype on body iron content using a classical twin study design. The aim of this study was to determine the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors in determining iron status. The population was comprised of 200 BMI- and age-matched pairs of MZ and DZ healthy twins, characterised for habitual diet and 15 iron-related candidate genetic markers. Variance components analysis demonstrated that the heritability of serum ferritin (SF) and soluble transferrin receptor was 44% and 54% respectively. Measured single nucleotide polymorphisms explained 5% and selected dietary factors 6% of the variance in iron status; there was a negative association between calcium intake and body iron (p = 0.02) and SF (p = 0.04).

  10. The association of iron status with educational performance and intelligence among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanayake, D S; Kumarasiri, P V R; Nugegoda, D B; Dissanayake, D M

    2009-09-01

    The aim was to identify the association of iron status with educational performance and intelligence of adolescents. This was a cross sectional comparative study among adolescents aged 13-15 years. Each iron deficient student was matched with an iron sufficient student from the same school, class and sex. Iron status was based on haemoglobin and serum ferritin levels. The marks for mathematics, science, Sinhala language and social science were considered to assess educational performance. Intelligence was measured by Raven's Standard progressive matrices. All the possible confounders and effect modifiers were considered. Home visits to a sub-sample checked the quality of data. The final analysis included 188 students (94 matched pairs). Neither educational performance nor intelligence showed significant associations with the iron status. The severity of the iron deficiency did not relate to these cognitive variables either. Twenty-three and 8 co-variables showed statistically significant associations with educational performance and intelligence respectively. Following a multiple regression analysis intelligence, the enthusiasm of the student towards learning, occupational ambition, household possession, problems at home and private tuition for mathematics were key factors predicting educational performance. Stunting and educational level of the mother were important factors influencing intelligence. Iron status does not play a major role in educational performance and intelligence of school going adolescents. Several factors affect educational performance and intelligence. This study highlights the difficulty in extrapolating the findings of similar studies to different ecological settings.

  11. Proteomic analysis reveals that iron availability alters the metabolic status of the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana F A Parente

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a thermodimorphic fungus and the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM. The ability of P. brasiliensis to uptake nutrients is fundamental for growth, but a reduction in the availability of iron and other nutrients is a host defense mechanism many pathogenic fungi must overcome. Thus, fungal mechanisms that scavenge iron from host may contribute to P. brasiliensis virulence. In order to better understand how P. brasiliensis adapts to iron starvation in the host we compared the two-dimensional (2D gel protein profile of yeast cells during iron starvation to that of iron rich condition. Protein spots were selected for comparative analysis based on the protein staining intensity as determined by image analysis. A total of 1752 protein spots were selected for comparison, and a total of 274 out of the 1752 protein spots were determined to have changed significantly in abundance due to iron depletion. Ninety six of the 274 proteins were grouped into the following functional categories; energy, metabolism, cell rescue, virulence, cell cycle, protein synthesis, protein fate, transcription, cellular communication, and cell fate. A correlation between protein and transcript levels was also discovered using quantitative RT-PCR analysis from RNA obtained from P. brasiliensis under iron restricting conditions and from yeast cells isolated from infected mouse spleens. In addition, western blot analysis and enzyme activity assays validated the differential regulation of proteins identified by 2-D gel analysis. We observed an increase in glycolytic pathway protein regulation while tricarboxylic acid cycle, glyoxylate and methylcitrate cycles, and electron transport chain proteins decreased in abundance under iron limiting conditions. These data suggest a remodeling of P. brasiliensis metabolism by prioritizing iron independent pathways.

  12. Host-Nonspecific Iron Acquisition Systems and Virulence in the Zoonotic Serovar of Vibrio vulnificus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajuelo, David; Lee, Chung-Te; Roig, Francisco J.; Lemos, Manuel L.; Hor, Lien-I

    2014-01-01

    The zoonotic serovar of Vibrio vulnificus (known as biotype 2 serovar E) is the etiological agent of human and fish vibriosis. The aim of the present work was to discover the role of the vulnibactin- and hemin-dependent iron acquisition systems in the pathogenicity of this zoonotic serovar under the hypothesis that both are host-nonspecific virulence factors. To this end, we selected three genes for three outer membrane receptors (vuuA, a receptor for ferric vulnibactin, and hupA and hutR, two hemin receptors), obtained single and multiple mutants as well as complemented strains, and tested them in a series of in vitro and in vivo assays, using eels and mice as animal models. The overall results confirm that hupA and vuuA, but not hutR, are host-nonspecific virulence genes and suggest that a third undescribed host-specific plasmid-encoded system could also be used by the zoonotic serovar in fish. hupA and vuuA were expressed in the internal organs of the animals in the first 24 h of infection, suggesting that they may be needed to achieve the population size required to trigger fatal septicemia. vuuA and hupA were sequenced in strains representative of the genetic diversity of this species, and their phylogenies were reconstructed by multilocus sequence analysis of selected housekeeping and virulence genes as a reference. Given the overall results, we suggest that both genes might form part of the core genes essential not only for disease development but also for the survival of this species in its natural reservoir, the aquatic environment. PMID:24478087

  13. Ethnic and genetic factors of iron status in women of reproductive age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordeuk, Victor R; Brannon, Patsy M

    2017-12-01

    Background: African Americans are at increased risk of iron deficiency (ID) but also have higher serum ferritin (SF) concentrations than those of the general population. The Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening (HEIRS) Study was a multicenter study of ethnically diverse participants that tested for the hemochromatosis ( HFE ) C282Y genotype and iron status. Objective: We sought to determine the prevalence and predictors of ID (SF concentration ≤15 μg/L) and elevated iron stores (SF concentration >300 μg/L) in HEIRS women of reproductive age (25-44 y). Design: The HEIRS Study was a cross-sectional study of iron status and HFE mutations in primary care patients at 5 centers in the United States and Canada. We analyzed data for women of reproductive age according to whether or not they were pregnant or breastfeeding at the time of the study. Results: ID was present in 12.5% of 20,080 nonpregnant and nonbreastfeeding women compared with 19.2% of 1962 pregnant or breastfeeding women ( P iron stores were shown in 1.7% of nonpregnant and nonbreastfeeding women compared with 0.7% of pregnant or breastfeeding women ( P = 0.001). HFE C282Y homozygosity had the most marked independent association with elevated iron stores in nonpregnant and nonbreastfeeding women and in pregnant or breastfeeding women (OR >49.0; P iron stores in both groups of women (OR >2.0; P iron stores in nonpregnant and nonbreastfeeding women. Conclusions: Both ID and elevated iron stores are present in women of reproductive age and are influenced by ethnicity and HFE C282Y. Efforts to optimize iron status should keep these findings in view. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03276247. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Consuming Iron Biofortified Beans Increases Iron Status in Rwandan Women after 128 Days in a Randomized Controlled Feeding Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Jere D; Luna, Sarah V; Lung'aho, Mercy G; Wenger, Michael J; Murray-Kolb, Laura E; Beebe, Stephen; Gahutu, Jean-Bosco; Egli, Ines M

    2016-08-01

    Food-based strategies to reduce nutritional iron deficiency have not been universally successful. Biofortification has the potential to become a sustainable, inexpensive, and effective solution. This randomized controlled trial was conducted to determine the efficacy of iron-biofortified beans (Fe-Beans) to improve iron status in Rwandan women. A total of 195 women (aged 18-27 y) with serum ferritin Beans, with 86 mg Fe/kg, or standard unfortified beans (Control-Beans), with 50 mg Fe/kg, 2 times/d for 128 d in Huye, Rwanda. Iron status was assessed by hemoglobin, serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and body iron (BI); inflammation was assessed by serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP). Anthropometric measurements were performed at baseline and at end line. Random weekly serial sampling was used to collect blood during the middle 8 wk of the feeding trial. Mixed-effects regression analysis with repeated measurements was used to evaluate the effect of Fe-Beans compared with Control-Beans on iron biomarkers throughout the course of the study. At baseline, 86% of subjects were iron-deficient (serum ferritin beans/d. The Fe-Beans group consumed 14.5 ± 1.6 mg Fe/d from biofortified beans, whereas the Control-Beans group consumed 8.6 ± 0.8 mg Fe/d from standard beans (P Beans group had significantly greater increases in hemoglobin (3.8 g/L), log serum ferritin (0.1 log μg/L), and BI (0.5 mg/kg) than did controls after 128 d. For every 1 g Fe consumed from beans over the 128 study days, there was a significant 4.2-g/L increase in hemoglobin (P beans significantly improved iron status in Rwandan women. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01594359. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Effect of improved vitamin A status on response to iron supplementation in Pakistani infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northrop-Clewes, C A; Paracha, P I; McLoone, U J; Thurnham, D I

    1996-11-01

    We report an apparently protective effect of vitamin A in infants who received iron supplements (15 mg/d) for 3 mo. Those receiving iron showed increases in hemoglobin (8 g/L), ferritin (3.7 micrograms/L), and the acute-phase protein alpha 1-antichymotrypsin (ACT; 0.06 g/L). In both the placebo and iron-supplemented groups there were increases in plasma retinol, lutein, alpha-tocopherol, immunoglobulin A, and immunoglobulin G. The improvement in vitamin A status could only have been from a seasonal increase in dietary sources of vitamin A, eg, breast milk and early weaning foods, and there were no obvious effects on iron utilization (hemoglobin concentrations). However, in the infants receiving iron, those whose retinol concentrations increased also showed reductions in ACT, ferritin, immunoglobulin A, and immunoglobulin M. Vitamin A is well known for its antiinfective properties and we suggest that these observations illustrate the importance of even small increases in dietary vitamin A or differences in vitamin A status in reducing the potentially toxic effects of iron supplements in persons in developing countries. These conclusions should now be confirmed with an intervention study to show that the benefits of vitamin A on iron status are due to reduced levels of infection.

  16. The relationship between iron status and adiposity in women from developing countries: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderibigbe, Olaide Ruth; Pisa, Pedro T; Vorster, Hester H; Kruger, Salome H

    2014-01-01

    Scientific reports have shown that iron deficiency is positively associated with adiposity. With the high prevalence of iron deficiency and obesity in developing countries and women being particularly affected, this review was carried out with the aim of elucidating the link between iron status and adiposity in women from developing countries and to examine factors influencing this relationship. An extensive literature search was conducted using several search engines. A systematic approach with prespecified inclusion criteria was used in selecting relevant literature. Eight studies that met the inclusion criteria were selected for review. The relationship between iron status indices and adiposity in women in developing countries varied widely. While some studies observed negative relationships, some reported positive relationships, and others no significant relationships. Furthermore, other factors such as infection, alcohol consumption, type of diet, and genes were shown to affect the relationship between iron status and adiposity in women in developing countries. In conclusion, the possibility of iron status playing a role in adiposity in women from developing countries is likely, and it may be influenced by several other factors as described in the results. Thus, it is recommended that a special research effort should be directed toward this area.

  17. Effects of Vitamin A Supplementation on Iron Status Indices and Iron Deficiency Anaemia: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham M. Al-Mekhlafi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA is the most common nutritional deficiency in the world including developed and developing countries. Despite intensive efforts to improve the quality of life of rural and aboriginal communities in Malaysia, anaemia and IDA are still major public health problems in these communities particularly among children. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 250 Orang Asli (aboriginal schoolchildren in Malaysia to investigate the effects of a single high-dose of vitamin A supplementation (200,000 IU on iron status indices, anaemia and IDA status. The effect of the supplement was assessed after 3 months of receiving the supplements; after a complete 3-day deworming course of 400 mg/day of albendazole tablets. The prevalence of anaemia was found to be high: 48.5% (95% CI = 42.3, 54.8. Moreover, 34% (95% CI = 28.3, 40.2 of the children had IDA, which accounted for 70.1% of the anaemic cases. The findings showed that the reduction in serum ferritin level and the increments in haemoglobin, serum iron and transferrin saturation were found to be significant among children allocated to the vitamin A group compared to those allocated to the placebo group (p < 0.01. Moreover, a significant reduction in the prevalence of IDA by almost 22% than prevalence at baseline was reported among children in the vitamin A group compared with only 2.3% reduction among children in the placebo group. In conclusion, vitamin A supplementation showed a significant impact on iron status indices and IDA among Orang Asli children. Hence, providing vitamin A supplementation and imparting the knowledge related to nutritious food should be considered in the efforts to improve the nutritional and health status of these children as a part of efforts to improve the quality of life in rural and aboriginal communities.

  18. Zinc Status in Iron Deficient Anaemic Patients in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yagob Mohamed, T.I.; Bode, P.; van de Wiel, A.; Ismail, Fadwa; Wolterbeek, H.T.

    2017-01-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia is a major health problem worldwide, but may be complicated in underdeveloped nations by deficiencies of other micronutrients with consequences for adequate treatment. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 2 billion people – over 30% of the world’s population –

  19. Iron Status in Chronic Heart Failure: Impact on Symptoms, Functional Class and Submaximal Exercise Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enjuanes, Cristina; Bruguera, Jordi; Grau, María; Cladellas, Mercé; Gonzalez, Gina; Meroño, Oona; Moliner-Borja, Pedro; Verdú, José M; Farré, Nuria; Comín-Colet, Josep

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of iron deficiency and anemia on submaximal exercise capacity in patients with chronic heart failure. We undertook a single-center cross-sectional study in a group of stable patients with chronic heart failure. At recruitment, patients provided baseline information and completed a 6-minute walk test to evaluate submaximal exercise capacity and exercise-induced symptoms. At the same time, blood samples were taken for serological evaluation. Iron deficiency was defined as ferritin < 100 ng/mL or transferrin saturation < 20% when ferritin is < 800 ng/mL. Additional markers of iron status were also measured. A total of 538 heart failure patients were eligible for inclusion, with an average age of 71 years and 33% were in New York Heart Association class III/IV. The mean distance walked in the test was 285 ± 101 meters among those with impaired iron status, vs 322 ± 113 meters (P=.002). Symptoms during the test were more frequent in iron deficiency patients (35% vs 27%; P=.028) and the most common symptom reported was fatigue. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that increased levels of soluble transferrin receptor indicating abnormal iron status were independently associated with advanced New York Heart Association class (P < .05). Multivariable analysis using generalized additive models, soluble transferrin receptor and ferritin index, both biomarkers measuring iron status, showed a significant, independent and linear association with submaximal exercise capacity (P=.03 for both). In contrast, hemoglobin levels were not significantly associated with 6-minute walk test distance in the multivariable analysis. In patients with chronic heart failure, iron deficiency but not anemia was associated with impaired submaximal exercise capacity and symptomatic functional limitation. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Combined segregation and linkage analysis of genetic hemochromatosis using affection status, serum iron, and HLA.

    OpenAIRE

    Borecki, I B; Lathrop, G M; Bonney, G E; Yaouanq, J; Rao, D C

    1990-01-01

    Characterizing the distribution of parameters of iron metabolism by hemochromatosis genotype remains an important goal vis-à-vis potential screening strategies to identify individuals at genetic risk, since a specific marker to detect the abnormal gene has not been identified as yet. In the present investigation, we analyze serum iron values in ascertained families using a method which incorporates both segregation of the clinical affection status and the HLA linkage information to identify t...

  1. One mum too few: maternal status in host surrogate motherhood arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oultram, Stuart

    2015-06-01

    In a host surrogate motherhood arrangement, the surrogate agrees to be implanted with, and carry to term, an embryo created from the commissioning couple's gametes. When the surrogate child is born, it is the surrogate mother who, according to UK law, holds the legal status of mother. By contrast, the commissioning mother possesses no maternal status and she can only attain it once the surrogate agrees to the completion of the arrangement. One consequence of this is that, in the event that a host arrangement fails, the commissioning mother is left without maternal status. In this paper, I argue that this denial of maternal status misrepresents the commissioning mother's role in the host arrangement and her relationship with the surrogate child. Consequently, I suggest that commissioning mothers participating in host surrogacy arrangements ought to be granted the status of mother in the event that the arrangement fails. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. HFE Gene Mutations and Iron Status in 100 Healthy Polish Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczorowska-Hac, Barbara; Luszczyk, Marcin; Antosiewicz, Jedrzej; Ziolkowski, Wieslaw; Adamkiewicz-Drozynska, Elzbieta; Mysliwiec, Malgorzata; Milosz, Ewa; Kaczor, Jan J

    2017-07-01

    Iron participates in oxygen transport, energetic, metabolic, and immunologic processes. There are 2 main causes of iron overload: hereditary hemochromatosis which is a primary cause, is a metabolic disorder caused by mutations of genes that control iron metabolism and secondary hemochromatosis caused by multitransfusions, chronic hemolysis, and intake of iron rich food. The most common type of hereditary hemochromatosis is caused by HFE gene mutation. In this study, we analyzed iron metabolism in 100 healthy Polish children in relation to their HFE gene status. The wild-type HFE gene was predominant being observed in 60 children (60%). Twenty-five children (25%), presented with heterozygotic H63D mutation, and 15 children (15%), presented with other mutations (heterozygotic C282Y and S65C mutation, compound heterozygotes C282Y/S65C, C282Y/H63D, H63D homozygote). The mean concentration of iron, the level of ferritin, and transferrin saturation were statistically higher in the group of HFE variants compared with the wild-type group. H63D carriers presented with higher mean concentration of iron, ferritin levels, and transferrin saturation compared with the wild-type group. Male HFE carriers presented with higher iron concentration, transferrin saturation, and ferritin levels than females. This preliminary investigation demonstrates allelic impact on potential disease progression from childhood.

  3. Impact of food supplements on hemoglobin, iron status, and inflammation in children with moderate acute malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cichon, Bernardette; Fabiansen, Christian; Iuel-Brockdorf, Ann-Sophie Julie D

    2018-01-01

    Background: Children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) are treated with lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) or corn-soy blends (CSBs) but little is known about the impact of these supplements on hemoglobin, iron status, and inflammation. Objective: The objective of this study was to inve......Background: Children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) are treated with lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) or corn-soy blends (CSBs) but little is known about the impact of these supplements on hemoglobin, iron status, and inflammation. Objective: The objective of this study...

  4. Decreased serum hepcidin, inflammation, and improved functional iron status six-months post-restrictive bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excess adiposity is associated with low-grade inflammation and decreased iron status. Iron depletion (ID) in obesity is thought to be mediated by an inflammation-induced increase in the body’s main regulator of iron homeostasis, hepcidin. Elevated hepcidin can result in ID as it prevents the release...

  5. Moessbauer and XRD Comparative Study of Host Rock and Iron Rich Mineral Samples from Paz del Rio Iron Ore Mineral Mine in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo, M.; Perez Alcazar, G. A.; Moreira, A. M.; Speziali, N. L.

    2004-01-01

    A comparative study between the host rock and the iron rich mineral samples from the Paz del Rio iron ore mineral mine in Colombia was performed using X-ray diffraction and Moessbauer spectroscopy. Diffraction results of the iron rich mineral sample show that goethite, hematite, quartz, kaolinite and siderite are the main phases, and that a small amount of illite is also present. By Moessbauer spectroscopy at room temperature (RT) the presence of all the above mentioned phases was detected except quartz as well as an additional presence of small amount of biotite. The goethite, which appears as four sextets with hyperfine fields of 33.5, 30.5, 27.5 and 18.5 T, respectively, is the majority phase. This result shows the different grades of formation of this oxyhydroxide. The Moessbauer spectrum of this sample at 80 K presents the same phases obtained at RT without any superparamagnetic effect. In this case the goethite appears as two sextets. Diffraction results of the host rock sample show a large amount of quartz and kaolinite and small amounts of illite and biotite, whereas by Moessbauer spectroscopy illite, kaolinite and biotite were detected.

  6. Assessment of iron status of Sudanese pregnant women by serum ferritin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltayeb, E.A.; Khangi, F.A.; Satti, G.M.; Abu Salab, A.

    2004-03-01

    Eighty five normal pregnant women were included in the study at the start of the second trimester. Two blood samples were taken during the second trimester and two blood samples during the third trimester. The height of all subjects was measured. The weights of the subjects were under iron-supplementation throughout the gestation period. Sixty four normal non-parentage women were included in the study to serve as controls. Iron status was assessed for the groups with following parameters, haemoglobin (Hb), packed corpuscular volume (PCV), red blood cells count, peripheral blood film, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean cell haemoglobin (MCH), Mean haemoglobin concentration (MCH C), serum iron (Si), total iron binding capacity (T IBC), serum transferrin saturation (Ts) and serum ferritin (Sf). No significant difference was observed in the mean haemoglobin concentrations but the PCV of the non-pregnant women was higher than that of the pregnant women at different stages of gestation (p<0.05). MCV, MCH and MCH C values of the non-pregnant women were lower than those of the of the pregnant at different stages of gestation (p<0.05). Serum iron and transferrin saturation of the non-pregnant women were higher than those of the pregnant women, this difference was statistically significant at weeks (16-18) and (22-24) (p<0.05). Serum ferritin of the non-pregnant women was higher than that of the pregnant women and decreased continuously during the pregnancy, but this decrease was not statistically significant. Iron deficiency anaemia was observed in both pregnant and non-pregnant women. The best parameter that could be used as a marker for iron deficiency is serum ferritin. Iron supplementation s corrected for haemoglobin but not for iron status, but more studies were needed to cover this issue using different parameters.(Author)

  7. Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries ... It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Iron is also part of many other proteins and ...

  8. Positive effects of refugee presence on host community nutritional status in Turkana County, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gengo, Rieti G; Oka, Rahul C; Vemuru, Varalakshmi; Golitko, Mark; Gettler, Lee T

    2018-01-01

    Refugee camps are often assumed to negatively impact local host communities through resource competition and conflict. We ask instead whether economic resources and trade networks associated with refugees have benefits for host community health and nutrition. To address this question we assess the impacts of Kakuma Refugee Camp in northwest Kenya, comparing anthropometric indicators of nutritional status between Turkana communities in the region. Participants were recruited at four sites in Turkana County (N = 586): Kakuma Town, adjacent to Kakuma Refugee Camp; Lorugum, an area with sustained economic development; Lokichoggio, formerly host to international NGOs, and now underdeveloped; and Lorengo, an undeveloped, rural community. We evaluated nutritional status using summed skinfold thickness and body mass index (BMI). Structured interviews provided contextual data. Age-controlled multiple regression models reveal two distinct skinfold thickness profiles for both sexes: comparatively elevated values in Kakuma and Lorugum, and significantly lower values in Lorengo and Lokichoggio. BMI did not vary significantly by location. Despite better nutritional status, a large proportion of Kakuma residents still report worries about basic needs, including hunger, health, and economic security. Kakuma Refugee Camp is associated with better host community energetic status indicators, compared to other relevant, regional sites varying in development and resources. Based on global nutritional standards, observed differences likely represent meaningful disparities in overall health. We suggest that access to cereals via refugee trade networks and employment might mediate this relationship. However, perceptions of refugees as illegitimate interlopers maintain a high psychological burden. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Solute–Solute Interaction In α IRON: The Status QUO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Numakura H.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An overview is presented on the interaction of substitutional solutes with carbon and nitrogen in α iron, which is an important factor in controlling the properties of steels. Starting from a simple model of trapping of the interstitial solute atoms by substitutional solute atoms, the principles of experimental methods for quantitative studies are described, focussing on the Snoek relaxation and solubility measurements, and the knowledge acquired by such experiments is reviewed. An account of recent theoretical approaches to the interaction is also given.

  10. Iron status of pregnant Filipino women as measured by serum ferritin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlas, L A; Kuizon, M D; Tajaon, R T; Desnacido, J A

    1992-12-01

    Iron status of pregnant women at different stages of pregnancy was evaluated by comparing values for hemoglobin (Hb), red cell indices, serum iron (SI), transferrin saturation (TS) and serum ferritin (SF) values with those of a group of non-pregnant women of comparable age and socio-economic status. Mean SF values on the second and third trimesters (9.3 +/- 2.60 ng/ml and 7.1 +/- 2.19 ng/ml) were significantly lower compared to that in the first trimester (22.6 +/- 2.20 ng/ml). These levels were also lower than that found in the non-pregnant controls. The trend was the same for TS. Hemoglobin levels of the pregnant subjects were significantly lower than those of the non-pregnant women. Prevalence of iron deficiency based on SF < 12.0 ng/ml and TS < 16.0% was highest at term and lowest during the first trimester indicating a decrease in iron stores as pregnancy progressed. Sensitivity for each of the iron parameters was computed, and it was found that for the diagnosis of iron deficiency in pregnant women, SF has a greater sensitivity than TS, SI, MCV and MCH.

  11. Pharmacokinetics of Deferiprone in Patients with β-Thalassaemia : Impact of Splenectomy and Iron Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limenta, Lie Michael George; Jirasomprasert, Totsapol; Jittangprasert, Piyada; Wilairat, Prapin; Yamanont, Praveena; Chantharaksri, Udom; Fucharoen, Suthat; Morales, Noppawan Phumala

    2011-01-01

    Iron-rich transfusions and/or a compensatory increase in iron absorption ultimately result in iron loading in patients with β-thalassaemia. Hence, without iron chelation, iron accumulates relentlessly. Deferiprone has been shown to be capable of reducing the iron burden in patients with b-thalassaemia. However, there is wide interpatient variation in deferiprone-induced urinary iron excretion (UIE). We hypothesized that splenectomy and iron status might influence the pharmacokinetic profiles of deferiprone in patients with β-thalassaemia/haemoglobin E, and the present study was aimed at examining this hypothesis. Thirty-one patients with β-thalassaemia/haemoglobin E (20 splenecto-mized and 11 non-splenectomized patients) were enrolled in the study. After an overnight fast, the subjects received a single oral dose of deferiprone 25 mg/kg of body weight. Blood samples were collected pre-dosing and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, 300, 360 and 480 minutes after dosing. Urine output was pooled and collected at 0-2, 2-4, 4-8, 8-12 and 12-24 hour intervals. Serum and urine concentrations of deferiprone and its metabolite deferiprone glucuronide were determined using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method. Serum deferiprone-chelated iron and UIE were determined using a validated colourimetric method. No significant difference in the pharmacokinetic parameters of non-conjugated deferiprone was observed between splenectomized and non-splenectomized patients. However, the maximum serum concentration (C max ) and the area under the serum concentration-time curve (AUC) from time zero to infinity (AUC∞) values of deferiprone glucuronide were significantly lower (both p values of serum deferiprone-chelated iron, as well as UIE, were significantly higher (p values 7.1 µmol/L, 1645 mmol · min/L and 77.1 mmol, respectively) than in non-splenectomized patients (median values 3.1 µmol/L, 545 mmol · min/L and 12.5 µmol, respectively). Urinary

  12. Factors associated with the iron nutritional status of Brazilian children aged 4 to 7 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hercílio Paulino ANDRÉ

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate factors associated with the iron nutritional status of Brazilian children aged 4 to 7 years in the city of Viçosa, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of 357 children aged 4-7 years who had been followed-up up for during their first six months of life by the Breastfeeding Support Program. Socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, feeding practices, nutritional status (height-for-age and body mass index-for-age, and serum ferritin and hemoglobin concentrations were evaluated. Multiple linear regression analysis was carried out to evaluate factors independently associated with iron nutritional status (hemoglobin and ferritin, considering α=0.05 as the significance level. Results The prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency was (34 9.52% and (11 11.00%, respectively. The factors independently associated with anemia were younger child age, low maternal education, low height-for-age Z-scores, and children of single and separated mothers or widows. Iron deficiency was associated with child younger age and consumption of chocolates and chocolate flavored milk. Conclusion The results obtained allow us to conclude that anemia among children 4-7 years of age is a public health problem in the city of Viçosa, Minas Gerais. Therefore, there is a need for intervention measures targeting children in this age group. These measures can be implemented through food and nutritional education by encouraging the consumption of iron-rich foods.

  13. Motor development in 9-month-old infants in relation to cultural differences and iron status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo-Barroso, Rosa M; Schapiro, Lauren; Liang, Weilang; Rodrigues, Onike; Shafir, Tal; Kaciroti, Niko; Jacobson, Sandra W; Lozoff, Betsy

    2011-03-01

    Motor development, which allows infants to explore their environment, promoting cognitive, social, and perceptual development, can be influenced by cultural practices and nutritional factors, such as iron deficiency. This study compared fine and gross motor development in 209 9-month-old infants from urban areas of China, Ghana, and USA (African-Americans) and considered effects of iron status. Iron deficiency anemia was most common in the Ghana sample (55%) followed by USA and China samples. Controlling for iron status, Ghanaian infants displayed precocity in gross motor development and most fine-motor reach-and-grasp tasks. US African-Americans performed the poorest in all tasks except bimanual coordination and the large ball. Controlling for cultural site, iron status showed linear trends for gross motor milestones and fine motor skills with small objects. Our findings add to the sparse literature on infant fine motor development across cultures. The results also indicate the need to consider nutritional factors when examining cultural differences in infant development. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The influences of factors associated with decreased iron supply to the fetus during pregnancy on iron status in healthy children aged 0.5 to 3 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijterschout, L.; Vloemans, J.; Rövekamp-Abels, L.; Feitsma, H.; van Goudoever, J. B.; Brus, F.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate whether maternal anemia, pregnancy-induced diabetes, hypertension and smoking contributed to the recently found high prevalence of iron deficiency in a population of otherwise healthy children. Iron status was assessed in 400 children aged 0.5 to 3 years. We obtained information on

  15. Biomarkers of Hypochromia: The Contemporary Assessment of Iron Status and Erythropoiesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloísa Urrechaga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron status is the result of the balance between the rate of erythropoiesis and the amount of the iron stores. Direct consequence of an imbalance between the erythroid marrow iron requirements and the actual supply is a reduction of red cell hemoglobin content, which causes hypochromic mature red cells and reticulocytes. The diagnosis of iron deficiency is particularly challenging in patients with acute or chronic inflammatory conditions because most of the biochemical markers for iron metabolism (serum ferritin and transferrin are affected by acute phase reaction. For these reasons, interest has been generated in the use of erythrocyte and reticulocyte parameters, available on the modern hematology analyzers. Reported during blood analysis routinely performed on the instrument, these parameters can assist in early detection of clinical conditions (iron deficiency, absolute, or functional; ineffective erythropoiesis, including iron restricted or thalassemia, without additional cost. Technological progress has meant that in recent years modern analyzers report new parameters that provide further information from the traditional count. Nevertheless these new parameters are exclusive of each manufacturer, and they are patented. This is an update of these new laboratory test biomarkers of hypochromia reported by different manufactures, their meaning, and clinical utility on daily practice.

  16. Efficacy of Multiple Micronutrients Fortified Milk Consumption on Iron Nutritional Status in Moroccan Schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imane El Menchawy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency constitutes a major public health problem in Morocco, mainly among women and children. The aim of our paper is to assess the efficacy of consumption of multiple micronutrients (MMN fortified milk on iron status of Moroccan schoolchildren living in rural region. Children (N=195, aged 7 to 9 y, were recruited from schools and divided into two groups: the nonfortified group (NFG received daily a nonfortified Ultra-High-Temperature (UHT milk and the fortified group received (FG daily UHT milk fortified with multiple micronutrients including iron sulfate. Blood samples were collected at baseline (T0 and after 9 months (T9. Hemoglobin (Hb was measured in situ by Hemocue device; ferritin and C Reactive Protein were assessed in serum using ELISA and nephelometry techniques, respectively. Results were considered significant when the p value was <0.05. At T9 FG showed a reduction of iron deficiency from 50.9% to 37.2% (p=0.037. Despite the low prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (1.9%; more than 50% of children in our sample suffered from iron deficiency at baseline. The consumption of fortified milk reduced the prevalence of iron deficiency by 27% in schoolchildren living in high altitude rural region of Morocco. Clinical Trial Registration. Our study is registered in the Pan African Clinical Trial Registry with the identification number PACTR201410000896410.

  17. The effect of gold kiwifruit consumed with an iron fortified breakfast cereal meal on iron status in women with low iron stores: A 16 week randomised controlled intervention study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coad Jane

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary treatment is often recommended as the first line of treatment for women with mild iron deficiency. Although it is well established that ascorbic acid enhances iron absorption, it is less clear whether the consumption of ascorbic acid rich foods (such as kiwifruit with meals fortified with iron improves iron status. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the consumption of ZESPRI® GOLD kiwifruit (a fruit high in ascorbic acid and carotenoids with an iron fortified breakfast cereal meal increases iron status in women with low iron stores. Methods/Design Eighty nine healthy women aged 18-44 years with low iron stores (serum ferritin (SF ≤ 25 μg/L, haemoglobin (Hb ≥ 115 g/L living in Auckland, New Zealand were randomised to receive an iron fortified breakfast cereal (16 mg iron per serve and either two ZESPRI® GOLD kiwifruit or a banana (low ascorbic acid and carotenoid content to eat at breakfast time every day for 16 weeks. Iron status (SF, Hb, C-reactive protein (CRP and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR, ascorbic acid and carotenoid status were measured at baseline and after 16 weeks. Anthropometric measures, dietary intake, physical activity and blood loss were measured before and after the 16 week intervention. Discussion This randomised controlled intervention study will be the first study to investigate the effect of a dietary based intervention of an iron fortified breakfast cereal meal combined with an ascorbic acid and carotenoid rich fruit on improving iron status in women with low iron stores. Trial registration ACTRN12608000360314

  18. Iron status and its determinants in a nationally representative sample of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Amsalkhir, Sihame; Van Oyen, Herman; Egli, Ines; Ines, Egli; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo

    2013-05-01

    Iron-deficiency anemia is associated with adverse neonatal health outcomes. Iron status and its determinants were assessed in a representative sample of Belgian pregnant women. Blood samples were collected and a questionnaire was completed face-to-face. Hemoglobin (Hb) and mean cell volume were measured using a Beckman Coulter Hematology Analyzer and serum ferritin (SF) and transferrin receptor (sTfr) concentrations by immunoassay. In total, 55 obstetric clinics and 1,311 pregnant women were included. Approximately 40% of third-trimester and 6% of first-trimester women had SF levels less than 15 μg/L. Approximately 21% of third-trimester and 4% of first-trimester women had anemia (Hb 8.5 mg/L). The median body iron stores were 8.1 mg/kg among first-trimester women, but only 3.6 mg/kg among third-trimester women. SF levels were significantly positively associated with age and education level, and were higher among nulliparous women and lower among North-African women. sTfr concentrations were significantly negatively associated with age and were lower among smokers, nulliparous women, and women who planned their pregnancy. Despite the fact that two thirds of Belgian pregnant women took iron-containing supplements, iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia were frequent in third-trimester women. The World Health Organization regards this as a moderate public health problem. National iron supplementation guidelines are needed in Belgium to optimize iron status during pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Iron status in pregnant women in the Republic of Seychelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Emeir M; Bonham, Maxine P; Wallace, Julie M W; Chang, Chin-Kuo; Robson, Paula J; Myers, Gary J; Davidson, Philip W; Clarkson, Thomas W; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Strain, J J

    2010-03-01

    To establish the Fe status of pregnant women and their neonates in the Republic of Seychelles. A prospective study. Republic of Seychelles. Pregnant women were recruited and blood samples taken at enrolment and post-delivery along with cord blood samples. Ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) were measured in maternal (n 220) and cord blood (n 123) samples. Maternal Fe deficiency (ferritin 28 nmol/l) was present in 6 % of subjects at enrolment and in 20 % at delivery. There was no significant decrease in maternal ferritin. A significant increase in sTfR was observed between enrolment and delivery (P < 0.001). Maternal BMI and use of Fe supplements at 28 weeks' gestation were associated with improved maternal Fe status at delivery, whereas parity had a negative effect on sTfR and ferritin at delivery. Fe status of pregnant Seychellois women was, on average, within normal ranges. The incidence of Fe deficiency throughout pregnancy in this population was similar to that in a Westernised population. Increased awareness of the importance of adequate Fe intake during pregnancy, particularly in multiparous women, is warranted.

  20. [Effect of Helicobacter pylori infection on iron status among preschool children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Lin, Xi; Chen, Xiao-bing; Niu, Hong-bing; Xu, Neng-feng; Zhao, Zi-qing

    2003-03-01

    To explore the relationship between Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection and iron status using serum ferritin (SF) as a marker for total iron and to identify the related factors of iron nutritional status among preschool children. By cluster sampling, we recruited 475 preschool children aged 2 to 7 years. A structured questionnaire and diet form were sent to the parents of these children to obtain related information about the socioeconomic level and dietary intakes. After collecting blood samples, the following indexes were measured. Hp IgG antibodies were measured with a dot enzyme-linked immunoassay; hemoglobin, Hct, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), red blood cell distribution width index (RDW) with automatic Complete Blood Count; SF with an immunoradiometric assay. Stool Hp antigen and occult bleeding were measured with ELISA among individuals who were Hp seropositive. Hp status was defined as positive when both serum and stool antigen tests were positive, Hp status was defined as negative when serum antigen test was negative; 24-hour weighting and recording methods were used to dietary survey for three days in May and December 2001, respectively, dietary intakes including energy, protein and micronutrient were calculated using nursery school nutrition software and evaluated by Chinese Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). Mann-Whitney test was used to compare mean ranks of SF in Hp-positive and Hp-negative children. To obtain an adjusted estimate of the impact of Hp infection on SF, a multivariate analysis of covariance was done to evaluate the different level of SF between Hp infected and non-infected status. The relationship between iron deficiency and gender, age, socioeconomic condition, iron intake, and calcium intake was assessed by univariate analysis. An unconditional multivariate logistic regression analysis was also performed. Iron deficiency status was dichotomized and

  1. Rhizosphere microbial community structure in relation to root location and plant iron nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C H; Crowley, D E

    2000-01-01

    Root exudate composition and quantity vary in relation to plant nutritional status, but the impact of the differences on rhizosphere microbial communities is not known. To examine this question, we performed an experiment with barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants under iron-limiting and iron-sufficient growth conditions. Plants were grown in an iron-limiting soil in root box microcosms. One-half of the plants were treated with foliar iron every day to inhibit phytosiderophore production and to alter root exudate composition. After 30 days, the bacterial communities associated with different root zones, including the primary root tips, nonelongating secondary root tips, sites of lateral root emergence, and older roots distal from the tip, were characterized by using 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) fingerprints generated by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Our results showed that the microbial communities associated with the different root locations produced many common 16S rDNA bands but that the communities could be distinguished by using correspondence analysis. Approximately 40% of the variation between communities could be attributed to plant iron nutritional status. A sequence analysis of clones generated from a single 16S rDNA band obtained at all of the root locations revealed that there were taxonomically different species in the same band, suggesting that the resolving power of DGGE for characterization of community structure at the species level is limited. Our results suggest that the bacterial communities in the rhizosphere are substantially different in different root zones and that a rhizosphere community may be altered by changes in root exudate composition caused by changes in plant iron nutritional status.

  2. The impact of H63D HFE gene carriage on hemoglobin and iron status in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara, Kaczorowska-Hac; Marcin, Luszczyk; Jedrzej, Antosiewicz; Wieslaw, Ziolkowski; Elzbieta, Adamkiewicz-Drozynska; Malgorzata, Mysliwiec; Ewa, Milosz; Jacek, Kaczor Jan

    2016-12-01

    The molecular mechanism that regulates iron homeostasis is based on a network of signals, which reflect on the iron requirements of the body. Hereditary hemochromatosis is a heterogenic metabolic syndrome which is due to unchecked transfer of iron into the bloodstream and its toxic effects on parenchymatous organs. It is caused by the mutation of genes that encode proteins that help hepcidin to monitor serum iron. These proteins include the human hemochromatosis protein -HFE, transferrin-receptor 2, hemojuvelin in rare instances, and ferroportin. HFE-related hemochromatosis is the most frequent form of the disease. Interestingly, the low penetrance of polymorphic HFE genes results in rare clinical presentation of the disease, predominantly in middle-aged males. Taking into account the wide dispersion of HFE mutation in our population and also its unknown role in heterozygotes, we analyzed the impact of H63D HFE carriage in the developmental age, with respect to gender, on the iron status and hemoglobin concentration of carriers in comparison to those of wild-type HFE gene (12.7 ± 3.07 years, 42 boys and 41 girls). H63D carriers presented higher blood iron, transferrin saturation, and ferritin concentration than wild-type probands (p HFE heterozygotes.

  3. Insulin resistance and serum parameters of iron status in type 2 diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, U.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a predominant public health concern worldwide, accounting for 90% of the cases of diabetes globally. Pathogenesis of T2DM involves insulin resistance, defective insulin secretion and increased glucose production by the liver. Subclinical haemochromatosis has been considered as one of the probable causes of insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to determine and correlate insulin resistance and serum parameters of iron status (serum ferritin and transferrin saturation) in type 2 diabetics. Methods: It was a correlational study. This study was conducted on sixty male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Fasting blood sample was taken from each subject and analysed for glucose, haemoglobin, insulin, iron, Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC) and ferritin. Insulin resistance was determined by HOMA-IR index. Transferrin saturation was calculated from serum iron and TIBC. Data was analysed using SPSS-17. Results: There was significant positive correlation between insulin resistance and transferrin saturation, but there was no significant correlation of insulin resistance with blood haemoglobin, serum iron and serum ferritin in type 2 diabetics. Conclusion: Correlation between insulin resistance and transferrin saturation reveals that iron has negative impact on insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetics. (author)

  4. Nutrient intake and blood iron status of male collegiate soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Yuka; Iide, Kazuhide; Masuda, Reika; Kishida, Reina; Nagata, Atsumi; Hirakawa, Fumiko; Yoshimura, Yoshitaka; Imamura, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was: 1) to collect baseline data on nutrient intake in order to advise athletes about nutrition practices that might enhance performance, and 2) to evaluate the dietary iron intake and blood iron status of Japanese collegiate soccer players. The subjects were 31 soccer players and 15 controls. Dietary information was obtained with a food frequency questionnaire. The mean carbohydrate (6.9 g.kg-1 BW) and protein (1.3 g/kg) intakes of the soccer players were marginal in comparisons with recommended targets. The mean intakes of calcium, magnesium, vitamin A, B1, B2, and C were lower than the respective Japanese recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) or adequate dietary intakes in the soccer players. The mean intakes of green and other vegetables, milk and dairy products, fruits, and eggs were lower than the recommended targets. Thus, we recommended athletes to increase the intake of these foodstuffs along with slight increase in carbohydrate and lean meat. The mean intake of iron was higher than the respective RDA in the soccer players. A high prevalence of hemolysis (71%) in the soccer players was found. None of the soccer players and controls had anemia. Two soccer players had iron depletion, while none was found in the controls. In those players who had iron deficiency, the training load need to be lowered and/or iron intake may be increased.

  5. Iron status in female athletes participating in team ball-sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, A; Enayatizadeh, N; Akbarzadeh, M; Asadi, S; Tabatabaee, S H R

    2010-01-15

    Iron deficiency anemia is the most prevalent micronutrient deficiency in the world, affecting 20-50% of the world's population. It is estimated that 10 and 20% of male and female athletes are iron deficient, respectively. Iron deficiency has deleterious effects on the physical performance of athletes. It decreases aerobic capacity, increases heart rate and elongates the recovery time after exercise. In this cross-sectional study, 42 semi-professional female athletes who had been playing in basketball, volleyball and handball super league teams served as subjects. Data on socioeconomic and fertility status as well as the type of sport were obtained through a questionnaire. Nutritional data were gathered with a 3 day dietary recall. Total intake of calorie, iron, zinc, folate, vitamin C and B12 were also analyzed. In addition, ferritin and TIBC were measured and a CBC test was done for each subject. The results showed that the mean total calorie intake of women was 2049.79 +/- 735.12 kcal, where their iron intake was 22.33 +/- 9.24 mg day(-1). There was a significant difference between the iron intake of basketball and volleyball players (p = 0.036). Of our subjects, 33.33% had low ferritin levels (female athletes and therefore, their hematological indices such as ferritin level are below standard values.

  6. AN ALTERNATIVE HOST MATRIX BASED ON IRON PHOSPHATE GLASSES FOR THE VITRIFICATION OF SPECIALIZED WASTE FORMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, Delbert D.

    2000-01-01

    As mentioned above, the overall goal of this research project was to collect the scientific information essential to develop iron phosphate glass based nuclear wasteforms. The specific objectives of the project were: (1) Investigate the structure of binary iron phosphate glasses and it's dependence on the composition and melting atmosphere: Understand atomic arrangements and nature of the bonding. Establish structure-property relationships. Determine the compositions and melting conditions which optimize the critical properties of the base glass. (2) Understand the structure of iron phosphate wasteforms and it's dependence on the composition and melting atmosphere: Investigate how the waste elements are bonded and coordinated within the glass structure. Establish structure-property relationships for the waste glasses. Determine the compositions and melting atmosphere for which the critical properties of the waste forms would be optimum. (3) Determine the role(s) played by the valence states of iron ions and it's dependence on the composition and melting atmosphere: Understand the different roles of iron(II) and iron(III) ions in determining the critical properties of the base glass and the waste forms. Investigate how the iron valence and its significance depend on the composition and melting atmosphere. (4) Investigate glass forming and crystallization processes of the iron phosphate glasses and their waste forms: Understand the dependence of the glass forming and crystallization characteristics on overall glass composition and valence states of iron ions. Identify the products of devitrification and investigate the critical properties of these crystalline compounds which may adversely affect the chemical and physical properties of the waste forms

  7. Day-to-day variation in iron-status measures in young iron-deplete women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belza, A.; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Henriksen, M.

    2005-01-01

    -status parameters in young Fe-depleted women and to investigate the effect of menstrual cycle on these measures. Twelve women (aged 23-30 years), non-anaemic but with low Fe stores, participated in the study. Venous blood samples were collected under standardised conditions on fifteen non-consecutive days during...

  8. Effect of Nitrates, Thiocyanates and Selenium on the Iron and Iodine Status of Postpartum Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivolarska, Anelia V; Maneva, Ana I; Gatseva, Penka D; Katsarova, Mariana N

    2016-09-01

    To find correlations between high thiocyanate and nitrate levels and low selenium levels and the indicators of the iodine and iron status of postpartum women. The study included 41 mothers aged 26.4±5.9 yrs from Asenovgrad and nearby villages. Urinary iodine was determined by the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction and thiocyanate - by the interaction of these ions with acidic solution of KMnO4; for serum nitrates we used the colorimetric method; serum selenium was assessed by electro-thermal atomic-absorption spectrophotometry; thyroxin (FT4), the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), serum ferritin (SF), and serum transferrin receptor (sTfR) were determined using ELISA; Hb levels were determined by hematology analyzer. Assessing the iodine status, we found a negative correlation between the levels of iodine and thiocyanates in urine (R=-0.717, рnitrates and TSH (R=0.487, р=0.003) and a negative correlation between nitrates and FT4 (R=-0.312, р=0.06). For the iron status, we found a negative correlation between nitrates and SF (R=-0.429, р=0.009) and between nitrates and Hb (R=-0.383, р=0.021). The Mann-Whitney U-test showed that in women with nitrate levels higher than the mean value there was low FT4 level (р=0.06), high TSH level (р=0.013), low Hb concentration (р=0.061) and low SF concentration (р=0.005). The combined effects of environmental factors (elevated nitrate levels and low selenium level) on the iodine and iron status are manifested by low concentrations of FT4 (р=0.033), Hb (р=0.06) and SF (р=0.05) and high level of TSH (р=0.05). In conclusion, we found that environmental factors, especially when combined, have a negative impact on the iron and iodine status of females.

  9. Recent Advances and Research Status in Energy Conservation of Iron Ore Sintering in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao-Zu; Zhang, Jian-Liang; Liu, Zheng-Jian; Du, Cheng-Bo

    2017-11-01

    For the ferrous burden of blast furnaces in China, sinter generally accounts for more than 70% and the sintering process accounts for approximately 6-10% of the total energy consumption of the iron and steel enterprise. Therefore, saving energy during the sintering process is important to reduce the energy consumption in the iron and steel industry. This paper aims to illustrate recent advances and the research status of energy conservation of iron ore sintering in China. It focuses on the development and application of energy-saving technologies such as the composite agglomeration process, sintering with high-proportion flue gas recirculation sintering, recovery of sensible heat from the sinter cooling process, homogeneous deep-bed sintering technology, and comprehensive treatment technology of leakage of sintering. Moreover, some suggestions for the future development of energy-saving technologies are put forward.

  10. Serum ferritin in normal subjects and assessment of iron status during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltayeb, Ahmed Eltayeb

    1997-12-01

    This study was conducted with two main objectives;the estimation of serum ferritin level in normal subjects in khartoum area and the assessment of iron status during pregnancy at second and third trimesters. To fulfill the first objective,two hundred and sixty symptoms-free subjects were included in the study,103 males with ages ranging from 15 to 36 years and 157 females with ages ranging from 15 to 45 years.Serum ferritin was determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA). It was found that the mean concentration of male serum ferritin was much higher than that of the females. For the assessment of iron status during pregnancy,eighty five normal pregnant women were included in the study at the start of the second trimester.Two blood samples were taken during the second trimester and two blood samples during the third trimester. The height of all subjects was measured.The weights of the subjects were measured with each sample. All subjects were under iron-supplementations throughout the gestation period.Sixty four normal non pregnant women were included in the study to serve as controls. No significant difference was observed in the mean haemoglobin concentrations but the PCV of the non-pregnant women was higher than that of the pregnant women at different stages of gestation. MCV, MCH and MCHC values of the non-pregnant women were lower than those of the pregnant women at different stages of gestation. Serum iron and transferrin saturation of the non-pregnant women were higher than those of the pregnant women,this difference was statistically significant at weeks (16 -18) and weeks (22-24). Serum ferritin of the non-pregnant women was higher than that of the pregnant women and decreased continously during the prgnancy, but this decrease was not statistically significant. Iron deficiency anaemia was observed in both pregnant and non-pregnant women. The best parameter which could be used as a marker for iron deficiency is serum ferritin. Iron supplementations corrected for

  11. Serum ferritin in normal subjects and assessment of iron status during pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eltayeb, Ahmed Eltayeb [Sudan Atomic Energy Commission, Khartoum (Sudan)

    1997-12-01

    This study was conducted with two main objectives;the estimation of serum ferritin level in normal subjects in khartoum area and the assessment of iron status during pregnancy at second and third trimesters. To fulfill the first objective,two hundred and sixty symptoms-free subjects were included in the study,103 males with ages ranging from 15 to 36 years and 157 females with ages ranging from 15 to 45 years.Serum ferritin was determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA). It was found that the mean concentration of male serum ferritin was much higher than that of the females. For the assessment of iron status during pregnancy,eighty five normal pregnant women were included in the study at the start of the second trimester.Two blood samples were taken during the second trimester and two blood samples during the third trimester. The height of all subjects was measured.The weights of the subjects were measured with each sample. All subjects were under iron-supplementations throughout the gestation period.Sixty four normal non pregnant women were included in the study to serve as controls. No significant difference was observed in the mean haemoglobin concentrations but the PCV of the non-pregnant women was higher than that of the pregnant women at different stages of gestation. MCV, MCH and MCHC values of the non-pregnant women were lower than those of the pregnant women at different stages of gestation. Serum iron and transferrin saturation of the non-pregnant women were higher than those of the pregnant women,this difference was statistically significant at weeks (16 -18) and weeks (22-24). Serum ferritin of the non-pregnant women was higher than that of the pregnant women and decreased continously during the prgnancy, but this decrease was not statistically significant. Iron deficiency anaemia was observed in both pregnant and non-pregnant women. The best parameter which could be used as a marker for iron deficiency is serum ferritin. Iron supplementations corrected for

  12. Assessment of iron status in settings of inflammation: challenges and potential approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchdev, Parminder S; Williams, Anne M; Mei, Zuguo; Flores-Ayala, Rafael; Pasricha, Sant-Rayn; Rogers, Lisa M; Namaste, Sorrel Ml

    2017-12-01

    The determination of iron status is challenging when concomitant infection and inflammation are present because of confounding effects of the acute-phase response on the interpretation of most iron indicators. This review summarizes the effects of inflammation on indicators of iron status and assesses the impact of a regression analysis to adjust for inflammation on estimates of iron deficiency (ID) in low- and high-infection-burden settings. We overviewed cross-sectional data from 16 surveys for preschool children (PSC) ( n = 29,765) and from 10 surveys for nonpregnant women of reproductive age (WRA) ( n = 25,731) from the Biomarkers Reflecting the Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project. Effects of C-reactive protein (CRP) and α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) concentrations on estimates of ID according to serum ferritin (SF) (used generically to include plasma ferritin), soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and total body iron (TBI) were summarized in relation to infection burden (in the United States compared with other countries) and population group (PSC compared with WRA). Effects of the concentrations of CRP and AGP on SF, sTfR, and TBI were generally linear, especially in PSC. Overall, regression correction changed the estimated prevalence of ID in PSC by a median of +25 percentage points (pps) when SF concentrations were used, by -15 pps when sTfR concentrations were used, and by +14 pps when TBI was used; the estimated prevalence of ID in WRA changed by a median of +8 pps when SF concentrations were used, by -10 pps when sTfR concentrations were used, and by +3 pps when TBI was used. In the United States, inflammation correction was done only for CRP concentrations because AGP concentrations were not measured; regression correction for CRP concentrations increased the estimated prevalence of ID when SF concentrations were used by 3 pps in PSC and by 7 pps in WRA. The correction of iron-status indicators for inflammation with the

  13. Zonulin, iron status, and anemia in kidney transplant recipients: are they related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyszko, Jolanta; Koc-Zorawska, E; Levin-Iaina, N; Malyszko, Jacek

    2014-10-01

    In patients after kidney transplantation, anemia is relatively common and is associated with impaired kidney function, subclinical inflammatory state, and immunosuppressive treatment. Zonulin-prehaptoglobin-2, a newly discovered protein, is necessary for integrity of intracellular tight junctions in the gut. Taking into consideration iron metabolism, including its absorption in the gut, we designed a cross-sectional study to look for the possible interactions among zonulin, iron status, and anemia in kidney transplant recipients. The study was performed on 72 stable kidney transplant recipients and 22 healthy volunteers. Zonulin, iron status, and inflammatory markers were assessed with the use of commercially available kits. Zonulin was significantly lower in kidney allograft recipients than in healthy volunteers (P Zonulin correlated with systolic blood pressure (r = -0.33; P Zonulin was not affected by sex, type of immunosuppressive therapy, presence of diabetes, coronary artery disease, heart failure, hypertension, or cause of end-stage renal disease. Zonulin was not related to any of the iron parameters studied. In multiple regression analysis, predictors of zonulin were total protein and thyroglobulin-binding protein, explaining 46% of variation. Zonulin, with its poorly defined function, does not seem to play a role in the anemia in kidney allograft recipients; however, it seems to be related to the absorption process in the gut.

  14. Relation between serum lipoperoxide concentrations and iron or copper status over one year in Cuban adult men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnaud, J.; Renversez, J.C.; Favier, A.E. [Dept. de Biologie Integree, CHUG, Grenoble (France); Fleites, P.; Perez-Cristia, R. [Centro national de Toxicologia (CENATOX), La Habana (Cuba); Chassagne, M.; Barnouin, J. [INRA, Unite d' Ecopathologie, Saint Genes Champanelle (France); Verdura, T. [Inst. Finlay, La Lisa, La Habana (Cuba); Garcia, I.G. [Inst. de Farmacia y Alimentos, La Coronela, La Lisa, Ciudad de la Habana (Cuba); Tressol, J.C. [INRA, Unite maladies metaboliques et micronutriments, Saint Genes Champanelle (France)

    2001-07-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the relations between iron and copper status and lipid peroxidation at different periods over one year in low-income and low-energy intake healthy subjects. The study was conducted in 199 middle-aged healthy Cuban men from March 1995 to February 1996. Iron status was assessed by the determination of serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, whole blood hemoglobin and iron intakes. Copper status was evaluated by the determination of serum copper and copper intakes. Serum thiobarbituric acid substances (TBARS) determination was used as an index of lipid peroxidation. Rank correlations were observed between serum TBARS concentrations and iron or copper status indices at different periods. In period 3 (end of the rainy season), serum TBARS and ferritin concentrations were maximum whereas blood hemoglobin levels and iron intake were minimum. Serum TBARS concentrations were significantly higher than the reference values of the laboratory whereas, iron and copper status were within the reference ranges. These results suggested that iron and copper status may be associated with lipid peroxidation in subjects without metal overloads and that variations over the year needed to be taken in account. (orig.)

  15. The effect of gum Arabic oral treatment on the iron and protein status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of gum Arabic oral treatment on the iron and protein status in chronic renal failure patients under regular hemodialysis in Central Sudan L'effet du traitement oral par de la gomme arabe sur le statut martial et de protéinémie chez les patients en insuffisance rénale chronique sous hémodialyse régulière au Soudan ...

  16. Zonulin, inflammation and iron status in patients with early stages of chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lukaszyk, Ewelina; Lukaszyk, Mateusz; Koc-Zorawska, Ewa; Bodzenta-Lukaszyk, Anna; Malyszko, Jolanta

    2017-01-01

    Background/aims Zonulin is the only known regulator of intestinal permeability. It is also considered as a potential inflammatory marker in several conditions such as diabetes and inflammatory bowel syndrome. The aim of the study was to investigate zonulin levels in patients with early stages of CKD and its possible correlation with inflammation, anemia and iron status parameters. Methods Eighty-eight patients with early stages of CKD and 23 healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study. Zonu...

  17. The host-binding domain of the P2 phage tail spike reveals a trimeric iron-binding structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Eiki; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Takahashi, Junichi; Tsunoda, Kin-ichi; Yamada, Seiko; Takeda, Shigeki

    2011-01-01

    The C-terminal domain of a bacteriophage P2 tail-spike protein, gpV, was crystallized and its structure was solved at 1.27 Å resolution. The refined model showed a triple β-helix structure and the presence of iron, calcium and chloride ions. The adsorption and infection of bacteriophage P2 is mediated by tail fibres and tail spikes. The tail spikes on the tail baseplate are used to irreversibly adsorb to the host cells. Recently, a P2 phage tail-spike protein, gpV, was purified and it was shown that a C-terminal domain, Ser87–Leu211, is sufficient for the binding of gpV to host Escherichia coli membranes [Kageyama et al. (2009 ▶), Biochemistry, 48, 10129–10135]. In this paper, the crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of P2 gpV is reported. The structure is a triangular pyramid and looks like a spearhead composed of an intertwined β-sheet, a triple β-helix and a metal-binding region containing iron, calcium and chloride ions

  18. Improvements in Iron Status and Cognitive Function in Young Women Consuming Beef or Non-Beef Lunches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Blanton

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron status is associated with cognitive performance and intervention trials show that iron supplementation improves mental function in iron-deficient adults. However, no studies have tested the efficacy of naturally iron-rich food in this context. This investigation measured the hematologic and cognitive responses to moderate beef consumption in young women. Participants (n = 43; age 21.1 ± 0.4 years were randomly assigned to a beef or non-beef protein lunch group [3-oz (85 g, 3 times weekly] for 16 weeks. Blood was sampled at baseline, and weeks 8 and 16, and cognitive performance was measured at baseline and week 16. Body iron increased in both lunch groups (p < 0.0001, with greater improvement demonstrated in women with lower baseline body iron (p < 0.0001. Body iron had significant beneficial effects on spatial working memory and planning speed (p < 0.05, and ferritin responders (n = 17 vs. non-responders (n = 26 showed significantly greater improvements in planning speed, spatial working memory strategy, and attention (p < 0.05. Lunch group had neither significant interactions with iron status nor consistent main effects on test performance. These findings support a relationship between iron status and cognition, but do not show a particular benefit of beef over non-beef protein consumption on either measure in young women.

  19. The challenge of defining and treating anemia and iron deficiency in pregnancy: A study of New Zealand midwives' management of iron status in pregnancy and the postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calje, Esther; Skinner, Joan

    2017-06-01

    Early recognition and management of low maternal iron status is associated with improved maternal, fetal, and neonatal outcomes. However, existing international guidelines for the testing and management of maternal iron-deficiency anemia are variable, with no national guideline for New Zealand midwives. Clinical management is complicated by normal physiological hemodilution, and complicated further by the effects of inflammation on iron metabolism, especially in populations with a high prevalence of obesity or infection. This study describes how midwives in one New Zealand area diagnose and treat anemia and iron deficiency, in the absence of established guidelines. Data on demographics, laboratory results, and documented clinical management were retrospectively collected from midwives (n=21) and women (n=189), from September to December 2013. Analysis was predominantly descriptive. A secondary analysis of iron status and body mass index (BMI) was undertaken. A total of 46% of 186 women, with hemoglobin testing at booking, did not have ferritin tested; 86% (of 385) of ferritin tests were not concurrently tested with C-reactive protein. Despite midwives prescribing iron for 48.7% of second trimester women, 47.1% still had low iron status before birth. Only 22.8% of women had hemoglobin testing postpartum. There was a significant difference between third trimester median ferritin levels in women with BMI ≥25.00 (14 μg/L) and BMI iron status was difficult to categorize, because of inconsistent testing. This study indicates the need for an evidence-based clinical guideline for New Zealand midwives and maternity care providers. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Assessment of iron status among preschool children (6 to 59 months) with and without malaria in Western Province, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisiangani, Isaac; Mbakaya, Charles; Makokha, Anzelimo; Magu, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Iron deficiency is a major public health concern. Globally, iron deficiency ranks number 9 and is responsible for about 60% of all anemia cases among preschool children. In Africa iron deficiency is 43-52% while in Kenya, children under 5 years constitute the largest burden with 69% of them being deficient. There is limited iron deficiency data in Kenya. This study determined haemoglobin levels, serum ferritin levels, nutritional status and P.falciparum malaria infection in preschool children. Methods A household cross sectional study was undertaken among 125 preschoolers in Western province, drawn from 37 clusters. Systematic random sampling was used for sample selection. Data was collected using pretested structured questionnaires, entered in Microsoft package. Data analysis was done in Statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 20 using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression and differences were considered significant at P iron deficiency (Serum ferritin iron deficiency and anaemia (OR = 3.43, 95% CI: 1.33-8.84, p = 0.008). A preschool child with anaemia was 3.43 times likely to be iron deficient compared to a preschool child who was not anaemic. Conclusion Iron deficiency, anaemia and plasmodium falciparum malaria was prevalent among preschool children. The findings revealed a significant association between iron deficiency and anaemia. Therefore effective interventions to improve iron status will have large health benefits by greatly reducing anaemia in preschool children. PMID:26405498

  1. Iron status of toddlers, nonpregnant females, and pregnant females in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Priya M; Hamner, Heather C; Suchdev, Parminder S; Flores-Ayala, Rafael; Mei, Zuguo

    2017-12-01

    Background: Total-body iron stores (TBI), which are calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor concentrations, can be used to assess the iron status of populations in the United States. Objective: This analysis, developed to support workshop discussions, describes the distribution of TBI and the prevalence of iron deficiency (ID) and ID anemia (IDA) among toddlers, nonpregnant females, and pregnant females. Design: We analyzed data from NHANES; toddlers aged 12-23 mo (NHANES 2003-2010), nonpregnant females aged 15-49 y (NHANES 2007-2010), and pregnant females aged 12-49 y (NHANES 1999-2010). We used SAS survey procedures to plot distributions of TBI and produce prevalence estimates of ID and IDA for each target population. All analyses were weighted to account for the complex survey design. Results: According to these data, ID prevalences (± SEs) were 15.1% ± 1.7%, 10.4% ± 0.5%, and 16.3% ± 1.3% in toddlers, nonpregnant females, and pregnant females, respectively. ID prevalence in pregnant females increased significantly with each trimester (5.3% ± 1.5%, 12.7% ± 2.3%, and 27.5% ± 3.5% in the first, second, and third trimesters, respectively). Racial disparities in the prevalence of ID among both nonpregnant and pregnant females exist, with Mexican American and non-Hispanic black females at greater risk of ID than non-Hispanic white females. IDA prevalence was 5.0% ± 0.4% and 2.6% ± 0.7% in nonpregnant and pregnant females, respectively. Conclusions: Available nationally representative data suggest that ID and IDA remain a concern in the United States. Estimates of iron-replete status cannot be made at this time in the absence of established cutoffs for iron repletion based on TBI. The study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03274726. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. The Iron Status of Sickle Cell Anaemia Patients in Ilorin, North Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa A. Sani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Sickle cell anaemia (SCA is one of the commonest genetic disorders in the world. It is characterized by anaemia, periodic attacks of thrombotic pain, and chronic systemic organ damage. Recent studies have suggested that individuals with SCA especially from developing countries are more likely to be iron deficient rather than have iron overload. The study aims to determine the iron status of SCA patients in Ilorin, Nigeria. Methods. A cross-sectional study of 45 SCA patients in steady state and 45 non-SCA controls was undertaken. FBC, blood film, sFC, sTfR, and sTfR/log sFC index were done on all subjects. Results. The mean patients’ serum ferritin (589.33 ± 427.61 ng/mL was significantly higher than the mean serum ferritin of the controls (184.53 ± 119.74 ng/mL. The mean serum transferrin receptor of the patients (4.24 ± 0.17 μg/mL was higher than that of the controls (3.96 ± 0.17 μg/mL (p=0.290. The mean serum transferrin receptor (sTfR/log serum ferritin index of the patients (1.65 ± 0.27 μg/mL was significantly lower than that of the control (1.82 ± 0.18 μg/mL (p=0.031. Conclusion. Iron deficiency is uncommon in SCA patients and periodic monitoring of the haematological, biochemical, and clinical features for iron status in SCA patients is advised.

  3. Host status of grapefruit and Valencia oranges for Anastrepha serpentina and Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Robert L; Thomas, Donald B; Moreno, Aleena M Tarshis

    2011-04-01

    Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is sporadically captured in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Although its preferred hosts are in the Sapotaceae family, several varieties of Citrus, including grapefruit and oranges are listed as alternate hosts. Although Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), is known to be a major pest of Citrus, doubt exists as to the status of Citrus as a breeding host for A. serpentina. To evaluate the host status of commercial Citrus for A. serpentina we compared oviposition and development with that of A. ludens under laboratory conditions with 'Rio Red' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi MacFayden) and 'Valencia' oranges [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] in different stages of maturity. Both fly species oviposited in early season fruit in which the eggs and larvae died in the fruit albedo. Survival of either species to the adult stage occurred in later season grapefruit. In oranges, no A. serpentina larvae survived compared with 150 A. ludens surviving to adults. Survival on both Citrus species was much lower for A. serpentina, only approximately 5% of eggs eclosed into larvae in grapefruit compared with approximatley 50% for A. ludens. In oranges approximately 16% of A. serpentina eggs eclosed compared with approximately 76% for A. ludens. In grapefruit, only one fourth as many A. serpentina larvae survived to the adult stage compared with A. ludens. Additional experiments were performed in a greenhouse on small, caged trees of la coma (Sideroxylon celastrinum H.B.K.), a Texas species of Sapotaceae. The A. serpentina females readily oviposited into these berries and normal adults emerged. The present low incidence of the adults, coupled with the high mortality during development of the larvae, suggests that Texas citrus is unlikely to support a breeding population of A. serpentina.

  4. Host status of six major weeds to Meloidogyne chitwoodi and Pratylenchus penetrans, including a preliminary field survey concerning other weeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kutywayo, V.; Been, T.H.

    2006-01-01

    A glasshouse experiment was carried out to investigate the host status of six important weeds in intensive agricultural cropping systems to Meloidogyne chitwoodi and Pratylenchus penetrans. Senecio vulgaris L., Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medic. and Solanum nigrum L. were hosts of M. chitwoodi with

  5. Iron intakes and status of 2-year-old children in the Cork BASELINE Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Elaine K; Ní Chaoimh, Carol; Hourihane, Jonathan O'B; Kenny, Louise C; Irvine, Alan D; Murray, Deirdre M; Kiely, Mairead

    2017-07-01

    Young children are at risk of iron deficiency and subsequent anaemia, resulting in long-term consequences for cognitive, motor and behavioural development. This study aimed to describe the iron intakes, status and determinants of status in 2-year-old children. Data were collected prospectively in the mother-child Cork BASELINE Birth Cohort Study from 15 weeks' gestation throughout early childhood. At the 24-month assessment, serum ferritin, haemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume were measured, and food/nutrient intake data were collected using a 2-day weighed food diary. Iron status was assessed in 729 children (median [IQR] age: 2.1 [2.1, 2.2] years) and 468 completed a food diary. From the food diary, mean (SD) iron intakes were 6.8 (2.6) mg/day and 30% had intakes < UK Estimated Average Requirement (5.3 mg/day). Using WHO definitions, iron deficiency was observed in 4.6% (n = 31) and iron deficiency anaemia in five children (1.0%). Following an iron series workup, five more children were diagnosed with iron deficiency anaemia. Twenty-one per cent had ferritin concentrations <15 µg/L. Inadequate iron intakes (OR [95% CI]: 1.94 [1.09, 3.48]) and unmodified cows' milk intakes ≥ 400 mL/day (1.95 [1.07, 3.56]) increased the risk of low iron status. Iron-fortified formula consumption was associated with decreased risk (0.21 [0.11, 0.41] P < 0.05). In this, the largest study in toddlers in Europe, a lower prevalence of low iron status was observed than in previous reports. Compliance with dietary recommendations to limit cows' milk intakes in young children and consumption of iron-fortified products appears to have contributed to improved iron status at two years. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The association between malaria and iron status or supplementation in pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Sangaré

    Full Text Available Malaria prevention and iron supplementation are associated with improved maternal and infant outcomes. However, evidence from studies in children suggests iron may adversely modify the risk of malaria. We reviewed the evidence in pregnancy of the association between malaria and markers of iron status, iron supplementation or parenteral treatment.We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Global Health Library, and the Malaria in Pregnancy library to identify studies that investigated the association between iron status, iron treatment or supplementation during pregnancy and malaria. Thirty one studies contributed to the analysis; 3 experimental and 28 observational studies. Iron supplementation was not associated with an increased risk of P. falciparum malaria during pregnancy or delivery in Africa (summary Relative Risk = 0.89, 95% Confidence Interval (CI 0.66-1.20, I(2 = 78.8%, 5 studies. One study in Asia reported an increased risk of P. vivax within 30 days of iron supplementation (e.g. adjusted Hazard Ratio = 1.75, 95% CI 1.14-2.70 for 1-15 days, but not after 60 days. Iron deficiency (based on ferritin and C-reactive protein was associated with lower odds for malaria infection (summary Odds Ratio = 0.35, 0.24-0.51, I(2 = 59.2%, 5 studies. With the exception of the acute phase protein ferritin, biomarkers of iron deficiency were generally not associated with malaria infection.Iron supplementation was associated with a temporal increase in P vivax, but not with an increased risk of P. falciparum; however, data are insufficient to rule out the potential for an increased risk of P. falciparum. Iron deficiency was associated with a decreased malaria risk in pregnancy only when measured with ferritin. Until there is more evidence, it is prudent to provide iron in combination with malaria prevention during pregnancy.

  7. Iron, zinc, copper and magnesium nutritional status in Mexican children aged 1 to 11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Ruán, Ma del Carmen; Villalpando, Salvador; García-Guerra, Armando; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Robledo-Pérez, Ricardo; Avila-Arcos, Marco Antonio; Rivera, Juan A

    2012-01-01

    To describe the micronutrient nutritional status of a national sample of 1-11 year old Mexican children surveyed in 2006 in National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT 2006) and their association with dietary and sociodemographic factors. Serum samples were used (n=5 060) to measure the concentrations of ferritin, transferrin receptor, zinc, copper and magnesium. Prevalence of deficiencies in 1-4 and 5-11y old children were for iron (using low ferritin) 26.0 and 13.0%; zinc, 28.1 and 25.8%, respectively; and copper, ≈30% in both age groups. Magnesium low serum concentrations (MLSC), were found in 12.0% and 28.4% of the children, respectively. Being beneficiary of Liconsa (OR=0.32; C.I.95%, 0.17-0.61) or belonging to higher socioeconomic status (OR=0.63; C.I.95%, 0.41-0.97) were protective against iron deficiency. Increasing age (OR=0.59; C.I.95%, 1.19-1.32) and living in the Central Region (OR=0.59; C.I.95%, 0.36-0.97) were protective against MLSC. Deficiencies of iron and zinc are serious public health problems in Mexican children.

  8. New parameters and reference values for monitoring iron status in Middle Eastern adolescent male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, S C; Varamenti, E; Elzain Elgingo, M; Bourdon, P C

    2014-04-01

    Hematological and biochemical parameters of 160 Middle Eastern adolescent male athletes (aged from 12-18 years) were tested in order to investigate their iron status and to establish reference values for this population. A focus of this study was also the investigation of Reticulocyte hemoglobin (RetHe) and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR). Complete blood count, reticulocyte and sera parameters were analyzed at the beginning of the training season for these adolescent athletes. As the diagnosis of iron deficiency in adolescents is extremely difficult subjects were subdivided in three age groups (12-13, 14-15, 16-18). For most of the parameters our results confirmed the existing reference values reported in young athletes. Exceptions were however found with lower Mean Cell Volumes (79.9±4.3 fl) in this group when compared to other age matched data. RetHe, ferritin and sTfR levels were monitored for the interpretation of the iron status in this population and reference values for these parameters were also established. Information to help evidence based decision making about the need for supplementation or further investigations is provided to physicians and nutritionists. RetHe with a proposed threshold value of 25 pg expands the list of parameters which can be used to monitor athletes.

  9. Association between chilli food habits with iron status and insulin resistance in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang; Wang, Rui; Xiao, Cheng

    2014-04-01

    Some studies have indicated that the consumption of chilli-containing foods can influence iron absorption and affect serum insulin and glucose concentrations, which may help to alleviate diabetes or prediabetes. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between chilli food habits with iron status and insulin resistance in the Chinese population. Fasting blood samples, anthropometric data, and chilli food habit data collected from 8433 adults (aged 18 to 99), in 2009, as part of the China Health and Nutrition Survey, a large-scale longitudinal, household-based survey in China. Chilli food habits were assessed using chilli food eating frequencies (no eating, sometimes eating, often eating, and usually eating) and chilli food types (a little bit hot, moderately hot, and very hot). Fasting serum ferritin, insulin, and fasting plasma glucose were also measured. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was used to estimate insulin resistance. Compared with the chilli-eating group, the no eating group had higher HOMA-IR levels for both men and women (Pfood types. However, there was no significant difference in the ferritin level and HOMA-IR components for different chilli food eating frequencies in both sex groups. Chilli food habits, especially the different hotness levels of chilli food, were associated with iron status and insulin resistance in the Chinese population. Additional studies are needed to elucidate mechanisms of action and to establish causal inference.

  10. Elevated temperature inhibits recruitment of transferrin-positive vesicles and induces iron-deficiency genes expression in Aiptasia pulchella host-harbored Symbiodinium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Po-Ching; Wu, Tsung-Meng; Hong, Ming-Chang; Chen, Ming-Chyuan

    2015-10-01

    Coral bleaching is the consequence of disruption of the mutualistic Cnidaria-dinoflagellate association. Elevated seawater temperatures have been proposed as the most likely cause of coral bleaching whose severity is enhanced by a limitation in the bioavailability of iron. Iron is required by numerous organisms including the zooxanthellae residing inside the symbiosome of cnidarian cells. However, the knowledge of how symbiotic zooxanthellae obtain iron from the host cells and how elevated water temperature affects the association is very limited. Since cellular iron acquisition is known to be mediated through transferrin receptor-mediated endocytosis, a vesicular trafficking pathway specifically regulated by Rab4 and Rab5, we set out to examine the roles of these key proteins in the iron acquisition by the symbiotic Symbiodinium. Thus, we hypothesized that the iron recruitments into symbiotic zooxanthellae-housed symbiosomes may be dependent on rab4/rab5-mediated fusion with vesicles containing iron-bound transferrins and will be retarded under elevated temperature. In this study, we cloned a novel monolobal transferrin (ApTF) gene from the tropical sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella and confirmed that the association of ApTF with A. pulchella Rab4 (ApRab4) or A. pulchella Rab5 (ApRab5) vesicles is inhibited by elevated temperature through immunofluorescence analysis. We confirmed the iron-deficient phenomenon by demonstrating the induced overexpression of iron-deficiency-responsive genes, flavodoxin and high-affinity iron permease 1, and reduced intracellular iron concentration in zooxanthellae under desferrioxamine B (iron chelator) and high temperature treatment. In conclusion, our data are consistent with algal iron deficiency being a contributing factor for the thermal stress-induced bleaching of symbiotic cnidarians. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The impact of maternal obesity on iron status, placental transferrin receptor expression and hepcidin expression in human pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Valdes, L; Campoy, C; Hayes, H; Florido, J; Rusanova, I; Miranda, M T; McArdle, H J

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is associated with decreased iron status, possibly due to a rise in hepcidin, an inflammatory protein known to reduce iron absorption. In animals, we have shown that maternal iron deficiency is minimised in the foetus by increased expression of placental transferrin receptor (pTFR1), resulting in increased iron transfer at the expense of maternal iron stores. This study examines the effect of obesity during pregnancy on maternal and neonatal iron status in human cohorts and whether the placenta can compensate for decreased maternal iron stores by increasing pTFR1 expression. A total of 240 women were included in this study. One hundred and fifty-eight placentas (Normal: 90; Overweight: 37; Obese: 31) were collected at delivery. Maternal iron status was measured by determining serum transferrin receptor (sTFR) and ferritin levels at 24 and 34 weeks and at delivery. Hepcidin in maternal and cord blood was measured by ELISA and pTFR1 in placentas by western blotting and real-time RT-PCR. Low iron stores were more common in obese women. Hepcidin levels (ng ml(-1)) at the end of the pregnancy were higher in obese than normal women (26.03±12.95 vs 18.00±10.77, PMaternal hepcidin levels were correlated with maternal iron status (sTFR r=0.2 P=0.025), but not with neonatal values. mRNA and protein levels of pTFR1 were both inversely related to maternal iron status. For mRNA and all women, sTFR r=0.2 P=0.044. Ferritin mRNA levels correlated only in overweight women r=-0.5 P=0.039 with hepcidin (r=0.1 P=0.349), irrespective of maternal body mass index (BMI). The data support the hypothesis that obese pregnant women have a greater risk of iron deficiency and that hepcidin may be a regulatory factor. Further, we show that the placenta responds to decreased maternal iron status by increasing pTFR1 expression.

  12. Impact of multi-micronutrient fortified rice on hemoglobin, iron and vitamin A status of Cambodian schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perignon, Marlene; Fiorentino, Marion; Khov, Kuong

    2016-01-01

    In Cambodia, micronutrient deficiencies remain a critical public health problem. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of multi-micronutrient fortified rice (MMFR) formulations, distributed through a World Food Program school-meals program (WFP-SMP), on the hemoglobin concentrations and iron......Rice) or unfortified rice (placebo) six days a week for six months. Four additional schools not participating in WFP-SMP were randomly selected as controls. A total of 2440 schoolchildren (6–16 years old) participated in the biochemical study. Hemoglobin, iron status, estimated using inflammation-adjusted ferritin...... and transferrin receptors concentrations, and VA status, assessed using inflammation-adjusted retinol-binding protein concentration, were measured at the baseline, as well as at three and six months. Baseline prevalence of anemia, depleted iron stores, tissue iron deficiency, marginal VA status and VA deficiency...

  13. Iron, folacin, vitamin B12 and zinc status and immune response in the elderly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry-Christian, J.R.; Johnson, A.A.; Walters, C.S.; Greene, E.J.; Lindsey, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    The relationships of iron, folacin, vitamin B 12 and zinc status to cell-mediated immune response were investigated among 125 healthy, elderly persons (60-87 years of age). Plasma ferritin, plasma and red cell folate, and plasma vitamin B 12 levels were assayed immuno-radiometrically. Plasma and hair zinc levels were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Immune response was determined by transformation of peripheral blood lymphocytes after stimulation with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (con A), and in mixed lymphocyte reaction. Deficiencies of iron, folacin vitamin B 12 and zinc were each associated (independently) with significantly lower lymphocyte responses to PHA and con A, and mixed lymphocyte reaction (P 12 or zinc. Further, they suggest that deficiencies of these nutrients may play a role in the depression of cell-mediated immunity with age, which in turn may lead to increased susceptibility to infectious diseases and cancer in the elderly

  14. TESTING THE METAL OF LATE-TYPE KEPLER PLANET HOSTS WITH IRON-CLAD METHODS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, Andrew W.; Hilton, Eric J.; Gaidos, Eric; Kraus, Adam

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown that F, G, and early K dwarf hosts of Neptune-sized planets are not preferentially metal-rich. However, it is less clear whether the same holds for late K and M dwarf planet hosts. We report metallicities of Kepler targets and candidate transiting planet hosts with effective temperatures below 4500 K. We use new metallicity calibrations to determine [Fe/H] from visible and near-infrared spectra. We find that the metallicity distribution of late K and M dwarfs monitored by Kepler is consistent with that of the solar neighborhood. Further, we show that hosts of Earth- to Neptune-sized planets have metallicities consistent with those lacking detected planets and rule out a previously claimed 0.2 dex offset between the two distributions at 6σ confidence. We also demonstrate that the metallicities of late K and M dwarfs hosting multiple detected planets are consistent with those lacking detected planets. Our results indicate that multiple terrestrial and Neptune-sized planets can form around late K and M dwarfs with metallicities as low as 0.25 solar. The presence of Neptune-sized planets orbiting such low-metallicity M dwarfs suggests that accreting planets collect most or all of the solids from the disk and that the potential cores of giant planets can readily form around M dwarfs. The paucity of giant planets around M dwarfs compared to solar-type stars must be due to relatively rapid disk evaporation or a slower rate of planet accretion, rather than insufficient solids to form a core.

  15. TESTING THE METAL OF LATE-TYPE KEPLER PLANET HOSTS WITH IRON-CLAD METHODS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, Andrew W.; Hilton, Eric J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Dr, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Gaidos, Eric [Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Hawaii, 1680 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Kraus, Adam [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-06-10

    It has been shown that F, G, and early K dwarf hosts of Neptune-sized planets are not preferentially metal-rich. However, it is less clear whether the same holds for late K and M dwarf planet hosts. We report metallicities of Kepler targets and candidate transiting planet hosts with effective temperatures below 4500 K. We use new metallicity calibrations to determine [Fe/H] from visible and near-infrared spectra. We find that the metallicity distribution of late K and M dwarfs monitored by Kepler is consistent with that of the solar neighborhood. Further, we show that hosts of Earth- to Neptune-sized planets have metallicities consistent with those lacking detected planets and rule out a previously claimed 0.2 dex offset between the two distributions at 6{sigma} confidence. We also demonstrate that the metallicities of late K and M dwarfs hosting multiple detected planets are consistent with those lacking detected planets. Our results indicate that multiple terrestrial and Neptune-sized planets can form around late K and M dwarfs with metallicities as low as 0.25 solar. The presence of Neptune-sized planets orbiting such low-metallicity M dwarfs suggests that accreting planets collect most or all of the solids from the disk and that the potential cores of giant planets can readily form around M dwarfs. The paucity of giant planets around M dwarfs compared to solar-type stars must be due to relatively rapid disk evaporation or a slower rate of planet accretion, rather than insufficient solids to form a core.

  16. Iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Bondo; Moen, I W; Mandrup-Poulsen, T

    2014-01-01

    and discuss recent evidence, suggesting that iron is a key pathogenic factor in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes with a focus on inflammatory pathways. Pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced β-cell death is not fully understood, but may include iron-induced ROS formation resulting in dedifferentiation by activation...... of transcription factors, activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic machinery or of other cell death mechanisms. The pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β facilitates divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1)-induced β-cell iron uptake and consequently ROS formation and apoptosis, and we propose that this mechanism provides...

  17. [Effects of vitamin A supplementation on nutritional status of iron in healthy adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuwen; Fan, Ping; Deng, Gangbo; Du, Zhen; Shao, Zewei; Wang, Zhixu

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the effect of vitamin A (VA) supplementation on the nutritional status of iron in healthy adults. One hundred and fifteen healthy adults were recruited and divided randomly into four groups, with 28 or 29 adults in each group. VA supplements with different doses of retinyl acetate in capsules were given for 4-month. The equivalent doses of supplemented retinyl acetate were 600 microg/d, 400 microg/d, 200 microg/d and 0 microg/d (control) of retinol, respectively. The capsules were administered orally by double blind method. During the experiment, the subjects kept their usual dietary pattern but avoided high VA or pre-VA carotenoids foods from their diets. A 24-h dietary recall was carried out monthly on every subject. Before and after the intervention, the fast blood samples were collected from each subject, and were determined for hemoglobin concentration, levels of serum retinol, iron, ferrtin and transferrtin receptor. Total 108 subjects finished the experiment, with 27, 28, 27 and 26 persons left in group A, B, C and D, respectively. The subjects from each group had similar dietary intakes of energy nutrients, VA and iron (both were P > 0.05) during the experimental period. The serum retinol concentration of subjects from group A increased from 1.63 +/- 0.55 micromol/L of baseline to 1.93 +/-0.52 micromol/L at the end of the experiment (P 0.05). There was no significant difference on Hb concentration before and after the experiment as well as between groups (all were P > 0.05). In subjects of group A, serum iron concentration increased (P < 0.05) and serum ferrtin and transferrtin receptor concentration decreased significantly (both were P < 0.05) after VA supplement intervention. No such changes were observed in group B and C (P < 0.05). It seems that the intervention of VA supplement with relative high dose of retinol at dietary level could enhance the iron status further in no-anemic healthy adults even without dietary iron supplementation.

  18. Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share: Search the ODS website Submit Search NIH Office of Dietary Supplements Consumer Datos en español Health ... eating a variety of foods, including the following: Lean meat, seafood, and poultry. Iron-fortified breakfast cereals ...

  19. mRNA Levels of Placental Iron and Zinc Transporter Genes Are Upregulated in Gambian Women with Low Iron and Zinc Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobarteh, Modou Lamin; McArdle, Harry J; Holtrop, Grietje; Sise, Ebrima A; Prentice, Andrew M; Moore, Sophie E

    2017-07-01

    Background: The role of the placenta in regulating micronutrient transport in response to maternal status is poorly understood. Objective: We investigated the effect of prenatal nutritional supplementation on the regulation of placental iron and zinc transport. Methods: In a randomized trial in rural Gambia [ENID (Early Nutrition and Immune Development)], pregnant women were allocated to 1 of 4 nutritional intervention arms: 1 ) iron and folic acid (FeFol) tablets (FeFol group); 2 ) multiple micronutrient (MMN) tablets (MMN group); 3 ) protein energy (PE) as a lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS; PE group); and 4 ) PE and MMN (PE+MMN group) as LNS. All arms included iron (60 mg/d) and folic acid (400 μg/d). The MMN and PE+MMN arms included 30 mg supplemental Zn/d. In a subgroup of ∼300 mother-infant pairs, we measured maternal iron status, mRNA levels of genes encoding for placental iron and zinc transport proteins, and cord blood iron levels. Results: Maternal plasma iron concentration in late pregnancy was 45% and 78% lower in the PE and PE+MMN groups compared to the FeFol and MMN groups, respectively ( P Zinc supplementation in the MMN arm was associated with higher maternal plasma zinc concentrations (10% increase; P zinc-uptake proteins, in this case zrt, irt-like protein (ZIP) 4 and ZIP8, were 96-205% lower in the PE+MMN arm than in the intervention arms without added zinc ( P zinc, the placenta upregulates the gene expression of iron and zinc uptake proteins, presumably in order to meet fetal demands in the face of low maternal supply. The ENID trial was registered at www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN49285450.

  20. The effect of wheat prebiotics on the gut bacterial population and iron status of iron deficient broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tako, Elad; Glahn, Raymond P; Knez, Marija; Stangoulis, James Cr

    2014-06-13

    Currently, there is a lot of interest in improving gut health, and consequently increasing Fe absorption, by managing the colonic microbial population. This is traditionally done by the consumption of probiotics, live microbial food supplements. However, an alternative, and often very effective approach, is the consumption of food ingredients known as prebiotics. Fructans and arabinoxylans are naturally occurring non-digestible oligosaccharides in wheat that exhibit prebiotic properties and may enhance intestinal iron (Fe) absorption. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of prebiotics from wheat on Fe bioavailability in vitro (Caco-2 cells) and in vivo (broiler chickens, Gallus gallus). In the current study, the effect of intra-amniotic administration of wheat samples extracts at 17 d of embryonic incubation on the Fe status and possible changes in the bacterial population in intestinal content of broiler hatchlings were investigated. A group of 144 eggs were injected with the specified solution (1 ml per egg) into the amniotic fluid. Immediately after hatch (21 d) and from each treatment group, 10 chicks were euthanized and their small intestine, liver and cecum were removed for relative mRNA abundance of intestinal Fe related transporters, relative liver ferritin amounts and bacterial analysis of cecal content, respectively. The in vivo results are in agreement with the in vitro observations, showing no differences in the hatchling Fe status between the treatment groups, as Fe bioavailability was not increased in vitro and no significant differences were measured in the intestinal expression of DMT1, Ferroportin and DcytB in vivo. However, there was significant variation in relative amounts of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in the intestinal content between the treatments groups, with generally more bifidobacteria being produced with increased prebiotic content. In this study we showed that prebiotics naturally found in wheat grains/bread products

  1. Household Food Insecurity, Mother's Feeding Practices, and the Early Childhood's Iron Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salarkia, Nahid; Neyestani, Tirang R; Omidvar, Nasrin; Zayeri, Farid

    2015-01-01

    Health consequences of food insecurity among infants and toddlers have not been fully examined. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between household food insecurity, mother's infant feeding practices and iron status of 6-24 months children. In this cross-sectional study, 423 mother-child pairs were randomly selected by multistage sampling method. Children blood samples were analyzed for hemoglobin and serum ferritin concentrations. Household food security was evaluated using a validated Household Food Insecurity Access Scale. The mother's feeding practices were evaluated using Infant and Young Child Feeding practice variables including: The duration of breastfeeding and the time of introducing of complementary feeding. Based on the results, of the studied households only 47.7% were food secure. Mild and moderate-severe household food insecurity was 39.5% and 12.8%, respectively. Anemia, iron deficiency (ID), and iron deficiency anemia were seen in 29.1%, 12.2%, and 4.8% of children, respectively. There was no significant association between household food insecurity; mother's feeding practices and child ID with or without anemia. We found no association between household food insecurity and the occurrence of anemia in the 6-24 months children. However, these findings do not rule out the possibility of other micronutrient deficiencies among the food-insecure household children.

  2. Iron status of Filipino infants and preschoolers using plasma ferritin and transferrin receptor levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuizon, M D; Madriaga, J R; Desnacido, J A; Cheong, R L; Perlas, L A

    1996-06-01

    Iron status of 1,861 Filipino infants and preschoolers was evaluated by measurements of plasma ferritin (PF), transferrin receptor (TR) and hemoglobin (Hb). One group of subjects (Group I) consisted of all anemic subjects together with a systematic subsample from the Fourth National Nutrition Survey-Biochemical Phase. Results showed that depleted iron stores based on PF ( 8.5 mg/l) was present in higher proportion (80.0% and 73.7% for infants and preschoolers) which was comparable to the proportion of anemia (80.3%). In a subgroup of subjects from the Country Program for Children IV (Group 2) elevated TR was present in 61.4% of infants and 46.5% of preschoolers. A lower proportion of depleted iron stores of 22.7% in infants and 15.2% in preschoolers was observed. Correlation test showed that there was a closer relationship between Hb and TR (r = -0.42) than Hb and PF (r = 0.20) even if PF was expected to give a higher proportion of values below normal. The occurrence of anemia in the presence of elevated TR without any decrease in PF values suggest that the diagnostic ability of PF could be limited in the presence of infection. Therefore, future studies should include biochemical tests such as C-reactive proteins (CRP) to determine the extent of association between anemia and infection.

  3. Zonulin, inflammation and iron status in patients with early stages of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukaszyk, Ewelina; Lukaszyk, Mateusz; Koc-Zorawska, Ewa; Bodzenta-Lukaszyk, Anna; Malyszko, Jolanta

    2018-01-01

    Zonulin is the only known regulator of intestinal permeability. It is also considered as a potential inflammatory marker in several conditions such as diabetes and inflammatory bowel syndrome. The aim of the study was to investigate zonulin levels in patients with early stages of CKD and its possible correlation with inflammation, anemia and iron status parameters. Eighty-eight patients with early stages of CKD and 23 healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study. Zonulin, hepcidin-25, soluble transferrin receptor, interleukin-6 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were measured using commercially available assays. Zonulin was significantly lower among patients with CKD in comparison with healthy volunteers. There were no statistically significant differences in zonulin concentration between patients with and without inflammation. Zonulin was significantly correlated with hepcidin only in patients with inflammation. Zonulin was neither related to iron nor related to ferritin. Zonulin cannot be considered as an inflammatory marker in CKD. It does not play a role in the disturbances of iron metabolism in CKD. Its physiological role remains to be elucidated.

  4. The structure of lactoferrin-binding protein B from Neisseria meningitidis suggests roles in iron acquisition and neutralization of host defences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Cory L.; Arutyunova, Elena; Lemieux, M. Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Pathogens have evolved a range of mechanisms to acquire iron from the host during infection. Several Gram-negative pathogens including members of the genera Neisseria and Moraxella have evolved two-component systems that can extract iron from the host glycoproteins lactoferrin and transferrin. The homologous iron-transport systems consist of a membrane-bound transporter and an accessory lipoprotein. While the mechanism behind iron acquisition from transferrin is well understood, relatively little is known regarding how iron is extracted from lactoferrin. Here, the crystal structure of the N-terminal domain (N-lobe) of the accessory lipoprotein lactoferrin-binding protein B (LbpB) from the pathogen Neisseria meningitidis is reported. The structure is highly homologous to the previously determined structures of the accessory lipoprotein transferrin-binding protein B (TbpB) and LbpB from the bovine pathogen Moraxella bovis. Docking the LbpB structure with lactoferrin reveals extensive binding interactions with the N1 subdomain of lactoferrin. The nature of the interaction precludes apolactoferrin from binding LbpB, ensuring the specificity of iron-loaded lactoferrin. The specificity of LbpB safeguards proper delivery of iron-bound lactoferrin to the transporter lactoferrin-binding protein A (LbpA). The structure also reveals a possible secondary role for LbpB in protecting the bacteria from host defences. Following proteolytic digestion of lactoferrin, a cationic peptide derived from the N-terminus is released. This peptide, called lactoferricin, exhibits potent antimicrobial effects. The docked model of LbpB with lactoferrin reveals that LbpB interacts extensively with the N-terminal lactoferricin region. This may provide a venue for preventing the production of the peptide by proteolysis, or directly sequestering the peptide, protecting the bacteria from the toxic effects of lactoferricin. PMID:25286931

  5. The effect of vegetarian diets on iron status in adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Lisa M; Schwingshackl, Lukas; Hoffmann, Georg; Ekmekcioglu, Cem

    2018-05-24

    Vegetarian diets exclude meat, seafood, and products containing these foods. Although the vegetarian lifestyle could lead to a better health status in adults, it may also bear risks for certain nutritional deficiencies. Cross-sectional studies and narrative reviews have shown that the iron status of vegetarians is compromised by the absence of highly bioavailable haem-iron in meatless diets and the inhibiting effect of certain components present in plant foods on non-haem iron bioavailability. The databases Pubmed, Scopus, Embase, and Cochrane CentralRegister of Controlled Trials were searched for studies comparing serum ferritin, as the major laboratory parameter for iron status of adult vegetarians with non-vegetarian control groups. A qualitative review was conducted as well as an inverse-variance random-effects meta-analysis to pool available data. In addition the effect of vegetarian diets according to gender was investigated with a subgroup analysis. The results were validated using a sensitivity analysis. A total of 27 cross-sectional studies and three interventional studies were selected for the systematic review. The meta-analysis which combined data of 24 cross-sectional studies showed that adult vegetarians have significantly lower serum ferritin levels than their non-vegetarian controls (-29.71 µg/L, 95% CI [-39.69, -19.73], p vegetarian diets did not change the results considerably (-23.27 µg/L, 95% CI [-29.77, -16.76], p vegetarians are more likely to have lower iron stores compared with non-vegetarians. However, since high iron stores are also a risk factor for certain non-communicable diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, it is recommended that not only vegetarians but also non-vegetarians should regularly control their iron status and improve their diet regarding the content and bioavailability of iron by consuming more plants and less meat.

  6. The impact of a meat- versus a vegetable-based diet on iron status in women of childbearing age with small iron stores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge; Bendtsen, K.M.; Henriksen, M.

    2007-01-01

    about dietary intake before and during intervention, meat/fish intake, menstruation and contraceptive methods were recorded. Results: The women who consumed the meat-based diet had a significantly (P ... on iron status of women of childbearing age. Methods: For 20 weeks, 57 women aged 19-39 years with low iron stores (serum ferritin = 120 g/l) consumed either a meat-based or a vegetable-based diet. Haemoglobin and serum ferritin concentrations were measured at baseline, after 10 and 20 weeks. Information...

  7. The Effect of Iron Status on Risk of Coronary Artery Disease: A Mendelian Randomization Study-Brief Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Dipender; Del Greco M, Fabiola; Walker, Ann P; Srai, Surjit K S; Laffan, Michael A; Minelli, Cosetta

    2017-09-01

    Iron status is a modifiable trait that has been implicated in cardiovascular disease. This study uses the Mendelian randomization technique to investigate whether there is any causal effect of iron status on risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). A 2-sample Mendelian randomization approach is used to estimate the effect of iron status on CAD risk. Three loci (rs1800562 and rs1799945 in the HFE gene and rs855791 in TMPRSS6 ) that are each associated with serum iron, transferrin saturation, ferritin, and transferrin in a pattern suggestive of an association with systemic iron status are used as instruments. SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism)-iron status association estimates are based on a genome-wide association study meta-analysis of 48 972 individuals. SNP-CAD estimates are derived by combining the results of a genome-wide association study meta-analysis of 60 801 CAD cases and 123 504 controls with those of a meta-analysis of 63 746 CAD cases and 130 681 controls obtained from Metabochip and genome-wide association studies. Combined Mendelian randomization estimates are obtained for each marker by pooling results across the 3 instruments. We find evidence of a protective effect of higher iron status on CAD risk (iron odds ratio, 0.94 per SD unit increase; 95% confidence interval, 0.88-1.00; P =0.039; transferrin saturation odds ratio, 0.95 per SD unit increase; 95% confidence interval, 0.91-0.99; P =0.027; log-transformed ferritin odds ratio, 0.85 per SD unit increase; 95% confidence interval, 0.73-0.98; P =0.024; and transferrin odds ratio, 1.08 per SD unit increase; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.16; P =0.034). This Mendelian randomization study supports the hypothesis that higher iron status reduces CAD risk. These findings may highlight a therapeutic target. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Does lead use the intestinal absorptive pathways of iron? Impact of iron status on murine 210Pb and 59Fe absorption in duodenum and ileum in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsenhans, Bernd; Janser, Heinz; Windisch, Wilhelm; Schuemann, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    impact of iron-status on lead absorption. They need to be considered in future studies.

  9. Effects of exercise on the markers of iron status in serum of cross-country skiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Malczewska-Lenczowska

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aim was to assess the within-subject, day-to-day variability for ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR concentrations in serum of 6 female and 8 male cross-country skiers aged 16-18 years under a regular training regimen throughout 8 consecutive days. The concentrations of iron status variables and creatine kinase (CK activities were adjusted to plasma volume changes. Mean ferritin concentrations were 30.6 • 1.142[sup]±1[/sup] and 22.6 • 1.167[sup]±1[/sup] μg/l for men and women, respectively, the average within-subject, mean day-to-day variability coefficients (CV being 13.4% in men and 15.2% in women. Mean sTfR was 2.14 • 1.050[sup]±1[/sup] and 2.62 • 1.047[sup]±1[/sup] mg/l, respectively, and mean day-to-day CV 6.5% and 4.6%. Mean CV for sTfR/logFerr were 6.0% and 7.4%, respectively. Neither index correlated with training loads or CK activities. Thus, the training performed once daily had no significant effect on ferritin concentrations on the following morning, so ferritin alone may prove insufficient in detecting iron deficiency in endurance athletes. The low variability of sTfR under endurance loads made it useful in detecting iron deficiency together with ferritin and the sTfR/logFerr index. Adjusting the concentrations of ferritin and sTfR by changes in plasma volume might be recommendable for endurance athletes.

  10. IRON STATUS OF WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE LIVING IN PEARL MILLET CONSUMING AREAS OF BANASKANTHA, GUJARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanisha S Nambiar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Anemia is a major health problem in India, especially among women and children (NFHS III, 2006.  The Indian Council of medical Research study reported the prevalence of anemia among pregnant women was 84.9% and in adolescent girls was 90.1% based on their study from 16 districts of India (Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 2006.   Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (Bajra, grown extensively in the arid and semi-arid tropical regions of the world, is one of the most important cereals for food security and consumed as a staple food for rural and tribal population dwelling in this area. Pearl millet has high amounts of iron (8mg/100g, NIN 2010 along with several other factors such as phytates, oxalates and polyphones, which may decrease the bio available iron. IFPRI (Pray and Nagarjan, 2009 has identified Banaskantha, district in Gujarat as one of the important pearl millet producing belts of India. The present study aimed to assess the background information, morbidity profile and dietary intake focusing on the pearl millet consumption of women residing in the pearl millet producing belts of Banaskantha and to assess the status and immunity profile from a subsample of this population.

  11. IRON STATUS OF WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE LIVING IN PEARL MILLET CONSUMING AREAS OF BANASKANTHA, GUJARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanisha S Nambiar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anemia is a major health problem in India, especially among women and children (NFHS III, 2006.  The Indian Council of medical Research study reported the prevalence of anemia among pregnant women was 84.9% and in adolescent girls was 90.1% based on their study from 16 districts of India (Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 2006. Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (Bajra, grown extensively in the arid and semi-arid tropical regions of the world, is one of the most important cereals for food security and consumed as a staple food for rural and tribal population dwelling in this area. Pearl millet has high amounts of iron (8mg/100g, NIN 2010 along with several other factors such as phytates, oxalates and polyphones, which may decrease the bio available iron. IFPRI (Pray and Nagarjan, 2009 has identified Banaskantha, district in Gujarat as one of the important pearl millet producing belts of India. The present study aimed to assess the background information, morbidity profile and dietary intake focusing on the pearl millet consumption of women residing in the pearl millet producing belts of Banaskantha and to assess the status and immunity profile from a subsample of this population.

  12. Host Status of Different Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Varieties and Hatching in Root Diffusates of Globodera ellingtonae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasada, Inga A; Peetz, Amy; Wade, Nadine; Navarre, Roy A; Ingham, Russ E

    2013-09-01

    Globodera ellingtonae was detected in Oregon in 2008. In order to make decisions regarding the regulation of this nematode, knowledge of its biology is required. We determined the host status of a diversity of potato (Solanum tuberosum) varieties in soil-based experiments and identified hatching stimulants in in vitro hatching assays. 'Russet Burbank,' 'Desiree,' 'Modac,' 'Norland,' 'Umatilla,' and 'Yukon Gold' were good hosts (RF > 14) for G. ellingtonae. Potato varieties 'Maris Piper,' 'Atlantic,' and 'Satina,' all which contain the Ro1 gene that confers resistance to G. rostochiensis, were not hosts for G. ellingtonae. In in vitro hatching assays, G. ellingtonae hatched readily in the presence of diffusates from potato (PRD) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum; TRD). Egg hatch occurred in an average of between 87% and 90% of exposed cysts, with an average of between 144 and 164 juveniles emerging per cyst, from PRD- and TRD-treated cysts, respectively. This nematode hatched rapidly in the presence of PRD and TRD, with at least 66% of total hatch occurring by day 3 of exposure. There was no dose-response of egg hatch to concentrations of PRD or TRD ranging from 1:5 to 1:100 diffusate to water. When G. ellingtonae was exposed to root diffusates from 21 different plants, hatch occurred in 0% to 70% of exposed cysts, with an average of between 0 to 27 juveniles emerging per cyst. When root diffusate-exposed cysts were subsequently transferred to PRD to test viability, root diffusates from arugula (Eruca sativa), sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor subsp. drummondii), and common vetch (Vicia sativa) continued to inhibit egg hatch compared with the other root diffusates or water in which hatch occurred readily (60 to 182 juveniles emerging per cyst). Previously known hatching stimulants of G. rostochiensis and G. pallida, sodium metavanadate, sodium orthovanadate, and sodium thiocyanate, stimulated some egg hatch. Although, Globodera ellingtonae hatched readily in PRD and TRD

  13. The association between low-grade inflammation, iron status and nucleic acid oxidation in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broedbaek, Kasper; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Andersen, Jon T

    2011-01-01

    This study applied a case-control approach to investigate the association between low-grade inflammation, defined by high values within the normal range of C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and urinary markers of nucleic acid oxidation. No differences in excretion of urinary...... markers of nucleic acid oxidation between cases and controls were found and multivariable linear regression analysis showed no association between urinary markers of nucleic acid oxidation and inflammatory markers. Post-hoc multivariable linear regression analysis showed significant associations between...... suggest that low-grade inflammation only has a negligible impact on whole body nucleic acid oxidation, whereas iron status seems to be of great importance....

  14. Immunity to plant pathogens and iron homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, Aude; Chen, Nicolas W G; Thomine, Sebastien; Dellagi, Alia

    2015-11-01

    Iron is essential for metabolic processes in most living organisms. Pathogens and their hosts often compete for the acquisition of this nutrient. However, iron can catalyze the formation of deleterious reactive oxygen species. Hosts may use iron to increase local oxidative stress in defense responses against pathogens. Due to this duality, iron plays a complex role in plant-pathogen interactions. Plant defenses against pathogens and plant response to iron deficiency share several features, such as secretion of phenolic compounds, and use common hormone signaling pathways. Moreover, fine tuning of iron localization during infection involves genes coding iron transport and iron storage proteins, which have been shown to contribute to immunity. The influence of the plant iron status on the outcome of a given pathogen attack is strongly dependent on the nature of the pathogen infection strategy and on the host species. Microbial siderophores emerged as important factors as they have the ability to trigger plant defense responses. Depending on the plant species, siderophore perception can be mediated by their strong iron scavenging capacity or possibly via specific recognition as pathogen associated molecular patterns. This review highlights that iron has a key role in several plant-pathogen interactions by modulating immunity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Host status of false brome grass to the leaf rust fungus Puccinia brachypodii and the stripe rust fungus P. Striiformis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbieri, M.; Marcel, T.C.; Niks, R.E.

    2011-01-01

    Purple false brome grass (Brachypodium distachyon) has recently emerged as a model system for temperate grasses and is also a potential model plant to investigate plant interactions with economically important pathogens such as rust fungi. We determined the host status of five Brachypodium species

  16. Infection of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes with entomopathogenic fungi: effect of host age and blood-feeding status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mnyone, L.L.; Kirby, M.J.; Mpingwa, M.W.; Lwetoijera, D.W.; Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Russell, T.L.

    2011-01-01

    Physiological characteristics of insects can influence their susceptibility to fungal infection of which age and nutritional status are among the most important. An understanding of host–pathogen interaction with respect to these physiological characteristics of the host is essential if we are to

  17. Probiotics lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 and lactobacillus casei CRL 431 modestly increase growth, but non iron and zinc status, among Indonesian children aged 1-6 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agustina, R.; Bovee-Oudenhoven, I.M.J.; Lukito, W.; Fahmida, U.; Rest, van de O.; Zimmermann, M.B.; Firmansyah, A.; Wulanti, R.; Albers, R.; Heuvel, van den E.G.H.M.; Kok, F.J.

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics and milk calcium may increase resistance to intestinal infection, but their effect on growth and iron and zinc status of Indonesian children is uncertain. We investigated the hypotheses that cow milk with added probiotics would improve growth and iron and zinc status of Indonesian

  18. Adequacy of maternal iron status protects against behavioral, neuroanatomical, and growth deficits in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echoleah S Rufer

    Full Text Available Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD are the leading non-genetic cause of neurodevelopmental disability in children. Although alcohol is clearly teratogenic, environmental factors such as gravidity and socioeconomic status significantly modify individual FASD risk despite equivalent alcohol intake. An explanation for this variability could inform FASD prevention. Here we show that the most common nutritional deficiency of pregnancy, iron deficiency without anemia (ID, is a potent and synergistic modifier of FASD risk. Using an established rat model of third trimester-equivalent binge drinking, we show that ID significantly interacts with alcohol to impair postnatal somatic growth, associative learning, and white matter formation, as compared with either insult separately. For the associative learning and myelination deficits, the ID-alcohol interaction was synergistic and the deficits persisted even after the offsprings' iron status had normalized. Importantly, the observed deficits in the ID-alcohol animals comprise key diagnostic criteria of FASD. Other neurobehaviors were normal, showing the ID-alcohol interaction was selective and did not reflect a generalized malnutrition. Importantly ID worsened FASD outcome even though the mothers lacked overt anemia; thus diagnostics that emphasize hematological markers will not identify pregnancies at-risk. This is the first direct demonstration that, as suggested by clinical studies, maternal iron status has a unique influence upon FASD outcome. While alcohol is unquestionably teratogenic, this ID-alcohol interaction likely represents a significant portion of FASD diagnoses because ID is more common in alcohol-abusing pregnancies than generally appreciated. Iron status may also underlie the associations between FASD and parity or socioeconomic status. We propose that increased attention to normalizing maternal iron status will substantially improve FASD outcome, even if maternal alcohol abuse

  19. Vitamin D Status and the Host Resistance to Infections: What It Is Currently (Not) Understood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Pierre Olivier; Aspinall, Richard

    2017-05-01

    Vitamin D is increasingly thought to play a role in regulating immunity. This comprehensive review updates the current understanding regarding ways in which we believe that vitamin D regulates responsiveness of the immune system and how serum status modulates the host defense against pathogens. The literature was searched by using PubMed and Scopus with the following key words: vitamin D, immunity, innate and adaptive immunity, infectious disease, and vaccine response. Vitamin D deficiency remains a major public health concern worldwide. The overall body of evidence confirms that vitamin D plays an important role in modulating the immune response to infections. Epidemiologic studies suggest a clear association between vitamin D deficiency and susceptibility to various pathogens. However, translation of vitamin D use into the clinic as a means of controlling infections is fraught with methodologic and epidemiologic challenges. The recent discovery of alternative activation pathways, different active forms of vitamin D, and possible interaction with non-vitamin D receptors provide further complications to an already complex interaction between vitamin D and the immune system. Moreover, it has become apparent that the individual responsiveness to supplementation is more dynamic than presumed from the static assessment of 25-hydroxy vitamin D status. Furthermore, the epigenetic response at the level of the individual to environmental changes and lifestyle or health conditions provides greater variation than those resulting from vitamin D receptor polymorphisms. To understand the future of vitamin D with respect to clinical applications in the prevention and better control of infectious diseases, it is necessary to determine all aspects of vitamin D metabolism, as well as the mechanisms by which active forms interact with the immune system globally. For the most part, we are unable to identify tissue-specific applications of supplementation except for those subjects at

  20. Chilean complementary feeding program reduces anemia and improves iron status in children aged 11 to 18 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Alex; Olivares, Manuel; Pizarro, Tito; Rodríguez, Lorena; Hertrampf, Eva

    2013-12-01

    Iron deficiency is the most prevalent nutritional deficiency in the world, primarily affecting infants, young children, and women of childbearing age. To evaluate the impact of the National Complementary Feeding Program (NCFP) on anemia and iron status in Chilean children aged 11 to 18 months. Two studies were performed. The first study was performed at one public outpatient health center in Santiago, using data collected in 1999 (n = 128) and 2000 (n = 125), before and after the national introduction of iron-fortified milk. Subsequently, a study of a representative sample (n = 320) from the two most populated areas of the country was performed in 2009. One year after fortification, the prevalence of anemia was 9%; significantly lower (p < .001) than the 27% prevalence observed 1 year before. Ten years after fortification, 14% of children were anemic and 77% of children with anemia (12% of all children) suffered from iron-deficiency anemia. In 2009, 11% of children consuming iron-fortified milk delivered by the NCFP (73%) were anemic, significantly lower (p = .028) than the 21% prevalence of anemia observed in children without consumption. Consumption of iron-fortified milk was positively associated with hemoglobin concentration (r = 0.28, p = .022) and was associated with a lower prevalence of anemia after adjusting for confounding factors (odds ratio, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.26 to 0.96). In Chile, the NCFP has had an impact on the reduction of anemia and improved the iron status of children aged 11 to 18 months. Increasing the consumption of this iron-fortified milk could enhance the impact of the NCFP.

  1. Brain microbial populations in HIV/AIDS: α-proteobacteria predominate independent of host immune status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William G Branton

    's microbiome regardless of underlying immune status, which could be transferred into naïve hosts leading to microbial persistence in the brain.

  2. Reference Values of Reticulocyte Hemoglobin Content and Their Relation With Other Indicators of Iron Status in Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ruzafa, Encarnación; Vázquez-López, Maria A; Lendinez-Molinos, Francisco; Poveda-González, Juan; Galera-Martínez, Rafael; Bonillo-Perales, Antonio; Martín-González, Manuel

    2016-10-01

    Reticulocyte hemoglobin content (CHr) is considered an indicator of functional iron deficiency, but is understudied in children. The goals of this study are to determine the reference intervals for CHr in healthy children, and their relation with iron parameters, erythropoiesis, and individual conditions. A total of 902 children without iron deficiency, aged 1 to 11 years were analyzed in a cross-sectional study. Besides a physical examination of the subjects and a questionnaire completed by their parents, the complete blood count, serum transferrin receptor, ferritin, transferrin saturation, erythrocyte protoporphyrin, serum erythropoietin, C-reactive protein, and CHr levels were measured. Changes in CHr, iron status, and erythropoiesis at different age intervals were analyzed and linear multiple regression was used to identify the factors that determine CHr variability. Mean value obtained for CHr was 30.9±1.8 pg (P2.5-P97.5: 26.9 to 34.3 pg), but the influence of age on CHr (the values increased with age) and on the iron parameters justified the establishment of different reference ranges. In addition to age, nutritional status, hematologic measurements, reticulocytes, transferrin saturation, and erythrocyte protoporphyrin accounted for 39% of CHr variability.

  3. Iron Homeostasis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Mechanistic Insights into Siderophore-Mediated Iron Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis requires iron for normal growth but faces a limitation of the metal ion due to its low solubility at biological pH and the withholding of iron by the mammalian host. The pathogen expresses the Fe3+-specific siderophores mycobactin and carboxymycobactin to chelate the metal ion from insoluble iron and the host proteins transferrin, lactoferrin, and ferritin. Siderophore-mediated iron uptake is essential for the survival of M. tuberculosis, as knockout mutants, which were defective in siderophore synthesis or uptake, failed to survive in low-iron medium and inside macrophages. But as excess iron is toxic due to its catalytic role in the generation of free radicals, regulation of iron uptake is necessary to maintain optimal levels of intracellular iron. The focus of this review is to present a comprehensive overview of iron homeostasis in M. tuberculosis that is discussed in the context of mycobactin biosynthesis, transport of iron across the mycobacterial cell envelope, and storage of excess iron. The clinical significance of the serum iron status and the expression of the iron-regulated protein HupB in tuberculosis (TB) patients is presented here, highlighting the potential of HupB as a marker, notably in extrapulmonary TB cases. PMID:27402628

  4. Staphylococcus aureus redirects central metabolism to increase iron availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B Friedman

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis is significantly influenced by the iron status of the host. However, the regulatory impact of host iron sources on S. aureus gene expression remains unknown. In this study, we combine multivariable difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry with multivariate statistical analyses to systematically cluster cellular protein response across distinct iron-exposure conditions. Quadruplicate samples were simultaneously analyzed for alterations in protein abundance and/or post-translational modification state in response to environmental (iron chelation, hemin treatment or genetic (Deltafur alterations in bacterial iron exposure. We identified 120 proteins representing several coordinated biochemical pathways that are affected by changes in iron-exposure status. Highlighted in these experiments is the identification of the heme-regulated transport system (HrtAB, a novel transport system which plays a critical role in staphylococcal heme metabolism. Further, we show that regulated overproduction of acidic end-products brought on by iron starvation decreases local pH resulting in the release of iron from the host iron-sequestering protein transferrin. These findings reveal novel strategies used by S. aureus to acquire scarce nutrients in the hostile host environment and begin to define the iron and heme-dependent regulons of S. aureus.

  5. Nutrient intake, serum lipids and iron status of colligiate rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Hiroyuki; Iide, Kazuhide; Yoshimura, Yoshitaka; Kumagai, Kenya; Oshikata, Reika; Miyahara, Keiko; Oda, Kazuto; Miyamoto, Noriko; Nakazawa, Anthony

    2013-02-13

    There are two main playing positions in rugby (backs and forwards), which demonstrate different exercise patterns, roles, and physical characteristics. The purpose of this study was: 1) to collect baseline data on nutrient intake in order to advise the athletes about nutrition practices that might enhance performance, and 2) to compare serum lipids, lipoproteins, apolipoproteins (apo), lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity, and iron status of forwards and backs. The sporting group was divided into 18 forwards and 16 backs and were compared with 26 sedentary controls. Dietary information was obtained with a food frequency questionnaire. There were significant differences among the three groups. The forwards had the highest body weight, body mass index, percentage of body fat (calculated by sum of four skinfold thicknesses), as well as the highest lean body mass, followed by the backs and the control group. The mean carbohydrate intake was marginal and protein intake was lower than the respective recommended targets in all three groups. The mean intakes of calcium, magnesium, and vitamins A, B1, B2, and C were lower than the respective Japanese recommended dietary allowances or adequate dietary intakes for the rugby players. The forwards had significantly lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and HDL2-C than the backs and had significantly higher apo B and LCAT activity than the controls. The backs showed significantly higher HDL-C, HDL3-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apo A-I, and LCAT activity than the controls. Four forwards (22%), five backs (31%), and three controls (12%) had hemolysis. None of the rugby players had anemia or iron depletion. The findings of our study indicate that as the athletes increased their carbohydrate and protein intake, their performance and lean body mass increased. Further, to increase mineral and vitamin intakes, we recommended athletes increase their consumption of green and other vegetables

  6. The effect of daily consumption of the small fish Amblypharyngodon mola or added vitamin A on iron status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anna Birkmose; Schmidt, Lise K H; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    : Bangladeshi children (n=196), aged 3-7 years, with marginal vitamin A status were randomly allocated to one of three intervention groups served different fish curries: mola curry (experimental group); rui (Labeo rohita) curry with added retinyl palmitate (positive control group); or rui curry (negative...... control group). The intervention meals were served 6 days/week for 9 weeks. The experimental and positive control meals were designed to contain similar amounts of retinol activity equivalents per portion. The mola curry contained four times more iron compared to the rui curries due to different iron...

  7. Assessment of iron status among preschool children (6 to 59 months ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Iron deficiency is a major public health concern. Globally, iron deficiency ranks number 9 and is responsible for about 60% of all anemia cases among preschool children. In Africa iron deficiency is 43-52% while in Kenya, children under 5 years constitute the largest burden with 69% of them being deficient.

  8. Iron status in spanish junior soccer and basketball players. Status en hierro de jugadores de fútbol y baloncesto de la categoría junior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valtueña , Jara

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAim: To assess the dietary iron intake and the iron status of Spanish junior athletes and its importance on performance, and to discuss abount the consequences of an iron deficiency. Material and methods: Forty six soccer and eleven basketball players aged 17-21 years (mean age 18.2 +1.1 who played in the Spanish national junior soccer and basketball league, respectively, who had neither drugs, medicines intake nor illness during the study which altered the appetite or some studies parameters, took part in the study. Dietary intake was assessed by means of a 7-day weighed food intake record. Iron status was evaluated by means of a complete hemogram, serum iron, ferritin, transferrin and TIBC.Results: Mean iron intake was 19.24±4.58 mg/day. Mean analytical data were all between reference ranges. Basketball players had higher intake levels compared with soccer ones (22.1+6.4 and 19.2+3.9 mg/day, respectively; pConclusions: During adolescence, iron requirements are very high which could place adolescent athletes in a high risk group for iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia. In the current research, the population studied shows an acceptable iron status although there are 3% of iron deficiency anaemia cases.ResumenObjetivos: valorar la ingesta diaria y el estatus de hierro de los atletas junior españoles y su importancia sobre el rendimiento, así como lo que respecta a las consecuencias que tiene una deficiencia de hierro. Material y métodos: cuarenta y seis jugadores de fútbol y once de baloncesto con edades comprendidas entre los 17 y 21 años (la media de edad 18.2 + 1.1 que jugaban en la liga junior nacional de fútbol y baloncesto, respectivamente, y que no tomaban drogas, medicinas ni presentaban ninguna enfermedad durante el desarrollo del estudio que pudiera alterar el apetito o algunos de los parámetros objeto de estudio, tomaron parte en este estudio. La ingesta dietética se cuantificó mediante la técnica de

  9. Determinants of vitamin A and iron status in pregnant mothers and preschool children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudhakaran, P.R.; Rajasekharan, K.N.; Menon, V.P.; Nair, K.M.; Chandrasekhar, U.; Nair, P.

    1997-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies, particularly deficiency of vitamin A and iron, have been recognized as a major public health problem in developing countries. This is particularly true for mothers, infants and preschool children, since these deficiencies may promote susceptibility to infectious agents and also increase the risk of developing chronic diseases in adult life. Increasing the availability of dietary provitamin A carotenoids from natural sources will improve vitamin A status among deficient populations. In order to evaluate such intervention programmes, it is essential to have biochemical and field assessment techniques. This proposal aims at conducting a demonstration project in Kerala, India using deuterated β-carotene as an intrinsic label to determine the utilization of this nutrient as a source of vitamin A. The programme design consists of i) method development phase during which Spirulina fusiformis will be grown in microreactors in presence of deuterated water for the production of labelled β-carotene and ii) an application phase wherein experimental animals (primates) will be administered labelled Spirulina to study the factors that influence the utilization of β-carotene for the formation of vitamin A. (author)

  10. Influence of artistic gymnastics on iron nutritional status and exercise-induced hemolysis in female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureira, Thaiz Mattos; Amancio, Olga Silverio; Pellegrini Braga, Josefina Aparecida

    2012-08-01

    This study evaluates the relationship between body iron losses and gains in artistic gymnastics female athletes. It shows that despite the low iron intake and exercise-induced hemolysis, iron deficiency or iron-deficiency anemia does not occur, but partial changes in the hematological profile do. The hypothesis that gymnasts' nutritional behavior contributes to anemia, which may be aggravated by exercise-induced hemolysis, led to this cross-sectional study, conducted with 43 female artistic gymnasts 6-16 yr old. The control group was formed by 40 nontraining girls, paired by age. Hemogram, serum iron, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, haptoglobin, total and fractional bilirubin, Type I urine, and parasitologic and occult fecal blood tests were evaluated. The athletes presented mean hematimetric and serum iron values (p = .020) higher than those of the control group. The bilirubin result discarded any hemolytic alteration in both groups. The haptoglobin results were lower in the athlete group (p = .002), confirming the incidence of exercise-induced hemolysis. Both groups presented low iron intake. The results suggest that artistic gymnastics practice leads to exercise-induced hemolysis and partially changes the hematological profile, although not causing iron deficiency or iron-deficiency anemia, even in the presence of low iron intake.

  11. Breastfeeding and Red Meat Intake Are Associated with Iron Status in Healthy Korean Weaning-age Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jeana; Chang, Ju Young; Shin, Sue; Oh, Sohee

    2017-06-01

    The present study investigated risk factors for iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) during late infancy, including feeding type and complementary feeding (CF) practice. Healthy term Korean infants (8-15 months) were weighed, and questionnaires regarding delivery, feeding, and weaning were completed by their caregivers. We also examined levels of hemoglobin, serum iron/total iron-binding capacity, serum ferritin, and mean corpuscular volume (MCV). Among 619 infants, ID and IDA were present in 174 infants (28.1%) and 87 infants (14.0%), respectively. The 288 infants with exclusively/mostly breastfeeding until late infancy (BFL) were most likely to exhibit ID (53.1%) and IDA (28.1%). The risk of ID was independently associated with BFL (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 47.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 18.3-122.9), male sex (aOR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2-2.9), fold weight gain (aOR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.5-4.6), and perceived inadequacy of red meat intake (aOR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0-2.7). In addition to the risk factors for ID, Cesarean section delivery (aOR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1-3.2) and low parental CF-related knowledge (aOR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.5-5.2) were risk factors for IDA. In conclusion, prolonged breastfeeding and perceived inadequacy of red meat intake may be among the important feeding-related risk factors of ID and IDA. Therefore, more meticulous education and monitoring of iron-rich food intake, such as red meat, with iron supplementation or iron status testing during late infancy if necessary, should be considered for breastfed Korean infants, especially for those with additional risk factors for ID or IDA. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  12. Application status and vistas of sequence stratigraphy to the exploration of sandstone-hosted uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Qingyin; Chen Zuyi; Yu Jinshui; Han Shuqin

    2008-01-01

    Sequence stratigraphy is a newly developed subject based on seismostratigraphy, and has been widely applied in the exploration of hydrocarbon and other sedimentogenic mineral deposits and great achievements have been obtained. However, the application of sequence stratigraphy to the exploration of sandstone-hosted uranium deposits is just at the beginning. In this paper, some primary research achievements of sequence stratigraphy to the exploration of sandstone-hosted uranium deposits are summarized, and problems and their reasons of the application of sequence stratigraphy are discussed. Further more, according to characteristics of sandstone-hosted uranium deposits and the development of sequence stratigraphy, the application vistas of sequence stratigraphy to the exploration of sandstone-hosted uranium deposits are estimated. Finally, application directions are proposed, and some specific suggestions are given. (authors)

  13. In Rwandese Women with Low Iron Status, Iron Absorption from Low-Phytic Acid Beans and Biofortified Beans Is Comparable, but Low-Phytic Acid Beans Cause Adverse Gastrointestinal Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Nicolai; Rohner, Fabian; Gahutu, Jean Bosco; Campion, Bruno; Boy, Erick; Tugirimana, Pierrot L; Zimmerman, Michael Bruce; Zwahlen, Christian; Wirth, James P; Moretti, Diego

    2016-05-01

    Phytic acid (PA) is a major inhibitor of iron bioavailability from beans, and high PA concentrations might limit the positive effect of biofortified beans (BBs) on iron status. Low-phytic acid (lpa) bean varieties could increase iron bioavailability. We set out to test whether lpa beans provide more bioavailable iron than a BB variety when served as part of a composite meal in a bean-consuming population with low iron status. Dietary iron absorption from lpa, iron-biofortified, and control beans (CBs) (regular iron and PA concentrations) was compared in 25 nonpregnant young women with low iron status with the use of a multiple-meal crossover design. Iron absorption was measured with stable iron isotopes. PA concentration in lpa beans was ∼10% of BBs and CBs, and iron concentration in BBs was ∼2- and 1.5-fold compared with CBs and lpa beans, respectively. Fractional iron absorption from lpa beans [8.6% (95% CI: 4.8%, 15.5%)], BBs [7.3% (95% CI: 4.0%, 13.4%)], and CBs [8.0% (95% CI: 4.4%, 14.6%)] did not significantly differ. The total amount of iron absorbed from lpa beans and BBs was 421 μg (95% CI: 234, 756 μg) and 431 μg (95% CI: 237, 786 μg), respectively, and did not significantly differ, but was >50% higher (P beans were hard to cook, and their consumption caused transient adverse digestive side effects in ∼95% of participants. Gel electrophoresis analysis showed phytohemagglutinin L (PHA-L) residues in cooked lpa beans. BBs and lpa beans provided more bioavailable iron than control beans and could reduce dietary iron deficiency. Digestive side effects of lpa beans were likely caused by PHA-L, but it is unclear to what extent the associated digestive problems reduced iron bioavailability. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02215278. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Host Status of Seven Weed Species and Their Effects on Ditylenchus destructor Infestation of Peanut

    OpenAIRE

    De Waele, D.; Jordaan, Elizabeth M.; Basson, Selmaré

    1990-01-01

    The host suitability to Ditylenchus destructor of seven common weed species in peanut (Arachis hypogaea) fields in South Africa was determined. Based on the number of nematodes per root unit, white goosefoot (Chenopodium album), feathertop chloris (Chloris virgata), purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus), jimson weed (Datura stramonium), goose grass (Eleusine indica), khaki weed (Tagetes minuta), and cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium) were poor hosts. Ditylenchus destructor survived on all weed spec...

  15. Host Status of Five Weed Species and Their Effects on Pratylenchus zeae Infestation of Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordaan, E M; De Waele, D

    1988-10-01

    The host suitability of five of the most common weed species occurring in maize (Zea mays L.) fields in South Africa to Pratylenchus zeae was tested. Based on the number of nematodes per root unit, mealie crotalaria (Crotalaria sphaerocarpa) was a good host; goose grass (Eleusine indica), common pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus), and thorn apple (Datura stramonium) were moderate hosts; and khaki weed (Tagetes minuta) was a poor host. Only the root residues of khaki weed suppressed the P. zeae infestation of subsequently grown maize. When goose grass, khaki weed, and mealie crotalaria were grown in association with maize in soil infested with P. zeae, goose grass and khaki weed severely suppressed maize root development; this resulted in a low number of nematodes per maize root system and a high number of nematodes per maize root unit. Mealie crotalaria did not restrict maize root growth and did not affect nematode densities per maize root system or maize root unit. Special attention should be given to the control of mealie crotalaria, which is a good host for P. zeae, and goose grass, which, in addition to its ability to compete with maize, is also a suitable host for P. zeae.

  16. Did the Kiruna iron ores form as a result of a metasomatic or igneous process? New U-Pb and Nd data for the iron oxide apatite ores and their host rocks in the Norrbotten region of northern Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westhues, A.; Hanchar, J. M.; Whitehouse, M. J.; Fisher, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    A number of iron deposits near Kiruna in the Norrbotten region of northern Sweden are of the iron oxide apatite (IOA) type of deposits; also referred to as Kiruna-type deposits. They are commonly considered a subgroup or end-member of iron oxide copper gold (IOCG) deposits, containing no economic grades of copper or gold. Both IOCG and IOA deposits are characterized by abundant low-Ti Fe oxides, an enrichment in REE, and intense sodium and potassium wall-rock alteration adjacent to the ores. Deposits of these types are of a great economic importance, not only for iron, but also for other elements such as rare earth elements (REE) or uranium. Kiruna, the type locality of the IOA type of mineral deposits, is the focus of this study. Despite a century-long mining history and 2500 Mt of iron ore produced in the region to date (with grades of 30 to 70 wt.% Fe), the genesis of these deposits is poorly understood: theories of a magmatic vs. a hydrothermal or metasomatic origin have been debated, and the timing of mineralization of the ores in the Norbotten region has never been directly dated. The results anticipated from this study will provide a better understanding of the nature of the IOA type of mineral deposits and their relation to IOCG deposits such as Olympic Dam in Australia. An array of geochemical methods is used in order to gain insights on the emplacement history of the host rocks, their subsequent alteration, and the ore genesis of these deposits. This includes in situ U/Pb geochronology of zircon, monazite, and titanite to constrain the timing between host rock emplacement, alteration and mineralization. Isotopic data from whole rocks and in situ at mineral scale will provide constraints on the involvement of hydrothermal fluids and their possible sources, as well as on the sources of Fe, U, and the REE. Newly obtained Sm-Nd isotopic data points to distinct source differences between host rocks, ore and alteration related samples. Preliminary in situ U

  17. Helicobacter pylori seropositivity's association with markers of iron, 1-carbon metabolism, and antioxidant status among US adults: a structural equations modeling approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May A Beydoun

    Full Text Available We tested a model in which Helicobacter pylori seropositivity (Hps predicted iron status, which in turn acted as a predictor for markers of 1-C metabolism that were then allowed to predict antioxidant status.National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES 1999-2000 cross-sectional data among adults aged 20-85 y were analyzed (n = 3,055. Markers of Hps, iron status (serum ferritin and transferrin saturation (TS; 1-C metabolism (serum folate (FOLserum, B-12, total homocysteine (tHcy, methylmalonic acid (MMA and antioxidant status (vitamins A and E were entered into a structural equations model (SEM.Predictors of Hps included older age, lower education and income, racial/ethnic groups (lowest among Non-Hispanic Whites, and lifetime cigarette smoking. SEM modeling indicated that Hps had a direct inverse relationship with iron status (combining serum ferritin and TS which in turn was positively related to 1-C metabolites (higher serum folate, B-12 or lower tHcy/MMA that were positively associated with antioxidant status (combining serum vitamins A and E. Another pathway that was found bypassed 1-C metabolites (Hps → Iron_st → Antiox. The sum of all indirect effects from Hps combining both pathways and the other indirect pathways in the model (Hps → Iron_st → OneCarbon; Hps →OneCarbon →Antiox was estimated at β = -0.006±0.003, p<0.05.In sum, of the total effect of H. pylori seropositivity on antioxidant status, two significant indirect pathways through Iron status and 1-Carbon metabolites were found. Randomized controlled trials should be conducted to uncover the concomitant causal effect of H. pylori eradication on improving iron status, folate, B-12 and antioxidant status among H. pylori seropositive individuals.

  18. Proton Pump Inhibitors Intake and Iron and Vitamin B12 Status: A Prospective Comparative Study with a Follow up of 12 Months

    OpenAIRE

    Qorraj-Bytyqi, Hasime; Hoxha, Rexhep; Sadiku, Shemsedin; Bajraktari, Ismet H.; Sopjani, Mentor; Thaçi, Kujtim; Thaçi, Shpetim; Bahtiri, Elton

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) represent the most widely prescribed antisecretory agents, but their prolonged use, may influence iron and vitamin B12 status, which could have important implications for clinical practice. AIM: We undertook this study aiming to investigate the association between PPIs use for 12 months and potential changes in iron and vitamin B12 status, as well as whether this potential association varies among four specific PPI drugs used in the study. MET...

  19. Iron status of some pregnant women in Orlu town-Eastern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: High prevalence of anaemia has been reported among pregnant women especially in developing nations. This paper considers maternal haemoglobin (Hb) level, serum total iron, iron binding capacity, and serum ferritin in antenatal women in Orlu- Imo State Nigeria. PATIENTS AND METHODS: ...

  20. The effect of gum Arabic oral treatment on the iron and protein status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit, total protein, albumin, globulin and 24-hour urine volume as well as serum iron, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC),transferrin saturation, packed cell volume (PCV) and, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were determined. Results: Following administration of gum arabic oral ...

  1. Iron and obesity status-associated insulin resistance influence circulating fibroblast-growth factor-23 concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Fernández-Real

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23 is known to be produced by the bone and linked to metabolic risk. We aimed to explore circulating FGF-23 in association with fatness and insulin sensitivity, atherosclerosis and bone mineral density (BMD. Circulating intact FGF-23 (iFGF-23 and C-terminal (CtFGF-23 concentrations (ELISA were measured in 133 middle aged men from the general population in association with insulin sensitivity (Cohort 1; and in association with fat mass and bone mineral density (DEXA and atherosclerosis (intima media thickness, IMT in 78 subjects (52 women with a wide range of adiposity (Cohort 2. Circulating iFGF-23 was also measured before and after weight loss. In all subjects as a whole, serum intact and C-terminal concentrations were linearly and positively associated with BMI. In cohort 1, both serum iFGF-23 and CtFGF-23 concentrations increased with insulin resistance. Serum creatinine contributed to iFGF-23 variance, while serum ferritin and insulin sensitivity (but not BMI, age or serum creatinine contributed to 17% of CtFGF-23 variance. In cohort 2, CtFGF-23 levels were higher in women vs. men, and increased with BMI, fat mass, fasting and post-load serum glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and PTH, being negatively associated with circulating vitamin D and ferritin levels. The associations of CtFGF-23 with bone density in the radius, lumbar spine and carotid IMT were no longer significant after controlling for BMI. Weight loss led to decreased iFGF-23 concentrations. In summary, the associations of circulating FGF-23 concentration with parameters of glucose metabolism, bone density and atherosclerosis are dependent on iron and obesity status-associated insulin resistance.

  2. [Status of vitamin A, vitamin B2, iron and an-oxidantive activity in anemic pregnant women in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang; Ma, Ai-Guo; Zhang, Xiu-Zhen; Jiang, Dian-Chen

    2006-05-01

    To investigate the status of vitamin A(VA), vitamin B2 (VB2), iron and anoxidative function in anemic and non-anemic pregnant women. 426 anemic and 36 non-anemic pregnant women were included in the study. The survey of 24-hour's diet recall of pregnant women was made to evaluate intake of iron, VB2, folic acid, etc by the nutrition software provided by Beijing 301 hospital, iron and VA were measured by Radioimmunoassay (RIA) and by high-pressure liquid chromatography. VB2 status was detected using the assay for erythrocyte glutathione reductase (Egr; EC 1.6.4.2) activity. SOD and GSH-Px activities and MDA were determined using commercial kits. Peripheral blood erythrocyte membrane fluidity was detected by using 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene as a probe, the degree of fluorescence polarization (P) at 25 degrees C of disrupted cells plasma membranes were compared for a variety of systems. Median intakes of protein and vitamin C met the current Chinese RNIs for pregnancy, whereas intakes of(VA) and VB2 were well below the recommendations. Intake of iron were above 90%, but the main sources of iron are vegetables. Plasma VA (1.25 micromol/L) and iron (20.57 microg/L) were lower, BGRAC (1.79) was higher than that in non-anemia group (VA 1.57 micromol/L, SF 33.16 microg/L, BGRAC 1.52). The level of plasma SOD (77.1U/ml) and the activity of GSH-Px (61.9U) were lower than those in non-anemia group (92.2U/ml, 71.6U, P membrane (P = 0.2622, eta = 2.7465) fluidity were higher than those non-anemia group(MDA = 3.78 nmol/ ml, P = 0.2360, eta = 2.3658). Plasam VA, VB2 and iron, antioxidantcapacity and erythrocyte membrane fluidity were decreased in the anemic pregnant women.

  3. Brazilian status in blood irradiation in Graft-Versus-Host Disease (GVHD) prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goes, E.G. de; Borges, J.C.; Ghilardi Netto, T.

    1996-01-01

    A short overview of the Brazilian reality concerning Graft-Versus-Host Disease (GVHD) is presented. Suggestions of policies and procedures to optimise GVHD prevention are reported. A national irradiator device using cobalt teletherapy unit is proposed for irradiation of blood and cellular components

  4. Host status of grapefruit and Valencia oranges for Anastrepha serpentina and Anastrepha ludens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastrepha serpentina, known as the zapote fly or serpentine fruit fly, is occasionally captured in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Lists of host plants for this species include several species of citrus, such as oranges and grapefruit. Current regulatory procedures require quarantines and treatme...

  5. Influence of Diet, Menstruation and Genetic Factors on Iron Status: A Cross-Sectional Study in Spanish Women of Childbearing Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Blanco-Rojo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the combined influence of diet, menstruation and genetic factors on iron status in Spanish menstruating women (n = 142. Dietary intake was assessed by a 72-h detailed dietary report and menstrual blood loss by a questionnaire, to determine a Menstrual Blood Loss Coefficient (MBLC. Five selected SNPs were genotyped: rs3811647, rs1799852 (Tf gene; rs1375515 (CACNA2D3 gene; and rs1800562 and rs1799945 (HFE gene, mutations C282Y and H63D, respectively. Iron biomarkers were determined and cluster analysis was performed. Differences among clusters in dietary intake, menstrual blood loss parameters and genotype frequencies distribution were studied. A categorical regression was performed to identify factors associated with cluster belonging. Three clusters were identified: women with poor iron status close to developing iron deficiency anemia (Cluster 1, n = 26; women with mild iron deficiency (Cluster 2, n = 59 and women with normal iron status (Cluster 3, n = 57. Three independent factors, red meat consumption, MBLC and mutation C282Y, were included in the model that better explained cluster belonging (R2 = 0.142, p < 0.001. In conclusion, the combination of high red meat consumption, low menstrual blood loss and the HFE C282Y mutation may protect from iron deficiency in women of childbearing age. These findings could be useful to implement adequate strategies to prevent iron deficiency anemia.

  6. Influence of diet, menstruation and genetic factors on iron status: a cross-sectional study in Spanish women of childbearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Rojo, Ruth; Toxqui, Laura; López-Parra, Ana M; Baeza-Richer, Carlos; Pérez-Granados, Ana M; Arroyo-Pardo, Eduardo; Vaquero, M Pilar

    2014-03-06

    The aim of this study was to investigate the combined influence of diet, menstruation and genetic factors on iron status in Spanish menstruating women (n = 142). Dietary intake was assessed by a 72-h detailed dietary report and menstrual blood loss by a questionnaire, to determine a Menstrual Blood Loss Coefficient (MBLC). Five selected SNPs were genotyped: rs3811647, rs1799852 (Tf gene); rs1375515 (CACNA2D3 gene); and rs1800562 and rs1799945 (HFE gene, mutations C282Y and H63D, respectively). Iron biomarkers were determined and cluster analysis was performed. Differences among clusters in dietary intake, menstrual blood loss parameters and genotype frequencies distribution were studied. A categorical regression was performed to identify factors associated with cluster belonging. Three clusters were identified: women with poor iron status close to developing iron deficiency anemia (Cluster 1, n = 26); women with mild iron deficiency (Cluster 2, n = 59) and women with normal iron status (Cluster 3, n = 57). Three independent factors, red meat consumption, MBLC and mutation C282Y, were included in the model that better explained cluster belonging (R2 = 0.142, p < 0.001). In conclusion, the combination of high red meat consumption, low menstrual blood loss and the HFE C282Y mutation may protect from iron deficiency in women of childbearing age. These findings could be useful to implement adequate strategies to prevent iron deficiency anemia.

  7. Iron status and its relations with oxidative damage and bone loss during long-duration space flight on the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Sara R; Morgan, Jennifer L L; Smith, Scott M

    2013-07-01

    Increases in stored iron and dietary intake of iron during space flight have raised concern about the risk of excess iron and oxidative damage, particularly in bone. The objectives of this study were to perform a comprehensive assessment of iron status in men and women before, during, and after long-duration space flight and to quantify the association of iron status with oxidative damage and bone loss. Fasting blood and 24-h urine samples were collected from 23 crew members before, during, and after missions lasting 50 to 247 d to the International Space Station. Serum ferritin and body iron increased early in flight, and transferrin and transferrin receptors decreased later, which indicated that early increases in body iron stores occurred through the mobilization of iron to storage tissues. Acute phase proteins indicated no evidence of an inflammatory response during flight. Serum ferritin was positively correlated with the oxidative damage markers 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (r = 0.53, P < 0.001) and prostaglandin F2α (r = 0.26, P < 0.001), and the greater the area under the curve for ferritin during flight, the greater the decrease in bone mineral density in the total hip (P = 0.031), trochanter (P = 0.006), hip neck (P = 0.044), and pelvis (P = 0.049) after flight. Increased iron stores may be a risk factor for oxidative damage and bone resorption.

  8. Iron status and chronic kidney disease predict restless legs syndrome in an older hospital population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quinn, Colin

    2011-03-01

    Iron deficiency is important in the pathogenesis of restless legs syndrome (RLS), and serum ferritin measurement, using a cutoff of 45-50ng\\/ml, is widely recommended as the optimal screening test for iron deficiency in RLS. Serum ferritin often increases with inflammation, and a higher cutoff may be better in those with acute and chronic inflammatory conditions, including those with chronic kidney disease (CKD).

  9. Host Status of Seven Weed Species and Their Effects on Ditylenchus destructor Infestation of Peanut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Waele, D; Jordaan, E M; Basson, S

    1990-07-01

    The host suitability to Ditylenchus destructor of seven common weed species in peanut (Arachis hypogaea) fields in South Africa was determined. Based on the number of nematodes per root unit, white goosefoot (Chenopodium album), feathertop chloris (Chloris virgata), purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus), jimson weed (Datura stramonium), goose grass (Eleusine indica), khaki weed (Tagetes minuta), and cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium) were poor hosts. Ditylenchus destructor survived on all weed species; population densities increased in peanut hulls and caused severe damage to seeds of peanut grown after weeds. Roots of purple nutsedge left in the soil suppressed populations of D. destructor and root and pod development in peanut grown after the weed. However, nematode populations in peanut hulls and seeds were not suppressed. Some weed species, especially purple nutsedge which is common in peanut fields, can be used to indicate the presence of D. destructor in the absence of peanut.

  10. Vitamin D Status in Children with Iron Deficiency and/or Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esraa Arjumand Qader

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Iron and vitamin D inadequacy are both essential wellbeing issues, an extra advancement has been the vitamin D extra skeletal role. Late collecting proof demonstrates that vitamin D inadequacy is pervasive in people with pallor, we meant to recognize a potential relationship between vitamin D lack and iron insufficiency. Materials and Methods A case control study was done in Erbil, Iraq during April 2015 to April 2016, on 160 children aged 1-5 years who referred to Raparin hospital. Blood test was acquired from every kid for measuring hemoglobin, serum iron and vitamin D level. Results The mean estimation of vitamin D was lower 21.3ng/dl in iron deficiency group in contrast with control group and it was essentially lower in gathering that had hemoglobin of under 11gm/dl (19.7ng/dl in contrast with those with more than 11gm/dl. There was a direct relationship between serum iron, hemoglobin and vitamin D levels (r=0.520, PConclusion There was significant moderate positive correlation between vitamin D and serum iron level.

  11. Peripheral blood leukocyte count as an index of defense status in the leukopenic host

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawley, S.; Findon, G.; Miller, T.E.

    1988-01-01

    These experimental studies have investigated the reliability of the peripheral blood leukocyte count to predict whether the leukopenic host can contain or eliminate infection. Additionally, we have investigated the possibility that determination of leukocyte recruitment, supplementary to peripheral blood leukocyte counts, might allow individuals with neutropenia at risk from serious infection to be distinguished with greater certainty. Varying doses of radiation, cyclophosphamide, and methylprednisolone were used to induce distinct levels of leukopenia in rats. Leukocyte recruitment was measured by quantifying the response of neutropenic animals to evocative, subcutaneous stimuli, and the results of this assay were then compared with circulating leukocyte counts in the same individuals. Six models of experimentally induced infection were used to compare circulating and recruitable leukocytes as indicators of the susceptibility of the leukopenic host to infection. Response curves relating leukocyte numbers to host resistance were similar when circulating or recruitable leukocytes were used as an index of defense capability. These findings support the use of peripheral blood leukocyte numbers as an index of resistance to infection in individuals with leukopenia and suggest that functional analyses such as leukocyte recruitment are unlikely to provide additional information

  12. Homocysteine and vitamin B 12 status and iron deficiency anemia in female university students from Gaza Strip, Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mohammed Sirdah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Nutritional deficiencies are very significant to the overall health of humans at all ages and for both genders, yet in infants, children and women of childbearing age these deficiencies can seriously affect growth and development. The present work is aimed to assess homocysteine and vitamin B12 status in females with iron deficiency anemia from the Gaza Strip.METHODS: Venous blood samples were randomly collected from 240 female university students (18-22 years old and parameters of the complete blood count, serum ferritin, homocysteine and vitamin B12 were measured. Statistical analysis included the t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA using the IBM SPSS software (version 18. Statistical significance was set for p-values <0.05.RESULTS: The results revealed that 20.4% of the students have iron deficiency anemia. The mean serum vitamin B12 level in females with iron deficiency anemia (212.9 ± 62.8 pg/mL was significantly lower than in normal controls (286.9 ± 57.1 pg/mL and subjects with microcytic anemia and normal ferritin (256.7 ± 71.1 pg/mL. Significantly higher serum homocysteine levels were reported in the iron deficiency anemia group (27.0 ± 4.6 µmol/L compared to normal controls (15.5 ± 2.9 µmol/L and in subjects with microcytic anemia and normal ferritin (18.1 ± 2.7 µmol/L. Statistically significant negative correlations were reported for serum homocysteine with serum ferritin, vitamin B12, hemoglobin, and hematocrit levels.CONCLUSION: Important associations were found between serum homocysteine and markers of iron deficiency. Monitoring homocysteine levels might be essential to understand the development of different clinical conditions including anemia. It seems necessary to conduct prospective trials to determine whether treating anemia ameliorates homocysteine levels.

  13. Effects of wheat-flour biscuits fortified with iron and EDTA, alone and in combination, on blood lead concentration, iron status, and cognition in children: a double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhouch, Raschida R; El-Fadeli, Sana; Andersson, Maria; Aboussad, Abdelmounaim; Chabaa, Laila; Zeder, Christophe; Kippler, Maria; Baumgartner, Jeannine; Sedki, Azzedine; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2016-11-01

    Lead is a common neurotoxicant and its absorption may be increased in iron deficiency (ID). Thus, iron fortification to prevent ID in populations is a promising lead mitigation strategy. Two common fortificants are ferrous sulfate (FeSO 4 ) and ferric sodium EDTA (NaFeEDTA). EDTA can chelate iron and lead. Our study objective was to determine the effects of iron and EDTA, alone and in combination, on blood lead (BPb) concentration, iron status, and cognition. In this 2 × 2 factorial, double-blind placebo-controlled trial, 457 lead-exposed Moroccan children were stratified by school and grade and randomly assigned to consume biscuits (6 d/wk at school) containing 1) ∼8 mg Fe as FeSO 4 , 2) ∼8 mg Fe as NaFeEDTA that contained ∼41 mg EDTA, 3) ∼41 mg EDTA as sodium EDTA (Na 2 EDTA), or 4) placebo for 28 wk. The primary outcome was BPb concentration; secondary outcomes were iron status and cognitive outcomes from subtests of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children and the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test. These outcomes were measured at baseline and endpoint. All data were analyzed by intention-to-treat. The adjusted geometric mean BPb concentration at baseline was 4.3 μg/dL (95% CI: 4.2, 4.3 μg/dL), and at endpoint these values were 3.3 μg/dL (95% CI: 3.1, 3.5 μg/dL) for FeSO 4 , 2.9 μg/dL (95% CI: 2.7, 3.0 μg/dL) for NaFeEDTA, 3.3 μg/dL (95% CI: 3.1, 3.5 μg/dL) for EDTA, and 3.7 μg/dL (95% CI: 3.5, 3.9 μg/dL) for placebo. We found an effect of iron (P = 0.009) and EDTA (P = 0.012) for reduced BPb concentrations at endpoint, but no iron × EDTA interaction. Iron fortification improved iron status, but there were no positive effects of iron or EDTA on cognitive test scores. Food fortification with iron and EDTA additively reduces BPb concentrations. Our findings suggest that NaFeEDTA should be the iron fortificant of choice in lead-exposed populations. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01573013. © 2016 American Society for

  14. The effect of repeated blood donations on the iron status of male Saudi blood donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Saleh M.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Regular blood donation can lead to iron deficiency. Screening donors’ serum ferritin levels at the time of first donation and subsequently once every year is a very rational way to pick up iron deficiency in a voluntary blood donor population. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of blood donation and the prevalence of erythropoiesis with iron deficiency (sideropenia) in Saudi male blood donors. Materials and methods. The study was prospectively conducted, between December 2008 and March 2009, on 182 male native Saudi blood donors at King Fahd Central Hospital in Jazan region, Saudi Arabia. Each donor gave 450±50 mL of whole blood. Following the donation, samples were removed into 2.5 mL EDTA tubes for measurement of mean cell volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and into 7.5 mL plain tubes for estimation of iron and serum ferritin concentrations. The blood donors were divided into five groups, according to the number of donations they had given in the preceding 3 years. The blood donors in group I were first-time donors, with no previous history of blood donation. Group II donors had donated once in the last 3 years. Subjects in groups III, IV and V had donated more than once in the preceding 3 years and were considered regular donors. Results. The mean serum iron was significantly higher among subjects with no previous history of blood donation (group I) than among regular donors who had donated twice or more. The difference in serum ferritin concentration was statistically significant (pdonated once in the last 3 years, and in first-time blood donors (131.4 μg/L) was not statistically significant (pdonated between two to five times had iron deficiency. The prevalence of erythropoiesis with iron deficiency in regular blood donors was 4.3%. Conclusion. The results of this study show that an increase in the number of donations results in an increase in the frequency of depleted iron stores and subsequently in

  15. Gold kiwifruit consumed with an iron-fortified breakfast cereal meal improves iron status in women with low iron stores: a 16-week randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Kathryn; Conlon, Cathryn A; Kruger, Rozanne; Coad, Jane; Stonehouse, Welma

    2011-01-01

    Ascorbic acid, and more recently, the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin have been shown to enhance Fe absorption. However, it is not clear whether Fe status improves when foods high in ascorbic acid and carotenoids are consumed with Fe-fortified meals. The present study aimed to investigate whether consuming high v. low ascorbic acid-, lutein- and zeaxanthin-rich fruit (gold kiwifruit v. banana) with Fe-fortified breakfast cereal and milk improved Fe status in women with low Fe stores. Healthy women aged 18-44 years (n 89) with low Fe stores (serum ferritin ≤ 25 μg/l and Hb ≥ 115 g/l) were randomly stratified to receive Fe-fortified breakfast cereal (16 mg Fe as ferrous sulfate), milk and either two gold kiwifruit or one banana (164 mg v. not detectable ascorbic acid; 526 v. 22·90 μg lutein and zeaxanthin, respectively) at breakfast every day for 16 weeks. Biomarkers of Fe status and dietary intake were assessed at baseline and end in the final sample (n 69). Median serum ferritin increased significantly in the kiwifruit group (n 33) compared with the banana group (n 36), with 10·0 (25th, 75th percentiles 3·0, 17·5) v. 1·0 (25th, 75th percentiles - 2·8, 6·5) μg/l (P lutein- and zeaxanthin-rich fruit to a breakfast cereal fortified with ferrous sulfate is a feasible approach to improve Fe status in women with low Fe stores.

  16. Zooxanthellar symbionts shape host sponge trophic status through translocation of carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, Jeremy B; Massaro, Andrew J; Ramsby, Blake D; Hill, Malcolm S

    2010-12-01

    Sponges belonging to the genus Cliona are common inhabitants of many coral reefs, and as bioeroders, they play an important role in the carbonate cycle of the reef. Several Cliona species maintain intracellular populations of dinoflagellate zooxanthellae (i.e., Symbiodinium spp.), which also form symbioses with a variety of other invertebrates and protists (e.g., corals, molluscs, foraminifera). Unlike the case of coral symbioses, however, almost nothing is known of the metabolic interaction between sponges and their zooxanthella symbionts. To assess this interaction, we performed a tracer experiment to follow C and N in the system, performed a reciprocal transplant experiment, and measured the stable carbon isotope ratio of Cliona spp. with and without zooxanthellae to study the influence of environment on the interaction. We found strong evidence of a transfer of C from zooxanthellae to their sponge hosts but no evidence of a transfer of N from sponge to zooxanthellae. We also saw significant influences of the environment on the metabolism of the sponges. Finally, we observed significant differences in carbon metabolism of sponge species with and without symbionts. These data strongly support hypotheses of metabolic integration between zooxanthellae and their sponge host and extend our understanding of basic aspects of benthic-pelagic coupling in shallow-water marine environments.

  17. Current status of superparamagnetic iron oxide contrast agents for liver magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Xiang J

    2015-12-21

    Five types of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO), i.e. Ferumoxides (Feridex(®) IV, Berlex Laboratories), Ferucarbotran (Resovist(®), Bayer Healthcare), Ferumoxtran-10 (AMI-227 or Code-7227, Combidex(®), AMAG Pharma; Sinerem(®), Guerbet), NC100150 (Clariscan(®), Nycomed,) and (VSOP C184, Ferropharm) have been designed and clinically tested as magnetic resonance contrast agents. However, until now Resovist(®) is current available in only a few countries. The other four agents have been stopped for further development or withdrawn from the market. Another SPIO agent Ferumoxytol (Feraheme(®)) is approved for the treatment of iron deficiency in adult chronic kidney disease patients. Ferumoxytol is comprised of iron oxide particles surrounded by a carbohydrate coat, and it is being explored as a potential imaging approach for evaluating lymph nodes and certain liver tumors.

  18. Horse meat consumption affects iron status, lipid profile and fatty acid composition of red blood cells in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bó, Cristian; Simonetti, Paolo; Gardana, Claudio; Riso, Patrizia; Lucchini, Giorgio; Ciappellano, Salvatore

    2013-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of moderate consumption of horse meat on iron status, lipid profile and fatty acid composition of red blood cells in healthy male volunteers. Fifty-two subjects were randomly assigned to two groups of 26 subjects each: a test group consuming two portions of 175 g/week of horse meat, and a control group that abstained from eating horse meat during the 90 days trial. Before and after 90 days, blood samples were collected for analysis. Horse meat consumption significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduced serum levels of total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ( - 6.2% and - 9.1%, respectively) and transferrin ( - 4.6%). Total n - 3, long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids n - 3 and docosahexeanoic acid content in erythrocytes increased (p ≤ 0.05) by about 7.8%, 8% and 11%, respectively. In conclusion, the regular consumption of horse meat may contribute to the dietary intake of n - 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and may improve lipid profile and iron status in healthy subjects.

  19. Dietary Intake, Anthropometric Characteristics, and Iron and Vitamin D Status of Female Adolescent Ballet Dancers Living in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Kathryn L; Mitchell, Sarah; Foskett, Andrew; Conlon, Cathryn A; von Hurst, Pamela R

    2015-08-01

    Ballet dancing is a multifaceted activity requiring muscular power, strength, endurance, flexibility, and agility; necessitating demanding training schedules. Furthermore dancers may be under aesthetic pressure to maintain a lean physique, and adolescent dancers require extra nutrients for growth and development. This cross-sectional study investigated the nutritional status of 47 female adolescent ballet dancers (13-18 years) living in Auckland, New Zealand. Participants who danced at least 1 hr per day 5 days per week completed a 4-day estimated food record, anthropometric measurements (Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry) and hematological analysis (iron and vitamin D). Mean BMI was 19.7 ± 2.4 kg/m2 and percentage body fat, 23.5 ± 4.1%. The majority (89.4%) of dancers had a healthy weight (5th-85th percentile) using BMI-for-age growth charts. Food records showed a mean energy intake of 8097.3 ± 2155.6 kJ/day (48.9% carbohydrate, 16.9% protein, 33.8% fat, 14.0% saturated fat). Mean carbohydrate and protein intakes were 4.8 ± 1.4 and 1.6 ± 0.5 g/kg/day respectively. Over half (54.8%) of dancers consumed less than 5 g carbohydrate/kg/day, and 10 (23.8%) less than 1.2 g protein/kg/day. Over 60% consumed less than the estimated average requirement for calcium, folate, magnesium and selenium. Thirteen (28.3%) dancers had suboptimal iron status (serum ferritin (SF) ballet dancers are at risk for iron deficiency, and possibly inadequate nutrient intakes.

  20. Relationship Between Dietary Factors and Bodily Iron Status Among Japanese Collegiate Elite Female Rhythmic Gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokubo, Yuki; Yokoyama, Yuri; Kisara, Kumiko; Ohira, Yoshiko; Sunami, Ayaka; Yoshizaki, Takahiro; Tada, Yuki; Ishizaki, Sakuko; Hida, Azumi; Kawano, Yukari

    2016-04-01

    This cross-sectional study explored the prevalence of iron deficiency (ID) and associations between dietary factors and incidence of ID in female rhythmic gymnasts during preseason periods. Participants were 60 elite collegiate rhythmic gymnasts (18.1 ± 0.3 years [M ± SD]) who were recruited every August over the course of 8 years. Participants were divided into 2 groups according to the presence or absence of ID. Presence of ID was defined either by ferritin less than 12 μg/L or percentage of transferrin saturation less than 16%. Anthropometric and hematologic data, as well as dietary intake, which was estimated via a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, were compared. ID was noted in 48.3% of participants. No significant group-dependent differences were observed in physical characteristics, red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, hematocrit, haptoglobin, or erythropoietin concentrations. The ID group had a significantly lower total iron-binding capacity; serum-free iron; percentage of transferrin saturation; ferritin; and intake of protein, fat, zinc, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, beans, and eggs but not iron or vitamin C. The recommended dietary allowance for intake of protein, iron, zinc, and various vitamins was not met by 30%, 90%, 70%, and 22%-87% of all participants, respectively. Multiple logistic analysis showed that protein intake was significantly associated with the incidence of ID (odds ratio = 0.814, 95% confidence interval [0.669, 0.990], p = .039). Participants in the preseason's weight-loss periods showed a tendency toward insufficient nutrient intake and were at a high risk for ID, particularly because of lower protein intake.

  1. No association between iron status and self-reported health-related quality of life in 16,375 Danish blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rigas, Andreas S; Pedersen, Ole B; Sørensen, Cecilie J

    2015-01-01

    mass index, smoking status, C-reactive protein levels, number of donations in the previous 3 years, and PCS and MCS, were available for 8692 men and 7683 women enrolled from March 1, 2010, to December 31, 2010. Multivariable linear and logistic (cutoff at the 10th percentile) regression analyses were...... used to assess the relationship between iron deficiency (ferritin women. RESULTS: There was no significant relationship between iron deficiency and self-reported mental or physical health. CONCLUSION: This study...

  2. Effect of Consuming Zinc-fortified Bread on Serum Zinc and Iron Status of Zinc-deficient Women: A Double Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badii, Akbar; Nekouei, Niloufar; Fazilati, Mohammad; Shahedi, Mohammad; Badiei, Sajad

    2012-03-01

    After iron deficiency, zinc deficiency is the major micronutrient deficiency in developing countries, and staple food fortification is an effective strategy to prevent and improve it among at-risk-populations. No action has been taken to reduce zinc deficiency via flour fortification so far in Iran, and little is known about the influence of zinc fortification of flour on serum zinc and the iron status, and also about the optimum and effective amount of zinc compound that is used in food fortification. The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of consuming zinc-fortified breads on the zinc and iron status in the blood serum. In this study, three types of bread were prepared from non-fortified and fortified flours, with 50 and 100 ppm elemental zinc in the form of sulfate. Eighty zinc-deficient women aged 19 to 49 years were randomly assigned to three groups; The volunteers received, daily, (1) a non-fortified bread, (2) a high-zinc bread, and (3) a low-zinc bread for one month. Serum zinc and iron were measured by Atomic Absorption before and after the study. Results showed a significant increase in serum zinc and iron levels in all groups (p 0.05). Absorption of zinc and iron in the group that consumed high-zinc bread was significantly greater than that in the group that received low-zinc bread (p bread improved iron absorption.

  3. Utilization of outpatient services in refugee settlement health facilities: a comparison by age, gender, and refugee versus host national status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Sarah

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparisons between refugees receiving health care in settlement-based facilities and persons living in host communities have found that refugees have better health outcomes. However, data that compares utilization of health services between refugees and the host population, and across refugee settlements, countries and regions is limited. The paper will address this information gap. The analysis in this paper uses data from the United Nations High Commissioner of Refugees (UNHCR Health Information System (HIS. Methods Data about settlement populations and the use of outpatient health services were exported from the UNHCR health information system database. Tableau Desktop was used to explore the data. STATA was used for data cleaning and statistical analysis. Differences in various indicators of the use of health services by region, gender, age groups, and status (host national vs. refugee population were analyzed for statistical significance using generalized estimating equation models that adjusted for correlated data within refugee settlements over time. Results Eighty-one refugee settlements were included in this study and an average population of 1.53 million refugees was receiving outpatient health services between 2008 and 2009. The crude utilization rate among refugees is 2.2 visits per person per year across all settlements. The refugee utilization rate in Asia (3.5 was higher than in Africa on average (1.8. Among refugees, females have a statistically significant higher utilization rate than males (2.4 visits per person per year vs. 2.1. The proportion of new outpatient attributable to refugees is higher than that attributable to host nationals. In the Asian settlements, only 2% outpatient visits, on average, were attributable to host community members. By contrast, in Africa, the proportion of new outpatient (OPD visits by host nationals was 21% on average; in many Ugandan settlements, the proportion of outpatient

  4. Utilization of outpatient services in refugee settlement health facilities: a comparison by age, gender, and refugee versus host national status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, William M; Vu, Alexander; Tappis, Hannah; Meyer, Sarah; Haskew, Christopher; Spiegel, Paul

    2011-09-21

    Comparisons between refugees receiving health care in settlement-based facilities and persons living in host communities have found that refugees have better health outcomes. However, data that compares utilization of health services between refugees and the host population, and across refugee settlements, countries and regions is limited. The paper will address this information gap. The analysis in this paper uses data from the United Nations High Commissioner of Refugees (UNHCR) Health Information System (HIS). Data about settlement populations and the use of outpatient health services were exported from the UNHCR health information system database. Tableau Desktop was used to explore the data. STATA was used for data cleaning and statistical analysis. Differences in various indicators of the use of health services by region, gender, age groups, and status (host national vs. refugee population) were analyzed for statistical significance using generalized estimating equation models that adjusted for correlated data within refugee settlements over time. Eighty-one refugee settlements were included in this study and an average population of 1.53 million refugees was receiving outpatient health services between 2008 and 2009. The crude utilization rate among refugees is 2.2 visits per person per year across all settlements. The refugee utilization rate in Asia (3.5) was higher than in Africa on average (1.8). Among refugees, females have a statistically significant higher utilization rate than males (2.4 visits per person per year vs. 2.1). The proportion of new outpatient attributable to refugees is higher than that attributable to host nationals. In the Asian settlements, only 2% outpatient visits, on average, were attributable to host community members. By contrast, in Africa, the proportion of new outpatient (OPD) visits by host nationals was 21% on average; in many Ugandan settlements, the proportion of outpatient visits attributable to host community members

  5. Utilization of outpatient services in refugee settlement health facilities: a comparison by age, gender, and refugee versus host national status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Comparisons between refugees receiving health care in settlement-based facilities and persons living in host communities have found that refugees have better health outcomes. However, data that compares utilization of health services between refugees and the host population, and across refugee settlements, countries and regions is limited. The paper will address this information gap. The analysis in this paper uses data from the United Nations High Commissioner of Refugees (UNHCR) Health Information System (HIS). Methods Data about settlement populations and the use of outpatient health services were exported from the UNHCR health information system database. Tableau Desktop was used to explore the data. STATA was used for data cleaning and statistical analysis. Differences in various indicators of the use of health services by region, gender, age groups, and status (host national vs. refugee population) were analyzed for statistical significance using generalized estimating equation models that adjusted for correlated data within refugee settlements over time. Results Eighty-one refugee settlements were included in this study and an average population of 1.53 million refugees was receiving outpatient health services between 2008 and 2009. The crude utilization rate among refugees is 2.2 visits per person per year across all settlements. The refugee utilization rate in Asia (3.5) was higher than in Africa on average (1.8). Among refugees, females have a statistically significant higher utilization rate than males (2.4 visits per person per year vs. 2.1). The proportion of new outpatient attributable to refugees is higher than that attributable to host nationals. In the Asian settlements, only 2% outpatient visits, on average, were attributable to host community members. By contrast, in Africa, the proportion of new outpatient (OPD) visits by host nationals was 21% on average; in many Ugandan settlements, the proportion of outpatient visits attributable

  6. Iron status and the acute post-exercise hepcidin response in athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Peeling

    Full Text Available This study explored the relationship between serum ferritin and hepcidin in athletes. Baseline serum ferritin levels of 54 athletes from the control trial of five investigations conducted in our laboratory were considered; athletes were grouped according to values 100 μg/L (SF>100. Data pooling resulted in each athlete completing one of five running sessions: (1 8 × 3 min at 85% vVO2peak; (2 5 × 4 min at 90% vVO2peak; (3 90 min continuous at 75% vVO2peak; (4 40 min continuous at 75% vVO2peak; (5 40 min continuous at 65% vVO2peak. Athletes from each running session were represented amongst all four groups; hence, the mean exercise duration and intensity were not different (p>0.05. Venous blood samples were collected pre-, post- and 3 h post-exercise, and were analysed for serum ferritin, iron, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and hepcidin-25. Baseline and post-exercise serum ferritin levels were different between groups (p0.05. Post-exercise IL-6 was significantly elevated compared to baseline within each group (p100; p<0.05. An athlete's iron stores may dictate the baseline hepcidin levels and the magnitude of post-exercise hepcidin response. Low iron stores suppressed post-exercise hepcidin, seemingly overriding any inflammatory-driven increases.

  7. Host transcriptional responses following ex vivo re-challenge with Mycobacterium tuberculosis vary with disease status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine A Yu

    Full Text Available The identification of immune correlates that are predictive of disease outcome for tuberculosis remains an ongoing challenge. To address this issue, we evaluated gene expression profiles from peripheral blood mononuclear cells following ex vivo challenge with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, among participants with active TB disease (ATBD, n = 10, latent TB infection (LTBI, n = 10, and previous active TB disease (after successful treatment; PTBD, n = 10, relative to controls (n = 10. Differential gene expression profiles were assessed by suppression-subtractive hybridization, dot blot, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and the comparative cycle threshold methods. Comparing ATBD to control samples, greater fold-increases of gene expression were observed for a number of chemotactic factors (CXCL1, CXCL3, IL8, MCP1, MIP1α. ATBD was also associated with higher IL1B gene expression, relative to controls. Among LTBI samples, gene expression of several chemotactic factors (CXCL2, CXCL3, IL8 was similarly elevated, compared to individuals with PTBD. Our results demonstrated that samples from participants with ATBD and LTBI have distinct gene expression profiles in response to ex vivo M. tuberculosis infection. These findings indicate the value in further characterizing the peripheral responses to M. tuberculosis challenge as a route to defining immune correlates of disease status or outcome.

  8. Host transcriptional responses following ex vivo re-challenge with Mycobacterium tuberculosis vary with disease status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Elaine A; John, Serene H; Tablante, Elizabeth C; King, Christine A; Kenneth, John; Russell, David G; Mehta, Saurabh

    2017-01-01

    The identification of immune correlates that are predictive of disease outcome for tuberculosis remains an ongoing challenge. To address this issue, we evaluated gene expression profiles from peripheral blood mononuclear cells following ex vivo challenge with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, among participants with active TB disease (ATBD, n = 10), latent TB infection (LTBI, n = 10), and previous active TB disease (after successful treatment; PTBD, n = 10), relative to controls (n = 10). Differential gene expression profiles were assessed by suppression-subtractive hybridization, dot blot, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and the comparative cycle threshold methods. Comparing ATBD to control samples, greater fold-increases of gene expression were observed for a number of chemotactic factors (CXCL1, CXCL3, IL8, MCP1, MIP1α). ATBD was also associated with higher IL1B gene expression, relative to controls. Among LTBI samples, gene expression of several chemotactic factors (CXCL2, CXCL3, IL8) was similarly elevated, compared to individuals with PTBD. Our results demonstrated that samples from participants with ATBD and LTBI have distinct gene expression profiles in response to ex vivo M. tuberculosis infection. These findings indicate the value in further characterizing the peripheral responses to M. tuberculosis challenge as a route to defining immune correlates of disease status or outcome.

  9. Anemia and Iron Status Among Different Body Size Phenotypes in Chinese Adult Population: a Nation-Wide, Health and Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang; Xiao, Cheng; Yang, Hui; Zhou, Yun; Wang, Rui; Cao, Yongtong

    2017-12-09

    Previous studies have shown that there is a controversial relationship between iron homeostasis and obesity. This study aims to explore the relationship of anemia and iron status with different body size phenotypes in adult Chinese population. Using information on iron status-related parameters and lifestyle data from 8462 participants of the 2009 wave of China Health and Nutrition Survey (2009 CHNS), we performed multivariable logistic regression analyses to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) for the risk of anemia and iron parameters according to different body size phenotypes. Participants with higher body mass index (BMI) had a lower anemia prevalence with significant trends in both metabolic status groups (P different metabolic status groups and in different body size phenotypes, respectively. The ORs for higher ferritin and transferrin increased across different body size phenotypes in both genders, and for sTfR/log ferritin index decreased (P < 0.01 for trend). This association was still statistically significant after adjustment for multiple confounders. We found an inverse association of BMI levels with the prevalence of anemia and strong association of serum ferritin and transferrin with higher risk of obesity or overweight in both metabolic status groups.

  10. Serum hepcidin levels, iron status, and HFE gene alterations during the first year of life in healthy Spanish infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Nuria; Bedmar, Cristina; Arija, Victoria; Jardí, Cristina; Jimenez-Feijoo, Rosa; Ferré, Natalia; Tous, Monica

    2018-06-01

    The aims of this study were to describe hepcidin levels and to assess their associations with iron status and the main variants in the HFE gene in healthy and full-term newborns during the first year of life, as a longitudinal study conducted on 140 infants. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters, hepcidin, hemoglobin (Hb), serum ferritin (SF), transferrin saturation (TS), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and C-reactive protein (CRP), were assessed in 6- and 12-month-olds. Infants were genotyped for the three main HFE variants: C282Y, H63D, and S65C. Hepcidin levels increased from 6 to 12 months of age (43.7 ± 1.5 to 52.0 ± 1.5 ng/mL; p HFE gene (p = 0.046 and p = 0.048 in 6- and 12-month-olds, respectively). However, this association was not found in HFE-alteration-carrying infants. Hepcidin levels increased in healthy infants during the first year of life and were positively associated with iron levels only in infants with wild-type HFE gene, a situation that requires further investigation.

  11. Influence of breastfeeding and iron status on mental and psychomotor development during the first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardí, Cristina; Hernández-Martínez, Carmen; Canals, Josefa; Arija, Victoria; Bedmar, Cristina; Voltas, Núria; Aranda, Núria

    2018-02-01

    Breastfeeding (BF) confers numerous benefits on the developing infant in both the short and the long term including psychological development, but there are multiple other factors that must be taken into account when these relationships are studied. To analyse how breastfeeding during the first 4 months of life affects infant mental and psychomotor development (MPD) at 6 and 12 months in a group of healthy infants from a Mediterranean Spanish city considering many important potential confounds. This is a longitudinal study conducted on infants from birth until the age of 12 months. A total of 154 healthy infants were evaluated by Paediatric Unit of Sant Joan University Hospital in Reus, Spain. Type of feeding, clinical history, anthropometry, iron status and mental and psychomotor development were assessed and analysed. At 4 months, 24% of infants received BF and 26% received mixed feeding (MF). Multiple Linear Regression models were applied adjusting for potential prenatal, perinatal and postnatal confounds showing that infants who received BF for at least four months presented higher psychomotor development index (PDI) at 6 and at 12 months of age. Also, gestational age and BMI at 6m were associated positively with PDI at 6 m, and haemoglobin levels at 12m and birth height were associated with PDI and MDI at 12m (respectively). In conclusion, after the adjustment of important potential confounds, BF during at least four months and adequate infant iron status are related to better psychomotor development during the first year. No associations were found between BF and mental development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A link between premenopausal iron deficiency and breast cancer malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian, Jinlong; Li, Jinqing; Huang, Xi; Yang, Qing; Shao, Yongzhao; Axelrod, Deborah; Smith, Julia; Singh, Baljit; Krauter, Stephanie; Chiriboga, Luis; Yang, Zhaoxu

    2013-01-01

    Young breast cancer (BC) patients less than 45 years old are at higher risk of dying from the disease when compared to their older counterparts. However, specific risk factors leading to this poorer outcome have not been identified. One candidate is iron deficiency, as this is common in young women and a clinical feature of young age. In the present study, we used immuno-competent and immuno-deficient mouse xenograft models as well as hemoglobin as a marker of iron status in young BC patients to demonstrate whether host iron deficiency plays a pro-metastatic role. We showed that mice fed an iron-deficient diet had significantly higher tumor volumes and lung metastasis compared to those fed normal iron diets. Iron deficiency mainly altered Notch but not TGF-β and Wnt signaling in the primary tumor, leading to the activation of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). This was revealed by increased expression of Snai1 and decreased expression of E-cadherin. Importantly, correcting iron deficiency by iron therapy reduced primary tumor volume, lung metastasis, and reversed EMT markers in mice. Furthermore, we found that mild iron deficiency was significantly associated with lymph node invasion in young BC patients (p<0.002). Together, our finding indicates that host iron deficiency could be a contributor of poor prognosis in young BC patients

  13. Magnetic Mineralogy of Troilite-Inclusions and their Fe-Ni Host Alloys in IAB Iron Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontny, A. M.; Kramar, U.; Luecke, W.

    2011-12-01

    Iron-nickel meteorites often contain isolated, mostly rounded troilite nodules enclosed in a bulk of Fe-Ni alloy. As sulfur has a low solubility in metal, it is excluded from the crystallization of metal during cooling. Therefore troilite nodules are interpreted to be trapped droplets of residual sulfur-enriched melts. Microscopic examinations of the interface (mm-range) between troilite inclusions and Fe-Ni alloy yield clear mineralogical differences compared to the troilite inclusion. Such rims around troilite nodules seem to occur exclusively in Fe-Ni meteorites with slow cooling rates, and therefore might provide interesting clues on segregation, fractional crystallization and reequilibration processes between the Fe-Ni alloy and the sulfide phases. These interfaces however are also highly sensitive to terrestrial weathering. We present microscopic observations in combination with temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility (k-T curves) in order to identify the magnetic mineralogy of the Morasko (Poland) and Coahuila (Mexico) meteorites, which both geochemically belong to the non-magmatic IAB or IIICD group. In the k-T curves both, rim and troilite nodule are characterized by Curie temperatures (TC) that can be related to magnetite, daubreelite (FeCr2O4), Fe-hydroxide and sometimes cohenite. Therefore the interface seems to be geochemically more similar to the troilite nodule than the Fe-Ni alloy. Optical microscopy in combination with the ferrofluid method revealed complex microstructures of intergrown magnetic (TC = 780-785 °C) and non-magnetic phases in the Fe-Ni alloy, which differ in their Ni-concentration. Towards the rim of the troilite nodule the concentration of magnetic cohenite ((Fe,Ni)3C) and especially schreibersite ((Fe,Ni)3P), which are both intergrown with the metal, increases. Cohenite is easily identified microscopically by a very characteristic stripe-like magnetic domain structure and it shows a TC at about 200 °C. The carbon-rich, dark

  14. Iron status and systemic inflammation, but not gut inflammation, strongly predict gender-specific concentrations of serum hepcidin in infants in rural Kenya.

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    Tanja Jaeggi

    Full Text Available Hepcidin regulation by competing stimuli such as infection and iron deficiency has not been studied in infants and it's yet unknown whether hepcidin regulatory pathways are fully functional in infants. In this cross-sectional study including 339 Kenyan infants aged 6.0±1.1 months (mean±SD, we assessed serum hepcidin-25, biomarkers of iron status and inflammation, and fecal calprotectin. Prevalence of inflammation, anemia, and iron deficiency was 31%, 71%, 26%, respectively. Geometric mean (±SD serum hepcidin was 6.0 (±3.4 ng/mL, and was significantly lower in males than females. Inflammation (C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 and iron status (serum ferritin, zinc protoporphyrin and soluble transferrin receptor were significant predictors of serum hepcidin, explaining nearly 60% of its variance. There were small, but significant differences in serum hepcidin comparing iron deficient anemic (IDA infants without inflammation to iron-deficient anemic infants with inflammation (1.2 (±4.9 vs. 3.4 (±4.9 ng/mL; P<0.001. Fecal calprotectin correlated with blood/mucus in the stool but not with hepcidin. Similarly, the gut-linked cytokines IL-12 and IL-17 did not correlate with hepcidin. We conclude that hepcidin regulatory pathways are already functional in infancy, but serum hepcidin alone may not clearly discriminate between iron-deficient anemic infants with and without infection. We propose gender-specific reference values for serum hepcidin in iron-replete infants without inflammation.

  15. Predicting Ethnic Minority Children's Vocabulary from Socioeconomic Status, Maternal Language and Home Reading Input: Different Pathways for Host and Ethnic Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevoo, Mariëlle J. L.; Malda, Maike; Mesman, Judi; Emmen, Rosanneke A. G.; Yeniad, Nihal; Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus; Linting, Mariëlle

    2014-01-01

    When bilingual children enter formal reading education, host language proficiency becomes increasingly important. This study investigated the relation between socioeconomic status (SES), maternal language use, reading input, and vocabulary in a sample of 111 six-year-old children of first- and second-generation Turkish immigrant parents in the…

  16. Interaction of dietary and genetic factors influencing body iron status and risk of type 2 diabetes within the EPIC-InterAct study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meidtner, Karina; Podmore, Clara; Kröger, Janine; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Agnoli, Claudia; Arriola, Larraitz; Barricarte, Aurelio; Boeing, Heiner; Cross, Amanda J.; Dow, Courtney; Ekblom, Kim; Fagherazzi, Guy; Franks, Paul W.; Gunter, Marc J.; Huerta, José María; Jakszyn, Paula; Jenab, Mazda; Katzke, Verena A.; Key, Timothy J.; Khaw, Kay Tee; Kühn, Tilman; Kyrø, Cecilie; Mancini, Francesca Romana; Melander, Olle; Nilsson, Peter M.; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Quirós, José Ramón; Rodriguez-Barranco, Miguel; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Sluijs, Ivonne; Stepien, Magdalena; Tjonneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; Forouhi, Nita G.; Sharp, Stephen J.; Langenberg, Claudia; Schulze, Matthias B.; Riboli, Elio; Wareham, Nicholas J.

    2018-01-01

    © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association. OBJECTIVE Meat intake has been consistently shown to be positively associated with incident type 2 diabetes. Part of that association may be mediated by body iron status, which is influenced by genetic factors. We aimed to test for interactions of genetic

  17. Stunting, poor iron status and parasite infection are significant risk factors for lower cognitive performance in Cambodian school-aged children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Perignon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nutrition is one of many factors affecting the cognitive development of children. In Cambodia, 55% of children <5 y were anemic and 40% stunted in 2010. Currently, no data exists on the nutritional status of Cambodian school-aged children, or on how malnutrition potentially affects their cognitive development. OBJECTIVE: To assess the anthropometric and micronutrient status (iron, vitamin A, zinc, iodine of Cambodian schoolchildren and their associations with cognitive performance. METHODS: School children aged 6-16 y (n = 2443 from 20 primary schools in Cambodia were recruited. Anthropometry, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, transferrin receptors, retinol-binding protein and zinc concentrations, inflammation status, urinary iodine concentration and parasite infection were measured. Socio-economic data were collected in a sub-group of children (n = 616. Cognitive performance was assessed using Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM and block design and picture completion, two standardized tests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia, iron, zinc, iodine and vitamin A deficiency were 15.7%; 51.2%, 92.8%, 17.3% and 0.7% respectively. The prevalence of stunting was 40.0%, including 10.9% of severe stunting. Stunted children scored significantly lower than non-stunted children on all tests. In RCPM test, boys with iron-deficiency anemia had lower scores than boys with normal iron status (-1.46, p<0.05. In picture completion test, children with normal iron status tended to score higher than iron-deficient children with anemia (-0.81; p = 0.067 or without anemia (-0.49; p = 0.064. Parasite infection was associated with an increase in risk of scoring below the median value in block design test (OR = 1.62; p<0.05, and with lower scores in other tests, for girls only (both p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Poor cognitive performance of Cambodian school-children was multifactorial and

  18. Iron status and anaemia of chronic disease in HIV-infected African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-03-11

    Mar 11, 2009 ... status, more specifically to investigate the nutritional health of ... Respondents fasted overnight, abstained from exercise and avoided ... Nutrition is an important factor in the course of HIV infection1 and is ... activity, body perception and attitude toward weight control, ..... Krause's food, nutrition & diet therapy.

  19. Impact of rice fortified with iron, zinc, thiamine and folic acid on laboratory measurements of nutritional status of preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceres Mattos Della Lucia

    Full Text Available Abstract Fortification of food constitutes an important strategy for the control of micronutrient deficiency and has advantages such as high population coverage and maintenance of eating habits. This study aimed to assess the impact of using fortified rice (Ultra Rice® - UR® on the nutritional status of preschoolers. Ninety-nine children enrolled in two philanthropic preschools participated of the study. Children of one of the preschools were offered UR® mixed with polished rice, as part of school meals (test group and the children of another preschool were offered pure polished rice (control group. Biochemical evaluations were performed before and after 4 months of intervention. Dietary assessment and sensory evaluation of UR® mixed with polished rice were performed during the study. The fortified rice improved the concentrations of zinc (p < 0.001, thiamine (p < 0.001, folic acid (p = 0.003, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (p < 0.001 and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (p < 0.001. The fortified rice showed good acceptability among preschoolers. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of using rice fortified with iron, zinc, thiamine and folic acid on the nutritional status of children.

  20. Respiratory health status and its predictors: a cross-sectional study among coal-based sponge iron plant workers in Barjora, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Kaushik; Chattopadhyay, Chaitali; Kaltenthaler, Eva

    2015-03-20

    During the past decade, coal-based sponge iron plants, a highly polluted industry, have grown rapidly in Barjora, India. The toxic effects of particulate matters and gaseous pollutants include various respiratory diseases. Understanding workers' perception of respiratory health is essential in people-centred healthcare. The aim of the study was to assess their respiratory health status and to determine its predictors. Cross-sectional study. Coal-based sponge iron plants in Barjora, India. 258 coal-based sponge iron plant workers. Respiratory health status was measured using the St. George's respiratory questionnaire (SGRQ) total score. 100 and 0 represent the worst and best possible respiratory health status, respectively. The two-part model (frequency (any worse respiratory health status) and severity (amount of worse respiratory health status)) was developed for the score, as the data were positively skewed with many zeros. The mean (SD) SGRQ total score was 7.7 (14.5), the median (IQR) was 0.9 (9.0), and the observed range was 0-86.6. The best possible SGRQ total score was reported by 46.9% of workers. Independent predictors of worse respiratory health status were cleaner domestic cooking fuel (coefficient -0.76, 95% CI -1.46 to -0.06, p=0.034) and personal history of any respiratory disease (1.76, 1.04 to 2.47, pworkers in Barjora have the best possible respiratory health status. The predictors of worse respiratory health status were identified. The study findings could be taken into consideration in future interventional studies aimed at improving the respiratory health status of these workers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Effect of consuming zinc-fortified bread on serum zinc and iron status of zinc-deficient women: A double blind, randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Badii

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available After iron deficiency, zinc deficiency is the major micronutrient deficiency in developing countries, and staple food fortification is an effective strategy to prevent and improve it among at-risk-populations. No action has been taken to reduce zinc deficiency via flour fortification so far in Iran, and little is known about the influence of zinc fortification of flour on serum zinc and the iron status, and also about the optimum and effective amount of zinc compound that is used in food fortification. The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of consuming zinc-fortified breads on the zinc and iron status in the blood serum. In this study, three types of bread were prepared from non-fortified and fortified flours, with 50 and 100 ppm elemental zinc in the form of sulfate. Eighty zinc-deficient women aged 19 to 49 years were randomly assigned to three groups; The volunteers received, daily, (1 a non-fortified bread, (2 a high-zinc bread, and (3 a low-zinc bread for one month. Serum zinc and iron were measured by Atomic Absorption before and after the study. Results showed a significant increase in serum zinc and iron levels in all groups (p 0.05. Absorption of zinc and iron in the group that consumed high-zinc bread was significantly greater than that in the group that received low-zinc bread (p < 0.01. It was concluded that fortification of flour with 50-100 ppm zinc was an effective way to achieve adequate zinc intake and absorption in zinc-deficient people. It also appeared that consuming zinc-fortified bread improved iron absorption.

  2. [Iron status and serum retinol levels among children and adolescents attended by a Family Health Strategy team in Itajaí, Santa Catarina State].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariath, Aline Brandão; Giachini, Rubia Mara; Lauda, Laíz Guedes; Grillo, Luciane Peter

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this article is to determine prevalence of iron and vitamin A deficiencies among children and adolescents attended by a Family Health Strategy team in Itajaí, Santa Catarina State, and to assess relations between iron status and serum retinol. A nutritional census of the families was carried out. Socioeconomic and demographic data were collected. Hemoglobin concentration, hematocrite, serum iron and retinal were determined. Thirty-one out of the 156 enrolled families participated in the study. Only 39.1% of the children and 62.0% of the adolescents had their blood samples collected. Mean per capita income was 1.68+/-1.00 minimum wages. None of the parents was illiterate and most families (80.6%) owned their homes. All homes had public sewage and water supply, and 87.1% were made of brickwork. Iron deficiency was diagnosed in 16.7% of the children and 19.3% of the adolescents. Only one child had vitamin A deficiency. Significant correlations were found between serum iron and retinol among children, and among adolescents between serum retinol and hemoglobin concentration and hematocrite. We found mild prevalences of iron and vitamin A deficiencies, possibly due to the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics.

  3. Impact of Multi-Micronutrient Fortified Rice on Hemoglobin, Iron and Vitamin A Status of Cambodian Schoolchildren: a Double-Blind Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlène Perignon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Cambodia, micronutrient deficiencies remain a critical public health problem. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of multi-micronutrient fortified rice (MMFR formulations, distributed through a World Food Program school-meals program (WFP-SMP, on the hemoglobin concentrations and iron and vitamin A (VA status of Cambodian schoolchildren. The FORISCA-UltraRice+NutriRice study was a double-blind, cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Sixteen schools participating in WFP-SMP were randomly assigned to receive extrusion-fortified rice (UltraRice Original, UltraRice New (URN, or NutriRice or unfortified rice (placebo six days a week for six months. Four additional schools not participating in WFP-SMP were randomly selected as controls. A total of 2440 schoolchildren (6–16 years old participated in the biochemical study. Hemoglobin, iron status, estimated using inflammation-adjusted ferritin and transferrin receptors concentrations, and VA status, assessed using inflammation-adjusted retinol-binding protein concentration, were measured at the baseline, as well as at three and six months. Baseline prevalence of anemia, depleted iron stores, tissue iron deficiency, marginal VA status and VA deficiency were 15.6%, 1.4%, 51.0%, 7.9%, and 0.7%, respectively. The strongest risk factors for anemia were hemoglobinopathy, VA deficiency, and depleted iron stores (all p < 0.01. After six months, children receiving NutriRice and URN had 4 and 5 times less risk of low VA status, respectively, in comparison to the placebo group. Hemoglobin significantly increased (+0.8 g/L after three months for the URN group in comparison to the placebo group; however, this difference was no longer significant after six months, except for children without inflammation. MMFR containing VA effectively improved the VA status of schoolchildren. The impact on hemoglobin and iron status was limited, partly by sub-clinical inflammation. MMFR combined with non

  4. Iron status and its association with HbA1c levels in Dutch children with diabetes mellitus type 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, Marjolijn D.; Mieke Houdijk, E. C. A.; Bakker, Boudewijn; Clement-de Boers, Agnes; van der Kaay, Daniëlle C. M.; de Vries, Martine C.; Claire Woltering, M.; Mul, Dick; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Brus, Frank

    2018-01-01

    Children with diabetes mellitus (DM) type 1 may be at risk for iron deficiency (ID) although this has been little studied. ID is either an absolute (depleted iron stores) or a functional (restricted iron stores due to chronic inflammation) deficiency each requiring a different therapeutic approach.

  5. Iron, folacin, vitamin B12 and zinc status and immune response in elderly subjects in the Washington D.C. metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry-Christian, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The iron, folacin, vitamin B 12 , and zinc status of a group of economically and socially disadvantaged elderly persons in the Washington Metropolitan Area was evaluated. Factors related to deficiencies of these nutrients, the relationships between the status of these nutrients and cell-mediated immunity, and the relationships of iron, folacin and vitamin B 12 status to hemoglobin levels in the subjects were also examined. It was also determined whether there were any interactions among iron, folacin, vitamin B 12 and zinc status in their relationships to cell-mediated immunity. Socio-demographic and nutritional data on the subjects were obtained using a questionnaire. Dietary data were obtained using a dietary record. A fasting blood sample was drawn and the levels of ferritin, folate and vitamin B 12 , and the erythrocyte levels of folate were determined by radioassay. Plasma and hair zinc levels were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Cell-mediated immune response was determined by transformation of peripheral blood lymphocytes after stimulation by mitogens, and by allogenic lymphocytes in the mixed lymphocyte reaction

  6. Interaction Between 2 Nutraceutical Treatments and Host Immune Status in the Pediatric Critical Illness Stress-Induced Immune Suppression Comparative Effectiveness Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcillo, Joseph A; Dean, J Michael; Holubkov, Richard; Berger, John; Meert, Kathleen L; Anand, Kanwaljeet J S; Zimmerman, Jerry J; Newth, Christopher J L; Harrison, Rick; Burr, Jeri; Willson, Douglas F; Nicholson, Carol; Bell, Michael J; Berg, Robert A; Shanley, Thomas P; Heidemann, Sabrina M; Dalton, Heidi; Jenkins, Tammara L; Doctor, Allan; Webster, Angie; Tamburro, Robert F

    2017-11-01

    The pediatric Critical Illness Stress-induced Immune Suppression (CRISIS) trial compared the effectiveness of 2 nutraceutical supplementation strategies and found no difference in the development of nosocomial infection and sepsis in the overall population. We performed an exploratory post hoc analysis of interaction between nutraceutical treatments and host immune status related to the development of nosocomial infection/sepsis. Children from the CRISIS trial were analyzed according to 3 admission immune status categories marked by decreasing immune competence: immune competent without lymphopenia, immune competent with lymphopenia, and previously immunocompromised. The comparative effectiveness of the 2 treatments was analyzed for interaction with immune status category. There were 134 immune-competent children without lymphopenia, 79 previously immune-competent children with lymphopenia, and 27 immunocompromised children who received 1 of the 2 treatments. A significant interaction was found between treatment arms and immune status on the time to development of nosocomial infection and sepsis ( P patient characteristic.

  7. [The effect of exogenous antioxidants on the antioxidant status of erythrocytes and hepcidin content in blood of patients with disorders of iron metabolism regulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbinina, S P; Levina, A A; Lisovskaia, I L; Ataullakhanov, F I

    2013-01-01

    In many diseases associated with impairments in iron metabolism, erythrocytes exhibit an increased sensitivity to oxidative stress induced in vitro. In this study, we have examined the antioxidant status of erythrocytes from healthy donors and from 12 patients with disorders of iron homeostasis by measuring the extent of t-BHP-induced hemolysis in vitro. The extent of hemolysis observed with patient erythrocytes was significantly higher than that observed in experiment with normal cells. After therapeutic infusions of the antioxidants mexidol or emoxypin, oxidative hemolysis in patients was restored to normal values and blood hepcidin content increased significantly. A significant correlation was observed between hepcidin concentration after treatment and t-BHP-induced hemolysis before treatment. These data suggest that antioxidants may exert a favorable effect under pathological conditions associated with iron overload disease.

  8. Oxidative status, in vitro iron-induced lipid oxidation and superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities in rhea meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terevinto, A; Ramos, A; Castroman, G; Cabrera, M C; Saadoun, A

    2010-04-01

    Rhea (Rhea americana) muscles Obturatorius medialis (OM) Iliotibialis lateralis (IL) and Iliofibularis (I), obtained from farmed animals, were evaluated regarding their oxidative/antioxidant status. The mean level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) expressed as malonaldehyde (MDA) content was of 0.84 mg MDA/kg wet tissue for the three muscles. TBARS level was significantly higher in IL than OM and I, with the two latter showing similar levels. The mean level of carbonyl proteins expressed as dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) was 1.59 nmol DNPH mg(-1). Carbonyl protein levels were significantly different (POM>I). Iron-induced TBARS generation was not significantly different between the three muscles at any time, nor for each muscle during the 5 h of the experiment. Superoxide dismutase activity in IL muscle was significantly higher (P<0.05) than in I muscle. However, the difference between IL and OM muscles was not significant. The differences between the three muscles became not significant when the results were expressed by mg of protein contained in the extract, instead by g of wet tissue. No differences were found for catalase (micromol of discomposed H(2)O(2) min(-1) g(-1) wet tissue or by mg of protein contained in the extract) and glutathione peroxidase (micromol ol of oxidized NADPH min(-1) g(-1) of wet tissue or by mg of protein contained in the extract) activities between the three muscles. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Improvement the nutritional status of pre-school children following intervention with a supplement containing iron, zinc, copper, vitamin A, vitamin C and prebiotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Carla Vidigal Castro

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the effects of a vitamin and mineral fortified powder product supplemented with inulin, on the iron and vitamin A status of 110 pre-schools childrens in Viçosa, MG, Brazil. The 2 to 5-year-old children were submitted to anthropometric (weight and height, biochemical (erythrocytes, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume – MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin - MCH, serum iron, ferritin and serum retinol and dietary (direct food weighing, 24 h recall, and food intake record evaluations, at the beginning and at the end of a 45-day intervention. The supplement (30 g was provided daily as part of the afternoon snack, diluted in 100 mL of water, 5 times/week and it supplied 30% of the recommended daily doses of iron, zinc, copper and vitamins A and C. Dietary and biochemical data was compared by the Wilcoxon test, and anthropometric data by the paired t-test. Values of z-scores for weight and height, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, MCV, MCH and ferritin were significantly higher after intervention; no change was observed in serum retinol. The prebiotic-containing supplement significantly increased the intake of energy, macro and micronutrients, and was effective in improving the iron and anthropometric status.

  10. Exploring the relationship between maternal iron status and offspring’s blood pressure and adiposity: a Mendelian randomization study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alwan NA

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Nisreen A Alwan,1 Debbie A Lawlor,2 Harry J McArdle,3 Darren C Greenwood,4 Janet E Cade11Nutritional Epidemiology Group, School of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK; 2MRC Centre for Causal Analyses in Translational Research, University of Bristol, Bristol; 3Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen; 4Biostatistics Unit, Leeds Institute for Health, Genetics and Therapeutics, University of Leeds, Leeds, UKBackground: Iron deficiency is the most common micronutrient deficiency worldwide. Experimental animal studies suggest that mothers deficient in iron during pregnancy are more likely to have offspring who become obese with high blood pressure. C282Y mutation carriers are more likely to have higher iron stores.Methods: We undertook an instrumental variable (IV analysis, using maternal C282Y as an indicator for the mother’s iron status, to examine its association with offspring blood pressure (BP, waist circumference (WC, and body mass index (BMI, and compared the results to that of ordinary least squares (OLS regression. Offspring of a sub-cohort of mothers from the UK Women’s Cohort Study (UKWCS were recruited in 2009–2010 (n = 348, mean age = 41 years. Their blood pressure, height, and weight were measured at their local general medical practice, and they were asked to self-measure their waist circumference. About half were offspring of C282Y carriers. Maternal ferritin was used as a biomarker of maternal iron status.Results: Maternal C282Y was strongly associated with maternal ferritin (mean difference per allele = 84 g/L, 95% confidence interval: 31–137, P = 0.002. Using IV analyses, maternal ferritin was not linked to offspring’s BP, BMI, or WC. The first stage F-statistic for the strength of the instrument was 10 (Kleibergen–Paap rk LM P = 0.009. Maternal ferritin was linked to offspring diastolic BP, WC, and BMI in univariable, but not in multivariable OLS analysis. There

  11. Effects of dietary cadmium exposure on tissue-specific cadmium accumulation, iron status and expression of iron-handling and stress-inducible genes in rainbow trout: Influence of elevated dietary iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwong, Raymond W.M.; Andres, Jose A.; Niyogi, Som

    2011-01-01

    Recent evidences suggest that dietary cadmium (Cd) uptake likely occurs via the dietary iron (Fe) uptake pathway in freshwater fish, at least in part. The present study investigated the interactive effects of dietary Cd and Fe in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish were treated for four weeks with four different diets: normal Fe, high Fe, normal Fe plus Cd, and high Fe plus Cd. Physiological parameters, tissue-specific Fe and Cd level, plasma Fe status, and tissue-specific mRNA expression of transferrin, metallothioneins (MT-A and MT-B) and heat shock proteins 70 (HSP70a and HSP70b) were analyzed. Exposure to dietary Cd increased Cd burden in the following order: intestine > kidney > stomach > liver > gill > carcass. Interestingly, high dietary Fe reduced Cd accumulation in the stomach and intestine as well as in the wholebody of fish. Dietary Cd increased hepatic transferrin mRNA expression and total Fe binding capacity in the plasma, indicating the effect of Cd on Fe handling in fish. The mRNA expression of MTs and HSP70s was also increased in various tissues following dietary Cd exposure, however the response profile of different MT and HSP70 genes was not consistent among different tissues. In general, MT-A was more responsive to Cd exposure in the intestine and liver, whereas MT-B was more responsive in the kidney. Similarly, HSP70a expression was more sensitive to Cd exposure than HSP70b, particularly in the intestine. Interestingly, high Fe diet suppressed Cd-induced induction of transferrin, MT and HSP70 genes in various tissues. Overall, our study suggests that elevated dietary Fe can reduce Cd accumulation and ameliorate Cd-induced stress responses in freshwater fish.

  12. Effects of dietary cadmium exposure on tissue-specific cadmium accumulation, iron status and expression of iron-handling and stress-inducible genes in rainbow trout: Influence of elevated dietary iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwong, Raymond W.M. [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Andres, Jose A. [Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5E2 (Canada); Niyogi, Som, E-mail: som.niyogi@usask.ca [Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5E2 (Canada)

    2011-03-15

    Recent evidences suggest that dietary cadmium (Cd) uptake likely occurs via the dietary iron (Fe) uptake pathway in freshwater fish, at least in part. The present study investigated the interactive effects of dietary Cd and Fe in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish were treated for four weeks with four different diets: normal Fe, high Fe, normal Fe plus Cd, and high Fe plus Cd. Physiological parameters, tissue-specific Fe and Cd level, plasma Fe status, and tissue-specific mRNA expression of transferrin, metallothioneins (MT-A and MT-B) and heat shock proteins 70 (HSP70a and HSP70b) were analyzed. Exposure to dietary Cd increased Cd burden in the following order: intestine > kidney > stomach > liver > gill > carcass. Interestingly, high dietary Fe reduced Cd accumulation in the stomach and intestine as well as in the wholebody of fish. Dietary Cd increased hepatic transferrin mRNA expression and total Fe binding capacity in the plasma, indicating the effect of Cd on Fe handling in fish. The mRNA expression of MTs and HSP70s was also increased in various tissues following dietary Cd exposure, however the response profile of different MT and HSP70 genes was not consistent among different tissues. In general, MT-A was more responsive to Cd exposure in the intestine and liver, whereas MT-B was more responsive in the kidney. Similarly, HSP70a expression was more sensitive to Cd exposure than HSP70b, particularly in the intestine. Interestingly, high Fe diet suppressed Cd-induced induction of transferrin, MT and HSP70 genes in various tissues. Overall, our study suggests that elevated dietary Fe can reduce Cd accumulation and ameliorate Cd-induced stress responses in freshwater fish.

  13. Evaluation of iron and zinc bioavailability of beans targeted for biofortification using in vitro and in vivo models and their effect on the nutritional status of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz-Tostes, Maria das Graças; Verediano, Thaisa Agrizzi; de Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez; Brunoro Costa, Neuza Maria

    2016-03-15

    Biofortified beans have been produced with higher nutrient concentrations. The objective was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo iron and zinc bioavailability of common beans Pontal (PO), targeted for biofortification, compared with conventional Perola (PE) and their effects on the iron and zinc nutritional status of preschool children. In Caco-2 cells, PO and PE beans did not show differences in ferritin (PO, 13.1 ± 1.4; PE, 13.6 ± 1.4 ng mg(-1) protein) or zinc uptake (PO, 15.9 ± 1.5; PE, 15.5 ± 3.5 µmol mg(-1) protein). In the rat, PO and PE beans presented high iron bioavailability (PO, 109.6 ± 29.5; PE, 110.7 ± 13.9%). In preschool children, no changes were observed in iron and zinc nutritional status comparing before and after PO consumption (ferritin, 41.2 ± 23.2 and 28.9 ± 40.4 µg L(-1) ; hemoglobin, 13.7 ± 2.2 and 13.1 ± 3.2 g dL(-1) ; plasma zinc, 119.2 ± 24.5 and 133.9 ± 57.7 µg dL(-1) ; erythrocyte zinc, 53.5 ± 13.8 and 59.4 ± 17.1 µg g(-1) hemoglobin). Iron and zinc bioavailability in PO and PE beans was not statistically different using either cell culture, animal or human models. Efforts should focus on increasing mineral bioavailability of beans targeted for biofortification. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Trace Element Status (Zinc, Copper, Selenium, Iron, Manganese) in Patients with Long-Term Home Parenteral Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastych, Milan; Šenkyřík, Michal; Dastych, Milan; Novák, František; Wohl, Petr; Maňák, Jan; Kohout, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine concentrations of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), selenium (Se) in blood plasma and manganese (Mn) in the whole blood in patients with long-term home parenteral nutrition (HPN) in comparison to the control group. We examined 68 patients (16 men and 52 women) aged from 28 to 68 years on a long-term HPN lasting from 4 to 96 months. The short bowel syndrome was an indication for HPN. The daily doses of Zn, Cu, Fe, Se and Mn in the last 3 months were determined. No significant differences in blood plasma were found for Zn, Cu and Fe in patients with HPN and in the control group (p > 0.05). The concentration of Mn in whole blood was significantly increased in HPN patients (p < 0.0001), while Se concentration in these patients was significantly decreased (p < 0.005). The concentration of Mn in the whole blood of 16 patients with cholestasis was significantly increased compared to the patients without cholestasis (p < 0.001). The Cu concentration was increased with no statistical significance. In long-term HPN, the status of trace elements in the patients has to be continually monitored and the daily substitution doses of these elements have to be flexibly adjusted. Dosing schedule needs to be adjusted especially in cases of cholestatic hepatopathy. A discussion about the optimal daily dose of Mn in patients on HPN is appropriate. For clinical practice, the availability of a substitution mixture of trace elements lacking Mn would be advantageous. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Impact of Preconception Micronutrient Supplementation on Anemia and Iron Status during Pregnancy and Postpartum: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Rural Vietnam.

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    Phuong H Nguyen

    Full Text Available Preconception micronutrient interventions may be a promising approach to reduce anemia and iron deficiency during pregnancy, but currently we have limited data to inform policies. We evaluated whether providing additional pre-pregnancy weekly iron-folic acid (IFA or multiple micronutrient (MM supplements compared to only folic acid (FA improves iron status and anemia during pregnancy and early postpartum.We conducted a double blind randomized controlled trial in which 5011 Vietnamese women were provided with weekly supplements containing either only 2800 μg FA (control group, IFA (60 mg Fe and 2800 μg FA or MM (15 micronutrients with similar amounts of IFA. All women who became pregnant (n = 1813 in each of the 3 groups received daily IFA (60 mg Fe and 400 μg FA through delivery. Hematological indicators were assessed at baseline (pre-pregnancy, during pregnancy, 3 months post-partum, and in cord blood. Adjusted generalized linear models were applied to examine the impact of preconception supplementation on anemia and iron stores, using both intention to treat and per protocol analyses (women consumed supplements ≥ 26 weeks before conception.At baseline, 20% of women were anemic, but only 14% had low iron stores (ferritin <30 μg/L and 3% had iron deficiency (ferritin <12 μg/L. The groups were balanced for baseline characteristics. Anemia prevalence increased during pregnancy and post-partum but was similar among intervention groups. In intention to treat analyses, prenatal ferritin was significantly higher among women receiving MM (geometric mean (μg/L [95% CI]: 93.6 [89.3-98.2] and IFA (91.9 [87.6-96.3] compared to control (85.3 [81.5-89.2]. In per protocol analyses, women receiving MM or IFA had higher ferritin 3 months postpartum (MM 118.2 [109.3-127.8], IFA 117.8 [108.7-127.7] vs control 101.5 [94.0-109.7] and gave birth to infants with greater iron stores (MM 184.3 [176.1-192.9], IFA 189.9 [181.6-198.3] vs control 175.1 [167

  16. The influence of iron status and genetic polymorphisms in the HFE gene on the risk for postoperative complications after bariatric surgery: a prospective cohort study in 1,064 patients

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    Freedman-Weiss Mollie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastric bypass surgery is a highly effective therapy for long-term weight loss in severely obese patients, but carries significant perioperative risks including infection, wound dehiscence, and leaks from staple breakdown. Iron status can affect immune function and wound healing, thus may influence peri-operative complications. Common mutations in the HFE gene, the gene responsible for the iron overload disorder hereditary hemochromatosis, may impact iron status. Methods We analyzed 1064 extremely obese Caucasian individuals who underwent open and laparoscopic Roux-n-Y gastric bypass surgery at the Geisinger Clinic. Serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, and iron binding capacity were measured pre-operatively. All patients had intra-operative liver biopsies and were genotyped for the C282Y and H63D mutations in the HFE gene. Associations between surgical complications and serum iron measures, HFE gene status, and liver iron histology were determined. Results We found that increased serum iron and transferrin saturation were present in patients with any post-operative complication, and that increased serum ferritin was also increased in patients with major complications. Increased serum transferrin saturation was also associated with wound complications in open RYGB, and transferrin saturation and ferritin with prolonged lengths of stay. The presence of 2 or more HFE mutations was associated with overall complications as well as wound complications in open RYGB. No differences were found in complication rates between those with stainable liver iron and those without. Conclusion Serum iron status and HFE genotype may be associated with complications following RYGB surgery in the extremely obese.

  17. Mesoporous TiO2 powders as host matrices for iron nanoparticles. Effect of the preparation procedure and doping with Hf

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dimitrov, M.; Ivanova, R.; Velinov, N.; Henych, Jiří; Slušná, Michaela; Štengl, Václav; Tolasz, Jakub; Mitov, I.; Tsoncheva, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, JUL (2016), s. 56-63 ISSN 2352-507X Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Mesoporous titania * Hafnium doping * Iron modification * Ethyl acetate oxidation * Methanol decomposition Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry

  18. Assessment of regression models for adjustment of iron status biomarkers for inflammation in children with moderate acute malnutrition in Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cichon, Bernardette; Ritz, Christian; Fabiansen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Biomarkers of iron status are affected by inflammation. In order to interpret them in individuals with inflammation, the use of correction factors (CFs) has been proposed. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the use of regression models as an alternative to the CF...... approach. METHODS: Morbidity data were collected during clinical examinations with morbidity recalls in a cross-sectional study in children aged 6-23 mo with moderate acute malnutrition. C-reactive protein (CRP), α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), serum ferritin (SF), and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) were......TfR with the use of the best-performing model led to a 17% point increase and iron deficiency. CONCLUSION: Regression analysis is an alternative to adjust SF and may be preferable in research settings, because it can take morbidity and severity...

  19. An alternative host matrix based on iron phosphate glasses for the vitrification of specialized nuclear waste forms. Annual progress report, September 15, 1996 - September 14, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, D.E.; Marasinghe, K.; Ray, C.S.

    1997-01-01

    'Objectives of this project are to: (1) investigate the glass composition and processing conditions that yield optimum properties for iron phosphate glasses for vitrifying radioactive waste, (2) determine the atomic structure of iron phosphate glasses and the structure-property relationships, (3) determine how the physical and structural properties of iron phosphate glasses are affected by the addition of simulated high level nuclear waste components, and (4) investigate the process and products of devitrification of iron phosphate waste forms. The glass forming ability of about 125 iron phosphate melts has been investigated in different oxidizing to reducing atmospheres using various iron oxide raw materials such as Fe 2 O 3 , FeO, Fe 3 O 4 , and FeC 2 O 4 2H 2 O. The chemical durability, redox equilibria between Fe(II) and Fe(III), crystallization behavior and structural features for these glasses and their crystalline forms have been investigated using a variety of techniques including Mossbauer spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis, differential thermal and thermogravimetric analysis (DTA/TGA), and X-ray and neutron diffraction.'

  20. [Iron status with particular consideration of soluble transferrin receptors in children and youth with gastritis, with or without Helicobacter pylori infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierzwa, Grazyna; Augustyńska, Beata; Czerwionka-Szaflarska, Mieczysława; Tyrakowski, Tomasz

    2006-09-01

    Role of Helicobacter pylori infection in chronic gastritis and gastric and/or duodenal ulcers is well known. Simultaneously there are some articles in literature considering H. pylori as a cause of extra-gastrointestinal illnesses such as atopic dermatitis, chronic urticaria or acne rosacea, hypotrophy, Schoenlein-Henoch disease, atherosclerosis or hypochromic anaemia. The aim of the study. was to asses iron status in aspect of plasmatic transferrin receptors concentration among children and youth with chronic gastritis with or without Helicobacter pylori infection. Forty one patients were included as a study group. Range of age was 9-18 years. All patients were diagnosed due to chronic abdominal pains. There were 13 males and 28 females. Blood was collected from every patient for blood cell count, iron, transferrin and transferrin receptors concentration (sTfR) assessment before endoscopy of upper gastrointestinal tract. Concentration of sTfR was higher than age norm among 29 (71%) of patients. Among patients with higher level of sTfR 20 (69%) had normal haemoglobin concentration and in this group 10 patients had H. pylori infection. During analysis of 12 patients with nornal level of sTfR normal haemoglobin concentration was found and among five of them H. pylori infection was stated. Among 21 patients without H. pylori infection 14 had normal level of sTfR and 7 had higher level of sTfR which means that 33% had hidden iron deficiency (involuntary of normal Hb concentrations). Among 15 of 20 patients with H. pylori infection level of sTfR was higher which means that 75% patients with infection had hidden iron deficiency (involuntary of normal Hb concentrations). Level of plasmatic transferrin receptors can be good and sensitive indicator of iron deficiency and can be helpful in differential diagnosis of hypochromic anaemia and anaemia caused by chronic illness including chronic gastritis with Helicobacter pylori infection.

  1. THE BIOTIC FACTOR OF TREMATOD OPISTHORHIS FELINEUS INVASION INFLUENCE ON HOST IMMUNE STATUS AND SOMATIC CELLS PROLIFERATIVE ACTIVITY

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    A. G. Rybka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper confirms long-time opisthorhis invasion role as a risk factor of host immune system reconstitution as well as an important factor in holangiocarcinomas development. It was shown that opisthorhosis invasion primal stage induce host immune system reconstitution. Host immune B-cells system is activated by metacercaria antigens, while the same antigens inhibits T-cells activity. Opisthorhis metabolites stimulate proliferative mithogen-induced T-cells acti vity. Chronic opisthorchis invasion leads to immune system disbalance. It means: decrease of specific and non-speci fic natural killers activity, number of high proliferative activity T-lymphocytes and the shift of regulatory T-cells subset to suppressors prevalence. At the same time specific as well as non-specific T-suppressors functional ability is very low. It was shown T-cells helper-amplifier activation. Despite of circulating B-cells decrease the antibody produced cells number is spleen increases significantly at the same time with circulating immune complexes accumulation. Even 3–6 month after dehelmintisation the immune system disbalance decreases but lefts. In addition, chronic opisthorhis invasion leads to the proliferative processes activation in ductal epithelium, liver, lymph nodes and in other organs which leads to cancer proliferation. According to the results obtained the opisthorhis infected patients needs to be immunocorrected before as well as after dehelmintisation for holangiocancerogenesis profylaxis.

  2. Shigella Iron Acquisition Systems and their Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yahan; Murphy, Erin R

    2016-01-01

    Survival of Shigella within the host is strictly dependent on the ability of the pathogen to acquire essential nutrients, such as iron. As an innate immune defense against invading pathogens, the level of bio-available iron within the human host is maintained at exceeding low levels, by sequestration of the element within heme and other host iron-binding compounds. In response to sequestration mediated iron limitation, Shigella produce multiple iron-uptake systems that each function to facilitate the utilization of a specific host-associated source of nutrient iron. As a mechanism to balance the essential need for iron and the toxicity of the element when in excess, the production of bacterial iron acquisition systems is tightly regulated by a variety of molecular mechanisms. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on the iron-uptake systems produced by Shigella species, their distribution within the genus, and the molecular mechanisms that regulate their production.

  3. Effects of calorie restriction plus fish oil supplementation on abnormal metabolic characteristics and the iron status of middle-aged obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, Fasty Arum; Lee, Hsiu-Chuan; Su, Chien-Tien; Guo, Yu-Ru; Tung, Yu-Tang; Huang, Shih-Yi

    2018-02-21

    The increasing prevalence of obesity and sedentary lifestyles has led to a higher incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) worldwide as well as in Taiwan. Middle-aged women are at a greater risk of MetS, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease than men because they have more subcutaneous fat and larger waist circumferences compared with men with equal visceral fat levels. In this study, we investigated the effects of calorie restriction (CR) and fish oil supplementation (CRF) on middle-aged Taiwanese women with MetS. An open-label, parallel-arm, controlled trial was conducted for 12 weeks. A total of 75 eligible participants were randomly assigned to the CR or CRF group. Both the dietary intervention groups were further divided into two age groups: ≤45 and >45 years. Changes in MetS severity, inflammatory status, iron status, and red blood cell fatty acid profile were evaluated. A total of 71 participants completed the trial. Both dietary interventions significantly ameliorated MetS and improved the participants' inflammatory status. CR significantly increased the total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) whereas CRF increased hepcidin levels in women aged >45 years. Furthermore, CRF significantly increased the n-6/n-3 and arachidonic acid/docosahexaenoic acid ratios. Both interventions improved the anthropometric and MetS characteristics, including body weight, blood glucose and triglyceride levels, and the score of the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index. In conclusion, the 12-week dietary interventions improved the abnormal metabolic status of middle-aged obese women. CRF was demonstrated to be more effective in ameliorating postprandial glucose level and TIBC in women aged >45 years than in those aged ≤45 years.

  4. Efficacy of standardized extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae) in improving iron status of adults in malaria endemic area: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Emanuel L; Rumisha, Susan F; Mashoto, Kijakazi O; Minzi, Omary Ms; Mfinanga, Sayoki

    2017-09-14

    Indigenous community of Mkuranga district have been using aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa L. for treating anemia. However, there have been neither safety nor efficacy studies to validate this medicinal product in anemia. The purpose of this study was to establish efficacy and safety of standardized aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa L. in anemic adults. This was a randomized controlled clinical trial in which 130 adults' men and women aged 18-50 years were involved after meeting the inclusion criteria. Initially, standardized aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa L. was prepared using optimized extraction parameters. Stratified randomization was used to randomize participants into four fixed dose groups. The first group received oral dose of 1000ml while the 2nd group was randomized to receive 1500ml orally. The last two groups were given a dose of 2000ml of extract and 200mg ferrous sulphate tablet respectively. Primary endpoint was the actual change of iron status indicators at the end of 30 days follow up period as compared to those recorded at baseline. Adverse effects were assessed at every 10th day scheduled visit. In all arms, HB and hematopoietic parameters were measured using HemoCue hemoglobinometer® (HemoCue, Ängelholm, Sweden) and hematology analyzer® respectively at the trial site. Follow up was done for 30 days. A total of 82 participants were included for analysis. A standardized aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa L. did not improve iron status in anemic adults in malaria endemic region (P>0.005). However, there was evidence to support the safety of the extract for human consumptions as herbal supplement. Iron and organic acids contents of H. sabdariffa L. extract showed the potential of improving hematopoietic parameters. Studies with bigger sample size are therefore needed to establish the efficacy of the extract when concurrently used with malaria chemoprophylaxis in malaria endemic areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Infant Development at the Age of 6 Months in Relation to Feeding Practices, Iron Status, and Growth in a Peri-Urban Community of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Marinel; Faber, Mieke; Covic, Namukolo; Matsungo, Tonderayi M; Cockeran, Marike; Kvalsvig, Jane D; Smuts, Cornelius M

    2018-01-12

    Evidence on the association between feeding practices, iron deficiency, anaemia, stunting, and impaired psychomotor development during infancy is limited. This study assessed the association between psychomotor development with early feeding practices, growth, iron status, and anaemia. This was cross-sectional baseline data of a randomised controlled trial which included 6-month-old infants and their mothers or primary caregivers ( n = 750) in a peri-urban community in the North West province of South Africa. The Kilifi Developmental Inventory and a parent rating scale were used to assess psychomotor development. Feeding practices and anthropometric measurements were based on the World Health Organisation (WHO) guidelines. Anaemia and iron status were determined by blood sample analysis. Prevalence of anaemia and stunting for the infants were 36.4% and 28.5%, respectively. Multiple regression analysis showed that birth weight was related to combined psychomotor scores ( β = -3.427 (-4.603, 1.891), p psychomotor scores ( β = -1.419 (-2.466, 0.373), p = 0.008), as well as parent rating scores ( β = -0.747 (-1.483, -0.010), p = 0.047). In this setting, with high prevalence of anaemia and stunting, important associations between lower psychomotor development scores and birthweight as well as length-for-age z -scores in 6-month-old infants were found. These findings warrant further investigation to develop a greater understanding of factors influencing the association between child growth and psychomotor development within the first 1000 days of life.

  6. Iron, Zinc, Folate, and Vitamin B-12 Status Increased among Women and Children in Yaoundé and Douala, Cameroon, 1 Year after Introducing Fortified Wheat Flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle-Stone, Reina; Nankap, Martin; Ndjebayi, Alex O; Allen, Lindsay H; Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; Hampel, Daniela; Killilea, David W; Gimou, Marie-Madeleine; Houghton, Lisa A; Friedman, Avital; Tarini, Ann; Stamm, Rosemary A; Brown, Kenneth H

    2017-07-01

    Background: Few data are available on the effectiveness of large-scale food fortification programs. Objective: We assessed the impact of mandatory wheat flour fortification on micronutrient status in Yaoundé and Douala, Cameroon. Methods: We conducted representative surveys 2 y before and 1 y after the introduction of fortified wheat flour. In each survey, 10 households were selected within each of the same 30 clusters ( n = ∼300 households). Indicators of inflammation, malaria, anemia, and micronutrient status [plasma ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), zinc, folate, and vitamin B-12] were assessed among women aged 15-49 y and children 12-59 mo of age. Results: Wheat flour was consumed in the past 7 d by ≥90% of participants. Postfortification, mean total iron and zinc concentrations of flour samples were 46.2 and 73.6 mg/kg (target added amounts were 60 and 95 mg/kg, respectively). Maternal anemia prevalence was significantly lower postfortification (46.7% compared with 39.1%; adjusted P = 0.01), but mean hemoglobin concentrations and child anemia prevalence did not differ. For both women and children postfortification, mean plasma concentrations were greater for ferritin and lower for sTfR after adjustments for potential confounders. Mean plasma zinc concentrations were greater postfortification and the prevalence of low plasma zinc concentration in women after fortification (21%) was lower than before fortification (39%, P 50% greater postfortification. Conclusion: Although the pre-post survey design limits causal inference, iron, zinc, folate, and vitamin B-12 status increased among women and children in urban Cameroon after mandatory wheat flour fortification.

  7. Serum hepcidin-25 may replace the ferritin index in the Thomas plot in assessing iron status in anemic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, C; Kobold, U; Balan, S; Roeddiger, R; Thomas, L

    2011-04-01

    Biochemical markers of iron deficiency do not distinguish iron-deficient anemia (IDA) from the anemia of chronic disease (ACD) and the combined state of ACD/IDA. Serum hepcidin-25 might be a marker resolving this problem. We investigated the extent to which serum hepcidin-25 enables the differentiation of the states above in comparison with the ferritin index plot, the so-called Thomas plot [soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR)/log ferritin and the reticulocyte hemoglobin content (CHr)]. Serum hepcidin-25 was determined in 155 anemic patients who were classified as having latent iron deficiency (latent ID), IDA, ACD, or ACD/IDA using the ferritin index plot (Thomas plot). Hepcidin-25 was determined using an isotope-dilution micro-HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry method. The ability to discriminate among these states based on serum hepcidin-25 alone or in combination with the CHr was evaluated in a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis and a comparison with the recently established ferritin index plot. Serum hepcidin-25 correlated with ferritin and the ferritin index. Use of a hepcidin-25 cutoff level of ≤4 nmol/l allowed the differentiation of IDA from ACD and ACD/IDA. Furthermore, the discrimination of ACD/IDA from ACD required combination with CHr in a new plot (hepcidin-25 and the CHr). The hepcidin-25 plot and the ferritin index plot showed a good correspondence in the differentiation of iron states in patients with anemia. Patients with IDA can be differentiated from ACD and ACD/IDA but not ACD from ACD/IDA based on hepcidin-25 alone. The combination of hepcidin-25 with CHr in the hepcidin-25 plot was useful for the differentiation of the states above. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Osmia species (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae from the southeastern United States with modified facial hairs: taxonomy, host plants, and conservation status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Rightmyer

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe females and males of Osmia (Melanosmia calaminthae sp. n., an apparent floral specialist on Calamintha ashei (Lamiaceae, and provide observations on the behavior of female bees on flowers of this plant. We also provide diagnostic information for Osmia (Diceratosmia conjunctoides Robertson, stat. n., and synonymize O. (Diceratosmia subfasciata miamiensis Mitchell with O. conjunctoides syn. n. Females of both O. calaminthae and O. conjunctoides are unique among North American Osmia forshort, erect, simple facial hairs, which are apparent adaptations for collecting pollen from nototribic flowers. Osmia calaminthae is currently only known from sandy scrub at four nearby sites in the southern Lake Wales Ridge in Highlands County, Florida, USA, while O. conjunctoides is known from limited but widespread sites in the southeastern USA. We discuss the conservation status of both species based on known or speculated floral associates and distributions.

  9. Chloroplast Redox Status Modulates Genome-Wide Plant Responses during the Non-host Interaction of Tobacco with the Hemibiotrophic Bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Pierella Karlusich

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Non-host resistance is the most ample and durable form of plant resistance against pathogen infection. It includes induction of defense-associated genes, massive metabolic reprogramming, and in many instances, a form of localized cell death (LCD at the site of infection, purportedly designed to limit the spread of biotrophic and hemibiotrophic microorganisms. Reactive oxygen species (ROS have been proposed to act as signals for LCD orchestration. They are produced in various cellular compartments including chloroplasts, mitochondria and apoplast. We have previously reported that down-regulation of ROS build-up in chloroplasts by expression of a plastid-targeted flavodoxin (Fld suppressed LCD in tobacco leaves inoculated with the non-host bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv, while other defensive responses were unaffected, suggesting that chloroplast ROS and/or redox status play a major role in the progress of LCD. To better understand these effects, we compare here the transcriptomic alterations caused by Xcv inoculation on leaves of Fld-expressing tobacco plants and their wild-type siblings. About 29% of leaf-expressed genes were affected by Xcv and/or Fld. Surprisingly, 5.8% of them (1,111 genes were regulated by Fld in the absence of infection, presumably representing pathways responsive to chloroplast ROS production and/or redox status during normal growth conditions. While the majority (∼75% of pathogen-responsive genes were not affected by Fld, many Xcv responses were exacerbated, attenuated, or regulated in opposite direction by expression of this protein. Particularly interesting was a group of 384 genes displaying Xcv responses that were already triggered by Fld in the absence of infection, suggesting that the transgenic plants had a larger and more diversified suite of constitutive defenses against the attacking microorganism compared to the wild type. Fld modulated many genes involved in pathogenesis, signal

  10. The Effect of Low Dose Iron and Zinc Intake on Child Micronutrient Status and Development during the First 1000 Days of Life: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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    Nicolai Petry

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Adequate supply of micronutrients during the first 1000 days is essential for normal development and healthy life. We aimed to investigate if interventions administering dietary doses up to the recommended nutrient intake (RNI of iron and zinc within the window from conception to age 2 years have the potential to influence nutritional status and development of children. To address this objective, a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized and quasi-randomized fortification, biofortification, and supplementation trials in women (pregnant and lactating and children (6–23 months delivering iron or zinc in doses up to the recommended nutrient intake (RNI levels was conducted. Supplying iron or zinc during pregnancy had no effects on birth outcomes. There were limited or no data on the effects of iron/zinc during pregnancy and lactation on child iron/zinc status, growth, morbidity, and psychomotor and mental development. Delivering up to 15 mg iron/day during infancy increased mean hemoglobin by 4 g/L (p < 0.001 and mean serum ferritin concentration by 17.6 µg/L (p < 0.001 and reduced the risk for anemia by 41% (p < 0.001, iron deficiency by 78% (ID; p < 0.001 and iron deficiency anemia by 80% (IDA; p < 0.001, but had no effect on growth or psychomotor development. Providing up to 10 mg of additional zinc during infancy increased plasma zinc concentration by 2.03 µmol/L (p < 0.001 and reduced the risk of zinc deficiency by 47% (p < 0.001. Further, we observed positive effects on child weight for age z-score (WAZ (p < 0.05, weight for height z-score (WHZ (p < 0.05, but not on height for age z-score (HAZ or the risk for stunting, wasting, and underweight. There are no studies covering the full 1000 days window and the effects of iron and zinc delivered during pregnancy and lactation on child outcomes are ambiguous, but low dose daily iron and zinc use during 6–23 months of age has a positive effect on child iron and zinc status.

  11. Prevalence, clinical profile, iron status, and subject-specific traits for excessive erythrocytosis in andean adults living permanently at 3,825 meters above sea level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ferrari, Aldo; Miranda, J Jaime; Gilman, Robert H; Dávila-Román, Victor G; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Rivera-Ch, Maria; Huicho, Luis; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Wise, Robert A; Checkley, William

    2014-11-01

    Excessive erythrocytosis (EE) is a prevalent condition in populations living at high altitudes (> 2,500 m above sea level). Few large population-based studies have explored the association between EE and multiple subject-specific traits including oxygen saturation, iron status indicators, and pulmonary function. We enrolled a sex-stratified and age-stratified sample of 1,065 high-altitude residents aged ≥ 35 years from Puno, Peru (3,825 m above sea level) and conducted a standardized questionnaire and physical examination that included spirometry, pulse oximetry, and a blood sample for multiple clinical markers. Our primary objectives were to estimate the prevalence of EE, characterize the clinical profile and iron status indicators of subjects with EE, and describe subject-specific traits associated with EE. Overall prevalence of EE was 4.5% (95% CI, 3.3%-6.0%). Oxygen saturation was significantly lower among EE than non-EE group subjects (85.3% vs 90.1%, P .09 for all values). In multivariable logistic regression, we found that age ≥ 65 years (OR = 2.45, 95% CI, 1.16-5.09), male sex (3.86, 1.78-9.08), having metabolic syndrome (2.66, 1.27-5.75) or being overweight (5.20, 1.95-16.77), pulse oximetry overweight (26.7%), followed by male sex (21.5%), pulse oximetry overweight or having metabolic syndrome were associated with an important fraction of cases in our study population.

  12. Low-phytate wholegrain bread instead of high-phytate wholegrain bread in a total diet context did not improve iron status of healthy Swedish females: a 12-week, randomized, parallel-design intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Michael; Ross, Alastair B; Svelander, Cecilia; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie; Hulthén, Lena

    2018-05-23

    To investigate the effects of eating wholegrain rye bread with high or low amounts of phytate on iron status in women under free-living conditions. In this 12-week, randomized, parallel-design intervention study, 102 females were allocated into two groups, a high-phytate-bread group or a low-phytate-bread group. These two groups were administered: 200 g of blanched wholegrain rye bread/day, or 200 g dephytinized wholegrain rye bread/day. The bread was administered in addition to their habitual daily diet. Iron status biomarkers and plasma alkylresorcinols were analyzed at baseline and post-intervention. Fifty-five females completed the study. In the high-phytate-bread group (n = 31) there was no change in any of the iron status biomarkers after 12 weeks of intervention (p > 0.05). In the low-phytate bread group (n = 24) there were significant decreases in both ferritin (mean = 12%; from 32 ± 7 to 27 ± 6 µg/L, geometric mean ± SEM, p < 0.018) and total body iron (mean = 12%; from 6.9 ± 1.4 to 5.4 ± 1.1 mg/kg, p < 0.035). Plasma alkylresorcinols indicated that most subjects complied with the intervention. In Swedish females of reproductive age, 12 weeks of high-phytate wholegrain bread consumption had no effect on iron status. However, consumption of low-phytate wholegrain bread for 12 weeks resulted in a reduction of markers of iron status. Although single-meal studies clearly show an increase in iron bioavailability from dephytinization of cereals, medium-term consumption of reduced phytate bread under free-living conditions suggests that this strategy does not work to improve iron status in healthy women of reproductive age.

  13. Aneuploidy assessed by DNA index influences the effect of iron status on plasma and/or supernatant cytokine levels and progression of cells through the cell cycle in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuvibidila, Solo; Porretta, Connie; Baliga, Surendra

    2014-02-01

    Aneuploidy, a condition associated with altered chromosome number, hence DNA index, is frequently seen in many diseases including cancers and affects immunity. Iron, an essential nutrient for humans, modulates the immune function and the proliferation of normal and cancer cells. To determine whether impaired immunity seen in iron-deficient subjects may be related to aneuploidy, we measured spleen cell DNA index, percent of cells in different phases of the cell cycle, plasma and/or supernatant IL-2, IL-10, IL-12, and interferon-gamma in control, pair-fed, iron-deficient, and iron-replete mice (N=20-22/group). The test and control diets differed only in iron content (0.09mmol/kg versus 0.9mmol/kg) and were fed for 68days. Mean levels of hemoglobin and liver iron stores of iron-deficient and iron-replete mice were 40-60% lower than those of control and pair-fed mice (P<0.05). Mean plasma levels of IL-10, interferon-gamma and percent of cells in S+G2/M phases were lower in mice with than in those without aneuploidy (P<0.05). Lowest plasma IL-12 and interferon-gamma concentrations were observed in iron-deficient mice with aneuploidy. Mean percents of cultures with aneuploidy and DNA indexes were higher in iron-deficient and iron-replete than in control and pair-fed mice likely due to delayed cell division (P<0.05). Aneuploidy decreased the concentration of IL-2 and interferon-gamma in baseline cultures while it increased that of interferon-gamma in anti-CD3 treated cultures. Aneuploidic indexes negatively correlated with cytokine levels, percents of cells in S+G2/M phases and indicators of iron status (P<0.05). Although chromosome cytogenetics was not performed, for the first time, we report that increased aneuploidy rate may modulate the immune function during iron-deficiency. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Impact of iron on the performance of clay barriers in waste disposal systems. Report on the status of research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wersin, Paul; Snellman, Margit

    2008-05-01

    The interaction of iron components with swelling clay materials in the EBS has received relatively little attention so far in safety assessment studies. It is however widely recognised that such interaction processes (e.g. corrosion, mineral alteration) need to be considered since they have the potential to impair repository long-term safety. A workshop on this topic was held in 2006 in Basel and has shed some light on the current status and the remaining uncertainties of relevance for safety purposes. Also, the workshop highlighted that there is strong interest to continue research in this field. Notably, waste management organisations from France (Finland), Japan, Sweden and Switzerland showed interest to exchange information in this research area on a regular basis and, if possible, advance common projects. Following this workshop, it was decided by Posiva, SKB and Nagra to compile the status of research and development based on a pre-formatted questionnaire sent out to a number of research organisations. This report summarises the information obtained. This serves to identify the remaining knowledge gaps and to explore areas of common interest. Some ideas for common research studies and possibilities how to organise these are presented

  15. Impact of iron on the performance of clay barriers in waste disposal systems. Report on the status of research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wersin, Paul (National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste, Nagra, Wettingen (Switzerland)); Snellman, Margit (Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland))

    2008-05-15

    The interaction of iron components with swelling clay materials in the EBS has received relatively little attention so far in safety assessment studies. It is however widely recognised that such interaction processes (e.g. corrosion, mineral alteration) need to be considered since they have the potential to impair repository long-term safety. A workshop on this topic was held in 2006 in Basel and has shed some light on the current status and the remaining uncertainties of relevance for safety purposes. Also, the workshop highlighted that there is strong interest to continue research in this field. Notably, waste management organisations from France (Finland), Japan, Sweden and Switzerland showed interest to exchange information in this research area on a regular basis and, if possible, advance common projects. Following this workshop, it was decided by Posiva, SKB and Nagra to compile the status of research and development based on a pre-formatted questionnaire sent out to a number of research organisations. This report summarises the information obtained. This serves to identify the remaining knowledge gaps and to explore areas of common interest. Some ideas for common research studies and possibilities how to organise these are presented

  16. Anabolic Adaptations Occur in Conscripts During Basic Military Training Despite High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency and Decrease in Iron Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ööpik, Vahur; Timpmann, Saima; Rips, Leho; Olveti, Indrek; Kõiv, Kersti; Mooses, Martin; Mölder, Hanno; Varblane, Ahti; Lille, Hele-Reet; Gapeyeva, Helena

    2017-03-01

    In Estonian Defense Forces that are drawn up on the basis of the conscription model considerable numbers of young men are prematurely discharged from military service for medical reasons, but causes leading to premature dropout of conscripts have not been systematically studied. However, one of the factors involved could be relatively demanding physical training that starts at the beginning of military service in the form of basic military training (BMT). Cumulative training and nontraining stresses experienced by conscripts during BMT may exceed their physiological adaptability and increase the probability of becoming prematurely discharged. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to assess physiological responses to 10-week BMT in Estonian conscripts. The protocol of the study confirmed to the standards set by the Declaration of Helsinki and it was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the University of Tartu. Mean ± SD age and body mass index of 94 conscripts studied was 20.9 ± 1.7 years and 24.2 ± 3.0 kg · m -2 , respectively. Fasting venous blood analysis was performed four times during BMT (October to December) and once 15 weeks after the end of BMT (in March). One-factor (time) repeated measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate the differences within the variables. Statistical significance was set at p anabolic physiological adaptations in conscripts despite vitamin D deficiency and decrease in iron status. However, high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and decline in iron status may limit physiological adaptations and improvement in physical work capacity to a suboptimal level. Furthermore, as vitamin D influences a variety of functions important for health, deficiency in conscripts should be considered a major concern that needs treatment. An acknowledged limitation of the study is the lack of a control group of conscripts possessing normal vitamin D status and stable serum ferritin levels throughout the study period

  17. Iron excess in recreational marathon runners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mettler, S.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Iron deficiency and anemia may impair athletic performance, and iron supplements are commonly consumed by athletes. However, iron overload should be avoided because of the possible long-term adverse health effects. Methods: We investigated the iron status of 170 male and

  18. Antifibrotic effect of xanthohumol in combination with praziquantel is associated with altered redox status and reduced iron accumulation during liver fluke-associated cholangiocarcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassana Jamnongkan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA caused by infection of the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini, (Ov is the major public health problem in northeast Thailand. Following Ov infection the subsequent molecular changes can be associated by reactive oxygen species (ROS induced chronic inflammation, advanced periductal fibrosis, and cholangiocarcinogenesis. Notably, resistance to an activation of cell death in prolonged oxidative stress conditions can occur but some damaged/mutated cells could survive and enable clonal expansion. Our study used a natural product, xanthohumol (XN, which is an anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory compound, to examine whether it could prevent Ov-associated CCA carcinogenesis. We measured the effect of XN with or without praziquantel (PZ, an anti-helminthic treatment, on DNA damage, redox status change including iron accumulation and periductal fibrosis during CCA genesis induced by administration of Ov and N-dinitrosomethylamine (NDMA in hamsters. Animals were randomly divided into four groups: group I, Ov infection and NDMA administration (ON; group II, Ov infection and NDMA administration and PZ treatment (ONP; the latter 2 groups were similar to group I and II, but group III received additional XN (XON and group IV received XN plus PZ (XONP. The results showed that high 8-oxodG (a marker of DNA damage was observed throughout cholangiocarcinogenesis. Moreover, increased expression of CD44v8-10 (a cell surface in regulation of the ROS defense system, whereas decreased expression of phospho-p38MAPK (a major ROS target, was found during the progression of the bile duct cell transformation. In addition, high accumulation of iron and expression of transferrin receptor-1 (TfR-1 in both malignant bile ducts and inflammatory cells were detected. Furthermore, fibrosis also increased with the highest level being on day 180. On the other hand, the groups of XN with or without PZ supplementations showed an effective reduction in all the

  19. Iron requirements of infants and toddlers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domellöf, Magnus; Braegger, Christian; Campoy, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) is the most common micronutrient deficiency worldwide and young children are a special risk group since their rapid growth leads to high iron requirements. Risk factors associated with a higher prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) include low birth weight, high cow's milk.......There is no evidence that iron supplementation of pregnant women improves iron status in their offspring in a European setting. Delayed cord clamping reduces the risk of iron deficiency. There is insufficient evidence to support general iron supplementation of healthy, European infants and toddlers of normal birth...... intake, low intake of iron-rich complementary foods, low socioeconomic status and immigrant status.The aim of this position paper is to review the field and provide recommendations regarding iron requirements in infants and toddlers, including those of moderately or marginally low birth weight...

  20. Trends in Iron, Zinc, and Vitamin A Status Biomarkers Among Colombian Children: Results From 2 Nationally Representative Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenchao; Herrán, Oscar F; Villamor, Eduardo

    2017-06-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies are still highly prevalent in countries undergoing the nutrition transition, but nationally representative data documenting their burden in children are exceedingly rare. To examine the distribution and recent trends in micronutrient status biomarkers of Colombian children. We compared the distributions of plasma ferritin, serum zinc, and vitamin A in Colombian children between 2005 and 2010 using 2 cross-sectional, nationally representative surveys overall and by categories of sociodemographic variables. Analysis for ferritin included boys and nonpregnant girls aged 1 to 17 years. Analyses for zinc and vitamin A included children aged 1 to 4 years. The mean 2010 to 2005 differences in ferritin, zinc, and vitamin A were 2.5 µg/L (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3 to 3.7), -34.9 µg/dL (95% CI: -39.6 to -30.2), and -11.5 µg/dL (95% CI: -12.3 to -10.7), respectively, after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. These differences varied significantly by region of residence. In 2010, region of residence was a significant correlate for all 3 micronutrients. Other important correlates included age and maternal education for ferritin and body mass index-for-age Z score, maternal education, wealth index, food insecurity, and urbanicity for vitamin A. Plasma ferritin was slightly higher in 2010 than in 2005, whereas serum zinc and vitamin A were substantially lower in 2010. In the absence of obvious causal explanations, it is uncertain whether this decline represents a worsening of micronutrient status in Colombian children or an artifact due to systematic laboratory or data management errors incurred in the surveys.

  1. Iron deficiency and overload in relation to nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjersberg MQI; Jansen EHJM; LEO

    2000-01-01

    Nutritional iron intake in the Netherlands has been reviewed with respect to both iron deficiency and iron overload. In general, iron intake and iron status in the Netherlands are adequate and therefore no change in nutrition policy is required. The following aspects and developments, however, need

  2. Effectiveness of fortification of drinking water with iron and vitamin C in the reduction of anemia and improvement of nutritional status in children attending day-care centers in Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Daniela da Silva; Capanema, Flávio Diniz; Netto, Michele Pereira; de Almeida, Carlos Alberto Nogueira; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Lamounier, Joel Alves

    2011-12-01

    Because of the high prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia in Brazil, individual control measures tend to be ineffective, and fortification of foods with iron is considered the most effective method to fight anemia. To evaluate the effectiveness of fortification of drinking water with iron and vitamin C in the reduction of anemia in children in day-care centers in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. This before-and-after study evaluated 318 children aged 6 to 74 months. Identification data and data on socioeconomic variables were collected; anthropometric and biochemical measurements were performed before and after 5 months of fortification of water with 5 mg of elemental iron and 50 mg of ascorbic acid per liter. The fortified water was used for drinking and cooking at the day-care center. Wilcoxon's nonparametric test was used to evaluate the differences in continuous variables, and McNemar's test was used to compare the prevalence rates of anemia. The prevalence of anemia decreased significantly from 29.3% before fortification to 7.9% at the end of the study, with a significant increase in hemoglobin levels. Reductions in the prevalence rates of stunting and underweight were observed. Fortification of water with iron and vitamin C significantly reduced the prevalence of anemia and improved nutritional status among children attending day-care centers.

  3. Effects of metformin treatment on Iron, Zinc and Copper status concentration in the serum of female rats with induced polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhsin S. G. Al-Moziel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study conducted to investigate the effects of metformin drug on serum Iron, Zinc and Copper concentration in Estradiol Valerate(EV induced polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS in virgin rats. Thirty virgin rats were randomly allotted to constitute Normal control (NC-I group and induced polycystic ovary (PCO-I and PCO-II groups having 10 rats in each group. Rats from NC-I group were administered intramuscularly with 0.2 ml of corn oil whereas polycystic ovary was induced in rats from PCO-I and PCO-II groups by administering single intra-muscular injection of estradiol Valerate 4mg/rat. The rats from PCO-I and PCO-II groups were left for 60 days for development of polycystic ovary syndrome. Animals from PCO-I group were then administered with 0.2 ml normal saline as oral gavage for 15 days, these animals were kept as PCO control group animals whereas those from PCO-II groups received metformin (50mg/kg B.wt as oral gavage for 15 days, these animals served as metformin treated PCO group animals. All the rats were thereafter sacrificed for collecting blood from inferior vena-cava. Serum samples from each rat were assessed for iron, zinc and copper status in each experimental group. The results revealed a significant (p≤0.05 increase in serum Fe and Zn and a significant (p≤0.05 decrease in serum Cu concentration in PCO group 1 compared with control non-treated group. The PCO group2 treated with metformin showed a significant (p≤0.05 decrease in serum Fe concentration as compared with those in animals from group NC-I and PCO-I. While, no significant differences were found in serum Zn concentration between all treated groups. On the other hand, a significant (p≤0.05 increase in serum Cu concentration appeared in metformin treated group compared with PCO group 1 which appears significant decrease compared with control group.

  4. [Iron deficiency and pica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, J A; Marcos, J; Risueño, C E; de Cos, C; López, R; Capote, F J; Martín, M V; Gil, J L

    1998-02-01

    To study the relationship between pica and iron-lack anaemia in a series of iron-deficiency patients in order to establish the pathogenesis of such relationship. Four-hundred and thirty-three patients were analysed. Pica was studied by introducing certain diet queries into the clinical history. All patients received oral iron and were periodically controlled with the usual clinico-haematological procedures. Pica was present in 23 patients (5.3%). Eight nourishing (namely, coffee grains, almonds, chocolate, ice, lettuce, carrots, sunflower seeds and bread) and 2 non-nourishing (clay and paper) substances were involved. A second episode of pica appeared in 9 cases upon relapsing of iron deficiency. Both anaemia and pica were cured by etiologic and substitutive therapy in all instances. No clear correlation was found with either socio-economic status or pathogenetic causes of iron deficiency and pica, and no haematological differences were seen between patients with pica and those without this alteration. (1) The pathogenesis of pica is unclear, although it appears unrelated to the degree of iron deficiency. (2) According to the findings in this series, pica seems a consequence of iron deficiency rather than its cause. (3) Adequate therapy can cure both conditions, although pica may reappear upon relapse of iron deficiency.

  5. [Iron and invasive fungal infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Florencio; Fernández-Ruiz, Mario; Aguado, José María

    2013-01-01

    Iron is an essential factor for both the growth and virulence of most of microorganisms. As a part of the innate (or nutritional) immune system, mammals have developed different mechanisms to store and transport this element in order to limit free iron bioavailability. To survive in this hostile environment, pathogenic fungi have specific uptake systems for host iron sources, one of the most important of which is based on the synthesis of siderophores-soluble, low-molecular-mass, high-affinity iron chelators. The increase in free iron that results from iron-overload conditions is a well-established risk factor for invasive fungal infection (IFI) such as mucormycosis or aspergillosis. Therefore, iron chelation may be an appealing therapeutic option for these infections. Nevertheless, deferoxamine -the first approved iron chelator- paradoxically increases the incidence of IFI, as it serves as a xeno-siderophore to Mucorales. On the contrary, the new oral iron chelators (deferiprone and deferasirox) have shown to exert a deleterious effect on fungal growth both in vitro and in animal models. The present review focuses on the role of iron metabolism in the pathogenesis of IFI and summarises the preclinical data, as well as the limited clinical experience so far, in the use of new iron chelators as treatment for mucormycosis and invasive aspergillosis. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. A novel approach to evaluating the iron and folate status of women of reproductive age in Uzbekistan after 3 years of flour fortification with micronutrients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Hund

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Uzbekistan 1996 Demographic Health Survey reported 60.4% of women of reproductive age (WRA had low hemoglobin concentrations (5 mg/L. Severe anemia was more prevalent among folate deficient than iron depleted WRA. Presence of UDM first grade flour or the grey loaf was reported in 71.3% of households. Among WRA, 32.1% were aware of UDM fortification; only 3.7% mentioned the benefits of fortification and 12.5% understood causes of anemia. Consumption of heme iron-containing food (91% and iron absorption enhancers (97% was high, as was the consumption of iron absorption inhibitors (95%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The NFFP coincided with a substantial decline in the prevalence of anemia. Folate deficiency was a stronger predictor of severe anemia than iron depletion. However, the prevalence of iron depletion was high, suggesting that women are not eating enough iron or iron absorption is inhibited. Fortified products were prevalent throughout Uzbekistan, though UDM flour must be adequately fortified and monitored in the future. Knowledge of fortification and anemia was low, suggesting consumer education should be prioritized.

  7. Iron, Anemia, and Iron Deficiency Anemia among Young Children in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Priya M.; Perrine, Cria G.; Mei, Zuguo; Scanlon, Kelley S.

    2016-01-01

    Iron deficiency and anemia are associated with impaired neurocognitive development and immune function in young children. Total body iron, calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor concentrations, and hemoglobin allow for monitoring of the iron and anemia status of children in the United States. The purpose of this analysis is to describe the prevalence of iron deficiency (ID), anemia, and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) among children 1–5 years using data from the 2007–201...

  8. Rethinking Iron Regulation and Assessment in Iron Deficiency, Anemia of Chronic Disease, and Obesity: Introducing Hepcidin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa; Pustacioglu, Cenk; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Braunschweig, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Adequate iron availability is essential to human development and overall health. Iron is a key component of oxygen-carrying proteins, has a pivotal role in cellular metabolism, and is essential to cell growth and differentiation. Inadequate dietary iron intake, chronic and acute inflammatory conditions, and obesity are each associated with alterations in iron homeostasis. Tight regulation of iron is necessary because iron is highly toxic and human beings can only excrete small amounts through sweat, skin and enterocyte sloughing, and fecal and menstrual blood loss. Hepcidin, a small peptide hormone produced mainly by the liver, acts as the key regulator of systemic iron homeostasis. Hepcidin controls movement of iron into plasma by regulating the activity of the sole known iron exporter ferroportin-1. Downregulation of the ferroportin-1 exporter results in sequestration of iron within intestinal enterocytes, hepatocytes, and iron-storing macrophages reducing iron bioavailability. Hepcidin expression is increased by higher body iron levels and inflammation and decreased by anemia and hypoxia. Importantly, existing data illustrate that hepcidin may play a significant role in the development of several iron-related disorders, including the anemia of chronic disease and the iron dysregulation observed in obesity. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to discuss iron regulation, with specific emphasis on systemic regulation by hepcidin, and examine the role of hepcidin within several disease states, including iron deficiency, anemia of chronic disease, and obesity. The relationship between obesity and iron depletion and the clinical assessment of iron status will also be reviewed. PMID:22717199

  9. Comparison of iron status and insulin resistance between non-diabetic offspring of type 2 diabetics and non-diabetic offspring of non-diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, U.; Qureshi, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance is positively correlated with body iron. It is unclear whether iron is a cause or an outcome of insulin resistance. Insulin resistance precedes type 2 diabetes mellitus. Offspring of type 2 diabetics are insulin resistant as compared to those of the non-diabetics. The present study was designed to compare and correlate insulin resistance with iron parameters (including serum ferritin, transferrin saturation and blood haemoglobin) in non-diabetic offspring of type 2 diabetics and non-diabetic offspring of non-diabetics. Methods: It was a cross-sectional study, conducted on one hundred and twenty male subjects 20-40 years of age. They were divided into two groups, each group having 60 subjects. Group A included non-diabetic offspring of type 2 diabetics, while Group B included non-diabetic offspring of non-diabetics. Fasting blood sample was taken and examined for glucose, haemoglobin, insulin, iron, TIBC and ferritin. Data was analysed by SPSS-17. Results: Insulin resistance and iron parameters were significantly higher (p<0.05) in non-diabetic offspring of type 2 diabetics as compared to those of the non-diabetics. There was significant positive correlation (p=0.027) between insulin resistance and serum iron in non-diabetic offspring of type 2 diabetics. There was also significant positive correlation between insulin resistance and serum iron, transferrin saturation and haemoglobin in non-diabetic offspring of non-diabetics. Conclusion: Non-diabetic offspring of type 2 diabetics have iron load and insulin resistance, that predispose them to the development of type 2 diabetes. (author)

  10. Relationship between the iron status of pregnant women and their newborns Relação entre o estado nutricional de ferro de parturientes e seus recém-nascidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de A Paiva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between iron nutritional status of pregnant women and their newborns using a combination of hematological and biochemical parameters for the diagnosis of iron deficiency. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jundiaí, Southeastern Brazil, in 2000. Venous blood samples collected from 95 pregnant women and from their umbilical cord and used for the determination of complete blood count, serum iron, total iron-binding capacity, serum ferritin, zinc protoporphyrin, and transferrin saturation. Women were classified into three groups: anemic, iron deficient and non-iron deficient. Statistical analysis included the Tukey-HSD test, Pearson's correlation coefficient and multiple linear regression analysis. RESULTS: Among pregnant women, 19% were anemic (97.9% mildly anemic and 2.1% moderately anemic and 30.5% were iron deficient. No significant difference was seen in mean values of any parameter studied between newborns in the three groups (p>0.05. Multiple linear regression analysis showed weak association between neonatal and maternal parameters. CONCLUSIONS: The iron nutritional status of pregnant women with iron deficiency or mild anemia does not seem to have a significant impact on the iron levels of their children.OBJETIVO: Determinar a relação entre os níveis de ferro de gestantes e seus filhos recém-nascidos, utilizando uma combinação de parâmetros hematológicos e bioquímicos para o diagnóstico da deficiência de ferro. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado em Jundiaí, SP, em 2000. Amostras de sangue venoso foram coletadas de 95 gestantes e do cordão umbilical de cada uma, e utilizadas na determinação de hemograma completo, ferro sérico, capacidade total de ligação do ferro, ferritina sérica, zinco-protoporfirina, e saturação de transferrina. As mulheres foram classificadas em três grupos: anêmicas, deficientes de ferro e não-deficientes de ferro. As análises estat

  11. Microbial Community Composition Impacts Pathogen Iron Availability during Polymicrobial Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apollo Stacy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential nutrient for bacterial pathogenesis, but in the host, iron is tightly sequestered, limiting its availability for bacterial growth. Although this is an important arm of host immunity, most studies examine how bacteria respond to iron restriction in laboratory rather than host settings, where the microbiome can potentially alter pathogen strategies for acquiring iron. One of the most important transcriptional regulators controlling bacterial iron homeostasis is Fur. Here we used a combination of RNA-seq and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-seq to characterize the iron-restricted and Fur regulons of the biofilm-forming opportunistic pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. We discovered that iron restriction and Fur regulate 4% and 3.5% of the genome, respectively. While most genes in these regulons were related to iron uptake and metabolism, we found that Fur also directly regulates the biofilm-dispersing enzyme Dispersin B, allowing A. actinomycetemcomitans to escape from iron-scarce environments. We then leveraged these datasets to assess the availability of iron to A. actinomycetemcomitans in its primary infection sites, abscesses and the oral cavity. We found that A. actinomycetemcomitans is not restricted for iron in a murine abscess mono-infection, but becomes restricted for iron upon co-infection with the oral commensal Streptococcus gordonii. Furthermore, in the transition from health to disease in human gum infection, A. actinomycetemcomitans also becomes restricted for iron. These results suggest that host iron availability is heterogeneous and dependent on the infecting bacterial community.

  12. Effects of Animal-Source Foods and Micronutrient-Fortification Complementary Foods on Body Composition, Linear Growth, Iron Status – the WinFood Project in Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chhoun, Chamnan; Kloppenborg Heick Skau, Jutta; Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine; Friis, Henrik; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Roos, Nanna; Touch, Bunthang; Chea, Mary; Wieringa, Frank; Berger, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective: The nutritional quality of CF in developing countries is often insufficient to sustain optimal growth. The Winfood project evaluated the efficacy of two new, processed rice-fish based CF with local ASF in Cambodia: non-fortified ‘WinFood’ (WF) with 14% by dry-weight ASF from small-sized fish (Esomus longimanus and Paralaubuca typus) and edible spiders (Haplopelma sp.); an adjusted ‘lite’ WinFood (WF-L) with 10% by dry-weight ASF from small-sized fish of mixed species, and fortified with minerals and vitamins. The products were precooked by extrusion. The WF-products were compared with two standard products from World Food Programme: Corn-Soy-Blend (CSB+) and CSB++ (8% by dry-weight skimmed-milk powder), in a single-blinded randomized trial. Methods: 419 Cambodian infants at age 6 months were randomized to daily rations of one of the four products for nine months period. BC (deuterium dilution) and iron status (serum ferritin and hemoglobin) were measured before and after intervention; and anthropometry (knee-heel-length, length, weight, MUAC, head circumference and skinfolds) monthly. Data were analyzed by intention-to-treat. Results: Among 358 children completing the study, no significant difference in BC between the groups where found, but knee-heel length increments differed (P = 0.046: WF-L: 3.6 cm, CSB++: 3.6 cm, WF: 3.5 cm, CSB+: 3.4 cm), suggesting that micronutrient-fortified products with 8-10% ASF (CSB++ and WF-L) promoted better linear growth than products without fortification or ASF. Knee-heel and total length increment was significantly higher in the highest food compliance quartile compared to the lowest, across food groups. There were no differences in ferritin and hemoglobin concentration. There was higher prevalence of anemic children in the WF group. Conclusion: Products with ASF (milk or small fish) and micronutrient premix resulted in slightly better linear growth. Small fish is a cheap ASF with high potential

  13. Iron nutrition in Indian women at different ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacPhail, A.P.; Bothwell, T.H.; Torrance, J.D.; Derman, D.P.; Bezwoda, W.R.; Charlton, R.W.; Mayet, F.G.H.

    1981-01-01

    The iron status of 320 Indian women living in Chatsworth, Durban, who had volunteered for iron absorption studies, was assessed using a number of measurements. These included radio-iron absorption, the transferrin saturation, the serum ferritin concentration and the haemoglobin concentration. In the sample as a whole, the prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia (haemoglobin concentration smaller than 12 g/dl, with two or more abnormal measurements of iron status) was 14,4%. A further 26% had depleted iron stores (serum ferritin smaller than 12μg/l) and 8,4% also had evidence of iron-deficient erythropoiesis (serum ferritin smaller than 12μg/l and transferrin saturation below 16%). A profile of iron status based on the cumulative frequency distribution of iron stores showed that the sample with calculated median iron stores of 150 mg and lower and upper 10 percentiles of -355 mg and 655 mg respectively, was significantly more iron deficient than a sample of women studied in Washington State, USA. Of interest was the observation that all measurements of iron status were better in the older age groups, presumably as a result of the cessation of menstruation. In addition, there was evidence that the duration of menstruation, as volunteered in a brief history, had a significant effect on several measurements of iron status. This was particularly true of the serum ferritin concentration and radio-iron absorption, both of which reflect the size of the iron stores

  14. Bone marrow and chelatable iron in patients with protein energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To examine the iron status of malnourished children by comparing bone marrow iron deposits in children with protein energy malnutrition with those in well-nourished controls, and measuring chelatable urinary iron excretion in children with kwashiorkor. Design: Bone marrow iron was assessed histologicaHy in ...

  15. Iron, Oxidative Stress and Gestational Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taifeng Zhuang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Both iron deficiency and hyperglycemia are highly prevalent globally for pregnant women. Iron supplementation is recommended during pregnancy to control iron deficiency. The purposes of the review are to assess the oxidative effects of iron supplementation and the potential relationship between iron nutrition and gestational diabetes. High doses of iron (~relative to 60 mg or more daily for adult humans can induce lipid peroxidation in vitro and in animal studies. Pharmaceutical doses of iron supplements (e.g., 10× RDA or more for oral supplements or direct iron supplementation via injection or addition to the cell culture medium for a short or long duration will induce DNA damage. Higher heme-iron intake or iron status measured by various biomarkers, especially serum ferritin, might contribute to greater risk of gestational diabetes, which may be mediated by iron oxidative stress though lipid oxidation and/or DNA damage. However, information is lacking about the effect of low dose iron supplementation (≤60 mg daily on lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and gestational diabetes. Randomized trials of low-dose iron supplementation (≤60 mg daily for pregnant women are warranted to test the relationship between iron oxidative stress and insulin resistance/gestational diabetes, especially for iron-replete women.

  16. Iron excess in recreational marathon runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettler, S; Zimmermann, M B

    2010-05-01

    Iron deficiency and anemia may impair athletic performance, and iron supplements are commonly consumed by athletes. However, iron overload should be avoided because of the possible long-term adverse health effects. We investigated the iron status of 170 male and female recreational runners participating in the Zürich marathon. Iron deficiency was defined either as a plasma ferritin (PF) concentration or =4.5 (functional iron deficiency). After excluding subjects with elevated C-reactive protein concentrations, iron overload was defined as PF >200 microg/l. Iron depletion was found in only 2 out of 127 men (1.6% of the male study population) and in 12 out of 43 (28.0%) women. Functional iron deficiency was found in 5 (3.9%) and 11 (25.5%) male and female athletes, respectively. Body iron stores, calculated from the sTfR/PF ratio, were significantly higher (Pmarathon runners. Median PF among males was 104 microg/l, and the upper limit of the PF distribution in males was 628 microg/l. Iron overload was found in 19 out of 127 (15.0%) men but only 2 out of 43 in women (4.7%). Gender (male sex), but not age, was a predictor of higher PF (Pperformance, our findings indicate excess body iron may be common in male recreational runners and suggest supplements should only be used if tests of iron status indicate deficiency.

  17. The impact of iron supplementation on reinfection with intestinal helminths and Schistosoma mansoni in western Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Annette; Nawiri, J; Friis, Henrik

    2001-01-01

    immune function or to unfavourable host gut conditions caused by an increased oxidative stress. In each case, the lack of effect in children remains to be explained. In contrast, iron supplementation apparently was short-lived in favour of hookworm infection, an effect that needs further clarification......A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial was carried out in 1994-96 among 231 children and 181 adults in order to determine the effects of iron on reinfection rates and intensities of hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Schistosoma mansoni. Adults given 60 mg...... reinfection rates or intensities in children. Multiple logistic regression analyses controlling for baseline infection status confirmed the effect in adults of iron on A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura and S. mansoni reinfection rates. The effect is suggested to be due to reduced risk behaviour, to improved...

  18. Iron Deficiency in Long-Term Parenteral Nutrition Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwa, Yi L; Rashtak, Shahrooz; Kelly, Darlene G; Murray, Joseph A

    2016-08-01

    Iron is not routinely added to parenteral nutrition (PN) formulations in the United States because of the risk of anaphylaxis and concerns about incompatibilities. Studies have shown that iron dextran in non-lipid-containing PN solutions is safe. Data are limited on iron status, prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (IDA), and efficacy of intravenous iron infusion in long-term home PN (HPN). We aimed to determine the incidence of IDA and to examine the effectiveness of parenteral iron replacement in patients receiving HPN. Medical records of patients receiving HPN at the Mayo Clinic from 1977 to 2010 were reviewed. Diagnoses, time to IDA development, and hemoglobin, ferritin, and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) values were extracted. Response of iron indices to intravenous iron replacement was investigated. Of 185 patients (122 women), 60 (32.4%) were iron deficient. Five patients were iron deficient, and 18 had unknown iron status before HPN. Of 93 patients who had sufficient iron storage, 37 had IDA development after a mean of 27.2 months (range, 2-149 months) of therapy. Iron was replaced by adding maintenance iron dextran to PN or by therapeutic iron infusion. Patients with both replacement methods had significant improvement in iron status. With intravenous iron replacement, mean ferritin increased from 10.9 to 107.6 mcg/L (P Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  19. Micronutrient Status and Dietary Intake of Iron, Vitamin A, Iodine, Folate and Zinc in Women of Reproductive Age and Pregnant Women in Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria and South Africa: A Systematic Review of Data from 2005 to 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajwinder Harika

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the status and intake of iron, vitamin A, iodine, folate and zinc in women of reproductive age (WRA (≥15–49 years and pregnant women (PW in Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria and South Africa. National and subnational data published between 2005 and 2015 were searched via Medline, Scopus and national public health websites. Per micronutrient, relevant data were pooled into an average prevalence of deficiency, weighted by sample size (WAVG. Inadequate intakes were estimated from mean (SD intakes. This review included 65 surveys and studies from Ethiopia (21, Kenya (11, Nigeria (21 and South Africa (12. In WRA, WAVG prevalence of anaemia ranged from 18–51%, iron deficiency 9–18%, and iron deficiency anaemia at 10%. In PW, the prevalence was higher, and ranged from 32–62%, 19–61%, and 9–47%, respectively. In WRA, prevalence of vitamin A, iodine, zinc and folate deficiencies ranged from 4–22%, 22–55%, 34% and 46%, while in PW these ranged from 21–48%, 87%, 46–76% and 3–12% respectively. Inadequate intakes of these micronutrients are high and corresponded with the prevalence figures. Our findings indicate that nationally representative data are needed to guide the development of nutrition interventions and public health programs, such as dietary diversification, micronutrient fortification and supplementation.

  20. Efficacy of iron fortification compared to iron supplementation among Vietamese schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, Huong T.; Brouwer, I.D.; Burema, J.; NGuyen, K.C.; Kok, F.J.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of iron fortification is generally assumed to be less than iron supplementation; however, the magnitude of difference in effects is not known. The present study aims to compare the efficacy of these two strategies on anaemia and iron status. After screening on low Hb, 425 anaemic children

  1. Iron status and systemic inflammation, but not gut inflammation, strongly predict gender-specific concentrations of serum hepcidin in infants in rural kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaeggi, T.; Moretti, D.; Kvalsvig, J.; Holding, P.A.; Tjalsma, H.; Kortman, G.A.M.; Joosten, I.; Mwangi, A.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2013-01-01

    Hepcidin regulation by competing stimuli such as infection and iron deficiency has not been studied in infants and it's yet unknown whether hepcidin regulatory pathways are fully functional in infants. In this cross-sectional study including 339 Kenyan infants aged 6.0+/-1.1 months (mean+/-SD), we

  2. Iron deficiency among blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rigas, A S; Pedersen, O B; Magnussen, K

    2017-01-01

    Blood components collected from blood donors are an invaluable part of modern-day medicine. A healthy blood donor population is therefore of paramount importance. The results from the Danish Blood Donor Study (DBDS) indicate that gender, number of previous donations, time since last donation...... and menopausal status are the strongest predictors of iron deficiency. Only little information on the health effects of iron deficiency in blood donors exits. Possibly, after a standard full blood donation, a temporarily reduced physical performance for women is observed. However, iron deficiency among blood...... donors is not reflected in a reduced self-perceived mental and physical health. In general, the high proportion of iron-deficient donors can be alleviated either by extending the inter-donation intervals or by guided iron supplementation. The experience from Copenhagen, the Capital Region of Denmark...

  3. Iron, zinc and selenium status of urban and rural populations in Pakistan, their bioavailability in the diet and their dietary interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manser, W.W.T.; Zaki Hasan, K.; Iliyas, M.; Zaidi, Z.

    1992-01-01

    In spite of the diversity of diet for rural and urban populations of Pakistan, anemias are very common. This paper contains a discussion of deficiencies of iron, zinc, selenium and magnesium in the population. Included are discussions on the bioavailability of these elements from the local diet, the various dietary interactions with other elements, and several methods used for identifying the trace element in blood samples from a test group. 28 refs, 7 tabs

  4. Stunting, poor iron status and parasite infection are significant risk factors for lower cognitive performance in Cambodian school-aged children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perignon, Marlene; Fiorentino, Marion; Khov, Kuong

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nutrition is one of many factors affecting the cognitive development of children. In Cambodia, 55% of children malnutrition potentially affects...... using Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM) and block design and picture completion, two standardized tests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III). RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia, iron, zinc, iodine and vitamin A deficiency were 15.7%; 51.2%, 92.8%, 17.3% and 0...

  5. Cast irons

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    Cast iron offers the design engineer a low-cost, high-strength material that can be easily melted and poured into a wide variety of useful, and sometimes complex, shapes. This latest handbook from ASM covers the entire spectrum of one of the most widely used and versatile of all engineered materials. The reader will find the basic, but vital, information on metallurgy, solidification characteristics, and properties. Extensive reviews are presented on the low-alloy gray, ductile, compacted graphite, and malleable irons. New and expanded material has been added covering high-alloy white irons used for abrasion resistance and high-alloy graphitic irons for heat and corrosion resistance. Also discussed are melting furnaces and foundry practices such as melting, inoculation, alloying, pouring, gating and rising, and molding. Heat treating practices including stress relieving, annealing, normalizing, hardening and tempering, autempering (of ductile irons), and surface-hardening treatments are covered, too. ASM Spec...

  6. Nutritional status of iron, vitamin B12, folate, retinol and anemia in children 1 to 11 years old. Results of the Ensanut 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Villalpando

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe the frequency of anemia, iron, vitamin B12, folate, retinol and predictors of anemia among Mexican children from Ensanut 2012. Materials and methods. Hemoglobin, ferritin, CRP, vitamin B12, retinol and folate concentrations were measured in 2 678 children aged 1-4 y and 4 275 children aged 5-11 y. Adjusted logistic regression models were constructed to assess the risk for anemia and micronutrient deficiencies. Results. In preschoolers and scholars, the overall prevalence of anemia was 20.4 and 9.7%, iron deficiency 14 and 9.3%, low vitamin B12 (LB12S 1.9 and 2.6%; Folate 0.30 and 0%, and retinol depletion (VADp 15.7 and 2.3%, respectively. ID and VADp were negatively associated with Hb (coefficient: -0.38 and -0.45, p<0.05; a higher log-CRP was associated with higher risk for anemia and VADp (OR=1.13 and OR=2.1, p<0.05, respectively. Conclusions. Iron deficiency, anemia and VADp are some of the main nutritional problems among Mexican infants

  7. Nutritional status of iron, vitamin B12, folate, retinol and anemia in children 1 to 11 years old: Results of the Ensanut 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalpando, Salvador; Cruz, Vanessa de la; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Rebollar, Rosario; Contreras-Manzano, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    To describe the frequency of anemia, iron, vitamin B12, folate, retinol and predictors of anemia among Mexican children from Ensanut 2012. Hemoglobin, ferritin, CRP, vitamin B12, retinol and folate concentrations were measured in 2 678 children aged 1-4 y and 4 275 children aged 5-11 y. Adjusted logistic regression models were constructed to assess the risk for anemia and micronutrient deficiencies. In preschoolers and scholars, the overall prevalence of anemia was 20.4 and 9.7%, iron deficiency 14 and 9.3%, low vitamin B12 (LB12S) 1.9 and 2.6%; Folate 0.30 and 0%, and retinol depletion (VADp) 15.7 and 2.3%, respectively. ID and VADp were negatively associated with Hb (coefficient: -0.38 and -0.45, p<0.05); a higher log-CRP was associated with higher risk for anemia and VADp (OR=1.13 and OR=2.1, p<0.05, respectively). Iron deficiency, anemia and VADp are some of the main nutritional problems among Mexican infants.

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, ... iron-fortified foods that have iron added. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you choose nonmeat ...

  9. Radioisotopes of iron in investigation of anaemia in malnutrition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, K [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Dacca (Bangladesh)

    1979-06-01

    Iron absorption from a simple breakfast meal by a normal adult was done by the whole body counting system and blood radioactivity measurement. Results seem to be in good agreement and both the methods are found to be standard for measurements of iron absorption from food. In iron deficiency anaemia associated with malnutrition improvement of nutritional condition has been found to increase both haemoglobin level and iron absorption possibly by way of improving the ability of intestinal mucosa to absorb more iron from food and by better utilization of iron by erythropoietic system. Thus improvement of nutritional status is a prerequisite to treatment of iron deficiency anaemia.

  10. Radioisotopes of iron in investigation of anaemia in malnutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, K.

    1979-01-01

    Iron absorption from a simple breakfast meal by a normal adult was done by the whole body counting system and blood radioactivity measurement. Results seem to be in good agreement and both the methods are found to be standard for measurements of iron absorption from food. In iron deficiency anaemia associated with malnutrition improvement of nutritional condition has been found to increase both haemoglobin level and iron absorption possibly by way of improving the ability of intestinal mucosa to absorb more iron from food and by better utilization of iron by erythropoietic system. Thus improvement of nutritional status is a prerequisite to treatment of iron deficiency anaemia. (author)

  11. IRON DOME

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    6 Israeli Navy 'First Arm of the Sea: The Successful Interception of the Iron Dome Rocket .... sky to destroy them whilst in flight to minimise civilian casualties. ..... Including The Moon and Celestial Bodies.53 Demeyere further emphasises the.

  12. Iron overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tracing) X-ray to detect and track iron tablets through the stomach and intestines Treatment may include: ... BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016: ...

  13. Iron deficiency in blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Delfini Cançado

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Blood donation results in a substantial loss of iron (200 to 250 mg at each bleeding procedure (425 to 475 ml and subsequent mobilization of iron from body stores. Recent reports have shown that body iron reserves generally are small and iron depletion is more frequent in blood donors than in non-donors. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors and to establish the frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors according to sex, whether they were first-time or multi-time donors, and the frequency of donations per year. DESIGN: From September 20 to October 5, 1999, three hundred blood donors from Santa Casa Hemocenter of São Paulo were studied. DIAGNOSTIC TESTS: Using a combination of biochemical measurements of iron status: serum iron, total iron-binding capacity, transferrin saturation index, serum ferritin and the erythrocyte indices. RESULTS: The frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors was 11.0%, of whom 5.5% (13/237 were male and 31.7% (20/63 female donors. The frequency of iron deficiency was higher in multi-time blood donors than in first-time blood donors, for male blood donors (7.6% versus 0.0%, P < 0.05 and female ones (41.5% versus 18.5%, P < 0.05. The frequency of iron deficiency found was higher among the male blood donors with three or more donations per year (P < 0.05 and among the female blood donors with two or more donations per year (P < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that blood donation is a very important factor for iron deficiency in blood donors, particularly in multi-time donors and especially in female donors. The high frequency of blood donors with iron deficiency found in this study suggests a need for a more accurate laboratory trial, as hemoglobin or hematocrit measurement alone is not sufficient for detecting and excluding blood donors with iron deficiency without anemia.

  14. Iron, zinc, folate, and vitamin B12 status increased among women and children in Yaounde and Douala, Cameroon, one year after introducing fortified wheat flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Few data, to our knowledge, are available on the effectiveness of large-scale food fortification programs. Objective: We assessed the impact of mandatory wheat flour fortification on micronutrient status in Yaounde and Douala, Cameroon. Methods: We conducted representative surveys 2 y ...

  15. Efficacy of iron fortification compared to iron supplementation among Vietnamese schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi Le, Huong; Brouwer, Inge D; Burema, Jan; Nguyen, Khan Cong; Kok, Frans J

    2006-12-05

    The effect of iron fortification is generally assumed to be less than iron supplementation; however, the magnitude of difference in effects is not known. The present study aims to compare the efficacy of these two strategies on anaemia and iron status. After screening on low Hb, 425 anaemic children in six primary schools in Tam Nong district of Phu Tho province were included in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial comparing two groups receiving iron fortified instant noodles or iron supplementation for 6 months and a control group, with children in all groups having been dewormed. Blood samples were collected before and after intervention for haemoglobin, serum ferritin (SF), serum transferrin receptor (TfR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and haemoglobinopathies analysis. Regression analysis was used to assess the effect of iron fortification and iron supplementation on haemoglobin concentration, SF, TfR, body iron, and anaemic status as outcome variables. The improvement of haemoglobin, SF, and body iron level in the group receiving iron fortification was 42% (2.6 g/L versus 6.2 g/L), 20% (23.5 microg/L versus 117.3 microg/L), and 31.3% (1.4 mg/kg versus 4.4 mg/kg) of that in the iron supplementation group. The prevalence of anaemia dropped to 15.1% in the control group, with an additional reduction of anaemia of 8.5% in the iron supplementation group. The additional reduction due to iron fortification was 5.4%, which amounts to well over 50% of the impact of supplementation. In conclusion, the efficacy of iron fortification based on reduction of prevalence of anaemia, and on the change in haemoglobin level, is about half of the maximum impact of supplementation in case of optimal compliance. Thus, in a population of anaemic children with mild iron deficiency, iron fortification should be the preferred strategy to combat anaemia.

  16. Efficacy of iron fortification compared to iron supplementation among Vietnamese schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Khan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The effect of iron fortification is generally assumed to be less than iron supplementation; however, the magnitude of difference in effects is not known. The present study aims to compare the efficacy of these two strategies on anaemia and iron status. After screening on low Hb, 425 anaemic children in six primary schools in Tam Nong district of Phu Tho province were included in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial comparing two groups receiving iron fortified instant noodles or iron supplementation for 6 months and a control group, with children in all groups having been dewormed. Blood samples were collected before and after intervention for haemoglobin, serum ferritin (SF, serum transferrin receptor (TfR, C-reactive protein (CRP, and haemoglobinopathies analysis. Regression analysis was used to assess the effect of iron fortification and iron supplementation on haemoglobin concentration, SF, TfR, body iron, and anaemic status as outcome variables. The improvement of haemoglobin, SF, and body iron level in the group receiving iron fortification was 42% (2.6 g/L versus 6.2 g/L, 20% (23.5 μg/L versus 117.3 μg/L, and 31.3% (1.4 mg/kg versus 4.4 mg/kg of that in the iron supplementation group. The prevalence of anaemia dropped to 15.1% in the control group, with an additional reduction of anaemia of 8.5% in the iron supplementation group. The additional reduction due to iron fortification was 5.4%, which amounts to well over 50% of the impact of supplementation. In conclusion, the efficacy of iron fortification based on reduction of prevalence of anaemia, and on the change in haemoglobin level, is about half of the maximum impact of supplementation in case of optimal compliance. Thus, in a population of anaemic children with mild iron deficiency, iron fortification should be the preferred strategy to combat anaemia.

  17. Iron deficiency among children of asylum seekers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellinga-Boelen, A. A. M.; Storm, H.; Wiegersma, P. A.; Bijleveld, C. M. A.; Verkade, H. J.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate, in asylum seekers' children in the Netherlands, biochemical iron status and the prevalence of iron deficiency (ID) and anemia in relation to age, region of origin, length of stay in the Netherlands, body mass index (BMI), and dietary iron intake. Patients and Methods:

  18. Iron deficiency among children of asylum seekers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellinga-Boelen, A. A. M.; Storm, H.; Wiegersma, P. A.; Bijleveld, C. M. A.; Verkade, H. J.

    Objectives: To investigate, in asylum seekers' children in the Netherlands, biochemical iron status and the prevalence of iron deficiency (ID) and anemia in relation to age, region of origin, length of stay in the Netherlands, body mass index (BMI), and dietary iron intake. Patients and Methods:

  19. Behavior of Infants with Iron-Deficiency Anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozoff, Betsy; And Others

    1998-01-01

    Compared behavior of 52 Costa Rican 12- to 23-month-olds with iron-deficiency anemia to that of 139 infants with better iron status. Found that iron-deficient infants maintained closer contact with caregivers; showed less pleasure and playfulness; were more wary, hesitant, and easily tired; made fewer attempts at test items; and attended less to…

  20. Integrating themes, evidence gaps, and research needs identified by workshop on iron screening and supplementation in iron-replete pregnant women and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannon, Patsy M; Stover, Patrick J; Taylor, Christine L

    2017-12-01

    This report addresses the evidence and the uncertainties, knowledge gaps, and research needs identified by participants at the NIH workshop related to iron screening and routine iron supplementation of largely iron-replete pregnant women and young children (6-24 mo) in developed countries. The workshop presentations and panel discussions focused on current understanding and knowledge gaps related to iron homeostasis, measurement of and evidence for iron status, and emerging concerns about supplementing iron-replete members of these vulnerable populations. Four integrating themes emerged across workshop presentations and discussion and centered on 1 ) physiologic or developmental adaptations of iron homeostasis to pregnancy and early infancy, respectively, and their implications, 2 ) improvement of the assessment of iron status across the full continuum from iron deficiency anemia to iron deficiency to iron replete to iron excess, 3 ) the linkage of iron status with health outcomes beyond hematologic outcomes, and 4 ) the balance of benefit and harm of iron supplementation of iron-replete pregnant women and young children. Research that addresses these themes in the context of the full continuum of iron status is needed to inform approaches to the balancing of benefits and harms of screening and routine supplementation. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-rich foods, especially during certain stages of life when more iron is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron- ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, lean red meat, salmon, iron- ... of iron, including iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark ...

  3. Iron in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reasonable amounts of iron are also found in lamb, pork, and shellfish. Iron from vegetables, fruits, grains, ... strawberries, tomatoes, and potatoes) also increase iron absorption. Cooking foods in a cast-iron skillet can also ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, ... iron is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you are diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia. Risk Factors You may have an increased risk for iron- ... iron-deficiency anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for your body to absorb iron from the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). Blood loss When you lose blood, ... iron deficiency. Endurance athletes lose iron through their gastrointestinal tracts. They also lose iron through the breakdown of ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron in your body is low. For this reason, other iron tests are also done. Ferritin measure ... iron is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... develop new therapies for conditions that affect the balance of iron in the body and lead to ... Disease Control and Prevention) Iron - Health Professional Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron- ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to moderate iron-deficiency anemia, or red blood cell transfusion for severe iron-deficiency anemia. You may ... body needs iron to make healthy red blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in you getting less than the ... pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron-fortified foods that have iron added. ...

  11. Iron Dextran Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron dextran injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells ... treated with iron supplements taken by mouth. Iron dextran injection is in a class of medications called ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and severity. Treatments may include iron supplements, procedures, surgery, and dietary ... iron supplements, also called iron pills or oral iron, by mouth once or several times a ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, ... is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron- ...

  14. Iron deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Morten; Bosselmann, Helle; Gaborit, Freja

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both iron deficiency (ID) and cardiovascular biomarkers are associated with a poor outcome in heart failure (HF). The relationship between different cardiovascular biomarkers and ID is unknown, and the true prevalence of ID in an outpatient HF clinic is probably overlooked. OBJECTIVES.......043). CONCLUSION: ID is frequent in an outpatient HF clinic. ID is not associated with cardiovascular biomarkers after adjustment for traditional confounders. Inflammation, but not neurohormonal activation is associated with ID in systolic HF. Further studies are needed to understand iron metabolism in elderly HF...

  15. IRON CONTENT OF FOOD COOKED IN IRON UTENSILS: A TRADITIONAL INDIAN WAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibifatima Bawakhan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Since most of the Indian population depends on vegetarian diet, prevalence of iron deficiency status is higher in India compared to other developing countries. In spite of many national programs and treatment options available in correcting this, the incidence is increasing due to poor patient compliance and intolerance to treatment. This study was an effort to show how iron content of Indian food can be increased just by following the traditional way of cooking. OBJECTIVE To compare the iron levels in the Jowar roti cooked in iron and non-iron utensils. METHODOLOGY A cross-sectional study was conducted at KIMS, Hubli. Jowar rotis were prepared from equal quantity of jowar flour in iron and non-iron tawa. Another sample of roti was prepared in iron tawa after treating with lemon juice. Six samples were homogenised and filtered. The filtrates were replicated and analysed for iron levels by FerroZine method. RESULTS In the present study, we found no change in iron levels in the roti prepared in non-iron utensil, 1.45 and 1.94 fold increase in the roti prepared in new iron tawa without water boiled in it and with water boiled in it for dough preparation respectively when compared with iron levels of plain jowar flour. There was 5.77 fold rise in iron levels in lemon juice treated roti which signifies the bioavailability of iron in food. The study showed statistical significance at ‘p’- value < 0.05. CONCLUSION Several studies have shown the similar results and this was done to strengthen the findings in our staple food. Hence, the daily iron requirement can be met easily and effectively by taking the food cooked with lemon juice in iron utensils.

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency ... iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor ...

  17. Proteomic analysis of iron acquisition, metabolic and regulatory responses of Yersinia pestis to iron starvation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleischmann Robert D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of the bubonic plague. Efficient iron acquisition systems are critical to the ability of Y. pestis to infect, spread and grow in mammalian hosts, because iron is sequestered and is considered part of the innate host immune defence against invading pathogens. We used a proteomic approach to determine expression changes of iron uptake systems and intracellular consequences of iron deficiency in the Y. pestis strain KIM6+ at two physiologically relevant temperatures (26°C and 37°C. Results Differential protein display was performed for three Y. pestis subcellular fractions. Five characterized Y. pestis iron/siderophore acquisition systems (Ybt, Yfe, Yfu, Yiu and Hmu and a putative iron/chelate outer membrane receptor (Y0850 were increased in abundance in iron-starved cells. The iron-sulfur (Fe-S cluster assembly system Suf, adapted to oxidative stress and iron starvation in E. coli, was also more abundant, suggesting functional activity of Suf in Y. pestis under iron-limiting conditions. Metabolic and reactive oxygen-deactivating enzymes dependent on Fe-S clusters or other iron cofactors were decreased in abundance in iron-depleted cells. This data was consistent with lower activities of aconitase and catalase in iron-starved vs. iron-rich cells. In contrast, pyruvate oxidase B which metabolizes pyruvate via electron transfer to ubiquinone-8 for direct utilization in the respiratory chain was strongly increased in abundance and activity in iron-depleted cells. Conclusions Many protein abundance differences were indicative of the important regulatory role of the ferric uptake regulator Fur. Iron deficiency seems to result in a coordinated shift from iron-utilizing to iron-independent biochemical pathways in the cytoplasm of Y. pestis. With growth temperature as an additional variable in proteomic comparisons of the Y. pestis fractions (26°C and 37°C, there was

  18. Oral Iron Prophylaxis in Pregnancy: Not Too Little and Not Too Much!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Milman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An adequate supply of iron is essential for normal development of the fetus and newborn child. Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia (IDA during pregnancy increase the risk of preterm birth and low birth weight. Iron is important for development of the fetal brain and cognitive abilities of the newborn. Children born to iron-deficient mothers will start their lives suffering from iron deficiency or even IDA. Oral iron prophylaxis to pregnant women improves iron status and prevents development of IDA. The Danish National Board of Health has since 1992 recommended prophylactic oral iron supplements to all pregnant women and the currently advocated dose is 40–50 mg ferrous iron taken between meals from 10 weeks gestation to delivery. However, 30–40 mg ferrous iron is probably an adequate dose in most affluent societies. In developed countries, individual iron prophylaxis guided by iron status (serum ferritin has physiological advantages compared to general iron prophylaxis. In contrast, in most developing countries, general iron prophylaxis is indicated, and higher doses of oral iron, for example, 60 mg ferrous iron or even more should be recommended, according to the present iron status situation in the specific populations of women of fertile age and pregnant women.

  19. Iron and iron derived radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, D.C.; Schaich, K.M.

    1987-04-01

    We have discussed some reactions of iron and iron-derived oxygen radicals that may be important in the production or treatment of tissue injury. Our conclusions challenge, to some extent, the usual lines of thought in this field of research. Insofar as they are born out by subsequent developments, the lessons they teach are two: Think fast! Think small! In other words, think of the many fast reactions that can rapidly alter the production and fate of highly reactive intermediates, and when considering the impact of competitive reactions on such species, think how they affect the microenvironment (on the molecular scale) ''seen'' by each reactive molecule. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  20. Iron bioavailability: UK Food Standards Agency workshop report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mamta; Sanderson, Peter; Hurrell, Richard F; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J; Geissler, Catherine; Prentice, Ann; Beard, John L

    2006-11-01

    The UK Food Standards Agency convened a group of expert scientists to review current research investigating factors affecting iron status and the bioavailability of dietary iron. Results presented at the workshop show menstrual blood loss to be the major determinant of body iron stores in premenopausal women. In the presence of abundant and varied food supplies, the health consequences of lower iron bioavailability are unclear and require further investigation.

  1. Vitamin B-12 Deficiency in Children Is Associated with Grade Repetition and School Absenteeism, Independent of Folate, Iron, Zinc, or Vitamin A Status Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Minh-Cam; Mora-Plazas, Mercedes; Marín, Constanza; Villamor, Eduardo

    2015-07-01

    Micronutrients are essential to neurocognitive development; yet their role in educational outcomes is unclear. We examined the associations of micronutrient status biomarkers with the risk of grade repetition and rates of school absenteeism in a cohort of school children. We recruited 3156 children aged 5-12 y from public schools in Bogota, Colombia. Circulating ferritin, hemoglobin, zinc, vitamin A, and vitamin B-12; erythrocyte folate; and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) were measured in blood samples obtained at the beginning of the year. Absenteeism was recorded weekly during the school year, and grade repetition was determined the next year. Risk ratios for grade repetition and rate ratios for absenteeism were estimated by categories of micronutrient status indicators with use of Poisson regression, adjusting for potential confounders. The risk of grade repetition was 4.9%, and the absenteeism rate was 3.8 d per child-year of observation. Vitamin B-12 deficiency (educational outcomes and neurocognitive development of school children need to be determined in intervention studies. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Effect of single-dose albendazole and vitamin A supplementation on the iron status of pre-school children in Sichuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke; Xie, Hu Mina; Tian, Weizheng; Zheng, Xiaoling; Jiang, Alice C

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effect of single-dose albendazole and vitamin A intervention on the anaemic status and Fe metabolism of pre-school children. This study was a randomised, placebo-controlled and double-blinded intervention trial. All eligible anaemic pre-school children were randomly divided into three groups: group 1 received no intervention, which served as the control group, group 2 received 400 mg single-dose albendazole administration and group 3 received a 60000 μg vitamin A capsule combined with 400 mg single-dose albendazole at the beginning of the study. The follow-up period was for 6 months. Anthropometry and biochemical index about Fe metabolism were measured before and after intervention. A total of 209 pre-school anaemic children were randomly divided into three intervention groups (sixty-four, sixty-two and sixty for groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively). The mean age of the children in the study was 4·4 (sd 0·7) years and 50·5 % of the children were female (94/186). After a follow-up period of 6 months, the levels of serum retinol, ferritin, transferrin receptor-ferritin index and body total Fe content of children in group 3 were significantly higher compared with children in groups 1 and 2 (PAlbendazole plus vitamin A administration showed more efficacy on the improvement of serum retinol and Fe metabolic status.

  3. The Battle for Iron between Humans and Microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Peggy L

    2018-01-01

    Iron is an essential micronutrient for bacteria, fungi, and humans; as such, each has evolved specialized iron uptake systems to acquire iron from the extracellular environment. To describe complex 'tug of war' for iron that has evolved between human hosts and pathogenic microorganisms in the battle for this vital nutrient. A review of current literature was performed, to assess current approaches and controversies in iron therapy and chelation in humans. In humans, sequestration (hiding) of iron from invading pathogens is often successful; however, many pathogens have evolved mechanisms to circumvent this approach. Clinically, controversy continues whether iron overload or administration of iron results in an increased risk of infection. The administration of iron chelating agents and siderophore- conjugate drugs to infected hosts seems a biologically plausible approach as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of infections caused by pathogens dependent on host iron supply (e.g. tuberculosis, malaria, and many bacterial and fungal pathogens); however, thus far, studies in humans have proved unsuccessful. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Iron deficiency anemia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldberg ND

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Neil D Goldberg Emeritus Chief of Gastroenterology, University of Maryland St. Joseph Medical Center, Towson, MD, USA Abstract: Iron deficiency anemia is the most common form of anemia worldwide, caused by poor iron intake, chronic blood loss, or impaired absorption. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD are increasingly likely to have iron deficiency anemia, with an estimated prevalence of 36%–76%. Detection of iron deficiency is problematic as outward signs and symptoms are not always present. Iron deficiency can have a significant impact on a patient's quality of life, necessitating prompt management and treatment. Effective treatment includes identifying and treating the underlying cause and initiating iron replacement therapy with either oral or intravenous iron. Numerous formulations for oral iron are available, with ferrous fumarate, sulfate, and gluconate being the most commonly prescribed. Available intravenous formulations include iron dextran, iron sucrose, ferric gluconate, and ferumoxytol. Low-molecular weight iron dextran and iron sucrose have been shown to be safe, efficacious, and effective in a host of gastrointestinal disorders. Ferumoxytol is the newest US Food and Drug Administration-approved intravenous iron therapy, indicated for iron deficiency anemia in adults with chronic kidney disease. Ferumoxytol is also being investigated in Phase 3 studies for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia in patients without chronic kidney disease, including subgroups with IBD. A review of the efficacy and safety of iron replacement in IBD, therapeutic considerations, and recommendations for the practicing gastroenterologist are presented. Keywords: anemia, inflammatory bowel disease, intravenous iron, iron deficiency, oral iron, therapy

  5. Iron assessment to protect the developing brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieff, Michael K

    2017-12-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) before the age of 3 y can lead to long-term neurological deficits despite prompt diagnosis of ID anemia (IDA) by screening of hemoglobin concentrations followed by iron treatment. Furthermore, pre- or nonanemic ID alters neurobehavioral function and is 3 times more common than IDA in toddlers. Given the global prevalence of ID and the enormous societal cost of developmental disabilities across the life span, better methods are needed to detect the risk of inadequate concentrations of iron for brain development (i.e., brain tissue ID) before dysfunction occurs and to monitor its amelioration after diagnosis and treatment. The current screening and treatment strategy for IDA fails to achieve this goal for 3 reasons. First, anemia is the final state in iron depletion. Thus, the developing brain is already iron deficient when IDA is diagnosed owing to the prioritization of available iron to red blood cells over all other tissues during negative iron balance in development. Second, brain ID, independently of IDA, is responsible for long-term neurological deficits. Thus, starting iron treatment after the onset of IDA is less effective than prevention. Multiple studies in humans and animal models show that post hoc treatment strategies do not reliably prevent ID-induced neurological deficits. Third, most currently used indexes of ID are population statistical cutoffs for either hematologic or iron status but are not bioindicators of brain ID and brain dysfunction in children. Furthermore, their relation to brain iron status is not known. To protect the developing brain, there is a need to generate serum measures that index brain dysfunction in the preanemic stage of ID, assess the ability of standard iron indicators to detect ID-induced brain dysfunction, and evaluate the efficacy of early iron treatment in preventing ID-induced brain dysfunction. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Markers of iron status are associated with stage of pregnancy and acute-phase response, but not with parity among pregnant women in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kæstel, Pernille; Aaby, Peter; Ritz, Christian

    2015-01-01

    While prenatal Fe supplementation prevents maternal Fe deficiency and anaemia, it is uncertain whether it improves infant health outcomes, at least when taken by Fe-replete women. Inflammation as well as physiological changes complicates the assessment of Fe status during pregnancy. In the present...... pregnancy. Using cut-off values for Fe deficiency as established in non-pregnant individuals, 52 % of the women had sTfR levels >2·3 mg/l, while only 25 % had serum ferritin levels 2·3 mg/l decreased to 47 % after adjustment for elevated serum CRP and ACT levels. On the contrary, the proportion of serum...... ferritin pregnancy-specific cut-offs since increased erythropoiesis is expected in response to increased plasma volume of pregnancy. The present study further underlines the need to adjust...

  7. Iron deficiency anaemia: with the conclusion of a need for iron reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wai Feng; Yap, Boon Kar; Lai, Mei I.; Talik, Noorazrina; Nasser, Ammar Ahmed; Al-Haiqi, Ahmed Mubarak Ahmed; Sankar Krishnan, Prajindra

    2017-10-01

    In our bloodstream, there are plenty of red blood cells (RBC), which function as an important oxygen carrier in our bodies. Each RBC consists of millions of haemoglobin (Hb), which is made up from globin and iron. If any deficiency/malfunction of any globin, it will lead to anaemia as indicated in low Hb level while iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is anaemic due to the lacking of iron as indicated in low Hb and ferritin levels. IDA affects almost two billion people globally while anaemia without iron deficiency, such as thalassaemia, affects almost 4.5% in Malaysian population. These anaemic conditions have similar clinical symptoms like fatigue, dizziness, in which disturb their cognitive development and productivity in workplace. In areas without proper medical access, many anaemic individuals were misdiagnosed and treated with iron tablets because they were thought to have iron deficiency anaemia due to low Hb content. But, excess iron is toxic to the body. Misdiagnosis can be avoided by iron status assessment. We hereby review the currently available iron status parameters in laboratory and field study with the conclusion of demonstrating the importance of a need for iron reader, in the effort to reduce the prevalence of IDA globally.

  8. Iron-responsive olfactory uptake of manganese improves motor function deficits associated with iron deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonghan Kim

    Full Text Available Iron-responsive manganese uptake is increased in iron-deficient rats, suggesting that toxicity related to manganese exposure could be modified by iron status. To explore possible interactions, the distribution of intranasally-instilled manganese in control and iron-deficient rat brain was characterized by quantitative image analysis using T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Manganese accumulation in the brain of iron-deficient rats was doubled after intranasal administration of MnCl(2 for 1- or 3-week. Enhanced manganese level was observed in specific brain regions of iron-deficient rats, including the striatum, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex. Iron-deficient rats spent reduced time on a standard accelerating rotarod bar before falling and with lower peak speed compared to controls; unexpectedly, these measures of motor function significantly improved in iron-deficient rats intranasally-instilled with MnCl(2. Although tissue dopamine concentrations were similar in the striatum, dopamine transporter (DAT and dopamine receptor D(1 (D1R levels were reduced and dopamine receptor D(2 (D2R levels were increased in manganese-instilled rats, suggesting that manganese-induced changes in post-synaptic dopaminergic signaling contribute to the compensatory effect. Enhanced olfactory manganese uptake during iron deficiency appears to be a programmed "rescue response" with beneficial influence on motor impairment due to low iron status.

  9. Iron Store of Pregnant Women with Hemoglobin SS and SC in Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There has been conflicting argument concerning routine iron replacement. However few, studies in Nigeria have comprehensively evaluated the iron status of these women. Objective: The study was carried out to determine the iron stores status of pregnant women with hemoglobin (Hb) Sickle cell S or Sickle cell C using ...

  10. Iron and stony-iron meteorites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzicka, Alex M.; Haack, Henning; Chabot, Nancy L.

    2017-01-01

    By far most of the melted and differentiated planetesimals that have been sampled as meteorites are metal-rich iron meteorites or stony iron meteorites. The parent asteroids of these meteorites accreted early and differentiated shortly after the solar system formed, producing some of the oldest...... and interpretations for iron and stony iron meteorites (Plate 13.1). Such meteorites provide important constraints on the nature of metal-silicate separation and mixing in planetesimals undergoing partial to complete differentiation. They include iron meteorites that formed by the solidification of cores...... (fractionally crystallized irons), irons in which partly molten metal and silicates of diverse types were mixed together (silicate-bearing irons), stony irons in which partly molten metal and olivine from cores and mantles were mixed together (pallasites), and stony irons in which partly molten metal...

  11. Iron, zinc, copper and magnesium nutritional status in Mexican children aged 1 to 11 years Estado nutricio de hierro, zinc, cobre y magnesio en niños mexicanos de 1 a 11 años de edad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. del Carmen Morales-Ruán

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the micronutrient nutritional status of a national sample of 1-11 year old Mexican children surveyed in 2006 in National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT 2006 and their association with dietary and sociodemographic factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Serum samples were used (n=5 060 to measure the concentrations of ferritin, transferrin receptor, zinc, copper and magnesium. RESULTS: Prevalence of deficiencies in 1-4 and 5-11y old children were for iron (using low ferritin 26.0 and 13.0%; zinc, 28.1 and 25.8%, respectively; and copper, ≈30% in both age groups. Magnesium low serum concentrations (MLSC, were found in 12.0% and 28.4% of the children, respectively. Being beneficiary of Liconsa (OR=0.32; C.I.95%, 0.17-0.61 or belonging to higher socioeconomic status (OR=0.63; C.I.95%, 0.41-0.97 were protective against iron deficiency. Increasing age (OR=0.59; C.I.95%, 1.19-1.32 and living in the Central Region (OR=0.59; C.I.95%, 0.36-0.97 were protective against MLSC. CONCLUSIONS: Deficiencies of iron and zinc are serious public health problems in Mexican children.OBJETIVO: Describir el estado nutricio de micronutrimentos en niños de 1-11 años de edad de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006 y su asociación con factores dietéticos y sociodemográficos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se usaron muestras séricas (n=5060 para medir las concentraciones de ferritina, receptor de transferrina, zinc, cobre y magnesio. RESULTADOS: La prevalencias de deficiencias en niños de 1-4 y de 5 a 11 años fueron para ferritina, 26.0 y 13%; zinc, 28.1 y 25.8% respectivamente y cobre ≈30% en ambos grupos. Las concentraciones bajas de magnesio (CBM fueron 12.0 y 28.4%, respectivamente. Ser beneficiario de Liconsa (RM=0.32; IC 95%: 0.17-0.61 y pertenecer al nivel socioeconómico alto (RM=0.63; IC, 95%: 0.41-0.97 fueron protectores para deficiencia de hierro. La edad (RM=1.26; IC, 95%: 1.19-1.32 y vivir en la región Centro (RM=0.59; IC, 95

  12. Vibrio Iron Transport: Evolutionary Adaptation to Life in Multiple Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mey, Alexandra R.; Wyckoff, Elizabeth E.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Iron is an essential element for Vibrio spp., but the acquisition of iron is complicated by its tendency to form insoluble ferric complexes in nature and its association with high-affinity iron-binding proteins in the host. Vibrios occupy a variety of different niches, and each of these niches presents particular challenges for acquiring sufficient iron. Vibrio species have evolved a wide array of iron transport systems that allow the bacteria to compete for this essential element in each of its habitats. These systems include the secretion and uptake of high-affinity iron-binding compounds (siderophores) as well as transport systems for iron bound to host complexes. Transporters for ferric and ferrous iron not complexed to siderophores are also common to Vibrio species. Some of the genes encoding these systems show evidence of horizontal transmission, and the ability to acquire and incorporate additional iron transport systems may have allowed Vibrio species to more rapidly adapt to new environmental niches. While too little iron prevents growth of the bacteria, too much can be lethal. The appropriate balance is maintained in vibrios through complex regulatory networks involving transcriptional repressors and activators and small RNAs (sRNAs) that act posttranscriptionally. Examination of the number and variety of iron transport systems found in Vibrio spp. offers insights into how this group of bacteria has adapted to such a wide range of habitats. PMID:26658001

  13. Fiscal 1999 report on basic research for promotion of joint implementation programs. Basic research on energy status of Anshan Iron and Steel Group Complex; 1999 nendo Anshan koretsu (shudan) koji energy kihon chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The above-named group of manufacturers underwent a survey for its energy status, pursuant to the COP3 (Third Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) protocol. The manufacturing facilities are smaller than those of Japanese manufacturers and are obsolete in this group of manufacturers which is the second largest iron and steel manufacturing group in China. Although some of the manufacturers operate sintering exhaust heat recovery facilities at their own expenses, the level of heat recovery is far lower than that in Japan. In a feasibility study which was based on data acquired at the site, studies were conducted about ignition burner facility modification and exhaust heat recovery in the sintering process and about top pressure equalizing gas recovery and top pressure recovery turbine power generation in the blast furnace process. Among them, sintering ignition burner modification is high in investment efficiency. As for sintering exhaust heat recovery and top pressure equalizing gas recovery, they are low in investment efficiency and are difficult to hold in the present China where coal exists aplenty and the energy unit is low in price. Since China knows no sudden rise in energy price as Japan did during the oil crises, no enthusiasm is seen in investment in energy saving efforts. Investment for energy saving in production process modification as represented by continuous casting facilities is being made, however, because such has its own various merits which this survey does not deal with. (NEDO)

  14. Immune Cells and Microbiota Response to Iron Starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chieppa, Marcello; Giannelli, Gianluigi

    2018-01-01

    Metal ions are essential for life on Earth, mostly as crucial components of all living organisms; indeed, they are necessary for bioenergetics functions as crucial redox catalysts. Due to the essential role of iron in biological processes, body iron content is finely regulated and is the battlefield of a tug-of-war between the host and the microbiota.

  15. Immune Cells and Microbiota Response to Iron Starvation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Chieppa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Metal ions are essential for life on Earth, mostly as crucial components of all living organisms; indeed, they are necessary for bioenergetics functions as crucial redox catalysts. Due to the essential role of iron in biological processes, body iron content is finely regulated and is the battlefield of a tug-of-war between the host and the microbiota.

  16. Iron supply to soybean plants through the foliar application of IDHA/Fe3+: effect of plant nutritional status and adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Lucena, Patricia; Ropero, Edgar; Hernández-Apaolaza, Lourdes; Lucena, Juan J

    2010-12-01

    Synthetic Fe chelates are commonly used to overcome Fe deficiencies in crops, but most of them are scarcely biodegradable. Iminodisuccinic acid (IDHA) is a biodegradable chelating agent that is currently being evaluated as an alternative to EDTA. In this work, the efficacy of the foliar application of IDHA/Fe(3+) to soybean chlorotic plants under controlled conditions was studied, testing the influence of the adjuvant used and of the plant nutritional status. When IDHA/Fe(3+) was applied to soybean plants with severe Fe chlorosis and the foliar sprays were the sole source of Fe, this chelate behaved similarly to the EDTA/Fe(3+) and the recovery of the plants was slight in both cases. The same chelates were tested when foliar sprays were an additional source of Fe for mildly chlorotic plants, which were also being supplied with low concentrations of Fe applied to the nutrient solution. Then, plant recovery was appreciable in all cases, and the IDHA/Fe(3+) was as effective as EDTA/Fe(3+). Among the adjuvants studied, a urea-based product was the only one that did not damage the leaf surface and that could improve the efficiency of IDHA/Fe(3+) up tp the level of EDTA/Fe(3+). Thus, it was concluded the foliar application of IDHA/Fe(3+) can be an environmentally friendly alternative to the non-biodegradable chelate EDTA/Fe(3+) when the appropriate adjuvant is used. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency anemia is a ... address the cause of your iron deficiency, such as any underlying bleeding. If undiagnosed or untreated, iron- ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency ... anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency ... anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor ...

  20. Iron-biofortified rice improves the iron stores of nonanemic Filipino women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Jere D; Beard, John L; Murray-Kolb, Laura E; del Mundo, Angelita M; Felix, Angelina; Gregorio, Glenn B

    2005-12-01

    Iron deficiency is endemic in much of the world, and food system-based approaches to eradication may be viable with new plant breeding approaches to increase the micronutrient content in staple crops. It is thought that conventional plant breeding approaches provide varieties of rice that have 400-500% higher iron contents than varieties commonly consumed in much of Asia. The efficacy of consuming high-iron rice was tested during a 9-mo feeding trial with a double-blind dietary intervention in 192 religious sisters living in 10 convents around metro Manila, the Philippines. Subjects were randomly assigned to consume either high-iron rice (3.21 mg/kg Fe) or a local variety of control rice (0.57 mg/kg Fe), and daily food consumption was monitored. The high-iron rice contributed 1.79 mg Fe/d to the diet in contrast to 0.37 mg Fe/d from the control rice. The 17% difference in total dietary iron consumption compared with controls (10.16 +/- 1.06 vs. 8.44 +/- 1.82 mg/d) resulted in a modest increase in serum ferritin (P = 0.10) and total body iron (P = 0.06) and no increase in hemoglobin (P = 0.59). However, the response was greater in nonanemic subjects for ferritin (P = 0.02) and body iron (P = 0.05), representing a 20% increase after controlling for baseline values and daily rice consumption. The greatest improvements in iron status were seen in those nonanemic women who had the lowest baseline iron status and in those who consumed the most iron from rice. Consumption of biofortified rice, without any other changes in diet, is efficacious in improving iron stores of women with iron-poor diets in the developing world.

  1. Development of iron homeostasis in infants and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2017-12-01

    Healthy, term, breastfed infants usually have adequate iron stores that, together with the small amount of iron that is contributed by breast milk, make them iron sufficient until ≥6 mo of age. The appropriate concentration of iron in infant formula to achieve iron sufficiency is more controversial. Infants who are fed formula with varying concentrations of iron generally achieve sufficiency with iron concentrations of 2 mg/L (i.e., with iron status that is similar to that of breastfed infants at 6 mo of age). Regardless of the feeding choice, infants' capacity to regulate iron homeostasis is important but less well understood than the regulation of iron absorption in adults, which is inverse to iron status and strongly upregulated or downregulated. Infants who were given daily iron drops compared with a placebo from 4 to 6 mo of age had similar increases in hemoglobin concentrations. In addition, isotope studies have shown no difference in iron absorption between infants with high or low hemoglobin concentrations at 6 mo of age. Together, these findings suggest a lack of homeostatic regulation of iron homeostasis in young infants. However, at 9 mo of age, homeostatic regulatory capacity has developed although, to our knowledge, its extent is not known. Studies in suckling rat pups showed similar results with no capacity to regulate iron homeostasis at 10 d of age when fully nursing, but such capacity occurred at 20 d of age when pups were partially weaned. The major iron transporters in the small intestine divalent metal-ion transporter 1 (DMT1) and ferroportin were not affected by pup iron status at 10 d of age but were strongly affected by iron status at 20 d of age. Thus, mechanisms that regulate iron homeostasis are developed at the time of weaning. Overall, studies in human infants and experimental animals suggest that iron homeostasis is absent or limited early in infancy largely because of a lack of regulation of the iron transporters DMT1 and ferroportin

  2. Transcriptional response of Leptospira interrogans to iron limitation and characterization of a PerR homolog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leptospira interrogans is the causative agent of leptospirosis, a zoonosis of global significance. Iron is essential for growth of most bacterial species. Since availability of iron is low in the host, pathogens have evolved complex iron acquisition mechanisms to survive and establish infection. In ...

  3. measurements of iron status and survival in african iron overload

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum concentrations of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), garnma-glutamyl transpeptidase. (-yGT), bilirubin, glucose and sodi~ were measured using an automated clinical chemistry analyser. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was determined using the Westergren method. C-reactive ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... making new blood cells. Visit our Aplastic Anemia Health Topic to learn more. ... recommend that you take iron supplements, also called iron pills or oral iron, by mouth once or several times a ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... red meat, salmon, iron-fortified breads and cereals, peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark green leafy vegetables. ... stored iron has been used. Ferritin is a protein that helps store iron in your body. Reticulocyte ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... drinking black tea, which reduces iron absorption. Other treatments If you have chronic kidney disease and iron- ... and lifestyle changes to avoid complications. Follow your treatment plan Do not stop taking your prescribed iron ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... diagnoses you with iron-deficiency anemia, your treatment will depend on the cause and severity of the ... of iron. The recommended daily amounts of iron will depend on your age, sex, and whether you ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... heart failure . Increased risk of infections Motor or cognitive development delays in children Pregnancy complications, such as ... iron-deficiency anemia may require intravenous (IV) iron therapy or a blood transfusion . Iron supplements Your doctor ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... because your body’s intake of iron is too low. Low intake of iron can happen because of blood ... delivery or giving birth to a baby with low birth weight In people with chronic conditions, iron- ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... breastfeeding. Recommended daily iron intake for children and adults. The table lists the recommended amounts of iron, ... increased need for iron during growth spurts. Older adults, especially those over age 65. Unhealthy environments Children ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... girls. From birth to 6 months, babies need 0.27 mg of iron. This number goes up ... screen blood donors for low iron stores. Reliable point-of-care testing may help identify iron deficiency ...

  13. Iron metabolism and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanikolaou, G.; Pantopoulos, K.

    2005-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient with limited bioavailability. When present in excess, iron poses a threat to cells and tissues, and therefore iron homeostasis has to be tightly controlled. Iron's toxicity is largely based on its ability to catalyze the generation of radicals, which attack and damage cellular macromolecules and promote cell death and tissue injury. This is lucidly illustrated in diseases of iron overload, such as hereditary hemochromatosis or transfusional siderosis, where excessive iron accumulation results in tissue damage and organ failure. Pathological iron accumulation in the liver has also been linked to the development of hepatocellular cancer. Here we provide a background on the biology and toxicity of iron and the basic concepts of iron homeostasis at the cellular and systemic level. In addition, we provide an overview of the various disorders of iron overload, which are directly linked to iron's toxicity. Finally, we discuss the potential role of iron in malignant transformation and cancer

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... amount of iron, and medical conditions that make it hard for your body to absorb iron from ... hepcidin. Hepcidin prevents iron from leaving cells where it is stored or from being absorbed in the ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... bleeding. If undiagnosed or untreated, iron-deficiency anemia can cause serious complications, including heart failure and development ... iron is too low. Low intake of iron can happen because of blood loss, consuming less than ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-fortified foods that have iron added. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you choose nonmeat ... Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases) Avoiding Anemia (National ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... lean red meat, salmon, iron-fortified breads and cereals, peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark green leafy ... sources of iron, including iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... starch. Restless legs syndrome Shortness of breath Weakness Complications Undiagnosed or untreated iron-deficiency anemia may cause ... as complete blood count and iron studies. Prevent complications over your lifetime To prevent complications from iron- ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... you do not have enough iron in your body. People with mild or moderate iron-deficiency anemia ... and where to find more information. Causes Your body needs iron to make healthy red blood cells. ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, lean red meat, ... signs of iron-deficiency anemia include: Brittle nails ...

  1. Taking iron supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007478.htm Taking iron supplements To use the sharing features on this page, ... levels. You may also need to take iron supplements as well to rebuild iron stores in your ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... fruits, eggs, lean red meat, salmon, iron-fortified breads and cereals, peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark ... choose nonmeat sources of iron, including iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... ESAs are usually used with iron therapy or IV iron, or when iron therapy alone is not enough. Look for Living With will discuss what your doctor may recommend, including lifelong lifestyle changes ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron-fortified foods that have iron ... Anemia Restless Legs Syndrome Von Willebrand Disease Other Resources NHLBI resources Your Guide to Anemia [PDF, 1. ...

  5. Jardinópolis sem anemia, primeira fase: avaliação antropométrica e do estado nutricional de ferro Jardinópolis without anemia, first stage: anthropometric and iron nutrition status evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto N. Almeida

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Com a finalidade de preparar um programa municipal de fortificação da água de beber com ferro, foi realizado levantamento antropométrico e do estado nutricional de ferro das crianças institucionalizadas nas cinco creches de período integral da cidade de Jardinópolis, São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Em estudo transversal, foram avaliadas 184 crianças com idades entre 12 e 59,9 meses, no período entre 1º e 31 de agosto de 2006. De cada criança, foram obtidos dados pessoais, peso, estatura e colhida amostra de sangue para dosagem de hemoglobina, volume corpuscular médio (VCM, índice de saturação da transferrina (IST e o red cell distribution width (RDW. RESULTADOS: A prevalência global de anemia foi de 29,3% e a média de hemoglobina de 11,5g/dL. Deficiência de ferro foi observada em 75% das crianças. As prevalências de deficit (escore Z 2 foi de 2,2%. CONCLUSÕES: Apesar de inferior a outros estudos brasileiros, a prevalência de anemia mostrou-se elevada. A antropometria mostrou que a oferta de macronutrientes está bastante próxima do ideal, mas a elevada prevalência de crianças deficientes em ferro indica a necessidade da adoção de medidas para aprimorar a oferta de ferro.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to get basic information about the nutritional status of institutionalized preschool children who attend full time day-care centers in the city of Jardinópolis, São Paulo, Brazil, with the purpose of preparing a fortification trial. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 184 children, aged 12 to 59.9 months, between August 1st to 31st, 2006. Personal data on each child along with weight, height, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, transferrin saturation and the red cell distribution width (RDW were obtained. RESULTS: Anemia was present in 29.3% of the children and the mean hemoglobin value for the whole group was 11.5g/dL. Iron deficiency was observed in 75% of all children. Deficit prevalence (Z score

  6. Iron deficiency and anemia in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çavuşoğlu, Yüksel; Altay, Hakan; Çetiner, Mustafa; Güvenç, Tolga Sinan; Temizhan, Ahmet; Ural, Dilek; Yeşilbursa, Dilek; Yıldırım, Nesligül; Yılmaz, Mehmet Birhan

    2017-03-01

    Heart failure is an important community health problem. Prevalence and incidence of heart failure have continued to rise over the years. Despite recent advances in heart failure therapy, prognosis is still poor, rehospitalization rate is very high, and quality of life is worse. Co-morbidities in heart failure have negative impact on clinical course of the disease, further impair prognosis, and add difficulties to treatment of clinical picture. Therefore, successful management of co-morbidities is strongly recommended in addition to conventional therapy for heart failure. One of the most common co-morbidities in heart failure is presence of iron deficiency and anemia. Current evidence suggests that iron deficiency and anemia are more prevalent in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction, as well as those with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction. Moreover, iron deficiency and anemia are referred to as independent predictors for poor prognosis in heart failure. There is strong relationship between iron deficiency or anemia and severity of clinical status of heart failure. Over the last two decades, many clinical investigations have been conducted on clinical effectiveness of treatment of iron deficiency or anemia with oral iron, intravenous iron, and erythropoietin therapies. Studies with oral iron and erythropoietin therapies did not provide any clinical benefit and, in fact, these therapies have been shown to be associated with increase in adverse clinical outcomes. However, clinical trials in patients with iron deficiency in the presence or absence of anemia have demonstrated considerable clinical benefits of intravenous iron therapy, and based on these positive outcomes, iron deficiency has become target of therapy in management of heart failure. The present report assesses current approaches to iron deficiency and anemia in heart failure in light of recent evidence.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... refractory iron deficiency anemia Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... expand/collapse boxes. Description Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia is one of many types of anemia , which ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... increased need for iron during growth spurts. Older adults, especially those over age ... athletes. Athletes, especially young females, are at risk for iron deficiency. Endurance ...

  9. Transgenic petunia with the iron(III)-phytosiderophore transporter gene acquires tolerance to iron deficiency in alkaline environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Yoshiko; Itoh, Yoshiyuki; Iwashita, Takashi; Namba, Kosuke

    2015-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient for all plants. However, terrestrial plants often suffer from iron deficiency in alkaline soil due to its extremely low solubility. Alkaline soil accounts for about 30% of all cultivated ground in the world. Plants have evolved two distinct strategies, I and II, for iron uptake from the soil. Dicots and non-graminaceous monocots use Strategy I, which is primarily based on the reduction of iron(III) to iron(II) and the uptake of iron(II) by the iron-regulated transporter, IRT1. In contrast, graminaceous plants use Strategy II to efficiently acquire insoluble iron(III). Strategy II comprises the synthesis and secretion of iron-chelating phytosiderophores, such as mugineic acids and the Yellow Stripe 1 transporter proteins of the iron(III)-phytosiderophore complex. Barley, which exhibits the highest tolerance to iron deficiency in alkaline soil among graminaceous plants, utilizes mugineic acids and the specific iron(III)-mugineic acids transporter, HvYS1. In this study, we established the transgenic plant Petunia hybrida, which originally had only Strategy I, by introducing the HvYS1 transporter gene derived from barley. When the transgenic plants were grown hydroponically in media containing the iron(III)-2'-deoxymugineic acid complex, free 2'-deoxymugineic acid and its iron(III) complex were detected in the root extract of the transgenic plant by electrospray ionization-Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. The growth of the transgenic petunia was significantly better than that of the control host in alkaline conditions. Consequently, the transgenic plant acquired a significantly enhanced tolerance to alkaline hydroponic media in the presence of the iron(III)-2'-deoxymugineic acid complex. Furthermore, the flower color of the transgenic plant deepened. The results showed that iron-phytosiderophore complexes and their transporters can potentially be utilized to overcome the worldwide iron uptake problems to diverse

  10. Transgenic petunia with the iron(III-phytosiderophore transporter gene acquires tolerance to iron deficiency in alkaline environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiko Murata

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential nutrient for all plants. However, terrestrial plants often suffer from iron deficiency in alkaline soil due to its extremely low solubility. Alkaline soil accounts for about 30% of all cultivated ground in the world. Plants have evolved two distinct strategies, I and II, for iron uptake from the soil. Dicots and non-graminaceous monocots use Strategy I, which is primarily based on the reduction of iron(III to iron(II and the uptake of iron(II by the iron-regulated transporter, IRT1. In contrast, graminaceous plants use Strategy II to efficiently acquire insoluble iron(III. Strategy II comprises the synthesis and secretion of iron-chelating phytosiderophores, such as mugineic acids and the Yellow Stripe 1 transporter proteins of the iron(III-phytosiderophore complex. Barley, which exhibits the highest tolerance to iron deficiency in alkaline soil among graminaceous plants, utilizes mugineic acids and the specific iron(III-mugineic acids transporter, HvYS1. In this study, we established the transgenic plant Petunia hybrida, which originally had only Strategy I, by introducing the HvYS1 transporter gene derived from barley. When the transgenic plants were grown hydroponically in media containing the iron(III-2'-deoxymugineic acid complex, free 2'-deoxymugineic acid and its iron(III complex were detected in the root extract of the transgenic plant by electrospray ionization-Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. The growth of the transgenic petunia was significantly better than that of the control host in alkaline conditions. Consequently, the transgenic plant acquired a significantly enhanced tolerance to alkaline hydroponic media in the presence of the iron(III-2'-deoxymugineic acid complex. Furthermore, the flower color of the transgenic plant deepened. The results showed that iron-phytosiderophore complexes and their transporters can potentially be utilized to overcome the worldwide iron uptake problems

  11. Iron Acquisition in Bacillus cereus: The Roles of IlsA and Bacillibactin in Exogenous Ferritin Iron Mobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buisson, Christophe; Daou, Nadine; Kallassy, Mireille; Lereclus, Didier; Arosio, Paolo; Bou-Abdallah, Fadi; Nielsen Le Roux, Christina

    2014-01-01

    In host-pathogen interactions, the struggle for iron may have major consequences on the outcome of the disease. To overcome the low solubility and bio-availability of iron, bacteria have evolved multiple systems to acquire iron from various sources such as heme, hemoglobin and ferritin. The molecular basis of iron acquisition from heme and hemoglobin have been extensively studied; however, very little is known about iron acquisition from host ferritin, a 24-mer nanocage protein able to store thousands of iron atoms within its cavity. In the human opportunistic pathogen Bacillus cereus, a surface protein named IlsA (Iron-regulated leucine rich surface protein type A) binds heme, hemoglobin and ferritin in vitro and is involved in virulence. Here, we demonstrate that IlsA acts as a ferritin receptor causing ferritin aggregation on the bacterial surface. Isothermal titration calorimetry data indicate that IlsA binds several types of ferritins through direct interaction with the shell subunits. UV-vis kinetic data show a significant enhancement of iron release from ferritin in the presence of IlsA indicating for the first time that a bacterial protein might alter the stability of the ferritin iron core. Disruption of the siderophore bacillibactin production drastically reduces the ability of B. cereus to utilize ferritin for growth and results in attenuated bacterial virulence in insects. We propose a new model of iron acquisition in B. cereus that involves the binding of IlsA to host ferritin followed by siderophore assisted iron uptake. Our results highlight a possible interplay between a surface protein and a siderophore and provide new insights into host adaptation of B. cereus and general bacterial pathogenesis. PMID:24550730

  12. Iron acquisition in Bacillus cereus: the roles of IlsA and bacillibactin in exogenous ferritin iron mobilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Segond

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In host-pathogen interactions, the struggle for iron may have major consequences on the outcome of the disease. To overcome the low solubility and bio-availability of iron, bacteria have evolved multiple systems to acquire iron from various sources such as heme, hemoglobin and ferritin. The molecular basis of iron acquisition from heme and hemoglobin have been extensively studied; however, very little is known about iron acquisition from host ferritin, a 24-mer nanocage protein able to store thousands of iron atoms within its cavity. In the human opportunistic pathogen Bacillus cereus, a surface protein named IlsA (Iron-regulated leucine rich surface protein type A binds heme, hemoglobin and ferritin in vitro and is involved in virulence. Here, we demonstrate that IlsA acts as a ferritin receptor causing ferritin aggregation on the bacterial surface. Isothermal titration calorimetry data indicate that IlsA binds several types of ferritins through direct interaction with the shell subunits. UV-vis kinetic data show a significant enhancement of iron release from ferritin in the presence of IlsA indicating for the first time that a bacterial protein might alter the stability of the ferritin iron core. Disruption of the siderophore bacillibactin production drastically reduces the ability of B. cereus to utilize ferritin for growth and results in attenuated bacterial virulence in insects. We propose a new model of iron acquisition in B. cereus that involves the binding of IlsA to host ferritin followed by siderophore assisted iron uptake. Our results highlight a possible interplay between a surface protein and a siderophore and provide new insights into host adaptation of B. cereus and general bacterial pathogenesis.

  13. Iron and stony-iron meteorites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benedix, Gretchen K.; Haack, Henning; McCoy, T. J.

    2014-01-01

    Without iron and stony-iron meteorites, our chances of ever sampling the deep interior of a differentiated planetary object would be next to nil. Although we live on a planet with a very substantial core, we will never be able to sample it. Fortunately, asteroid collisions provide us with a rich...... sampling of the deep interiors of differentiated asteroids. Iron and stony-iron meteorites are fragments of a large number of asteroids that underwent significant geological processing in the early solar system. Parent bodies of iron and some stony-iron meteorites completed a geological evolution similar...... to that continuing on Earth – although on much smaller length- and timescales – with melting of the metal and silicates; differentiation into core, mantle, and crust; and probably extensive volcanism. Iron and stony-iron meteorites are our only available analogues to materials found in the deep interiors of Earth...

  14. Iron from Zealandic bog iron ore -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngstrøm, Henriette Syrach

    2011-01-01

    og geologiske materiale, metallurgiske analyser og eksperimentel arkæologiske forsøg - konturerne af en jernproduktion med udgangspunkt i den sjællandske myremalm. The frequent application by archaeologists of Werner Christensen’s distribution map for the occurrence of bog iron ore in Denmark (1966...... are sketched of iron production based on bog iron ore from Zealand....

  15. Leishmania and its quest for iron: An update and overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Amir; Singh, Krishn Pratap; Ali, Vahab

    2017-01-01

    Parasites of genus Leishmania are the causative agents of complex neglected diseases called leishmaniasis and continue to be a significant health concern globally. Iron is a vital nutritional requirement for virtually all organisms, including pathogenic trypanosomatid parasites, and plays a crucial role in many facets of cellular metabolism as a cofactor of several enzymes. Iron acquisition is essential for the survival of parasites. Yet parasites are also vulnerable to the toxicity of iron and reactive oxygen species. The aim of this review is to provide an update on the current knowledge about iron acquisition and usage by Leishmania species. We have also discussed about host strategy to modulate iron availability and the strategies deployed by Leishmania parasites to overcome iron withholding defences and thus favour parasite growth within host macrophages. Since iron plays central roles in the host's response and parasite metabolism, a comprehensive understanding of the iron metabolism is beneficial to identify potential viable therapeutic opportunities against leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Native iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Charles Kent

    2015-01-01

    System, was reduced. The oxidized outer layers of the Earth have formed by two processes. Firstly, water is decomposed to oxygen and hydrogen by solar radiation in the upper parts of the atmosphere, the light hydrogen diffusing to space, leaving oxygen behind. Secondly, plants, over the course......, hematite, or FeO.Fe2O3, magnetite), with carbon in the form of coke. This is carried out in a blast furnace. Although the Earth's core consists of metallic iron, which may also be present in parts of the mantle, this is inaccessible to us, so we must make our own. In West Greenland, however, some almost......We live in an oxidized world: oxygen makes up 22 percent of the atmosphere and by reacting with organic matter produces most of our energy, including the energy our bodies use to function: breathe, think, move, etc. It has not always been thus. Originally the Earth, in common with most of the Solar...

  17. Oxidation of Dodecanoate Intercalated Iron(II)–Iron(III) Layered Double Hydroxide to Form 2D Iron(III) (Hydr)oxide Layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Li‐Zhi; Ayala‐Luis, Karina B.; Fang, Liping

    2013-01-01

    hydroxide planar layer were preserved during the oxidation, as shown by FTIR spectroscopy. The high positive charge in the hydroxide layer produced by the oxidation of iron(II) to iron(III) is partially compensated by the deprotonation of hydroxy groups, as shown by X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy...... between the alkyl chains of the intercalated dodecanoate anions play a crucial role in stabilizing the structure and hindering the collapse of the iron(II)–iron(III) (hydr)oxide structure during oxidation. This is the first report describing the formation of a stable planar layered octahedral iron......(III) (hydr)oxide. oxGRC12 shows promise as a sorbent and host for hydrophobic reagents, and as a possible source of single planar layers of iron(III) (hydr)oxide....

  18. Introduction to workshop on iron screening and supplementation in iron-replete pregnant women and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Christine L; Brannon, Patsy M

    2017-12-01

    The NIH Office of Dietary Supplements convened a public workshop on iron screening and supplementation in iron-replete pregnant women and young children in 2016 in Bethesda, Maryland. The starting point for the workshop was the recent reports from the US Preventive Services Task Force concluding that there was insufficient evidence to evaluate the benefits and harms associated with iron screening and routine supplementation among asymptomatic pregnant women and young children (6-24 mo old) in the United States. The goal of the workshop was to explore and refine understanding about the existing knowledge gaps and research needs associated with these preventive services for these groups. Given the focus on the United States, planning for the workshop took into account the higher iron status in the United States compared with developing countries and, in turn, included a focus on iron-replete individuals consistent with the U-shaped risk curve for nutrient-health relations. Topic areas included adaptations in iron homeostasis associated with pregnancy and young childhood, the impact of inflammation, measurement of iron status, current estimates of iron status for pregnant women and young children in the United States and in Europe, and emerging evidence suggesting adverse effects associated with iron supplementation of iron-replete individuals. A crosscutting dialogue conducted at the close of the workshop formed the basis for a workshop summary that specified evidence gaps and research needs in a range of areas centered on the relation of these adaptations of iron homeostasis with the response to and risk from iron supplementation as well as the need for indicators informative of the full continuum of iron status and based on health outcomes, not just erythropoiesis. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Nicotianamine synthase overexpression positively modulates iron homeostasis-related genes in high iron rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng eWang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Nearly one-third of the world population, mostly women and children, suffer from iron malnutrition and its consequences, such as anemia or impaired mental development. Biofortification of rice, which is a staple crop for nearly half of the world’s population, can significantly contribute in alleviating iron deficiency. NFP rice (transgenic rice expressing nicotianamine synthase, ferritin and phytase genes has a more than six-fold increase in iron content in polished rice grains, resulting from the synergistic action of nicotianamine synthase (NAS and ferritin transgenes. We investigated iron homeostasis in NFP plants by analyzing the expression of 28 endogenous rice genes known to be involved in the homeostasis of iron and other metals, in iron-deficient and iron-sufficient conditions. RNA was collected from different tissues (roots, flag leaves, grains and at three developmental stages during grain filling. NFP plants showed increased sensitivity to iron-deficiency conditions and changes in the expression of endogenous genes involved in nicotianamine (NA metabolism, in comparison to their non-transgenic siblings. Elevated transcript levels were detected in NFP plants for several iron transporters. In contrast, expression of OsYSL2, which encodes a member of Yellow Stripe-like protein family, and a transporter of the NA-Fe(II complex was reduced in NFP plants under low iron conditions, indicating that expression of OsYSL2 is regulated by the endogenous iron status. Expression of the transgenes did not significantly affect overall iron homeostasis in NFP plants, which establishes the engineered push-pull mechanism as a suitable strategy to increase rice endosperm iron content.

  20. Iron deficiency anaemia in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liyanage, K.D.C.E.

    1992-01-01

    The commonest cause of nutritional anaemia in the Sri Lankan population is iron deficiency. The diets of the population belonging to the lower socio-economic groups contain little food of animal origin. Thus, their diets are deficient in easily absorbable (haem) iron; and are also heavily cereal-based. Therefore interference in the absorption of dietary iron also occurs. Iron-deficiency anaemia is not restricted to the so-called ''vulnerable groups'' in Sri Lanka, however, their greater demands make the problem not only commoner but also more severe. Among pregnant and lactating women anaemia is often associated with folate deficiency. It must also be noted that the low availability of dietary iron is compounded in large population groups. Malaria, presently raging on an epidemic scale is also a major contributory factor to the incidence of anaemia. The purpose of this study was to examine the iron status of pre-school children and pregnant women; to establish normal levels of biochemical indices at different trimesters; to record the effect of iron supplementation during pregnancy; and to record the bioavailability of iron from weaning foods and common adult diets. 6 figs, 14 tabs

  1. Roles of iron in the survival, growth, and pathogenesis of Legionella pneumophila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, F.D.

    1985-01-01

    The essentially of iron for living cells has long been recognized, and the availability of host-iron has been proposed as a contributing factor to virulence in bacterial, fungal, and protozoan infections. The mechanism by which legionella pneumophila causes disease is unknown. Growth of fresh clinical or environmental isolates in pure culture requires 20 times more iron than is needed for most other bacteria. Thus, increased plasma iron levels may be needed for multiplication within human hosts. It was observed that: (1) this organism can be more readily deprived of iron by iron binding agents than all other bacteria studied, and this inhibition can be reversed by the addition of iron; (2) normal human blood serum kills L. pneumophila and the bactericidal action is decreased when complement is inactivated or enough iron to saturate serum transferrin is added to the system; (3) in assays with a radioactive isotope of iron ( 55 Fe), no specific iron sequestering system was detected; (4) in analysis of outer membrane proteins with 55 Fe, SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and autoradiography, no specific outer membrane proteins responsible for iron acquisition were observed; and (5) in assays for protease, iron does not stimulate production of extracellular proteases. These observations indicate that L. pneumophila has no specific iron uptake mechanism, but instead relies on passive diffusion and/or non-specific mechanisms to obtain its iron

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blocks the intestine from taking up iron. Other medical conditions Other medical conditions that may lead to iron-deficiency anemia ... daily amount of iron. If you have other medical conditions that cause iron-deficiency anemia , such as ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español ... bleeding Consuming less than recommended daily amounts of iron Iron-deficiency anemia can be caused by getting ...

  4. Serum iron test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fe+2; Ferric ion; Fe++; Ferrous ion; Iron - serum; Anemia - serum iron; Hemochromatosis - serum iron ... A blood sample is needed. Iron levels are highest in the morning. Your health care provider will likely have you do this test in the morning.

  5. Nutritional iron deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Hurrell, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the leading risk factors for disability and death worldwide, affecting an estimated 2 billion people. Nutritional iron deficiency arises when physiological requirements cannot be met by iron absorption from diet. Dietary iron bioavailability is low in populations consuming

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also are hoping to determine which iron supplements work best to treat iron-deficiency anemia in children who do not consume the daily recommended amount of iron. Read less Participate in NHLBI Clinical Trials We lead or sponsor many studies related to iron-deficiency anemia. See if you ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark green leafy vegetables. Foods rich in vitamin C, such as oranges, strawberries, ... iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron-fortified foods that have iron ... green leafy vegetables. You can also take an iron supplement. Follow ...

  8. Iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anemia - iron deficiency ... iron from old red blood cells. Iron deficiency anemia develops when your body's iron stores run low. ... You may have no symptoms if the anemia is mild. Most of the time, ... slowly. Symptoms may include: Feeling weak or tired more often ...

  9. Estado nutricional, ferro, cobre e zinco em escolares de favelas da cidade de São Paulo Nutritional status, iron, copper, and zinc in school children of shantytowns of Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete B. Santos

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a antropometria, a composição corporal e o estado nutricional em ferro, cobre e zinco segundo o gênero, de crianças e adolescentes institucionalizados, moradores de duas favelas da cidade de São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal utilizando medidas de peso, estatura, circunferência braquial, dobras cutâneas, bioimpedância elétrica, os escores Z da relação estatura para idade, índice de massa corporal, área do braço, área muscular do braço e área de gordura do braço. Os percentuais de gordura corporal e massa magra foram analisados segundo fórmulas de Siri e Slaughter. Foram determinados hemoglobina, hematócrito, ferro, ferritina, cobre e zinco séricos. RESULTADOS: Foram maiores o peso corporal, circunferência do braço, dobras cutâneas do tríceps e subescapular, resistência elétrica, escores Z da área do braço, área muscular do braço e percentual de gordura corporal no sexo feminino em relação ao masculino. Baixa estatura foi encontrada em 8% das meninas e 5,6% dos meninos, sem diferença quanto ao gênero. Houve menor prevalência de desnutrição (2% das meninas e 5,6% nos meninos, do que de sobrepeso e obesidade (30% e 11,2%, respectivamente. Observou-se anemia em 24,4% e ferropenia em 10,5% dos escolares com ou sem anemia. Apresentaram valores abaixo do limite inferior do padrão de referência para cobre e zinco séricos, respectivamente três e sete indivíduos. CONCLUSÃO: Na população estudada, de baixo nível econômico e institucionalizada, ocorre o processo de transição nutricional e alta prevalência de anemia que não resulta da interação ferro, cobre e zinco.OBJECTIVE: To assess the anthropometry, body composition and iron, copper and zinc nutritional status, according to gender, of institutionalized children and adolescents living in two shantytowns in the city of Sao Paulo. METHODS: A cross sectional study using weight, height, arm circumference, skinfolds, electrical

  10. Serum zinc, copper and iron status of children with coeliac disease on three months of gluten-free diet with or without four weeks of zinc supplements: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, K; Kumar, R; Sharma, L; Datta, S P; Choudhury, M; Kumar, P

    2018-04-01

    Data about the effect of zinc supplementation with gluten-free diet on normalisation of plasma zinc, copper and iron in patients with coeliac disease are scanty. We evaluated the effect of zinc supplementation on serum zinc, copper and iron levels in patients with coeliac disease, by randomising 71 children newly diagnosed with coeliac disease into two groups: Group A = gluten-free diet (GFD); and Group B = gluten-free diet with zinc supplements (GFD +Zn). The rise in iron and zinc was significantly higher in the latter, but the mean rise of copper levels was slightly higher in the former, but the difference was not significant.

  11. Hepcidin: A Critical Regulator of Iron Metabolism during Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korry J. Hintze

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron status affects cognitive and physical performance in humans. Recent evidence indicates that iron balance is a tightly regulated process affected by a series of factors other than diet, to include hypoxia. Hypoxia has profound effects on iron absorption and results in increased iron acquisition and erythropoiesis when humans move from sea level to altitude. The effects of hypoxia on iron balance have been attributed to hepcidin, a central regulator of iron homeostasis. This paper will focus on the molecular mechanisms by which hypoxia affects hepcidin expression, to include a review of the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF/hypoxia response element (HRE system, as well as recent evidence indicating that localized adipose hypoxia due to obesity may affect hepcidin signaling and organismal iron metabolism.

  12. Serum Iron and Nitric Oxide Production in Trypanosoma brucei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JTEkanem

    reduction in the serum iron status and a modulation of nitric oxide synthase activity of T. brucei infected rats. ... inflammation and tissue damage15. ... The serum iron level was determined ... concentration or of total nitrate and nitrite ... 15. 16. 17. 18. Days. S e ru m iro n lev e l mg. /ml. Infected treated. Infected untreated. 0.

  13. Serum-ferritin and iron absorption for the study of body iron stored in the Thai population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plehachinda, R.

    1984-05-01

    Measurements of serum ferritin by an ''in-house'' immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) method were used in conjunction with estimations of gastro-intestinal iron absorption from a standard test dose of ferrous ascorbate, measurements of blood haemoglobin and measurements of other haematological parameters to study body iron status in various population groups and to assess changes in body iron status after food-iron fortification. The IRMA method particularly covered the lower range of serum ferritin levels from 0.5 to 10 μg/litre, corresponding to iron deficiency. Quality control indicated satisfactory assay performance. In preliminary studies, serum ferritin level was found to be well correlated with gastro-intestinal iron absorption as an indicator of body iron status. Normal adult male subjects in Bangkok showed levels of 21-314 μg/litre and normal adult female levels of 13-173 μg/litre, in general agreement with values reported by other authors. Measurements were then extended to subjects in an area of north-eastern Thailand where iron-deficiency was common, to assess the effectiveness of food-iron fortification programmes. Measurements were also made on male blood donors in Bangkok, pregnant female subjects in Bangkok and north-eastern Thailand, school children in an area of southern Thailand where hookworm infestation was common and schoolchildren and adult female subjects in an area of northern Thailand where goitre was endemic. The results of all these studies are presented

  14. Co-regulation of Iron Metabolism and Virulence Associated Functions by Iron and XibR, a Novel Iron Binding Transcription Factor, in the Plant Pathogen Xanthomonas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Sheo Shankar; Patnana, Pradeep Kumar; Lomada, Santosh Kumar; Tomar, Archana; Chatterjee, Subhadeep

    2016-01-01

    Abilities of bacterial pathogens to adapt to the iron limitation present in hosts is critical to their virulence. Bacterial pathogens have evolved diverse strategies to coordinately regulate iron metabolism and virulence associated functions to maintain iron homeostasis in response to changing iron availability in the environment. In many bacteria the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) functions as transcription factor that utilize ferrous form of iron as cofactor to regulate transcription of iron metabolism and many cellular functions. However, mechanisms of fine-tuning and coordinated regulation of virulence associated function beyond iron and Fur-Fe2+ remain undefined. In this study, we show that a novel transcriptional regulator XibR (named X anthomonas iron binding regulator) of the NtrC family, is required for fine-tuning and co-coordinately regulating the expression of several iron regulated genes and virulence associated functions in phytopathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc). Genome wide expression analysis of iron-starvation stimulon and XibR regulon, GUS assays, genetic and functional studies of xibR mutant revealed that XibR positively regulates functions involved in iron storage and uptake, chemotaxis, motility and negatively regulates siderophore production, in response to iron. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by quantitative real-time PCR indicated that iron promoted binding of the XibR to the upstream regulatory sequence of operon’s involved in chemotaxis and motility. Circular dichroism spectroscopy showed that purified XibR bound ferric form of iron. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed that iron positively affected the binding of XibR to the upstream regulatory sequences of the target virulence genes, an effect that was reversed by ferric iron chelator deferoxamine. Taken together, these data revealed that how XibR coordinately regulates virulence associated and iron metabolism functions in Xanthomonads in

  15. Co-regulation of Iron Metabolism and Virulence Associated Functions by Iron and XibR, a Novel Iron Binding Transcription Factor, in the Plant Pathogen Xanthomonas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheo Shankar Pandey

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abilities of bacterial pathogens to adapt to the iron limitation present in hosts is critical to their virulence. Bacterial pathogens have evolved diverse strategies to coordinately regulate iron metabolism and virulence associated functions to maintain iron homeostasis in response to changing iron availability in the environment. In many bacteria the ferric uptake regulator (Fur functions as transcription factor that utilize ferrous form of iron as cofactor to regulate transcription of iron metabolism and many cellular functions. However, mechanisms of fine-tuning and coordinated regulation of virulence associated function beyond iron and Fur-Fe2+ remain undefined. In this study, we show that a novel transcriptional regulator XibR (named Xanthomonas iron binding regulator of the NtrC family, is required for fine-tuning and co-coordinately regulating the expression of several iron regulated genes and virulence associated functions in phytopathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc. Genome wide expression analysis of iron-starvation stimulon and XibR regulon, GUS assays, genetic and functional studies of xibR mutant revealed that XibR positively regulates functions involved in iron storage and uptake, chemotaxis, motility and negatively regulates siderophore production, in response to iron. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by quantitative real-time PCR indicated that iron promoted binding of the XibR to the upstream regulatory sequence of operon's involved in chemotaxis and motility. Circular dichroism spectroscopy showed that purified XibR bound ferric form of iron. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed that iron positively affected the binding of XibR to the upstream regulatory sequences of the target virulence genes, an effect that was reversed by ferric iron chelator deferoxamine. Taken together, these data revealed that how XibR coordinately regulates virulence associated and iron metabolism functions in

  16. Host selection by the shiny cowbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Factors important in Shiny Cowbird (Molothrus bonariensis) host selection were examined within the mangrove community in Puerto Rico. Cowbirds did not parasitize birds in proportion to their abundance. The cowbird breeding season coincided with those of its major hosts, which were 'high-quality' foster species (i.e., species that fledge .gtoreq. 55% of cowbirds hatched: Yellow Warbler, Dendroica petechia; Yellow-shouldered Blackbird, Agelaius xanthomus; Black-whiskered Vireo, Vireo altiloquus; Black-cowled Oriole, Icterus dominicensis; Peurto Rican Flycatcher, Myiarchus antillarum; Troupial, Icterus icterus), and did not extend into other periods even though nests of 'low-quality: species (i.e., species that fledge < 55% of cowbird chicks that hatched: Bronze Mannikin, Lonchura cucullata; Greater Antillean Grackle, Quiscalus niger; Gray Kingbird, Tyrannus dominicensis; Northern Mockingbird, Mimus polyglottos; Red-legged Thrush, Turdus plumbeus) were available. Shiny Cowbird food habits and egg size were similar to those of their hosts, suggesting that cowbirds choose hosts partly on the basis of this combination. Cowbirds located host nests primarily by cryptically watching activities of birds in likely habitats. Other nest locating strategies were active searching of suitable habitat and 'flushing' of hosts by the cowbird's noisy approach. Cowbirds closely monitored nest status with frequent visits that peaked on the host's first day of egg laying. Hosts using covered nests (e.g., cavities, domed nests) were as vulnerable to cowbird parasitism as those building open nests.

  17. Iron deficiency and anemia: a common problem in female elite soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landahl, Göran; Adolfsson, Peter; Börjesson, Mats; Mannheimer, Clas; Rödjer, Stig

    2005-12-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia among elite women soccer players. Hemoglobin, serum iron, serum total iron binding capacity, and ferritin were determined in 28 female soccer players called up for the national team. Of the investigated female soccer players, 57% had iron deficiency and 29% iron deficiency anemia 6 months before the FIFA Women's World Cup. It is concluded that iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia is common in female soccer players at the top international level. Some might suffer from relative anemia and measurement of hemoglobin alone is not sufficient to reveal relative anemia. Regular monitoring of hemoglobin concentration and iron status is necessary to institute iron supplementation when indicated.

  18. IRON DEFICIENCY AS A RISK FACTOR FOR FIRST FEBRILE SEIZURE

    OpenAIRE

    Rahul; Haricharan; Venkatamurthy

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Estimation of Iron status in children with first f ebrile seizure (FFS). Iron status was evaluated by including Hemoglobin, Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin (MCH), Serum ferritin. MATERIALS AND METHODS : Study was conducted all children with first febrile seizures and febrile illnesses (FI) in Pediatrics Intensive Care Unit and Pediatrics Wards of Sri Adichunchanag iri Institute of Medical Sciences, B.G. Nagara ...

  19. Iron oxide surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Gareth S.

    2016-03-01

    The current status of knowledge regarding the surfaces of the iron oxides, magnetite (Fe3O4), maghemite (γ-Fe2O3), haematite (α-Fe2O3), and wüstite (Fe1-xO) is reviewed. The paper starts with a summary of applications where iron oxide surfaces play a major role, including corrosion, catalysis, spintronics, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), biomedicine, photoelectrochemical water splitting and groundwater remediation. The bulk structure and properties are then briefly presented; each compound is based on a close-packed anion lattice, with a different distribution and oxidation state of the Fe cations in interstitial sites. The bulk defect chemistry is dominated by cation vacancies and interstitials (not oxygen vacancies) and this provides the context to understand iron oxide surfaces, which represent the front line in reduction and oxidation processes. Fe diffuses in and out from the bulk in response to the O2 chemical potential, forming sometimes complex intermediate phases at the surface. For example, α-Fe2O3 adopts Fe3O4-like surfaces in reducing conditions, and Fe3O4 adopts Fe1-xO-like structures in further reducing conditions still. It is argued that known bulk defect structures are an excellent starting point in building models for iron oxide surfaces. The atomic-scale structure of the low-index surfaces of iron oxides is the major focus of this review. Fe3O4 is the most studied iron oxide in surface science, primarily because its stability range corresponds nicely to the ultra-high vacuum environment. It is also an electrical conductor, which makes it straightforward to study with the most commonly used surface science methods such as photoemission spectroscopies (XPS, UPS) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The impact of the surfaces on the measurement of bulk properties such as magnetism, the Verwey transition and the (predicted) half-metallicity is discussed. The best understood iron oxide surface at present is probably Fe3O4(100); the structure is

  20. Nuclear orientation of rare earth impurities in ferromagnetic host metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keus, H.E.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments are described investigating the behaviour of the metals Nd and Lu as impurities in a ferromagnetic host metal - iron, cobalt and nickel. The systems have been studied with the aid of nuclear orientation, making use of the interactions between the atom nuclei and the electrons - the so called hyperfine interactions. (C.F.)

  1. Anemia, Iron Deficiency and Iodine Deficiency among Nepalese School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatiwada, Saroj; Lamsal, Madhab; Gelal, Basanta; Gautam, Sharad; Nepal, Ashwini Kumar; Brodie, David; Baral, Nirmal

    2016-07-01

    To assess iodine and iron nutritional status among Nepalese school children. A cross-sectional, community based study was conducted in the two districts, Ilam (hilly region) and Udayapur (plain region) of eastern Nepal. A total of 759 school children aged 6-13 y from different schools within the study areas were randomly enrolled. A total of 759 urine samples and 316 blood samples were collected. Blood hemoglobin level, serum iron, total iron binding capacity and urinary iodine concentration was measured. Percentage of transferrin saturation was calculated using serum iron and total iron binding capacity values. The mean level of hemoglobin, serum iron, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation and median urinary iodine excretion were 12.29 ± 1.85 g/dl, 70.45 ± 34.46 μg/dl, 386.48 ± 62.48 μg/dl, 19.94 ± 12.07 % and 274.67 μg/L respectively. Anemia, iron deficiency and iodine deficiency (urinary iodine excretion iron deficient children. Iron deficiency and anemia are common in Nepalese children, whereas, iodine nutrition is more than adequate. Low urinary iodine excretion was common in iron deficiency and anemia.

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fatigue or tiredness, shortness of breath, or chest pain. If your doctor diagnoses you with iron-deficiency ... Common symptoms of iron-deficiency anemia include: Chest pain Coldness in the hands and feet Difficulty concentrating ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... body to absorb iron from the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). Blood loss When you lose blood, you ... to iron-deficiency anemia include: Bleeding in your GI tract, from an ulcer, colon cancer, or regular ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... complications, including heart failure and development delays in children. Explore this Health ... red blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because your body’s intake of iron ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... heart failure . Increased risk of infections Motor or cognitive development delays in children Pregnancy complications, such as ... for iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about exciting research areas that NHLBI is exploring about iron-deficiency anemia. ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Health and Human Development, we are investigating how best to treat premature newborns with low hemoglobin levels. ... are hoping to determine which iron supplements work best to treat iron-deficiency anemia in children who ...

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    Full Text Available ... your doctor may recommend changes to help you meet the recommended daily amount of iron. If you ... stop bleeding. Healthy lifestyle changes To help you meet your daily recommended iron levels, your doctor may ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... an MCV of less than 80 femtoliters (fL). Prevention strategies If you have certain risk factors , such ... drinking black tea, which reduces iron absorption. Other treatments If you have chronic kidney disease and iron- ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... same for boys and girls. From birth to 6 months, babies need 0.27 mg of iron. ... for iron deficiency at certain ages: Infants between 6 and 12 months, especially if they are fed ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... your blood may be normal even if the total amount of iron in your body is low. ... iron-deficiency anemia in blood donors affects the quality of donated red blood cells, such as how ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Disorders Lung Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and ... lose blood, you lose iron. Certain conditions or medicines can cause blood loss and lead to iron- ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... absorb iron and lead to iron-deficiency anemia. These conditions include: Intestinal and digestive conditions, such as ... tract. Inflammation from congestive heart failure or obesity . These chronic conditions can lead to inflammation that may ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... C to help your body absorb iron. Avoid drinking black tea, which reduces iron absorption. Other treatments ... improve health through research and scientific discovery. Improving health with current research Learn about the following ways ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... higher risk, as most of a newborn’s iron stores are developed during the third trimester of pregnancy. ... red blood cells on hand, their bodies can store iron to prepare for blood loss during delivery. ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... may be diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia if you have low iron or ferritin levels in your blood. More testing may be needed to rule out other types of anemia. Tests for gastrointestinal ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... were born prematurely may be at an even higher risk, as most of a newborn’s iron stores ... men of the same age. Women are at higher risk for iron-deficiency anemia under some circumstances, ...

  18. Iron supplements (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mineral iron is an essential nutrient for humans because it is part of blood cells, which carry oxygen to all body cells. There is no conclusive evidence that iron supplements contribute to heart attacks.

  19. Total iron binding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003489.htm Total iron binding capacity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... may require intravenous (IV) iron therapy or a blood transfusion . Iron supplements Your doctor may recommend that you ... Anemia Aplastic Anemia Arrhythmia Blood Donation Blood Tests Blood Transfusion Heart-Healthy Lifestyle Changes Heart Failure Hemolytic Anemia ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... also often take other medicines—such as proton pump inhibitors, anticoagulants, or blood thinners—that may cause iron-deficiency anemia. Proton pump inhibitors interfere with iron absorption, and blood thinners ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... striking the ground, such as with marathon runners. Sex Girls and women between the ages of 14 ... developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron- ... factors , such as if you are following a vegetarian eating pattern, your doctor may recommend changes to ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... deficiency anemia. Proton pump inhibitors interfere with iron absorption, and blood thinners increase the likelihood of bleeding ... oranges, strawberries, and tomatoes, may help increase your absorption of iron. If you are pregnant, talk to ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in you getting less ... include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, lean red meat, salmon, iron-fortified breads and cereals, peas, tofu, ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia. These conditions include: Intestinal and digestive conditions, such as celiac disease; inflammatory bowel diseases, ... iron-deficiency anemia , such as bleeding in the digestive or urinary tract or heavy menstrual bleeding, your ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... prevent complications such as abnormal heart rhythms and depression. Learn the warning signs of serious complications and ... donors for low iron stores. Reliable point-of-care testing may help identify iron deficiency before potentially ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... breastfeeding women older than 18 need 9 mg. Problems absorbing iron Even if you consume the recommended ... interested in learning how having iron-deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen ... the size of your liver and spleen. Blood tests Based on results from blood tests to screen ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... as most of a newborn’s iron stores are developed during the third trimester of pregnancy. Children between ... This makes it harder to stop bleeding and can increase the risk of iron-deficiency anemia from ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... your doctor may recommend you eat heart-healthy foods or control other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... have less hemoglobin than normal. Hemoglobin is a protein inside red blood cells that carries oxygen from ... stored iron has been used. Ferritin is a protein that helps store iron in your body. Reticulocyte ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... and Strategic Vision Leadership Scientific Divisions Operations and Administration Advisory Committees Budget and Legislative Information Jobs and ... blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because your body’s intake of iron is too ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in ... be hard to get the recommended amount from food alone. Pregnant women need more iron to support ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... learning how having iron-deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. ... iron-deficiency anemia in blood donors affects the quality of donated red blood cells, such as how ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia in blood donors affects the quality of donated red blood cells, such as how ... Cells From Iron-deficient Donors: Recovery and Storage Quality. Learn more about participating in a clinical trial . ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... endoscopy or colonoscopy, to stop bleeding. Healthy lifestyle changes To help you meet your daily recommended iron ... iron-deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... family history and genetics , lifestyle habits, or sex. Age You may be at increased risk for iron ... Signs, Symptoms, and Complications Iron-deficiency anemia can range from mild to severe. People with mild or ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... leaving cells where it is stored or from being absorbed in the duodenum, the first part of ... treatments for iron-deficiency anemia. Living With After being diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia, it is important ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron to prepare for blood loss during delivery. Screening and Prevention Your doctor may screen you for ... and symptoms of iron-deficiency anemia. Return to Screening and Prevention to review tests to screen for ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Teens, who have increased need for iron during growth spurts. Older adults, especially those over age 65. ... need for iron increases during these periods of growth and development, and it may be hard to ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... endoscopy or colonoscopy, to stop bleeding. Healthy lifestyle changes To help you meet your daily recommended iron ... tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark green leafy vegetables. You can also take an iron ...

  7. Iron absorption studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekenved, G.

    1976-01-01

    The main objective of the present work was to study iron absorption from different iron preparations in different types of subjects and under varying therapeutic conditions. The studies were performed with different radioiron isotope techniques and with a serum iron technique. The preparations used were solutions of ferrous sulphate and rapidly-disintegrating tablets containing ferrous sulphate, ferrous fumarate and ferrous carbonate and a slow-release ferrous sulphate tablet of an insoluble matrix type (Duroferon Durules). The serum iron method was evaluated and good correlation was found between the serum iron response and the total amount of iron absorbed after an oral dose of iron given in solution or in tablet form. New technique for studying the in-vivo release properties of tablets was presented. Iron tablets labelled with a radio-isotope were given to healthy subjects. The decline of the radioactivity in the tablets was followed by a profile scanning technique applied to different types of iron tablets. The release of iron from the two types of tablets was shown to be slower in vivo than in vitro. It was found that co-administration of antacids and iron tablets led to a marked reduction in the iron absorption and that these drugs should not be administered sumultaneously. A standardized meal markedly decreased the absorbability of iron from iron tablets. The influence of the meal was more marked with rapidly-disintegrating than with slow-release ferrous sulphate tablets. The absorption from rapidly-disintegrating and slow-release ferrous sulphate tablets was compared under practical clinical conditions during an extended treatment period. The studies were performed in healthy subjects, blood donors and patients with iron deficiency anaemia and it was found that the absorption of iron from the slow-release tablets was significantly better than from the rapidly-disintegrating tablets in all three groups of subjects. (author)

  8. Diurnal variations in iron concentrations and expression of genes involved in iron absorption and metabolism in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiming; Wan, Dan; Zhou, Xihong; Long, Ciming; Wu, Xin; Li, Lan; He, Liuqin; Huang, Pan; Chen, Shuai; Tan, Bie; Yin, Yulong

    2017-09-02

    Diurnal variations in serum iron levels have been well documented in clinical studies, and serum iron is an important diagnostic index for iron-deficiency anemia. However, the underlying mechanism of dynamic iron regulation in response to the circadian rhythm is still unclear. In this study, we investigated daily variations in iron status in the plasma and liver of pigs. The transcripts encoding key factors involved in iron uptake and homeostasis were evaluated. The results showed that iron levels in the plasma and liver exhibited diurnal rhythms. Diurnal variations were also observed in transcript levels of divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), membrane-associated ferric reductase 1 (DCYTB), and transferrin receptor (TfR) in the duodenum and jejunum, as well as hepcidin (HAMP) and TfR in the liver. Moreover, the results showed a network in which diurnal variations in systemic iron levels were tightly regulated by hepcidin and Tf/TfR via DCYTB and DMT1. These findings provide new insights into circadian iron homeostasis regulation. The diurnal variations in serum iron levels may also have pathophysiological implications for clinical diagnostics related to iron deficiency anemia in pigs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Dietary hemoglobin rescues young piglets from severe iron deficiency anemia: Duodenal expression profile of genes involved in heme iron absorption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Staroń

    Full Text Available Heme is an efficient source of iron in the diet, and heme preparations are used to prevent and cure iron deficiency anemia in humans and animals. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for heme absorption remain only partially characterized. Here, we employed young iron-deficient piglets as a convenient animal model to determine the efficacy of oral heme iron supplementation and investigate the pathways of heme iron absorption. The use of bovine hemoglobin as a dietary source of heme iron was found to efficiently counteract the development of iron deficiency anemia in piglets, although it did not fully rebalance their iron status. Our results revealed a concerted increase in the expression of genes responsible for apical and basolateral heme transport in the duodenum of piglets fed a heme-enriched diet. In these animals the catalytic activity of heme oxygenase 1 contributed to the release of elemental iron from the protoporphyrin ring of heme within enterocytes, which may then be transported by the strongly expressed ferroportin across the basolateral membrane to the circulation. We hypothesize that the well-recognized high bioavailability of heme iron may depend on a split pathway mediating the transport of heme-derived elemental iron and intact heme from the interior of duodenal enterocytes to the bloodstream.

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron, in milligrams (mg) at different ages and stages of life. Until the teen years, the recommended amount of ... and choosing iron-rich foods, especially during certain stages of life when more iron is needed, such as childhood ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-fortified breads and cereals, peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark green leafy vegetables. Foods rich in vitamin C, such as oranges, ... iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark green leafy vegetables. You can also take an iron supplement. Follow ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... because your body’s intake of iron is too low. Low intake of iron can happen because of blood ... a lot of cow’s milk. Cow’s milk is low in iron. Teens, who have increased need for ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... This is sometimes used to deliver iron through a blood vessel to increase iron levels in the blood. One benefit of IV iron ... over 65 years of age had low hemoglobin levels. This was associated with a greater risk of death even with mild anemia. ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies Women’s ... making new blood cells. Visit our Aplastic Anemia Health Topic to learn more. ... recommend that you take iron supplements, also called iron pills or oral iron, by mouth once or several times a ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... supplements. Iron supplements can change how certain medicines work. Your doctor may suggest check-ups to make sure your ... To prevent complications from iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may ... during certain stages of life when more iron is needed, such as childhood ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... if you are diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia. Risk Factors You may have an increased risk for iron-deficiency anemia because of your age, ... or sex. Age You may be at increased risk for iron deficiency at certain ages: Infants between ...

  17. Iron and Immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbon, E.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413534049; Trapet, P.L.; Stringlis, I.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/41185206X; Kruijs, Sophie; Bakker, P.A.H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074744623; Pieterse, C.M.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113115113

    2017-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient for most life on Earth because it functions as a crucial redox catalyst in many cellular processes. However, when present in excess iron can lead to the formation of harmful hydroxyl radicals. Hence, the cellular iron balance must be tightly controlled. Perturbation of

  18. Glutathione, Glutaredoxins, and Iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Carsten; Lillig, Christopher Horst

    2017-11-20

    Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant cellular low-molecular-weight thiol in the majority of organisms in all kingdoms of life. Therefore, functions of GSH and disturbed regulation of its concentration are associated with numerous physiological and pathological situations. Recent Advances: The function of GSH as redox buffer or antioxidant is increasingly being questioned. New functions, especially functions connected to the cellular iron homeostasis, were elucidated. Via the formation of iron complexes, GSH is an important player in all aspects of iron metabolism: sensing and regulation of iron levels, iron trafficking, and biosynthesis of iron cofactors. The variety of GSH coordinated iron complexes and their functions with a special focus on FeS-glutaredoxins are summarized in this review. Interestingly, GSH analogues that function as major low-molecular-weight thiols in organisms lacking GSH resemble the functions in iron homeostasis. Since these iron-related functions are most likely also connected to thiol redox chemistry, it is difficult to distinguish between mechanisms related to either redox or iron metabolisms. The ability of GSH to coordinate iron in different complexes with or without proteins needs further investigation. The discovery of new Fe-GSH complexes and their physiological functions will significantly advance our understanding of cellular iron homeostasis. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 1235-1251.

  19. Iron Stain on Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Iron stain, an unsightly blue–black or gray discoloration, can occur on nearly all woods. Oak, redwood, cypress, and cedar are particularly prone to iron stain because these woods contain large amounts of tannin-like extractives. The discoloration is caused by a chemical reaction between extractives in the wood and iron in steel products, such as nails, screws, and...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... amounts of iron, in milligrams (mg) at different ages and stages of life. Until the teen years, the recommended amount of iron is the same for boys and girls. From birth to 6 months, babies need 0.27 mg of iron. This number goes up to 11 mg for children ages 7 to 12 months, and down to 7 ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bleeding or other abnormalities, such as growths or cancer of the lining of the colon. For this test, a ... that you take iron supplements, also called iron pills or oral iron, by mouth once or several times a ...

  2. Iron homeostasis during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Allison L; Nemeth, Elizabeta

    2017-12-01

    During pregnancy, iron needs to increase substantially to support fetoplacental development and maternal adaptation to pregnancy. To meet these iron requirements, both dietary iron absorption and the mobilization of iron from stores increase, a mechanism that is in large part dependent on the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin. In healthy human pregnancies, maternal hepcidin concentrations are suppressed in the second and third trimesters, thereby facilitating an increased supply of iron into the circulation. The mechanism of maternal hepcidin suppression in pregnancy is unknown, but hepcidin regulation by the known stimuli (i.e., iron, erythropoietic activity, and inflammation) appears to be preserved during pregnancy. Inappropriately increased maternal hepcidin during pregnancy can compromise the iron availability for placental transfer and impair the efficacy of iron supplementation. The role of fetal hepcidin in the regulation of placental iron transfer still remains to be characterized. This review summarizes the current understanding and addresses the gaps in knowledge about gestational changes in hematologic and iron variables and regulatory aspects of maternal, fetal, and placental iron homeostasis. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Topics section only, or the News and Resources section. NHLBI Entire Site NHLBI Entire Site Health ... español Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type of anemia that occurs if you do not have enough iron in your body. People with mild or moderate iron-deficiency anemia ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because your body’s intake of iron is too ... clamping of your newborn’s umbilical cord at the time of delivery. This may help prevent iron-deficiency ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... severity of the condition. Your doctor may recommend healthy eating changes, iron supplements, intravenous iron therapy for mild ... you: Adopt healthy lifestyle changes such as heart-healthy eating patterns. Increase your daily intake of iron-rich ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in you getting less than the recommended daily amount of iron. Frequent blood donation. Individuals who donate blood often may be ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topics News & Resources Intramural Research Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer ... and symptoms as well as complications from iron-deficiency anemia. Research for Your Health The NHLBI is part of the U.S. Department ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... anemia, your doctor may order the following blood tests to diagnose iron-deficiency anemia: Complete blood count (CBC) to ... than normal when viewed under a microscope. Different tests help your doctor diagnose iron-deficiency anemia. In iron-deficiency anemia, blood ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend you eat heart-healthy foods or control other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. ...

  11. Iron and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deficiency isn't corrected, it can lead to iron-deficiency anemia (a decrease in the number of red blood ... Parents Kids Teens Anemia Blood Test: Ferritin (Iron) Iron-Deficiency Anemia Vegetarianism Menstrual Problems Pregnant or Breastfeeding? Nutrients You ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... normally stores but has used up. Increase your intake of vitamin C to help your body absorb iron. Avoid drinking black tea, which reduces iron absorption. Other treatments If you have chronic kidney disease and iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... different ages and stages of life. Until the teen years, the recommended amount of iron is the ... cow’s milk. Cow’s milk is low in iron. Teens, who have increased need for iron during growth ...

  14. An optimal method of iron starvation of the obligate intracellular pathogen, Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C. Thompson

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential cofactor in a number of critical biochemical reactions, and as such, its acquisition, storage, and metabolism is highly regulated in most organisms. The obligate intracellular bacterium, Chlamydia trachomatis experiences a developmental arrest when iron within the host is depleted. The nature of the iron starvation response in Chlamydia is relatively uncharacterized because of the likely inefficient method of iron depletion, which currently relies on the compound deferoxamine mesylate (DFO. Inefficient induction of the iron starvation response precludes the identification of iron-regulated genes. This report evaluated DFO with another iron chelator, 2,2’-bipyridyl (Bpdl and presented a systematic comparison of the two across a range of criteria in a single-treatment time-of-infection regimen. We demonstrate that the membrane permeable Bpdl was superior to DFO in the inhibition of chlamydia development, the induction of aberrant morphology, and the induction of an iron starvation transcriptional response in both host and bacteria. Furthermore, iron starvation using Bpdl identified the periplasmic iron binding protein-encoding ytgA gene as iron- responsive. Overall, the data present a compelling argument for the use of Bpdl, rather than DFO, in future iron starvation studies of chlamydia and other intracellular bacteria.

  15. Fungal Iron Availability during Deep Seated Candidiasis Is Defined by a Complex Interplay Involving Systemic and Local Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potrykus, Joanna; Stead, David; MacCallum, Donna M.; Urgast, Dagmar S.; Raab, Andrea; van Rooijen, Nico; Feldmann, Jörg; Brown, Alistair J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional immunity – the withholding of nutrients by the host – has long been recognised as an important factor that shapes bacterial-host interactions. However, the dynamics of nutrient availability within local host niches during fungal infection are poorly defined. We have combined laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP MS), MALDI imaging and immunohistochemistry with microtranscriptomics to examine iron homeostasis in the host and pathogen in the murine model of systemic candidiasis. Dramatic changes in the renal iron landscape occur during disease progression. The infection perturbs global iron homeostasis in the host leading to iron accumulation in the renal medulla. Paradoxically, this is accompanied by nutritional immunity in the renal cortex as iron exclusion zones emerge locally around fungal lesions. These exclusion zones correlate with immune infiltrates and haem oxygenase 1-expressing host cells. This local nutritional immunity decreases iron availability, leading to a switch in iron acquisition mechanisms within mature fungal lesions, as revealed by laser capture microdissection and qRT-PCR analyses. Therefore, a complex interplay of systemic and local events influences iron homeostasis and pathogen-host dynamics during disease progression. PMID:24146619

  16. Avaliação do estado nutricional de ferro e anemia em crianças menores de 5 anos de creches públicas Nutritional assessment of iron status and anemia in children under 5 years old at public daycare centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia F. Vieira

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o estado nutricional de ferro e a prevalência de anemia em crianças menores de 5 anos de creches públicas da cidade do Recife (PE. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, com amostra aleatória sistemática de 162 crianças, de 6 a 59 meses. O estado nutricional de ferro foi avaliado em termos de reservas corporais (ferritina sérica, transferrinemia (ferro sérico, capacidade total de ligação do ferro e % de saturação da transferrina, eritropoiese (protoporfirina eritrocitária livre e hemoglobinogênese (hemoglobina. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de anemia (hemoglobina 40 µmol/mol heme em 69,6% (IC95% 61,0-77,1 das crianças. Os parâmetros de ferro não apresentaram correlação com o gênero (p > 0,05. No entanto, crianças 24 meses. A significante correlação observada entre reserva, transferrinemia e eritropoiese representa achado compatível com o esperado ciclo de vida do ferro no organismo. CONCLUSÕES: A deficiência de ferro e a anemia parecem ser um importante problema de saúde pública entre as crianças menores de 5 anos de creches públicas do Recife. Logo, ações efetivas direcionadas à prevenção e ao controle dessa deficiência são fortemente recomendadas nesse contexto ecológico.OBJECTIVE: To assess nutritional iron status and anemia prevalence in children less than 5 years old at public daycare centers in the city of Recife, PE, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study, with a systematic random sampling of 162 children aged 6 to 59 months. Nutritional iron status was assessed in terms of body iron reserves (serum ferritin, transferrinemia (serum iron, total iron binding capacity, and transferrin saturation %, erythropoiesis (free erythrocyte protoporphyrin and hemoglobin production (hemoglobin. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia (hemoglobin 40 µmol/mol heme in 69.6% (95%CI 61.0-77.1 of the children. Iron parameters were not correlated with sex (p > 0.05. However, children 24 months. The significant

  17. Potential Association of IL1B Polymorphism With Iron Deficiency Risk in Childhood Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Szu-Ta; Ni, Yen-Hsuan; Liu, Shing-Hwa

    2018-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection occurs predominantly in childhood. Host immune response gene polymorphism is reported to affect the susceptibility to H pylori infection and the outcome of H pylori-related gastric cancer. Not all H pylori-infected patients, however, exhibit iron deficiency (ID). The relationship between host genetic polymorphisms and ID mediated by H pylori infection is not well understood. Subjects (n = 644) from the general population of age 10 to 18 years were divided into 2 groups based on serology testing for anti-H pylori IgG: seropositive study group; and seronegative control group. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IL1B (rs1143627 and rs16944), IL8 (rs4073), IL10 (rs1800896), and ABO (rs505922), were genotyped and the iron status of the 2 groups was compared. The seroprevalence rate for H pylori was 10.7% in this study. Infected subjects were significantly older and had lower serum iron levels than uninfected subjects (P = 0.0195 and 0.0059, respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed a significantly higher frequency of the T allele of rs505922 (odds ratio [OR] = 6.128; P < 0.001) and lower frequency of the T allele of rs1143627 (OR = 0.846; P = 0.014) in seropositive subjects. Among 59 seropositive subjects, the T allele frequency of rs1143627 was significantly higher in those with ID (OR = 3.156; P = 0.043), compared with those without ID. ABO (rs505922) and IL1B (rs1143627) may affect H pylori infection susceptibility, and IL1B (rs1143627) may also influence ID risk in infected children.

  18. Impact of daily consumption of iron fortified ready-to-eat cereal and pumpkin seed kernels (Cucurbita pepo) on serum iron in adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghii, Mohammad Reza; Mofid, Mahmood

    2007-01-01

    Iron deficiency, anemia, is the most prevalent nutritional problem in the world today. The objective of this study was to consider the effectiveness of consumption of iron fortified ready-to-eat cereal and pumpkin seed kernels as two sources of dietary iron on status of iron nutrition and response of hematological characteristics of women at reproductive ages. Eight healthy female, single or non pregnant subjects, aged 20-37 y consumed 30 g of iron fortified ready-to-eat cereal (providing 7.1 mg iron/day) plus 30 g of pumpkin seed kernels (providing 4.0 mg iron/day) for four weeks. Blood samples collected on the day 20 of menstrual cycles before and after consumption and indices of iron status such as reticulocyte count, hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht), serum ferritin, iron, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), transferrin and transferrin saturation percent were determined. Better response for iron status was observed after consumption period. The statistical analysis showed a significant difference between the pre and post consumption phase for higher serum iron (60 +/- 22 vs. 85 +/- 23 ug/dl), higher transferrin saturation percent (16.8 +/- 8.0 vs. 25.6 +/- 9.0%), and lower TIBC (367 +/- 31 vs. 339 +/- 31 ug/dl). All individuals had higher serum iron after consumption. A significant positive correlation (r=0.981, p=0.000) between the differences in serum iron levels and differences in transferrin saturation percentages and a significant negative correlation (r=-0.916, pfoods contribute to maintaining optimal nutritional status and minimizing the likelihood of iron insufficiencies and use of fortified ready-to-eat cereals is a common strategy. The results showed that adding another food source of iron such as pumpkin seed kernels improves the iron status. Additional and longer studies using these two food products are recommended to further determine the effect of iron fortification on iron nutrition and status among the target population, and mainly in young

  19. The path to host extinction can lead to loss of generalist parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Maxwell J; Stephens, Patrick R; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Gittleman, John L; Davies, T Jonathan

    2015-07-01

    Host extinction can alter disease transmission dynamics, influence parasite extinction and ultimately change the nature of host-parasite systems. While theory predicts that single-host parasites are among the parasite species most susceptible to extinction following declines in their hosts, documented parasite extinctions are rare. Using a comparative approach, we investigate how the richness of single-host and multi-host parasites is influenced by extinction risk among ungulate and carnivore hosts. Host-parasite associations for free-living carnivores (order Carnivora) and terrestrial ungulates (orders Perissodactyla + Cetartiodactyla minus cetaceans) were merged with host trait data and IUCN Red List status to explore the distribution of single-host and multi-host parasites among threatened and non-threatened hosts. We find that threatened ungulates harbour a higher proportion of single-host parasites compared to non-threatened ungulates, which is explained by decreases in the richness of multi-host parasites. However, among carnivores threat status is not a significant predictor of the proportion of single-host parasites, or the richness of single-host or multi-host parasites. The loss of multi-host parasites from threatened ungulates may be explained by decreased cross-species contact as hosts decline and habitats become fragmented. Among carnivores, threat status may not be important in predicting patterns of parasite specificity because host decline results in equal losses of both single-host parasites and multi-host parasites through reduction in average population density and frequency of cross-species contact. Our results contrast with current models of parasite coextinction and highlight the need for updated theories that are applicable across host groups and account for both inter- and intraspecific contact. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2015 British Ecological Society.

  20. Ferritin and iron levels in children with autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergüner, Sabri; Keleşoğlu, Fatih Mehmet; Tanıdır, Cansaran; Cöpür, Mazlum

    2012-01-01

    Iron has an important role on cognitive, behavioral, and motor development. High prevalence of iron deficiency has been reported in autism. The aim of this study was to investigate iron status in a group of children with autistic disorder. The sample was composed of 116 children between 3 and 16 years with a diagnosis of autistic disorder according to DSM-IV criteria. Serum ferritin, iron, hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, and red cell distribution width values were measured. We found that 24.1% of subjects had iron deficiency, and 15.5% had anemia. There was a significant positive correlation between age and ferritin and hematological measures. Results of this study confirmed that iron deficiency and anemia are common in children with autistic disorder. These findings suggest that ferritin levels should be measured in subjects with autism as a part of routine investigation.

  1. Iron Deprivation Affects Drug Susceptibilities of Mycobacteria Targeting Membrane Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Pal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug resistance (MDR acquired by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB through continuous deployment of antitubercular drugs warrants immediate search for novel targets and mechanisms. The ability of MTB to sense and become accustomed to changes in the host is essential for survival and confers the basis of infection. A crucial condition that MTB must surmount is iron limitation, during the establishment of infection, since iron is required by both bacteria and humans. This study focuses on how iron deprivation affects drug susceptibilities of known anti-TB drugs in Mycobacterium smegmatis, a “surrogate of MTB.” We showed that iron deprivation leads to enhanced potency of most commonly used first line anti-TB drugs that could be reverted upon iron supplementation. We explored that membrane homeostasis is disrupted upon iron deprivation as revealed by enhanced membrane permeability and hypersensitivity to membrane perturbing agent leading to increased passive diffusion of drug and TEM images showing detectable differences in cell envelope thickness. Furthermore, iron seems to be indispensable to sustain genotoxic stress suggesting its possible role in DNA repair machinery. Taken together, we for the first time established a link between cellular iron and drug susceptibility of mycobacteria suggesting iron as novel determinant to combat MDR.

  2. Identification of genes expressed by Cryptococcus gattii during iron deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphine Ariadne Jesus de Paula

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii are pathogenic yeasts that cause life-threatening diseases in humans and animals. Iron is an essential nutrient for virtually every organism as it functions as a cofactor in numerous essential enzymatic reactions. In the literature, the competition for iron between microbes and mammalian hosts during infection is well documented. In this study, we used representational difference analysis (RDA in order to gain a better understanding of how C. gattii responds to iron starvation. A total of 15 and 29 genes were identified as having altered expression levels due to iron depletion after 3 h and 12 h, respectively. Of these, eight genes were identified in both libraries. The transcripts were related to many biological processes, such as cell cycle, ergosterol metabolism, cell wall organization, transportation, translation, cell respiration and the stress response. These data suggest a remodeling of C. gattii metabolism during conditions of iron deprivation.

  3. The Effect of Iron Fertilization on Nodulation, Yield and Yield Traits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1984). Fe deficiency also primarily affects the structure and functioning of the .... polyethylene bags containing 200 g of soybean seeds. ... seed coat. ..... iron application could also be related to genetic make-up of the host, which regulates the.

  4. Iron utilization and liver mineral concentrations in rats fed safflower oil, flaxseed oil, olive oil, or beef tallow in combination with different concentrations of dietary iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shotton, Andrea D; Droke, Elizabeth A

    2004-03-01

    Diets with a higher proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (i.e., linoleic acid) have decreased iron absorption and utilization compared with diets containing a higher proportion of the saturated fatty acid stearic acid (e.g., beef tallow). However, less is known regarding the influence of other polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fatty acids, along with higher dietary iron, on iron absorption and utilization. The present study was conducted to compare the effects of dietary fat sources known to vary in (n-3), (n-6), and (n-9) fatty acids on iron utilization and liver mineral concentrations. Male weanling rats were fed a diet containing 10, 35, or 100 microg/g iron in combination with safflower oil, flaxseed oil, olive oil, or beef tallow for 8 wk. Indicators of iron status, iron utilization, and liver iron concentrations were unaffected by an interaction between the fat source and iron concentration. Plasma copper was the only variable affected by an interaction between the fat source and dietary iron. Findings of this study demonstrate that flaxseed oil and olive oil may alter tissue minerals and affect iron utilization. Further studies should be conducted to establish the effect of varying (n-3), (n-6), and (n-9) fatty acids on trace mineral status and iron utilization.

  5. Adverse outcomes of poor micronutrient status in childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viteri, Fernando E; Gonzalez, Horacio

    2002-05-01

    The adverse effects of micronutrient deficiencies and excesses in children up to reproductive age are presented. A summary of risks and adverse functional and health outcomes associated with deficient and excessive intakes and nutrition status of iron, iodine, zinc, vitamins A and D, folate, vitamin B12, and riboflavin is presented. Nutrient-nutrient interactions of micronutrients, age, gender, and other host and environmental conditions, such as pregnancy, genetic conditions, overall nutrition, force of infection, and social conditions are considered as covariates in trying to define causation and outcomes due to specific micronutrients. The outcomes analyzed focus on growth and development, mental and neuromotor performance, immunocompetence, physical working capacity, morbidity, and in the case of pregnancy, overall reproductive performance. The results presented include responses to specific and multiple "experimental" interventions. A brief analysis of possible public health programs is presented, with emphasis on prevention.

  6. Lactoferrin Efficiently Counteracts the Inflammation-Induced Changes of the Iron Homeostasis System in Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutone, Antimo; Rosa, Luigi; Lepanto, Maria Stefania; Scotti, Mellani Jinnett; Berlutti, Francesca; Bonaccorsi di Patti, Maria Carmela; Musci, Giovanni; Valenti, Piera

    2017-01-01

    Human lactoferrin (hLf), an 80-kDa multifunctional iron-binding cationic glycoprotein, is constitutively secreted by exocrine glands and by neutrophils during inflammation. hLf is recognized as a key element in the host immune defense system. The in vitro and in vivo experiments are carried out with bovine Lf (bLf), which shares high sequence homology and identical functions with hLf, including anti-inflammatory activity. Here, in "pure" M1 human macrophages, obtained by stimulation with a mixture of 10 pg/ml LPS and 20 ng/ml IFN-γ, as well as in a more heterogeneous macrophage population, challenged with high-dose of LPS (1 µg/ml), the effect of bLf on the expression of the main proteins involved in iron and inflammatory homeostasis, namely ferroportin (Fpn), membrane-bound ceruloplasmin (Cp), cytosolic ferritin (Ftn), transferrin receptor 1, and cytokines has been investigated. The increase of IL-6 and IL-1β cytokines, following the inflammatory treatments, is associated with both upregulation of cytosolic Ftn and downregulation of Fpn, membrane-bound Cp, and transferrin receptor 1. All these changes take part into intracellular iron overload, a very unsafe condition leading in vivo to higher host susceptibility to infections as well as iron deficiency in the blood and anemia of inflammation. It is, therefore, of utmost importance to counteract the persistence of the inflammatory status to rebalance iron levels between tissues/secretions and blood. Moreover, levels of the antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10 were increased in cells treated with high doses of LPS. Conversely, IL-10 decreased when the LPS/IFN-γ mix was used, suggesting that only the inflammation triggered by LPS high doses can switch on an anti-inflammatory response in our macrophagic model. Here, we demonstrate that bLf, when included in the culture medium, significantly reduced IL-6 and IL-1β production and efficiently prevented the changes of Fpn, membrane-bound Cp, cytosolic Ftn, and

  7. Lactoferrin Efficiently Counteracts the Inflammation-Induced Changes of the Iron Homeostasis System in Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antimo Cutone

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Human lactoferrin (hLf, an 80-kDa multifunctional iron-binding cationic glycoprotein, is constitutively secreted by exocrine glands and by neutrophils during inflammation. hLf is recognized as a key element in the host immune defense system. The in vitro and in vivo experiments are carried out with bovine Lf (bLf, which shares high sequence homology and identical functions with hLf, including anti-inflammatory activity. Here, in “pure” M1 human macrophages, obtained by stimulation with a mixture of 10 pg/ml LPS and 20 ng/ml IFN-γ, as well as in a more heterogeneous macrophage population, challenged with high-dose of LPS (1 µg/ml, the effect of bLf on the expression of the main proteins involved in iron and inflammatory homeostasis, namely ferroportin (Fpn, membrane-bound ceruloplasmin (Cp, cytosolic ferritin (Ftn, transferrin receptor 1, and cytokines has been investigated. The increase of IL-6 and IL-1β cytokines, following the inflammatory treatments, is associated with both upregulation of cytosolic Ftn and downregulation of Fpn, membrane-bound Cp, and transferrin receptor 1. All these changes take part into intracellular iron overload, a very unsafe condition leading in vivo to higher host susceptibility to infections as well as iron deficiency in the blood and anemia of inflammation. It is, therefore, of utmost importance to counteract the persistence of the inflammatory status to rebalance iron levels between tissues/secretions and blood. Moreover, levels of the antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10 were increased in cells treated with high doses of LPS. Conversely, IL-10 decreased when the LPS/IFN-γ mix was used, suggesting that only the inflammation triggered by LPS high doses can switch on an anti-inflammatory response in our macrophagic model. Here, we demonstrate that bLf, when included in the culture medium, significantly reduced IL-6 and IL-1β production and efficiently prevented the changes of Fpn, membrane-bound Cp

  8. The biological effect of asbestos exposure is dependent on changes in iron homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Functional groups on the surface of fibrous silicates can complex iron. We tested the postulate that 1) asbestos complexes and sequesters host cell iron resulting in a disruption of metal homeostasis and 2) this loss of essential metal results in an oxidative stress and...

  9. Wood smoke particle sequesters cell iron to impact a biological effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The biological effect of an inorganic particle (i.e., silica) can be associated with a disruption in cell iron homeostasis. Organic compounds included in particles originating from combustion processes can also complex sources of host cell iron to disrupt metal homeostasis. We te...

  10. Anemia and iron deficiency in gastrointestinal and liver conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Jürgen; Connor, Susan; Virgin, Garth; Ong, David Eng Hui; Pereyra, Lisandro

    2016-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is associated with a number of pathological gastrointestinal conditions other than inflammatory bowel disease, and also with liver disorders. Different factors such as chronic bleeding, malabsorption and inflammation may contribute to IDA. Although patients with symptoms of anemia are frequently referred to gastroenterologists, the approach to diagnosis and selection of treatment as well as follow-up measures is not standardized and suboptimal. Iron deficiency, even without anemia, can substantially impact physical and cognitive function and reduce quality of life. Therefore, regular iron status assessment and awareness of the clinical consequences of impaired iron status are critical. While the range of options for treatment of IDA is increasing due to the availability of effective and well-tolerated parenteral iron preparations, a comprehensive overview of IDA and its therapy in patients with gastrointestinal conditions is currently lacking. Furthermore, definitions and assessment of iron status lack harmonization and there is a paucity of expert guidelines on this topic. This review summarizes current thinking concerning IDA as a common co-morbidity in specific gastrointestinal and liver disorders, and thus encourages a more unified treatment approach to anemia and iron deficiency, while offering gastroenterologists guidance on treatment options for IDA in everyday clinical practice. PMID:27672287

  11. Anemia and iron deficiency in gastrointestinal and liver conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Jürgen; Connor, Susan; Virgin, Garth; Ong, David Eng Hui; Pereyra, Lisandro

    2016-09-21

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is associated with a number of pathological gastrointestinal conditions other than inflammatory bowel disease, and also with liver disorders. Different factors such as chronic bleeding, malabsorption and inflammation may contribute to IDA. Although patients with symptoms of anemia are frequently referred to gastroenterologists, the approach to diagnosis and selection of treatment as well as follow-up measures is not standardized and suboptimal. Iron deficiency, even without anemia, can substantially impact physical and cognitive function and reduce quality of life. Therefore, regular iron status assessment and awareness of the clinical consequences of impaired iron status are critical. While the range of options for treatment of IDA is increasing due to the availability of effective and well-tolerated parenteral iron preparations, a comprehensive overview of IDA and its therapy in patients with gastrointestinal conditions is currently lacking. Furthermore, definitions and assessment of iron status lack harmonization and there is a paucity of expert guidelines on this topic. This review summarizes current thinking concerning IDA as a common co-morbidity in specific gastrointestinal and liver disorders, and thus encourages a more unified treatment approach to anemia and iron deficiency, while offering gastroenterologists guidance on treatment options for IDA in everyday clinical practice.

  12. [Tuberculosis in compromised hosts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    Recent development of tuberculosis in Japan tends to converge on a specific high risk group. The proportion of tuberculosis developing particularly from the compromised hosts in the high risk group is especially high. At this symposium, therefore, we took up diabetes mellitus, gastrectomy, dialysis, AIDS and the elderly for discussion. Many new findings and useful reports for practical medical treatment are submitted; why these compromised hosts are predisposed to tuberculosis, tuberculosis diagnostic and remedial notes of those compromised hosts etc. It is an important question for the future to study how to prevent tuberculosis from these compromised hosts. 1. Tuberculosis in diabetes mellitus: aggravation and its immunological mechanism: Kazuyoshi KAWAKAMI (Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Graduate School and Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus). It has been well documented that diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major aggravating factor in tuberculosis. The onset of this disease is more frequent in DM patients than in individuals with any underlying diseases. However, the precise mechanism of this finding remains to be fully understood. Earlier studies reported that the migration, phagocytosis and bactericidal activity of neutrophils are all impaired in DM patients, which is related to their reduced host defense to infection with extracellular bacteria, such as S. aureus and E. colli. Host defense to mycobacterial infection is largely mediated by cellular immunity, and Th1-related cytokines, such as IFN-gamma and IL-12, play a central role in this response. It is reported that serum level of these cytokines and their production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) are reduced in tuberculosis patients with DM, and this is supposed to be involved in the high incidence of tuberculosis in DM. Our study observed similar findings and furthermore indicated that IFN-gamma and IL-12 production by BCG-stimulated PBMC was lower

  13. Serum levels of iron in Sør-Varanger, Northern Norway--an iron mining municipality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderstad, Ann R; Smith-Sivertsen, Tone; Dahl, Inger Marie S; Ingebretsen, Ole Christian; Lund, Eiliv

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate iron status in a population with a high proportion of miners in the northernmost part of Norway. Cross-sectional, population-based study performed in order to investigate possible health effects of pollution in the population living on both sides of the Norwegian-Russian border. All individuals living in the community of Sør-Varanger were invited for screening in 1994. In 2000, blood samples from 2949 participants (response rate 66.8 %), age range 30-69 years, were defrosted. S-ferritin and transferrin saturation were analysed in samples from 1548 women and 1401 men. About 30 % (n = 893) were employed in the iron mining industry, 476 of whom were miners and 417 had other tasks in the company. Type and duration of employment and time since last day of work at the company were used as indicators of exposure. Both s-ferritin levels and transferrin saturation were higher in men than in women. S-ferritin increased with increasing age in women, while the opposite was true for men. Iron deficiency occurred with higher frequencies in women (16 %) than in men (4 %). Iron overload was uncommon in both sexes. Adjustment for smoking and self-reported pulmonary diseases did not show any effect on iron levels. Miners had non-significant higher mean s-ferritin and transferrin saturation than non-miners. Neither duration, nor time since employment in the mine, had any impact on iron status. Our analyses did not show any associations between being a miner in the iron mining industry and serum iron levels compared to the general population.

  14. Iron-induced changes in the proteome of Trichomonas vaginalis hydrogenosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neritza Campo Beltrán

    Full Text Available Iron plays a crucial role in metabolism as a key component of catalytic and redox cofactors, such as heme or iron-sulfur clusters in enzymes and electron-transporting or regulatory proteins. Limitation of iron availability by the host is also one of the mechanisms involved in immunity. Pathogens must regulate their protein expression according to the iron concentration in their environment and optimize their metabolic pathways in cases of limitation through the availability of respective cofactors. Trichomonas vaginalis, a sexually transmitted pathogen of humans, requires high iron levels for optimal growth. It is an anaerobe that possesses hydrogenosomes, mitochondrion-related organelles that harbor pathways of energy metabolism and iron-sulfur cluster assembly. We analyzed the proteomes of hydrogenosomes obtained from cells cultivated under iron-rich and iron-deficient conditions employing two-dimensional peptide separation combining IEF and nano-HPLC with quantitative MALDI-MS/MS. We identified 179 proteins, of which 58 were differentially expressed. Iron deficiency led to the upregulation of proteins involved in iron-sulfur cluster assembly and the downregulation of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Interestingly, iron affected the expression of only some of multiple protein paralogues, whereas the expression of others was iron independent. This finding indicates a stringent regulation of differentially expressed multiple gene copies in response to changes in the availability of exogenous iron.

  15. Inflammation and ER Stress Downregulate BDH2 Expression and Dysregulate Intracellular Iron in Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susu M. Zughaier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages play a very important role in host defense and in iron homeostasis by engulfing senescent red blood cells and recycling iron. Hepcidin is the master iron regulating hormone that limits dietary iron absorption from the gut and limits iron egress from macrophages. Upon infection macrophages retain iron to limit its bioavailability which limits bacterial growth. Recently, a short chain butyrate dehydrogenase type 2 (BDH2 protein was reported to contain an iron responsive element and to mediate cellular iron trafficking by catalyzing the synthesis of the mammalian siderophore that binds labile iron; therefore, BDH2 plays a crucial role in intracellular iron homeostasis. However, BDH2 expression and regulation in macrophages have not yet been described. Here we show that LPS-induced inflammation combined with ER stress led to massive BDH2 downregulation, increased the expression of ER stress markers, upregulated hepcidin expression, downregulated ferroportin expression, caused iron retention in macrophages, and dysregulated cytokine release from macrophages. We also show that ER stress combined with inflammation synergistically upregulated the expression of the iron carrier protein NGAL and the stress-inducible heme degrading enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 leading to iron liberation. This is the first report to show that inflammation and ER stress downregulate the expression of BDH2 in human THP-1 macrophages.

  16. Cellular iron transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrick, Michael D; Garrick, Laura M

    2009-05-01

    Iron has a split personality as an essential nutrient that also has the potential to generate reactive oxygen species. We discuss how different cell types within specific tissues manage this schizophrenia. The emphasis in enterocytes is on regulating the body's supply of iron by regulating transport into the blood stream. In developing red blood cells, adaptations in transport manage the body's highest flux of iron. Hepatocytes buffer the body's stock of iron. Macrophage recycle the iron from effete red cells among other iron management tasks. Pneumocytes provide a barrier to prevent illicit entry that, when at risk of breaching, leads to a need to handle the dangers in a fashion essentially shared with macrophage. We also discuss or introduce cell types including renal cells, neurons, other brain cells, and more where our ignorance, currently still vast, needs to be removed by future research.

  17. Predictors of iron levels in 14,737 Danish blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rigas, Andreas Stribolt; Sørensen, Cecilie Juul; Pedersen, Ole Birger

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dietary studies show a relationship between the intake of iron enhancers and inhibitors and iron stores in the general population. However, the impact of dietary factors on the iron stores of blood donors, whose iron status is affected by blood donations, is incompletely understood....... STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: In the Danish Blood Donor Study, we assessed the effect of blood donation frequency, physiologic factors, lifestyle and supplemental factors, and dietary factors on ferritin levels. We used multiple linear and logistic regression analyses stratified by sex and menopausal status....... RESULTS: Among high-frequency donors (more than nine donations in the past 3 years), we found iron deficiency (ferritin below 15 ng/mL) in 9, 39, and 22% of men, premenopausal women, and postmenopausal women, respectively. The strongest predictors of iron deficiency were sex, menopausal status, the number...

  18. Low prevalence of iron deficiency anemia between 1981 and 2010 in Chilean women of childbearing age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Ríos-Castillo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the prevalence of anemia and iron status among Chilean women of childbearing age between 1981 and 2010. Materials and methods. Calculation of the prevalence of anemia and iron status was based on multiple cross-sectional iron absorption studies performed in 888 women during this period of time. All studies included measurements of hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, zinc protoporphyrin, percentage of transferrin saturation and serum ferritin. Data were grouped by decade (1981-1990,1991-2000, and 2001-2010. Results. Prevalence of anemia for these decades was 9, 6 and 10%, respectively (p=NS. Iron deficiency anemia was the main cause of anemia in all periods (55, 85 and 75%, respectively; p=NS. A high prevalence of women with normal iron status was observed for all periods (64, 69, and 67, respectively; p=NS. Prevalence of iron deficiency without anemia in 1981-1990, 1991-2000 and 2001-2010 was 7, 20 and 12%, respectively (p menor que 0.05. Finally, prevalence of iron depleted stores was 20, 6 and 10%, respectively (p menor que 0.05. Conclusions. Prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in Chilean women of childbearing age was mild between 1981 and 2010. More than 60% of childbearing age women presented normal iron status in all periods. However, prevalence of iron depleted stores was moderate during 1981-1990, and was mild during 1991-2000 and 2001-2010.

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs. Our ... more information about Donor Iron Deficiency Study - Red Blood Cells ...

  20. Mineralogy and geochemistry of banded iron formation and iron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The geological complexities of banded iron formation (BIF) and associated iron ores of Jilling–. Langalata iron ore ...... sure to sea water. Uranium in these samples varies ..... Ce oxidation and removal (Elderfield and Greaves. 1982; De Baar et ...