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Sample records for host anacardium occidentale

  1. Improving the growth of cashew ( Anacardium occidentale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Améliorant la croissance des semis d'anacardier (Anacardium occidentale) plantés entre les lignes des parcelles de karité mûr au nord du Ghana Résumé Les effets de sulfate d'ammonium et d'application de bouse de vache sur la croissance des semis jeunes d'anacardier (Anacardium occidentale) entre les parcelles de ...

  2. Antibacterial evaluation of Anacardium occidentale (Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    inhibitory concentration (MIC) revealed that both parts of the plant have antibacterial activity, but the .... flavonols, xanthones, chalcones, auron, flavononois, ... Table 2. Antibacterial activity of ethanol extract of stem peels and leaves of Anacardium occidentale L. Plant part. Concentrations of the extracts in % (mg/ml).

  3. Leaf Extract Of Anacardium occidentale on Gastric

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chigo Okwuosa

    Gastric acid output was determined by continuous perfusion of rat stomach in urethane anesthetized rats. Control gastric acid output was obtained using 0.9% sodium chloride as perfusate and ... mixer grinder, until a constant weight was obtained. 100grams of ground Anacardium occidentale leaves was soaked in 500ml of ...

  4. Antibacterial evaluation of Anacardium occidentale (Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibacterial evaluation of Anacardium occidentale (Linn) (Anacardiaceae) in semiarid Brazil. Francianne Oliveira Santos, Elissandra Couras Angélico, José Galberto Martins da Costa, Fabíola FG Rodrigues, Onaldo Guedes Rodrigues, Rosália Severo de Medeiros ...

  5. Anacardium occidentale Linn. (Anacardiaceae) stem bark extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was carried out in order to assess the effects of Anacardium occidentale extract (ANOE) on cardiovascular parameters in animal models. A mercury manometer kymograph of Ludwig was used to measure the blood pressure of normotensive rabbits in control conditions (normal physiological solution) and ...

  6. Multifunctional cytotoxic agents from Anacardium occidentale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Isao; Nitoda, Teruhiko; Tocoli, Felismino E; Green, Ivan R

    2011-01-01

    The effects of anacardic acids and cardols isolated from the cashew nut and apple Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae) on murine B16-F10 melanoma cells were tested. Although anacardic acids and cardols were found to inhibit tyrosinase, a key enzyme in melanin synthesis, melanogenesis in melanocytes was not suppressed in cultured cells but rather enhanced. Both anacardic acids and cardols exhibited moderate cytotoxicity. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Antibacterial evaluation of Anacardium occidentale (Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    Química Nova. 30(2):374-381. Gonçalves GMS, Gobbo J (2012). Antimicrobial Effect of Anacardium. Occidentale Extract and Cosmetic Formulation Development. Braz. Arc. Biol. Technol. 55(6): 843-850. Matos FJA (1997). Introdução à fitoquímica experimental. UFC Edições. pp. 44-46. Melo AFM, Santos EJV, Souza LFC, ...

  8. Evaluation of Anacardium Occidentale Methanol Leaf Extracts in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oral administration of various doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) of methanol extracts of the leaves of Anacardium occidentale produced significant antidiarrhoeal activities in mice by reducing the number and frequency of defecation of wet faeces, reduction in intestinal weight and intraluminal fluid volume as well as reducing ...

  9. ON THE ANTIFEEDANT AND ANTHELLMINTIC POTENTIAL OF ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, A.S; Chauhan, M.G.; Shah, B.K.

    1998-01-01

    The antifeedant and anthelmintic activities of crude extracts of the shells of Anacardium occidentale were studied by comparing it's activity with the activity of Azadirachta indica A Juss (Kernel), a commercial standard. The test extracts of A. occidentale in petroleum ether, dichloromethane: methanol showed better activities compared to A. Indica. To Study the anthelmintic activity, the addition of piperine to the formulation significantly enhances the activity. The phytochemical investigation of test extracts showed the presence of phenols namely cordol, cardanol and anacardic acid by TLC studies. The most potent extracts are non toxic to mice. PMID:22556881

  10. The anti-ophidian properties of Anacardium occidentale bark extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushanandini, Sampath; Nagaraju, Shivaiah; Nayaka, Siddaiah Chandra; Kumar, Krishnegowda Harish; Kemparaju, Kempaiah; Girish, Kesturu Subbaiah

    2009-01-01

    Snakebites in rural areas of tropical and subtropical regions are commonly treated with medicinal plants. In this report, we have studied the ability of Anacardium occidentale bark extract to neutralize enzymatic as well as pharmacological effects induced by Vipera russelii venom. The extract neutralized the viper venom hydrolytic enzymes such as phospholipase, protease, and hyaluronidase in a dose dependent manner. These enzymes are responsible for both local effects of envenomation such as local tissue damage, inflammation and myonecrosis, and systemic effects including dysfunction of vital organs and alteration in the coagulation components. In addition, extract neutralized the pharmacological effects such as edema, hemorrhage, and myotoxic effects including lethality, induced by venom. Since, it inhibits both hydrolytic enzymes and pharmacological effects; it may be used as an alternative treatment to serum therapy and, in addition, as a rich source of potential inhibitors of hydrolytic enzymes involved in several physiopathological diseases.

  11. Efecto nutracéutico del Anacardium occidentale en dietas de pollitas ponedoras de reemplazo

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez A, Yordan; Martínez Y, Orlando; Olmos S, Edwin; Siza I, Sandra; Betancur H, César

    2012-01-01

    RESUMENObjetivo. Evaluar el efecto nutracéutico del polvo de hojas y retoños de Anacardium occidentale (AO) en dietas de pollitas ponedoras de remplazo. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizaron 240 pollitas White Leghorn (L-33) de un día de edad, que se ubicaron durante 35 días, según diseño completamente aleatorizado, con niveles de adición de 0, 0.5, 1.5 y 2.5% de polvo de hojas y retoños de Anacardium occidentale en las dietas. Se determinaron en las pollitas, los indicadores productivos, peso ...

  12. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Anacardium occidentale Leaf Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Cabral Souza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In tropical America, principally in Northeastern Brazil, the leaf extract of Anacardium occidentale is traditionally used for treatment of different diseases. However, chemical and biological properties and activities of Anacardium occidentale are poorly investigated and known. Here, we evaluated the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities “in vitro” of leaf extract from Anacardium occidentale. Our results show that leaf extract exhibits antioxidant activity when used to treat RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Antioxidant effects were observed by decrease in oxidative damage in macrophage cells treated with 0.5 µg/mL and 5 µg/mL of leaf extract. Moreover, leaf extract reversed oxidative damage and inflammatory parameters induced in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Leaf extract at 0.5 µg/mL and 5 µg/mL was able to inhibit release of TNF-α and IL-1β in LPS-stimulated cells. Taken together, our results indicate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of leaf extract from Anacardium occidentale and reveal the positive effects that intake of these products can mediate in biological system.

  13. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Anacardium occidentale Leaf Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Juliana Medeiros; Morrone, Maurílio da Silva; Albanus, Ricardo D'Oliveira; Amarante, Maria do Socorro Medeiros; Camillo, Christina da Silva; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca; Dalmolin, Rodrigo Juliani Siqueira

    2017-01-01

    In tropical America, principally in Northeastern Brazil, the leaf extract of Anacardium occidentale is traditionally used for treatment of different diseases. However, chemical and biological properties and activities of Anacardium occidentale are poorly investigated and known. Here, we evaluated the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities “in vitro” of leaf extract from Anacardium occidentale. Our results show that leaf extract exhibits antioxidant activity when used to treat RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Antioxidant effects were observed by decrease in oxidative damage in macrophage cells treated with 0.5 µg/mL and 5 µg/mL of leaf extract. Moreover, leaf extract reversed oxidative damage and inflammatory parameters induced in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Leaf extract at 0.5 µg/mL and 5 µg/mL was able to inhibit release of TNF-α and IL-1β in LPS-stimulated cells. Taken together, our results indicate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of leaf extract from Anacardium occidentale and reveal the positive effects that intake of these products can mediate in biological system. PMID:28904552

  14. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties ofAnacardium occidentaleLeaf Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Natália Cabral; de Oliveira, Juliana Medeiros; Morrone, Maurílio da Silva; Albanus, Ricardo D'Oliveira; Amarante, Maria do Socorro Medeiros; Camillo, Christina da Silva; Langassner, Silvana Maria Zucolotto; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca; Dalmolin, Rodrigo Juliani Siqueira; Pasquali, Matheus Augusto de Bittencourt

    2017-01-01

    In tropical America, principally in Northeastern Brazil, the leaf extract of Anacardium occidentale is traditionally used for treatment of different diseases. However, chemical and biological properties and activities of Anacardium occidentale are poorly investigated and known. Here, we evaluated the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities "in vitro" of leaf extract from Anacardium occidentale. Our results show that leaf extract exhibits antioxidant activity when used to treat RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Antioxidant effects were observed by decrease in oxidative damage in macrophage cells treated with 0.5  µ g/mL and 5  µ g/mL of leaf extract. Moreover, leaf extract reversed oxidative damage and inflammatory parameters induced in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Leaf extract at 0.5  µ g/mL and 5  µ g/mL was able to inhibit release of TNF- α and IL-1 β in LPS-stimulated cells. Taken together, our results indicate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of leaf extract from Anacardium occidentale and reveal the positive effects that intake of these products can mediate in biological system.

  15. Interaction of gamma radiation on the functionality of the molluscicidal extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Gustavo Henrique Farias dos [Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia (GERAR) . Departamento de Energia Nuclear. Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Silva, Edvane Borges da [Centro Academico de Vitoria. Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil); Amorim, Elba Lucia C.; Peixoto Sobrinho, Tadeu J.S., E-mail: elba@ufpe.br [Departamento de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Melo, Ana Maria Mendonca de Albuquerque; Lima, Claudia Sampaio de Andrade [Departamento de Biofisica e Radiobiologia. Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Biological control of Biomphalaria glabrata that is the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni, through molluscicides has been an alternative against schistosomiasis. Many studies have been developed to obtain molluscicide products, from plants. Anacardium occidentale L. (cashew), a plant rich in phenolic compounds shows molluscicidal activity in earlier assays. However there is an interest of enhancing the action of bioactive substances in order to use it in small concentrations, reducing costs in their utilization. This study were conducted using ethanolic extracts of bark and leaves of A. occidentale, before and after exposure to gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co, checking their secondary metabolites, their biological activity against Biomphalaria glabrata and environmental toxicity. The extracts of A. occidentale were obtained by cold maceration in 70% ethanol, filtered, dried and divided into two experimental groups: control (0 kGy) and irradiated at a dose of 10 kGy. The quantification of metabolites was performed in six replicates for the determination of total phenols by Folin-Ciocalteau method and tannins, the precipitation of casein. Tests for biological control of embryos and adults of B. glabrata snails and assessment of environmental toxicity (using Artemia salina larvae) were performed in triplicate, following a period of 24 hours of exposure to extracts at a concentration of 100 mg/L and its respective controls. Data were expressed as percentages of means and standard deviations. The results showed that the gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co resulted in leaf extracts, increased levels of total phenols and tannins, which enhanced the lethality for embryos and adults of B. glabrata. There was a reduction of the toxicity of leaf extracts after irradiation in the Artemia salina. Since in extracts of bark, gamma radiation did not alter the levels of total phenols and tannins, however, it was noted potentiation of lethality of adult snails of B. glabrata. The

  16. Interaction of gamma radiation on the functionality of the molluscicidal extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Gustavo Henrique Farias dos; Silva, Edvane Borges da; Amorim, Elba Lucia C.; Peixoto Sobrinho, Tadeu J.S.; Melo, Ana Maria Mendonca de Albuquerque; Lima, Claudia Sampaio de Andrade

    2011-01-01

    Biological control of Biomphalaria glabrata that is the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni, through molluscicides has been an alternative against schistosomiasis. Many studies have been developed to obtain molluscicide products, from plants. Anacardium occidentale L. (cashew), a plant rich in phenolic compounds shows molluscicidal activity in earlier assays. However there is an interest of enhancing the action of bioactive substances in order to use it in small concentrations, reducing costs in their utilization. This study were conducted using ethanolic extracts of bark and leaves of A. occidentale, before and after exposure to gamma radiation from 60 Co, checking their secondary metabolites, their biological activity against Biomphalaria glabrata and environmental toxicity. The extracts of A. occidentale were obtained by cold maceration in 70% ethanol, filtered, dried and divided into two experimental groups: control (0 kGy) and irradiated at a dose of 10 kGy. The quantification of metabolites was performed in six replicates for the determination of total phenols by Folin-Ciocalteau method and tannins, the precipitation of casein. Tests for biological control of embryos and adults of B. glabrata snails and assessment of environmental toxicity (using Artemia salina larvae) were performed in triplicate, following a period of 24 hours of exposure to extracts at a concentration of 100 mg/L and its respective controls. Data were expressed as percentages of means and standard deviations. The results showed that the gamma radiation from 60 Co resulted in leaf extracts, increased levels of total phenols and tannins, which enhanced the lethality for embryos and adults of B. glabrata. There was a reduction of the toxicity of leaf extracts after irradiation in the Artemia salina. Since in extracts of bark, gamma radiation did not alter the levels of total phenols and tannins, however, it was noted potentiation of lethality of adult snails of B. glabrata. The analysis

  17. Effects of Anacardium occidentale stem bark extract on in vivo inflammatory models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olajide, Olumayokun A; Aderogba, Mutallib A; Adedapo, Aduragbenro D A; Makinde, Janet M

    2004-12-01

    The methanol extract of Anacardium occidentale stem bark was evaluated for activities against the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced septic shock, as well as LPS-induced microvascular permeability in mice. Pre-treatment with Anacardium occidentale extract (25-200 mg/kg) caused a dose-dependent and significant (p < 0.05) reduction in the elevated levels of alanine and aspartate aminotransferases in the sera of D-galactosamine-primed mice injected with LPS. The highest dose of the extract studied (200 mg/kg) produced a 100% protection against death from sepsis. Pentoxifylline (100 mg/kg) and L-NAME (5 mg/kg) offered 100% protection against LPS-induced septic shock, and produced marked reduction in elevated levels of transferases. A dose-related inhibition of LPS-induced microvascular permability in mice was also produced by pentoxifylline, L-NAME and the extract.

  18. Anti – Inflammatory and analgesic Activity of Anacardium Occidentale Leaf Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, S.P.; Sathwane, P.N.; Metkar, B.R.; Pal, S.C; Kasture, V.S.; Kasture, S.B.

    2000-01-01

    The extracts of the dried leaves of Anacardium occidentale  were screened for anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan induced rat paw edema model. The petroleum ether and chloroform extract and acetone soluble fraction of methanolic extract showed 57.14%, 47.61% and 61.90% inhibition of paw edema respectively. Acetone soluble extract showed better activity than petroleum either and chloroform extracts. PMID:22556940

  19. Molecular detection of cashew husk (Anacardium occidentale) adulteration in market samples of dry tea (Camellia sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Bandana; Singh, Mahipal

    2003-09-01

    Species-specific PCR primers were developed from intergenic spacer regions of 5S ribosomal RNA genes and used successfully in the detection of adulteration of cashew husk (Anacardium occidentale L.) in tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] samples. This is the first report of detecting adulteration in tea using molecular tools. Application of this approach in detecting adulteration of other biological materials in tea, medicinal herbs and the composition of admixtures of ayurvedic herbs has been discussed.

  20. Effect of Anacardium occidentale leaf extract on human acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Janaína M; Cury, Nathalia M; Yunes, José A; López, Jorge A; Hernández-Macedo, Maria L

    2018-01-16

    Anacardium occidentale leaves are used in folk medicine due its therapeutic properties attributed to phenolic compounds. Therefore, this study was undertaken on its hydroethanolic leaf extract (AoHE) to evaluate cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction on acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cells. Results indicated that AoHE interfered in the cell cycle progression, inducing apoptosis by activation of casp3 at lower concentrations, thence, a promising candidate for the development of new cancer drugs.

  1. Pirolisis Kulit Biji Jambu Mete (Anacardium Occidentale L.) dengan Katalis Ni-Ag/Zeolit

    OpenAIRE

    Kartika, Eva Noer; Suyati, Linda; Nuryanto, Rahmad

    2012-01-01

    Telah dilakukan pirolisis kulit biji jambu mete (Anacardium occidentale L.) dengan katalis Ni-Ag/zeolit untuk mendapatkan produk cair hasil pirolisis dan membandingkannya dengan produk cair pirolisis dengan katalis Ni/zeolit.. Pirolisis dilakukan dengan variasi temperatur 200, 250, 300, 350, dan 400°C. Produk yang berupa gas dikondensasikan pada pendingin es-garam kemudian dianalisis dengan GC-MS. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan semakin tinggi temperatur pirolisis semakin banyak massa produk cai...

  2. Hypoglycemic effect of methanolic extract of Anacardium occidentale leaves in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagbohun, T R; Odufuwa, K T

    2010-11-25

    Anacardium occidentale Leave (Anacardiaceae), a plant natively grown in wastelands in Africa is used as a folk remedy for diabetes mellitus. Previous studies, reported the hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous leaf extract of A. occidentale in diabetic rats and its prophylactic activity against the diabetogenic action of streptozotocin This study evaluated the hypoglycemic effect of a methanolic extract of streptozotocin leaves and its fractions in Alloxan-induced diabetic rats in comparison to Tolbutamide, a reference drug. For moderately diabetic rat, A. occidentale caused a 79.2 % change over 4 hours and Tolbutamide caused a 63.1 % change over this same time period. When the rat were considered to be severely diabetic, the A. occidentale decreased the blood glucose levels by 20.8% change over four hours and the mean percent change over 4 hours for Tolbutamide was 47.63%. These values were not considered significant. So the same conclusion can be made about the efficacy of A. occidentale, when compared to the reference drug, Tolbutamide. These results that show that A. occidentale has a similar ability compared with Tolbutamide to lower blood glucose levels.

  3. antidiabetic activity of anacardium occidentale in alloxan – diabetic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    The blood sugar in the serum was estimated using a glucometer. The percentage decrease in glycemia in the blood sample was calculated using the formula: where Go = Initial glycemia; and Gx = Glyce- mia at time x. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. Fractionation of the ethanolic extract of the inner-bark of A. occidentale ...

  4. Sub-chronic Hepatotoxicity of Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae) Inner Stem Bark Extract in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonkwo, T J N; Okorie, O; Okonta, J M; Okonkwo, C J

    2010-05-01

    The extracts of Anacardium occidentale have been used in the management of different cardiovascular disorders in Nigeria. These have necessitated the assessment of the toxicity of this plant extract in sub-chronic administration. The inner stem bark of Anacardium occidentale was extracted with 80 % methanol and quantitatively analysed for antinutrients and some heavy metals. The phytochemical compositions and acute toxicity of the extract were determined also. Toxicity profiles of the extract on some liver function parameters were evaluated following a sub-chronic oral administration at doses of 1.44 and 2.87 g/kg. The phytochemical screening of extract revealed the presence of high amount of tannins, moderate saponins and trace of free reducing sugars. The antinutrient levels were 5.75 % (tannins), 2.50 % (oxalates), 2.00 % (saponins), 0.25 % (phytate) and 0.03 % (cyanide). The quantity of iron detected from dried crude was 8.92 mg/100 g, while lead and cadmium were non-detectable. The extract had LD(50)of 2.154g/kg p.o. in mice. Sub-chronic administration of the extract significantly increased the serum levels of alanine aminotransaminase and aspartate aminotransaminase, which are indicative of liver damage. The serum levels of alkaline phosphatase and total protein of the treated animals were not significantly increased. The effects of sub-chronically administered extract on hepatocytes were minimal as the serum alkaline phosphatase; total bilirubin and total protein levels in treated animals were not significant (pAnacardium occidentale inner stem bark extract did not significantly (p< 0.05) depress the function of hepatocytes in Wistar rats.

  5. Synthesis of platinum nanoparticles using dried Anacardium occidentale leaf and its catalytic and thermal applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheny, D S; Philip, Daizy; Mathew, Joseph

    2013-10-01

    An environment friendly approach for the synthesis of Pt nanoparticles (NPs) using dried leaf powder of Anacardium occidentale is reported. The formation of Pt NPs is monitored using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. FTIR spectra reveal that proteins are bound to Pt nanoparticles. TEM images show irregular rod shaped particles which are crystalline. The quantity of leaf powder plays a vital role in determining the size of particles. Synthesized NPs exhibit good catalytic activity in the reduction of aromatic nitrocompound. The effective thermal conductivity of synthesized Pt/water nanofluid has been measured and found to be enhanced to a good extent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. In vitro antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of Anacardium occidentale and Mangifera indica in oral care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Geethashri; Ravinanthan, Manikandan; Basaviah, Ravishankar; Shetty, A Veena

    2015-01-01

    Oral health is an integral and important component of general health. Infectious diseases such as caries, periodontal, and gingivitis indicate the onset of imbalance in homeostasis between oral micro biota and host. The present day medicaments used in oral health care have numerous side effects. The uses of herbal plants as an alternative have gained popularity due to side effects of antibiotics and emergence of multidrug resistant strains. Anacardium occidentale (cashew) and Mangifera indica (mango) have been used as traditional oral health care measures in India since time immemorial. The ethanol extracts of cashew and mango leaves were obtained by maceration method. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by clear zone produced by these plant extracts against Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans in agar plate method, determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration (MBC/MFC), and suppression of biofilm. The cytotoxic effects of plants extract was determined by microculture tetrazolium assay on human gingival fibroblast and Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79) cell lines. Cashew and mango leaf extract significantly (P < 0.05) produced larger zone of inhibition against test pathogens when compared to povidone-iodine-based mouth rinses. Although the MIC and MBC/MFC values of mouth rinses were effective in lower concentrations; plant extracts significantly (P < 0.001) suppressed the biofilms of oral pathogens. The leaf extracts were less cytotoxic (P < 0.001) compared to mouth rinses. Plant extracts are superior to the mouth rinses and have a promising role in future oral health care.

  7. In vitro antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of Anacardium occidentale and Mangifera indica in oral care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geethashri Anand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral health is an integral and important component of general health. Infectious diseases such as caries, periodontal, and gingivitis indicate the onset of imbalance in homeostasis between oral micro biota and host. The present day medicaments used in oral health care have numerous side effects. The uses of herbal plants as an alternative have gained popularity due to side effects of antibiotics and emergence of multidrug resistant strains. Anacardium occidentale (cashew and Mangifera indica (mango have been used as traditional oral health care measures in India since time immemorial. Materials and Methods: The ethanol extracts of cashew and mango leaves were obtained by maceration method. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by clear zone produced by these plant extracts against Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans in agar plate method, determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration (MBC/MFC, and suppression of biofilm. The cytotoxic effects of plants extract was determined by microculture tetrazolium assay on human gingival fibroblast and Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79 cell lines. Results: Cashew and mango leaf extract significantly (P < 0.05 produced larger zone of inhibition against test pathogens when compared to povidone---iodine-based mouth rinses. Although the MIC and MBC/MFC values of mouth rinses were effective in lower concentrations; plant extracts significantly (P < 0.001 suppressed the biofilms of oral pathogens. The leaf extracts were less cytotoxic (P < 0.001 compared to mouth rinses. Conclusions: Plant extracts are superior to the mouth rinses and have a promising role in future oral health care.

  8. Reductive-degradation of carcinogenic azo dyes using Anacardium occidentale testa derived silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel; Atchudan, Raji; Sethuraman, Mathur Gopalakrishnan; Lee, Yong Rok

    2016-09-01

    In the present work, reductive-degradation of azo dyes such as congo red (CR) and methyl orange (MO) was manifested using Anacardium occidentale testa derived silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as a catalyst. The formation of highly stable AgNPs were visually confirmed by the appearance of yellow color and further substantiated by the existence of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak around 425nm. The effect of A. occidentale concentration, reaction time and pH in the formations of AgNPs was corroborated by UV-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic results proved that phytoconstituents of A. occidentale testa acts as a capping agent and thereby protects the AgNPs from aggregation. The crystalline nature of the AgNPs was validated from the XRD patterns. The average size of synthesized AgNPs was 25nm, with distorted spherical shape was ascribed from the high resolution transmission electron microscopic (HR-TEM) images. Due to the high stability of the as-synthesized AgNPs, they were utilized for the degradation of carcinogenic azo dyes such as CR and MO using NaBH4 and its catalytic activity was studied via UV-Vis spectroscopy. The results proved that extraordinary catalytic activity of synthesized AgNPs towards the reductive-degradation of both CR and MO. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Anti-inflammatory and bronchodilatory constituents of leaf extracts of Anacardium occidentale L. in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awakan, Oluwakemi Josephine; Malomo, Sylvia Omonirume; Adejare, Abdullahi Adeyinka; Igunnu, Adedoyin; Atolani, Olubunmi; Adebayo, Abiodun Humphrey; Owoyele, Bamidele Victor

    2018-01-01

    Anacardium occidentale L. leaf is useful in the treatment of inflammation and asthma, but the bioactive constituents responsible for these activities have not been characterized. Therefore, this study was aimed at identifying the bioactive constituent(s) of A. occidentale ethanolic leaf extract (AOEL) and its solvent-soluble portions, and evaluating their effects on histamine-induced paw edema and bronchoconstriction. The bronchodilatory effect was determined by measuring the percentage protection provided by plant extracts in the histamine-induced bronchoconstriction model in guinea pigs. The anti-inflammatory effect of the extracts on histamine-induced paw edema in rats was determined by measuring the increase in paw diameter, after which the percent edema inhibition was calculated. The extracts were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to identify the bioactive constituents. Column chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used respectively to isolate and characterize the constituents. The bronchodilatory and anti-inflammatory activities of the isolated bioactive constituent were evaluated. Histamine induced bronchoconstriction in the guinea pigs and edema in the rat paw. AOEL, hexane-soluble portion of AOEL, ethyl acetate-soluble portion of AOEL, and chloroform-soluble portion of AOEL significantly increased bronchodilatory and anti-inflammatory activities (P occidentale leaf, and can therefore be employed in the management of bronchoconstriction and inflammation. Copyright © 2017 Shanghai Changhai Hospital. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Antidiabetic activity of extracts ofAnacardium occidentaleLinn. leaves onn-streptozotocin diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Y S; Tatke, P A; Gabhe, S Y; Vaidya, A B

    2017-10-01

    Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae) is used in South Cameroon as well as in other tropical countries by traditional practitioners as a folk remedy for treatment of diabetes mellitus. We demonstrated the antidiabetic potential of the plant extracts in n -streptozotocin diabetic rats. The aim of the current study was to investigate the antidiabetic effects of ethanol extract of leaves of A. occidentale on neonatal streptozotocin diabetic rats. Two day old neonates were injected with 100 mg/kg of streptozotocin. At the end of the experimental period of 30 days, reduction in the fasting blood glucose levels, serum insulin, glycated hemoglobin levels, serum lipid parameters, and renal function biomarkers were estimated in the control and treated rats. Histopathological examination of liver, kidney and pancreas were also carried out. On administration of 100 mg/kg of plant extract, blood glucose levels of the rats showed 8.01% and 19.25% decrease in the fasting blood glucose levels on day 15 and day 30, respectively. The administration of extract showed that the effects of extract treatment are comparable to treatment with the standard drug Pioglitazone. These results demonstrate significant antidiabetic potential of the ethanol extract of leaves of A. occidentale , justifying the use of plant in the indigenous system of medicine. Further studies for investigating the specific compound(s) responsible for such beneficial role in diabetes would open new outlook in the therapy of type 2 diabetes.

  11. Influence of gamma radiation on the antioxidant action extracts from leaves of gross Anacardium occidentale Linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Gustavo Henrique Farias dos; Silva, Edvane Borges da; Amaral, Ademir de Jesus; Lima, Claudia Sampaio de Andrade

    2014-01-01

    Anacardium occidentale Linn. is popularly known as cashew plant, found in Northeastern Brazil, is of great scientific interest because it contains high levels of bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, flavonoids and tannins, which characterize their applications as natural antioxidants, which can contribute to protect against oxidative processes in the human body. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of 60 Co gamma irradiation in the antioxidant action of the extracts of leaves of A. occidentale. The extracts of A. occidentale were extracted with 70% ethanol, evaporated under reduced pressure and divided into samples control and irradiation at 10 kGy. Subsequently analyzing the kidnapping of radical DPPH (concentrations of 6.25; 12.5; 25; 50; 100 and 200 ppm) and reducing power (concentrations of 25; 50; 100; 200; 400; 600; 800 and 1000 ppm). The results showed increased antioxidant actions dependent on the concentration and dose of 10 kGy in both assays. However, the kidnapping of DPPH activity showed variations from 50% to 92% for control, and 75% and 100% for irradiated. It is observed that the irradiated samples showed maximum activity (100%) in a 4-fold lower concentration (50 ppm) than the control samples. Featuring EC 50 of standards BHT (235.8%) and vitamin C (63.5%) was very low compared with control extracts (8.1%) and irradiated (0.48). However the results obtained in this study indicate that extracts of leaves of A. occidentale irradiated at a dose of 10 kGy exhibit strong antioxidant activity against DPPH and power reducer, this paves its use as a natural source of antioxidants

  12. Thermal properties of tannin extracted from Anacardium occidentale L. using TGA and FT-IR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanath, Vinod; Leo, Vincent Vineeth; Prabha, S Sabna; Prabhakumari, C; Potty, V P; Jisha, M S

    2016-01-01

    The chemical nature of the polyphenols of cashew kernel testa has been determined. Testa contains tannins, which present large molecular complexity and has an ancient use as tanning agents. The use of tannins extracted from cashew testa, considered in many places as a waste, grants an extra value to the cashew. In this work we have analysed through high performance liquid chromatography, infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thermo gravimetric analysis the average molecular weight, main functional groups and thermal properties of tannins extracted from Anacardium occidentale L. The results of these analyses are compared with the commercial grade tannic acid. The FT-IR spectra showed bands characteristic of C = C, C-C and OH bonds. This important bioactive compound present in the cashew nut kernel testa was suggested as an interesting economical source of antioxidants for use in the food and nutraceutical industry.

  13. Acute, subacute toxicity and genotoxic effect of a hydroethanolic extract of the cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konan, Nzi André; Bacchi, Elfriede Marianne; Lincopan, Nilton; Varela, Soraya Duarte; Varanda, Eliana Aparecida

    2007-03-01

    Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae), popularly known as cajueiro is a native plant to Brazil, and largely used in popular medicine to treat ulcers, hypertension and diarrhea. In the present study, acute, 30-day subacute toxicity and genotoxicity assays were carried out. The crude extract did not produce toxic symptoms in rats in doses up to 2000 mg/kg. Based on biochemical analyses of renal and hepato-biliary functions, such as the level of urea, creatinine, transaminases and alkaline phosphatase, we determined that the extract is generally tolerated by rats. This was also confirmed by hematological and histopathological exams. Genotoxicity was accessed by the Ames test in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA97, TA98, TA100, TA102 and by the bone marrow micronucleus test in mice. The extract was shown to induce frameshift, base pair substitution and damage to the chromosomes. However, this effect was less deleterious than the clastogenic effect of ciclophosphamide.

  14. Synthesis characterization and catalytic action of hexagonal gold nanoparticles using essential oils extracted from Anacardium occidentale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheny, D. S.; Mathew, Joseph; Philip, Daizy

    2012-11-01

    A new phytochemical method for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles is reported. The essential oils extracted from the fresh leaves of Anacardium occidentale are used for the reduction of auric acid to Au nanoparticles (NPs). The formation and morphology of synthesized NPs are investigated with the help of UV-visible, TEM and FTIR spectroscopy. The NPs synthesized at room temperature are mono-dispersed and hexagonal in shape with an average size of 36 nm while those prepared at higher temperature are composed of a mixture of anisotropic particles. The UV-visible absorption spectra of these anisotropic NPs show asymmetry in the longer wavelength side. The quantity of oil is an important criterion modulating the shape of NPs. Possible biochemical mechanism leading to the formation of NPs is studied using FTIR spectroscopy. The potential of synthesized Au NPs as catalyst is explored for the hydrogenation of p-nitro phenol to p-amino phenol at room temperature.

  15. Diagnose laboratorial dos frutos e folhas de Anacardium occidentale L. (Caju

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzia llza Ferreira Jorge

    Full Text Available Anacardium occidentale L. espécie nativa do continente centro e sul-americano, é planta amplamente utilizada, empregada na alimentação humana e animal, bem como na medicina popular. Neste trabalho objetivamos o reconhecimento das principais características diagnósticas das folhas e dos receptáculos carnosos. Detalhes como o tipo de cutícula, paredes celulares, anexos epidérmicos e inclusões celulares são destacados nas descrições e nas figuras. As folhas encerram flavonóides, saponinas,compostos fenólicos e óleo essencial.

  16. Comparison of gastric ulcerogenicity of percolated extract of Anacardium occidentale (cashew nut) with indomethacin in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behravan, Effat; Heidari, Mahmoud Reza; Heidari, Mohammad; Fatemi, Ghasem; Etemad, Leila; Taghipour, Gholamhossein; Abbasifard, Mitra

    2012-01-01

    In traditional Iranian medicine, the core of the fruit of Anacardium occidentale (cashew nut) has been used in the management of the pain. In this study gastric ulcerogenicity effect of the percolated extract of A. occidentale was investigated in rats. The extract or indomethacin (200, 300, 400 and 800 mg/kg) was administrated orally. In the control group normal saline (5 ml/kg) was used. After getting extract, indomethacin or normal saline, animals were slaughtered. The stomachs were detached and 10ml of 2% formalin injected in to the stomach for fixing the internal coat of the gastric wall. The stomachs were then slitted open near the bigger curvature and lacerations in the glandular part were evaluated. The ulcer index was determined using j-score. Data demonstrated that the oral dose of 200mg/kg of the extract did not provoke any ulcerogenic consequence in the rat's stomach. Gastric ulcerginicity of the extract at the doses of 300, 400 and 800 mg/kg was less than the similar doses of indomethacin (poccidentale is an appropriate plant for ongoing search for establishing an analgesic agent with low gastro-intestinal side effects for clinical use.

  17. Genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) in V79 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, G R M; Shimabukuro, F; Maciel, M A M; Cólus, I M S

    2007-12-01

    The use of plants for the treatment of diseases continues to rise although there are few studies providing proof of these effects. One of these plants is the Anacardium occidentale, popularly known as the cashew. The present study evaluated the possible genotoxic and protective activities of cashew stem bark methanolic extract, in vitro, using methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) as a positive control, to compare possible mechanisms of DNA damage induction in the Comet assay. The antigenotoxicity protocols used were pre, simultaneous and post-treatment in relation to MMS. In genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity assessments, besides MMS, PBS was used as the negative control and three concentrations of the A. occidentale extract (500 microg/mL, 1000 microg/mL and 2000 microg/mL) were used on Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts (V79 cells). The Comet assay revealed that the two lowest concentrations tested presented no genotoxic activity, whereas the highest presented genotoxicity. All of the concentrations showed protective activity in simultaneous and post-treatment in relation to MMS. Further studies are required to identify the substances that comprise the extract and more clearly comprehend the antigenotoxic mechanism detected in this study.

  18. The Potent of Methanol Extracts of Cashew (Anacardium Occidentale L.) Against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (Mrsa)

    OpenAIRE

    Nursanty, Risa; Yunita, Yunita

    2012-01-01

    Use of antibiotics including misuse and overuse has aided natural bacterial evolution by helping the microbes become resistant such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The MRSA resistant in disease treatment with commonly used antibiotics needs new drug to treat patients. Traditional herb can be alternative treatment such as cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.). Antibacterial activities of methanol extracts of stem cashew with concentration 10%, 20% and 30% showed zone of inh...

  19. O uso da casca da castanha do caju, Anacardium occidentale, como moluscicida alternativo The use of cashew nut shell of caju (Anacardium occidentale as alternative molluscicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Pereira de Souza

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioensaios usando extratos hexânicos de cascas da castanha do caju, Anacardium occidentale, coletadas no Ceará em 1972 (amostra 1 e em 1987 (amostra 2 foram feitos sobre moluscos adultos e desovas de Biomphalaria glabrata, B. tenagophila e B. straminea, no laboratório e no campo. As cascas, 18,5 g, sem triturar amostra 1, também foram testadas sobre moluscos adultos e desovas das três espécies. A toxidez do extrato foi testada ainda sobre peixes (Poecilia reticulata e girinos. As concentrações letais CL90, amostra 1, foram de 2,0 a 2,2 ppm para os moluscos das três espécies. Para B. glabrata adultos, recém-eclodidos e desovas as CL90, amostra 2, foram de 2,0, 0,5 e 30,0 ppm respectivamente. As cascas causaram mortalidade de 40 a 80% dos moluscos e de 22 a 35% dos embriões, ocasionando redução de 40 a 55% na oviposição das três espécies. O extrato hexânico, amostra 2, foi inócuo para girinos e peixes até 2 ppm. No campo, em poços com água parada, tratados com 20 ppm do extrato, amostra 1, ocorreu 97,1% de mortalidade de B. straminea e 100% de B. glabrata e B. tenagophila. Com a niclosamida a 3 ppm ocorreu 100% de mortalidade das três espécies.Bioassays using hexanolic extracts of cashew nut shells, of Anacardium occidentale, collected in Ceará in 1972 (Sample 1 and 1987 (Sample 2 were undertaken with adult snails and egg masses of Biomphalaria glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. straminea both in the laboratory and in the field. Non extracted shells, 18.5 g, sample 1, were also tested with adult snails and egg masses of the three species. The toxicity of extract was tested with fish (Poecilia reticulata and tadpoles. The lethal concentration, CL90, of sample 1 was from 2.0 to 2.2 ppm for adult snails of the three species. With sample 2, the CL90 was 2.0, 0.5 and 30.0 ppm for B. glabrata adults, newly hatched snails and egg mass respectively. Non extracted shells caused 40 - 80% mortality of adult snails, 22 - 35% mortality

  20. Anacardium occidentale

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    280. DOI : https://www.ajol.info/index. php/ajb/article/download/.../82452. Yolou I. 2016. Activité de maraîchage en milieu à Parakou au Nord-Bénin: Caractéristiques et problèmes fonciers/[Market Gardening in urban area of municipality of Parakou (north. Benin) : Characteristics and Land Tenure. Problems]. Int. J. Innov.

  1. Anacardium occidentale Linn. (Anacardiaceae) stem bark extract induces hypotensive and cardio-inhibitory effects in experimental animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchikaya, Francis Olivier; Bantsielé, Guy Bernard; Kouakou-Siransy, Gisèle; Datté, Jacques Yao; Yapo, Paul Angoue; Zirihi, Noel Guedé; Offoumou, Michel Atté

    2011-01-01

    Anacardium occidentale Linn. (Anacardiaceae) is a plant largely used in Africa for the treatment of different diseases. In Côte d'Ivoire it's commonly used for the treatment of hypertension. The present study was carried out in order to assess the effects of Anacardium occidentale extract (ANOE) on cardiovascular parameters in animal models. A mercury manometer kymograph of Ludwig was used to measure the blood pressure of normotensive rabbits in control conditions (normal physiological solution) and under the influence of ANOE. The contractile activity of an isolated rat heart was also measured in control conditions and under the influence of ANOE in different physiological media using a modified Langendhorff (1895) apparatus. The aqueous Anacardium occidentale (ANOE) bark extract applied intravenously in different doses (12, 40, 90, and 167 mg/kg b.w.), produced a significant dose-dependent decrease in blood pressure of previously normotensive rabbits (up to 89% vs control). Atropine (1 mg/ml) pre-treatment failed to reverse the hypotensive effects elicited by the extract. ANOE applied to isolated rat heart preparations in different concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1.0, and 10 µg/ml) induced negative inotropic and chronotropic effects. Atropine pre-treatment of heart preparations (0.1 µg/ml) failed to reverse the negative effects induced by ANOE. The extract's action on heart contractile activity studied in modified culture media further confirmed its cardio-inhibitory effects. ANOE induced strong hypotensive and cardio-inhibitory effects in animal models.

  2. Amino acid composition of two masticatory nuts (Cola acuminata and Garcinia kola) and a snack nut (Anacardium occidentale).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyeye, E I; Asaolu, S S; Aluko, A O

    2007-06-01

    The amino acid compositions of Cola acuminata, Garcinia kola and Anacardium occidentale were evaluated by ion-exchange chromatography. Glutamic acid was the most concentrated acid in the samples. In all the amino acids determined, A. occidentale had the most concentrated acid on a pairwise basis. The total amino acids were 356.24 mg/g protein, 112.90 mg/g protein and 659.17 mg/g protein for C. acuminata, G. kola and A. occidentale, respectively. The percentage total essential amino acids were 38.39% (C. acuminata), 47.05% (G. kola) and 51.04% (A. occidentale). Also the percentage total acidic amino acids were 38.16% (C. acuminata), 30.61% (G. kola) and 30.35% (A. occidentale). The calculated isoelectric points were 2.0 (C. acuminata), 0.7 (G. kola) and 3.9 (A. occidentale), showing they can all be precipitated at acidic pH. While threonine was the limiting amino acid in A. occidentale, it was valine in both C. acuminata and G. kola. The percentage cystine (Cys) levels in the total sulphur amino acid were 44.27% (C. acuminata), 37.75% (G. kola) and 50.51% (A. occidentale). The aim of this work was to compare the amino acid profile of the samples. It is recommended that C. acuminata and G. kola consumption be avoided by ulcer patients because of their high levels of acidic amino acids. A. occidentale amino acid scores ranged from 42% to 127%, suggesting that it could be used to enhance the protein quality of cereals through food complementation.

  3. Estimates of genetic correlations and correlated responses to selection in cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diógenes Manoel Pedroza de Azevedo

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study estimates variances and genetic and phenotypic correlations for five traits in 27 progenies of cashew trees (Anacardium occidentale L.. Data were obtained from a trial conducted in 1992 at Pacajus, Ceará, experimental station of Embrapa Agroindústria Tropical. The characters studied were plant height (PH, North-South and East-West canopy spreads (NSS, EWS, and primary and secondary branch numbers (PBN, SBN. All genetic and phenotypic correlations presented positive and significant values. Selection to increase or decrease the average of any one of the five characteristics of cashew plants in the progenies studied affected the average of the others. The 16-month-old canopy spread can be predicted from NSS or EWS since correlations between them were high. Correlations between PH and SBN were low, indicating that there is a good possibility of obtaining smaller plants without causing drastic reductions in SBN. PH and SBN showed, respectively, the lowest and highest genetic variance estimates relative to the corresponding population means.Neste trabalho são estimadas variâncias, correlações genéticas e fenotípicas e respostas correlacionadas, envolvendo cinco caracteres em 27 progênies de cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale L.. Os dados foram obtidos em Pacajus-CE, num ensaio conduzido no Campo Experimental da Embrapa Agroindústria Tropical, em l992. Os caracteres estudados foram altura de planta (PH, envergaduras norte-sul (NSS e leste-oeste (EWS e número de ramos primários (PBN e secundários (SBN. Todas as correlacões genéticas e fenotípicas obtidas foram positivas e significativas. A seleção para aumentar ou reduzir a média de qualquer um dos cinco caracteres estudados nas progênies de cajueiro afetou indiretamente a média dos outros quatro caracteres. A envergadura da copa aos 16 meses pode ser representada por NSS ou EWS, tendo em vista que a correlação entre elas foi elevada. As correlações envolvendo PH

  4. Efecto nutracéutico del Anacardium occidentale en dietas de pollitas ponedoras de reemplazo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordan Martínez A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto nutracéutico del polvo de hojas y retoños de Anacardium occidentale (AO en dietas de pollitas ponedoras de remplazo. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizaron 240 pollitas White Leghorn (L-33 de un día de edad, que se ubicaron durante 35 días, según diseño completamente aleatorizado, con niveles de adición de 0, 0.5, 1.5 y 2.5% de polvo de hojas y retoños de Anacardium occidentale en las dietas. Se determinaron en las pollitas, los indicadores productivos, peso absoluto y relativo de los órganos inmunes, vísceras, accesorios e intestinos, la hipersensibilidad intestinal y la glucosa sérica. Resultados. El peso vivo final, consumo de alimento, peso del timo, bolsa de Fabricio y colon + recto en las aves con el tracto gastrointestinal vacío y lleno, fue favorable con la adición de 0.5% de polvo AO, con diferencias significativas (p≤0.05. El consumo acumulado, el consumo de polvo AO y taninos se incrementaron en las aves con la adición de 1.5 y 2.5% de polvo AO con respecto al control; no obstante los indicadores productivos para estos animales se deprimieron. La adición del polvo de AO, no deterioró el peso relativo de las vísceras (corazón, hígado y riñón en las aves, además redujo la hipersensibilidad intestinal y la glucosa sérica. Conclusiones. La adición de 0.5% de polvo de hojas y retoños de AO como nutracéutico en las dietas de pollitas ponedoras de remplazo, mejoró los indicadores productivos y el peso de los órganos inmunes; además, la adición del polvo AO en las dietas disminuyó la hipersensibilidad intestinal y la glucosa sérica.

  5. Aktivitas antibakteri ekstrak etanolik kulit batang jambu mete (Anacardium occidentale Linn. terhadap Staphylococcus aureus

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    H. Harsini

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of cashew stembark (Anacardium occidentale Linn on Staphylococcus aureus. Microbial activity acts as a sign of disruption of bacterial growth. The bark of cashew (Anacardium occidentale Linn. contains phenolic compounds such as flavonoids, tannins and anacardic acid which have an activity as antimicrobial. One of the Gram positivebacteria in the oral cavity was Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus. The aim of the study was to observe the bacterial activity of ethanolic extract of the cashew to a metal ion, i.e. Ca2+ and K+ leakage from S aureus. This research used one ose bacteria S. aureus at a density of 106 standard Brown as much as 10 mL and centrifuged at a speed of 3500 rpm for 20 minutes. The filtrate discarded, pellets in the tube was washed using phosphate buffer pH 7.0. Furthermore the ethanolic extract of the bark of the cashew stembark was added in the concentrations of 3.5% and 7% without any extract as a control, each of which was in 5 tubes, incubated in an incubator for 24 hours. The suspension was centrifused with a speed of 3500 rpm for 20 minutes prior to be filtered. Supernatant liquid was taken and measured absorbance using AAS. Data were analyzed using one way Anova p = 0.05. The results showed that leakage of Ca2+ was  at concentrations of 0%, 3%, 5% and 7% were 2.42 ± 0.82; 32.87 ± 1.97; 49.10 ± 3.33; 66.73 ± 3.29, respectively while for the K+ metal was 15.28 ± 0.46; 606.36 ± 14.14; 895 ± 9.5; 1251 ± 11.54. Anova one way showed a significant effect (p <0.050 ethanolic extract of the bark of cashew against leakage of metal ions Ca2+ and K+ at S aureus bacteria. LSD test showed a significant difference among all treatment groups. It was concluded that there was antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of the cashew stembark on bacteria S. aureus based on leakage of metal ions Ca2+ and K+ The highest leakage of metal ions was at the concentrations of 7%.   ABSTRAK Aktivitas

  6. Genetic analysis and historical perspective of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) introduction into India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archak, S; Gaikwad, A B; Swamy, K R M; Karihaloo, J L

    2009-03-01

    Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.), introduced into India about 400 years ago, is distributed widely in the coastal regions as spontaneous populations as well as in cultivation. Despite the plant's commercial exploitation, little is known about its actual introduction and diversification. We attempted to construct these events by investigating the level of genetic variation and genetic structure of cashew populations collected from different geographical regions of India. A total of 91 individuals from four populations were analysed using AFLP markers and morphometric data. AFLP analysis based on 354 polymorphic loci revealed Indian cashew to have low but relatively substantial genetic diversity for an introduced species (H(E) = 0.262 and I(S) = 0.404). Twenty-seven qualitative and quantitative traits also revealed the existence of considerable morphometric variation (24% around the mean values). Bayesian cluster analysis based on AFLP data did not indicate the existence of definite population differentiation. Morphometric analysis allocated 12% variation among all four populations, whereas AFLP variation observed in cashew individuals was entirely within populations. The results, supporting the possibility of cashew having been introduced into India repeatedly over a period of time but at a single location (west coast), are discussed and their implications for germplasm management are described.

  7. Schistosomicidal Activity of Alkyl-phenols from the Cashew Anacardium occidentale against Schistosoma mansoni Adult Worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, Tavane A; de Oliveira, Pollyanna F; de Souza, Julia M; Tavares, Denise C; Andrade E Silva, Márcio L; Cunha, Wilson R; Groppo, Milton; Januário, Ana H; Magalhães, Lizandra G; Pauletti, Patrícia M

    2016-11-23

    Bioassay-guided study of the ethanol extract from the cashew Anacardium occidentale furnished cardol triene (1), cardol diene (2), anacardic acid triene (3), cardol monoene (4), anacardic acid diene (5), 2-methylcardol triene (6), and 2-methylcardol diene (7). 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments and HRMS analysis confirmed the structures of compounds 1-7. Compounds 2 and 7 were active against Schistosoma mansoni adult worms in vitro, with LC 50 values of 32.2 and 14.5 μM and selectivity indices of 6.1 and 21.2, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy of the tegument of male worms in the presence of compound 7 at 25 μM after 24 h of incubation showed severe damage as well as peeling and reduction in the number of spine tubercles. Transmission electron microscopy analyses revealed swollen mitochondrial membrane, vacuoles, and altered tegument in worms incubated with compound 2 (25 μM after 24 h). Worms incubated with compound 7 (25 μM after 24 h) had lysed interstitial tissue, degenerated mitochondria, and drastically altered tegument. Together, the results indicated that compound 7 presents promising in vitro schistosomicidal activity.

  8. Transferability and characterization of simple sequence repeat markers from Anacardium occidentale to A. humile (Anacardiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cota, L G; Moreira, P A; Menezes, E V; Gomes, A S; Ericsson, A R O; Oliveira, D A; Melo, A F

    2012-12-19

    Use of molecular markers can be limited by the high cost and extensive time required for their development. Transfer of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers reduces the cost and time limitations and has allowed the use of these markers in a larger number of species. We tested 11 SSR markers previously developed for Anacardium occidentale on A. humile. The 11 loci were successfully amplified in A. humile. All loci were polymorphic and generated a mean of 5.4 alleles per locus. The observed heterozygosity was lower than the expected heterozygosity under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for most loci, with mean values of 0.463 and 0.696, respectively. The endogamy coefficients were positive and significant for seven loci. However, the combined probability of paternity exclusion was high, and the combined probability of genetic identity was low. None of the pairs of loci were in linkage disequilibrium. The informative power of these loci demonstrates that they are suitable for studies of diversity and genetic structure of natural populations of A. humile. In addition, the loci are suitable for estimating gene flow between populations, assessing species crossing preferences, and performing interspecific comparisons.

  9. Extracts of Anacardium occidentale (cashew) pollen in patients with allergic bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, E A; Tomé, E R; Nunes, R N; Nunes, A P; Freire, C C F; Torres, J C N; Castro, F M; Croce, J

    2002-01-01

    Allergic reactions to the pollen of trees is among the most prevalent allergic sensitivities. The cashew tree grows in abundance in the northeast region of the Brazil, mainly in Fortaleza city, in state of the Ceará. It flowers once a year between August and October. This is the first study conducted to establish the possible role of the cashew pollen extract in causing skin test reactivity in patients with allergic asthma. A stock solution of pollen extract was prepared with the standard weight/volume method for intradermal skin tests and for the protein content of the extract, estimated with the use of Folin phenol reagent and a spectrophotometer. Ten nonallergic volunteers and 80 subjects with allergic asthma, as documented by previous positive skin test reactions to various pollens, were studied. All of the 80 patients (100%) had positive test reactions (grade III and grade IV reactions). None of the control subjects (n = 10) had positive responses to the intradermal tests. This study provided us with knowledge of an additional pollen extract of the Anacardium occidentale, which could provoke skin test reactivities in asthmatic individuals from the northeastern area of Brazil. The results suggest a relationship between the period of flowering of the cashew tree and the increased number of allergic asthma cases.

  10. Rapid green synthesis of palladium nanoparticles using the dried leaf of Anacardium occidentale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheny, D S; Philip, Daizy; Mathew, Joseph

    2012-06-01

    A rapid, one pot and biogenic fabrication of Pd nanoparticles is reported. Pd nanoparticles of size below 5 nm size are synthesized using the dried leaf powder of Anacardium occidentale. Rapid reduction results in the formation of spherical particles. The nanoparticles are characterized by XRD, TEM, UV-visible and FTIR analysis. The absorption spectra have continua which are characteristic of Pd nanoparticles. The broad nature of the XRD pattern arising due to reflections from the (111), (200), (220), (311) and (222) planes indicate crystallinity of the nanoparticles with face centered cubic (fcc) structure. The morphology and shape of the nanoparticles are obtained by analyzing TEM images. Most of the nanoparticles are spherical with size in the range 2.5 and 4.5 nm. FTIR spectra of dried Pd nanoparticles, native and treated dried leaf powder have been analyzed to find out the biomolecule responsible for the reduction of Pd(2+) and capping of the palladium nanoparticles. The possible mechanism of formation of the nanoparticles is suggested. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Synthesis characterization and catalytic action of hexagonal gold nanoparticles using essential oils extracted from Anacardium occidentale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheny, D S; Mathew, Joseph; Philip, Daizy

    2012-11-01

    A new phytochemical method for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles is reported. The essential oils extracted from the fresh leaves of Anacardium occidentale are used for the reduction of auric acid to Au nanoparticles (NPs). The formation and morphology of synthesized NPs are investigated with the help of UV-visible, TEM and FTIR spectroscopy. The NPs synthesized at room temperature are mono-dispersed and hexagonal in shape with an average size of 36 nm while those prepared at higher temperature are composed of a mixture of anisotropic particles. The UV-visible absorption spectra of these anisotropic NPs show asymmetry in the longer wavelength side. The quantity of oil is an important criterion modulating the shape of NPs. Possible biochemical mechanism leading to the formation of NPs is studied using FTIR spectroscopy. The potential of synthesized Au NPs as catalyst is explored for the hydrogenation of p-nitro phenol to p-amino phenol at room temperature. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Antiulcerogenic effect and acute toxicity of a hydroethanolic extract from the cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konan, Nzi André; Bacchi, Elfriede Marianne

    2007-06-13

    The antiulcerogenic effect of a hydroethanolic extract of Anacardium occidentale L. leaves was investigated. The extract inhibited gastric lesions induced by HCl/ethanol in female rats. A dose-response effect study showed that the ED50 was 150 mg/kgb.w. Extract doses higher than 100 mg/kgb.w. were more effective than 30 mg/kg of lansoprazol in inhibiting gastric lesions. A methanolic fraction (257.12 mg/kg) which reduced gastric lesion at 88.20% is likely to contain the active principle of the antiulcer effect. No signs of acute toxicity were observed when mice were treated with extract dose up to 2000 mg/kgb.w. A chemical analysis of the extract allowed the identification of phenolic compounds as the major components. Glycosylated quercetin, amentoflavone derivate and a tetramer of proanthocyanidin were identified by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The level of total phenolics in the extract was evaluated at 35.5% and flavonoid content was 2.58%.

  13. Insect fauna associated with Anacardium occidentale (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) in Benin, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agboton, C; Onzo, A; Ouessou, F I; Goergen, G; Vidal, S; Tamò, M

    2014-01-01

    Cashew, Anacardium occidentale L. (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae), is an important cash crop in Benin. However, its production is threatened by several biotic factors, especially insects. In Benin, very few studies have focused on insects and just listed species commonly found on cashew worldwide. The present investigation fills this gap by presenting an exhaustive inventory of insect species associated with this crop in the country. The survey was carried out from September 2009 to August 2010 in 22 cashew orchards (5 young and 17 mature) distributed over three major agroecological zones where cashew is most produced in the country. Insects were collected using chemical knock-down technique and visual observation followed by capture with sweep net. In addition, infested plant organs were sampled and incubated to collect emerging insects. In total, 262 insect species were recorded and identified. Among them, the wood borer Apate terebrans Pallas, the leafminer Eteoryctis gemoniella Stainton, and the mirid bugs Helopeltis schoutedeni Reuter., and Helopeltis anacardii Miller., appeared as the most important insect species attacking cashew in Benin. Beneficial insects encountered included some predators, parasitoids, and pollinators. Few vertebrate predators were also recorded on the trees. Differences in agroecological conditions or in field cleanliness did not affect the number of insect species encountered in the cashew orchards. The results of this study represent an important baseline data for the design and implementation of strategies for cashew protection in Benin. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  14. Potential prebiotic properties of cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L.) agro-industrial byproduct on Lactobacillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Francisca Nayara Dantas; Rodrigues, Jéssica Bezerra; da Costa Lima, Maiara; Lima, Marcos Dos Santos; Pacheco, Maria Teresa Bertoldo; Pintado, Maria Manuela Estevez; de Souza Aquino, Jailane; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2017-08-01

    The prebiotic effects of a cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L.) agro-industrial byproduct powder (CAP) on different potentially probiotic Lactobacillus strains, namely Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-05, Lactobacillus casei L-26 and Lactobacillus paracasei L-10, were assessed using in vitro experimental models. Accordingly, the growth of the Lactobacillus strains when cultivated in a broth containing CAP (20 or 30 g L -1 ), glucose (20 g L -1 ) or fructooligosaccharides (FOS) (20 g L -1 ) was monitored over 48 h; the prebiotic activity scores of CAP were determined; and the changes in pH values, production of organic acids and consumption of sugars in growth media were verified. During the 48-h cultivation, similar viable cell counts were observed for the Lactobacillus strains grown in the different media tested. The CAP presented positive prebiotic activity scores toward all the tested Lactobacillus strains, indicating a desirable selective fermentable activity relative to enteric organisms. The cultivation of the Lactobacillus strains in broth containing glucose, FOS or CAP resulted in high viable cell counts, a decreased pH, the production of organic acids and the consumption of sugars over time, revealing intense bacterial metabolic activity. The CAP exerts potential prebiotic effects on different potentially probiotic Lactobacillus strains and should be an added-value ingredient for the food industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Potentiation of the antiinflammatory effect of Anacardium occidentale (Linn.) stem-bark aqueous extract by grapefruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojewole, J A O

    2004-04-01

    In an attempt to scientifically appraise some of the ethnomedical uses of Anacardium occidentale Linn. (family: Anacardiaceae), the present study was undertaken to examine the antiinflammatory effect of the plant's stem-bark aqueous extract in rats. Young adult male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g were used. The antiinflammatory effect of A. occidentale stem-bark aqueous extract alone and in combination with grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) juice was investigated on fresh egg albumin-induced rat paw edema. Like diclofenac (100 mg/kg p.o.), aqueous extract of A. occidentale stem-bark (800 mg/kg p.o.) produced time-related, sustained and significant reduction (p occidentale stem-bark aqueous extract (800 mg/kg p.o.) or diclofenac (100 mg/kg p.o.) significantly potentiated (p occidentale stem-bark aqueous extract is less potent than diclofenac as an antiinflammatory agent, the results of this experimental animal study indicate that the plant extract possesses antiinflammatory activity, and thus lend pharmacological support to the folkloric use of the plant in the management and/or control of arthritis and other inflammatory conditions among the Yoruba-speaking people of western Nigeria.

  16. Hypoglycaemic effect of stigmast-4-en-3-one and its corresponding alcohol from the bark of Anacardium occidentale (cashew).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander-Lindo, Ruby Lisa; Morrison, E Y St A; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2004-05-01

    Intravenous administration of the hexane extract of the bark of Anacardium occidentale (cashew) in normal, healthy dogs produced a significant lowering of the blood glucose levels. Pursuit of the hypoglycaemic principle(s) in the hexane extract resulted in the isolation and characterization of two compounds, stigmast-4-en-3-ol (1) and stigmast-4-en-3-one (2). These compounds were purified by chromatographic methods and the structures were characterized by spectroscopic methods. Both compounds produced significant hypoglycaemic activity after intravenous administration at a dose of 1.3 mg/kg body weight. The bark of the cashew plant, A. occidentale, exhibited a hypoglycaemic effect probably due to the presence of these compounds. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Membrane stability of sickle erythrocytes incubated in extracts of three medicinal plants: Anacardium occidentale, Psidium guajava, and Terminalia catappa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikezie, Paul Chidoka; Uwakwe, Augustine Amadikwa

    2011-04-01

    Many reports showed that medicinal plant extracts cause alterations on the shape and physiology of erythrocytes. The present study seeks to ascertain the osmotic stability of sickle erythrocytes incubated in aqueous extracts of Anacardium occidentale, Psidium guajava, and Terminalia catappa. The fraction of erythrocytes lysed when suspended in saline solution of varying concentrations was investigated by spectrophotometric method. The percentage hemolysis of erythrocytes in the control and test samples showed a sigmoidal relationship with increasing concentrations of saline solution. Membrane stability was ascertained as mean corpuscular fragility (MCF) index of erythrocytes incubated in 400 and 800 mg/dL aqueous concentrations of the three plant extracts. The two experimental concentrations of P. guajava and T. catappa protected the erythrocytes against osmotic stress, as evidenced by decreases in the values of MCF compared with the control sample (P catappa stabilized erythrocyte membrane, higher concentration (800 mg/dL) of A. occidentale exhibited no membrane protective effect.

  18. Morfologia e distribuição de galhas foliares de Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae

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    Claudia Scareli-Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Galhas são estruturas que exibem associações específicas entre o indutor e a planta hospedeira, onde são evidenciadas modificações morfológicas, anatômicas e químicas dos tecidos vegetais. Objetivou-se descrever a morfologia e a distribuição de galhas foliares de Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae. Foram coletadas 294 folhas, da porção apical dos ramos, de indivíduos localizados na Universidade Federal do Tocantins - Campus Araguaína, TO. Foram realizadas análises morfológicas utilizando microscópio estereoscópico, paquímetro e bibliografia específica. Determinou-se o número de galhas no limbo foliar seguida da análise de regressão linear entre o número de galhas por limbo e o seu comprimento. Foram observadas galhas do tipo cônico atravessando a lâmina foliar, glabras, de coloração verde quando jovens e vermelho alaranjadas quando maduras, com distribuição isolada/agrupada e aderência total; internamente apresentou um lóculo e uma larva do indutor (Cecidomyiidae. A distribuição das galhas no limbo apresentou diferenças significativas (p<0,001, em ordem decrescente foi observado maior número de galhas entre as nervuras (57,1%, sobre a nervura secundária (35,7%, na margem (6,3% e na nervura central (1,2%; a análise de regressão linear apresentou fracamente positiva (r2= 0,03; coeficiente de Pearson= 0,2025, o que sugere que a oviposição está associada, em parte, com o tamanho do limbo e que outras variáveis podem ser determinantes. Estes são os primeiros registros de galhas em A. occidentale no estado do Tocantins.

  19. Acute, subacute toxicity and mutagenic effects of anacardic acids from cashew (Anacardium occidentale Linn.) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Ana Laura Nicoletti; Annoni, Raquel; Silva, Paula Regina Pereira; Borelli, Primavera; Fock, Ricardo Ambrósio; Trevisan, Maria Teresa Salles; Mauad, Thais

    2011-06-01

    Anacardium occidentale Linn. (cashew) is a Brazilian plant that is usually consumed in natura and is used in folk medicine. Anacardic acids (AAs) in the cashew nut shell liquid are biologically active as gastroprotectors, inhibitors of the activity of various deleterious enzymes, antitumor agents and antioxidants. Yet, there are no reports of toxicity testing to guarantee their use in vivo models. We evaluated AAs biosafety by measuring the acute, subacute and mutagenic effects of AAs administration in BALB/c mice. In acute tests, BALB/c mice received a single oral dose of 2000 mg/kg, whereas animals in subacute tests received 300, 600 and 1000 mg/kg for 30 days. Hematological, biochemical and histological analyses were performed in all animals. Mutagenicity was measured with the acute micronucleus test 24h after oral administration of 250 mg/kg AAs. Our results showed that the AAs acute minimum lethal dose in BALB/c mice is higher than 2000 mg/kg since this concentration did not produce any symptoms. In subacute tests, females which received the highest doses (600 or 1000 mg/kg) were more susceptible, which was seen by slightly decreased hematocrit and hemoglobin levels coupled with a moderate increase in urea. Anacardic acids did not produce any mutagenic effects. The data indicate that doses less than 300 mg/kg did not produce biochemical and hematological alterations in BALB/c mice. Additional studies must be conducted to investigate the pharmacological potential of this natural substance in order to ensure their safe use in vivo. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Atividade antimicrobiana do extrato de Anacardium occidentale Linn. em amostras multiresistentes de Staphylococcus aureus

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    Jackeline G. da Silva

    Full Text Available Plantas medicinais com propriedades terapêuticas são de grande relevância em todo o mundo, principalmente em países em desenvolvimento. A planta Anacardium occidentale Linn. é largamente usada na medicina tradicional na nossa região, como antidiarréico, para amigdalite, bronquites, artrites, e antiiflamatório. No presente estudo avaliou-se a ação antimicrobiana do extrato hidroalcóolico da casca do caule do cajueiro frente a amostras de Staphylococcus aureus resistentes e sensíveis à meticilina, obtidas a partir de pacientes internados do Hospital Universitário/Universidade Federal da Paraíba. A atividade antimicrobiana foi determinada pelo método de difusão em meio sólido para a determinação da Concentração Inibitória Mínima do extrato, e foi observada no total de 30 amostras, pela presença ou não do halo de inibição. Todas as amostras ensaiadas mostraram-se sensíveis à ação do extrato do cajueiro, com diâmetros dos halos de inibição variando de 10 a 20 mm, demonstrando grande eficácia do cajueiro. Assim, o uso desta planta na nossa região pode inferir uma alternativa terapêutica eficiente e de baixo custo, contra infecções bacterianas causadas por Staphylococcus aureus.

  1. Nutritional composition of raw fresh cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) kernels from different origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Ricard; Bulló, Mònica; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2016-03-01

    The total dietary fiber, sugar, protein, lipid profile, sodium, and energy contents of 11 raw cashew kernel (Anacardium occidentale L.) samples from India, Brazil, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Mozambique, and Vietnam were determined. Total fat was the major component accounting for 48.3% of the total weight, of which 79.7% were unsaturated FA (fatty acids), 20.1% saturated FA, and 0.2% trans FA. Proteins, with 21.3 g/100 g, were ranked second followed by carbohydrates (20.5 g/100 g). The average sodium content was 144 mg/kg. Fourteen FA were identified among which oleic acid was the most abundant with a contribution of 60.7% to the total fat, followed by linoleic (17.77%), palmitic (10.2%), and stearic (8.93%) acids. The mean energy content was 2525 kJ/100g. Furthermore, the sterol profile and content, amino acids, vitamins, and minerals of four raw cashew kernel samples from Brazil, India, Ivory Coast, and Vietnam were determined. β-Sitosterol with 2380 ± 4 mg/kg fat was the most occurring sterol. Glutamic acid, with 4.60 g/100 g, was the amino acid with highest presence, whereas tryptophan with 0.32 g/100 g was the one with lower presence. Vitamin E with an average contribution of 5.80 mg/100 g was the most abundant vitamin. Potassium with a mean value of 6225 mg/kg was the mineral with highest amount in cashew samples.

  2. Influence of gamma radiation on the levels of polyphenols and lethality of ethanol extracts of Anacardium occidentale Linn., against Biomphalaria glabrata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, G.H.F.; Silva, E.B.; Melo, A.M.M.A.; Lima, C.S.A; Amorim, E.L.C.; Peixoto Sobrinho, T.J.S.

    2013-01-01

    Plant materials rich in phenolic compounds, such as Anacardium occidentale Linn., Have been used as alternatives to synthetic pesticides in Biomphalaria glabrata control programs, intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. Studies show that ionizing radiation can influence the content of phenolic compounds and thus their biological actions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of gamma radiation of 60 Co in polyphenol composition of hydroalcoholic extracts of bark and leaves of A. occidentale and evaluate the toxicity of these extracts to embryos and adults of B. glabrata. To achieve this goal this, the extracts were irradiated at 10 kGy, the controls being maintained from 0 kGy and positive (CaCO 3 ) and negative (H 2 O). We quantified the total phenols by the Folin-Ciocalteau and tannins by precipitation of casein. Extracts were used at a concentration of 100 mg/L. The results showed that the radiation caused the changes to the leaves, the percentage of polyphenols and tannins, and the percentage of lethality in embryos and adults Biomphalaria glabrata, these percentages being: 13 ± 5 (0 kGy) and 27 ± 2.5 (10 kGy), and 36.67 ± 5.77 (0 kGy), and 56.67 ± 5.77 (10 kGy), respectively. Gamma radiation caused significant changes in the levels of polyphenols in the extracts of leaves of Anacardium ocidentale Linn., translated by the increased toxicity of this extract against embryos and adults of Biomphalaria glabrata. This indicates that gamma radiation can be used as an agent potentiating the toxicity of plant extracts on the alternate use of these materials as molluscicides. (author)

  3. Effect of intragastric administration of crude aqueous leaf extract of Anacardium occidentale on gastric acid secretion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajibola, E S; Adeleye, O E; Okediran, B S; Rahman, S A

    2010-11-25

    The effect of an aqueous leaf extract ofAnacardium occidentale on gastric acid secretion was tested in rats. Twenty (20) Wistar albino rats were used for the gastric acid assay experiment. The rats were divided into 2 groups of 10 each. Gastric acid output was determined by continuous perfusion of rat stomach in urethane anesthetized rats. Control gastric acid output was obtained using 0.9% sodium chloride as perfusate and extract induced gastric acid output was obtained by perfusion with 0.1% solution of Anacardium occidentale Intragastric administration of the extract caused significant increase in mean gastric output (P <0.05). Atropine (5μg/100g,) lM and Cimetidine (5mg/100g), IM. significantly inhibited the extract induced gastric acid secretion via muscarinic and histaminic receptors respectively. Our findings showed that the use of the plant extract as a single anti-gastric ulcer therapy may not involve lowering of acid secretions rather it may be due to its anti Helicobacter pylori effect.

  4. Radioprotective effect of the extract of Ziziphus joazeiro and Anacardium occidentale on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata submitted to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siqueira, Williams N.; Silva, Luanna R.S.; Silva, Edvane B.; Silva, Ronaldo C.; Lacerda, Laila B.N.; Silva, Hianna A.M.F.; Santos, Mariana L.O.; Sa, Jose L.F.; Melo, Ana M.M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic radiations are energies that can be classified as non-ionizing and ionizing. This type of energy is propagated by a material medium and the vacuum. The important characteristic of ionizing radiation is the localized release of large amounts of energy. The biological effects of radiation result principally from damage to DNA, which is the critical target. Given these harmful effects caused by radiation highlights the importance of acquiring knowledge about the radioprotective substance, because they act to protect the living tissue, decreasing the damage he caused by the effects of radiation. In this study we investigated the radioprotective effect of extract hydroalcoholic of Ziziphus joazeiro and Anacardium occidentale on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata. The embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata pigmented were divided into 18 groups of 100 specimens. The experimental groups were exposed to the extracts at a concentration of 200 ppm and then irradiated. For irradiation, we used a source of 60 Co (Gammacell of Radionics Labs. Dose rate = 4.359 Gy/h). The viability of the embryos was examined using a stereoscopic microscope and statistical analysis was performed using the test Student-Newman-Keuls and χ 2 . Our results showed that the extracts of hydroalcoholic Ziziphus joazeiro showed radioprotective effect and that the aqueous extract of the bark of Anacardium occidentale exhibited a reduction in its embryotoxic effect. (author)

  5. Radioprotective effect of the extract of Ziziphus joazeiro and Anacardium occidentale on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata submitted to ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Williams N.; Silva, Luanna R.S.; Silva, Edvane B. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia; Silva, Ronaldo C. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Genetica; Lacerda, Laila B.N.; Silva, Hianna A.M.F.; Santos, Mariana L.O.; Sa, Jose L.F.; Melo, Ana M.M.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de de Biofisica e Radiobiologia. Lab. de Radiobiologia

    2011-07-01

    Electromagnetic radiations are energies that can be classified as non-ionizing and ionizing. This type of energy is propagated by a material medium and the vacuum. The important characteristic of ionizing radiation is the localized release of large amounts of energy. The biological effects of radiation result principally from damage to DNA, which is the critical target. Given these harmful effects caused by radiation highlights the importance of acquiring knowledge about the radioprotective substance, because they act to protect the living tissue, decreasing the damage he caused by the effects of radiation. In this study we investigated the radioprotective effect of extract hydroalcoholic of Ziziphus joazeiro and Anacardium occidentale on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata. The embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata pigmented were divided into 18 groups of 100 specimens. The experimental groups were exposed to the extracts at a concentration of 200 ppm and then irradiated. For irradiation, we used a source of {sup 60}Co (Gammacell of Radionics Labs. Dose rate = 4.359 Gy/h). The viability of the embryos was examined using a stereoscopic microscope and statistical analysis was performed using the test Student-Newman-Keuls and {chi}{sup 2}. Our results showed that the extracts of hydroalcoholic Ziziphus joazeiro showed radioprotective effect and that the aqueous extract of the bark of Anacardium occidentale exhibited a reduction in its embryotoxic effect. (author)

  6. Evaluation of the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the acetone extract from Anacardium occidentale L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Argollo Vanderlinde

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The stem bark of Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae, commonly called cashew, is used in Brazilian traditional medicine for the treatment of gastric and inflammatory disorders. The present study was carried out to investigate the in vivo anti-inflammatory activities of the acetone extract (AE of the stem bark of A. occidentale. We evaluated the pharmacological activities of this plant material through the analgesic, antiedematogenic and chemotaxic inhibitory effects produced by the AE. The oral administration (p.o. of mice with the AE (0.1, 0.3 and 1.0 g/kg or positive control indomethacin (10 mg/kg inhibited acetic acid-induced writhing by 18.9, 35.9, 62.9 and 68.9%, respectively (ID50% = 530 mg/kg. The highest dose of the AE was able to inhibit croton oil-induced ear edema formation by 56.8% (indomethacin at 10 mg/kg, p.o. - 57.6% inhibition. When submitted to the carrageenan-induced peritonitis test, the AE (0.1, 0.3 and 1.0 g/kg, p.o. impaired leukocyte migration into the peritoneal cavity by 24.8, 40.5 and 49.6%, respectively. The positive control, dexamethasone (2 mg/kg, s.c., inhibited leukocyte migration by 66.9%. These results indicate the presence of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive principles in the acetone extract of Anacardium occidentale, and reinforce the plant's potential therapeutic use against pain and inflammatory diseases.As cascas do caule do Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae, conhecido como cajueiro, são popularmente utilizadas no Brasil para o tratamento de doenças gástricas e inflamatórias. Este estudo teve como objetivo a avaliação farmacológica in vivo da atividade antiinflamatória do extrato acetônico (AE obtido das cascas do A. occidentale, investigando os efeitos analgésico, antiedematogênico e inibitório sobre a quimiotaxia deste material botânico. A administração oral (p.o. em camundongos com o AE (0,1; 0,3 e 1 g/kg ou o controle positivo indometacina (10 mg/kg inibiu as contor

  7. Antibacterial activity against cariogenic bacteria and cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of Anacardium occidentale L. and Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth.) Brenan extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Josenildo Segundo Chaves; de Castilho, Aline Rogéria Freire; Lira, Andressa Brito; Pereira, Andréia Vieira; de Azevêdo, Tatiane Kelly Barbosa; de Brito Costa, Edja Maria de Melo; Pereira, Maria do Socorro Vieira; Pessôa, Hilzeth de Luna Freire; Pereira, Jozinete Vieira

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the antibacterial activity against bacteria with cariogenic relevance, toxic and genotoxic potential of the plants Anacardium occidentale L. and Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth.) Bernam. Using a microdilution technique, the extracts were submitted to minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) testing against Streptococcus mitis (ATCC 903), Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175), Streptococcus oralis (ATCC 10557), Streptococcus salivarius (ATCC 7073), Streptococcus sanguinis (ATCC 15300) and Streptococcus sobrinus (ATCC 27609). The toxicity of the extracts was then verified against eukaryotic cells. Additionally, a micronucleus assay was performed to investigate the potential mutagenic effects of the extracts on rat erythrocytes. The Student's t-test, Bonferroni test, and one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's tests were used for statistical analysis, at a significance level of 5%. While the A. occidentale extract was able to inhibit all of the tested strains, with S. mutans and S. mitis being the most susceptible to that extract́s action, the A. macrocarpa did not show antimicrobial activity. Interestingly, the hemolytic, oxidant and antioxidant activities were slightly observed for either extract, even at high concentrations (1000mg/mL). The micronucleus assay showed no significant changes in the cells exposed to the extracts. The A. occidentale extract has potential as an antimicrobial agent with low eukaryotic cell toxicity or mutagenic activity. The A. macrocarpa extract, although absent of antibacterial activity might as well be a safe and effective phytotherapeutic alternative. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of gamma radiation on the antioxidant action extracts from leaves of gross Anacardium occidentale Linn; Influencia da radiacao gama na acao antioxidante de extratos brutos de folhas de Anacardium occidentale Linn.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Gustavo Henrique Farias dos; Silva, Edvane Borges da; Amaral, Ademir de Jesus [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (GERAR/DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia; Lima, Claudia Sampaio de Andrade [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Biofisica e Radiobiologia

    2014-07-01

    Anacardium occidentale Linn. is popularly known as cashew plant, found in Northeastern Brazil, is of great scientific interest because it contains high levels of bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, flavonoids and tannins, which characterize their applications as natural antioxidants, which can contribute to protect against oxidative processes in the human body. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of {sup 60}Co gamma irradiation in the antioxidant action of the extracts of leaves of A. occidentale. The extracts of A. occidentale were extracted with 70% ethanol, evaporated under reduced pressure and divided into samples control and irradiation at 10 kGy. Subsequently analyzing the kidnapping of radical DPPH (concentrations of 6.25; 12.5; 25; 50; 100 and 200 ppm) and reducing power (concentrations of 25; 50; 100; 200; 400; 600; 800 and 1000 ppm). The results showed increased antioxidant actions dependent on the concentration and dose of 10 kGy in both assays. However, the kidnapping of DPPH activity showed variations from 50% to 92% for control, and 75% and 100% for irradiated. It is observed that the irradiated samples showed maximum activity (100%) in a 4-fold lower concentration (50 ppm) than the control samples. Featuring EC{sub 50} of standards BHT (235.8%) and vitamin C (63.5%) was very low compared with control extracts (8.1%) and irradiated (0.48). However the results obtained in this study indicate that extracts of leaves of A. occidentale irradiated at a dose of 10 kGy exhibit strong antioxidant activity against DPPH and power reducer, this paves its use as a natural source of antioxidants.

  9. Avaliação da toxicidade subcrônica do extrato bruto seco de Anacardium occidentale Linn em cães = Evaluation of the subchronic toxicity of the crude dry extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arquimedes Fernandes Monteiro de Melo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A busca de novos medicamentos tem levado ao desenvolvimento de novosfármacos que sejam eficientes e destituídos de toxicidade. Uma das fronteiras nessas pesquisas são os medicamentos fitoterápicos. No Brasil, a Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA regulariza essas pesquisas e padroniza os procedimentos. A Resoluçãoda Diretoria Colegiada (RDC 48/2004, por exemplo, regulariza o registro de fitoterápicos. O Anacardium occidentale Linn está entre as plantas mais estudadas, devido às ações antibiótica e antiinflamatória de seus metabólitos secundários, principalmente taninos. Esta planta também possui a capacidade de impedir a formação da placa bacteriana bucal. Diante dessas ações, formas farmacêuticas acabadas (cremes e géis foram desenvolvidas a partir do extrato bruto seco (EBS das cascas do caule do A. occidentale Linn para registro de um novo fitomedicamento. Entretanto, testes pré-clínicos e clínicos devem ser feitos de acordo com a lei vigente. O presente trabalho avaliou a toxicidade subcrônica do EBS em cães sem raçadefinida (SRD. Os testes revelaram apenas hepatotoxicidade transitória demonstrada pela elevação dos níveis da alanina transaminase (ALT e aspartato transaminase (AST. Research on new medicaments has led to the development of efficient and non-toxic drugs. In Brazil, the Agência Nacional de VigilânciaSanitária (National Department of Sanitary Supervision – ANVISA regularizes and standardizes the procedure. Anacardium occidentale is amongst the most researched plants, due to the antibiotics and antinflammatory properties of its secondary metabolites, mainlytannins and flavonoids. Furthermore, it prevents the dental plaque formation. On account of these actions, finished pharmaceutical forms (creams and gels were developed from the crude dry extract (CDE of A. occidentale Linn stem rinds, in order to register a new form.However, pre-clinical and clinical assays can be made in

  10. Evaluación térmica y perfil de ácidos grasos del aceite de las semillas del merey, Anacardium occidentale L. | Thermal evaluation and fatty acid profile of cashew tree, Anacardium occidentale L. seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Ordaz González

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Oil from seeds of Anacardium occidentale L. (cashew nut was obtained by Soxhlet solvent extraction using hexane with a 26% yield. Concentrations of this oil lower than 1000 μg·mL-1 were innocuous in the lethality bioassay against Artemia salina. Analysis of Differential Scanning Calorimetric (DSC of this oil exhibited a wide melting range (Tonset = -22.60ºC, Tpico = -12.27ºC, which could be associated with the content of unsaturated fatty acids (76.24%. The oil showed thermal stability between 20 and 100ºC. The GC-MS analysis allowed to identify oleic (C18:1, ω-9, 51.3% and linoleic (C18:2, ω-6, 24.88% acids as major constituents.

  11. Aktivitas Zymomonas mobilis pada produk etanol dari buah semu jambu mete (Anacardium occidentale dengan variasi sumber nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AKHMAD MUSTOFA

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Mustofa A, Suranto. 2010. Aktivitas Zymomonas mobilis pada produk etanol daribuah semu jambu mete (Anacardium occidentale dengan variasi sumber nitrogen. Bioteknologi 7: 1-9. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui kemampuan Zymomonas mobilis dalam memproduksi etanol melalui proses fermentasi batch (selama 24, 48 dan 72 jam, menggunakan sumber karbon sari buah jambu mete (varietas merah, hijau dan kuning dan sumber nitrogen berupa urea, ammonium sulfat, ekstrak kecambah kacang hijau dan ekstrak kacang koro (Mucuna pruriens. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa varietas buah jambu mete hijau dengan sumber nitrogen ammonium sulfat dan lama fermentasi 24 jam memberikan hasil etanol yang paling optimal. Pada perlakuan tersebut diperoleh nilai pH 5,87, kadar gula reduksi 7,64 g/100 mL (tingkat konsumsi 48,44%, jumlah bakteri 8,0x107 (µ = 0,154 dan etanol sebesar 33,02 g/L (Ye = 90,19%.

  12. [Development of mixed beverages made of caja (Spondias mombin L.) and cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale) added of fructooligosaccharides and inulin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Larissa Morais Ribeiro da; Lima, Andréa da Silva; Maia, Geraldo Arraes; Rodrigues, Maria do Carmo Passos; Figueiredo, Raimundo Wilane de; Sousa, Paulo Henrique Machado de

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop three mixed drinks based on caja (Spondias mombin L.) and cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale) pulps, added prebiotic ingredients and to evaluate their chemical, physicochemical and sensory properties. Four formulations with combinations of two pulp fruit, sucrose and prebiotic ingredients (Standard inulin, inulin high performance-HP-and fructooligosaccharides FOS) were developed. The mixed drinks were submitted the following analysis pH, acidity, soluble solids, sugars, ascorbic acid, total carotenoids, total polyphenols and acceptance ratings of the sensory attributes such as: consistency, sweetness and overall impression, attitude and consumers purchase preference. The pH, total soluble solids and polyphenol results showed difference (p 0.05) between drinks, however, differed significantly (p < or = 0.05) for the attribute of overall impression. The drink with FOS showed a similar acceptance when compared to traditional (sucrose) drink, showing an option of meeting the functional food expectations of consumers, who seek healthy, nutritious and tasty foods.

  13. Studies on the ultrastructure in Anacardium occidentale L. leaves from Amazon in northern Brazil by scanning microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Glenda Quaresma; Cotta, Eduardo Adriano; da Fonseca Filho, Henrique Duarte

    2016-07-01

    Leaves surfaces have various structures with specific functions and contribute to the relationship with the environment. On morphological studies are analyzed various parameters, ranging from macro scale through the micro scale to the nanometer scale, which contribute to the study of taxonomy, pharmacognosy, and ecology, among others. Functional structures found in leaves are responsible for the wide variety of surfaces and some behaviors are given in terms of cellular adaptation and the presence or absence of wax. This study reports the characterization of Anacardium occidentale L. leaf surface and the techniques used therein. A set of scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) images performed on fresh leaf allowed observation of textured and heterogeneous profiles on both sides. SCANNING 38:329-335, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Analysis of toxicity of Anacardium occidentale L. extract submitted to ionizing radiation on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata and Artemia salina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Hianna A.M.F.; Sa, Jose L.F.; Lima, Claudia S.A.; Amancio, Francisco F.; Melo, Ana M.M.A.; Ribeiro, Luanna R.S.; Santos, Gustavo H.F.; Silva, Edvane B.

    2013-01-01

    The use of gamma radiation as a sterilization method for herbs, herbal medicines and foods, shows positive results regarding the retention of such products, economy and safety of the method. However, it is known that this method of processing plant material can cause chemical changes in these products related to the type of material, its components and the dose received. Evaluated, in the present study, the action of gamma radiation as a modifier of toxicity extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn. To evaluate the toxicity of the extract irradiated at doses of 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 kGy and concentrations of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/L was used bioassays with Artemia salina and Biomphalaria glabrata. For the test to A. salina, 520 specimens were used divided into groups of 10 larvae. For the bioassay with B. glabrata, 3900 specimens were used divided into groups of, approximately, 100 embryos. Larvae of A. salina and embryos were subjected to extracts irradiated and unirradiated for 24 hours. The bioassay with A. salina, showed a decrease, compared to extract unirradiated and irradiated at doses of 5.0 and 7.5 kGy, of extract irradiated with 10 kGy, where the mortality did not differ from the control group. In tests with embryos was observed an increase in the toxicity of the extract at a dose of 7.5 kGy and a decrease in the dose of 10.0 kGy. The radiation promoted changes in the toxicity of leaves extracts of Anacardium occidentale Linn. on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata and Artemia salina. (author)

  15. Inhibition of in vivo angiogenesis by Anacardium occidentale L. involves repression of the cytokine VEGF gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingaraju, S M; Keshavaiah, K; Salimath, B P

    2008-08-01

    Lethal tumor growth and progression cannot occur without angiogenesis, which facilitates cancer cell proliferation, survival, and dissemination. Among the many growth factors and cytokines engaged in angiogenesis, the cytokine vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is regarded as the most potent and specific. Angiogenesis inhibitors are recognized as potentially useful agents for treating angiogenesis-associated diseases and VEGF represents a promising and well-studied target for antiangiogenic agents. In this study, we have tested the crude ethanolic extract of the leaves of Anacardium occidentale Linn, on Ehrlich ascites tumor cells (EAT) in vivo and in vitro. Anacardium occidentale extract (AOE) was able to suppress VEGF-induced angiogenesis in vivo in the chorioallantoic membrane, rat cornea, and tumorinduced angiogenesis in the peritoneum of EAT bearing mice. The extract inhibited cell proliferation of different tumor cells such as EAT, BeWo, and MCF-7 in vitro in a dose-dependent manner and it reduced the VEGF level in the ascites of treated mice. A decrease in the microvessel density count and CD31 antigen staining of treated mice peritoneum provide further evidence of its antiangiogenic activity. Our results from Northern blot analysis and ELISA demonstrate that AOE can downregulate endogenous VEGF gene expression at the mRNA and protein level. Furthermore, results of our gene analysis of VEGF-promoter luciferase reporter indicated that this effect is mediated by transcriptional repression of VEGF promoter activity in EAT cells treated with AOE. Taken together, the data suggest that the VEGF system of angiogenesis is the molecular target for the antiangiogenic action of AOE.

  16. Analysis of toxicity of Anacardium occidentale L. extract submitted to ionizing radiation on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata and Artemia salina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Hianna A.M.F.; Sa, Jose L.F.; Lima, Claudia S.A.; Amancio, Francisco F.; Melo, Ana M.M.A., E-mail: hiannaamfs@gmail.com, E-mail: luismuma6@gmail.com, E-mail: claudia.salima@gmail.com, E-mail: amancioff@bol.com.br, E-mail: amdemelo@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Biofisica e Radiobiologia; Ribeiro, Luanna R.S.; Santos, Gustavo H.F.; Silva, Edvane B., E-mail: luannaribeiro_lua@hotmail.com, E-mail: santosghf@hotmail.com, E-mail: edvborges@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia

    2013-07-01

    The use of gamma radiation as a sterilization method for herbs, herbal medicines and foods, shows positive results regarding the retention of such products, economy and safety of the method. However, it is known that this method of processing plant material can cause chemical changes in these products related to the type of material, its components and the dose received. Evaluated, in the present study, the action of gamma radiation as a modifier of toxicity extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn. To evaluate the toxicity of the extract irradiated at doses of 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 kGy and concentrations of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/L was used bioassays with Artemia salina and Biomphalaria glabrata. For the test to A. salina, 520 specimens were used divided into groups of 10 larvae. For the bioassay with B. glabrata, 3900 specimens were used divided into groups of, approximately, 100 embryos. Larvae of A. salina and embryos were subjected to extracts irradiated and unirradiated for 24 hours. The bioassay with A. salina, showed a decrease, compared to extract unirradiated and irradiated at doses of 5.0 and 7.5 kGy, of extract irradiated with 10 kGy, where the mortality did not differ from the control group. In tests with embryos was observed an increase in the toxicity of the extract at a dose of 7.5 kGy and a decrease in the dose of 10.0 kGy. The radiation promoted changes in the toxicity of leaves extracts of Anacardium occidentale Linn. on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata and Artemia salina. (author)

  17. Chemical characterization and pharmacological assessment of polysaccharide free, standardized cashew gum extract (Anacardium occidentale L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Daiany Priscilla Bueno; Florentino, Iziara Ferreira; da Silva Moreira, Lorrane Kelle; Brito, Adriane Ferreira; Carvalho, Verônica Vale; Rodrigues, Marcella Ferreira; Vasconcelos, Géssica Adriana; Vaz, Boniek Gontijo; Pereira-Junior, Marcus Antônio; Fernandes, Kátia Flávia; Costa, Elson Alves

    2018-03-01

    The cashew gum (Anacardium occidentale L.) is used in traditional Brazilian medicine in the treatment of inflammatory conditions, asthma, diabetes, and gastrointestinal disturbances. In the present study, we aimed at forming a chemical characterization and investigation of the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the aqueous extract of cashew gum without the presence of polysaccharides in its composition (CGE). The CGE was obtained after the precipitation and removal of polysaccharides through the use of acetone. After, the acetone was removed by rotaevaporation, and the concentrated extract was lyophilized. The chemical characterization of CGE was performed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analyses. Mice were used for the evaluation of the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. CGE was analyzed via the Irwin test, acetic acid-induced writhing test, formalin-induced pain test, and carrageenan-induced paw edema test. The motor activity or probable sedation was verified through the chimney, open-field, and sodium pentobarbital-induced sleep tests. We investigated if the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of CGE depend of reduction in PGE 2 levels, were performed the carrageenan or PGE 2 -induced hyperalgesia tests. The chemical characterization of CGE showed the presence of anacardic acids as the predominant phytoconstituents. The treatment with CGE (75, 150, and 300mg/kg, p.o.) inhibited the number of writhing in a dose-dependent manner. With an intermediate dose, CGE did not cause motor impairment with the chimney test or alterations in either the open-field or sodium pentobarbital-induced sleep. In the formalin-induced pain test, CGE (150mg/kg, p.o.) produced an antinociceptive effect only in the first phase of the test, suggesting anti-inflammatory activity. With the same dosage, CGE also reduced the carrageenan-induced paw edema at all hours of the test, confirming its anti

  18. Antihyperglycemic effect of ethanolic extract and fractions of anacardium occidentale L. Stem bark in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ramnik

    2009-12-01

    The numbers of adults with diabetes in the world is estimated to rise 300 millions in the year 2025 and this leads to increasing search for better anti-diabetic drug. The effects of the ethanol extract (1.25 g/kg) and fractions (Ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and butanol in the dose of 1 g/kg) of Anacardium occidentale stem bark on the blood glucose levels in streptozotocin-induced types 1 and 2 diabetic rats at different prandial states were studied. The ethanol extract of A. occidentale had no hypoglycemic effect in type 1 diabetic rats in fasting and postprandial glucose load conditions and, in type 2 diabetic rats in fasting condition. However, the extract, significantly lowered blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetic rats when fed simultaneously with glucose. The ethyl acetate fraction showed a significant opposing effect in serum glucose rise after administration of glucose. Additionally, its dichloromethane extract also exhibited a significant reduction in serum glucose level compared to control after glucose administration while its butanol fraction was devoid of this activity. These findings conclude that the active principles responsible for the antihyperglycaemic effect might be concentrated in the ethyl acetate and dichloromethane fractions of the extract.

  19. Laboratory evaluation of the hypoglycemic effect of Anacardium occidentale Linn (Anacardiaceae) stem-bark extracts in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojewole, J A O

    2003-04-01

    This study evaluated the hypoglycemic effect of stem-bark extracts of Anacardium occidentale Linn., of the Anacardiaceae family, in normal (normoglycemic) and in streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats. Young adult, male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g were used. Diabetes mellitus was induced in the test rats by intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin (STZ, 90 mg/kg). In one set of experiments, graded doses of the aqueous and methanolic stem-bark extracts of A. occidentale (100-800 mg/kg p.o.) were separately administered to groups of fasted normal and fasted diabetic rats. In another set of experiments, 800 mg/kg p.o. of the aqueous or methanolic extract of the plant, a dose which produced maximal hypoglycemic effects in both fasted normal and diabetic rats in the previous set of experiments, were used. The hypoglycemic effects of single doses (i.e., 800 mg/kg p.o.) of A. occidentale stem-bark aqueous and methanolic extracts were compared with those of insulin (5 microU/kg s.c.) and glibenclamide (0.2 mg/kg p.o.) in both fasted normal and fasted diabetic rats. Following acute treatment, relatively moderate-to-high doses of A. occidentale stem-bark extracts (100-800 mg/kg p.o.) produced dose-dependent, significant reductions (poccidentale stem-bark aqueous and methanolic extracts significantly reduced (poccidentale contains a diverse group of chemical compounds. Since methanol extractives of plants usually contain many chemical compounds, each of which is capable of producing definite biological activities via different mechanisms, it is difficult to draw any logical conclusion on the mechanism of the hypoglycemic effect of such a diverse mixture of chemical compounds contained in the plant extracts used in this study. While it is possible that the hypoglycemic effects of the plant extracts may be due, at least in part, to their terpenoid and/or coumarin contents, the mechanism of their hypoglycemic action remains largely speculative. However, this is unlikely to

  20. PROSPECÇÃO TECNOLÓGICA: APLICAÇÃO DA GOMA DO CAJUEIRO (Anacardium occidentale EM NANOTECNOLOGIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    celia cunha e silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale, da família Anacardiaceae, é uma planta originária do Norte e Nordeste do Brasil, com arquitetura de copa tortuosa e de diferentes portes, bastante cultivada no Brasil, principalmente no Nordeste. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar uma prospecção, com busca de precedência e apresentar uma visão geral do estado atual de desenvolvimento científico e tecnológico relacionado à aplicação da goma do cajueiro na nonotecnologia, baseado no número de patentes depositadas e de artigos publicados. A prospecção foi realizada no Banco Europeu de Patentes (Europen Patent Office - EPO, no Banco da Organização Mundial de Propriedade Intelectual (World Intellectual Organization - WIPO, no Banco Americano de Marcas e Patentes (United States Patent and Trademark Office - USPTO e no Banco de dados do Instituto Nacional de Propriedade Industrial do Brasil – INPI, bem como na base de periódicos, Web of Science. O Brasil detém o maior número de artigos científicos envolvendo a Anacardium ocidentale, enquanto o Japão se sobressai na proteção desta pesquisa. Foi observado que das patentes depositadas nas referidas bases, mais da metade foram depositadas no período de 2000 a 2012, demostrando um aumento nas pesquisas relacionadas com o cajueiro nos últimos 12 anos, e que a maior parte das patentes possuem código de classificaçao de patente A61K e A61P que estão relacionadas a necessidades humanas.

  1. Tyrisonase inhibition and melanin reduction of human melanocytes (HEMn-MP) using Anacardium occidentale L extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Gaffar, R; Abdul Majid, F A; Sarmidi, M R

    2008-07-01

    Cashew (Anacardium occindentale L) leaves extract (CLE) has potential as tyrosinase inhibitor that can be used for therapeutic in pigmentation problem. This study investigates the real potential of CLE to inhibit tyrosinase and melanin reduction using human epidermal melanocytes. The extracts were exposed to the human melanocytes for more than 24 hours. The CLE extract exhibited potential as tyrosinase inhibitor, reduced melanin and high in antioxidant activity relative to commercial extract of Emblica sp.

  2. Phenols and tannins contents of Anacardium occidentale Linn and Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan exposed to gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Gustavo Henrique Farias dos [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (GERAR/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia; Silva, Edvane Borges da [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil). Centro Academico de Vitoria; Amorim, Elba Lucia Cavalcanti de; Peixoto Sobrinho, Tadeu, E-mail: elba@ufpe.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Lima, Claudia Sampaio de Andrade [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia

    2011-07-01

    Anacardium occidentale Linn (cajueiro) and Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan (angico) are very know as a source of phenolic compounds, mainly tannins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference of phenols and tannins contents of crude extracts were measured after irradiation of barks and leaves of each plant source, using a source of {sup 60}Co. The crude extracts were divided into control group and three groups which were separately after exposition to gamma radiation, in doses of 5; 7.5 and 10 kGy. From each group, the total phenols were quantified by the Folin-Ciocalteau method, while the contents of tannins were assessed using precipitation of the casein technique. For all doses, the total phenol and tannin percentages from 'cajueiro' barks presented no significant statistical alteration. However, for the leaves of 'cajueiro', their chemical composite levels significantly changed with the radiation absorbed dose. On the other hand, the gamma irradiation did not cause alterations in total phenols and tannins content of extracts from 'angico'. (author)

  3. Phytosynthesis of Au, Ag and Au-Ag bimetallic nanoparticles using aqueous extract and dried leaf of Anacardium occidentale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheny, D S; Mathew, Joseph; Philip, Daizy

    2011-06-01

    Present study reports a green chemistry approach for the biosynthesis of Au, Ag, Au-Ag alloy and Au core-Ag shell nanoparticles using the aqueous extract and dried powder of Anacardium occidentale leaf. The effects of quantity of extract/powder, temperature and pH on the formation of nanoparticles are studied. The nanoparticles are characterized using UV-vis and FTIR spectroscopies, XRD, HRTEM and SAED analyses. XRD studies show that the particles are crystalline in the cubic phase. The formation of Au core-Ag shell nanoparticles is evidenced by the dark core and light shell images in TEM and is supported by the appearance of two SPR bands in the UV-vis spectrum. FTIR spectra of the leaf powder before and after the bioreduction of nanoparticles are used to identify possible functional groups responsible for the reduction and capping of nanoparticles. Water soluble biomolecules like polyols and proteins are expected to bring about the bio-reduction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization and bioassay for larvicidal activity of Anacardium occidentale (cashew) shell waste fractions against dengue vector Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Rosalinda C; Garbo, Alicia G; Walde, Rikkamae Zinca Marie L

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies regarding the harmful effects of synthetic larvicides initiated the need to investigate for unconventional measures that are environmentally safe and target-specific against Aedes aegypti larvae. Thus, the main objectives of the study are to evaluate the larvicidal toxicity of the solvent fractions of Anacardium occidentale shell wastes against the third and fourth instar larvae of A. aegypti and to compare the results with the commercial larvicide product. The shell wastes were extracted with 95% EtOH followed by polarity-based fractionation. The fractions were tested for larvicidal activity according to the World Health Organization bioassay method. These were then characterized by quantitative thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) fingerprinting. The hexane fraction gave the strongest activity among the fractions with an LC50 of 4.01 mg/L and LC90 of 11.29 mg/L highly comparable to the commercial larvicide, which exhibited an LC50 of 1.71 mg/L and LC90 of 8.41 mg/L. The dichloromethane fraction exhibited 9.70 mg/L LC50 and 18.44 mg/L LC90. The remarkable toxicity effects exhibited by these fractions indicate their potential to provide core structures from which sustainable and environmentally safe plant-based larvicidal agents can be synthesized.

  5. Acute Toxicity of Cashew Nut Shell Extract (Anacardium occidentale L.) In Albino Rat (Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout 1769).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlita; Satuti, N H Niken; Sagi, Mammed; Astuti, Pudji

    2016-01-01

    Cashew plant (Anacardium occidentale L.) is a crop producing cashew nut shell that contain phenolic compounds such as lacquer oil (cashew nut shell liquid) which can be used for many studies. This study was conducted to determine the potency of acute toxicity (LD50) of cashew nut shell extract on female albino Wistar rats using Weil method. Twenty rats used in this study. The rats was divided into five groups, each consist of four rats after acclimatization. Each group was given the extract of cashew nut shell orally (force-fed). The amount of cashew nut shell extract that were given to group I, II, III and IV were 2.5, 25, 250 and 2,500 mg kg-1 b.wt., respectively, while group V were given 0.5% sodium carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMCNa) solution. Clinical symptoms were observed 24 h after the administration of extract include behavioral changes i.e., licking, scratching, twitching, tremors, wrihing, reactivity to stimuli, cerebral and spinal reflexes, secretions, breath, skin, hair and death. Probit analysis using Weil method was used as an effective dose. The results showed that the potency for acute toxicity (LD50) of cashew nut shell extract was 2,018 mg kg-1 which classified as moderately toxic category. The administration of extract also causes behavioral changes in animal including passivity and mucus secretion. All doses of the extract did not affect the development body weight and the weight of organs (spleen, liver, heart, kidneys and lungs) in female rats.

  6. Gastroprotective properties of cashew gum, a complex heteropolysaccharide of Anacardium occidentale, in naproxen-induced gastrointestinal damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Nathalia S; Silva, Mônica M; Silva, Renan O; Nicolau, Lucas A D; Sousa, Francisca Beatriz M; Damasceno, Samara R B; Silva, Durcilene A; Barbosa, André L R; Leite, José Roberto S A; Medeiros, Jand Venes R

    2015-05-01

    Long-term use nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug is associated with gastrointestinal (GI) lesion formation. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective activity of cashew gum (CG), a complex heteropolysaccharide extracted from Anacardium occidentale on naproxen (NAP)-induced GI damage. Male Wistar rats were pretreated with vehicle or CG (1, 3, 10, and 30 mg/kg, p.o.) twice daily for 2 days; after 1 h, NAP (80 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered. The rats were euthanized on the 2nd day of treatment, 4 h after NAP administration. Stomach lesions were measured using digital calipers. The medial small intestine was used for the evaluation of macroscopic lesion scores. Samples of the stomach and the intestine were used for histological evaluation, and assays for glutathione (GSH), malonyldialdehyde (MDA), and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Additional rats were used to measure gastric mucus and secretion. Pretreatment with CG reduced the macroscopic and microscopic damage induced by NAP. CG significantly attenuated NAP-induced alterations in MPO, GSH, and MDA levels. Furthermore, CG returned adherent mucus levels to normal values. These results suggest that CG has a protective effect against GI damage via mechanisms that involve the inhibition of inflammation and increasing the amount of adherent mucus in mucosa. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Antidiarrheal activity of cashew GUM, a complex heteropolysaccharide extracted from exudate of Anacardium occidentale L. in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Thiago S L; Costa, Douglas S; Sousa, Nayara A; Souza, Luan K M; de Araújo, Simone; Oliveira, Ana Patrícia; Sousa, Francisca Beatriz M; Silva, Durcilene A; Barbosa, André L R; Leite, José Roberto S A; Medeiros, Jand Venes R

    2015-11-04

    Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae) is commonly known as the cashew tree. It is native to tropical America and extracts of the leaves, bark, roots, chestnut net and exudate have been traditionally used in northeast Brazil for the treatment of various diseases. The exudate of the cashew tree (cashew gum) has been exploited by locals since ancient times for multiple applications, including the treatment of diarrheal diseases. The primary aim of the present study is to evaluate the antidiarrheal activity of cashew gum (CG), a complex heteropolysaccharide from the exudate of the cashew tree, using various models. The antidiarrheal activity of cashew gum (CG) against acute diarrhea was investigated using the castor oil-induced diarrhea model. The effects of CG on gastrointestinal transit and castor oil- and PGE2- induced enteropooling were also examined in rodents. In addition, the effect of CG against secretory diarrhea was investigated using a model of fluid secretion in cholera toxin-treated intestinal closed loops in live mice. Cashew gum (30, 60, and 90 mg/kg, p.o.) showed a significant (Poccidentale L. has antidiarrheal activity in acute, inflammatory, and secretory diarrhea models, which could justify its traditional use in the treatment of diarrhea in northeast Brazil. The antidiarrheal activity might be explained by the capacity of CG to inhibit gastrointestinal motility and thereby reduce the accumulation of intestinal fluid and the secretion of water and chloride ions in the lumen of the intestine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Carotenoids, carotenoid esters, and anthocyanins of yellow-, orange-, and red-peeled cashew apples (Anacardium occidentale L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiggert, Ralf M; Vargas, Ester; Conrad, Jürgen; Hempel, Judith; Gras, Claudia C; Ziegler, Jochen U; Mayer, Angelika; Jiménez, Víctor; Esquivel, Patricia; Carle, Reinhold

    2016-06-01

    Pigment profiles of yellow-, orange-, and red-peeled cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) apples were investigated. Among 15 identified carotenoids and carotenoid esters, β-carotene, and β-cryptoxanthin palmitate were the most abundant in peels and pulp of all samples. Total carotenoid concentrations in the pulp of yellow- and red-peeled cashew apples were low (0.69-0.73 mg/100g FW) compared to that of orange-peeled samples (2.2mg/100g FW). The color difference between the equally carotenoid-rich yellow and red colored samples indicated the presence of a further non-carotenoid pigment type in red peels. Among four detected anthocyanins, the major anthocyanin was unambiguously identified as 7-O-methylcyanidin 3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside by NMR spectroscopy. Red and yellow peel color was chiefly determined by the presence and absence of anthocyanins, respectively, while the orange appearance of the peel was mainly caused by increased carotenoid concentrations. Thus, orange-peeled fruits represent a rich source of provitamin A (ca. 124 μg retinol-activity-equivalents/100g pulp, FW). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Control of Erysiphe pisi Causing Powdery Mildew of Pea (Pisum sativum) by Cashewnut (Anacardium occidentale) Shell Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadur, Amar; Singh, U P; Singh, D P; Sarma, B K; Singh, K P; Singh, Amitabh; Aust, H J

    2008-03-01

    The effect of methanolic extract of cashewnut (Anacardium occidentale) shell extract was seen on conidial germination of Erysiphe pisi and powdery mildew development in pea (Pisum sativum). Maximum conidial germination inhibition of E. pisi on glass slides was observed at 300 ppm. Similar effect on floated pea leaves was observed after 48 h at the same concentration. Conidial germination on intact untreated pea leaves was also assessed on II and IV nodal leaves while IV and II nodal leaves were treated with the extract and vice versa. There was tremendous reduction in conidial germination on all the nodal leaves. The disease intensity of pea powdery mildew was significantly reduced by methanolic extract of cashewnut shells. Maximum reduction was observed with 200 ppm where 39% disease intensity was recorded in comparison to 96.53% in the control. The phenolic acid content of pea leaves following treatments with this extract varied and no definite pattern was observed. Out of several phenolic compounds, namely, gallic, ferulic, chlorogenic, and cinnamic acids, only gallic acid was found to be present consistently in all the treatments with varied amounts.

  10. Phenols and tannins contents of Anacardium occidentale Linn and Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan exposed to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Gustavo Henrique Farias dos; Silva, Edvane Borges da; Amorim, Elba Lucia Cavalcanti de; Peixoto Sobrinho, Tadeu; Lima, Claudia Sampaio de Andrade

    2011-01-01

    Anacardium occidentale Linn (cajueiro) and Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan (angico) are very know as a source of phenolic compounds, mainly tannins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference of phenols and tannins contents of crude extracts were measured after irradiation of barks and leaves of each plant source, using a source of 60 Co. The crude extracts were divided into control group and three groups which were separately after exposition to gamma radiation, in doses of 5; 7.5 and 10 kGy. From each group, the total phenols were quantified by the Folin-Ciocalteau method, while the contents of tannins were assessed using precipitation of the casein technique. For all doses, the total phenol and tannin percentages from 'cajueiro' barks presented no significant statistical alteration. However, for the leaves of 'cajueiro', their chemical composite levels significantly changed with the radiation absorbed dose. On the other hand, the gamma irradiation did not cause alterations in total phenols and tannins content of extracts from 'angico'. (author)

  11. Rapid detection of Cr(VI) by AgNPs probe produced by Anacardium occidentale fresh leaf extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balavigneswaran, C. K.; Sujin Jeba Kumar, T.; Moses Packiaraj, R.; Prakash, S.

    2014-03-01

    Nowadays necessities for the green synthesis of nanoparticles are enlarged because of its neutral toxicity and eco-friendly advantages. In this present study, we have explored the rapid biosynthesis of AgNPs at room temperature by the fresh leaf aqueous extract of Anacardium occidentale. Aqueous extracts were prepared at different temperatures 60, 80 and 100 °C. Formation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was confirmed by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak observed around 400-420 nm in UV-Visible spectra. Among the extracts prepared, 80 °C extract showed good shift in UV-Visible spectrum during Cr(VI) detection and a good linear relationship was found between the absorbance ratio ( A 510/ A 400) against 100 mM-1 μM concentration of Cr(VI). Cr(VI) was confirmed by the red shift of SPR position from 400 to 510 nm. Detection limit of our prepared probe is 1 μM and this simple technique exhibiting high selectivity to Cr(VI) over other tested heavy metal ions. Finally, efficient 80 °C extract synthesized AgNPs were characterized by XRD, SEM and TEM. XRD characterization confirmed its face centered cubic structure and confirmed that the prepared AgNPs are crystalline in nature. TEM and SEM characterization results revealed that the AgNPs are in spherical nature. The size of AgNPs was found to be 40-60 nm.

  12. Lipids Characterization and Industrial Potentials of Pumpkin Seeds (Telfairia occidentalis and Cashew Nuts (Anacardium occidentale

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    E. O. Eddy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil from Telfaria occidentalis and Anarcardium occidentale has been extracted and characterized. The lipid content of the Telfaria occidentalis and Anarcardium occidentalis were 58.41% and 42.15% respectively. The physicochemical parameters of Telfaria occidentalis and Anarcardium occidentale seeds were; boiling point; (58.90, 62.60 °C, melting point; (18.50, 21.80 °C, refractive index; (1.462, 1.498, specific gravity; (0.87, 0.69 saponification value; (91.16, 92.57 iodine value; (51.52, 47.20, acid value; (0.76, 3.74 ester value; (90.40, 88.87, % free fatty acid; (.38, 1.88 and peroxide value; (11.75, 15.23 respectively. Oils from these seeds were found to exhibit the needed potentials for utilization in paint and food industries and as biofuel.

  13. Acute and subchronic toxicity of Anacardium occidentale Linn (Anacardiaceae) leaves hexane extract in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tédong, Léonard; Dzeufiet, Paul Désiré Djomeni; Dimo, Théophile; Asongalem, Emmanuel Acha; Sokeng, Selestin Ndogmo; Flejou, Jean-François; Callard, Patrice; Kamtchouing, Pierre

    2006-11-13

    These studies focus on the toxicity leaf hexane extract of A. occidentale L (Anacardiaceae) used in Cameroon traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes and hypertension. Previous findings on antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory have given support to the ethnopharmacological applications of the plant. After acute oral administration, it was found that doses of the extract less than 6 g/kg are not toxic. Signs of toxicity at high doses were asthenia, anorexia, diarrhoea, and syncope. The LD(50) of the extract, determined in mice of both sexes after oral administration was 16 g/kg. In the subchronic study, mice received A. occidentale at doses of 6, 10 and 14 g/kg (by oral route) for 56 days. At doses of 2, 6 and 10 g/kg of extract, repeated oral administration to mice produced a reduction in food intake, weight gain, and behavioural effects. Liver or the kidney function tests were assessed by determining serum parameters like, creatinine, transaminases, and urea. All these parameters were significantly (poccidentale L hexane leaf extract occurred at higher doses than those used in Cameroon folk medicine.

  14. Influence of gamma radiation on the antimicrobial activity of crude extracts of Anacardium occidentale L., Anacardiaceae, rich in tannins

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    Gustavo H. F. Santos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Anacardium occidentale L. Anacardiaceae, known as cashew, commonly found in northeastern of Brazil, has high levels of secondary metabolites, particularly tannins, used as raw material for herbal medicines. An efficient alternative to decontaminate plant products is the total sterilization or reduction of the initial microbial count, the process of gamma irradiation with 60Co. The objective of this study was to analyze the antimicrobial activity of crude extracts of bark and leaves of A. occidentale, based on the quantification of total phenols and tannins, before and after exposure to gamma radiation from 60Co. The extracts were obtained in the laboratory by cold maceration in ethanol, filtered and dryness. They were divided into non-irradiated control group (0 kGy and irradiated: groups exposed to gamma radiation at doses of 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy. The total phenols was obtained by the Folin-Ciocalteau method and tannins, by the precipitation of casein. The antimicrobial potential activities of these extracts were also evaluated. The results showed that gamma radiation doses employed in this study did not influence statistically the percentage of total phenols and tannins in the bark extracts, at levels ranging from 5.73±0.14 and 5.20±0.14, respectively. The levels of metabolites in the leaves were statistically (p<0.05 influenced by radiation, observed average total phenols between 3.13±0.04 (0 kGy and 3.50±0.08 (10 kGy, and tannin between 2.47±0.06 (0 kGy and 2.93±0.04 (10 kGy. The extracts of bark and leaves were active against Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Candida albicans. Gamma radiation caused an increase in antimicrobial activity of extracts against Staphylococcus aureus (Gram positive, with average inhibition zones for shells: 14.33±058 (0 kGy and 22.33±0.58 (10 kGy, and leaves: 11.33±0.58 (0 kGy and 19.00±1.00 (10 kGy. Exposure to radiation caused

  15. Influence of gamma radiation on the antimicrobial activity of crude extracts of Anacardium occidentale L., Anacardiaceae, rich in tannins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo H. F. Santos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Anacardium occidentale L. Anacardiaceae, known as cashew, commonly found in northeastern of Brazil, has high levels of secondary metabolites, particularly tannins, used as raw material for herbal medicines. An efficient alternative to decontaminate plant products is the total sterilization or reduction of the initial microbial count, the process of gamma irradiation with 60Co. The objective of this study was to analyze the antimicrobial activity of crude extracts of bark and leaves of A. occidentale, based on the quantification of total phenols and tannins, before and after exposure to gamma radiation from 60Co. The extracts were obtained in the laboratory by cold maceration in ethanol, filtered and dryness. They were divided into non-irradiated control group (0 kGy and irradiated: groups exposed to gamma radiation at doses of 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy. The total phenols was obtained by the Folin-Ciocalteau method and tannins, by the precipitation of casein. The antimicrobial potential activities of these extracts were also evaluated. The results showed that gamma radiation doses employed in this study did not influence statistically the percentage of total phenols and tannins in the bark extracts, at levels ranging from 5.73±0.14 and 5.20±0.14, respectively. The levels of metabolites in the leaves were statistically (p<0.05 influenced by radiation, observed average total phenols between 3.13±0.04 (0 kGy and 3.50±0.08 (10 kGy, and tannin between 2.47±0.06 (0 kGy and 2.93±0.04 (10 kGy. The extracts of bark and leaves were active against Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Candida albicans. Gamma radiation caused an increase in antimicrobial activity of extracts against Staphylococcus aureus (Gram positive, with average inhibition zones for shells: 14.33±058 (0 kGy and 22.33±0.58 (10 kGy, and leaves: 11.33±0.58 (0 kGy and 19.00±1.00 (10 kGy. Exposure to radiation caused

  16. Mutagenicity, antioxidant potential, and antimutagenic activity against hydrogen peroxide of cashew (Anacardium occidentale) apple juice and cajuina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo Cavalcante, Ana Amélia; Rubensam, Gabriel; Picada, Jaqueline N; Gomes da Silva, Evandro; Fonseca Moreira, José Claúdio; Henriques, João A P

    2003-01-01

    Fresh and processed cashew (Anacardium occidentale) apple juice (CAJ) are among the most popular drinks in Brazil. Besides their nutritional benefits, these juices have antibacterial and antitumor potential. The chemical constituents of both the fresh juice and the processed juice (cajuina) were analyzed and characterized as complex mixtures containing high concentrations of vitamin C, various carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and metals. In the present study, these beverages exhibited direct and rat liver S9-mediated mutagenicity in the Salmonella/microsome assay with strains TA97a, TA98, and TA100, which detect frameshifts and base pair substitution. No mutagenicity was observed with strain TA102, which detects oxidative and alkylating mutagens and active forms of oxygen. Both CAJ and cajuina showed antioxidant activity as determined by a total radical-trapping potential assay. To test whether this antioxidant potential might result in antimutagenesis, we used a variation of the Salmonella/microsome assay that included pre-, co-, and posttreatment of hydrogen peroxide-exposed Salmonella typhimurium strain TA102 with the juices. CAJ and cajuina protected strain TA102 against mutation by oxidative damage in co- and posttreatments. The antimutagenic effects during cotreatment with hydrogen peroxide may be due to scavenging free radicals and complexing extracellular mutagenic compounds. The protective effects in posttreatment may be due to stimulation of repair and/or reversion of DNA damage. The results indicate that CAJ and cajuina have mutagenic, radical-trapping, antimutagenic, and comutagenic activity and that these properties can be related to the chemical constituents of the juices. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Identification of compounds with cytotoxic activity from the leaf of the Nigerian medicinal plant, Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiwo, Bamigboye J; Fatokun, Amos A; Olubiyi, Olujide O; Bamigboye-Taiwo, Olukemi T; van Heerden, Fanie R; Wright, Colin W

    2017-04-15

    Cancer is now the second-leading cause of mortality and morbidity, behind only heart disease, necessitating urgent development of (chemo)therapeutic interventions to stem the growing burden of cancer cases and cancer death. Plants represent a credible source of promising drug leads in this regard, with a long history of proven use in the indigenous treatment of cancer. This study therefore investigated Anacardium occidentale, one of the plants in a Nigerian Traditional Medicine formulation commonly used to manage cancerous diseases, for cytotoxic activity. Bioassay-guided fractionation, spectroscopy, Alamar blue fluorescence-based viability assay in cultured HeLa cells and microscopy were used. Four compounds, zoapatanolide A (1), agathisflavone (2), 1,2-bis(2,6-dimethoxy-4-methoxycarbonylphenyl)ethane (anacardicin, 3) and methyl gallate (4), were isolated, with the most potent being zoapatanolide A with an IC 50 value of 36.2±9.8µM in the viability assay. To gain an insight into the likely molecular basis of their observed cytotoxic effects, Autodock Vina binding free energies of each of the isolated compounds with seven molecular targets implicated in cancer development (MAPK8, MAPK10, MAP3K12, MAPK3, MAPK1, MAPK7 and VEGF), were calculated. Pearson correlation coefficients were obtained with experimentally-determined IC 50 in the Alamar blue viability assay. While these compounds were not as potent as a standard anticancer compound, doxorubicin, the results provide reasonable evidence that the plant species contains compounds with cytotoxic activity. This study provides some evidence of why this plant is used ethnobotanically in anticancer herbal formulations and justifies investigating Nigerian medicinal plants highlighted in recent ethnobotanical surveys. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Source-sink regulation of cotyledonary reserve mobilization during cashew (Anacardium occidentale) seedling establishment under NaCl salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Eduardo Luiz; Almeida, Tânia Dias; Chagas, Roberta Magalhães; Ponte, Luiz Ferreira Aguiar; Viégas, Ricardo Almeida; Silveira, Joaquim Albenísio Gomes

    2009-01-01

    Seedling establishment is a critical process to crop productivity, especially under saline conditions. This work was carried out to investigate the hypothesis that reserve mobilization is coordinated with salt-induced inhibition of seedling growth due to changes in source-sink relations. To test this hypothesis, cashew nuts (Anacardium occidentale) were sown in vermiculite irrigated daily with distilled water (control) or 50mM NaCl and they were evaluated at discrete developmental stages from the seed germination until the whole seedling establishment. The salt treatment coordinately delayed the seedling growth and the cotyledonary reserve mobilization. However, these effects were more pronounced at late seedling establishment than in earlier stages. The storage protein mobilization was affected by salt stress before the lipid and starch breakdown. The globulin fraction represented the most important storage proteins of cashew cotyledons, and its mobilization was markedly delayed by NaCl along the seedling establishment. Free amino acids were mostly retained in the cotyledons of salt-treated seedlings when the mobilization of storage proteins, lipids and starch was strongly delayed. Proline was not considerably accumulated in the cotyledons of cashew seedlings as a response to NaCl salinity. According to these results it is noteworthy that the salt-induced inhibition of seedling growth is narrowly coordinated with the delay of reserve mobilization and the accumulation of hydrolysis products in cotyledons. Also, it was evidenced that free amino acids, especially those related to nitrogen transport, are potential signals involved in the regulation of storage protein hydrolysis during cashew seedling establishment under NaCl salinity.

  19. Clinical effect of a mouthwash containing Anacardium occidentale Linn. on plaque and gingivitis control: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Carlos Eduardo Bezerra; Cavalcante, Dhiogo Gonçalves; Filho, José Eduardo Girão; da Costa, Flávio Nogueira; da Silva Pereira, Sérgio Luís

    2016-01-01

    Plaque-associated gingivitis is a prevalent disease and research in its treatment using herbal agents must be encouraged to verify which would be a useful addition to the current range or chemotherapeutic treatment options. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical effect of a mouth rinse containing 10% Anacardium occidentale (AO) Linn., a typical plant commonly found in the Northeast Region of Brazil, on the reduction of plaque and gingivitis in comparison to a gold-standard chemotherapeutic agent. Thirty normosystemic adult volunteers of both genders, who had a minimum of twenty natural teeth, aging between 18 and 32 years, were enrolled in this crossover, controlled, examiner-blind clinical study. They were randomly allocated into three groups: 10% AO Linn. (n = 10); 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate (CLX, n = 10); or placebo (PB, n = 10). All volunteers were instructed to brush their teeth with a fluoridated dentifrice two times a day (12/12 h) and to rinse for 1 min with one of the mouthwashes (AO, CLX, or PB) 30 min after tooth brushing for 1 month. Plaque index (PLI) and gingival bleeding index (BLI) were recorded on days 0 and 30. Nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon tests (α = 0.05) were performed to evaluate statistical differences among groups. There was a significant reduction (P gingivitis at day 30 just in CLX ([PLI = 0.47 ± 0.16; -30%]; [BLI = 0.15 ± 0.09; -55.8%]) and AO ([PLI = 0.49 ± 0.21; -31%]; [BLI = 0.13 ± 0.10; -56.6%]) groups, but no statistically significant difference was observed among them (P > 0.05). Mouthwash containing 10% AO was effective as an antiplaque and antigingivitis agent, in a similar manner that 0.12% CLX.

  20. Influence of gamma radiation on the levels of polyphenols and lethality of ethanol extracts of Anacardium occidentale Linn., against Biomphalaria glabrata; Influencia da radiacao gama na acao moluscicida de extratos de cajueiro em Biomphalaria glabrata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, G.H.F.; Silva, E.B., E-mail: santosghf@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Radioprotecao e Radioecologia; Melo, A.M.M.A.; Lima, C.S.A [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica; Amorim, E.L.C.; Peixoto Sobrinho, T.J.S. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Farmacia

    2013-08-15

    Plant materials rich in phenolic compounds, such as Anacardium occidentale Linn., Have been used as alternatives to synthetic pesticides in Biomphalaria glabrata control programs, intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. Studies show that ionizing radiation can influence the content of phenolic compounds and thus their biological actions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of gamma radiation of {sup 60}Co in polyphenol composition of hydroalcoholic extracts of bark and leaves of A. occidentale and evaluate the toxicity of these extracts to embryos and adults of B. glabrata. To achieve this goal this, the extracts were irradiated at 10 kGy, the controls being maintained from 0 kGy and positive (CaCO{sub 3}) and negative (H{sub 2}O). We quantified the total phenols by the Folin-Ciocalteau and tannins by precipitation of casein. Extracts were used at a concentration of 100 mg/L. The results showed that the radiation caused the changes to the leaves, the percentage of polyphenols and tannins, and the percentage of lethality in embryos and adults Biomphalaria glabrata, these percentages being: 13 ± 5 (0 kGy) and 27 ± 2.5 (10 kGy), and 36.67 ± 5.77 (0 kGy), and 56.67 ± 5.77 (10 kGy), respectively. Gamma radiation caused significant changes in the levels of polyphenols in the extracts of leaves of Anacardium ocidentale Linn., translated by the increased toxicity of this extract against embryos and adults of Biomphalaria glabrata. This indicates that gamma radiation can be used as an agent potentiating the toxicity of plant extracts on the alternate use of these materials as molluscicides. (author)

  1. Thrombolytic potential of Ocimum sanctum L., Curcuma longa L., Azadirachta indica L. and Anacardium occidentale L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Irfan Newaz; Habib, Md Razibul; Rahman, Md Mominur; Mannan, Adnan; Sarker, Md Mominul Islam; Hawlader, Sourav

    2011-06-01

    Atherothrombotic diseases such as myocardial or cerebral infarction are serious consequences of the thrombus formed xin blood vessels. Thrombolytic agents are used to dissolve the already formed clots in the blood vessels; however, these drugs have certain limitations which cause serious and sometimes fatal consequences. Herbal preparations have been used since ancient times for the treatment of several diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate whether herbal preparations possess thrombolytic activity or not. An in vitro thrombolytic model was used to check the clot lysis effect of four aqueous herbal extracts viz., O. sanctum, C. longa, A. indica, A. occidentale along with Streptokinase as a positive control and water as a negative control. The percentage (%) clot lysis was statistically significant (poccidentale showed moderate clot lysis activity (30.01 ± 6.168%, 32.94 ± 3.663%, 27.47 ± 6.943%, 33.79 ± 2.926% respectively) whereas standard streptokinase showed 86.2 ± 10.7 % clot lysis effect. From our study we found that all the herbs showed reasonable % of clot lysis. These herbal extracts possess thrombolytic properties that could lyse blood clots in vitro; however, in vivo clot dissolving properties and active component(s) of these extracts for clot lysis are yet to be discovered.

  2. Effect of Niclosamide (Bayluscide WP 70 (R, Anacardium occidentale hexane extract and Euphorbia splendens latex on behavior of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818, under laboratory conditions

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    Pedro Jurberg

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available The repellent effect of the molluscicides Niclosamide (Bayluscide WP 70 (R, Anacardium occidentale and the latex of Euphorbia splendens on Biomphalaria glabrata was observed through the investigation of the occurrence of escape behavior among molluscs that were exposed to dosages lower than the LD 50. The total number of individuals out of water among the surviving snails in the control group provided a "Natural Escape Index". The comparison between this total and the total number of surviving snails in each group exposed to the different dosages of the molluscicides after 24 hr provided the "Molluscicide Escape Index" and the detection of a "Repellency Range" to these snails. The escape indexes for Niclosamide, A. occidentale and E. splendens were 10, 6.22 and 6.44 respectively. Repellency occurred at the following concentration ranges: 0.01, 0.02 and 0.03 ppm Bayluscide, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 ppm A. occidentale and 0.05, 0.10, 0.15 and 0.20 ppm E. splendens. The Natural Escape Index obtained in the control group was zero.

  3. Anacardium occidentale bark lectin: purification, immobilization as an affinity model and influence in the uptake of technetium-99M by rat adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Maria Inês Sucupira; de Mendonça Cavalcanti, Maria do Socorro; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes; de Almeida Catanho, Maria Teresa Jansem; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso

    2012-10-01

    Lectins, proteins that recognize carbohydrates, have been immobilized on inert supports and used in the screening or purification of glycoproteins. Anacardium occidentale bark infusion has been used as a hypoglycemic agent in Brazil. The toxicity of natural products may be evaluated determining their capability to alter the biodistribution of technetium-99M ((99m)Tc). This work reports the isolation and characterization of a lectin from A. occidentale bark (AnocBL), its evaluation as an affinity support for glycoprotein isolation and lectin effect on the uptake of (99m)Tc by rat adipocytes. AnocBL was isolated from 80 % ammonium sulphate supernatant by affinity chromatography on fetuin-agarose. SDS-PAGE showed a single protein band of 47 kDa. The monossacharide L-arabinose and the glycoproteins fetuin, asialofetuin, ovomucoid, casein, thyroglobulin, peroxidase, fetal bovine serum and IgG inhibited the activity. The lectin activity was stable until 70 °C and at a pH range of 3.0-7.5. AnocBL-Sepharose column bound fetuin indicating that the lectin matrix may be used to obtain glycoconjugates of biotechnological interest. In vitro assay revealed that glucose and insulin increase (99m)Tc uptake by rat adipocytes. AnocBL decreases (99m)Tc uptake, and this effect was not detected in the presence of glucose. Fetuin inhibited AnocBL effect in all insulin concentrations.

  4. Sodium metabisulfite–induced polymerization of sickle cell hemoglobin incubated in the extracts of three medicinal plants (Anacardium occidentale, Psidium guajava, and Terminalia catappa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikezie, Paul Chidoka

    2011-01-01

    Background: The exploitation and utilization of vast varieties of herbal extracts may serve as alternative measures to deter aggregation of deoxygenated sickle cell hemoglobin (deoxyHbS) molecules. Objective: The present in vitro study ascertained the capacity of three medicinal plants, namely, Anacardium occidentale, Psidium guajava, and Terminalia catappa, to alter polymerization of HbS. Materials and Methods: Spectrophotometric method was used to monitor the level of polymerization of hemolysate HbS molecules treated with sodium metabisulfite (Na2 S2 O5) at a regular interval of 30 s for a period of 180 s in the presence of separate aqueous extracts of A. occidentale, P. guajava, and T. catappa. At time intervals of 30 s, the level of polymerization was expressed as percentage of absorbance relative to the control sample at the 180th s. Results: Although extracts of the three medicinal plants caused significant (P guajava exhibited the highest capacity to reduced polymerization of deoxyHbS molecules. Whereas at t > 60 s, extract concentration of 400 mg% of A. occidentale activated polymerization of deoxyHbS molecules by 6.23±1.34, 14.53±1.67, 21.15±1.89, and 24.42±1.09%, 800 mg% of T. catappa at t > 30 s gave values of 2.50±1.93, 5.09±1.96, 10.00±0.99, 15.38±1.33, and 17.31±0.97%. Conclusion: The capacity of the three medicinal plants to interfere with polymerization of deoxyHbS molecules depended on the duration of incubation and concentration of the extracts. PMID:21716622

  5. Sodium metabisulfite-induced polymerization of sickle cell hemoglobin incubated in the extracts of three medicinal plants (Anacardium occidentale, Psidium guajava, and Terminalia catappa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikezie, Paul Chidoka

    2011-04-01

    The exploitation and utilization of vast varieties of herbal extracts may serve as alternative measures to deter aggregation of deoxygenated sickle cell hemoglobin (deoxyHbS) molecules. The present in vitro study ascertained the capacity of three medicinal plants, namely, Anacardium occidentale, Psidium guajava, and Terminalia catappa, to alter polymerization of HbS. Spectrophotometric method was used to monitor the level of polymerization of hemolysate HbS molecules treated with sodium metabisulfite (Na(2) S(2) O(5)) at a regular interval of 30 s for a period of 180 s in the presence of separate aqueous extracts of A. occidentale, P. guajava, and T. catappa. At time intervals of 30 s, the level of polymerization was expressed as percentage of absorbance relative to the control sample at the 180th s. Although extracts of the three medicinal plants caused significant (P 60 s, extract concentration of 400 mg% of A. occidentale activated polymerization of deoxyHbS molecules by 6.23±1.34, 14.53±1.67, 21.15±1.89, and 24.42±1.09%, 800 mg% of T. catappa at t > 30 s gave values of 2.50±1.93, 5.09±1.96, 10.00±0.99, 15.38±1.33, and 17.31±0.97%. The capacity of the three medicinal plants to interfere with polymerization of deoxyHbS molecules depended on the duration of incubation and concentration of the extracts.

  6. (Anacardium occidentale) in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... the flowering plant family Anacardiaceae. It is also the name for the commercially important kidney-shaped, nut- like seed of this plant, which is edible when roasted or cooked (New World Encyclopaedia, 2008). The plant is a native of Tropical .... direct sunlight, which can help remove termite and other.

  7. Anacardium occidentale L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2010-05-05

    May 5, 2010 ... kernel can be roasted and consumed; it can also be used as an adjunct in chocolate and chicken feeds [4]. The powdered milk used in standard milk chocolate recipe can be replaced with 25% ..... Cottonseed, and Peanut Isolates produced by Industrial membrane systems. J. Food. Sc. 1980; 45 ( 2): ...

  8. Teores de ácido anacárdico em pedúnculos de cajueiro Anacardium microcarpum e em oito clones de Anacardium occidentale var. nanum disponíveis no Nordeste do Brasil Anacardic acid content in cashew apples from Annacardium microcarpum and eight clones of Anacardium occidentale from Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia da Silveira Agostini-Costa

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O ácido anacárdico, composto fenólico presente em pedúnculos de caju e em algumas plantas medicinais, vem sendo associado a uma série de atividades biológicas específicas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o teor deste composto em pedúnculos de cajueiro A. microcarpum e em oito clones de A. occidentale var. nanum disponíveis na região Nordeste do Brasil, avaliando, também, algumas características físico-químicas e sensoriais destes pedúnculos. Os pedúnculos do clone BRS 189 apresentaram os maiores teores de ácido anacárdico. Pedúnculos da espécie Anacardium microcarpum e pedúnculos de cajueiro anão precoce, clones END 189 e 183, Embrapa 50 e 51 e CCP 09 não diferiram significativamente dos pedúnculos procedentes do clone controle, CCP 076. Pedúnculos do clone CCP 1001 apresentaram os menores teores de ácido anacárdico. As análises físico-químicas e sensoriais confirmaram evidências de que os clones CCP 09 e 1001 não são apropriados para o consumo in natura.Anacardic acid, a phenolic compound present in cashew apple and in some medicinal plants, is being associated to some specific biological effects. The purpose of this work was to determine anacardic acid content in peduncles of A. microcarpum and eight clones of A. occidentale from Northeastern Brazil, evaluating some physical-chemical and sensory characteristics of these peduncles. Cashew apples from BRS 189 clone of early cashew tree presented the highest values of anacardic acid. Cashew apples from A. microcarpum and END 189, END 183, Embrapa 50, Embrapa 51 e CCP 09 clones of early cashew tree did not differ from control CCP 076 clone. Cashew apples from CCP 1001 clone presented the minor values of anacardic acid. Physical-chemical and sensory analyses showed evidence that CCP 09 and CCP 1001 clone are not appropriate to fresh consuption.

  9. Avaliação da toxicidade subcrônica do extrato bruto seco de Anacardium occidentale Linn em cães - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v28i1.1112 Evaluation of the subchronic toxicity of the crude dry extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn in dogs - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v28i1.1112

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabely de Souza Vera Cruz

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A busca de novos medicamentos tem levado ao desenvolvimento de novos fármacos que sejam eficientes e destituídos de toxicidade. Uma das fronteiras nessas pesquisas são os medicamentos fitoterápicos. No Brasil, a Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA regulariza essas pesquisas e padroniza os procedimentos. A Resolução da Diretoria Colegiada (RDC 48/2004, por exemplo, regulariza o registro de fitoterápicos. O Anacardium occidentale Linn está entre as plantas mais estudadas, devido às ações antibiótica e antiinflamatória de seus metabólitos secundários, principalmente taninos. Esta planta também possui a capacidade de impedir a formação da placa bacteriana bucal. Diante dessas ações, formas farmacêuticas acabadas (cremes e géis foram desenvolvidas a partir do extrato bruto seco (EBS das cascas do caule do A. occidentale Linn para registro de um novo fitomedicamento. Entretanto, testes pré-clínicos e clínicos devem ser feitos de acordo com a lei vigente. O presente trabalho avaliou a toxicidade subcrônica do EBS em cães sem raça definida (SRD. Os testes revelaram apenas hepatotoxicidade transitória demonstrada pela elevação dos níveis da alanina transaminase (ALT e aspartato transaminase (ASTResearch on new medicaments has led to the development of efficient and non-toxic drugs. In Brazil, the Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (National Department of Sanitary Supervision – ANVISA regularizes and standardizes the procedure. Anacardium occidentale is amongst the most researched plants, due to the antibiotics and antinflammatory properties of its secondary metabolites, mainly tannins and flavonoids. Furthermore, it prevents the dental plaque formation. On account of these actions, finished pharmaceutical forms (creams and gels were developed from the crude dry extract (CDE of A. occidentale Linn stem rinds, in order to register a new form. However, pre-clinical and clinical assays can be made in

  10. Contribution of the cashew gum (Anacardium occidentale L.) for development of layer-by-layer films with potential application in nanobiomedical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, I M S; Zampa, M F; Moura, J B; dos Santos, J R; Eaton, P; Zucolotto, V; Veras, L M C; de Paula, R C M; Feitosa, J P A; Leite, J R S A; Eiras, C

    2012-08-01

    The search for bioactive molecules to be employed as recognition elements in biosensors has stimulated researchers to pore over the rich Brazilian biodiversity. In this sense, we introduce the use of natural cashew gum (Anacardium occidentale L.) as an active biomaterial to be used in the form of layer-by-layer films, in conjunction with phthalocyanines, which were tested as electrochemical sensors for dopamine detection. We investigated the effects of chemical composition of cashew gum from two different regions of Brazil (Piauí and Ceará states) on the physico-chemical characteristics of these nanostructures. The morphology of the nanostructures containing cashew gum was studied by atomic force microscopy which indicates that smooth films punctuated by globular features were formed that showed low roughness values. The results indicate that, independent of the origin, cashew gum stands out as an excellent film forming material with potential application in nanobiomedical devices as electrochemical sensors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of immature cashew nut-shell liquid (Anacardium occidentale) against oxidative damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lima, S G; Feitosa, C M; Citó, A M G L; Moita Neto, J M; Lopes, J A D; Leite, A S; Brito, M C; Dantas, S M M; Cavalcante, A A C Melo

    2008-09-09

    The cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale) represents one of the major cheapest sources of non-isoprenoid phenolic lipids, which have a variety of biological properties: they can act as molluscicides, insecticides, fungicides, have anti-termite properties, have medicinal applications, and demonstrate antioxidant activity in vitro. Immature cashew nut-shell liquid (iCNSL) is a unique natural source of unsaturated long-chain phenols. Their use has stimulated much research in order to prepare drug analogues for application in several fields. The objective of the present study was to determine whether iCNSL has antioxidant properties when used in strains of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and to measure the inhibitory activity of acetylcholinesterase. The constituents were identified using thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance. The iCNSL contains anacardic acid, cardanol, cardol, and 2-methyl cardol. Immature cashew nut oil contains triacylglycerols, fatty acids, alkyl-substituted phenols, and cholesterol. The main constituents of the free fatty acids are palmitic (C(16:0)) and oleic acid (C(18:1)). iCNSL has excellent protective activities in strains of S. cerevisiae against oxidative damage induced by hydrogen peroxide and inhibits acetylcholinesterase activity. iCNSL may have an important role in protecting DNA against damage induced by reactive oxygen species, as well as hydrogen peroxide, generated by intra- and extracellular mechanisms.

  12. The mosquitocidal activity of methanolic extracts of Lantana cramera root and Anacardium occidentale leaf: role of glutathione S-transferase in insecticide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Asima; Samanta, Luna; Das, Sachidananda; Parida, Sarat K; Marai, Neetisheel; Hazra, Rupenansu K; Mallavdani, U V; Kar, Santanu K; Mahapatra, Namita

    2011-03-01

    Larvicidal activity of methanolic plant extracts of Lantana cramera (P1) root and Anacardium occidentale (P2) leaf was investigated against the larvae of the three mosquito species (Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi, and Aedes aegypti reared in the laboratory), and the respective glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity was analyzed as an index of protection against the extracts. The LC50 (extract concentration that shows 50% mortality) values of P1 extract for An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti, and Cx. quinquefasciatus were 132.55, 27.82, and 11.68 ppm, respectively, whereas those of P2 extract were 56.81, 912, and 10.79 ppm, respectively. In general, in the untreated groups, the level of GST activity was significantly higher in Ae. aegypti in comparison with An. stephesi and Cx. quinquefasciatus. However, the enzyme activity failed to show any response when treated with either of the plant extracts in Ae. aegypti. However, an increase in the GST activity was recorded in extract-treated larvae of both An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The results of the current study suggest that both the plant extracts show species-specific mosquitocidal potential. Induction of GST activities in survived An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae suggests the role of this enzyme in conferring resistance to the plant extracts.

  13. Hydro-ethanolic extract of cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale) nut and its principal compound, anacardic acid, stimulate glucose uptake in C2C12 muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedong, Leonard; Madiraju, Padma; Martineau, Louis C; Vallerand, Diane; Arnason, John T; Desire, Dzeufiet D P; Lavoie, Louis; Kamtchouing, Pierre; Haddad, Pierre S

    2010-12-01

    Products of cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale) are used in traditional medicine for various ailments, including diabetes. The anti-diabetic properties of cashew plant parts were studied using differentiated C2C12 myoblasts (myotubes) and rat liver mitochondria. Hydroethanolic extract of cashew seed (CSE) and its active component, anacardic acid (AA), stimulated glucose transport into C2C12 myotubes in a concentration-dependent manner. Extracts of other parts (leaves, bark and apple) of cashew plant were inactive. Significant synergistic effect on glucose uptake with insulin was noticed at 100 μg/mL CSE. CSE and AA caused activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase in C2C12 myotubes after 6 h of incubation. No significant effect was noticed on Akt and insulin receptor phosphorylation. Both CSE and AA exerted significant uncoupling of succinate-stimulated respiration in rat liver mitochondria. Activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase by CSE and AA likely increases plasma membrane glucose transporters, resulting in elevated glucose uptake. In addition, the dysfunction of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation may enhance glycolysis and contribute to increased glucose uptake. These results collectively suggest that CSE may be a potential anti-diabetic nutraceutical. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. UPLC-qTOF-MS/MS-based phenolic profile and their biosynthetic enzyme activity used to discriminate between cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L.) maturation stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Aline G; Brito, Edy S; Moura, Carlos F H; Ribeiro, Paulo R V; Miranda, Maria Raquel A

    2017-04-15

    Cashew immature and ripe peduncles (Anacardium occidentale L.) from orange- and red-colored clones CCP 76 and BRS 189, respectively, were prepared as juice or fibrous fraction and submitted to UPLC-MS analyses, while the soluble fraction was also submitted to enzymatic evaluation. Cinnamoyl glucoside was present in ripe juice samples from both cashew clones, while monogalloyl diglucoside and digalloyl glucoside were present in immature juice samples from both cashew clones. Four compounds were found at immature fiber of both clones, anacardic acids (1, 2, 3) and GA 19 . The phenolic biosynthetic pathway was evaluated in juice samples and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity decreased significantly during the development, although it was much higher in ripe CCP 76. UDP-glycosyltransferases activity differed between clones, however its product cinnamoyl glucoside was a possible chemical marker of ripe juice samples from both clones. Flavonol synthase showed the highest specific activity in both cashew clones and its product, flavonols were identified in cashew apple at immature and ripe stages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Contribution of the cashew gum (Anacardium occidentale L.) for development of layer-by-layer films with potential application in nanobiomedical devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, I.M.S. [Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Ciencias da Natureza, CCN, Universidade Federal do Piaui, UFPI, Teresina, PI, 64049-550 (Brazil); Nucleo de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia, BIOTEC, Campus Parnaiba, CMRV, Universidade Federal do Piaui, UFPI, Parnaiba, PI, 64202-020 (Brazil); Zampa, M.F. [Nucleo de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia, BIOTEC, Campus Parnaiba, CMRV, Universidade Federal do Piaui, UFPI, Parnaiba, PI, 64202-020 (Brazil); Campus Parnaiba, Instituto Federal de Educacao Ciencia e Tecnologia do Piaui, IFPI, Parnaiba, PI, 64210-260 (Brazil); Moura, J.B.; Santos, J.R. dos [Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Ciencias da Natureza, CCN, Universidade Federal do Piaui, UFPI, Teresina, PI, 64049-550 (Brazil); Eaton, P. [REQUIMTE, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, Porto, 4169-007 (Portugal); Zucolotto, V. [Grupo de Biofisica Molecular Sergio Mascarenhas, Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, IFSC, USP, Sao Carlos, SP, 13566-590 (Brazil); and others

    2012-08-01

    The search for bioactive molecules to be employed as recognition elements in biosensors has stimulated researchers to pore over the rich Brazilian biodiversity. In this sense, we introduce the use of natural cashew gum (Anacardium occidentale L.) as an active biomaterial to be used in the form of layer-by-layer films, in conjunction with phthalocyanines, which were tested as electrochemical sensors for dopamine detection. We investigated the effects of chemical composition of cashew gum from two different regions of Brazil (Piaui and Ceara states) on the physico-chemical characteristics of these nanostructures. The morphology of the nanostructures containing cashew gum was studied by atomic force microscopy which indicates that smooth films punctuated by globular features were formed that showed low roughness values. The results indicate that, independent of the origin, cashew gum stands out as an excellent film forming material with potential application in nanobiomedical devices as electrochemical sensors. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study focused on the use of cashew gum for the formation of LbL films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LbL films containing cashew gums were investigated by AFM and cyclic voltammetry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cashew gum contributed to obtain stable films with well-defined redox processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cashew gum films detected dopamine in low concentrations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These LbL films presented potential application in nanobiomedical devices.

  16. Assessment of Phenolic Compounds and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Ethyl Acetate Phase of Anacardium occidentale L. Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Suênia de Araújo Vilar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The bark of A. occidentale L. is rich in tannins. Studies have described various biological activities of the plant, including antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiulcerogenic and antiinflammatory actions. The objective of this study was to assess the activity of the ethyl acetate phase (EtOAc of A. occidentale on acute inflammation and to identify and quantify its phenolic compounds by HPLC. The method was validated and shown to be linear, precise and accurate for catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin and gallic acid. Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus were treated with saline, Carrageenan (2.5%, Indomethacin (10 mg/kg, Bradykinin (6 nmol and Prostaglandine E2 (5 µg at different concentrations of EtOAc - A. occidentale (12.5; 25; 50; and 100 mg/kg/weight p.o. for the paw edema test. Challenge was performed with carrageenan (500 µg/mL i.p. for the doses 50 and 100 mg/kg of EtOAc. Levels of cytokines IL-1, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 were also measured. All EtOAc - A. occidentale concentrations reduced the edema. At 50 and 100 mg/kg, an anti-inflammatory response of the EtOAc was observed. Carrageenan stimulus produced a neutrophil count of 28.6% while 50 and 100 mg/kg of the phase reduced this to 14.5% and 9.1%, respectively. The EtOAc extract reduced levels of IL-1 and TNF-α. These results suggest that the EtOAc plays a modulatory role in the inflammatory response. The chromatographic method can be used for the analysis of the phenolic compounds of the EtOAc phase.

  17. Assessment of Phenolic Compounds and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Ethyl Acetate Phase of Anacardium occidentale L. Bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Marina Suênia de Araújo; de Souza, Graziene Lopes; Vilar, Daniela de Araújo; Leite, Jacqueline Alves; Raffin, Fernanda Nervo; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; Nogueira, Fernando Henrique Andrade; Rodrigues-Mascarenhas, Sandra; Moura, Túlio Flávio Accioly de Lima

    2016-08-19

    The bark of A. occidentale L. is rich in tannins. Studies have described various biological activities of the plant, including antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiulcerogenic and antiinflammatory actions. The objective of this study was to assess the activity of the ethyl acetate phase (EtOAc) of A. occidentale on acute inflammation and to identify and quantify its phenolic compounds by HPLC. The method was validated and shown to be linear, precise and accurate for catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin and gallic acid. Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus) were treated with saline, Carrageenan (2.5%), Indomethacin (10 mg/kg), Bradykinin (6 nmol) and Prostaglandine E2 (5 µg) at different concentrations of EtOAc - A. occidentale (12.5; 25; 50; and 100 mg/kg/weight p.o.) for the paw edema test. Challenge was performed with carrageenan (500 µg/mL i.p.) for the doses 50 and 100 mg/kg of EtOAc. Levels of cytokines IL-1, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 were also measured. All EtOAc - A. occidentale concentrations reduced the edema. At 50 and 100 mg/kg, an anti-inflammatory response of the EtOAc was observed. Carrageenan stimulus produced a neutrophil count of 28.6% while 50 and 100 mg/kg of the phase reduced this to 14.5% and 9.1%, respectively. The EtOAc extract reduced levels of IL-1 and TNF-α. These results suggest that the EtOAc plays a modulatory role in the inflammatory response. The chromatographic method can be used for the analysis of the phenolic compounds of the EtOAc phase.

  18. Efeito neuroprotetor do extrato hidroetanólico de Anacardium occidentale e do ácido anacárdico no modelo experimental animal da doença de parkinson induzido por rotenona

    OpenAIRE

    Linard, Cybelle Façanha Barreto Medeiros

    2014-01-01

    O aumento da população idosa tem levado a uma crescente incidência de doenças neurodegenerativas em todo o mundo. O consumo de alimentos de origem vegetal e o uso das propriedades terapêuticas de muitas plantas destacam-se desde os primórdios da humanidade. Anacardium occidentale Linn, conhecido popularmente como cajueiro, é uma árvore nativa do Norte e Nordeste do Brasil. Seu pseudofruto possui elevado teor de vitamina A, do complexo B, C e compostos fenólicos. O ácido anac...

  19. Mechanisms of anti-inflammatory property of Anacardium occidentale stem bark: inhibition of NF-κB and MAPK signalling in the microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olajide, Olumayokun A; Aderogba, Mutalib A; Fiebich, Bernd L

    2013-01-09

    Anacardium occidentale is used in traditional African medicine for the treatment of arthritis, fever, aches, pains, and inflammation of the extremities. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms responsible for anti-inflammatory effects of a stem bark extract of A. occidentale (ANE) in LPS-stimulated microglia. Nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) and cytokine (TNFα and IL-6) production were evaluated in supernatants from LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase (mPGES-1) protein expressions in rat primary microglia were measured using western blot. The effects of ANE on NF-κB activation and nuclear translocation were evaluated in the luciferase reporter gene assay and ELISA, while ability of ANE to influence IκB phosphorylation was determined using ELISA specific for phospho-IκB. The involvement of MAPK phosphorylation in the anti-inflammatory actions of ANE was evaluated using specific ELISA for phospho-p38, phospho-p42/44 and phospho-JNK. The MTT assay was used to determine the effect of ANE on BV-2 microglia viability. ANE (25-100 μg/ml) produced significant (p<0.05) reduction in the production of NO, PGE(2), TNFα and IL-6 in BV-2 microglia stimulated with LPS for 24h. Pre-treatment with ANE caused a significant (p<0.05) inhibition of COX-2, iNOS and mPGES-1 protein expressions in the rat primary microglia. Further experiments showed that ANE inhibited COX-2 and iNOS protein expression via IκB-mediated nuclear translocation and transactivation of NF-κB. Our studies also revealed that ANE produced significant (p<0.05) and dose-dependent inhibition of p38, p42/44 and JNK MAPK phosphorylation in LPS-activated BV-2 microglia. We conclude that ANE has an anti-inflammatory property related to inhibition of inflammation-associated cytokine production as well as iNOS and COX-2 gene expression by blocking NF-κB and MAPK pathways in the microglia. It is

  20. Microarray analysis revealed different gene expression patterns in HepG2 cells treated with low and high concentrations of the extracts of Anacardium occidentale shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleghi, Shaghayegh; Aziz, Azlina Abdul; Razali, Nurhanani; Junit, Sarni Mat

    2011-11-01

    In this study, the effects of low and high concentrations of the Anacardium occidentale shoot extracts on gene expression in liver HepG2 cells were investigated. From MTT assays, the concentration of the shoot extracts that maintained 50% cell viability (IC(50)) was 1.7 mg/ml. Cell viability was kept above 90% at both 0.4 mg/ml and 0.6 mg/ml of the extracts. The three concentrations were subsequently used for the gene expression analysis using Affymetrix Human Genome 1.0 S.T arrays. The microarray data were validated using real-time qRT-PCR. A total of 246, 696 and 4503 genes were significantly regulated (P < 0.01) by at least 1.5-fold in response to 0.4, 0.6 and 1.7 mg/ml of the extracts, respectively. Mutually regulated genes in response to the three concentrations included CDKN3, LOC100289612, DHFR, VRK1, CDC6, AURKB and GABRE. Genes like CYP24A1, BRCA1, AURKA, CDC2, CDK2, CDK4 and INSR were significantly regulated at 0.6 mg/ml and 1.7 mg but not at 0.4 mg/ml. However, the expression of genes including LGR5, IGFBP3, RB1, IDE, LDLR, MTTP, APOB, MTIX, SOD2 and SOD3 were exclusively regulated at the IC(50) concentration. In conclusion, low concentrations of the extracts were able to significantly regulate a sizable number of genes. The type of genes that were expressed was highly dependent on the concentration of the extracts used.

  1. Study of rheological behavior of cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale, l., acerola (Malpighia emarginata, d.c. and mango (Mangifera indica, l. pulpsEstudo do comportamento reológico de polpas de caju (Anacardium occidentale, l., acerola (Malpighia emarginata, d.c. e manga (Mangifera indica, l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evânia Altina Teixeira de Figueiredo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the fruit tropical pulps rheological behavior have a great importance for the consumers and food process industries. In this work it was studied the rheological behavior of the cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale, L., mango (Mangifera indica, L and acerola (Malpighia emarginata, DC single strength, frozen and pasteurized pulps. The experimental measurements were carried out in concentric cylinder rheometer and the experimental data were fitted to models of Ostwald-de-Waelle and Bingham. There were evaluated chemical, physical-chemical and microbiological parameters. In this work, in order to adjust the rheological parameters, the model that presented the best description was the Ostwald-de-Waelle for the mango and acerola pulps, and Bingham for cashew apple pulp. The samples presented non-Newtonian and pseudoplastic character. The chemical and physicochemical analysis showed the nutritional value of the studied fruits. The microbiological results presented satisfactory hygienic and sanitary conditions in pulps processing.O conhecimento do comportamento reológico das polpas de frutas tropicais é muito importante para os consumidores e para a indústria de alimentos. Neste trabalho se estudou o comportamento reológico de polpas de caju (Anacardium occidentale, L., manga (Mangifera indica, L e acerola (Malpighia emarginata, D.C. integrais, pasteurizadas e congeladas. As medidas experimentais foram realizadas em reômetro rotacional de cilindros concêntricos e os dados experimentais foram ajustados aos modelos de Ostwald-de-Waelle e Bingham. Também foram avaliados os parâmetros químicos, físico-químicos e microbiológicos. No estudo, para o ajuste dos parâmetros reológicos, o modelo que apresentou maior ajuste foi o de Ostwald-de-Waelle para as polpas de acerola e manga e Bingham para a polpa de caju. As amostras apresentaram comportamento não-newtoniano e caráter pseudoplástico. As caracterizações químicas e f

  2. DYNAMICS OF THE RUMINAL FERMENTATION IN SHEEP FEEDING WITH RATION CONTAINING DIFFERENT LEVELS OF CASHEW BY-PRODUCTS (Anacardium occidentale Efecto de la inclusion en los níveles crescentes del subproducto de caju (Anacardium occidentale L. en la dinámica de la fermentacion ruminal de ovinos DINÂMICA DA FERMENTAÇÃO RUMINAL EM OVINOS ALIMENTADOS COM RAÇÕES CONTENDO DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE COPRODUTOS DE CAJU (Anacardium occidentale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Cláudio Rogério

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The study aimed to evaluate the inclusion of cashew by-product (Anacardium occidentale L. on the ammoniac nitrogen concentrations (N-NH3, pH and vollatile fatty acids concentrations (VFA of the ruminal fluid, in sheep that received diets containing the cited by-product. Twenty male, entire sheep had been distributed in four treatments with different levels of cashew by-product inclusion (zero; 19%; 38%; 52% in a randomized block design, in a split-plot project, having in the parcels the diets and the sub-parcels the times of collection (zero, two, five, eight hours after-feeding with five replications. PH was remained inside of the normal standards cited by same literature in the raised cashew by-product inclusions. Diets with zero and 52% had gotten the biggest concentrations of N-NH3. The molar ratio of the AGV in the ruminal liquid in the diets with cashew by-product was typical of rich diets in voluminous. The relation acetate: propionate was not affected by the inclusion of the cashew by-product. The inclusion of the cashew by-product in up to 19 % of the dietary total presented better resulted in that it says respect to the parameters analyzed in this work.

    KEY WORDS: Ammoniac nitrogen, Ovis aries, pH, parameters ruminate, ruminants, volatile fatty acids.

    El estudio apunto evaluar la inclusión del subproducto de caju (Anacardium occidentale en la concentración de nitrogeno amoniacal (N-NH3, el pH y las concentraciones de los acidos grasos vollatiles (AGV en el liquido ruminal de ovinos ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE L.: PROSPECÇÃO TECNOLÓGICA APLICADA À TECNOLOGIA DE COMPOSTOS BIOATIVOS EM PRODUTOS ALIMENTÍCIOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lília Barretto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O agronegócio mundial do caju movimenta cerca de 2,4 bilhões de dólares por ano. No Brasil, a região Nordeste responde por mais de 95% da produção, com divisas na ordem de 220 milhões de dólares anuais. Apesar da importância desta atividade agroindustrial, observa-se que o seu potencial econômico permanece pouco explorado, principalmente com relação ao aproveitamento do pedúnculo. Além de rico em nutrientes, o caju é uma importante fonte de compostos bioativos, os quais podem ser usados na elaboração de produtos funcionais. Este trabalho apresenta um mapeamento tecnológico sobre as potencialidades do caju referentes às tecnologias de compostos bioativos baseado na evolução das competências tecnológicas traduzidas através dos depósitos de patentes. Para a realização desta pesquisa, utilizou-se a base de dados Derwent Innovations Index. Mesmo sem apresentar geografia nem clima favoráveis para a produção de caju, o Japão liderou os rankings apresentados neste estudo, com 14 pedidos quando realizada a pesquisa pela palavra-chave Anacardium occidentale e 04, quando usado o termo cashew apple. A Universidade Federal do Maranhão é o destaque brasileiro, com dois depósitos relacionados à área farmacêutica. O único protocolo nacional referente a compostos bioativos extraídos a partir do caju foi depositado pela Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais em 2009 e ressalta um método laboratorial para análises de taninos extraídos de bebidas como o suco de caju. Os resultados demonstram uma área promissora para o desenvolvimento de patentes brasileiras relacionadas ao caju e seus compostos bioativos, hoje atualmente explorados por países não produtores desta fruta.

  3. CARACTERIZAÇÃO FÍSICO-QUÍMICA DA AMÊNDOA DA CASTANHA DE CAJU (Anacardium occidentale L. CRUA E TOSTADA

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    M.L.P. MELO

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se a caracterização físico-química da amêndoa da castanha de caju (Anacardium occidentale L. crua e tostada, identificando-se as alterações provocadas pelo processo de tostagem. As amêndoas da castanha de caju crua e tostada apresentaram pH próximos à neutralidade. A composição centesimal da amêndoa crua apresentou os seguintes teores: umidade - 5,05 %, cinzas - 2,40 %, proteínas - 22,11 %, lipídios - 46,28 %, açúcares totais - 7,93 % e amido - 16,07 %. Para a amêndoa tostada os resultados foram: umidade - 1,18 %, cinzas - 2,43 %, proteínas - 21,76 %, lipídios - 48,35 %, açúcares totais - 8,23 % e amido - 17,30 %. A comparação destes resultados foi significativamente diferente nos níveis de lipídios, açúcares totais e amido, possivelmente em conseqüência da perda de água durante o processo de tostagem, pois quando estes foram comparados na base seca, os resultados passaram a não ter diferenças estatísticas.The purpose of this work was to evaluate the quality of the raw and toasted cashew nuts, identifying the changes that took place during the toasting process. The raw and toasted cashew nut showed pH near neutrality. The chemical composition of the raw cashew nut showed the following values: moisture - 5,05 %; ash - 2,40 %; protein - 22,11 %; lipids - 46,28 %; total sugar - 7,93 % and starch - 16,07 %. The toasted nut results were: moisture - 1,18 %; ash - 2,43 %; protein - 21,76 %; lipids - 48,35 %; total sugar - 8,23 % and starch - 17,30 %. The comparison of these values were significantly different for the levels of lipids, total sugars and starch, possibly due to the loss of water, during the toasting process, since when they were compared on dry matter basis, the results did not present differences.

  4. Bioactive compounds and total antioxidant capacity of cashew apples (Anacardium occidentale L. during the ripening of early dwarf cashew clones Compostos bioativos e atividade antioxidante total de pedúnculos de caju (Anacardium occidentale L. durante o amadurecimento de clones de cajueiro anão-precoce

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    Mônica Maria de Almeida Lopes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lately, tropical fruit consumption has increased due to a higher knowledge of its nutritional and therapeutic value. The aim of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant potential of cashew apples from different early dwarf clones during their ripening. The clones analyzed included: CCP 76, CCP 09, BRS 189 and BRS 265 in seven ripening stages. They were analyzed for vitamin C, total carotenoid, total anthocyanin, yellow flavonoids and polyphenol content and total antioxidant capacity. Clone BRS 265 ripe cashew apple presented the highest vitamin C content (279.37 mg x 100 g-1. The ripe BRS 189 cashew apple is colored bright red, and its total anthocyanin content was the highest (21.16 mg x 100 g-1. The yellow flavonoids content was higher for ripe CCP 76 and BRS 189 cashew apples with 56.32 and 50.75 mg x 100 g-1, respectively. The highest levels of extrable polyphenols and antioxidant capacity were observed in CCP 09 in the first five ripening stages. The antioxidant activity of cashew apples (Anacardium occidentale L. is mainly attributed to polyphenol content (r = 0.90; p Ultimamente, o consumo de frutas tropicais tem aumentado em razão de um maior conhecimento de seu valor nutricional e terapêutico. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o potencial antioxidante de pedúnculos de cajus de diferentes clones de cajueiro anão precoce, durante o seu amadurecimento. Os clones analisados foram: CCP 76, CCP 09, BRS 189 e BRS 265, em sete estádios de amadurecimento. Foram analisados para a vitamina C total, antocianinas, carotenóides totais, flavonóides amarelos, teor de polifenóis e capacidade antioxidante total. O clone BRS 265 maduro obteve o maior teor de vitamina C (279,37 mg x 100 g-1. O pedúnculo maduro BRS 189, apresentou o maior conteúdo de antocianinas totais (21,16 mg x 100 g-1. O conteúdo de flavonóides amarelos foi maior para os clones CCP 76 e BRS 189 maduros, com 56,32 e 50,75 mg x 100 g-1, respectivamente. Os maiores teores

  5. Isolation, characterization, and determination of 1-O-trans-cinnamoyl-beta-D-glucopyranose in the epidermis and flesh of developing cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L.) and four of its genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michodjehoun-Mestres, Laetitia; Amraoui, Wassila; Brillouet, Jean-Marc

    2009-02-25

    1-O-trans-Cinnamoyl-beta-d-glucopyranose was purified from cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L.) juice and unambiguously characterized. Absent at the immature green stage, its concentration bursts at the turning and even more at the mature ripe stage, reaching 6.2 mg/100 g of fresh weight. Whatever the considered cashew apple genotype, this cinnamoyl glucoside ester was preferentially concentrated in the epidermis, which was 4-5 times richer than flesh, reaching 85 mg/100 g of fresh weight for skin of the Brazilian clone EMBRAPA 50. Entire cashew apples contained from 6 to 20 mg of 1-cinnamoylglucose/100 g, a concentration similar to that of red strawberry receptacle. Accumulation of such amounts in this false fruit remains to be explained.

  6. Hypoglycemic Effect of Methanolic Extract of Anacardium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anacardium occidentale Leave (Anacardiaceae), a plant natively grown in wastelands in Africa is used as a folk remedy for diabetes mellitus. Previous studies, reported the hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous leaf extract of A. occidentale in diabetic rats and its prophylactic activity against the diabetogenic action of ...

  7. Teores de ácido anacárdico em pedúnculos de cajueiro Anacardium microcarpum e em oito clones de Anacardium occidentale var. nanum disponíveis no Nordeste do Brasil Anacardic acid content in cashew apples from Annacardium microcarpum and eight clones of Anacardium occidentale from Northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Tânia da Silveira Agostini-Costa; Katiane Arrais Jales; Deborah dos Santos Garruti; Viviane Azevedo Padilha; Jedaias Batista de Lima; Maria de Jesus Aguiar; João Rodrigues de Paiva

    2004-01-01

    O ácido anacárdico, composto fenólico presente em pedúnculos de caju e em algumas plantas medicinais, vem sendo associado a uma série de atividades biológicas específicas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o teor deste composto em pedúnculos de cajueiro A. microcarpum e em oito clones de A. occidentale var. nanum disponíveis na região Nordeste do Brasil, avaliando, também, algumas características físico-químicas e sensoriais destes pedúnculos. Os pedúnculos do clone BRS 189 apresentara...

  8. Antimutagenic activity of cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale Sapindales, Anacardiaceae fresh juice and processed juice (cajuína against methyl methanesulfonate, 4-nitroquinoline N-oxide and benzo[a]pyrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Amelia Melo-Cavalcante

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cashew apple juice (CAJ, produced from the native Brazilian cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale, and has been reported to have antibacterial, antifungal, antitumor, antioxidant and antimutagenic properties. Both the fresh unprocessed juice and the processed juice (cajuína in Portuguese has been shown to consist of a complex mixture containing high concentrations of anacardic and ascorbic acids plus several carotenoids, phenolic compounds and metals. We assessed both types of juice for their antimutagenic properties against the direct mutagens methyl methanesulfonate (MMS and 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4-NQO and the indirect mutagen benzo[a]pyrene (BaP using pre-treatment, co-treatment and post-treatment assays with Salmonella typhimurium strains TA100, TA102, and TA97a. In pre-treatment experiments with strains TA100 and TA102 the fresh juice showed high antimutagenic activity against MMS but, conversely, co-treatment with both juices enhanced MMS mutagenicity and there was an indication of toxicity in the post-treatment regime. In pre-, co-, and post-treatments with TA97a as test strain, antimutagenic effects were also observed against 4-NQO and BaP. These results suggest that both fresh and processed CAJ can protect the cells against mutagenesis induced by direct and indirect mutagens.

  9. Teores de ácido anacárdico em pedúnculos de cajueiro Anacardium microcarpum e em oito clones de Anacardium occidentale var. nanum disponíveis no Nordeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Agostini-Costa,Tânia da Silveira; Jales,Katiane Arrais; Garruti,Deborah dos Santos; Padilha,Viviane Azevedo; Lima,Jedaias Batista de; Aguiar,Maria de Jesus; Paiva,João Rodrigues de

    2004-01-01

    O ácido anacárdico, composto fenólico presente em pedúnculos de caju e em algumas plantas medicinais, vem sendo associado a uma série de atividades biológicas específicas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o teor deste composto em pedúnculos de cajueiro A. microcarpum e em oito clones de A. occidentale var. nanum disponíveis na região Nordeste do Brasil, avaliando, também, algumas características físico-químicas e sensoriais destes pedúnculos. Os pedúnculos do clone BRS 189 apresentara...

  10. Caracterização anatômica e histoquímica de raízes e folhas de plântulas de Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae

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    Ana Luísa Lopes Ernesto Reis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae é uma espécie típica do Cerrado do Brasil Central e possui valor socioeconômico. Objetivou-se caracterizar anatômica e histoquimicamente as raízes e folhas desta espécie em diferentes estádios iniciais de desenvolvimento. Para a caracterização anatômica, as amostras foram fixadas em FAA50, incluídas em parafina e submetidas aos procedimentos usuais para microscopia de campo claro. Foram realizados testes histoquímicos para detecção de lipídios totais, taninos, lignina, amido e terpenoides com grupo carbonila nas folhas, bem como teste para amido nas raízes em cortes frescos. A raiz apresenta epiderme unisseriada, floema com canais secretores e xilema tetrarco. Aos cinco dias após a germinação, a planta apresenta regiões com crescimento secundário e possui região medular na raiz, com função de armazenamento de grãos de amido. As folhas exibem epiderme unisseriada, com tricomas glandulares, cutícula espessa e estômatos paracíticos, em ambas as faces. O mesofilo é dorsiventral, e a nervura central apresenta feixes vasculares colaterais com canais secretores associados ao floema. A caracterização histoquímica da folha evidenciou lipídios totais e compostos fenólicos, entre eles taninos e lignina, em diferentes tecidos da folha. A plântula apresenta características que demonstram sua adaptação ao ambiente Cerrado, como cutícula espessa, mesofilo dorsiventral, crescimento secundário e presença de tricomas, mesmo sendo cultivada em condições de viveiro.

  11. Modulation of antioxidant potential in liver of mice by kernel oil of cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale) and its lack of tumour promoting ability in DMBA induced skin papillomagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bimala; Kale, R K; Rao, A R

    2004-04-01

    Cashew nut shell oil has been reported to possess tumour promoting property. Therefore an attempt has been made to study the modulatory effect of cashew nut (Anlacardium occidentale) kernel oil on antioxidant potential in liver of Swiss albino mice and also to see whether it has tumour promoting ability like the shell oil. The animals were treated orally with two doses (50 and 100 microl/animal/day) of kernel oil of cashew nut for 10 days. The kernel oil was found to enhance the specific activities of SOD, catalase, GST, methylglyoxalase I and levels of GSH. These results suggested that cashew nut kernel oil had an ability to increase the antioxidant status of animals. The decreased level of lipid peroxidation supported this possibility. The tumour promoting property of the kernel oil was also examined and found that cashew nut kernel oil did not exhibit any solitary carcinogenic activity.

  12. Identification of antimicrobial properties of cashew, Anacardium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antimicrobial capabilities of plant extract derived from the leaves of the cashew plant, Anacardium occidentale L. (Family Anacardiaceae), on two common human pathogens of clinical importance, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were investigated. All test organisms were identified to be sensitive to the ...

  13. Antihyperglycemic and renal protective activities of Anacardium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats had been shown to be associated with functional and/or morphological changes in the kidney. Therefore, in the present investigation, we carried out studies on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetes in rats chronically treated with Anacardium occidentale on the functional and ...

  14. Comparative Effects of Some Medicinal Plants: Anacardium occidentale, Eucalyptus globulus, Psidium guajava, and Xylopia aethiopica Extracts in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Albino Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpashi, Victor Eshu; Bayim, Bayim Peter-Robins; Obi-Abang, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Insulin therapy and oral antidiabetic agents/drugs used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus have not sufficiently proven to control hyperlipidemia, which is commonly associated with the diabetes mellitus. Again the hopes that traditional medicine and natural plants seem to trigger researchers in this area is yet to be discovered. This research was designed to compare the biochemical effects of some medicinal plants in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar rats using named plants that are best at lowering blood glucose and hyperlipidemia and ameliorating other complications of diabetes mellitus by methods of combined therapy. The results obtained showed 82% decrease in blood glucose concentration after the 10th hour to the fortieth hour. There was significant increase P Occidentale. There was no significant difference P > 0.05 recorded in the glutathione peroxidase activity of E. globulus (100 mg/kg) when compared to the test groups of P. guajava (250 mg/kg) and X. aethiopica (250 mg/kg). Catalase activity showed significant increase P 0.05, there was no significant difference seen between test group and treated groups. Meanwhile, degree of significance was observed in other parameters analysed. The biochemical analysis conducted in this study showed positive result, attesting to facts from previous works. Though these individual plants extracts exhibited significant increase in amelorating diabetes complication and blood glucose control compared to glibenclamide, a synthetic antidiabetic drug. Greater performance was observed in the synergy groups. Therefore, a poly/combined formulation of these plants extracts yielded significant result as well as resolving some other complications associated with diabetics.

  15. Pharmacological properties of cashew ( Anacardium occidentale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nowadays, the cashew bark (Cashew Nut Shell Liquid) has received great attention in the pharmaceutical industry, due to its economy, abundance and important chemical compounds. Net of cashew nut shell is classified according to the method of production of: (1) net of the shell of natural cashew nut (60-65% anacardic ...

  16. Chromosome studies in Cashew ( Anacardium occidentale L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the increased cultivation of cashew as a commodity crop in sub-Sahara Africa, Asia and South America there are few chromosome studies on it. The present study investigates number, structure and behavior of chromosome in cashew populations growing in Nigeria. Cytological examination of these populations ...

  17. Structural resistance of cashew ( Anacardium occidentale ) against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using artificial inoculation, mildew infection was possible on young leaves, but infection did not occur on older leaves. Epicuticular wax layer observed on cashew leaf surface, as a pre-infection resistance factor, appeared to be responsible for inhibition of germination and development of O. anacardii on older leaves.

  18. Climate change and cashew (Anacardium occidentale L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    217 RESULTS ... (West Africa) : perceptions and endogenous measures of adaptation. D. O. BELLO1,2,3*, L. E. AHOTON1, A. SAIDOU2, I. P.B. .... negative consequences of climate change depend on the perception and endogenous ... climate change on cashew tree, it is essential to define the relevant adaptation based on.

  19. Morphological characterization of cashew (Anacardium occidentale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... Natural and human selection has strong forces in shaping cashew populations in Malawi leading to high phenotypic variability. Apple and nut traits as well as size and ratio of kernel to shell are critical in separating the cashew accessions. The similarity of the 4 populations ranged from 35 to 66% and this is ...

  1. Chromosome studies in Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2007-01-18

    Jan 18, 2007 ... By comparison with other tropical industrial crops as oil palm, coffee, cacao and tea, very little ... determining the path of evolution of new species. Cytogenetics has been employed in agriculture ... 04o 291E), in the southern guinea savannah agroecology of Nigeria. Each population was represented by ten ...

  2. Pharmacological properties of cashew (Anacardium occidentale)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rai Pablo Sousa de Aguiar

    2016-08-31

    Aug 31, 2016 ... nanotubes and nanofibres; unlike carbon nanotubes, it provides integrity in internal and external ... CNSL as an insulator of high voltage cables (Gomes,. 2010). Although there are several reports on ... Equilibrium and kinetics of adsorption of fluoride onto zirconium impregnated cashew nut shell carbon.

  3. In vitro regeneration of hybrid plantlets of cashew (Anacardium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Embryos from immature nuts of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) were cultured in vitro to regenerate improved hybrid plantlets. Explants (embryo) were excised from developing F1 hybrid immature nuts derived from diallel cross and harvested at 2-, 4-, 6- and 8-weeks after pollination (WAPo) for in vitro culture.

  4. Antibacterial and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Anacardium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    displaying a significantly (P<0.05) higher activity compared to the leaves extract. The results of this study therefore justify the use of this plant in the treatment of inflammation and bacterial infections. Key words: Antibacterial, Anti inflammatory, Anacardium occidentale. INTRODUCTION. Medicinal plants represent a rich ...

  5. Antibacterial and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Anacardium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anacardium occidentale is a local medicinal plant used in ethno medicine for the treatment of diarrhea, constipation,pain and inflammation. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of this plant parts were assessed for antiinflammatory and antibacterial activities using experimental animal model and agar disc diffusion methods ...

  6. Hypoglycemic activity of the stem bark extract of Anacardium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result of the phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, phenols, oxalate and phytate. These study suggest that the stem bark of extract/fractions of Anacardium occidentale possesses antidiabetic property on alloxan-induced rats.This justifies its use in ethnomedicine and ...

  7. Anthelmintic efficacy of cashew ( Anarcadium occidentale L.) on in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of plants for the treatment of human and animal diseases continues to rise although there are few studies providing proof of these effects. Among them is the Anacardium occidentale L., popularly known as cashew. In vitro egg hatch and larval development and viability assays was conducted to determine possible ...

  8. Estudo da atividade antimicrobiana dos ácidos anacárdicos do óleo da casca da castanha de caju (CNSL dos clones de cajueiro-anão-precoce CCP-76 e CCP-09 em cinco estágios de maturação sobre microrganismos da cavidade bucal Study of the antibacterial activity of anacardic acids from the cashew Anacardium occidentale nut shell oil of the clone of cashew-midget-precocious CCP-76 and and CCP-09 in five stages of maturation on oral microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto de A. LIMA

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A atividade antimicrobiana dos ácidos anacárdicos do óleo da casca da castanha de caju (CNSL Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae foi estudada sobre os microrganismos da cavidade bucal Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 12598, Candida albicans ATCC 10231 e Candida utilis. Os ácidos anacárdicos obtidos dos extratos etílicos do CNSL apresentaram atividade antibacteriana contra os microganismos citados, porém a maior atividade inibitória ocorreu sobre a bactéria Gram positiva Streptococcus mutans, considerada predominante na cárie dentária. As cáries dentárias são uma das mais freqüentes doenças infecciosas nos países em desenvolvimento. Os elementos que influenciam na cárie dentária incluem o estado nutricional, a ingestão de açúcar e a presença da microbiota cariogênica.The antimicrobial activity of the anacardic acids of the cashew nut shell oil Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae was studied on the oral microorganisms Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 12598, Candida albicans ATCC 10231 and Candida utilis. The anacardic acids obtained from the ethyl extract of the cashew nut shell oil presented activity antibacterial against the mentioned microorganisms, but the most inhibitory activity occurred with the Gram positive bacteria Streptococcus mutans, which is known to be one of the main cause of tooth decay. The tooth decay is one of the most frequent infectious diseases in the countries in development. The elements that influence in the tooth decay include the nutritional state, the ingestion of sugar and the presence of the microflora cariogênica.

  9. Transferability and characterization of microssatellite loci in Anacardium humile A. St. Hil. (Anacardiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, T N; Sant'ana, L L; de Oliveira, L K; Telles, M P C; Collevatti, R G

    2013-01-04

    Microsatellite markers were transferred from the cashew, Anarcadium occidentale, to Anacardium humile (Anacardiaceae), a Neotropical shrub from the Brazilian savanna, that produces an edible nut and pseudo-fruit. We tested 14 microsatellite primers from A. occidentale on A. humile. Polymorphism of each microsatellite locus was analyzed based on 58 individuals from three populations. Twelve loci amplified successfully and presented 2 to 9 alleles; expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.056 to 0.869. These 12 microsatellite loci provide a new tool for the generation of fundamental population genetic data for devising conservation strategies for A. humile.

  10. Optimization of cashew ( Anacardium occidentale L.) apple juice's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study aims to optimize cashew apple juice clarification by using cassava and rice starch. Materiel and methods: Effects of dose of cassava and rice starch, incubation time at 30°C on clarity of cashew apple juice were investigated. Parameters such as, tannins, phenols, colour, vitamin C contents of cashew ...

  11. Antibacterial Potential of Cashew Apple ( Anacardium occidentale L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the present study was to determine antibacterial potential of cashew apple juice against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans. Agar well diffusion assay was employed to screen the antibacterial efficacy of the condensed cashew apple juice. Clinical isolates of S. aureus were more ...

  12. The cashew ( Anacardium occidentale L.) powdery mildew disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cashew powdery mildew disease caused by Oidium anacardii Noack is identified as a major cause of low cashew nut production in Kenya. The disease either singly or in synergism with other pests or factors causes pre-mature flower and fruit drop. The evergreen perennial cycle of the neglected cashew trees is ...

  13. MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE LEAVES OF Anacardium occidentale L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenda Quaresma Ramos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In morphological studies are analyzed various parameters, ranging from macro scale through the micro scale to the nanometer scale, which contribute to the study of taxonomy, pharmacognosy, ecology, among others. Among the structures found in plants, the leaves are most organs analyzed. This study aimed to analyze morphological features of the leaves of the cashew tree, which is a plant of great commercial importance in Brazil. In this work we observed sinuous epidermal cells in the adaxial and abaxial, characterize their stomata in paracytic surrounded subsidiaries cells. On the abaxial surface the presence of glandular trichomes was observed; and cross-sectional analysis showed a single-layered epidermis with compact mesophyll and several layers of parenchyma cells. Keywords: leaf anatomy; cashew tree; optical microscopy.

  14. Application of tissue culture to cashew ( Anacardium occidentale L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary of the previous works on the in vitro culture of cashew is highlighted with emphasis on the critical factors that influence the explants response and plantlet regeneration. The recalcitrant nature of cashew has been attributed to the limited success recorded so far in the in vitro culture of the crop and abnormal ...

  15. Anatomy, Histochemistry, and Antifungal Activity of Anacardium humile (Anacardiaceae) Leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royo, Vanessa de A; Mercadante-Simões, Maria Olívia; Ribeiro, Leonardo M; Oliveira, Dario A de; Aguiar, Marcela Magda R; Costa, Ellenhise R; Ferreira, Perácio Rafael B

    2015-12-01

    Leaves of Anacardium humile are used in Brazilian traditional medicine for the treatment of intestinal disturbances and skin lesions. This study aimed to define leaf diagnostic structural characters, to propose a new method of phytochemical analysis of secretions, prospect flavonoids and alkaloids, and to evaluate their inhibitory activity on Candida albicans. Common anatomical, phytochemical, and microbiological methods were used. Leaves of Anacardium occidentale were used as a reference for the structural analyses. The main structural characters were closed vascular system, absence of ducts at the medulla, bilateral mesophyll, absence of bundle sheath extension, and secretory idioblasts at the xylem. The ducts present schizogenous origin, and secreting activity is restricted to the initial phases of leaf blade expansion. The proposed new phytochemical method is practical and inexpensive and has potential for wide application. The abundance of tannins and flavonoids is related to medicinal use. A single peak in high-performance liquid chromatography indicated the presence of a pure substance not previously reported. The extract had a strong inhibitory effect on C. albicans. The obtained results confirm the potential of A. humile for the prospection of new bioactive compounds.

  16. Modeling Occupancy of Hosts by Mistletoe Seeds after Accounting for Imperfect Detectability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadini, Rodrigo F.; Cintra, Renato

    2015-01-01

    The detection of an organism in a given site is widely used as a state variable in many metapopulation and epidemiological studies. However, failure to detect the species does not necessarily mean that it is absent. Assessing detectability is important for occupancy (presence—absence) surveys; and identifying the factors reducing detectability may help improve survey precision and efficiency. A method was used to estimate the occupancy status of host trees colonized by mistletoe seeds of Psittacanthus plagiophyllus as a function of host covariates: host size and presence of mistletoe infections on the same or on the nearest neighboring host (the cashew tree Anacardium occidentale). The technique also evaluated the effect of taking detectability into account for estimating host occupancy by mistletoe seeds. Individual host trees were surveyed for presence of mistletoe seeds with the aid of two or three observers to estimate detectability and occupancy. Detectability was, on average, 17% higher in focal-host trees with infected neighbors, while decreased about 23 to 50% from smallest to largest hosts. The presence of mistletoe plants in the sample tree had negligible effect on detectability. Failure to detect hosts as occupied decreased occupancy by 2.5% on average, with maximum of 10% for large and isolated hosts. The method presented in this study has potential for use with metapopulation studies of mistletoes, especially those focusing on the seed stage, but also as improvement of accuracy in occupancy models estimates often used for metapopulation dynamics of tree-dwelling plants in general. PMID:25973754

  17. Clastogenic and toxicological assessment of cashew (Anacardium occidentale) nut bark extracts in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owumi, Solomon E; Fatoki, John O; Gbadegesin, Michael A; Odunola, Oyeronke A

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposures to environmental toxicants have been associated with the onset of skin lesions-including cancers. Identification and reduction of exposure to such compounds is an important public health goal. We examined the effect of cashew shell oil (CSO), used in skin tattooing for its potential to induce skin transformation in rats. Corn oil and CSO (25, 50, and 100%) were topically applied to depilated sections of Wistar' rat skin (groups: I-IV) for six weeks. Effect of treatments on serum transaminases activity, histological changes in hepatocytes and induction of micronuclei in the bone marrow were examined. In addition, CSO-induced hepatocyte proliferation was also quantified. All animals survived the course of the study. Reduced percentage change in body weight and physical trauma were observed in CSO-treated rat. The effects were more prominent in Group IV (100% CSO). Relative liver weights and number of hepatocytes (cells/mm(2)) increased significantly in groups II-IV relative to control (p 0.05) affected in treated groups. Hepatic histopathology revealed moderate sinusoidal congestion (group II), in addition to portal congestion in (group III), with mononuclear cellular infiltration (group IV) animals. In addition, CSO induced significant micronuclei formation of polychromatic erythrocyte (mPCEs) in the rat bone marrow (p < 0.05) when compared with control. Topical application of CSO disrupted skin cells integrity resulting in physical trauma. In addition, CSO appears to be clastogenic and induces hepatocyte proliferation. Occupational exposure to CSO especially for engraving tattoos in humans should be discouraged and further studies need to be conducted.

  18. Characterization of alkyl phenols in cashew (Anacardium occidentale) products and assay of their antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, M T S; Pfundstein, B; Haubner, R; Würtele, G; Spiegelhalder, B; Bartsch, H; Owen, R W

    2006-02-01

    In this study the content of anacardic acids, cardanols and cardols in cashew apple, nut (raw and roasted) and cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) were analysed. The higher amounts (353.6 g/kg) of the major alkyl phenols, anacardic acids were detected in CNSL followed by cashew fibre 6.1 g/kg) while the lowest (0.65 g/kg) amounts were detected in roasted cashew nut. Cashew apple and fibre contained anacardic acids exclusively, whereas CNSL also contained an abundance of cardanols and cardols. Cashew nut (raw and roasted) also contained low amounts of hydroxy alkyl phenols. Cashew nut shell liquid was used for a basic fractionation of the alkyl phenol classes and the individual anacardic acids, major cardanols and cardols were purified to homogeneity from these fractions by semi-preparative HPLC and definitively identified by nano-ESI-MS-MS, GC-MS and NMR analyses. The hexane extracts (10 mg/ml) of all cashew products tested plus CNSL, displayed significant antioxidant capacity. Cashew nut shell liquid was the more efficient (inhibition=100%) followed by the hexane extract of cashew fibre (94%) and apple (53%). The antioxidant capacity correlated significantly (P4.0 mM). The data shows that of these substances, anacardic-1 was by far the more potent antioxidant (IC50=0.27 mM) compared to cardol-1 (IC50=1.71 mM) and cardanol-1 (IC50>4.0 mM). The antioxidant capacity of anacardic acid-1 is more related to inhibition of superoxide generation (IC50=0.04 mM) and xanthine oxidase (IC50=0.30 mM) than to scavenging of hydroxyl radicals. At present a substantial amount of cashew fibre is mostly used in formulations of animal or poultry feeds. The data presented in this study, indicates that this waste product along with CNSL, both of which contain high contents of anacardic acids, could be better utilized in functional food formulations and may represent a cheap source of cancer chemopreventive agents.

  19. Separation of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) nut shell liquid with supercritical carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R L; Malaluan, R M; Setianto, W B; Inomata, H; Arai, K

    2003-05-01

    Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) represents the largest readily available bioresource of alkenyl phenolic compounds. In this work, separation of CNSL from the pericarp of the cashew nut with supercritical carbon dioxide was studied. In the initial extractions with CO(2) at 40-60 degrees C and at pressures from 14.7 to 29.4 MPa, low yields were obtained. However, when the extractions were performed with one or more intermediate depressurization steps, the yield of CNSL increased to as high as 94%. Most of the oil did not separate from the shell during the depressurization step, but was obtained during the subsequent repressurization. The CNSL extract had a clear light brownish pink color and exhibited no evidence of polymerization or degradation. The pressure profile extraction method proposed in this work increases the possible CNSL extraction yields and greatly reduces the amount of CO(2) required for CNSL separation.

  20. Aroma volatiles recovered in the water phase of cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L.) juice during concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Karina L; Garruti, Deborah S; Franco, Maria Regina B; Janzantti, Natalia S; Da Silva, Maria Aparecida Ap

    2011-08-15

    There is a considerable loss of volatile compounds during the thermal concentration of cashew apple juice, damaging product quality, and as yet there is little research on the subject. Thus the purpose of this research was to identify the aroma volatiles evaporated off from cashew apple juice and recovered in the water phase during concentration of this beverage in an industrial plant. Water phase volatiles were extracted using dichloromethane, concentrated under a nitrogen flow, separated by gas chromatography (GC) and identified by GC-mass spectrometry. In order to determine the contribution of each volatile to the cashew aroma, five trained judges evaluated the GC effluents using the Osme GC-olfactometry technique. 71 volatiles were identified; of these, 47 were odour active. Alcohols were preferentially recovered in the cashew water phase, notably heptanol, trans-3-hexen-1-ol and 3-methyl-1-butanol, representing 42% of the total chromatogram area and imparting green grass and fruity aroma notes to the water phase. Esters represented 21% of the total chromatogram area, especially ethyl 2-hydroxyhexanoate, ethyl trans-2-butenoate and ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, and were responsible for the fruity/cashew-like aroma of the water phase. On the other hand, 3-methylbutanoic and 2-methylbutanoic acids were the volatiles that presented the greatest odour impact in the GC effluents of the water phase. Overall, the results of the present study strongly indicated that further concentration of the esters recovered in the water phase, either by partial distillation or by alternative technologies such as pervaporation, could generate a higher-quality natural cashew apple essence. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Determination of the flavonoid components of cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale) by LC-DAD-ESI/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito, Edy Sousa; de Araújo, Manuela Cristina Pessanha; Lin, Long-Ze; Harnly, James

    2007-01-01

    Liquid chromatography, with diode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-ESI/MS), was used to identify and quantify flavonoids in cashew apple. One anthocyanin and thirteen glycosylated flavonols were detected in a methanol-water extract. Among them, the 3- O -galactoside, 3- O -glucoside, 3- O -rhamnoside, 3- O -xylopyranoside, 3- O -arabinopyranoside and 3- O -arabinofuranoside of quercetin and myricetin, as well as kaempferol 3- O -glucoside were identified by direct comparison with standards or positively identified flavonoids in cranberry. The anthocyanin was the 3- O -hexoside of methyl-cyanidin. Trace amounts of delphinidin and rhamnetin were detected in the hydrolyzed extract, suggesting their glycosides were present, but undetectable, in the original extract. The concentrations of the 14 flavonoids in the tested sample were determined. This is the first report of these flavonoids in cashew apple.

  2. Effect of dynamic high pressure on technological properties of cashew tree gum (Anacardium occidentale L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Bruna Castro; Augusto, Pedro E D; Terekhov, Anton; Hamaker, Bruce R; Cristianini, Marcelo

    2015-09-20

    Dynamic high pressure (DHP) appears to be an alternative approach to physical modification of polysaccharides aimed improving their technological properties. Therefore, its effect on the functional properties of polysaccharides (i.e., oil absorption capacity, emulsifier, and rheology) needs to be investigated. Cashew tree gum (CG) is a biological macromolecule that has been proposed to be used as an emulsifier in beverage emulsions. To the best of our knowledge, none of the articles in the literature investigates the effect of DHP on the CG properties. This work presents a study on the evaluation of the effects of DHP on functional characteristics of CG, including rheological properties, molecular weight, glycosyl-linkage analysis, solubility, swelling and oil absorption capacity (OAC). The results suggest that DHP is able to modify the technological properties of cashew tree gum (increasing solubility and decreasing apparent viscosity). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ana o 2, a major cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) nut allergen of the legumin family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Robotham, Jason M; Teuber, Suzanne S; Sathe, Shridhar K; Roux, Kenneth H

    2003-09-01

    We recently cloned and described a vicilin and showed it to be a major cashew allergen. Additional IgE-reactive cashew peptides of the legumin group and 2S albumin families have also been reported. Here, we attempt to clone, express and characterize a second major cashew allergen. A cashew cDNA library was screened with human IgE and rabbit IgG anti-cashew extract antisera, and a reactive nonvicilin clone was sequenced and expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli. Immunoblotting was used to screen for reactivity with patients' sera, and inhibition of immunoblotting was used to identify the corresponding native peptides in cashew nut extract. The identified allergen was subjected to linear epitope mapping using SPOTs solid-phase synthetic peptide technology. Sequence analysis showed the selected clone, designated Ana o 2, to encode for a member of the legumin family (an 11S globulin) of seed storage proteins. By IgE immunoblotting, 13 of 21 sera (62%) from cashew-allergic patients were reactive. Immunoblot inhibition data showed that the native Ana o 2 constitutes a major band at approximately 33 kD and a minor band at approximately 53 kD. Probing of overlapping synthetic peptides with pooled human cashew-allergic sera identified 22 reactive peptides, 7 of which gave strong signals. Several Ana o 2 epitopes were shown to overlap those of the peanut legumin group allergen, Ara h 3, in position but with little sequence similarity. Greater positional overlap and identity was observed between Ana o 2 and soybean glycinin epitopes. We conclude that this legumin-like protein is a major allergen in cashew nut. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  4. Origin and Processing Methods Slightly Affect Allergenic Characteristics of Cashew Nuts (Anacardium occidentale).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitsma, Marit; Bastiaan-Net, Shanna; Sijbrandij, Lutske; de Weert, Evelien; Sforza, Stefano; Gerth van Wijk, Roy; Savelkoul, Huub F J; de Jong, Nicolette W; Wichers, Harry J

    2018-03-10

    The protein content and allergen composition was studied of cashews from 8 different origins (Benin, Brazil, Ghana, India, Ivory Coast, Mozambique, Tanzania, Vietnam), subjected to different in-shell heat treatments (steamed, fried, drum-roasted). On 2D electrophoresis, 9 isoforms of Ana o 1, 29 isoforms of Ana o 2 (11 of the acidic subunit, 18 of the basic subunit), and 8 isoforms of the large subunit of Ana o 3 were tentatively identified. Based on 1D and 2D electrophoresis, no difference in allergen content (Ana o 1, 2, 3) was detected between the cashews of different origins (P > 0.5), some small but significant differences were detected in allergen solubility between differently heated cashews. No major differences in N- and C-terminal microheterogeneity of Ana o 3 were detected between cashews of different origins. Between the different heat treatments, no difference was detected in glycation, pepsin digestibility, or IgE binding of the cashew proteins. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  5. Characterization of the soluble allergenic proteins of cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuber, Suzanne S; Sathe, Shridhar K; Peterson, W Rich; Roux, Kenneth H

    2002-10-23

    The allergens associated with cashew food allergy have not been well-characterized. We sought to identify the major allergens in cashew nut by performing IgE immunoblots to dissociated and reduced or nonreduced cashew protein extracts, followed by sequencing of the peptides of interest. Sera from 15 subjects with life-threatening reactions to cashews and 8 subjects who tolerate cashews but have life-threatening reactions to other tree nuts were compared. An aqueous cashew protein extract containing albumin/globulin was separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and subjected to IgE immunoblotting using patient sera. Selected IgE reactive bands were subjected to N-terminal amino acid sequencing. Each of the 15 sera from cashew-allergic subjects showed IgE binding to the cashew protein extract. The dominant IgE-binding antigens in the reduced preparations included peptides in the 31-35 kD range, consistent with the large subunits of the major storage 13S globulin (legumin-like protein). Low-molecular-weight polypeptides of the 2S albumin family, with similarity to the major walnut allergen Jug r 1, also bound IgE. The sera from eight patients who tolerate cashew but displayed allergies to other tree nuts showed only minimal or no IgE binding to cashew. Cashew food allergy is associated with the presence of IgE directed against the major seed storage proteins in cashew, including the 13S globulin (legumin group) and 2S albumins, both of which represent major allergen classes in several plant seeds. Thus, the legumin-group proteins and 2S albumins are again identified as major food allergens, which will help further research into seed protein allergenicity.

  6. Contact Dermatitis Due to Cashew Nut (Anacardium Occidentale Shell Oil, Pericarp and Kernel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J S Pasricha

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available A 21 year old worker developed itching, fissuring and exudative lesions on her hands and fingers, 3 year after working as a cutter in the cashew nut factory. The lesions would in, prove during holidays or after she left her job. Patch tests were postive with the 0.1% cashew nut shell oil in polyethylene glycol and also with the red pericarp covering and the kernel of cashew nuts used as such.

  7. In vivo antigenotoxic and anticlastogenic effects of fresh and processed cashew (Anacardium occidentale) apple juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo-Cavalcante, Ana Amélia de Carvalho; Dantas, Sandra Maria Mendes de Moura; Leite, Aracelli de Sousa; Matos, Leomá Albuquerque; e Sousa, João Marcelo de Castro; Picada, Jaqueline Nascimento; da Silva, Juliana

    2011-01-01

    Cashew apple juice and cajuina (processed juice) are drinks widely consumed in northeast Brazil. In vitro studies have shown that both juices have antimutagenic activity as well as antioxidant effects. These juices contain vitamins, carotenoids, and phenolic compounds. This in vivo study assessed the antigenotoxic and anticlastogenic effects of both drinks against genotoxicity and mutagenicity induced by cyclophosphamide. The comet, micronucleus, and chromosome aberrations tests were used. Male Swiss mice were divided into 6 groups (5 animals per group) and received the following by gavage, 0.15 mL/10 g body weight: group 1, water; group 2, cashew apple juice; group 3, cajuina juice; group 4, cashew apple juice and cyclophosphamide (50 mg/kg); group 5, cajuina juice and cyclophosphamide; group 6: cyclophosphamide. Both drinks significantly reduced DNA damage of peripheral blood cells (P<.001), with modulation percentages of 60.82% (cashew apple juice) and 82.19% (cajuina) when compared with the cyclophosphamide group. Cashew apple juice and cajuina modulated cyclophosphamide-induced micronucleus frequency, with up to 80.0% inhibition. Cashew apple juice and cajuina decreased the average number of cells with chromosome aberrations in bone marrow of mice by 53% and 65%, respectively. These findings demonstrate the high antigenotoxic and anticlastogenic potential of cashew apple juice and cajuina in vivo, which can be related to the antioxidant compounds found in both drinks.

  8. Ty1-copia retrotransposon-based SSAP marker development in cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, N H; Sureshsundar, S; Wilkinson, M J; Bhau, B S; Cavalcanti, J J V; Flavell, A J

    2005-05-01

    The most popular retrotransposon-based molecular marker system in use at the present time is the sequence-specific amplification polymorphism (SSAP) system . This system exploits the insertional polymorphism of long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons around the genome. Because the LTR sequence is used to design primers for this method, its successful application requires sequence information from the terminal region of the mobile elements . In this study, two LTR sequences were isolated from the cashew genome and used successfully to develop SSAP marker systems. These were shown to have higher levels of polymorphism than amplified fragment length polymorphic markers for this species.

  9. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L.) juice preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavinas, F C; Miguel, M A L; Lopes, M L M; Valente Mesquita, V L

    2008-08-01

    High hydrostatic pressure is an alternative to thermal processing to inactivate spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Cashew apple juice has a pleasant flavor and is rich in vitamin C. Studies to determine the effect of high pressure on microorganisms in cashew apple juice are still lacking. In this study, the inactivation of natural micropopulation and inoculated Escherichia coli by high pressure was evaluated in fresh cashew apple juice. The microbiological stability of pressure-treated juice was also evaluated. The applied high pressure levels ranged from 250 to 400 MPa for periods of 3 to 7 min. Treatments with 350 MPa for 7 min and 400 MPa for either 3 or 7 min reduced the aerobic mesophilic bacteria count to a level below the detection limit. Pressure treatments were also efficient in inactivating yeast and filamentous fungi. The inoculated E. coli (10(6) CFU/mL) was reduced to below 10 CFU/mL after a pressure treatment of 400 MPa for 3 min. The inactivation of this microorganism followed a 1st-order reaction kinetics. The decimal reduction time (D-value) ranged from 1.21 to 16.43 min, while pressure resistance value (z-value) was 123.46 MPa. Neither natural micropopulation growth nor E. coli repair was observed in postprocessed (400 MPa for 3 min) cashew apple juice kept under refrigerated storage (at 4 degrees C) during 8 wk. The results of this study demonstrated the efficacy of high-pressure treatment for preserving cashew apple juice.

  10. Bioactive compounds in cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale L.) kernels: effect of different shelling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trox, Jennifer; Vadivel, Vellingiri; Vetter, Walter; Stuetz, Wolfgang; Scherbaum, Veronika; Gola, Ute; Nohr, Donatus; Biesalski, Hans Konrad

    2010-05-12

    In the present study, the effects of various conventional shelling methods (oil-bath roasting, direct steam roasting, drying, and open pan roasting) as well as a novel "Flores" hand-cracking method on the levels of bioactive compounds of cashew nut kernels were investigated. The raw cashew nut kernels were found to possess appreciable levels of certain bioactive compounds such as beta-carotene (9.57 microg/100 g of DM), lutein (30.29 microg/100 g of DM), zeaxanthin (0.56 microg/100 g of DM), alpha-tocopherol (0.29 mg/100 g of DM), gamma-tocopherol (1.10 mg/100 g of DM), thiamin (1.08 mg/100 g of DM), stearic acid (4.96 g/100 g of DM), oleic acid (21.87 g/100 g of DM), and linoleic acid (5.55 g/100 g of DM). All of the conventional shelling methods including oil-bath roasting, steam roasting, drying, and open pan roasting revealed a significant reduction, whereas the Flores hand-cracking method exhibited similar levels of carotenoids, thiamin, and unsaturated fatty acids in cashew nuts when compared to raw unprocessed samples.

  11. Immunoglobulin E-reactive proteins in cashew (Anacardium occidentale) apple juice concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, Sarah S; Robotham, Jason M; Tawde, Pallavi; Kshirsagar, Harshal; Sathe, Shridhar K; Roux, Kenneth H; Teuber, Suzanne S

    2008-07-23

    Cashew apple juice has the potential to be a natural source of vitamin C and sugar in processed foods. The juice of the cashew apple is obtained by pressing the fleshy peduncle or receptacle, which forms a rounded apple that sits above the true fruit, the cashew nut. Cashew nut allergy is the second most commonly reported tree nut allergy in the United States. To determine if cashew apple juice contains cashew nut allergens, immunoblotting was performed using a cashew apple juice 6X concentrate that was extracted and further concentrated through dialysis, lyophilization, and resuspension. Serum IgE of individuals allergic to cashew nut bound proteins in the cashew apple juice concentrate extract. For some serum samples, IgE reactivity could be inhibited by preincubation of the serum with cashew nut extract, suggesting the presence of cashew nut-related allergens. Using monoclonal antibodies specific for cashew nut allergens, the concentrate was found to contain Ana o 1 (vicilin) and Ana o 2 (legumin). Neither IgE from cashew nut allergic sera nor the monoclonal antibodies bound any peptides in 5 kDa filtered cashew apple juice concentrate. The cashew apple juice concentrate used in these studies contains proteins with IgE-reactive epitopes, including cashew nut legumin and vicilin. No IgE-binding peptides remained after 5 kDa filtration of the concentrate.

  12. Anti-inflammatory and wound healing potential of cashew apple juice (Anacardium occidentale L.) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira Vasconcelos, Mirele; Gomes-Rochette, Neuza F; de Oliveira, Maria Liduína M; Nunes-Pinheiro, Diana Célia S; Tomé, Adriana R; Maia de Sousa, Francisco Yuri; Pinheiro, Francisco Geraldo M; Moura, Carlos Farley H; Miranda, Maria Raquel A; Mota, Erika Freitas; de Melo, Dirce Fernandes

    2015-12-01

    Cashew apple is a tropical pseudofruit consumed as juice due to its excellent nutritional and sensory properties. In spite of being well known for its important antioxidant properties, the cashew apple has not been thoroughly investigated for its therapeutic potential. Thereby, this study evaluated the antioxidant capacity, anti-inflammatory, and wound-healing activities of cashew apple juice. Juices from ripe and immature cashew apples were analyzed for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and wound-healing properties. Those were evaluated in murine models of xylene-induced ear edema and wound excision. Swiss mice were treated with cashew juice by gavage. Edema thickness was measured and skin lesions were analyzed by planimetry and histology. Both antioxidant content and total antioxidant activity were higher in ripe cashew apple juice (RCAJ) than in unripe cashew apple juice (UNCAJ). The UNCAJ presented the main anti-inflammatory activity by a significant inhibition of ear edema (66.5%) when compared to RCAJ (10%). Moreover, UNCAJ also showed the best result for wound contraction (86.31%) compared to RCAJ (67.54%). Despite of higher antioxidant capacity, RCAJ did not promote better anti-inflammatory, and healing responses, which may be explained by the fact that treatment increased antioxidants level leading to a redox "imbalance" turning down the inflammatory response modulation exerted by reactive oxygen species (ROS). The results suggest that UNCAJ presents a greater therapeutic activity due to a synergistic effect of its phytochemical components, which improve the immunological mechanisms as well as an optimal balance between ROS and antioxidants leading to a better wound healing process. © 2015 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  13. Effects of processing on immunoreactivity of cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale L.) seed flour proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachalam, Mahesh; Monaghan, Erin K; Kshirsagar, Harshal H; Robotham, Jason M; O'Donnell, Susan E; Gerber, Mary Susan; Roux, Kenneth H; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2008-10-08

    Cashew nut seeds were subjected to processing including autoclaving (121 degrees C for 5, 10, 20, and 30 min), blanching (100 degrees C for 1, 4, 7, and 10 min), microwave heating (1 and 2 min each at 500 and 1000 W), dry roasting (140 degrees C for 20 and 30 min; 170 degrees C for 15 and 20 min; and 200 degrees C for 10 and 15 min), gamma-irradiation (1, 5, 10, and 25 kGy), and pH (1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, and 13). Proteins from unprocessed and processed cashew nut seeds were probed for stability using anti-Ana o 2 rabbit polyclonal antibodies and mouse monoclonal antibodies directed against Ana o 1, Ana o 2, and Ana o 3 as detection agents. Results indicate that Ana o 1, Ana o 2, and Ana o 3 are stable regardless of the processing method to which the nut seeds are subjected.

  14. Extraction of cashew (Anacardium occidentale) nut shell liquid using supercritical carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rajesh N; Bandyopadhyay, Santanu; Ganesh, Anuradda

    2006-04-01

    This work investigated the extraction of cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)). Effects of process parameters such as extraction pressure, temperature and flow rate of SC-CO(2) were investigated. The yield of CNSL increased with increase in pressure, temperature and mass flow rate of SC-CO(2). However, under different operating conditions, the composition of CNSL varied. The study of physical properties and chemical composition of the oil obtained through super critical fluid extraction (SCFE) showed better quality as compared to the CNSL obtained through thermal route. Experimental results were compared with diffusion based mass transfer model. Based on this simple model, extraction time was optimized.

  15. Incidence of moulds and presence of aflatoxin on toasted cashew nuts (Anacardium occidentale L in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEJANDRA ACEVEDO

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was to determine the incidence of fungal growth in commercial cashew nuts. The highest mould count in cashew nuts was 658.05 UFC/g (sales point 1. The incidence of moulds in cashew nuts in the first testing period was between 91,67 and 31.25% and in the second period it was between 89.58 and 62.5% for sales points 1, 2, 3 and 4. The incidence of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus in cashew nuts was 5.74% and 0.49%, respectively, and the differences were not significant. The concentrations of aflatoxins recovered from cashew nuts were between 20.67 and 11.33 ppb, for all sales points.

  16. Effect of gamma radiation and storage on cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L.) quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Adriana Régia Marques de; Brazaca, Solange Guidolin Canniatti; Arthur, Valter; Oliveira, Anderson Giovani Cândico; Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet; Walder, Júlio Marcos Melges

    2009-01-01

    The non-efficiency or absence of techniques for adequate handling, transport, and storage of cashew stalks associated with a high level of perishability, generates high economic loss in the commercialization of these fruits, hence the development of conservation methods becomes a necessity in order to enhance the profitability. Cashew apples from precocious dwarf cashew tree were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, and 1.0 kGy and stored during nine days under refrigeration at 4 ºC for evaluation of the quality stability during storage. Chemical analyses were performed to verify changes in reducing sugars, Brix, vitamin C, and pH. Alterations in the firmness and color were also observed. The levels of vitamin C decreased as a function of storage as well as a function of the radiation doses employed. The firmness of the fruits was influenced by both the radiation doses and storage time, increasing during storage and decreasing as the radiation doses increased. Irradiation was shown to be efficient in the prolongation of the shelf-life of cashew stalks. (author) [pt

  17. Volatile profile of cashews (Anacardium occidentale L.) from different geographical origins during roasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agila, Amal; Barringer, Sheryl Ann

    2011-01-01

    Volatile compounds were quantified in the headspace of Indian, Vietnamese, and Brazilian cashews, both raw and during roasting by selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometry. The optimum roasting times based on color measurements were also determined. Raw cashews were oil roasted for 3 to 9 min at 143 °C and color and volatiles measured. An excellent correlation, following a pseudo 1st-order reaction, was found between L* value and roasting time; darkness increases as roasting time increases. The optimum roasting time was 6, 8, and 9 min for Vietnamese, Indian, and Brazilian cashews, respectively. Raw cashews had lower concentrations of volatiles than roasted cashews. Most volatiles significantly increased in concentration during roasting of Brazilian, Indian, and Vietnamese cashews. Only a few volatiles significantly decreased during roasting. Ethanol and 1-heptene significantly decreased during roasting in Brazilian cashews and toluene decreased in Vietnamese cashews. Brazilian cashews had significantly higher levels of most volatiles than Indian and Vietnamese cashews. Most volatile levels in Indian and Vietnamese cashews were not significantly different. Of the volatiles, Strecker aldehydes, including methylbutanal, 2-methylpropanal, and acetaldehyde, were at the highest concentration in roasted cashews. The Maillard reaction contributed to the formation of most of the volatiles in cashews from the 3 countries. There was also degradation of sugars to form furan-type compounds and oxidation of lipids to form alkanals such as hexanal. The volatile profile during roasting of cashews can be used to determine the best roasting time for each type of cashew. The rate of color development and the production of volatiles differ for the cashews from the 3 geographical locations. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Molecular and Functional Properties of Protein Fractions and Isolate from Cashew Nut (Anacardium occidentale L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-Mei; Peng, Qian; Zhong, Jun-Zhen; Liu, Wei; Zhong, Ye-Jun; Wang, Fang

    2018-02-12

    Some molecular and functional properties of albumin (83.6% protein), globulin (95.5% protein), glutelin (81.3% protein) as well as protein isolate (80.7% protein) from cashew nut were investigated. These proteins were subjected to molecular (circular dichroism, gel electrophoresis, scanning electron microscopy) and functional (solubility, emulsification, foaming, water/oil holding capacity) tests. Cashew nut proteins represent an abundant nutrient with well-balanced amino acid composition and could meet the requirements recommended by FAO/WHO. SDS-PAGE pattern indicated cashew nut proteins were mainly composed of a polypeptide with molecular weight (MW) of 53 kDa, which presented two bands with MW of 32 and 21 kDa under reducing conditions. The far-UV CD spectra indicated that cashew proteins were rich in β-sheets. The surface hydrophobicity of the protein isolate was higher than that of the protein fractions. In pH 7.0, the solubility of protein fractions was above 70%, which was higher than protein isolate at any pH. Glutelin had the highest water/oil holding capacity and foaming properties. Protein isolate displayed better emulsifying properties than protein fractions. In summary, cashew nut kernel proteins have potential as valuable nutrition sources and could be used effectively in the food industry.

  19. Hypoglycemic Effect of Methanolic Extract of Anacardium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chigo Okwuosa

    be severely diabetic, the A. occidentale decreased the blood glucose levels by 20.8% change over four hours and the mean ... Thus, it is necessary to continue looking for new and if possible more efficacious drugs. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic condition characterized by .... eight groups of six rats each.

  20. La Prusse et l’Europe occidentale

    OpenAIRE

    Paravicini, Werner

    2008-01-01

    Les Croisades des chevaliers Teutoniques en Lituanie et la participation de la noblesse occidentale à ces expéditions ont récemment donné lieu à la découverte de nouveaux documents ; de nouvelles perspectives se sont ouvertes, dont on peut aujourd’hui faire le point. 1. Les sources Diverses sources parlent du voyage en Prusse aussi bien avant le départ que pendant le voyage ou après l’arrivée dans les territoires de l’Ordre. Les plus belles informations nous sont transmises par des comptes de...

  1. Redução de vitamina C em suco de caju (Anacardium occidentale L. industrializado e cajuína Vitamin C degradation in industrialized cashew juice (Anacardium occidentale L. and in cajuina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eráclito Silva Lima

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin C degradation was evaluated in industrialized cashew juice of high pulp content and in cajuina by the method of Tillmans during eleven days of storage after the opening of the flask. For recently opened juices, vitamin C was found in the concentration range of 112 to 170 mg for 100 g of juice. The degradation of vitamin C in industrialized cashew juices changes when different additives are used. All of the cajuinas presented a vitamin C content below that specified on the label.

  2. Cinética e caracterização físico-química do fermentado do pseudofruto do caju (Anacardium occidentale L. Kinetic and physico-chemical characterization of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto B. Torres Neto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of cashew apple wine has the purpose of minimizing the wastage in the Brazilian cashew production. Knowing that the cashew apple fermentation produces a good cashew wine, a study of alcoholic fermentation kinetics of the cashew apple and the physico-chemical characterization of the product were made. The cashew wine was produced in an stirred batch reactor. The results of the physico-chemical analysis of volatiles, residual sugars, total acidity and pH of cashew wine showed that their concentrations were within the standard limits established by the Brazilian legislation for fruit wines.

  3. CASHEW PULP MEALS (Anacardium occidentale L. FOR GROWING PIG: NUTRIENT METABOLISM AND PERFORMANCE PSEUDOFRUTO DO CAJUEIRO (Anacardium occidentale L. PARA SUÍNOS EM CRESCIMENTO: METABOLISMO DE NUTRIENTES E DESEMPENHO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Atta Farias

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available These researches was planned to evaluate the digestibility and metabolizability of nutrient and nitrogen balance of the cashew pulp for growing pigs, as well as to evaluate the performance of these animals fed with different levels of inclusion of this by-product in the diets. The physiological aspects of the animal and economic viability of the diets was evaluated. In the metabolism assay, four pigs were fed with a standard ration and others four received a test ration, with 30% of substitution of the standard ration for the cashew pulp. In the performance assay, forty animals were distributed in a randomized block design, with five treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of the experimental rations with the levels 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of inclusion of the cashew pulp. The values obtained for the digestibility and metabolizability coefficients of the protein and energy of the cashew pulp meals were 12.30% and 11.38%; 23.43% and 21.91%, respectively. The digestible and metabolizability energy of cashew pulp meals is 1.123 and 1.051 kcal/kg. The cashew pulp meals can be included in diets until the level of 20% of the ration, and this inclusion of the by-product increases the financial yield of the production.KEY WORDS: Alternative feed, nitrogen balance, temperature, weight gain. A pesquisa destinou-se a avaliar a digestibilidade, o metabolismo de nutrientes e o balanço de nitrogênio do pseudofruto do cajueiro para suínos em crescimento, bem como o desempenho desses animais alimentados com diferentes níveis de inclusão desse subproduto nas dietas. Avaliaram-se ainda os aspectos fisiológicos dos animais e a viabilidade econômica das dietas testadas. No ensaio de metabolismo, quatro leitões foram alimentados com uma ração referência e outros quatro com uma dieta-teste, que apresentou 30% de substituição da ração referência pelo farelo do pseudofruto do cajueiro. No ensaio de desempenho utilizaram-se quarenta animais, distribuídos em blocos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos, quatro repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de rações com os níveis de 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% e 20% de inclusão do pseudofruto do cajueiro. Os valores dos coeficientes de digestibilidade e dos metabolismos da proteína e da energia do pseudofruto do cajueiro obtidos foram 12,30 e 11,38%; 23,43 e 21,91%, respectivamente, sendo encontrados valores de 1.123 kcal/kg e 1.051 kcal/kg para energias digestível e metabolizável. O pseudofruto do cajueiro pode ser incluído nas dietas de suínos em crescimento até o nível de 20% da ração, e sua inclusão na forma de farelo melhora o rendimento financeiro da produção.PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Alimento alternativo, balanço de nitrogênio, ganho de peso, temperatura.

  4. Bioethanol production by cashew apple bagasse (Anacardium occidentale L.): comparison of acid diluted and alkali pre-treatments; Producao de bioetanol a partir da fibra do caju (Anacardium occidentale L.): comparacao entre o pre-tratamento acido e alcalino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Tigressa H.S.; Pinheiro, Alvaro D.T.; Goncalves, Luciana R.B. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Rocha, Maria V.P.; Macedo, Gorete R. de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Due to the growing environmental awareness on the negative impact resulting from utilization of fossil fuels, and in the search for renewable energy sources, biofuels' interest as Bioethanol has rapidly expanded recently. In this context, lignocellulosic compounds have become center of attention as an abundant and economic alternative source of carbohydrates for ethanol production. In this study, cashew's bagasse acid hydrolysis was initially studied for glucose synthesis and its fermentation towards ethanol production. Sulfuric acid concentration, solids concentration and time were some of the factors evaluated. The highest glucose productivity value (162,9 mg.g de bagaco{sup -1}) , was obtained for 0,6 mol.L{sup -1} of sulfuric acid in an autoclave at 121 deg C for 15 min. For the fermentation of the hydrolyzed material by S. cerevisiae containing 16 {+-} 2,0 g.L{sup -1} of glucose metabolic, the yield and productivity obtained were 0,63 g-g glucose{sup -1} and 1,43 g.L{sup -1}h{sup -1} respectively. Ethanol concentration after 6 h of fermentation of this hydrolyzed was 11 g.L{sup -1}. In the best conditions of acid hydrolysis, a second pre-treatment with diluted sulfuric acid was performed to evaluate availability of hemicelluloses at 160 deg C and 180 deg C. For comparative purposes, alkali pre-treatment was evaluated under the conditions of 0,6 mol.L{sup -1}, 30% p/v of bagasse thermically treated at 121 deg C for 15 minutes. However, concentration of sugars was not sufficient for fermentation. Also, nitrogen supplementation of the hydrolyzed fraction did not influence significantly ethanol production. The results demonstrate that the hydrolyzed fraction from the acid pre-treatment of cashew's bagasse could be utilized for ethanol production. (author)

  5. Ana o 3, an important cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale L.) allergen of the 2S albumin family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robotham, Jason M; Wang, Fang; Seamon, Vanessa; Teuber, Suzanne S; Sathe, Shridhar K; Sampson, Hugh A; Beyer, Kirsten; Seavy, Margaret; Roux, Kenneth H

    2005-06-01

    Cashew nut allergy is the second most commonly reported tree nut allergy in the United States. We have previously cloned and characterized major cashew allergens belonging to the vicilin and legumin families of seed storage proteins. Here we set out to describe a third major cashew allergen, a 2S albumin. The recombinant cashew 2S albumin was amplified from a cDNA library by means of PCR, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli. Immunoblotting was used to screen for reactivity with patients' sera, and inhibition immunoblotting was used to identify the corresponding native cashew nut proteins. The mass of affinity-purified native allergen was determined by means of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectroscopy. Patients' sera were used to probe solid-phase 2S albumin peptides to identify linear epitopes. The cloned allergen, designated Ana o 3, was identified as 2S albumin. MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy of native Ana o 3 yielded a molecular mass of 12,598 d. Immunoblot analysis showed 21 (81%) of 26 sera from patients with cashew allergy were reactive. Three native Ana o 3 large-subunit isoforms with molecular weights ranging from approximately 6 to 10 kd were identified. Probing of overlapping synthetic Ana o 3 peptides with patients' sera identified 16 reactive peptides, 4 of which gave strong signals and one of which positionally overlaps linear epitopes in mustard and walnut allergenic 2S albumins. The overlapping cashew and walnut epitopes also share considerable homology. We conclude that this 2S albumin protein is a major allergen in cashew nut and demonstrates a possible basis for cross-reactivity with walnut 2S albumin.

  6. Purification and Characterization of Anacardium occidentale (Cashew) Allergens Ana o 1, Ana o 2, and Ana o 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitsma, Marit; Bastiaan-Net, Shanna; Sforza, Stefano; van der Valk, Johanna P M; van Gerth van Wijk, Roy; Savelkoul, Huub F J; de Jong, Nicolette W; Wichers, Harry J

    2016-02-10

    In this study a fast and simple purification procedure for the three known allergens from cashew (7S globulin Ana o 1, 11S globulin Ana o 2, and 2S albumin Ana o 3) is described. The purified allergens are characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), Western blot, glycoprotein stain, and protein identification. The purified proteins still bind IgE, and this IgE binding varied between different pools of patient serum. Ana o 1 was found to be a glycoprotein. Ana o 3 has been studied more in detail to identify both the small and large subunits, both displaying microheterogeneity, and epitope mapping of Ana o 3 has been performed.

  7. A sensitive sandwich ELISA for the detection of trace amounts of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) nut in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yanhong; Sathe, Shridhar K; Teuber, Suzanne S; Roux, Kenneth H

    2003-05-21

    Trace amounts of cashew nut protein can provoke severe allergic reactions in sensitive patients. Consequently, commercial food processors and regulatory agencies must be vigilant to prevent cashew nut cross-contamination among foods and ensure proper labeling. Toward this end, we have developed a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) to detect the predominant cashew protein fraction (anacardein or cashew major protein, CMP) that can be extracted in aqueous buffer from food matrixes. Protein G-purified goat antiwhole cashew extract IgG and rabbit anti-CMP IgG were used as capture and secondary antibodies, respectively. Immunoadsorption against several nut and seed proteins significantly minimized the inherent cross-reactivity of these reagents. Food samples spiked with cashew flour and CMP were extracted and tested in a sandwich ELISA where standard curves were based on reactivity with CMP. The assay was optimized to detect as little as 20 ng/mL (0.02 ppm) of CMP and was successfully used to quantify CMP, and thus cashew, in various food matrixes.

  8. Purification and Characterization of Anacardium occidentale (Cashew) Allergens Ana o 1, Ana o 2, and Ana o 3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reitsma, Marit; Bastiaan-Net, Shanna; Sforza, Stefano; Valk, Van Der J.P.M.; Gerth Van Wijk, Van Roy; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Jong, De N.W.; Wichers, H.J.

    2016-01-01

    In this study a fast and simple purification procedure for the three known allergens from cashew (7S globulin Ana o 1, 11S globulin Ana o 2, and 2S albumin Ana o 3) is described. The purified allergens are characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE),

  9. Protective effect of anacardic acids from cashew (Anacardium occidentale) on ethanol-induced gastric damage in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Talita C; Pinto, Natália B; Carvalho, Karine Maria M B; Rios, Jeison B; Ricardo, Nagila Maria P S; Trevisan, Maria Teresa S; Rao, Vietla S; Santos, Flávia A

    2010-01-05

    Cashew nut-shell liquid and the contained anacardic acids (AAs) have been shown to possess antioxidant, lipoxygenase inhibitory, anti-Helicobacter pylori and antitumor properties. Despite these known effects, hitherto there were no published reports on their likely gastroprotective effects. The present study was designed to verify whether AAs afford gastroprotection against the ethanol-induced gastric damage and to examine the underlying mechanism(s). Gastric damage was induced by intragastric administration of 0.2mL of ethanol (96%). Mice in groups were pretreated orally with AAs (10, 30 and 100mg/kg), misoprostol (50 microg/kg), or vehicle (2% Tween 80 in saline, 10mL/kg), 45min before ethanol administration. They were sacrificed 30min later, the stomachs excised, and the mucosal lesion area (mm(2)) measured by planimetry. Gastroprotection was assessed in relation to inhibition of gastric lesion area. To study the gastroprotective mechanism(s), its relations to capsaicin-sensitive fibers, endogenous prostaglandins, nitric oxide and ATP-sensitive potassium channels were analysed. Treatments effects on ethanol-associated oxidative stress markers GSH, MDA, catalase, SOD, and total nitrate/nitrite levels as an index of NO were measured in gastric tissue. Besides, the effects of AAs on gastric secretory volume and total acidity were analysed in 4-h pylorus-ligated rat. AAs afforded a dose-related gastroprotection against the ethanol damage and further prevented the ethanol-induced changes in the levels of GSH, MDA, catalase, SOD and nitrate/nitrite. However, they failed to modify the gastric secretion or the total acidity. It was observed that the gastroprotection by AAs was greatly reduced in animals pretreated with capsazepine, indomethacin, l-NAME or glibenclamide. These results suggest that AAs afford gastroprotection principally through an antioxidant mechanism. Other complementary mechanisms include the activation of capsaicin-sensitive gastric afferents, stimulation of endogenous prostaglandins and nitric oxide, and opening of K(+)(ATP) channels. These combined effects are likely to be accompanied by an increase in gastric microcirculation.

  10. Cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L.) extract from by-product of juice processing: a focus on carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, Fernando Pinto; Dornier, Manuel; Dionisio, Ana Paula; Carail, Michel; Caris-Veyrat, Catherine; Dhuique-Mayer, Claudie

    2013-05-01

    Cashew apple fibrous residue is a by-product of the cashew juice industry. After pressing using a helical type continuous press followed by crossflow microfiltration, an aqueous extract was obtained from these cashew apple fibres. It was characterised by an intense yellow colour due to carotenoid pigments. Carotenoids were identified and quantified in the cashew apple before extraction, in its aqueous extract and in the concentrate obtained by microfiltration. Cashew apple aqueous extract and its concentrate presented a carotenoid profile with 11 carotenoids, most of them were tentatively identified by HPLC-DAD-MS and are xanthophylls present under an esterified form. Auroxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin represented around 50% of total carotenoids. Concentration of the extract by microfiltration led to epoxy-furanoxy rearrangement of violaxanthin and antheraxanthin. The process allowed an increase of 10 times total carotenoid content compared with initial cashew apple. Total carotenoid content of the final concentrated extract reached 54 mg/kg. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Anacardic Acid Isolated From Cashew Nut Shell (Anacardium occidentale Affects Methane and Other Products in the Rumen Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Saenab

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Biofat is a hexane extract containing several bioactive compounds with anacardic acid as the major compound. This study aimed to examine the effect of anacardic acid on rumen fermentation, especially methane and its degradation in the in vitro rumen fermentation. The study was arranged in a completely randomized block design. The treatments were control (substrate or complete feed, biofat (substrate + 0.75 uL/mL biofat, and anacardic acid (substrate + 0.75 uL/mL anacardic acid. Measured variables were total gas production, methane, pH, concentration of ammonia (NH3, dry matter degrability (DMD, organic matter degrability (OMD, and neutral detergent fiber degrability (NDFD in the rumen. The chromatogram GC-MS analysis results indicated that the anacardic acid isolation process of the biofat produced nearly pure isolate (99.44%, and significantly decreased the production of methane by 51.21% and 39.62%, respectively. Anacardic acid degradation pattern in the in vitro rumen test showed a shifting of retention factor (Rf value after anacardic acid being incubated with the degradation of anacardic acid occurred after 24 h of fermentation. In conclusion, anacardic acid isolated from biofat has a dominant role to reduce the in vitro methane production. Anacardic acid is very potential to be used as a methane reducing agent.

  12. Fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae and their parasitoids on cultivated and wild hosts in the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Ledesma Taira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae and their parasitoids on cultivated and wild hosts in the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Information on frugivorous flies in cultivated or wild host plants and their parasitoids in the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone in Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul is presented and discussed. Fruit fly samples were collected weekly in specific fruit trees, and McPhail® traps were installed in the same trees for a period of two years. The fruit flies infested ripe and unripe fruits of Averrhoa carambola L., Schoepfia sp., Psidium guajava L. and Pouteria torta (Mart. Radlk and mature fruits of Anacardium occidentale L. and Inga laurina (Sw. Willd. Nineteen fruit fly species were obtained with the combination of sampling methods (collecting fruits and trapping, nine of them obtained with both methods, five found only in fruits and five only in traps. This is the first record of Anastrepha striata Schiner in a species of Sapotaceae, as well as for A. castanea Norrbom and A. daciformes Bezzi in Schoepfia sp. (Olacaceae, and for A. distincta Greene in fruits of P. guajava in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. Fruit collections simultaneously associated with capture of fruit flies by McPhail traps in the same host plants are essential to understand the diversity of fruit flies and their relationship with hosts and parasitoids. Species of Braconidae and Pteromalidae were recovered, where Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti was the most abundant parasitoid in larvae of tephritids infesting both cultivated and wild host fruits.

  13. Sperm parameters of male Wistar rats treated with Anacardium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Annacardium occidentale is a medicinal plant with several biological properties. Phytochemical screening of its leaf and stem bark was reported to be rich in alkaloids, polyphenols, tannins and saponins. Many plant extract with these phytochemicals are reputed for their antifertility activities. This study was ...

  14. Religione e costituzionalismo occidentale. Osmosi e reciproche influenze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Alicino

    2012-10-01

    SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione. – 2. I presupposti teologici. – 3. Tendenza teocratica, ma visione profana dei fenomeni normativi. – 4. La doppia faccia della secolarizzazione. – 5. Il costituzionalismo (medievale cristiano. – 6. Le origini del costituzionalismo occidentale. Fra apolitismo radicale … – 7. (segue … e messianismo temporale e rivoluzione scientifica. – 8. Westfalia (1648: la territorializzazione del diritto religioso. – 9. La nuova religione della perfetta ragione. – 10. Dalla fine della sovranità westfaliana, al secondo dopoguerra … – 11. … (segue e alla questione islamica di questo secolo.

  15. Effect of glycerine and essential oils (Anacardium occidentale and Ricinus communis on animal performance, feed efficiency and carcass characteristics of crossbred bulls finished in a feedlot system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Teresa Barreto Cruz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of corn substitution by glycerine and essential oils on animal performance, apparent digestibility and red and white blood cells of crossbred bulls finished in feedlot was evaluated. Thirty bulls with average weight of 311±28.8 kg and 22±2 month-old were allocated in three diets: CON (without glycerine or essential oils, GLY (with glycerine and GEO (with glycerine and essential oils. The bulls were fed a diet of sorghum silage, cracked corn, soybean meal, urea, limestone and mineral salt. Three grams of cashew and castor oil/animal/day were included in GEO diet. Animals were kept in feedlot for 115 days and slaughtered at average weight of 467±40.6 kg. No differences (P<0.05 among diets regarding final body weight, average daily gain and feed conversion were reported. Ether extract intake was higher (P<0.05 in CON diet compared to the others. Dry matter, organic matter and crude protein digestibility was higher (P<0.05 in GLY diet compared to CON. Acid detergent fibre digestibility was higher (P<0.05 in CON compared to GLY diet. Nonfibrous carbohydrate, fibrous carbohydrate and ether extract digestibility were similar (P>0.05 among diets. No effect of glycerine and essential oil addition on total blood cholesterol, triglycerides, haemogram, leukogram and plasmatic proteins was observed. Corn replacement by glycerine and essential oils addition did not affect (P>0.05 carcass weight, dressing and conformation, carcass length and cushion thickness.

  16. In vitro bioaccessibility of copper, iron, zinc and antioxidant compounds of whole cashew apple juice and cashew apple fibre (Anacardium occidentale L.) following simulated gastro-intestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Ana Cristina Silva; Soares, Denise Josino; da Silva, Larissa Morais Ribeiro; de Figueiredo, Raimundo Wilane; de Sousa, Paulo Henrique Machado; de Abreu Menezes, Eveline

    2014-10-15

    Considering the lack of research studies about nutrients' bioaccessibility in cashew apple, in this study the whole cashew apple juice and the cashew apple fibre were submitted to simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. The samples were analysed before and after digestion and had their copper, iron, zinc, ascorbic acid, total extractable phenols and total antioxidant activity assessed. As a result, for the whole cashew apple juice, the content of copper and iron minerals bioaccessible fraction were 15% and 11.5% and for zinc this level was 3.7%. Regarding the cashew apple fibre, the bioaccessible fraction for these minerals was lower than 5%. The ascorbic acid, total extractable polyphenols and total antioxidant activity bioaccessible fraction for whole cashew apple juice showed bioaccessibility percentages of 26.2%, 39% and 27%, respectively, while for the cashew apple fibre, low bioaccessibles levels were found. The bioacessible percentage of zinc, ascorbic acid and total extractable polyphenols were higher in cashew apple juice than cashew apple fibre. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Development and Validation of a Reversed Phase HPLC Method for Determination of Anacardic Acids in Cashew (Anacardium occidentale) Nut Shell Liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oiram Filho, Francisco; Alcântra, Daniel Barbosa; Rodrigues, Tigressa Helena Soares; Alexandre E Silva, Lorena Mara; de Oliveira Silva, Ebenezer; Zocolo, Guilherme Julião; Sousa de Brito, Edy

    2017-12-29

    Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) contains phenolic lipids with aliphatic chains that are of commercial interest. In this work, a chromatographic method was developed to monitor and quantify anacardic acids (AnAc) in CNSL. Samples containing AnAc were analyzed on a high-performance liquid chromatograph coupled to a diode array detector, equipped with a reversed phase C18 (150 × 4.6 mm × 5 μm) column using acetonitrile and water as the mobile phase both acidified with acetic acid to pH 3.0 in an isocratic mode (80:20:1). The chromatographic method showed adequate selectivity, as it could clearly separate the different AnAc. To validate this method, AnAc triene was used as an external standard at seven different concentrations varying from 50 to 1,000 μg mL-1. The Student's t-test and F-test were applied to ensure high confidence for the obtained data from the analytical calibration curve. The results were satisfactory with respect to intra-day (relative standard deviation (RSD) = 0.60%) and inter-day (RSD = 0.67%) precision, linearity (y = 2,670.8x - 26,949, r2 > 0.9998), system suitability for retention time (RSD = 1.02%), area under the curve (RSD = 0.24%), selectivity and limits of detection (19.8 μg mg-1) and quantification (60.2 μg mg-1). The developed chromatographic method was applied for the analysis of different CNSL samples, and it was deemed suitable for the quantification of AnAc. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Comparative assessment of DNA fingerprinting techniques (RAPD, ISSR and AFLP) for genetic analysis of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) accessions of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archak, S; Gaikwad, A B; Gautam, D; Rao, E V V B; Swamy, K R M; Karihaloo, J L

    2003-06-01

    Nineteen cashew accessions were analysed with 50 random primers, 12 ISSR primers and 6 AFLP primer pairs to compare the efficiency and utility of these techniques for detecting variation in cashew germplasm. Each marker system could discriminate between all of the accessions, albeit with varied efficiency of polymorphism detection. AFLP exhibited maximum discrimination efficiency with a genotype index of 1. The utility of each molecular marker technique, expressed as marker index, was estimated as a function of average band informativeness and effective multiplex ratio. Marker index was calculated to be more than 10 times higher in AFLP than in RAPD and ISSR. Similarity matrices were determined based on the data generated by molecular and morphometric analyses, and compared for congruency. AFLP displayed no correspondence with RAPD and ISSR. Correlation between ISSR and RAPD similarity matrices was low but significant (r = 0.63; p < 0.005). The similarity matrix based on morphometric markers exhibited no correlation with any of the molecular markers. AFLP, with its superior marker utility, was concluded to be the marker of choice for cashew genetic analysis.

  19. Influência do porta-enxerto no comportamento fisiológico de mudas de cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale L. submetidas a estresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matos Nilson Nogueira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso de mudas enxertadas uniformiza o crescimento de plantas e antecipa o início da produção. Os porta-enxertos regulam aspectos, como taxa fotossintética e relações hídricas das mudas, e distúrbios sobre os mesmos afetam o vigor geral das mudas. Este trabalho objetivou comparar os níveis de resistência dos porta-enxertos CCP06 e CCP09, e das mudas enxertadas CCP76/06 e CCP76/09, submetidas a estresses hídrico e salino, através de algumas características bioquímicas e biofísicas. A comparação entre as mudas CCP76/06 e CCP76/09 mostrou comportamentos diferentes. As mudas CCP76/6 reproduziram o comportamento de abertura estomática do porta-enxerto CCP06, que foi mais resistente aos efeitos dos estresses hídrico e salino do que o CCP09. Portanto, deve ter propiciado uma melhor adaptação ao enxerto CCP76/06 sob aqueles tipos de estresse. Alguns mecanismos de controle do porta-enxerto na absorção de íons e trocas gasosas são também discutidos.

  20. Comparative Effects of Some Medicinal Plants: Anacardium occidentale, Eucalyptus globulus, Psidium guajava, and Xylopia aethiopica Extracts in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Albino Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpashi, Victor Eshu; Bayim, Bayim Peter-Robins; Obi-Abang, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Insulin therapy and oral antidiabetic agents/drugs used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus have not sufficiently proven to control hyperlipidemia, which is commonly associated with the diabetes mellitus. Again the hopes that traditional medicine and natural plants seem to trigger researchers in this area is yet to be discovered. This research was designed to compare the biochemical effects of some medicinal plants in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar rats using named plants that are best at lowering blood glucose and hyperlipidemia and ameliorating other complications of diabetes mellitus by methods of combined therapy. The results obtained showed 82% decrease in blood glucose concentration after the 10th hour to the fortieth hour. There was significant increase P 0.05 recorded in the glutathione peroxidase activity of E. globulus (100 mg/kg) when compared to the test groups of P. guajava (250 mg/kg) and X. aethiopica (250 mg/kg). Catalase activity showed significant increase P 0.05, there was no significant difference seen between test group and treated groups. Meanwhile, degree of significance was observed in other parameters analysed. The biochemical analysis conducted in this study showed positive result, attesting to facts from previous works. Though these individual plants extracts exhibited significant increase in amelorating diabetes complication and blood glucose control compared to glibenclamide, a synthetic antidiabetic drug. Greater performance was observed in the synergy groups. Therefore, a poly/combined formulation of these plants extracts yielded significant result as well as resolving some other complications associated with diabetics. PMID:25525518

  1. Clarificación combinada y evaluación sensorial de jugo de marañón (Anacardium occidentale L.

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    Jorge Osorio M.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Obtener jugo clarificado de marañón, evaluar sensorialmente jugos clarificados optimizados y establecer diferencias químicas entre el jugo integral y el clarificado. Materiales y métodos. Los pseudofrutos se separaron manualmente de la nuez, fueron seleccionados y lavados, luego se realizó escaldado y extracción del jugo. El jugo integral y el de mayor aceptación fueron caracterizados químicamente. Los jugos se evaluaron sensorialmente (aceptación con una escala hedónica de 9 puntos y una prueba de ordenamiento por 30 catadores. Se empleó un diseño factorial de tres niveles combinado con la metodología de superficie de respuesta; las características químicas de los jugos se analizaron por prueba de homogeneidad de varianzas de Levene y la prueba T-Student de comparación de medias para muestras independientes. Resultados. Los jugos evaluados sensorialmente no presentaron diferencias estadísticas significativas entre sí (p≤0.05, p≤0.01; sin embargo el mayor porcentaje de aceptación fue del tratamiento 0.20% p/v Rapidasa® CX y 14.27 horas a 30ºC, se presentaron diferencias estadísticas significativas para las variables pH, °Brix, azúcares reductores y ácido ascórbico (p≤0.05; además, el contenido de ácido ascórbico se redujo notablemente en un 41.01% con respecto al jugo inicial. Conclusiones. El jugo clarificado con alto contenido de vitamina C, obtenido por tratamiento enzimático, constituye una forma de aprovechamiento agroindustrial del pseudofruto, teniendo aceptación para su consumo y sin presentar astringencia, con buen sabor, aroma, mediante tratamiento 0.20% p/v Rapidasa® CX y 14.27 horas a 30ºC.

  2. Yogurt produced with cajuí (Anacardium othonianum Rizz

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    Camila Martins Fonseca

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Yogurt added with 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of cajuí pulp (Anacardium othonianum Rizz were characterized. Acidity, pH, protein, dry matter, firmness, consistency, cohesiveness and quantification of lactic acid bacteria were conducted at 0, 10, 20 and 30 days. Identification of volatiles compounds and sensory tests of preference, acceptance and consumption intention were performed on the first day of shelf-life. Preferred formulations are those that contain smaller proportions of pulp (5% which coincide with lower acidity. There was no significant effect (P>0.05 of the amount of pulp added and storage time on dry matter, lactic acid bacteria count, firmness, consistency and cohesiveness. Acidity and pH were significantly influenced (P <0.05 by the amount of pulp added and storage time. Protein levels were significantly lower (P <0.05 with the increase in the quantity of pulp added. Volatiles compounds in cajuí yogurt include ethyl butanoate, methyl butanoate, ethanol, hexanal, benzaldehyde and 3-methyl butanoate. There are technological potential in the production of yoghurt with cajuí with addition of 5% in proportion to the total volume of yogurt produced.

  3. Evaluation of the Hypoglycemic Properties of Anacardium humile Aqueous Extract

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    Márcio A. Urzêda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The antihyperglycemic effects of several plant extracts and herbal formulations which are used as antidiabetic formulations have been described and confirmed to date. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of the aqueous extract of Anacardium humile. Although the treatment of diabetic animals with A. humile did not alter body weight significantly, a reduction of the other evaluated parameters was observed. Animals treated with A. humile did not show variation of insulin levels, possibly triggered by a mechanism of blood glucose reduction. Levels of ALT (alanine aminotransferase decreased in treated animals, suggesting a protective effect on liver. Levels of cholesterol were also reduced, indicating the efficacy of the extract in reestablishing the balance of nutrients. Moreover, a kidney protection may have been achieved due to the partial reestablishment of blood glucose homeostasis, while no nephrotoxicity could be detected for A. humile. The obtained results demonstrate the effectiveness of A. humile extracts in the treatment of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Therefore, A. humile aqueous extract, popularly known and used by diabetic patients, induced an improvement in the biochemical parameters evaluated during and following treatment of diabetic rats. Thus, a better characterization of the medicinal potential of this plant will be able to provide a better understanding of its mechanisms of action in these pathological processes.

  4. La scrittura musicale come prerogativa della composizione musicale occidentale

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    Manfred Hermann Schmid

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Nel mondo occidentale, saper scrivere signífica il massimo della competenza. Perfino nella percezione popolare il ruolo che in musica spetta alla scrittura è percepito come una sfida. Nel marzo 2010, in una trasmissione televisiva equivalente a “Scommettiamo che”, un anchorman tedesco ha chiesto ad Anna Netrebko, sua ospite, se nella carriera di una cantante sia necessario saper leggere perfettamente la musica. “No”, è stata la risposta, istantanea, “basta avere bella voce e buona memoria”. Accostatasi poi al pianoforte per intonare un Lied di Rimskij-Korsakov, mentre l’accompagnatrice apriva lo spartito, la Netrebko aggiungeva scherzosamente: il pianista sì che deve saper leggere la musica! Per l’esperto, questa maliziosa risposta a doppio senso richiama l’antica distinzione erudita tra sapere pratico e teorico, rappresentati rispettivamente dalla voce umana, di cui ciascuno dispone in natura, e da uno strumento tecnico tradizionalmente adibito alla teoria, erede del monocordo antico, sulla cui tastiera le divisioni della corda erano indicate con lettere alfabetiche: lettere che sono le primissime testimonianze di una scrittura musicale.

  5. Estabilidade microbiológica, físico-química e sensorial de pedúnculos de caju (Anacardium occidentale L. processados por métodos combinados Microbiological, physico-chemical and sensorial stability of cashew apples (Anacardium occidentale L. processed by combined methods

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    Patricia Campos Mesquita

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Os pedúnculos de caju processados por métodos combinados e armazenados à temperatura ambiente (28ºC foram avaliados quanto à tendência a mudanças físico-químicas, microbiológicas e sensoriais. Os resultados confirmam que os tipos de obstáculos usados (redução da Aw, tratamento térmico brando, redução do pH, adição de ácido ascórbico, benzoato de sódio a 1000ppm e SO2 a 600 e 900ppm e sua intensidade foram capazes de assegurar a estabilidade microbiológica do produto durante a armazenagem à temperatura ambiente por 120 dias, bem como uma boa aceitação sensorial.Cashew apples processed by combined methods were stored at room temperature (28ºC in order to evaluate the tendency for chemical, microbiological and sensorial changes during 120 days of storage. Results confirmed that the obstacles used (reduction of water activity, mild heat treatment, pH reduction, ascorbic acid addition, 1000ppm sodium benzoate, 600 and 900ppm of SO2 and their intensities were capable to assure the microbiological stability and sensorial acceptance of the product during storage stability at room temperature for 120 days.

  6. Avaliação da atividade antioxidante dos compostos fenólicos naturalmente presentes em subprodutos do pseudofruto de caju (Anacardium occidentale L. Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds Naturally Contained in By-products of the Cashew Apple (Anacardium occidentale L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Regina Bolelli Broinizi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como proposta avaliar a capacidade antioxidante do bagaço e do extrato bruto concentrado (EBC do pedúnculo de caju, tendo em vista o seu aproveitamento. O potencial antioxidante dos extratos aquoso (EAq e alcoólico (EAlc e das frações de ácidos fenólicos livres (AFL e esterificadas (solúvel AFS e insolúvel AFI desses subprodutos do pedúnculo de caju clone CCP-76 foi avaliado em sistema beta-caroteno/ácido linoléico, pelo teste de varredura de radical livre [2,2 difenil-1-pricril-hidrazil (DPPH•] e de Rancimat. Além do mais, o conteúdo de fenólicos totais e o perfil de ácidos fenólicos foram determinados usando-se o reagente de Folin-Ciocateau e por cromatografia gasosa, respectivamente. O EAq e a fração AFL dos subprodutos apresentaram o maior conteúdo de fenólicos. As frações de ácidos fenólicos exibiram expressiva atividade antioxidante, superior aos extratos estudados nos sistemas beta-caroteno e DPPH. Entretanto no teste Rancimat, os extratos apresentaram maior proteção à oxidação em relação às frações e ao BHT. Nas frações foram identificados os ácidos gálico, ferúlico, caféico, protocatecuico, quínico, cinâmico, gentíssico, p-cumárico e salicílico, os quais lhes conferem o potencial antioxidante. Estes resultados caracterizaram in vitro o potencial antioxidante do bagaço e do EBC do pedúnculo de caju clone CCP-76.This study aimed to determine the antioxidant capacity of cashew apple pulp and raw concentrated extract. The antioxidant potential of aqueous (EAq and alcoholic (EAlc extracts and of free phenolic acids (FPA and esterified (soluble - SPA and insoluble - IPA fractions of the by-products of the cashew apple clone CCP-76 were evaluated in a beta-carotene-linoleate system by the free radical [2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•] scavenging assay and the Rancimat test. In addition, the total phenolic content and phenolic acid profile were determined using Folin-Ciocateau reagent and gas chromatography, respectively. The EAq and the FPA fraction of the by-products showed the highest phenolic content. The phenolic acid fractions generally displayed stronger antioxidant activity than the extracts tested with the beta-carotene-linoleate and DPPH systems. However, in the Rancimat test, the extracts showed higher antioxidant activity than the fractions and BHT. Nine phenolic acids (gallic, ferulic, caffeic, protocatechuic, quinic, cinnamic, gentisic, p-coumaric and salicylic acids, which give the fractions their antioxidant potential, were identified and quantified (both free and esterified forms. These results characterized the in vitro antioxidant capacity of the pulp and raw concentrated extract of the cashew apple clone CCP-76.

  7. Avaliação da metodologia microbiológica para determinação de 5-metiltetrahidrofolato em suco de caju (Anacardium occidentale L. Evaluation of a microbiological method for the determination of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in cashew apple juice (Anacardium occidentale L.

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    Soraya de Oliveira Sancho

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Embora o suco de caju seja bastante consumido no Brasil e muitos estudos sobre seu valor nutricional tenham sido publicados, a literatura não reporta estudos sobre a determinação de folatos nesse suco. Várias técnicas analíticas podem ser utilizadas visando à detecção da referida vitamina. Optou-se por utilizar o ensaio microbiológico oficial de determinação de folatos em alimentos, utilizando-se Lactobacillus casei como microrganismo de teste. Foram testados a utilização de ultrassom e tratamento enzimático como fases preparatórias, a fim de determinar qual a melhor metodologia a ser empregada. Foram comparados também o uso de padrões de ácido fólico e folato. Os resultados mostraram que o emprego de enzima é indicado como fase preparatória na determinação desta vitamina em suco de caju. A utilização de ultrassom não interferiu, significativamente, nos resultados encontrados, sendo seu emprego dispensável. Os teores de folato encontrados no suco de caju integral in natura indicam que o consumo de uma porção de 200 mL do suco equivale à ingestão de aproximadamente 500 µg de folato, valor superior à ingestão diária recomendada para adultos.Although cashew apple juice has been highly consumed in Brazil and several studies on its nutritional value have been published, no studies on the determination of folate contents in this juice were found in the literature. Several analytic techniques can be employed for the folate determination in foods. In this study, the microbiological assay using Lactobacillus casei was employed. Enzyme treatment and ultrasound waves were tested as pretreatment. The use of standards of folic acid and folate were also evaluated. The results showed that the enzyme treatment cannot be replaced by ultrasound treatment. The consumption of 200 mL of in natura cashew apple juice corresponds to a folate intake of 500 µg, which is higher than the recommended daily intake for adults.

  8. OBTENÇÃO DE BEBIDA A PARTIR DE SUCO DE CAJU (Anacardium occidentale, L. E EXTRATO DE GUARANÁ (Paullinia cupana sorbilis Mart. Ducke OBTENTION OF DRINK FROM CASHEW APPLE JUICE (Anacardium occidentale, L. AND GUARANA EXTRACT (Paullinia cupana sorbilis Mart. Ducke

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    LILIANA COSTA SOARES

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A partir do extrato de semente de guaraná com 0,96% de cafeína, foram testadas várias formulações para obtenção de uma bebida, utilizando-se de suco de caju clarificado e concentrado, caramelo, aromatizantes artificiais de caju e guaraná e acidulante, tendo também como variável os diversos graus de doçura (ºBrix. As melhores formulações foram selecionadas de acordo com os resultados da avaliação sensorial, onde se utilizou o teste de ordenação. A formulação selecionada foi processada e envasada em embalagens de vidro. Para determinar a aceitabilidade, o produto final foi submetido a análises físico-químicas e sensoriais.From Guaraná seeds extract with 0,96% caffein content several formulations were evaluated in order to obtain a beverage using clarified cashew juice concentrate, caramel and guaraná artificial flavors and acidulant, using several sweetness grade a variable. The best formulations were selected according to sensorial evaluation results, using the ordenation test. The selected product (14 ºBrix formulation was manufactured and filled in glass bottles. In order to determine the acceptability the final product was submited to physical chemical and sensorial analysis.

  9. Non-overlap of hosts used by three congeneric and sympatric loranthaceous mistletoe species in an Amazonian savanna: host generalization to extreme specialization Não-sobreposição de hospedeiros utilizados por três espécies de ervas-de-passarinho lorantáceas congêneres e simpátricas em uma savana Amazônica: generalização pelo hospedeiroà extrema especialização

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    Rodrigo Ferreira Fadini

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Two main hypotheses predominate in the literature on mistletoe-host specificity: (1 mistletoes are only likely to specialize on plant species on which they are frequently deposited; and (2 compatibility between mistletoes and plant species is a prerequisite for mistletoe-host parasitism. I explored these hypotheses by studying the seed deposition patterns and mistletoe-host compatibility in populations of three congeneric and sympatric mistletoe species of the genus Psittacanthus (P. biternatus, P. eucalyptifolius and P. plagiophyllus - Loranthaceae. I recorded the presence or absence of these mistletoe species in 15 tree species in a savanna patch in Amazonia. Among the five tree species that I found to be potential hosts (at least one tree individual infected, I also recorded if they had at least one mistletoe seed of any species attached to their branches. Finally, I planted seeds of all mistletoe species on the same individual trees in various hosts and non-host species and recorded seed survivorship and seedling establishment within 7 (P. plagiophyllus to 12 months (P. biternatus and P. eucalyptifolius after planting. There was no overlap among trees used as hosts by the three Psittacanthus species. Th e most specialized mistletoe species occurred in different host tree species with low relative abundance at the study site (Psittacanthus eucalyptifolius on Vatairea macrocarpa (Benth. Ducke, and P. plagiophyllus on Anacardium occidentale L.. Mistletoe-host compatibility, and not seed deposition patterns, was the factor most likely to explain patterns of host use by Psittacanthus species at this study site.Duas hipóteses principais predominam na literatura sobre a especificidade entre ervas-de-passarinho e hospedeiros: (1 ervas-de-passarinho só poderão se especializar em espécies de plantas em que elas são frequentemente depositadas; e (2 compatibilidade entre as ervas-depassarinho e as espécies de plantas é um prerequisito para o

  10. Transformer l'agriculture en Afrique centrale et occidentale grâce à ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    29 août 2017 ... La productivité agricole en Afrique centrale et occidentale demeure faible, mais il existe un solide potentiel de recherche pour améliorer la sécurité alimentaire et la nutrition dans la région. La mise en place d'une production agricole durable est essentielle à des stratégies efficaces pour une croissance ...

  11. Afrique occidentale et centrale — De nouveaux défis relevés avec ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    25 janv. 2011 ... Ainsi, les éleveurs de l'Afrique occidentale et centrale doivent composer avec un certain nombre de changements écologiques et sociaux, tels que la vente de pâturages à des agriculteurs. La privatisation de superficies qui étaient jusque-là réservées à la vaine pâture occasionne souvent des problèmes ...

  12. Chemical characterization and bioprospecting of cashew tree polyssacharide of Brazilian Cerrado (Anacardium othonianum Rizz., Anarcadiaceae

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    Thâmara Machado Silva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of biodegradable polymers arouses great biotechnological interest because their chemical composition favors the interaction with biological systems, allowing applications in health and environment besides are easily decomposed. This work presents the first effort of extraction, characterization and proposition of the polysaccharide of Anacardium othonianum Rizz. (PEJU-GO as material with potential for biotechnological applications. Based on scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectra and thermogravimetric analysis, the polysaccharide of A. othonianum Rizz. is a microporous structure, with numerous intramolecular interactions due to the presence of polar groups that give the material great thermal stability. In addition to the thin layer chromatographic data, the analysis of the chemical composition demonstrates the existence of a galactomannan type structure, with low protein content. The presence of chalcones and flavonoid compounds were also detected. The polysaccharide was able to immobilize Horseradish peroxidase with 75% efficiency over an extended pH range and presented storage and operational stabilities.

  13. Geografía, café y prosperidad en los andes occidentales de Colombia

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    Juan Barón

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Compuesta por los departamentos de Antioquia, Caldas, Quindío, Risaralda y Valle del Cauca, los Andes Occidentales ha sido por mucho años una de las regiones más prósperas de Colombia. Esta prosperidad se ha traducido en condiciones de vida e infraestructura superiores a las del resto del país. El éxito y bienestar que presentan hoy en día los Andes Occidentales están estrechamente ligados a la concentración de la producción de café, que se dio allí durante gran parte del siglo XX. El arraigo del café en la región no sólo se dio debido a que la geografía ofrecía las condiciones ideales para el cultivo, sino también a las instituciones cafeteras creadas para organizar la industria del café. A pesar de esta prosperidad, el constante descenso del precio internacional del café después del rompimiento del pacto de cuotas de producción en 1989, sumado al estancamiento de la industria manufacturera en algunos departamentos de la región, han afectado las economías departamentales menos diversificadas. Es así como la región de los Andes Occidentales Colombianos presenta las tasas de desempleo más altas del país, tasas que se han visto afectadas aún más con la crisis financiera internacional a través del menor flujo de remesas que los trabajadores oriundos de la región, y residentes en el exterior envían a sus familias.

  14. Toxicidade do extrato aquoso das folhas de Anacardium humile para Bemisia tuberculata Toxicity of aqueous extract of Anacardium humile leaves on Bemisia tuberculata

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    Nézio Nery de Andrade Filho

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A mosca-branca Bemisia tuberculata (Bondar, 1923 (Hem.: Aleyrodidae é uma das principais pragas da cultura da mandioca no Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul; no entanto, não há produtos registrados para seu controle. Produtos vegetais podem constituir em alternativa viável de controle de insetos e, por sua fotodegradabilidade, diminuir os riscos ao ambiente e ao homem. Objetivou-se, por meio deste trabalho, avaliar o efeito do extrato aquoso do "cajuzinho-do-cerrado" Anacardium humile St Hill (Anacardeaceae, nas concentrações de 2,0; 0,8; 0,4 e 0,05%, sobre a biologia de B. tuberculata, bem como identificar a classe de metabólitos secundários presentes no referido extrato. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, sob temperatura de 26±4°C. O extrato aquoso de A. humile causou aumento da duração da fase larval e mortalidade significativamente superior à testemunha em todas as concentrações testadas. Concluiu-se que o extrato aquoso de folhas de A. humile provoca mortalidade em ninfas de B. tuberculata e alongamento da fase das ninfas sobreviventes. O extrato aquoso de folhas de A. humile apresenta taninos, açúcares redutores e saponinas, e o seu índice de espuma (Índice Afrosimétrico é de 1250.The whitefly Bemisia tuberculata (Bondar, 1923 (Hem.: Aleyrodidae is the main pest of cassava crops in Mato Grosso do Sul state, however there are no products registered for its control. Plant products may represent a viable alternative for insect pest control and, due to their photo-degradability, they may reduce risks to the environment and to man. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of "cajuzinho-do-cerrado" Anacardium humile St Hill (Anacardeaceae aqueous leaf extract on the biology of B. tuberculata at the concentrations 2.0; 0.8; 0.4; 0.05%, as well as to identify the class of secondary metabolites present in the referred extract. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse at a temperature of 26±4°C. The

  15. Afrique occidentale et centrale — De nouveaux défis relevés avec brio

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    En poste à Dakar, au Sénégal, le directeur du Bureau régional de l'Afrique occidentale et centrale du CRDI, Gilles Forget, a vu certaines dimensions de la vie — particulièrement en matière de commerce — se simplifier.

  16. Occurrence of Aspergillus section Flavi and section Nigri and aflatoxins in raw cashew kernels (Anacardium occidentale L.) from Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamboni, Yendouban; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Hell, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    -MS/MS). The average water content and the cashew nuts count were respectively 8.6% and 172 nuts/kg in NG and 8.7% and 174 nuts/kg in SS. Significant differences between villages in both zones were found for both water content and nuts count. In disinfected samples, strains of Aspergillus section Nigri were...

  17. Goma de cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale: Avaliação das modificações químicas e físicas por extrusão termoplástica

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    Kelita C. S. Andrade

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Países tropicais, como o Brasil, são depositários de uma grande variedade de fontes de polissacarídeos vegetais conhecidos e outros ainda não explorados que possuem grande potencial em aplicações industriais. Alguns estudos reportam a possibilidade de aplicação industrial da goma exsudada do cajueiro em substituição à goma arábica devido à semelhança estrutural e química. Neste estudo propôs-se caracterizar comparativamente algumas propriedades destas duas gomas, antes e após dois tratamentos de extrusão termoplástica. Nos resultados de composição centesimal as amostras de goma de cajueiro in natura e processadas destacaram-se pelo alto teor de fibra solúvel. Por outro lado, apresentaram menor teor de minerais que a goma arábica. Por meio da análise de viscosidade rápida, foi observado que este parâmetro aumentou nas amostras de goma arábica processadas, enquanto nas amostras processadas de goma de cajueiro houve redução. Nos resultados da análise de difração de raios X predominou-se a conformação amorfa das cadeias poliméricas de ambas as amostras. A partir dos parâmetros avaliados, a goma de cajueiro poderia ser indicada como substituta da goma arábica.

  18. Influência do estiolamento e do ácido indolebutírico na formação de raízes do alporque de cajueiro Anão Precoce (Anacardium Occidentale L.

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    Francisco Célio Guedes Almeida

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available O cajueiro é uma planta geralmente propagada por semente. Sua multiplicação vegetativa ainda não é comercialmente viável. Neste estudo os efeitos do estiolamento e do ácido indolebutírico (AIB na formação de raízes do alporque da planta de caju foram investigados. O estiolamento foi realizado 30 dias antes do início do processo de alporquia. Por ocasião do anelamento do ramo, o AIB foi aplicado. Após 30 dias da realização da alporquia, os ramos já enraizados foram removidos da planta progenitora. Em seguida foram colocados em saco plástico na casa de vegetação sob condições de irrigação intermitente. Os resultados sugeriram um prévio estiolamento do ramo antes do processo de alporquia e uma aplicação de AIB, por ocasião do anelamento para, garantir a sobrevivência do alporque após o desmame.The Cashew tree is usually propagated by seed since vegetative multiplication has not been fully satisfactory. In this work the effects of etiolation and AIB on air layered branches of the cashew tree were studied. Previous to airlayering procedure, the branches were etiolated during 30 days. The AIB was applied when the bark of the stem was cut. After 30 days the layers were removed from the parent plant at which roots stage were observed through the transparent bag. The rooted layers were planted in polyethylene bags and placed in a greenhouse under an intermitent-mist water spray condition. The results show that the previous etiolation and application of AIB to the exposed wound were beneficial to increase rooting and survival of cashew air layers.

  19. Radiographic image analysis of Anacardium othonianum Rizz (anacardiaceae achenes subjected to desiccation

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    Lílian Abadia da Silva

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies evaluating the internal morphology and seed quality of native species are essential for successful conservation programs. Our aim was to verify the efficiency of X-ray imagery in evaluating cashew-tree-of-the-cerrado (Anacardium othonianum Rizz. achene viability after desiccation. The achenes were collected at 12% water content (w.b. and dried in silica gel until they reached 10, 8, 6, and 4% (w.b.. The fruit morphology and the quality of the seeds were evaluated by X-ray test together with vigor, electrical conductivity and emergence tests. Achenes with different water contents were exposed to an X-ray machine at 18 kV for 11 s and were thereafter submitted to emergence tests. The images were analyzed, and the achenes were classified based on internal morphology as completely full, malformed, or empty. These results were compared to those from the emergence tests. The statistical design was a complete randomized factorial (5 x 3. Desiccation to 4% (w.b. did not damage or modify the internal structures. X-ray was efficient in evaluating the internal morphology and detecting achene quality, making it possible to remove empty and abnormal fruit and form vigorous seed lots, reducing the cost of storage and bedding plant production for this native species.

  20. Apoptotic effect of Semecarpus anacardium nut extract on T47D breast cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathivadhani, Panneerselvam; Shanthi, Palanivelu; Sachdanandam, Panchanatham

    2007-10-01

    There is an increasing interest in identifying potent cancer-preventive and therapeutic agents against breast cancer. A great number of reports have in recent years dealt with anticancer characteristics of Semecarpus anacardium nut extract (SA). The majority of these studies has been targeted on the protective effect rendered to the living system rather than the preventive effect on cancer cells. SA was tested for its inhibitory effect on human breast cancer cells (T47D). Cytotoxicity analyses suggested that these cells had become apoptotic. SA was discovered to induce rapid Ca(2+) mobilization from intracellular stores of T47D cell line, and its cytotoxicity against T47D was well correlated with altered mitochondrial transmembrane potential. At the molecular level, these changes are accompanied by decrease in bcl(2) and increase in bax, cytochrome c, caspases and PARP cleavage, and ultimately by internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. Taken together, our results provide unprecedented evidence that SA triggers apoptotic signals in T47D cells.

  1. Atividade larvicida do óleo de Anacardium humile Saint Hill sobre Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera, Culicidae Larvicidal activity of Anacardium humile Saint Hill oil on Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera, Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Rejane de Andrade Porto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o potencial do cajuzinho do cerrado (Anacardium humile sobre larvas de Aedes aegypti. Os extratos hexânico, etanólico, aquoso e o óleo das folhas foram obtidos do material vegetal coletado em fragmento de cerrado. Estes foram testados nas concentrações 1%; 0,5%, 0,25%, 0,125%, 0,05% e 0,0125% diluídas em dimetil sulfóxido 1%. A contagem das larvas mortas foi realizada após 24 horas. Utilizou-se o método Probit de análise para obtenção das CL50 e respectivos intervalos de confiança. Conclui-se que apenas o óleo extraído de folhas de Anacardium humile causa 100% de mortalidade em larvas de 4º estádio de Aedes aegypti nas concentrações até 0,125%, o que parece indicar que os ingredientes ativos estão na fase mais apolar. O que indica a potencialidade de uso da planta como larvicida de Aedes aegypti, entretanto, novos testes deverão ser conduzidos utilizando outros órgãos vegetais, assim como outros métodos e solventes utilizados na extração.The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of Anacardium humile (monkey nuts against Aedes aegypti larvae. Hexane, ethanol and aqueous extracts and oil from leaves were obtained from plant material collected from the Brazilian savanna. These were tested at concentrations of 1%, 0.5%, 0.25%, 0.125%, 0.05% and 0.0125%, diluted in 1% dimethyl sulfoxide. The dead larvae were counted 24 hours later. The Probit analysis method was used to obtain the LC50 and the respective confidence intervals. The conclusion was that only the oil extracted from Anacardium humile leaves caused 100% mortality among fourth-instar Aedes aegypti larvae, using concentrations of up to 0.125%. This seems to indicate that the active ingredients are present in the most apolar phase. This indicates that this plant has potential use as a larvicide against Aedes aegypti. However, new tests should be carried out using other plant organs, as well as using other methods

  2. Phytocompounds and modulatory effects of Anacardium microcarpum (cajui on antibiotic drugs used in clinical infections

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    Barbosa-Filho VM

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Valter M Barbosa-Filho,1,2 Emily P Waczuk,2 Nadghia F Leite,3 Irwin RA Menezes,1 José GM da Costa,1 Sírleis R Lacerda,1 Isaac A Adedara,2 Henrique Douglas Melo Coutinho,4 Thais Posser,5 Jean P Kamdem2,6 1Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde (CCBS, Universidade Regional do Cariri (URCA, Crato, CE, Brazil; 2Programa de Pós-Graduação em Bioquímica Toxicológica, Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil; 3Departamento de Química Biológica, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde (CCBS, 4Laboratory of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, Universidade Regional do Cariri (URCA, Crato, CE, Brazil; 5Campus São Gabriel, Universidade Federal do Pampa, São Gabriel, RS, Brazil; 6Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básica da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil Background: The challenge of antibiotic resistance and the emergence of new infections have generated considerable interest in the exploration of natural products from plant origins as combination therapy. In this context, crude ethanolic extract (CEE, ethyl acetate fraction (EAF, and methanolic fraction (MF from Anacardium microcarpum were tested alone or in combination with antibiotics (amikacin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and imipenem against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. Methods: Antibiotic resistance-modifying activity was performed using the microdilution method by determining the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC. In addition, phytochemical prospecting analyses of tested samples were carried out. Results: Our results indicated that all the extracts showed low antibacterial activity against multidrug-resistant strains (MIC =512 µg/mL. However, addition of CEE, EAF, and MF to the growth medium at the subinhibitory concentration (MIC/8=64 µg/mL significantly modulated

  3. In vitro acaricidal properties of Semecarpus anacardium fruit and Datura stramonium leaf extracts against acaricide susceptible (IVRI-I line) and resistant (IVRI-V line) Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Srikant; Tiwari, Shashi Shankar; Srivastava, Sharad; Kumar, Sachin; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Nagar, Gaurav; Kumar, K G Ajith; Kumar, Rajesh; Rawat, A K S

    2015-08-01

    In an attempt to identify plants having anti-tick properties, the 95% ethanolic and 50% hydro-ethanolic extracts of the fruits of Semecarpus anacardium and leaves of Datura stramonium were evaluated against reference tick lines of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The 95% ethanolic extracts of S. anacardium and D. stramonium caused 50% and 20% mortality, respectively, within 72 h of treatment by adult immersion test. The LC90 value of the ethanolic fruit extract of S. anacardium was determined as 13.5% (CI 12.05-15.12). The extract was also found efficacious (73.3%±3.3%) against the multi-acaricide-resistant IVRI-V line of R.(B.) microplus. The S. anacardium extract significantly affected the reproductive physiology of treated ticks by inhibiting the oviposition and was found safe. The HPTLC fingerprinting profile revealed the presence of pyrocatechol as a marker compound. The acaricidal property of S. anacardium against chemical acaricide-resistant R. (B.) microplus was discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Tecniche costruttive e forme di potere nella Toscana sud-occidentale (secc. VIII-XIV

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    Bianchi, Giovanna

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper tells about the analysis of the building techniques of elevations inferred from data obtained in extensive projects of archaeological research executed in western Tuscany's rural field from half '90s of last century to present. The text looks over the changes from wooden building trade related to the first high rise habitants in VIIth-VIIIth century, until the pattern settlements in the second half of VIIIth and XIth centuries, characterized by the first use of masonry and the presence of expert master builders. The more complex organization of the building workshops for castles of the XIth and XIIth centuries in relation with the liege lord's rising politic abusive authority is explained in the following part. The subsequent formation of new suburbs between the XIIIth and the XIV centuries is characterized by a different way of use of building techniques, often founded over pre-existing castles, linked to local council, up to the political and economical influence of Pisa in this territory.Nell’articolo si tratta l’analisi delle tecniche murarie desunta da dati provenienti da ampi progetti di indagine archeologica svolti in ambito rurale nella Toscana occidentale dalla metà degli anni Novanta dello scorso secolo ad oggi. Nel testo si esaminano i cambiamenti dei modi di edificare a partire dall’edilizia in legno dei primi abitati di altura di VII-VIII secolo, sino agli insediamenti più strutturati di seconda metà VIII e IX secolo, caratterizzati da un primo uso della pietra e dalla presenza di maestranze specializzate. In seguito si analizza la più complessa organizzazione del cantiere propria della costruzione dei castelli di XI e XII secolo in rapporto ai poteri politici ed economici delle nascenti signorie territoriali. Un differente uso delle tecniche costruttive caratterizza la successiva formazione di nuovi borghi tra XIII e XIV secolo, spesso impiantati sui preesistenti castelli, legati ai locali organismi comunali

  5. First report of Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Peronti, A L B G; Costa, V A; Morais, E G F; Pereira, P R V S

    2016-02-01

    Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of this scale insect were collected on branches and stems of Acacia mangium Willd., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (Fabaceae), Morus nigra L. (Moraceae), Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae), Tectona grandis L. f. (Verbenaceae), Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae), Annona squamosa L. and Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. (Annonaceae), in three municipalities of the Roraima state. All plants here mentioned are recorded for the first time as a host for L. dendrobii. Morphological characters of L. dendrobii and symptoms presented by the host plants infested by this pest are included in this work.

  6. Del arte común de curar a España y a las Indias occidentales

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    Estela Restrepo Zea

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde los primeros viajes colombinos, cronistas, soldados y otros viajeros llevaron hasta Europa noticias sobre las plantas americanas acompañadas de fabulosos relatos. Como en "Las palabras y las cosas", texto que para Foucault nació a partir del libro de Borges, de ese que cita "cierta enciclopedia china", así parecen haber entrado en el discurso de la historia natural, los seres y las cosas de las Indias occidentales desde el primer viaje de Colón. Seres que se volvieron "familiares en el Viejo Mundo, como a su edad y a su geografía". / incluye fragmento de un antidotario del siglo XVII en Cartagena de Indias. paginas 359-382.

  7. The Survivorship and Water Loss of Liometopum luctuosum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and Liometopum occidentale (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Exposed to Different Temperatures and Relative Humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoey-Chamberlain, Rochelle; Rust, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Two species of velvety tree ants, Liometopum luctuosum Wheeler, and Liometopum occidentale Emery (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), are commonly found in the western Unites States from Washington to southern California. L. luctuosum is restricted to coniferous forests in the mountains in the southern range, whereas L. occidentale is found in the lowlands. The survivorship of workers of both species exposed to several temperatures and relative humidity (RH) was determined. As temperature increased, survival of both species decreased. As the RH increased, survival of both species increased. However, L. luctuosum had higher overall survival in all treatment groups. The cuticular permeability (CP) and the rates of body water loss for each species were determined. Both species had similar CPs. Increased physiological tolerances of L. luctuosum may be an explanation for its broader distribution. PMID:25525111

  8. La consommation de propylène en Europe occidentale Propylene Consumption in Western Europe

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    Barraqué M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les besoins de l'Europe occidentale en propylène utilisé en pétrochimie sont actuellement de 7,4. 10 puissance 6 t/an. Au cours des prochaines années, le taux de progression moyen de la consommation devrait être de l'ordre de 1,8%/an; ainsi en 1995, la pétrochimie européenne utiliserait environ 8,7. 10 puissance 6 t de propylène. L'essentiel de la progression de cette consommation sera dû au fort accroissement de la production de polypropylène et à un degré moindre de l'oxyde de propylène, de l'isopropanol et de l'éthyl-2 hexanol. Par contre les débouchés représentés par l'acrylonitrile et le cumène resteront pratiquement stables. La consommation de propylène dans les productions de butanols devrait diminuer. La part des besoins en propylène satisfaite par les vapocraqueurs européens qui est en 1986 de 82 %, devrait être inférieure à 75 % en 1995. Il sera de plus en plus nécessaire de se tourner vers d'autres sources d'approvisionnement. En 1986 les raffineries européennes ont produit 1,05. 10 puissance 6 t de propylène utilisé en pétrochimie et les importations ont atteint 0,3. 10 puissance 6 t. En 1995 la différence entre la consommation et la production des vapocraqueurs pourrait dépasser 2,0. 10 puissance 6 t. Il semble peu probable que les unités de craquage catalytique puissent combler le déficit sauf si les rendements en propylène augmentent très notablement. On peut s'attendre à la construction de splitters propylène/propane et à une augmentation des importations. D'autre part, en raison de la tension qui risque d'apparaître sur les prix du propylène, l'intérêt de certaines voies de synthèse actuellement considérées comme non rentables pourrait augmenter; ces nouvelles voies sont : - la déshydrogénation du propane déjà considérée dans d'autres régions (Mexique, Indonésie, Malaisie; - la métathèse entre l'éthylène et les butènes-2, pouvant eux-mêmes être produits à partir d

  9. In-Vitro Activity of Saponins of Bauhinia Purpurea Madhuca Longifolia Celastrus Paniculatus and Semecarpus Anacardium on Selected Oral Pathogens

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    K. S. Jyothi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Dental caries, periodontitis and other mucosal diseases are caused by a complex community of microorganisms. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial properties of saponins of four important oil yielding medicinal plant extracts on selected oral pathogens that are involved in such diseases.Materials and Methods: Saponins were extracted from Bauhinia purpurea, Madhuca longifolia, Celastrus paniculatus and Semecarpus anacardium and purified. Antimicrobial properties of these saponins against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus salivarius, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus were determined using well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined as the lowest concentration of saponins inhibiting bacterial growth after 14 h of incubation at 37°C. The bactericidal activity was evaluated using the viable cell count method.Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of Madhuca longifolia saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Streptococcus mitis and Staphylococcus aureus was 18.3 ± 0.15/34.4 ± 0.24 µg/ml, 19.0 ± 0.05/32.2 ± 0.0 µg/ml and 21.2 ± 0.35/39.0 ± 0.30 µg/ml, respectively and Bauhinia purpurea saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus was 26.4 ± 0.20/43.0 ± 0.40 µg/ml, 29.0 ± 0.30/39.6 ± 0.12 µg/ml and 20.2 ± 0.05/36.8 ± 0.23 µg/ml, respectively.Conclusion: The strong antimicrobial activity of Madhuca longifolia and Bauhinia purpurea may be due to the presence of complex triterpenoid saponins, oleanane type triterpenoid glycosides or atypical pentacyclic triterpenoid saponin. Hence, these extracted saponins may be used in food and oral products to prevent and control oral diseases.

  10. Soil characteristics under legume and non-legume tree canopies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %, 100% and 150% the distance from tree trunk to canopy edge of leguminous sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth.) and espinheiro (Machaerium aculeatum Raddi) and non-legume cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale L.) and jaqueira ...

  11. Effect of interaction between seed size and sowing depth of cashew ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of interaction between seed size and sowing depth of cashew Anacardium occidentale (L) on seedlings emergence and height under treatment with organic and inorganic fertilizer in Gidan-Waya, Southern Guinea Savanna, Nigeria.

  12. Characterization of biosurfactant produced from submerged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Biosurfactants are amphiphilic compounds produced by bacteria and fungi to reduce surface and interfacial tension. This work was designed to produce biosurfactants from the fermentation of submerge cashew bagasse (Anacardium occidentale) using a microorganism Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The proximate ...

  13. Determination of Heavy Metals in Leaves of Mangifera Indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mango), Psidium guajava L. (Guava) and Anacardium occidentale L. (Cashew) grown in Trikania around the industrial area, were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The differences in the bioaccumulation of the metals varied.

  14. In Vitro evaluation of cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) as a fungicide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anacardium occidentale) was evaluated in vitro for fungitoxicity against Coriolopsis polyzona, Pycnoporus sanguineus, Ganoderma lucidum and Lenzites palisoti that cause serious decay on wood in Nigeria. Growth of the four pathogens in the ...

  15. Cosmeceutical values, antimicrobial activities and antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... Key words: Antimicrobial, antioxidant, ethanol extract, water extract, cashew leaves, cosmeceutical. INTRODUCTION ... Anacardium occidentale (Cashew) leaves extract could ..... Antioxidant activity at different contact time for treatment of different concentration CLE in water with different amount of GAC.

  16. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    brine shrimp test), Abstract PDF. A Ado, NT ... Vol 17 (2012), Determination of Heavy Metals in Leaves of Mangifera Indica, Psidium Guajava L. and Anacardium Occidentale L. in Trikania Industrial Area, Kaduna-Nigeria.

  17. PATRONES DE DISTRIBUCIÓN DE LAS COMUNIDADES DE CACTÁCEAS EN LAS VERTIENTES OCCIDENTALES DE LOS ANDES PERUANOS

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    Galán de Mera Antonio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo trata de establecer una relación entre las comunidades deCactáceas y su distribución en las vertientes occidentales de los Andes del Perú. Paraello empleamos distintos valores climáticos de precipitación y evapotranspiraciónpotencial, y los índices climáticos de termicidad y aridez. Sobre una matriz con lacomposición florística de las comunidades aplicamos el índice de Sørensen obteniendoun dendrograma que explica cómo se agrupan las comunidades según provinciasbiogeográficas y pisos bioclimáticos. Aplicando sobre las distintas localidadesseleccionadas un Análisis de Componentes Principales (ACP podemos deducir cómose agrupan en función de la altitud y los valores e índices climáticos. Las poblacionesde Cactáceas situadas al norte del paralelo 8°Sur son las más influidas por la humedadaportada por la corriente de El Niño; bajo el paralelo 8°Sur, las localidades situadasen las vertientes occidentales andinas dependen de la escasa humedad estival (HE,aunque en el sur también puede ser evidente la invernal (HI al recibir las lluvias dedepresiones aisladas que se desprenden de borrascas sub-antárticas entre julio y agosto;no obstante, los andenes de cultivo ancestrales reflejan un clima más húmedo queel actual. En la costa y áreas basales próximas al desierto abiótico, la aridez es muyelevada aunque aún están presentes las comunidades con Neoraimondia arequipensis. Las comunidades situadas al norte del paralelo 8° Sur pertenecen a la provinciabiogeográfica Pacífica, las del centro a la provincia Ancashino-Paceña, las de losdepartamentos de Arequipa, Moquegua y Tacna, a la provincia Oruro-Arequipeña, ylas del Desierto Pacífico a la provincia Limeño-Ariqueña

  18. Les cartes ethno-démographiques de l’Afrique occidentale: enjeux d’une construction 1952-1963

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    Marie-Albane de Suremain

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Entre 1952 et 1963, l’Institut français d’Afrique noire publie cinq cartes ethno-démographiques représentant l’Afrique occidentale de manière très synthétique au 1/1 000 000. Signe d’une démarche scientifique encore très positiviste et descriptive, elles représentent la distribution démographique et la répartition ethnique de la population. Les difficultés sont multiples: comment figurer des populations en déplacement, dont les identités se laissent mal enfermer dans des taxonomies ethniques et sans unité de mesure commune? Cet ensemble est significatif des évolutions de la cartographie coloniale, qui prolonge en Afrique des ambitions encyclopédiques révolues en métropole et s’intéresse à la catégorisation ethnique de la population, ce qui renvoie à des enjeux politiques. Mais les ethnologues, sociologues et géographes inventent aussi de nouvelles manières d’aborder territoires et populations en Afrique.

  19. Salmonella spp. e antibiotico-resistenza in Mammiferi e Uccelli selvatici in Italia nord-occidentale dal 2002 al 2010

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    Velca Botti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La Salmonella è un importante agente patogeno responsabile di zoonosi di notevole rilevanza economica. In Europa la salmonellosi è la seconda infezione trasmessa per via alimentare, in Italia il microrganismo continua ad essere la causa più frequente di infezione alimentare. In Europa sono in atto molti piani di sorveglianza di Salmonella in animali da allevamento, tuttavia il monitoraggio del microrganismo in animali selvatici è effettuato solo occasionalmente. Lo studio ha avuto l'obiettivo di indagare la presenza di Salmonella in animali selvatici e i ceppi antibiotico-resistenti. Nel periodo 2002-2010, 2.713 animali selvatici (Canidi, Mustelidi, Uccelli, Roditori e Ungulati, provenienti da aree dell'Italia nord-occidentale, sono stati testati per Salmonella mediante metodo microbiologico colturale seguito da tipizzazione sierologica e biochimica. Di questi, 117 (63 Canidi, 25 Mustelidi, 24 Uccelli, 5 Ungulati sono risultati positivi per Salmonella (4,3%. Sono stati isolati 130 ceppi appartenenti a diversi sierotipi e Salmonella Typhimurium è risultato quello più rappresentato. La sensibilità agli antibiotici è stata testata su 88 ceppi con test di disco-diffusione. La maggior parte dei ceppi analizzati (97,7% si sono mostrati intermedi (I o resistenti (R ad almeno una classe di antibiotici. I più alti valori sono stati osservati per la classe delle tetracicline. La presenza di sierotipi di Salmonella antibiotico-resistenti e responsabili di zoonosi è stata riscontrata in diverse specie di animali selvatici.

  20. Perlas y piel de azabache. El negro en las pesquerías de las Indias Occidentales

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    Tardieu, Jean Pierre

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Not very long after the Discovery, the pearls from the West Indies competed with those from the Orient for the full regalia of the ladies of the gentry, or that of the most revered virgins, while raising the curiosity of the best known chroniclers and creating an excruciating tax system. Considering the legislation passed for the benefit of Indians, those were to a large extent replaced in the “pearl fisheries” by black slaves submitted by the covetousness of their masters and the interests of the Crown to horrendous living and working conditions which most of the time relentlessly led them to death.

    Poco después del Descubrimiento, las perlas de las Indias occidentales rivalizaron con las de Oriente para el adorno de las damas de la alta sociedad o de las Vírgenes más veneradas, suscitando la curiosidad científica de los cronistas más conocidos y una exigente legislación fiscal. Debido a las leyes emitidas a favor de los indios, éstos se sustituyeron en gran parte, en las pesquerías de perlas, por esclavos negros sometidos —por la codicia de los amos y el interés de la Corona— a despiadadas condiciones de vida y de trabajo que desembocaban las más veces en una muerte inexorable.

  1. Variabilidade genética de cajuzinho-do-cerrado (Anacardium humile St. Hill. por meio de marcadores rapd

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    Raquel dos Santos Carvalho

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Nativo do Cerrado brasileiro e com alta variabilidade morfológica, o cajuzinho-do-cerrado (Anacardium humile St. Hill. apresenta frutos de grande aceitação pelas populações locais, os quais atraem por suas características peculiares, como tamanho, sabor único e potencial para uso sustentável por produtores e pela indústria. A produção de sementes limitada, acarretada pela baixa polinização e pela alta predação por animais e insetos, dificulta a propagação da espécie. O conhecimento da variabilidade genética do cajuzinho-do-cerrado é importante para maximizar o uso de seus recursos genéticos para futuros programas de melhoramento e de conservação da espécie. No presente trabalho, a variabilidade genética de 122 acessos de A. humile procedentes de 11 municípios (procedências do Cerrado de Goiás e Mato Grosso, foi estimada por meio de marcadores RAPD. As similaridades genéticas foram estimadas a partir da matriz binária, tendo sido processadas análises de agrupamento e de dispersão gráfica a partir da matriz de distâncias. Os iniciadores com maior expressão foram OPA11 e 08. Os dez iniciadores utilizados geraram 157 bandas, sendo 156 polimórficas (99 %, com média de 15,6 bandas/ iniciadores. Grande variabilidade dentro de municípios foi detectada, sendo o polimorfismo superior a 90 %, exceto da procedência de Jataí-GO. A distância entre acessos variou de 0,138 a 0,561, com média de 0,370, sendo os menores valores registrados entre os acessos de Mineiros-GO, e Serranópolis-GO. Os acessos de Caiapônia-GO, e Santo Antônio do Descoberto-GO, foram os mais distantes geneticamente. A dissimilaridade total entre acessos variou de 0,103 a 0,796, com médias de 0,390. Os acessos 87 e 114 de Serranópolis-GO, e Santo Antônio do Descoberto-GO, respectivamente, foram os mais distantes geneticamente, demonstrando a importância dessas procedências no enriquecendo do banco de germoplasma da espécie.

  2. La sequenza sismica nel versante nord-occidentale dell'Etna del 19-27 Dicembre 2009 : evidenze di ricarica magmatica profonda?

    OpenAIRE

    Alparone, S.; Barberi, G.; Di Grazia, G.; Giampiccolo, E.; Maiolino, V.; Mostaccio, A.; Musumeci, C.; Scaltrito, Antonio; Scarfì, L.; Ursino, A.

    2010-01-01

    E’ stata analizzata la sequenza sismica che ha interessato il versante nord-occidentale dell’Etna nel periodo 19-27 dicembre 2009 (Fig. 1). Essa è stata caratterizzata da oltre 400 scosse di magnitudo compresa tra 1.0 e 4.8, localizzate ad una profondità tra 20 e 30 km, con un rilevante rilascio energetico, come si osserva dalla distribuzione temporale del numero delle scosse e dell’energia ad esse associata nel tempo (Fig. 2). È interessante notare come l’energia rilasciata durante la sequen...

  3. Innovations et métallurgies en Méditerranée occidentale (XIIIe–XVe siècles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verna, Catherine

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available After a definition of technical innovation in the Middle Ages and it’s relationship to industry, this paper explores it’s characteristics in the fi eld of iron and silver (silver-bearing lead and copper metallurgy from the 13th to the 15th centuries in the western Mediterranean area. The exploration opens with a synthesis of the circulation of iron and steel products, with special care taken over the definition of their respective qualities, in particular the distinction between iron and steel; the exploration continues with an introduction to specific technical territories related to industrial “districts”, which allows the author to present the study of the circulation of technical knowledge. The paper concludes with a study of notables (Catalan in particular as rural entrepreneurs who invested in the technical innovation of their time.[fr] Après avoir défi ni l’innovation technique au Moyen Âge et ses rapports à l’industrie, cet article en étudie les caractéristiques dans les domaines de la métallurgie du fer et de l’argent (plomb et cuivre argentifères du XIIIe au XVe siècle, en Méditerranée occidentale. Cet examen s’ouvre par un tableau de la circulation des produits sidérurgiques, attentif à la définition de leurs qualités respectives, en particulier à la distinction fer-acier; il se poursuit par la présentation des territoires techniques spécifiques associés à des districts industriels, ce qui permet à l’auteur d’aborder l’étude des circulations des savoirs techniques. L’article se conclut par une étude des notables (en particulier catalans, entrepreneurs ruraux, qui ont investi dans l’innovation technique.

  4. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABEOLUGBENGAS

    Sperm parameters of male Wistar rats treated with Anacardium occidentale L. leaf extract. Obembe OO., Ige AO. Abstract. Objective: Annacardium occidentale is a medicinal plant with several biological properties. Phytochemical screening of its leaf and stem bark was reported to be rich in alkaloids, polyphenols,.

  5. Experimental diabetes and the epididymis of Wistar rats: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The use of botanical remedies as adjunct therapies in the management of diabetes mellitus is on the increase. Anacardium occidentale has been reported in the literature to possess anti-diabetic and hypoglycemic properties. This study evaluated the effects of acute treatment of A. occidentale on blood glucose and ...

  6. Contribution à une étude phytoécologiques des groupements à Tetraclinis articulata du littoral de Honaine (Algérie occidentale).

    OpenAIRE

    CHERIF, ISMAHENE

    2012-01-01

    La zone sur laquelle porte notre contribution est localisées dans la partie occidentale du Nord-Ouest Algérien, elle fait partie intégrante des monts des Traras. Cette étude est consacrée à l’analyse phytoécologique des groupements à Tetraclinis articulata du littoral de Honaine. L’étude bioclimatique a révélé un décalage de certaines stations météorologiques, vers des ambiances plus sèches sur le climagramme pluviothermique d’Emberger, témoignant ainsi une tendance générale à ...

  7. Voyageuses occidentales et impérialisme : l’Orient à la croisée des représentations (XIXe siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Ernot

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article s’appuie sur une dizaine de récits de voyages, effectués par des Françaises dans les régions arabo-musulmanes durant la seconde moitié du XIXe siècle. Ils constituent un matériau permettant d’articuler étude sur le genre et l’impérialisme. Le propos concerne particulièrement le rôle des Occidentales dans la construction d’un discours qui accompagne la colonisation et participe de la définition des hiérarchies sociales et/ou raciales. L’analyse comporte deux versants : le premier s’intéresse aux éléments mobilisés dans la production d’une représentation de la femme arabo-musulmane, figure de l’assujettissement et contre-modèle de l’Occidentale ; le second fait retour sur les locutrices elles-mêmes et questionne l’origine de leurs représentations.This article explores how gender and imperialism are articulated in the writings of a number of French women travelers to Eastern and Arab countries in the second half of the 19th century. It argues for the role of these Western women travelers in the construction of a discourse that accompanied the process of colonialism and contributed to the defining of social and/or racial hierarchies. The article begins with an examination of the rhetoric used to produce a representation of the oppressed Arab-Muslim woman, in opposition to that of the Western woman. It then examines the travel writers themselves in an effort to discern the origins of the representations they develop.

  8. Cinquante années de recherches sur les débuts de l'Aurignacien en Europe occidentale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Djindjian

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Une histoire des cinquante dernières années de rechercties sur les débuts de l'Aurignacien est tentée ici. Cet historique retrace brièvement les débuts entre 1860 et 1950 de la connaissance de l'Aurignacien resituant dans leur contexte les apports respectifs de Lartet, De Mortlllet, Breuil et Peyrony. Puis, les résultats des recherches des années 1950 à 1990 des différents acteurs (D. de Sonnevllle-Bordes, F. Bordes, H. M. Movius, H. Delporte, G. Laplace, J. Hahn, N. Soler, F. Bazile, F. Champagne, etc. concernant les débuts de l'Aurignacien sont analysés à la lueur des nouvelles données de fouilles en Aquitaine (Roc de Combe, La Ferrassie, Le Facteur, Caminade, Le Flageolet I, Le Plage, en Pyrénées (Gatzarria, Cueva h/iorin, en Jura-Souabe (Geissenklosterle et sur la côte méditerranéenne (abri l\\Aochi, La Laouza, l'Arbreda, L'Esquicho-Grapaou. Les apports des recherches sur le paléoenvironnement pour la reconstitution du climat et des méthodes mathématiques et informatiques dans les années 70 à la structuration chronologique de l'Aurignacien sont développés. Les différentes données à l'origine de l'existence d'un Protoaurignacien, d'un Aurignacien 0 en Périgord, d'un Aurignacien initial et la question de l'interstratification entre Castelperronien et Aurignacien sont discutées. Les récentes critiques depuis le début des années 90 concernant la fiabilité du cadre paléoclimatique des remplissages d'abrissous- roctie et la pertinence des approches typologiques sont examinées. Les conclusions amènent l'auteur à proposer suggérer que les débuts de I'Aurignacien, encore mal connus, ne sont pas uniformes suivant les régions et dans le temps. En Europe occidentale, l'existence d'un Aurignacien initial semble prouvé sur la côte méditerranéenne de la Ligurie jusqu'en Catalogne. L'expansion aurignacienne suit alors la bordure septentrionale pyrénéenne de l'Aude jusqu'en Cantabres et en Asturies. Puis, sous

  9. First report of Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Lecanodiaspididae and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Marsaro Júnior

    Full Text Available Abstract Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Lecanodiaspididae and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of this scale insect were collected on branches and stems of Acacia mangium Willd., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit (Fabaceae, Morus nigra L. (Moraceae, Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae, Tectona grandis L. f. (Verbenaceae, Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae, Annona squamosa L. and Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae, in three municipalities of the Roraima state. All plants here mentioned are recorded for the first time as a host for L. dendrobii. Morphological characters of L. dendrobii and symptoms presented by the host plants infested by this pest are included in this work.

  10. Géochimie des gaz naturels et origine des gisements de gaz en Europe occidentale Geochemistry of Natural Gas and Origins of Gas Fields in Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tissot B.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available De nombreux gisements de gaz sont connus en Europe, dans des conditions géologiques très diverses et dans des terrains d'âge Paléozoïque à Pleistocène. Le problème de leur origine peut être élucidé par l'étude de la composition chimique et isotopique des gaz associée à la connaissance de l'histoire géologique. On rappellera d'abord le schéma général de formation de l'huile et du gaz dans les bassins sédimentaires, puis on discutera les conditions particulières de formation des divers types de gaz. Enfin, on passera en revue, à titre d'exemple, un certain nombre de gisements de gaz d'Europe occidentale. A great many gas fields are known in Europe, having a wide variety of geological conditions and in formations ranging in age from the Paleozoic to the Pleistocene. The problem of their origin can be explained by analyzing the chemical and isotopic composition of the gases combined with knowing the geological history. This article first reviews the general pattern of oil and gas formation in sedimentary basins and then goes on to discuss the specific conditions for the formation of different types of gas. It concludes with a review of various gas fields in Western Europe.

  11. Host Identity Protocol Proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmela, Patrik; Melén, Jan

    The Host Identity Protocol (HIP) is one of the more recent designs that challenge the current Internet architecture. The main features of HIP are security and the identifier-locator split, which solves the problem of overloading the IP address with two separate tasks. This paper studies the possibility of providing HIP services to legacy hosts via a HIP proxy. Making a host HIP enabled requires that the IP-stack of the host is updated to support HIP. From a network administrator's perspective this can be a large obstacle. However, by providing HIP from a centralized point, a HIP proxy, the transition to begin using HIP can be made smoother. This and other arguments for a HIP proxy will be presented in this paper along with an analysis of a prototype HIP proxy and its performance.

  12. In vitro cultivation of Anacardium othonianum Rizz.: effects of salt concentration and culture medium volume=Cultivo in vitro de Anacardium othonianum Rizz.: efeito da variação das concentrações dos sais e volumes do meio de cultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Waldemar Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Anacardium othonianum Rizz. is a medicinal plant species that is native to the Brazilian savannah. Adult plants are different from other genus members in this ecosystem due to their size, and efforts to locate the plants may lead to their extraction from the savannah and, frequently, plant death. Micropropagation has played a significant role in the propagation and preservation of specimens of several plant species; therefore, this study evaluated the effect of various salt concentrations and culture medium volumes on the in vitro cultivation of A. othonianum Rizz. Trial (I evaluated two culture media (MS and WPM and three salt concentrations (100, 50 and 25% in a completely randomized design. Trial (II evaluated two culture media and salt concentrations, MS (50% and WPM (100%, and five medium volumes (10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 mL per test tube as a 2 x 5 factorial in a completely randomized design. After 30 and 60 days of growth, the percentage of plantlet survival, average plantlet and leaf lengths and the average number of leaves and buds per explant were evaluated. The MS (50 and 25% media and WPM (100 and 50% media were the most effective for plantlet regeneration. The best responses were observed in 15- and 25-mL volumes of the MS (50% medium. Therefore, the use of a 15-mL volume is suggested for greater medium economy.O Anacardium othonianum Rizz. é uma espécie frutífera e medicinal nativa do Cerrado brasileiro. As plantas adultas distinguem-se das demais espécies do gênero existente nesse bioma em função do seu porte arbóreo. Sua exploração ocorre de forma extrativista e muitas vezes em caráter predatório. Sob esse contexto, a micropropagação tem dado significativas contribuições na propagação e preservação de caracteres de interesse em diversas espécies de plantas e, desta forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de diferentes concentrações de sais e volumes do meio de cultura no cultivo in vitro de A

  13. Les débouchés de l'éthylène en Europe occidentale Ethylene Outlets in Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barraqué M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La consommation d'éthylène en Europe occidentale augmentera très faiblement; elle était en 1986 de 12,6. 10 puissance 6 t/an et on peut estimer qu'elle se montera à 13,1. 10 puissance 6 en 1995. Si l'on excepte le polyéthylène linéaire et le polyéthylène basse densité radicalaire, le rythme d'accroissement de la production des principaux dérivés de l'éthylène sera très modéré, en raison d'une part du ralentissement de la consommation européenne et d'autre part des effets de la concurrence des produits venant d'Arabie Saoudite et du Canada, qui se feront de plus en plus sentir sur le marché européen lui-même et sur ses débouchés à l'exportation. Les perspectives offertes par le polyéthylène linéaire sont bonnes, mais sa progression s'effectuera au détriment du polyéthylène basse densité radicalaire. Dans la production de film qui est leur principale application, l'épaisseur nécessaire pour un service déterminé est beaucoup plus faible si on utilise le polyéthylène linéaire; la substitution entraîne une baisse de tonnage global consommé. La production de polyéthylène basse densité radicalaire en Europe occidentale sera en nette régression; elle atteint actuellement 4,2. 10 puissance 6 t/an mais ne devrait pas dépasser 3,5. 10 puissance 6 en 1995. Ethylene consumption in Western Europe will increase very slightly. In 1986 it was 12. 6 x 10 to the power of 6 metric tons per year, and it can be expected to rise to 13. 1 x 10 to the power of 6 tons in 1995. Without including linear low density polyethylene and conventional low density polyethylene, the growth rate of the production of the principal ethylene derivatives will be very moderate because of both the slowing down of European consumption and the competitive effects of products coming from Saudi Arabia and Canada, which will affect more and more the export markets and even the European market. The outlook for linear polyethylene is good, but it

  14. La Coopération Scientifique et Technologique en Europe occidentale. 1ère Partie Scientific and Technological Cooperation in Western Europe. Part One

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand V.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'exemple de la puissance américaine pendant et après le dernier conflit mondial a montré aux nations de l'Europe occidentale que leur développement économique dépendait étroitement de leur aptitude à la recherche scientifique et à l'innovation technologique. Devant la nécessité vitale d'élaborer une politique de la science et l'impossibilité de concurrencer individuellement les États-Unis sur l'ensemble du front, elles se sont progressivement engagées vers une collaboration de plus en plus réfléchie dans le domaine scientifique et technologique. Dans le même temps les grands organismes internationaux à vocation politique, économique ou militaire (ONU, OCDE, OTAN... créés après la guerre ont été aussi amenés à se préoccuper des problèmes de la science avant que ceux ci ne fassent l'objet d'une politique délibérée de coopération sous l'égide des Communautés européennes.Nous allons essayer. de faire le point sur toutes ces questions en exposant dans les différents chapitres I. La notion de politique de la science et son évolution dans le monde occidental. II. Les organismes internationaux impliqués dans une coopération scientifique et technologique en Europe occidentale. III et IV. Les résultats (scientifiques puis technologiques de cette coopération en dehors des grands organismes internationaux. V. Les actions menées dans le cadre de ces organismes. VI. La politique de coopération entreprise au sein des Communautés européennes. VII. La coopération européenne en matière d'énergie. The exemple of U.S. power during and after the last World War showed the countries in Western Europe that their economic development was closely linked to their capocity for scientific research and technological innovation. Faced with the vital need to draw up a science policy and the impossibilty of individually rivaling the United States in all areas, they gradually moved toward more and more deliberate coopération in

  15. Geología y vulcanología de La Palma y El Hierro, Canarias Occidentales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez Torrado, F. J.

    2001-12-01

    construction of the El Golfo volcano seems to have taken place after a relatively long period of activity, probably coinciding with the maximum development of the Cumbre Nueva rift on La Palma. The initial subaerial activity at El Golfo was characterised by basaltic lavas that evolved to trachybasalts and trachytes, and finally towards more differentiated eruptive episodes indicative of the terminal state of the volcanic activity of the El Golfo volcano. The excessive growth of this volcano triggered the failure of its north flank, generating the spectacular scarp and present El Golfo depression. Subsequent volcanism, from emission vents arranged in a three-armed rift system (rift volcanism, with ages ranging from 145 ka to 2,500 years, with probably prehistoric eruptions, implies the much more moderate continuation of the earlier predominantly basanitic-tephritic volcanic activity. This period may correspond to that of maximum development of the Cumbre Vieja rift, in the island of La Palma.Las Canarias occidentales, relativamente poco estudiadas hasta hace unos años desde el punto de vista geológico, han aportado sin embargo datos decisivos para la comprensión de muchos de los problemas geológicos más importantes del archipiélago, que posiblemente se hubieran dilucidado más prontamente si su estudio se hubiese comenzado, como en la mayoría de las cadenas de islas volcánicas oceánicas, por su extremo más reciente. Como resumen de sus principales rasgos geológicos evolutivos de ambas islas destacamos las siguientes etapas de desarrollo: Durante el Plioceno se levanta en el extremo occidental del Archipiélago, en la isla de La Palma, un edificio o monte submarino constituido por pillow lavas, pillow brechas e hialoclastitas de composición basáltica, intruido por domos traquíticos, plutones de gabros y una densísima red de diques. Por el efecto de la intensa intrusión magmática y filoniana el edificio submarino sufrió un levantamiento hasta cotas de 1.500 m y

  16. Host-Pathogen Coupled Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-04

    describe bacterial proliferation in the host (and the host’s immune response), and molecular-level models describing the subversion of the molecular...the pathogen is endocytosed by host immune cells, and in the course of infection can escape back into the tissue or bloodstream of the host. During...host’s overall ( immune ) response. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Mathematical model, signaling pathways, bacterial infection, macrophage, immune system 16. SECURITY

  17. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  18. HostPhinder: A Phage Host Prediction Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Villarroel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The current dramatic increase of antibiotic resistant bacteria has revitalised the interest in bacteriophages as alternative antibacterial treatment. Meanwhile, the development of bioinformatics methods for analysing genomic data places high-throughput approaches for phage characterization within reach. Here, we present HostPhinder, a tool aimed at predicting the bacterial host of phages by examining the phage genome sequence. Using a reference database of 2196 phages with known hosts, HostPhinder predicts the host species of a query phage as the host of the most genomically similar reference phages. As a measure of genomic similarity the number of co-occurring k-mers (DNA sequences of length k is used. Using an independent evaluation set, HostPhinder was able to correctly predict host genus and species for 81% and 74% of the phages respectively, giving predictions for more phages than BLAST and significantly outperforming BLAST on phages for which both had predictions. HostPhinder predictions on phage draft genomes from the INTESTI phage cocktail corresponded well with the advertised targets of the cocktail. Our study indicates that for most phages genomic similarity correlates well with related bacterial hosts. HostPhinder is available as an interactive web service [1] and as a stand alone download from the Docker registry [2].

  19. Comparing mechanisms of host manipulation across host and parasite taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Shaw, Jenny C.

    2013-01-01

    Parasites affect host behavior in several ways. They can alter activity, microhabitats or both. For trophically transmitted parasites (the focus of our study), decreased activity might impair the ability of hosts to respond to final-host predators, and increased activity and altered microhabitat choice might increase contact rates between hosts and final-host predators. In an analysis of trophically transmitted parasites, more parasite groups altered activity than altered microhabitat choice. Parasites that infected vertebrates were more likely to impair the host’s reaction to predators, whereas parasites that infected invertebrates were more likely to increase the host’s contact with predators. The site of infection might affect how parasites manipulate their hosts. For instance, parasites in the central nervous system seem particularly suited to manipulating host behavior. Manipulative parasites commonly occupy the body cavity, muscles and central nervous systems of their hosts. Acanthocephalans in the data set differed from other taxa in that they occurred exclusively in the body cavity of invertebrates. In addition, they were more likely to alter microhabitat choice than activity. Parasites in the body cavity (across parasite types) were more likely to be associated with increased host contact with predators. Parasites can manipulate the host through energetic drain, but most parasites use more sophisticated means. For instance, parasites target four physiological systems that shape behavior in both invertebrates and vertebrates: neural, endocrine, neuromodulatory and immunomodulatory. The interconnections between these systems make it difficult to isolate specific mechanisms of host behavioral manipulation.

  20. Capacidad parasítica de Praon pos. occidentale (Hymenoptera: Braconidae sobre Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Hemiptera: Aphididae en condiciones de laboratorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aragón Sandra

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Praon pos. occidentale es un parasitoide promisorio para regular poblaciones de áfidos Macrosiphum euphorbiae en cultivos comerciales bajo invernadero de rosas. Se evaluó la capacidad parasítica de P. pos. occidentale bajo tres temperaturas constantes (18, 25 y 28ºC y variando la densidad de su hospedero (5, 10, 20, 40, 80 y 150. En cada unidad experimental se liberó una pareja del parasitoide con 24 horas de edad y se mantuvieron durante 24 horas en incubadoras graduadas a cada temperatura en evauación, con 12 horas de luz y 12 de oscuridad. Se registró el número de áfidos parasitados y se permitió el desarrollo de los huevos depositados hasta adulto. Se estimó la tasa instantánea de búsqueda (a’ y el tiempo de manipulación (Th a partir de los cuales se ajustó el modelo de respuesta funcional tipo II para cada temperatura. La tasa instantánea de búsqueda (a’ fue más alta a 18ºC con un valor de 0,1081, seguida de 28ºC con 0,0323 y 25ºC con 0,0103. El tiempo de manipulación (Th más corto fue el que se presentó a 25ºC de 4,8913, seguido de 28º C con un tiempo de 5,7579 y 18ºC con 8,2697. El máximo número de individuos parasitados estimado fue de 4,9 a 25ºC. A 18ºC el 60% de los áfidos parasitados alcanzó la emergencia del adulto, el 74,2% a 25ºC y el 88% a 28ºC. No existe ningún efecto significativo de la densidad del hospedero ni de la temperatura en la proporción sexual de Praon pos. Occidentale.

  1. The Drosophila melanogaster host model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igboin, Christina O.; Griffen, Ann L.; Leys, Eugene J.

    2012-01-01

    The deleterious and sometimes fatal outcomes of bacterial infectious diseases are the net result of the interactions between the pathogen and the host, and the genetically tractable fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has emerged as a valuable tool for modeling the pathogen–host interactions of a wide variety of bacteria. These studies have revealed that there is a remarkable conservation of bacterial pathogenesis and host defence mechanisms between higher host organisms and Drosophila. This review presents an in-depth discussion of the Drosophila immune response, the Drosophila killing model, and the use of the model to examine bacterial–host interactions. The recent introduction of the Drosophila model into the oral microbiology field is discussed, specifically the use of the model to examine Porphyromonas gingivalis–host interactions, and finally the potential uses of this powerful model system to further elucidate oral bacterial-host interactions are addressed. PMID:22368770

  2. Host genetics affect microbial ecosystems via host immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kafsi, Hela; Gorochov, Guy; Larsen, Martin

    2016-10-01

    Genetic evolution of multicellular organisms has occurred in response to environmental challenges, including competition for nutrients, climate change, physical and chemical stressors, and pathogens. However, fitness of an organism is dependent not only on defense efficacy, but also on the ability to take advantage of symbiotic organisms. Indeed, microbes not only encompass pathogenicity, but also enable efficient nutrient uptake from diets nondegradable by the host itself. Moreover, microbes play important roles in the development of host immunity. Here we review associations between specific host genes and variance in microbiota composition and compare with interactions between microbes and host immunity. Recent genome-wide association studies reveal that symbiosis between host and microbiota is the exquisite result of genetic coevolution. Moreover, a subset of microbes from human and mouse microbiota have been identified to interact with humoral and cellular immunity. Interestingly, microbes associated with both host genetics and host immunity are taxonomically related. Most involved are Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Akkermansia, which are dually associated with both host immunity and host genetics. We conclude that future therapeutics targeting microbiota in the context of chronic inflammatory diseases need to consider both immune and genetic host features associated with microbiota homeostasis.

  3. occidentale L.) Production in Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paper N0. 263. EMBRAPA. (1993). Empresa Brasileira de. Pesquisa Agropecuriaz Centro Nacional de. Pesquisa de Agroindustria Tropical. Circular. Tecnica.Numero01Abril l993.p. 15. Irvine, F. R. (1961). Wooay Plants of Ghana. pp. 552 - 553. Liondon: Oxford University Press. ISSS—FAO—ISRIC (1998). World Reference.

  4. Fungal sensing of host environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunsdorf, C; Mailänder-Sánchez, D; Schaller, M

    2016-09-01

    To survive inside a host, fungi have to adapt to a changing and often hostile environment and therefore need the ability to recognize what is going on around them. To adapt to different host niches, they need to sense external conditions such as temperature, pH and to recognize specific host factors. The ability to respond to physiological changes inside the host, independent of being in a commensal, pathogenic or even symbiotic context, implicates mechanisms for sensing of specific host factors. Because the cell wall is constantly in contact with the surrounding, fungi express receptors on the surface of their cell wall, such as pheromone receptors, which have important roles, besides mediating chemotropism for mating. We are not restricting the discussion to the human host because the receptors and mechanisms used by different fungal species to sense their environment are often similar even for plant pathogens. Furthermore, the natural habitat of opportunistic pathogenic fungi with the potential to cause infection in a human host is in soil and on plants. While the hosts' mechanisms of sensing fungal pathogens have been addressed in the literature, the focus of this review is to fill the gap, giving an overview on fungal sensing of a host-(ile) environment. Expanding our knowledge on host-fungal interactions is extremely important to prevent and treat diseases of pathogenic fungi, which are important issues in human health and agriculture but also to understand the delicate balance of fungal symbionts in our ecosystem. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. micron-sized polymeric particles from cashew nut shell liquid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the type of mixers and various reaction kettle designs on the polymer particles' sizes should be studied. INTRODUCTION. Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) Nut. Shell Liquid (CNSL) is a ... thermo-properties and cure characteristics of. CNSL-based resins. Bisanda and Ansell. (1992) reported the preparation of CNSL-.

  6. Cashew Nut Allergy in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P.M. Kuiper- van der Valk (Hanna)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThe content of the thesis contributes to the knowledge of the cashew nut and cashew nut allergy. Cashew nut allergy is an important healthcare problem, especially in children. The cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale) belongs to the Ancardiaceae family and the major allergen components

  7. Polyclonal Antibody-based ELISA in combination with specific PCR amplification of ITS 1 regions for the detection and quantitation of Lasiodiplodia theobromae, causal agent of 2 gummosis in cashew nut plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muniz, C.R.; Freire, F.C.O.; Viana, F.M.P.; Cardoso, J.E.; Correia, D.; Jalink, H.; Kema, G.H.J.; Silva, G.F.; Guedes, M.I.F.

    2012-01-01

    Members of Botryosphaeriaceae family are associated with serious diseases in different plants 18 across the world. In cashew nut plants (Anacardium occidentale L.), the fungus Lasiodiplodia 19 theobromae causes a severe group of symptoms related to gummosis that results in decreased nut 20

  8. Taiwanascus samuelsii sp. nov., an addition to Niessliaceae from the Western Ghats, Kerala, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new species of Taiwanascus, T. samuelsii, was collected from southern parts of Western Ghats on dead branches of Anacardium occidentale and is described. The new cleistothecial ascomycete is different from the type and only species in Taiwanascus, T. tetrasporus, in cleistothecial size, setae, and...

  9. Smallholder Information Sources and Communication Pathways for Cashew Production and Marketing in Tanzania: An Ex-Post Study in Tandahimba and Lindi Rural Districts, Southern Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyambo, Brigitte; Ligate, Elly

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To identify and review production and marketing information sources and flows for smallholder cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) growers in Tanzania and recommend systems improvements for better technology uptake. Design/methodology/approach: Two-stage purposive samples were drawn. First, two districts in the main cashew producing areas,…

  10. Effect of Intragastric Administration of Crude Aqueous Leaf Extract Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of an aqueous leaf extract of Anacardium occidentale on gastric acid secretion was tested in rats. Twenty (20) Wistar albino rats were used for the gastric acid assay experiment. The rats were divided into 2 groups of 10 each. Gastric acid output was determined by continuous perfusion of rat stomach in urethane ...

  11. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 701 - 750 of 900 ... Issue, Title. Vol 10, No 5 (2010), Production of protein concentrate and isolate from cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) nut, Abstract PDF. S.O Ogunwolu, F.O Henshaw, H.P Mock, A Matros. Vol 8, No 3 (2008), Productivity of goats and their contribution to household food security in high potential ...

  12. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Melo-Cavalcante, Ana Amélia de Carvalho. Vol 15, No 6 (2016) - Articles Possible oxidative effects of isotretinoin and modulatory effects of vitamins A and C in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Abstract PDF · Vol 15, No 35 (2016) - Articles Pharmacological properties of cashew (Anacardium occidentale) Abstract PDF.

  13. Comparative effects of some medicinal plants on blood glucose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The comparative effects of the chloroform extracts of the leaves of Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae), Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae) and Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae) and fruits of Xylopia aethiopica (Annonaceae) on blood glucose concentration and lipid levels of diabetic rats were investigated using standard ...

  14. anti-inflammatory activity of selected nigerian medicinal plants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts of nineteen plant species from an inventory of Nigerian medicinal plants were screened for activity in two in vitro anti-inflammatory model test systems, inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis and PAF-induced elastase release from neutrophilis. Anacardium occidentale and Acalipha hispida were active in both test ...

  15. Determination of Heavy Metals in Leaves of Mangifera Indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER PC

    ABSTRACT. Concentrations of cadmium, chromium and zinc in leaves of Mangifera indica (Mango), Psidium guajava L. (Guava) and Anacardium occidentale L. (Cashew) grown in Trikania around the industrial area, were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The differences in the bioaccumulation of the ...

  16. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    egyptian hak

    Abstract. Powders and extracts prepared from Capsicum frutescens, Cymbopogon citratus, Moringa oleifera, Anacardium occidentale were tested for their insecticidal potential against Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella. The powder of C. frutescens had the highest mortality rate of. 100% after 2 days of application at ...

  17. Effects of some anti-diabetic plants on the hepatic marker enzymes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was embarked upon in order to evaluate the effects of the chloroform extracts of the leaves of Psidium guajava, Anacardium occidentale and Eucalyptus globulus and fruits of Xylopia aethiopica on hepatic marker enzymes of diabetic rats. The degree of hepatic damage caused by diabetes mellitus and the effects ...

  18. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract PDF · Vol 17 (2012) - Articles Determination of some heavy metals in spinach and lettuce from selected markets in Kaduna metropolis. Abstract PDF · Vol 17 (2012) - Articles Determination of Heavy Metals in Leaves of Mangifera Indica, Psidium Guajava L. and Anacardium Occidentale L. in Trikania Industrial Area, ...

  19. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mshelia, MS. Vol 17 (2012) - Articles Determination of Heavy Metals in Leaves of Mangifera Indica, Psidium Guajava L. and Anacardium Occidentale L. in Trikania Industrial Area, Kaduna-Nigeria. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1119-0221. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  20. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abba, Y. Vol 17 (2012) - Articles Determination of Heavy Metals in Leaves of Mangifera Indica, Psidium Guajava L. and Anacardium Occidentale L. in Trikania Industrial Area, Kaduna-Nigeria. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1119-0221. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  1. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kinetic studies of alkaline phosphatase extracted from rabbit (Lepus townsendii) liver. Abstract PDF · Vol 10, No 32 (2011) - Articles Sodium metabisulphite induced polymerization of sickle cell haemoglobin incubated in extracts of three medicinal plants (Anacardium occidentale, Psidium guajava and Terminalia catappa)

  2. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Parker

    2014-02-12

    Feb 12, 2014 ... This study was embarked upon in order to evaluate the effects of the chloroform extracts of the leaves of Psidium guajava, Anacardium occidentale and Eucalyptus globulus and fruits of Xylopia aethiopica on hepatic marker enzymes of diabetic rats. The degree of hepatic damage caused by diabetes ...

  3. PROFITABILITY OF VALUE ADDITION TO CASHEW FARMING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    The cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale L.) is an economic crop in Nigeria grown in small plantations in almost every State because of the ease of cultivation and need for minimum attention. Cashew apple wastes on planta- tions and this reduces cashew farming household incomes. This study examined value addition ...

  4. Mycology and spoilage of retail cashew nuts | Adebajo | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All the species recovered induced detectable loss in weights of the milled nuts, though to varying extents and would be expected to cause considerable spoilage of the nuts. Key words: Cashew nut, Anacardium occidentale, fungal count, mycology, Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp., spoilage. African Journal of Biotechnology ...

  5. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 763 ... Vol 9, No 2 (2015), Biodegradation of petroleum oil by fungi isolated from Treculia africana (Dec'ne) seeds in Nigeria, Abstract ... Vol 9, No 5 (2015), Characterization of biosurfactant produced from submerged fermentation of fruits bagasse of yellow cashew (Anacardium occidentale) using ...

  6. Phytochemical, toxicological and viscosity studies of cashew gum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The exudate polysaccharide from Anacardium occidentale L. obtained in Nigeria were investigated for their phytochemical, safety and rheological properties. Acid hydrolysed samples were found to contain in various proportions galactose, glucose, xylose, rhamnose and ribose sugars. Swiss albino mice were used to ...

  7. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development - Vol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production of protein concentrate and isolate from cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) nut · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. S.O Ogunwolu, F.O Henshaw, H.P Mock, A Matros. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajfand.v10i5.56334 ...

  8. Studies on genotype-environment interaction (GxE) in half-sib ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on genotype-environment interaction (GxE) in half-sib progenies of cashew ( Anacardium occidentale L.) in Tanzania. ... The data were used to calculate the heritability and response to selection for yield, canopy diameter, trunk cross sectional area and height. The heritabilities, and hence the response, of yield were ...

  9. Sodium metabisulphite induced polymerization of sickle cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present in vitro study ascertained the capacity of three medicinal plants, namely, Anacardium occidentale, Psidium guajava and Terminalia catappa, to alter polymerization of sickle cell haemoglobin (HbS). Spectrophotometric method was used to monitor the level of polymerization of haemolysate HbS molecules ...

  10. Volume 10 No. 5 May 2010 2501 PRODUCTION OF PROTEIN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2010-05-05

    May 5, 2010 ... Volume 10 No. 5. May 2010. 2503. INTRODUCTION. Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) belongs to the family Anacardiaceae, with about 75 genera and 700 species. ... Cashew kernel is of high food value with about 40-57% oil, and 21% protein [3]. It is ... The kernels were air-dried in a cabinet (BR185H,.

  11. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 401 - 450 of 2061 ... Vol 11, No 3 (2017), Climate change and cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) productivity in Benin (West Africa) : perceptions and endogenous measures ... Vol 5, No 1 (2011), Comparative antimalarial and cytotoxic activities of two Vernonia species: V. amygdalina from the Democratic Republic of ...

  12. Synthesis and biological evaluation of new salicylate macrolactones from anacardic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logrado, Lucio P.L.; Santos, Maria Lucilia dos [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Lab. de Isolamento e Transformacao de Moleculas Organicas]. E-mail: mlsantos@unb.br; Silveira, Damaris [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias da Saude; Romeiro, Luiz A.S. [Universidade Catolica de Brasilia, Taguatinga, DF (Brazil). Nucleo de Quimica Bioorganica e Medicinal; Moraes, Manoel O. de; Cavalcanti, Bruno C.; Costa-Lotufo, Leticia V.; Pessoa, Claudia do O [Ceara Univ., Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Lab. de Oncologia Experimental

    2005-11-15

    onnection with our ongoing investigation in the search for new bioactive compounds using non-isoprenoid phenolic lipids from Anacardium occidentale as starting material, we describe the synthesis and cytotoxicity screening of some novel salicylate macrolactones prepared from anacardic acids, the major constituents of natural cashew nut-shell liquid (CNSL). (author)

  13. Synthesis and antibacterial activity of sulfonamide derivatives at C-8 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    pounds. Anacardic acid (pentadecyl salicylic acid) is a phenolic constituent present in CNSL; (Anacardium occidentale L.) and exhibits antimicrobial properties2,3 which have led to the preparation of various ana- logues.23,24 Synthesis of lasiodiplodin from the non- isoprenoid phenolic lipids of CNSL as well as the sali-.

  14. Insecticidal activity of four medicinal plant powders and extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Powders and extracts prepared from Capsicum frutescens, Cymbopogon citratus, Moringa oleifera, Anacardium occidentale were tested for their insecticidal potential against Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella. The powder of C. frutescens had the highest mortality rate of 100% after 2 days of application at all tested ...

  15. 1768-IJBCS-Article-Okorie Edmund

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Proposis africanus, Anacardium occidentale and Manihot esculenta plants grown on an abandoned coal mine overburden. The analytical technique .... grown on a coal mine site overburden using energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence ... widely used in the analysis of solid, liquid and gaseous petroleum samples. Simple ...

  16. Host City Contract operational requirements

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The Host City Contract - Operational Requirements (the “HCC Operational Requirements”) are an important part of the Host City Contract, detailing a set of core elements for the project, which provide Olympic quality conditions for the athletes and all participants, while at the same time allowing potential host cities to responsibly match their Games concepts to their own sport, economic, social, and environmental long-term planning needs.

  17. HOST liner cyclic facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, D.

    1983-01-01

    The HOST Liner Cyclic Program is utilizing two types of test apparatus, rectangular box rigs and a full annular rig. To date two quartz lamp cyclic box rigs have been tested and a third is to begin testing in late October 1983. The box rigs are used to evaluate 5x8 inch rectangular linear samples. A 21 inch diameter outer liner simulator is also being built up for testing beginning in April 1984. All rigs are atmospheric rigs. The first box rig, a three 6-kVA lamp installation, was operated under adverse conditions to determine feasibility of using quartz lamps for cyclic testing. This work was done in December 1981 and looked promising. The second box rig, again using three 6-kVA lamps, was operated to obtain instrumentation durability information and initial data input to a Finite Element Model. This limited test program was conducted in August 1983. Five test plates were run. Instrumentation consisted of strain gages, thermocouples and thermal paint. The strain gages were found to fail at 1200 F as expected though plates were heated to 1700 F. The third box rig, containing four 6-kVA lamps, is in build up for testing to begin in late October 1983. In addition to 33 percent greater power input, this rig has provision for 400 F backside line cooling air and a viewing port suitable for IR camera viewing. The casing is also water cooled for extended durability.

  18. Castrating parasites and colonial hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartikainen, H; Okamura, B

    2012-04-01

    Trajectories of life-history traits such as growth and reproduction generally level off with age and increasing size. However, colonial animals may exhibit indefinite, exponential growth via modular iteration thus providing a long-lived host source for parasite exploitation. In addition, modular iteration entails a lack of germ line sequestration. Castration of such hosts by parasites may therefore be impermanent or precluded, unlike the general case for unitary animal hosts. Despite these intriguing correlates of coloniality, patterns of colonial host exploitation have not been well studied. We examined these patterns by characterizing the responses of a myxozoan endoparasite, Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, and its colonial bryozoan host, Fredericella sultana, to 3 different resource levels. We show that (1) the development of infectious stages nearly always castrates colonies regardless of host condition, (2) castration reduces partial mortality and (3) development of transmission stages is resource-mediated. Unlike familiar castrator-host systems, this system appears to be characterized by periodic rather than permanent castration. Periodic castration may be permitted by 2 key life history traits: developmental cycling of the parasite between quiescent (covert infections) and virulent infectious stages (overt infections) and the absence of germ line sequestration which allows host reproduction in between bouts of castration.

  19. Intercultural Competence in Host Students?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egekvist, Ulla Egidiussen; Lyngdorf, Niels Erik; Du, Xiangyun

    2016-01-01

    Although substantial work in intercultural education has been done on the intercultural competences of mobile students engaging in international study visits, there is a need to explore intercultural competences in host students. This chapter seeks to answer questions about the challenges and pos...... experience. The study suggests that challenges and possibilities are found within the following categories: (1) Experiential learning, (2) Stereotypes and (3) Coping strategies and support.......Although substantial work in intercultural education has been done on the intercultural competences of mobile students engaging in international study visits, there is a need to explore intercultural competences in host students. This chapter seeks to answer questions about the challenges......-secondary students hosting same-age Chinese students in homestays during a four-day study visit to Denmark in 2012. Qualitative data from student portfolios and focus group interviews are analysed with a focus on host students’ pre-understandings, experiences during the visit and overall reflections on the host...

  20. Larval helminths in intermediate hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredensborg, Brian Lund; Poulin, R

    2005-01-01

    Density-dependent effects on parasite fitness have been documented from adult helminths in their definitive hosts. There have, however, been no studies on the cost of sharing an intermediate host with other parasites in terms of reduced adult parasite fecundity. Even if larval parasites suffer...... transmission to their bird definitive host by predation. In experimental infections, we found an intensity-dependent establishment success, with a decrease in the success rate of cercariae developing into infective metacercariae with an increasing dose of cercariae applied to each amphipod. In natural...... the two species. Our results thus indicate that the infracommunity of larval helminths in their intermediate host is interactive and that any density-dependent effect in the intermediate host may have lasting effects on individual parasite fitness....

  1. Mistletoe ecophysiology: Host-parasite interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Glatzel; B. W. Geils

    2009-01-01

    Mistletoes are highly specialized perennial flowering plants adapted to parasitic life on aerial parts of their hosts. In our discussion on the physiological interactions between parasite and host, we focus on water relations, mineral nutrition, and the effect of host vigour. When host photosynthesis is greatest, the xylem water potential of the host is most negative....

  2. Digbeth hosts the Big Bang

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Birminham museum of science and discovery, Thinktank, is hosting 'Building The Universe', a free exhibition about the work undertaken at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics, in Geneva (3 paragraphs).

  3. HostPhinder: A Phage Host Prediction Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villarroel, Julia; Kleinheinz, Kortine Annina; Jurtz, Vanessa Isabell

    2016-01-01

    The current dramatic increase of antibiotic resistant bacteria has revitalised the interest in bacteriophages as alternative antibacterial treatment. Meanwhile, the development of bioinformatics methods for analysing genomic data places high-throughput approaches for phage characterization within...... phages. As a measure of genomic similarity the number of co-occurring k-mers (DNA sequences of length k) is used. Using an independent evaluation set, HostPhinder was able to correctly predict host genus and species for 81% and 74% of the phages respectively, giving predictions for more phages than BLAST...

  4. Salmonella Populations inside Host Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sónia Castanheira

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria of the Salmonella genus cause diseases ranging from gastroenteritis to life-threatening typhoid fever and are among the most successful intracellular pathogens known. After the invasion of the eukaryotic cell, Salmonella exhibits contrasting lifestyles with different replication rates and subcellular locations. Although Salmonella hyper-replicates in the cytosol of certain host cell types, most invading bacteria remain within vacuoles in which the pathogen proliferates at moderate rates or persists in a dormant-like state. Remarkably, these cytosolic and intra-vacuolar intracellular lifestyles are not mutually exclusive and can co-exist in the same infected host cell. The mechanisms that direct the invading bacterium to follow the cytosolic or intra-vacuolar “pathway” remain poorly understood. In vitro studies show predominance of either the cytosolic or the intra-vacuolar population depending on the host cell type invaded by the pathogen. The host and pathogen factors controlling phagosomal membrane integrity and, as consequence, the egress into the cytosol, are intensively investigated. Other aspects of major interest are the host defenses that may affect differentially the cytosolic and intra-vacuolar populations and the strategies used by the pathogen to circumvent these attacks. Here, we summarize current knowledge about these Salmonella intracellular subpopulations and discuss how they emerge during the interaction of this pathogen with the eukaryotic cell.

  5. Host-pathogen interactions in Campylobacter infections: the host perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, R.; Krogfelt, K.A.; Cawthraw, S.A.; Pelt, van W.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Owen, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Campylobacter is a major cause of acute bacterial diarrhea in humans worldwide. This study was aimed at summarizing the current understanding of host mechanisms involved in the defense against Campylobacter by evaluating data available from three sources: (i) epidemiological observations, (ii)

  6. The Inflammasome in Host Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Chen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nod-like receptors have emerged as an important family of sensors in host defense. These receptors are expressed in macrophages, dendritic cells and monocytes and play an important role in microbial immunity. Some Nod-like receptors form the inflammasome, a protein complex that activates caspase-1 in response to several stimuli. Caspase-1 activation leads to processing and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL-1β and IL-18. Here, we discuss recent advances in the inflammasome field with an emphasis on host defense. We also compare differential requirements for inflammasome activation in dendritic cells, macrophages and monocytes.

  7. Host diversity begets parasite diversity: Bird final hosts and trematodes in snail intermediate hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechinger, R.F.; Lafferty, K.D.

    2005-01-01

    An unappreciated facet of biodiversity is that rich communities and high abundance may foster parasitism. For parasites that sequentially use different host species throughout complex life cycles, parasite diversity and abundance in 'downstream' hosts should logically increase with the diversity and abundance of 'upstream' hosts (which carry the preceding stages of parasites). Surprisingly, this logical assumption has little empirical support, especially regarding metazoan parasites. Few studies have attempted direct tests of this idea and most have lacked the appropriate scale of investigation. In two different studies, we used time-lapse videography to quantify birds at fine spatial scales, and then related bird communities to larval trematode communities in snail populations sampled at the same small spatial scales. Species richness, species heterogeneity and abundance of final host birds were positively correlated with species richness, species heterogeneity and abundance of trematodes in host snails. Such community-level interactions have rarely been demonstrated and have implications for community theory, epidemiological theory and ecosystem management. ?? 2005 The Royal Society.

  8. Host Event Based Network Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonathan Chugg

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of INL’s research on this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of a host event based network monitoring tool and the effects on host performance. Current host based network monitoring tools work on polling which can miss activity if it occurs between polls. Instead of polling, a tool could be developed that makes use of event APIs in the operating system to receive asynchronous notifications of network activity. Analysis and logging of these events will allow the tool to construct the complete real-time and historical network configuration of the host while the tool is running. This research focused on three major operating systems commonly used by SCADA systems: Linux, WindowsXP, and Windows7. Windows 7 offers two paths that have minimal impact on the system and should be seriously considered. First is the new Windows Event Logging API, and, second, Windows 7 offers the ALE API within WFP. Any future work should focus on these methods.

  9. Host Defence to Pulmonary Mycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher H Mody

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To provide a basic understanding of the mechanisms of host defense to pathogenic fungi. This will help physicians understand why some patients are predisposed to fungal infections and update basic scientists on how microbial immunology applies to fungal disease.

  10. Parasite performance and host alternation: is there a negative effect in host-specific and host-opportunistic parasites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAN DER Mescht, Luther; Khokhlova, Irina S; Warburton, Elizabeth M; Krasnov, Boris R

    2017-07-01

    Environmental fluctuations are expected to require special adaptations only if they are associated with a decrease in fitness. We compared reproductive performance between fleas fed on alternating (preferred and non-preferred) hosts and fleas fed solely on either a preferred or a non-preferred host to determine whether (1) host alternation incurs an immediate negative effect, and, if yes, then (2) whether this effect is greater in a host specialist (Parapulex chephrenis) than in host generalists (Xenopsylla conformis and Synosternus cleopatrae). We also compared flea performance under alternating host regimes with different host order (initial feeding on either a preferred or a non-preferred host). An immediate negative effect of alternating hosts on reproductive performance was found in P. chephrenis only. These fleas produced 44·3% less eggs that were 3·6% smaller when they fed on alternating hosts as compared with a preferred host. In contrast, X. conformis and S. cleopatrae appeared to be able to adapt their reproductive strategy to host alternation by producing higher quality offspring (on average, 3·1% faster development and 2·1% larger size) without compromising offspring number. However, the former produced eggs that were slightly, albeit significantly, smaller when it fed on alternating hosts as compared with a preferred host. Moreover, host order affected reproductive performance in host generalists (e.g. 2·8% larger eggs when the first feeding was performed on a non-preferred host), but not in a host specialist. We conclude that immediate effects of environmental fluctuation on parasite fitness depend on the degree of host specialization.

  11. Host-Pathogen Interactions in Campylobacter Infections: the Host Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Riny; Krogfelt, Karen A.; Cawthraw, Shaun A.; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Owen, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Campylobacter is a major cause of acute bacterial diarrhea in humans worldwide. This study was aimed at summarizing the current understanding of host mechanisms involved in the defense against Campylobacter by evaluating data available from three sources: (i) epidemiological observations, (ii) observations of patients, and (iii) experimental observations including observations of animal models and human volunteer studies. Analysis of available data clearly indicates that an effective immune system is crucial for the host defense against Campylobacter infection. Innate, cell-mediated, and humoral immune responses are induced during Campylobacter infection, but the relative importance of these mechanisms in conferring protective immunity against reinfection is unclear. Frequent exposure to Campylobacter does lead to the induction of short-term protection against disease but most probably not against colonization. Recent progress in the development of more suitable animal models for studying Campylobacter infection has opened up possibilities to study the importance of innate and adaptive immunity during infection and in protection against reinfection. In addition, advances in genomics and proteomics technologies will enable more detailed molecular studies. Such studies combined with better integration of host and pathogen research driven by epidemiological findings may truly advance our understanding of Campylobacter infection in humans. PMID:18625685

  12. Host modulation by therapeutic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugumari Elavarasu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease susceptible group present advanced periodontal breakdown even though they achieve a high standard of oral hygiene. Various destructive enzymes and inflammatory mediators are involved in destruction. These are elevated in case of periodontal destruction. Host modulation aims at bringing these enzymes and mediators to normal level. Doxycycline, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, bisphosphonates, nitrous oxide (NO synthase inhibitors, recombinant human interleukin-11 (rhIL-11, omega-3 fatty acid, mouse anti-human interleukin-6 receptor antibody (MRA, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK inhibitors, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kb inhibitors, osteoprotegerin, and tumor necrosis factor antagonist (TNF-α are some of the therapeutic agents that have host modulation properties.

  13. Hosting the first EDRS payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncet, D.; Glynn, S.; Heine, F.

    2017-11-01

    The European Data Relay System (EDRS) will provide optical and microwave data relay services between Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites at altitudes up to 2000 km and the ground through geostationary (GEO) satellite nodes. Currently, two such nodes have been procured as part of a Public Private Partnership (PPP) between Astrium (now Airbus Defence and Space) and ESA. The first node (EDRS-A) is a hosted payload embarked upon the Eutelsat 9B satellite and scheduled for launch in early 2015.

  14. Graft versus host disease prophylaxis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Graft versus host disease prophylaxis. Cyclosporine -2.5mg/KG IV over 4 hrs q12h. - 5mg/Kg BD orally for 6 months - taper- stop at one year if no GVHD. Methotrexate :INITIAL. day +1- 15mg/m2; day + 3, 6, 11- 10 mg/m2; :CURRENT; day +1-10mg/m2; day + 3,6,11 ...

  15. Granite-hosted molybdenite mineralization from Archean ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    hosted molybdenite mineralization from Archean Bundelkhand cratonmolybdenite characterization, host rock mineralogy, petrology, and fluid inclusion characteristics of Mo-bearing quartz. J K Pati M K Panigrahi M Chakarborty. Volume 123 ...

  16. PERCEPTION OF HOST COMMUNITIES TOWARD THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DORCAS

    PERCEPTION OF HOST COMMUNITIES TOWARD THE IMPLEMENTATION OF. PARK LAWS IN OKOMU NATIONAL ... Keywords; Perception, Host communities, Park laws, Implementation, Wildilife conservation. INTRODUCTION. The contributions ... which were not taken into account at the time these national parks were ...

  17. Genome Evolution and Host Adaptation in Bartonella

    OpenAIRE

    Berglund, Eva Caroline

    2009-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Bartonella infect the red blood cells of a wide range of wild and domestic mammals and are transmitted between hosts by blood-sucking insects. Although most Bartonella infections are asymptomatic, the genus contains several human pathogens. In this work, host adaptation and host switches in Bartonella have been studied from a genomic perspective, with special focus on the acquisition and evolution of genes involved in host interactions. As part of this study, the complet...

  18. Host response in aggressive periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Cyelee; Kinane, Denis F

    2014-06-01

    It is critical to understand the underlying host responses in aggressive periodontitis to provide a better appreciation of the risk and susceptibility to this disease. Such knowledge may elucidate the etiology and susceptibility to aggressive periodontitis and directly influence treatment decisions and aid diagnosis. This review is timely in that several widely held tenets are now considered unsupportable, namely the concept that Aggregatibacter actinomycetemycomitans is the key pathogen and that chemotactic defects in polymorphonuclear leukocytes are part of the etiopathology. This review also serves to put into context key elements of the host response that may be implicated in the genetic background of aggressive periodontitis. Furthermore, key molecules unique to the host response in aggressive periodontitis may have diagnostic utility and be used in chairside clinical activity tests or as population screening markers. It is becoming increasingly appreciated that the microbial etiology of aggressive periodontitis and the histopathology of this disease are more similar to than different from that of chronic periodontitis. An important therapeutic consideration from the lack of support for A. actinomycetemycomitans as a critical pathogen here is that the widely held belief that tetracycline had a role in aggressive periodontitis therapy is now not supported and that antibiotics such as those used effectively in chronic periodontitis (metronidazole and amoxicillin) are not contraindicated. Furthermore, A. actinomycetemycomitans-related molecules, such as cytolethal distending toxin and leukotoxin, are less likely to have utility as diagnosis agents or as therapeutic targets. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Acute graft versus host disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogelsang Georgia B

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD occurs after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant and is a reaction of donor immune cells against host tissues. Activated donor T cells damage host epithelial cells after an inflammatory cascade that begins with the preparative regimen. About 35%–50% of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT recipients will develop acute GVHD. The exact risk is dependent on the stem cell source, age of the patient, conditioning, and GVHD prophylaxis used. Given the number of transplants performed, we can expect about 5500 patients/year to develop acute GVHD. Patients can have involvement of three organs: skin (rash/dermatitis, liver (hepatitis/jaundice, and gastrointestinal tract (abdominal pain/diarrhea. One or more organs may be involved. GVHD is a clinical diagnosis that may be supported with appropriate biopsies. The reason to pursue a tissue biopsy is to help differentiate from other diagnoses which may mimic GVHD, such as viral infection (hepatitis, colitis or drug reaction (causing skin rash. Acute GVHD is staged and graded (grade 0-IV by the number and extent of organ involvement. Patients with grade III/IV acute GVHD tend to have a poor outcome. Generally the patient is treated by optimizing their immunosuppression and adding methylprednisolone. About 50% of patients will have a solid response to methylprednisolone. If patients progress after 3 days or are not improved after 7 days, they will get salvage (second-line immunosuppressive therapy for which there is currently no standard-of-care. Well-organized clinical trials are imperative to better define second-line therapies for this disease. Additional management issues are attention to wound infections in skin GVHD and fluid/nutrition management in gastrointestinal GVHD. About 50% of patients with acute GVHD will eventually have manifestations of chronic GVHD.

  20. Host defences against Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Romero, G; Quintero, J; Astiazarán-García, H; Velazquez, C

    2015-08-01

    Giardia spp. is a protozoan parasite that inhabits the upper small intestine of mammals and other species and is the aetiological agent of giardiasis. It has been demonstrated that nitric oxide, mast cells and dendritic cells are the first line of defence against Giardia. IL-6 and IL-17 play an important role during infection. Several cytokines possess overlapping functions in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses. IgA and CD4(+) T cells are fundamental to the process of Giardia clearance. It has been suggested that CD4(+) T cells play a double role during the anti-Giardia immune response. First, they activate and stimulate the differentiation of B cells to generate Giardia-specific antibodies. Second, they act through a B-cell-independent mechanism that is probably mediated by Th17 cells. Several Giardia proteins that stimulate humoral and cellular immune responses have been described. Variant surface proteins, α-1 giardin, and cyst wall protein 2 can induce host protective responses to future Giardia challenges. The characterization and evaluation of the protective potential of the immunogenic proteins that are associated with Giardia will offer new insights into host-parasite interactions and may aid in the development of an effective vaccine against the parasite. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Microbial lysate upregulates host oxytocin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varian, Bernard J.; Poutahidis, Theofilos; DiBenedictis, Brett T.; Levkovich, Tatiana; Ibrahim, Yassin; Didyk, Eliska; Shikhman, Lana; Cheung, Harry K.; Hardas, Alexandros; Ricciardi, Catherine E.; Kolandaivelu, Kumaran; Veenema, Alexa H.; Alm, Eric J.; Erdman, Susan E.

    2017-01-01

    Neuropeptide hormone oxytocin has roles in social bonding, energy metabolism, and wound healing contributing to good physical, mental and social health. It was previously shown that feeding of a human commensal microbe Lactobacillus reuteri (L. reuteri) is sufficient to up-regulate endogenous oxytocin levels and improve wound healing capacity in mice. Here we show that oral L. reuteri-induced skin wound repair benefits extend to human subjects. Further, dietary supplementation with a sterile lysate of this microbe alone is sufficient to boost systemic oxytocin levels and improve wound repair capacity. Oxytocin-producing cells were found to be increased in the caudal paraventricular nucleus [PVN] of the hypothalamus after feeding of a sterile lysed preparation of L. reuteri, coincident with lowered blood levels of stress hormone corticosterone and more rapid epidermal closure, in mouse models. We conclude that microbe viability is not essential for regulating host oxytocin levels. The results suggest that a peptide or metabolite produced by bacteria may modulate host oxytocin secretion for potential public or personalized health goals. PMID:27825953

  2. Host feeding in insect parasitoids: why destructively feed upon a host that excretes an alternative?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, J.S.M.; Reijnen, T.M.; Van Lenteren, J.C.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2004-01-01

    Host feeding is the consumption of host tissue by the adult female parasitoid. We studied the function of destructive host feeding and its advantage over non-destructive feeding on host-derived honeydew in the whitefly parasitoid Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). We allowed

  3. Host-Directed Therapies for Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, David M

    2015-05-18

    Host-directed therapies are a relatively new and promising approach to treatment of tuberculosis. Modulation of specific host immune pathways, including those that impact inflammation and immunopathology, can limit mycobacterial infection and pathology, both in cell culture and in animal models. This review explores a range of host pathways and drugs, some already approved for clinical use that have the potential to provide new adjunctive therapies for tuberculosis. Drugs targeting host processes may largely avoid the development of bacterial antibiotic resistance, a major public health concern for tuberculosis. However, these drugs may also have generally increased risk for side effects on the host. Understanding the specific mechanisms by which these drugs act and the relationship of these mechanisms to Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenesis will be critical in selecting appropriate host-directed therapy. Overall, these host-directed compounds provide a novel strategy for antituberculosis therapy. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  4. Macroevolution of insect–plant associations: The relevance of host biogeography to host affiliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Judith X.; Venable, D. Lawrence

    1999-01-01

    Identifying the factors that have promoted host shifts by phytophagous insects at a macroevolutionary scale is critical to understanding the associations between plants and insects. We used molecular phylogenies of the beetle genus Blepharida and its host genus Bursera to test whether these insects have been using hosts with widely overlapping ranges over evolutionary time. We also quantified the importance of host range coincidence relative to host chemistry and host phylogenetic relatedness. Overall, the evolution of host use of these insects has not been among hosts that are geographically similar. Host chemistry is the factor that best explains their macroevolutionary patterns of host use. Interestingly, one exceptional polyphagous species has shifted among geographically close chemically dissimilar plants. PMID:10535973

  5. Genetic analysis of a rabies virus host shift event reveals within-host viral dynamics in a new host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Denise A; Horton, Daniel L; Nunez, Javier; Ellis, Richard J; Orton, Richard J; Johnson, Nicholas; Banyard, Ashley C; McElhinney, Lorraine M; Freuling, Conrad M; Fırat, Müge; Ünal, Nil; Müller, Thomas; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Fooks, Anthony R

    2017-07-01

    Host shift events play an important role in epizootics as adaptation to new hosts can profoundly affect the spread of the disease and the measures needed to control it. During the late 1990s, an epizootic in Turkey resulted in a sustained maintenance of rabies virus (RABV) within the fox population. We used Bayesian inferences to investigate whole genome sequences from fox and dog brain tissues from Turkey to demonstrate that the epizootic occurred in 1997 (±1 year). Furthermore, these data indicated that the epizootic was most likely due to a host shift from locally infected domestic dogs, rather than an incursion of a novel fox or dog RABV. No evidence was observed for genetic adaptation to foxes at consensus sequence level and dN/dS analysis suggested purifying selection. Therefore, the deep sequence data were analysed to investigate the sub-viral population during a host shift event. Viral heterogeneity was measured in all RABV samples; viruses from the early period after the host shift exhibited greater sequence variation in comparison to those from the later stage, and to those not involved in the host shift event, possibly indicating a role in establishing transmission within a new host. The transient increase in variation observed in the new host species may represent virus replication within a new environment, perhaps due to increased replication within the CNS, resulting in a larger population of viruses, or due to the lack of host constraints present in the new host reservoir.

  6. Le Carbonifère de Lybie occidentale biostratigraphie et micropaléontologie position dans le domaine Téthysien d'Afrique du Nord The Carboniferous in Western Libya : Biostratigraphy and Micropaleontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massa D.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Analyse des sondages et coupes de terrain effectués en Libye occidentale entre 1956 et 1966. Comparaison avec les formations d'lllizi en Algérie. Principaux résultats a Stratigraphiques : Treize biozones sont définies du Tournaisien supérieur au Moscovien inférieur. Tous les étages sont présents, en particulier le Bachkirien dont l'existence était mal établie. b Paléogéographiques : Identité des bassins de Rhadamès et d'lllizi, et sans doute de la plus grande partie du bassin de Djado-Mourzouk. Définition d'un golfe Libyque. Individualité de la baie de Serdelès, dont la limite nord peut être survie avec précision. c Paléoécologiques : Confinement biologique et pauvreté des microfaunes sauf en quelques niveaux. Importance des domaines supratidaux et intertidaux. Parti-cularités des formations stromatolithiques (à e Collenia » et oolithiques. Climat tropical sec, aride, dominant. d Systématiques : Données sur les Foraminifères, Algues, Aouigaliides et Calcifoliides. Deux créations, intéressantes du point de vue phylogénétique : Velebitella simplicissima VACHARD n. sp. (Algue Dasycladale , Conilolia africana VACHARD n. gen. n. sp. (Aouigaliide Ptychocladiidé. The Carboniferous from several boreholes and outcrops in western Libyan Basins is analyzed. Comparison is made with the Illizi Basin in Algeria. This study bas yielded new data on microfacies, microfossils, biostratig rophy and sedimentology, which con be used to attempt ta drow a rough outline of the paleogeographic development of these basins. The main results are: a Stratigrophy: From the uppermost Tournaisian into the Moscovien, thirteen biozones are defined. All stages are present, and the Bashkirian bas been identified with absolute certainty for the first time. b Paleogeography : Important paleogeographic facts become evident from the study of microfacies : - The Illizi and Rhadames Basins, and probably the major part of the Djado-Murzuk Basin, have the

  7. Essai de synthèse stratigraphique et palynologique du système dévonien en Lybie occidentale Stratigraphic and Palynological Synthesis Attempt of the Denovian System in Western Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massa D.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available De nombreux sondages profonds ont été réalisés lors des recherches pétrolières en Libye occidentale (bassin de Rhadamès. Simultanément, les zones d'affleurement ont été étudiées avec soin. Dans le présent travail, les auteurs présentent des conclusions stratigraphiques et palynologiques nouvelles. Les cycles sédimentaires qui constituent le Dévonien ont une épaisseur qui n'excède pas le millier de mètres. Ils sont subdivisés en sept formations qui couvrent l'intervalle stratigraphique allant du Praguien au Strunien. Ainsi, le Couvinien, le Givétien, le Frasnien et le Famennien ont été différenciés. Le Dévonien basal (Lochkovien est absent. Les corrélations latérales pour l'ensemble du bassin considéré sont satisfaisantes. Une trentaine de sondages ont été étudiés en palynologie. Ils ont montré une extraordinaire richesse en spores dans tout le Dévonien. II a été possible de différencier onze Palynozones, à partir des Spores et Chitinozoaires présents. En comparant les faunes et les microflores dévoniennes présentes en Libye, à celles connues en Europe, en Afrique du Nord et en d'autres régions, on obtient une biostratigraphie homogène et cohérente. Numerous deep boreholes have been drilled during oil prospection in western Libya (Rhadames Basin. At the same time, outcrop areas have been carefully examined. This article gives new stratigraphic and palynological conclusions. The sedimentary cycles making up the Devonian are no more than 1,000 meters thick. They are subdivided into seven formations, covering the stratigraphic interval from the Praguian ta the Strunian. In this way, the Couvinian, Givetian, Frasnian and Famennian are differentiated. The lowermost part of the Devonian (Lochkovian is missing. The lateral corrélations for the entire basin being considered are satisfactory. The palynology has been numerous in the Devonian. Eleven polynozones are differentiated on the basis of spores and

  8. Host-to-host variation of ecological interactions in polymicrobial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sayak; Weimer, Kristin E; Seok, Sang-Cheol; Ray, Will C; Jayaprakash, C; Vieland, Veronica J; Swords, W Edward; Das, Jayajit

    2014-12-04

    Host-to-host variability with respect to interactions between microorganisms and multicellular hosts are commonly observed in infection and in homeostasis. However, the majority of mechanistic models used to analyze host-microorganism relationships, as well as most of the ecological theories proposed to explain coevolution of hosts and microbes, are based on averages across a host population. By assuming that observed variations are random and independent, these models overlook the role of differences between hosts. Here, we analyze mechanisms underlying host-to-host variations of bacterial infection kinetics, using the well characterized experimental infection model of polymicrobial otitis media (OM) in chinchillas, in combination with population dynamic models and a maximum entropy (MaxEnt) based inference scheme. We find that the nature of the interactions between bacterial species critically regulates host-to-host variations in these interactions. Surprisingly, seemingly unrelated phenomena, such as the efficiency of individual bacterial species in utilizing nutrients for growth, and the microbe-specific host immune response, can become interdependent in a host population. The latter finding suggests a potential mechanism that could lead to selection of specific strains of bacterial species during the coevolution of the host immune response and the bacterial species.

  9. Host-to-host variation of ecological interactions in polymicrobial infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sayak; Weimer, Kristin E.; Seok, Sang-Cheol; Ray, Will C.; Jayaprakash, C.; Vieland, Veronica J.; Swords, W. Edward; Das, Jayajit

    2015-02-01

    Host-to-host variability with respect to interactions between microorganisms and multicellular hosts are commonly observed in infection and in homeostasis. However, the majority of mechanistic models used to analyze host-microorganism relationships, as well as most of the ecological theories proposed to explain coevolution of hosts and microbes, are based on averages across a host population. By assuming that observed variations are random and independent, these models overlook the role of differences between hosts. Here, we analyze mechanisms underlying host-to-host variations of bacterial infection kinetics, using the well characterized experimental infection model of polymicrobial otitis media (OM) in chinchillas, in combination with population dynamic models and a maximum entropy (MaxEnt) based inference scheme. We find that the nature of the interactions between bacterial species critically regulates host-to-host variations in these interactions. Surprisingly, seemingly unrelated phenomena, such as the efficiency of individual bacterial species in utilizing nutrients for growth, and the microbe-specific host immune response, can become interdependent in a host population. The latter finding suggests a potential mechanism that could lead to selection of specific strains of bacterial species during the coevolution of the host immune response and the bacterial species.

  10. Road MAPs to engineer host microbiomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyserman, Ben O; Medema, Marnix H; Raaijmakers, Jos M

    2017-12-02

    Microbiomes contribute directly or indirectly to host health and fitness. Thus far, investigations into these emergent traits, referred to here as microbiome-associated phenotypes (MAPs), have been primarily qualitative and taxonomy-driven rather than quantitative and trait-based. We present the MAPs-first approach, a theoretical and experimental roadmap that involves quantitative profiling of MAPs across genetically variable hosts and subsequent identification of the underlying mechanisms. We outline strategies for developing 'modular microbiomes'-synthetic microbial consortia that are engineered in concert with the host genotype to confer different but mutually compatible MAPs to a single host or host population. By integrating host and microbial traits, these strategies will facilitate targeted engineering of microbiomes to the benefit of agriculture, human/animal health and biotechnology. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Active modification of host inflammation by Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilar, Ana Victoria C; Reid-Yu, Sarah A; Cooper, Colin A; Mulder, David T; Coombes, Brian K

    2013-01-01

    The dampening of host immune responses is a critical aspect of pathogenesis for the enteropathogen Salmonella enterica. Our laboratory has recently described a role for the secreted effector GogB in disruption of NFκB activation and limitation of the host inflammatory response to infection. GogB alters the NFκB pathway by preventing IκB degradation by the host SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase, through an interaction with Skp1 and FBXO22. The prevention of NFκB activation through this interaction dampens the host inflammatory response in the gut, which in turn limits the damage to host tissues during chronic infection. In this addendum, we summarize these recent findings and discuss their implications and impact in the area of host-pathogen interactions.

  12. Identification of antimicrobial properties of cashew, Anacardium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Marjorie, 1999). Medicinal plant history dates back to the fifth century AD., with ... Antimicrobial discs from the extract were prepared by perforating paper discs of 10mm diameter with the aid of a hollow metal and sterilized in the autoclave.

  13. Germination and seedlings performance of cashew ( Anacardium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of nut-sowing orientations on the germination of cashew nuts and the responses of the resultant seedlings to cotyledon removed were studied in the nursery. While cashew nuts sown flat and those with stylar-end up had highest mean germination of 91.67 % and 92.50 % respectively the nuts sown with ...

  14. [Viral interactions with the host's immune system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humlová, Z

    2001-01-01

    Viruses are obligatory intracellular parasites, which differ in their structure and strategy of replication. The establishment of an antiviral state in uninfected cells and the elimination of virally infected cells are critical tasks in the host defence. Against the extensive array of immune modalities, viruses have successfully learned how to manipulate host immune control mechanisms. The study of viral strategies of immune evasion can provide insights into host-virus interactions and also illuminates essential functions of the immune system.

  15. Host plant adaptation in Drosophila mettleri populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Castrezana

    Full Text Available The process of local adaptation creates diversity among allopatric populations, and may eventually lead to speciation. Plant-feeding insect populations that specialize on different host species provide an excellent opportunity to evaluate the causes of ecological specialization and the subsequent consequences for diversity. In this study, we used geographically separated Drosophila mettleri populations that specialize on different host cacti to examine oviposition preference for and larval performance on an array of natural and non-natural hosts (eight total. We found evidence of local adaptation in performance on saguaro cactus (Carnegiea gigantea for populations that are typically associated with this host, and to chemically divergent prickly pear species (Opuntia spp. in a genetically isolated population on Santa Catalina Island. Moreover, each population exhibited reduced performance on the alternative host. This finding is consistent with trade-offs associated with adaptation to these chemically divergent hosts, although we also discuss alternative explanations for this pattern. For oviposition preference, Santa Catalina Island flies were more likely to oviposit on some prickly pear species, but all populations readily laid eggs on saguaro. Experiments with non-natural hosts suggest that factors such as ecological opportunity may play a more important role than host plant chemistry in explaining the lack of natural associations with some hosts.

  16. DNA barcoding insect-host plant associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado-Rivera, José A; Vogler, Alfried P; Reid, Chris A M; Petitpierre, Eduard; Gómez-Zurita, Jesús

    2009-02-22

    Short-sequence fragments ('DNA barcodes') used widely for plant identification and inventorying remain to be applied to complex biological problems. Host-herbivore interactions are fundamental to coevolutionary relationships of a large proportion of species on the Earth, but their study is frequently hampered by limited or unreliable host records. Here we demonstrate that DNA barcodes can greatly improve this situation as they (i) provide a secure identification of host plant species and (ii) establish the authenticity of the trophic association. Host plants of leaf beetles (subfamily Chrysomelinae) from Australia were identified using the chloroplast trnL(UAA) intron as barcodes amplified from beetle DNA extracts. Sequence similarity and phylogenetic analyses provided precise identifications of each host species at tribal, generic and specific levels, depending on the available database coverage in various plant lineages. The 76 species of Chrysomelinae included-more than 10 per cent of the known Australian fauna-feed on 13 plant families, with preference for Australian radiations of Myrtaceae (eucalypts) and Fabaceae (acacias). Phylogenetic analysis of beetles shows general conservation of host association but with rare host shifts between distant plant lineages, including a few cases where barcodes supported two phylogenetically distant host plants. The study demonstrates that plant barcoding is already feasible with the current publicly available data. By sequencing plant barcodes directly from DNA extractions made from herbivorous beetles, strong physical evidence for the host association is provided. Thus, molecular identification using short DNA fragments brings together the detection of species and the analysis of their interactions.

  17. Expatriate contact with a local host

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Bakel, Marian; van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter; Gerritsen, Marinel

    2017-01-01

    Social capital is a crucial factor for expatriates to employ as they cope with the demands of an international assignment. This longitudinal study used a mixed method approach to examine the social support benefits of expatriate contact with a local host. Western expatriates in the Netherlands were...... a host. This study shows that HRD professionals may develop the social capital of expatriates by bringing them into contact with a local host, which can produce more social support from host nationals. Increased social capital may lead to a higher performance at both the individual and organisational...

  18. HOST GALAXY IDENTIFICATION FOR SUPERNOVA SURVEYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Ravi R.; Kuhlmann, Steve; Kovacs, Eve; Spinka, Harold; Kessler, Richard; Goldstein, Daniel A.; Liotine, Camille; Pomian, Katarzyna; D’Andrea, Chris B.; Sullivan, Mark; Carretero, Jorge; Castander, Francisco J.; Nichol, Robert C.; Finley, David A.; Fischer, John A.; Foley, Ryan J.; Kim, Alex G.; Papadopoulos, Andreas; Sako, Masao; Scolnic, Daniel M.; Smith, Mathew; Tucker, Brad E.; Uddin, Syed; Wolf, Rachel C.; Yuan, Fang; Abbott, Tim M. C.; Abdalla, Filipe B.; Benoit-Lévy, Aurélien; Bertin, Emmanuel; Brooks, David; Rosell, Aurelio Carnero; Kind, Matias Carrasco; Cunha, Carlos E.; Costa, Luiz N. da; Desai, Shantanu; Doel, Peter; Eifler, Tim F.; Evrard, August E.; Flaugher, Brenna; Fosalba, Pablo; Gaztañaga, Enrique; Gruen, Daniel; Gruendl, Robert; James, David J.; Kuehn, Kyler; Kuropatkin, Nikolay; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Miquel, Ramon; Plazas, Andrés A.; Romer, A. Kathy; Sánchez, Eusebio; Schubnell, Michael; Sevilla-Noarbe, Ignacio; Sobreira, Flávia; Suchyta, Eric; Swanson, Molly E. C.; Tarle, Gregory; Walker, Alistair R.; Wester, William

    2016-11-08

    Host galaxy identification is a crucial step for modern supernova (SN) surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, which will discover SNe by the thousands. Spectroscopic resources are limited, and so in the absence of real-time SN spectra these surveys must rely on host galaxy spectra to obtain accurate redshifts for the Hubble diagram and to improve photometric classification of SNe. In addition, SN luminosities are known to correlate with host-galaxy properties. Therefore, reliable identification of host galaxies is essential for cosmology and SN science. We simulate SN events and their locations within their host galaxies to develop and test methods for matching SNe to their hosts. We use both real and simulated galaxy catalog data from the Advanced Camera for Surveys General Catalog and MICECATv2.0, respectively. We also incorporate "hostless" SNe residing in undetected faint hosts into our analysis, with an assumed hostless rate of 5%. Our fully automated algorithm is run on catalog data and matches SNe to their hosts with 91% accuracy. We find that including a machine learning component, run after the initial matching algorithm, improves the accuracy (purity) of the matching to 97% with a 2% cost in efficiency (true positive rate). Although the exact results are dependent on the details of the survey and the galaxy catalogs used, the method of identifying host galaxies we outline here can be applied to any transient survey.

  19. Screening of cesticidal compounds on a tapeworm hymenolepis nana in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, A. B.; Hawking, F.

    1960-01-01

    A simple and convenient in vitro technique is described for the screening of compounds for action against Hymenolepis nana and probably many other intestinal worms. The results obtained from this test are in broad agreement with the findings of clinical experience and of a small series of in vivo tests. Among the substances tested, the most active ones were oil of chenopodium, dichlorophen, extract of cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale), antimony potassium tartrate, and BIQ 20 [eicosamethylenebis(isoquinolinium iodide)]. PMID:13750047

  20. Carboxy methylation of cashew nut tree exudate gum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Durcilene A. da; Paula, Regina C.M.

    2001-01-01

    Anacardium occidentale exudate polysaccharide was carboxymethylated with monochloroacetic acid. The samples were characterized by NMR, solution viscometry, GPC and thermal analysis. Carboxymethylated cashew gum (CMGC) with a degree of substitution between 0,1-0,16 was obtained. Solution viscometry and GPC analysis showed that polymer molar mass degradation occurred. Sample with higher DS shows higher peak molar mass, intrinsic viscosity and thermal stability. NMR spectrum indicated that the carboxy methylation reaction occurs preferentially in C-6 of galactose residue. (author)

  1. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    N'daadopo, AA. Vol 6, No 4 (2012) - Articles Croissance et aptitude au greffage de deux génotypes d'anacardier (Anacardium occidentale L.) élites utilisés comme porte–greffe en Côte d'Ivoire Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1997-342X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  2. Pirolisis Kulit Biji Jambu Mete (Cashew Nut Shell) dengan Katalis Ag/Zeolit

    OpenAIRE

    Astuti, Rimby Puji; Suyati, Linda; Nuryanto, Rahmad

    2012-01-01

    Tanaman jambu mete, Anacardium occidentale L. merupakan salah satu komoditi perkebunan yang memiliki nilai ekonomi cukup tinggi. Kulit biji jambu mete mengandung 50% minyak yang terdiri dari senyawa fenolat berupa 90% asam anakardat dan 10% berupa kardol dan kardanol. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mensintesis dan mengkarakterisasi katalis Ag/zeolit, melakukan pirolisis kulit jambu mete, mengetahui pengaruh temperatur pirolisis terhadap produk cair pirolisis dan membandingkan produk cair hasi...

  3. 1732-IJBCS-Article-Yabi Ibouraïma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    essentiellement la connaissance des espèces végétales ligneuses compagnes à Anacardium occidentale dans la commune de Savalou. Pour ce faire .... et du fonctionnement de ces agro-forêts, constitue un nouvel axe de recherche à ..... source de la diversité biologique végétale des systèmes agro-forestiers provient des ...

  4. Host-to-host variation of ecological interactions in polymicrobial infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, Sayak; Seok, Sang-Cheol; Ray, Will C; Jayaprakash, C; Vieland, Veronica J; Das, Jayajit; Weimer, Kristin E; Swords, W Edward

    2015-01-01

    Host-to-host variability with respect to interactions between microorganisms and multicellular hosts are commonly observed in infection and in homeostasis. However, the majority of mechanistic models used to analyze host–microorganism relationships, as well as most of the ecological theories proposed to explain coevolution of hosts and microbes, are based on averages across a host population. By assuming that observed variations are random and independent, these models overlook the role of differences between hosts. Here, we analyze mechanisms underlying host-to-host variations of bacterial infection kinetics, using the well characterized experimental infection model of polymicrobial otitis media (OM) in chinchillas, in combination with population dynamic models and a maximum entropy (MaxEnt) based inference scheme. We find that the nature of the interactions between bacterial species critically regulates host-to-host variations in these interactions. Surprisingly, seemingly unrelated phenomena, such as the efficiency of individual bacterial species in utilizing nutrients for growth, and the microbe-specific host immune response, can become interdependent in a host population. The latter finding suggests a potential mechanism that could lead to selection of specific strains of bacterial species during the coevolution of the host immune response and the bacterial species. (paper)

  5. Data from: Two different strategies of host manipulation allow parasites to persist in intermediate-definitive host systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Lana; Langevelde, van F.

    2017-01-01

    Trophically-transmitted parasites start their development in an intermediate host, before they finish the development in their definitive host when the definitive host preys on the intermediate host. In intermediate-definitive host systems, two strategies of host manipulation have been evolved:

  6. Discrete host-parasitoid models with Allee effects and age structure in the host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sophia R-J

    2010-01-01

    We study a stage-structured single species population model with Allee effects. The asymptotic dynamics of the model depend on the maximal growth rate of the population as well as on its initial population size. We also investigate two models of host-parasitoid interaction with stage-structure and Allee effects in the host. The parasitoid population may drive the host population to extinction in both models even if the initial host population is beyond the Allee threshold.

  7. Carp erythrodermatitis : host defense-pathogen interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pourreau, C.N.

    1990-01-01

    The outcome of a bacterial infection depends on the interaction between pathogen and host. The ability of the microbe to survive in the host depends on its invasive potential (i.e. spreading and multiplication), and its ability to obtain essential nutrients and to resist the

  8. Hepatitis C virus intracellular host interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liefhebber, Johanna Maaike Pieternella

    2010-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects about 170 million people worldwide causing a major healthcare problem. The virus lifecycle is greatly dependent on the host-cell for effective replication. In this thesis, the intracellular interactions of the non-structural HCV proteins with the host-cell were

  9. Nestedness of ectoparasite-vertebrate host networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean P Graham

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Determining the structure of ectoparasite-host networks will enable disease ecologists to better understand and predict the spread of vector-borne diseases. If these networks have consistent properties, then studying the structure of well-understood networks could lead to extrapolation of these properties to others, including those that support emerging pathogens. Borrowing a quantitative measure of network structure from studies of mutualistic relationships between plants and their pollinators, we analyzed 29 ectoparasite-vertebrate host networks--including three derived from molecular bloodmeal analysis of mosquito feeding patterns--using measures of nestedness to identify non-random interactions among species. We found significant nestedness in ectoparasite-vertebrate host lists for habitats ranging from tropical rainforests to polar environments. These networks showed non-random patterns of nesting, and did not differ significantly from published estimates of nestedness from mutualistic networks. Mutualistic and antagonistic networks appear to be organized similarly, with generalized ectoparasites interacting with hosts that attract many ectoparasites and more specialized ectoparasites usually interacting with these same "generalized" hosts. This finding has implications for understanding the network dynamics of vector-born pathogens. We suggest that nestedness (rather than random ectoparasite-host associations can allow rapid transfer of pathogens throughout a network, and expand upon such concepts as the dilution effect, bridge vectors, and host switching in the context of nested ectoparasite-vertebrate host networks.

  10. Host preferences of blood-feeding mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, W.; Verhulst, N.O.

    2013-01-01

    Mosquitoes use plant sugars and vertebrate blood as nutritional resources. When searching for blood hosts, some mosquitoes express preferential behavior for selected species. Here, we review the available knowledge on host preference, as this is expected to affect the life history and transmission

  11. From Dietary Fiber to Host Physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koh, Ara; De Vadder, Filipe; Kovatcheva-Datchary, Petia

    2016-01-01

    A compelling set of links between the composition of the gut microbiota, the host diet, and host physiology has emerged. Do these links reflect cause-and-effect relationships, and what might be their mechanistic basis? A growing body of work implicates microbially produced metabolites as crucial...... as energy substrates. They thus affect various physiological processes and may contribute to health and disease....

  12. Host factors involved in chikungunya virus replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, Florine Elisabeth Maria

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis the interplay of CHIKV with cellular (host) factors involved in its replication is addressed. An in-depth understanding of the interactions between the viral proteins and those of their host is required for the elucidation of molecular mechanisms underlying viral replication. A

  13. Characterization of Exoplanet-Host Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Adibekyan, Vardan; Sousa, Sérgio G.; Santos, Nuno C.

    2017-01-01

    Precise and, if possible, accurate characterization of exoplanets cannot be dissociated from the characterization of their host stars. In this chapter we discuss different methods and techniques used to derive fundamental properties and atmospheric parameters of exoplanet-host stars. The main limitations, advantages and disadvantages, as well as corresponding typical measurement uncertainties of each method are presented.

  14. Host-pathogen interactions during apoptosis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Host pathogen interaction results in a variety of responses, which include phagocytosis of the pathogen, release of cytokines, secretion of toxins, as well as production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recent studies have shown that many pathogens exert control on the processes that regulate apoptosis in the host.

  15. Shifting preference between oviposition vs. host-feeding under changing host densities in two aphelinid parasitoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Nian-Wan; Ji, Lu-Lu; Lövei, Gabor L

    2012-01-01

    Destructive host-feeding is common in hymenopteran parasitoids. Such feeding may be restricted to host stages not preferred for oviposition. However, whether this is a fixed strategy or can vary according to resource levels or parasitoid needs is less clear. We tested the trade-off between host f...

  16. Importance of host feeding for parasitoids that attack honeydew-producing hosts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, J.M.S.; Komany, A.; Lenteren, van J.C.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2005-01-01

    Insect parasitoids lay their eggs in arthropods. Some parasitoid species not only use their arthropod host for oviposition but also for feeding. Host feeding provides nutrients to the adult female parasitoid. However, in many species, host feeding destroys an opportunity to oviposit. For parasitoids

  17. The Role of Within-Host Competition for Coexistence in Multiparasitoid-Host Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Velzen, Ellen; Pérez-Vila, Saleta; Etienne, Rampal S

    2016-01-01

    Multiparasitism (females of multiple species parasitizing the same host) is a ubiquitous phenomenon in parasitoids, yet the role of within-host competition has been mostly ignored in multiparasitoid-host models. Here we study the effect of varying the degree of competition at different life stages: competition over oviposition sites (between-adult competition) and larval competition over resources within the host (within-host competition). We adapt a Nicholson-Bailey model to allow for varying levels of between-adult competition (varying the overlap in species distributions) and within-host competition (varying the number of offspring that can successfully emerge from a host). Surprisingly, while stronger between-adult competition reduces coexistence, stronger within-host competition promotes it. Asymmetric between-adult competition (a fecundity difference between the two species) reduces coexistence when compared to symmetric competition; this can be counteracted by asymmetric within-host competition (within-host competitive advantage of the lower-fecundity species), but only when within-host competition is strong and the correlation between the parasitoids' distributions is intermediate. We discuss our results in the context of the interaction between two parasitoid species, Nasonia vitripennis and Nasonia giraulti, which have strongly correlated distributions and high levels of multiparasitism in the field. We conclude that either low or asymmetric within-host competition is unlikely to explain their coexistence.

  18. Tradizione giuridica occidentale e modernizzazione latinoamericana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Somma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Latin America, where capitalist and democratic institutions advanced slowly, is usually considered as the periphery of the Western Legal Tradition. However, historical evidence will here be given that even in Europe and North America capitalism often established authoritarian or totalitarian political systems. Moreover, those who describe Latin American capitalism as less developed than the Western one, neglect the fact that underdevelopment was at least partially imposed; they also ignore the fact that, what is meant by underdevelopment, may also be seen as an alternative modernity program. The history and legal history of Venezuela in the first half of the past century shows that deficiencies in democracy were due to theories and practices which were widespread within the Western Legal Tradition; it also offers examples for considering some peculiarities in the development of capitalism as part of an original path to modernity, rather than a bad copy of it.

  19. Il nichilismo come destino della paideia occidentale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Borrelli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available From Nietzsche to Heidegger, it seems that the will to power and the technique are not, if not the way today’s nihilism is articulated, ultimate fulfillment of the history of being as metaphysics but not as being. If these are the preconditions of the intrusiveness and of the inevitability nihilistic of Western metaphysics, which paideia today is still thinkable?

  20. Effect of Intermediate Hosts on Emerging Zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jing-An; Chen, Fangyuan; Fan, Shengjie

    2017-08-01

    Most emerging zoonotic pathogens originate from animals. They can directly infect humans through natural reservoirs or indirectly through intermediate hosts. As a bridge, an intermediate host plays different roles in the transmission of zoonotic pathogens. In this study, we present three types of pathogen transmission to evaluate the effect of intermediate hosts on emerging zoonotic diseases in human epidemics. These types are identified as follows: TYPE 1, pathogen transmission without an intermediate host for comparison; TYPE 2, pathogen transmission with an intermediate host as an amplifier; and TYPE 3, pathogen transmission with an intermediate host as a vessel for genetic variation. In addition, we established three mathematical models to elucidate the mechanisms underlying zoonotic disease transmission according to these three types. Stability analysis indicated that the existence of intermediate hosts increased the difficulty of controlling zoonotic diseases because of more difficult conditions to satisfy for the disease to die out. The human epidemic would die out under the following conditions: TYPE 1: [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]; TYPE 2: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text]; and TYPE 3: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text] Simulation with similar parameters demonstrated that intermediate hosts could change the peak time and number of infected humans during a human epidemic; intermediate hosts also exerted different effects on controlling the prevalence of a human epidemic with natural reservoirs in different periods, which is important in addressing problems in public health. Monitoring and controlling the number of natural reservoirs and intermediate hosts at the right time would successfully manage and prevent the prevalence of emerging zoonoses in humans.

  1. Host response to biomaterials the impact of host response on biomaterial selection

    CERN Document Server

    Badylak, Stephen F

    2015-01-01

    Host Response to Biomaterials: The Impact of Host Response on Biomaterial Selection explains the various categories of biomaterials and their significance for clinical applications, focusing on the host response to each biomaterial. It is one of the first books to connect immunology and biomaterials with regard to host response. The text also explores the role of the immune system in host response, and covers the regulatory environment for biomaterials, along with the benefits of synthetic versus natural biomaterials, and the transition from simple to complex biomaterial solutions. Fiel

  2. Bartonella entry mechanisms into mammalian host cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicher, Simone C; Dehio, Christoph

    2012-08-01

    The Gram-negative genus Bartonella comprises arthropod-borne pathogens that typically infect mammals in a host-specific manner. Bartonella bacilliformis and Bartonella quintana are human-specific pathogens, while several zoonotic bartonellae specific for diverse animal hosts infect humans as an incidental host. Clinical manifestations of Bartonella infections range from mild symptoms to life-threatening disease. Following transmission by blood-sucking arthropods or traumatic contact with infected animals, bartonellae display sequential tropisms towards endothelial and possibly other nucleated cells and erythrocytes, the latter in a host-specific manner. Attachment to the extracellular matrix (ECM) and to nucleated cells is mediated by surface-exposed bacterial adhesins, in particular trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs). The subsequent engulfment of the pathogen into a vacuolar structure follows a unique series of events whereby the pathogen avoids the endolysosomal compartments. For Bartonella henselae and assumingly most other species, the infection process is aided at different steps by Bartonella effector proteins (Beps). They are injected into host cells through the type IV secretion system (T4SS) VirB/D4 and subvert host cellular functions to favour pathogen uptake. Bacterial binding to erythrocytes is mediated by Trw, another T4SS, in a strictly host-specific manner, followed by pathogen-forced uptake involving the IalB invasin and subsequent replication and persistence within a membrane-bound intra-erythrocytic compartment. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Host coexistence in a model for two host-one parasitoid interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clamer, Valentina; Pugliese, Andrea; Liessi, Davide; Breda, Dimitri

    2017-08-01

    Building from a continuous-time host-parasitoid model introduced by Murdoch et al. (Am Nat 129:263-282, 1987), we study the dynamics of a 2 host-parasitoid model assuming, for the sake of simplicity, that larval stages have a fixed duration. If each host is subjected to density-dependent mortality in its larval stage, we obtain explicit conditions for the existence of an equilibrium where the two host species coexist with the parasitoid. However, if host demography is density-independent, equilibrium coexistence is impossible. If at least one of the 1 host-parasitoid systems has an oscillatory dynamics (which happens under some parameter values), we found, through numerical bifurcation, that coexistence is favoured. Coexistence between the two hosts may occur along a periodic solution even without density-dependence. Models of this type may be relevant for the use of parasitoids as biocontrol agents of insect pests.

  4. Urinary tract infection pathogenesis: host factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Ann E

    2014-03-01

    Clinically, host factors in the pathogenesis of urinary tract infection (UTI) may be considered as modifiable (eg, behaviors associated with increased risk of UTI, anatomic and functional problems of the urinary tract) and thus potentially amenable to a change in patient behavior or treatment approach, or as intrinsic and nonmodifiable host factors that neither the patient nor the clinician can influence (eg, gender and genetic influences associated with UTI). Although considering nonmodifiable host factors may be discouraging to patients and clinicians at present, some genetic associations have the potential for future predictive value and may interface with future treatments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Bacterial subversion of host innate immune pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxt, Leigh A; Garza-Mayers, Anna Cristina; Goldberg, Marcia B

    2013-05-10

    The pathogenesis of infection is a continuously evolving battle between the human host and the infecting microbe. The past decade has brought a burst of insights into the molecular mechanisms of innate immune responses to bacterial pathogens. In parallel, multiple specific mechanisms by which microorganisms subvert these host responses have been uncovered. This Review highlights recently characterized mechanisms by which bacterial pathogens avoid killing by innate host responses, including autophagy pathways and a proinflammatory cytokine transcriptional response, and by the manipulation of vesicular trafficking to avoid the toxicity of lysosomal enzymes.

  6. The host range of Phomopsis cirsii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Vibeke; Andreasen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    . An isolate PKDK101 of the fungus Phomopsiscirsii, which is virulent to C. arvense causing stem canker and die back was chosen to test the specificity of the fungus. A series of infection trials were successively carried out on 127 plant species (incl. ssp. and var.) belonging to 16 families in greenhouses...... in order to encircle the host range of P. cirsii. Susceptible plant species were found only in the thistle group (Cardueae) which contained 34 species belonging to 12 genera. Susceptible species were found in thirteen of these genera. Highly susceptible species included Carduusacanthoides...... echinus, Cirsiumvulgare and Cynaracardunculusvar.scolymus (artichoke) with symptoms such as restricted necrotic leaf spots and too early senescence or death of entire leaf. Eleven hosts for P. cirsii were recorded but despite the expanded range of hosts we expect that its host range will be within...

  7. Towards host-directed therapies for tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zumla, Alimuddin; Maeurer, Markus; Chakaya, Jeremiah; Hoelscher, Michael; Ntoumi, Francine; Rustomjee, Roxana; Vilaplana, Cristina; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Rasolof, Voahangy; Munderi, Paula; Singh, Nalini; Aklillu, Eleni; Padayatchi, Nesri; Macete, Eusebio; Kapata, Nathan; Mulenga, Modest; Kibiki, Gibson; Mfinanga, Sayoki; Nyirenda, Thomas; Maboko, Leonard; Garcia-Basteiro, Alberto; Rakotosamimanana, Niaina; Bates, Matthew; Mwaba, Peter; Reither, Klaus; Gagneux, Sebastien; Edwards, Sarah; Mfinanga, Elirehema; Abdulla, Salim; Cardona, Pere-Joan; Russell, James B. W.; Gant, Vanya; Noursadeghi, Mahdad; Elkington, Paul; Bonnet, Maryline; Menendez, Clara; Dieye, Tandakha N.; Diarra, Bassirou; Maiga, Almoustapha; Aseffa, Abraham; Parida, Shreemanta; Wejse, Christian; Petersen, Eskild; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Oliver, Matt; Craig, Gill; Corrah, Tumena; Tientcheu, Leopold; Antonio, Martin; Rao, Martin; McHugh, Timothy D.; Sheikh, Aziz; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Ramjee, Gita; Kaufmann, Stefan H. E.; Churchyard, Gavin; Steyn, Andrie; Grobusch, Martin; Sanne, Ian; Martinson, Neil; Madansein, Rajhmun; Wilkinson, Robert J.; Mayosi, Bongani; Schito, Marco; Wallis, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of tuberculosis is based on combinations of drugs that directly target Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A new global initiative is now focusing on a complementary approach of developing adjunct host-directed therapies

  8. The evolution of host-symbiont dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fisher, Roberta M.; Henry, Lee M.; Cornwallis, Charlie K.; Kiers, E. Toby; West, Stuart A.

    2017-01-01

    Organisms across the tree of life form symbiotic partnerships with microbes for metabolism, protection and resources. While some hosts evolve extreme dependence on their symbionts, others maintain facultative associations. Explaining this variation is fundamental to understanding when symbiosis can

  9. DIRECTED EVOLUTION: SELECTION OF THE HOST ORGANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Pourmir

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Directed evolution has become a well-established tool for improving proteins and biological systems. A critical aspect of directed evolution is the selection of a suitable host organism for achieving functional expression of the target gene. To date, most directed evolution studies have used either Escherichia coli or Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a host; however, other bacterial and yeast species, as well as mammalian and insect cell lines, have also been successfully used. Recent advances in synthetic biology and genomics have opened the possibility of expanding the use of directed evolution to new host organisms such as microalgae. This review focuses on the different host organisms used in directed evolution and highlights some of the recent directed evolution strategies used in these organisms.

  10. Directed evolution: selection of the host organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Pourmir

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Directed evolution has become a well-established tool for improving proteins and biological systems. A critical aspect of directed evolution is the selection of a suitable host organism for achieving functional expression of the target gene. To date, most directed evolution studies have used either Escherichia coli or Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a host; however, other bacterial and yeast species, as well as mammalian and insect cell lines, have also been successfully used. Recent advances in synthetic biology and genomics have opened the possibility of expanding the use of directed evolution to new host organisms such as microalgae. This review focuses on the different host organisms used in directed evolution and highlights some of the recent directed evolution strategies used in these organisms.

  11. Host compounds for red phosphorescent OLEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Chuanjun; Cheon, Kwang -Ohk

    2015-08-25

    Novel compounds containing a triphenylene moiety linked to an .alpha..beta. connected binaphthyl ring system are provided. These compounds have surprisingly good solubility in organic solvents and are useful as host compounds in red phosphorescent OLEDs.

  12. CERN to host conference on information society

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN will host a conference on the Role of Science in the Information Society (RSIS) in December. This conference will focus on ensuring that the information society benefits people to the greatest extent possible, especially in developing regions.

  13. Poxvirus Host Range Genes and Virus-Host Spectrum: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Graziele Pereira; Rodrigues, Rodrigo Araújo Lima; Lima, Maurício Teixeira; Drumond, Betânia Paiva; Abrahão, Jônatas Santos

    2017-11-07

    The Poxviridae family is comprised of double-stranded DNA viruses belonging to nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV). Among the NCLDV, poxviruses exhibit the widest known host range, which is likely observed because this viral family has been more heavily investigated. However, relative to each member of the Poxviridae family, the spectrum of the host is variable, where certain viruses can infect a large range of hosts, while others are restricted to only one host species. It has been suggested that the variability in host spectrum among poxviruses is linked with the presence or absence of some host range genes. Would it be possible to extrapolate the restriction of viral replication in a specific cell lineage to an animal, a far more complex organism? In this study, we compare and discuss the relationship between the host range of poxvirus species and the abundance/diversity of host range genes. We analyzed the sequences of 38 previously identified and putative homologs of poxvirus host range genes, and updated these data with deposited sequences of new poxvirus genomes. Overall, the term host range genes might not be the most appropriate for these genes, since no correlation between them and the viruses' host spectrum was observed, and a change in nomenclature should be considered. Finally, we analyzed the evolutionary history of these genes, and reaffirmed the occurrence of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) for certain elements, as previously suggested. Considering the data presented in this study, it is not possible to associate the diversity of host range factors with the amount of hosts of known poxviruses, and this traditional nomenclature creates misunderstandings.

  14. Host reproductive phenology drives seasonal patterns of host use in mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan D Burkett-Cadena

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal shifts in host use by mosquitoes from birds to mammals drive the timing and intensity of annual epidemics of mosquito-borne viruses, such as West Nile virus, in North America. The biological mechanism underlying these shifts has been a matter of debate, with hypotheses falling into two camps: (1 the shift is driven by changes in host abundance, or (2 the shift is driven by seasonal changes in the foraging behavior of mosquitoes. Here we explored the idea that seasonal changes in host use by mosquitoes are driven by temporal patterns of host reproduction. We investigated the relationship between seasonal patterns of host use by mosquitoes and host reproductive phenology by examining a seven-year dataset of blood meal identifications from a site in Tuskegee National Forest, Alabama USA and data on reproduction from the most commonly utilized endothermic (white-tailed deer, great blue heron, yellow-crowned night heron and ectothermic (frogs hosts. Our analysis revealed that feeding on each host peaked during periods of reproductive activity. Specifically, mosquitoes utilized herons in the spring and early summer, during periods of peak nest occupancy, whereas deer were fed upon most during the late summer and fall, the period corresponding to the peak in births for deer. For frogs, however, feeding on early- and late-season breeders paralleled peaks in male vocalization. We demonstrate for the first time that seasonal patterns of host use by mosquitoes track the reproductive phenology of the hosts. Peaks in relative mosquito feeding on each host during reproductive phases are likely the result of increased tolerance and decreased vigilance to attacking mosquitoes by nestlings and brooding adults (avian hosts, quiescent young (avian and mammalian hosts, and mate-seeking males (frogs.

  15. Host density and competency determine the effects of host diversity on trematode parasite infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy M Wojdak

    Full Text Available Variation in host species composition can dramatically alter parasite transmission in natural communities. Whether diverse host communities dilute or amplify parasite transmission is thought to depend critically on species traits, particularly on how hosts affect each other's densities, and their relative competency as hosts. Here we studied a community of potential hosts and/or decoys (i.e. non-competent hosts for two trematode parasite species, Echinostoma trivolvis and Ribeiroia ondatrae, which commonly infect wildlife across North America. We manipulated the density of a focal host (green frog tadpoles, Rana clamitans, in concert with manipulating the diversity of alternative species, to simulate communities where alternative species either (1 replace the focal host species so that the total number of individuals remains constant (substitution or (2 add to total host density (addition. For E. trivolvis, we found that total parasite transmission remained roughly equal (or perhaps decreased slightly when alternative species replaced focal host individuals, but parasite transmission was higher when alternative species were added to a community without replacing focal host individuals. Given the alternative species were roughly equal in competency, these results are consistent with current theory. Remarkably, both total tadpole and per-capita tadpole infection intensity by E. trivolvis increased with increasing intraspecific host density. For R. ondatrae, alternative species did not function as effective decoys or hosts for parasite infective stages, and the diversity and density treatments did not produce clear changes in parasite transmission, although high tank to tank variation in R. ondatrae infection could have obscured patterns.

  16. Mesoscale spatiotemporal variability in a complex host-parasite system influenced by intermediate host body size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M. Rodríguez

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Parasites are essential components of natural communities, but the factors that generate skewed distributions of parasite occurrences and abundances across host populations are not well understood. Methods Here, we analyse at a seascape scale the spatiotemporal relationships of parasite exposure and host body-size with the proportion of infected hosts (i.e., prevalence and aggregation of parasite burden across ca. 150 km of the coast and over 22 months. We predicted that the effects of parasite exposure on prevalence and aggregation are dependent on host body-sizes. We used an indirect host-parasite interaction in which migratory seagulls, sandy-shore molecrabs, and an acanthocephalan worm constitute the definitive hosts, intermediate hosts, and endoparasite, respectively. In such complex systems, increments in the abundance of definitive hosts imply increments in intermediate hosts’ exposure to the parasite’s dispersive stages. Results Linear mixed-effects models showed a significant, albeit highly variable, positive relationship between seagull density and prevalence. This relationship was stronger for small (cephalothorax length >15 mm than large molecrabs (<15 mm. Independently of seagull density, large molecrabs carried significantly more parasites than small molecrabs. The analysis of the variance-to-mean ratio of per capita parasite burden showed no relationship between seagull density and mean parasite aggregation across host populations. However, the amount of unexplained variability in aggregation was strikingly higher in larger than smaller intermediate hosts. This unexplained variability was driven by a decrease in the mean-variance scaling in heavily infected large molecrabs. Conclusions These results show complex interdependencies between extrinsic and intrinsic population attributes on the structure of host-parasite interactions. We suggest that parasite accumulation—a characteristic of indirect host

  17. Use of lice to identify cowbird hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, D.C.; Price, R.D.; Osenton, P.C.

    2000-01-01

    The host specificity of avian lice (Phthiraptera) may be utilized by biologists to investigate the brood parasitism patterns of Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater). As nestlings, brood parasites have a unique opportunity to encounter lice that are typically host specific. Lice are permanent hemimetabolic ectoparasites, a group found strictly on the body of the host, and they are transferred almost exclusively by bodily contact between hosts during care of young and at copulation. We investigated whether cowbird nestlings become infested with avian lice from their host parents and carry these lice away when they fledge, in effect bearing ectoparasite indicators of the species that raised them. The technique of examining the lice on cowbird fledglings to identify their foster parents would be much less costly than hiring a team of experts to determine parasitism patterns in the conventional way by finding hundreds of songbird nests. We examined 244 cowbird fledglings and found that they carried a rich fauna of lice representing 11 species and six genera, almost the entire spectrum of louse genera known to occur on passerines. We also examined 320 songbirds from 30 species, all known hosts of the Brown-headed Cowbird. As a group the host birds bore a diversity of louse species comparable to that on the fledgling cowbirds: 13 species of lice from seven genera. In contrast, most individual passerine host species yielded only 1 or 2 louse species, significantly fewer than the cowbird fledglings (p parasitism patterns. The incomplete state of passerine louse taxonomy requires anyone using this technique to de-louse both cowbird fledglings and local host species in order to have a reference collection of lice. Lice from cowbird fledglings can be identified by a skilled taxonomist and linked to particular host species, and the principal difficulty is the scarcity of skilled avian louse taxonomists. We also found an unusually rich louse fauna on 219 adult cowbirds, which

  18. Data hosting infrastructure for primary biodiversity data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goddard Anthony

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Today, an unprecedented volume of primary biodiversity data are being generated worldwide, yet significant amounts of these data have been and will continue to be lost after the conclusion of the projects tasked with collecting them. To get the most value out of these data it is imperative to seek a solution whereby these data are rescued, archived and made available to the biodiversity community. To this end, the biodiversity informatics community requires investment in processes and infrastructure to mitigate data loss and provide solutions for long-term hosting and sharing of biodiversity data. Discussion We review the current state of biodiversity data hosting and investigate the technological and sociological barriers to proper data management. We further explore the rescuing and re-hosting of legacy data, the state of existing toolsets and propose a future direction for the development of new discovery tools. We also explore the role of data standards and licensing in the context of data hosting and preservation. We provide five recommendations for the biodiversity community that will foster better data preservation and access: (1 encourage the community's use of data standards, (2 promote the public domain licensing of data, (3 establish a community of those involved in data hosting and archival, (4 establish hosting centers for biodiversity data, and (5 develop tools for data discovery. Conclusion The community's adoption of standards and development of tools to enable data discovery is essential to sustainable data preservation. Furthermore, the increased adoption of open content licensing, the establishment of data hosting infrastructure and the creation of a data hosting and archiving community are all necessary steps towards the community ensuring that data archival policies become standardized.

  19. Data hosting infrastructure for primary biodiversity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Today, an unprecedented volume of primary biodiversity data are being generated worldwide, yet significant amounts of these data have been and will continue to be lost after the conclusion of the projects tasked with collecting them. To get the most value out of these data it is imperative to seek a solution whereby these data are rescued, archived and made available to the biodiversity community. To this end, the biodiversity informatics community requires investment in processes and infrastructure to mitigate data loss and provide solutions for long-term hosting and sharing of biodiversity data. Discussion We review the current state of biodiversity data hosting and investigate the technological and sociological barriers to proper data management. We further explore the rescuing and re-hosting of legacy data, the state of existing toolsets and propose a future direction for the development of new discovery tools. We also explore the role of data standards and licensing in the context of data hosting and preservation. We provide five recommendations for the biodiversity community that will foster better data preservation and access: (1) encourage the community's use of data standards, (2) promote the public domain licensing of data, (3) establish a community of those involved in data hosting and archival, (4) establish hosting centers for biodiversity data, and (5) develop tools for data discovery. Conclusion The community's adoption of standards and development of tools to enable data discovery is essential to sustainable data preservation. Furthermore, the increased adoption of open content licensing, the establishment of data hosting infrastructure and the creation of a data hosting and archiving community are all necessary steps towards the community ensuring that data archival policies become standardized. PMID:22373257

  20. Data hosting infrastructure for primary biodiversity data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Anthony; Wilson, Nathan; Cryer, Phil; Yamashita, Grant

    2011-01-01

    Today, an unprecedented volume of primary biodiversity data are being generated worldwide, yet significant amounts of these data have been and will continue to be lost after the conclusion of the projects tasked with collecting them. To get the most value out of these data it is imperative to seek a solution whereby these data are rescued, archived and made available to the biodiversity community. To this end, the biodiversity informatics community requires investment in processes and infrastructure to mitigate data loss and provide solutions for long-term hosting and sharing of biodiversity data. We review the current state of biodiversity data hosting and investigate the technological and sociological barriers to proper data management. We further explore the rescuing and re-hosting of legacy data, the state of existing toolsets and propose a future direction for the development of new discovery tools. We also explore the role of data standards and licensing in the context of data hosting and preservation. We provide five recommendations for the biodiversity community that will foster better data preservation and access: (1) encourage the community's use of data standards, (2) promote the public domain licensing of data, (3) establish a community of those involved in data hosting and archival, (4) establish hosting centers for biodiversity data, and (5) develop tools for data discovery. The community's adoption of standards and development of tools to enable data discovery is essential to sustainable data preservation. Furthermore, the increased adoption of open content licensing, the establishment of data hosting infrastructure and the creation of a data hosting and archiving community are all necessary steps towards the community ensuring that data archival policies become standardized.

  1. Overseas Military Bases: Understanding Host Nation Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    hosting decisions, this study seeks greater awareness of the determinants of host nation hospitality. By examining overseas bases in Ecuador and...conjunction with basing arrangements established after the Cold War, including Manta Air Base in Ecuador and Prince Sultan Air Base in Saudi Arabia...Seychelles’ tourism industry, and so its willingness to accommodate a maritime patrol detachment that counted counter-piracy among its primary missions

  2. Host Proteome Research in HIV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Lijun; Zhang, Xiaojun; Ma, Qing; Zhou, Honghao

    2010-01-01

    Proteomics has been widely used in the last few years to look for new biomarkers and decipher the mechanism of HIV?host interaction. Herein, we review the recent developments of HIV/AIDS proteomic research, including the samples used in HIV/AIDS related research, the technologies used for proteomic study, the diagnosis biomarkers of HIV-associated disease especially HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment, the mechanisms of HIV?host interaction, HIV-associated dementia, substance abuse, and ...

  3. Treponema denticola interactions with host proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Christopher Fenno

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Oral Treponema species, most notably T. denticola, are implicated in the destructive effects of human periodontal disease. Progress in the molecular analysis of interactions between T. denticola and host proteins is reviewed here, with particular emphasis on the characterization of surface-expressed and secreted proteins of T. denticola involved in interactions with host cells, extracellular matrix components, and components of the innate immune system.

  4. Sumoylation at the Host-Pathogen Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van G. Wilson

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Many viral proteins have been shown to be sumoylated with corresponding regulatory effects on their protein function, indicating that this host cell modification process is widely exploited by viral pathogens to control viral activity. In addition to using sumoylation to regulate their own proteins, several viral pathogens have been shown to modulate overall host sumoylation levels. Given the large number of cellular targets for SUMO addition and the breadth of critical cellular processes that are regulated via sumoylation, viral modulation of overall sumoylation presumably alters the cellular environment to ensure that it is favorable for viral reproduction and/or persistence. Like some viruses, certain bacterial plant pathogens also target the sumoylation system, usually decreasing sumoylation to disrupt host anti-pathogen responses. The recent demonstration that Listeria monocytogenes also disrupts host sumoylation, and that this is required for efficient infection, extends the plant pathogen observations to a human pathogen and suggests that pathogen modulation of host sumoylation may be more widespread than previously appreciated. This review will focus on recent aspects of how pathogens modulate the host sumoylation system and how this benefits the pathogen.

  5. FRUIT FLIES AND THEIR PARASITOIDS IN THE FRUIT GROWING REGION OF LIVRAMENTO DE NOSSA SENHORA, BAHIA, WITH RECORDS OF UNPRECEDENTED INTERACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUZANY AGUIAR LEITE

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Several fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae assume the status of primary pests in fruit trees grown in Brazil, causing direct production losses. The aims of the study were to know aspects of diversity of fruit flies and their parasitoids in the fruit growing region of Livramento de Nossa Senhora, Bahia. Fruit samples were collected from 19 plant species during November/2011 and June/2014. Infestation rates were calculated in pupae.kg-1 of fruit and pupae.fruit-1. The results indicate the occurrence of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann and Neosilba pendula (Bezzi. Plant species Anacardium occidentale, Averrhoa carambola, Carica papaya, Eugenia uniflora, Malpighia emarginata, Mangifera indica var. “Haden”, “Rosa” and “Tommy Atkins”, Opuntia ficus indica, Pereskia bahiensis, Psidium guajava, Spondias lutea, Spondias purpurea and Spondias tuberosa are hosts of fruit flies in the region. Unprecedented bitrophic relationships between P. bahiensis and C. capitata and Anastrepha sp. and between Opuntia ficus indica and C. capitata and A. obliqua were recorded. Unprecedented tritrophic relationship for the state of Bahia Averrhoa carambola and C. capitata and parasitoid of the Pteromalidae Family were also recorded. Tritrophic associations between M. indica var. “Tommy Atkins” and S. purpurea and A. obliqua and Doryctobracon areolatus; and between S. purpurea and A. obliqua and Utetes anastrephae were observed.

  6. Local host adaptation and use of a novel host in the seed beetle Megacerus eulophus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela C Stotz

    Full Text Available Spatial variation in host plant availability may lead to specialization in host use and local host adaptation in herbivorous insects, which may involve a cost in performance on other hosts. We studied two geographically separated populations of the seed beetle Megacerus eulophus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae in central Chile: a population from the host Convolvulus chilensis (in Aucó and a population from C. bonariensis (in Algarrobo. In Aucó C. chilensis is the only host plant, while in Algarrobo both C. bonariensis and C. chilensis are available. We tested local adaptation to these native host plants and its influence on the use of another, exotic host plant. We hypothesized that local adaptation would be verified, particularly for the one-host population (Aucó, and that the Aucó population would be less able to use an alternative, high-quality host. We found evidence of local adaptation in the population from C. chilensis. Thus, when reared on C. chilensis, adults from the C. chilensis population were larger and lived longer than individuals from the C. bonariensis population, while bruchids from the two populations had the same body size and longevity when reared on C. bonariensis. Overall, bruchids from the C. chilensis population showed greater performance traits than those from the C. bonariensis population. There were no differences between the bruchid populations in their ability to use the alternative, exotic host Calystegia sepium, as shown by body size and longevity patterns. Results suggest that differences in local adaptation might be explained by differential host availability in the study populations.

  7. Local host adaptation and use of a novel host in the seed beetle Megacerus eulophus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotz, Gisela C; Suárez, Lorena H; Gonzáles, Wilfredo L; Gianoli, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    Spatial variation in host plant availability may lead to specialization in host use and local host adaptation in herbivorous insects, which may involve a cost in performance on other hosts. We studied two geographically separated populations of the seed beetle Megacerus eulophus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in central Chile: a population from the host Convolvulus chilensis (in Aucó) and a population from C. bonariensis (in Algarrobo). In Aucó C. chilensis is the only host plant, while in Algarrobo both C. bonariensis and C. chilensis are available. We tested local adaptation to these native host plants and its influence on the use of another, exotic host plant. We hypothesized that local adaptation would be verified, particularly for the one-host population (Aucó), and that the Aucó population would be less able to use an alternative, high-quality host. We found evidence of local adaptation in the population from C. chilensis. Thus, when reared on C. chilensis, adults from the C. chilensis population were larger and lived longer than individuals from the C. bonariensis population, while bruchids from the two populations had the same body size and longevity when reared on C. bonariensis. Overall, bruchids from the C. chilensis population showed greater performance traits than those from the C. bonariensis population. There were no differences between the bruchid populations in their ability to use the alternative, exotic host Calystegia sepium, as shown by body size and longevity patterns. Results suggest that differences in local adaptation might be explained by differential host availability in the study populations.

  8. The Evolution and Genetics of Virus Host Shifts

    OpenAIRE

    Longdon, Ben; Brockhurst, Michael A.; Russell, Colin A.; Welch, John J.; Jiggins, Francis M.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging viral diseases are often the product of a host shift, where a pathogen jumps from its original host into a novel species. Phylogenetic studies show that host shifts are a frequent event in the evolution of most pathogens, but why pathogens successfully jump between some host species but not others is only just becoming clear. The susceptibility of potential new hosts can vary enormously, with close relatives of the natural host typically being the most susceptible. Often, pathogens m...

  9. Fungal-host diversity among mycoheterotrophic plants increases proportionally to their fungal-host overlap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Sofia I F; Merckx, Vincent S F T; Saavedra, Serguei

    2017-05-01

    The vast majority of plants obtain an important proportion of vital resources from soil through mycorrhizal fungi. Generally, this happens in exchange of photosynthetically fixed carbon, but occasionally the interaction is mycoheterotrophic, and plants obtain carbon from mycorrhizal fungi. This process results in an antagonistic interaction between mycoheterotrophic plants and their fungal hosts. Importantly, the fungal-host diversity available for plants is restricted as mycoheterotrophic interactions often involve narrow lineages of fungal hosts. Unfortunately, little is known whether fungal-host diversity may be additionally modulated by plant-plant interactions through shared hosts. Yet, this may have important implications for plant competition and coexistence. Here, we use DNA sequencing data to investigate the interaction patterns between mycoheterotrophic plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. We find no phylogenetic signal on the number of fungal hosts nor on the fungal hosts shared among mycoheterotrophic plants. However, we observe a potential trend toward increased phylogenetic diversity of fungal hosts among mycoheterotrophic plants with increasing overlap in their fungal hosts. While these patterns remain for groups of plants regardless of location, we do find higher levels of overlap and diversity among plants from the same location. These findings suggest that species coexistence cannot be fully understood without attention to the two sides of ecological interactions.

  10. Animal salmonelloses: a brief review of “host adaptation and host specificity” of Salmonella spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grammato Evangelopoulou

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica, the most pathogenic species of the genusSalmonella, includes more than 2,500 serovars, many of which are of great veterinary and medical significance. The emergence of food-borne pathogens, such as Salmonella spp., has increased knowledge about the mechanisms helping microorganisms to persist and spread within new host populations. It has also increased information about the properties they acquire for adapting in the biological environment of a new host. Thedifferences observed between serovars in their host preference and clinical manifestations are referred to as “serovar-host specificity” or “serovar-host adaptation”. The genus Salmonella, highly adaptive to vertebrate hosts, has many pathogenic serovars showing host specificity. Serovar Salmonella Typhi, causing disease to man and higher primates, is a good example of host specificity. Thus, understanding the mechanisms that Salmonella serovars use to overcome animal species' barriers or adapt to new hosts is also important for understanding the origins of any other infectious diseases or the emergence of new pathogens. In addition, molecular methods used to study the virulence determinants of Salmonella serovars, could also be used to model ways of studying the virulence determinants used by bacteria in general, when causing disease to a specific animal species

  11. New host and the extend of the host range of warble fly Hypoderma diana (Diptera, Hypodermatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlásek Ivan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Warble fly Hypoderma diana is known to be a parasite not only of roe deer and other species of Cervidae but also of non-specific hosts from among other orders of ungulates. First-instar larvae of Hypoderma diana, a specific parasite of Cervidae, have been found in a new non-specific host, i.e. the wild boar (Sus scrofa. This finding is further evidence of the exceptional adaptability of this species of subcutaneous warble fly of the family Hypodermatidae. It corroborates the validity of the proposition that the host range of a host-specific parasite can only be ext

  12. HOST PLANT UTILIZATION, HOST RANGE OSCILLATIONS AND DIVERSIFICATION IN NYMPHALID BUTTERFLIES: A PHYLOGENETIC INVESTIGATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylin, Sören; Slove, Jessica; Janz, Niklas

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that phenotypic plasticity is a major factor in the diversification of life, and that variation in host range in phytophagous insects is a good model for investigating this claim. We explore the use of angiosperm plants as hosts for nymphalid butterflies, and in particular the evidence for past oscillations in host range and how they are linked to host shifts and to diversification. At the level of orders of plants, a relatively simple pattern of host use and host shifts emerges, despite the 100 million years of history of the family Nymphalidae. We review the evidence that these host shifts and the accompanying diversifications were associated with transient polyphagous stages, as suggested by the “oscillation hypothesis.” In addition, we investigate all currently polyphagous nymphalid species and demonstrate that the state of polyphagy is rare, has a weak phylogenetic signal, and a very apical distribution in the phylogeny; we argue that these are signs of its transient nature. We contrast our results with data from the bark beetles Dendroctonus, in which a more specialized host use is instead the apical state. We conclude that plasticity in host use is likely to have contributed to diversification in nymphalid butterflies. PMID:24372598

  13. The Host RNAs in Retroviral Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Telesnitsky

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available As they assemble, retroviruses encapsidate both their genomic RNAs and several types of host RNA. Whereas limited amounts of messenger RNA (mRNA are detectable within virion populations, the predominant classes of encapsidated host RNAs do not encode proteins, but instead include endogenous retroelements and several classes of non-coding RNA (ncRNA, some of which are packaged in significant molar excess to the viral genome. Surprisingly, although the most abundant host RNAs in retroviruses are also abundant in cells, unusual forms of these RNAs are packaged preferentially, suggesting that these RNAs are recruited early in their biogenesis: before associating with their cognate protein partners, and/or from transient or rare RNA populations. These RNAs’ packaging determinants differ from the viral genome’s, and several of the abundantly packaged host ncRNAs serve cells as the scaffolds of ribonucleoprotein particles. Because virion assembly is equally efficient whether or not genomic RNA is available, yet RNA appears critical to the structural integrity of retroviral particles, it seems possible that the selectively encapsidated host ncRNAs might play roles in assembly. Indeed, some host ncRNAs appear to act during replication, as some transfer RNA (tRNA species may contribute to nuclear import of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1 reverse transcription complexes, and other tRNA interactions with the viral Gag protein aid correct trafficking to plasma membrane assembly sites. However, despite high conservation of packaging for certain host RNAs, replication roles for most of these selectively encapsidated RNAs—if any—have remained elusive.

  14. Shifts in diversification rates and host jump frequencies shaped the diversity of host range among Sclerotiniaceae fungal plant pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Andrew; Clarkson, John; Raffaele, Sylvain; Navaud, Olivier; Barbacci, Adelin

    2017-01-01

    The range of hosts that a parasite can infect in nature is a trait determined by its own evolutionary history and that of its potential hosts. However, knowledge on host range diversity and evolution at the family level is often lacking. Here, we investigate host range variation and diversification trends within the Sclerotiniaceae , a family of Ascomycete fungi. Using a phylogenetic framework, we associate diversification rates, the frequency of host jump events, and host range variation dur...

  15. The host galaxy of GRB 990712

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, L.; Hjorth, J.; Gorosabel, J.

    2004-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the z = 0.43 host galaxy of GRB 990712, involving ground-based photometry, spectroscopy, and HST imaging. The broad-band UBVRIJHKs photometry is used to determine the global spectral energy distribution (SED) of the host galaxy. Comparison with that of known...... galaxy types shows that the host is similar to a moderately kreddened starburst galaxy with a young stellar population. The estimated internal extinction in the host is A(V) = 0.15 +/- 0.1 and the star-formation rate (SFR) from the UV continuum is 1.3 +/- 0.3 M-circle dot yr(-1) (not corrected...... for the effects of extinction). Other galaxy template spectra than starbursts failed to reproduce the observed SED. We also present VLT spectra leading to the detection of Halpha from the GRB host galaxy. A SFR of 2.8 +/- 0.7 M-circle dot yr(-1) is inferred from the Halpha line flux, and the presence of a young...

  16. The host galaxy of GRB 990712

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, L.; Hjorth, J.; Gorosabel, J.

    2004-01-01

    galaxy types shows that the host is similar to a moderately kreddened starburst galaxy with a young stellar population. The estimated internal extinction in the host is A(V) = 0.15 +/- 0.1 and the star-formation rate (SFR) from the UV continuum is 1.3 +/- 0.3 M-circle dot yr(-1) (not corrected......We present a comprehensive study of the z = 0.43 host galaxy of GRB 990712, involving ground-based photometry, spectroscopy, and HST imaging. The broad-band UBVRIJHKs photometry is used to determine the global spectral energy distribution (SED) of the host galaxy. Comparison with that of known...... for the effects of extinction). Other galaxy template spectra than starbursts failed to reproduce the observed SED. We also present VLT spectra leading to the detection of Halpha from the GRB host galaxy. A SFR of 2.8 +/- 0.7 M-circle dot yr(-1) is inferred from the Halpha line flux, and the presence of a young...

  17. Gas Kinematics in GRB Host Galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arabsalmani, Maryam

    The star formation history of the Universe is one of the most complex and interesting chapters in our quest to understand galaxy formation and evolution. Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) are beacons of actively star forming galaxies from redshifts near zero back to the cosmic dawn. In addition, they provide...... a unique method for selecting galaxies without a luminosity bias as the GRB detectability is unrelated to the brightness of the host galaxy. Even at the highest redshifts, where the hosts are often too faint to be detected in emission, their properties can be inferred from the absorption features...... selected galaxies. Moreover, it is crucial to investigate whether this galaxy population differs from the general population of star forming galaxies (if GRB hosts are a distinct galaxy population), before applying the findings from this selected population to the general population of galaxies...

  18. Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis in diverse host environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Divya; Harper, Lamia; Shopsin, Bo; Torres, Victor J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Staphylococcus aureus is an eminent human pathogen that can colonize the human host and cause severe life-threatening illnesses. This bacterium can reside in and infect a wide range of host tissues, ranging from superficial surfaces like the skin to deeper tissues such as in the gastrointestinal tract, heart and bones. Due to its multifaceted lifestyle, S. aureus uses complex regulatory networks to sense diverse signals that enable it to adapt to different environments and modulate virulence. In this minireview, we explore well-characterized environmental and host cues that S. aureus responds to and describe how this pathogen modulates virulence in response to these signals. Lastly, we highlight therapeutic approaches undertaken by several groups to inhibit both signaling and the cognate regulators that sense and transmit these signals downstream. PMID:28104617

  19. Host chemical footprints induce host sex discrimination ability in egg parasitoids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezio Peri

    Full Text Available Trissolcus egg parasitoids, when perceiving the chemical footprints left on a substrate by pentatomid host bugs, adopt a motivated searching behaviour characterized by longer searching time on patches were signals are present. Once in contact with host chemical footprints, Trissolcus wasps search longer on traces left by associated hosts rather than non-associated species, and, in the former case, they search longer on traces left by females than males. Based on these evidences, we hypothesized that only associated hosts induce the ability to discriminate host sex in wasps. To test this hypothesis we investigated the ability of Trissolcus basalis, T. brochymenae, and Trissolcus sp. to distinguish female from male Nezara viridula, Murgantia histrionica, and Graphosoma semipunctatum footprints. These three pentatomid bugs were selected according to variable association levels. Bioassays were conducted on filter paper sheets, and on Brassica oleracea (broccoli leaves. The results confirmed our hypothesis showing that wasps spent significantly more time on female rather than male traces left by associated hosts on both substrates. No differences were observed in the presence of traces left by non-associated hosts. The ecological consequences for parasitoid host location behaviour are discussed.

  20. Sympatric host races of the European corn borer: adaptation to host plants and hybrid performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcagno, V; Thomas, Y; Bourguet, D

    2007-09-01

    The European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis, is a major pest of maize crops. In Europe, two sympatric host races are found: one feeds on maize (Zea mays) and the other mainly on mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris). The two host races are genetically differentiated, seldom crossing in the laboratory or in the field, and females preferentially lay eggs on their native host species. We conducted two independent experiments, in field and greenhouse conditions, to determine whether the two host races are locally adapted to their host species. The effect of larval density and the performance of hybrids were also investigated. Despite some differences in overall larval feeding performance, both experiments revealed consistent patterns of local adaptation for survival and for larval weight in males. In females the same trend was observed but with weaker statistical support. F1 hybrids did not seem to be disadvantaged compared with the two parental races. Overall, our results showed that both host races are physiologically adapted to their native host. The fitness trade-off between the two host plants provides a potential driving force for ecological speciation in this species.

  1. Host Range Specificity in Verticillium dahliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, R G; Subbarao, K V

    1999-12-01

    ABSTRACT Verticillium dahliae isolates from artichoke, bell pepper, cabbage, cauliflower, chili pepper, cotton, eggplant, lettuce, mint, potato, strawberry, tomato, and watermelon and V. albo-atrum from alfalfa were evaluated for their pathogenicity on all 14 hosts. One-month-old seedlings were inoculated with a spore suspension of about 10(7) conidia per ml using a root-dip technique and incubated in the greenhouse. Disease incidence and severity, plant height, and root and shoot dry weights were recorded 6 weeks after inoculation. Bell pepper, cabbage, cauliflower, cotton, eggplant, and mint isolates exhibited host specificity and differential pathogenicity on other hosts, whereas isolates from artichoke, lettuce, potato, strawberry, tomato, and watermelon did not. Bell pepper was resistant to all Verticillium isolates except isolates from bell pepper and eggplant. Thus, host specificity exists in some isolates of V. dahliae. The same isolates were characterized for vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) through complementation of nitrate nonutilizing (nit) mutants. Cabbage and cauliflower isolates did not produce nit mutants. The isolate from cotton belonged to VCG 1; isolates from bell pepper, eggplant, potato, and tomato, to VCG 4; and the remaining isolates, to VCG 2. These isolates were also analyzed using the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method. Forty random primers were screened, and eighteen of them amplified DNA from Verticillium. Based on RAPD banding patterns, cabbage and cauliflower isolates formed a unique group, distinct from other V. dahliae and V. albo-atrum groups. Minor genetic variations were observed among V. dahliae isolates from other hosts, regardless of whether they were host specific or not. There was no correlation among pathogenicity, VCGs, and RAPD banding patterns. Even though the isolates belonged to different VCGs, they shared similar RAPD profiles. These results suggest that management of Verticillium wilt in some crops

  2. Morphology of methane hydrate host sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K.W.; Feng, H.; Tomov, S.; Winters, W.J.; Eaton, M.; Mahajan, D.

    2005-01-01

    The morphological features including porosity and grains of methane hydrate host sediments were investigated using synchrotron computed microtomography (CMT) technique. The sediment sample was obtained during Ocean Drilling Program Leg 164 on the Blake Ridge at water depth of 2278.5 m. The CMT experiment was performed at the Brookhaven National Synchrotron Light Source facility. The analysis gave ample porosity, specific surface area, mean particle size, and tortuosity. The method was found to be highly effective for the study of methane hydrate host sediments.

  3. Biofilms and host response - helpful or harmful

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moser, Claus; Pedersen, Hannah Trøstrup; Lerche, Christian Johann

    2017-01-01

    Biofilm infections are one of the modern medical world's greatest challenges. Probably, all non-obligate intracellular bacteria and fungi can establish biofilms. In addition, there are numerous biofilm-related infections, both foreign body-related and non-foreign body-related. Although biofilm...... infections can present in numerous ways, one common feature is involvement of the host response with significant impact on the course. A special characteristic is the synergy of the innate and the acquired immune responses for the induced pathology. Here, we review the impact of the host response...... for the course of biofilm infections, with special focus on cystic fibrosis, chronic wounds and infective endocarditis....

  4. Host specificity in bat ectoparasites: a natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratne, Sampath S; Fernando, H Chandrika; Udagama-Randeniya, Preethi V

    2009-07-15

    We undertook a field study to determine patterns of specialisation of ectoparasites in cave-dwelling bats in Sri Lanka. The hypothesis tested was that strict host specificity (monoxeny) could evolve through the development of differential species preferences through association with the different host groups. Three species of cave-dwelling bats were chosen to represent a wide range of host-parasite associations (monoxeny to polyxeny), and both sympatric and allopatric roosting assemblages. Of the eight caves selected, six caves were "allopatric" roosts where two of each housed only one of the three host species examined: Rousettus leschenaulti (Pteropodidae), Rhinolophus rouxi and Hipposideros speoris (Rhinolophidae). The remaining two caves were "sympatric" roosts and housed all three host species. Thirty bats of each species were examined for ectoparasites in each cave, which resulted in a collection of nycteribiid and streblid flies, an ischnopsyllid bat flea, argasid and ixodid ticks, and mites belonging to three families. The host specificity of bat parasites showed a trend to monoxeny in which 70% of the 30 species reported were monoxenous. Odds ratios derived from chi(2)-tests revealed two levels of host preferences in less-specific parasites (i) the parasite was found on two host species under conditions of both host sympatry and host allopatry, with a preference for a single host in the case of host sympatry and (ii) the preference for a single host was very high, hence under conditions of host sympatry, it was confined to the preferred host only. However, under conditions of host allopatry, it utilized both hosts. There appears to be an increasing prevalence in host preferences of the parasites toward confinement to a single host species. The ecological isolation of the bat hosts and a long history of host-parasite co-existence could have contributed to an overall tendency of bat ectoparasites to become specialists, here reflected in the high percentage

  5. Co-niche construction between hosts and symbionts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Symbiosis is a process that can generate evolutionary novelties and can extend the phenotypic niche space of organisms. Symbionts can act together with their hosts to co-construct host organs, within which symbionts are housed. Once established within hosts, symbionts can also influence various aspects of host ...

  6. Parasites and their Freshwater Fish Host | Iyaji | Bio-Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study reviews the effects of parasites of fresh water fish hosts. Like other living organisms, fish harbour parasites either external or internal which cause a host of pathological debilities in them. The parasites live in close obligate association and derive benefits such as nutrition at the host\\'s expense, usually without ...

  7. Host Families Matter: The Homestay Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.

    This manual provides guidelines, sample documents, and sample lesson plans for the trainers, trainees, and host families involved in homestays for Peace Corps volunteers. The manual contains 11 sections that deal with the following topics: (1) introduction; (2) policy, timelines, and responsibilities; (3) medical and financial issues; (4) host…

  8. Host range, symbiotic effectiveness and nodulation competitiveness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-17

    Apr 17, 2008 ... This symbiotic interaction is of agronomic and ecological importance because of its significant amount of nitrogen to the total nitrogen budget in terrestrial ecosystems (Postgate,. 1998). An important characteristic of this symbiotic interaction is host specificity, where defined species of rhizobia forms nodules ...

  9. Detecting Intermediary Hosts by TCP Latency Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurvinder; Eian, Martin; Willassen, Svein Y.; Mjølsnes, Stig Fr.

    Use of intermediary hosts as stepping stones to conceal tracks is common in Internet misuse. It is therefore desirable to find a method to detect whether the originating party is using an intermediary host. Such a detection technique would allow the activation of a number of countermeasures that would neutralize the effects of misuse, and make it easier to trace a perpetrator. This work explores a new approach in determining if a host communicating via TCP is the data originator or if it is acting as a mere TCP proxy. The approach is based on measuring the inter packet arrival time at the receiving end of the connection only, and correlating the observed results with the network latency between the receiver and the proxy. The results presented here indicate that determining the use of a proxy host is possible, if the network latency between the originator and proxy is larger than the network latency between the proxy and the receiver. We show that this technique has potential to be used to detect connections were data is sent through a TCP proxy, such as remote login through TCP proxies, or rejecting spam sent through a bot network.

  10. MHC polymorphism under host-pathogen coevolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borghans, J.A.M.; Beltman, J.B.; Boer, R.J. de

    2004-01-01

    The genes encoding major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules are among the most polymorphic genes known for vertebrates. Since MHC molecules play an important role in the induction of immune responses, the evolution of MHC polymorphism is often explained in terms of increased protection of hosts

  11. Gastrointestinal function in the parasitized host

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    Emphasis in this review is on (1) digestive-absorptive, secretory and smooth muscle functions altered by gastrointestinal (GI) parasites, (2) mechanisms by which parasites induce changes, and (3) the influence of parasite-induced alterations on the health of the host. Examples involving laboratory and domestic animals indicate that inflammation is an important factor in pathological alterations in epithelial and smooth muscle tissues throughout the alimentary canal. Observations on GI secretory activity reveal an influence of parasites on the host GI endocrine system. It is argued that assessments of the significance of parasite-induced changes on the host must be balanced with the adaptive potential and 'reserve capacity' of the GI system. In this regard host immunity should be considered a specific adaptation. Some tracer studies are mentioned marginally, such as the use of 14 C polyethylene glycol to estimate the direction of not fluid movement in the small intestine, and the use of 51 Cr to demonstrate the significantly faster intestinal transit in Trichinella spiralis infected animals

  12. Road MAPs to engineer host microbiomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oyserman, B. O.; Medema, Marnix H; Raaijmakers, J.M.

    2018-01-01

    Microbiomes contribute directly or indirectly to host health and fitness. Thus far, investigations into these emergent traits, referred to here as microbiome-associated phenotypes (MAPs), have been primarily qualitative and taxonomy-driven rather than quantitative and trait-based. We present the

  13. Late effects of radiation: host factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.; Storer, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    The paper discusses the influence of host factors on radiation late effects and in particular cancer. Radiation induces cellular changes that result in initiated cells with a potential to become cancers. The expression of the initiated cells as tumors is influenced, if not determined, by both tissue and systemic factors that are sex-, age-, and species-dependent

  14. Hepatitis C virus host cell interactions uncovered

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottwein, Judith; Bukh, Jens

    2007-01-01

      Insights into virus-host cell interactions as uncovered by Randall et al. (1) in a recent issue of PNAS further our understanding of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) life cycle, persistence, and pathogenesis and might lead to the identification of new therapeutic targets. HCV persistently infects 180...

  15. Spectroscopic Analysis of Planetary Host Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittipruk, P.; Yushchenko, A.; Kang, Y. W.

    2014-08-01

    We observed the high resolution spectra of extra-solar planet host stars. The spectroscopic data of host stars were observed using the CHIRON echelle spectrometer and R-C Spectrograph for magnetic activity on the SMART-1.5 meter telescope at CTIO, Chile. The analysis of spectroscopic data was performed using URAN and SYNTHE programs. These spectra allow us to determine the effective temperatures, surface gravities, microturbulent velocities and, finally, the chemical composition of the hosts was obtained by spectrum synthesis. One of the targets, namely HD 47536, the host of two planets, appeared to be a halo star with overabundances of neutron capture elements. The effective temperature and the surface gravity of this star are 4400 K and log=1.5 respectively, the iron is underabundant by 0.6 dex. The heavy elements (up to thorium, Z=90) show the overabundances with respect to iron. The signs of accretion of interstellar gas are found in the atmosphere of this star.

  16. Circumnuclear Structures in Megamaser Host Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pjanka, Patryk; Greene, Jenny E. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Seth, Anil C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Braatz, James A.; Lo, Fred K. Y. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Henkel, Christian [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Läsker, Ronald, E-mail: ppjanka@princeton.edu [Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO (FINCA), University of Turku, Väisäläntie 20, FI-21500 Kaarina (Finland)

    2017-08-01

    Using the Hubble Space Telescope , we identify circumnuclear (100–500 pc scale) structures in nine new H{sub 2}O megamaser host galaxies to understand the flow of matter from kpc-scale galactic structures down to the supermassive black holes (SMBHs) at galactic centers. We double the sample analyzed in a similar way by Greene et al. and consider the properties of the combined sample of 18 sources. We find that disk-like structure is virtually ubiquitous when we can resolve <200 pc scales, in support of the notion that non-axisymmetries on these scales are a necessary condition for SMBH fueling. We perform an analysis of the orientation of our identified nuclear regions and compare it with the orientation of megamaser disks and the kpc-scale disks of the hosts. We find marginal evidence that the disk-like nuclear structures show increasing misalignment from the kpc-scale host galaxy disk as the scale of the structure decreases. In turn, we find that the orientation of both the ∼100 pc scale nuclear structures and their host galaxy large-scale disks is consistent with random with respect to the orientation of their respective megamaser disks.

  17. Host Defense Against Opportunist Microorganisms Following Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-30

    Include Security Clasification ) (U) Host Defense Against Opportunist Microorganisms Following Trauma 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Bjornson, A. B., Bjornson...the course of bacterial and viral infec- tions. Infect. Immun. 30:824-831. 25. Zimmerli, W., B. Seligmann, and J. I. Gallin. 1986. Exudation primes

  18. Microbial manipulation of host sex determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukeboom, Leo W.

    A recent study in the lepidopteran Ostrinia scapulalis shows that endosymbionts can actively manipulate the sex determination mechanism of their host. Wolbachia bacteria alter the sex-specific splicing of the doublesex master switch gene. In ZZ males of this female heterogametic system, the female

  19. Host selection by a kleptobiotic spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hénaut, Yann; Delme, Juliette; Legal, Luc; Williams, Trevor

    2005-02-01

    Why do kleptobiotic spiders of the genus Argyrodes seem to be associated with spiders of the genus Nephila worldwide? Observations following introduction of experimental insect prey of different sizes and weights on to host webs revealed that: (1) small prey are more effectively retained on the web of Nephila clavipes than on the web of another common host, Leucauge venusta. (2) N. clavipes did not consume small prey that accumulated on the web whereas larger, heavier prey were enveloped and stored. (3) We observed clear partitioning of prey items between N. clavipes and Argyrodes spp.; diet selection by Argyrodes did not overlap with that of N. clavipes but closely overlapped with that of L. venusta. (4) L. venusta responds very quickly to prey impact whereas N. clavipes is slower, offering a temporal window of opportunity for Argyrodes foraging. (5) The ability of L. venusta to detect and respond to small items also means that it acts aggressively to Argyrodes spp., whereas N. clavipes does not. Consequently, food-acquisition behaviours of Argyrodes were clearly less risky with N. clavipes compared with L. venusta. We conclude that when a kleptobiotic organism has a choice of various host species, it will opt for the least risky host that presents the highest rate of availability of food items. The fact that Nephila species present such characteristics explains the worldwide association with Argyrodes kleptobiotic spiders.

  20. Host-pathogen interactions in typhoid fever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, H.K.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis focuses on host-pathogen interactions in Salmonella Typhi and Burkholderia pseudomallei infections and explores the interplay between these bacteria and the innate immune system. Typhoid fever is one of the most common causes of bacterial infection in low-income countries. With adequate

  1. Probing Pseudomonas syringae host interactions using metatranscriptomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transcriptome analyses during the interaction of plants and pathogens can be used to provide insights into molecular mechanisms of plant resistance as well as the mechanisms used by bacteria to adapt to hosts and cause disease. We performed a dual in planta RNA-Seq experiment to profile RNA expressi...

  2. Host Genetics: Fine-Tuning Innate Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Fellay, Jacques; Goldstein, David B.

    2007-01-01

    A polymorphism modulating innate immunity signal transduction has recently been shown to influence human susceptibility to many different infections, providing one more indication of the potential of host genetics to reveal physiological pathways and mechanisms that influence resistance to infectious diseases.

  3. Gut microbiota and host metabolism: what relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithieux, Gilles

    2017-10-24

    A large number of genomic studies have reported associations between the gut microbiota composition and metabolic diseases such as obesity or type 2 diabetes. This led to the widespread idea that a causal relationship could exist between intestinal microbiota and metabolic diseases. At odds with this idea, some compelling studies reported that global changes in microbiota composition have no effect on the host metabolism in obese mice or humans. However, specific bacteria are able to confer host metabolic benefits, such as Akkermansia muciniphila or Prevotella copri, when they are given by gavage in obese mice. A crucial link by which gut bacteria communicate with the host mucosa is based on metabolites or low molecular weight compounds. Among them, short chain fatty acids produced from the fermentation of dietary fibers initiate beneficial effects on the host metabolism via the activation of intestinal gluconeogenesis. This mucosal function exerts anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effects through the activation of gut-brain neural circuits. ©2017S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Five bid to host Middle East synchroton

    CERN Multimedia

    McCabe, H

    1999-01-01

    Germany is willing to donate a synchrotron to a research centre to be built somewhere in the Middle East. Bids to host the centre were submitted by Turkey, Cyprus, Iran, the Palestinian Authority and Egypt. Funding of at least 30 million US dollars still needs to be found (1 page).

  5. On the role of host phenotypic plasticity in host shifting by parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Peri Alexandra

    2015-12-22

    Ecological speciation appears to contribute to the diversification of insect herbivores and other parasites, which together comprise a major component of Earth's biodiversity. Host shifts are likely an important step in ecological speciation, and understanding how such shifts occur is critical to forming and testing hypotheses explaining parasite diversity. In this article, I argue that phenotypic variation in hosts arising from environmental variation (phenotypic plasticity) can promote shifts in parasites by bridging both spatiotemporal and phenotypic gaps between ancestral and novel hosts. This hypothesis, which I call the 'plastic-bridge hypothesis', is conceptually distinct from those invoking genetic variation in bridging these gaps. I describe the mechanistic basis of plastic bridges, review circumstantial evidence in support of the hypothesis and suggest strategies for testing it. I use herbivorous insects and their host plants as a model, but the proposed ideas apply to any system fitting a broad definition of a host-parasite relationship. The plastic-bridge perspective suggests that parasite diversity is not only due to divergent selection provided by hosts, but also to the intraspecific variation that facilitates shifts between them. This view is timely, as biological invasion and range shifts associated with climate change foster novel interactions between parasites and hosts. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  6. First in Vivo Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Transcriptomes Reveal Mechanisms of Host Exploitation, Host-Specific Gene Expression, and Expressed Genotype Shifts

    OpenAIRE

    Amy R. Ellison; Graziella V. DiRenzo; Caitlin A. McDonald; Karen R. Lips; Kelly R. Zamudio

    2017-01-01

    For generalist pathogens, host species represent distinct selective environments, providing unique challenges for resource acquisition and defense from host immunity, potentially resulting in host-dependent differences in pathogen fitness. Gene expression modulation should be advantageous, responding optimally to a given host and mitigating the costs of generalism. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), a fungal pathogen of amphibians, shows variability in pathogenicity among isolates, and with...

  7. Parvoviral host range and cell entry mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotmore, Susan F; Tattersall, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Parvoviruses elaborate rugged nonenveloped icosahedral capsids of approximately 260 A in diameter that comprise just 60 copies of a common core structural polypeptide. While serving as exceptionally durable shells, capable of protecting the single-stranded DNA genome from environmental extremes, the capsid also undergoes sequential conformational changes that allow it to translocate the genome from its initial host cell nucleus all the way into the nucleus of its subsequent host. Lacking a duplex transcription template, the virus must then wait for its host to enter S-phase before it can initiate transcription and usurp the cell's synthetic pathways. Here we review cell entry mechanisms used by parvoviruses. We explore two apparently distinct modes of host cell specificity, first that used by Minute virus of mice, where subtle glycan-specific interactions between host receptors and residues surrounding twofold symmetry axes on the virion surface mediate differentiated cell type target specificity, while the second involves novel protein interactions with the canine transferrin receptor that allow a mutant of the feline leukopenia serotype, Canine parvovirus, to bind to and infect dog cells. We then discuss conformational shifts in the virion that accompany cell entry, causing exposure of a capsid-tethered phospholipase A2 enzymatic core that acts as an endosomolytic agent to mediate virion translocation across the lipid bilayer into the cell cytoplasm. Finally, we discuss virion delivery into the nucleus, and consider the nature of transcriptionally silent DNA species that, escaping detection by the cell, might allow unhampered progress into S-phase and hence unleash the parvoviral Trojan horse.

  8. Dietary Fiber Gap and Host Gut Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Meng; Wang, Congmin; Liu, Ping; Li, Defa; Li, Yuan; Ma, Xi

    2017-05-10

    Accumulating evidence is dramatically increasing the access to the facts that the gut microbiota plays a pivotal role in host metabolism and health, which revealed the possibility of a plethora of associations between gut bacteria and human diseases. Several functional roles are carried out by a major class of the host's diet, such as fiber. Fiber is the main source of microbiota-accessible carbohydrate in the diet of humans. In the modern diet, it is difficult to intake sufficient dietary fiber as recommended. The low-fiber diet in the modern life, known as fiber gap, can trigger a substantial depletion of the human gut microbiota diversity and beneficial metabolites. The short-chain fatty acids are regarded as one of the major microbial metabolites of dietary fibers, which can improve intestinal mucosal immunity, as well as to be a source of energy for the liver. Thus, the loss of microbiota diversity has a potential negative function to various aspects of host health. Actually, the real "fiber gap" for ideal health and maintaining microbial diversity might be even more serious than currently appreciated. Herein, we briefly discuss the interactions between gut microbiota and the host diet, focusing specifically on the low-fiber diet. Gut bacteria in the context of the development of host low-fiber diets, which may lead to health and disorders, particularly include metabolic syndrome and obesity-related disease, IBD liver, disease, and colorectal cancer. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Trophic relationships between the parasitic plant species Phelipanche ramosa (L. and different hosts depending on host phenological stage and host growth rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Moreau

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Phelipanche ramosa (L. Pomel (branched broomrape is a holoparasitic plant that reproduces on crops and also on weeds, which contributes to increase the parasite seed bank in fields. This parasite extracts all its nutrients at the host's expense so that host-parasite trophic relationships are crucial to determine host and parasite growth. This study quantified the intensity with which P. ramosa draws assimilates from its host and analyzed whether it varied with host species, host phenological stage and host growth rate. A greenhouse experiment was conducted on three host species: the crop species Brassica napus (L. (oilseed rape and two weed species, Capsella bursa-pastoris (L. Medik. and Geranium dissectum (L.. Plants were grown with or without P. ramosa and under three light levels to modulate host growth rate. The proportion of host biomass loss due to parasitism by P. ramosa differed between host species (at host fructification, biomass loss ranged from 34% to 84%. Brassica napus and C. bursa-pastoris displayed a similar response to P. ramosa, probably because they belong to the same botanical family. The sensitivity to P. ramosa in each host species could be related to the precocity of P. ramosa development on them. Host compartments could be ranked as a function of their sensitivity to parasitism, with the reproductive compartment being the most severely affected, followed by stems and roots. The proportion of biomass allocated to leaves was not reduced by parasitism. The proportion of pathosystem biomass allocated to the parasite depended on host species. It generally increased with host stage progression but was constant across light induced-host growth rate, showing that P. ramosa adapts its growth to host biomass production. The rank order of host species in terms of sink strength differed from that in terms of host sensitivity. Finally, for B. napus, the biomass of individual parasite shoots decreased with increasing their number per

  10. Star Formation Quenching in Quasar Host Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carniani, Stefano, E-mail: sc888@mrao.cam.ac.uk [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Kavli Institute for Cosmology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2017-10-16

    Galaxy evolution is likely to be shaped by negative feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN). In the whole range of redshifts and luminosities studied so far, galaxies hosting an AGN frequently show fast and extended outflows consisting in both ionized and molecular gas. Such outflows could potentially quench the start formation within the host galaxy, but a clear evidence of negative feedback in action is still missing. Hereby I will analyse integral-field spectroscopic data for six quasars at z ~ 2.4 obtained with SINFONI in the H- and K-band. All the quasars show [Oiii]λ5007 line detection of fast, extended outflows. Also, the high signal-to-noise SINFONI observations allow the identification of faint narrow Hα emission (FWHM < 500 km/s), which is spatially extended and associated with star formation in the host galaxy. On paper fast outflows are spatially anti-correlated with star-formation powered emission, i.e., star formation is suppressed in the area affected by the outflow. Nonetheless as narrow, spatially-extended Hα emission, indicating star formation rates of at least 50–100 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}, has been detected, either AGN feedback is not affecting the whole host galaxy, or star formation is completely quenched only by several feedback episodes. On the other hand, a positive feedback scenario, supported by narrow emission in Hα extending along the edges of the outflow cone, suggests that galaxy-wide outflows could also have a twofold role in the evolution of the host galaxy. Finally, I will present CO(3-2) ALMA data for three out of the six QSOs observed with SINFONI. Flux maps obtained for the CO(3-2) transition suggest that molecular gas within the host galaxy is swept away by fast winds. A negative-feedback scenario is supported by the inferred molecular gas mass in all three objects, which is significantly below what observed in non-active main-sequence galaxies at high-z.

  11. Constraints on host choice: why do parasitic birds rarely exploit some common potential hosts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grim, Tomáš; Samaš, Peter; Moskát, Csaba; Kleven, Oddmund; Honza, Marcel; Moksnes, Arne; Røskaft, Eivin; Stokke, Bård G

    2011-05-01

    1. Why are some common and apparently suitable resources avoided by potential users? This interesting ecological and evolutionary conundrum is vividly illustrated by obligate brood parasites. Parasitic birds lay their eggs into nests of a wide range of host species, including many rare ones, but do not parasitize some commonly co-occurring potential hosts. 2. Attempts to explain the absence of parasitism in common potential hosts are limited and typically focused on single-factor explanations while ignoring other potential factors. We tested why thrushes Turdus spp. are extremely rarely parasitized by common cuckoos Cuculus canorus despite breeding commonly in sympatry and building the most conspicuous nests among forest-breeding passerines. 3. No single examined factor explained cuckoo avoidance of thrushes. Life-history traits of all six European thrush species and the 10 most frequently used cuckoo hosts in Europe were similar except body/egg size, nest design and nestling diet. 4. Experiments (n = 1211) in several populations across Europe showed that host defences at egg-laying and incubation stages did not account for the lack of cuckoo parasitism in thrushes. However, cross-fostering experiments disclosed that various factors during the nestling period prevent cuckoos from successfully parasitizing thrushes. Specifically, in some thrush species, the nest cup design forced cuckoo chicks to compete with host chicks with fatal consequences for the parasite. Other species were reluctant to care even for lone cuckoo chicks. 5. Importantly, in an apparently phylogenetically homogenous group of hosts, there were interspecific differences in factors responsible for the absence of cuckoo parasitism. 6. This study highlights the importance of considering multiple potential factors and their interactions for understanding absence of parasitism in potential hosts of parasitic birds. In the present study, comparative and experimental procedures are integrated, which

  12. Host extinction dynamics in a simple parasite-host interaction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Tzy-Wei; Kuang, Yang

    2005-10-01

    This short article carefully formulate a simple SI model for a parasite-host interaction through the basic birth and death processes analysis. This model reveals and corrects an error in similar models studied recently by various authors. Complete mathematical investigation of this simple model shows that the host extinction dynamics can happen and the outcomes may depend on the initial conditions. We also present biological implications of our findings.

  13. Host and non-host pathogens elicit different jasmonate/ethylene responses in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerli, Laurent; Stein, Mónica; Lipka, Volker; Schulze-Lefert, Paul; Somerville, Shauna

    2004-12-01

    Arabidopsis does not support the growth and asexual reproduction of the barley pathogen, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei Bgh). A majority of germlings fail to penetrate the epidermal cell wall and papillae. To gain additional insight into this interaction, we determined whether the salicylic acid (SA) or jasmonate (JA)/ethylene (ET) defence pathways played a role in blocking barley powdery mildew infections. Only the eds1 mutant and NahG transgenics supported a modest increase in penetration success by the barley powdery mildew. We also compared the global gene expression patterns of Arabidopsis inoculated with the non-host barley powdery mildew to those inoculated with a virulent, host powdery mildew, Erysiphe cichoracearum. Genes repressed by inoculations with non-host and host powdery mildews relative to non-inoculated control plants accounted for two-thirds of the differentially expressed genes. A majority of these genes encoded components of photosynthesis and general metabolism. Consistent with this observation, Arabidopsis growth was inhibited following inoculation with Bgh, suggesting a shift in resource allocation from growth to defence. A number of defence-associated genes were induced during both interactions. These genes likely are components of basal defence responses, which do not effectively block host powdery mildew infections. In addition, genes encoding defensins, anti-microbial peptides whose expression is under the control of the JA/ET signalling pathway, were induced exclusively by non-host pathogens. Ectopic activation of JA/ET signalling protected Arabidopsis against two biotrophic host pathogens. Taken together, these data suggest that biotrophic host pathogens must either suppress or fail to elicit the JA/ET signal transduction pathway.

  14. Salmonella–Host Interactions – Modulation of the Host Innate Immune System

    OpenAIRE

    Hurley, Daniel; McCusker, Matthew P.; Fanning, Séamus; Martins, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica (S. enterica) are Gram-negative bacteria that can invade a broad range of hosts causing both acute and chronic infections. This phenotype is related to its ability to replicate and persist within non-phagocytic host epithelial cells as well as phagocytic dendritic cells and macrophages of the innate immune system.Infection with S. enterica manifests itself through a broad range of clinical symptoms and can result in asymptomatic carriage, gastroenteritis, systemic disease ...

  15. Host-Associated Differentiation: The Gape-and-Pinch Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen B. Heard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecological speciation via host shifting has contributed to the astonishing diversity of phytophagous insects. The importance for host shifting of trait differences between alternative host plants is well established, but much less is known about trait variation within hosts. I outline a conceptual model, the “gape-and-pinch” (GAP model, of insect response to host-plant trait variation during host shifting and host-associated differentiation. I offer four hypotheses about insect use of plant trait variation on two alternative hosts, for insects at different stages of host-associated differentiation. Collectively, these hypotheses suggest that insect responses to plant trait variation can favour or oppose critical steps in herbivore diversification. I provide statistical tools for analysing herbivore trait-space use, demonstrate their application for four herbivores of the goldenrods Solidago altissima and S. gigantea, and discuss their broader potential to advance our understanding of diet breadth and ecological speciation in phytophagous insects.

  16. Environmentally transmitted parasites: Host-jumping in a heterogeneous environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraco, Thomas; Cizauskas, Carrie A; Wang, Ing-Nang

    2016-05-21

    Groups of chronically infected reservoir-hosts contaminate resource patches by shedding a parasite׳s free-living stage. Novel-host groups visit the same patches, where they are exposed to infection. We treat arrival at patches, levels of parasite deposition, and infection of the novel host as stochastic processes, and derive the expected time elapsing until a host-jump (initial infection of a novel host) occurs. At stationarity, mean parasite densities are independent of reservoir-host group size. But within-patch parasite-density variances increase with reservoir group size. The probability of infecting a novel host declines with parasite-density variance; consequently larger reservoir groups extend the mean waiting time for host-jumping. Larger novel-host groups increase the probability of a host-jump during any single patch visit, but also reduce the total number of visits per unit time. Interaction of these effects implies that the waiting time for the first infection increases with the novel-host group size. If the reservoir-host uses resource patches in any non-uniform manner, reduced spatial overlap between host species increases the waiting time for host-jumping. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Trophic Relationships between the Parasitic Plant Species Phelipanche ramosa (L.) and Different Hosts Depending on Host Phenological Stage and Host Growth Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Delphine; Gibot-Leclerc, Stéphanie; Girardin, Annette; Pointurier, Olivia; Reibel, Carole; Strbik, Florence; Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Colbach, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Phelipanche ramosa (L.) Pomel (branched broomrape) is a holoparasitic plant that reproduces on crops and also on weeds, which contributes to increase the parasite seed bank in fields. This parasite extracts all its nutrients at the host’s expense so that host–parasite trophic relationships are crucial to determine host and parasite growth. This study quantified the intensity with which P. ramosa draws assimilates from its host and analyzed whether it varied with host species, host phenological stage and host growth rate. A greenhouse experiment was conducted on three host species: the crop species Brassica napus (L.) (oilseed rape) and two weed species, Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. and Geranium dissectum (L.). Plants were grown with or without P. ramosa and under three light levels to modulate host growth rate. The proportion of host biomass loss due to parasitism by P. ramosa differed between host species (at host fructification, biomass loss ranged from 34 to 84%). B. napus and C. bursa-pastoris displayed a similar response to P. ramosa, probably because they belong to the same botanical family. The sensitivity to P. ramosa in each host species could be related to the precocity of P. ramosa development on them. Host compartments could be ranked as a function of their sensitivity to parasitism, with the reproductive compartment being the most severely affected, followed by stems and roots. The proportion of biomass allocated to leaves was not reduced by parasitism. The proportion of pathosystem biomass allocated to the parasite depended on host species. It generally increased with host stage progression but was constant across light induced-host growth rate, showing that P. ramosa adapts its growth to host biomass production. The rank order of host species in terms of sink strength differed from that in terms of host sensitivity. Finally, for B. napus, the biomass of individual parasite shoots decreased with increasing their number per host plant

  18. Blood Groups in Infection and Host Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Blood group antigens represent polymorphic traits inherited among individuals and populations. At present, there are 34 recognized human blood groups and hundreds of individual blood group antigens and alleles. Differences in blood group antigen expression can increase or decrease host susceptibility to many infections. Blood groups can play a direct role in infection by serving as receptors and/or coreceptors for microorganisms, parasites, and viruses. In addition, many blood group antigens facilitate intracellular uptake, signal transduction, or adhesion through the organization of membrane microdomains. Several blood groups can modify the innate immune response to infection. Several distinct phenotypes associated with increased host resistance to malaria are overrepresented in populations living in areas where malaria is endemic, as a result of evolutionary pressures. Microorganisms can also stimulate antibodies against blood group antigens, including ABO, T, and Kell. Finally, there is a symbiotic relationship between blood group expression and maturation of the gastrointestinal microbiome. PMID:26085552

  19. Blood Groups in Infection and Host Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooling, Laura

    2015-07-01

    Blood group antigens represent polymorphic traits inherited among individuals and populations. At present, there are 34 recognized human blood groups and hundreds of individual blood group antigens and alleles. Differences in blood group antigen expression can increase or decrease host susceptibility to many infections. Blood groups can play a direct role in infection by serving as receptors and/or coreceptors for microorganisms, parasites, and viruses. In addition, many blood group antigens facilitate intracellular uptake, signal transduction, or adhesion through the organization of membrane microdomains. Several blood groups can modify the innate immune response to infection. Several distinct phenotypes associated with increased host resistance to malaria are overrepresented in populations living in areas where malaria is endemic, as a result of evolutionary pressures. Microorganisms can also stimulate antibodies against blood group antigens, including ABO, T, and Kell. Finally, there is a symbiotic relationship between blood group expression and maturation of the gastrointestinal microbiome. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Exploiting host immunity: the Salmonella paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnsen, Judith; Perez-Lopez, Araceli; Nuccio, Sean-Paul; Raffatellu, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Pathogens have evolved clever strategies to evade and in some cases exploit the attacks of an activated immune system. Salmonella enterica is one such pathogen, exploiting multiple aspects of host defense to promote its replication in the host. Here we review recent findings on the mechanisms by which Salmonella establishes systemic and chronic infection, including strategies involving manipulation of innate immune signaling and inflammatory forms of cell death, as well as immune evasion by establishing residency in M2 macrophages. We also examine recent evidence showing that the oxidative environment and the high levels of antimicrobial proteins produced in response to localized Salmonella gastrointestinal infection enable the pathogen to successfully outcompete the resident gut microbiota. PMID:25582038

  1. Natural SIV hosts: showing AIDS the door.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahroudi, Ann; Bosinger, Steven E; Vanderford, Thomas H; Paiardini, Mirko; Silvestri, Guido

    2012-03-09

    Many species of African nonhuman primates are naturally infected with simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) in the wild and in captivity. In contrast to HIV-infected humans, these natural SIV hosts typically do not develop AIDS, despite chronic infection with a highly replicating virus. In this Review, we discuss the most recent advances on the mechanisms of protection from disease progression in natural SIV hosts, with emphasis on how they differ from pathogenic HIV/SIV infections of humans and rhesus macaques. These mechanisms include: (i) resolution of immune activation after acute infection, (ii) restricted pattern of target cell infection, and (iii) protection from mother-to-infant transmission. We highlight the areas that should be pursued in future studies, focusing on potential applications for the treatment and prevention of HIV infection.

  2. Giardia duodenalis genetic assemblages and hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyworth Martin F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Techniques for sub-classifying morphologically identical Giardia duodenalis trophozoites have included comparisons of the electrophoretic mobility of enzymes and of chromosomes, and sequencing of genes encoding β-giardin, triose phosphate isomerase, the small subunit of ribosomal RNA and glutamate dehydrogenase. To date, G. duodenalis organisms have been sub-classified into eight genetic assemblages (designated A–H. Genotyping of G. duodenalis organisms isolated from various hosts has shown that assemblages A and B infect the largest range of host species, and appear to be the main (or possibly only G. duodenalis assemblages that undeniably infect human subjects. In at least some cases of assemblage A or B infection in wild mammals, there is suggestive evidence that the infection had resulted from environmental contamination by G. duodenalis cysts of human origin.

  3. CERN hosts Physics and Society Forum

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    On 28-29 March, CERN hosted the fifth edition of the European Physical Society's “Physics and Society” forum. The forum addresses the role of physicists in general society – be they in education, politics, industry or communication. This year, attendees looked at how physicists have adapted - and can continue to adapt - to work in the economic marketplace.   “The forums began back in 2006, as a special closing event for the 2005 World Year of Physics,” explains Martial Ducloy, former President of the French Physical Society and Chair of the EPS Forum Physics and Society. “We decided to keep the sessions going, as they gave physicists a venue to discuss the non-scientific issues that influence their daily work. As the world's largest international physics laboratory – and the venue for this year's EPS Council – CERN seemed the ideal place to host this year's forum.” The forum ...

  4. Identification of host response signatures of infection.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branda, Steven S.; Sinha, Anupama; Bent, Zachary

    2013-02-01

    Biological weapons of mass destruction and emerging infectious diseases represent a serious and growing threat to our national security. Effective response to a bioattack or disease outbreak critically depends upon efficient and reliable distinguishing between infected vs healthy individuals, to enable rational use of scarce, invasive, and/or costly countermeasures (diagnostics, therapies, quarantine). Screening based on direct detection of the causative pathogen can be problematic, because culture- and probe-based assays are confounded by unanticipated pathogens (e.g., deeply diverged, engineered), and readily-accessible specimens (e.g., blood) often contain little or no pathogen, particularly at pre-symptomatic stages of disease. Thus, in addition to the pathogen itself, one would like to detect infection-specific host response signatures in the specimen, preferably ones comprised of nucleic acids (NA), which can be recovered and amplified from tiny specimens (e.g., fingerstick draws). Proof-of-concept studies have not been definitive, however, largely due to use of sub-optimal sample preparation and detection technologies. For purposes of pathogen detection, Sandia has developed novel molecular biology methods that enable selective isolation of NA unique to, or shared between, complex samples, followed by identification and quantitation via Second Generation Sequencing (SGS). The central hypothesis of the current study is that variations on this approach will support efficient identification and verification of NA-based host response signatures of infectious disease. To test this hypothesis, we re-engineered Sandia's sophisticated sample preparation pipelines, and developed new SGS data analysis tools and strategies, in order to pioneer use of SGS for identification of host NA correlating with infection. Proof-of-concept studies were carried out using specimens drawn from pathogen-infected non-human primates (NHP). This work provides a strong foundation for

  5. Somatic Host Cell Alterations in HPV Carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Tamara R. Litwin; Megan A. Clarke; Michael Dean; Nicolas Wentzensen

    2017-01-01

    High-risk human papilloma virus (HPV) infections cause cancers in different organ sites, most commonly cervical and head and neck cancers. While carcinogenesis is initiated by two viral oncoproteins, E6 and E7, increasing evidence shows the importance of specific somatic events in host cells for malignant transformation. HPV-driven cancers share characteristic somatic changes, including apolipoprotein B mRNA editing catalytic polypeptide-like (APOBEC)-driven mutations and genomic instability ...

  6. Host specialist clownfishes are environmental niche generalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litsios, Glenn; Kostikova, Anna; Salamin, Nicolas

    2014-11-22

    Why generalist and specialist species coexist in nature is a question that has interested evolutionary biologists for a long time. While the coexistence of specialists and generalists exploiting resources on a single ecological dimension has been theoretically and empirically explored, biological systems with multiple resource dimensions (e.g. trophic, ecological) are less well understood. Yet, such systems may provide an alternative to the classical theory of stable evolutionary coexistence of generalist and specialist species on a single resource dimension. We explore such systems and the potential trade-offs between different resource dimensions in clownfishes. All species of this iconic clade are obligate mutualists with sea anemones yet show interspecific variation in anemone host specificity. Moreover, clownfishes developed variable environmental specialization across their distribution. In this study, we test for the existence of a relationship between host-specificity (number of anemones associated with a clownfish species) and environmental-specificity (expressed as the size of the ecological niche breadth across climatic gradients). We find a negative correlation between host range and environmental specificities in temperature, salinity and pH, probably indicating a trade-off between both types of specialization forcing species to specialize only in a single direction. Trade-offs in a multi-dimensional resource space could be a novel way of explaining the coexistence of generalist and specialists. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Parasitoid polydnaviruses and immune interaction with secondary hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xi-Qian; Shi, Min; Huang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xue-Xin

    2018-01-17

    Polydnaviruses (PDVs) are obligatory symbionts with parasitoid wasps. The PDV virions are produced solely in wasp (the primary host) calyx cells. They are injected into caterpillar hosts (the secondary host) during parasitoid oviposition, where they express irreplaceable actions to ensure survival and development of wasp larvae. Some of PDV gene products suppress host immune responses while others alter host growth, metabolism or endocrine system. Here, we treat new findings on PDV gene products and their action on immunity within secondary hosts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Toxoplasma Parasitophorous Vacuole: An Evolving Host-Parasite Frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Barbara; Frickel, Eva-Maria

    2017-06-01

    The parasitophorous vacuole is a unique replicative niche for apicomplexan parasites, including Toxoplasma gondii. Derived from host plasma membrane, the vacuole is rendered nonfusogenic with the host endolysosomal system. Toxoplasma secretes numerous proteins to modify the forming vacuole, enable nutrient uptake, and set up mechanisms of host subversion. Here we describe the pathways of host-parasite interaction at the parasitophorous vacuole employed by Toxoplasma and host, leading to the intricate balance of host defence versus parasite survival. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Shifts in diversification rates and host jump frequencies shaped the diversity of host range among Sclerotiniaceae fungal plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaud, Olivier; Barbacci, Adelin; Taylor, Andrew; Clarkson, John P; Raffaele, Sylvain

    2018-03-01

    The range of hosts that a parasite can infect in nature is a trait determined by its own evolutionary history and that of its potential hosts. However, knowledge on host range diversity and evolution at the family level is often lacking. Here, we investigate host range variation and diversification trends within the Sclerotiniaceae, a family of Ascomycete fungi. Using a phylogenetic framework, we associate diversification rates, the frequency of host jump events and host range variation during the evolution of this family. Variations in diversification rate during the evolution of the Sclerotiniaceae define three major macro-evolutionary regimes with contrasted proportions of species infecting a broad range of hosts. Host-parasite cophylogenetic analyses pointed towards parasite radiation on distant hosts long after host speciation (host jump or duplication events) as the dominant mode of association with plants in the Sclerotiniaceae. The intermediate macro-evolutionary regime showed a low diversification rate, high frequency of duplication events and the highest proportion of broad host range species. Our findings suggest that the emergence of broad host range fungal pathogens results largely from host jumps, as previously reported for oomycete parasites, probably combined with low speciation rates. These results have important implications for our understanding of fungal parasites evolution and are of particular relevance for the durable management of disease epidemics. © 2018 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The effects of host-feeding on stability of discrete-time host-parasitoid population dynamic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerick, Brooks; Singh, Abhyudai

    2016-02-01

    Discrete-time models are the traditional approach for capturing population dynamics of a host-parasitoid system. Recent work has introduced a semi-discrete framework for obtaining model update functions that connect host-parasitoid population levels from year-to-year. In particular, this framework uses differential equations to describe the host-parasitoid interaction during the time of year when they come in contact, allowing specific behaviors to be mechanistically incorporated. We use the semi-discrete approach to study the effects of host-feeding, which occurs when a parasitoid consumes a potential host larva without ovipositing. We find that host-feeding by itself cannot stabilize the system, and both populations exhibit behavior similar to the Nicholson-Bailey model. However, when combined with stabilizing mechanisms such as density-dependent host mortality, host-feeding contracts the region of parameter space that allows for a stable host-parasitoid equilibrium. In contrast, when combined with a density-dependent parasitoid attack rate, host-feeding expands the non-zero equilibrium stability region. Our results show that host-feeding causes inefficiency in the parasitoid population, which yields a higher population of hosts per generation. This suggests that host-feeding may have limited long-term impact in terms of suppressing host levels for biological control applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Host microsatellite alleles in malaria predisposition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trivedi Rajni

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a serious, sometimes fatal, disease caused by Plasmodium infection of human red blood cells. The host-parasite co-evolutionary processes are well understood by the association of coding variations such as G6PD, Duffy blood group receptor, HLA, and beta-globin gene variants with malaria resistance. The profound genetic diversity in host is attributed to polymorphic microsatellites loci. The microsatellite alleles in bacterial species are known to have aided their survival in fatal environmental conditions. The fascinating question is whether microsatellites are genomic cushion in the human genome to combat disease stress and has cause-effect relationships with infections. Presentation of the hypothesis It is hypothesized that repeat units or alleles of microsatellites TH01 and D5S818, located in close proximity to beta-globin gene and immune regulatory region in human play a role in malaria predisposition. Association of alleles at aforesaid microsatellites with malaria infection was analysed. To overrule the false association in unrecognized population stratification, structure analysis and AMOVA were performed among the sampled groups. Testing of hypothesis Associations of microsatellite alleles with malaria infection were verified using recombination rate, Chi-square, and powerful likelihood tests. Further investigation of population genetic structure, and AMOVA was done to rule out the confounding effects of population stratification in interpretation of association studies. Implication of the hypothesis Lower recombination rate (θ between microsatellites and genes implicated in host fitness; positive association between alleles -13 (D5S818, 9 (TH01 and strong susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum; and alleles-12 (D5S818 and 6 (TH01 rendering resistance to human host were evident. The interesting fact emerging from the study was that while predisposition to malaria was a prehistoric attribute, among TH01

  12. Host range, host ecology, and distribution of more than 11800 fish parasite species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strona, Giovanni; Palomares, Maria Lourdes D.; Bailly, Nicholas; Galli, Paolo; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    Our data set includes 38 008 fish parasite records (for Acanthocephala, Cestoda, Monogenea, Nematoda, Trematoda) compiled from the scientific literature, Internet databases, and museum collections paired to the corresponding host ecological, biogeographical, and phylogenetic traits (maximum length, growth rate, life span, age at maturity, trophic level, habitat preference, geographical range size, taxonomy). The data focus on host features, because specific parasite traits are not consistently available across records. For this reason, the data set is intended as a flexible resource able to extend the principles of ecological niche modeling to the host–parasite system, providing researchers with the data to model parasite niches based on their distribution in host species and the associated host features. In this sense, the database offers a framework for testing general ecological, biogeographical, and phylogenetic hypotheses based on the identification of hosts as parasite habitat. Potential applications of the data set are, for example, the investigation of species–area relationships or the taxonomic distribution of host-specificity. The provided host–parasite list is that currently used by Fish Parasite Ecology Software Tool (FishPEST, http://purl.oclc.org/fishpest), which is a website that allows researchers to model several aspects of the relationships between fish parasites and their hosts. The database is intended for researchers who wish to have more freedom to analyze the database than currently possible with FishPEST. However, for readers who have not seen FishPEST, we recommend using this as a starting point for interacting with the database.

  13. PHIDIAS- Pathogen Host Interaction Data Integration and Analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PHIDIAS- Pathogen Host Interaction Data Integration and Analysis- allows searching of integrated genome sequences, conserved domains and gene expressions data related to pathogen host interactions in high priority agents for public health and security ...

  14. Host plant quality mediates competition between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegt, B.; Jansa, J.; Franken, O.; Engelmoer, D.J.P.; Werner, G.D.A.; Bücking, H.; Kiers, E.T.

    2016-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi exchange soil nutrients for carbon from plant hosts. Empirical works suggests that hosts may selectively provide resources to different fungal species, ultimately affecting fungal competition. However, fungal competition may also be mediated by colonization strategies of

  15. Interleukin-6 mediates host defense responses induced by abdominal surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wortel, C. H.; van Deventer, S. J.; Aarden, L. A.; Lygidakis, N. J.; Büller, H. R.; Hoek, F. J.; Horikx, J.; ten Cate, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    Cytokines have been implicated as pivotal mediators of the host defense reaction. In patients undergoing surgery we investigated the relationship between such mediators and postoperative host defense responses. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was determined with an immunoradiometric assay, interleukin

  16. Bacterial adhesion to host tissues : mechanisms and consequences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Michael, 1947

    2002-01-01

    "This book is about the adhesion of bacteria to their human hosts. Although adhesion is essential for maintaining members of the normal microflora in/on their host, it is also the crucial first stage in any infectious disease...

  17. Patterns of host adaptation in Frankliniella occidentalis among vegetable crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current study examined the variation in life table characteristics, and physiological, biochemical, and molecular bases of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) host adaptation patterns. The main objective was to determine whether host availability affects insect preferenc...

  18. Hijacking host cell highways: manipulation of the host actin cytoskeleton by obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punsiri M Colonne

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular bacterial pathogens replicate within eukaryotic cells and display unique adaptations that support key infection events including invasion, replication, immune evasion, and dissemination. From invasion to dissemination, all stages of the intracellular bacterial life cycle share the same three-dimensional cytosolic space containing the host cytoskeleton. For successful infection and replication, many pathogens hijack the cytoskeleton using effector proteins introduced into the host cytosol by specialized secretion systems. A subset of effectors contains eukaryotic-like motifs that mimic host proteins to exploit signaling and modify specific cytoskeletal components such as actin and microtubules. Cytoskeletal rearrangement promotes numerous events that are beneficial to the pathogen, including internalization of bacteria, subversion of cell intrinsic immunity, structural support for bacteria-containing vacuoles, altered vesicular trafficking, actin-dependent bacterial movement, and pathogen dissemination. This review highlights a diverse group of obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens that manipulate the host cytoskeleton to thrive within eukaryotic cells and discusses underlying molecular mechanisms that promote these dynamic host-pathogen interactions.

  19. Echinococcus multilocularis and Its Intermediate Host: A Model of Parasite-Host Interplay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Angèle Vuitton

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Host-parasite interactions in the E. multilocularis-intermediate host model depend on a subtle balance between cellular immunity, which is responsible for host's resistance towards the metacestode, the larval stage of the parasite, and tolerance induction and maintenance. The pathological features of alveolar echinococcosis. the disease caused by E. multilocularis, are related both to parasitic growth and to host's immune response, leading to fibrosis and necrosis, The disease spectrum is clearly dependent on the genetic background of the host as well as on acquired disturbances of Th1-related immunity. The laminated layer of the metacestode, and especially its carbohydrate components, plays a major role in tolerance induction. Th2-type and anti-inflammatory cytokines, IL-10 and TGF-β, as well as nitric oxide, are involved in the maintenance of tolerance and partial inhibition of cytotoxic mechanisms. Results of studies in the experimental mouse model and in patients suggest that immune modulation with cytokines, such as interferon-α, or with specific antigens could be used in the future to treat patients with alveolar echinococcosis and/or to prevent this very severe parasitic disease.

  20. Competitive virus and host RNAs: the interplay of a hidden virus and host interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changfei; Hu, Jun; Hao, Junli; Zhao, Bao; Wu, Bo; Sun, Lu; Peng, Shanxin; Gao, George F; Meng, Songdong

    2014-05-01

    During virus infection, viral RNAs and mRNAs function as blueprints for viral protein synthesis and possibly as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) in innate immunity. Here, considering recent research progress in microRNAs (miRNAs) and competitive endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs), we speculate that viral RNAs act as sponges and can sequester endogenous miRNAs within infected cells, thus cross-regulating the stability and translational efficiency of host mRNAs with shared miRNA response elements. This cross-talk and these reciprocal interactions between viral RNAs and host mRNAs are termed "competitive viral and host RNAs" (cvhRNAs). We further provide recent experimental evidence for the existence of cvhRNAs networks in hepatitis B virus (HBV), as well as Herpesvirus saimiri (HVS), lytic murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections. In addition, the cvhRNA hypothesis also predicts possible cross-regulation between host and other viruses, such as hepatitis C virus (HCV), HIV, influenza virus, human papillomaviruses (HPV). Since the interaction between miRNAs and viral RNAs also inevitably leads to repression of viral RNA function, we speculate that virus may evolve either to employ cvhRNA networks or to avoid miRNA targeting for optimal fitness within the host. CvhRNA networks may therefore play a fundamental role in the regulation of viral replication, infection establishment, and viral pathogenesis.

  1. Microsporidia infection impacts the host cell's cycle and reduces host cell apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higes, Mariano; Sagastume, Soledad; Juarranz, Ángeles; Dias-Almeida, Joyce; Budge, Giles E.; Meana, Aránzazu; Boonham, Neil

    2017-01-01

    Intracellular parasites can alter the cellular machinery of host cells to create a safe haven for their survival. In this regard, microsporidia are obligate intracellular fungal parasites with extremely reduced genomes and hence, they are strongly dependent on their host for energy and resources. To date, there are few studies into host cell manipulation by microsporidia, most of which have focused on morphological aspects. The microsporidia Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae are worldwide parasites of honey bees, infecting their ventricular epithelial cells. In this work, quantitative gene expression and histology were studied to investigate how these two parasites manipulate their host’s cells at the molecular level. Both these microsporidia provoke infection-induced regulation of genes involved in apoptosis and the cell cycle. The up-regulation of buffy (which encodes a pro-survival protein) and BIRC5 (belonging to the Inhibitor Apoptosis protein family) was observed after infection, shedding light on the pathways that these pathogens use to inhibit host cell apoptosis. Curiously, different routes related to cell cycle were modified after infection by each microsporidia. In the case of N. apis, cyclin B1, dacapo and E2F2 were up-regulated, whereas only cyclin E was up-regulated by N. ceranae, in both cases promoting the G1/S phase transition. This is the first report describing molecular pathways related to parasite-host interactions that are probably intended to ensure the parasite’s survival within the cell. PMID:28152065

  2. An Endoparasitoid Avoids Hyperparasitism by Manipulating Immobile Host Herbivore to Modify Host Plant Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Tomohisa; Matsuo, Kazunori; Abe, Yoshihisa; Yukawa, Junichi; Tokuda, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Many parasitic organisms have an ability to manipulate their hosts to increase their own fitness. In parasitoids, behavioral changes of mobile hosts to avoid or protect against predation and hyperparasitism have been intensively studied, but host manipulation by parasitoids associated with endophytic or immobile hosts has seldom been investigated. We examined the interactions between a gall inducer Masakimyia pustulae (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) and its parasitoids. This gall midge induces dimorphic leaf galls, thick and thin types, on Euonymus japonicus (Celastraceae). Platygaster sp. was the most common primary parasitoid of M. pustulae. In galls attacked by Platygaster sp., whole gall thickness as well as thicknesses of upper and lower gall wall was significantly larger than unparasitized galls, regardless of the gall types, in many localities. In addition, localities and tree individuals significantly affected the thickness of gall. Galls attacked by Platygaster sp. were seldom hyperparasitized in the two gall types. These results strongly suggest that Platygaster sp. manipulates the host plant's development to avoid hyperparasitism by thickening galls. PMID:25033216

  3. The Poxvirus C7L Host Range Factor Superfamily

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jia; Rothenburg, Stefan; McFadden, Grant

    2012-01-01

    Host range factors, expressed by the poxvirus family, determine the host tropism of species, tissue, and cell specificity. C7L family members exist in the genomes of most sequenced mammalian poxviruses, suggesting an evolutionarily conserved effort adapting to the hosts. In general, C7L orthologs influence the host tropism in mammalian cell culture, and for some poxviruses it is essential for the complete viral life cycle in vitro and in vivo. The C7L family members lack obvious sequence homo...

  4. Salmonella Pathogenicity and Host Adaptation in Chicken-Associated Serovars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Ricke, Steven C.; Nayak, Rajesh; Danzeisen, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Enteric pathogens such as Salmonella enterica cause significant morbidity and mortality. S. enterica serovars are a diverse group of pathogens that have evolved to survive in a wide range of environments and across multiple hosts. S. enterica serovars such as S. Typhi, S. Dublin, and S. Gallinarum have a restricted host range, in which they are typically associated with one or a few host species, while S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium have broad host ranges. This review examines how S. enterica has evolved through adaptation to different host environments, especially as related to the chicken host, and continues to be an important human pathogen. Several factors impact host range, and these include the acquisition of genes via horizontal gene transfer with plasmids, transposons, and phages, which can potentially expand host range, and the loss of genes or their function, which would reduce the range of hosts that the organism can infect. S. Gallinarum, with a limited host range, has a large number of pseudogenes in its genome compared to broader-host-range serovars. S. enterica serovars such as S. Kentucky and S. Heidelberg also often have plasmids that may help them colonize poultry more efficiently. The ability to colonize different hosts also involves interactions with the host's immune system and commensal organisms that are present. Thus, the factors that impact the ability of Salmonella to colonize a particular host species, such as chickens, are complex and multifactorial, involving the host, the pathogen, and extrinsic pressures. It is the interplay of these factors which leads to the differences in host ranges that we observe today. PMID:24296573

  5. Testing Two Methods that Relate Herbivorous Insects to Host Plants

    OpenAIRE

    White, Peter J. T.

    2013-01-01

    Insect herbivores are integral to terrestrial ecosystems. They provide essential food for higher trophic levels and aid in nutrient cycling. In general, research tends to relate individual insect herbivore species to host plant identity, where a species will show preference for one host over another. In contrast, insect herbivore assemblages are often related to host plant richness where an area with a higher richness of hosts will also have a higher richness of herbivores. In this study, the...

  6. 42 CFR 71.54 - Etiological agents, hosts, and vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Etiological agents, hosts, and vectors. 71.54..., INSPECTION, LICENSING FOREIGN QUARANTINE Importations § 71.54 Etiological agents, hosts, and vectors. (a) A... any arthropod or other animal host or vector of human disease, or any exotic living arthropod or other...

  7. 76 FR 63891 - Foreign Quarantine; Etiological Agents, Hosts, and Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... Foreign Quarantine; Etiological Agents, Hosts, and Vectors AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and... cover the importation of etiological agents and the hosts and vectors of human disease. The changes are... for importation of etiological agents, hosts, and vectors (42 CFR 71.54), requiring persons to obtain...

  8. Nestling polymorphism in a cuckoo-host system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Nozomu J; Tanaka, Keita D; Okahisa, Yuji; Yamamichi, Masato; Kuehn, Ralph; Gula, Roman; Ueda, Keisuke; Theuerkauf, Jörn

    2015-12-21

    Virulence of avian brood parasites can trigger a coevolutionary arms race, which favours rejection of parasitic eggs or chicks by host parents, and in turn leads to mimicry in parasite eggs or chicks [1-7]. The appearance of host offspring is critical to enable host parents to detect parasites. Thus, increasing accuracy of parasites' mimicry can favour a newly emerged host morph to escape parasites' mimicry. If parasites catch up with the hosts with a newly acquired mimetic morph, host polymorphism should be maintained through apostatic (negative frequency-dependent) selection, which favours hosts rarer morphs [1-3,7]. Among population-wide polymorphism, uniformity of respective host morphs in single host nests stochastically prevents parasites from targeting any specific morph of hosts and thus helps parents detect parasitism. Polymorphism in such a state is well-known in egg appearances of hosts of brood parasitic birds [2,3,7], which might also occur in chick appearances when arms races escalate. Here, we present evidence of polymorphism in chick skin coloration in a cuckoo-host system: the fan-tailed gerygone Gerygone flavolateralis and its specialist brood parasite, the shining bronze-cuckoo Chalcites lucidus in New Caledonia (Figure 1A-C). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Reviewing host proteins of Rhabdoviridae: Possible leads for lesser ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Retroviridae and Filoviridae (Harty et al. 2001). The M protein of VSV shows striking similarity with the. 3 C protease of the Poliovirus (family Picornaviridae) with respect to its mode of host transcription inhibition and its molecular targets in the host cell. It is also similar to the influenza virus in regulating host gene expression ...

  10. Reviewing host proteins of Rhabdoviridae: Possible leads for lesser ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rhabdoviridae, characterized by bullet-shaped viruses, is known for its diverse host range, which includes plants, arthropods, fishes and humans. Understanding the viral–host interactions of this family can prove beneficial in developing effective therapeutic strategies. The host proteins interacting with animal rhabdoviruses ...

  11. Evolution in action : host race formation in Galerucella nymphaeae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pappers, Stephanie Maria

    2001-01-01

    A host race is a population which is partially reproductively isolated as a direct consequence of adaptation to a certain host. For host race formation to occur five conditions should be met. First of all, the populations should occur in sympatry, which means that they co-occur within the normal

  12. Epigenetic modulation of host: new insights into immune evasion by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Viruses have evolved with their hosts, which include all living species. This has been partly responsible for the development of highly advanced immune systems in the hosts. However, viruses too have evolved ways to regulate and evade the host's immune defence. In addition to mutational mechanisms that viruses employ ...

  13. Immunoregulation by Trichinella spiralis: Benefits for parasite and host

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aranzamendi Esteban, C.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341157430

    2013-01-01

    Several studies indicate that certain helminths suppress the host immune responses. This suppression may benefit the parasite since it increases the chances of survival in their host. By doing so, the hosts may also benefit due to concomitant reduction of immune pathology associated with allergies

  14. An HST study of three very faint GRB host galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaunsen, A.O.; Andersen, M.I.; Hjorth, J.

    2003-01-01

    As part of the HST/STIS GRB host survey program we present the detection of three faint gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies based on an accurate localisation using ground-based data of the optical afterglows (OAs). A common property of these three hosts is their extreme faintness. The location at...

  15. Co-niche construction between hosts and symbionts: ideas and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-07-05

    Jul 5, 2017 ... Symbiosis is a process that can generate evolutionary novelties and can extend the phenotypic niche space of organisms. Symbionts can act together with their hosts to co-construct host organs, within which symbionts are housed. Once established within hosts, symbionts can also influence various ...

  16. Host species exploitation and discrimination by animal parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Mark R; Morrill, André; Schellinck, Jennifer

    2017-05-05

    Parasite species often show differential fitness on different host species. We developed an equation-based model to explore conditions favouring host species exploitation and discrimination. In our model, diploid infective stages randomly encountered hosts of two species; the parasite's relative fitness in exploiting each host species, and its ability to discriminate between them, was determined by the parasite's genotype at two independent diallelic loci. Relative host species frequency determined allele frequencies at the exploitation locus, whereas differential fitness and combined host density determined frequency of discrimination alleles. The model predicts instances where populations contain mixes of discriminatory and non-discriminatory infective stages. Also, non-discriminatory parasites should evolve when differential fitness is low to moderate and when combined host densities are low, but not so low as to cause parasite extinction. A corollary is that parasite discrimination (and host-specificity) increases with higher combined host densities. Instances in nature where parasites fail to discriminate when differential fitness is extreme could be explained by one host species evolving resistance, following from earlier selection for parasite non-discrimination. Similar results overall were obtained for haploid extensions of the model. Our model emulates multi-host associations and has implications for understanding broadening of host species ranges by parasites.This article is part of the themed issue 'Opening the black box: re-examining the ecology and evolution of parasite transmission'. © 2017 The Authors.

  17. Parasite transmission in social interacting hosts: Monogenean epidemics in guppies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mirelle B.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; van Oosterhout, Cock; Cable, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Background Infection incidence increases with the average number of contacts between susceptible and infected individuals. Contact rates are normally assumed to increase linearly with host density. However, social species seek out each other at low density and saturate their contact rates at high densities. Although predicting epidemic behaviour requires knowing how contact rates scale with host density, few empirical studies have investigated the effect of host density. Also, most theory assumes each host has an equal probability of transmitting parasites, even though individual parasite load and infection duration can vary. To our knowledge, the relative importance of characteristics of the primary infected host vs. the susceptible population has never been tested experimentally. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we examine epidemics using a common ectoparasite, Gyrodactylus turnbulli infecting its guppy host (Poecilia reticulata). Hosts were maintained at different densities (3, 6, 12 and 24 fish in 40 L aquaria), and we monitored gyrodactylids both at a population and individual host level. Although parasite population size increased with host density, the probability of an epidemic did not. Epidemics were more likely when the primary infected fish had a high mean intensity and duration of infection. Epidemics only occurred if the primary infected host experienced more than 23 worm days. Female guppies contracted infections sooner than males, probably because females have a higher propensity for shoaling. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that in social hosts like guppies, the frequency of social contact largely governs disease epidemics independent of host density.

  18. Parasite transmission in social interacting hosts: monogenean epidemics in guppies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirelle B Johnson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infection incidence increases with the average number of contacts between susceptible and infected individuals. Contact rates are normally assumed to increase linearly with host density. However, social species seek out each other at low density and saturate their contact rates at high densities. Although predicting epidemic behaviour requires knowing how contact rates scale with host density, few empirical studies have investigated the effect of host density. Also, most theory assumes each host has an equal probability of transmitting parasites, even though individual parasite load and infection duration can vary. To our knowledge, the relative importance of characteristics of the primary infected host vs. the susceptible population has never been tested experimentally. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we examine epidemics using a common ectoparasite, Gyrodactylus turnbulli infecting its guppy host (Poecilia reticulata. Hosts were maintained at different densities (3, 6, 12 and 24 fish in 40 L aquaria, and we monitored gyrodactylids both at a population and individual host level. Although parasite population size increased with host density, the probability of an epidemic did not. Epidemics were more likely when the primary infected fish had a high mean intensity and duration of infection. Epidemics only occurred if the primary infected host experienced more than 23 worm days. Female guppies contracted infections sooner than males, probably because females have a higher propensity for shoaling. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that in social hosts like guppies, the frequency of social contact largely governs disease epidemics independent of host density.

  19. Prokaryotes versus Eukaryotes: Who is hosting whom?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo eTellez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms represent the largest component of biodiversity in our world. For millions of years, prokaryotic microorganisms have functioned as a major selective force shaping eukaryotic evolution. Microbes that live inside and on animals outnumber the animals’ actual somatic and germ cells by an estimated 10-fold. Collectively, the intestinal microbiome represents a ‘forgotten organ’, functioning as an organ inside another that can execute many physiological responsibilities. The nature of primitive eukaryotes was drastically changed due to the association with symbiotic prokaryotes facilitating mutual coevolution of host and microbe. Phytophagous insects have long been used to test theories of evolutionary diversification; moreover, the diversification of a number of phytophagous insect lineages has been linked to mutualisms with microbes. From termites and honey bees to ruminants and mammals, depending on novel biochemistries provided by the prokaryotic microbiome, the association helps to metabolize several nutrients that the host cannot digest and converting these into useful end products (such as short chain fatty acids, a process which has huge impact on the biology and homeostasis of metazoans. More importantly, in a direct and/or indirect way, the intestinal microbiota influences the assembly of gut-associated lymphoid tissue, helps to educate immune system, affects the integrity of the intestinal mucosal barrier, modulates proliferation and differentiation of its epithelial lineages, regulates angiogenesis, and modifies the activity of enteric as well as the central nervous system,. Despite these important effects, the mechanisms by which the gut microbial community influences the host’s biology remains almost entirely unknown. Our aim here is to encourage empirical inquiry into the relationship between mutualism and evolutionary diversification between prokaryotes and eukaryotes which encourage us to postulate: Who is

  20. MORPHOLOGY OF METHANE HYDRATE HOST SEDIMENTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JONES,K.W.; FENG,H.; TOMOV,S.; WINTER,W.J.; EATON,M.; MAHAJAN,D.

    2004-12-01

    Results from simulated experiments in several laboratories show that host sediments influence hydrate formation in accord with known heterogeneity of host sediments at sites of gas hydrate occurrence (1). For example, in Mackenzie Delta, NWT Canada (Mallik 2L-38 well), coarser-grained units (pore-filling model) are found whereas in the Gulf of Mexico, the found hydrate samples do not appear to be lithologically controlled. We have initiated a systematic study of sediments, initially focusing on samples from various depths at a specific site, to establish a correlation with hydrate occurrence (or variations thereof) to establish differences in their microstructure, porosity, and other associated properties. The synchrotron computed microtomography (CMT) set-up at the X-27A tomography beam line at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), Brookhaven National Laboratory was used as a tool to study sediments from Blake Ridge at three sub bottom depths of 0.2, 50, and 667 meters. Results from the tomographic analysis of the deepest sample (667 m) are presented here to illustrate how tomography can be used to obtain new insights into the structures of methane hydrate host sediments. The investigation shows the internal grain/pore space resolution in the microstructure and a 3-D visualization of the connecting pathways obtained following data segmentation into pore space and grains within the sediment sample. The analysis gives the sample porosity, specific surface area, mean particle size, and tortuosity, as well. An earlier report on the experimental program has been given by Mahajan et al. (2).

  1. Natural invertebrate hosts of iridoviruses (Iridoviridae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Trevor [Instituto de Ecologia A.C., Veracruz (Mexico)]. E-mail: trevor.williams@inecol.edu.mx

    2008-11-15

    Invertebrate iridescent viruses (IIVs) are icosahedral DNA viruses that infect invertebrates, mainly insects and terrestrial isopods, in damp and aquatic habitats. Exhaustive searches of databases resulted in the identification of 79 articles reporting 108 invertebrate species naturally infected by confirmed or putative iridoviruses. Of these, 103 (95%) were arthropods and the remainder were molluscs, an annelid worm and a nematode. Nine species were from marine habitats. Of the 99 non-marine species, 49 were from terrestrial habitats and 50 were aquatic, especially the aquatic stages of Diptera (44 species). The abundance of records from species of Aedes, Ochlerotatus and Psorophora contrasts markedly with a paucity of records from species of Anopheles, Culex and Culiseta. Records from terrestrial isopods are numerous (19 species), although the diversity of IIVs that infect them is mostly unstudied. IIV infections have been reported from every continent, except Antarctica, but there are few records from Africa, southern Asia and Latin America. Most reports describe patent IIV infections as rare whereas inapparent (covert) infection may be common in certain species. The relationship between particle size and iridescent colour of the host is found to be consistent with optical theory in the great majority of cases. Only 24 reported IIVs from insect hosts have partial characterization data and only two have been subjected to complete genome sequencing. I show that the rate of publication on IIVs has slowed from 1990 to the present, and I draw a number of conclusions and suggestions from the host list and make recommendations for future research efforts. (author)

  2. Studies of Reservoir Hosts for Marburg virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swanepoel, Robert; Smit, Sheilagh B; Rollin, Pierre E

    2007-01-01

    To determine reservoir hosts for Marburg virus (MARV), we examined the fauna of a mine in northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. The mine was associated with a protracted outbreak of Marburg hemorrhagic fever during 1998-2000. We found MARV nucleic acid in 12 bats, comprising 3.0%-3.6% of 2...... species of insectivorous bat and 1 species of fruit bat. We found antibody to the virus in the serum of 9.7% of 1 of the insectivorous species and in 20.5% of the fruit bat species, but attempts to isolate virus were unsuccessful. ...

  3. Collaborative web hosting challenges and research directions

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Reaz

    2014-01-01

    This brief presents a peer-to-peer (P2P) web-hosting infrastructure (named pWeb) that can transform networked, home-entertainment devices into lightweight collaborating Web servers for persistently storing and serving multimedia and web content. The issues addressed include ensuring content availability, Plexus routing and indexing, naming schemes, web ID, collaborative web search, network architecture and content indexing. In pWeb, user-generated voluminous multimedia content is proactively uploaded to a nearby network location (preferably within the same LAN or at least, within the same ISP)

  4. Mycobacterium tuberculosis effectors interfering host apoptosis signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Minqiang; Li, Wu; Xiang, Xiaohong; Xie, Jianping

    2015-07-01

    Tuberculosis remains a serious human public health concern. The coevolution between its pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis and human host complicated the way to prevent and cure TB. Apoptosis plays subtle role in this interaction. The pathogen endeavors to manipulate the apoptosis via diverse effectors targeting key signaling nodes. In this paper, we summarized the effectors pathogen used to subvert the apoptosis, such as LpqH, ESAT-6/CFP-10, LAMs. The interplay between different forms of cell deaths, such as apoptosis, autophagy, necrosis, is also discussed with a focus on the modes of action of effectors, and implications for better TB control.

  5. Host association of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato--the key role of host complement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtenbach, Klaus; De Michelis, Simona; Etti, Susanne; Schäfer, Stefanie M; Sewell, Henna-Sisko; Brade, Volker; Kraiczy, Peter

    2002-02-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), the tick-borne agent of Lyme borreliosis, is a bacterial species complex comprising 11 genospecies. Here, we discuss whether the delineation of genospecies is ecologically relevant. We provide evidence that B. burgdorferi s.l. is structured ecologically into distinct clusters that are host specific. An immunological model for niche adaptation is proposed that suggests the operation of complement-mediated selection in the midgut of the feeding tick. We conclude that vertebrate hosts rather than tick species are the key to Lyme borreliosis spirochaete diversity.

  6. Host Reproductive Phenology Drives Seasonal Patterns of Host Use in Mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D.; McClure, Christopher J. W.; Ligon, Russell A.; Graham, Sean P.; Guyer, Craig; Hill, Geoffrey E.; Ditchkoff, Stephen S.; Eubanks, Micky D.; Hassan, Hassan K.; Unnasch, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Seasonal shifts in host use by mosquitoes from birds to mammals drive the timing and intensity of annual epidemics of mosquito-borne viruses, such as West Nile virus, in North America. The biological mechanism underlying these shifts has been a matter of debate, with hypotheses falling into two camps: (1) the shift is driven by changes in host abundance, or (2) the shift is driven by seasonal changes in the foraging behavior of mosquitoes. Here we explored the idea that seasonal changes in ho...

  7. Permanence and chaos in a host-parasitoid model with prolonged diapause for the host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Min; Zhang, Limin

    2009-12-01

    The dynamic behavior of a host-parasitoid model with prolonged diapause for the host is investigated. It is proved that the system is permanent under certain appropriate conditions. Numerical simulations are presented to illustrate consistency with the theoretical analysis. For the biologically reasonable range of parameter values, the global dynamics of the system have been studied numerically. In particular, the effect of prolonged diapause on the system has been investigated. Many forms of complex dynamics are observed, including quasi-periodicity, period-doubling and period-halving bifurcations, chaotic bands with periodic windows, attractor crises, intermittency, and supertransients. These complex dynamic behaviors are confirmed by the largest Lyapunov exponents.

  8. Host specificity in a diverse Neotropical tick community: an assessment using quantitative network analysis and host phylogeny

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esser, Helen; Herre, Edward A.; Blüthgen, Nico; Loaiza, Jose R.; Bermúdez, Sergio E.; Jansen, P.A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Host specificity is a fundamental determinant of tick population and pathogen transmission dynamics, and therefore has important implications for human health. Tick host specificity is expected to be particularly high in the tropics, where communities of ticks, hosts and pathogens are

  9. The potential for host switching via ecological fitting in the emerald ash borer-host plant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollini, Don; Peterson, Donnie L

    2018-02-27

    The traits used by phytophagous insects to find and utilize their ancestral hosts can lead to host range expansions, generally to closely related hosts that share visual and chemical features with ancestral hosts. Host range expansions often result from ecological fitting, which is the process whereby organisms colonize and persist in novel environments, use novel resources, or form novel associations with other species because of the suites of traits that they carry at the time they encounter the novel environment. Our objective in this review is to discuss the potential and constraints on host switching via ecological fitting in emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, an ecologically and economically important invasive wood boring beetle. Once thought of as an ash (Fraxinus spp.) tree specialist, recent studies have revealed a broader potential host range than was expected for this insect. We discuss the demonstrated host-use capabilities of this beetle, as well as the potential for and barriers to the adoption of additional hosts by this beetle. We place our observations in the context of biochemical mechanisms that mediate the interaction of these beetles with their host plants and discuss whether evolutionary host shifts are a possible outcome of the interaction of this insect with novel hosts.

  10. Parasitism, host immune function, and sexual selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, A P; Christe, P; Lux, E

    1999-03-01

    Parasite-mediated sexual selection may arise as a consequence of 1) females avoiding mates with directly transmitted parasites, 2) females choosing less-parasitized males that provide parental care of superior quality, or 3) females choosing males with few parasites in order to obtain genes for parasite resistance in their offspring. Studies of specific host-parasite systems and comparative analyses have revealed both supportive and conflicting evidence for these hypotheses. A meta-analysis of the available evidence revealed a negative relationship between parasite load and the expression of male secondary sexual characters. Experimental studies yielded more strongly negative relationships than observations did, and the relationships were more strongly negative for ectoparasites than for endoparasites. There was no significant difference in the magnitude of the negative effect for species with and without male parental care, or between behavioral and morphological secondary sexual characters. There was a significant difference between studies based on host immune function and those based on parasite loads, with stronger effects for measures of immune function, suggesting that the many negative results from previous analyses of parasite-mediated sexual selection may be explained because relatively benign parasites were studied. The multivariate analyses demonstrating strong effect sizes of immune function in relation to the expression of secondary sexual characters, and for species with male parental care as compared to those without, suggest that parasite resistance may be a general determinant of parasite-mediated sexual selection.

  11. Host adaptive immunity alters gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Husen; Sparks, Joshua B; Karyala, Saikumar V; Settlage, Robert; Luo, Xin M

    2015-03-01

    It has long been recognized that the mammalian gut microbiota has a role in the development and activation of the host immune system. Much less is known on how host immunity regulates the gut microbiota. Here we investigated the role of adaptive immunity on the mouse distal gut microbial composition by sequencing 16 S rRNA genes from microbiota of immunodeficient Rag1(-/-) mice, versus wild-type mice, under the same housing environment. To detect possible interactions among immunological status, age and variability from anatomical sites, we analyzed samples from the cecum, colon, colonic mucus and feces before and after weaning. High-throughput sequencing showed that Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Verrucomicrobia dominated mouse gut bacterial communities. Rag1(-) mice had a distinct microbiota that was phylogenetically different from wild-type mice. In particular, the bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila was highly enriched in Rag1(-/-) mice compared with the wild type. This enrichment was suppressed when Rag1(-/-) mice received bone marrows from wild-type mice. The microbial community diversity increased with age, albeit the magnitude depended on Rag1 status. In addition, Rag1(-/-) mice had a higher gain in microbiota richness and evenness with increase in age compared with wild-type mice, possibly due to the lack of pressure from the adaptive immune system. Our results suggest that adaptive immunity has a pervasive role in regulating gut microbiota's composition and diversity.

  12. Ingestion of host immunoglobulin by Sarcoptes scabiei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simson Tarigan

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Scabies is one of the most important diseases in human and veterinary medicine. The available control measures that rely on acaricides are unsustainable, costly and environmentally unfriendly. Vaccination which is supposedly the most attractive alternative control, is sustainable, potentially cheap and environmentally friendly. Recent development in protein biochemistry and recombinant technology have facilitated the development of anti-parasite vaccine which in the past was impossible. One prerequisite for the anti-parasite-vaccine development is that the parasite has to ingest its host immunoglobulin. This study, therefore, was designed to determine whether Sarcoptes scabiei, a non blood-feeding parasite that resides on the avascular cornified layer of the skin, ingest its host immunoglobulin. Sections of routinely processed mites and skin from a mangy goat were probed with peroxidase-conjugated-anti-goat IgG and the immune complex was visualised with diaminobenzidine solution. To determine whether the ingested IgG was still intact or had been fragmented by the proteolytic enzymes, immunoblotting analysis of SDS-PAGE- fractionated proteins extracted from washed mites was performed. Quantification of IgG was done byan Elisa using purified goat IgG as control. This study showed that IgG in the mites confined to the mite’s gut only, and only a fraction of mite population ingested the IgG. The ingested IgG, as shown by immunoblot analysis, was mostly still intact. This study indicates that development of anti-scabies vaccines is reasonable.

  13. Love Thieves: Japanese Hosts and Western Convention Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westberg, Lysa Hannah Pernille Nielsen

    Japanese host culture may seem foreign to a Westerner, just like the practice of buying (male) company for pure entertainment and emotional support. Japanese women (and men) pay for the pleasure of a host's company. Hosts usually do not provide sexual favours but emotional ones, and popular hosts...... have quite substantial fan followings. While one might argue that we in the West do not have anything like the Japanese host culture, it is enlightening to compare the mechanisms of this culture to a part of Western culture which also provides company and closeness for those who are able to pay: fan...

  14. Host social behavior and parasitic infection: A multifactorial approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezenwa, V.O.

    2004-01-01

    I examined associations between several components of host social organization, including group size and gregariousness, group stability, territoriality and social class, and gastrointestinal parasite load in African bovids. At an intraspecific level, group size was positively correlated with parasite prevalence, but only when the parasite was relatively host specific and only among host species living in stable groups. Social class was also an important predictor of infection rates. Among gazelles, territorial males had higher parasite intensities than did either bachelor males or females and juveniles, suggesting that highly territorial individuals may be either more exposed or more susceptible to parasites. Associations among territoriality, grouping, and parasitism were also found across taxa. Territorial host genera were more likely to be infected with strongyle nematodes than were nonterritorial hosts, and gregarious hosts were more infected than were solitary hosts. Analyses also revealed that gregariousness and territoriality had an interactive effect on individual parasite richness, whereby hosts with both traits harbored significantly more parasite groups than did hosts with only one or neither trait. Overall, study results indicate that multiple features of host social behavior influence infection risk and suggest that synergism between traits also has important effects on host parasite load.

  15. The evolution and genetics of virus host shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longdon, Ben; Brockhurst, Michael A; Russell, Colin A; Welch, John J; Jiggins, Francis M

    2014-11-01

    Emerging viral diseases are often the product of a host shift, where a pathogen jumps from its original host into a novel species. Phylogenetic studies show that host shifts are a frequent event in the evolution of most pathogens, but why pathogens successfully jump between some host species but not others is only just becoming clear. The susceptibility of potential new hosts can vary enormously, with close relatives of the natural host typically being the most susceptible. Often, pathogens must adapt to successfully infect a novel host, for example by evolving to use different cell surface receptors, to escape the immune response, or to ensure they are transmitted by the new host. In viruses there are often limited molecular solutions to achieve this, and the same sequence changes are often seen each time a virus infects a particular host. These changes may come at a cost to other aspects of the pathogen's fitness, and this may sometimes prevent host shifts from occurring. Here we examine how these evolutionary factors affect patterns of host shifts and disease emergence.

  16. The evolution and genetics of virus host shifts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Longdon

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Emerging viral diseases are often the product of a host shift, where a pathogen jumps from its original host into a novel species. Phylogenetic studies show that host shifts are a frequent event in the evolution of most pathogens, but why pathogens successfully jump between some host species but not others is only just becoming clear. The susceptibility of potential new hosts can vary enormously, with close relatives of the natural host typically being the most susceptible. Often, pathogens must adapt to successfully infect a novel host, for example by evolving to use different cell surface receptors, to escape the immune response, or to ensure they are transmitted by the new host. In viruses there are often limited molecular solutions to achieve this, and the same sequence changes are often seen each time a virus infects a particular host. These changes may come at a cost to other aspects of the pathogen's fitness, and this may sometimes prevent host shifts from occurring. Here we examine how these evolutionary factors affect patterns of host shifts and disease emergence.

  17. A single natural nucleotide mutation alters bacterial pathogen host tropism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, David; Comos, María; McAdam, Paul R; Ward, Melissa J; Selva, Laura; Guinane, Caitriona M; González-Muñoz, Beatriz M; Tristan, Anne; Foster, Simon J; Fitzgerald, J Ross; Penadés, José R

    2015-04-01

    The capacity of microbial pathogens to alter their host tropism leading to epidemics in distinct host species populations is a global public and veterinary health concern. To investigate the molecular basis of a bacterial host-switching event in a tractable host species, we traced the evolutionary trajectory of the common rabbit clone of Staphylococcus aureus. We report that it evolved through a likely human-to-rabbit host jump over 40 years ago and that only a single naturally occurring nucleotide mutation was required and sufficient to convert a human-specific S. aureus strain into one that could infect rabbits. Related mutations were identified at the same locus in other rabbit strains of distinct clonal origin, consistent with convergent evolution. This first report of a single mutation that was sufficient to alter the host tropism of a microorganism during its evolution highlights the capacity of some pathogens to readily expand into new host species populations.

  18. Proteomic Characterization of Host Response to Yersinia pestis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chromy, B; Perkins, J; Heidbrink, J; Gonzales, A; Murhpy, G; Fitch, J P; McCutchen-Maloney, S

    2004-05-11

    Host-pathogen interactions result in protein expression changes within both the host and the pathogen. Here, results from proteomic characterization of host response following exposure to Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, and to two near neighbors, Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. enterocolitica, are reported. Human monocyte-like cells were chosen as a model for macrophage immune response to pathogen exposure. Two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry was used to identify host proteins with differential expression following exposure to these three closely related Yersinia species. This comparative proteomic characterization of host response clearly shows that host protein expression patterns are distinct for the different pathogen exposures, and contributes to further understanding of Y. pestis virulence and host defense mechanisms. This work also lays the foundation for future studies aimed at defining biomarkers for presymptomatic detection of plague.

  19. Constraints on host choice: why do parasitic birds rarely exploit some common potential hosts?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grim, T.; Samaš, P.; Moskát, C.; Kleven, O.; Honza, Marcel; Moksnes, A.; Roskaft, E.; Stokke, B. G.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 3 (2011), s. 508-518 ISSN 0021-8790 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930605 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : antiparasite defence * co-evolution * host selection * interactive effects * parasite avoidance Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.937, year: 2011

  20. Host-exclusivity and host-recurrence by wood decay fungi (Basidiomycota - Agaricomycetes in Brazilian mangroves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgea S. Nogueira-Melo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to investigate for the first time the ecological interactions between species of Agaricomycetes and their host plants in Brazilian mangroves. Thirty-two field trips were undertaken to four mangroves in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil, from April 2009 to March 2010. One 250 x 40 m stand was delimited in each mangrove and six categories of substrates were artificially established: living Avicennia schaueriana (LA, dead A. schaueriana (DA, living Rhizophora mangle (LR, dead R. mangle (DR, living Laguncularia racemosa (LL and dead L. racemosa (DL. Thirty-three species of Agaricomycetes were collected, 13 of which had more than five reports and so were used in statistical analyses. Twelve species showed significant values for fungal-plant interaction: one of them was host-exclusive in DR, while five were host-recurrent on A. schauerianna; six occurred more in dead substrates, regardless the host species. Overall, the results were as expected for environments with low plant species richness, and where specificity, exclusivity and/or recurrence are more easily seen. However, to properly evaluate these relationships, mangrove ecosystems cannot be considered homogeneous since they can possess different plant communities, and thus different types of fungal-plant interactions.