WorldWideScience

Sample records for host acid resistance

  1. Early stage phytohormone and fatty acid profiles of plants associated with host and non-host resistance to hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) infestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytohormones and fatty acids play important roles in plant resistance to insects and pathogens. In this study, we investigated the similarities and differences in the accumulations of phytohormones and fatty acids in the resistant wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) ‘Molly’ and the non-host rice (Oryza sa...

  2. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  3. Heteroconium chaetospira induces resistance to clubroot via upregulation of host genes involved in jasmonic acid, ethylene, and auxin biosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Lahlali

    Full Text Available An endophytic fungus, Heteroconium chaetospira isolate BC2HB1 (Hc, suppressed clubroot (Plasmodiophora brassicae -Pb on canola in growth-cabinet trials. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that Hc penetrated canola roots and colonized cortical tissues. Based on qPCR analysis, the amount of Hc DNA found in canola roots at 14 days after treatment was negatively correlated (r = 0.92, P<0.001 with the severity of clubroot at 5 weeks after treatment at a low (2×10(5 spores pot(-1 but not high (2×10(5 spores pot(-1 dose of pathogen inoculum. Transcript levels of nine B. napus (Bn genes in roots treated with Hc plus Pb, Pb alone and a nontreated control were analyzed using qPCR supplemented with biochemical analysis for the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyases (PAL. These genes encode enzymes involved in several biosynthetic pathways related potentially to plant defence. Hc plus Pb increased the activity of PAL but not that of the other two genes (BnCCR and BnOPCL involved also in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, relative to Pb inoculation alone. In contrast, expression of several genes involved in the jasmonic acid (BnOPR2, ethylene (BnACO, auxin (BnAAO1, and PR-2 protein (BnPR-2 biosynthesis were upregulated by 63, 48, 3, and 3 fold, respectively, by Hc plus Pb over Pb alone. This indicates that these genes may be involved in inducing resistance in canola by Hc against clubroot. The upregulation of BnAAO1 appears to be related to both pathogenesis of clubroot and induced defence mechanisms in canola roots. This is the first report on regulation of specific host genes involved in induced plant resistance by a non-mycorrhizal endophyte.

  4. The Role of Microbial Amino Acid Metabolism in Host Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelien P. J. G. Neis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Disruptions in gut microbiota composition and function are increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The functional output of the gut microbiota, including short-chain fatty acids and amino acids, are thought to be important modulators underlying the development of these disorders. Gut bacteria can alter the bioavailability of amino acids by utilization of several amino acids originating from both alimentary and endogenous proteins. In turn, gut bacteria also provide amino acids to the host. This could have significant implications in the context of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus, conditions associated with elevated systemic concentrations of certain amino acids, in particular the aromatic and branched-chain amino acids. Moreover, several amino acids released by gut bacteria can serve as precursors for the synthesis of short-chain fatty acids, which also play a role in the development of obesity. In this review, we aim to compile the available evidence on the contribution of microbial amino acids to host amino acid homeostasis, and to assess the role of the gut microbiota as a determinant of amino acid and short-chain fatty acid perturbations in human obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  5. Progress in engineering acid stress resistance of lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chongde; Huang, Jun; Zhou, Rongqing

    2014-02-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widely used for the production of a variety of fermented foods, and are considered as probiotic due to their health-promoting effect. However, LAB encounter various environmental stresses both in industrial fermentation and application, among which acid stress is one of the most important survival challenges. Improving the acid stress resistance may contribute to the application and function of probiotic action to the host. Recently, the advent of genomics, functional genomics and high-throughput technologies have allowed for the understanding of acid tolerance mechanisms at a systems level, and many method to improve acid tolerance have been developed. This review describes the current progress in engineering acid stress resistance of LAB. Special emphasis is placed on engineering cellular microenvironment (engineering amino acid metabolism, introduction of exogenous biosynthetic capacity, and overproduction of stress response proteins) and maintaining cell membrane functionality. Moreover, strategies to improve acid tolerance and the related physiological mechanisms are also discussed.

  6. Parasite host range and the evolution of host resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, F.A.; Hall, A.R.; A., Buckling; P.D., Scanlan

    2015-01-01

    Parasite host range plays a pivotal role in the evolution and ecology of hosts
    and the emergence of infectious disease. Although the factors that promote
    host range and the epidemiological consequences of variation in host range
    are relatively well characterized, the effect of parasite

  7. Combining ability and heritability for host resistance to Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We generated 144 three-way test crosses and screened them together with their parental inbred lines and 4 single cross testers for host resistance to A. flavus and reduced aflatoxin accumulation. Using line by tester analysis, we identified 5 resistant inbred lines and 7 hybrids. We used the resistant inbred lines to make ...

  8. Using biotechnology to enhance host resistance to aflatoxin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Host resistance is the most widely explored strategy for eliminating aflatoxin contamination by Aspergillus flavus. Breeding strategies for developing resistant corn germplasm have been enhanced by the development of new screening tools for field inoculation and for laboratory screening. RFLP analysis of corn populations ...

  9. Specialization for resistance in wild host-pathogen interaction networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke eBarrett

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Properties encompassed by host-pathogen interaction networks have potential to give valuable insight into the evolution of specialization and coevolutionary dynamics in host-pathogen interactions. However, network approaches have been rarely utilized in previous studies of host and pathogen phenotypic variation. Here we applied quantitative analyses to eight networks derived from spatially and temporally segregated host (Linum marginale and pathogen (Melampsora lini populations. First, we found that resistance strategies are highly variable within and among networks, corresponding to a spectrum of specialist and generalist resistance types being maintained within all networks. At the individual level, specialization was strongly linked to partial resistance, such that partial resistance was effective against a greater number of pathogens compared to full resistance. Second, we found that all networks were significantly nested. There was little support for the hypothesis that temporal evolutionary dynamics may lead to the development of nestedness in host-pathogen infection networks. Rather, the common patterns observed in terms of nestedness suggests a universal driver (or multiple drivers that may be independent of spatial and temporal structure. Third, we found that resistance networks were significantly modular in two spatial networks, clearly reflecting spatial and ecological structure within one of the networks. We conclude that (1 overall patterns of specialization in the networks we studied mirror evolutionary trade-offs with the strength of resistance; (2 that specific network architecture can emerge under different evolutionary scenarios; and (3 network approaches offer great utility as a tool for probing the evolutionary and ecological genetics of host-pathogen interactions.

  10. Comparative genomics and host resistance against infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, S T; Skamene, E; Malo, D

    1999-01-01

    The large size and complexity of the human genome have limited the identification and functional characterization of components of the innate immune system that play a critical role in front-line defense against invading microorganisms. However, advances in genome analysis (including the development of comprehensive sets of informative genetic markers, improved physical mapping methods, and novel techniques for transcript identification) have reduced the obstacles to discovery of novel host resistance genes. Study of the genomic organization and content of widely divergent vertebrate species has shown a remarkable degree of evolutionary conservation and enables meaningful cross-species comparison and analysis of newly discovered genes. Application of comparative genomics to host resistance will rapidly expand our understanding of human immune defense by facilitating the translation of knowledge acquired through the study of model organisms. We review the rationale and resources for comparative genomic analysis and describe three examples of host resistance genes successfully identified by this approach.

  11. urea as a host for distinction of phthalic acid and terephthalic acid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and adipic acid interact with 1, led to cocrystals with the host 1 through hydrogen bond interactions. The hydrogen bonds that ... cases anions interacts with the urea portion of the host, while in the co-crystals the hydrogen bonded urea taps are retained. ... and synthesis of hosts for selective binding of car- boxylic acids have ...

  12. The molecular pathways underlying host resistance and tolerance to pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Elizabeth J

    2012-01-01

    Breeding livestock that are better able to withstand the onslaught of endemic- and exotic pathogens is high on the wish list of breeders and farmers world-wide. However, the defense systems in both pathogens and their hosts are complex and the degree of genetic variation in resistance and tolerance will depend on the trade-offs that they impose on host fitness as well as their life-histories. The genes and pathways underpinning resistance and tolerance traits may be distinct or intertwined as the outcome of any infection is a result of a balance between collateral damage of host tissues and control of the invading pathogen. Genes and molecular pathways associated with resistance are mainly expressed in the mucosal tract and the innate immune system and control the very early events following pathogen invasion. Resistance genes encode receptors involved in uptake of pathogens, as well as pattern recognition receptors (PRR) such as the toll-like receptor family as well as molecules involved in strong and rapid inflammatory responses which lead to rapid pathogen clearance, yet do not lead to immunopathology. In contrast tolerance genes and pathways play a role in reducing immunopathology or enhancing the host's ability to protect against pathogen associated toxins. Candidate tolerance genes may include cytosolic PRRs and unidentified sensors of pathogen growth, perturbation of host metabolism and intrinsic danger or damage associated molecules. In addition, genes controlling regulatory pathways, tissue repair and resolution are also tolerance candidates. The identities of distinct genetic loci for resistance and tolerance to infectious pathogens in livestock species remain to be determined. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved and phenotypes associated with resistance and tolerance should ultimately help to improve livestock health and welfare.

  13. Evaluating host resistance to Macrophomina crown rot in strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrophomina crown rot, caused by the soilborne fungus Macrophomina phaseolina, is an emerging pathogen in California strawberry production. When established, the pathogen can cause extensive plant decline and mortality. Host resistance will be a critical tool for managing this disease and guiding ...

  14. Broad host range of streptococcal macrolide resistance plasmids.

    OpenAIRE

    Buu-Hoï, A; Bieth, G; Horaud, T

    1984-01-01

    Four macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance plasmids transferred into 13 recipients belonging to Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, and Listeria genera. The plasmids were stably maintained in all new hosts except Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria innocua and were identical to those found in the corresponding donor strains.

  15. Host-plant resistance to western flower thrips in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoen, Manus P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Western flower thrips is a pest on a large variety of vegetable, fruit and ornamental crops. The damage these minute slender insects cause in agriculture through feeding and the transmission of tospoviruses requires a sustainable solution. Host-plant resistance is a cornerstone of Integrated Pest

  16. The molecular pathways underlying host resistance and tolerance to pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Janet Glass

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Breeding livestock that are better able to withstand the onslaught of endemic and exotic pathogens is high on the wish list of breeders and farmers world-wide. However the defence systems in both pathogens and their hosts are complex and the degree of genetic variation in resistance and tolerance will depend on the trade-offs that they impose on host fitness as well as their life-histories. The genes and pathways underpinning resistance and tolerance traits may be distinct or intertwined as the outcome of any infection is a result of a balance between collateral damage of host tissues and control of the invading pathogen. Genes and molecular pathways associated with resistance are mainly expressed in the mucosal tract and the innate immune system and control the very early events following pathogen invasion. Resistance genes encode receptors involved in uptake of pathogens, as well as pattern recognition receptors (PRR such as the toll-like receptor family as well as molecules involved in strong and rapid inflammatory responses which lead to rapid pathogen clearance yet do not lead to immunopathology. In contrast tolerance genes and pathways play a role in reducing immunopathology or enhancing the host’s ability to protect against pathogen associated toxins. Candidate tolerance genes may include cytosolic PRRs and unidentified sensors of pathogen growth, perturbation of host metabolism and intrinsic danger or damage associated molecules. In addition, genes controlling regulatory pathways, tissue repair and resolution are also tolerance candidates. The identities of distinct genetic loci for resistance and tolerance to infectious pathogens in livestock species remain to be determined. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved and phenotypes associated with resistance and tolerance should ultimately help to improve livestock health and welfare.

  17. The host model Galleria mellonella is resistant to taylorellae infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, L; Rincé, I; Sanna, C; Laugier, C; Rincé, A; Petry, S

    2014-10-01

    The genus Taylorella is composed of two species: (i) Taylorella equigenitalis, the causative agent of CEM, a venereally transmitted infection of Equidae and (ii) Taylorella asinigenitalis, a closely related species considered to be nonpathogenic, although experimental infection of mares with this bacterium resulted in clinical signs of vaginitis, cervicitis or endometritis. Currently, there is a need for an alternative host model to further study the taylorellae species. In this context, we explored Galleria mellonella larvae as potential alternative model hosts for taylorellae. Our results showed that infection of G. mellonella larvae with a high concentration of taylorellae did not induce overt G. mellonella mortality and that taylorellae were not able to proliferate within G. mellonella. In conclusion, G. mellonella larvae are resistant to taylorellae infection and therefore do not constitute a relevant alternative system for studying the virulence of taylorellae species. Significance and impact of the study: To date, the pathogenicity and host colonization capacity of Taylorella equigenitalis, the causative agent of contagious equine metritis (CEM) and T. asinigenitalis, the second species within the Taylorella genus, remain largely unknown. In this study, we evaluated the relevance of Galleria mellonella as an infection model for taylorellae; we showed that G. mellonella are resistant to taylorellae infection and therefore do not constitute a suitable host model for taylorellae. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Leaf Rust of Wheat: Pathogen Biology, Variation and Host Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Kolmer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rusts are important pathogens of angiosperms and gymnosperms including cereal crops and forest trees. With respect to cereals, rust fungi are among the most important pathogens. Cereal rusts are heteroecious and macrocyclic requiring two taxonomically unrelated hosts to complete a five spore stage life cycle. Cereal rust fungi are highly variable for virulence and molecular polymorphism. Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina is the most common rust of wheat on a worldwide basis. Many different races of P. triticina that vary for virulence to leaf rust resistance genes in wheat differential lines are found annually in the US. Molecular markers have been used to characterize rust populations in the US and worldwide. Highly virulent races of P. triticina are selected by leaf rust resistance genes in the soft red winter wheat, hard red winter wheat and hard red spring wheat cultivars that are grown in different regions of the US. Cultivars that only have race-specific leaf rust resistance genes that are effective in seedling plants lose their effective resistance and become susceptible within a few years of release. Cultivars with combinations of race non-specific resistance genes have remained resistant over a period of years even though races of the leaf rust population have changed constantly.

  19. Erosion of quantitative host resistance in the apple × Venturia inaequalis pathosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caffier, V.; Lasserre-Zuber, P.; Giraud, M.; Lascostes, M.; Sievenard, R.; LeMarquand, A.; Weg, van de W.E.; Expert, P.; Denancé, C.

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical approaches predict that host quantitative resistance selects for pathogens with a high level of pathogenicity, leading to erosion of the resistance. This process of erosion has, however, rarely been experimentally demonstrated. To investigate the erosion of apple quantitative resistance

  20. The genetics of non-host resistance to the lettuce pathogen Bremia lactucae in Lactuca saligna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuken, M.J.W.

    2002-01-01

    Plants are continuously exposed to a wide variety of pathogens. However, all plant species are non-hosts for the majority of the potential plant pathogens. The genetic dissection of non-host resistance is hampered by the lack of segregating population from crosses between host and non-host

  1. Sugarcane Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae): Host Range and Sorghum Resistance Including Cross-Resistance From Greenbug Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, J Scott; Rooney, William L; Peterson, Gary C; Villenueva, Raul T; Brewer, Michael J; Sekula-Ortiz, Danielle

    2015-04-01

    The graminous host range and sources of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.] plant resistance, including cross-resistance from greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), were studied for the newly emerging sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), in greenhouse no-choice experiments and field evaluations. The sugarcane aphid could not survive on field corn, Zea mays (L.), Teff grass, Eragrostis tef (Zucc.), proso millet, Panicum miliaceum L., barley, Hordeum vulgare L., and rye, Secale cereale L. Only sorghum genotypes served as hosts including Johnsongrass, Sorghum halepense (L.), a highly suitable noncrop host that generates high numbers of sugarcane aphid and maintains moderate phenotypic injury. The greenbug-resistant parental line RTx2783 that is resistant to greenbug biotypes C and E was resistant to sugarcane aphid in both greenhouse and field tests, while PI 55607 greenbug resistant to biotypes B, C, and E was highly susceptible. PI 55610 that is greenbug resistant to biotypes B, C, and E maintained moderate resistance to the sugarcane aphid, while greenbug-resistant PI 264453 was highly susceptible to sugarcane aphid. Two lines and two hybrids from the Texas A&M breeding program B11070, B11070, AB11055-WF1-CS1/RTx436, and AB11055-WF1-CS1/RTx437 were highly resistant to sugarcane aphid, as were parental types SC110, SC170, and South African lines Ent62/SADC, (Macia/TAM428)-LL9, (SV1*Sima/IS23250)-LG15. Tam428, a parental line that previously showed moderate resistance in South Africa and India, also showed moderate resistance in these evaluations. Overall, 9 of 20 parental sorghum entries tested for phenotypic damage in the field resulted in good resistance to the sugarcane aphid and should be utilized in breeding programs that develop agronomically acceptable sorghums for the southern regions of the United States. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. 2015. This work is written by US Government employees

  2. Effects of acidic precipitation on host-parasite interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shriner, D.S.

    1974-01-01

    During the past decade, the average acidity of rain and snow increased by 1-2 pH units in many parts of Europe and North America. Little is known of the effects of acid rain resulting from dissolution of sulfur dioxide on biological systems. The effects of simulated sulfuric acid rain on four host-pathogen system were studied. Plants were exposed in greenhouse and field to simulated rain of pH 3.2 or pH 6.0 in amounts and intervals common to weather patterns of the eastern United States. Simulated acid rain resulted in: (1) an 86% inhibition in telia production of Cronartium fusiforme on willow oak (Quercus phellos); (2) a 66% inhibition in the production of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne hapla) on field grown kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris Red Kidney); (3) a 20% decrease in the severity of Uromyces phaseoli infection of field grown kidney beans; and (4) either stimulated or inhibited development of halo blight on kidney bean (caused by Pseudomonas phaseolicola) depending upon the segment of the disease cycle in which the stress occurred: (a) simulated acid rain before inoculation stimulated disease development; (b) suspension of inoculum in acid rain decreased inoculum potential; and (c) acid rain after infection inhibited disease development. Results suggest that the pH of rain is a new environmental parameter of concern to plant pathologists.

  3. Parenthood and host resistance to the common cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneed, Rodlescia S; Cohen, Sheldon; Turner, Ronald B; Doyle, William J

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether parenthood predicts host resistance to the common cold among healthy volunteers experimentally exposed to a common cold virus. Participants were 795 healthy volunteers (age range = 18-55 years) enrolled in one of three viral-challenge studies conducted from 1993 to 2004. After reporting parenthood status, participants were quarantined, administered nasal drops containing one of four common cold viruses, and monitored for the development of a clinical cold (infection in the presence of objective signs of illness) on the day before and for 5 to 6 days after exposure. All analyses included controls for immunity to the experimental virus (prechallenge specific antibody titers), viral strain, season, age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, body mass, study, employment status, and education. Parents were less likely to develop colds than nonparents were (odds ratio [OR] = 0.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.31-0.73). This was true for both parents with one to two children (OR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.33-0.83) and three or more children (OR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.22-0.70). Parenthood was associated with a decreased risk of colds for both those with at least one child living at home (OR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.24-0.87) and those whose children all lived away from home (OR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.12-0.60). The relationship between parenthood and colds was not observed in parents aged 18 to 24 years but was pronounced among older parents. Parenthood was associated with greater host resistance to common cold viruses.

  4. Sorbic acid resistance: the inoculum effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steels, H; James, S A; Roberts, I N; Stratford, M

    2000-09-30

    Zygosaccharomyces is a genus associated with the more extreme spoilage yeasts. Zygosaccharomyces spoilage yeasts are osmotolerant, fructophiles (preferring fructose), highly-fermentative and extremely preservative-resistant. Zygosaccharomyces bailii can grow in the presence of commonly-used food preservatives, benzoic, acetic or sorbic acids, at concentrations far higher than are legally permitted or organolepically acceptable in foods. An inoculum effect has been described for many micro-organisms and antimicrobial agents. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) increases with the size of the inoculum; large inocula at high cell density therefore require considerably higher concentrations of inhibitors to prevent growth than do dilute cell suspensions. A substantial inoculum effect was found using sorbic acid against the spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii NCYC 1766. The inoculum effect was not caused by yeasts metabolizing or adsorbing sorbic acid, thereby lowering the effective concentration; was not due to absence of cell-cell signals in dilute cell suspensions; and was not an artefact, generated by insufficient time for small inocula to grow. The inoculum effect appeared to be caused by diversity in the populations of yeast cells, with higher probability of sorbic acid-resistant cells being present in large inocula. It was found that individual cells of Zygosaccharomyces bailii populations, grown as single cells in microtitre plate wells, were very diverse, varying enormously in resistance to sorbic acid. 26S ribosomal DNA sequencing did not detect differences between the small fraction of resistant 'super cells' and the average population. Re-inoculation of the 'super cells' after overnight growth on YEPD showed a normal distribution of resistance to sorbic acid, similar to that of the original population. The resistance phenotype was therefore not heritable and not caused by a genetically distinct subpopulation. It was concluded that resistance of the

  5. Host Resistance and Temperature-Dependent Evolution of Aggressiveness in the Plant Pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengping Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how habitat heterogeneity may affect the evolution of plant pathogens is essential to effectively predict new epidemiological landscapes and manage genetic diversity under changing global climatic conditions. In this study, we explore the effects of habitat heterogeneity, as determined by variation in host resistance and local temperature, on the evolution of Zymoseptoria tritici by comparing the aggressiveness development of five Z. tritici populations originated from different parts of the world on two wheat cultivars varying in resistance to the pathogen. Our results show that host resistance plays an important role in the evolution of Z. tritici. The pathogen was under weak, constraining selection on a host with quantitative resistance but under a stronger, directional selection on a susceptible host. This difference is consistent with theoretical expectations that suggest that quantitative resistance may slow down the evolution of pathogens and therefore be more durable. Our results also show that local temperature interacts with host resistance in influencing the evolution of the pathogen. When infecting a susceptible host, aggressiveness development of Z. tritici was negatively correlated to temperatures of the original collection sites, suggesting a trade-off between the pathogen’s abilities of adapting to higher temperature and causing disease and global warming may have a negative effect on the evolution of pathogens. The finding that no such relationship was detected when the pathogen infected the partially resistant cultivars indicates the evolution of pathogens in quantitatively resistant hosts is less influenced by environments than in susceptible hosts.

  6. Partial resistance in the Linum-Melampsora host-pathogen system: does partial resistance make the red queen run slower?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonovics, Janis; Thrall, Peter H; Burdon, Jeremy J; Laine, Anna-Liisa

    2011-02-01

    Five levels of disease expression were scored in a cross-inoculation study of 120 host and 60 pathogen lines of wild flax Linum marginale and its rust fungus Melampsora lini sampled from six natural populations. Patterns of partial resistance showed clear evidence of gene-for-gene interactions, with particular levels of partial resistance occurring in specific host-pathogen combinations. Sympatric and putatively more highly coevolved host-pathogen combinations had a lower frequency of partial resistance types relative to allopatric combinations. Sympatric host-pathogen combinations also showed a lower diversity of resistance responses, but there was a trend toward a greater fraction of this variance being determined by pathogen-genotype × host-genotype interactions. In this system, there was no evidence that partial resistances slow host-pathogen coevolution. The analyses show that if variation is generated by among population host or pathogen dispersal, then coevolution occurs largely by pathogens overcoming the partial resistances that are generated. © 2010 The Author(s). Evolution© 2010 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. Albugo-imposed changes to tryptophan-derived antimicrobial metabolite biosynthesis may contribute to suppression of non-host resistance to Phytophthora infestans in Arabidopsis thaliana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prince, David C.; Rallapalli, Ghanasyam; Xu, Deyang

    2017-01-01

    -derived antimicrobial compounds enables P. infestans colonization of Arabidopsis, although to a lesser extent than Albugo-infected tissue. A. laibachii also suppresses a subset of genes regulated by salicylic acid; however, salicylic acid plays only a minor role in non-host resistance to P. infestans. CONCLUSIONS......: Albugo sp. alter tryptophan-derived metabolites and suppress elements of the responses to salicylic acid in Arabidopsis. Albugo sp. imposed alterations in tryptophan-derived metabolites may play a role in Arabidopsis non-host resistance to P. infestans. Understanding the basis of non-host resistance...

  8. Identification of Chlorogenic Acid as a Resistance Factor for Thrips in Chrysanthemum[C][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiss, Kirsten A.; Maltese, Federica; Choi, Young Hae; Verpoorte, Robert; Klinkhamer, Peter G.L.

    2009-01-01

    Western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) has become a key insect pest of agricultural and horticultural crops worldwide. Little is known about host plant resistance to thrips. In this study, we investigated thrips resistance in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora). We identified thrips-resistant chrysanthemums applying bioassays. Subsequently, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics was applied to compare the metabolome of thrips-resistant and -susceptible chrysanthemums. NMR facilitates wide-range coverage of the metabolome. We show that thrips-resistant and -susceptible chrysanthemums can be discriminated on basis of their metabolomic profiles. Thrips-resistant chrysanthemums contained higher amounts of the phenylpropanoids chlorogenic acid and feruloyl quinic acid. Both phenylpropanoids are known for their inhibitory effect on herbivores as well as pathogens. Thus, chlorogenic and feruloyl quinic acid are the compounds of choice to improve host plants resistance to thrips in ornamentals and crops. The effect of chlorogenic acid on thrips was further studied in bioassays with artificial diets. These experiments confirmed the negative effects on thrips. Our results prove NMR to be an important tool to identify different metabolites involved in herbivore resistance. It constitutes a significant advance in the study of plant-insect relationships, providing key information on the implementation of herbivore resistance breeding strategies in plants. PMID:19448039

  9. Sulfate and acid resistant concrete and mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liskowitz, John W.; Wecharatana, Methi; Jaturapitakkul, Chai; Cerkanowicz, deceased, Anthony E.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction and other applications, which hardenable mixtures demonstrate significant levels of acid and sulfate resistance while maintaining acceptable compressive strength properties. The acid and sulfate hardenable mixtures of the invention containing fly ash comprise cementitious materials and a fine aggregate. The cementitous materials may comprise fly ash as well as cement. The fine aggregate may comprise fly ash as well as sand. The total amount of fly ash in the hardenable mixture ranges from about 60% to about 120% of the total amount of cement, by weight, whether the fly ash is included as a cementious material, fine aggregate, or an additive, or any combination of the foregoing. In specific examples, mortar containing 50% fly ash and 50% cement in cementitious materials demonstrated superior properties of corrosion resistance.

  10. Fatty Acids, Obesity and Insulin Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arner, Peter; Rydén, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Although elevated free fatty acid (FFA) levels in obesity have been considered to be of importance for insulin resistance, a recent meta-analysis suggested normal FFA levels in obese subjects. We investigated fasting circulating FFA and glycerol levels in a large cohort of non-obese and obese subjects. Subjects recruited for a study on obesity genetics were investigated in the morning after an overnight fast (n = 3,888). Serum FFA (n = 3,306), plasma glycerol (n = 3,776), and insulin sensitivity index (HOMA-IR,n = 3,469) were determined. Obesity was defined as BMI ≥ 30 kg/m 2 and insulin resistance as HOMA-IR ≥ 2.21. In obese subjects, circulating FFA and glycerol levels were higher than in non-obese individuals (by 26% and 47%, respectively; both p Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes were associated with a further minor increase in FFA/glycerol among obese subjects. When comparing insulin-sensitive non-obese with insulin-sensitive or -resistant obese individuals, FFA and glycerol were 21–29% and 43–49% higher in obese individuals, respectively. Circulating FFA and glycerol levels are markedly elevated in obesity but only marginally influenced by insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Whether these differences persist during diurnal variations in circulating FFA/glycerol, remains to be established

  11. Contrasting amino acid profiles among permissive and non-permissive hosts of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, putative causal agent of Huanglongbing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamoudou Sétamou

    Full Text Available Huanglongbing is a devastating disease of citrus. In this study, a comprehensive profile of phloem sap amino acids (AA in four permissive host plants of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas and three non-permissive Rutaceae plants was conducted to gain a better understanding of host factors that may promote or suppress the bacterium. The AA profiles of Diaphorina citri nymphs and adults were similarly analyzed. A total of 38 unique AAs were detected in phloem sap of the various plants and D. citri samples, with phloem sap of young shoots containing more AAs and at higher concentrations than their mature counterparts. All AAs detected in phloem sap of non-permissive plants were also present in CLas -permissive hosts plus additional AAs in the latter class of plants. However, the relative composition of 18 commonly shared AAs varied between CLas -permissive hosts and non-permissive plants. Multivariate analysis with a partial least square discriminant methodology revealed a total of 12 AAs as major factors affecting CLas host status, of which seven were positively related to CLas tolerance/resistance and five positively associated with CLas susceptibility. Most of the AAs positively associated with CLas susceptibility were predominantly of the glutamate family, notably stressed-induced AAs such as arginine, GABA and proline. In contrast, AAs positively correlated with CLas tolerance/resistance were mainly of the serine family. Further analysis revealed that whereas the relative proportions of AAs positively associated with CLas susceptibility did not vary with host developmental stages, those associated with CLas tolerance/resistance increased with flush shoot maturity. Significantly, the proline-to-glycine ratio was determined to be an important discriminating factor for CLas permissivity with higher values characteristic of CLas -permissive hosts. This ratio could be exploited as a biomarker in HLB-resistance breeding programs.

  12. Resistance to antibiotics in Lacid acid bacteria - strain Lactococcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipić Brankica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are widely used in the food industry, especially in the production of fermented dairy products and meat. The most studied species among Lis Lactococcus lactis. L. lactis strains are of great importance in the production of fermented dairy products such as yogurt, butter, fresh cheese and some kind of semi-hard cheese. Although L. lactis acquired the „Generally Regarded As Safe“ (GRAS status, many investigations indicated that lactococci may act as reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes, which could be transferred to other bacterial species in human gastrointestinal tract includ­ing pathogens. The genome analysis of L. lactis indicated the presence of at least 40 putative drug transporter genes, and only four multidrug resistance (MDR transporters are functionally characterized: LmrA, LmrP, LmrCD i CmbT. LmrA is the first described MDR transporter in prokaryotes. LmrCD is responsible for resistance to cholate, which is an integral part of human bile and LmrCD is important for intestinal survival of lactococci that are used as probiotics. Secondary multidrug transporter LmrP confers resistance to lincosamides, macrolides, streptogramins and tetracyclines. CmbT protein has an effect on the host cell resistance to lincomycin, sulfadiazine, streptomycin, rifampicin, puromycin and sulfametox­azole. Since the food chain is an important way of transmitting resistance genes in human and animal population, it is of great importance to study the mechanisms of resistance in lactococci and other LAB, intended for the food industry. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173019: Izučavanje gena i molekularnih mehanizama u osnovi probiotičke aktivnosti bakterija mlečne kiseline izolovanih sa područja Zapadnog Balkana

  13. Host resistance to visceral leishmaniasis: prevalence and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maran, Naiara; Gomes, Pollyanna Stephanie; Freire-de-Lima, Leonardo; Freitas, Elisangela Oliveira; Freire-de-Lima, Célio Geraldo; Morrot, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a chronic parasitic disease caused by the vector-borne Leishmania donovani and Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi parasites. The disease affects about 12 million humans in more than 90 countries worldwide. If not treated, the visceral form of Leishmania infection is potentially fatal, yielding about 50000 deaths per year. In the vertebrate host, the Leishmania species causing VL spread systematically to propagate in macrophage reservoirs distributed in the tissues of internal organs, primarily the liver, spleen, bone marrow and the lymph nodes. The infection is associated with evolved mechanisms from the parasite to subvert the host immune system in order to establish a persistent infection. Currently, efforts are being deployed to develop new anti-leishmanial therapies in VL combining immunomodulatory treatment regimens that burst the host immune responses together with leishmanicidal drugs that target the parasite growth. Discoveries in this field are discussed in this article.

  14. Screening for Development of Host Plant Resistance to Infestation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out at International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) Kano station during 2009 and 2010 growing season, to screen fifty two (52) cowpea varieties for resistance to aphids (Aphis craccivora) attack. It was found that only seven (7) varieties were highly resistant, nine (9) were highly susceptible and the ...

  15. Host resistance and tolerance of parasitic gut worms depend on resource availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutie, Sarah A; Wilkinson, Christina L; Wu, Qiu Chang; Ortega, C Nicole; Rohr, Jason R

    2017-04-01

    Resource availability can significantly alter host-parasite dynamics. Abundant food can provide more resources for hosts to resist infections, but also increase host tolerance of infections by reducing competition between hosts and parasites for food. Whether abundant food favors host resistance or tolerance (or both) might depend on the type of resource that the parasite exploits (e.g., host tissue vs. food), which can vary based on the stage of infection. In our study, we evaluated how low and high resource diets affect Cuban tree frog (Osteopilus septentrionalis) resistance and tolerance of a skin-penetrating, gut nematode Aplectana sp. at each stage of the infection. Compared to a low resource diet, a high resource diet enhanced frog resistance to worm penetration and tolerance while worms traveled to the gut. In contrast, a low resource diet increased resistance to establishment of the infection. After the infection established and worms could access food resources in the gut, a high resource diet enhanced host tolerance of parasites. On a high resource diet, parasitized frogs consumed significantly more food than non-parasitized frogs; when food was then restricted, mass of non-parasitized frogs did not change, whereas mass of parasitized frogs decreased significantly. Thus, a high resource diet increased frog tolerance of established worms because frogs could fully compensate for energy lost to the parasites. Our study shows that host-parasite dynamics are influenced by the effect of resource availability on host resistance and tolerance, which depends on when parasites have access to food and the stage of infection.

  16. Identification of resistant genotypes considering polygenic systems in host-pathogen interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melo Leonardo Cunha

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant resistance to pathogens is the most efficient form of disease control. However, identification of resistant genotypes is often difficult, especially when the genetic basis for the host-pathogen relationship is unknown. This study was carried out to test a methodology capable of providing, in a simple way, information about host vertical and horizontal resistance as well as pathogen virulence. A simulation using twenty, ten, and five pathogen races and twenty hosts was carried out. Host reaction was controlled by ten genes with two alleles each. Eight genes had little effects, one had medium and the other strong effects. Genetic control of pathogenicity was identical to that of the host. Only homozygous genotypes were used for pathogens and hosts in this simulation, with no epistatic effects. Simulation was based on the expected disease severity with the inoculation of twenty hosts with twenty pathogen races, according to additive and interactive models proposed by Parlevliet and Zadoks (Euphytica 26: 5-21, 1977. Data were analyzed by model IV of Griffing, using a partial diallel scheme. A high correlation was found between general reaction ability (GRA and potential host resistance, which proved to be an indicator of horizontal resistance. A high correlation between general aggressivity ability (GAA and potential pathogenicity of the race also proved to be an aggressivity indicator. Specific interaction ability (SIA is an indicator of host vertical resistance and pathogen virulence. Simulation with a lower number of races (ten and five showed similar results. SIA was significant in both the interactive and additive models.

  17. Signalling requirements for Erwinia amylovora-induced disease resistance, callose deposition and cell growth in the non-host Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdoun, Safae; Gao, Min; Gill, Manroop; Kwon, Ashley; Norelli, John L; Lu, Hua

    2017-07-29

    Erwinia amylovora is the causal agent of the fire blight disease in some plants of the Rosaceae family. The non-host plant Arabidopsis serves as a powerful system for the dissection of mechanisms of resistance to E. amylovora. Although not yet known to mount gene-for-gene resistance to E. amylovora, we found that Arabidopsis activated strong defence signalling mediated by salicylic acid (SA), with kinetics and amplitude similar to that induced by the recognition of the bacterial effector avrRpm1 by the resistance protein RPM1. Genetic analysis further revealed that SA signalling, but not signalling mediated by ethylene (ET) and jasmonic acid (JA), is required for E. amylovora resistance. Erwinia amylovora induces massive callose deposition on infected leaves, which is independent of SA, ET and JA signalling and is necessary for E. amylovora resistance in Arabidopsis. We also observed tumour-like growths on E. amylovora-infected Arabidopsis leaves, which contain enlarged mesophyll cells with increased DNA content and are probably a result of endoreplication. The formation of such growths is largely independent of SA signalling and some E. amylovora effectors. Together, our data reveal signalling requirements for E. amylovora-induced disease resistance, callose deposition and cell fate change in the non-host plant Arabidopsis. Knowledge from this study could facilitate a better understanding of the mechanisms of host defence against E. amylovora and eventually improve host resistance to the pathogen. © 2017 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  18. Comparative genomics and host resistance against infectious diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, S. T.; Skamene, E; Malo, D.

    1999-01-01

    The large size and complexity of the human genome have limited the identification and functional characterization of components of the innate immune system that play a critical role in front-line defense against invading microorganisms. However, advances in genome analysis (including the development of comprehensive sets of informative genetic markers, improved physical mapping methods, and novel techniques for transcript identification) have reduced the obstacles to discovery of novel host r...

  19. Survival and evolution of a large multidrug resistance plasmid in new clinical bacterial hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porse, Andreas; Schønning, Kristian; Munck, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Large conjugative plasmids are important drivers of bacterial evolution and contribute significantly to the dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Although plasmid borne multidrug resistance is recognized as one of the main challenges in modern medicine, the adaptive forces shaping the evolution...... of these plasmids within pathogenic hosts are poorly understood. Here we study plasmid-host adaptations following transfer of a 73 kb conjugative multidrug resistance plasmid to naïve clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli We use experimental evolution, mathematical modelling and population...

  20. Host-dependent Induction of Transient Antibiotic Resistance: A Prelude to Treatment Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Z. Kubicek-Sutherland

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Current antibiotic testing does not include the potential influence of host cell environment on microbial susceptibility and antibiotic resistance, hindering appropriate therapeutic intervention. We devised a strategy to identify the presence of host–pathogen interactions that alter antibiotic efficacy in vivo. Our findings revealed a bacterial mechanism that promotes antibiotic resistance in vivo at concentrations of drug that far exceed dosages determined by standardized antimicrobial testing. This mechanism has escaped prior detection because it is reversible and operates within a subset of host tissues and cells. Bacterial pathogens are thereby protected while their survival promotes the emergence of permanent drug resistance. This host-dependent mechanism of transient antibiotic resistance is applicable to multiple pathogens and has implications for the development of more effective antimicrobial therapies.

  1. Survival and evolution of a large multidrug resistance plasmid in new clinical bacterial hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porse, Andreas; Schønning, Kristian; Munck, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Large conjugative plasmids are important drivers of bacterial evolution and contribute significantly to the dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Although plasmid borne multidrug resistance is recognized as one of the main challenges in modern medicine, the adaptive forces shaping the evolution...... of these plasmids within pathogenic hosts are poorly understood. Here we study plasmid-host adaptations following transfer of a 73 kb conjugative multidrug resistance plasmid to naïve clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli We use experimental evolution, mathematical modelling and population...... consistently followed by all evolved E. coli lineages exposes a trade-off between horizontal and vertical transmission that may ultimately limit the dissemination potential of clinical multidrug resistance plasmids in these hosts....

  2. Identification of novel sources of host plant resistance to known soybean aphid biotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Raman; Mian, M A R; Michel, Andy P

    2013-06-01

    While soybean cultivars with resistance to the soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) have been commercially released, the presence of virulent biotypes capable of overcoming plant resistance threatens the durability of host plant resistance as a stable management tactic. Novel sources of host plant resistance are needed to combat rapid biotype evolution. In this study, we screened 1,061 soybean plant introductions (PIs) for resistance to three known biotypes of A. glycines. Based on a series of growth chamber and field screenings, we identified 11 PIs that showed resistance to biotype 1 of A. glycines. Among these 11 PIs, 7 PIs were resistant to biotype 2 and 5 PIs were resistant to biotype 3. Further, two PIs (PI 606390A from Vietnam and PI 340034 from South Korea) showed resistance to all three biotypes of A. glycines. We also identified 11 PIs that were potentially tolerant to A. glycines, illustrated by no adverse impact on plant quality because of A. glycines infestation. As resistant PIs identified in this study belong to maturity group II-IV, they can be readily crossed to early maturing cultivars adapted to north-central states of the United States, where A. glycines is a major pest. The genetic characterization of resistance in these PIs and incorporation of novel resistant genes into elite soybean cultivars will broaden the defense against multiple biotypes of A. glycines.

  3. EDTA a novel inducer of pisatin, a phytoalexin indicator of the non-host resistance in peas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadwiger, Lee A; Tanaka, Kiwamu

    2014-12-23

    Pea pod endocarp suppresses the growth of an inappropriate fungus or non-pathogen by generating a "non-host resistance response" that completely suppresses growth of the challenging fungus within 6 h. Most of the components of this resistance response including pisatin production can be elicited by an extensive number of both biotic and abiotic inducers. Thus this phytoalexin serves as an indicator to be used in evaluating the chemical properties of inducers that can initiate the resistance response. Many of the pisatin inducers are reported to interact with DNA and potentially cause DNA damage. Here we propose that EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) is an elicitor to evoke non-host resistance in plants. EDTA is manufactured as a chelating agent, however at low concentration it is a strong elicitor, inducing the phytoalexin pisatin, cellular DNA damage and defense-responsive genes. It is capable of activating complete resistance in peas against a pea pathogen. Since there is also an accompanying fragmentation of pea DNA and alteration in the size of pea nuclei, the potential biochemical insult as a metal chelator may not be its primary action. The potential effects of EDTA on the structure of DNA within pea chromatin may assist the transcription of plant defense genes.

  4. EDTA a Novel Inducer of Pisatin, a Phytoalexin Indicator of the Non-Host Resistance in Peas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee A. Hadwiger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pea pod endocarp suppresses the growth of an inappropriate fungus or non-pathogen by generating a “non-host resistance response” that completely suppresses growth of the challenging fungus within 6 h. Most of the components of this resistance response including pisatin production can be elicited by an extensive number of both biotic and abiotic inducers. Thus this phytoalexin serves as an indicator to be used in evaluating the chemical properties of inducers that can initiate the resistance response. Many of the pisatin inducers are reported to interact with DNA and potentially cause DNA damage. Here we propose that EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid is an elicitor to evoke non-host resistance in plants. EDTA is manufactured as a chelating agent, however at low concentration it is a strong elicitor, inducing the phytoalexin pisatin, cellular DNA damage and defense-responsive genes. It is capable of activating complete resistance in peas against a pea pathogen. Since there is also an accompanying fragmentation of pea DNA and alteration in the size of pea nuclei, the potential biochemical insult as a metal chelator may not be its primary action. The potential effects of EDTA on the structure of DNA within pea chromatin may assist the transcription of plant defense genes.

  5. Infection success of Echinoparyphium aconiatum (Trematoda) in its snail host under high temperature: role of host resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicht, Katja; Seppälä, Otto

    2014-04-21

    Extreme weather events such as summer heat waves become more frequent owing to global climate change and are predicted to alter disease dynamics. This is because high temperatures can reduce host immune function. Predicting the impact of climate change on host-parasite interactions is, however, difficult as temperature may also affect parasite infective stages and other host characteristics determining the outcome of interaction. Two experiments were conducted to investigate these phenomena in a Lymnaea stagnalis-Echinoparyphium aconiatum (Trematoda) interaction. In the first experiment, the effects of exposure of snails to experimental heat waves [maintenance at 25°C vs. 15°C (control)] with different durations (3 days, 7 days) on the infection success of parasite cercariae was examined. In the second experiment, the infection success was examined under similar conditions, while controlling for the possible temperature effects on cercariae and at least partly also for host physiological changes that take place rapidly compared to alterations in immune function (exposure to cercariae at intermediate 20°C). In the first experiment, increased infection success at 25°C was found independently of the duration of the heat wave. In the second experiment, increased infection success was found only in snails maintained at 25°C for 7 days, a treatment in which snail immune defence is known to be impaired. These results suggest that the effects of host resistance in determining overall parasite infection success can be overridden by effects of temperature on parasite transmission stages and/or alterations in other host traits than immune defence.

  6. EVALUATING THE EFFECT OF HOST PLANT RESISTANCE AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    plant resistance and planting dates on the incidence of African yam bean pod borer Maruca vitrata (Geyer) in .... tagged plants. Estimate of grain yield per unit area was done when the grains were dry, using the tagged plants. The pods were threshed and winnowed using indigenous technology. ..... Annal of Applied Biology.

  7. Characterization of Arabidopsis Transcriptional Responses to Different Aphid Species Reveals Genes that Contribute to Host Susceptibility and Non-host Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaouannet, Maëlle; Morris, Jenny A.; Hedley, Peter E.; Bos, Jorunn I. B.

    2015-01-01

    Aphids are economically important pests that display exceptional variation in host range. The determinants of diverse aphid host ranges are not well understood, but it is likely that molecular interactions are involved. With significant progress being made towards understanding host responses upon aphid attack, the mechanisms underlying non-host resistance remain to be elucidated. Here, we investigated and compared Arabidopsis thaliana host and non-host responses to aphids at the transcriptional level using three different aphid species, Myzus persicae, Myzus cerasi and Rhopalosiphum pisum. Gene expression analyses revealed a high level of overlap in the overall gene expression changes during the host and non-host interactions with regards to the sets of genes differentially expressed and the direction of expression changes. Despite this overlap in transcriptional responses across interactions, there was a stronger repression of genes involved in metabolism and oxidative responses specifically during the host interaction with M. persicae. In addition, we identified a set of genes with opposite gene expression patterns during the host versus non-host interactions. Aphid performance assays on Arabidopsis mutants that were selected based on our transcriptome analyses identified novel genes contributing to host susceptibility, host defences during interactions with M. persicae as well to non-host resistance against R. padi. Understanding how plants respond to aphid species that differ in their ability to infest plant species, and identifying the genes and signaling pathways involved, is essential for the development of novel and durable aphid control in crop plants. PMID:25993686

  8. Characterization of Arabidopsis Transcriptional Responses to Different Aphid Species Reveals Genes that Contribute to Host Susceptibility and Non-host Resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maëlle Jaouannet

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aphids are economically important pests that display exceptional variation in host range. The determinants of diverse aphid host ranges are not well understood, but it is likely that molecular interactions are involved. With significant progress being made towards understanding host responses upon aphid attack, the mechanisms underlying non-host resistance remain to be elucidated. Here, we investigated and compared Arabidopsis thaliana host and non-host responses to aphids at the transcriptional level using three different aphid species, Myzus persicae, Myzus cerasi and Rhopalosiphum pisum. Gene expression analyses revealed a high level of overlap in the overall gene expression changes during the host and non-host interactions with regards to the sets of genes differentially expressed and the direction of expression changes. Despite this overlap in transcriptional responses across interactions, there was a stronger repression of genes involved in metabolism and oxidative responses specifically during the host interaction with M. persicae. In addition, we identified a set of genes with opposite gene expression patterns during the host versus non-host interactions. Aphid performance assays on Arabidopsis mutants that were selected based on our transcriptome analyses identified novel genes contributing to host susceptibility, host defences during interactions with M. persicae as well to non-host resistance against R. padi. Understanding how plants respond to aphid species that differ in their ability to infest plant species, and identifying the genes and signaling pathways involved, is essential for the development of novel and durable aphid control in crop plants.

  9. Fatty Acids, Obesity and Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Arner

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Although elevated free fatty acid (FFA levels in obesity have been considered to be of importance for insulin resistance, a recent meta-analysis suggested normal FFA levels in obese subjects. We investigated fasting circulating FFA and glycerol levels in a large cohort of non-obese and obese subjects. Methods: Subjects recruited for a study on obesity genetics were investigated in the morning after an overnight fast (n = 3,888. Serum FFA (n = 3,306, plasma glycerol (n = 3,776, and insulin sensitivity index (HOMA-IR,n = 3,469 were determined. Obesity was defined as BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 and insulin resistance as HOMA-IR ≥ 2.21. Results: In obese subjects, circulating FFA and glycerol levels were higher than in non-obese individuals (by 26% and 47%, respectively; both p Conclusion: Circulating FFA and glycerol levels are markedly elevated in obesity but only marginally influenced by insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Whether these differences persist during diurnal variations in circulating FFA/glycerol, remains to be established.

  10. Current Status of the Availability, Development, and Use of Host Plant Resistance to Nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Philip A.

    1992-01-01

    Host plant resistance (HPR) to nematodes has been identified in many major crops and related wild germplasm. Most HPR is to the more specialized, sedentary endoparasitic genera and species, e.g., Globodera, Heterodera, Meloidogyne, Nacobbus, Rotylenchulus, and Tylenchulus. Some HPR has been developed or identified also to certain migratory endoparasites (Aphelenchoides, Ditylenchus, Pratylenchus, Radopholus) in a few hosts. Commercial use of HPR remains limited, despite its benefits to crop p...

  11. Bacterial Communities Differ among Drosophila melanogaster Populations and Affect Host Resistance against Parasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplinska, Mariia; Gerritsma, Sylvia; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Falcao Salles, Joana; Wertheim, Bregje

    2016-01-01

    In Drosophila, diet is considered a prominent factor shaping the associated bacterial community. However, the host population background (e.g. genotype, geographical origin and founder effects) is a factor that may also exert a significant influence and is often overlooked. To test for population background effects, we characterized the bacterial communities in larvae of six genetically differentiated and geographically distant D. melanogaster lines collected from natural populations across Europe. The diet for these six lines had been identical for ca. 50 generations, thus any differences in the composition of the microbiome originates from the host populations. We also investigated whether induced shifts in the microbiome-in this case by controlled antibiotic administration-alters the hosts' resistance to parasitism. Our data revealed a clear signature of population background on the diversity and composition of D. melanogaster microbiome that differed across lines, even after hosts had been maintained at the same diet and laboratory conditions for over 4 years. In particular, the number of bacterial OTUs per line ranged from 8 to 39 OTUs. Each line harboured 2 to 28 unique OTUs, and OTUs that were highly abundant in some lines were entirely missing in others. Moreover, we found that the response to antibiotic treatment differed among the lines and significantly altered the host resistance to the parasitoid Asobara tabida in one of the six lines. Wolbachia, a widespread intracellular endosymbiont associated with parasitoid resistance, was lacking in this line, suggesting that other components of the Drosophila microbiome caused a change in host resistance. Collectively, our results revealed that lines that originate from different population backgrounds show significant differences in the established Drosophila microbiome, outpacing the long-term effect of diet. Perturbations on these naturally assembled microbiomes to some degree influenced the hosts' resistance

  12. Bacterial Communities Differ among Drosophila melanogaster Populations and Affect Host Resistance against Parasitoids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariia Chaplinska

    Full Text Available In Drosophila, diet is considered a prominent factor shaping the associated bacterial community. However, the host population background (e.g. genotype, geographical origin and founder effects is a factor that may also exert a significant influence and is often overlooked. To test for population background effects, we characterized the bacterial communities in larvae of six genetically differentiated and geographically distant D. melanogaster lines collected from natural populations across Europe. The diet for these six lines had been identical for ca. 50 generations, thus any differences in the composition of the microbiome originates from the host populations. We also investigated whether induced shifts in the microbiome-in this case by controlled antibiotic administration-alters the hosts' resistance to parasitism. Our data revealed a clear signature of population background on the diversity and composition of D. melanogaster microbiome that differed across lines, even after hosts had been maintained at the same diet and laboratory conditions for over 4 years. In particular, the number of bacterial OTUs per line ranged from 8 to 39 OTUs. Each line harboured 2 to 28 unique OTUs, and OTUs that were highly abundant in some lines were entirely missing in others. Moreover, we found that the response to antibiotic treatment differed among the lines and significantly altered the host resistance to the parasitoid Asobara tabida in one of the six lines. Wolbachia, a widespread intracellular endosymbiont associated with parasitoid resistance, was lacking in this line, suggesting that other components of the Drosophila microbiome caused a change in host resistance. Collectively, our results revealed that lines that originate from different population backgrounds show significant differences in the established Drosophila microbiome, outpacing the long-term effect of diet. Perturbations on these naturally assembled microbiomes to some degree influenced

  13. Genetic engineering alveolar macrophages for host resistance to PRRSV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Randall S; Whitworth, Kristin M; Schommer, Susan K; Wells, Kevin D

    2017-09-01

    Standard strategies for control of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) have not been effective, as vaccines have not reduced the prevalence of disease and many producers depopulate after an outbreak. Another method of control would be to prevent the virus from infecting the pig. The virus was thought to infect alveolar macrophages by interaction with a variety of cell surface molecules. One popular model had PRRSV first interacting with heparin sulfate followed by binding to sialoadhesin and then being internalized into an endosome. Within the endosome, PRRSV was thought to interact with CD163 to uncoat the virus so the viral genome could be released into the cytosol and infect the cell. Other candidate receptors have included vimentin, CD151 and CD209. By using genetic engineering, it is possible to test the importance of individual entry mediators by knocking them out. Pigs engineered by knockout of sialoadhesin were still susceptible to infection, while CD163 knockout resulted in pigs that were resistant to infection. Genetic engineering is not only a valuable tool to determine the role of specific proteins in infection by PRRSV (in this case), but also provides a means to create animals resistant to disease. Genetic engineering of alveolar macrophages can also illuminate the role of other proteins in response to infection. We suggest that strategies to prevent infection be pursued to reduce the reservoir of virus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Regulating acid stress resistance of lactic acid bacteria--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chongde; Huang, Jun; Zhou, Rongqing

    2014-07-04

    As cell factories, lactic acid bacteria are widely used in food, agriculture, pharmaceutical and other industries. Acid stress is one the important survival challenges encountered by lactic acid bacteria both in fermentation process and in the gastrointestinal tract. Recently, the development of systems biology and metabolic engineering brings unprecedented opportunity for further elucidating the acid tolerance mechanisms and improving the acid stress resistance of lactic acid bacteria. This review addresses physiological mechanisms of lactic acid bacteria during acid stress. Moreover, strategies to improve the acid stress resistance of lactic acid were proposed.

  15. Environmental fatty acids enable emergence of infectious Staphylococcus aureus resistant to FASII-targeted antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morvan, Claire; Halpern, David; Kénanian, Gérald; Hays, Constantin; Anba-Mondoloni, Jamila; Brinster, Sophie; Kennedy, Sean; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick; Poyart, Claire; Lamberet, Gilles; Gloux, Karine; Gruss, Alexandra

    2016-10-05

    The bacterial pathway for fatty acid biosynthesis, FASII, is a target for development of new anti-staphylococcal drugs. This strategy is based on previous reports indicating that self-synthesized fatty acids appear to be indispensable for Staphylococcus aureus growth and virulence, although other bacteria can use exogenous fatty acids to compensate FASII inhibition. Here we report that staphylococci can become resistant to the FASII-targeted inhibitor triclosan via high frequency mutations in fabD, one of the FASII genes. The fabD mutants can be conditional for FASII and not require exogenous fatty acids for normal growth, and can use diverse fatty acid combinations (including host fatty acids) when FASII is blocked. These mutants show cross-resistance to inhibitors of other FASII enzymes and are infectious in mice. Clinical isolates bearing fabD polymorphisms also bypass FASII inhibition. We propose that fatty acid-rich environments within the host, in the presence of FASII inhibitors, might favour the emergence of staphylococcal strains displaying resistance to multiple FASII inhibitors.

  16. Salicylic acid signaling in disease resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dhirendra

    2014-11-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a key plant hormone that mediates host responses against microbial pathogens. Identification and characterization of SA-interacting/binding proteins is a topic which has always excited scientists studying microbial defense response in plants. It is likely that discovery of a true receptor for SA may greatly advance understanding of this important signaling pathway. SABP2 with its high affinity for SA was previously considered to be a SA receptor. Despite a great deal work we may still not have true a receptor for SA. It is also entirely possible that there may be more than one receptor for SA. This scenario is more likely given the diverse role of SA in various physiological processes in plants including, modulation of opening and closing of stomatal aperture, flowering, seedling germination, thermotolerance, photosynthesis, and drought tolerance. Recent identification of NPR3, NPR4 and NPR1 as potential SA receptors and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (KGDHE2), several glutathione S transferases (GSTF) such as SA binding proteins have generated more interest in this field. Some of these SA binding proteins may have direct/indirect role in plant processes other than pathogen defense signaling. Development and use of new techniques with higher specificity to identify SA-interacting proteins have shown great promise and have resulted in the identification of several new SA interactors. This review focuses on SA interaction/binding proteins identified so far and their likely role in mediating plant defenses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. New tricks for old dogs: countering antibiotic resistance in tuberculosis with host-directed therapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    Hawn, Thomas R.; Shah, Javeed A; Kalman, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Despite the availability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) drugs for over 50 years, tuberculosis (TB) remains at pandemic levels. New drugs are urgently needed for resistant strains, shortening duration of treatment, and targeting different stages of the disease, especially for treatment during human immunodeficiency virus co-infection. One solution to the conundrum that antibiotics kill the bacillus yet select for resistance is to target the host rather than the pathogen. Here we discuss r...

  18. A secretory protein of necrotrophic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum that suppresses host resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenjun; Wei, Wei; Fu, Yanping; Cheng, Jiasen; Xie, Jiatao; Li, Guoqing; Yi, Xianhong; Kang, Zhensheng; Dickman, Martin B; Jiang, Daohong

    2013-01-01

    SSITL (SS1G_14133) of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum encodes a protein with 302 amino acid residues including a signal peptide, its secretion property was confirmed with immunolocalization and immunofluorescence techniques. SSITL was classified in the integrin alpha N-terminal domain superfamily, and its 3D structure is similar to those of human integrin α4-subunit and a fungal integrin-like protein. When S. sclerotiorum was inoculated to its host, high expression of SSITL was detected during the initial stages of infection (1.5-3.0 hpi). Targeted silencing of SSITL resulted in a significant reduction in virulence; on the other hand, inoculation of SSITL silenced transformant A10 initiated strong and rapid defense response in Arabidopsis, the highest expressions of defense genes PDF1.2 and PR-1 appeared at 3 hpi which was 9 hr earlier than that time when plants were inoculated with the wild-type strain of S. sclerotiorum. Systemic resistance induced by A10 was detected by analysis of the expression of PDF1.2 and PR-1, and confirmed following inoculation with Botrytis cinerea. A10 induced much larger lesions on Arabidopsis mutant ein2 and jar1, and slightly larger lesions on mutant pad4 and NahG in comparison with the wild-type plants. Furthermore, both transient and constitutive expression of SSITL in Arabidopsis suppressed the expression of PDF1.2 and led to be more susceptible to A10 and the wild-type strain of S. sclerotiorum and B. cinerea. Our results suggested that SSITL is an effector possibly and plays significant role in the suppression of jasmonic/ethylene (JA/ET) signal pathway mediated resistance at the early stage of infection.

  19. A secretory protein of necrotrophic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum that suppresses host resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Zhu

    Full Text Available SSITL (SS1G_14133 of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum encodes a protein with 302 amino acid residues including a signal peptide, its secretion property was confirmed with immunolocalization and immunofluorescence techniques. SSITL was classified in the integrin alpha N-terminal domain superfamily, and its 3D structure is similar to those of human integrin α4-subunit and a fungal integrin-like protein. When S. sclerotiorum was inoculated to its host, high expression of SSITL was detected during the initial stages of infection (1.5-3.0 hpi. Targeted silencing of SSITL resulted in a significant reduction in virulence; on the other hand, inoculation of SSITL silenced transformant A10 initiated strong and rapid defense response in Arabidopsis, the highest expressions of defense genes PDF1.2 and PR-1 appeared at 3 hpi which was 9 hr earlier than that time when plants were inoculated with the wild-type strain of S. sclerotiorum. Systemic resistance induced by A10 was detected by analysis of the expression of PDF1.2 and PR-1, and confirmed following inoculation with Botrytis cinerea. A10 induced much larger lesions on Arabidopsis mutant ein2 and jar1, and slightly larger lesions on mutant pad4 and NahG in comparison with the wild-type plants. Furthermore, both transient and constitutive expression of SSITL in Arabidopsis suppressed the expression of PDF1.2 and led to be more susceptible to A10 and the wild-type strain of S. sclerotiorum and B. cinerea. Our results suggested that SSITL is an effector possibly and plays significant role in the suppression of jasmonic/ethylene (JA/ET signal pathway mediated resistance at the early stage of infection.

  20. CHEMOTHERAPY, WITHIN-HOST ECOLOGY AND THE FITNESS OF DRUG-RESISTANT MALARIA PARASITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijben, Silvie; Nelson, William A.; Wargo, Andrew R.; Sim, Derek G.; Drew, Damien R.; Read, Andrew F.

    2011-01-01

    A major determinant of the rate at which drug-resistant malaria parasites spread through a population is the ecology of resistant and sensitive parasites sharing the same host. Drug treatment can significantly alter this ecology by removing the drug-sensitive parasites, leading to competitive release of resistant parasites. Here, we test the hypothesis that the spread of resistance can be slowed by reducing drug treatment and hence restricting competitive release. Using the rodent malaria model Plasmodium chabaudi, we found that low-dose chemotherapy did reduce competitive release. A higher drug dose regimen exerted stronger positive selection on resistant parasites for no detectable clinical gain. We estimated instantaneous selection coefficients throughout the course of replicate infections to analyze the temporal pattern of the strength and direction of within-host selection. The strength of selection on resistance varied through the course of infections, even in untreated infections, but increased immediately following drug treatment, particularly in the high-dose groups. Resistance remained under positive selection for much longer than expected from the half life of the drug. Although there are many differences between mice and people, our data do raise the question whether the aggressive treatment regimens aimed at complete parasite clearance are the best resistance-management strategies for humans. PMID:20584075

  1. Development of expanded host range phage active on biofilms of multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapes, Abigail C.; Trautner, Barbara W.; Liao, Kershena S.; Ramig, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Phage therapy is a promising treatment of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacterial infections but is limited by the narrow host range of phage. To overcome this limitation, we developed a host range expansion (HRE) protocol that expands the host range of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-specific phage by cycles of co-incubation of phage with multiple P. aeruginosa strains. Application of the HRE protocol to a mixture of 4 phages, using 16 P. aeruginosa strains for development, resulted in undefined phage mixtures with greatly expanded host range. Individual phage clones derived from the undefined mixture had expanded host ranges but no individual clone could lyse all of the strains covered by the undefined mixture from which it was isolated. Reconstituting host range-characterized clones into cocktails produced defined cocktails with predictable and broad host ranges. The undefined mixture from the 30th cycle of the mixed-phage HRE (4ϕC30) showed a dose-dependent ability to prevent biofilm formation by, and to reduce a pre-existing biofilm of, 3 P. aeruginosa clinical isolates that produced high amounts of biofilm. A defined cocktail reconstituted from 3 host range-characterized clones had activity on high biofilm-formers susceptible to the phage. Phage therapy was superior to antibiotic therapy (levofloxacin) in a strain of P. aeruginosa that was resistant to levofloxacin. The HRE protocol establishes a rapid approach to create libraries of phage clones and phage cocktails with broad host range, defined composition and anti-biofilm activity. PMID:27144083

  2. Host resistance and pathogen aggressiveness are key determinants of coinfection in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susi, Hanna; Laine, Anna-Liisa

    2017-08-01

    Coinfection, whereby the same host is infected by more than one pathogen strain, may favor faster host exploitation rates as strains compete for the same limited resources. Hence, coinfection is expected to have major consequences for pathogen evolution, virulence, and epidemiology. Theory predicts genetic variation in host resistance and pathogen infectivity to play a key role in how coinfections are formed. The limited number of studies available has demonstrated coinfection to be a common phenomenon, but little is known about how coinfection varies in space, and what its determinants are. Our aim is to understand how variation in host resistance and pathogen infectivity and aggressiveness contribute to how coinfections are formed in the interaction between fungal pathogen Podosphaera plantaginis and Plantago lanceolata. Our phenotyping study reveals that more aggressive strains are more likely to form coinfections than less aggressive strains in the natural populations. In the natural populations most of the variation in coinfection is found at the individual plant level, and results from a common garden study confirm the prevalence of coinfection to vary significantly among host genotypes. These results show that genetic variation in both the host and pathogen populations are key determinants of coinfection in the wild. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  3. Lactobacillus-derived extracellular vesicles enhance host immune responses against vancomycin-resistant enterococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Lee, Kiho; Hsu, Min; Nau, Gerard; Mylonakis, Eleftherios; Ramratnam, Bharat

    2017-03-14

    Probiotic bacteria are known to modulate host immune responses against various pathogens. Recently, extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as potentially important mediators of host-pathogen interactions. In this study, we explored the role of L. plantarum derived EVs in modulating host responses to vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) using both Caenorhabditis elegans and human cells. Our previous work has shown that probiotic conditioning C. elegans with L. acidophilus NCFM prolongs the survival of nematodes exposed to VRE. Similarly, L. plantarum WCFS1 derived extracellular vesicles (LDEVs) also significantly protected the worms against VRE infection. To dissect the molecular mechanisms of this EV-induced protection, we found that treatment of C. elegans with LDEVs significantly increased the transcription of host defense genes, cpr-1 and clec-60. Both cpr-1 and clec-60 have been previously reported to have protective roles against bacterial infections. Incubating human colon-derived Caco-2 cells with fluorescent dye-labeled LDEVs confirmed that LDEVs could be transported into the mammalian cells. Furthermore, LDEV uptake was associated with significant upregulation of CTSB, a human homologous gene of cpr-1, and REG3G, a human gene that has similar functions to clec-60. We have found that EVs produced from L. plantarum WCFS1 up-regulate the expression of host defense genes and provide protective effects on hosts. Using probiotic-derived EVs instead of probiotic bacteria themselves, this study provides a new direction to treat antimicrobial resistant pathogens, such as VRE.

  4. 30 CFR 7.48 - Acid resistance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acid resistance test. 7.48 Section 7.48 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Battery Assemblies § 7.48 Acid resistance test. (a...

  5. Pathogen development and host responses to Plasmopara viticola in resistant and susceptible grapevines: an ultrastructural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiao; Liu, Rui-Qi; Su, Hang; Su, Li; Guo, Yu-Rui; Wang, Zi-Jia; Du, Wei; Li, Mei-Jie; Zhang, Xi; Wang, Yue-Jin; Liu, Guo-Tian; Xu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    The downy mildew disease in grapevines is caused by Plasmopara viticola. This disease poses a serious threat wherever viticulture is practiced. Wild Vitis species showing resistance to P. viticola offer a promising pathway to develop new grapevine cultivars resistant to P. viticola which will allow reduced use of environmentally unfriendly fungicides. Here, transmission and scanning microscopy was used to compare the resistance responses to downy mildew of three resistant genotypes of V. davidii var. cyanocarpa, V. piasesezkii and V. pseudoreticulata and the suceptible V. vinifera cultivar 'Pinot Noir'. Following inoculation with sporangia of P. viticola isolate 'YL' on V. vinifera cv. 'Pinot Noir', the infection was characterized by a rapid spread of intercellular hyphae, a high frequency of haustorium formation within the host's mesophyll cells, the production of sporangia and by the absence of host-cell necrosis. In contrast zoospores were collapsed in the resistant V. pseudoreticulata 'Baihe-35-1', or secretions appeared arround stomata at the beginning of the infection period in V. davidii var. cyanocarpa 'Langao-5' and V. piasezkii 'Liuba-8'. The main characteristics of the resistance responses were the rapid depositions of callose and the appearance of empty hyphae and the plasmolysis of penetrated tissue. Moreover, collapsed haustoria were observed in V. davidii var. cyanocarpa 'Langao-5' at 5 days post inoculation (dpi) and in V. piasezkii 'Liuba-8' at 7 dpi. Lastly, necrosis extended beyond the zone of restricted colonization in all three resistant genotypes. Sporangia were absent in V. piasezkii 'Liuba-8' and greatly decreased in V. davidii var. cyanocarpa 'Langao-5' and in V. pseudoreticulata 'Baihe-35-1' compared with in V. vinifera cv. 'Pinot Noir'. Overall, these results provide insights into the cellular biological basis of the incompatible interactions between the pathogen and the host. They indicate a number of several resistant Chinese wild

  6. A reservoir of drug-resistant pathogenic bacteria in asymptomatic hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel G Perron

    Full Text Available The population genetics of pathogenic bacteria has been intensively studied in order to understand the spread of disease and the evolution of virulence and drug resistance. However, much less attention has been paid to bacterial carriage populations, which inhabit hosts without producing disease. Since new virulent strains that cause disease can be recruited from the carriage population of bacteria, our understanding of infectious disease is seriously incomplete without knowledge on the population structure of pathogenic bacteria living in an asymptomatic host. We report the first extensive survey of the abundance and diversity of a human pathogen in asymptomatic animal hosts. We have found that asymptomatic swine from livestock productions frequently carry populations of Salmonella enterica with a broad range of drug-resistant strains and genetic diversity greatly exceeding that previously described. This study shows how agricultural practice and human intervention may lead and influence the evolution of a hidden reservoir of pathogens, with important implications for human health.

  7. Chytridiomycosis of Marine Diatoms-The Role of Stress Physiology and Resistance in Parasite-Host Recognition and Accumulation of Defense Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Bettina; Küpper, Frithjof C; Vyverman, Wim; Ólafsson, Halldór G; Karsten, Ulf

    2017-01-25

    Little is known about the role of chemotaxis in the location and attachment of chytrid zoospores to potential diatom hosts. Hypothesizing that environmental stress parameters affect parasite-host recognition, four chytrid-diatom tandem cultures (Chytridium sp./Navicula sp., Rhizophydium type I/Nitzschia sp., Rhizophydium type IIa/Rhizosolenia sp., Rhizophydium type IIb/Chaetoceros sp.) were used to test the chemotaxis of chytrid zoospores and the presence of potential defense molecules in a non-contact-co-culturing approach. As potential triggers in the chemotaxis experiments, standards of eight carbohydrates, six amino acids, five fatty acids, and three compounds known as compatible solutes were used in individual and mixed solutions, respectively. In all tested cases, the whole-cell extracts of the light-stressed (continuous light exposure combined with 6 h UV radiation) hosts attracted the highest numbers of zoospores (86%), followed by the combined carbohydrate standard solution (76%), while all other compounds acted as weak triggers only. The results of the phytochemical screening, using biomass and supernatant extracts of susceptible and resistant host-diatom cultures, indicated in most of the tested extracts the presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids, phenols, and aldehydes, whereas the bioactivity screenings showed that the zoospores of the chytrid parasites were only significantly affected by the ethanolic supernatant extract of the resistant hosts.

  8. Chytridiomycosis of Marine Diatoms—The Role of Stress Physiology and Resistance in Parasite-Host Recognition and Accumulation of Defense Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Bettina; Küpper, Frithjof C.; Vyverman, Wim; Ólafsson, Halldór G.; Karsten, Ulf

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the role of chemotaxis in the location and attachment of chytrid zoospores to potential diatom hosts. Hypothesizing that environmental stress parameters affect parasite-host recognition, four chytrid-diatom tandem cultures (Chytridium sp./Navicula sp., Rhizophydium type I/Nitzschia sp., Rhizophydium type IIa/Rhizosolenia sp., Rhizophydium type IIb/Chaetoceros sp.) were used to test the chemotaxis of chytrid zoospores and the presence of potential defense molecules in a non-contact-co-culturing approach. As potential triggers in the chemotaxis experiments, standards of eight carbohydrates, six amino acids, five fatty acids, and three compounds known as compatible solutes were used in individual and mixed solutions, respectively. In all tested cases, the whole-cell extracts of the light-stressed (continuous light exposure combined with 6 h UV radiation) hosts attracted the highest numbers of zoospores (86%), followed by the combined carbohydrate standard solution (76%), while all other compounds acted as weak triggers only. The results of the phytochemical screening, using biomass and supernatant extracts of susceptible and resistant host-diatom cultures, indicated in most of the tested extracts the presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids, phenols, and aldehydes, whereas the bioactivity screenings showed that the zoospores of the chytrid parasites were only significantly affected by the ethanolic supernatant extract of the resistant hosts. PMID:28125065

  9. Chytridiomycosis of Marine Diatoms—The Role of Stress Physiology and Resistance in Parasite-Host Recognition and Accumulation of Defense Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Scholz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the role of chemotaxis in the location and attachment of chytrid zoospores to potential diatom hosts. Hypothesizing that environmental stress parameters affect parasite-host recognition, four chytrid-diatom tandem cultures (Chytridium sp./Navicula sp., Rhizophydium type I/Nitzschia sp., Rhizophydium type IIa/Rhizosolenia sp., Rhizophydium type IIb/Chaetoceros sp. were used to test the chemotaxis of chytrid zoospores and the presence of potential defense molecules in a non-contact-co-culturing approach. As potential triggers in the chemotaxis experiments, standards of eight carbohydrates, six amino acids, five fatty acids, and three compounds known as compatible solutes were used in individual and mixed solutions, respectively. In all tested cases, the whole-cell extracts of the light-stressed (continuous light exposure combined with 6 h UV radiation hosts attracted the highest numbers of zoospores (86%, followed by the combined carbohydrate standard solution (76%, while all other compounds acted as weak triggers only. The results of the phytochemical screening, using biomass and supernatant extracts of susceptible and resistant host-diatom cultures, indicated in most of the tested extracts the presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids, phenols, and aldehydes, whereas the bioactivity screenings showed that the zoospores of the chytrid parasites were only significantly affected by the ethanolic supernatant extract of the resistant hosts.

  10. Bacterial Communities Differ among Drosophila melanogaster Populations and Affect Host Resistance against Parasitoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Falcao Salles, Joana

    2016-01-01

    In Drosophila, diet is considered a prominent factor shaping the associated bacterial community. However, the host population background (e.g. genotype, geographical origin and founder effects) is a factor that may also exert a significant influence and is often overlooked. To test for population background effects, we characterized the bacterial communities in larvae of six genetically differentiated and geographically distant D. melanogaster lines collected from natural populations across Europe. The diet for these six lines had been identical for ca. 50 generations, thus any differences in the composition of the microbiome originates from the host populations. We also investigated whether induced shifts in the microbiome—in this case by controlled antibiotic administration—alters the hosts’ resistance to parasitism. Our data revealed a clear signature of population background on the diversity and composition of D. melanogaster microbiome that differed across lines, even after hosts had been maintained at the same diet and laboratory conditions for over 4 years. In particular, the number of bacterial OTUs per line ranged from 8 to 39 OTUs. Each line harboured 2 to 28 unique OTUs, and OTUs that were highly abundant in some lines were entirely missing in others. Moreover, we found that the response to antibiotic treatment differed among the lines and significantly altered the host resistance to the parasitoid Asobara tabida in one of the six lines. Wolbachia, a widespread intracellular endosymbiont associated with parasitoid resistance, was lacking in this line, suggesting that other components of the Drosophila microbiome caused a change in host resistance. Collectively, our results revealed that lines that originate from different population backgrounds show significant differences in the established Drosophila microbiome, outpacing the long-term effect of diet. Perturbations on these naturally assembled microbiomes to some degree influenced the hosts

  11. Whitefly genome expression reveals host-symbiont interaction in amino acid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar; Sharma, Shailesh; Singh, Harpal; Dixit, Sameer; Kumar, Jitesh; Verma, Praveen C; Chandrashekar, K

    2015-01-01

    Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) complex is a serious insect pest of several crop plants worldwide. It comprises several morphologically indistinguishable species, however very little is known about their genetic divergence and biosynthetic pathways. In the present study, we performed transcriptome sequencing of Asia 1 species of B. tabaci complex and analyzed the interaction of host-symbiont genes in amino acid biosynthetic pathways. We obtained about 83 million reads using Illumina sequencing that assembled into 72716 unitigs. A total of 21129 unitigs were annotated at stringent parameters. Annotated unitigs were mapped to 52847 gene ontology (GO) terms and 131 Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathways. Expression analysis of the genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis pathways revealed the complementation between whitefly and its symbiont partner Candidatus Portiera aleyrodidarum. Most of the non-essential amino acids and intermediates of essential amino acid pathways were supplied by the host insect to its symbiont. The symbiont expressed the pathways for the essential amino acids arginine, threonine and tryptophan and the immediate precursors of valine, leucine, isoleucine and phenyl-alanine. High level expression of the amino acid transporters in the whitefly suggested the molecular mechanisms for the exchange of amino acids between the host and the symbiont. Our study provides a comprehensive transcriptome data for Asia 1 species of B. tabaci complex that focusses light on integration of host and symbiont genes in amino acid biosynthesis pathways.

  12. Whitefly genome expression reveals host-symbiont interaction in amino acid biosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Upadhyay

    Full Text Available Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci complex is a serious insect pest of several crop plants worldwide. It comprises several morphologically indistinguishable species, however very little is known about their genetic divergence and biosynthetic pathways. In the present study, we performed transcriptome sequencing of Asia 1 species of B. tabaci complex and analyzed the interaction of host-symbiont genes in amino acid biosynthetic pathways.We obtained about 83 million reads using Illumina sequencing that assembled into 72716 unitigs. A total of 21129 unitigs were annotated at stringent parameters. Annotated unitigs were mapped to 52847 gene ontology (GO terms and 131 Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG pathways. Expression analysis of the genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis pathways revealed the complementation between whitefly and its symbiont partner Candidatus Portiera aleyrodidarum. Most of the non-essential amino acids and intermediates of essential amino acid pathways were supplied by the host insect to its symbiont. The symbiont expressed the pathways for the essential amino acids arginine, threonine and tryptophan and the immediate precursors of valine, leucine, isoleucine and phenyl-alanine. High level expression of the amino acid transporters in the whitefly suggested the molecular mechanisms for the exchange of amino acids between the host and the symbiont.Our study provides a comprehensive transcriptome data for Asia 1 species of B. tabaci complex that focusses light on integration of host and symbiont genes in amino acid biosynthesis pathways.

  13. Increased survival of experimentally evolved antimicrobial peptide-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in an animal host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Adam J; Purves, Joanne; Rolff, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been proposed as new class of antimicrobial drugs, following the increasing prevalence of bacteria resistant to antibiotics. Synthetic AMPs are functional analogues of highly evolutionarily conserved immune effectors in animals and plants, produced in response to microbial infection. Therefore, the proposed therapeutic use of AMPs bears the risk of ‘arming the enemy’: bacteria that evolve resistance to AMPs may be cross-resistant to immune effectors (AMPs) in their hosts. We used a panel of populations of Staphylococcus aureus that were experimentally selected for resistance to a suite of individual AMPs and antibiotics to investigate the ‘arming the enemy’ hypothesis. We tested whether the selected strains showed higher survival in an insect model (Tenebrio molitor) and cross-resistance against other antimicrobials in vitro. A population selected for resistance to the antimicrobial peptide iseganan showed increased in vivo survival, but was not more virulent. We suggest that increased survival of AMP-resistant bacteria almost certainly poses problems to immune-compromised hosts. PMID:25469169

  14. Reevaluating the conceptual framework for applied research on host-plant resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Michael J

    2013-06-01

    Applied research on host-plant resistance to arthropod pests has been guided over the past 60 years by a framework originally developed by Reginald Painter in his 1951 book, Insect Resistance in Crop Plants. Painter divided the "phenomena" of resistance into three "mechanisms," nonpreference (later renamed antixenosis), antibiosis, and tolerance. The weaknesses of this framework are discussed. In particular, this trichotomous framework does not encompass all known mechanisms of resistance, and the antixenosis and antibiosis categories are ambiguous and inseparable in practice. These features have perhaps led to a simplistic approach to understanding arthropod resistance in crop plants. A dichotomous scheme is proposed as a replacement, with a major division between resistance (plant traits that limit injury to the plant) and tolerance (plant traits that reduce amount of yield loss per unit injury), and the resistance category subdivided into constitutive/inducible and direct/indirect subcategories. The most important benefits of adopting this dichotomous scheme are to more closely align the basic and applied literatures on plant resistance and to encourage a more mechanistic approach to studying plant resistance in crop plants. A more mechanistic approach will be needed to develop novel approaches for integrating plant resistance into pest management programs. © 2012 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  15. Active defence responses associated with non-host resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana to the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huitema, E.; Vleeshouwers, V.G.A.A.; Francis, D.M.; Kamoun, S.

    2003-01-01

    The molecular basis of non-host resistance, or species-specific resistance, remains one of the major unknowns in the study of plant¿microbe interactions. In this paper, we describe the characterization of a non-host pathosystem involving the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and the economically

  16. Engineering host-derived resistance against plant parasites through RNA interference: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runo, Steven

    2011-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has rapidly advanced to become a powerful genetic tool and holds promise to revolutionizing agriculture by providing a strategy for controlling a wide array of crop pests. Numerous studies document RNAi efficacy in achieving silencing in viruses, insects, nematodes and weeds parasitizing crops. In general, host derived pest resistance through RNAi is achieved by genetically transforming host plants with double stranded RNA constructs targeted at essential parasite genes leading to generation of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Small interfering RNAs formed in the host are then delivered to the parasite and transported to target cells. Delivery can be oral - worms and insects, viral infections, viruses - or through a vascular connections - parasitic plants, while delivery to target cells is by cell to cell systemic movement of the silencing signal. Despite the overall optimism in generating pest resistant crops through RNAi-mediated silencing, some hurdles have recently begun to emerge. Presently, the main challenge is delivery of sufficient siRNAs, in the right cells, and at the right time to mount; a strong, durable, and broad-spectrum posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) signal. This review highlights the novel strategies available for improving host derived RNAi resistance in downstream applied agriculture.

  17. HIV-1 evolution, drug resistance, and host genetics: The Indian scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Shankarkumar

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available U Shankarkumar, A Pawar, K GhoshNational Institute of Immunohaematology (ICMR, KEM Hospital, Parel, Mumbai, Maharashtra, IndiaAbstract: A regimen with varied side effects and compliance is of paramount importance to prevent viral drug resistance. Most of the drug-resistance studies, as well as interpretation algorithms, are based on sequence data from HIV-1 subtype B viruses. Increased resistance to antiretroviral drugs leads to poor prognosis by restricting treatment options. Due to suboptimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy there is an emergence of drug-resistant HIV-1 strains. The other factors responsible for this viral evolution are antiretroviral drug types and host genetics, especially major histocompatibility complex (MHC. Both primary and secondary drug resistances occur due to mutations in specific epitopes of viral protein regions which may influence the T cell recognition by immune system through MHC Class I and class II alleles. Mutations in viral epitopes enable the virus to escape the immune system. New drugs under clinical trials are being added but their exorbitant costs limit their access in developing countries. Thus the environmental consequences and, the impact of both viral and host genetic variations on the therapy in persons infected with HIV-1 clade C from India need to be determined.Keywords: HIV-1 C drug resistance, virus adaptation, HARRT, India

  18. Carbon-Starvation Induces Cross-Resistance to Thermal, Acid, and Oxidative Stress in Serratia marcescens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Joseph R.; Kline, La’Kesha C.; Kenyon, William J.

    2015-01-01

    The broad host-range pathogen Serratia marcescens survives in diverse host and non-host environments, often enduring conditions in which the concentration of essential nutrients is growth-limiting. In such environments, carbon and energy source starvation (carbon-starvation) is one of the most common forms of stress encountered by S. marcescens. Related members of the family Enterobacteriaceae are known to undergo substantial changes in gene expression and physiology in response to the specific stress of carbon-starvation, enabling non-spore-forming cells to survive periods of prolonged starvation and exposure to other forms of stress (i.e., starvation-induced cross-resistance). To determine if carbon-starvation also results in elevated levels of cross-resistance in S. marcescens, both log-phase and carbon-starved cultures, depleted of glucose before the onset of high cell-density stationary-phase, were grown in minimal media at either 30 °C or 37 °C and were then challenged for resistance to high temperature (50 °C), low pH (pH 2.8), and oxidative stress (15 mM H2O2). In general, carbon-starved cells exhibited a higher level of resistance to thermal stress, acid stress, and oxidative stress compared to log-phase cells. The extent of carbon-starvation-induced cross-resistance was dependent on incubation temperature and on the particular strain of S. marcescens. In addition, strain- and temperature-dependent variations in long-term starvation survival were also observed. The enhanced stress-resistance of starved S. marcescens cells could be an important factor in their survival and persistence in many non-host environments and within certain host microenvironments where the availability of carbon sources is suboptimal for growth. PMID:27682115

  19. Lack of adaptation to a new host in a generalist herbivore: implications for host plant resistance to twospotted spider mites in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Junji; Wilson, Lewis J; Stiller, Warwick N

    2015-04-01

    The twospotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) is an important pest of cotton. This pest has a broad host range, but when changing between hosts an initial decline in fitness often occurs. This is usually followed by an increase in fitness after rapid adaptation to the new host, usually within five generations. The generality of this adaptive response was tested by assessing elements of fitness when mites were reared on a host to which they were adapted (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. Sicot 71) or on a new host, Gossypium arboreum L. (accession BM13H). In a first experiment, mites reared on the new host for ten generations showed declining immature survival compared with those reared on the adapted host. In a second experiment, the intrinsic capacity for increase of mites cultured on the new host for six generations was significantly lower than that of mites cultured on the adapted host for six generations and then transferred to the new host. Hence, exposure to the new host for six or ten generations resulted in declining fitness. This 'negative adaptation' indicates robust antibiosis traits in G. arboreum accession BM13H, which therefore have value in developing mite-resistant G. hirsutum cultivars. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Dietary Gut Microbial Metabolites, Short-chain Fatty Acids, and Host Metabolic Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayu Kasubuchi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available During feeding, the gut microbiota contributes to the host energy acquisition and metabolic regulation thereby influencing the development of metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs such as acetate, butyrate, and propionate, which are produced by gut microbial fermentation of dietary fiber, are recognized as essential host energy sources and act as signal transduction molecules via G-protein coupled receptors (FFAR2, FFAR3, OLFR78, GPR109A and as epigenetic regulators of gene expression by the inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC. Recent evidence suggests that dietary fiber and the gut microbial-derived SCFAs exert multiple beneficial effects on the host energy metabolism not only by improving the intestinal environment, but also by directly affecting various host peripheral tissues. In this review, we summarize the roles of gut microbial SCFAs in the host energy regulation and present an overview of the current understanding of its physiological functions.

  1. Intestinal Crosstalk between Bile Acids and Microbiota and Its Impact on Host Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlström, Annika; Sayin, Sama I; Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiota is considered a metabolic "organ" that not only facilitates harvesting of nutrients and energy from the ingested food but also produces numerous metabolites that signal through their cognate receptors to regulate host metabolism. One such class of metabolites, bile acids, is pr...... by altered microbiota composition.......The gut microbiota is considered a metabolic "organ" that not only facilitates harvesting of nutrients and energy from the ingested food but also produces numerous metabolites that signal through their cognate receptors to regulate host metabolism. One such class of metabolites, bile acids......, is produced in the liver from cholesterol and metabolized in the intestine by the gut microbiota. These bioconversions modulate the signaling properties of bile acids via the nuclear farnesoid X receptor and the G protein-coupled membrane receptor 5, which regulate numerous metabolic pathways in the host...

  2. Impaired Fitness and Transmission of Macrolide-Resistant Campylobacter jejuni in Its Natural Host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luangtongkum, Taradon; Shen, Zhangqi; Seng, Virginia W.; Sahin, Orhan; Jeon, Byeonghwa; Liu, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major zoonotic pathogen transmitted to humans via the food chain and is prevalent in chickens, a natural reservoir for this pathogenic organism. Due to the importance of macrolide antibiotics in clinical therapy of human campylobacteriosis, development of macrolide resistance in Campylobacter has become a concern for public health. To facilitate the control of macrolide-resistant Campylobacter, it is necessary to understand if macrolide resistance affects the fitness and transmission of Campylobacter in its natural host. In this study we conducted pairwise competitions and comingling experiments in chickens using clonally related and isogenic C. jejuni strains, which are either susceptible or resistant to erythromycin (Ery). In every competition pair, Ery-resistant (Eryr) Campylobacter was consistently outcompeted by the Ery-susceptible (Erys) strain. In the comingling experiments, Eryr Campylobacter failed to transmit to chickens precolonized by Erys Campylobacter, while isogenic Erys Campylobacter was able to transmit to and establish dominance in chickens precolonized by Eryr Campylobacter. The fitness disadvantage was linked to the resistance-conferring mutations in the 23S rRNA. These findings clearly indicate that acquisition of macrolide resistance impairs the fitness and transmission of Campylobacter in chickens, suggesting that the prevalence of macrolide-resistant C. jejuni will likely decrease in the absence of antibiotic selection pressure. PMID:22183170

  3. Adaptation to toxic hosts as a factor in the evolution of insecticide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyokhin, Andrei; Chen, Yolanda H

    2017-06-01

    Insecticide resistance is a serious economic problem that jeopardizes sustainability of chemical control of herbivorous insects and related arthropods. It can be viewed as a specific case of adaptation to toxic chemicals, which has been driven in large part, but not exclusively, by the necessity for insect pests to tolerate defensive compounds produced by their host plants. Synthetic insecticides may simply change expression of specific sets of detoxification genes that have evolved due to ancestral associations with host plants. Feeding on host plants with more abundant or novel secondary metabolites has even been shown to prime insect herbivores to tolerate pesticides. Clear understanding of basic evolutionary processes is important for achieving lasting success in managing herbivorous arthropods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Allelic variation on murine chromosome 11 modifies host inflammatory responses and resistance to Bacillus anthracis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill K Terra

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthrax is a potentially fatal disease resulting from infection with Bacillus anthracis. The outcome of infection is influenced by pathogen-encoded virulence factors such as lethal toxin (LT, as well as by genetic variation within the host. To identify host genes controlling susceptibility to anthrax, a library of congenic mice consisting of strains with homozygous chromosomal segments from the LT-responsive CAST/Ei strain introgressed on a LT-resistant C57BL/6 (B6 background was screened for response to LT. Three congenic strains containing CAST/Ei regions of chromosome 11 were identified that displayed a rapid inflammatory response to LT similar to, but more severe than that driven by a LT-responsive allele of the inflammasome constituent NRLP1B. Importantly, increased response to LT in congenic mice correlated with greater resistance to infection by the Sterne strain of B. anthracis. The genomic region controlling the inflammatory response to LT was mapped to 66.36-74.67 Mb on chromosome 11, a region that encodes the LT-responsive CAST/Ei allele of Nlrp1b. However, known downstream effects of NLRP1B activation, including macrophage pyroptosis, cytokine release, and leukocyte infiltration could not fully explain the response to LT or the resistance to B. anthracis Sterne in congenic mice. Further, the exacerbated response in congenic mice is inherited in a recessive manner while the Nlrp1b-mediated response to LT is dominant. Finally, congenic mice displayed increased responsiveness in a model of sepsis compared with B6 mice. In total, these data suggest that allelic variation of one or more chromosome 11 genes in addition to Nlrp1b controls the severity of host response to multiple inflammatory stimuli and contributes to resistance to B. anthracis Sterne. Expression quantitative trait locus analysis revealed 25 genes within this region as high priority candidates for contributing to the host response to LT.

  5. Broad-Host-Range IncP-1 plasmids and their resistance potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena ePopowska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The plasmids of the incompatibility group IncP-1, also called IncP, as extrachromosomal genetic elements can transfer and replicate virtually in all Gram-negative bacteria. They are composed of backbone genes that encode a variety of essential functions and accessory genes that have implications for human health and environmental bioremediation. Broad-host-range IncP plasmids are known to spread genes between distinct phylogenetic groups of bacteria. These genes often code for resistances to a broad spectrum of antibiotics, heavy metals and quaternary ammonium compounds used as disinfectants. The backbone of these plasmids carries modules that enable them to effectively replicate, move to a new host via conjugative transfer and to be stably maintained in bacterial cells. The adaptive, resistance and virulence genes are mainly located on mobile genetic elements integrated between the functional plasmid backbone modules. Environmental studies have demonstrated the wide distribution of IncP-like replicons in manure, soils and wastewater treatment plants. They also are present in strains of pathogenic or opportunistic bacteria, which can be a cause for concern, because they may encode multiresistance. Their broad distribution suggests that IncP plasmids play a crucial role in bacterial adaptation by utilizing horizontal gene transfer. This review summarizes the variety of genetic information and physiological functions carried by IncP plasmids, which can contribute to the spread of antibiotic and heavy metal resistance while also mediating the process of bioremediation of pollutants. Due to the location of the resistance genes on plasmids with a broad host range and the presence of transposons carrying these genes it seems that the spread of these genes would be possible and quite hazardous in infection control. Future studies are required to determine the level of risk of the spread of resistance genes located on these plasmids.

  6. Molecular characterisation of intermediate snail hosts and the search for resistance genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rollinson

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between schistosomes and their intermediate hosts is an extremely intricate one with strains and species of the parasite depending on particular species of snail, which in turn may vary in their susceptibility to the parasites. In order to gain a better understanding of the epidemiology of the disease we have been investigating the use of molecular markers for snail identification and for studying host-parasite relationships. In this paper we will draw on examples concerning schistosomiasis in West and East Africa to illustrate how a molecular analysis can be used as part of a "total evidence" approach to characterisation of Bulinus species and provide insights into parasite transmission. Particular emphasis is given to ribosomal RNA genes (rRNA, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPDs and the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I (COI. Snails resistant to infection occur naturally and there is a genetic basis for this resistance. In Biomphalaria glabrata resistance to Schistosoma mansoni is known to be a polygenic trait and we have initiated a preliminary search for snail genomic regions linked to, or involved in, resistance by using a RAPD based approach in conjunction with progeny pooling methods. We are currently characterising a variety of STSs (sequence tagged sites associated with resistance. These can be used for local linkage and interval mapping to define genomic regions associated with the resistance trait. The development of such markers into simple dot-blot or specific PCR-based assays may have a direct and practical application for the identification of resistant snails in natural populations.

  7. Host-Induced Silencing of Pathogenicity Genes Enhances Resistance to Fusarium oxysporum Wilt in Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Poonam; Jyoti, Poonam; Kapoor, Priya; Sharma, Vandana; Shanmugam, V; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2017-08-01

    This study presents a novel approach of controlling vascular wilt in tomato by RNAi expression directed to pathogenicity genes of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Vascular wilt of tomato caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici leads to qualitative and quantitative loss of the crop. Limitation in the existing control measures necessitates the development of alternative strategies to increase resistance in the plants against pathogens. Recent findings paved way to RNAi, as a promising method for silencing of pathogenicity genes in fungus and provided effective resistance against fungal pathogens. Here, two important pathogenicity genes FOW2, a Zn(II)2Cys6 family putative transcription regulator, and chsV, a putative myosin motor and a chitin synthase domain, were used for host-induced gene silencing through hairpinRNA cassettes of these genes against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. HairpinRNAs were assembled in appropriate binary vectors and transformed into tomato plant targeting FOW2 and chsV genes, for two highly pathogenic strains of Fusarium oxysporum viz. TOFOL-IHBT and TOFOL-IVRI. Transgenic tomatoes were analyzed for possible attainment of resistance in transgenic lines against fungal infection. Eight transgenic lines expressing hairpinRNA cassettes showed trivial disease symptoms after 6-8 weeks of infection. Hence, the host-induced posttranscriptional gene silencing of pathogenicity genes in transgenic tomato plants has enhanced their resistance to vascular wilt disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum.

  8. New tricks for old dogs: countering antibiotic resistance in tuberculosis with host-directed therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawn, Thomas R.; Shah, Javeed A.; Kalman, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Summary Despite the availability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) drugs for over 50 years, tuberculosis (TB) remains at pandemic levels. New drugs are urgently needed for resistant strains, shortening duration of treatment, and targeting different stages of the disease, especially for treatment during human immunodeficiency virus co-infection. One solution to the conundrum that antibiotics kill the bacillus yet select for resistance is to target the host rather than the pathogen. Here we discuss recent progress in so called ‘host-directed therapeutics’ (HDTs), focusing on two general mechanistic strategies: (i) HDTs that disrupt Mtb pathogenesis in macrophages and (ii) immunomodulatory HDTs that facilitate protective immune responses that kill Mtb or reduce deleterious responses that exacerbate disease. HDTs hold significant promise as adjunctive therapies in that they are less likely to engender resistance, will likely have efficacy against antibiotic-resistant strains, and may have activity against non-replicating Mtb. However, TB is a complex and variegated disease, and human populations exhibit significant diversity in their immune responses to it, which presents a complicated landscape for HDTs to navigate. Nevertheless, we suggest that a detailed mechanistic understanding of drug action, together with careful selection of disease stage targets and dosing strategies may overcome such limitations and allow the development of HDTs as effective adjunctive treatment options for TB. PMID:25703571

  9. PHAGE RESISTANT LACTIC ACID BACTERIAL MUTANTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    Method of obtaining mutated lactic acid bacteria having a reduced susceptibility towards attack by bacteriophages, the method comprising mutating a gene involved in the pyrimidine metabolism, including pyrG encoding CTP synthetase. Such lactic acid bacteria are useful in starter cultures in the p...

  10. Cholic acid resistance and the adherence ability of Bifidobacterium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 55% respectively, depending on pH, time and strain. The adaptation of Bifidobacterium strains to cholic acid was shown to be increased with time. It was concluded that the acquisition of cholic acid resistance by those Bifidobacterium strains promoted changes in the adhesion ability on HT-29 human epithelium cell line.

  11. Associations of erythrocyte fatty acid patterns with insulin resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Synergistic and/or additive effects on cardiometabolic risk may be missed by examining individual fatty acids (FA). A pattern analysis may be a more useful approach. As well, it remains unclear whether erythrocyte fatty acid composition relates to insulin resistance among Hispanic/Latino...

  12. Altered Cultivar Resistance of Kimchi Cabbage Seedlings Mediated by Salicylic Acid, Jasmonic Acid and Ethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Hee Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Two cultivars Buram-3-ho (susceptible and CR-Hagwang (moderate resistant of kimchi cabbage seedlings showed differential defense responses to anthracnose (Colletotrichum higginsianum, black spot (Alternaria brassicicola and black rot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, Xcc diseases in our previous study. Defense-related hormones salicylic acid (SA, jasmonic acid (JA and ethylene led to different transcriptional regulation of pathogenesis-related (PR gene expression in both cultivars. In this study, exogenous application of SA suppressed basal defenses to C. higginsianum in the 1st leaves of the susceptible cultivar and cultivar resistance of the 2nd leaves of the resistant cultivar. SA also enhanced susceptibility of the susceptible cultivar to A. brassicicola. By contrast, SA elevated disease resistance to Xcc in the resistant cultivar, but not in the susceptible cultivar. Methyl jasmonate (MJ treatment did not affect the disease resistance to C. higginsianum and Xcc in either cultivar, but it compromised the disease resistance to A. brassicicola in the resistant cultivar. Treatment with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC ethylene precursor did not change resistance of the either cultivar to C. higginsianum and Xcc. Effect of ACC pretreatment on the resistance to A. brassicicola was not distinguished between susceptible and resistant cultivars, because cultivar resistance of the resistant cultivar was lost by prolonged moist dark conditions. Taken together, exogenously applied SA, JA and ethylene altered defense signaling crosstalk to three diseases of anthracnose, black spot and black rot in a cultivar-dependent manner.

  13. Composition of fatty acids in the Varroa destructor mites and their hosts, Apis mellifera drone-prepupae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitryjuk, Małgorzata; Zalewski, Kazimierz; Raczkowski, Marek; Żółtowska, Krystyna

    2015-01-01

    The fatty acid (FA) profile of lipids extracted from the Varroa destructor parasitic mite and its host, drone-prepupae of Apis mellifera, was determined by gas chromatography (GC). The percentages of saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were generally similar in parasites and their hosts. Fatty acids were arranged in the following descending order based on their content: MUFAs (ca. 52-55%), SFAs (ca. 41%) and PUFAs (ca. 3%). The predominant fatty acids were oleic acid (46% in mites, 44% in prepupae) and palmitic acid (23% and 30%, respectively). Varroa parasites differed from their hosts in the quantity of individual FAs and in their FA profiles. Three PUFAs noted in the host were not observed in parasitic mites, whereas the presence of C21:0, C24:0 and C22:1 FAs was reported in mites, but not in drones.

  14. Host-derived probiotics Enterococcus casseliflavus improves resistance against Streptococcus iniae infection in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) via immunomodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Reza; Adel, Milad; Lazado, Carlo C; Caipang, Christopher Marlowe A; Dadar, Maryam

    2016-05-01

    The present study evaluated the benefits of dietary administration of host-derived candidate probiotics Enterococcus casseliflavus in juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Experimental diets were prepared by incorporating the microorganisms in the basal feed at 3 inclusion levels (i.e. 10(7) CFU g(-1) of feed [T1], 10(8) CFU g(-1) of feed [T2], 10(9) CFU g(-1) of feed [T3]). The probiotic feeds were administered for 8 weeks, with a group fed with the basal diet serving as control. The effects on growth performance, gut health, innate immunity and disease resistance were evaluated. Results showed that growth performance parameters were significantly improved in T2 and T3 groups. Activities of digestive enzymes such as trypsin and lipase were significantly higher in these two groups as well. Gut micro-ecology was influenced by probiotic feeding as shown by the significant increase in intestinal lactic acid bacteria and total viable aerobic counts in T2 and T3. Humoral immunity was impacted by dietary probiotics as total serum protein and albumin were significantly elevated in T3. The levels of serum IgM significantly increased in all probiotic fed groups at week 8; with the T3 group registering the highest increment. Respiratory burst activity of blood leukocytes were significantly improved in T2 and T3. Hematological profiling further revealed that neutrophil counts significantly increased in all probiotic fed groups. Challenge test showed that probiotic feeding significantly improved host resistance to Streptococcus iniae infection, specifically in T2 and T3 where a considerable modulation of immune responses was observed. Taken together, this study demonstrated E. casseliflavus as a potential probiotics for rainbow trout with the capability of improving growth performance and enhancing disease resistance by immunomodulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pyramids of QTLs enhance host-plant resistance and Bt-mediated resistance to leaf-chewing insects in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, María A; All, John N; Boerma, H Roger; Parrott, Wayne A

    2016-04-01

    QTL-M and QTL-E enhance soybean resistance to insects. Pyramiding these QTLs with cry1Ac increases protection against Bt-tolerant pests, presenting an opportunity to effectively deploy Bt with host-plant resistance genes. Plant resistance to leaf-chewing insects minimizes the need for insecticide applications, reducing crop production costs and pesticide concerns. In soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], resistance to a broad range of leaf-chewing insects is found in PI 229358 and PI 227687. PI 229358's resistance is conferred by three quantitative trait loci (QTLs): M, G, and H. PI 227687's resistance is conferred by QTL-E. The letters indicate the soybean Linkage groups (LGs) on which the QTLs are located. This study aimed to determine if pyramiding PI 229358 and PI 227687 QTLs would enhance soybean resistance to leaf-chewing insects, and if pyramiding these QTLs with Bt (cry1Ac) enhances resistance against Bt-tolerant pests. The near-isogenic lines (NILs): Benning(ME), Benning(MGHE), and Benning(ME+cry1Ac) were developed. Benning(ME) and Benning(MGHE) were evaluated in detached-leaf and greenhouse assays with soybean looper [SBL, Chrysodeixis includens (Walker)], corn earworm [CEW, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)], fall armyworm [FAW, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith)], and velvetbean caterpillar [VBC, Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner)]; and in field-cage assays with SBL. Benning(ME+cry1Ac) was tested in detached-leaf assays against SBL, VBC, and Southern armyworm [SAW, Spodoptera eridania (Cramer)]. In the detached-leaf assay, Benning(ME) showed the strongest antibiosis against CEW, FAW, and VBC. In field-cage conditions, Benning(ME) and Benning(MGHE) suffered 61 % less defoliation than Benning. Benning(ME+cry1Ac) was more resistant than Benning(ME) and Benning (cry1Ac) against SBL and SAW. Agriculturally relevant levels of resistance in soybean can be achieved with just two loci, QTL-M and QTL-E. ME+cry1Ac could present an opportunity to protect the durability of Bt

  16. Resistance of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid to anaerobic biodegradation

    OpenAIRE

    Alarcón,Evelyn; Decap,Jacqueline; Vidal,Gladys

    2005-01-01

    Kraft mills are responsible for the massive discharge of highly polluted effluents, and new bleaching processes (i.e. Total Chlorine Free (TCF)) is presented as a feasible option to reduce this environmental impact. However, increased TCF pulp production is accompanied by an increase in chelate use. The most commonly used chelates, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DPTA), are considered to be relatively persistent substances in water treatment plan...

  17. Current status of the availability, development, and use of host plant resistance to nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, P A

    1992-06-01

    Host plant resistance (HPR) to nematodes has been identified in many major crops and related wild germplasm. Most HPR is to the more specialized, sedentary endoparasitic genera and species, e.g., Globodera, Heterodera, Meloidogyne, Nacobbus, Rotylenchulus, and Tylenchulus. Some HPR has been developed or identified also to certain migratory endoparasites (Aphelenchoides, Ditylenchus, Pratylenchus, Radopholus) in a few hosts. Commercial use of HPR remains limited, despite its benefits to crop production when deployed appropriately. Restricted use and availability of HPR result from problems associated with transfer of resistance into acceptable cultivars. Difficulties occur in gene transfer to acceptable cultivars because of incompatibility barriers to hybridization or linkage to undesirable traits, for example in cucurbitaceous and solanaceous crops and sugarbeet. Specificity of HPR to only one species, or one or few pathotypes, as it relates to resistance durability and nematode virulence, and HPR response to abiotic factors such as high soil temperature, also limit availability and utility. A scheme for HPR development is presented to emphasize nematology research and information requirements for expanding HPR use in nematode control programs, for example in common bean, sugarbeet, and tomato. Nonbiological factors that influence HPR usage are discussed, including heavy reliance on nematicide programs, low priority of nematode HPR in many breeding programs, and insufficient breeder-nematologist collaboration.

  18. IFN-gamma-inducible Irga6 mediates host resistance against Chlamydia trachomatis via autophagy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munir A Al-Zeer

    Full Text Available Chlamydial infection of the host cell induces Gamma interferon (IFNgamma, a central immunoprotector for humans and mice. The primary defense against Chlamydia infection in the mouse involves the IFNgamma-inducible family of IRG proteins; however, the precise mechanisms mediating the pathogen's elimination are unknown. In this study, we identify Irga6 as an important resistance factor against C. trachomatis, but not C. muridarum, infection in IFNgamma-stimulated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs. We show that Irga6, Irgd, Irgm2 and Irgm3 accumulate at bacterial inclusions in MEFs upon stimulation with IFNgamma, whereas Irgb6 colocalized in the presence or absence of the cytokine. This accumulation triggers a rerouting of bacterial inclusions to autophagosomes that subsequently fuse to lysosomes for elimination. Autophagy-deficient Atg5-/- MEFs and lysosomal acidification impaired cells surrender to infection. Irgm2, Irgm3 and Irgd still localize to inclusions in IFNgamma-induced Atg5-/- cells, but Irga6 localization is disrupted indicating its pivotal role in pathogen resistance. Irga6-deficient (Irga6-/- MEFs, in which chlamydial growth is enhanced, do not respond to IFNgamma even though Irgb6, Irgd, Irgm2 and Irgm3 still localize to inclusions. Taken together, we identify Irga6 as a necessary factor in conferring host resistance by remodelling a classically nonfusogenic intracellular pathogen to stimulate fusion with autophagosomes, thereby rerouting the intruder to the lysosomal compartment for destruction.

  19. Layered basal defenses underlie non-host resistance of Arabidopsis to Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Jong Hyun; Kim, Min Gab; Lee, Sang Yeol; Mackey, David

    2007-08-01

    Arabidopsis is a non-host for Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola NPS3121 (Pph), a bacterial pathogen of bean. Pph does not induce a hypersensitive response in Arabidopsis. Here we show that Arabidopsis instead resists Pph with multi-layered basal defense. Our approach was: (i) to identify defense readouts induced by Pph; (ii) to determine whether mutations in known Arabidopsis defense genes disrupt Pph-induced defense signaling; (iii) to determine whether heterologous type III effectors from pathogens of Arabidopsis suppress Pph-induced defense signaling, and (iv) to ascertain how basal defenses contribute to resistance against Pph by individually or multiply disrupting defense signaling pathways with mutations and heterologous type III effectors. We demonstrate that Pph elicits a minimum of three basal defense-signaling pathways in Arabidopsis. These pathways have unique readouts, including PR-1 protein accumulation and morphologically distinct types of callose deposition. Further, they require distinct defense genes, including PMR4, RAR1, SID2, NPR1, and PAD4. Finally, they are suppressed differentially by heterologous type III effectors, including AvrRpm1 and HopM1. Pph growth is enhanced only when multiple defense pathways are disrupted. For example, mutation of NPR1 or SID2 combined with the action of AvrRpm1 and HopM1 renders Arabidopsis highly susceptible to Pph. Thus, non-host resistance of Arabidopsis to Pph is based on multiple, individually effective layers of basal defense.

  20. Allocation, not male resistance, increases male frequency during epidemics: a case study in facultatively sexual hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hite, Jessica L; Penczykowski, Rachel M; Shocket, Marta S; Griebel, Katherine A; Strauss, Alexander T; Duffy, Meghan A; Cáceres, Carla E; Hall, Spencer R

    2017-11-01

    Why do natural populations vary in the frequency of sexual reproduction? Virulent parasites may help explain why sex is favored during disease epidemics. To illustrate, we show a higher frequency of males and sexually produced offspring in natural populations of a facultative parthenogenetic host during fungal epidemics. In a multi-year survey of 32 lakes, the frequency of males (an index of sex) was higher in populations of zooplankton hosts with larger epidemics. A lake mesocosm experiment established causality: experimental epidemics produced a higher frequency of males relative to disease-free controls. One common explanation for such a pattern involves Red Queen (RQ) dynamics. However, this particular system lacks key genetic specificity mechanisms required for the RQ, so we evaluated two other hypotheses. First, individual females, when stressed by infection, could increase production of male offspring vs. female offspring (a tenant of the "Abandon Ship" theory). Data from a life table experiment supports this mechanism. Second, higher male frequency during epidemics could reflect a purely demographic process (illustrated with a demographic model): males could resist infection more than females (via size-based differences in resistance and mortality). However, we found no support for this resistance mechanism. A size-based model of resistance, parameterized with data, revealed why: higher male susceptibility negated the lower exposure (a size-based advantage) of males. These results suggest that parasite-mediated increases in allocation to sex by individual females, rather than male resistance, increased the frequency of sex during larger disease epidemics. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  1. A fitness cost for Turnip mosaic virus to overcome host resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenner, Carol E; Wang, Xiaowu; Ponz, Fernando; Walsh, John A

    2002-06-01

    The relative fitness of the Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) isolate UK 1 was compared with that of two other wildtype isolates CZE 1 and CDN 1. The isolates CZE 1 and CDN 1 are able to overcome the effect of the resistance gene TuRB01 and at least three other resistance sources that are effective against UK 1. Comparisons were also made between the fitness of UK 1 and a recombinant virus with a single nucleotide change (v35Tunos +5570 A>G) conferring the ability to overcome TuRB01 resistance. Co-inoculation experiments were carried out where pairs of isolates were serially passaged over 5 months in a plant line possessing no known resistance genes in order to examine the relative fitness of the isolates. In each case, UK 1 dominated the mixture in the susceptible host background. It out-competed CZE 1 and v35Tunos +5570 A>G within four passages, and CDN 1 after one passage. The greater fitness of UK 1 suggests that there may be a fitness cost to TuMV overcoming resistance genes of brassica crops. This may shed some light on the frequency of naturally occurring isolates, in that pathotype 1 isolates are found much more frequently than isolates of other pathotypes. Implications for the deployment of TuRB01 are discussed.

  2. Hyperdiverse gene cluster in snail host conveys resistance to human schistosome parasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob A Tennessen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis, a neglected global pandemic, may be curtailed by blocking transmission of the parasite via its intermediate hosts, aquatic snails. Elucidating the genetic basis of snail-schistosome interaction is a key to this strategy. Here we map a natural parasite-resistance polymorphism from a Caribbean population of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata. In independent experimental evolution lines, RAD genotyping shows that the same genomic region responds to selection for resistance to the parasite Schistosoma mansoni. A dominant allele in this region conveys an 8-fold decrease in the odds of infection. Fine-mapping and RNA-Seq characterization reveal a 25% haplotypes across the GRC, a significantly non-neutral pattern, suggests that balancing selection maintains diversity at the GRC. Thus, the GRC resembles immune gene complexes seen in other taxa and is likely involved in parasite recognition. The GRC is a potential target for controlling transmission of schistosomiasis, including via genetic manipulation of snails.

  3. Characterization of non-host resistance in broad bean to the wheat stripe rust pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Yulin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-host resistance (NHR confers plant species immunity against the majority of microbial pathogens and represents the most robust and durable form of plant resistance in nature. As one of the main genera of rust fungi with economic and biological importance, Puccinia infects almost all cereals but is unable to cause diseases on legumes. Little is known about the mechanism of this kind of effective defense in legumes to these non-host pathogens. Results In this study, the basis of NHR in broad bean (Vicia faba L. against the wheat stripe rust pathogen, Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst, was characterized. No visible symptoms were observed on broad bean leaves inoculated with Pst. Microscopic observations showed that successful location of stomata and haustoria formation were significantly reduced in Pst infection of broad bean. Attempted infection induced the formation of papillae, cell wall thickening, production of reactive oxygen species, callose deposition and accumulation of phenolic compounds in plant cell walls. The few Pst haustoria that did form in broad bean cells were encased in reactive oxygen and callose materials and those cells elicited cell death. Furthermore, a total of seven defense-related genes were identified and found to be up-regulated during the Pst infection. Conclusions The results indicate that NHR in broad bean against Pst results from a continuum of layered defenses, including basic incompatibility, structural and chemical strengthening of cell wall, posthaustorial hypersensitive response and induction of several defense-related genes, demonstrating the multi-layered feature of NHR. This work also provides useful information for further determination of resistance mechanisms in broad bean to rust fungi, especially the adapted important broad bean rust pathogen, Uromyces viciae-fabae, because of strong similarity and association between NHR of plants to unadapted pathogens and basal

  4. Inoculation of Transgenic Resistant Potato by Phytophthora infestans Affects Host Plant Choice of a Generalist Moth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kibrom B Abreha

    Full Text Available Pathogen attack and the plant's response to this attack affect herbivore oviposition preference and larval performance. Introduction of major resistance genes against Phytophthora infestans (Rpi-genes, the cause of the devastating late blight disease, from wild Solanum species into potato changes the plant-pathogen interaction dynamics completely, but little is known about the effects on non-target organisms. Thus, we examined the effect of P. infestans itself and introduction of an Rpi-gene into the crop on host plant preference of the generalist insect herbivore, Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. In two choice bioassays, S. littoralis preferred to oviposit on P. infestans-inoculated plants of both the susceptible potato (cv. Desiree and an isogenic resistant clone (A01-22: cv. Desiree transformed with Rpi-blb1, when compared to uninoculated plants of the same genotype. Both cv. Desiree and clone A01-22 were equally preferred for oviposition by S. littoralis when uninoculated plants were used, while cv. Desiree received more eggs compared to the resistant clone when both were inoculated with the pathogen. No significant difference in larval and pupal weight was found between S. littoralis larvae reared on leaves of the susceptible potato plants inoculated or uninoculated with P. infestans. Thus, the herbivore's host plant preference in this system was not directly associated with larval performance. The results indicate that the Rpi-blb1 based resistance in itself does not influence insect behavior, but that herbivore oviposition preference is affected by a change in the plant-microbe interaction.

  5. Sphingolipids contribute to acetic acid resistance in Zygosaccharomyces bailii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Lina; Genheden, Samuel; Eriksson, Leif A; Olsson, Lisbeth; Bettiga, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    Lignocellulosic raw material plays a crucial role in the development of sustainable processes for the production of fuels and chemicals. Weak acids such as acetic acid and formic acid are troublesome inhibitors restricting efficient microbial conversion of the biomass to desired products. To improve our understanding of weak acid inhibition and to identify engineering strategies to reduce acetic acid toxicity, the highly acetic-acid-tolerant yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii was studied. The impact of acetic acid membrane permeability on acetic acid tolerance in Z. bailii was investigated with particular focus on how the previously demonstrated high sphingolipid content in the plasma membrane influences acetic acid tolerance and membrane permeability. Through molecular dynamics simulations, we concluded that membranes with a high content of sphingolipids are thicker and more dense, increasing the free energy barrier for the permeation of acetic acid through the membrane. Z. bailii cultured with the drug myriocin, known to decrease cellular sphingo-lipid levels, exhibited significant growth inhibition in the presence of acetic acid, while growth in medium without acetic acid was unaffected by the myriocin addition. Furthermore, following an acetic acid pulse, the intracellular pH decreased more in myriocin-treated cells than in control cells. This indicates a higher inflow rate of acetic acid and confirms that the reduction in growth of cells cultured with myriocin in the medium with acetic acid was due to an increase in membrane permeability, thereby demonstrating the importance of a high fraction of sphingolipids in the membrane of Z. bailii to facilitate acetic acid resistance; a property potentially transferable to desired production organisms suffering from weak acid stress. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Host population structure and treatment frequency maintain balancing selection on drug resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskerville, Edward B.; Colijn, Caroline; Hanage, William; Fraser, Christophe; Lipsitch, Marc

    2017-01-01

    It is a truism that antimicrobial drugs select for resistance, but explaining pathogen- and population-specific variation in patterns of resistance remains an open problem. Like other common commensals, Streptococcus pneumoniae has demonstrated persistent coexistence of drug-sensitive and drug-resistant strains. Theoretically, this outcome is unlikely. We modelled the dynamics of competing strains of S. pneumoniae to investigate the impact of transmission dynamics and treatment-induced selective pressures on the probability of stable coexistence. We find that the outcome of competition is extremely sensitive to structure in the host population, although coexistence can arise from age-assortative transmission models with age-varying rates of antibiotic use. Moreover, we find that the selective pressure from antibiotics arises not so much from the rate of antibiotic use per se but from the frequency of treatment: frequent antibiotic therapy disproportionately impacts the fitness of sensitive strains. This same phenomenon explains why serotypes with longer durations of carriage tend to be more resistant. These dynamics may apply to other potentially pathogenic, microbial commensals and highlight how population structure, which is often omitted from models, can have a large impact. PMID:28835542

  7. Host-plant-mediated effects of Nadefensin on herbivore and pathogen resistance in Nicotiana attenuata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldwin Ian T

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The adage from Shakespeare, "troubles, not as single spies, but in battalions come," holds true for Nicotiana attenuata, which is commonly attacked by both pathogens (Pseudomonas spp. and herbivores (Manduca sexta in its native habitats. Defense responses targeted against the pathogens can directly or indirectly influence the responses against the herbivores. Nadefensin is an effective induced defense gene against the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (PST DC3000, which is also elicited by attack from M. sexta larvae, but whether this defense protein influences M. sexta's growth and whether M. sexta-induced Nadefensin directly or indirectly influences PST DC3000 resistance are unknown. Results M. sexta larvae consumed less on WT and on Nadefensin-silenced N. attenuata plants that had previously been infected with PST DC3000 than on uninfected plants. WT plants infected with PST DC3000 showed enhanced resistance to PST DC3000 and decreased leaf consumption by M. sexta larvae, but larval mass gain was unaffected. PST DC3000-infected Nadefensin-silenced plants were less resistant to subsequent PST DC3000 challenge, and on these plants, M. sexta larvae consumed less and gained less mass. WT and Nadefensin-silenced plants previously damaged by M. sexta larvae were better able to resist subsequent PST DC3000 challenges than were undamaged plants. Conclusion These results demonstrate that Na-defensin directly mediates defense against PST DC3000 and indirectly against M. sexta in N. attenuata. In plants that were previously infected with PST DC3000, the altered leaf chemistry in PST DC3000-resistant WT plants and PST DC3000-susceptible Nadefensin-silenced plants differentially reduced M. sexta's leaf consumption and mass gain. In plants that were previously damaged by M. sexta, the combined effect of the altered host plant chemistry and a broad spectrum of anti-herbivore induced metabolomic responses was more

  8. The gut microbiota modulates host amino acid and glutathione metabolism in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardinoglu, Adil; Shoaie, Saeed; Bergentall, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    conventionally raised (CONV-R) and germ-free (GF) mice using gene expression data and tissue-specific genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs). We created a generic mouse metabolic reaction (MMR) GEM, reconstructed 28 tissue-specific GEMs based on proteomics data, and manually curated GEMs for small intestine, colon......, liver, and adipose tissues. We used these functional models to determine the global metabolic differences between CONV-R and GF mice. Based on gene expression data, we found that the gut microbiota affects the host amino acid (AA) metabolism, which leads to modifications in glutathione metabolism....... Our analyses revealed that the gut microbiota influences host amino acid and glutathione metabolism in mice....

  9. Sphingolipids contribute to acetic acid resistance in Zygosaccharomyces bailii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Lina; Genheden, Samuel; Eriksson, Leif A.; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lignocellulosic raw material plays a crucial role in the development of sustainable processes for the production of fuels and chemicals. Weak acids such as acetic acid and formic acid are troublesome inhibitors restricting efficient microbial conversion of the biomass to desired products. To improve our understanding of weak acid inhibition and to identify engineering strategies to reduce acetic acid toxicity, the highly acetic‐acid‐tolerant yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii was studied. The impact of acetic acid membrane permeability on acetic acid tolerance in Z. bailii was investigated with particular focus on how the previously demonstrated high sphingolipid content in the plasma membrane influences acetic acid tolerance and membrane permeability. Through molecular dynamics simulations, we concluded that membranes with a high content of sphingolipids are thicker and more dense, increasing the free energy barrier for the permeation of acetic acid through the membrane. Z. bailii cultured with the drug myriocin, known to decrease cellular sphingo­lipid levels, exhibited significant growth inhibition in the presence of acetic acid, while growth in medium without acetic acid was unaffected by the myriocin addition. Furthermore, following an acetic acid pulse, the intracellular pH decreased more in myriocin‐treated cells than in control cells. This indicates a higher inflow rate of acetic acid and confirms that the reduction in growth of cells cultured with myriocin in the medium with acetic acid was due to an increase in membrane permeability, thereby demonstrating the importance of a high fraction of sphingolipids in the membrane of Z. bailii to facilitate acetic acid resistance; a property potentially transferable to desired production organisms suffering from weak acid stress. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 744–753. © 2015 The Authors. Biotechnology and Bioengineering Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26416641

  10. Effects of simulated rain acidified with sulfuric acid on host-parasite interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. S. Shriner

    1976-01-01

    Wind-blown rain, rain splash, and films of free moisture play important roles in the epidemiology of many plant diseases. The effects of simulated rain acidified with sulfuric acid were studied on several host-parasite systems. Plants were exposed, in greenhouse or field, to simulated rain of pH 3.2 ? 0.1 or pH 6.0 ? 0.2. Simulated "rain" of pH 3.2 resulted...

  11. Role of insulin resistance in uric acid nephrolithiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hanhan; Klett, Dane E; Littleton, Raymond; Elder, Jack S; Sammon, Jesse D

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome has been implicated in the pathogenesis of uric acid stones. Although not completely understood, its role is supported by many studies demonstrating increased prevalence of uric acid stones in patients with metabolic syndrome and in particular insulin resistance, a major component of metabolic syndrome. This review presents epidemiologic studies demonstrating the association between metabolic syndrome and nephrolithiasis in general as well as the relationship between insuli...

  12. RNAseq expression analysis of resistant and susceptible mice after influenza A virus infection identifies novel genes associated with virus replication and important for host resistance to infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Esther; Pandey, Ashutosh K; Leist, Sarah Rebecca; Hatesuer, Bastian; Preusse, Matthias; Pommerenke, Claudia; Wang, Junxi; Schughart, Klaus

    2015-09-02

    The host response to influenza A infections is strongly influenced by host genetic factors. Animal models of genetically diverse mouse strains are well suited to identify host genes involved in severe pathology, viral replication and immune responses. Here, we have utilized a dual RNAseq approach that allowed us to investigate both viral and host gene expression in the same individual mouse after H1N1 infection. We performed a detailed expression analysis to identify (i) correlations between changes in expression of host and virus genes, (ii) host genes involved in viral replication, and (iii) genes showing differential expression between two mouse strains that strongly differ in resistance to influenza infections. These genes may be key players involved in regulating the differences in pathogenesis and host defense mechanisms after influenza A infections. Expression levels of influenza segments correlated well with the viral load and may thus be used as surrogates for conventional viral load measurements. Furthermore, we investigated the functional role of two genes, Reg3g and Irf7, in knock-out mice and found that deletion of the Irf7 gene renders the host highly susceptible to H1N1 infection. Using RNAseq analysis we identified novel genes important for viral replication or the host defense. This study adds further important knowledge to host-pathogen-interactions and suggests additional candidates that are crucial for host susceptibility or survival during influenza A infections.

  13. Acid resistance, bile tolerance and antimicrobial properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maari is a fermented food condiment obtained by spontaneous fermentation of seeds from the baobab tree (Adansonia digitata). Nine dominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains, isolated from traditional maari fermentation were examined for their resistance to pH 2.5, their tolerance to 0.3% bile and their antimicrobial ...

  14. Solutions for therapy-resistant warts. Squaric acid dibutylester (SADBE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Roon, E.N.; Schootstra, R.; Blanken, R.

    2002-01-01

    Squaric acid dibutylester (SADBE) is a strongly sensitizing compound, activating the immune system by inducing a type 4 hypersensitivity reaction. SADBE has been applied in the treatment of alopecia areate and resistant warts. From the results of clinical trials in children and adults the use of

  15. Cholic acid resistance and the adherence ability of Bifidobacterium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... It was concluded that the acquisition of cholic acid resistance by those Bifidobacterium strains promoted changes in the adhesion ability on HT-29 human epithelium cell line. Key words: Adhesion, bifidobacterium ... adhesion) is particularly important for understanding the mechanisms that regulate bacterial ...

  16. Plant Hormone Salicylic Acid Produced by a Malaria Parasite Controls Host Immunity and Cerebral Malaria Outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuma Matsubara

    Full Text Available The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii produces the plant hormone abscisic acid, but it is unclear if phytohormones are produced by the malaria parasite Plasmodium spp., the most important parasite of this phylum. Here, we report detection of salicylic acid, an immune-related phytohormone of land plants, in P. berghei ANKA and T. gondii cell lysates. However, addition of salicylic acid to P. falciparum and T. gondii culture had no effect. We transfected P. falciparum 3D7 with the nahG gene, which encodes a salicylic acid-degrading enzyme isolated from plant-infecting Pseudomonas sp., and established a salicylic acid-deficient mutant. The mutant had a significantly decreased concentration of parasite-synthesized prostaglandin E2, which potentially modulates host immunity as an adaptive evolution of Plasmodium spp. To investigate the function of salicylic acid and prostaglandin E2 on host immunity, we established P. berghei ANKA mutants expressing nahG. C57BL/6 mice infected with nahG transfectants developed enhanced cerebral malaria, as assessed by Evans blue leakage and brain histological observation. The nahG-transfectant also significantly increased the mortality rate of mice. Prostaglandin E2 reduced the brain symptoms by induction of T helper-2 cytokines. As expected, T helper-1 cytokines including interferon-γ and interleukin-2 were significantly elevated by infection with the nahG transfectant. Thus, salicylic acid of Plasmodium spp. may be a new pathogenic factor of this threatening parasite and may modulate immune function via parasite-produced prostaglandin E2.

  17. Host Resistance and Chemical Control for Management of Sclerotinia Stem Rot of Soybean in Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huzar-Novakowiski, Jaqueline; Paul, Pierce A; Dorrance, Anne E

    2017-08-01

    Recent outbreaks of Sclerotinia stem rot (SSR) of soybean in Ohio, along with new fungicides and cultivars with resistance to this disease, have led to a renewed interest in studies to update disease management guidelines. The effect of host resistance (in moderately resistant [MR] and moderately susceptible [MS] cultivars) and chemical control on SSR and yield was evaluated in 12 environments from 2014 to 2016. The chemical treatments evaluated were an untreated check, four fungicides (boscalid, picoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin, and thiophanate-methyl), and one herbicide (lactofen) applied at soybean growth stage R1 (early flowering) alone or at R1 followed by a second application at R2 (full flowering). SSR developed in 6 of 12 environments, with mean disease incidence in the untreated check of 2.5 to 41%. The three environments with high levels of SSR (disease incidence in the untreated check >20%) were used for further statistical analysis. There were significant effects (P < 0.05) of soybean cultivar and chemical treatment on SSR levels. Significantly lower levels of SSR were observed in MR cultivars. Both boscalid and lactofen reduced SSR but did not increase yield. Pyraclostrobin increased SSR compared with the untreated check in the three environments with high levels of disease. In the six fields where SSR did not develop, chemical treatment did not increase yield, nor was the yield from the MR cultivar significantly different from the MS cultivar. For Ohio, MR cultivars alone were effective for management of SSR in soybean fields where this disease has historically occurred.

  18. Microbial Resistance Mechanisms to the Antibiotic and Phytotoxin Fusaric Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutcher, Frankie K; Puckhaber, Lorraine S; Stipanovic, Robert D; Bell, Alois A; Nichols, Robert L; Lawrence, Katheryn S; Liu, Jinggao

    2017-10-06

    Fusaric acid (FA) produced by Fusarium oxysporum plays an important role in disease development in plants, including cotton. This non-specific toxin also has antibiotic effects on microorganisms. Thus, one expects a potential pool of diverse detoxification mechanisms of FA in nature. Bacteria and fungi from soils infested with Fusarium and from laboratory sources were evaluated for their ability to grow in the presence of FA and to alter the structure of FA into less toxic compounds. None of the bacterial strains were able to chemically modify FA. Highly FA-resistant strains were found only in Gram-negative bacteria, mainly in the genus of Pseudomonas. The FA resistance of the Gram-negative bacteria was positively correlated with the number of predicted genes for FA efflux pumps present in the genome. Phylogenetic analysis of predicted FA resistance proteins (FUSC, an inner membrane transporter component of the efflux pump) revealed that FUSC proteins having high sequence identities with the functionally characterized FA resistance protein FusC or Fdt might be the major contributors of FA resistance. In contrast, most fungi converted FA to less toxic compounds regardless of the level of FA resistance they exhibited. Five derivatives were detected, and the detoxification of FA involved either oxidative reactions on the butyl side chain or reductive reactions on the carboxylic acid group. The production of these metabolites from widely different phyla indicates that resistance to FA by altering its structure is highly conserved. A few FA resistant saprophytic or biocontrol strains of fungi were incapable of altering FA, indicating a possible involvement of efflux transporters. Deployment of both efflux and derivatization mechanisms may be a common feature of fungal FA resistance.

  19. Identification of maize genes associated with host plant resistance or susceptibility to Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin accumulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowena Y Kelley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin contamination of maize pose negative impacts in agriculture and health. Commercial maize hybrids are generally susceptible to this fungus. Significant levels of host plant resistance have been observed in certain maize inbred lines. This study was conducted to identify maize genes associated with host plant resistance or susceptibility to A. flavus infection and aflatoxin accumulation. RESULTS: Genome wide gene expression levels with or without A. flavus inoculation were compared in two resistant maize inbred lines (Mp313E and Mp04:86 in contrast to two susceptible maize inbred lines (Va35 and B73 by microarray analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA was used to find genes contributing to the larger variances associated with the resistant or susceptible maize inbred lines. The significance levels of gene expression were determined by using SAS and LIMMA programs. Fifty candidate genes were selected and further investigated by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR in a time-course study on Mp313E and Va35. Sixteen of the candidate genes were found to be highly expressed in Mp313E and fifteen in Va35. Out of the 31 highly expressed genes, eight were mapped to seven previously identified quantitative trait locus (QTL regions. A gene encoding glycine-rich RNA binding protein 2 was found to be associated with the host hypersensitivity and susceptibility in Va35. A nuclear pore complex protein YUP85-like gene was found to be involved in the host resistance in Mp313E. CONCLUSION: Maize genes associated with host plant resistance or susceptibility were identified by a combination of microarray analysis, qRT-PCR analysis, and QTL mapping methods. Our findings suggest that multiple mechanisms are involved in maize host plant defense systems in response to Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin accumulation. These findings will be important in identification of DNA markers for breeding maize lines

  20. Innovations in host and microbial sialic acid biosynthesis revealed by phylogenomic prediction of nonulosonic acid structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Amanda L; Desa, Nolan; Hansen, Elizabeth E; Knirel, Yuriy A; Gordon, Jeffrey I; Gagneux, Pascal; Nizet, Victor; Varki, Ajit

    2009-08-11

    Sialic acids (Sias) are nonulosonic acid (NulO) sugars prominently displayed on vertebrate cells and occasionally mimicked by bacterial pathogens using homologous biosynthetic pathways. It has been suggested that Sias were an animal innovation and later emerged in pathogens by convergent evolution or horizontal gene transfer. To better illuminate the evolutionary processes underlying the phenomenon of Sia molecular mimicry, we performed phylogenomic analyses of biosynthetic pathways for Sias and related higher sugars derived from 5,7-diamino-3,5,7,9-tetradeoxynon-2-ulosonic acids. Examination of approximately 1,000 sequenced microbial genomes indicated that such biosynthetic pathways are far more widely distributed than previously realized. Phylogenetic analysis, validated by targeted biochemistry, was used to predict NulO types (i.e., neuraminic, legionaminic, or pseudaminic acids) expressed by various organisms. This approach uncovered previously unreported occurrences of Sia pathways in pathogenic and symbiotic bacteria and identified at least one instance in which a human archaeal symbiont tentatively reported to express Sias in fact expressed the related pseudaminic acid structure. Evaluation of targeted phylogenies and protein domain organization revealed that the "unique" Sia biosynthetic pathway of animals was instead a much more ancient innovation. Pathway phylogenies suggest that bacterial pathogens may have acquired Sia expression via adaptation of pathways for legionaminic acid biosynthesis, one of at least 3 evolutionary paths for de novo Sia synthesis. Together, these data indicate that some of the long-standing paradigms in Sia biology should be reconsidered in a wider evolutionary context of the extended family of NulO sugars.

  1. Induction of porcine host defense peptide gene expression by short-chain fatty acids and their analogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangfang Zeng

    Full Text Available Dietary modulation of the synthesis of endogenous host defense peptides (HDPs represents a novel antimicrobial approach for disease control and prevention, particularly against antibiotic-resistant infections. However, HDP regulation by dietary compounds such as butyrate is species-dependent. To examine whether butyrate could induce HDP expression in pigs, we evaluated the expressions of a panel of porcine HDPs in IPEC-J2 intestinal epithelial cells, 3D4/31 macrophages, and primary monocytes in response to sodium butyrate treatment by real-time PCR. We revealed that butyrate is a potent inducer of multiple, but not all, HDP genes. Porcine β-defensin 2 (pBD2, pBD3, epididymis protein 2 splicing variant C (pEP2C, and protegrins were induced markedly in response to butyrate, whereas pBD1 expression remained largely unaltered in any cell type. Additionally, a comparison of the HDP-inducing efficacy among saturated free fatty acids of different aliphatic chain lengths revealed that fatty acids containing 3-8 carbons showed an obvious induction of HDP expression in IPEC-J2 cells, with butyrate being the most potent and long-chain fatty acids having only a marginal effect. We further investigated a panel of butyrate analogs for their efficacy in HDP induction, and found glyceryl tributyrate, benzyl butyrate, and 4-phenylbutyrate to be comparable with butyrate. Identification of butyrate and several analogs with a strong capacity to induce HDP gene expression in pigs provides attractive candidates for further evaluation of their potential as novel alternatives to antibiotics in augmenting innate immunity and disease resistance of pigs.

  2. Acetylsalicylic acid resistance risk factors in patients with myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolarek, Wioleta; Kasprzak, Michał; Obońska, Karolina; Ostrowska, Małgorzata; Wiciński, Michał; Kubica, Aldona; Kubica, Jacek; Grześk, Grzegorz

    2015-10-01

    Despite its commonly recognized benefits in the cardiovascular disease setting, an issue of resistance to this drug has lately emerged. The aim of this research was assessment of the phenomenon of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) resistance and its risk factors in patients treated for myocardial infarction. This study is a post-hoc analysis of a previous prospective study with approximately 200 patients treated for myocardial infarction with a coated formulation of ASA. The population was divided into two subgroups according to the response to ASA. ASA responsiveness was assessed using the arachidonic acid-dependent platelet aggregation (ASPI-test). The measurements were performed using the technique of impedance aggregometry. The prevalence of aspirin resistance among the study population was 6.2%. All analyzed aggregometric parameters (including ASPI-test, adenosine diphosphate dependent platelet aggregation - ADP-test, bleeding time measurement) showed significant differences between both subgroups. ASA resistant patients had higher concentrations of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), leukocytes (WBC) and platelets (PLT) but lower concentrations of hemoglobin (HGB). The temporal point analysis for both subgroups showed aspirin resistance incidence peak in patients at 9 months after myocardial infarction. The prevalence of aspirin resistance in our study population is comparable with rates reported in literature among patients with cardiovascular diseases. There is a possible relation between aspirin resistance and clopidogrel resistance. Presence did not affect the incidence of the clinical end-points. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  3. Priming of plant resistance by natural compounds. Hexanoic acid as a model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paz eAranega Bou

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Some alternative control strategies of currently emerging plant diseases are based on the use of resistance inducers. This review highlights the recent advances made in the characterization of natural compounds that induce resistance by a priming mechanism. These include vitamins, chitosans, oligogalacturonides, volatile organic compounds, azelaic and pipecolic acid, among others. Overall, other than providing novel disease control strategies that meet environmental regulations, natural priming agents are valuable tools to help unravel the complex mechanisms underlying the induced resistance phenomenon. The data presented in this review reflect the novel contributions made from studying these natural plant inducers, with special emphasis placed on hexanoic acid (Hx, proposed herein as a model tool for this research field. Hx is a potent natural priming agent of proven efficiency in a wide range of host plants and pathogens. It can early activate broad-spectrum defenses by inducing callose deposition and the SA and JA pathways. Later it can prime pathogen-specific responses according to the pathogen’s lifestyle. Interestingly, Hx primes redox-related genes to produce an anti-oxidant protective effect, which might be critical for limiting the infection of necrotrophs. Our Hx-induced resistance (Hx-IR findings also strongly suggest that it is an attractive tool for the molecular characterization of the plant alarmed state, with the added advantage of it being a natural compound.

  4. Effects of simulated acidic rain on host-parasite interactions in plant diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shriner, D.S.

    1978-01-01

    The effects of simulated rain acidified with sulfuric acid were studied on five host-parasite systems. Plants were exposed in greenhouse or field to simulated rain of pH 3.2 or pH 6.0 in amounts and intervals common to weather patterns of North Carolina. Simulated acidic rain resulted in: (1) an 86 percent inhibition of the number of telia produced by Cronartium fusiforme on willow oak (Quercus phellos); (2) a 66 percent inhibition in the reproduction of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla) on field-grown kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris ''Red Kidney''); (3) a 29 percent decrease in the percentage of leaf area of field-grown kidney beans affected by Uromyces phaseoli; and (4) either stimulated or inhibited development of halo blight on kidney bean (caused by Pseudomonas phaseolicola), depending upon the stage of the disease cycle in which the treatments were applied. The effect varied as follows: (1) simulated acidic rain applied to plants before inoculation increased disease severity by 42 percent; (2) suspension of bacteria in acidic rain resulted in no infection; and (3) acidic rain applied to plants after infection inhibited disease development by 22 percent. Results suggest that the acidity of rain is an environmental parameter which should be of concern to plant pathologists and agricultural and forest ecologists.

  5. Splice variants and regulatory networks associated with host resistance to the intestinal worm Cooperia oncophora in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Robert W; Wu, Sitao; Li, Cong-Jun; Li, Weizhong; Schroeder, Steven G

    2015-07-30

    To elucidate the molecular mechanism of host resistance, we characterized the jejunal transcriptome of Angus cattle selected for parasite resistance for over 20 years in response to infection caused by the intestinal worm Cooperia oncophora. The transcript abundance of 56 genes, such as that of mucin 12 (MUC12) and intestinal alkaline phosphatase (ALPI), was significantly higher in resistant cattle. Novel splicing variants, exon skipping events, and gene fusion events, were also detected. An algorithm for the reconstruction of accurate cellular networks (ARACNE) was used to infer de novo regulatory molecular networks in the interactome between the parasite and host. Under a combined cutoff of an error tolerance (ϵ = 0.10) and a stringent P-value threshold of mutual information (1.0 × 10(-5)), a total of 229,100 direct interactions controlled by 20,288 hub genes were identified. Among these hub genes, 7651 genes had ≥ 100 direct neighbors while the top 9778 hub genes controlled more than 50% of total direct interactions. Three lysozyme genes (LYZ1, LYZ2, and LYZ3), which are co-located in bovine chromosome 5 in tandem and are strongly upregulated in resistant cattle, shared a common regulatory network of 55 genes. These ancient antimicrobials were likely involved in regulating host-parasite interactions by affecting host gut microbiome. Notably, ALPI, known as a gut mucosal defense factor, controlled a molecular network consisting 410 genes, including 14 transcription factors (TF) and 10 genes that were significantly regulated in resistant cattle. Several large regulatory networks were controlled by TF, such as STAT6, SREBF1, and ELF4. Gene ontology (GO) processes significantly enriched in the regulatory network controlled by STAT6 included lipid metabolism. Our findings provide insights into the immune regulation of host-parasite interactions and the molecular mechanisms of host resistance in cattle. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Host plant resistance to aphids in cultivated crops: genetic and molecular bases, and interactions with aphid populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogimont, Catherine; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid; Chovelon, Véronique; Boissot, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    Host plant resistance is an efficient and environmentally friendly means of controlling insects, including aphids, but resistant-breaking biotypes have occurred in several plant-aphid systems. Our review of the genetic and molecular bases of aphid resistance in crop species emphasizes the limited number of aphid resistance genes and alleles. Inheritance of aphid resistance may be monogenic (dominant or recessive genes) or polygenic. Two dominant, aphid resistance genes have been isolated to date. They both encode NBS-LRR proteins involved in the specific recognition of aphids. Strategies to ensure aphid resistance effectiveness and durability are discussed. Innovative research activities are proposed. Copyright 2010 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Antimicrobial Polymers: Mimicking Amino Acid Functionali ty, Sequence Control and Three-dimensional Structure of Host-defen se Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartlieb, Matthias; Williams, Elizabeth G L; Kuroki, Agnès; Perrier, Sébastien; Locock, Katherine E S

    2017-01-01

    Peptides and proteins control and direct all aspects of cellular function and communication. Having been honed by nature for millions of years, they also typically display an unsurpassed specificity for their biological targets. This underlies the continued focus on peptides as promising drug candidates. However, the development of peptides into viable drugs is hampered by their lack of chemical and pharmacokinetic stability and the cost of large scale production. One method to overcome such hindrances is to develop polymer systems that are able to retain the important structural features of these biologically active peptides, while being cheaper and easier to produce and manipulate chemically. This review illustrates these principles using examples of polymers designed to mimic antimicrobial host-defence peptides. The host-defence peptides have been identified as some of the most important leads for the next generation of antibiotics as they typically exhibit broad spectrum antimicrobial ability, low toxicity toward human cells and little susceptibility to currently known mechanisms of bacterial resistance. Their movement from the bench to clinic is yet to be realised, however, due to the limitations of these peptides as drugs. The literature provides a number of examples of polymers that have been able to mimic these peptides through all levels of structure, starting from specific amino acid sidechains, through to more global features such as overall charge, molecular weight and threedimensional structure (e.g. α-helical). The resulting optimised polymers are able retain the activity profile of the peptides, but within a synthetic macromolecular construct that may be better suited to the development of a new generation of antimicrobial therapeutics. Such work has not only produced important new leads to combat the growing threat of antibiotic resistance, but may also open up new ways for polymers to mimic other important classes of biologically active peptides

  8. Glycyrrhizic Acid Decreases Gentamicin-Resistance in Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Sebastian; Heymann, Kerstin; Melzig, Matthias F; Bereswill, Stefan; Heimesaat, Markus M

    2016-12-01

    The resistance of commensal bacteria against first and second line antibiotics has reached an alarming level in many parts of the world and endangers the effective treatment of infectious diseases. Particularly vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium represents an increasing clinical problem in the treatment of infectious diseases and hinders adequate antibiotic stewardship. In consideration of the lack of novel antibiotic compounds, the development of resistance-modifying agents, however, can mitigate the spread of bacterial drug resistance and might possibly extend the useful application indices of an existing licensed antibiotic. Given that saponins modify the local chemical environment at cell membranes and might modify the uptake or mode of action of antibiotics in bacteria, we investigated the influence of the triterpenoid saponin glycyrrhizic acid of Glycyrrhiza glabra on the susceptibility of vancomycin-resistant enterococci against the aminoglycoside antibiotic gentamicin in 47 clinical isolates by applying the checkerboard method. The fractional inhibitory concentration indices values were determined between 0.016 and ≤ 0.5 (synergy is accepted with values ≤ 0.5). Glycyrrhizic acid at the subinhibitory concentration of 2.4 mM was found to reduce the minimal inhibitory concentration of gentamicin in intrinsically resistant E. faecium strains down to 6.25 % of the minimal inhibitory concentration of gentamicin alone, whereas relatively low concentrations of glycyrrhizic acid (18 µM) resulted in increased susceptibilities for some E. faecium isolates to gentamicin. In conclusion, our study points towards a therapeutic potential of glycyrrhizic acid in co-application with gentamicin for defined local bacterial infections caused by vancomycin resistant Enterococcus strains. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Toward elucidation of genetic and functional genetic mechanisms in corn host resistance to Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueyan eShan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins are carcinogenic mycotoxins produced by some species in the Aspergillus genus, such as A. flavus and A. parasiticus. Contamination of aflatoxins in corn profusely happens at pre-harvest stage when heat and drought field conditions favor A. flavus colonization. Commercial corn hybrids are generally susceptible to A. flavus infection. An ideal strategy for preventing aflatoxin contamination is through the enhancement of corn host resistance to Aspergillus infection and aflatoxin production. Constant efforts have been made by corn breeders to develop resistant corn genotypes. Significantly low levels of aflatoxin accumulation have been determined in certain resistant corn inbred lines. A number of reports of quantitative trait loci (QTLs have provided compelling evidence supporting the quantitative trait genetic basis of corn host resistance to aflatoxin accumulation. Important findings have also been obtained from the investigation on candidate resistance genes through transcriptomics approach. Elucidation of molecular mechanisms will provide in-depth understanding of the host-pathogen interactions and hence facilitate the breeding of corn with resistance to A. falvus infection and aflatoxin accumulation.

  10. Isolation of Bacteriophage T4 Mutants Defective in the Ability to Degrade Host Deoxyribonucleic Acid 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Huber R.; Snustad, D. Peter; Jorgensen, Sally E.; Koerner, James F.

    1970-01-01

    A method was devised for identifying nonlethal mutants of T4 bacteriophage which lack the capacity to induce degradation of the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of their host, Escherichia coli. If a culture is infected in a medium containing hydroxyurea (HU), a compound that blocks de novo deoxyribonucleotide biosynthesis by interacting with ribonucleotide reductase, mutant phage that cannot establish the alternate pathway of deoxyribonucleotide production from bacterial DNA will fail to produce progeny. The progeny of 100 phages that survived heavy mutagenesis with hydroxylamine were tested for their ability to multiply in the presence of HU. Four of the cultures lacked this capacity. Cells infected with one of these mutants, designated T4nd28, accumulated double-stranded fragments of host DNA with a molecular weight of approximately 2 × 108 daltons. This mutant failed to induce T4 endonuclease II, an enzyme known to produce single-strand breaks in double-stranded cytosine-containing DNA. The properties of nd28 give strong support to an earlier suggestion that T4 endonuclease II participates in host DNA degradation. The nd28 mutation mapped between T4 genes 32 and 63 and was very close to the latter gene. It is, thus, in the region of the T4 map that is occupied by genes for a number of other enzymes, including deoxycytidylate deaminase, thymidylate synthetase, dihydrofolate reductase, and ribonucleotide reductase, that are nonessential to phage production in rich media. PMID:4914096

  11. Acid resistance variability among isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berk, P.A.; Jonge, de R.; Zwietering, M.H.; Abee, T.; Kieboom, J.

    2005-01-01

    Aims: Acid resistance could be an indicator of virulence since acid resistant strains are able to better survive the human stomach passage and in macrophages. We studied the acid resistance of several Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 strains isolated from food and humans and identified cellular

  12. Overview on mechanisms of acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Fusheng

    2015-02-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are a group of gram-negative or gram-variable bacteria which possess an obligate aerobic property with oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor, meanwhile transform ethanol and sugar to corresponding aldehydes, ketones and organic acids. Since the first genus Acetobacter of AAB was established in 1898, 16 AAB genera have been recorded so far. As the main producer of a world-wide condiment, vinegar, AAB have evolved an elegant adaptive system that enables them to survive and produce a high concentration of acetic acid. Some researches and reviews focused on mechanisms of acid resistance in enteric bacteria and made the mechanisms thoroughly understood, while a few investigations did in AAB. As the related technologies with proteome, transcriptome and genome were rapidly developed and applied to AAB research, some plausible mechanisms conferring acetic acid resistance in some AAB strains have been published. In this review, the related mechanisms of AAB against acetic acid with acetic acid assimilation, transportation systems, cell morphology and membrane compositions, adaptation response, and fermentation conditions will be described. Finally, a framework for future research for anti-acid AAB will be provided.

  13. Scaling up from greenhouse resistance to fitness in the field for a host of an emerging forest disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine J. Hayden; Matteo Garbelotto; Richard Dodd; Jessica W. Wright

    2013-01-01

    Forest systems are increasingly threatened by emergent, exotic diseases, yet management strategies for forest trees may be hindered by long generation times and scant background knowledge. We tested whether nursery disease resistance and growth traits have predictive value for the conservation of Notholithocarpus densiflorus, the host most...

  14. The native Wolbachia endosymbionts of Drosophila melanogaster and Culex quinquefasciatus increase host resistance to West Nile virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L Glaser

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis has been shown to increase host resistance to viral infection in native Drosophila hosts and in the normally Wolbachia-free heterologous host Aedes aegypti when infected by Wolbachia from Drosophila melanogaster or Aedes albopictus. Wolbachia infection has not yet been demonstrated to increase viral resistance in a native Wolbachia-mosquito host system.In this study, we investigated Wolbachia-induced resistance to West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae by measuring infection susceptibility in Wolbachia-infected and Wolbachia-free D. melanogaster and Culex quinquefasciatus, a natural mosquito vector of WNV. Wolbachia infection of D. melanogaster induces strong resistance to WNV infection. Wolbachia-infected flies had a 500-fold higher ID50 for WNV and produced 100,000-fold lower virus titers compared to flies lacking Wolbachia. The resistance phenotype was transmitted as a maternal, cytoplasmic factor and was fully reverted in flies cured of Wolbachia. Wolbachia infection had much less effect on the susceptibility of D. melanogaster to Chikungunya (Togaviridae and La Crosse (Bunyaviridae viruses. Wolbachia also induces resistance to WNV infection in Cx. quinquefasciatus. While Wolbachia had no effect on the overall rate of peroral infection by WNV, Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes produced lower virus titers and had 2 to 3-fold lower rates of virus transmission compared to mosquitoes lacking Wolbachia.This is the first demonstration that Wolbachia can increase resistance to arbovirus infection resulting in decreased virus transmission in a native Wolbachia-mosquito system. The results suggest that Wolbachia reduces vector competence in Cx. quinquefasciatus, and potentially in other Wolbachia-infected mosquito vectors.

  15. Enhancement of host resistance against Listeria infection by Lactobacillus casei: Role of macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K.

    1984-05-01

    Among the 10 species of the genus Lactobacillus, L. casei showed the strongest protective action against Listeria monocytogenes infection in mice. The activity of L. casei differed with regard to the dose of administration. The anti-L. monocytogenes resistance in mice intravenously administered 5.5 X 10(7), 2.8 X 10(8), or 1.1 X 10(9) L. casei cells was most manifest at ca. 2, 2 and 13, and 3 to 21 days after its administration, respectively. The growth of L. monocytogenes in the liver of mice injected with L. casei (10(7), 10(8), or 10(9) cells) 48 h after infection was suppressed, particularly when 10(8) or 10(9) L. casei cells were given 2 or 13 days before the induced infection, respectively. This suppression of L. monocytogenes growth was overcome by carrageenan treatment or X-ray irradiation. (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation into the liver DNA increased 13 days after administration of L. casei, and augmentation of (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation during 6 to 48 h after infection was dependent on the dose of L. casei. Peritoneal macrophage accumulation observed 1 to 5 days after intraperitoneal injection of UV-killed L. monocytogenes was markedly enhanced when the mice were treated with L. casei cells 13 days before macrophage elicitation. Therefore, the enhanced host resistance by L. casei to L. monocytogenes infection may be mediated by macrophages migrating from the blood stream to the reticuloendothelial system in response to L. casei injection before or after L. monocytogenes infection.

  16. Principles of Chemical Biology: From Sexy Fatty Acids and EBV probes to Anti-Acid Antibiotic via Post-Biotics and Host-Microbe Metabolic Complementarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-22

    This month: The role of fatty acids in sex determination; a probe to monitor and inhibit EBNA1 at the same time; a biological role for post-biotics; what happens when you mix microbes, hosts, and drugs; and an antibiotic that cross-protects with acid. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. The Effect of Temperature and Host Plant Resistance on Population Growth of the Soybean Aphid Biotype 1 (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Ashley R; Nechols, James R; McCornack, Brian P; Margolies, David C; Sandercock, Brett K; Yan, Donglin; Murray, Leigh

    2017-02-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate direct and indirect effects of temperature on demographic traits and population growth of biotype 1 of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura. Our objectives were to better understand how temperature influences the expression of host plant resistance, quantify the individual and interactive effects of plant resistance and temperature on soybean aphid population growth, and generate thermal constants for predicting temperature-dependent development on both susceptible and resistant soybeans. To assess indirect (plant-mediated) effects, soybean aphids were reared under a range of temperatures (15-30 °C) on soybean seedlings from a line expressing a Rag1 gene for resistance, and life history traits were quantified and compared to those obtained for soybean aphids on a susceptible soybean line. Direct effects of temperature were obtained by comparing relative differences in the magnitude of life-history traits among temperatures on susceptible soybeans. We predicted that temperature and host plant resistance would have a combined, but asymmetrical, effect on soybean aphid fitness and population growth. Results showed that temperature and plant resistance influenced preimaginal development and survival, progeny produced, and adult longevity. There also appeared to be a complex interaction between temperature and plant resistance for survival and developmental rate. Evidence suggested that the level of plant resistance increased at higher, but not lower, temperature. Soybean aphids required about the same number of degree-days to develop on resistant and susceptible plants. Our results will be useful for making predictions of soybean aphid population growth on resistant plants under different seasonal temperatures. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Variation in lipid and fatty acid uptake among nematode and cestode parasites and their host, domestic fowl: host-parasite interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Madhumita; Kundu, J K; Misra, K K

    2016-12-01

    Lipid synthesis is an important process in most organisms as well as in helminths. The present observation shows the variation of lipid and fatty acid uptake among cestode, Raillietina (Fuhrmannetta) echinobothrida; nematode, Ascaridia galli and their host, Gallus domesticus, the common country fowl. Total lipid (TL), neutral lipid (NL), glycolipid (GL), phospholipid (PL) and their fatty acid of cestode, nematode and liver and intestinal fluid of the host were analyzed by thin layer chromatography and gas liquid chromatography respectively. The result shows that liver take more TL, PL and GL except NL. Utilization of lipid from intestinal fluid when compare between the parasites, it is found that TL and PL content of cestode are higher than nematode, whereas, nematode absorbs more NL and GL than cestode. The percent of cholesterol is more in cestode than nematode. Palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic are the predominant fatty acids among all the samples. The present study reveals that the cestode having large surface area is more opportunistic in the resource utilization over the nematode as well as the host.

  19. Glutamate decarboxylase-dependent acid resistance in Brucella spp.: distribution and contribution to fitness under extremely acidic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiano, Maria Alessandra; Bastianelli, Daniela; Al Dahouk, Sascha; Köhler, Stephan; Cloeckaert, Axel; De Biase, Daniela; Occhialini, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Brucella is an expanding genus of major zoonotic pathogens, including at least 10 genetically very close species occupying a wide range of niches from soil to wildlife, livestock, and humans. Recently, we have shown that in the new species Brucella microti, the glutamate decarboxylase (Gad)-dependent system (GAD system) contributes to survival at a pH of 2.5 and also to infection in mice by the oral route. In order to study the functionality of the GAD system in the genus Brucella, 47 isolates, representative of all known species and strains of this genus, and 16 strains of the closest neighbor genus, Ochrobactrum, were studied using microbiological, biochemical, and genetic approaches. In agreement with the genome sequences, the GAD system of classical species was not functional, unlike that of most strains of Brucella ceti, Brucella pinnipedialis, and newly described species (B. microti, Brucella inopinata BO1, B. inopinata-like BO2, and Brucella sp. isolated from bullfrogs). In the presence of glutamate, these species were more acid resistant in vitro than classical terrestrial brucellae. Expression in trans of the gad locus from representative Brucella species in the Escherichia coli MG1655 mutant strain lacking the GAD system restored the acid-resistant phenotype. The highly conserved GAD system of the newly described or atypical Brucella species may play an important role in their adaptation to acidic external and host environments. Furthermore, the GAD phenotype was shown to be a useful diagnostic tool to distinguish these latter Brucella strains from Ochrobactrum and from classical terrestrial pathogenic Brucella species, which are GAD negative. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Ameliorative effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids against palmitic acid-induced insulin resistance in L6 skeletal muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawada Keisuke

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatty acid-induced insulin resistance and impaired glucose uptake activity in muscle cells are fundamental events in the development of type 2 diabetes and hyperglycemia. There is an increasing demand for compounds including drugs and functional foods that can prevent myocellular insulin resistance. Methods In this study, we established a high-throughput assay to screen for compounds that can improve myocellular insulin resistance, which was based on a previously reported non-radioisotope 2-deoxyglucose (2DG uptake assay. Insulin-resistant muscle cells were prepared by treating rat L6 skeletal muscle cells with 750 μM palmitic acid for 14 h. Using the established assay, the impacts of several fatty acids on myocellular insulin resistance were determined. Results In normal L6 cells, treatment with saturated palmitic or stearic acid alone decreased 2DG uptake, whereas unsaturated fatty acids did not. Moreover, co-treatment with oleic acid canceled the palmitic acid-induced decrease in 2DG uptake activity. Using the developed assay with palmitic acid-induced insulin-resistant L6 cells, we determined the effects of other unsaturated fatty acids. We found that arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids improved palmitic acid-decreased 2DG uptake at lower concentrations than the other unsaturated fatty acids, including oleic acid, as 10 μM arachidonic acid showed similar effects to 750 μM oleic acid. Conclusions We have found that polyunsaturated fatty acids, in particular arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids prevent palmitic acid-induced myocellular insulin resistance.

  1. Arabidopsis heterotrimeric G-proteins play a critical role in host and nonhost resistance against Pseudomonas syringae pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seonghee Lee

    Full Text Available Heterotrimeric G-proteins have been proposed to be involved in many aspects of plant disease resistance but their precise role in mediating nonhost disease resistance is not well understood. We evaluated the roles of specific subunits of heterotrimeric G-proteins using knock-out mutants of Arabidopsis Gα, Gβ and Gγ subunits in response to host and nonhost Pseudomonas pathogens. Plants lacking functional Gα, Gβ and Gγ1Gγ2 proteins displayed enhanced bacterial growth and disease susceptibility in response to host and nonhost pathogens. Mutations of single Gγ subunits Gγ1, Gγ2 and Gγ3 did not alter bacterial disease resistance. Some specificity of subunit usage was observed when comparing host pathogen versus nonhost pathogen. Overexpression of both Gα and Gβ led to reduced bacterial multiplication of nonhost pathogen P. syringae pv. tabaci whereas overexpression of Gβ, but not of Gα, resulted in reduced bacterial growth of host pathogen P. syringae pv. maculicola, compared to wild-type Col-0. Moreover, the regulation of stomatal aperture by bacterial pathogens was altered in Gα and Gβ mutants but not in any of the single or double Gγ mutants. Taken together, these data substantiate the critical role of heterotrimeric G-proteins in plant innate immunity and stomatal modulation in response to P. syringae.

  2. Cotton Square Morphology Offers New Insights into Host Plant Resistance to Cotton Fleahopper (Hemiptera: Miridae) in Upland Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoud, Laura Ann; Hague, Steven; Knutson, Allen; Wayne Smith, C; Brewer, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Cotton fleahopper, Pseudatomoscelis seriatus (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Miridae), is a piercing-sucking pest of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) that feeds preferentially on developing flower buds, called squares. Heavy infestations cause yield reductions that result from abscission of squares damaged by the cotton fleahopper feeding. Antixenosis, or nonpreference, has been reported as a mechanism of host plant resistance in cotton to cotton fleahopper. Square structure, particularly the placement of the reproductive tissues, and stylet penetration were investigated as factors that influence resistance to cotton fleahopper in cotton lines derived from crosses with Pilose, a cultigen of upland cotton resistant to cotton fleahopper, and backcrossed with high-yielding, susceptible lines. Ovary depth varied among the lines tested and was found to be a heritable trait that affected the ability of a fleahopper's feeding stylets to penetrate the reproductive tissues in the square and might influence preference. Behavioral assays suggested antixenosis as a mechanism of host plant resistance, and the trait conferring antixenosis was found to be heritable. Results suggest ovary depth plays a role in conferring resistance to cotton fleahopper and is an exploitable trait in resistance breeding. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Immunoregulatory Effects Triggered by Lactic Acid Bacteria Exopolysaccharides: New Insights into Molecular Interactions with Host Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiño, Jonathan; Villena, Julio; Kanmani, Paulraj; Kitazawa, Haruki

    2016-08-15

    Researchers have demonstrated that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with immunomodulatory capabilities (immunobiotics) exert their beneficial effects through several molecules, including cell wall, peptidoglycan, and exopolysaccharides (EPS), that are able to interact with specific host cell receptors. EPS from LAB show a wide heterogeneity in its composition, meaning that biological properties depend on the strain and. therefore, only a part of the mechanism of action has been elucidated for these molecules. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the health-promoting actions of EPS from LAB with special focus on their immunoregulatory actions. In addition, we describe our studies using porcine intestinal epithelial cells (PIE cells) as a model to evaluate the molecular interactions of EPS from two immunobiotic LAB strains and the host cells. Our studies showed that EPS from immunobiotic LAB have anti-inflammatory capacities in PIE cells since they are able to reduce the production of inflammatory cytokines in cells challenged with the Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4-agonist lipopolysaccharide. The effects of EPS were dependent on TLR2, TLR4, and negative regulators of TLR signaling. We also reported that the radioprotective 105 (RP105)/MD1 complex, a member of the TLR family, is partially involved in the immunoregulatory effects of the EPS from LAB. Our work described, for the first time, that LAB and their EPS reduce inflammation in intestinal epithelial cells in a RP105/MD1-dependent manner. A continuing challenge for the future is to reveal more effector-receptor relationships in immunobiotic-host interactions that contribute to the beneficial effects of these bacteria on mucosal immune homeostasis. A detailed molecular understanding should lead to a more rational use of immunobiotics in general, and their EPS in particular, as efficient prevention and therapies for specific immune-related disorders in humans and animals.

  4. Immunoregulatory Effects Triggered by Lactic Acid Bacteria Exopolysaccharides: New Insights into Molecular Interactions with Host Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Laiño

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have demonstrated that lactic acid bacteria (LAB with immunomodulatory capabilities (immunobiotics exert their beneficial effects through several molecules, including cell wall, peptidoglycan, and exopolysaccharides (EPS, that are able to interact with specific host cell receptors. EPS from LAB show a wide heterogeneity in its composition, meaning that biological properties depend on the strain and. therefore, only a part of the mechanism of action has been elucidated for these molecules. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the health-promoting actions of EPS from LAB with special focus on their immunoregulatory actions. In addition, we describe our studies using porcine intestinal epithelial cells (PIE cells as a model to evaluate the molecular interactions of EPS from two immunobiotic LAB strains and the host cells. Our studies showed that EPS from immunobiotic LAB have anti-inflammatory capacities in PIE cells since they are able to reduce the production of inflammatory cytokines in cells challenged with the Toll-like receptor (TLR-4-agonist lipopolysaccharide. The effects of EPS were dependent on TLR2, TLR4, and negative regulators of TLR signaling. We also reported that the radioprotective 105 (RP105/MD1 complex, a member of the TLR family, is partially involved in the immunoregulatory effects of the EPS from LAB. Our work described, for the first time, that LAB and their EPS reduce inflammation in intestinal epithelial cells in a RP105/MD1-dependent manner. A continuing challenge for the future is to reveal more effector-receptor relationships in immunobiotic-host interactions that contribute to the beneficial effects of these bacteria on mucosal immune homeostasis. A detailed molecular understanding should lead to a more rational use of immunobiotics in general, and their EPS in particular, as efficient prevention and therapies for specific immune-related disorders in humans and animals.

  5. Associations of erythrocyte fatty acid patterns with insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigornia, Sherman J; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Harris, William S; Tucker, Katherine L

    2016-03-01

    Synergistic or additive effects or both on cardiometabolic risk may be missed by examining individual fatty acids (FAs). A pattern analysis may be a more useful approach. In addition, it remains unclear whether erythrocyte FA composition relates to insulin resistance among Hispanics/Latinos. We derived erythrocyte FA patterns for a Puerto Rican cohort and examined their association with diet and insulin resistance in cross-sectional and prospective analyses. At baseline, principal components analysis was used to derive factor patterns with the use of 24 erythrocyte FAs from 1157 participants of the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study (aged 45-75 y). Dietary intake was assessed with a validated semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated at baseline and at the 2-y follow-up. Relations between FA patterns and HOMA-IR were analyzed in a sample of 922 participants with available data. Five FA patterns were derived, differentiated by 1) relatively high de novo lipogenesis (DNL) FAs and low n-6 (ω-6) FAs, 2) high very-long-chain saturated FAs, 3) high n-3 (ω-3) FAs, 4) high linoleic acid and low arachidonic acid, and 5) high trans FAs. The DNL pattern was positively correlated with sugar and inversely with n-6 and monounsaturated FA intakes. Only the DNL pattern was positively related to baseline HOMA-IR [adjusted geometric means (95% CIs) for quartiles 1 and 4: 1.72 (1.58, 1.87) and 2.20 (2.02, 2.39); P-trend insulin sensitivity in a Hispanic/Latino cohort. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Roles of d-Amino Acids on the Bioactivity of Host Defense Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Anuwongcharoen, Nuttapat; Malik, Aijaz Ahmad; Prachayasittikul, Virapong; Wikberg, Jarl E S; Nantasenamat, Chanin

    2016-06-30

    Host defense peptides (HDPs) are positively-charged and amphipathic components of the innate immune system that have demonstrated great potential to become the next generation of broad spectrum therapeutic agents effective against a vast array of pathogens and tumor. As such, many approaches have been taken to improve the therapeutic efficacy of HDPs. Amongst these methods, the incorporation of d-amino acids (d-AA) is an approach that has demonstrated consistent success in improving HDPs. Although, virtually all HDP review articles briefly mentioned about the role of d-AA, however it is rather surprising that no systematic review specifically dedicated to this topic exists. Given the impact that d-AA incorporation has on HDPs, this review aims to fill that void with a systematic discussion of the impact of d-AA on HDPs.

  7. Roles of d-Amino Acids on the Bioactivity of Host Defense Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Host defense peptides (HDPs are positively-charged and amphipathic components of the innate immune system that have demonstrated great potential to become the next generation of broad spectrum therapeutic agents effective against a vast array of pathogens and tumor. As such, many approaches have been taken to improve the therapeutic efficacy of HDPs. Amongst these methods, the incorporation of d-amino acids (d-AA is an approach that has demonstrated consistent success in improving HDPs. Although, virtually all HDP review articles briefly mentioned about the role of d-AA, however it is rather surprising that no systematic review specifically dedicated to this topic exists. Given the impact that d-AA incorporation has on HDPs, this review aims to fill that void with a systematic discussion of the impact of d-AA on HDPs.

  8. Learned parasite avoidance is driven by host personality and resistance to infection in a fish-trematode interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemme, Ines; Karvonen, Anssi

    2016-09-14

    Cognitive abilities related to the assessment of risk improve survival. While earlier studies have examined the ability of animals to learn to avoid predators, learned parasite avoidance has received little interest. In a series of behavioural trials with the trematode parasite Diplostomum pseudospathaceum, we asked whether sea trout (Salmo trutta trutta) hosts show associative learning in the context of parasitism and if so, whether learning capacity is related to the likelihood of infection mediated through host personality and resistance. We show that animals are capable of learning to avoid visual cues associated with the presence of parasites. However, avoidance behaviour ceased after the likely activation of host resistance following consecutive exposures during learning, suggesting that resistance to infection outweighs avoidance. Further, we found a positive relationship between learning ability and boldness, suggesting a compensation of risky lifestyles through increased investment in cognitive abilities. By contrast, an increased risk of infection due to low resistance was not balanced by learning ability. Instead, these traits were positively related, which may be explained by inherent physiological qualities controlling both traits. Overall, the results demonstrate that parasitism, in addition to other biological interactions such as predation, is an important selective factor in the evolution of animal cognition. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. Resistance to valproic acid as predictor of treatment resistance in genetic generalized epilepsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gesche, Joanna; Khanevski, Marina; Solberg, Carl

    2017-01-01

    to the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) definition. Psychiatric comorbidities, age at first diagnosis, and absences were associated with worse seizure control, whereas focal changes in EEG remained without prognostic impact. Resistance to valproic acid was the most important prognostic factor......This study aimed at defining clinical predictors of drug resistance in adults with genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE) who were treated with a broad spectrum of antiepileptic drugs. Of a cohort of 137 unselected adult GGE patients with long-term follow up, clinical and demographic data, putative...... prognostic factors (e.g., psychiatric comorbidities, electroencephalography [EEG]), treatment response, and data indicative of social status were collected. Fifty-eight patients had seizures within the past year. Thirty-three patients met the definition of "drug-resistant epilepsy" according...

  10. Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Treatment on Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogoş Tiberius

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Insulin resistance (IR is a common pathogenic factor of several diseases: diabetes mellitus, the metabolic syndrome, arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis, dyslipidemia, etc. There are many therapeutic factors involved in decreasing IR. Among them we mention metformin, pioglitazone, physical activity, weight loss, diet, etc. In the last decade, there are more observations of the influence of polyunsaturated fatty acids on IR. The most powerful seem to be omega-3 fatty acids. In our study, we wanted to asses if the administration of omega-3 fatty acids is involved in modifying IR. Materials and methods: We evaluated 126 diabetic patients with IR from January 2011 until July 2014. The study was open-label and non-randomized. For the determination of IR we used the HOMA-IR method. Results: For both males and females there was a regression of HOMA-IR during the 4 weeks of treatment with omega-3 and also after 2 weeks after stopping the administration of these fatty acids. The decrease of HOMA-IR was statistically significant (p<0.05. The statistic result observed in the next 2 weeks after stopping administration of omega-3 was also significant (p<0.05.

  11. Identification of powdery mildew resistance genes in Polish common oat (Avena sativa L. cultivars using host-pathogen tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Okoń

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to characterize and identify powdery mildew resistance genes in Polish common oat cultivars using host-pathogen tests. A differential set of six Blumeria graminis f.sp. avenae isolates virulent or avirulent to four cultivars and one line that has known resistance to powdery mildew were used. Among the investigated cultivars, only four of them (13.3% had resistance patterns similar to genotypes belonging to the differential set. The resistance of OMR group 1 was found in the cultivar ‘Dragon’, while that of OMR2 in the cultivar ‘Skrzat’. The cultivars ‘Deresz’ and ‘Hetman’ showed a resistance pattern that corresponded with OMR group 3. The resistance corresponding to OMR4 was not found, which suggests that until now this gene has not been used in Polish oat breeding programmes. The cultivar ‘Canyon’ had a different pat- tern of resistance than the genotypes that have already known OMR genes, which indicates that the resistance of this cultivar is determined by a new gene or a combination of known genes.

  12. Pharmacological Targeting of the Host-Pathogen Interaction: Alternatives to Classical Antibiotics to Combat Drug-Resistant Superbugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munguia, Jason; Nizet, Victor

    2017-05-01

    The rise of multidrug-resistant pathogens and the dearth of new antibiotic development place an existential strain on successful infectious disease therapy. Breakthrough strategies that go beyond classical antibiotic mechanisms are needed to combat this looming public health catastrophe. Reconceptualizing antibiotic therapy in the richer context of the host-pathogen interaction is required for innovative solutions. By defining specific virulence factors, the essence of a pathogen, and pharmacologically neutralizing their activities, one can block disease progression and sensitize microbes to immune clearance. Likewise, host-directed strategies to boost phagocyte bactericidal activity, enhance leukocyte recruitment, or reverse pathogen-induced immunosuppression seek to replicate the success of cancer immunotherapy in the field of infectious diseases. The answer to the threat of multidrug-resistant pathogens lies 'outside the box' of current antibiotic paradigms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite strains cloned from Gossypium barbadense further supports selection due to host resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Muhammad Tehseen; Akhtar, Sohail; Mansoor, Shahid

    2012-10-01

    The cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite encodes an essential pathogenicity determinant involved in induction of disease symptoms. We have shown recently that a recombinant betasatellite with a satellite conserved region derived from the tomato leaf curl betasatellite, is prevalent in the Punjab province and is associated with the breakdown of resistance in cotton to cotton leaf curl disease. We intended to see if the betasatellite that was associated with the first epidemic is still being maintained in some other hosts. We cloned betasatellite from G. barbadense, a cotton species highly susceptible to the disease. We found that both the original and recombinant betasatellite are associated with this cotton species. These findings strengthen our hypothesis that the recombinant betasatellite now prevalent on commercial cotton has been selected due to its ability to cross the host resistance barrier.

  14. Insect Resistance Management in Bt Maize: Wild Host Plants of Stem Borers Do Not Serve as Refuges in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Berg, J

    2017-02-01

    Resistance evolution by target pests threatens the sustainability of Bt maize in Africa where insect resistance management (IRM) strategies are faced by unique challenges. The assumptions, on which current IRM strategies for stem borers are based, are not all valid for African maize stem borer species. The high dose-refuge strategy which is used to delay resistance evolution relies heavily on the presence of appropriate refuges (non-Bt plants) where pests are not under selection pressure and where sufficient numbers of Bt-susceptible individuals are produced to mate with possible survivors on the Bt maize crop. Misidentification of stem borer species and inaccurate reporting on wild host plant diversity over the past six decades created the perception that grasses will contribute to IRM strategies for these pests in Africa. Desired characteristics of refuge plants are that they should be good pest hosts, implying that larval survival is high and that it produces sufficient numbers of high-quality moths. Refuge plants should also have large cover abundance in areas where Bt maize is planted. While wild host plants may suffice in IRM strategies for polyphagous pests, this is not the case with stenophagous pests. This review discusses data of ecological studies and stem borer surveys conducted over the past decade and shows that wild host plants are unsuitable for development and survival of sufficient numbers of stem borer individuals. These grasses rather act as dead-end-trap plants and do not comply with refuge requirements of producing 500 susceptible individuals for every one resistant individual that survives on Bt maize. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. A novel approach in acidic disinfection through inhibition of acid resistance mechanisms; Maleic acid-mediated inhibition of glutamate decarboxylase activity enhances acid sensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudyal, Ranju; Barnes, Ruth H; Karatzas, Kimon Andreas G

    2018-02-01

    Here it is demonstrated a novel approach in disinfection regimes where specific molecular acid resistance systems are inhibited aiming to eliminate microorganisms under acidic conditions. Despite the importance of the Glutamate Decarboxylase (GAD) system for survival of Listeria monocytogenes and other pathogens under acidic conditions, its potential inhibition by specific compounds that could lead to its elimination from foods or food preparation premises has not been studied. The effects of maleic acid on the acid resistance of L. monocytogenes were investigated and found that it has a higher antimicrobial activity under acidic conditions than other organic acids, while this could not be explained by its pKa or Ka values. The effects were found to be more pronounced on strains with higher GAD activity. Maleic acid affected the extracellular GABA levels while it did not affect the intracellular ones. Maleic acid had a major impact mainly on GadD2 activity as also shown in cell lysates. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that maleic acid is able to partly remove biofilms of L. monocytogenes. Maleic acid is able to inhibit the GAD of L. monocytogenes significantly enhancing its sensitivity to acidic conditions and together with its ability to remove biofilms, make a good candidate for disinfection regimes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Non-Thermal Plasma Treatment Diminishes Fungal Viability and Up-Regulates Resistance Genes in a Plant Host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panngom, Kamonporn; Lee, Sang Hark; Park, Dae Hoon; Sim, Geon Bo; Kim, Yong Hee; Uhm, Han Sup; Park, Gyungsoon; Choi, Eun Ha

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species can have either harmful or beneficial effects on biological systems depending on the dose administered and the species of organism exposed, suggesting that application of reactive species can possibly produce contradictory effects in disease control, pathogen inactivation and activation of host resistance. A novel technology known as atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma represents a means of generating various reactive species that adversely affect pathogens (inactivation) while simultaneously up-regulating host defense genes. The anti-microbial efficacy of this technology was tested on the plant fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici and its susceptible host plant species Solanum lycopercicum. Germination of fungal spores suspended in saline was decreased over time after exposed to argon (Ar) plasma for 10 min. Although the majority of treated spores exhibited necrotic death, apoptosis was also observed along with the up-regulation of apoptosis related genes. Increases in the levels of peroxynitrite and nitrite in saline following plasma treatment may have been responsible for the observed spore death. In addition, increased transcription of pathogenesis related (PR) genes was observed in the roots of the susceptible tomato cultivar (S. lycopercicum) after exposure to the same Ar plasma dose used in fungal inactivation. These data suggest that atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma can be efficiently used to control plant fungal diseases by inactivating fungal pathogens and up-regulating mechanisms of host resistance. PMID:24911947

  17. Non-thermal plasma treatment diminishes fungal viability and up-regulates resistance genes in a plant host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamonporn Panngom

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species can have either harmful or beneficial effects on biological systems depending on the dose administered and the species of organism exposed, suggesting that application of reactive species can possibly produce contradictory effects in disease control, pathogen inactivation and activation of host resistance. A novel technology known as atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma represents a means of generating various reactive species that adversely affect pathogens (inactivation while simultaneously up-regulating host defense genes. The anti-microbial efficacy of this technology was tested on the plant fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici and its susceptible host plant species Solanum lycopercicum. Germination of fungal spores suspended in saline was decreased over time after exposed to argon (Ar plasma for 10 min. Although the majority of treated spores exhibited necrotic death, apoptosis was also observed along with the up-regulation of apoptosis related genes. Increases in the levels of peroxynitrite and nitrite in saline following plasma treatment may have been responsible for the observed spore death. In addition, increased transcription of pathogenesis related (PR genes was observed in the roots of the susceptible tomato cultivar (S. lycopercicum after exposure to the same Ar plasma dose used in fungal inactivation. These data suggest that atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma can be efficiently used to control plant fungal diseases by inactivating fungal pathogens and up-regulating mechanisms of host resistance.

  18. Extreme resistance to weak-acid preservatives in the spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratford, Malcolm; Steels, Hazel; Nebe-von-Caron, Gerhard; Novodvorska, Michaela; Hayer, Kimran; Archer, David B.

    2013-01-01

    Weak-acid preservatives, such as sorbic acid and acetic acid, are used in many low pH foods to prevent spoilage by fungi. The spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii is notorious for its extreme resistance to preservatives and ability to grow in excess of legally-permitted concentrations of preservatives. Extreme resistance was confirmed in 38 strains of Z. bailii to several weak-acid preservatives. Using the brewing yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a control, tests showed that Z. bailii was ~ 3-fold more resistant to a variety of weak-acids but was not more resistant to alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ethers, ketones, or hydrophilic chelating acids. The weak acids were chemically very diverse in structure, making it improbable that the universal resistance was caused by degradation or metabolism. Examination of Z. bailii cell populations showed that extreme resistance to sorbic acid, benzoic acid and acetic acid was limited to a few cells within the population, numbers decreasing with concentration of weak acid to < 1 in 1000. Re-inoculation of resistant sub-populations into weak-acid-containing media showed that all cells now possessed extreme resistance. Resistant sub-populations grown in any weak-acid preservative also showed ~ 100% cross-resistance to other weak-acid preservatives. Tests using 14C-acetic acid showed that weak-acid accumulation was much lower in the resistant sub-populations. Acid accumulation is caused by acid dissociation in the higher pH of the cytoplasm. Tests on intracellular pH (pHi) in the resistant sub-population showed that the pH was much lower, ~ pH 5.6, than in the sensitive bulk population. The hypothesis is proposed that extreme resistance to weak-acid preservatives in Z. bailii is due to population heterogeneity, with a small proportion of cells having a lower intracellular pH. This reduces the level of accumulation of any weak acid in the cytoplasm, thus conferring resistance to all weak acids, but not to other inhibitors

  19. Pseudomonas sax genes overcome aliphatic isothiocyanate-mediated non-host resistance in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun Fan; Casey Crooks; Gary Creissen; Lionel Hill; Shirley Fairhurst; Peter Doerner; Chris Lamb

    2011-01-01

    Most plant-microbe interactions do not result in disease; natural products restrict non-host pathogens. We found that sulforaphane (4-methylsulfinylbutyl isothiocyanate), a natural product derived from aliphatic glucosinolates, inhibits growth in Arabidopsis of non-host Pseudomonas bacteria in planta. Multiple sax genes (saxCAB/F/D/G) were identified in Pseudomonas...

  20. Effects of Pr₆O11 Addition on the Acid Resistance of Ceramic Proppant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Guodong; Wu, Bolin; Wu, Tingting

    2017-04-19

    This paper investigated the effect of Pr₆O11 addition on the acid resistance of ceramic proppant. Acid resistance of proppants can be improved by introducing Pr₆O11 into the Al₂O₃-CaO-MgO-SiO₂ (ACMS) system. To illustrate and explain the mechanism of acid resistance, the samples were characterized by different techniques, using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The phase structure of the specimens was characterized by XRD and SEM-detected microstructures of the specimens. It was observed that with the increase of rare-earth oxide content, the acid solubility of the specimens decreased, and then increased when it reached the minimum value 0.45 wt %. The results of the research show that the improvement of acid resistance with rare-earth oxides was achieved by refining the grain size, strengthening the grain boundary, and turning Ca₂Al₂SiO₇, in which acid resistance is poor, into CaAl12O19, which possesses better acid resistance, and then enhance the acid resistance of the proppants. Furthermore, Pr₆O11 can form a solid solution with Ca₂Al₂SiO₇ and CaAl12O19. The acid resistance of CaAl12O19 improves with the increase of solid solubility. In contrast, the acid resistance of Ca₂Al₂SiO₇ will decrease after Ca₂Al₂SiO₇ forms a solid solution with Pr₆O11.

  1. Interplay between parasitism and host ontogenic resistance in the epidemiology of the soil-borne plant pathogen Rhizoctonia solani.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E Simon

    Full Text Available Spread of soil-borne fungal plant pathogens is mainly driven by the amount of resources the pathogen is able to capture and exploit should it behave either as a saprotroph or a parasite. Despite their importance in understanding the fungal spread in agricultural ecosystems, experimental data related to exploitation of infected host plants by the pathogen remain scarce. Using Rhizoctonia solani / Raphanus sativus as a model pathosystem, we have obtained evidence on the link between ontogenic resistance of a tuberizing host and (i its susceptibility to the pathogen and (ii after infection, the ability of the fungus to spread in soil. Based on a highly replicable experimental system, we first show that infection success strongly depends on the host phenological stage. The nature of the disease symptoms abruptly changes depending on whether infection occurred before or after host tuberization, switching from damping-off to necrosis respectively. Our investigations also demonstrate that fungal spread in soil still depends on the host phenological stage at the moment of infection. High, medium, or low spread occurred when infection was respectively before, during, or after the tuberization process. Implications for crop protection are discussed.

  2. Borrelia burgdorferi complement regulator-acquiring surface protein 2 does not contribute to complement resistance or host infectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam S Coleman

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Borrelia burgdorferi, the pathogen of Lyme disease, cycles in nature through Ixodes ticks and mammalian hosts. At least five Complement Regulator-Acquiring Surface Proteins (BbCRASPs are produced by B. burgdorferi, which are thought to assist spirochetes in host immune evasion. Recent studies established that BbCRASP-2 is preferentially expressed in mammals, and elicits robust antibody response in infected hosts, including humans. We show that BbCRASP-2 is ubiquitously expressed in diverse murine tissues, but not in ticks, reinforcing a role of BbCRASP-2 in conferring B. burgdorferi defense against persistent host immune threats, such as complement. BbCRASP-2 immunization, however, fails to protect mice from B. burgdorferi infection and does not modify disease, as reflected by the development of arthritis. An infectious BbCRASP-2 mutant was generated, therefore, to examine the precise role of the gene product in spirochete infectivity. Similar to wild type B. burgdorferi, BbCRASP-2 mutants remain insensitive to complement-mediated killing in vitro, retain full murine infectivity and induce arthritis. Quantitative RT-PCR assessment indicates that survivability of BbCRASP-2-deficient B. burgdorferi is not due to altered expression of other BbCRASPs. Together, these results suggest that the function of a selectively expressed B. burgdorferi gene, BbCRASP-2, is not essential for complement resistance or infectivity in the murine host.

  3. Lipoteichoic acid synthesis inhibition in combination with antibiotics abrogates growth of multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paganelli, Fernanda L.; van de Kamer, Tim; Brouwer, Ellen C.; Leavis, Helen L.; Woodford, Neil; Bonten, Marc J M; Willems, Rob J L; Hendrickx, Antoni P A

    Enterococcus faecium is a multidrug-resistant (MDR) nosocomial pathogen causing significant morbidity in debilitated patients. New antimicrobials are needed to treat antibiotic-resistant E. faecium infections in hospitalised patients. E. faecium incorporates lipoteichoic acid (LTA)

  4. Overexpression of Poplar Pyrabactin Resistance-Like Abscisic Acid Receptors Promotes Abscisic Acid Sensitivity and Drought Resistance in Transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingling Yu

    Full Text Available Drought stress is an important environmental factor limiting productivity of plants, especially fast growing species with high water consumption like poplar. Abscisic acid (ABA is a phytohormone that positively regulates seed dormancy and drought resistance. The PYR1 (Pyrabactin Resistance 1/ PYRL (PYR-Like/ RCAR (Regulatory Component of ABA Receptor (PYR/PYL/RCAR ABA receptor family has been identified and widely characterized in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, their functions in poplars remain unknown. Here, we report that 2 of 14 PYR/PYL/RCAR orthologues in poplar (Populus trichocarpa (PtPYRLs function as a positive regulator of the ABA signal transduction pathway. The Arabidopsis transient expression and yeast two-hybrid assays showed the interaction among PtPYRL1 and PtPYRL5, a clade A protein phosphatase 2C, and a SnRK2, suggesting that a core signalling complex for ABA signaling pathway exists in poplars. Phenotypic analysis of PtPYRL1 and PtPYRL5 transgenic Arabidopsis showed that these two genes positively regulated the ABA responses during the seed germination. More importantly, the overexpression of PtPYRL1 and PtPYRL5 substantially improved ABA sensitivity and drought stress tolerance in transgenic plants. In summary, we comprehensively uncovered the properties of PtPYRL1 and PtPYRL5, which might be good target genes to genetically engineer drought-Resistant plants.

  5. Emerging patterns of plasmid-host coevolution that stabilize antibiotic resistance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thibault Stalder; Linda M Rogers; Chris Renfrow; Hirokazu Yano; Zachary Smith; Eva M Top

    2017-01-01

    Multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens have become a serious global human health threat, and conjugative plasmids are important drivers of the rapid spread of resistance to last-resort antibiotics...

  6. Increased plant growth and copper uptake of host and non-host plants by metal-resistant and plant growth-promoting endophytic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Leni; Wang, Xiaohan; Li, Ya

    2016-01-01

    The effects of inoculation with two metal-resistant and plant growth-promoting endophytic bacteria (Burkholderia sp. GL12 and Bacillus megaterium JL35) were evaluated on the plant growth and Cu uptake in their host Elsholtzia splendens and non-host Brassica napus plants grown in natural Cu-contaminated soil. The two strains showed a high level of ACC deaminase activities. In pot experiments, inoculation with strain GL12 significantly increased root and above-ground tissue dry weights of both plants, consequently increasing the total Cu uptake of E. splendens and Brassica napus by 132% and 48.2% respectively. Inoculation with strain JL35 was found to significantly increase not only the biomass of B. napus, consequently increasing the total Cu uptake of B. napus by 31.3%, but Cu concentration of E. splendens for above-ground tissues by 318% and roots by 69.7%, consequently increasing the total Cu uptake of E. splendens by 223%. The two strains could colonize the rhizosphere soils and root interiors of both plants. Notably, strain JL35 could colonize the shoot tissues and significantly increase the translocation factors and bioaccumulation factors of E. splendens. These results suggested that Burkholderia sp. GL12 and B. megaterium JL35 were valuable bacterial resource which had the potential in improving the efficiency of Cu phytoextraction by E. splendens and B. napus in a natural Cu-contaminated soil.

  7. Extreme resistance to weak-acid preservatives in the spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratford, Malcolm; Steels, Hazel; Nebe-von-Caron, Gerhard; Novodvorska, Michaela; Hayer, Kimran; Archer, David B

    2013-08-16

    Weak-acid preservatives, such as sorbic acid and acetic acid, are used in many low pH foods to prevent spoilage by fungi. The spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii is notorious for its extreme resistance to preservatives and ability to grow in excess of legally-permitted concentrations of preservatives. Extreme resistance was confirmed in 38 strains of Z. bailii to several weak-acid preservatives. Using the brewing yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a control, tests showed that Z. bailii was ~3-fold more resistant to a variety of weak-acids but was not more resistant to alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ethers, ketones, or hydrophilic chelating acids. The weak acids were chemically very diverse in structure, making it improbable that the universal resistance was caused by degradation or metabolism. Examination of Z. bailii cell populations showed that extreme resistance to sorbic acid, benzoic acid and acetic acid was limited to a few cells within the population, numbers decreasing with concentration of weak acid to acid-containing media showed that all cells now possessed extreme resistance. Resistant sub-populations grown in any weak-acid preservative also showed ~100% cross-resistance to other weak-acid preservatives. Tests using (14)C-acetic acid showed that weak-acid accumulation was much lower in the resistant sub-populations. Acid accumulation is caused by acid dissociation in the higher pH of the cytoplasm. Tests on intracellular pH (pHi) in the resistant sub-population showed that the pH was much lower, ~ pH5.6, than in the sensitive bulk population. The hypothesis is proposed that extreme resistance to weak-acid preservatives in Z. bailii is due to population heterogeneity, with a small proportion of cells having a lower intracellular pH. This reduces the level of accumulation of any weak acid in the cytoplasm, thus conferring resistance to all weak acids, but not to other inhibitors. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Lipooligosaccharide structure is an important determinant in the resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to antimicrobial agents of innate host defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline T Balthazar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The strict human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae has caused the sexually transmitted infection termed gonorrhea for thousands of years. Over the millennia, the gonococcus has likely evolved mechanisms to evade host defense systems that operate on the genital mucosal surfaces in both males and females. Past research has shown that the presence or modification of certain cell envelope structures can significantly impact levels of gonococcal susceptibility to host-derived antimicrobial compounds that bathe genital mucosal surfaces and participate in innate host defense against invading pathogens. In order to facilitate the identification of gonococcal genes that are important in determining levels of bacterial susceptibility to mediators of innate host defense, we used the Himar I mariner in vitro mutagenesis system to construct a transposon insertion library in strain F62. As proof of principle that this strategy would be suitable for this purpose, we screened the library for mutants expressing decreased susceptibility to the bacteriolytic action of normal human serum (NHS. We found that a transposon insertion in the lgtD gene, which encodes an N-acetylgalactosamine transferase involved in the extension of the α-chain of lipooligosaccharide (LOS, could confer decreased susceptibility of strain F62 to complement-mediated killing by NHS. By complementation and chemical analyses, we demonstrated both linkage of the transposon insertion to the NHS-resistance phenotype and chemical changes in LOS structure that resulted from loss of LgtD production. Further truncation of the LOS α-chain or loss of phosphoethanolamine (PEA from the lipid A region of LOS also impacted levels of NHS-resistance. PEA decoration of lipid A also increased gonococcal resistance to the model cationic antimicrobial polymyxin B. Taken together, we conclude that the Himar I mariner in vitro mutagenesis procedure can facilitate studies on structures involved in gonococcal

  9. The Mla pathway is critical for Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistance to outer membrane permeabilization and host innate immune clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munguia, Jason; LaRock, Doris L; Tsunemoto, Hannah; Olson, Joshua; Cornax, Ingrid; Pogliano, Joseph; Nizet, Victor

    2017-10-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic pathogen that has become a serious problem due to increased rates of antibiotic resistance. Due to this along with a dearth in novel antibiotic development, especially against Gram-negative pathogens, new therapeutic strategies are needed to prevent a post-antibiotic era. Here, we describe the importance of the vacJ/Mla pathway in resisting bactericidal actions of the host innate immune response. P. aeruginosa tn5 transposon mutants in genes from the VacJ/Mla pathway showed increased susceptibility to killing by the host cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide, LL-37, when compared to the wild-type parent strain. The P. aeruginosa vacJ - mutant demonstrated increased membrane permeability upon damage as well as sensitivity to killing in the presence of the detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate and the divalent cation chelator EDTA. When exposed to human whole blood and serum complement, the vacJ - mutant was killed more rapidly when compared to the wild-type parent strain and complemented mutant. Finally, in an in vivo mouse lung infection model, infection with the vacJ - mutant resulted in reduced mortality, lower bacterial burden, and reduced lung damage when compared to the wild-type strain. This study highlights the potential in therapeutically targeting the VacJ/Mla pathway in sensitizing P. aeruginosa to killing by the host innate immune response. • The Mla pathway regulates outer membrane dynamics in human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA). • Disruption of Mla pathway gene vacJ sensitizes PA to host cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide LL-37. • Loss of vacJ expression renders PA more sensitive to human whole blood and serum killing. • Loss of vacJ expression reduces PA survival and virulence in a murine lung infection model. • The Mla pathway merits exploration as a pharmacologic target to sensitize PA to host innate immunity.

  10. Arabidopsis YAK1 regulates abscisic acid response and drought resistance

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Dongjin

    2016-06-06

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important phytohormone that controls several plant processes such as seed germination, seedling growth, and abiotic stress response. Here, we report that AtYak1 plays an important role in ABA signaling and postgermination growth in Arabidopsis. AtYak1 knockout mutant plants were hyposensitive to ABA inhibition of seed germination, cotyledon greening, seedling growth, and stomatal movement. atyak1-1 mutant plants display reduced drought stress resistance, as evidenced by water loss rate and survival rate. Molecular genetic analysis revealed that AtYak1 deficiency led to elevated expression of stomatal-related gene, MYB60, and down-regulation of several stress-responsive genes. Altogether, these results indicate that AtYak1 plays a role as a positive regulator in ABA-mediated drought response in Arabidopsis. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  11. Effects of simulated rain acidified with sulfuric acid on host-parasite interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shriner, D.S.

    1977-01-01

    Wind-blown rain, rain splash, and films of free moisture play important roles in the epidemiology of many plant diseases. The effects of simulated rain acidified with sulfuric acid were studied on several host-parasite systems. Plants were exposed in greenhouse or field to simulated rain of pH 3.2 +- 0.1 or pH 6.0 +- 0.2. Simulated rain of pH 3.2 resulted in: (1) an 86% inhibition in telia production of Cronartium fusiforme on Quercus phellos; (2) a 66% inhibition of reproduction of Meloidogyne hapla on field-grown Phaseolus vulgaris; (3) a 10% decrease in the severity of Uromyces phaseoli on field-grown Phaseolus vulgaris; and (4) an inhibition of Rhizobium nodulation of Phaseolus vulgaris and Glycine max by an average of 73%. Effects on halo blight of kidney bean (caused by Pseudomonas phaseolicola) depended upon the segment of the disease cycle in which the rain occurred: simulated rain of pH 3.2 applied to plants before inoculation stimulated disease development; suspension of inoculum in rain of pH 3.2 decreased inoculum potential; and rain of pH 3.2 applied to plants after infection inhibited disease development. Scanning electron microscopy of epicuticular waxes on leaves of Quercus phellos and Phaseolus vulgaris showed marked erosion of those surfaces by rain of pH 3.2, indicating possible influences on the structure and function of plant cuticles. These results suggest that the acidity of rain is a new parameter of environmental concern, and underline the need for study of the consequences of prolonged exposure of both agronomic and natural ecosystems to this stress factor.

  12. Impacts of thiamethoxam seed treatment and host plant resistance on the soybean aphid fungal pathogen, Pandora neoaphidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Karrie A; Ragsdale, David W

    2011-12-01

    Since the introduction of soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, from Asia, insecticide use in soybean has increased substantially in the north central United States. Insecticide seed treatments and aphid resistant soybean varieties are management tactics that may reduce reliance on foliar applications of broad-spectrum insecticides. Exploring potential nontarget impacts of these technologies will be an important step in incorporating them into aphid management programs. We investigated impacts of thiamethoxam seed treatment and Rag1 aphid resistant soybean on a fungal pathogen of soybean aphid, Pandora neoaphidis (Remaudière & Hennebert) Humber, via open plot and cage studies. We found that although thiamethoxam seed treatment did significantly lower aphid pressure in open plots compared with an untreated control, this reduction in aphid density translated into nonsignificant decreases in fungal disease prevalence in aphids. Furthermore, when aphid densities were approximately equal in seed treated and untreated soybean, no impact on aphid fungal disease was observed. In open plots, Rag1 resistant soybean experienced lower aphid pressure and aphid disease prevalence compared with a nonresistant isoline. However, in cages when aphid densities were equivalent in both resistant and susceptible soybean, resistance had no impact on aphid disease prevalence. The addition of thiamethoxam seed treatment to resistant soybean yielded aphid densities and aphid disease prevalence similar to untreated, resistant soybean. These studies provide evidence that thiamethoxam seed treatments and Rag1 resistance can impact P. neoaphidis via decreased aphid densities; however, this impact is minimal, implying use of seed treatments and host plant resistance are compatible with P. neoaphidis.

  13. Experimental evolution of resistance against Bacillus thuringiensis in the insect model host Galleria mellonella results in epigenetic modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Krishnendu; Grizanova, Ekaterina; Chertkova, Ekaterina; Lehmann, Ruediger; Dubovskiy, Ivan; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2017-05-19

    Epigenetic mechanisms have been proposed to translate environmental stimuli into heritable transgenerational phenotypic variations that can significantly influence natural selection. An intriguing example is exposure to pathogens, which imposes selection for host resistance. To test this hypothesis, we used larvae of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella as model host to experimentally select for resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), the most widely used bacterial agent for the biological control of pest insects. To determine whether epigenetic mechanisms contribute to the evolution of resistance against pathogens, we exposed G. mellonella larvae over 30 generations to spores and crystals mix of Bt and compared epigenetic markers in this selected line, exhibiting almost 11-fold enhanced resistance against Bt, to those in a non-selected control population. We found that experimental selection influenced acetylation of specific histones and DNA methylation as well as transcription of genes encoding the enzymatic writers and erasers of these epigenetic mechanisms. Using microarray analysis, we also observed differences in the expression of conserved miRNAs in the resistant and susceptible larvae, resulting in the repression of candidate genes that confer susceptibility to Bt. By combining in silico minimum free energy hybridization with RT-PCR experiments, we identified the functions and biological processes associated with the mRNAs targeted by these miRNAs. Our results suggest that epigenetic mechanisms operating at the pre-transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels contribute to the transgenerational inherited transcriptional reprogramming of stress and immunity-related genes, ultimately providing a mechanism for the evolution of insect resistance to pathogen.

  14. Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) of host-plant resistance to the cassava mosaic disease (CMD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregene, M; Matsumura, H; Akano, A; Dixon, A; Terauchi, R

    2004-11-01

    Cassava mosaic disease (CMD) is a viral disease of the important tropical staple crop cassava (Manihot esculenta) and preferred management involves use of host-plant resistance. The best available resistance is controlled by a single dominant gene. Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) was used to analyze the gene expression pattern in a bulk of 40 each of CMD resistant and susceptible genotypes drawn from a gene mapping progeny. Messenger RNA used for the SAGE analysis came from plants that were exposed to heavy disease pressure over a period of 2 years in the field. A total of 12,786 tags were studied, divided into 5733 and 7053 tags from the resistant and susceptible genotypes, respectively. Tag annotation was by PCR amplification using the tag sequence as sense primer and 4000 cassava ESTs generated from the bulk of CMD resistant genotypes. Annotation of more than 30 differentially expressed tags revealed several genes expressed during systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in plants and other genes involved in cell-to-cell and cytoplasm-to-nucleus virus trafficking. Differential expression of the most abundantly expressed tag, corresponding to a beta-tubulin gene, was confirmed by Northern Analysis. RFLP analysis of the tags in the parents and bulks of the CMD mapping progeny revealed only one tag, a WRKY transcription factor, associated with the region bearing the dominant CMD gene.

  15. Computational analysis of HIV-1 resistance based on gene expression profiles and the virus-host interaction network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Huang

    Full Text Available A very small proportion of people remain negative for HIV infection after repeated HIV-1 viral exposure, which is called HIV-1 resistance. Understanding the mechanism of HIV-1 resistance is important for the development of HIV-1 vaccines and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS therapies. In this study, we analyzed the gene expression profiles of CD4+ T cells from HIV-1-resistant individuals and HIV-susceptible individuals. One hundred eighty-five discriminative HIV-1 resistance genes were identified using the Minimum Redundancy-Maximum Relevance (mRMR and Incremental Feature Selection (IFS methods. The virus protein target enrichment analysis of the 185 HIV-1 resistance genes suggested that the HIV-1 protein nef might play an important role in HIV-1 infection. Moreover, we identified 29 infection information exchanger genes from the 185 HIV-1 resistance genes based on a virus-host interaction network analysis. The infection information exchanger genes are located on the shortest paths between virus-targeted proteins and are important for the coordination of virus infection. These proteins may be useful targets for AIDS prevention or therapy, as intervention in these pathways could disrupt communication with virus-targeted proteins and HIV-1 infection.

  16. Insulin resistance, inflammation, and serum fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Real, José-Manuel; Broch, Montserrat; Vendrell, Joan; Ricart, Wifredo

    2003-05-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) have been involved in the development of chronic inflammatory conditions such as insulin resistance and obesity. However, the relation among insulin resistance, obesity, inflammatory activity (circulating interleukin [IL]-6) and dietary FAs has been scarcely studied in otherwise healthy subjects. We aimed to study these interactions in 123 overweight (BMI 26.9 +/- 2.4 kg/m(2) [means +/- SD]) subjects and 109 lean (BMI 21.7 +/- 1.7 kg/m(2), P gas liquid cromatography. The percentage of saturated FAs (r = 0.30, P = 0.01) and omega-6 FAs (r = -0.32, P = 0.001) were significantly associated with circulating IL-6, whereas the percentage of omega-3 FAs correlated negatively with C-reactive protein in overweight subjects (P = 0.04). Saturated-to-omega-3 and saturated-to-omega-6 FA ratios were significantly and positively associated with C-reactive protein (P < 0.0001) and IL-6 (P < 0.001), respectively. In contrast, none of these associations reached statistical significance in lean subjects. Those subjects in the most insulin-sensitive quintile (homeostasis model assessment value) showed a significantly higher percentage of linoleic acid (C18:2 varpi6) (P = 0.03) and a significantly lower level of araquidic (C20:0) (P = 0.04), behenic (C22:0) (P = 0.009), lignoceric (C24:0) (P = 0.02), and nervonic (C24:1 varpi9) (P = 0.001) FAs than the remaining subjects. In parallel, the most insulin-sensitive subjects showed significantly decreased C-reactive protein (P = 0.03). Serum C-reactive protein was significantly associated with percent linoleic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in nonsmoking men (P = 0.03 and P = 0.04, respectively) and with docosahexaenoic acid in nonsmoking women (r = -0.46, P < 0.0001). We constructed a multivariant regression analysis to predict circulating IL-6. Age, BMI, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), smoking status, and the relation of saturated to omega-6 or saturated to omega-3 FAs were considered as independent variables separately in men

  17. Amino Acids in the Asteroidal Water-Bearing Salt Crystals Hosted in the Zag Meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Q. H. S.; Zolensky, M. E.; Burton, A. S.; Locke, D. R.

    2016-01-01

    Solid evidence of liquid water in primitive meteorites is given by the ordinary chondrites H5 Monahans (1998) and H3-6 Zag. Aqueous fluid inclusion-bearing halite (NaCl) crystals were shown to be common in Zag. These striking blue/purple crystals (Figure 1), which gained the coloration from electron-trapping in the Cl-vacancies through exposure to ionizing radiation, were determined to be over 4.0-4.7 billion years old by I-Xe dating. The halite grains are present as discrete grains within an H-chondrite matrix with no evidence for aqueous alteration that indicates a xenogenic source, possibly ancient cryovolcanism. They were proposed to be formed from the cryovolcanic plumes on icy C-type asteroids (possibly Ceres), and were transferred and incorporated into the H chondrite parent asteroid following the eruption event(s). A unique aspect of these halites is that they contain abundant solid inclusions hosted within the halites alongside the water inclusions. The solid inclusions were suggested to be entrained within the fluid erupted from the cryovolcanic event(s), and were shown to be comprised of abundant organics. Spectrofluorometric study and Raman imaging of the halites have identified macromolecular carbon and aliphatic carbon compounds. In order to investigate the type of organics present in Zag and in particular within the fluid-bearing halites, we studied for the first time the amino acid contents of a selected mineral (halite) phase in a meteorite sample.

  18. Cytokinins mediate resistance against Pseudomonas syringae in tobacco through increased antimicrobial phytoalexin synthesis independent of salicylic acid signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosskinsky, Dominik K; Naseem, Muhammad; Abdelmohsen, Usama Ramadan; Plickert, Nicole; Engelke, Thomas; Griebel, Thomas; Zeier, Jürgen; Novák, Ondrej; Strnad, Miroslav; Pfeifhofer, Hartwig; van der Graaff, Eric; Simon, Uwe; Roitsch, Thomas

    2011-10-01

    Cytokinins are phytohormones that are involved in various regulatory processes throughout plant development, but they are also produced by pathogens and known to modulate plant immunity. A novel transgenic approach enabling autoregulated cytokinin synthesis in response to pathogen infection showed that cytokinins mediate enhanced resistance against the virulent hemibiotrophic pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tabaci. This was confirmed by two additional independent transgenic approaches to increase endogenous cytokinin production and by exogenous supply of adenine- and phenylurea-derived cytokinins. The cytokinin-mediated resistance strongly correlated with an increased level of bactericidal activities and up-regulated synthesis of the two major antimicrobial phytoalexins in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), scopoletin and capsidiol. The key role of these phytoalexins in the underlying mechanism was functionally proven by the finding that scopoletin and capsidiol substitute in planta for the cytokinin signal: phytoalexin pretreatment increased resistance against P. syringae. In contrast to a cytokinin defense mechanism in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) based on salicylic acid-dependent transcriptional control, the cytokinin-mediated resistance in tobacco is essentially independent from salicylic acid and differs in pathogen specificity. It is also independent of jasmonate levels, reactive oxygen species, and high sugar resistance. The novel function of cytokinins in the primary defense response of solanaceous plant species is rather mediated through a high phytoalexin-pathogen ratio in the early phase of infection, which efficiently restricts pathogen growth. The implications of this mechanism for the coevolution of host plants and cytokinin-producing pathogens and the practical application in agriculture are discussed.

  19. Proceedings of the fourth international workshop on the genetics of host-parasite interactions in forestry: Disease and insect resistance in forest trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Sniezko; Alvin D. Yanchuk; John T. Kliejunas; Katharine M. Palmieri; Janice M. Alexander; Susan J. Frankel

    2012-01-01

    Individual papers are available at http://www.fs.fed.us/psw/publications/documents/psw_gtr240/The Fourth International Workshop on the Genetics of Host-Parasite Interactions in Forestry: Disease and Insect Resistance in Forest Trees...

  20. Development, reproductive capacity and survival of Amblyomma variegatum and Boophilus decoloratus in relation to host resistance and climatic factors under field conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Solomon, G; Kaaya, G.P

    1998-01-01

    To determine the developmental periods, fecundity and survival of Amblyomma variegatum and Boophilus decoloratus and the effect of host resistance, a study was carried out in the field at Abernossa...

  1. Distinguishable Epidemics Within Different Hosts of the Multidrug Resistant Zoonotic Pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium DT104

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, A.E.; Reid, S.W.J.; Maskell, D.J.; Parkhill, J.; Fookes, M.C.; Harris, S.R.; Brown, D.J.; Coia, J.E.; Mulvey, M.R.; Gilmour, M.W.; Petrovska, L.; de Pinna, E.; Kuroda, M.; Akiba, M.; Izumiya, H.; Connor, T.R.; Suchard, M.A.; Lemey, P.; Mellor, D.J.; Haydon, D.T.; Thomson, N.R.

    2014-01-01

    The global epidemic of multidrug resistant Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 provides an important example, both in terms of the agent and its resistance, of a widely disseminated zoonotic pathogen. Here, with an unprecedented national collection of isolates collected contemporaneously from humans and animals, and including a sample of internationally derived isolates, we have used whole genome sequencing to dissect the phylogenetic relationships of the bacterium and its antimicrobial resistance genes through the course of an epidemic. Contrary to current tenets supporting a single homogeneous epidemic, we demonstrate that the bacterium and its resistance genes were largely maintained within animal and human populations separately, and that there was limited transmission, in either direction. We also show considerable variation in the resistance profiles, in contrast to the largely stable bacterial core genome, further emphasizing the critical importance of integrated genotypic datasets in understanding the ecology of bacterial zoonoses and antimicrobial resistance. PMID:24030491

  2. Distinguishable epidemics of multidrug-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 in different hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, A E; Reid, S W J; Maskell, D J; Parkhill, J; Fookes, M C; Harris, S R; Brown, D J; Coia, J E; Mulvey, M R; Gilmour, M W; Petrovska, L; de Pinna, E; Kuroda, M; Akiba, M; Izumiya, H; Connor, T R; Suchard, M A; Lemey, P; Mellor, D J; Haydon, D T; Thomson, N R

    2013-09-27

    The global epidemic of multidrug-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 provides an important example, both in terms of the agent and its resistance, of a widely disseminated zoonotic pathogen. Here, with an unprecedented national collection of isolates collected contemporaneously from humans and animals and including a sample of internationally derived isolates, we have used whole-genome sequencing to dissect the phylogenetic associations of the bacterium and its antimicrobial resistance genes through the course of an epidemic. Contrary to current tenets supporting a single homogeneous epidemic, we demonstrate that the bacterium and its resistance genes were largely maintained within animal and human populations separately and that there was limited transmission, in either direction. We also show considerable variation in the resistance profiles, in contrast to the largely stable bacterial core genome, which emphasizes the critical importance of integrated genotypic data sets in understanding the ecology of bacterial zoonoses and antimicrobial resistance.

  3. Endophytic Fungi from Frankincense Tree Improves Host Growth and Produces Extracellular Enzymes and Indole Acetic Acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Latif Khan

    Full Text Available Boswellia sacra, an economically important frankincense-producing tree found in the desert woodlands of Oman, is least known for its endophytic fungal diversity and the potential of these fungi to produce extracellular enzymes and auxins. We isolated various fungal endophytes belonging to Eurotiales (11.8%, Chaetomiaceae (17.6%, Incertae sadis (29.5%, Aureobasidiaceae (17.6%, Nectriaceae (5.9% and Sporomiaceae (17.6% from the phylloplane (leaf and caulosphere (stem of the tree. Endophytes were identified using genomic DNA extraction, PCR amplification and sequencing the internal transcribed spacer regions, whereas a detailed phylogenetic analysis of the same gene fragment was made with homologous sequences. The endophytic colonization rate was significantly higher in the leaf (5.33% than the stem (0.262%. The Shannon-Weiner diversity index was H' 0.8729, while Simpson index was higher in the leaf (0.583 than in the stem (0.416. Regarding the endophytic fungi's potential for extracellular enzyme production, fluorogenic 4-methylumbelliferone standards and substrates were used to determine the presence of cellulases, phosphatases and glucosidases in the pure culture. Among fungal strains, Penicillum citrinum BSL17 showed significantly higher amounts of glucosidases (62.15±1.8 μM-1min-1mL and cellulases (62.11±1.6 μM-1min-1mL, whereas Preussia sp. BSL10 showed significantly higher secretion of glucosidases (69.4±0.79 μM-1min-1mL and phosphatases (3.46±0.31μM-1min-1mL compared to other strains. Aureobasidium sp. BSS6 and Preussia sp. BSL10 showed significantly higher potential for indole acetic acid production (tryptophan-dependent and independent pathways. Preussia sp. BSL10 was applied to the host B. sacra tree saplings, which exhibited significant improvements in plant growth parameters and accumulation of photosynthetic pigments. The current study concluded that endophytic microbial resources producing extracellular enzymes and auxin

  4. Endophytic Fungi from Frankincense Tree Improves Host Growth and Produces Extracellular Enzymes and Indole Acetic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al-Rawahi, Ahmed; Al-Farsi, Zainab; Al-Mamari, Aza; Waqas, Muhammad; Asaf, Sajjad; Elyassi, Ali; Mabood, Fazal; Shin, Jae-Ho; Lee, In-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Boswellia sacra, an economically important frankincense-producing tree found in the desert woodlands of Oman, is least known for its endophytic fungal diversity and the potential of these fungi to produce extracellular enzymes and auxins. We isolated various fungal endophytes belonging to Eurotiales (11.8%), Chaetomiaceae (17.6%), Incertae sadis (29.5%), Aureobasidiaceae (17.6%), Nectriaceae (5.9%) and Sporomiaceae (17.6%) from the phylloplane (leaf) and caulosphere (stem) of the tree. Endophytes were identified using genomic DNA extraction, PCR amplification and sequencing the internal transcribed spacer regions, whereas a detailed phylogenetic analysis of the same gene fragment was made with homologous sequences. The endophytic colonization rate was significantly higher in the leaf (5.33%) than the stem (0.262%). The Shannon-Weiner diversity index was H' 0.8729, while Simpson index was higher in the leaf (0.583) than in the stem (0.416). Regarding the endophytic fungi's potential for extracellular enzyme production, fluorogenic 4-methylumbelliferone standards and substrates were used to determine the presence of cellulases, phosphatases and glucosidases in the pure culture. Among fungal strains, Penicillum citrinum BSL17 showed significantly higher amounts of glucosidases (62.15±1.8 μM-1min-1mL) and cellulases (62.11±1.6 μM-1min-1mL), whereas Preussia sp. BSL10 showed significantly higher secretion of glucosidases (69.4±0.79 μM-1min-1mL) and phosphatases (3.46±0.31μM-1min-1mL) compared to other strains. Aureobasidium sp. BSS6 and Preussia sp. BSL10 showed significantly higher potential for indole acetic acid production (tryptophan-dependent and independent pathways). Preussia sp. BSL10 was applied to the host B. sacra tree saplings, which exhibited significant improvements in plant growth parameters and accumulation of photosynthetic pigments. The current study concluded that endophytic microbial resources producing extracellular enzymes and auxin could

  5. Antagonistic rhizobacteria and jasmonic acid induce resistance against tomato bacterial spot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélvio Gledson Maciel Ferraz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractTomato bacterial spot on tomato may be caused by four species of Xanthomonas and among them X. gardneri(Xg is the most destructive one, especially in areas irrigated using a center pivot system in Minas Gerais state and the midwest region of Brazil. Due to the ineffectiveness of chemical control and the lack of cultivars with high levels of genetic resistance, this study investigated the potential of three antagonists (Streptomyces setonii (UFV618, Bacillus cereus (UFV592 and Serratia marcescens (UFV252, and the hormone jasmonic acid (JA as a positive control, to reduce bacterial spot symptoms and to potentiate defense enzymes in the leaves of tomato plants infected by Xg. Tomato seeds were microbiolized with each antagonist, and the soil was drenched with these bacteria. The plants were sprayed with JA 48 h before Xginoculation. The final average severity on the tomato plants was reduced by 29.44, 59.26 and 61.33% in the UFV592, UFV618 and JA treatments, respectively. The UFV618 antagonist was as effective as JA in reducing bacterial spot symptoms on tomatoes, which can be explained by the greater activities of defense enzymes that are commonly involved in host resistance against bacterial diseases. These results suggest that JA and the UFV618 antagonist can be used in the integrated management of bacterial spot on tomatoes.

  6. Influence of Lactic Acid Bacteria on Longevity of Caenorhabditis elegans and Host Defense against Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, Takanori; Yasui, Chikako; Hoshino, Kaori; ARIKAWA, Kentaro; Nishikawa, Yoshikazu

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a convenient model to investigate the senescence of host defenses and the influence of food and nutrition. A small soil nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, was grown for 3 days from hatching on a lawn of Escherichia coli OP50 as the normal food source, and subsequently some of the nematodes were fed lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The life spans of worms fed LAB were significantly longer than the life spans of those fed OP50. To investigate the effect of age on host defe...

  7. Vibrational spectroscopy-based chemometrics to map host resistance to sudden oak death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierluigi (Enrico) Bonello; Anna O. Conrad; Luis Rodriguez Saona; Brice A. McPherson; David L. Wood

    2017-01-01

    A strong focus on tree germplasm that can resist threats such as non-native insects and pathogens, or a changing climate, is fundamental for successful conservation efforts. This project is predicated on the fact that genetic resistance is the cornerstone for protecting plants against pathogens and insects in environments conducive to the attacking organisms, a...

  8. Clinical Determinants of HIV-1B Between-Host Evolution and their Association with Drug Resistance in Pediatric Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Pagán

    Full Text Available Understanding the factors that modulate the evolution of virus populations is essential to design efficient control strategies. Mathematical models predict that factors affecting viral within-host evolution may also determine that at the between-host level. Although HIV-1 within-host evolution has been associated with clinical factors used to monitor AIDS progression, such as patient age, CD4 cells count, viral load, and antiretroviral experience, little is known about the role of these clinical factors in determining between-host HIV-1 evolution. Moreover, whether the relative importance of such factors in HIV-1 evolution vary in adult and children patients, in which the course of infection is different, has seldom been analysed. To address these questions, HIV-1 subtype B (HIV-1B pol sequences of 163 infected children and 450 adults of Madrid, Spain, were used to estimate genetic diversity, rates of synonymous and non-synonymous mutations, selection pressures and frequency of drug-resistance mutations (DRMs. The role and relative importance of patient age, %CD4, CD4/mm3, viral load, and antiretroviral experience in HIV-1B evolution was analysed. In the pediatric HIV-1B population, three clinical factors were primary predictors of virus evolution: Higher HIV-1B genetic diversity was observed with increasing children age, decreasing CD4/mm3 and upon antiretroviral experience. This was mostly due to higher rates of non-synonymous mutations, which were associated with higher frequency of DRMs. Using this data, we have also constructed a simple multivariate model explaining between 55% and 66% of the variance in HIV-1B evolutionary parameters in pediatric populations. On the other hand, the analysed clinical factors had little effect in adult-infecting HIV-1B evolution. These findings highlight the different evolutionary dynamics of HIV-1B in children and adults, and contribute to understand the factors shaping HIV-1B evolution and the appearance

  9. Effects of simulated rain acidified with sulfuric acid on host-parasite interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shriner, D.S.

    1976-01-01

    Wind-blown rain, rain splash, and films of free moisture play important roles in the epidemiology of many plant diseases. The effects of simulated rain acidified with sulfuric acid were studied on several host-parasite systems. Plants were exposed, in greenhouse or field, to simulated rain of pH 3.2+ or - 0.1 or pH 6.0 + or - 0.2. Simulated rain of pH 3.2 resulted in: an 86% inhibition in telia production of Cronartium fusiforme on Quercus phellos; a 66% inhibition of reproduction of Meloidogyne hapla on field-grown Phaseolus vulgaris; a 10% decrease in the severity of Uromyces phaseoli on field-grown Phaseolus vulgaris; and an inhibition of Rhizobium nodulation of Phaseolus vulgaris and Glycine max by an average of 73%. Effects on halo blight of kidney bean (caused by Pseudomonas phaseolicola) depended upon the segment of the disease cycle in which the rain occurred: simulated rain of pH 3.2 applied to plants before inoculation stimulated disease development; suspension of inoculum in ''rain'' of pH 3.2 decreased inoculum potential; and (c) ''rain'' of pH 3.2 applied to plants after infection inhibited disease development. Scanning electron microscopy of epicuticular waxes on leaves of Quercus phellos and Phaseolus vulgaris showed marked erosion of those surfaces by rain of pH 3.2, indicating possible influences on the structure and function of plant cuticles.

  10. Bacterial communities differ among Drosophila melanogaster populations and affect host resistance against parasitoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaplinska, Mariia; Gerritsma, Sylvia; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Falcao Salles, Joana; Wertheim, Bregje

    2016-01-01

    In Drosophila, diet is considered a prominent factor shaping the associated bacterial community. However, the host population background (e.g. genotype, geographical origin and founder effects) is a factor that may also exert a significant influence and is often overlooked. To test for population

  11. Genetically engineered resistance to Plum pox virus infection in herbaceous and stone fruit hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilardi, Vincenza; Nicola-Negri, Elisa Di

    2011-01-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV), a Potyvirus, is the causal agent of sharka, the most detrimental viral disease affecting stone fruit trees. This review focuses on research carried out to obtain PPV- resistant transgenic plants and on how biotechnological strategies evolved in light of the scientific advances made during the last several years. Successful RNA silencing strategies that confer high level of resistance to strains of PPV have been developed and tested under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Moreover, field tests showed that transgene-mediated RNA silencing was effective in protecting plum plants against aphid-mediated PPV infection. The new emerging biotechnological approaches for conferring PPV resistance are discussed.

  12. Bacterial viruses enable their host to acquire antibiotic resistance genes from neighbouring cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haaber, Jakob Krause; Leisner, Jørgen; Cohn, Marianne Thorup

    2016-01-01

    Prophages are quiescent viruses located in the chromosomes of bacteria. In the human pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus, prophages are omnipresent and are believed to be responsible for the spread of some antibiotic resistance genes. Here we demonstrate that release of phages from a subpopulation of S...... of such particles to the prophage-containing population can drive the transfer of genes encoding potentially useful traits such as antibiotic resistance. This process, which can be viewed as ‘auto-transduction’, allows S. aureus to efficiently acquire antibiotic resistance both in vitro and in an in vivo virulence...... model (wax moth larvae) and enables it to proliferate under strong antibiotic selection pressure. Our results may help to explain the rapid exchange of antibiotic resistance genes observed in S. aureus....

  13. Utilizing CMP-Sialic Acid Analogs to Unravel Neisseria gonorrhoeae Lipooligosaccharide-Mediated Complement Resistance and Design Novel Therapeutics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Gulati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Neisseria gonorrhoeae deploys a novel immune evasion strategy wherein the lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT structure of lipooligosaccharide (LOS is capped by the bacterial sialyltransferase, using host cytidine-5'-monophosphate (CMP-activated forms of the nine-carbon nonulosonate (NulO sugar N-acetyl-neuraminic acid (Neu5Ac, a sialic acid (Sia abundant in humans. This allows evasion of complement-mediated killing by recruiting factor H (FH, an inhibitor of the alternative complement pathway, and by limiting classical pathway activation ("serum-resistance". We utilized CMP salts of six additional natural or synthetic NulOs, Neu5Gc, Neu5Gc8Me, Neu5Ac9Ac, Neu5Ac9Az, legionaminic acid (Leg5Ac7Ac and pseudaminic acid (Pse5Ac7Ac, to define structural requirements of Sia-mediated serum-resistance. While all NulOs except Pse5Ac7Ac were incorporated into the LNnT-LOS, only Neu5Gc incorporation yielded high-level serum-resistance and FH binding that was comparable to Neu5Ac, whereas Neu5Ac9Az and Leg5Ac7Ac incorporation left bacteria fully serum-sensitive and did not enhance FH binding. Neu5Ac9Ac and Neu5Gc8Me rendered bacteria resistant only to low serum concentrations. While serum-resistance mediated by Neu5Ac was associated with classical pathway inhibition (decreased IgG binding and C4 deposition, Leg5Ac7Ac and Neu5Ac9Az incorporation did not inhibit the classical pathway. Remarkably, CMP-Neu5Ac9Az and CMP-Leg5Ac7Ac each prevented serum-resistance despite a 100-fold molar excess of CMP-Neu5Ac in growth media. The concomitant presence of Leg5Ac7Ac and Neu5Ac on LOS resulted in uninhibited classical pathway activation. Surprisingly, despite near-maximal FH binding in this instance, the alternative pathway was not regulated and factor Bb remained associated with bacteria. Intravaginal administration of CMP-Leg5Ac7Ac to BALB/c mice infected with gonorrhea (including a multidrug-resistant isolate reduced clearance times and infection burden. Bacteria recovered

  14. Utilizing CMP-Sialic Acid Analogs to Unravel Neisseria gonorrhoeae Lipooligosaccharide-Mediated Complement Resistance and Design Novel Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Sunita; Schoenhofen, Ian C; Whitfield, Dennis M; Cox, Andrew D; Li, Jianjun; St Michael, Frank; Vinogradov, Evgeny V; Stupak, Jacek; Zheng, Bo; Ohnishi, Makoto; Unemo, Magnus; Lewis, Lisa A; Taylor, Rachel E; Landig, Corinna S; Diaz, Sandra; Reed, George W; Varki, Ajit; Rice, Peter A; Ram, Sanjay

    2015-12-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae deploys a novel immune evasion strategy wherein the lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT) structure of lipooligosaccharide (LOS) is capped by the bacterial sialyltransferase, using host cytidine-5'-monophosphate (CMP)-activated forms of the nine-carbon nonulosonate (NulO) sugar N-acetyl-neuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), a sialic acid (Sia) abundant in humans. This allows evasion of complement-mediated killing by recruiting factor H (FH), an inhibitor of the alternative complement pathway, and by limiting classical pathway activation ("serum-resistance"). We utilized CMP salts of six additional natural or synthetic NulOs, Neu5Gc, Neu5Gc8Me, Neu5Ac9Ac, Neu5Ac9Az, legionaminic acid (Leg5Ac7Ac) and pseudaminic acid (Pse5Ac7Ac), to define structural requirements of Sia-mediated serum-resistance. While all NulOs except Pse5Ac7Ac were incorporated into the LNnT-LOS, only Neu5Gc incorporation yielded high-level serum-resistance and FH binding that was comparable to Neu5Ac, whereas Neu5Ac9Az and Leg5Ac7Ac incorporation left bacteria fully serum-sensitive and did not enhance FH binding. Neu5Ac9Ac and Neu5Gc8Me rendered bacteria resistant only to low serum concentrations. While serum-resistance mediated by Neu5Ac was associated with classical pathway inhibition (decreased IgG binding and C4 deposition), Leg5Ac7Ac and Neu5Ac9Az incorporation did not inhibit the classical pathway. Remarkably, CMP-Neu5Ac9Az and CMP-Leg5Ac7Ac each prevented serum-resistance despite a 100-fold molar excess of CMP-Neu5Ac in growth media. The concomitant presence of Leg5Ac7Ac and Neu5Ac on LOS resulted in uninhibited classical pathway activation. Surprisingly, despite near-maximal FH binding in this instance, the alternative pathway was not regulated and factor Bb remained associated with bacteria. Intravaginal administration of CMP-Leg5Ac7Ac to BALB/c mice infected with gonorrhea (including a multidrug-resistant isolate) reduced clearance times and infection burden. Bacteria recovered from CMP

  15. Occurrence and molecular characterization of fusidic acid resistance mechanisms among Staphylococcus spp. from European countries (2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanheira, Mariana; Watters, Amy A; Mendes, Rodrigo E; Farrell, David J; Jones, Ronald N

    2010-07-01

    To determine fusidic acid resistance rates (MICs of > or = 2 mg/L) and the prevalence of fusidic acid resistance mechanisms among Staphylococcus spp. collected from European countries (2008). Staphylococcal isolates (3134) collected from Europe were tested by CLSI broth microdilution. Isolates displaying a fusidic acid MIC of > or = 2 mg/L (non-susceptible; European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing breakpoint) were tested for fusB, fusC and fusD. The fusidic acid target sites fusA and fusE were then sequenced, and a method for the detection of the fusA mutation L461K was developed. Selected isolates were typed by PFGE. Fusidic acid resistance rates were higher among coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) compared with Staphylococcus aureus. Acquired fusidic acid resistance genes were detected in 64.9% of the samples; fusB and fusC were detected among 10.1% and 16.9% of the fusidic acid-resistant S. aureus and among 26.5% and 11.3% of the CoNS, respectively. Ireland and Greece showed the highest S. aureus fusidic acid resistance levels, with low rates of acquired fusidic acid resistance genes. Isolates from these countries displayed MIC values of > or = 512 mg/L, the presence of the elongation factor G L461K alteration and clonal occurrences. Low S. aureus fusidic acid resistance rates (1%-3%) were observed in Germany, Israel, Italy, Poland, Spain and Sweden. Isolates with MIC values < or = 64 mg/L showed a great diversity of acquired fusidic acid resistance mechanisms. Acquired fusidic acid resistance genes were detected in the majority of fusidic acid-resistant isolates from Belgium, France, Switzerland, Sweden, Italy and the UK (72.2%-92.9%), and were slightly less frequent in Germany, Spain and Israel (61.3%-66.7%). This contemporary study showed that acquired fusidic acid resistance genes were prevalent among fusidic acid-non-susceptible European staphylococcal isolates.

  16. Sphingolipids contribute to acetic acid resistance in Zygosaccharomyces bailii

    OpenAIRE

    Lindahl, Lina; Genheden, Samuel; Eriksson, Leif A.; Olsson, Lisbeth; Bettiga, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lignocellulosic raw material plays a crucial role in the development of sustainable processes for the production of fuels and chemicals. Weak acids such as acetic acid and formic acid are troublesome inhibitors restricting efficient microbial conversion of the biomass to desired products. To improve our understanding of weak acid inhibition and to identify engineering strategies to reduce acetic acid toxicity, the highly acetic?acid?tolerant yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii was studied...

  17. Selection of 5-fluorocytosine-resistant mutants from an Aspergillus niger citric acid-producing strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conte Ana Paula de F.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutants of Aspergillus niger N402, induced by UV mutagenesis, were selected and tested for resistance or sensitivity to 5-fluorocytosine. Some mutants showed increased citric acid production, which did not correlate with the intracellular amount of protein or ammonium ion. The resistance to 5-fluorocytosine proved to be a rational approach for isolation of new mutants with improved production of citric acid. The best mutant (FR13 accumulated double the amount of citric acid produced by the parental strain.

  18. Peptide Nucleic Acid Knockdown and Intra-host Cell Complementation of Ehrlichia Type IV Secretion System Effector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pratibha; Teymournejad, Omid; Rikihisa, Yasuko

    2017-01-01

    Survival of Ehrlichia chaffeensis depends on obligatory intracellular infection. One of the barriers to E. chaffeensis research progress has been the inability, using conventional techniques, to generate knock-out mutants for genes essential for intracellular infection. This study examined the use of Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNAs) technology to interrupt type IV secretion system (T4SS) effector protein expression in E. chaffeensis followed by intracellular complementation of the effector to determine its requirement for infection. Successful E. chaffeensis infection depends on the E. chaffeensis-specific T4SS protein effector, ehrlichial translocated factor-1 (Etf-1), which induces Rab5-regulated autophagy to provide host cytosolic nutrients required for E. chaffeensis proliferation. Etf-1 is also imported by host cell mitochondria where it inhibits host cell apoptosis to prolong its infection. We designed a PNA specific to Etf-1 and showed that the PNA bound to the target region of single-stranded Etf-1 RNA using a competitive binding assay. Electroporation of E. chaffeensis with this PNA significantly reduced Etf-1 mRNA and protein, and the bacteria's ability to induce host cell autophagy and infect host cells. Etf-1 PNA-mediated inhibition of ehrlichial Etf-1 expression and E. chaffeensis infection could be intracellularly trans-complemented by ectopic expression of Etf-1-GFP in host cells. These data affirmed the critical role of bacterial T4SS effector in host cell autophagy and E. chaffeensis infection, and demonstrated the use of PNA to analyze the gene functions of obligate intracellular bacteria.

  19. Diversity of fatty acid composition of symbiotic dinoflagellates in corals: evidence for the transfer of host PUFAs to the symbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbs, Andrey B; Yakovleva, Irina M; Dautova, Tatiana N; Bui, Long H; Jones, Paul

    2014-05-01

    High diversity of fatty acid (FA) composition of endosymbiotic dinoflagellates of the Symbiodinium group (zooxanthellae) isolated from different cnidarian groups has been found. To explain this diversity, FA composition of the total lipids of pure symbiont fractions (SF) and host cell tissue fractions (HF) isolated from one hydrocoral, two soft coral, and seven hard coral species inhabiting the shallow waters of the South China Sea (Vietnam) were compared. Symbiodinium phylogenetic clade designation for each SF was also determined, however, the relationship between the clade designation and FA composition of Symbiodinium was not found. The profiles of marker polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) of symbionts (18:4n-3, 18:5n-3, 20:5n-3) did not depend on taxonomic designation of the host and reflected only a specimen-specific diversity of the SF lipids. Several FAs such as 20:0, C24 PUFAs, 22:5n-6, and 18:2n-7 concentrated in HF lipids but were also found in SF lipids. For ten cnidarian species studied, the principal components analysis of total FAs (27 variables) of the symbiotic fractions was performed. The clear division of the symbiotic dinoflagellates according to the host systematic identity was found on a subclass level. This division was mainly caused by the FAs specific for the host lipids of each cnidarian subclasses such as hard corals, soft corals, and hydrocorals. Thus, the coral hosts affect the FA profile of their symbionts and cause the diversity of FA composition of Symbiodinium. The transfer of FAs from the coral host to their symbiotic dinoflagellates and modulation of PUFA biosynthesis in symbionts by the host are considered as possible reasons of the diversity studied. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Vibrio cholerae Mrp system: cation/proton antiport properties and enhancement of bile salt resistance in a heterologous host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzioba-Winogrodzki, Judith; Winogrodzki, Olga; Krulwich, Terry A; Boin, Markus A; Häse, Claudia C; Dibrov, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    The mrp operon from Vibrio cholerae encoding a putative multisubunit Na(+)/H(+) antiporter was cloned and functionally expressed in the antiporter-deficient strain of Escherichia coli EP432. Cells of EP432 expressing Vc-Mrp exhibited resistance to Na(+) and Li(+) as well as to natural bile salts such as sodium cholate and taurocholate. When assayed in everted membrane vesicles of the E. coli EP432 host, Vc-Mrp had sufficiently high antiport activity to facilitate the first extensive analysis of Mrp system from a Gram-negative bacterium encoded by a group 2 mrp operon. Vc-Mrp was found to exchange protons for Li(+), Na(+), and K(+) ions in pH-dependent manner with maximal activity at pH 9.0-9.5. Exchange was electrogenic (more than one H(+) translocated per cation moved in opposite direction). The apparent K(m) at pH 9.0 was 1.08, 1.30, and 68.5 mM for Li(+), Na(+), and K(+), respectively. Kinetic analyses suggested that Vc-Mrp operates in a binding exchange mode with all cations and protons competing for binding to the antiporter. The robust ion antiport activity of Vc-Mrp in sub-bacterial vesicles and its effect on bile resistance of the heterologous host make Vc-Mrp an attractive experimental model for the further studies of biochemistry and physiology of Mrp systems. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Resistance and Susceptibility to Malarial Infection: A Host De¬fense Strategy against Malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa BAKIR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In an effort to understand what limits the virulence of malaria para­sites in relation to the host genetic and immunogenic background, we investi­gated the possibility that the parasite and host genotype crossover interac­tions constrain virulence.Methods: Two groups of mice from different genotypes were used (C57BL/6 (B6 and DBA/2 mice. The mice were infected with a virulent parasite line Plasmo­dium yoelii17XL (P. yoelii17XL. Parasitemia, hematocrit value and lympho­cytes yielded by livers and spleens were evaluated. Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS analysis illustrated phenotypic characterization of lymphocytes.Results: Infection with P. yoelii17XL did not result in thedeath of DBA/2 mice. In contrast,B6 mice developed significantly high parasitemia and succumbed to death. Using (FACS analysis, DBA/2 mice were found to experience a marked expansion of interleukin (IL-2Rb+ CD3int cells and gd T cells in the liver, espe­cially in the recovery phase. The expansion of unconventional T cells (i.e. B220+ T cells was also marked in DBA/2 mice.Conclusion: The outcome of murine malaria infections depends on the dynamic interplay between the immune-mediator and the genotype of the host.

  2. A Multiple Decrement Life Table Reveals That Host Plant Resistance and Parasitism Are Major Causes of Mortality for the Wheat Stem Sawfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buteler, Micaela; Peterson, Robert K D; Hofland, Megan L; Weaver, David K

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the dynamics of parasitism, host plant resistance, pathogens, and predation on the demography of wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae), developing in susceptible (hollow stem) and resistant (solid stem) wheat hosts. This study is also the first to investigate the prevalence and impact of cannibalism on wheat stem sawfly mortality. Wheat stem sawflies were sampled in two commercial wheat fields over 4 yr from the egg stage through adult emergence, and multiple decrement life tables were constructed and analyzed. Cannibalism, host plant resistance, or unknown factors were the most prevalent factors causing egg mortality. Summer mortality of prediapause larvae ranged from 28 to 84%, mainly due to parasitism by Bracon cephi (Gahan) and Bracon lissogaster Muesebeck, cannibalism, and host plant resistance. Winter mortality ranged from 6 to 54% of the overwintering larvae, mainly due to unknown factors or pathogens. Cannibalism is a major cause of irreplaceable mortality because it is absolute, with only a single survivor in every multiple infested stem. Subsequent to obligate cannibalism, mortality of feeding larvae due to host plant resistance was lower in hollow stem wheat than in solid stem wheat. Mortality from host plant resistance was largely irreplaceable. Irreplaceable mortality due to parasitoids was greater in hollow stem wheat than in solid stem wheat. Host plant resistance due to stem solidness and parasitism in hollow stems cause substantial mortality in populations of actively feeding larvae responsible for all crop losses. Therefore, enhancing these mortality factors is vital to effective integrated pest management of wheat stem sawfly. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Effects of Pr6O11 Addition on the Acid Resistance of Ceramic Proppant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Guodong; Wu, Bolin; Wu, Tingting

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigated the effect of Pr6O11 addition on the acid resistance of ceramic proppant. Acid resistance of proppants can be improved by introducing Pr6O11 into the Al2O3-CaO-MgO-SiO2 (ACMS) system. To illustrate and explain the mechanism of acid resistance, the samples were characterized by different techniques, using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The phase structure of the specimens was characterized by XRD and SEM-detected microstructures of the specimens. It was observed that with the increase of rare-earth oxide content, the acid solubility of the specimens decreased, and then increased when it reached the minimum value 0.45 wt %. The results of the research show that the improvement of acid resistance with rare-earth oxides was achieved by refining the grain size, strengthening the grain boundary, and turning Ca2Al2SiO7, in which acid resistance is poor, into CaAl12O19, which possesses better acid resistance, and then enhance the acid resistance of the proppants. Furthermore, Pr6O11 can form a solid solution with Ca2Al2SiO7 and CaAl12O19. The acid resistance of CaAl12O19 improves with the increase of solid solubility. In contrast, the acid resistance of Ca2Al2SiO7 will decrease after Ca2Al2SiO7 forms a solid solution with Pr6O11. PMID:28772788

  4. DL-beta-aminobutyric acid-induced resistance of potato against Phytophthora infestans requires salicylic acid but not oxylipins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschen-Lippold, Lennart; Altmann, Simone; Rosahl, Sabine

    2010-05-01

    Inducing systemic resistance responses in crop plants is a promising alternative way of disease management. To understand the underlying signaling events leading to induced resistance, functional analyses of plants defective in defined signaling pathway steps are required. We used potato, one of the economically most-important crop plants worldwide, to examine systemic resistance against the devastating late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans, induced by treatment with dl-beta-aminobutyric acid (BABA). Transgenic plants impaired in either the 9-lipoxygenase pathway, which produces defense-related compounds, or the 13-lipoxygenase pathway, which generates jasmonic acid-derived signals, expressed wild-type levels of BABA-induced resistance. Plants incapable of accumulating salicylic acid (SA), on the other hand, failed to mount this type of induced resistance. Consistently, treatment of these plants with the SA analog 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid restored BABA-induced resistance. Together, these results demonstrate the indispensability of a functional SA pathway for systemic resistance in potato induced by BABA.

  5. Pre-cold stress increases acid stress resistance and induces amino ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pre-cold stress increases acid stress resistance and induces amino acid homeostasis in Lactococcus lactis NZ9000. ... Compared to exposure to acid stress only, pre-adaptation to cold stress decreased the redox balance ratio and the formation of hydroxyl radicals, indicating a change in aerobic respiration and oxidative ...

  6. Plant adaptation to acid soils: the molecular basis for crop aluminum resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity on acid soils is a significant limitation to crop production worldwide, as approximately 50% of the world’s potentially arable soils are acidic. Because acid soils are such an important constraint to agriculture, understanding the mechanisms and genes conferring resistance to ...

  7. Overexpression of ESBP6 improves lactic acid resistance and production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Minetaka; Akase, Shin-Pei; Nakanishi, Ryota; Kaneko, Yoshinobu; Harashima, Satoshi

    2016-10-01

    Polylactic acid plastics are receiving increasing attention for the control of atmospheric CO2 emissions. Lactic acid, the building block for polylactic acid, is produced by fermentation technology from renewable carbon sources. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, harboring the lactate dehydrogenases gene (LDH), produces lactic acid at a large scale due to its strong acid resistance, to its simple nutritional requirements and to its ease of genetic engineering. Since improvement of lactic acid resistance is correlated with an increase of lactic acid production under non-neutralizing condition, we isolated a novel gene that enhances lactic acid resistance using a multi-copy yeast genomic DNA library. In this study, we identified the ESBP6 gene, which increases lactic acid resistance when overexpressed and which encodes a protein with similarity to monocarboxylate permeases. Although ESBP6 was not induced in response to lactic acid stress, it caused weak but reproducible sensitivity to lactic acid when disrupted. Furthermore, intracellular pH in the ESBP6 overexpressing strain was higher than that in the wild-type strain under lactic acid stressed condition, suggesting that Esbp6 plays some roles in lactic acid adaptation response. The ESBP6 overexpressing strain carrying the LDH gene induced 20% increase in lactic acid production compared with the wild-type strain carrying the LDH gene under non-neutralizing conditions. These results indicate that overexpression of ESBP6 provides a novel and useful tool to improve lactic acid resistance and lactic acid production in yeast. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Ferulic Acid, But Not All Hydroxycinnamic Acids, Is a Novel T3SS Inducer of Ralstonia solanacearum and Promotes Its Infection Process in Host Plants under Hydroponic Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs are typical monocyclic phenylpropanoids, including cinnamic acid (Cin, coumaric acid (Cou, caffeic acid (Caf, ferulic acid (FA and their isomers, and involved in the interactions between pathogens and host plants. Here, we focused on the impact of HCAs on expression of type III secretion system (T3SS in Ralstonia solanacearum. FA significantly induced the expression of the T3SS and some type III effectors (T3Es genes in hrp-inducing medium, while did not the other HCAs. However, exogenously supplemented FA did not affect the T3SS expression in planta and the elicitation of the hypersensitive response (HR in tobacco leaves. Consistent with its central roles in pathogenicity, the FA-induced expression of the T3SS led to significant promotion on infection process of R. solanacearum in tomato plants under hydroponics cultivation. Moreover, the FA-induced expression of the T3SS was specifically mediated by the well-characterized signaling cascade PrhA-prhI/R-PrhJ-HrpG-HrpB, independent of the other known regulatory pathways. In summary, our results demonstrated that FA, a novel inducer of the T3SS in R. solanacearum, was able to promote its infection process in host plants under hydroponics condition.

  9. The Order Bacillales Hosts Functional Homologs of the Worrisome cfr Antibiotic Resistance Gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lykke H.; Planellas, Mercè H.; Long, Katherine S.

    2012-01-01

    The cfr gene encodes the Cfr methyltransferase that methylates a single adenine in the peptidyl transferase region of bacterial ribosomes. The methylation provides resistance to several classes of antibiotics that include drugs of clinical and veterinary importance. This paper describes a first...... coli, and MICs for selected antibiotics indicate that the cfr-like genes confer resistance to PhLOPSa (phenicol, lincosamide, oxazolidinone, pleuromutilin, and streptogramin A) antibiotics in the same way as the cfr gene. In addition, modification at A2503 on 23S rRNA was confirmed by primer extension...

  10. Endogenous growth factor stimulation of hemocyte proliferation induces resistance to Schistosoma mansoni challenge in the snail host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pila, Emmanuel A; Gordy, Michelle A; Phillips, Valerie K; Kabore, Alethe L; Rudko, Sydney P; Hanington, Patrick C

    2016-05-10

    Digenean trematodes are a large, complex group of parasitic flatworms that infect an incredible diversity of organisms, including humans. Larval development of most digeneans takes place within a snail (Gastropoda). Compatibility between snails and digeneans is often very specific, such that suitable snail hosts define the geographical ranges of diseases caused by these worms. The immune cells (hemocytes) of a snail are sentinels that act as a crucial barrier to infection by larval digeneans. Hemocytes coordinate a robust and specific immunological response, participating directly in parasite killing by encapsulating and clearing the infection. Hemocyte proliferation and differentiation are influenced by unknown digenean-specific exogenous factors. However, we know nothing about the endogenous control of hemocyte development in any gastropod model. Here, we identify and functionally characterize a progranulin [Biomphalaria glabrata granulin (BgGRN)] from the snail B. glabrata, a natural host for the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni Granulins are growth factors that drive proliferation of immune cells in organisms, spanning the animal kingdom. We demonstrate that BgGRN induces proliferation of B. glabrata hemocytes, and specifically drives the production of an adherent hemocyte subset that participates centrally in the anti-digenean defense response. Additionally, we demonstrate that susceptible B. glabrata snails can be made resistant to infection with S. mansoni by first inducing hemocyte proliferation with BgGRN. This marks the functional characterization of an endogenous growth factor of a gastropod mollusc, and provides direct evidence of gain of resistance in a snail-digenean infection model using a defined factor to induce snail resistance to infection.

  11. Host Plant Resistance to Green Peach Aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzar), by Some Wild Types of Watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzar), is an important pest of many vegetable crops. It damages crops by feeding and vectoring viruses. Potential sources of plant resistance against M. persicae were examined for watermelon. A multiple choice experiment was conducted with leaves of six wi...

  12. Inoculation of transgenic resistant potato by Phytophthora infestans affects host plant choice of a generalist moth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abreha, K.B.; Alexandersson, Erik; Vossen, J.H.; Anderson, Peter; Andreasson, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Pathogen attack and the plant's response to this attack affect herbivore oviposition preference and larval performance. Introduction of major resistance genes against Phytophthora infestans (Rpi-genes), the cause of the devastating late blight disease, from wild Solanum species into potato

  13. Genetic control of host resistance to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript focuses on the advances made using genomic approaches to identify biomarkers that define genes and pathways that are correlated with swine resistance to infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), the most economically important swine viral pathogen wo...

  14. A Single Amino Acid Substitution in the Core Protein of West Nile Virus Increases Resistance to Acidotropic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Acebes, Miguel A.; Blázquez, Ana-Belén; de Oya, Nereida Jiménez; Escribano-Romero, Estela; Shi, Pei-Yong; Saiz, Juan-Carlos

    2013-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a worldwide distributed mosquito-borne flavivirus that naturally cycles between birds and mosquitoes, although it can infect multiple vertebrate hosts including horses and humans. This virus is responsible for recurrent epidemics of febrile illness and encephalitis, and has recently become a global concern. WNV requires to transit through intracellular acidic compartments at two different steps to complete its infectious cycle. These include fusion between the viral envelope and the membrane of endosomes during viral entry, and virus maturation in the trans-Golgi network. In this study, we followed a genetic approach to study the connections between viral components and acidic pH. A WNV mutant with increased resistance to the acidotropic compound NH4Cl, which blocks organelle acidification and inhibits WNV infection, was selected. Nucleotide sequencing revealed that this mutant displayed a single amino acid substitution (Lys 3 to Glu) on the highly basic internal capsid or core (C) protein. The functional role of this replacement was confirmed by its introduction into a WNV infectious clone. This single amino acid substitution also increased resistance to other acidification inhibitor (concanamycin A) and induced a reduction of the neurovirulence in mice. Interestingly, a naturally occurring accompanying mutation found on prM protein abolished the resistant phenotype, supporting the idea of a genetic crosstalk between the internal C protein and the external glycoproteins of the virion. The findings here reported unveil a non-previously assessed connection between the C viral protein and the acidic pH necessary for entry and proper exit of flaviviruses. PMID:23874963

  15. Bacillus thuringiensis-toxin resistance management: Stable isotope assessment of alternate host use by Helicoverpa zea

    OpenAIRE

    Gould, F.; Blair, N.; Reid, M.; Rennie, T. L.; Lopez, J.; Micinski, S.

    2002-01-01

    Data have been lacking on the proportion of Helicovera zea larvae that develop on noncotton host plants that can serve as a refuge from selection pressure for adaptation to transgenic cotton varieties that produce a toxin from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. We found that individual H. zea moths that develop as larvae on cotton and other plants with C3 physiology have a different ratio of 13C to 12C than moths that develop on plants with C4 physiology, such as corn. We used this finding...

  16. Valproic acid inhibits TTX-resistant sodium currents in prefrontal cortex pyramidal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulczyk, Bartlomiej; Nurowska, Ewa

    2017-09-16

    Valproic acid is frequently prescribed and used to treat epilepsy, bipolar disorder and other conditions. However, the mechanism of action of valproic acid has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of valproic acid (200 μM) on TTX-resistant sodium currents in mPFC pyramidal neurons. Valproic acid inhibited the maximal amplitude and did not change the activation parameters of TTX-resistant sodium currents. Moreover, valproic acid (2 μM and 200 μM) shifted the TTX-resistant sodium channel inactivation curve towards hyperpolarisation. In the presence of valproic acid, TTX-resistant sodium currents recovered from inactivation more slowly. Valproic acid did not influence the use-dependent blockade of TTX-resistant sodium currents. This study suggests that a potential new mechanism of the antiepileptic action of valproic acid is, among others, inhibition of TTX-resistant sodium currents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Geography and genealogy of the human host harbouring a distinctive drug-resistant strain of tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassard, Paul; Henry, Kevin A; Schwartzman, Kevin; Jomphe, Michèle; Olson, Sherry H

    2008-05-01

    For a strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis mono-resistant to pyrazinamide (PZA), we report the geographic distribution within Quebec of the 77 cases diagnosed during 1990-2000. Known as the Quebec mutation (or the pncA deletion), the strain is rare in urban areas and showed an unexpected concentration in Mauricie, one of the 16 health districts of the province, with a cluster of 10 cases situated in a rural area of 35-km radius. The cases occurred among people >50 (98%), of French Canadian origins (90%), and are understood to have arisen by reactivation. The rarity in Montreal and smaller cities is explained by the youthfulness of massive postwar migrations. To reach back into the history of settlement, we examined genealogies: 92,429 ancestral marriages for 32 of the 77 PZA-resistant isolates and 226,535 for a set of 85 controls with isolates of more diverse mycobacterial strains. Genealogical analysis showed no salient common ancestor for the cases, and kinship among them was no greater than observed in control samples from the same regions. But it identified an unsuspected geographical region as the site of ancestral concentrations prior to 1840, for both resistant strains and controls. The following scenario is proposed for the resistant strain: endemic in a specific geographical region by 1800, it dispersed with families moving into regions opened to settlement in the 1840s and 1850s, among them Mauricie, where dispersion was intensified by seasonal mobility of labour in logging, milling and marketing timber. In high-incidence areas, it is difficult to distinguish cases of reactivation from recent infections, but the low-incidence context allows us to observe a 200-year trajectory of a distinctive drug-resistant strain of M. tuberculosis.

  18. Ascorbic acid levels of trematode parasites of fish and mammalian hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, R S; Misra, K C

    1980-01-01

    Ascorbic acid levels of seven species of digenetic trematodes, living under different environmental conditions in fish and mammals were determined colorimetrically. Ascorbic acid levels ranged from 0.312 mg/100 g fresh weight in Gastrothylax crumenifer to 5.070 mg/100 g fresh weight in Fasciola indica. Low levels of ascorbic acid were detected in the rumen parasites and in Isoparorchis hypselobagri. In contrast the liver parasites were found to have relatively high ascorbic acid levels.

  19. Bacillus thuringiensis-toxin resistance management: stable isotope assessment of alternate host use by Helicoverpazea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, F; Blair, N; Reid, M; Rennie, T L; Lopez, J; Micinski, S

    2002-12-24

    Data have been lacking on the proportion of Helicovera zea larvae that develop on noncotton host plants that can serve as a refuge from selection pressure for adaptation to transgenic cotton varieties that produce a toxin from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. We found that individual H. zea moths that develop as larvae on cotton and other plants with C3 physiology have a different ratio of 13C to 12C than moths that develop on plants with C4 physiology, such as corn. We used this finding in determining the minimum percentage of moths that developed on noncotton hosts in two cotton-growing areas. Our results indicate that local corn can serve as a refuge for H. zea in midsummer. Our results contrast dramatically with the prevailing hypothesis that the large majority of late-season moths are produced from larvae feeding on cotton, soybean, and other C3 plants. Typically, corn in more northern locations. Our isotope data on moths collected in Texas early in the season indicate that the majority of overwintering H. zea do not originate from cotton-feeding larvae and may be migrants from Mexico. Non-Bt corn in Mexico and the U.S. corn belt appears to serve as an important refuge for H. zea.

  20. Down-regulation of Fusarium oxysporum endogenous genes by Host-Delivered RNA interference enhances disease resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zongli; Parekh, Urvi; Maruta, Natsumi; Trusov, Yuri; Botella, Jimmy

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is a devastating pathogen causing extensive yield losses in a variety of crops and development of sustainable, environmentally friendly methods to improve crop resistance is crucial. We have used Host-Derived RNA interference (HD-RNAi) technology to partially silence three different genes (FOW2, FRP1 and OPR) in the hemi-biotrophic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans. Expression of double stranded RNA molecules targeting fungal pathogen genes was achieved in a number of transgenic Arabidopsis lines. F. oxysporum infecting the transgenic lines displayed substantially reduced mRNA levels on all three targeted genes, with an average of 75%, 83% and 72% reduction for FOW2, FRP1 and OPR respectively. The silencing of pathogen genes had a clear positive effect on the ability of the transgenic lines to fight infection. All transgenic lines displayed enhanced resistance to F. oxysporum with delayed disease symptom development, especially FRP1 and OPR lines. Survival rates after fungal infection were higher in the transgenic lines compared to control wild type plants which consistently showed survival rates of 10%, with FOW2 lines showing 25% survival; FRP1 lines 30-50% survival and FOW2 between 45-70% survival. The down-regulation effect was specific for the targeted genes without unintended effects in related genes. In addition to producing resistant crops, HD-RNAi can provide a useful tool to rapidly screen candidate fungal pathogenicity genes without the need to produce fungal knockout mutants.

  1. Down-regulation of Fusarium oxysporum endogenous genes by Host-Delivered RNA interference enhances disease resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongli eHu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium oxysporum is a devastating pathogen causing extensive yield losses in a variety of crops and development of sustainable, environmentally friendly methods to improve crop resistance is crucial. We have used Host-Derived RNA interference (HD-RNAi technology to partially silence three different genes (FOW2, FRP1 and OPR in the hemi-biotrophic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans. Expression of double stranded RNA molecules targeting fungal pathogen genes was achieved in a number of transgenic Arabidopsis lines. F. oxysporum infecting the transgenic lines displayed substantially reduced mRNA levels on all three targeted genes, with an average of 75%, 83% and 72% reduction for FOW2, FRP1 and OPR respectively. The silencing of pathogen genes had a clear positive effect on the ability of the transgenic lines to fight infection. All transgenic lines displayed enhanced resistance to F. oxysporum with delayed disease symptom development, especially FRP1 and OPR lines. Survival rates after fungal infection were higher in the transgenic lines compared to control wild type plants which consistently showed survival rates of 10%, with FOW2 lines showing 25% survival; FRP1 lines 30-50% survival and FOW2 between 45-70% survival. The down-regulation effect was specific for the targeted genes without unintended effects in related genes. In addition to producing resistant crops, HD-RNAi can provide a useful tool to rapidly screen candidate fungal pathogenicity genes without the need to produce fungal knockout mutants.

  2. Overexpression of a single membrane component from the Bacillus mer operon enhanced mercury resistance in an Escherichia coli host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ju-Liang; Chen, Ching-Yi; Chang, Jo-Shu; Endo, Ginro; Huang, Chieh-Chen

    2007-06-01

    Overexpression of a mercuric ion binding protein, MerP, from the mercury resistance operon genes of Gram-positive bacterial strain Bacillus megaterium MB1 and from Gram-negative bacterial strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa K-62 was found to enhance the mercury resistance level of Escherichia coli host cells, even though they share only 27.3% identity. Immunoblot analysis showed that MerP (BMerP) from Bacillus could be expressed on the membrane fraction of E. coli cells. Treated with 10 microM Hg2+, a recombinant strain harboring the BMerP gene significantly improved, showing a 27% increase in mercuric ion adsorption capacity, 16% better than that of a Pseudomonas merP gene (PMerP)-harboring strain. While multiple heavy metals co-existed, the mercuric ion adsorption capacity of the BMerP-harboring E. coli was not affected while that of the PMerP-harboring strain decreased. These results suggest that BMerP can act as a bio-adsorbent compartmentalizing the toxic mercuric ion on the cell membrane and enhancing resistance.

  3. In-host adaptation and acquired triazole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus: a dilemma for clinical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, Paul E; Zhang, Jianhua; Debets, Alfons J M; Meis, Jacques F; van de Veerdonk, Frank L; Schoustra, Sijmen E; Zwaan, Bas J; Melchers, Willem J G

    2016-11-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus causes a range of diseases in human beings, some of which are characterised by fungal persistence. A fumigatus can persist by adapting to the human lung environment through physiological and genomic changes. The physiological changes are based on the large biochemical versatility of the fungus, and the genomic changes are based on the capacity of the fungus to generate genetic diversity by spontaneous mutations or recombination and subsequent selection of the genotypes that are most adapted to the new environment. In this Review, we explore the adaptation strategies of A fumigatus in relation to azole resistance selection and the clinical implications thereof for management of diseases caused by Aspergillus spp. We hypothesise that the current diagnostic tools and treatment strategies do not take into account the biology of the fungus and might result in an increased likelihood of fungal persistence in patients. Stress factors, such as triazole exposure, cause mutations that render resistance. The process of reproduction-ie, sexual, parasexual, or asexual-is probably crucial for the adaptive potential of Aspergillus spp. As any change in the environment can provoke adaptation, switching between triazoles in patients with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis might result in a high-level pan-triazole-resistant phenotype through the accumulation of resistance mutations. Alternatively, when triazole therapy is stopped, an azole-free environment is created that could prompt selection for compensatory mutations that overcome any fitness costs that are expected to accompany resistance development. As a consequence, starting, switching, and stopping azole therapy has the risk of selecting for highly resistant strains with wildtype fitness. A similar adaptation is expected to occur in response to other stress factors, such as endogenous antimicrobial peptides; over time the fungus will become increasingly adapted to the lung environment, thereby limiting

  4. During readaptation in vivo, a tissue culture-adapted strain of feline immunodeficiency virus reverts to broad neutralization resistance at different times in individual hosts but through changes at the same position of the surface glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendinelli, M; Pistello, M; Del Mauro, D; Cammarota, G; Maggi, F; Leonildi, A; Giannecchini, S; Bergamini, C; Matteucci, D

    2001-05-01

    The broad resistance to antibody-mediated neutralization of lentiviruses recently isolated from infected hosts is a poorly understood feature which might contribute to the ability of these viruses to persist and to the failure of experimental vaccines to protect against virulent viruses. We studied the underlying molecular mechanisms by examining the evolution of a neutralization-sensitive, tissue culture-adapted strain of feline immunodeficiency virus upon reinoculation into specific-pathogen-free cats. Reversion to broad neutralization resistance was observed in seven of seven inoculated animals and, in individual hosts, started to develop between less than 4 and more than 15 months from infection. After comparison of the envelope sequences of the inoculum virus, of an additional 4 neutralization-sensitive in vitro variants, and of 14 ex vivo-derived variants (6 neutralization sensitive, 5 resistant, and 3 with intermediate phenotype), a Lys-->Asn or -->Glu change at position 481 in the V4 region of the surface glycoprotein appeared as a key player in the reversion. This conclusion was confirmed by mutagenesis of molecularly cloned virus. Analysis of viral quasispecies and biological clones showed that the intermediate phenotype was due to transient coexistence of neutralization-sensitive and -resistant variants. Since the amino acid position involved was the same in four of four recent revertants, it is suggested that the number of residues that control reversion to broad neutralization resistance in FIV might be very limited. Amino acid 481 was found to be changed only in one of three putative long-term revertants. These variants shared a Ser-->Asn change at position 557 in region V5, which probably collaborated with other mutations in long-term maintenance of neutralization resistance, as suggested by the study of mutagenized virus.

  5. Allelic Variation on Murine Chromosome 11 Modifies Host Inflammatory Responses and Resistance to Bacillus anthracis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    stimuli [53–56]. Indeed, Arrb2 regulates LPS- induced inflammatory response and endotoxemia [54,55], while Ntn1 can minimize inflammatory damage ...MyD88-dependent signaling protects against anthrax lethal toxin-induced impairment of intestinal barrier function. Infect Immun 79: 118–124. 39. Henry T...Olien L, Gauthier S, Skamene E, Morgan K, et al. (1998) Mapping of genetic modulators of natural resistance to infection with Salmonella typhimurium

  6. Herbicide-induced Resistance to Fusarium Wilt in Cotton and Gossypol Production of Host Cells

    OpenAIRE

    CANIHOŞ, Yeter

    2014-01-01

    Pretreating cotton seeds with some herbicidies used in cotton-growing areas of the Çukurova region markedly increased cotton resistance to Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum. Haloxyfob and linuron reduced the mycelial growth of the pathogen in both solid and liquid cultures. However, prometryn was more effective in plant development than linuron and haloxyfob. Synthesis of Phytoalexin gossypol was significantly produced in inoculated cotton plants compared with u...

  7. Kinetics of host immune responses and cytomegalovirus resistance in a liver transplant patient.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Schaffer, Kirsten

    2012-02-01

    Among solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients, donor-seropositive\\/recipient-seronegative (D+\\/R-) cytomegalovirus (CMV) status is associated with the highest risk of ganciclovir-resistant CMV disease, which has been reported for patients receiving oral ganciclovir but not valganciclovir prophylaxis. We report a case of CMV breakthrough infection in a D+\\/R- liver transplant patient while he was receiving oral valganciclovir. Forty samples collected over 6 months were analyzed for the CMV viral load, lymphocyte counts, cytokine levels, and lymphocyte differentiation status. Genotypic resistance testing of the viral UL97 gene was performed when the patient failed to respond. CMV viremia occurred on day 50 post-transplant, and 5 samples taken between days 50 and 85 showed the wild-type UL97 genotype. The appearance of deletion 594-595 was observed from day 114 post-transplant. Viral loads declined when foscarnet was commenced and remained below 10,000 copies\\/mL when the lymphocyte count was greater than 1000\\/microL (P = 0.02). T cell responses revealed significant expansion of CD8+ terminal effector memory cells. CD4+ cells were largely populations of naive and central memory cells. Circulating interleukin 10 (IL-10) levels correlated with the viral load (P < 0.0001). Seroconversion occurred on day 230. The CMV viral load in combination with lymphocyte counts and IL-10 may be a predictive marker for the risk of development of resistant CMV disease in D+\\/R- SOT patients.

  8. The impact of dietary sn-2 palmitic triacylglycerols in combination with docosahexaenoic acid or arachidonic acid on lipid metabolism and host faecal microbiota composition in Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jianchun; Hu, Songyou; Jacoby, Jörg J; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Yaqiong; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2017-05-24

    Sn-2 palmitic acid triacylglycerols (sn2PA fat) and polyunsaturated fatty acids are thought to influence the metabolic status and intestinal bacterial population of the host. In this study, the impact of sn2PA fat in combination with DHA or ARA in the diet on lipid metabolism in the liver and faecal microbiota composition were investigated in rats fed diets containing sn2PA fat, 90% sn2PA fat + 10% DHA oil (wt%), or 90% sn2PA fat + 10% ARA oil (wt%). Tissue fatty acid composition was measured using gas chromatography (GC), whereas the faecal microbial composition was assessed using 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing technology. In addition, faecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) were analyzed using ion chromatography. The results showed that sn2PA fat in combination with DHA or ARA significantly reduced liver triacylglyceride (TG) content compared with the sn2PA fat only group. Moreover, the supplementation with sn2PA fat in combination with DHA or ARA significantly promoted the growth of Lactobacillus in the feces at the genus level. On the other hand, the growth of the opportunistic pathogen Desulfovibrio was significantly inhibited by sn2PA fat in combination with ARA compared with the sn2PA fat group. In addition, sn2PA fat in combination with DHA or ARA significantly increased total SCFA concentration in the faeces, suggesting a beneficial effect on host intestinal health.

  9. Host plant resistance against tomato spotted wilt virus in peanut (Arachis hypogaea) and its impact on susceptibility to the virus, virus population genetics, and vector feeding behavior and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaraj, Sivamani; Srinivasan, Rajagopalbabu; Culbreath, Albert K; Riley, David G; Pappu, Hanu R

    2014-02-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) severely affects peanut production in the southeastern United States. Breeding efforts over the last three decades resulted in the release of numerous peanut genotypes with field resistance to TSWV. The degree of field resistance in these genotypes has steadily increased over time, with recently released genotypes exhibiting a higher degree of field resistance than older genotypes. However, most new genotypes have never been evaluated in the greenhouse or laboratory against TSWV or thrips, and the mechanism of resistance is unknown. In this study, TSWV-resistant and -susceptible genotypes were subjected to TSWV mechanical inoculation. The incidence of TSWV infection was 71.7 to 87.2%. Estimation of TSWV nucleocapsid (N) gene copies did not reveal significant differences between resistant and susceptible genotypes. Parsimony and principal component analyses of N gene nucleotide sequences revealed inconsistent differences between virus isolates collected from resistant and susceptible genotypes and between old (collected in 1998) and new (2010) isolates. Amino acid sequence analyses indicated consistent differences between old and new isolates. In addition, we found evidence for overabundance of nonsynonymous substitutions. However, there was no evidence for positive selection. Purifying selection, population expansion, and differentiation seem to have influenced the TSWV populations temporally rather than positive selection induced by host resistance. Choice and no-choice tests indicated that resistant and susceptible genotypes differentially affected thrips feeding and survival. Thrips feeding and survival were suppressed on some resistant genotypes compared with susceptible genotypes. These findings reveal how TSWV resistance in peanut could influence evolution, epidemiology, and management of TSWV.

  10. Skin Commensal Staphylococci May Act as Reservoir for Fusidic Acid Resistance Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chun Hung

    Full Text Available We analyzed the occurrence and mechanisms of fusidic acid resistance present in staphylococci isolated from 59 healthy volunteers. The fingers of the volunteers were screened for the presence of staphylococci, and the collected isolates were tested for resistance to fusidic acid. A total of 34 fusidic acid resistant staphylococcal strains (all were coagulase-negative were isolated from 22 individuals (22/59, 37.3%. Examination of the resistance genes revealed that acquired fusB or fusC was present in Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus capitis subsp. urealyticus, Staphylococcus hominis subsp. hominis, Staphylococcus warneri and Staphylococcus haemolyticus. Resistance islands (RIs carrying fusB were found in S. epidermidis and S. capitis subsp. urealyticus, while staphylococcal chromosome cassette (SCC-related structures harboring fusC were found in S. hominis subsp. hominis. Genotypic analysis of S. epidermidis and S. hominis subsp. hominis indicated that the fus elements were disseminated in diverse genetic strain backgrounds. The fusC elements in S. hominis subsp. hominis strains were highly homologous to SCCfusC in the epidemic sequence type (ST 239/SCCmecIII methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA or the pseudo SCCmec in ST779 MRSA. The presence of acquired fusidic acid resistance genes and their genetic environment in commensal staphylococci suggested that the skin commensal staphylococci may act as reservoir for fusidic acid resistance genes.

  11. Staphylococcus aureus CC398: host adaptation and emergence of methicillin resistance in livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Lance B; Stegger, Marc; Hasman, Henrik; Aziz, Maliha; Larsen, Jesper; Andersen, Paal Skytt; Pearson, Talima; Waters, Andrew E; Foster, Jeffrey T; Schupp, James; Gillece, John; Driebe, Elizabeth; Liu, Cindy M; Springer, Burkhard; Zdovc, Irena; Battisti, Antonio; Franco, Alessia; Zmudzki, Jacek; Schwarz, Stefan; Butaye, Patrick; Jouy, Eric; Pomba, Constanca; Porrero, M Concepción; Ruimy, Raymond; Smith, Tara C; Robinson, D Ashley; Weese, J Scott; Arriola, Carmen Sofia; Yu, Fangyou; Laurent, Frederic; Keim, Paul; Skov, Robert; Aarestrup, Frank M

    2012-01-01

    Since its discovery in the early 2000s, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal complex 398 (CC398) has become a rapidly emerging cause of human infections, most often associated with livestock exposure. We applied whole-genome sequence typing to characterize a diverse collection of CC398 isolates (n = 89), including MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) from animals and humans spanning 19 countries and four continents. We identified 4,238 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among the 89 core genomes. Minimal homoplasy (consistency index = 0.9591) was detected among parsimony-informative SNPs, allowing for the generation of a highly accurate phylogenetic reconstruction of the CC398 clonal lineage. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that MSSA from humans formed the most ancestral clades. The most derived lineages were composed predominantly of livestock-associated MRSA possessing three different staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec element (SCCmec) types (IV, V, and VII-like) including nine subtypes. The human-associated isolates from the basal clades carried phages encoding human innate immune modulators that were largely missing among the livestock-associated isolates. Our results strongly suggest that livestock-associated MRSA CC398 originated in humans as MSSA. The lineage appears to have undergone a rapid radiation in conjunction with the jump from humans to livestock, where it subsequently acquired tetracycline and methicillin resistance. Further analyses are required to estimate the number of independent genetic events leading to the methicillin-resistant sublineages, but the diversity of SCCmec subtypes is suggestive of strong and diverse antimicrobial selection associated with food animal production. Modern food animal production is characterized by densely concentrated animals and routine antibiotic use, which may facilitate the emergence of novel antibiotic-resistant zoonotic pathogens. Our findings strongly support the idea

  12. Host resistance of CD18 knockout mice against systemic infection with Listeria monocytogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huaizhu; Prince, Joseph E.; Brayton, Cory F.; Shah, Chirayu; Zeve, Daniel; Gregory, Stephen H.; Smith, C. Wayne; Ballantyne, Christie M.

    2003-01-01

    Mice with targeted mutations of CD18, the common beta2 subunit of CD11/CD18 integrins, have leukocytosis, impaired transendothelial neutrophil emigration, and reduced host defense to Streptococcus pneumoniae, a gram-positive extracellular bacterium. Previous studies using blocking monoclonal antibodies suggested roles for CD18 and CD11b in hepatic neutrophil recruitment and host innate response to Listeria monocytogenes, a gram-positive intracellular bacterium. We induced systemic listeriosis in CD18 knockout (CD18-ko) and wild-type (WT) mice by tail vein injection with Listeria. By 14 days postinjection (dpi), 8 of 10 WT mice died, compared with 2 of 10 CD18-ko mice (P Listeria organisms in livers and spleens were similar in both groups at 20 min postinfection. By 3, 5, and 7 dpi, however, numbers of Listeria organisms were significantly lower in livers and spleens of CD18-ko mice than in WT mice. Histopathology showed that following Listeria infection, CD18-ko mice had milder inflammatory and necrotizing lesions in both spleens and livers than did WT mice. Cytokine assays indicated that baseline interleukin-1beta and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) levels were higher in CD18-ko mice than in WT mice and that CD18-ko splenocytes produced higher levels of interleukin-1beta and G-CSF than WT splenocytes under the same amount of Listeria stimulation. These findings show that CD18 is not an absolute requirement for antilisterial innate immunity or hepatic neutrophil recruitment. We propose that the absence of CD18 in the mice results in the priming of innate immunity, as evidenced by elevated cytokine expression, and neutrophilic leukocytosis, which augments antilisterial defense.

  13. Long-chain free fatty acids: Semiochemicals for host location by western corn rootworm larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, B E; Bernklau, E J; Bjostad, L B

    1994-12-01

    A bioassay-driven sequential fractionation scheme was used to isolate fractions of a crude dichloromethane maize seedling extract behaviorally active to larvae of the western corn rootworm,Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte. (Z,Z)-9,12-Octadecadienoic (linoleic) acid, (Z)-9-octadecenoic (oleic) acid, and octadecanoic (stearic) acid were identified from a purified fraction of maize extract that was attractive to western corn rootworm larvae in choice tests with equal levels of carbon dioxide on both sides of the choice. When synthetic linoleic, oleic, and stearic acids were tested together in the amounts and proportions found in the attractive fraction (1000, 800, and 300 ng of linoleic, oleic, and stearic acids, respectively), significantly more western corn rootworm larvae were found on the side with synthetic free fatty acids plus carbon dioxide than on the side with carbon dioxide alone. Results of the choice-test bioassays were not significantly different when the synthetic blend of free fatty acids was substituted for the purified maize fraction. Neither the purified extract nor the synthetic blend was behaviorally active in preliminary single-choice experiments without carbon dioxide. Linoleic, oleic, and stearic acids were also tested individually in the choice test bioassay with carbon dioxide on both sides of the choice to determine a dose-response curve. Linoleic and oleic acid each had one dose that was significantly attractive in conjunction with carbon dioxide on both sides of the choice, but stearic acid was not active in the doses tested.

  14. Diversity in Betasatellites Associated with Cotton Leaf Curl Disease During Source-To-Sink Movement Through a Resistant Host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftikhar Ali Khan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cotton leaf curl is devastating disease of cotton characterized by leaf curling, vein darkening and enations. The disease symptoms are induced by DNA satellite known as Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMuB, dominant betasatellite in cotton but another betasatellite known as Chili leaf curl betasatellite (ChLCB is also found associated with the disease. Grafting experiment was performed to determine if host plant resistance is determinant of dominant population of betasatellite in cotton (several distinct strains of CLCuMuB are associated with the disease. Infected scion of Gossypium hirsutum collected from field (the source was grafted on G. arboreum, a diploid cotton species, resistant to the disease. A healthy scion of G. hirsutum (sink was grafted at the top of G. arboreum to determine the movement of virus/betasatellite to upper susceptible scion of G. hirsutum. Symptoms of disease appeared in the upper scion and presence of virus/betasatellite in the upper scion was confirmed via molecular techniques, showing that virus/betasatellite was able to move to upper scion through resistant G. arboreum. However, no symptoms appeared on G. arboreum. Betasatelites were cloned and sequenced from lower scion, upper scion and G. arboreum which show that the lower scion contained both CLCuMuB and ChLCB, however only ChLCB was found in G. arboreum. The upper scion contained CLCuMuB with a deletion of 78 nucleotides (nt in the non-coding region between A-rich sequence and βC1 gene and insertion of 27 nt in the middle of βC1 ORF. This study may help in investigating molecular basis of resistance in G. arboreum.

  15. Host-derived probiotics Enterococcus casseliflavus improves resistance against Streptococcus iniae infection in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) via immunomodulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safari, Reza; Adel, Milad; Lazado, Carlo Cabacang

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated the benefits of dietary administration of host-derived candidate probiotics Enterococcus casseliflavus in juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Experimental diets were prepared by incorporating the microorganisms in the basal feed at 3 inclusion levels (i.e. 107...... CFU g-1 of feed [T1], 108 CFU g-1 of feed [T2], 109 CFU g-1 of feed [T3]). The probiotic feeds were administered for 8 weeks, with a group fed with the basal diet serving as control. The effects on growth performance, gut health, innate immunity and disease resistance were evaluated.Results showed...... that growth performance parameters were significantly improved in T2 and T3 groups. Activities of digestive enzymes such as trypsin and lipase were significantly higher in these two groups as well. Gut micro-ecology was influenced by probiotic feeding as shown by the significant increase in intestinal lactic...

  16. Diversification of broad host range plasmids correlates with the presence of antibiotic resistance genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaobin; Wang, Yafei; Brown, Celeste J; Yao, Fei; Jiang, Yong; Top, Eva M; Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The IncP-1ε subgroup is a recently identified phylogenetic clade within IncP-1 plasmids, which plays an important role in the spread of antibiotic resistance and degradation of xenobiotic pollutants. Here, four IncP-1ε plasmids were exogenously captured from a petroleum-contaminated habitat in China and compared phylogenetically and genomically with previously reported IncP-1ε and other IncP-1 plasmids. The IncP-1ε plasmids can be clearly subdivided into two subclades, designated as ε-I and ε-II, based on phylogenetic analysis of backbone proteins TraI and TrfA. This was further supported by comparison of concatenated backbone genes. Moreover, the two subclades differed in the transposon types, phenotypes and insertion locations of the accessory elements. The accessory genes on ε-I plasmids were inserted between parA and traC, and harbored ISPa17 and Tn402-like transposon modules, typically carrying antibiotic resistance genes. In contrast, the accessory elements on ε-II plasmids were typically located between trfA and oriV, and contained IS1071, which was commonly inserted within the Tn501-like transposon, typically harboring a cluster of genes encoding mercury resistance and/or catabolic pathways. Our study is one of the first to compare IncP-1 plasmid genomes from China, expands the available collection of IncP-1ε plasmids and enhances our understanding of their diversity, biogeography and evolutionary history. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Exploits Asparagine to Assimilate Nitrogen and Resist Acid Stress during Infection: e1003928

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alexandre Gouzy; Gérald Larrouy-Maumus; Daria Bottai; Florence Levillain; Alexia Dumas; Joshua B Wallach; Irène Caire-Brandli; Chantal de Chastellier; Ting-Di Wu; Renaud Poincloux; Roland Brosch; Jean-Luc Guerquin-Kern; Dirk Schnappinger; Pedro Sório de Carvalho; Yannick Poquet; Olivier Neyrolles

    2014-01-01

    .... Here we show that M. tuberculosis employs the asparagine transporter AnsP2 and the secreted asparaginase AnsA to assimilate nitrogen and resist acid stress through asparagine hydrolysis and ammonia release...

  18. Mycobacterium tuberculosis exploits asparagine to assimilate nitrogen and resist acid stress during infection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gouzy, Alexandre; Larrouy-Maumus, Gérald; Bottai, Daria; Levillain, Florence; Dumas, Alexia; Wallach, Joshua B; Caire-Brandli, Irène; de Chastellier, Chantal; Wu, Ting-Di; Poincloux, Renaud; Brosch, Roland; Guerquin-Kern, Jean-Luc; Schnappinger, Dirk; Sório de Carvalho, Luiz Pedro; Poquet, Yannick; Neyrolles, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    .... Here we show that M. tuberculosis employs the asparagine transporter AnsP2 and the secreted asparaginase AnsA to assimilate nitrogen and resist acid stress through asparagine hydrolysis and ammonia release...

  19. Attraction to amino acids by Lymnaea acuminata, the snail host of Fasciola species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiwari F.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult Lymnaea acuminata (average length 20-22 mm were collected locally from lakes and low-lying submerged fields from Gorakhpur. The chemoattraction studies were made in round glass aquaria measuring 30 cm in diameter and filled to a depth of 10 mm with 500 ml dechlorinated tap water. Each aquarium was divided into four concentric zones. At the starting time of the assay 10 snails were placed on the circumference of outermost zone 0. Snail attractant pellets (SAP were added simultaneously in the center of central zone 3. SAP of different amino acids were prepared at concentrations of 10, 20, 50, 80 and 100 mM/2% agar solution and, subsequently, spread to a uniform thickness of 5 mm. After cooling, SAP were cut in small pieces of 5 mm in diameter. Lymnaea acuminata's attraction to amino acids was studied using different amino acid concentrations in SAP. Pellets containing amino acids with non-polar R groups (proline and tryptophan, a charged polar group (arginine and uncharged polar R groups (serine, citrulline and asparagine were tested. The snails were more attracted to the uncharged polar R group amino acid serine than to other groups of amino acids. The preferred amino acid concentration was 80 mM. The attraction of snails to different amino acids was concentration dependent. Snails could discriminate amongst the different amino acids at > or = 50 mM.

  20. Targeting chitinase gene of Helicoverpa armigera by host-induced RNA interference confers insect resistance in tobacco and tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamta; Reddy, K R K; Rajam, M V

    2016-02-01

    Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a devastating agricultural insect pest with broad spectrum of host range, causing million dollars crop loss annually. Limitations in the present conventional and transgenic approaches have made it crucial to develop sustainable and environmental friendly methods for crop improvement. In the present study, host-induced RNA interference (HI-RNAi) approach was used to develop H. armigera resistant tobacco and tomato plants. Chitinase (HaCHI) gene, critically required for insect molting and metamorphosis was selected as a potential target. Hair-pin RNAi construct was prepared from the conserved off-target free partial HaCHI gene sequence and was used to generate several HaCHI-RNAi tobacco and tomato plants. Northern hybridization confirmed the production of HaCHI gene-specific siRNAs in HaCHI-RNAi tobacco and tomato lines. Continuous feeding on leaves of RNAi lines drastically reduced the target gene transcripts and consequently, affected the overall growth and survival of H. armigera. Various developmental deformities were also manifested in H. armigera larvae after feeding on the leaves of RNAi lines. These results demonstrated the role of chitinase in insect development and potential of HI-RNAi for effective management of H. armigera.

  1. Tick-borne pathogens induce differential expression of genes promoting cell survival and host resistance in Ixodes ricinus cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Karen L; Cook, Charlotte; Ellis, Richard J; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; Johnson, Nicholas; Alberdi, Pilar; de la Fuente, José; Fooks, Anthony R

    2017-02-15

    There has been an emergence and expansion of tick-borne diseases in Europe, Asia and North America in recent years, including Lyme disease, tick-borne encephalitis and human anaplasmosis. The primary vectors implicated are hard ticks of the genus Ixodes. Although much is known about the host response to these bacterial and viral pathogens, there is limited knowledge of the cellular responses to infection within the tick vector. The bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum is able to bypass apoptotic processes in ticks, enabling infection to proceed. However, the tick cellular responses to infection with the flaviviruses tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and louping ill virus (LIV), which cause tick-borne encephalitis and louping ill respectively, are less clear. Infection and transcriptional analysis of the Ixodes ricinus tick cell line IRE/CTVM20 with the viruses LIV and TBEV, and the bacterium A. phagocytophilum, identified activation of common and distinct cellular pathways. In particular, commonly-upregulated genes included those that modulate apoptotic pathways, putative anti-pathogen genes, and genes that influence the tick innate immune response, including selective activation of toll genes. These data provide an insight into potential key genes involved in the tick cellular response to viral or bacterial infection, which may promote cell survival and host resistance.

  2. Reciprocal cross infection of sticklebacks with the diphyllobothriidean cestode Schistocephalus solidus reveals consistent population differences in parasite growth and host resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbe, Martin; Eizaguirre, Christophe; Scharsack, Jörn P; Jakobsen, Per J

    2016-03-08

    In host-parasite evolutionary arms races, parasites are generally expected to adapt more rapidly, due to their large population sizes and short generation times. There exist systems, though, where parasites cannot outpace their hosts because of similar generation times in both antagonists. In those cases concomitant adaptation is expected. We tested this hypothesis in the three-spined stickleback-Schistocephalus solidus tapeworm system, where generation times are comparable in both organisms. We chose two populations of sticklebacks which differ prominently in the prevalence of S. solidus and consequently in its level of selective pressure. We performed a full factorial common garden experiment. Particularly, Norwegian (NO) and German (DE) sticklebacks, as well as hybrids between both stickleback populations and in both parental combinations, were exposed each to a single S. solidus originating from the same two host populations. We found the infection phenotype to depend on the host population, the parasite population, but not their interaction. NO-parasites showed higher infectivity than DE-parasites, with NO-sticklebacks also being more resistant to DE-parasites than to the sympatric NO-parasite. Reciprocally, DE-hosts were more susceptible to the allopatric NO-parasite while DE-parasites grew less than NO-parasites in all stickleback groups. Despite this asymmetry, the ratio of worm to host weight, an indicator of parasite virulence, was identical in both sympatric combinations, suggesting an optimal virulence as a common outcome of parallel coevolved systems. In hybrid sticklebacks, intermediate infection rates and growth of S. solidus from either origin suggests a simple genetic basis of resistance. However, comparison of infection phenotypes in NO-maternal and DE-maternal hybrid sticklebacks indicates local adaptation to the sympatric counterpart in both the host and the parasite. Host-parasite systems with similar generation time show evidence for

  3. The genetic basis of resistance and matching-allele interactions of a host-parasite system: The Daphnia magna-Pasteuria ramosa model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, Gilberto; Routtu, Jarkko; Fields, Peter D; Bourgeois, Yann; Du Pasquier, Louis; Ebert, Dieter

    2017-02-01

    Negative frequency-dependent selection (NFDS) is an evolutionary mechanism suggested to govern host-parasite coevolution and the maintenance of genetic diversity at host resistance loci, such as the vertebrate MHC and R-genes in plants. Matching-allele interactions of hosts and parasites that prevent the emergence of host and parasite genotypes that are universally resistant and infective are a genetic mechanism predicted to underpin NFDS. The underlying genetics of matching-allele interactions are unknown even in host-parasite systems with empirical support for coevolution by NFDS, as is the case for the planktonic crustacean Daphnia magna and the bacterial pathogen Pasteuria ramosa. We fine-map one locus associated with D. magna resistance to P. ramosa and genetically characterize two haplotypes of the Pasteuria resistance (PR-) locus using de novo genome and transcriptome sequencing. Sequence comparison of PR-locus haplotypes finds dramatic structural polymorphisms between PR-locus haplotypes including a large portion of each haplotype being composed of non-homologous sequences resulting in haplotypes differing in size by 66 kb. The high divergence of PR-locus haplotypes suggest a history of multiple, diverse and repeated instances of structural mutation events and restricted recombination. Annotation of the haplotypes reveals striking differences in gene content. In particular, a group of glycosyltransferase genes that is present in the susceptible but absent in the resistant haplotype. Moreover, in natural populations, we find that the PR-locus polymorphism is associated with variation in resistance to different P. ramosa genotypes, pointing to the PR-locus polymorphism as being responsible for the matching-allele interactions that have been previously described for this system. Our results conclusively identify a genetic basis for the matching-allele interaction observed in a coevolving host-parasite system and provide a first insight into its molecular basis.

  4. Galleria mellonella as a host model to study Aspergillus terreus virulence and amphotericin B resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Elisabeth; Browne, Niall; Surlis, Carla; Jukic, Emina; Moser, Patrizia; Kavanagh, Kevin; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Binder, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if the alternative in vivo model Galleria mellonella can be used (i) to determine differences in pathogenicity of amphotericin B (AMB) resistant and susceptible A. terreus isolates, (ii) to evaluate AMB efficacy in vivo (iii) and to correlate outcome to in vitro susceptibility data. Larvae were infected with 2 A. terreus AMB resistant (ATR) and 3 AMB susceptible (ATS) isolates and survival rates were correlated to physiological attributes and killing ability of larval haemocytes. Additionally, infected larvae were treated with different concentrations of L-AMB. Haemocyte density were ascertained to evaluate the influence of L-AMB on the larval immune cells. Larvae were sensitive to A. terreus infection in an inoculum-size and temperature dependent manner. In vitro susceptibility to L-AMB correlated with in vivo outcome of antifungal treatment, defining an AMB susceptible strain cluster of A. terreus. Susceptibility to L-AMB increased virulence potential in the larval model, but this increase was also in accordance with faster growth and less damage caused by larval haemocytes. L-AMB treatment primed the larval immune response by increasing haemocyte density. G. mellonella provides a convenient model for the in vivo screening of A. terreus virulence and treatment options, contributing to the generation of a hypothesis that can be further tested in refined experiments in mammalian models.

  5. Myosins XI modulate host cellular responses and penetration resistance to fungal pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Long; Qin, Li; Liu, Guosheng; Peremyslov, Valera V.; Dolja, Valerian V.; Wei, Yangdou

    2014-01-01

    The rapid reorganization and polarization of actin filaments (AFs) toward the pathogen penetration site is one of the earliest cellular responses, yet the regulatory mechanism of AF dynamics is poorly understood. Using live-cell imaging in Arabidopsis, we show that polarization coupled with AF bundling involves precise spatiotemporal control at the site of attempted penetration by the nonadapted barley powdery mildew fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh). We further show that the Bgh-triggered AF mobility and organelle aggregation are predominately driven by the myosin motor proteins. Inactivation of myosins by pharmacological inhibitors prevents bulk aggregation of organelles and blocks recruitment of lignin-like compounds to the penetration site and deposition of callose and defensive protein, PENETRATION 1 (PEN1) into the apoplastic papillae, resulting in attenuation of penetration resistance. Using gene knockout analysis, we demonstrate that highly expressed myosins XI, especially myosin XI-K, are the primary contributors to cell wall-mediated penetration resistance. Moreover, the quadruple myosin knockout mutant xi-1 xi-2 xi-i xi-k displays impaired trafficking pathway responsible for the accumulation of PEN1 at the cell periphery. Strikingly, this mutant shows not only increased penetration rate but also enhanced overall disease susceptibility to both adapted and nonadapted fungal pathogens. Our findings establish myosins XI as key regulators of plant antifungal immunity. PMID:25201952

  6. Chlamydia trachomatis regulates growth and development in response to host cell fatty acid availability in the absence of lipid droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manu; Recuero-Checa, Maria A; Fan, Frances Yue; Dean, Deborah

    2018-02-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) is a Gram-negative obligate intracellular pathogen of humans that causes significant morbidity from sexually transmitted and ocular diseases globally. Ct acquires host fatty acids (FA) to meet the metabolic and growth requirements of the organism. Lipid droplets (LDs) are storehouses of FAs in host cells and have been proposed to be a source of FAs for the parasitophorous vacuole, termed inclusion, in which Ct replicates. Previously, cells devoid of LDs were shown to produce reduced infectious progeny at 24 hr postinfection (hpi). Here, although we also found reduced progeny at 24 hpi, there were significantly more progeny at 48 hpi in the absence of LDs compared to the control wild-type (WT) cells. These findings were confirmed using transmission electron microscopy where cells without LDs were shown to have significantly more metabolically active reticulate bodies at 24 hpi and significantly more infectious but metabolically inert elementary bodies at 48 hpi than WT cells. Furthermore, by measuring basal oxygen consumption rates (OCR) using extracellular flux analysis, Ct infected cells without LDs had higher OCRs at 24 hpi than cells with LDs, confirming ongoing metabolic activity in the absence of LDs. Although the FA oleic acid is a major source of phospholipids for Ct and stimulates LD synthesis, treatment with oleic acid, but not other FAs, enhanced growth and led to an increase in basal OCR in both LD depleted and WT cells, indicating that FA transport to the inclusion is not affected by the loss of LDs. Our results show that Ct regulates inclusion metabolic activity and growth in response to host FA availability in the absence of LDs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Influence of inorganic acid pickling on the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy AZ31 sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Blawert, C.; Scharnagl, N.

    2009-01-01

    the corrosion resistance of the alloy. The cleaning efficiency of the three acids used and the corrosion protection mechanisms were found to be remarkably different. Best corrosion results were obtained with nitric acid, followed closely by phosphoric acid. Only the sulphuric acid failed more or less when......Surface contaminants as a result of thermo-mechanical processing of magnesium alloys, e.g. sheet rolling, can have a negative effect on the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys. Especially contaminants such as Fe, Ni and Cu, left on the surface of magnesium alloys result in the formation...... of micro-galvanic couples and can therefore increase corrosion attack on these alloys. Due to this influence they should be removed to obtain good corrosion resistance. In this study, the effect of inorganic acid pickling on the corrosion behaviour of a commercial AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet...

  8. Host resistance to primary and secondary Campylobacter jejuni infections in C57Bl/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucković, Darinka; Abram, Maja; Bubonja, Marina; Wraber, Branka; Dorić, Miljenko

    2006-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni has been known as a main causative agent of human enterocolitis for more than 30 years. This has prompted the research on defence mechanisms of the host involved. Although the humoral immune response to C. jejuni has been addressed in many studies, relatively little is known about the role of T lymphocytes in campylobacteriosis. The current study was based on in vivo T-cell subsets depletion to evaluate the role of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in disseminated C. jejuni infection in C57BL/6 mice. Depletion of either CD8+ or CD4+ cells did not change the overall infection kinetics of primary campylobacteriosis. To assess the role of T cells in acquired immunity that develops during primary infection in C57BL/6 mice, in vivo depletions were performed during reinfection. Depletion of CD4+ cells did not have any effect on secondary infection kinetics, whereas depletion of CD8+ cells resulted in secondary liver infection that failed to resolve during the observed period. This study showed that both CD8+ and CD4+ T cells contribute to protection of C57BL/6 mice against C. jejuni. However, the predominant role resides in the CD8+ cell subpopulation. The exact mechanisms by which CD8+ cells operate during the course of campylobacteriosis will be the subject of our further research.

  9. Impetigo in a population over 8.5 years: incidence, fusidic acid resistance and molecular characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rørtveit, Sverre; Skutlaberg, Dag Harald; Langeland, Nina; Rortveit, Guri

    2011-06-01

    From around year 2000, impetigo caused by fusidic acid-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was observed in countries of Northern Europe. The bacteria were found to represent a clone, the epidemic European fusidic acid-resistant impetigo clone (EEFIC). This study reports longitudinal data on the incidence and bacteriology of impetigo in a Norwegian island community during the years 2001-09. All encounters with general practitioners regarding impetigo were registered. Bacterial swabs were taken in a high percentage of cases. Annual incidence was calculated. Phenotypic characteristics of the bacteria were determined for the whole period, and in 2008 and 2009 we also performed PFGE and spa typing. Outbreaks of impetigo were observed in 2002, 2003 and 2004, but since then the incidence decreased greatly. S. aureus was cultured from the impetigo site in the majority of cases. The proportion of S. aureus isolates resistant to fusidic acid decreased from 80% in 2002-04 to 45% in 2008-09. For 28 S. aureus isolates analysed by molecular methods in 2008-09, we found that nearly all cases of fusidic acid resistance were due to the presence of the EEFIC. S. aureus resistance to fusidic acid in relation to impetigo is now less frequent in this population than at the start of the century. At present, most S. aureus bacteria resistant to fusidic acid in impetigo belong to the EEFIC.

  10. Prediction of Bacillus weihenstephanensis acid resistance: The use of gene expression patterns to select potential biomarkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desriac, N.; Postollec, F.; Coroller, L.; Sohier, D.; Abee, T.; Besten, den H.M.W.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to mild stress conditions can activate stress adaptation mechanisms and provide cross-resistance towards otherwise lethal stresses. In this study, an approach was followed to select molecular biomarkers (quantitative gene expressions) to predict induced acid resistance after exposure to

  11. Overexpression of AtWRKY28 and AtWRKY75 in Arabidopsis enhances resistance to oxalic acid and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoting; Liu, Jun; Lin, Guifang; Wang, Airong; Wang, Zonghua; Lu, Guodong

    2013-10-01

    Based on Arabidopsis microarray, we found 8 WRKY genes were up-regulated with Oxalic acid (OA) challenge, AtWRKY28 and AtWRKY75 overexpression lines showed enhanced resistance to OA and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. The WRKY transcription factors are involved in various plant physiological processes and most remarkably in coping with diverse biotic and abiotic stresses. Oxalic acid (OA) is an important pathogenicity-determinant of necrotrophic phytopathogenic fungi, such as Sclerotina sclerotiorum (S. sclerotiorum) and Botrytis cinerea (B. cinerea). The identification of differentially expressed genes under OA stress should facilitate our understanding of the pathogenesis mechanism of OA-producing fungi in host plants, and the mechanism of how plants respond to OA and pathogen infection. Based on Arabidopsis oligo microarray, we found 8 WRKY genes that were up-regulated upon OA challenge. The Arabidopsis plants overexpressing AtWRKY28 and AtWRK75 showed enhanced resistance to OA and S. sclerotiorum simultaneously. Furthermore, our results showed that overexpression of AtWRKY28 and AtWRK75 induced oxidative burst in host plants, which suppressed the hyphal growth of S. sclerotiorum, and consequently inhibited fungal infection. Gene expression profiling indicates that both AtWRKY28 and AtWRKY75 are transcriptional regulators of salicylic acid (SA)- and jasmonic acid/ethylene (JA/ET)-dependent defense signaling pathways, AtWRKY28 and AtWRKY75 mainly active JA/ET pathway to defend Arabidopsis against S. sclerotiorum and oxalic acid stress.

  12. The diverse role of Pdr12 in resistance to weak organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygård, Yvonne; Mojzita, Dominik; Toivari, Mervi; Penttilä, Merja; Wiebe, Marilyn G; Ruohonen, Laura

    2014-06-01

    Resistance to weak organic acids is important relative to both weak organic acid preservatives and the development of inhibitor tolerant yeast as industrial production organisms. The ABC transporter Pdr12 is important for resistance to sorbic and propionic acid, but its role in tolerance to other weak organic acids with industrial relevance is not well established. In this study, yeast strains with altered expression of PDR12 and/or CMK1, a protein kinase associated with post-transcriptional negative regulation of Pdr12, were exposed to seven weak organic acids: acetic, formic, glycolic, lactic, propionic, sorbic and levulinic acid. These are widely used as preservatives, present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates or attractive as chemical precursors. Overexpression of PDR12 increased tolerance to acids with longer chain length, such as sorbic, propionic and levulinic acid, whereas deletion of PDR12 increased tolerance to the shorter acetic and formic acid. The viability of all strains decreased dramatically in acetic or propionic acid, but the Δpdr12 strains recovered more rapidly than other strains in acetic acid. Furthermore, our results indicated that Cmk1 plays a role in weak organic acid tolerance, beyond its role in regulation of Pdr12, since deletion of both Cmk1 and Pdr12 resulted in different responses to exposure to acids than were explained by deletion of Pdr12 alone. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Host-Derived Artificial MicroRNA as an Alternative Method to Improve Soybean Resistance to Soybean Cyst Nematode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Tian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The soybean cyst nematode (SCN, Heterodera glycines, is one of the most important pests limiting soybean production worldwide. Novel approaches to managing this pest have focused on gene silencing of target nematode sequences using RNA interference (RNAi. With the discovery of endogenous microRNAs as a mode of gene regulation in plants, artificial microRNA (amiRNA methods have become an alternative method for gene silencing, with the advantage that they can lead to more specific silencing of target genes than traditional RNAi vectors. To explore the application of amiRNAs for improving soybean resistance to SCN, three nematode genes (designated as J15, J20, and J23 were targeted using amiRNA vectors. The transgenic soybean hairy roots, transformed independently with these three amiRNA vectors, showed significant reductions in SCN population densities in bioassays. Expression of the targeted genes within SCN eggs were downregulated in populations feeding on transgenic hairy roots. Our results provide evidence that host-derived amiRNA methods have great potential to improve soybean resistance to SCN. This approach should also limit undesirable phenotypes associated with off-target effects, which is an important consideration for commercialization of transgenic crops.

  14. Non-host disease resistance response in pea (Pisum sativum) pods: Biochemical function of DRR206 and phytoalexin pathway localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratne, Herana Kamal; Dalisay, Doralyn S; Kim, Kye-Won; Moinuddin, Syed G A; Yang, Hong; Hartshorn, Christopher M; Davin, Laurence B; Lewis, Norman G

    2015-05-01

    Continually exposed to potential pathogens, vascular plants have evolved intricate defense mechanisms to recognize encroaching threats and defend themselves. They do so by inducing a set of defense responses that can help defeat and/or limit effects of invading pathogens, of which the non-host disease resistance response is the most common. In this regard, pea (Pisum sativum) pod tissue, when exposed to Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli spores, undergoes an inducible transcriptional activation of pathogenesis-related genes, and also produces (+)-pisatin, its major phytoalexin. One of the inducible pathogenesis-related genes is Disease Resistance Response-206 (DRR206), whose role in vivo was unknown. DRR206 is, however, related to the dirigent protein (DP) family. In this study, its biochemical function was investigated in planta, with the metabolite associated with its gene induction being pinoresinol monoglucoside. Interestingly, both pinoresinol monoglucoside and (+)-pisatin were co-localized in pea pod endocarp epidermal cells, as demonstrated using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry imaging. In addition, endocarp epidermal cells are also the site for both chalcone synthase and DRR206 gene expression. Taken together, these data indicate that both (+)-pisatin and pinoresinol monoglucoside function in the overall phytoalexin responses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pipecolic Acid Orchestrates Plant Systemic Acquired Resistance and Defense Priming via Salicylic Acid-Dependent and -Independent Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Bernsdorff, Friederike; Döring, Anne-Christin; Gruner, Katrin; Schuck, Stefan; Bräutigam, Andrea; Zeier, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the relationships of the two immune-regulatory plant metabolites, salicylic acid (SA) and pipecolic acid (Pip), in the establishment of plant systemic acquired resistance (SAR), SAR-associated defense priming, and basal immunity. Using SA-deficient sid2, Pip-deficient ald1, and sid2 ald1 plants deficient in both SA and Pip, we show that SA and Pip act both independently from each other and synergistically in Arabidopsis thaliana basal immunity to Pseudomonas syringae. Transcri...

  16. Acid resistance of erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser-treated and phosphoric acid-etched enamels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Ho; Kwon, Oh-Won; Kim, Hyung-Il; Kwon, Yong Hoon

    2006-11-01

    To compare the effects of erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser ablation and of phosphoric acid etching on the in vitro acid resistance of bovine enamel. Teeth were polished to make the surface flat. The polished enamel was either etched with 37% phosphoric acid for 30 seconds or ablated with a single 33 J/cm2 pulse from an Er:YAG laser. The control specimens were free from acid etching and laser ablation. Changes in crystal structure, dissolved mineral (calcium [Ca] and phosphorus [P]) contents, and calcium distribution in the enamel subsurface after a pH-cycling process were evaluated. After laser treatment, poor crystal structures improved without forming any new phases, such as tricalcium phosphates. Among the tested enamels, dissolved mineral contents were significantly different (P phosphoric acid-etched enamels had the highest (Ca, 15.90 ppm; P, 7.33 ppm). The reduction rate and reduced depth of calcium content along the subsurface were lowest in Er:YAG laser-treated enamels. The Er:YAG laser-treated enamels are more acid resistant to acid attack than phosphoric acid-etched enamels.

  17. Fatty Acid Induced Insulin Resistance in the Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Hyoung Il

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity, which is considered as a disease, has been increasing uncontrollably over the last two decades. Obesity is a state of disregulated energy homeostasis characterized by hypothalamic resistance to adiposity signals (insulin and leptin). While many factors are involved in the development of obesity, excess dietary fat has been proposed as one of the main causal factors. This causes disrupted energy homeostasis by inducing both leptin and insulin resistance in the centra...

  18. Vitamin D Status and the Host Resistance to Infections: What It Is Currently (Not) Understood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Pierre Olivier; Aspinall, Richard

    2017-05-01

    Vitamin D is increasingly thought to play a role in regulating immunity. This comprehensive review updates the current understanding regarding ways in which we believe that vitamin D regulates responsiveness of the immune system and how serum status modulates the host defense against pathogens. The literature was searched by using PubMed and Scopus with the following key words: vitamin D, immunity, innate and adaptive immunity, infectious disease, and vaccine response. Vitamin D deficiency remains a major public health concern worldwide. The overall body of evidence confirms that vitamin D plays an important role in modulating the immune response to infections. Epidemiologic studies suggest a clear association between vitamin D deficiency and susceptibility to various pathogens. However, translation of vitamin D use into the clinic as a means of controlling infections is fraught with methodologic and epidemiologic challenges. The recent discovery of alternative activation pathways, different active forms of vitamin D, and possible interaction with non-vitamin D receptors provide further complications to an already complex interaction between vitamin D and the immune system. Moreover, it has become apparent that the individual responsiveness to supplementation is more dynamic than presumed from the static assessment of 25-hydroxy vitamin D status. Furthermore, the epigenetic response at the level of the individual to environmental changes and lifestyle or health conditions provides greater variation than those resulting from vitamin D receptor polymorphisms. To understand the future of vitamin D with respect to clinical applications in the prevention and better control of infectious diseases, it is necessary to determine all aspects of vitamin D metabolism, as well as the mechanisms by which active forms interact with the immune system globally. For the most part, we are unable to identify tissue-specific applications of supplementation except for those subjects at

  19. Interferon-driven alterations of the host's amino acid metabolism in the pathogenesis of typhoid fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blohmke, Christoph J; Darton, Thomas C; Jones, Claire; Suarez, Nicolas M; Waddington, Claire S; Angus, Brian; Zhou, Liqing; Hill, Jennifer; Clare, Simon; Kane, Leanne; Mukhopadhyay, Subhankar; Schreiber, Fernanda; Duque-Correa, Maria A; Wright, James C; Roumeliotis, Theodoros I; Yu, Lu; Choudhary, Jyoti S; Mejias, Asuncion; Ramilo, Octavio; Shanyinde, Milensu; Sztein, Marcelo B; Kingsley, Robert A; Lockhart, Stephen; Levine, Myron M; Lynn, David J; Dougan, Gordon; Pollard, Andrew J

    2016-05-30

    Enteric fever, caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, is an important public health problem in resource-limited settings and, despite decades of research, human responses to the infection are poorly understood. In 41 healthy adults experimentally infected with wild-type S. Typhi, we detected significant cytokine responses within 12 h of bacterial ingestion. These early responses did not correlate with subsequent clinical disease outcomes and likely indicate initial host-pathogen interactions in the gut mucosa. In participants developing enteric fever after oral infection, marked transcriptional and cytokine responses during acute disease reflected dominant type I/II interferon signatures, which were significantly associated with bacteremia. Using a murine and macrophage infection model, we validated the pivotal role of this response in the expression of proteins of the host tryptophan metabolism during Salmonella infection. Corresponding alterations in tryptophan catabolites with immunomodulatory properties in serum of participants with typhoid fever confirmed the activity of this pathway, and implicate a central role of host tryptophan metabolism in the pathogenesis of typhoid fever. © 2016 Blohmke et al.

  20. Genomic prediction and genome-wide association study for dagginess and host internal parasite resistance in New Zealand sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Natalie K; Auvray, Benoit; Dodds, Ken G; McEwan, John C

    2015-11-17

    Dagginess (faecal soiling of the perineum region) and host nematode parasite resistance are important animal welfare traits in New Zealand sheep. Genomic prediction (GP) estimates the genetic merit, as a molecular breeding value (mBV), for each trait based on many SNPs. The additional information the mBV provides (as determined by its accuracy) has led to its incorporation into breeding schemes. Some GP methods give SNP effects, which provide additional information to identify genome-wide associations (GWAS) for a trait of interest. Here we report results from a GP and GWAS study for dagginess and host nematode parasite resistance in a New Zealand sheep industry resource. Genomic prediction analysis was performed using 50K SNP chip data and parent average-removed, de-regressed BVs for five traits, from a resource of 8705 pedigree recorded animals. The five traits were dag score at three and eight months (DAG3, DAG8) and nematode faecal egg count in summer (FEC1), autumn (FEC2) and as an adult (AFEC). The resource consisted of Romney, Coopworth, Perendale, Texel and various breed crosses (designated: CompRCP, CompRCPT and CompCRP). The pure breeds, apart from Texel, plus CompRCP were used to develop the GP. The resulting SNP effects were used to identify genetic regions associated with dagginess and parasite resistance. Accuracies of the weighted correlation between mBV and true BV ranged between -0.07 (Texel) and 0.56 (Coopworth) for DAG3 and DAG8. For FEC1, FEC2 and AFEC accuracies ranged between -0.22 (CompRCPT) and 0.69 (Coopworth). The weighted average individual accuracy (calculated from theory) ranges were 0.13 (Texel) to 0.52 (Coopworth) and 0.11 (Texel) to 0.55 (Coopworth) respectively, for dagginess and parasite traits. There was one SNP for DAG8 that reached Bonferroni significance threshold (P New Zealand sheep. The results suggest that there are quantitative trait loci on OAR 15 for dagginess and on OAR26 and seven for faecal egg count.

  1. Exogenous ascorbic acid increases resistance to salt of Silybum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The detrimental effects of salt water were ameliorated by application of 100 ppm ascorbic acid (vitamin C). The inductive role of vitamin was associated with the improvement of seed germination, growth, plant water status, carotenoids, endogenous ascorbic acid and antioxidant enzyme activities. Moreover, vitamin C alone ...

  2. Arginine- and Polyamine-Induced Lactic Acid Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Gong

    Full Text Available Microbe-derived lactic acid protects women from pathogens in their genital tract. The purpose of this study was to determine lactic acid susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and identify potential acid resistance mechanisms present in this pathogen. Tested in vitro, lactic acid killed all 10 gonococcal strains analyzed in a low pH-dependent manner. Full inactivation occurred at pH 4.5. At low pH, lactic acid treatment resulted in the entry of the DNA-binding fluorochrome propidium iodide into the microbial cells, suggesting that hydrogen ions from lactic acid compromise the integrity of the bacterial cell wall/membrane. Most likely, hydrogen ions also inactivate intracellular proteins since arginine rendered significant protection against lactic acid presumably through action of the gonococcal arginine decarboxylase, an enzyme located in the bacterial cytoplasm. Surprisingly, arginine also lessened lactic acid-mediated cell wall/membrane disruption. This effect is probably mediated by agmatine, a triamine product of arginine decarboxylase, since agmatine demonstrated a stronger protective effect on GC than arginine at equal molar concentration. In addition to agmatine, diamines cadaverine and putrescine, which are generated by bacterial vaginosis-associated microbes, also induced significant resistance to lactic acid-mediated GC killing and cell wall/membrane disruption. These findings suggest that the arginine-rich semen protects gonococci through both neutralization-dependent and independent mechanisms, whereas polyamine-induced acid resistance contributes to the increased risk of gonorrhea in women with bacterial vaginosis.

  3. In vitro reduction of antibacterial activity of tigecycline against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii with host stress hormone norepinephrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Masato; Matsuda, Naoyuki; Banno, Hirotsugu; Jin, Wanchun; Wachino, Jun-Ichi; Yamada, Keiko; Kimura, Kouji; Arakawa, Yoshichika

    2016-12-01

    The host stress hormone norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline, is reported to augment bacterial growth and pathogenicity, but few studies have focused on the effect of NE on the activity of antimicrobials. The aim of this study was to clarify whether NE affects antimicrobial activity against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDR-AB). Time-kill studies of tigecycline (TIG) and colistin (COL) against MDR-AB as well as assays for factors contributing to antibiotic resistance were performed using MDR-AB clinical strains both in the presence and absence of 10 µM NE. In addition, expression of three efflux pump genes (adeB, adeJ and adeG) in the presence and absence of NE was analysed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Viable bacterial cell counts in TIG-supplemented medium containing NE were significantly increased compared with those in medium without NE. In contrast, NE had little influence on viable bacterial cell counts in the presence of COL. NE-supplemented medium resulted in an ca. 2 log increase in growth and in bacterial cell numbers adhering on polyurethane, silicone and polyvinylchloride surfaces. Amounts of biofilm in the presence of NE were ca. 3-fold higher than without NE. Expression of the adeG gene was upregulated 4-6-fold in the presence of NE. In conclusion, NE augmented factors contributing to antibiotic resistance and markedly reduced the in vitro antibacterial activity of TIG against MDR-AB. These findings suggest that NE treatment may contribute to the failure of TIG therapy in patients with MDR-AB infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  4. Genome-Wide Exome Analysis of Cmv5-Disparate Mouse Strains that Differ in Host Resistance to Murine Cytomegalovirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa Gillespie

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Host resistance to murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV varies in different strains of laboratory mice due to differences in expression of determinants that control and clear viral infection. The major histocompatibility complex class I Dk molecule is one such determinant that controls MCMV through the action of natural killer (NK cells. However, the extent of NK cell–mediated Dk-dependent resistance to infection varies in different mouse strains. The molecular genetic basis of this variation remains unclear. Previous work to examine the Dk effect on MCMV resistance in MA/My × C57L offspring discovered multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL that may serve to modify NK cells or their capacity to respond during MCMV infection. One QTL in particular, Cmv5, was found to regulate the frequency of NK cells and secondary lymphoid organ structure in spleen during MCMV infection. Cmv5 alleles, however, have not been identified. We therefore sequenced and analyzed genome-wide exome (GWE variants, including those aligned to the critical genetic interval, in Cmv5-disparate mouse strains. Their GWE variant profiles were compared to assess strain-specific sequence data integrity and to analyze mouse strain relatedness across the genome. GWE content was further compared against data from the Mouse Genomes Project. This approach was developed as a platform for using GWE variants to define genomic regions of divergence and similarity in different mouse strains while also validating the overall quality of GWE sequence data. Moreover, the analysis provides a framework for the selection of novel QTL candidate sequences, including at the Cmv5 critical region.

  5. Host-Plant Resistance to Spittlebugs: A Life-Table Study With Mahanarva fimbriolata (Hemipera: Cercopidae) in Sugarcane Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Restrepo, Silvana M; Soares, Bruno O; Xavier, Vânia M; Silva, Felipe L; Barbosa, Márcio Henrique P; Peternelli, Luiz A; Pereira, Eliseu José G

    2017-09-15

    Understanding how host-crop genotypes affect the life history of insect pests is important for developing and using varietal resistance as a pest control measure. Here we determined how wild and cultivated sugarcane genotypes affect key life-history traits and the demographic performance of the root spittlebug, Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stål; Hemiptera: Cercopidae), a major pest of sugarcane, which produces most of the world's sugar and bioethanol. In the greenhouse, plants of four sugarcane genotypes (two wild and two cultivated) were infested with newly-ecloded spittlebug nymphs. A longitudinal life-table experiment was conducted recording developmental time, survival, reproductive output, and longevity of the released spittlebug nymphs. One of the promising sugarcane genotypes was the accession IM76-229 (Saccharum robustum Brandes & Jesw. ex Grassl), which allowed only 20% of nymph survival to adulthood and reduced the spittlebug longevity by 10 d. Such effects on these life-history traits led to a negative intrinsic rate of population growth (rm = -0.002) of the insects, indicating that the test population would eventually go extinct on this sugarcane genotype. An opposite trend (i.e., population growth) was obtained for the insects raised on Saccharum spp. (SP81-3250 and SP80-1816 cultivars) and Erianthus arundinaceus (Retz) Jeswiet (Kawandang genotype). These results show that S. robustum IM76-229 genotype has resistance traits that drastically reduce spittlebug population growth and indicate that it can be used in breeding programs aiming to develop sugarcane cultivars with resistance to spittlebugs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Effects of organic acid pickling on the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy AZ31 sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Blawert, C.; Scharnagl, N.

    2010-01-01

    Organic acids were used to clean AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet and the effect of the cleaning processes on the surface condition and corrosion performance of the alloy was investigated. Organic acid cleanings reduced the surface impurities and enhanced the corrosion resistance. Removal of at least 4...

  7. Pre-cold stress increases acid stress resistance and induces amino ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pre-cold stress increases acid stress resistance and induces amino acid homeostasis in Lactococcus lactis. NZ9000. Taher Khakpour Moghaddam1,2, Juan Zhang1,2, Guocheng Du1,2*. 1Key Laboratory of Industrial Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, 2School of Biotechnology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi,. Jiangsu ...

  8. Host-Derived Sialic Acids Are an Important Nutrient Source Required for Optimal Bacterial Fitness In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan D. McDonald

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge facing bacterial intestinal pathogens is competition for nutrient sources with the host microbiota. Vibrio cholerae is an intestinal pathogen that causes cholera, which affects millions each year; however, our knowledge of its nutritional requirements in the intestinal milieu is limited. In this study, we demonstrated that V. cholerae can grow efficiently on intestinal mucus and its component sialic acids and that a tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic SiaPQM strain, transporter-deficient mutant NC1777, was attenuated for colonization using a streptomycin-pretreated adult mouse model. In in vivo competition assays, NC1777 was significantly outcompeted for up to 3 days postinfection. NC1777 was also significantly outcompeted in in vitro competition assays in M9 minimal medium supplemented with intestinal mucus, indicating that sialic acid uptake is essential for fitness. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that the ability to utilize sialic acid was distributed among 452 bacterial species from eight phyla. The majority of species belonged to four phyla, Actinobacteria (members of Actinobacillus, Corynebacterium, Mycoplasma, and Streptomyces, Bacteroidetes (mainly Bacteroides, Capnocytophaga, and Prevotella, Firmicutes (members of Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Clostridium, and Lactobacillus, and Proteobacteria (including Escherichia, Shigella, Salmonella, Citrobacter, Haemophilus, Klebsiella, Pasteurella, Photobacterium, Vibrio, and Yersinia species, mostly commensals and/or pathogens. Overall, our data demonstrate that the ability to take up host-derived sugars and sialic acid specifically allows V. cholerae a competitive advantage in intestinal colonization and that this is a trait that is sporadic in its occurrence and phylogenetic distribution and ancestral in some genera but horizontally acquired in others.

  9. Highly efficient enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction of 1,2-amino-alcohols using SPINOL based phosphoric acid hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinxterhuis, Erik B; Gualtierotti, Jean-Baptiste; Heeres, Hero J; de Vries, Johannes G; Feringa, Ben L

    2017-09-01

    Access to enantiopure compounds on large scale in an environmentally friendly and cost-efficient manner remains one of the greatest challenges in chemistry. Resolution of racemates using enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction has great potential to meet that challenge. However, a relatively feeble understanding of the chemical principles and physical properties behind this technique has hampered the development of hosts possessing sufficient resolving power for their application to large scale processes. Herein we present, employing the previously untested SPINOL based phosphoric acids host family, an in depths study of the parameters affecting the efficiency of the resolution of amino-alcohols in the optic of further understanding the core principles behind ELLE. We have systematically investigated the dependencies of the enantioselection by parameters such as the choice of solvent, the temperature, as well as the pH and bring to light many previously unsuspected and highly intriguing interactions. Furthermore, utilizing these new insights to our advantage, we developed novel, highly efficient, extraction and resolving protocols which provide remarkable levels of enantioselectivity. It was shown that the extraction is catalytic in host by demonstrating transport in a U-tube and finally it was demonstrated how the solvent dependency could be exploited in an unprecedented triphasic resolution system.

  10. Silencing of the host factor eIF(iso)4E gene confers plum pox virus resistance in plum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinhua; Kohalmi, Susanne E; Svircev, Antonet; Wang, Aiming; Sanfaçon, Hélène; Tian, Lining

    2013-01-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) causes the most economically-devastating viral disease in Prunus species. Unfortunately, few natural resistance genes are available for the control of PPV. Recessive resistance to some potyviruses is associated with mutations of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) or its isoform eIF(iso)4E. In this study, we used an RNA silencing approach to manipulate the expression of eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E towards the development of PPV resistance in Prunus species. The eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E genes were cloned from plum (Prunus domestica L.). The sequence identity between plum eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E coding sequences is 60.4% at the nucleotide level and 52.1% at the amino acid level. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that these two genes have a similar expression pattern in different tissues. Transgenes allowing the production of hairpin RNAs of plum eIF4E or eIF(iso)4E were introduced into plum via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Gene expression analysis confirmed specific reduced expression of eIF4E or eIF(iso)4E in the transgenic lines and this was associated with the accumulation of siRNAs. Transgenic plants were challenged with PPV-D strain and resistance was evaluated by measuring the concentration of viral RNA. Eighty-two percent of the eIF(iso)4E silenced transgenic plants were resistant to PPV, while eIF4E silenced transgenic plants did not show PPV resistance. Physical interaction between PPV-VPg and plum eIF(iso)4E was confirmed. In contrast, no PPV-VPg/eIF4E interaction was observed. These results indicate that eIF(iso)4E is involved in PPV infection in plum, and that silencing of eIF(iso)4E expression can lead to PPV resistance in Prunus species.

  11. Silencing of the host factor eIF(iso4E gene confers plum pox virus resistance in plum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Wang

    Full Text Available Plum pox virus (PPV causes the most economically-devastating viral disease in Prunus species. Unfortunately, few natural resistance genes are available for the control of PPV. Recessive resistance to some potyviruses is associated with mutations of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E or its isoform eIF(iso4E. In this study, we used an RNA silencing approach to manipulate the expression of eIF4E and eIF(iso4E towards the development of PPV resistance in Prunus species. The eIF4E and eIF(iso4E genes were cloned from plum (Prunus domestica L.. The sequence identity between plum eIF4E and eIF(iso4E coding sequences is 60.4% at the nucleotide level and 52.1% at the amino acid level. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that these two genes have a similar expression pattern in different tissues. Transgenes allowing the production of hairpin RNAs of plum eIF4E or eIF(iso4E were introduced into plum via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Gene expression analysis confirmed specific reduced expression of eIF4E or eIF(iso4E in the transgenic lines and this was associated with the accumulation of siRNAs. Transgenic plants were challenged with PPV-D strain and resistance was evaluated by measuring the concentration of viral RNA. Eighty-two percent of the eIF(iso4E silenced transgenic plants were resistant to PPV, while eIF4E silenced transgenic plants did not show PPV resistance. Physical interaction between PPV-VPg and plum eIF(iso4E was confirmed. In contrast, no PPV-VPg/eIF4E interaction was observed. These results indicate that eIF(iso4E is involved in PPV infection in plum, and that silencing of eIF(iso4E expression can lead to PPV resistance in Prunus species.

  12. Contact Resistance of Tantalum Coatings in Fuel Cells and Electrolyzers using Acidic Electrolytes at Elevated Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annemette Hindhede; Christensen, Erik; Barner, Jens H. Von

    2014-01-01

    Tantalum has so far been found to be the only construction material with sufficient corrosion resistance for high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane electrolyzers using acidic electrolytes above 100◦C. In this work the interfacial contact resistances of tantalum plates and tantalum coated...... stainless steel were found to be far below the US Department of Energy target value of 10mcm2. The good contact resistance of tantalum was demonstrated by simulating high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane electrolysis conditions by anodization performed in 85% phosphoric acid at 130◦C, followed...

  13. Interplay between lipids and branched-chain amino acids in development of insulin resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newgard, Christopher B.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Fatty acids (FA) and FA-derived metabolites have long been implicated in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Surprisingly, application of metabolomics technologies has revealed that branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and related metabolites are more strongly associated with insulin resistance than many common lipid species. Moreover, the BCAA-related signature is predictive of incident diabetes and intervention outcomes, and uniquely responsive to therapeutic interventions. Nevertheless, in animal feeding studies, BCAA supplementation requires the background of a high-fat diet to promote insulin resistance. This article develops a model to explain how lipids and BCAA may synergize to promote metabolic diseases. PMID:22560213

  14. Identification of host factors potentially involved in RTM-mediated resistance during potyvirus long distance movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofer, Luc; Cabanillas, Daniel Garcia; Gayral, Mathieu; Téplier, Rachèle; Pouzoulet, Jérôme; Ducousso, Marie; Dufin, Laurène; Bréhélin, Claire; Ziegler-Graff, Véronique; Brault, Véronique; Revers, Frédéric

    2017-07-01

    The long distance movement of potyviruses is a poorly understood step of the viral cycle. Only factors inhibiting this process, referred to as "Restricted TEV Movement" (RTM), have been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana. On the virus side, the potyvirus coat protein (CP) displays determinants required for long-distance movement and for RTM-based resistance breaking. However, the potyvirus CP was previously shown not to interact with the RTM proteins. We undertook the identification of Arabidopsis factors which directly interact with either the RTM proteins or the CP of lettuce mosaic virus (LMV). An Arabidopsis cDNA library generated from companion cells was screened with LMV CP and RTM proteins using the yeast two-hybrid system. Fourteen interacting proteins were identified. Two of them were shown to interact with CP and the RTM proteins suggesting that a multiprotein complex could be formed between the RTM proteins and virions or viral ribonucleoprotein complexes. Co-localization experiments in Nicotiana benthamiana showed that most of the viral and cellular protein pairs co-localized at the periphery of chloroplasts which suggests a putative role for plastids in this process.

  15. Acquired resistance to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin antibiotics in lactic Acid bacteria of food origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumu, Surya Chandra Rao; Halami, Prakash M

    2012-12-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem in clinical settings as well as in food industry. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) commercially used as starter cultures and probiotic supplements are considered as reservoirs of several antibiotic resistance genes. Macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin (MLS) antibiotics have a proven record of excellence in clinical settings. However, the intensive use of tylosin, lincomysin and virginamycin antibiotics of this group as growth promoters in animal husbandry and poultry has resulted in development of resistance in LAB of animal origin. Among the three different mechanisms of MLS resistance, the most commonly observed in LAB are the methylase and efflux mediated resistance. This review summarizes the updated information on MLS resistance genes detected and how resistance to these antibiotics poses a threat when present in food grade LAB.

  16. [The role of uric acid in the insulin resistance in children and adolescents with obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miranda, Josiane Aparecida; Almeida, Guilherme Gomide; Martins, Raissa Isabelle Leão; Cunha, Mariana Botrel; Belo, Vanessa Almeida; dos Santos, José Eduardo Tanus; Mourão-Júnior, Carlos Alberto; Lanna, Carla Márcia Moreira

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the association between serum uric acid levels and insulin resistance in children and adolescents with obesity. Cross-sectional study with 245 children and adolescents (134 obese and 111 controls), aged 8 to 18 years. The anthropometric variables (weight, height and waist circumference), blood pressure and biochemical parameters were collected. The clinical characteristics of the groups were analyzed by t-test or chi-square test. To evaluate the association between uric acid levels and insulin resistance the Pearson's test and logistic regression were applied. The prevalence of insulin resistance was 26.9%. The anthropometric variables, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and biochemical variables were significantly higher in the obese group (p<0.001), except for the high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol. There was a positive and significant correlation between anthropometric variables and uric acid with HOMA-IR in the obese and in the control groups, which was higher in the obese group and in the total sample. The logistic regression model that included age, gender and obesity, showed an odds ratio of uric acid as a variable associated with insulin resistance of 1.91 (95%CI 1.40 to 2.62; p<-0.001). The increase in serum uric acid showed a positive statistical correlation with insulin resistance and it is associated with and increased risk of insulin resistance in obese children and adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of salt addition on acid resistance response of Escherichia coli O157:H7 against acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Young-Min; Lee, Sun-Young

    2017-08-01

    A combination of salt and acid is commonly used in the production of many foods, such as pickles and fermented foods. However, in our previous studies, addition of salt significantly reduced the inhibitory effect of acetic acid against E. coli O157:H7 in laboratory media and pickled cucumbers. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the effect of salt addition on the acid resistance (AR) response of E. coli O157:H7 after treatment with acetic acid. The combined effect of acetic acid and salt showed different results depending on media tested. Organic compounds such as yeast extract and tryptone were required to observe the antagonistic effect of salt and acetic acid in combination. However, use of an rpoS mutant or addition of chloramphenicol resulted in no changes in the antagonistic effect of acetic acid and salt. The addition of glutamate to phosphate buffer significantly increased the survival levels of E. coli O157:H7 after the acetic acid treatment; however, the survival levels were lower than those after the treatment with acetic acid alone. Thus, the addition of salt may increase the AR response of E. coli O157:H7; however, these survival mechanisms were not proven clearly. Therefore, further studies need to be performed to better understand the antagonism of acetic acid salt against E. coli O157:H7. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Chemical Acidic Attack Resistance of Lightweight Concrete with Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salwa H. Ahmed

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available  This research was studied the effect of H2SO4(8% , HCl (8% acidic and wastewaterpH= 5.1, SO4= = 850mg/L, Cl-=750 mg/L , TDS = 2500 mg/L( on the lightweight concrete by using limestone as lightweight aggregate and using the foam material (LightCrete. Super plasticizers (SP also used to enhance the properties of the lightweight concrete. Studying the effect of acidic solution and wastewater was done by calculating the percentage of decrease in weight and compressive strength of concrete prisms (100 * 100 * 400 mm, where the small portion of the flexural modulus test was submerged completely in the above solutions,  and the salt rising was observed by immersion (100 mm depth from the second portion of the prism in the above solutions. اظهرت نتائج الفحوصات ان H 2 SO 4 يكون تأثيره اكثر من HCl بالنسبة للنقصان بالوزن على الخرسانة الاعتيادية  بينما يكون تأثير HCl كبير على الخرسانة خفيفة الوزن بأستخدام الركام خفيف الوزن (Limestone وتأثيره اقل من H 2 SO 4 بالنسبة للخرسانة خفيفة الوزن باستخدام المادة الرغوية . Results show that the H2SO4 have influence larger than HCl for the decrease of weight on the normal concrete while the effect of HCl was larger than H2SO4  on lightweight concrete with limestone and its effect was less than H2SO4 on the lightweight concrete with foam. وكذلك تبين ان تأثير H 2 SO 4 على الخرسانة الاعتيادية بالنسبة للنقصان بالمقاومة يكون اقل من تاثير HCl بينما يكون تاثير H 2 SO 4 كبير على الخرسانة خفيفة الوزن الحاوية على المادة الرغوية وتاثيره اقل على الخرسانة خفيفة الوزن الحاوية على SP و Limestone . The results also shown that the effect of H2SO4 on the normal

  19. Inactivation of fatty acid transport protein 1 prevents fat-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jason K.; Gimeno, Ruth E.; Higashimori, Takamasa; Kim, Hyo-Jeong; Choi, Hyejeong; Punreddy, Sandhya; Mozell, Robin L.; Tan, Guo; Stricker-Krongrad, Alain; Hirsch, David J.; Fillmore, Jonathan J.; Liu, Zhen-Xiang; Dong, Jianying; Cline, Gary; Stahl, Andreas; Lodish, Harvey F.; Shulman, Gerald I.

    2004-01-01

    Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle plays a major role in the development of type 2 diabetes and may be causally associated with increases in intramuscular fatty acid metabolites. Fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1) is an acyl-CoA synthetase highly expressed in skeletal muscle and modulates fatty acid uptake and metabolism by converting fatty acids into fatty acyl-CoA. To investigate the role of FATP1 in glucose homeostasis and in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, we examined the effect of acute lipid infusion or chronic high-fat feeding on insulin action in FATP1 KO mice. Whole-body adiposity, adipose tissue expression of adiponectin, intramuscular fatty acid metabolites, and insulin sensitivity were not altered in FATP1 KO mice fed a regular chow diet. In contrast, FATP1 deletion protected the KO mice from fat-induced insulin resistance and intramuscular accumulation of fatty acyl-CoA without alteration in whole-body adiposity. These findings demonstrate an important role of intramuscular fatty acid metabolites in causing insulin resistance and suggest that FATP1 may be a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. PMID:14991074

  20. UNC93B1 mediates host resistance to infection with Toxoplasma gondii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane B Melo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available UNC93B1 associates with Toll-Like Receptor (TLR 3, TLR7 and TLR9, mediating their translocation from the endoplasmic reticulum to the endolysosome, hence allowing proper activation by nucleic acid ligands. We found that the triple deficient '3d' mice, which lack functional UNC93B1, are hyper-susceptible to infection with Toxoplasma gondii. We established that while mounting a normal systemic pro-inflammatory response, i.e. producing abundant MCP-1, IL-6, TNFα and IFNγ, the 3d mice were unable to control parasite replication. Nevertheless, infection of reciprocal bone marrow chimeras between wild-type and 3d mice with T. gondii demonstrated a primary role of hemopoietic cell lineages in the enhanced susceptibility of UNC93B1 mutant mice. The protective role mediated by UNC93B1 to T. gondii infection was associated with impaired IL-12 responses and delayed IFNγ by spleen cells. Notably, in macrophages infected with T. gondii, UNC93B1 accumulates on the parasitophorous vacuole. Furthermore, upon in vitro infection the rate of tachyzoite replication was enhanced in non-activated macrophages carrying mutant UNC93B1 as compared to wild type gene. Strikingly, the role of UNC93B1 on intracellular parasite growth appears to be independent of TLR function. Altogether, our results reveal a critical role for UNC93B1 on induction of IL-12/IFNγ production as well as autonomous control of Toxoplasma replication by macrophages.

  1. Acid resistance, bile tolerance and antimicrobial properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-16

    Jan 16, 2012 ... properties of dominant lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional ... spontaneous and alkaline fermentation of baobab ... leaching ashes with water is added, resulting in an .... Table 4 shows the effect of bile on the growth of.

  2. Carnosic acid acts synergistically with gentamicin in killing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Nicolás M; Fiorilli, Graciela; Cáceres Guido, Paulo A; Moreno, Silvia

    2016-11-15

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is resistant to different commonly used antibiotics, stressing the need for further strategies to treat this human pathogen with worldwide prevalence. The use of phytochemicals within the current pharmacology is a promising approach to enhance the antimicrobial activity of common antibiotics in the battle against these bacteria. The purpose of this study was to determine the antimicrobial effectiveness of carnosic acid, the major constituent of Rosmarinus officinalis L. leaves, in combination with gentamicin against multi-drug resistant MRSA clinical isolates obtained from pediatric patients with bacteremia. Anti-MRSA activity was studied using the broth microdilution assay and time-kill method. Combinations of subinhibitory concentrations of carnosic acid and gentamicin were examined using the checkerboard method. Carnosic acid exhibited a good antibacterial activity against all multidrug-resistant MRSA clinical isolates tested, which are resistant to four up to nine antibiotics. In addition, the combination of carnosic acid with gentamicin not only decreased the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of both by 4- to 5-fold, but also improved the bactericidal potency of the common antibiotic by 32- to 40-fold against both gentamicin-susceptible and gentamicin-resistant MRSA clinical isolates. A clear bactericidal synergistic activity between carnosic acid and gentamicin in killing multidrug-resistant MRSA clinical isolates with a fractional bactericidal concentration index (FBCI) of 0.28-0.35 was demonstrated. Our findings show the potential use of carnosic acid in combination with gentamicin as a promising alternative for the control of healthcare-associated infections caused by multidrug-resistant MRSA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Where to from here? The treatment of impetigo in children as resistance to fusidic acid emerges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Alison; Lennon, Diana; Best, Emma; Leversha, Alison

    2016-10-14

    Admissions for skin and soft-tissue infections have been increasing steadily in children and in the general population. Concerns have been raised recently about the increasing widespread use of topical fusidic acid and concurrent increase of fusidic acid-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Fusidic acid resistance and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are both more prevalent in youngest age group (impetigo and is the only fully-funded topical antibiotic. The evidence base for alternative treatment strategies for mild impetigo is limited. Most children with impetigo in the current Counties Manukau skin and sore throat schools programme received care with wound management with only a few requiring escalation. An upcoming randomised controlled trial comparing topical hydrogen peroxide cream, topical fusidic acid and wound management only (clean and cover) will help provide evidence about the effectiveness of alternative treatments in the New Zealand setting.

  4. Amoxicillin / Clavulanic Acid and Cefotaxime Resistance in Salmonella Minnesota and Salmonella Heidelberg from Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues IBBE

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the resistance of various Salmonella strains to beta-lactam antibiotics. Salmonella Minnesota (36 strains and Salmonella Heidelberg (24 strains were isolated from broiler chickens and carcasses by the Disk Diffusion Test and resistance genes blaCTX-M-8, blaACC-1 and blaCMY-2 were detected by PCR. Of the 60 strains tested, 80% were resistant to at least one antibiotic. Specifically, 66.7% were resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and 75% were resistant to cefotaxime. Among the amoxicillin/clavulanic acid resistant strains, the blaCMY-2 gene was detected in 40%, blaACC-1 in 37.5% and blaCTX-M-8 in 7.5%. Among the cefotaxime resistant strains, we detected the genes blaCTX-M-8 in 13.3%, blaACC-1 in 33.3%, and blaCMY-2 in 31.1%. The presence of cefotaxime- and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid-resistant Salmonella in poultry, and the prevalence of extended spectrum betalactamases and AmpC-betalactamases in these strains are of huge concern to public health and economy.

  5. Alleles of organic acid transporter genes are highly correlated with wheat resistance to acidic soil in field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Jorge G; Minozzo, João A D; Barichello, Diliane; Fogaça, Claúdia M; da Silva, José Pereira; Consoli, Luciano; Pereira, Jorge F

    2016-07-01

    TaALMT1 and TaMATE1B promoter alleles are highly correlated with wheat growth in acidic soil with a high concentration of toxic aluminium. The aluminium (Al(3+)) resistance of 338 wheat genotypes with different geographic origins was correlated with morphological traits and TaALMT1 and TaMATE1B alleles. Both of these genes encode malate and citrate transporters associated with Al(3+) resistance mechanisms in wheat. Based on comparisons with the sensitive and resistant controls, the relative root growth was evaluated in hydroponic experiments and the plant performance was visually accessed in the field. The correlation between Al(3+) tolerance in the hydroponic and field tests was moderate (r = 0.56, P wheat genotypes presented the best performance in soil, including eight cultivars with promoters usually associated with Al(3+) resistance and another six genotypes classified as moderately resistant but containing alleles usually associated with Al(3+) sensitivity. Although an increase in favourable alleles was observed over the past few decades, the average Al(3+) resistance in the field was not significantly different from that of older cultivars. The ease identification of the TaALMT1 and TaMATE1B alleles and their higher association with Al(3+) resistance along with the best genotypes identified here may be used for wheat-breeding programmes interested in increasing wheat Al(3+) resistance.

  6. A Comparative Study of the Organic Acid Content of the Hemolymph of Schistosoma mansoni-Resistant and Susceptible Strains of Biomphalaria glabrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Clecildo Barreto Bezerra

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata is an intermediate host of the trematode Schistosoma mansoni. However, some strains of B. glabrata are resistant to successful infection by S. mansoni larvae. The present work examines the profile of organic acids present in S. mansoni-resistant and -susceptible strains of B. glabrata, in order to determine whether the type of organic acid present is related to susceptibility. The organic acids were extracted from the hemolymph of two susceptible B. glabrata strains (PR, Puerto Rico and Ba, Jacobina-Bahia from Brazil, and from the resistant strains 13-16-R1 and 10R2, using solid phase extraction procedures followed by high performance liquid chromatography. The organic acids obtained were analyzed and identified by comparison with known standards. Pyruvate, lactate, succinate, malate, fumarate, acetate, propionate, ß-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate were detected in all hemolymph samples. Under standard conditions, the concentration of each of these substances varied among the strains tested and appeared to be specific for each strain. An interesting variation was the low concentration of pyruvate in the hemolymph of PR-snails. Only the concentration of fumarate was consistently different (p£ 0.05 between resistant and susceptible strains

  7. The role of dietary acid load and mild metabolic acidosis in insulin resistance in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rebecca S; Kozan, Pinar; Samocha-Bonet, Dorit

    2016-05-01

    Type 2 diabetes is increasingly being recognised as a global health crisis (World Health Organisation). Insulin resistance is closely associated with obesity and precedes the development of type 2 diabetes. However, there is now increasing evidence to suggest that diet itself may independently be associated with type 2 diabetes risk. A diet with a high acid load (or high potential renal net acid load, PRAL) can result in a decrease in pH towards the lower end of the normal physiological range, which may in turn lead to the development of insulin resistance. Conversely, reducing dietary acid load (the so called 'alkaline diet') may be protective and prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes. Here, we explore the influence of dietary acid load on the development of mild metabolic acidosis and induction of insulin resistance. Whilst large prospective cohort studies link high dietary acid load or low serum bicarbonate with the development of type 2 diabetes, the effect of a diet with a low acid (or high alkaline) load remains unclear. Further interventional studies are required to investigate the influence of dietary composition on the body's acid/base balance, insulin resistance and incidence of type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  8. Growth and Survival of Acid-Resistant and Non-Acid-Resistant Shiga-Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Strains during the Manufacture and Ripening of Camembert Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Montet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth and survival of acid-resistant (AR and non-acid-resistant (NAR Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC strains were investigated during the manufacture and ripening of microfiltered milk Camembert cheeses. The induction of acid resistance of the STEC strains in cheeses was also studied. Six different mixtures of AR and/or NAR STEC strains were inoculated separately into microfiltered milk at a level of 103 CFU mL−1. The STEC counts (AR and NAR initially increased by 1 to 2 log⁡10 CFU g−1 during cheese-making. Thereafter, the populations stabilized during salting/drying and then decreased during the early stages of ripening. Exposing the STEC strains in artificially inoculated cheeses to simulated gastric fluid (SGF - pH: 2.0 reduced the number of NAR strains to undetectable levels within 40 minutes, versus 120 minutes for the AR STEC strains. AR and NAR STEC were able to survive during the manufacture and ripening of Camembert cheese prepared from microfiltered milk with no evidence of induced acid tolerance in NAR STEC strains.

  9. Growth and Survival of Acid-Resistant and Non-Acid-Resistant Shiga-Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Strains during the Manufacture and Ripening of Camembert Cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montet, M. P.; Jamet, E.; Ganet, S.; Dizin, M.; Miszczycha, S.; Dunière, L.; Thevenot, D.; Vernozy-Rozand, C.

    2009-01-01

    Growth and survival of acid-resistant (AR) and non-acid-resistant (NAR) Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains were investigated during the manufacture and ripening of microfiltered milk Camembert cheeses. The induction of acid resistance of the STEC strains in cheeses was also studied. Six different mixtures of AR and/or NAR STEC strains were inoculated separately into microfiltered milk at a level of 103 CFU mL−1. The STEC counts (AR and NAR) initially increased by 1 to 2 log10 CFU g−1 during cheese-making. Thereafter, the populations stabilized during salting/drying and then decreased during the early stages of ripening. Exposing the STEC strains in artificially inoculated cheeses to simulated gastric fluid (SGF - pH: 2.0) reduced the number of NAR strains to undetectable levels within 40 minutes, versus 120 minutes for the AR STEC strains. AR and NAR STEC were able to survive during the manufacture and ripening of Camembert cheese prepared from microfiltered milk with no evidence of induced acid tolerance in NAR STEC strains. PMID:20016668

  10. Mycolic Acid Cyclopropanation is Essential for Viability, Drug Resistance, and Cell Wall Integrity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkan, Daniel; Liu, Zhen; Sacchettini, James C.; Glickman, Michael S.; (MSKCC); (TAM)

    2009-12-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection remains a major global health problem complicated by escalating rates of antibiotic resistance. Despite the established role of mycolic acid cyclopropane modification in pathogenesis, the feasibility of targeting this enzyme family for antibiotic development is unknown. We show through genetics and chemical biology that mycolic acid methyltransferases are essential for M. tuberculosis viability, cell wall structure, and intrinsic resistance to antibiotics. The tool compound dioctylamine, which we show acts as a substrate mimic, directly inhibits the function of multiple mycolic acid methyltransferases, resulting in loss of cyclopropanation, cell death, loss of acid fastness, and synergistic killing with isoniazid and ciprofloxacin. These results demonstrate that mycolic acid methyltransferases are a promising antibiotic target and that a family of virulence factors can be chemically inhibited with effects not anticipated from studies of each individual enzyme.

  11. The Pleiotropic Antibacterial Mechanisms of Ursolic Acid against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao-Min; Jhan, Yun-Lian; Tsai, Shang-Jie; Chou, Chang-Hung

    2016-07-07

    (1) BACKGROUND: Several triterpenoids were found to act synergistically with classes of antibiotic, indicating that plant-derived chemicals have potential to be used as therapeutics to enhance the activity of antibiotics against multidrug-resistant pathogens. However, the mode of action of triterpenoids against bacterial pathogens remains unclear. The objective of this study is to evaluate the interaction between ursolic acid against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA); (2) METHODS: The ability of ursolic acid to damage mammalian and bacterial membranes was examined. The proteomic response of methicillin-resistant S. aureus in ursolic acid treatment was investigated using two-dimensional (2D) proteomic analysis; (3) RESULTS: Ursolic acid caused the loss of staphylococcal membrane integrity without hemolytic activity. The comparison of the protein pattern of ursolic acid-treated and normal MRSA cells revealed that ursolic acid affected a variety of proteins involved in the translation process with translational accuracy, ribonuclease and chaperon subunits, glycolysis and oxidative responses; (4) CONCLUSION: The mode of action of ursolic acid appears to be the influence on the integrity of the bacterial membrane initially, followed by inhibition of protein synthesis and the metabolic pathway. These findings reflect that the pleiotropic effects of ursolic acid against MRSA make it a promising antibacterial agent in pharmaceutical research.

  12. Plant Adaptation to Acid Soils: The Molecular Basis for Crop Aluminum Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochian, Leon V; Piñeros, Miguel A; Liu, Jiping; Magalhaes, Jurandir V

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity in acid soils is a significant limitation to crop production worldwide, as approximately 50% of the world's potentially arable soil is acidic. Because acid soils are such an important constraint to agriculture, understanding the mechanisms and genes conferring resistance to Al toxicity has been a focus of intense research interest in the decade since the last article on crop acid soil tolerance was published in this journal. An impressive amount of progress has been made during that time that has greatly increased our understanding of the diversity of Al resistance genes and mechanisms, how resistance gene expression is regulated and triggered by Al and Al-induced signals, and how the proteins encoded by these genes function and are regulated. This review examines the state of our understanding of the physiological, genetic, and molecular bases for crop Al tolerance, looking at the novel Al resistance genes and mechanisms that have been identified over the past ten years. Additionally, it examines how the integration of molecular and genetic analyses of crop Al resistance is starting to be exploited for the improvement of crop plants grown on acid soils via both molecular-assisted breeding and biotechnology approaches.

  13. Salicylic acid-induced resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Sudhamoy; Mallick, Nirupama; Mitra, Adinpunya

    2009-07-01

    We demonstrated that exogenous application of 200 microM salicylic acid through root feeding and foliar spray could induce resistance against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Lycopersici (Fol) in tomato. Endogenous accumulation of free salicylic acid in tomato roots was detected by HPLC and identification was confirmed by LC-MS/MS analysis. At 168h of salicylic acid treatment through roots, the endogenous salicylic acid level in the roots increased to 1477ngg(-1) FW which was 10 times higher than control plants. Similarly, the salicylic acid content was 1001ngg(-1) FW at 168h of treatment by foliar spray, which was 8.7 times higher than control plants. The activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.1.5) and peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7) were 5.9 and 4.7 times higher, respectively than the control plants at 168h of salicylic acid feeding through the roots. The increase in PAL and POD activities was 3.7 and 3.3 times higher, respectively at 168h of salicylic acid treatments through foliar spray than control plants. The salicylic acid-treated tomato plants challenged with Fol exhibited significantly reduced vascular browning and leaf yellowing wilting. The mycelial growth of Fol was not significantly affected by salicylic acid. Significant increase in basal level of salicylic acid in noninoculated plants indicated that tomato root system might have the capacity to assimilate and distribute salicylic acid throughout the plant. The results indicated that the induced resistance observed in tomato against Fol might be a case of salicylic acid-dependent systemic acquired resistance.

  14. The intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii depends on the synthesis of long chain and very long-chain unsaturated fatty acids not supplied by the host cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Srinivasan; Docampo, Melissa D.; MacRae, James I.; Ralton, Julie E.; Rupasinghe, Thusitha; McConville, Malcolm J.; Striepen, Boris

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Apicomplexa are parasitic protozoa that cause important human diseases including malaria, cryptosporidiosis and toxoplasmosis. The replication of these parasites within their target host cell is dependent on both salvage as well as de novo synthesis of fatty acids. In T. gondii, fatty acid synthesis via the apicoplast-localized FASII is essential for pathogenesis, while the role of two other fatty acid biosynthetic complexes remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that the ER-localized fatty acid elongation (ELO) is essential for parasite growth. Conditional knock-down of the non-redundant hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratase and enoyl-CoA reductase enzymes in the ELO pathway severely repressed intracellular parasite growth. 13C-glucose and 13C-acetate labeling and comprehensive lipidomic analyses of these mutants showed a selective defect in synthesis of unsaturated long and very long chain fatty acids (LCFAs and VLCFAs) and depletion of phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylethanolamine species containing unsaturated LCFAs and VLCFAs. This requirement for ELO pathway was by-passed by supplementing the media with specific fatty acids, indicating active, but inefficient import of host fatty acids. Our experiments highlight a gap between the fatty acid needs of the parasite and availability of specific fatty acids in the host cell that the parasite has to close using a dedicated synthesis and modification pathway. PMID:25825226

  15. Fluorescence properties and sequestration of peripheral anionic site specific ligands in bile acid hosts: Effect on acetylcholinesterase inhibition activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mullah Muhaiminul; Aguan, Kripamoy; Mitra, Sivaprasad

    2016-05-01

    The increase in fluorescence intensity of model acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors like propidium iodide (PI) and ethidium bromide (EB) is due to sequestration of the probes in primary micellar aggregates of bile acid (BA) host medium with moderate binding affinity of ca. 10(2)-10(3)M(-1). Multiple regression analysis of solvent dependent fluorescence behavior of PI indicates the decrease in total nonradiative decay rate due to partial shielding of the probe from hydrogen bond donation ability of the aqueous medium in bile acid bound fraction. Both PI and EB affects AChE activity through mixed inhibition and consistent with one site binding model; however, PI (IC50=20±1μM) shows greater inhibition in comparison with EB (IC50=40±3μM) possibly due to stronger interaction with enzyme active site. The potency of AChE inhibition for both the compounds is drastically reduced in the presence of bile acid due to the formation of BA-inhibitor complex and subsequent reduction of active inhibitor fraction in the medium. Although the inhibition mechanism still remains the same, the course of catalytic reaction critically depends on equilibrium binding among several species present in the solution; particularly at low inhibitor concentration. All the kinetic parameters for enzyme inhibition reaction are nicely correlated with the association constant for BA-inhibitor complex formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Host competence and helicase activity differences exhibited by West Nile viral variants expressing NS3-249 amino acid polymorphisms.

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    Stanley A Langevin

    Full Text Available A single helicase amino acid substitution, NS3-T249P, has been shown to increase viremia magnitude/mortality in American crows (AMCRs following West Nile virus (WNV infection. Lineage/intra-lineage geographic variants exhibit consistent amino acid polymorphisms at this locus; however, the majority of WNV isolates associated with recent outbreaks reported worldwide have a proline at the NS3-249 residue. In order to evaluate the impact of NS3-249 variants on avian and mammalian virulence, multiple amino acid substitutions were engineered into a WNV infectious cDNA (NY99; NS3-249P and the resulting viruses inoculated into AMCRs, house sparrows (HOSPs and mice. Differential viremia profiles were observed between mutant viruses in the two bird species; however, the NS3-249P virus produced the highest mean peak viral loads in both avian models. In contrast, this avian modulating virulence determinant had no effect on LD50 or the neurovirulence phenotype in the murine model. Recombinant helicase proteins demonstrated variable helicase and ATPase activities; however, differences did not correlate with avian or murine viremia phenotypes. These in vitro and in vivo data indicate that avian-specific phenotypes are modulated by critical viral-host protein interactions involving the NS3-249 residue that directly influence transmission efficiency and therefore the magnitude of WNV epizootics in nature.

  17. Host-guest complexes of phenoxy alkyl acid herbicides and cyclodextrins. MCPA and β-cyclodextrin

    OpenAIRE

    Garrido, E. Manuela; Santos, Marcos; Silva, Paulo; Cagide, Fernando; Garrido, J.M.P.J.; Borges, Fernanda

    2012-01-01

    The chlorophenoxy herbicideMCPA(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid), widely used for the control of broad-leafweeds primarily in cereal and grass seed crops, still remains one of the most often used herbicides in Portugal. As the formation of inclusion complexes with cyclodextrins can improve its solubility properties, the interaction between the herbicide MCPA and β-cyclodextrin was investigated. The stability constants describing the extent of formation of the complexes have been determine...

  18. Phage-encoded colanic acid-degrading enzyme permits lytic phage infection of a capsule-forming resistant mutant Escherichia coli strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Soo; Kim, Young Deuk; Hong, Sung Sik; Park, Kwangseo; Ko, Kwan Soo; Myung, Heejoon

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we isolated a bacteriophage T7-resistant mutant strain of Escherichia coli (named S3) and then proceeded to characterize it. The mutant bacterial colonies appeared to be mucoid. Microarray analysis revealed that genes related to colanic acid production were upregulated in the mutant. Increases in colanic acid production by the mutant bacteria were observed when l-fucose was measured biochemically, and protective capsule formation was observed under an electron microscope. We found a point mutation in the lon gene promoter in S3, the mutant bacterium. Overproduction of colanic acid was observed in some phage-resistant mutant bacteria after infection with other bacteriophages, T4 and lambda. Colanic acid overproduction was also observed in clinical isolates of E. coli upon phage infection. The overproduction of colanic acid resulted in the inhibition of bacteriophage adsorption to the host. Biofilm formation initially decreased shortly after infection but eventually increased after 48 h of incubation due to the emergence of the mutant bacteria. Bacteriophage PBECO4 was shown to infect the colanic acid-overproducing mutant strains of E. coli. We confirmed that the gene product of open reading frame 547 (ORF547) of PBECO4 harbored colanic acid-degrading enzymatic (CAE) activity. Treatment of the T7-resistant bacteria with both T7 and PBECO4 or its purified enzyme (CAE) led to successful T7 infection. Biofilm formation decreased with the mixed infection, too. This procedure, using a phage cocktail different from those exploiting solely receptor differences, represents a novel strategy for overcoming phage resistance in mutant bacteria. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Induced resistance to Helicoverpa armigera through exogenous application of jasmonic acid and salicylic acid in groundnut, Arachis hypogaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    War, Abdul Rashid; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Sharma, Hari Chand

    2015-01-01

    Induced resistance to Helicoverpa armigera through exogenous application of jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) was studied in groundnut genotypes (ICGV 86699, ICGV 86031, ICG 2271 and ICG 1697) with different levels of resistance to insects and the susceptible check JL 24 under greenhouse conditions. Activities of oxidative enzymes and the amounts of secondary metabolites and proteins were quantified at 6 days after JA and SA application/insect infestation. Data were also recorded on plant damage and H. armigera larval weights and survival. Higher levels of enzymatic activities and amounts of secondary metabolites were observed in the insect-resistant genotypes pretreated with JA and then infested with H. armigera than in JL 24. The insect-resistant genotypes suffered lower insect damage and resulted in poor survival and lower weights of H. armigera larvae than JL 24. In some cases, JA and SA showed similar effects. JA and SA induced the activity of antioxidative enzymes in groundnut plants against H. armigera, and reduced its growth and development. However, induced response to application of JA was greater than to SA, and resulted in reduced plant damage, and larval weights and survival, suggesting that induced resistance can be used as a component of pest management in groundnut. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Characterization of fusidic acid-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates in the community of Casablanca (Morocco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elazhari, Mohamed; Abu-Quatouseh, Luay F; Elhabchi, Driss; Zerouali, Khalid; Dersi, Noureddine; Saile, Rachid; Timinouni, Mohammed; Becker, Karsten

    2012-03-01

    Resistance to fusidic acid in Staphylococcus aureus is caused by mutation of the elongation factor G (EF-G) encoded by fusA or by expression of a protein, encoded by fusB or fusC, that protects the drug target. Other mechanisms involved in this resistance are mutations in the riboprotein L6 operon within rplF. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and mechanisms of resistance to fusidic acid in clinical isolates of S. aureus in Casablanca (Morocco) and to define the phenotypic and genotypic traits of these isolates and their clonal relationship. All fusidic acid-resistant S. aureus (FAR-SA) isolates were tested for fusB and fusC genes and were evaluated for the detection of mutations in fusA and fusE (rplF). fusB-positive strains were tested for a cadDX operon, encoding cadmium resistance. The agr group and the presence of toxin genes were monitored to characterize all FAR-SA isolates which were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and spa typing. Among 140 clinical S. aureus isolates collected in 2007 and 2008, 18 (∼13%) exhibited resistance to fusidic acid. The most common resistance determinant was fusC, found in 16 isolates. Molecular typing showed that 14 of them harboured an agr group III and belonged to the same clonal complex (CC) spa type 127 and identical clonotype (cluster labelled A). These isolates also possessed the staphylococcal enterotoxin H gene. The second resistance determinant was fusB found in two isolates. These two isolates lacked cadDX gene and were found to belong to two unrelated clusters and spa types. While no isolate carrying mutations in rplF was found, 15 expressed a silent mutation in fusA (nucleotide 342). Only acquired fusidic acid resistance genes (mainly fusC) were prevalent among FAR-SA isolates with almost all of the clinical specimens belonging to CC-spa type 127. This study provides valuable data on the prevalence of fusidic acid-resistant S. aureus with the associated molecular mechanisms of

  1. Beneficial effects on host energy metabolism of short-chain fatty acids and vitamins produced by commensal and probiotic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Jean Guy; Chain, Florian; Martín, Rebeca; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Courau, Stéphanie; Langella, Philippe

    2017-05-08

    The aim of this review is to summarize the effect in host energy metabolism of the production of B group vitamins and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) by commensal, food-grade and probiotic bacteria, which are also actors of the mammalian nutrition. The mechanisms of how these microbial end products, produced by these bacterial strains, act on energy metabolism will be discussed. We will show that these vitamins and SCFA producing bacteria could be used as tools to recover energy intakes by either optimizing ATP production from foods or by the fermentation of certain fibers in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Original data are also presented in this work where SCFA (acetate, butyrate and propionate) and B group vitamins (riboflavin, folate and thiamine) production was determined for selected probiotic bacteria.

  2. Oxaloacetate acetylhydrolase gene mutants of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum do not accumulate oxalic acid, but do produce limited lesions on host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaofei; Liberti, Daniele; Li, Moyi; Kim, Young-Tae; Hutchens, Andrew; Wilson, Ron; Rollins, Jeffrey A

    2015-08-01

    The oxaloacetate acetylhydrolase (OAH, EC 3.7.1.1)-encoding gene Ss-oah1 was cloned and functionally characterized from Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Ss-oah1 transcript accumulation mirrored oxalic acid (OA) accumulation with neutral pH induction dependent on the pH-responsive transcriptional regulator Ss-Pac1. Unlike previously characterized ultraviolet (UV)-induced oxalate-deficient mutants ('A' mutants) which retain the capacity to accumulate OA, gene deletion Δss-oah1 mutants did not accumulate OA in culture or during plant infection. This defect in OA accumulation was fully restored on reintroduction of the wild-type (WT) Ss-oah1 gene. The Δss-oah1 mutants were also deficient in compound appressorium and sclerotium development and exhibited a severe radial growth defect on medium buffered at neutral pH. On a variety of plant hosts, the Δss-oah1 mutants established very restricted lesions in which the infectious hyphae gradually lost viability. Cytological comparisons of WT and Δss-oah1 infections revealed low and no OA accumulation, respectively, in subcuticular hyphae. Both WT and mutant hyphae exhibited a transient association with viable host epidermal cells at the infection front. In summary, our experimental data establish a critical requirement for OAH activity in S. sclerotiorum OA biogenesis and pathogenesis, but also suggest that factors independent of OA contribute to the establishment of primary lesions. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  3. The Pleiotropic Antibacterial Mechanisms of Ursolic Acid against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Min Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Several triterpenoids were found to act synergistically with classes of antibiotic, indicating that plant-derived chemicals have potential to be used as therapeutics to enhance the activity of antibiotics against multidrug-resistant pathogens. However, the mode of action of triterpenoids against bacterial pathogens remains unclear. The objective of this study is to evaluate the interaction between ursolic acid against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA; (2 Methods: The ability of ursolic acid to damage mammalian and bacterial membranes was examined. The proteomic response of methicillin-resistant S. aureus in ursolic acid treatment was investigated using two-dimensional (2D proteomic analysis; (3 Results: Ursolic acid caused the loss of staphylococcal membrane integrity without hemolytic activity. The comparison of the protein pattern of ursolic acid–treated and normal MRSA cells revealed that ursolic acid affected a variety of proteins involved in the translation process with translational accuracy, ribonuclease and chaperon subunits, glycolysis and oxidative responses; (4 Conclusion: The mode of action of ursolic acid appears to be the influence on the integrity of the bacterial membrane initially, followed by inhibition of protein synthesis and the metabolic pathway. These findings reflect that the pleiotropic effects of ursolic acid against MRSA make it a promising antibacterial agent in pharmaceutical research.

  4. Toxoplasma gondii Rhoptry 16 Kinase Promotes Host Resistance to Oral Infection and Intestinal Inflammation Only in the Context of the Dense Granule Protein GRA15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kirk D. C.; Hu, Kenneth; Whitmarsh, Ryan J.; Hassan, Musa A.; Julien, Lindsay; Lu, Diana; Chen, Lieping; Hunter, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii transmission between intermediate hosts is dependent on the ingestion of walled cysts formed during the chronic phase of infection. Immediately following consumption, the parasite must ensure survival of the host by preventing adverse inflammatory responses and/or by limiting its own replication. Since the Toxoplasma secreted effectors rhoptry 16 kinase (ROP16) and dense granule 15 (GRA15) activate the JAK-STAT3/6 and NF-κB signaling pathways, respectively, we explored whether a particular combination of these effectors impacted intestinal inflammation and parasite survival in vivo. Here we report that expression of the STAT-activating version of ROP16 in the type II strain (strain II+ROP16I) promotes host resistance to oral infection only in the context of endogenous GRA15 expression. Protection was characterized by a lower intestinal parasite burden and dampened inflammation. Host resistance to the II+ROP16I strain occurred independently of STAT6 and the T cell coinhibitory receptors B7-DC and B7-H1, two receptors that are upregulated by ROP16. In addition, coexpression of ROP16 and GRA15 enhanced parasite susceptibility within tumor necrosis factor alpha/gamma interferon-stimulated macrophages in a STAT3/6-independent manner. Transcriptional profiling of infected STAT3- and STAT6-deficient macrophages and parasitized Peyer's patches from mice orally challenged with strain II+ROP16I suggested that ROP16 activated STAT5 to modulate host gene expression. Consistent with this supposition, the ROP16 kinase induced the sustained phosphorylation and nuclear localization of STAT5 in Toxoplasma-infected cells. In summary, only the combined expression of both GRA15 and ROP16 promoted host resistance to acute oral infection, and Toxoplasma may possibly target the STAT5 signaling pathway to generate protective immunity in the gut. PMID:23545295

  5. Acquired Resistance to Macrolide–Lincosamide–Streptogramin Antibiotics in Lactic Acid Bacteria of Food Origin

    OpenAIRE

    Thumu, Surya Chandra Rao; Halami, Prakash M.

    2012-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem in clinical settings as well as in food industry. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) commercially used as starter cultures and probiotic supplements are considered as reservoirs of several antibiotic resistance genes. Macrolide–lincosamide–streptogramin (MLS) antibiotics have a proven record of excellence in clinical settings. However, the intensive use of tylosin, lincomysin and virginamycin antibiotics of this group as growth promoters in animal husbandry ...

  6. Activation of the Glutamic Acid-Dependent Acid Resistance System in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3 Leads to Increase of the Fatty Acid Biotransformation Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Min Woo

    Full Text Available The biosynthesis of carboxylic acids including fatty acids from biomass is central in envisaged biorefinery concepts. The productivities are often, however, low due to product toxicity that hamper whole-cell biocatalyst performance. Here, we have investigated factors that influence the tolerance of Escherichia coli to medium chain carboxylic acid (i.e., n-heptanoic acid-induced stress. The metabolic and genomic responses of E. coli BL21(DE3 and MG1655 grown in the presence of n-heptanoic acid indicated that the GadA/B-based glutamic acid-dependent acid resistance (GDAR system might be critical for cellular tolerance. The GDAR system, which is responsible for scavenging intracellular protons by catalyzing decarboxylation of glutamic acid, was inactive in E. coli BL21(DE3. Activation of the GDAR system in this strain by overexpressing the rcsB and dsrA genes, of which the gene products are involved in the activation of GadE and RpoS, respectively, resulted in acid tolerance not only to HCl but also to n-heptanoic acid. Furthermore, activation of the GDAR system allowed the recombinant E. coli BL21(DE3 expressing the alcohol dehydrogenase of Micrococcus luteus and the Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase of Pseudomonas putida to reach 60% greater product concentration in the biotransformation of ricinoleic acid (i.e., 12-hydroxyoctadec-9-enoic acid (1 into n-heptanoic acid (5 and 11-hydroxyundec-9-enoic acid (4. This study may contribute to engineering E. coli-based biocatalysts for the production of carboxylic acids from renewable biomass.

  7. Activation of the Glutamic Acid-Dependent Acid Resistance System in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) Leads to Increase of the Fatty Acid Biotransformation Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Ji-Min; Kim, Ji-Won; Song, Ji-Won; Blank, Lars M; Park, Jin-Byung

    The biosynthesis of carboxylic acids including fatty acids from biomass is central in envisaged biorefinery concepts. The productivities are often, however, low due to product toxicity that hamper whole-cell biocatalyst performance. Here, we have investigated factors that influence the tolerance of Escherichia coli to medium chain carboxylic acid (i.e., n-heptanoic acid)-induced stress. The metabolic and genomic responses of E. coli BL21(DE3) and MG1655 grown in the presence of n-heptanoic acid indicated that the GadA/B-based glutamic acid-dependent acid resistance (GDAR) system might be critical for cellular tolerance. The GDAR system, which is responsible for scavenging intracellular protons by catalyzing decarboxylation of glutamic acid, was inactive in E. coli BL21(DE3). Activation of the GDAR system in this strain by overexpressing the rcsB and dsrA genes, of which the gene products are involved in the activation of GadE and RpoS, respectively, resulted in acid tolerance not only to HCl but also to n-heptanoic acid. Furthermore, activation of the GDAR system allowed the recombinant E. coli BL21(DE3) expressing the alcohol dehydrogenase of Micrococcus luteus and the Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase of Pseudomonas putida to reach 60% greater product concentration in the biotransformation of ricinoleic acid (i.e., 12-hydroxyoctadec-9-enoic acid (1)) into n-heptanoic acid (5) and 11-hydroxyundec-9-enoic acid (4). This study may contribute to engineering E. coli-based biocatalysts for the production of carboxylic acids from renewable biomass.

  8. Characterization of the Epidemic European Fusidic Acid-Resistant Impetigo Clone of Staphylococcus aureus▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, A. J.; Larsen, A. R.; Skov, R.; Henriksen, A. S.; Chopra, I.

    2007-01-01

    Resistance to the antibiotic fusidic acid in European strains of Staphylococcus aureus causing impetigo has increased in recent years. This increase appears to have resulted from clonal expansion of a strain we have designated the epidemic European fusidic acid-resistant impetigo clone (EEFIC), which carries the fusidic acid resistance determinant fusB on its chromosome. To understand better the properties of the EEFIC responsible for its success, we have performed detailed phenotypic and genotypic characterization of this clone. Molecular typing revealed the EEFIC to be ST123, spa type t171, and agr type IV and therefore unrelated to earlier prevalent fusB+ strains found in the United Kingdom. EEFIC strains exhibited resistance to fusidic acid, penicillin, and, in some cases, erythromycin, which are all used in the treatment of impetigo. PCR analysis of the EEFIC and complete DNA sequencing of the 39.3 Kb plasmid it harbors identified genes encoding several toxins previously implicated in impetigo (exfoliative toxins A and B and EDIN-C). The location of fusB was mapped on the chromosome and found to be associated with a novel 16.6-kb genomic island integrated downstream of groEL. Although this element is related to classical staphylococcal pathogenicity islands, it does not encode any known virulence factors and consequently has been designated SaRIfusB (for “S. aureus resistance island carrying fusB”). PMID:17344365

  9. Antimicrobial resistance of coagulase-negative staphylococci and lactic acid bacteria from industrially produced dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevijo Zdolec

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the susceptibility to clindamycin, tetracycline, amikacin, amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, enrofloxacine, vancomycin, trimethoprim + sulphametoxazol, tobramycin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, penicillin and trimethoprim was tested in coagulase-negative staphylococci (n=78 and lactic acid bacteria (n=30 by means of disk diffusion test and E-test. The isolates were collected from soft and hard cheeses, butter and brine. All isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci were susceptible to clindamycin, amikacin, amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, enrofloxacine, vancomycin, chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin according to CLSI breakpoints. A total of 30 staphylococci isolates (38.46 % were resistant to erythromycin, 18 to penicillin (23.07 %, 4 to tetracycline (5.12 %, and one isolate to trimethoprim, tobramicin and trimethoprim + sulphametoxazol (1.28 %. Among 78 tested staphylococci, 35 of them were resistant to at least one antimicrobial substance (44.87 %. The rate of resistant isolates of different soft cheese types ranged from 22 to 70 %, while resistant staphylococci were absent in hard cheese and brine. The growth of lactic acid bacteria was not influenced by trimethoprim + sulphametoxazol (n=29, vancomycin (n=29, trimethoprim (n=28, amikacin (n=10 and tobramycin (n=10. The results show that significant part of apathogenic microbiota in different dairy products is phenotypically resistant to antimicrobial agents.

  10. Emergence and epidemiology of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus in the American Desert Southwest, and development of host plant resistance in melon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintermantel, William M; Gilbertson, Robert L; Natwick, Eric T; McCreight, James D

    2017-09-15

    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), emerged in the Sonoran Desert region of the southwestern USA in 2006 and has become well established. Symptoms induced by CYSDV infection include a striking interveinal chlorosis or yellowing and reduced yield and quality. The virus is transmitted by Bemisia tabaci, and the cryptic species MEAM1 has been present in the region since the early 1990s. CYSDV has now become the most economically important of the viruses affecting cucurbit production in the southwestern US. Here, we present a review of recent studies on CYSDV in the southwestern US, with implications for management of this virus throughout the world. Field surveys have established that CYSDV results in late-season infection of spring melon crops with limited economic impact; however, all summer and fall cucurbits become infected shortly after emergence due to high B. tabaci populations and abundant sources of inoculum. Studies have also demonstrated that CYSDV has an extensive host range among crops and weeds prevalent in the region. Recent studies demonstrated considerable variation in virus accumulation and transmission rates among the host plants evaluated as potential reservoirs. Cucurbit hosts had the highest CYSDV titers, were efficient sources for virus acquisition, and showed a positive correlation between titer in source plants and transmission to cucurbit plants. Non-cucurbit hosts had significantly lower CYSDV titers and varied in their capacity to serve as sources for transmission. Experiments demonstrated that multiple factors influence the efficiency with which a host plant species will be a reservoir for vector transmission of CYSDV to crops. Melon PI 313970 was identified as a new source of host plant resistance to CYSDV, in addition to the previously identified TGR 1551 (=PI 482420) and TGR 1937 (=PI 482431). Potential new sources of CYSDV resistance were identified by field screening of ca. 500 melon accessions with naturally occurring

  11. Serum lipid resistance to oxidation and uric acid levels in subjects with Down's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagyová, A; Sustrová, M; Raslová, K

    2000-01-01

    In subjects with Down's syndrome (DS) increased oxidative stress and consequent oxidative cell damage have been reported. The aim of this study was to assess whether the excessive production of free oxygen radicals in these subjects can affect the copper-induced lipid oxidation resistance measured in fresh whole serum. Since a significant elevation of serum uric acid levels, which is an efficient hydrophilic antioxidant, has been repeatedly reported in subjects with DS, we studied the association between increased serum uric acid levels and lipid resistance to oxidation measured directly in serum samples by monitoring the change in absorbance at 234 nm. The group of subjects with Down's syndrome consisted of 25 individuals (aged 18+/-5 years). Control group included brothers and sisters of subjects with DS (n = 25, aged 17+/-7 years). In subjects with DS, the serum lipid resistance to oxidation (lag time) was significantly higher than in controls (puric acid levels was observed (puric acid concentration was found in subjects with DS (r = 0.48, puric acid levels repeatedly observed in subjects with DS may be associated with an enhanced resistance of serum lipids to oxidation which is thought to play an important role in the atherogenic process.

  12. Abscisic acid-cytokinin antagonism modulates resistance against pseudomonas syringae in Tobacco

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosskinsky, Dominik Kilian; van der Graaff, Eric; Roitsch, Thomas Georg

    2014-01-01

    Phytohormones are known as essential regulators of plant defenses, with ethylene, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid as the central immunity backbone, while other phytohormones have been demonstrated to interact with this. Only recently, a function of the classic phytohormone cytokinin in plant...... immunity has been described in Arabidopsis, rice, and tobacco. Although interactions of cytokinins with salicylic acid and auxin have been indicated, the complete network of cytokinin interactions with other immunity-relevant phytohormones is not yet understood. Therefore, we studied the interaction...... of kinetin and abscisic acid as a negative regulator of plant immunity to modulate resistance in tobacco against Pseudomonas syringae. By analyzing infection symptoms, pathogen proliferation, and accumulation of the phytoalexin scopoletin as a key mediator of kinetin-induced resistance in tobacco...

  13. Fatty acid composition analyses of the DCMU resistant mutants of Nannochloropsis oculata (eustigmatophyceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimin, Zhang; Shuang, Liu; Xue, Sun; Guanpin, Yang; Xuecheng, Zhang; Zhenhui, Gao

    2003-04-01

    Ultraviolet mutagenesis was applied to Nannochloropsis oculata and three mutants resistant to 3-(3, 4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) were isolated. The cellular chlorophyll a and total lipid content of the wild are higher in the medium supplemented with DCMU than in the control without DCMU. Without DCMU, the growth rates and chlorophyll a contents of the mutants are similar to those of the wild. Significant changes of fatty acid content and composition have occurred in DCMU-resistant mutants growing in the medium supplemented with DCMU. The total lipid, palmitic acid (16:0), palmitoleic acid (16:1ω9) and oleic (18:1ω9) contents decrease significantly, while the vaccenic acid (18:1ω11) increases significantly and the EPA content of dried powder increases slightly in the mutants. The study may provide a basis to improve EPA content in Nannochloropsis oculata in the future.

  14. Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping of Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Host Plant Resistance in Two Populations of Doubled Haploid Lines in Maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Martin O; Marroquin, Juan J; Flint-Garcia, Sherry; Dashiell, Kenton; Willmot, David B; Hibbard, Bruce E

    2018-02-09

    Over the last 70 yr, more than 12,000 maize accessions have been screened for their level of resistance to western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (LeConte; Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), larval feeding. Less than 1% of this germplasm was selected for initiating recurrent selection or other breeding programs. Selected genotypes were mostly characterized by large root systems and superior root regrowth after root damage caused by western corn rootworm larvae. However, no hybrids claiming native (i.e., host plant) resistance to western corn rootworm larval feeding are currently commercially available. We investigated the genetic basis of western corn rootworm resistance in maize materials with improved levels of resistance using linkage disequilibrium mapping approaches. Two populations of topcrossed doubled haploid maize lines (DHLs) derived from crosses between resistant and susceptible maize lines were evaluated for their level of resistance in three to four different environments. For each DHL topcross an average root damage score was estimated and used for quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis. We found genomic regions contributing to western corn rootworm resistance on all maize chromosomes, except for chromosome 4. Models fitting all QTL simultaneously explained about 30 to 50% of the genotypic variance for root damage scores in both mapping populations. Our findings confirm the complex genetic structure of host plant resistance against western corn rootworm larval feeding in maize. Interestingly, three of these QTL regions also carry genes involved in ascorbate biosynthesis, a key compound we hypothesize is involved in the expression of western corn rootworm resistance. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Role of hepatocyte S6K1 in palmitic acid-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress, lipotoxicity, insulin resistance and in oleic acid-induced protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Virginia; González-Rodríguez, Águeda; Muntané, Jordi; Kozma, Sara C; Valverde, Ángela M

    2015-06-01

    The excess of saturated free fatty acids, such as palmitic acid, that induces lipotoxicity in hepatocytes, has been implicated in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease also associated with insulin resistance. By contrast, oleic acid, a monounsaturated fatty acid, attenuates the effects of palmitic acid. We evaluated whether palmitic acid is directly associated with both insulin resistance and lipoapoptosis in mouse and human hepatocytes and the impact of oleic acid in the molecular mechanisms that mediate both processes. In human and mouse hepatocytes palmitic acid at a lipotoxic concentration triggered early activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related kinases, induced the apoptotic transcription factor CHOP, activated caspase 3 and increased the percentage of apoptotic cells. These effects concurred with decreased IR/IRS1/Akt insulin pathway. Oleic acid suppressed the toxic effects of palmitic acid on ER stress activation, lipoapoptosis and insulin resistance. Besides, oleic acid suppressed palmitic acid-induced activation of S6K1. This protection was mimicked by pharmacological or genetic inhibition of S6K1 in hepatocytes. In conclusion, this is the first study highlighting the activation of S6K1 by palmitic acid as a common and novel mechanism by which its inhibition by oleic acid prevents ER stress, lipoapoptosis and insulin resistance in hepatocytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Changes in the Resistance to Compression of Resin-modified Glass After Etching with Orthophosphoric Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Gil García, Stefany; Mosquera Arenas, Sara; Hoyos Arias, Luz Adriana; Domínguez Jiménez, Tatiana; Arango B., Luz Mónica; Gallego G., Clara Liliana

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Resin-modified glass ionomers are materials used as an intermediate base in some dental procedures. Our objective was to evaluate the changes that occur in resistance to compression in a light-cured resin-modified glass ionomer after etching it with 37% orthophosphoric acid. Materials and methods: We carried out an experimental study in vitro. We prepared forty thermoformed molds. The control group (cg) consisted of 20 samples to which no phosphoric acid was applied and the expe...

  17. Jasmonic acid negatively regulates resistance to Tobacco mosaic virus in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Kumiko; Kobayashi, Michie; Mitsuhara, Ichiro; Seo, Shigemi

    2013-12-01

    Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) cultivars possessing the N resistance gene to Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) induce a hypersensitive response, which is accompanied by the production of phytohormones such as salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA), to enclose the invaded virus at the initial site of infection, which inhibits viral multiplication and spread. SA functions as a positive regulator of TMV resistance. However, the role of JA in TMV resistance has not been fully elucidated. Exogenously applied methyl jasmonate, a methyl ester of JA, reduced local resistance to TMV and permitted systemic viral movement. Furthermore, in contrast to a previous finding, we demonstrated that silencing of CORONATINE-INSENSITIVE 1 (COI1), a JA receptor, reduced viral accumulation in a tobacco cultivar possessing the N gene, as did that of allene oxide synthase, a JA biosynthetic enzyme. The reduction in viral accumulation in COI1-silenced tobacco plants was correlated with an increase in SA, and lowering SA levels by introducing an SA hydroxylase gene attenuated this reduction. Viral susceptibility did not change in a COI1-silenced tobacco cultivar lacking the N gene. These results suggest that JA signaling is not directly responsible for susceptibility to TMV, but is indirectly responsible for viral resistance through the partial inhibition of SA-mediated resistance conferred by the N gene, and that a balance between endogenous JA and SA levels is important for determining the degree of resistance.

  18. Chemical Changes Associated with Increased Acid Resistance of Er:YAG Laser Irradiated Enamel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Manuela Díaz-Monroy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. An increase in the acid resistance of dental enamel, as well as morphological and structural changes produced by Er:YAG laser irradiation, has been reported. Purpose. To evaluate the chemical changes associated with acid resistance of enamel treated with Er:YAG laser. Methods. Forty-eight enamel samples were divided into 4 groups (n=12. Group I (control; Groups II, III, and IV were irradiated with Er:YAG at 100 mJ (12.7 J/cm2, 200 mJ (25.5 J/cm2, and 300 mJ (38.2 J/cm2, respectively. Results. There were significant differences in composition of irradiated groups (with the exception of chlorine and in the amount of calcium released. Conclusions. Chemical changes associated with an increase in acid resistance of enamel treated with Er:YAG laser showed a clear postirradiation pattern characterized by a decrease in C at.% and an increase in O, P, and Ca at.% and no changes in Cl at.%. An increased Ca/P ratio after Er:YAG laser irradiation was associated with the use of higher laser energy densities. Chemical changes produced by acid dissolution showed a similar trend among experimental groups. Stable or increased Ca/P ratio after acid dissolution was observed in the irradiated groups, with reduction of Ca released into the acid solution.

  19. Chemical Changes Associated with Increased Acid Resistance of Er:YAG Laser Irradiated Enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olea-Mejía, Oscar Fernando; García-Fabila, María Magdalena; Rodríguez-Vilchis, Laura Emma; Sánchez-Flores, Ignacio; Centeno-Pedraza, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Background. An increase in the acid resistance of dental enamel, as well as morphological and structural changes produced by Er:YAG laser irradiation, has been reported. Purpose. To evaluate the chemical changes associated with acid resistance of enamel treated with Er:YAG laser. Methods. Forty-eight enamel samples were divided into 4 groups (n = 12). Group I (control); Groups II, III, and IV were irradiated with Er:YAG at 100 mJ (12.7 J/cm2), 200 mJ (25.5 J/cm2), and 300 mJ (38.2 J/cm2), respectively. Results. There were significant differences in composition of irradiated groups (with the exception of chlorine) and in the amount of calcium released. Conclusions. Chemical changes associated with an increase in acid resistance of enamel treated with Er:YAG laser showed a clear postirradiation pattern characterized by a decrease in C at.% and an increase in O, P, and Ca at.% and no changes in Cl at.%. An increased Ca/P ratio after Er:YAG laser irradiation was associated with the use of higher laser energy densities. Chemical changes produced by acid dissolution showed a similar trend among experimental groups. Stable or increased Ca/P ratio after acid dissolution was observed in the irradiated groups, with reduction of Ca released into the acid solution. PMID:24600327

  20. Zn-Al LAYERED DOUBLE HYDROXIDE AS HOST MATERIAL FOR SUNSCREEN COMPOUND OF p-AMINOBENZOIC ACID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roto Roto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Zn-Al layered double hydroxide can be used as host material for UV active compound p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA, which is having capability to block UV light of sunlight. The formation of Zn-Al-PABA was best developed in which the nucleation process was done at room temperature and followed by hydrothermal treatment at 100 oC.   To make a better product, the molar ratio of Zn to Al to PABA was adjusted to 3:1:1. From the elemental analysis and the content of PABA, it was observed that the product has structural formula of Zn0,745Al0.254(OH1.650(PABA0.349. 0.684H2O. The particle size of the powder as estimated using SEM was in the range 100-200 nm. FTIR and XRD proved that the p-amino benzoate ion occupied the interlayer space. This material is expected to have high sun protection factor (SPF.   Keywords: layered double hydroxide, sunscreen, p-amino benzoic acid, nanoparticle

  1. Arabidopsis ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 promotes systemic acquired resistance via azelaic acid and its precursor 9-oxo nonanoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittek, Finni; Hoffmann, Thomas; Kanawati, Basem; Bichlmeier, Marlies; Knappe, Claudia; Wenig, Marion; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Parker, Jane E; Schwab, Wilfried; Vlot, A Corina

    2014-11-01

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a form of inducible disease resistance that depends on salicylic acid and its upstream regulator ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1). Although local Arabidopsis thaliana defence responses activated by the Pseudomonas syringae effector protein AvrRpm1 are intact in eds1 mutant plants, SAR signal generation is abolished. Here, the SAR-specific phenotype of the eds1 mutant is utilized to identify metabolites that contribute to SAR. To this end, SAR bioassay-assisted fractionation of extracts from the wild type compared with eds1 mutant plants that conditionally express AvrRpm1 was performed. Using high-performance liquid chromatography followed by mass spectrometry, systemic immunity was associated with the accumulation of 60 metabolites, including the putative SAR signal azelaic acid (AzA) and its precursors 9-hydroperoxy octadecadienoic acid (9-HPOD) and 9-oxo nonanoic acid (ONA). Exogenous ONA induced SAR in systemic untreated leaves when applied at a 4-fold lower concentration than AzA. The data suggest that in planta oxidation of ONA to AzA might be partially responsible for this response and provide further evidence that AzA mobilizes Arabidopsis immunity in a concentration-dependent manner. The AzA fragmentation product pimelic acid did not induce SAR. The results link the C9 lipid peroxidation products ONA and AzA with systemic rather than local resistance and suggest that EDS1 directly or indirectly promotes the accumulation of ONA, AzA, or one or more of their common precursors possibly by activating one or more pathways that either result in the release of these compounds from galactolipids or promote lipid peroxidation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  2. Improved Acetic Acid Resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Overexpression of the WHI2 Gene Identified through Inverse Metabolic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yingying; Stabryla, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Development of acetic acid-resistant Saccharomyces cerevisiae is important for economically viable production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass, but the goal remains a critical challenge due to limited information on effective genetic perturbation targets for improving acetic acid resistance in the yeast. This study employed a genomic-library-based inverse metabolic engineering approach to successfully identify a novel gene target, WHI2 (encoding a cytoplasmatic globular scaffold protein), which elicited improved acetic acid resistance in S. cerevisiae. Overexpression of WHI2 significantly improved glucose and/or xylose fermentation under acetic acid stress in engineered yeast. The WHI2-overexpressing strain had 5-times-higher specific ethanol productivity than the control in glucose fermentation with acetic acid. Analysis of the expression of WHI2 gene products (including protein and transcript) determined that acetic acid induced endogenous expression of Whi2 in S. cerevisiae. Meanwhile, the whi2Δ mutant strain had substantially higher susceptibility to acetic acid than the wild type, suggesting the important role of Whi2 in the acetic acid response in S. cerevisiae. Additionally, overexpression of WHI2 and of a cognate phosphatase gene, PSR1, had a synergistic effect in improving acetic acid resistance, suggesting that Whi2 might function in combination with Psr1 to elicit the acetic acid resistance mechanism. These results improve our understanding of the yeast response to acetic acid stress and provide a new strategy to breed acetic acid-resistant yeast strains for renewable biofuel production. PMID:26826231

  3. A review on the complexity of insect-plant interactions under varying levels of resources and host resistance: the case of Myzus persicae-Prunus persica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verdugo, JA.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Insect-plant interactions are affected directly or indirectly by stress factors. The effect of environmental resource availability on insect-plant interactions is here reviewed. Subsequently, the analysis focuses on aphid-host plant interactions, particularly in the system composed by the green peach aphid Myzus persicae and its primary host plant Prunus persica. Literature. Plant defenses arise in two ways: resistance and tolerance, both are affected by abiotic factors. The information gathered from studies (n = 29 on plant-aphid interactions addressing the reduction in water availability on plant resistance, showed that in 41,4% of the studies, drought stress elicits lower resistance, while 34.5%, 20.1% and 3.4%, showed higher, no change and conditional effects on plant resistance, respectively. Conclusions. Water stress elicits mixed effects on plant resistance to aphids. However, the literature review also suggests that cultural practices play a role in the fate of the peach-aphid interactions, whereas the development of predictive models aimed to assist crop-pest management systems still requires more basic information. Aphid responses to plant defenses under stressed conditions are still largely unexplored.

  4. Clinical trial: modulation of human placental multidrug resistance proteins in cholestasis of pregnancy by ursodeoxycholic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzaroli, F; Mennone, A; Feletti, V; Simoni, P; Baglivo, E; Montagnani, M; Rizzo, N; Pelusi, G; DE Aloysio, D; Lodato, F; Festi, D; Colecchia, A; Roda, E; Boyer, J L; Mazzella, G

    2007-10-15

    The effects of ursodeoxycholic acid on human placental bile acids and bilirubin transporters in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy are still undefined. To evaluate whether ursodeoxycholic acid affects MRP2, MRP3 and MRP4 expression in the placenta. Forty-three pregnant women were enrolled; fourteen subjects had physiological pregnancies. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy patients were divided into two groups: (i) 13 received ursodeoxycholic acid (20 mg/kg/day) and (ii) 16 untreated. Total bile acid and bilirubin in serum and cord blood were determined in each subject. Multidrug resistance proteins expression (immunoblot, quantitative real-time PCR) was evaluated in placentas collected at delivery. anova test was used for statistical analysis of data. Ursodeoxycholic acid administration significantly improved maternal serum bile acid and cord blood bilirubin and bile acid levels. MRP2 protein and RNA expression was significantly increased in placentas from treated patients compared to controls (P Ursodeoxycholic acid administration induces placental MRP2 expression, and reduces bilirubin and bile acid levels in cord blood.

  5. Transport of the glutathione conjugate of ethacrynic acid by the human multidrug resistance protein MRP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaman, G.J.R.; Cnubben, N.H.P.; Bladeren, P.J. van; Evers, R.; Borst, P.

    1996-01-01

    The multidrug resistance protein MRP has been shown to mediate the transport of glutathione S-conjugates across membranes. In this study we demonstrate that the glutathione S-conjugate of the diuretic drug ethacrynic acid, which is an efficient inhibitor of glutathione S-transferases, is a

  6. [Biological profile of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase as a marker of bone resorption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, H; Iritia, M; Arribas, I; Revilla, M

    1990-12-01

    Tartrate-resistant serum acid phosphatase was measured in 123 subjects, 80 of which were normal and the rest pathologic, in order to define the profile and value of this parameter as a biological marker of osteoclastic activity. Normal subjects were divided into age groups based on the period where skeletal growth ends (under 20 years), at the age of menopause in women (50 years, between 20 and 50 years) and those over 50 years. There was an increase in tartrate-resistant serum acid phosphatase coinciding with puberty and no sex differences were observed after the 50 year mark, when women showed higher values than men (p less than 0.001). Such tartrate-resistant serum acid phosphatase increase, is reflected as higher values in the 50 year group than in the 20 to 50 year group (p less than 0.001), the only age limit where a negative significant correlation between tartrate-resistant serum acid phosphatase values and age could be observed (p less than 0.05). Values were higher up to the age of 20 years (p less than 0.001) than in any other older age group. Levels increased significantly (p less than 0.001 for both groups) in post-menopausal osteoporosis (n = 20) and in Paget's disease of bone (n = 15), and decreased significantly (p less than 0.05) in imperfect osteogenesis (n = 8), thus revealing its value as a biological marker of osteoclastic activity.

  7. The role of energy & fatty acid metabolism in obesity and insulin resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemskerk, Mattijs Maria

    2015-01-01

    In today’s world, more people die from complications of overweight than from underweight. But not all individuals are equally prone to develop metabolic complications, such as obesity and insulin resistance. This thesis focuses on the differences in the energy and fatty acid metabolism that play a

  8. Mechanism of Bacillus subtilis spore inactivation by and resistance to supercritical CO2 plus peracetic acid

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Setlow, B; Korza, G; Blatt, K.M.S; Fey, J.P; Setlow, P

    2016-01-01

    Determine how supercritical CO2 (scCO2 ) plus peracetic acid (PAA) inactivates Bacillus subtilis spores, factors important in spore resistance to scCO2 -PAA, and if spores inactivated by scCO2 -PAA are truly dead...

  9. Pre-cold stress increases acid stress resistance and induces amino ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Bacterial strains were grown at 4 °C for 2 h pre-adaptation, and then subjected to various stresses including exposure to ... Keywords: Pre-cold stress, Acis stress resistance, Lactococcus lactis, Redox balance, Amino acid homeostasis. Tropical ... differs in metabolism and production [4] and viability and metabolic ...

  10. The role of hyaluronic acid capsular material of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus in mediating adherence to HeLa cells and in resisting phagocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibawan, I W; Pasaribu, F H; Utama, I H; Abdulmawjood, A; Lämmler, C

    1999-10-01

    Hyaluronic acid is thought to be one of the critical virulence factors of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus. The present study was designed to study the role of hyaluronic acid capsular material in mediating adherence and to resist the phagocytosis of the host's immune defence. The studies were performed with two encapsulated S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus and two unencapsulated phase variants. The bacteria had been previously isolated from diseased pigs and monkeys in Indonesia. The presence of capsular material was determined using the hyaluronic acid decapsulation test and by electron microscopic studies. Both encapsulated bacteria showed mucoid colonies after cultivation on blood agar, grew with diffuse colonies in soft agar media and reacted negatively in the salt aggregation test. The unencapsulated bacteria grew with small colonies on blood agar, formed compact colonies in soft agar media and reacted positively in the salt aggregation test. Adherence and phagocytosis studies revealed that the encapsulated bacteria adhered significantly more to HeLa cells and were less phagocytosed by murine macrophages compared to unencapsulated bacteria. Pretreatment of the HeLa cells using hyaluronic acid or pretreatment of the bacteria by hyaluronidase decreased the adherence value of encapsulated bacteria. Pretreatment of bacteria with pronase had no effect. The presented results strongly indicate that the hyaluronic acid capsular material contributes to adherence properties of S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus and might help the bacteria to resist phagocytosis by macrophages. Copyright 1999 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  11. The citric acid-modified, enzyme-resistant dextrin from potato starch as a potential prebiotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliżewska, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, enzyme-resistant dextrin, prepared by heating of potato starch in the presence of hydrochloric (0.1% dsb) and citric (0.1% dsb) acid at 130ºC for 3 h (CA-dextrin), was tested as a source of carbon for probiotic lactobacilli and bifidobacteria cultured with intestinal bacteria isolated from feces of three healthy 70-year old volunteers. The dynamics of growth of bacterial monocultures in broth containing citric acid (CA)-modified dextrin were estimated. It was also investigated whether lactobacilli and bifidobacteria cultured with intestinal bacteria in the presence of resistant dextrin would be able to dominate the intestinal isolates. Prebiotic fermentation of resistant dextrin was analyzed using prebiotic index (PI). In co-cultures of intestinal and probiotic bacteria, the environment was found to be dominated by the probiotic strains of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, which is a beneficial effect.

  12. Diverse amino acid changes at specific positions in the N-terminal region of the coat protein allow Plum pox virus to adapt to new hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, Alberto; Maliogka, Varvara I; Pérez, José de Jesús; Salvador, Beatriz; León, David San; García, Juan Antonio; Simón-Mateo, Carmen

    2013-10-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV)-D and PPV-R are two isolates from strain D of PPV that differ in host specificity. Previous analyses of chimeras originating from PPV-R and PPV-D suggested that the N terminus of the coat protein (CP) includes host-specific pathogenicity determinants. Here, these determinants were mapped precisely by analyzing the infectivity in herbaceous and woody species of chimeras containing a fragment of the 3' region of PPV-D (including the region coding for the CP) in a PPV-R backbone. These chimeras were not infectious in Prunus persica, but systemically infected Nicotiana clevelandii and N. benthamiana when specific amino acids were modified or deleted in a short 30-amino-acid region of the N terminus of the CP. Most of these mutations did not reduce PPV fitness in Prunus spp. although others impaired systemic infection in this host. We propose a model in which the N terminus of the CP, highly relevant for virus systemic movement, is targeted by a host defense mechanism in Nicotiana spp. Mutations in this short region allow PPV to overcome the defense response in this host but can compromise the efficiency of PPV systemic movement in other hosts such as Prunus spp.

  13. A human model of dietary saturated fatty acid induced insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koska, Juraj; Ozias, Marlies K; Deer, James; Kurtz, Julie; Salbe, Arline D; Harman, S Mitchell; Reaven, Peter D

    2016-11-01

    Increased consumption of high-fat diets is associated with the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Current models to study the mechanisms of high-fat diet-induced IR in humans are limited by their long duration or low efficacy. In the present study we developed and characterized an acute dietary model of saturated fatty acid-enriched diet induced insulin resistance. High caloric diets enriched with saturated fatty acids (SFA) or carbohydrates (CARB) were evaluated in subjects with normal and impaired glucose tolerance (NGT or IGT). Both diets were compared to a standard eucaloric American Heart Association (AHA) control diet in a series of crossover studies. Whole body insulin resistance was estimated as steady state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentrations during the last 30min of a 3-h insulin suppression test. SSPG was increased after a 24-h SFA diet (by 83±74% vs. control, n=38) in the entire cohort, which was comprised of participants with NGT (92±82%, n=22) or IGT (65±55%, n=16) (all pinsulin resistance in both NGT and IGT subjects. Insulin resistance persisted overnight after the last SFA meal and was attenuated by one day of a healthy diet. This model offers opportunities for identifying early mechanisms and potential treatments of dietary saturated fat induced insulin resistance. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. [Enamel resistance to acid dissolution and its correlation with dental caries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pérez, T L; Sáenz-Martínez, L P; Gómez-López, M E; Pérez-Quiroz, J

    1995-01-01

    Enamel resistance to acid dissolution is a factor which has an influence upon dental caries susceptibility. The objectives of this study were to determine enamel resistance to acid dissolution by applying the RM technique, and to correlate data obtained to the prevalence of dental caries. Two hundred and seventy one children between seven and nine years of age were chosen by non probabilistic sampling in two city districts, (six public schools in Mexico City). These children's central permanent incisives had already erupted. The DMF-T and dmf-t indexes were recorded, and the RM enamel resistance test was performed on them. A total of 56.4% of the subjects in the sample had very resistant enamel and 27.3%, less resistant enamel. A proportion of 57.9% was free of dental caries on the permanent dentition and 10% in the temporary dentition. The average obtained for the DMF-T index was 0.93 +/- 1.34 and that for dmf-t was 4.7 +/- 3.1. Data suggest that enamel resistance distribution is not homogeneous and this increases proportionally in relation to the eruption third (p coefficient was found to be negative and statistically significant at p dissolution.

  15. Fusidic acid-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in impetigo contagiosa and secondarily infected atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsterholm, Mikael; Flytström, Ingela; Bergbrant, Ing-Marie; Faergemann, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Fusidic acid-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (FRSA) has been identified as a causative agent in outbreaks of impetigo and its emergence has been associated with increased use of topical fusidic acid. The frequency of FRSA in atopic dermatitis (AD) has been less extensively investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the bacterial spectrum and frequency of FRSA in patients with impetigo or secondarily infected AD. A prospective study in our clinic in 2004 to 2008 included 38 patients with impetigo and 37 with secondarily infected AD. S. aureus was the predominant finding in all groups (bullous impetigo 92% (12/13), impetigo 76% (19/25) and secondarily infected AD 89% (33/37)). Seventy-five percent of S. aureus were fusidic acid resistant in bullous impetigo, 32% in impetigo and 6.1% in secondarily infected AD (bullous impetigo vs. AD p impetigo vs. AD p impetigo or secondarily infected AD seen at the clinic during the first and last year of the prospective study. In the first year 33% (19/58) of the S. aureus isolates were fusidic acid-resistant in impetigo and 12% (5/43) in secondarily infected AD (p impetigo and 2.2% (1/45) for AD (p impetigo than in AD. FRSA levels were persistently low in AD. Continued restrictive use of topical fusidic acid is advised to limit an increase in FRSA levels in dermatology patients.

  16. Jasmonic acid induces resistance to economically important insect pests in winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Wakeil, Nabil E; Volkmar, Christa; Sallam, Ahmed A

    2010-05-01

    Insect damage induces chemical changes in plants, and frequently these changes are part of a defensive response to the insect injury. Induced resistance was activated in winter wheat using a foliar application of synthetic jasmonic acid. Field trials were conducted to observe effects of jasmonic acid application on some wheat insects. Two wheat cultivars (Cubus and Tommi) were sprayed twice at growth stages (GS) 41 and 59 with two concentrations of jasmonic acid, along with control plots that were sprayed with water. There was a significant difference in the number of thrips and wheat blossom midges (WBM) among treatments in both cultivars. Plants in control plots had higher numbers of thrips and midges than in treated plots. There were higher numbers of thrips in the Tommi cultivar than in the Cubus cultivar, while the latter had higher numbers of WBM larvae than the Tommi cultivar. There was a positive correlation between WBM numbers and infested kernels in both cultivars. This study also indicated that jasmonic acid enhances the wheat yield in sprayed plots compared with control plots. The results indicate that jasmonic acid induced pest resistance in wheat plants and may act as a resistance mechanism of wheat against insect herbivores.

  17. Free fatty acid-induced hepatic insulin resistance is attenuated following lifestyle intervention in obese individuals with impaired glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haus, Jacob M; Solomon, Thomas; Marchetti, Christine M

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the effects of an exercise/diet lifestyle intervention on free fatty acid (FFA)-induced hepatic insulin resistance in obese humans.......The objective of the study was to examine the effects of an exercise/diet lifestyle intervention on free fatty acid (FFA)-induced hepatic insulin resistance in obese humans....

  18. Boric Acid and Commercial Organoboron Products as Inhibitors of Drug-Resistant Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Bryan; Petrovic, Marija; De Seta, Francesco

    2017-10-09

    Clinical use of boric acid as a topical antifungal in women who have failed standard antifungal therapy with azole drugs has been used sporadically for decades. Our previous in vitro work showing inhibition of Candida albicans growth was conducted on clinical isolates without antifungal drug susceptibility profiling. Here, we report that boric acid restricts growth of drug-resistant Candida albicans and inhibits hyphal growth and diminishes cell volume. The availability of over-the-counter organoboron compounds intended for use as oral nutritional supplements led us to determine if these also were inhibitory toward resistant Candida and show here that they also possess antifungal activity. Candida glabrata was also found to be inhibited by boric acid and organoboron compounds. Further development of organoboron compounds as topical therapeutics is of potential value.

  19. Modeling within-host HIV-1 dynamics and the evolution of drug resistance: trade-offs between viral enzyme function and drug susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Libin; Gilchrist, Michael A.; Feng, Zhilan; Perelson, Alan S.

    2007-01-01

    There are many biological steps between viral infection of CD4+ T cells and the production of HIV-1 virions. Here we incorporate an eclipse phase, representing the stage in which infected T cells have not started to produce new virus, into a simple HIV-1 model. Model calculations suggest that the quicker infected T cells progress from the eclipse stage to the productively infected stage, the more likely that a viral strain will persist. Long-term treatment effectiveness of antiretroviral drugs is often hindered by the frequent emergence of drug resistant virus during therapy. We link drug resistance to both the rate of progression of the eclipse phase and the rate of viral production of the resistant strain, and explore how the resistant strain could evolve to maximize its within-host viral fitness. We obtained the optimal progression rate and the optimal viral production rate, which maximize the fitness of a drug resistant strain in the presence of drugs. We show that the window of opportunity for invasion of drug resistant strains is widened for a higher level of drug efficacy provided that the treatment is not potent enough to eradicate both the sensitive and resistant virus. PMID:17532343

  20. Genetic differentiation among Maruca vitrata F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae populations on cultivated cowpea and wild host plants: implications for insect resistance management and biological control strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolulope A Agunbiade

    Full Text Available Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae is a polyphagous insect pest that feeds on a variety of leguminous plants in the tropics and subtropics. The contribution of host-associated genetic variation on population structure was investigated using analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (cox1 sequence and microsatellite marker data from M. vitrata collected from cultivated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp., and alternative host plants Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb. Benth. var. javanica (Benth. Baker, Loncocarpus sericeus (Poir, and Tephrosia candida (Roxb.. Analyses of microsatellite data revealed a significant global FST estimate of 0.05 (P≤0.001. The program STRUCTURE estimated 2 genotypic clusters (co-ancestries on the four host plants across 3 geographic locations, but little geographic variation was predicted among genotypes from different geographic locations using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA; among group variation -0.68% or F-statistics (FSTLoc = -0.01; P = 0.62. These results were corroborated by mitochondrial haplotype data (φSTLoc = 0.05; P = 0.92. In contrast, genotypes obtained from different host plants showed low but significant levels of genetic variation (FSTHost = 0.04; P = 0.01, which accounted for 4.08% of the total genetic variation, but was not congruent with mitochondrial haplotype analyses (φSTHost = 0.06; P = 0.27. Variation among host plants at a location and host plants among locations showed no consistent evidence for M. vitrata population subdivision. These results suggest that host plants do not significantly influence the genetic structure of M. vitrata, and this has implications for biocontrol agent releases as well as insecticide resistance management (IRM for M. vitrata in West Africa.

  1. Rosmarinic Acid Mediates Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Insulin Resistant Skeletal Muscle Through Activation of AMPK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanthy, Govindaraj; Roshana Devi, Vellai; Ilango, Kaliappan; Subramanian, Sorimuthu Pillai

    2017-07-01

    Rosmarinic acid (RA), a polyphenol, is known to improve hepatic insulin sensitivity in experimental type 2 diabetes. However, its effect on skeletal muscle insulin resistance is meagerly understood. The present study was aimed to investigate the up- and downstream mediators of the molecular targets of RA in attenuating insulin resistance in the skeletal muscle both in vivo and in vitro. We found that supplementation of RA increased the expression of key genes involved in the mitochondrial biogenesis like PGC-1α, SIRT-1, and TFAM via activation of AMPK in the skeletal muscle of insulin resistant rats as well as in L6 myotubes. Further, RA treatment increased the glucose uptake and decreased the phosphorylation of serine IRS-1 while increasing the translocation of GLUT 4. Together, our findings evidenced that RA treatment significantly inhibit insulin resistance in skeletal muscle cells by enhancing mitochondrial biogenesis. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 1839-1848, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Efficacy of phosphatidic acid ingestion on lean body mass, muscle thickness and strength gains in resistance-trained men

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Jay R; Stout, Jeffrey R; Williams, David R; Wells, Adam J; Fragala, Maren S; Mangine, Gerald T; Gonzalez, Adam M; Emerson, Nadia S; McCormack, William P; Scanlon, Tyler C; Purpura, Martin; Jäger, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Phosphatidic acid (PA) has been reported to activate the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway and is thought to enhance the anabolic effects of resistance training. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine if oral phosphatidic acid administration can enhance strength, muscle thickness and lean tissue accruement during an 8-week resistance training program. Methods Sixteen resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to a group that either consumed ...

  3. Resistance to cereal rusts at the plant cell wall - what can we learn from other host-pathogen systems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, N.C.; Niks, R.E.; Schulze-Lefert, P.

    2007-01-01

    The ability of plant cells to resist invasion by pathogenic fungi at the cell periphery (pre-invasion resistance) differs from other types of resistance that are generally triggered after parasite entry and during differentiation of specialised intracellular feeding structures. Genetic sources of

  4. In Vivo-Selected Pyrazinoic Acid-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains Harbor Missense Mutations in the Aspartate Decarboxylase PanD and the Unfoldase ClpC1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Pooja; Tasneen, Rokeya; Yee, Michelle; Lanoix, Jean-Philippe; Sarathy, Jansy; Rasic, George; Li, Liping; Dartois, Véronique; Nuermberger, Eric; Dick, Thomas

    2017-07-14

    Through mutant selection on agar containing pyrazinoic acid (POA), the bioactive form of the prodrug pyrazinamide (PZA), we recently showed that missense mutations in the aspartate decarboxylase PanD and the unfoldase ClpC1, and loss-of-function mutation of polyketide synthases Mas and PpsA-E involved in phthiocerol dimycocerosate synthesis, cause resistance to POA and PZA in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Here we first asked whether these in vitro-selected POA/PZA-resistant mutants are attenuated in vivo, to potentially explain the lack of evidence of these mutations among PZA-resistant clinical isolates. Infection of mice with panD, clpC1, and mas/ppsA-E mutants showed that whereas growth of clpC1 and mas/ppsA-E mutants was attenuated, the panD mutant grew as well as the wild-type. To determine whether these resistance mechanisms can emerge within the host, mice infected with wild-type M. tuberculosis were treated with POA, and POA-resistant colonies were confirmed for PZA and POA resistance. Genome sequencing revealed that 82 and 18% of the strains contained missense mutations in panD and clpC1, respectively. Consistent with their lower fitness and POA resistance level, independent mas/ppsA-E mutants were not found. In conclusion, we show that the POA/PZA resistance mechanisms due to panD and clpC1 missense mutations are recapitulated in vivo. Whereas the representative clpC1 mutant was attenuated for growth in the mouse infection model, providing a possible explanation for their absence among clinical isolates, the growth kinetics of the representative panD mutant was unaffected. Why POA/PZA resistance-conferring panD mutations are observed in POA-treated mice but not yet among clinical strains isolated from PZA-treated patients remains to be determined.

  5. Entry of Newcastle Disease Virus into the host cell: role of acidic pH and endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Felipe, Lorena; Villar, Enrique; Muñoz-Barroso, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Most paramyxoviruses enter the cell by direct fusion of the viral envelope with the plasma membrane. Our previous studies have shown the colocalization of Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) with the early endosome marker EEA1 and the inhibition of NDV fusion by the caveolin-phosphorylating drug phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) prompted us to propose that NDV enters the cells via endocytosis. Here we show that the virus-cell fusion and cell-cell fusion promoted by NDV-F are increased by about 30% after brief exposure to low pH in HeLa and ELL-0 cells but not in NDV receptor- deficient cell lines such as GM95 or Lec1. After a brief low-pH exposure, the percentage of NDV fusion at 29 °C was similar to that at 37 °C without acid-pH stimulation, meaning that acid pH would decrease the energetic barrier to enhance fusion. Furthermore, preincubation of cells with the protein kinase C inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide led to the inhibition of about 30% of NDV infectivity, suggesting that a population of virus enters cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis. Moreover, the involvement of the GTPase dynamin in NDV entry is shown as its specific inhibitor, dynasore, also impaired NDV fusion and infectivity. Optimal infection of the host cells was significantly affected by drugs that inhibit endosomal acidification such as concanamycin A, monensin and chloroquine. These results support our hypothesis that entry of NDV into ELL-0 and HeLa cells occurs through the plasma membrane as well as by dynamin- low pH- and receptor- dependent endocytosis. © 2013.

  6. ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE IN LACTIC ACID BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM FERMENTED DAIRY PRODUCTS AND BOZA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Başbülbül

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the resistance of 83 strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Turkish cheese, yogurt, kefir and boza samples to 6 antibiotics (gentamicin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, vancomycin and ciprofloxacin was evaluated. The 83 isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and according to BLAST comparisons with sequences in the data banks, those strains showing the highest similarities with the isolates were Enterococcus faecium (10, Lactococcus lactis subsp. Lactis (10, Lactobacillus fermentum (6, Lactobacillus plantarum (6, Lactobacillus coryniformis (7, Lactobacillus casei (13, Leuconostoc mesenteroides (14, Pediococcus pentosaceus (10, Weisella confusa (7. Antimicrobial resistance of strains to 6 antibiotics was determined using the agar dilution method. The antibiotic resistance among all the isolates was detected against chloramphenicol (31,3 % of the isolates, tetracycline (30,1 %, erythromycin (2,4 %, ciprofloxacin (2,41%, vancomycin (73,5 %, intrinsic resistance. Overall 19,3 % of the isolates showed resistance against multiple antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance genes were studied by PCR and the following genes were detected; tet(M gene in Lactobacillus fermentum (1, Lactobacillus plantarum (1, Pediococcus pentosaceus (5, Enterococcus faecium (2, Weisella confusa (4 and the vancomycin resistance gene van(A in one Weisella confusa strain.

  7. Design of a flexible organometallic tecton: host-guest chemistry with picric acid and self-assembly of platinum macrocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Achintya; Bhowmick, Sourav; Kaur, Supreet; Kashyap, Hemant K; Das, Neeladri

    2017-02-14

    The synthesis and characterization of a new pyrazine-based "flexible" and ditopic platinum(ii) organometallic molecule (3) is being reported. Flexibility in this molecule is due to the presence of ether functional groups that bridge the rigid core and periphery. Due to the presence of square planar Pt(ii) centers at the two ends, the molecule's potential to act as an acceptor building block in the construction of metallamacrocycles was tested. Upon reaction of 3 with various dicarboxylates in a 1 : 1 stoichiometric ratio, [2 + 2] self-assembled neutral metallacycles (M1-M3) were obtained in high yields. M1-M3 were characterized using multinuclear NMR, high resolution mass spectrometry and elemental analyses. The shape and dimensions of these supramolecular structures were also confirmed by optimizing the geometry using the density functional theory (DFT) approach. Computational studies suggest that M1-M3 are nanoscalar macrocyles. Furthermore, using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), it was shown that 3 can bind with picric acid (PA) to yield a 3·(PA)2 host-guest complex. The magnitude of the binding constant indicates that 3 has significant affinity for PA.

  8. Guest-Host Complex Formed between Ascorbic Acid and β-Cyclodextrin Immobilized on the Surface of an Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Ramírez-Silva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the formation of supramolecular complexes between ascorbic acid (AA, the guest, and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD, the host, that was first potentiodynamically immobilized on the surface of a carbon paste electrode (CPE throughout the formation of a β-CD-based conducting polymer (poly-β-CD. With the bare CPE and the β-CD-modified CPE, an electrochemical study was performed to understand the effect of such surface modification on the electrochemical response of the AA. From this study it was shown that on the modified-CPE, the AA was surface-immobilized through formation of an inclusion complex with β-CD, which provoked the adsorption of AA in such a way that this stage became the limiting step for the electrochemical oxidation of AA. Moreover, from the analysis of the experimental voltammetric plots recorded during AA oxidation on the CPE/poly-β-CD electrode surfaces, the Gibbs’ standard free energy of the inclusion complex formed by the oxidation product of AA and β-CD has been determined for the first time, ∆G0inclus = −36.4 kJ/mol.

  9. New insights into the mechanisms of acetic acid resistance in Acetobacter pasteurianus using iTRAQ-dependent quantitative proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Kai; Zang, Ning; Zhang, Junmei; Zhang, Hong; Li, Yudong; Liu, Ye; Feng, Wei; Liang, Xinle

    2016-12-05

    Acetobacter pasteurianus is the main starter in rice vinegar manufacturing due to its remarkable abilities to resist and produce acetic acid. Although several mechanisms of acetic acid resistance have been proposed and only a few effector proteins have been identified, a comprehensive depiction of the biological processes involved in acetic acid resistance is needed. In this study, iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis was adopted to investigate the whole proteome of different acidic titers (3.6, 7.1 and 9.3%, w/v) of Acetobacter pasteurianus Ab3 during the vinegar fermentation process. Consequently, 1386 proteins, including 318 differentially expressed proteins (pacetic acid stress, where >150 proteins were differentially expressed. Specifically, proteins involved in amino acid metabolic processes and fatty acid biosynthesis were differentially expressed, which may contribute to the acetic acid resistance of Acetobacter. Transcription factors, two component systems and toxin-antitoxin systems were implicated in the modulatory network at multiple levels. In addition, the identification of proteins involved in redox homeostasis, protein metabolism, and the cell envelope suggested that the whole cellular system is mobilized in response to acid stress. These findings provide a differential proteomic profile of acetic acid resistance in Acetobacter pasteurianus and have potential application to highly acidic rice vinegar manufacturing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Synergism between ammonia, lactic acid and carboxylic acids as kairomones in the host-seeking behaviour of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, R.C.; Qiu, Y.T.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Takken, W.

    2005-01-01

    Host odours play a major role in the orientation and host location of blood-feeding mosquitoes. Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto, which is the most important malaria vector in Africa, is a highly anthropophilic mosquito species, and the host-seeking behaviour of the females of this mosquito is

  11. Precision microbiome reconstitution restores bile acid mediated resistance to Clostridium difficile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffie, Charlie G.; Bucci, Vanni; Stein, Richard R.; McKenney, Peter T.; Ling, Lilan; Gobourne, Asia; No, Daniel; Liu, Hui; Kinnebrew, Melissa; Viale, Agnes; Littmann, Eric; van den Brink, Marcel R. M.; Jenq, Robert R.; Taur, Ying; Sander, Chris; Cross, Justin R.; Toussaint, Nora C.; Xavier, Joao B.; Pamer, Eric G.

    2015-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tracts of mammals are colonized by hundreds of microbial species that contribute to health, including colonization resistance against intestinal pathogens. Many antibiotics destroy intestinal microbial communities and increase susceptibility to intestinal pathogens. Among these, Clostridium difficile, a major cause of antibiotic-induced diarrhoea, greatly increases morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. Which intestinal bacteria provide resistance to C. difficile infection and their in vivo inhibitory mechanisms remain unclear. Here we correlate loss of specific bacterial taxa with development of infection, by treating mice with different antibiotics that result in distinct microbiota changes and lead to varied susceptibility to C. difficile. Mathematical modelling augmented by analyses of the microbiota of hospitalized patients identifies resistance-associated bacteria common to mice and humans. Using these platforms, we determine that Clostridium scindens, a bile acid 7α-dehydroxylating intestinal bacterium, is associated with resistance to C. difficile infection and, upon administration, enhances resistance to infection in a secondary bile acid dependent fashion. Using a workflow involving mouse models, clinical studies, metagenomic analyses, and mathematical modelling, we identify a probiotic candidate that corrects a clinically relevant microbiome deficiency. These findings have implications for the rational design of targeted antimicrobials as well as microbiome-based diagnostics and therapeutics for individuals at risk of C. difficile infection.

  12. Jasmonic acid involves in grape fruit ripening and resistant against Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Haifeng; Zhang, Cheng; Pervaiz, Tariq; Zhao, Pengcheng; Liu, Zhongjie; Wang, Baoju; Wang, Chen; Zhang, Lin; Fang, Jinggui; Qian, Jianpu

    2016-01-01

    Fruit ripening is a complex process that is regulated by a signal network. Whereas the regulatory mechanism of abscisic acid has been studied extensively in non-climacteric fruit, little is know about other signaling pathways involved in this process. In this study, we performed that plant hormone jasmonic acid plays an important role in grape fruit coloring and softening by increasing the transcription levels of several ripening-related genes, such as the color-related genes PAL1, DFR, CHI, F3H, GST, CHS, and UFGT; softening-related genes PG, PL, PE, Cell, EG1, and XTH1; and aroma-related genes Ecar, QR, and EGS. Lastly, the fruit anthocyanin, phenol, aroma, and cell wall materials were changed. Jasmonic acid positively regulated its biosynthesis pathway genes LOS, AOS, and 12-oxophytodienoate reductase (OPR) and signal pathway genes COI1 and JMT. RNA interference of grape jasmonic acid pathway gene VvAOS in strawberry fruit appeared fruit un-coloring phenotypes; exogenous jasmonic acid rescued this phenotypes. On the contrary, overexpression of grape jasmonic acid receptor VvCOI1 in the strawberry fruit accelerated the fruit-ripening process and induced some plant defense-related gene expression level. Furthermore, jasmonic acid treatment or strong jasmonic acid signal pathway in strawberry fruit make the fruit resistance against Botrytis cinerea.

  13. Cloning of genes responsible for acetic acid resistance in Acetobacter aceti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukaya, M; Takemura, H; Okumura, H; Kawamura, Y; Horinouchi, S; Beppu, T

    1990-04-01

    Five acetic acid-sensitive mutants of Acetobacter aceti subsp. aceti no. 1023 were isolated by mutagenesis with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Three recombinant plasmids that complemented the mutations were isolated from a gene bank of the chromosome DNA of the parental strain constructed in Escherichia coli by using cosmid vector pMVC1. One of these plasmids (pAR1611), carrying about a 30-kilobase-pair (kb) fragment that conferred acetic acid resistance to all five mutants, was further analyzed. Subcloning experiments indicated that a 8.3-kb fragment was sufficient to complement all five mutations. To identify the mutation loci and genes involved in acetic acid resistance, insertional inactivation was performed by insertion of the kanamycin resistance gene derived from E. coli plasmid pACYC177 into the cloned 8.3-kb fragment and successive integration into the chromosome of the parental strain. The results suggested that three genes, designated aarA, aarB, and aarC, were responsible for expression of acetic acid resistance. Gene products of these genes were detected by means of overproduction in E. coli by use of the lac promoter. The amino acid sequence of the aarA gene product deduced from the nucleotide sequence was significantly similar to those of the citrate synthases (CSs) of E. coli and other bacteria. The A. aceti mutants defective in the aarA gene were found to lack CS activity, which was restored by introduction of a plasmid containing the aarA gene. A mutation in the CS gene of E. coli was also complemented by the aarA gene. These results indicate that aarA is the CS gene.

  14. Tetradecylthioacetic acid prevents high fat diet induced adiposity and insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lise; Guerre-Millo, Michéle; Flindt, Esben N

    2002-01-01

    Tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) is a non-beta-oxidizable fatty acid analog, which potently regulates lipid homeostasis. Here we evaluate the ability of TTA to prevent diet-induced and genetically determined adiposity and insulin resistance. In Wistar rats fed a high fat diet, TTA administration...... in the ranking order PPARalpha > PPARdelta > PPARgamma. Expression of PPARgamma target genes in adipose tissue was unaffected by TTA treatment, whereas the hepatic expression of PPARalpha-responsive genes encoding enzymes involved in fatty acid uptake, transport, and oxidation was induced. This was accompanied...... by increased hepatic mitochondrial beta-oxidation and a decreased fatty acid/ketone body ratio in plasma. These findings indicate that PPARalpha-dependent mechanisms play a pivotal role, but additionally, the involvement of PPARalpha-independent pathways is conceivable. Taken together, our results suggest...

  15. Cladosporium fulvum CfHNNI1 induces hypersensitive necrosis, defence gene expression and disease resistance in both host and nonhost plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xin-Zhong; Zhou, Xin; Xu, You-Ping; Joosten, Matthieu H A J; de Wit, Pierre J G M

    2007-05-01

    Nonhost resistance as a durable and broad-spectrum defence strategy is of great potential for agricultural applications. We have previously isolated a cDNA showing homology with genes encoding bZIP transcription factors from tomato leaf mould pathogen Cladosporium fulvum. Upon expression, the cDNA results in necrosis in C. fulvum host tomato and nonhost tobacco plants and is thus named CfHNNI1 (for C . f ulvum host and nonhost plant necrosis inducer 1). In the present study we report the induction of necrosis in a variety of nonhost plant species belonging to three families by the transient in planta expression of CfHNNI1 using virus-based vectors. Additionally, transient expression of CfHNNI1 also induced expression of the HR marker gene LeHSR203 and greatly reduced the accumulation of recombinant Potato virus X. Stable CfHNNI1 transgenic tobacco plants were generated in which the expression of CfHNNI1 is under the control of the pathogen-inducible hsr203J promoter. When infected with the oomycetes pathogen Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae, these transgenic plants manifested enhanced expression of CfHNNI1 and subsequent accumulation of CfHNNI1 protein, resulting in high expression of the HSR203J and PR genes, and strong resistance to the pathogen. The CfHNNI1 transgenic plants also exhibited induced resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci and Tobacco mosaic virus. Furthermore, CfHNNI1 was highly expressed and the protein was translocated into plant cells during the incompatible interactions between C. fulvum and host and nonhost plants. Our results demonstrate that CfHNNI1 is a potential general elicitor of hypersensitive response and nonhost resistance.

  16. The ABC-Type Multidrug Resistance Transporter LmrCD Is Responsible for an Extrusion-Based Mechanism of Bile Acid Resistance in Lactococcus lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaidi, Arsalan Haseeb; Bakkes, Patrick J.; Lubelski, Jacek; Agustiandari, Herfita; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Driessen, Arnold J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Upon prolonged exposure to cholate and other toxic compounds, Lactococcus lactis develops a multidrug resistance phenotype that has been attributed to an elevated expression of the heterodimeric ABC-type multidrug transporter LmrCD. To investigate the molecular basis of bile acid resistance in L.

  17. A single-amino acid substitution in the sixth leucine-rich repeat of barley MLA6 and MLA13 alleviates dependence on RAR1 for disease resistance signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halterman, Dennis A; Wise, Roger P

    2004-04-01

    Interactions between barley and the powdery mildew pathogen, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei, (Bgh) are determined by unique combinations of host resistance genes, designated Mildew-resistance locus (Ml), and cognate pathogen avirulence genes. These interactions occur both dependent and independent of Rar1 (required for Mla12 resistance) and Sgt1 (Suppressor of G-two allele of skp1), which are differentially required for diverse plant disease-resistance pathways. We have isolated two new functional Mla alleles, Rar1-independent Mla7 and Rar1-dependent Mla10, as well as the Mla paralogs, Mla6-2 and Mla13-2. Utilizing the inherent diversity amongst Mla-encoded proteins, we identified the only two amino acids exclusively conserved in RAR1-dependent MLA6, MLA10, MLA12, and MLA13 that differ at the corresponding position in RAR1-independent MLA1 and MLA7. Two- and three-dimensional modeling places these residues on a predicted surface of the sixth leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain at positions distinct from those within the beta-sheets hypothesized to determine resistance specificity. Site-directed mutagenesis of these residues indicates that RAR1 independence requires the presence of an aspartate at position 721, as mutation of this residue to a structurally similar, but uncharged, asparagine did not alter RAR1 dependence. These results demonstrate that a single-amino acid substitution in the sixth MLA LRR can alter host signaling but not resistance specificity to B. graminis.

  18. Heterotrimeric G proteins-mediated resistance to necrotrophic pathogens includes mechanisms independent of salicylic acid-, jasmonic acid/ethylene- and abscisic acid-mediated defense signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusov, Yuri; Sewelam, Nasser; Rookes, James Edward; Kunkel, Matt; Nowak, Ekaterina; Schenk, Peer Martin; Botella, José Ramón

    2009-04-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins are involved in the defense response against necrotrophic fungi in Arabidopsis. In order to elucidate the resistance mechanisms involving heterotrimeric G proteins, we analyzed the effects of the Gβ (subunit deficiency in the mutant agb1-2 on pathogenesis-related gene expression, as well as the genetic interaction between agb1-2 and a number of mutants of established defense pathways. Gβ-mediated signaling suppresses the induction of salicylic acid (SA)-, jasmonic acid (JA)-, ethylene (ET)- and abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent genes during the initial phase of the infection with Fusarium oxysporum (up to 48 h after inoculation). However, at a later phase it enhances JA/ET-dependent genes such as PDF1.2 and PR4. Quantification of the Fusarium wilt symptoms revealed that Gβ- and SA-deficient mutants were more susceptible than wild-type plants, whereas JA- and ET-insensitive and ABA-deficient mutants demonstrated various levels of resistance. Analysis of the double mutants showed that the Gβ-mediated resistance to F. oxysporum and Alternaria brassicicola was mostly independent of all of the previously mentioned pathways. However, the progressive decay of agb1-2 mutants was compensated by coi1-21 and jin1-9 mutations, suggesting that at this stage of F. oxysporum infection Gβ acts upstream of COI1 and ATMYC2 in JA signaling. © 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Plastidial fatty acid levels regulate resistance gene-dependent defense signaling in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra-Shekara, A C; Venugopal, Srivathsa C; Barman, Subhankar Roy; Kachroo, Aardra; Kachroo, Pradeep

    2007-04-24

    In Arabidopsis, resistance to Turnip Crinkle Virus (TCV) depends on the resistance (R) gene, HRT, and the recessive locus rrt. Resistance also depends on salicylic acid (SA), EDS1, and PAD4. Exogenous application of SA confers resistance in RRT-containing plants by increasing HRT transcript levels in a PAD4-dependent manner. Here we report that reduction of oleic acid (18:1) can also induce HRT gene expression and confer resistance to TCV. However, the 18:1-regulated pathway is independent of SA, rrt, EDS1, and PAD4. Reducing the levels of 18:1, via a mutation in the SSI2-encoded stearoyl-acyl carrier protein-desaturase, or by exogenous application of glycerol, increased transcript levels of HRT as well as several other R genes. Second-site mutations in the ACT1-encoded glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase or GLY1-encoded glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase restored 18:1 levels in HRT ssi2 plants and reestablished a dependence on rrt. Resistance to TCV and HRT gene expression in HRT act1 plants was inducible by SA but not by glycerol, whereas that in HRT pad4 plants was inducible by glycerol but not by SA. The low 18:1-mediated induction of R gene expression was also dependent on ACT1 but independent of EDS1, PAD4, and RAR1. Intriguingly, TCV inoculation did not activate this 18:1-regulated pathway in HRT plants, but instead resulted in the induction of several genes that encode 18:1-synthesizing isozymes. These results suggest that the 18:1-regulated pathway may be specifically targeted during pathogen infection and that altering 18:1 levels may serve as a unique strategy for promoting disease resistance.

  20. Acetylsalycylic Acid Resistance and Risk Factors in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yıldız Arslan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate prevalence of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA resistance in acute ischemic stroke patients by using Platelet Function Analyzer (PFA 100 test and to determine the effect of risk factors that may be responsible for ASA resistance. METHODS: Fifty acute ischemic stroke patients (mean age: 66.32±12.983 years, 34 male were given 300 mg/day aspirin for at least 10 days and all risk factors were investigated for a correlation to ASA resistance by using PFA 100 test. These factors were; age, gender, hemoglobin(Hgb, hematocrit(Htc, platelet (plt total cholesterol, von Willebrand Factor (vWF levels, hypertension(HT, diabetes mellitus(DM, coronary artery disease(CAD, smoking and previous cerebrovascular disease (CVD. In PFA-100 system, a collagen/epinephrine (C/EPI closure time in the range of 85-157 sec. and a collagen/ADP closure time of 65-125sec. were considered normal. Maximal test duration was 300 s. C/EPI closure time is sensitive for ASA resistance. Subjects with duration shorter than 300 s. were accepted as ASA-resistant or non-responder. RESULTS: ASA resistance was apparent in 32% of the study group. vWF levels were higher in ASA resistant patients group. All risk factors were compared in ASA sensitive and resistant group. vWF levels and mean age were higher in ischemic stroke ASA non responder group, but not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: In 50 acute ischemic patient aspirin resistance rate was 32%, this means aspirin was pharmacologically non effective in those. Clinical outcome for aspirin non responders may be revealed through the follow up at least six months.

  1. Ascorbic acid augments colony spreading by reducing biofilm formation of methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Mirani, Zulfiqar; Khan, Muhammad Naseem; Siddiqui, Anila; Khan, Fouzia; Aziz, Mubashir; Naz, Shagufta; Ahmed, Ayaz; Khan, Seema Ismat

    2018-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive pathogen, well known for its resistance and versatile lifestyle. Under unfavourable conditions, it adapts biofilm mode of growth. For staphylococcal biofilm formation, production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) is a pre-requisite, which is regulated by ica operon-encoded enzymes. This study was designed to know the impact of ascorbic acid on biofilm formation and colony spreading processes of S. aureus and MRSA. The isolates of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) used in present study, were recovered from different food samples. Various selective and differential media were used for identification and confirmation of S. aureus . Agar dilution method was used for determination of oxacillin and ascorbic acid resistance level. MRSA isolates were re-confirmed by E-test and by amplification of mecA gene. Tube methods and Congo-Red agar were used to study biofilm formation processes. Gene expression studies were carried on real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results revealed the presence of mecA gene belonging to SCC mecA type IV along with agr type II in the isolates. In vitro studies showed the sub-inhibitory concentration of oxacillin induced biofilm production. However, addition of sub-inhibitory dose of ascorbic acid was found to inhibit EPS production, biofilm formation and augment colony spreading on soft agar plates. The inhibition of biofilm formation and augmentation of colony spreading observed with ascorbic acid alone or in combination with oxacillin. Moreover, gene expression studies showed that ascorbic acid increases agr expression and decreases icaA gene expression. The present study concluded that ascorbic acid inhibits biofilm formation, promotes colony spreading and increases agr gene expression in MRSA.

  2. Host Resistance, Population Structure and the Long-Term Persistence of Bubonic Plague: Contributions of a Modelling Approach in the Malagasy Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascuel, Fanny; Choisy, Marc; Duplantier, Jean-Marc; Débarre, Florence; Brouat, Carine

    2013-01-01

    Although bubonic plague is an endemic zoonosis in many countries around the world, the factors responsible for the persistence of this highly virulent disease remain poorly known. Classically, the endemic persistence of plague is suspected to be due to the coexistence of plague resistant and plague susceptible rodents in natural foci, and/or to a metapopulation structure of reservoirs. Here, we test separately the effect of each of these factors on the long-term persistence of plague. We analyse the dynamics and equilibria of a model of plague propagation, consistent with plague ecology in Madagascar, a major focus where this disease is endemic since the 1920s in central highlands. By combining deterministic and stochastic analyses of this model, and including sensitivity analyses, we show that (i) endemicity is favoured by intermediate host population sizes, (ii) in large host populations, the presence of resistant rats is sufficient to explain long-term persistence of plague, and (iii) the metapopulation structure of susceptible host populations alone can also account for plague endemicity, thanks to both subdivision and the subsequent reduction in the size of subpopulations, and extinction-recolonization dynamics of the disease. In the light of these results, we suggest scenarios to explain the localized presence of plague in Madagascar. PMID:23675291

  3. Changes of resistome, mobilome and potential hosts of antibiotic resistance genes during the transformation of anaerobic digestion from mesophilic to thermophilic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhe; Zhang, Yu; Yu, Bo; Yang, Min

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to reveal how antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and their horizontal and vertical transfer-related items (mobilome and bacterial hosts) respond to the transformation of anaerobic digestion (AD) from mesophilic to thermophilic using one-step temperature increase. The resistomes and mobilomes of mesophilic and thermophilic sludge were investigated using metagenome sequencing, and the changes in 24 representative ARGs belonging to three categories, class 1 integron and bacterial genera during the transition period were further followed using quantitative PCR and 454-pyrosequencing. After the temperature increase, resistome abundance in the digested sludge decreased from 125.97 ppm (day 0, mesophilic) to 50.65 ppm (day 57, thermophilic) with the reduction of most ARG types except for the aminoglycoside resistance genes. Thermophilic sludge also had a smaller mobilome, including plasmids, insertion sequences and integrons, than that of mesophilic sludge, suggesting the lower horizontal transfer potential of ARGs under thermophilic conditions. On the other hand, the total abundance of 18 bacterial genera, which were suggested as the possible hosts for 13 ARGs through network analysis, decreased from 23.27% in mesophilic sludge to 11.92% in thermophilic sludge, indicating fewer hosts for the vertical expansion of ARGs after the increase in temperature. These results indicate that the better reduction of resistome abundance by thermophilic AD might be associated with the decrease of both the horizontal and vertical transferability of ARGs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Host resistance, population structure and the long-term persistence of bubonic plague: contributions of a modelling approach in the Malagasy focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascuel, Fanny; Choisy, Marc; Duplantier, Jean-Marc; Débarre, Florence; Brouat, Carine

    2013-01-01

    Although bubonic plague is an endemic zoonosis in many countries around the world, the factors responsible for the persistence of this highly virulent disease remain poorly known. Classically, the endemic persistence of plague is suspected to be due to the coexistence of plague resistant and plague susceptible rodents in natural foci, and/or to a metapopulation structure of reservoirs. Here, we test separately the effect of each of these factors on the long-term persistence of plague. We analyse the dynamics and equilibria of a model of plague propagation, consistent with plague ecology in Madagascar, a major focus where this disease is endemic since the 1920s in central highlands. By combining deterministic and stochastic analyses of this model, and including sensitivity analyses, we show that (i) endemicity is favoured by intermediate host population sizes, (ii) in large host populations, the presence of resistant rats is sufficient to explain long-term persistence of plague, and (iii) the metapopulation structure of susceptible host populations alone can also account for plague endemicity, thanks to both subdivision and the subsequent reduction in the size of subpopulations, and extinction-recolonization dynamics of the disease. In the light of these results, we suggest scenarios to explain the localized presence of plague in Madagascar.

  5. Host resistance, population structure and the long-term persistence of bubonic plague: contributions of a modelling approach in the Malagasy focus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Gascuel

    Full Text Available Although bubonic plague is an endemic zoonosis in many countries around the world, the factors responsible for the persistence of this highly virulent disease remain poorly known. Classically, the endemic persistence of plague is suspected to be due to the coexistence of plague resistant and plague susceptible rodents in natural foci, and/or to a metapopulation structure of reservoirs. Here, we test separately the effect of each of these factors on the long-term persistence of plague. We analyse the dynamics and equilibria of a model of plague propagation, consistent with plague ecology in Madagascar, a major focus where this disease is endemic since the 1920s in central highlands. By combining deterministic and stochastic analyses of this model, and including sensitivity analyses, we show that (i endemicity is favoured by intermediate host population sizes, (ii in large host populations, the presence of resistant rats is sufficient to explain long-term persistence of plague, and (iii the metapopulation structure of susceptible host populations alone can also account for plague endemicity, thanks to both subdivision and the subsequent reduction in the size of subpopulations, and extinction-recolonization dynamics of the disease. In the light of these results, we suggest scenarios to explain the localized presence of plague in Madagascar.

  6. Eradication of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection by nanoliposomes loaded with gentamicin and oleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atashbeyk, Davod Ghoochi; Khameneh, Bahman; Tafaghodi, Mohsen; Fazly Bazzaz, Bibi Sedigheh

    2014-11-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection with its high incidence is responsible for nosocomial infections. MRSA strains resistant to multiple antibiotics have emerged increasingly. Recently, combination therapy and efficient drug delivery systems are developed to treat infections. The aim of the present study was to evaluate antibacterial activities of combination of oleic acid and gentamicin against MRSA, in both free and liposomal forms, and in comparison with vancomycin. The antibacterial activities against MRSA ATCC 43300 were assessed by the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), MBC, and Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Index (FICI). The time-kill assays were performed to evaluate the potency of antibacterial agents. Nanoliposomal formulations of gentamicin, oleic acid, and combination of gentamicin with oleic acid were prepared by the dehydration-rehydration (DRV) method and characterized for size, zeta potential, and encapsulation efficiency. MIC values of gentamicin and oleic acid were 19.5 and >250 µg/ml, respectively. Synergetic effects were observed by the gentamicin and oleic acid combination; FICI was 0.5. Following incorporation of gentamicin into liposomal gentamicin and liposomal combination, the MIC values were reduced 15- and 27-fold, respectively. In comparison with vancomycin, liposomal combination was more effective in bacterial inhibition and killing. Liposomal combination was the most effective formula in time-kill study. Liposomal formulation showed a higher antibacterial activity in comparison with the free forms and vancomycin. These carriers can improve antimicrobial activity as well as reducing the effective concentration required and inducing rapid bacterial clearance.

  7. Cloning of genes responsible for acetic acid resistance in Acetobacter aceti.

    OpenAIRE

    Fukaya, M; Takemura, H.; Okumura, H; Kawamura, Y.; Horinouchi, S; Beppu, T

    1990-01-01

    Five acetic acid-sensitive mutants of Acetobacter aceti subsp. aceti no. 1023 were isolated by mutagenesis with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Three recombinant plasmids that complemented the mutations were isolated from a gene bank of the chromosome DNA of the parental strain constructed in Escherichia coli by using cosmid vector pMVC1. One of these plasmids (pAR1611), carrying about a 30-kilobase-pair (kb) fragment that conferred acetic acid resistance to all five mutants, was furthe...

  8. Superhydrophobic copper surfaces fabricated by fatty acid soaps in aqueous solution for excellent corrosion resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenlong; Hu, Yuanyuan; Bao, Wenda; Xie, Xiaoyu; Liu, Yiran; Song, Aixin; Hao, Jingcheng

    2017-03-01

    A simple and safe one-step immersion method was developed to obtain the stable superhydrophobic copper surfaces with excellent corrosion resistance ability using fatty acids in water-medium instead of ethanol. An organic alkali, N,N-dimethylcyclohexylamine (DMCHA), was chosen to solve the poor solubility of fatty acids in water and the high Krafft point of carboxylate salts with inorganic counterions. The superhydrophobic property can be realized in a much quicker process (7.5 min) in aqueous solution than in ethanol (more than 2 d), which is universally feasible for the fabrication of superhydrophobic metal surfaces in industry scale, thereby greatly increasing the safety in industrial manufacture.

  9. Atomic evidence that modification of H-bonds established with amino acids critical for host-cell binding induces sterile immunity against malaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patarroyo, Manuel E., E-mail: mepatarr@mail.com [Fundacion Instituto de Inmunologia de Colombia (FIDIC), Bogota (Colombia); Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia); Cifuentes, Gladys [Fundacion Instituto de Inmunologia de Colombia (FIDIC), Bogota (Colombia); Universidad del Rosario, Bogota (Colombia); Pirajan, Camilo; Moreno-Vranich, Armando [Fundacion Instituto de Inmunologia de Colombia (FIDIC), Bogota (Colombia); Vanegas, Magnolia [Fundacion Instituto de Inmunologia de Colombia (FIDIC), Bogota (Colombia); Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia); Universidad del Rosario, Bogota (Colombia)

    2010-04-09

    Based on the 3D X-ray crystallographic structures of relevant proteins of the malaria parasite involved in invasion to host cells and 3D NMR structures of High Activity Binding Peptides (HABPs) and their respective analogues, it was found that HABPs are rendered into highly immunogenic and sterile immunity inducers in the Aotus experimental model by modifying those amino acids that establish H-bonds with other HABPs or binding to host's cells. This finding adds striking and novel physicochemical principles, at the atomic level, for a logical and rational vaccine development methodology against infectious disease, among them malaria.

  10. Eco-friendly Rot and Crease Resistance Finishing of Jute Fabric using Citric Acid and Chitosan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, A. K.; Bagchi, A.

    2013-03-01

    Citric acid (CA) along with chitosan was used on bleached jute fabrics to impart anti crease and rot resistance properties in one step. The treatment was carried out by pad-dry-cure method in presence of sodium hypophosphite monohydrate catalyst. Curing at 150° Centigrade for 5 min delivered good crease resistant property (dry crease recovery angle is 244°) and high rot resistance simultaneously by a single treatment, which are durable for five washings with distilled water. Strength retention of jute fabric after 21 days soil burial was found to be 81 % and the loss (%) in strength due to this treatment was 15-18 %. The results showed that chitosan and CA treated-fabric exhibited higher rot resistance (as indicated by soil burial test) when compared to either CA or chitosan by individual treatment. The effect of CA and chitosan combination on the resistance to rotting of jute fabric was found to be synergistic which is higher than the sum of the effects of individual chemicals. CA possibly reacts with hydroxyl groups in cellulose or chitosan to form ester. The CA and chitosan finished fabric has adverse effect on stiffness. Thermal studies showed that final residue left at 500° C was much higher for CA and chitosan treated fabric than untreated jute fabric. FTIR spectroscopy suggested the formation of ester cross-linkage between the jute fibre, CA and chitosan and hence it is understood that this rot resistant finish on jute fabric become durable by this mechanism.

  11. Metformin ameliorates high uric acid-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Huier; Hu, Yaqiu; Zhu, Yuzhang; Zhang, Yongneng; Luo, Chaohuan; Li, Zhi; Wen, Tengfei; Zhuang, Wanling; Zou, Jinfang; Hong, Liangli; Zhang, Xin; Hisatome, Ichiro; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Cheng, Jidong

    2017-03-05

    Hyperuricemia occurs together with abnormal glucose metabolism and insulin resistance. Skeletal muscle is an important organ of glucose uptake, disposal, and storage. Metformin activates adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) to regulate insulin signaling and promote the translocation of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4), thereby stimulating glucose uptake to maintain energy balance. Our previous study showed that high uric acid (HUA) induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle tissue. However, the mechanism of metformin ameliorating UA-induced insulin resistance in muscle cells is unknown and we aimed to determine it. In this study, differentiated C2C12 cells were exposed to UA (15 mg/dl), then reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected with DCFH-DA and glucose uptake with 2-NBDG. The levels of phospho-insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1; Ser307), phospho-AKT (Ser473) and membrane GLUT4 were examined by western blot analysis. The impact of metformin on UA-induced insulin resistance was monitored by adding Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, and LY294002, a PI3K/AKT inhibitor. Our data indicate that UA can increase ROS production, inhibit IRS1-AKT signaling and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, and induce insulin resistance in C2C12 cells. Metformin can reverse this process by increasing intracellular glucose uptake and ameliorating UA-induced insulin resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Interacting amino acid replacements allow poison frogs to evolve epibatidine resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvin, Rebecca D; Borghese, Cecilia M; Sachs, Wiebke; Santos, Juan C; Lu, Ying; O'Connell, Lauren A; Cannatella, David C; Harris, R Adron; Zakon, Harold H

    2017-09-22

    Animals that wield toxins face self-intoxication. Poison frogs have a diverse arsenal of defensive alkaloids that target the nervous system. Among them is epibatidine, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist that is lethal at microgram doses. Epibatidine shares a highly conserved binding site with acetylcholine, making it difficult to evolve resistance yet maintain nAChR function. Electrophysiological assays of human and frog nAChR revealed that one amino acid replacement, which evolved three times in poison frogs, decreased epibatidine sensitivity but at a cost of acetylcholine sensitivity. However, receptor functionality was rescued by additional amino acid replacements that differed among poison frog lineages. Our results demonstrate how resistance to agonist toxins can evolve and that such genetic changes propel organisms toward an adaptive peak of chemical defense. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  13. Resistance to acidic and alkaline environments in the endodontic pathogen Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajo, K; Komori, R; Ishikawa, S; Ueno, T; Suzuki, Y; Iwami, Y; Takahashi, N

    2006-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the biochemical mechanisms employed by the endodontic pathogen Enterococcus faecalis to confer acid- and alkali-resistance and to compare these with the mechanisms of representative oral streptococci. E. faecalis JCM8728, Streptococcus mutans NCTC10449 and Streptococcus sanguinis ATCC10556 were used to assess both acid- and alkali-resistance by examining: (i) growth in complex media; (ii) stability of intracellular pH (pH(in)); (iii) cell durability to leakage of preloaded BCECF (2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5,6-carboxy-fluorescein); and (iv) cell permeability to SYTOX-Green. Growth was initiated by E. faecalis at pH 4.0-11.0, by S. mutans at pH 4.0-9.0 and by S. sanguinis at pH 5.0-9.0. The pH(in) was similar to the extracellular pH in S. mutans and S. sanguinis at pH 5-10, while the pH(in) of E. faecalis was maintained at approximately 7.5-8.5 when extracellular pH was 7.5-10 and was maintained at levels equivalent to the extracellular pH when pH faecalis were resistant to BCECF leakage when extracellular pH was 2.5-12 and to SYTOX-Green permeability at pH 4-10. The cell membrane durability to extracellular pH in E. faecalis was higher than that observed in the Streptococcus strains. Compared to S. mutans, E. faecalis was found to be equally resistant to acid and more resistant to alkalis. The results suggest that pH-resistance in E. faecalis is attributed to membrane durability against acid and alkali, in addition to cell membrane-bound proton-transport systems. These characteristics may account for why E. faecalis is frequently isolated from acidic caries lesions and from persistently infected root canals where calcium hydroxide medication is ineffective.

  14. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, free fatty acids, and insulin resistance in patients with myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruzdeva O

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Olga Gruzdeva, Evgenya Uchasova, Yulia Dyleva, Ekaterina Belik, Ekaterina Shurygina, Olga Barbarash Research Institute for Complex Issues of Cardiovascular Diseases under the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Kemerovo, Russian Federation Background: Insulin resistance is known to be a common feature of type 2 diabetes mellitus and is regarded as an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of this disease. The key pathogenetic mechanisms of insulin resistance progression are free fatty acids metabolism impairment and enhanced activity of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1. Both free fatty acids and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 are recognized as risk factors for coronary heart disease. Methods: The patients were divided into two groups: group 1 included 65 non-diabetic myocardial infarction patients and group 2 enrolled 60 diabetic myocardial infarction patients. The control group consisted of 30 sex- and age-matched volunteers. The concentration of serum free fatty acids, glucose, C-peptide, and insulin were measured on the 1st and 12th days of the study. All the patients had their postprandial glycemia, insulin, and C-peptide concentrations measured 2 hours after a standard carbohydrate breakfast containing 360 kcal (protein 20 g, carbohydrate 57 g, and fat 9 g. Results: Free fatty acids levels in group 1 and in group 2 exceeded the control group values by 7-fold and 11-fold, respectively. Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 concentration was 2.5-fold higher in group 1 and 4.6-fold higher in group 2 compared to the control group on the 1st day from the myocardial infarction onset. In addition, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 concentration was significantly reduced in both groups on the 12th day from the myocardial infarction onset; however, it did not achieve the control group values. Conclusion: Increased postprandial glucose level, insulinemia, and elevated levels of free fatty acids and plasminogen activator

  15. Diminished activity of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase in alveolar macrophages from patients with active sarcoidosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Barth, J.; Kreipe, H.; Kiemle-Kallee, J; Radzun, H.J.; Parwaresch, M R; Petermann, W.

    1988-01-01

    Alveolar macrophages differ from their percursors in blood, monocytes, by expressing strong activity of the tartrate resistant variant of acid phosphatase (TAcP). A study was carried out to analyse the expression of this enzyme cytochemical marker by alveolar macrophages from bronchoalveolar lavage cells from 34 patients with sarcoidosis and 12 control subjects. Alveolar macrophages from control subjects displayed a strong and homogeneous staining pattern and only 0.1% of cells were negative ...

  16. Resistance and Tolerance to Tropodithietic Acid, an Antimicrobial in Aquaculture, Is Hard To Select

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsby, Cisse Hedegaard; Webber, Mark A.; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2011-01-01

    The antibacterial compound tropodithietic acid (TDA) is produced by bacteria of the marine Roseobacter clade and is thought to explain the fish probiotic properties of some roseobacters. The aim of the present study was to determine the antibacterial spectrum of TDA and the likelihood of developm......-spectrum antimicrobial in part due to the fact that enhanced tolerance is difficult to gain and that the TDA-tolerant phenotype appears to confer only low-level resistance and is very unstable....

  17. Resistance and Tolerance to Tropodithietic Acid, an Antimicrobial in Aquaculture, Is Hard To Select▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Porsby, Cisse Hedegaard; Webber, Mark A.; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Piddock, Laura J. V.; Gram, Lone

    2011-01-01

    The antibacterial compound tropodithietic acid (TDA) is produced by bacteria of the marine Roseobacter clade and is thought to explain the fish probiotic properties of some roseobacters. The aim of the present study was to determine the antibacterial spectrum of TDA and the likelihood of development of TDA resistance. A bacterial extract containing 95% TDA was effective against a range of human-pathogenic bacteria, including both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. TDA was bactericidal ...

  18. Simvastatin may induce insulin resistance through a novel fatty acid mediated cholesterol independent mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kain, Vasundhara; Kapadia, Bandish; Misra, Parimal; Saxena, Uday

    2015-01-01

    Statins are a class of oral drugs that are widely used for treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Recent clinical data suggest that chronic use of these drugs increases the frequency of new onset diabetes. Studies to define the risks of statin-induced diabetes and its underlying mechanisms are clearly necessary. We explored the possible mechanism of statin induced insulin resistance using a well-established cell based model and simvastatin as a prototype statin. Our data show that simvastatin induces insulin resistance in a cholesterol biosynthesis inhibition independent fashion but does so by a fatty acid mediated effect on insulin signaling pathway. These data may help design strategies for prevention of statin induced insulin resistance and diabetes in patients with hypercholesterolemia. PMID:26345110

  19. Corrosion resistance of different nickel-titanium archwires in acidic fluoride-containing artificial saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tzu-Hsin; Huang, Ta-Ko; Lin, Shu-Yuan; Chen, Li-Kai; Chou, Ming-Yung; Huang, Her-Hsiung

    2010-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that different nickel-titanium (NiTi) archwires may have dissimilar corrosion resistance in a fluoride-containing oral environment. Linear polarization test, a fast electrochemical technique, was used to evaluate the corrosion resistance, in terms of polarization resistance (R(p)), of four different commercial NiTi archwires in artificial saliva (pH 6.5) with various NaF concentrations (0%, 0.01%, 0.1%, 0.25%, and 0.5%). Two-way analysis of variance was used to analyze R(p) with the factors of archwire manufacturer and NaF concentration. Surface characterizations of archwires were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Both archwire manufacturer and NaF concentration had a significant influence on R(p) of NiTi archwires. Different surface topography was present on the test NiTi archwires that contained the similar surface chemical structure (TiO(2) and trace NiO). The surface topography did not correspond to the difference in corrosion resistance of the NiTi archwires. Increasing the NaF concentration in artificial saliva resulted in a decrease in R(p), or corrosion resistance, of all test NiTi archwires. The NiTi archwires severely corroded and showed similar corrosion resistance in 0.5% NaF-containing environment. Different NiTi archwires had dissimilar corrosion resistance in acidic fluoride-containing artificial saliva, which did not correspond to the variation in the surface topography of the archwires. The presence of fluoride in artificial saliva was detrimental to the corrosion resistance of the test NiTi archwires, especially at a 0.5% NaF concentration.

  20. β-Amino-n-butyric Acid Regulates Seedling Growth and Disease Resistance of Kimchi Cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeong Chae; Kim, Yeon Hwa; Lee, Young Hee; Lee, Sang Woo; Chae, Yun-Soek; Kang, Hyun-Kyung; Yun, Byung-Wook; Hong, Jeum Kyu

    2013-09-01

    Non-protein amino acid, β-amino-n-butyric acid (BABA), has been involved in diverse physiological processes including seedling growth, stress tolerance and disease resistance of many plant species. In the current study, treatment of kimchi cabbage seedlings with BABA significantly reduced primary root elongation and cotyledon development in a dose-dependent manner, which adverse effects were similar to the plant response to exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) application. BABA was synergistically contributing ABA-induced growth arrest during the early seedling development. Kimchi cabbage leaves were highly damaged and seedling growth was delayed by foliar spraying with high concentrations of BABA (10 to 20 mM). BABA played roles differentially in in vitro fungal conidial germination, mycelial growth and conidation of necrotroph Alternaria brassicicola causing black spot disease and hemibiotroph Colletotrichum higginsianum causing anthracnose. Pretreatment with BABA conferred induced resistance of the kimchi cabbage against challenges by the two different classes of fungal pathogens in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that BABA is involved in plant development, fungal development as well as induced fungal disease resistance of kimchi cabbage plant.

  1. β-Amino-n-butyric Acid Regulates Seedling Growth and Disease Resistance of Kimchi Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong Chae Kim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-protein amino acid, β-amino-n-butyric acid (BABA, has been involved in diverse physiological processes including seedling growth, stress tolerance and disease resistance of many plant species. In the current study, treatment of kimchi cabbage seedlings with BABA significantly reduced primary root elongation and cotyledon development in a dose-dependent manner, which adverse effects were similar to the plant response to exogenous abscisic acid (ABA application. BABA was synergistically contributing ABA-induced growth arrest during the early seedling development. Kimchi cabbage leaves were highly damaged and seedling growth was delayed by foliar spraying with high concentrations of BABA (10 to 20 mM. BABA played roles differentially in in vitro fungal conidial germination, mycelial growth and conidation of necrotroph Alternaria brassicicola causing black spot disease and hemibiotroph Colletotrichum higginsianum causing anthracnose. Pretreatment with BABA conferred induced resistance of the kimchi cabbage against challenges by the two different classes of fungal pathogens in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that BABA is involved in plant development, fungal development as well as induced fungal disease resistance of kimchi cabbage plant.

  2. Eubacterium rangiferina, a novel usnic acid-resistant bacterium from the reindeer rumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundset, Monica A.; Kohn, Alexandra; Mathiesen, Svein D.; Præsteng, Kirsti E.

    2008-08-01

    Reindeer are able to eat and utilize lichens as an important source of energy and nutrients. In the current study, the activities of antibiotic secondary metabolites including usnic, antranoric, fumarprotocetraric, and lobaric acid commonly found in lichens were tested against a collection of 26 anaerobic rumen bacterial isolates from reindeer ( Rangifer tarandus tarandus) using the agar diffusion method. The isolates were identified based on their 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene sequences. Usnic acid had a potent antimicrobial effect against 25 of the isolates, belonging to Clostridiales, Enterococci, and Streptococci. Isolates of Clostridia and Streptococci were also susceptible to atranoric and lobaric acid. However, one isolate (R3_91_1) was found to be resistant to usnic, antranoric, fumarprotocetraric, and lobaric acid. R3_91_1 was also seen invading and adhering to lichen particles when grown in a liquid anaerobic culture as demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy. This was a Gram-negative, nonmotile rod (0.2-0.7 × 2.0-3.5 μm) with a deoxyribonucleic acid G + C content of 47.0 mol% and main cellular fatty acids including 15:0 anteiso-dimethyl acetal (DMA), 16:0 iso-fatty acid methyl ester (FAME), 13:0 iso-3OH FAME, and 17:0 anteiso-FAME, not matching any of the presently known profiles in the MIDI database. Combined, the phenotypic and genotypic traits including the 16S rRNA gene sequence show that R3_91_1 is a novel species inside the order Clostridiales within the family Lachnospiraceae, for which we propose the name Eubacterium rangiferina. This is the first record of a rumen bacterium able to tolerate and grow in the presence of usnic acid, indicating that the rumen microorganisms in these animals have adapted mechanisms to deal with lichen secondary metabolites, well known for their antimicrobial and toxic effects.

  3. High-level tolerance to triclosan may play a role in Pseudomonas aeruginosa antibiotic resistance in immunocompromised hosts: evidence from outbreak investigation

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    D'Arezzo Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and methods Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major infectious threat to immunocompromised patients. We recently reported a fatal epidemic of multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa in an onchoematology unit, linked to massive contamination of a triclosan-based disinfectant. The aim of this study is to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of triclosan and chlorhexidine digluconate against the epidemic strain of P. aeruginosa, to confirm the hypothesis that the soap dispenser acted as a continuous source of the infection during the outbreak, and to explore the potential role of triclosan in increasing the level of resistance to selected antibiotics. Susceptibility tests and time-kill assays for disinfectans were performed using two commercial formulations containing triclosan and chlorhexidine digluconate, respectively. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by the broth microdilution method. Findings The P. aeruginosa epidemic strain exhibited an extremely high level of triclosan resistance (apparent MIC = 2,125 mg/L, while it was markedly susceptible to chlorhexidine digluconate (apparent MIC = 12.5 mg/L. Upon gradual adaptation to triclosan, the epidemic strain survived for a long period (> 120 h in the presence of 3,400 mg/L (equivalent to 1.6 × MIC of triclosan, concomitantly increasing the resistance to six antibiotics that are typical substrates of drug efflux pumps of the resistance nodulation division family. This effect was reversed by efflux pump inhibitors. Conclusions The epidemic P. aeruginosa strain was resistant to triclosan and its previous exposure to triclosan increases antibiotic resistance, likely through active efflux mechanisms. Since P. aeruginosa can become tolerant to elevated triclosan concentrations, the use of triclosan-based disinfectants should be avoided in those healthcare settings hosting patients at high risk for P. aeruginosa infection.

  4. T3SS-dependent differential modulations of the jasmonic acid pathway in susceptible and resistant genotypes of Malus spp. challenged with Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugé De Bernonville, Thomas; Gaucher, Matthieu; Flors, Victor; Gaillard, Sylvain; Paulin, Jean-Pierre; Dat, James F; Brisset, Marie-Noëlle

    2012-06-01

    Fire blight is a bacterial disease of Maloideae caused by Erwinia amylovora (Ea). This necrogenic enterobacterium uses a type III secretion system (T3SS) to inject type III effectors into the plant cells to cause disease on its susceptible hosts, including economically important crops like apple and pear. The expressions of marker genes of the salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) defense regulation pathways were monitored by RT-qPCR in leaves of two apple genotypes, one susceptible and one resistant, challenged with a wild type strain, a T3SS-deficient strain or water. The transcriptional data taken together with hormone level measurements indicated that the SA pathway was similarly induced in both apple genotypes during infection by Ea. On the contrary, the data clearly showed a strong T3SS-dependent down-regulation of the JA pathway in leaves of the susceptible genotype but not in those of the resistant one. Accordingly, methyl-jasmonate treated susceptible plants displayed an increased resistance to Ea. Bacterial mutant analysis indicated that JA manipulation by Ea mainly relies on the type III effector DspA/E. Taken together, our data suggest that the T3SS-dependent down-regulation of the JA pathway is a critical step in the infection process of Malus spp. by Ea. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Host genetic resistance to root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp., in Solanaceae: from genes to the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbary, Arnaud; Djian-Caporalino, Caroline; Palloix, Alain; Castagnone-Sereno, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    Root-knot nematodes (RKNs) heavily damage most solanaceous crops worldwide. Fortunately, major resistance genes are available in a number of plant species, and their use provides a safe and economically relevant strategy for RKN control. From a structural point of view, these genes often harbour NBS-LRR motifs (i.e. a nucleotide binding site and a leucine rich repeat region near the carboxy terminus) and are organised in syntenic clusters in solanaceous genomes. Their introgression from wild to cultivated plants remains a challenge for breeders, although facilitated by marker-assisted selection. As shown with other pathosystems, the genetic background into which the resistance genes are introgressed is of prime importance to both the expression of the resistance and its durability, as exemplified by the recent discovery of quantitative trait loci conferring quantitative resistance to RKNs in pepper. The deployment of resistance genes at a large scale may result in the emergence and spread of virulent nematode populations able to overcome them, as already reported in tomato and pepper. Therefore, careful management of the resistance genes available in solanaceous crops is crucial to avoid significant reduction in the duration of RKN genetic control in the field. From that perspective, only rational management combining breeding and cultivation practices will allow the design and implementation of innovative, sustainable crop production systems that protect the resistance genes and maintain their durability. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. An amino acid substitution (L925V) associated with resistance to pyrethroids in Varroa destructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Cabrera, Joel; Davies, T G Emyr; Field, Linda M; Kennedy, Peter J; Williamson, Martin S

    2013-01-01

    The Varroa mite, Varroa destructor, is an important pest of honeybees and has played a prominent role in the decline in bee colony numbers over recent years. Although pyrethroids such as tau-fluvalinate and flumethrin can be highly effective in removing the mites from hives, their intensive use has led to many reports of resistance. To investigate the mechanism of resistance in UK Varroa samples, the transmembrane domain regions of the V. destructor voltage-gated sodium channel (the main target site for pyrethroids) were PCR amplified and sequenced from pyrethroid treated/untreated mites collected at several locations in Central/Southern England. A novel amino acid substitution, L925V, was identified that maps to a known hot spot for resistance within the domain IIS5 helix of the channel protein; a region that has also been proposed to form part of the pyrethroid binding site. Using a high throughput diagnostic assay capable of detecting the mutation in individual mites, the L925V substitution was found to correlate well with resistance, being present in all mites that had survived tau-fluvalinate treatment but in only 8 % of control, untreated samples. The potential for using this assay to detect and manage resistance in Varroa-infected hives is discussed.

  7. An amino acid substitution (L925V associated with resistance to pyrethroids in Varroa destructor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel González-Cabrera

    Full Text Available The Varroa mite, Varroa destructor, is an important pest of honeybees and has played a prominent role in the decline in bee colony numbers over recent years. Although pyrethroids such as tau-fluvalinate and flumethrin can be highly effective in removing the mites from hives, their intensive use has led to many reports of resistance. To investigate the mechanism of resistance in UK Varroa samples, the transmembrane domain regions of the V. destructor voltage-gated sodium channel (the main target site for pyrethroids were PCR amplified and sequenced from pyrethroid treated/untreated mites collected at several locations in Central/Southern England. A novel amino acid substitution, L925V, was identified that maps to a known hot spot for resistance within the domain IIS5 helix of the channel protein; a region that has also been proposed to form part of the pyrethroid binding site. Using a high throughput diagnostic assay capable of detecting the mutation in individual mites, the L925V substitution was found to correlate well with resistance, being present in all mites that had survived tau-fluvalinate treatment but in only 8 % of control, untreated samples. The potential for using this assay to detect and manage resistance in Varroa-infected hives is discussed.

  8. Antibiotic resistance in lactic acid bacteria isolated from some pharmaceutical and dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal Fadl M. Gad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 244 lactic acid bacteria (LAB strains were isolated from 180 dairy and pharmaceutical products that were collected from different areas in Minia governorate, Egypt. LAB were identified phenotypically on basis of morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. Lactobacillus isolates were further confirmed using PCR-based assay. By combination of phenotypic with molecular identification Lactobacillus spp. were found to be the dominant genus (138, 76.7% followed by Streptococcus spp. (65, 36.1% and Lactococcus spp. (27, 15%. Some contaminant organisms such as (Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., mould and yeast were isolated from the collected dairy samples but pharmaceutical products were free of such contaminants. Susceptibility of LAB isolates to antibiotics representing all major classes was tested by agar dilution method. Generally, LAB were highly susceptible to Beta-lactams except penicillin. Lactobacilli were resistant to vancomycin, however lactococci and streptococci proved to be very susceptible. Most strains were susceptible to tetracycline and showed a wide range of streptomycin MICs. The MICs of erythromycin and clindamycin for most of the LAB were within the normal range of susceptibility. Sixteen Lactobacillus,8 Lactococcus and 8 Streptococcus isolates including all tetracycline and/or erythromycin resistant strains were tested for the presence of tetracycline and/or erythromycin resistant genes [tet(M and/or erm(B]. PCR assays shows that some resistant strains harbor tet(M and/or erm(B resistance genes.

  9. Resistance to Plasmopara viticola in a grapevine segregating population is associated with stilbenoid accumulation and with specific host transcriptional responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delledonne Massimo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Downy mildew, caused by the oomycete Plasmopara viticola, is a serious disease in Vitis vinifera, the most commonly cultivated grapevine species. Several wild Vitis species have instead been found to be resistant to this pathogen and have been used as a source to introgress resistance into a V. vinifera background. Stilbenoids represent the major phytoalexins in grapevine, and their toxicity is closely related to the specific compound. The aim of this study was to assess the resistance response to P. viticola of the Merzling × Teroldego cross by profiling the stilbenoid content of the leaves of an entire population and the transcriptome of resistant and susceptible individuals following infection. Results A three-year analysis of the population's response to artificial inoculation showed that individuals were distributed in nine classes ranging from total resistance to total susceptibility. In addition, quantitative metabolite profiling of stilbenoids in the population, carried out using HPLC-DAD-MS, identified three distinct groups differing according to the concentrations present and the complexity of their profiles. The high producers were characterized by the presence of trans-resveratrol, trans-piceid, trans-pterostilbene and up to thirteen different viniferins, nine of them new in grapevine. Accumulation of these compounds is consistent with a resistant phenotype and suggests that they may contribute to the resistance response. A preliminary transcriptional study using cDNA-AFLP selected a set of genes modulated by the oomycete in a resistant genotype. The expression of this set of genes in resistant and susceptible genotypes of the progeny population was then assessed by comparative microarray analysis. A group of 57 genes was found to be exclusively modulated in the resistant genotype suggesting that they are involved in the grapevine-P. viticola incompatible interaction. Functional annotation of these transcripts

  10. Detection of virus mRNA within infected host cells using an isothermal nucleic acid amplification assay: marine cyanophage gene expression within Synechococcus sp

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    Hall Matthew J

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Signal-Mediated Amplification of RNA Technology (SMART is an isothermal nucleic acid amplification technology, developed for the detection of specific target sequences, either RNA (for expression or DNA. Cyanophages are viruses that infect cyanobacteria. Marine cyanophages are ubiquitous in the surface layers of the ocean where they infect members of the globally important genus Synechococcus. Results Here we report that the SMART assay allowed us to differentiate between infected and non-infected host cultures. Expression of the cyanophage strain S-PM2 portal vertex gene (g20 was detected from infected host Synechococcus sp. WH7803 cells. Using the SMART assay, we demonstrated that g20 mRNA peaked 240 – 360 minutes post-infection, allowing us to characterise this as a mid to late transcript. g20 DNA was also detected, peaking 10 hours post-infection, coinciding with the onset of host lysis. Conclusion The SMART assay is based on isothermal nucleic acid amplification, allowing the detection of specific sequences of DNA or RNA. It was shown to be suitable for differentiating between virus-infected and non-infected host cultures and for the detection of virus gene expression: the first reported use of this technology for such applications.

  11. Endosymbiosis in trypanosomatids: the genomic cooperation between bacterium and host in the synthesis of essential amino acids is heavily influenced by multiple horizontal gene transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, João M P; Klein, Cecilia C; da Silva, Flávia Maia; Costa-Martins, André G; Serrano, Myrna G; Buck, Gregory A; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza R; Sagot, Marie-France; Teixeira, Marta M G; Motta, Maria Cristina M; Camargo, Erney P

    2013-09-09

    Trypanosomatids of the genera Angomonas and Strigomonas live in a mutualistic association characterized by extensive metabolic cooperation with obligate endosymbiotic Betaproteobacteria. However, the role played by the symbiont has been more guessed by indirect means than evidenced. Symbiont-harboring trypanosomatids, in contrast to their counterparts lacking symbionts, exhibit lower nutritional requirements and are autotrophic for essential amino acids. To evidence the symbiont's contributions to this autotrophy, entire genomes of symbionts and trypanosomatids with and without symbionts were sequenced here. Analyses of the essential amino acid pathways revealed that most biosynthetic routes are in the symbiont genome. By contrast, the host trypanosomatid genome contains fewer genes, about half of which originated from different bacterial groups, perhaps only one of which (ornithine cyclodeaminase, EC:4.3.1.12) derived from the symbiont. Nutritional, enzymatic, and genomic data were jointly analyzed to construct an integrated view of essential amino acid metabolism in symbiont-harboring trypanosomatids. This comprehensive analysis showed perfect concordance among all these data, and revealed that the symbiont contains genes for enzymes that complete essential biosynthetic routes for the host amino acid production, thus explaining the low requirement for these elements in symbiont-harboring trypanosomatids. Phylogenetic analyses show that the cooperation between symbionts and their hosts is complemented by multiple horizontal gene transfers, from bacterial lineages to trypanosomatids, that occurred several times in the course of their evolution. Transfers occur preferentially in parts of the pathways that are missing from other eukaryotes. We have herein uncovered the genetic and evolutionary bases of essential amino acid biosynthesis in several trypanosomatids with and without endosymbionts, explaining and complementing decades of experimental results. We uncovered

  12. Construction of Double Right-Border Binary Vector Carrying Non-Host Gene Rxo1 Resistant to Bacterial Leaf Streak of Rice

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    Mei-rong XU

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Rxo1 cloned from maize is a non-host gene resistant to bacterial leaf streak of rice. pCAMBIA1305-1 with Rxo1 was digested with Sca I and NgoM IV and the double right-border binary vector pMNDRBBin6 was digested with Hpa I and Xma I. pMNDRBBin6 carrying the gene Rxo1 was acquired by ligation of blunt-end and cohesive end. The results of PCR, restriction enzyme analysis and sequencing indicated that the Rxo1 gene had been cloned into pMNDRBBin6. This double right-border binary vector, named as pMNDRBBin6-Rxo1, will play a role in breeding marker-free plants resistant to bacterial leaf streak of rice by genetic transformation.

  13. Alternaria toxin-induced resistance in rose plants against rose aphid (Macrosiphum rosivorum): effect of tenuazonic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fa-zhong; Yang, Bin; Li, Bei-bei; Xiao, Chun

    2015-04-01

    Many different types of toxins are produced by the fungus, Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler. Little is known, however, regarding the influence of these toxins on insects. In this study, we investigated the toxin-induced inhibitory effects of the toxin produced by A. alternata on the rose aphid, Macrosiphum rosivorum, when the toxin was applied to leaves of the rose, Rosa chinensis. The results demonstrated that the purified crude toxin was non-harmful to rose plants and rose aphids, but had an intensive inhibitory effect on the multiplication of aphids. The inhibitory index against rose aphids reached 87.99% when rose plants were sprayed with the toxin solution at a low concentration. Further results from bioassays with aphids and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses demonstrated that tenuazonic acid (TeA) was one of the most important resistance-related active components in the crude toxin. The content of TeA was 0.1199% in the crude toxin under the HPLC method. Similar to the crude toxin, the inhibitory index of pure TeA reached 83.60% 15 d after the rose plants were sprayed with pure TeA solution at the lower concentration of 0.060 μg/ml, while the contents of residual TeA on the surface and in the inner portion of the rose plants were only 0.04 and 0.00 ng/g fresh weight of TeA-treated rose twigs, respectively, 7 d after the treatment. Our results show that TeA, an active component in the A. alternata toxin, can induce the indirect plant-mediated responses in rose plants to intensively enhance the plant's resistances against rose aphids, and the results are very helpful to understand the plant-mediated interaction between fungi and insects on their shared host plants.

  14. Alternaria toxin-induced resistance in rose plants against rose aphid (Macrosiphum rosivorum): effect of tenuazonic acid*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fa-zhong; Yang, Bin; Li, Bei-bei; Xiao, Chun

    2015-01-01

    Many different types of toxins are produced by the fungus, Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler. Little is known, however, regarding the influence of these toxins on insects. In this study, we investigated the toxin-induced inhibitory effects of the toxin produced by A. alternata on the rose aphid, Macrosiphum rosivorum, when the toxin was applied to leaves of the rose, Rosa chinensis. The results demonstrated that the purified crude toxin was non-harmful to rose plants and rose aphids, but had an intensive inhibitory effect on the multiplication of aphids. The inhibitory index against rose aphids reached 87.99% when rose plants were sprayed with the toxin solution at a low concentration. Further results from bioassays with aphids and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses demonstrated that tenuazonic acid (TeA) was one of the most important resistance-related active components in the crude toxin. The content of TeA was 0.1199% in the crude toxin under the HPLC method. Similar to the crude toxin, the inhibitory index of pure TeA reached 83.60% 15 d after the rose plants were sprayed with pure TeA solution at the lower concentration of 0.060 μg/ml, while the contents of residual TeA on the surface and in the inner portion of the rose plants were only 0.04 and 0.00 ng/g fresh weight of TeA-treated rose twigs, respectively, 7 d after the treatment. Our results show that TeA, an active component in the A. alternata toxin, can induce the indirect plant-mediated responses in rose plants to intensively enhance the plant’s resistances against rose aphids, and the results are very helpful to understand the plant-mediated interaction between fungi and insects on their shared host plants. PMID:25845360

  15. Fusidic acid resistance rates and prevalence of resistance mechanisms among Staphylococcus spp. isolated in North America and Australia, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanheira, Mariana; Watters, Amy A; Bell, Jan M; Turnidge, John D; Jones, Ronald N

    2010-09-01

    Among 4,167 Staphylococcus aureus and 790 coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS; not S. saprophyticus) isolates collected consecutively from North American and Australian hospitals, only 87 (1.7% overall) isolates displayed a fusidic acid (FA; also known as CEM-102) MIC of > or = 2 microg/ml (FA resistance). These strains were further evaluated with a multiplex PCR to amplify the acquired resistance genes fusB, fusC, and fusD. Mutations in fusA and fusE were evaluated in all isolates showing an absence of acquired resistance genes and/or showing FA MIC values of > or = 64 microg/ml. S. aureus resistance rates were very low in the United States (0.3%) and were higher in Canada and Australia (7.0% for both countries). Among CoNS isolates, FA resistance rates were significantly more elevated than that for S. aureus (7.2 to 20.0%; the highest rates were in Canada). All 52 (41 CoNS) FA-resistant isolates from the United States showed FA MIC results of Staphylococcus spp.; however, acquired resistance genes appear to have a dominant role in resistance against this older antimicrobial agent. In summary, this study shows that acquired genes are highly prevalent among FA-resistant strains (>90%) in three nations with distinct or absence (United States) of fusidic acid clinical use.

  16. Host factors do not influence the colonization or infection by fluconazole resistant Candida species in hospitalized patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Yu-Huai

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nosocomial yeast infections have significantly increased during the past two decades in industrialized countries, including Taiwan. This has been associated with the emergence of resistance to fluconazole and other antifungal drugs. The medical records of 88 patients, colonized or infected with Candida species, from nine of the 22 hospitals that provided clinical isolates to the Taiwan Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance of Yeasts (TSARY program in 1999 were reviewed. A total of 35 patients contributed fluconazole resistant strains [minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs ≧ 64 mg/l], while the remaining 53 patients contributed susceptible ones (MICs ≦ 8 mg/l. Fluconazole resistance was more frequent among isolates of Candida tropicalis (46.5% than either C. albicans (36.8% or C. glabrata (30.8%. There was no significant difference in demographic characteristics or underlying diseases among patients contributing strains different in drug susceptibility.

  17. Non-host resistance induced by the Xanthomonas effector XopQ is widespread within the genus Nicotiana and functionally depends on EDS1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Adlung

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Most Gram-negative plant pathogenic bacteria translocate effector proteins (T3Es directly into plant cells via a conserved type III secretion system, which is essential for pathogenicity in susceptible plants. In resistant plants, recognition of some T3Es is mediated by corresponding resistance (R genes or R proteins and induces effector triggered immunity (ETI that often results in programmed cell death reactions. The identification of R genes and understanding their evolution/distribution bears great potential for the generation of resistant crop plants. We focus on T3Es from Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv, the causal agent of bacterial spot disease on pepper and tomato plants. Here, 86 Solanaceae lines mainly of the genus Nicotiana were screened for phenotypical reactions after Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transient expression of 21 different Xcv effectors to (i identify new plant lines for T3E characterization, (ii analyze conservation/evolution of putative R genes and (iii identify promising plant lines as repertoire for R-gene isolation. The effectors provoked different reactions on closely related plant lines indicative of a high variability and evolution rate of potential R genes. In some cases, putative R genes were conserved within a plant species but not within superordinate phylogenetical units. Interestingly, the effector XopQ was recognized by several Nicotiana spp. lines, and Xcv infection assays revealed that XopQ is a host range determinant in many Nicotiana species. Non-host resistance against Xcv and XopQ recognition in N. benthamiana required EDS1, strongly suggesting the presence of a TIR domain-containing XopQ-specific R protein in these plant lines. XopQ is a conserved effector among most xanthomonads, pointing out the XopQ-recognizing RxopQ as candidate for targeted crop improvement.

  18. Activation of mTORC1 by leucine is potentiated by branched-chain amino acids and even more so by essential amino acids following resistance exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moberg, Marcus; Apró, William; Ekblom, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Protein synthesis is stimulated by resistance exercise and intake of amino acids, in particular leucine. Moreover, activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling by leucine is potentiated by the presence of other essential amino acids (EAA). However, the contribution...... of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) to this effect is yet unknown. Here we compare the stimulatory role of leucine, BCAA, and EAA ingestion on anabolic signaling following exercise. Accordingly, eight trained volunteers completed four sessions of resistance exercise during which they ingested either placebo...

  19. Screening the yeast deletant mutant collection for hypersensitivity and hyper‐resistance to sorbate, a weak organic acid food preservative

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mollapour, Mehdi; Fong, Dahna; Balakrishnan, Krishna; Harris, Nicholas; Thompson, Suzanne; Schüller, Christoph; Kuchler, Karl; Piper, Peter W

    2004-01-01

    .... This study used robotic methods to screen the collection of Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene deletion mutants for both increased sensitivity and increased resistance to sorbic acid, one of the most...

  20. Resistance Training in Type 2 Diabetic Patients Improves Uric Acid Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sousa Moisés S.S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resistance training (RT can provide several benefits for individuals with Type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance training on the strength levels and uric acid (UA concentration in individuals with Type 2 diabetes. The study included 68 patients (57.7±9.0 years that participated in an organized program of RT for 12 weeks. The volunteers were divided into two groups: an experimental group (EG; n=34 that performed the resistance training program consisting of seven exercises executed in an alternating order based on segments; and a control group (CG; n=34 that maintained their normal daily life activities. Muscle strength and uric acid were measured both pre- and post-experiment. The results showed a significant increase in strength of the subjects in the EG for all exercises included in the study (p<0.001. Comparing the strength levels of the post-test, intergroup differences were found in supine sitting (p<0.001, leg extension (p<0.001, shoulder press (p<0.001, leg curl (p=0.001, seated row (p<0.001, leg press (p=0.001 and high pulley (p<0.001. The measured uric acid was significantly increased in both experimental and control groups (p<0.001 and p=0.001, respectively. The intergroup comparison showed a significant increase for the EG (p=0.024. We conclude that the training program was effective for strength gains despite an increase in uric acid in Type 2 diabetics.

  1. Rapid Molecular Detection of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis by PCR-Nucleic Acid Lateral Flow Immunoassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphee, Hatairat; Chaiprasert, Angkana; Prammananan, Therdsak; Wiriyachaiporn, Natpapas; Kanchanatavee, Airin; Dharakul, Tararaj

    2015-01-01

    Several existing molecular tests for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) are limited by complexity and cost, hindering their widespread application. The objective of this proof of concept study was to develop a simple Nucleic Acid Lateral Flow (NALF) immunoassay as a potential diagnostic alternative, to complement conventional PCR, for the rapid molecular detection of MDR-TB. The NALF device was designed using antibodies for the indirect detection of labeled PCR amplification products. Multiplex PCR was optimized to permit the simultaneous detection of the drug resistant determining mutations in the 81-bp hot spot region of the rpoB gene (rifampicin resistance), while semi-nested PCR was optimized for the S315T mutation detection in the katG gene (isoniazid resistance). The amplification process additionally targeted a conserved region of the genes as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) DNA control. The optimized conditions were validated with the H37Rv wild-type (WT) Mtb isolate and Mtb isolates with known mutations (MT) within the rpoB and katG genes. Results indicate the correct identification of WT (drug susceptible) and MT (drug resistant) Mtb isolates, with the least limit of detection (LOD) being 104 genomic copies per PCR reaction. NALF is a simple, rapid and low-cost device suitable for low resource settings where conventional PCR is already employed on a regular basis. Moreover, the use of antibody-based NALF to target primer-labels, without the requirement for DNA hybridization, renders the device generic, which could easily be adapted for the molecular diagnosis of other infectious and non-infectious diseases requiring nucleic acid detection. PMID:26355296

  2. Rapid Molecular Detection of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis by PCR-Nucleic Acid Lateral Flow Immunoassay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatairat Kamphee

    Full Text Available Several existing molecular tests for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB are limited by complexity and cost, hindering their widespread application. The objective of this proof of concept study was to develop a simple Nucleic Acid Lateral Flow (NALF immunoassay as a potential diagnostic alternative, to complement conventional PCR, for the rapid molecular detection of MDR-TB. The NALF device was designed using antibodies for the indirect detection of labeled PCR amplification products. Multiplex PCR was optimized to permit the simultaneous detection of the drug resistant determining mutations in the 81-bp hot spot region of the rpoB gene (rifampicin resistance, while semi-nested PCR was optimized for the S315T mutation detection in the katG gene (isoniazid resistance. The amplification process additionally targeted a conserved region of the genes as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb DNA control. The optimized conditions were validated with the H37Rv wild-type (WT Mtb isolate and Mtb isolates with known mutations (MT within the rpoB and katG genes. Results indicate the correct identification of WT (drug susceptible and MT (drug resistant Mtb isolates, with the least limit of detection (LOD being 104 genomic copies per PCR reaction. NALF is a simple, rapid and low-cost device suitable for low resource settings where conventional PCR is already employed on a regular basis. Moreover, the use of antibody-based NALF to target primer-labels, without the requirement for DNA hybridization, renders the device generic, which could easily be adapted for the molecular diagnosis of other infectious and non-infectious diseases requiring nucleic acid detection.

  3. Characterization of Fatty Acid Composition, Spore Germination, and Thermal Resistance in a Nisin-Resistant Mutant of Clostridium botulinum 169B and in the Wild-Type Strain†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzotta, Alejandro S.; Montville, Thomas J.

    1999-01-01

    The membrane fatty acids, thermal resistance, and germination of a nisin-resistant (Nisr) mutant of Clostridium botulinum 169B were compared with those of the wild-type (WT) strain. In the membranes of WT cells, almost 50% of the total fatty acids were unsaturated, but in those of Nisr cells, only 23% of the fatty acids were unsaturated. WT and Nisr spores contained similar amounts (approximately 23%) of unsaturated fatty acids, but the saturated straight-chain/branched-chain ratio was significantly higher in Nisr spores than in WT spores. These fatty acid differences suggest that Nisr cell and spore membranes may be more rigid, a characteristic which would interfere with the pore-forming ability of nisin. Nisr C. botulinum did not produce an extracellular nisin-degrading enzyme, nor were there any differences in the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis patterns of coat proteins extracted from WT and Nisr spores, eliminating these as possible reasons for nisin resistance. Nisr spores had thermal resistance parameters similar to those of WT spores. In WT spores, but not in Nisr spores, nisin caused a 40% reduction in thermal resistance and a twofold increase in the germination rate. Because the nisin-induced increase in the germination rate of WT spores occurred only in the presence of a germinant (a molecule that triggers germination), nisin can be classified as a progerminant (a molecule that stimulates germination only in the presence of a germinant). PMID:9925597

  4. Genome Comparison of Erythromycin Resistant Campylobacter from Turkeys Identifies Hosts and Pathways for Horizontal Spread of erm(B Genes

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    Diego Florez-Cuadrado

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Pathogens in the genus Campylobacter are the most common cause of food-borne bacterial gastro-enteritis. Campylobacteriosis, caused principally by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, is transmitted to humans by food of animal origin, especially poultry. As for many pathogens, antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter is increasing at an alarming rate. Erythromycin prescription is the treatment of choice for clinical cases requiring antimicrobial therapy but this is compromised by mobility of the erythromycin resistance gene erm(B between strains. Here, we evaluate resistance to six antimicrobials in 170 Campylobacter isolates (133 C. coli and 37 C. jejuni from turkeys. Erythromycin resistant isolates (n = 85; 81 C. coli and 4 C. jejuni were screened for the presence of the erm(B gene, that has not previously been identified in isolates from turkeys. The genomes of two positive C. coli isolates were sequenced and in both isolates the erm(B gene clustered with resistance determinants against aminoglycosides plus tetracycline, including aad9, aadE, aph(2″-IIIa, aph(3′-IIIa, and tet(O genes. Comparative genomic analysis identified identical erm(B sequences among Campylobacter from turkeys, Streptococcus suis from pigs and Enterococcus faecium and Clostridium difficile from humans. This is consistent with multiple horizontal transfer events among different bacterial species colonizing turkeys. This example highlights the potential for dissemination of antimicrobial resistance across bacterial species boundaries which may compromise their effectiveness in antimicrobial therapy.

  5. Genome Comparison of Erythromycin Resistant Campylobacter from Turkeys Identifies Hosts and Pathways for Horizontal Spread of erm(B) Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florez-Cuadrado, Diego; Ugarte-Ruiz, María; Meric, Guillaume; Quesada, Alberto; Porrero, M C; Pascoe, Ben; Sáez-Llorente, Jose L; Orozco, Gema L; Domínguez, Lucas; Sheppard, Samuel K

    2017-01-01

    Pathogens in the genus Campylobacter are the most common cause of food-borne bacterial gastro-enteritis. Campylobacteriosis, caused principally by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, is transmitted to humans by food of animal origin, especially poultry. As for many pathogens, antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter is increasing at an alarming rate. Erythromycin prescription is the treatment of choice for clinical cases requiring antimicrobial therapy but this is compromised by mobility of the erythromycin resistance gene erm(B) between strains. Here, we evaluate resistance to six antimicrobials in 170 Campylobacter isolates (133 C. coli and 37 C. jejuni) from turkeys. Erythromycin resistant isolates (n = 85; 81 C. coli and 4 C. jejuni) were screened for the presence of the erm(B) gene, that has not previously been identified in isolates from turkeys. The genomes of two positive C. coli isolates were sequenced and in both isolates the erm(B) gene clustered with resistance determinants against aminoglycosides plus tetracycline, including aad9, aadE, aph(2″)-IIIa, aph(3')-IIIa, and tet(O) genes. Comparative genomic analysis identified identical erm(B) sequences among Campylobacter from turkeys, Streptococcus suis from pigs and Enterococcus faecium and Clostridium difficile from humans. This is consistent with multiple horizontal transfer events among different bacterial species colonizing turkeys. This example highlights the potential for dissemination of antimicrobial resistance across bacterial species boundaries which may compromise their effectiveness in antimicrobial therapy.

  6. Cyclopiazonic Acid Is a Pathogenicity Factor for Aspergillus flavus and a Promising Target for Screening Germplasm for Ear Rot Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalivendra, Subbaiah C; DeRobertis, Catherine; Chang, Perng-Kuang; Damann, Kenneth E

    2017-05-01

    Aspergillus flavus, an opportunistic pathogen, contaminates maize and other key crops with carcinogenic aflatoxins (AFs). Besides AFs, A. flavus makes many more secondary metabolites (SMs) whose toxicity in insects or vertebrates has been studied. However, the role of SMs in the invasion of plant hosts by A. flavus remains to be investigated. Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), a neurotoxic SM made by A. flavus, is a nanomolar inhibitor of endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPases (ECAs) and a potent inducer of cell death in plants. We hypothesized that CPA, by virtue of its cytotoxicity, may serve as a key pathogenicity factor that kills plant cells and supports the saprophytic life style of the fungus while compromising the host defense response. This proposal was tested by two complementary approaches. A comparison of CPA levels among A. flavus isolates indicated that CPA may be a determinant of niche adaptation, i.e., isolates that colonize maize make more CPA than those restricted only to the soil. Further, mutants in the CPA biosynthetic pathway are less virulent in causing ear rot than their wild-type parent in field inoculation assays. Additionally, genes encoding ECAs are expressed in developing maize seeds and are induced by A. flavus infection. Building on these results, we developed a seedling assay in which maize roots were exposed to CPA, and cell death was measured as Evans Blue uptake. Among >40 maize inbreds screened for CPA tolerance, inbreds with proven susceptibility to ear rot were also highly CPA sensitive. The publicly available data on resistance to silk colonization or AF contamination for many of the lines was also broadly correlated with their CPA sensitivity. In summary, our studies show that i) CPA serves as a key pathogenicity factor that enables the saprophytic life style of A. flavus and ii) maize inbreds are diverse in their tolerance to CPA. Taking advantage of this natural variation, we are currently pursuing both genome-wide and candidate gene

  7. Cytokinins Mediate Resistance against Pseudomonas syringae in Tobacco through Increased Antimicrobial Phytoalexin Synthesis Independent of Salicylic Acid Signaling1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Großkinsky, Dominik K.; Naseem, Muhammad; Abdelmohsen, Usama Ramadan; Plickert, Nicole; Engelke, Thomas; Griebel, Thomas; Zeier, Jürgen; Novák, Ondřej; Strnad, Miroslav; Pfeifhofer, Hartwig; van der Graaff, Eric; Simon, Uwe; Roitsch, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Cytokinins are phytohormones that are involved in various regulatory processes throughout plant development, but they are also produced by pathogens and known to modulate plant immunity. A novel transgenic approach enabling autoregulated cytokinin synthesis in response to pathogen infection showed that cytokinins mediate enhanced resistance against the virulent hemibiotrophic pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tabaci. This was confirmed by two additional independent transgenic approaches to increase endogenous cytokinin production and by exogenous supply of adenine- and phenylurea-derived cytokinins. The cytokinin-mediated resistance strongly correlated with an increased level of bactericidal activities and up-regulated synthesis of the two major antimicrobial phytoalexins in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), scopoletin and capsidiol. The key role of these phytoalexins in the underlying mechanism was functionally proven by the finding that scopoletin and capsidiol substitute in planta for the cytokinin signal: phytoalexin pretreatment increased resistance against P. syringae. In contrast to a cytokinin defense mechanism in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) based on salicylic acid-dependent transcriptional control, the cytokinin-mediated resistance in tobacco is essentially independent from salicylic acid and differs in pathogen specificity. It is also independent of jasmonate levels, reactive oxygen species, and high sugar resistance. The novel function of cytokinins in the primary defense response of solanaceous plant species is rather mediated through a high phytoalexin-pathogen ratio in the early phase of infection, which efficiently restricts pathogen growth. The implications of this mechanism for the coevolution of host plants and cytokinin-producing pathogens and the practical application in agriculture are discussed. PMID:21813654

  8. The use of refuge in host plant resistance systems for the control of virulent biotype adaptation in the soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Jacob; Ramstad, Monica; Mian, M A Rouf; Michel, Andy

    2014-08-01

    Host plant resistant (HPR) crop varieties offer control of many insect pest species. However, the evolution of virulent biotypes capable of overcoming plant resistance poses challenges for the implementation of HPR. Widespread planting of HPR crops further reduces HPR efficacy by increasing selection pressure on pests, favoring the rapid proliferation of virulence. An analogous situation occurs in managing insect resistance to transgenic Bt crops, where planting of susceptible refuges effectively delays the evolution and spread of Bt resistance. We investigated the applicability of susceptible refuges in HPR as a tactic to manage virulent biotypes, using the soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) as a model system. The virulent biotype 3 and avirulent biotype 1 were reared in greenhouse microcosms using a variety of refuge size, HPR gene, and biotype mixture treatments, allowing us to discern how the presence of a refuge alters the relative fitness and movement of biotypes both by themselves and in competition. The virulent biotype had greater relative fitness in 10 of 12 tested microcosms, with the greatest advantage observed in refuge-free microcosms. In microcosms with a refuge, avirulent fitness increased significantly as these biotypes moved to and used refuge plants. When the two biotypes were reared in the same microcosm, biotype 3's fitness increased significantly relative to when reared in isolation, while biotype 1's fitness was slightly, but not significantly, increased. Our findings suggested that while susceptible refuges would be incapable of reversing the proliferation of virulent biotypes, they could slow the spread of virulence by maintaining avirulence.

  9. Improved Acetic Acid Resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Overexpression of the WHI2 Gene Identified through Inverse Metabolic Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yingying; Stabryla, Lisa; Wei, Na

    2016-01-01

    Development of acetic acid-resistant Saccharomyces cerevisiae is important for economically viable production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass, but the goal remains a critical challenge due to limited information on effective genetic perturbation targets for improving acetic acid resistance in the yeast. This study employed a genomic-library-based inverse metabolic engineering approach to successfully identify a novel gene target, WHI2 (encoding a cytoplasmatic globular scaffold prote...

  10. The glutamine synthetase of Trypanosoma cruzi is required for its resistance to ammonium accumulation and evasion of the parasitophorous vacuole during host-cell infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcell Crispim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, consumes glucose and amino acids depending on the environmental availability of each nutrient during its complex life cycle. For example, amino acids are the major energy and carbon sources in the intracellular stages of the T. cruzi parasite, but their consumption produces an accumulation of NH4+ in the environment, which is toxic. These parasites do not have a functional urea cycle to secrete excess nitrogen as low-toxicity waste. Glutamine synthetase (GS plays a central role in regulating the carbon/nitrogen balance in the metabolism of most living organisms. We show here that the gene TcGS from T. cruzi encodes a functional glutamine synthetase; it can complement a defect in the GLN1 gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and utilizes ATP, glutamate and ammonium to yield glutamine in vitro. Overall, its kinetic characteristics are similar to other eukaryotic enzymes, and it is dependent on divalent cations. Its cytosolic/mitochondrial localization was confirmed by immunofluorescence. Inhibition by Methionine sulfoximine revealed that GS activity is indispensable under excess ammonium conditions. Coincidently, its expression levels are maximal in the amastigote stage of the life cycle, when amino acids are preferably consumed, and NH4+ production is predictable. During host-cell invasion, TcGS is required for the parasite to escape from the parasitophorous vacuole, a process sine qua non for the parasite to replicate and establish infection in host cells. These results are the first to establish a link between the activity of a metabolic enzyme and the ability of a parasite to reach its intracellular niche to replicate and establish host-cell infection.

  11. The Emerging Role of Branched-Chain Amino Acids in Insulin Resistance and Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Mee-Sup

    2016-07-01

    Insulin is required for maintenance of glucose homeostasis. Despite the importance of insulin sensitivity to metabolic health, the mechanisms that induce insulin resistance remain unclear. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) belong to the essential amino acids, which are both direct and indirect nutrient signals. Even though BCAAs have been reported to improve metabolic health, an increased BCAA plasma level is associated with a high risk of metabolic disorder and future insulin resistance, or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) by BCAAs has been suggested to cause insulin resistance. In addition, defective BCAA oxidative metabolism might occur in obesity, leading to a further accumulation of BCAAs and toxic intermediates. This review provides the current understanding of the mechanism of BCAA-induced mTORC1 activation, as well as the effect of mTOR activation on metabolic health in terms of insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, the effects of impaired BCAA metabolism will be discussed in detail.

  12. Genome-wide association mapping of acid soil resistance in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaofeng eZhou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractGenome-wide association studies (GWAS based on linkage disequilibrium (LD have been used to detect QTLs underlying complex traits in major crops. In this study, we collected 218 barley (Hordeum vulgare L. lines including wild barley and cultivated barley from China, Canada, Australia and Europe. A total of 408 polymorphic markers were used for population structure and LD analysis. GWAS for acid soil resistance were performed on the population using a general linkage model (GLM and a mixed linkage model (MLM, respectively. A total of 22 QTLs (quantitative trait loci were detected with the GLM and MLM analyses. Two QTLs, close to markers bPb-1959 (133.1 cM and bPb-8013 (86.7 cM, localized on chromosome 1H and 4H respectively, were consistently detected in two different trials with both the GLM and MLM analyses. Furthermore, bPb-8013, the closest marker to the major Al3+ resistance gene HvAACT1 in barley, was identified to be QTL5. The QTLs could be used in marker-assisted selection to identify and pyramid different loci for improved acid soil resistance in barley.

  13. The Emerging Role of Branched-Chain Amino Acids in Insulin Resistance and Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mee-Sup Yoon

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Insulin is required for maintenance of glucose homeostasis. Despite the importance of insulin sensitivity to metabolic health, the mechanisms that induce insulin resistance remain unclear. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs belong to the essential amino acids, which are both direct and indirect nutrient signals. Even though BCAAs have been reported to improve metabolic health, an increased BCAA plasma level is associated with a high risk of metabolic disorder and future insulin resistance, or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. The activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1 by BCAAs has been suggested to cause insulin resistance. In addition, defective BCAA oxidative metabolism might occur in obesity, leading to a further accumulation of BCAAs and toxic intermediates. This review provides the current understanding of the mechanism of BCAA-induced mTORC1 activation, as well as the effect of mTOR activation on metabolic health in terms of insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, the effects of impaired BCAA metabolism will be discussed in detail.

  14. Gastric-resistant isoniazid pellets reduced degradation of rifampicin in acidic medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Duarte Freire

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Isoniazid and rifampicin are considered the first-line medication for preventing and treating tuberculosis. Rifampicin is degraded in the stomach acidic environment, especially when combined with isoniazid, factor contributing to treatment failure. In this study, gastric-resistant isoniazid pellets were obtained to physical contact of this drug with rifampicin and to bypass the stomach´s acidic environment. The pellets were fabricated using the extrusion-spheronization technique. The coating process was conducted in a fluid spray coater using Acrycoat L 100(r solution as the coating agent. The pellets obtained were submitted to a dissolution test in HCl 0.1 N and phosphate buffer media. The results indicated that optimum gastric-resistance was only attained with the highest amount of coating material, with isoniazid almost fully released in phosphate buffer. The amount of rifampicin released from its mixture with non-coated isoniazid pellets in HCl 0.1 N was less than that released from its mixture with the enteric-coated pellets. Acrycoat L 100(r was shown to be an effective enteric/gastric-resistant coating since the stability of rifampicin appeared to be enhanced when physical contact of this drug with isoniazid was prevented at low pH.

  15. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Acid Soil Resistance in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Gaofeng; Broughton, Sue; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Ma, Yanling; Zhou, Meixue; Li, Chengdao

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) have been used to detect QTLs underlying complex traits in major crops. In this study, we collected 218 barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) lines including wild barley and cultivated barley from China, Canada, Australia, and Europe. A total of 408 polymorphic markers were used for population structure and LD analysis. GWAS for acid soil resistance were performed on the population using a general linkage model (GLM) and a mixed linkage model (MLM), respectively. A total of 22 QTLs (quantitative trait loci) were detected with the GLM and MLM analyses. Two QTLs, close to markers bPb-1959 (133.1 cM) and bPb-8013 (86.7 cM), localized on chromosome 1H and 4H respectively, were consistently detected in two different trials with both the GLM and MLM analyses. Furthermore, bPb-8013, the closest marker to the major Al3+ resistance gene HvAACT1 in barley, was identified to be QTL5. The QTLs could be used in marker-assisted selection to identify and pyramid different loci for improved acid soil resistance in barley. PMID:27064793

  16. Linking Jasmonic Acid to Grapevine Resistance against the Biotrophic Oomycete Plasmopara viticola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Ana; Figueiredo, Joana; Sousa Silva, Marta; Figueiredo, Andreia

    2016-01-01

    Plant resistance to biotrophic pathogens is classically believed to be mediated through salicylic acid (SA) signaling leading to hypersensitive response followed by the establishment of Systemic Acquired Resistance. Jasmonic acid (JA) signaling has extensively been associated to the defense against necrotrophic pathogens and insects inducing the accumulation of secondary metabolites and PR proteins. Moreover, it is believed that plants infected with biotrophic fungi suppress JA-mediated responses. However, recent evidences have shown that certain biotrophic fungal species also trigger the activation of JA-mediated responses, suggesting a new role for JA in the defense against fungal biotrophs. Plasmopara viticola is a biotrophic oomycete responsible for the grapevine downy mildew, one of the most important diseases in viticulture. In this perspective, we show recent evidences of JA participation in grapevine resistance against P. viticola, outlining the hypothesis of JA involvement in the establishment of an incompatible interaction with this biotroph. We also show that in the first hours after P. viticola inoculation the levels of OPDA, JA, JA-Ile, and SA increase together with an increase of expression of genes associated to JA and SA signaling pathways. Our data suggests that, on the first hours after P. viticola inoculation, JA signaling pathway is activated and the outcomes of JA-SA interactions may be tailored in the defense response against this biotrophic pathogen.

  17. Resistance evaluation of Chinese wild Vitis genotypes against Botrytis cinerea and different responses of resistant and susceptible hosts to the infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Ran; Hou, Xiaoqing; Wang, Xianhang; Qu, Jingwu; Singer, Stacy D.; Wang, Yuejin; Wang, Xiping

    2015-01-01

    The necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea is a major threat to grapevine cultivation worldwide. A screen of 41 Vitis genotypes for leaf resistance to B. cinerea suggested species independent variation and revealed 18 resistant Chinese wild Vitis genotypes, while most investigated V. vinifera, or its hybrids, were susceptible. A particularly resistant Chinese wild Vitis, “Pingli-5” (V. sp. [Qinling grape]) and a very susceptible V. vinifera cultivar, “Red Globe” were selected for further study. Microscopic analysis demonstrated that B. cinerea growth was limited during early infection on “Pingli-5” before 24 h post-inoculation (hpi) but not on Red Globe. It was found that reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidative system were associated with fungal growth. O2- accumulated similarly in B. cinerea 4 hpi on both Vitis genotypes. Lower levels of O2- (not H2O2) were detected 4 hpi and ROS (H2O2 and O2-) accumulation from 8 hpi onwards was also lower in “Pingli-5” leaves than in “Red Globe” leaves. B. cinerea triggered sustained ROS production in “Red Globe” but not in “Pingli-5” with subsequent infection progresses. Red Globe displayed little change in antioxidative activities in response to B. cinerea infection, instead, antioxidative activities were highly and timely elevated in resistant “Pingli-5” which correlated with its minimal ROS increases and its high resistance. These findings not only enhance our understanding of the resistance of Chinese wild Vitis species to B. cinerea, but also lay the foundation for breeding B. cinerea resistant grapes in the future. PMID:26579134

  18. Jasmonic Acid Oxidase 2 Hydroxylates Jasmonic Acid and Represses Basal Defense and Resistance Responses against Botrytis cinerea Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Ekaterina; Marquis, Valentin; Poirier, Laure; Aubert, Yann; Zumsteg, Julie; Ménard, Rozenn; Miesch, Laurence; Heitz, Thierry

    2017-09-12

    Jasmonates (JAs) orchestrate immune responses upon wound/herbivore injury or infection by necrotrophic pathogens. Elucidation of catabolic routes has revealed new complexity in jasmonate metabolism. Two integrated pathways attenuate signaling by turning over the active hormone jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) through ω-oxidation or deconjugation, and define an indirect route forming the derivative 12OH-JA. Here, we provide evidence for a second 12OH-JA formation pathway by direct jasmonic acid (JA) oxidation. Three jasmonic acid oxidases (JAOs) of the 2-oxoglutarate dioxygenase family catalyze specific oxidation of JA to 12OH-JA, and their genes are induced by wounding or infection by the fungus Botrytis cinerea. JAO2 exhibits the highest basal expression, and its deficiency in jao2 mutants strongly enhanced antifungal resistance. The resistance phenotype resulted from constitutive expression of antimicrobial markers rather than from their higher induction in infected jao2 plants and could be reversed by ectopic expression of any of the three JAOs in jao2. Elevated defense in jao2 was dependent on the activity of JASMONATE RESPONSE 1 (JAR1) and CORONATINE-INSENSITIVE 1 (COI1) but was not correlated with enhanced JA-Ile accumulation. Instead, jao2 mutant lines displayed altered accumulation of several JA species in healthy and challenged plants, suggesting elevated metabolic flux through JA-Ile. Collectively, these data identify the missing enzymes hydroxylating JA and uncover an important metabolic diversion mechanism for repressing basal JA defense responses. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Nucleotide precursors prevent folic acid-resistant neural tube defects in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Kit-Yi; De Castro, Sandra C P; Savery, Dawn; Copp, Andrew J; Greene, Nicholas D E

    2013-09-01

    Closure of the neural tube during embryogenesis is a crucial step in development of the central nervous system. Failure of this process results in neural tube defects, including spina bifida and anencephaly, which are among the most common birth defects worldwide. Maternal use of folic acid supplements reduces risk of neural tube defects but a proportion of cases are not preventable. Folic acid is thought to act through folate one-carbon metabolism, which transfers one-carbon units for methylation reactions and nucleotide biosynthesis. Hence suboptimal performance of the intervening reactions could limit the efficacy of folic acid. We hypothesized that direct supplementation with nucleotides, downstream of folate metabolism, has the potential to support neural tube closure. Therefore, in a mouse model that exhibits folic acid-resistant neural tube defects, we tested the effect of specific combinations of pyrimidine and purine nucleotide precursors and observed a significant protective effect. Labelling in whole embryo culture showed that nucleotides are taken up by the neurulating embryo and incorporated into genomic DNA. Furthermore, the mitotic index was elevated in neural folds and hindgut of treated embryos, consistent with a proposed mechanism of neural tube defect prevention through stimulation of cellular proliferation. These findings may provide an impetus for future investigations of supplemental nucleotides as a means to prevent a greater proportion of human neural tube defects than can be achieved by folic acid alone.

  20. Pomegranate seed oil, a rich source of punicic acid, prevents diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroegrijk, I.O.; Diepen, J.A. van; Berg, S.; Westbroek, I.; Keizer, H.; Gambelli, L.; Hontecillas, R.; Bassaganya-Riera, J.; Zondag, G.C.; Romijn, J.A.; Havekes, L.M.; Voshol, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pomegranate seed oil has been shown to protect against diet induced obesity and insulin resistance. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the metabolic effects of punicic acid on high fat diet induced obesity and insulin resistance. DESIGN: High-fat diet or high-fat diet with 1% Pomegranate seed

  1. Lack of transgene and glyphosate effects on yield, and mineral and amino acid content of glyphosate-resistant soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    There has been controversy as to whether the glyphosate resistance gene and/or glyphosate applied to glyphosate-resistant (GR) soybean affect mineral content (especially Mg, Mn, and Fe), yield and amino acid content of GR soybean. A two-year field study (2013 and 2014) examined these questions at si...

  2. The Endosymbiont Arsenophonus Provides a General Benefit to Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Regardless of Host Plant Resistance (Rag).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, Jason A; White, Jennifer A

    2015-06-01

    Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), invokes substantial chemical treatment and economic cost in North America. Resistant soybean genotypes hold promise as a low-impact control methodology, but soybean aphid "biotypes" capable of development on resistant soy cast doubt on the durability of soy resistance. We hypothesized that variation in soybean aphid ability to colonize resistant soy is partially attributable to a bacterial symbiont of soybean aphid, Arsenophonus. We used microinjection to manipulate Arsenophonus infection in both virulent and avirulent aphid biotypes, resulting in five pairs of infected versus uninfected isolines. These isolines were subjected to various population growth rate assays on resistant Rag versus susceptible soybean. We found that aphid virulence on Rag soybean was not dependent on Arsenophonus: virulent aphid biotypes performed well on Rag soybean, and avirulent aphid biotypes performed poorly on Rag soybean, regardless of whether Arsenophonus was present or not. However, we did find that Arsenophonus-infected clones on average performed significantly better than their paired uninfected isolines. This pattern was not consistently evident on every date for every clone, either in the population assays nor when we compared lifetime fecundity of individual aphids in a separate experiment. Nevertheless, this overall benefit for infected aphids may be sufficient to explain the high frequency of Arsenophonus infection in soybean aphids. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Evaluation of resistance to Al toxicity in wild graminae of acid meadows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Poozesh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In acid soils, aluminium toxicity is the primary factor limiting crop and forage production. At soil pH < 5.0, Al solubility increases and Al appears to be rhizotoxic. The objectives of the present study were to compare Al tolerance among wild graminae of acid meadows and to evaluate the relation between a plant functional trait and the Al resistance, in nutrient solution. In addition, a sensitive Lolium perenne variety was included as a control. There was a great difference among the graminaceous species tested, when compared by relative root elongation and critical Al activity corresponding to 50% root elongation reduction. The {Al 3+}50 activities were 3, 13 , 14 et 26 µM for Lolium perenne, Molinia coerulea, Holcus lanatus and Danthonia decumbens, respectively. No relation was found between the functional trait leaf dry matter content (LDMC and Al resistance. Holcus lanatus, tolerant to Al toxicity, with a low LDMC, would deserve a further study of its nutritional qualities for cattle. The very tolerant D. decumbens, with a high LDMC, would present an interest for a later study of the mechanisms of tolerance to Al and possibly, for other applications like the protection of the very acid soils against erosion.

  4. TNF-α stimulates endothelial palmitic acid transcytosis and promotes insulin resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjing; Yang, Xiaoyan; Zheng, Tao; Xing, Shasha; Wu, Yaogong; Bian, Fang; Wu, Guangjie; Li, Ye; Li, Juyi; Bai, Xiangli; Wu, Dan; Jia, Xiong; Wang, Ling; Zhu, Lin; Jin, Si

    2017-01-01

    Persistent elevation of plasma TNF-α is a marker of low grade systemic inflammation. Palmitic acid (PA) is the most abundant type of saturated fatty acid in human body. PA is bound with albumin in plasma and could not pass through endothelial barrier freely. Albumin-bound PA has to be transported across monolayer endothelial cells through intracellular transcytosis, but not intercellular diffusion. In the present study, we discovered that TNF-α might stimulate PA transcytosis across cardiac microvascular endothelial cells, which further impaired the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by cardiomyocytes and promoted insulin resistance. In this process, TNF-α-stimulated endothelial autophagy and NF-κB signaling crosstalk with each other and orchestrate the whole event, ultimately result in increased expression of fatty acid transporter protein 4 (FATP4) in endothelial cells and mediate the increased PA transcytosis across microvascular endothelial cells. Hopefully the present study discovered a novel missing link between low grade systemic inflammation and insulin resistance. PMID:28304381

  5. Retinoic acid therapy resistance progresses from unilineage to bilineage in HL-60 leukemic blasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly A Jensen

    Full Text Available Emergent resistance can be progressive and driven by global signaling aberrations. All-trans retinoic acid (RA is the standard therapeutic agent for acute promyelocytic leukemia, but 10-20% of patients are not responsive, and initially responsive patients relapse and develop retinoic acid resistance. The patient-derived, lineage-bipotent acute myeloblastic leukemia (FAB M2 HL-60 cell line is a potent tool for characterizing differentiation-induction therapy responsiveness and resistance in t(15;17-negative cells. Wild-type (WT HL-60 cells undergo RA-induced granulocytic differentiation, or monocytic differentiation in response to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (D3. Two sequentially emergent RA-resistant HL-60 cell lines, R38+ and R38-, distinguishable by RA-inducible CD38 expression, do not arrest in G1/G0 and fail to upregulate CD11b and the myeloid-associated signaling factors Vav1, c-Cbl, Lyn, Fgr, and c-Raf after RA treatment. Here, we show that the R38+ and R38- HL-60 cell lines display a progressive reduced response to D3-induced differentiation therapy. Exploiting the biphasic dynamic of induced HL-60 differentiation, we examined if resistance-related defects occurred during the first 24 h (the early or "precommitment" phase or subsequently (the late or "lineage-commitment" phase. HL-60 were treated with RA or D3 for 24 h, washed and retreated with either the same, different, or no differentiation agent. Using flow cytometry, D3 was able to induce CD38, CD11b and CD14 expression, and G1/G0 arrest when present during the lineage-commitment stage in R38+ cells, and to a lesser degree in R38- cells. Clustering analysis of cytometry and quantified Western blot data indicated that WT, R38+ and R38- HL-60 cells exhibited decreasing correlation between phenotypic markers and signaling factor expression. Thus differentiation induction therapy resistance can develop in stages, with initial partial RA resistance and moderate vitamin D3 responsiveness

  6. Artificial Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains exhibit diverse mechanisms to repress Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae-induced hypersensitive response and non-host resistance in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Cao, Jia-Yi; Xu, You-Ping; Cai, Xin-Zhong

    2017-05-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) rapidly triggers a hypersensitive response (HR) and non-host resistance in its non-host plant Nicotiana benthamiana. Here, we report that Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain GV3101 blocks Xoo-induced HR in N. benthamiana when pre-infiltrated or co-infiltrated, but not when post-infiltrated at 4 h after Xoo inoculation. This suppression by A. tumefaciens is local and highly efficient to Xoo. The HR-inhibiting efficiency of A. tumefaciens is strain dependent. Strain C58C1 has almost no effect on Xoo-induced HR, whereas strains GV3101, EHA105 and LBA4404 nearly completely block HR formation. Intriguingly, these three HR-inhibiting strains employ different strategies to repress HR. Strain GV3101 displays strong antibiotic activity and thus suppresses Xoo growth. Comparison of the genotype and Xoo antibiosis activity of wild-type A. tumefaciens strain C58 and a set of C58-derived strains reveals that this Xoo antibiosis activity of A. tumefaciens is negatively, but not solely, regulated by the transferred-DNA (T-DNA) of the Ti plasmid pTiC58. Unlike GV3101, strains LBA4404 and EHA105 exhibit no significant antibiotic effect on Xoo, but rather abolish hydrogen peroxide accumulation. In addition, expression assays indicate that strains LBA4404 and EHA105 may inhibit Xoo-induced HR by suppression of the expression of Xoo type III secretion system (T3SS) effector genes hpa1 and hrpD6. Collectively, our results unveil the multiple levels of effects of A. tumefaciens on Xoo in N. benthamiana and provide insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the bacterial antibiosis of A. tumefaciens and the non-host resistance induced by Xoo. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  7. Effect of acidic environment on dislocation resistance of endosequence root repair material and mineral trioxide aggregate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noushin Shokouhinejad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effect of an acidic environment on dislocation resistance (push-out bond strength of EndoSequence Root Repair Material (ERRM putty and ERRM paste, a new bioceramic-based material, to that of mineral tri-oxide aggregate (MTA.One-hundred twenty root dentin slices with standardized canal spaces were divided into 6 groups (n = 20 each and filled with tooth-colored ProRoot MTA (groups 1 and 2, ERRM putty (groups 3 and 4, or ERRM paste (groups 5 and 6. The specimens of groups 1, 3, and 5 were exposed to phosphate buffered saline (PBS solution (pH=7.4 and those of groups 2, 4, and 6 were exposed to butyric acid (pH= 4.4. The specimens were then incubated for 4 days at 37°C. The push-out bond strength was then measured using a universal testing machine. Failure modes after the push-out test were examined under a light microscope at ×40 magnification. The data for dislocation resistance were analyzed using the t-test and one-way analysis of variance.In PBS environment (pH=7.4, there were no significant differences among materials (P=0.30; but the mean push-out bond strength of ERRM putty was significantly higher than that of other materials in an acidic environment (P<0.001. Push-out bond strength of MTA and ERRM paste decreased after exposure to an acidic environment; whereas ERRM putty was not affected by acidic pH. The bond failure mode was predominantly cohesive for all groups except for MTA in an acidic environment; which showed mixed bond failure in most of the specimens.The force needed for dislocation of MTA and ERRM paste was significantly lower in samples stored in acidic pH; however, push-out bond strength of ERRM putty was not influenced by acidity.

  8. Transcriptome analysis of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita)-infected tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) roots reveals complex gene expression profiles and metabolic networks of both host and nematode during susceptible and resistance responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shukla, Neha; Yadav, Rachita; Kaur, Pritam

    2017-01-01

    plants and two infection time intervals from resistant plants, grown under soil conditions. Differentially expressed genes during susceptible (1827-tomato, 462-RKN) and resistance (25-tomato, 160-RKN) interactions were identified. In susceptible responses, tomato genes involved in cell wall structure......, development, primary and secondary metabolites and defense signalling pathways along with RKN genes involved in host parasitism, development and defense are discussed. In resistance responses, tomato genes involved in secondary metabolite and hormone-mediated defense responses along with RKN genes involved...

  9. Genome Sequence Analysis of the Naphthenic Acid Degrading and Metal Resistant Bacterium Cupriavidus gilardii CR3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Wang

    Full Text Available Cupriavidus sp. are generally heavy metal tolerant bacteria with the ability to degrade a variety of aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, although the degradation pathways and substrate versatilities remain largely unknown. Here we studied the bacterium Cupriavidus gilardii strain CR3, which was isolated from a natural asphalt deposit, and which was shown to utilize naphthenic acids as a sole carbon source. Genome sequencing of C. gilardii CR3 was carried out to elucidate possible mechanisms for the naphthenic acid biodegradation. The genome of C. gilardii CR3 was composed of two circular chromosomes chr1 and chr2 of respectively 3,539,530 bp and 2,039,213 bp in size. The genome for strain CR3 encoded 4,502 putative protein-coding genes, 59 tRNA genes, and many other non-coding genes. Many genes were associated with xenobiotic biodegradation and metal resistance functions. Pathway prediction for degradation of cyclohexanecarboxylic acid, a representative naphthenic acid, suggested that naphthenic acid undergoes initial ring-cleavage, after which the ring fission products can be degraded via several plausible degradation pathways including a mechanism similar to that used for fatty acid oxidation. The final metabolic products of these pathways are unstable or volatile compounds that were not toxic to CR3. Strain CR3 was also shown to have tolerance to at least 10 heavy metals, which was mainly achieved by self-detoxification through ion efflux, metal-complexation and metal-reduction, and a powerful DNA self-repair mechanism. Our genomic analysis suggests that CR3 is well adapted to survive the harsh environment in natural asphalts containing naphthenic acids and high concentrations of heavy metals.

  10. Surface Resistance of Jute Fibre/Polylactic Acid Biocomposite to Wet Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandvliet, Clio; Bandyopadhyay, N. R.; Ray, Dipa

    2016-04-01

    Jute fibre/polylactic acid (PLA) composite is of special interest because both resin and reinforcement come from renewable resources. Thus, it could be a more eco-friendly alternative to glass fibre composite [1] and to conventional wood-based panels made with phenol-formaldehyde resin which present many drawbacks for the workers and the environment [2]. Yet the water affinity of the natural fibres, the susceptibility of PLA towards hydrolysis and the low glass transition of the PLA raise a question about the surface resistance of such composites to wet heat in service condition for a furniture application [3]. In this work, the surface resistance of PLA/jute composite alone and with two different varnishes are investigated in regard to an interior application following the standard test method in accordance to BS EN 18721:2009: "Furniture: assessment of surface resistance to wet heat". It is compared to two common wood based panels, plywood and hardboard. After test, the composite material surface is found to be more affected than plywood and hardboard, but it becomes resistant to wet heat when a layer of biosourced varnish or petrol-based polyurethane varnish are applied on the surface.

  11. Slow growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis at acidic pH is regulated by phoPR and host-associated carbon sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jacob J.; Johnson, Benjamin K.; Abramovitch, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    Summary During pathogenesis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) colonizes environments, such as the macrophage or necrotic granuloma, that are acidic and rich in cholesterol and fatty acids. The goal of this study was to examine how acidic pH and available carbon sources interact to regulate Mtb physiology. Here we report that Mtb growth at acidic pH requires host-associated carbon sources that function at the intersection of glycolysis and the TCA cycle, such as pyruvate, acetate, oxaloacetate and cholesterol. In contrast, in other tested carbon sources, Mtb fully arrests its growth at acidic pH and establishes a state of non-replicating persistence. Growth-arrested Mtb is resuscitated by the addition of pyruvate suggesting that growth arrest is due to a pH-dependent checkpoint on metabolism. Additionally, we demonstrate that the phoPR two-component regulatory system is required to slow Mtb growth at acidic pH and functions to maintain redox homeostasis. Transcriptional profiling and functional metabolic studies demonstrate that signals from acidic pH and carbon source are integrated to remodel pathways associated with anaplerotic central metabolism, lipid anabolism and the regeneration of oxidized cofactors. Because phoPR is required for Mtb virulence in animals, we suggest that pH-driven adaptation may be critical to Mtb pathogenesis. PMID:24975990

  12. Pipecolic Acid Orchestrates Plant Systemic Acquired Resistance and Defense Priming via Salicylic Acid-Dependent and -Independent Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernsdorff, Friederike; Döring, Anne-Christin; Gruner, Katrin; Schuck, Stefan; Bräutigam, Andrea; Zeier, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the relationships of the two immune-regulatory plant metabolites, salicylic acid (SA) and pipecolic acid (Pip), in the establishment of plant systemic acquired resistance (SAR), SAR-associated defense priming, and basal immunity. Using SA-deficient sid2, Pip-deficient ald1, and sid2 ald1 plants deficient in both SA and Pip, we show that SA and Pip act both independently from each other and synergistically in Arabidopsis thaliana basal immunity to Pseudomonas syringae. Transcriptome analyses reveal that SAR establishment in Arabidopsis is characterized by a strong transcriptional response systemically induced in the foliage that prepares plants for future pathogen attack by preactivating multiple stages of defense signaling and that SA accumulation upon SAR activation leads to the downregulation of photosynthesis and attenuated jasmonate responses systemically within the plant. Whereas systemic Pip elevations are indispensable for SAR and necessary for virtually the whole transcriptional SAR response, a moderate but significant SA-independent component of SAR activation and SAR gene expression is revealed. During SAR, Pip orchestrates SA-dependent and SA-independent priming of pathogen responses in a FLAVIN-DEPENDENT-MONOOXYGENASE1 (FMO1)-dependent manner. We conclude that a Pip/FMO1 signaling module acts as an indispensable switch for the activation of SAR and associated defense priming events and that SA amplifies Pip-triggered responses to different degrees in the distal tissue of SAR-activated plants. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  13. Genetic evidence of a causal effect of insulin resistance on branched-chain amino acid levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahendran, Yuvaraj; Jonsson, Anna; Have, Christian T

    2017-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Fasting plasma levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are associated with insulin resistance, but it remains unclear whether there is a causal relation between the two. We aimed to disentangle the causal relations by performing a Mendelian randomisation study using genetic...... variants associated with circulating BCAA levels and insulin resistance as instrumental variables. METHODS: We measured circulating BCAA levels in blood plasma by NMR spectroscopy in 1,321 individuals from the ADDITION-PRO cohort. We complemented our analyses by using previously published genome......-wide association study (GWAS) results from the Meta-Analyses of Glucose and Insulin-related traits Consortium (MAGIC) (n = 46,186) and from a GWAS of serum BCAA levels (n = 24,925). We used a genetic risk score (GRS), calculated using ten established fasting serum insulin associated variants, as an instrumental...

  14. Dose regimen of para-aminosalicylic acid gastro-resistant formulation (PAS-GR) in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibleur, Yves; Brochart, Hervé; Schaaf, Hendrik S; Diacon, Andre H; Donald, Peter R

    2014-04-01

    Resurgence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has raised a renewed interest in para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) and other efficacious drugs. A gastro-resistant granule formulation (PAS-GR) was designed to be better tolerated than earlier forms of PAS, with fewer adverse effects from reduced production of meta-aminophenol. PAS release from PAS-GR granules is slower than with earlier formulations. Pharmacokinetic data are, however, limited and only a few studies have assisted in defining the best PAS-GR dose regimen. Interest in refining the latter continues and recent data contributed in better defining the optimal PAS-GR dose regimen in adults and children. The present paper draws on these recent studies, synthesizes pharmacokinetic results from different population groups, and draws comparisons with in vitro data and the results of earlier pharmacokinetic studies in order to discuss the most appropriate dosing regimen for PAS-GR. A comparative in vitro dissolution study was carried out with a 1 g acid PAS equivalent of various formulations of PAS and PAS-GR and in vitro-in vivo correlations. Retrospective comparisons between recent and earlier clinical studies were also gathered to clarify the dose regimen of PAS-GR in adults and children. Exposure after a 4 g twice- or three times daily dose regimen in adult MDR-TB patients confirmed that both dose regimens can be used. The twice-daily dose regimen does not, however, confer any safety margin over the potentiality of "too" high plasma concentrations after a three times daily dose regimen and may lead to under-dosage when a dose is missed, as compliance often decreases over time. Based on available data and practical considerations, a 4 g three times daily dose regimen of PAS-GR should be the preferred dose in hospital settings, where it remains the best regimen to cover the around-the-clock suppression of mycobacteria based on the minimal inhibitory concentration for PAS. In MDR-TB adults and in hospital

  15. Possible mechanisms of host resistance to Haemonchus contortus infection in sheep breeds native to the Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    The blood feeder parasite Haemonchus contortus appears to be the most economically important helminth species for small ruminant production in many regions of the world. The two sheep breeds native to the Canary Islands display distinctly different resistant phenotypes under both natural and experim...

  16. Enhancement of host defense against pathogens by antimicrobial peptides : a new approach to combat microbial drug resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Does, Anne Margaretha van der

    2011-01-01

    Due to their abilities to eliminate pathogens and modulate host’s immune responses, antimicrobial peptides are considered as potential alternatives for the treatment of infections with (multi-drug resistant) pathogens. In this thesis the immunomodulatory actions of two peptides have been

  17. Tetradecylthioacetic acid prevents high fat diet induced adiposity and insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lise; Guerre-Millo, Michéle; Flindt, Esben N

    2002-01-01

    completely prevented diet-induced insulin resistance and adiposity. In genetically obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats TTA treatment reduced the epididymal adipose tissue mass and improved insulin sensitivity. All three rodent peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) subtypes were activated by TTA...... in the ranking order PPARalpha > PPARdelta > PPARgamma. Expression of PPARgamma target genes in adipose tissue was unaffected by TTA treatment, whereas the hepatic expression of PPARalpha-responsive genes encoding enzymes involved in fatty acid uptake, transport, and oxidation was induced. This was accompanied...

  18. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase as a differentiation marker for the human mononuclear phagocyte system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzun, H J; Kreipe, H; Parwaresch, M R

    1983-01-01

    Human blood monocytes (BM) were stimulated with various immune modulators in short-term cultures. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TAcP) activity was demonstrated with an enzyme cytochemical method. Other members of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS), such as peritoneal (PM) and alveolar macrophages (AM), were also tested. Unstimulated BM and physiologic functional forms of macrophages, with the exception of AM, were invariably TAcP negative. On appropriate stimulation, particularly with media containing lymphokines, cultured BM became TAcP positive. The results suggest that TAcP is an inducible differentiation marker that indicates transformation of monocytes into cells belonging to a distinct subset of the MPS.

  19. Corrosive Resistant Diamond Coatings for the Acid Based Thermo-Chemical Hydrogen Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark A. Prelas

    2009-06-25

    This project was designed to test diamond, diamond-like and related materials in environments that are expected in thermochemical cycles. Our goals were to build a High Temperature Corrosion Resistance (HTCR) test stand and begin testing the corrosive properties of barious materials in a high temperature acidic environment in the first year. Overall, we planned to test 54 samples each of diamond and diamond-like films (of 1 cm x 1 cm area). In addition we use a corrosion acceleration method by treating the samples at a temperature much larger than the expected operating temperature. Half of the samples will be treated with boron using the FEDOA process.

  20. ACID RESISTANCE OF FLYASH BASED GEOPOLYMER MORTAR UNDER AMBIENT CURING AND HEAT CURING

    OpenAIRE

    V.Sreevidya; Anuradha, R.; D. Dinakar; Dr. R.Venkatasubramani

    2012-01-01

    An Experimental study was conducted to assess the Acid resistance of flyash based geopolymer mortar specimens of size 50x50x50mm with a ratio of flyash to sand as 1:3.The ratio between solution(Sodiumhydroxide and Sodium silicate solution) to flyash were 0.376,0.386,0.396 and 0.416. After casting the specimens were subjected to both ambient curing and heat curing. In heat curing the specimens were kept continuously at 60oC for 24 hrs. Durability of specimens was assessed by immersing them in...

  1. The effects of ingestion of hormonal host factors on the longevity and insecticide resistance phenotype of the major malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Shüné V; Brooke, Basil D

    2017-01-01

    Exogenous vertebrate-derived factors circulating in the blood have the capacity to modulate the biology of haematophagous insects. These include insulin, insulin growth factor 1 (IGF) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ). The effects of the consumption of these three proteins were examined on laboratory strains of Anopheles arabiensis. SENN, an insecticide susceptible strain and SENN DDT, a resistant strain selected from SENN, were fed with host factor-supplemented sucrose. Adult longevity was measured and insecticide resistance phenotype over time was assessed by WHO bioassay. Detoxification and oxidative stress defence enzyme activity was assessed calorimetrically. Insulin supplementation augmented insecticide resistance in young adult mosquitoes. This effect was due to the hormonal nature of the protein, as heat-denatured insulin did not elicit the same response. In contrast, IGF and TGFβ consumption generally reduced the expression of insecticide resistance. Insulin ingestion significantly reduced longevity in the insecticide susceptible strain. IGF elicited the same response in the susceptible strain, while TGF consumption had no effect on either strain. Consumption of all factors significantly decreased Glutathione S-transferase activity and increased cytochrome P450 and superoxide dismutase activity. This suggests that the altered detoxification phenotype is mediated primarily by cytochrome P450 activity, which would result in an increase in oxidative stress. The increased superoxide dismutase activity suggests that this enzyme class alleviates the oxidative stress as opposed to glutathione-based redox systems. Oxidative stress responses play a crucial role in insecticide resistance and longevity. These data show that ingested hormonal factors can affect mosquito longevity and insecticide susceptibility, both of which are important characteristics in terms of malaria transmission and control.

  2. Resistance to cutaneous graft-vs.-host disease is not induced in T cell receptor delta gene-mutant mice

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    The function of murine dendritic epidermal cells (dEC) remains largely speculative, probably because of the lack of a suitable in vivo model, although previous studies suggest that gamma/delta+ dEC may have originally evolved to serve as a self-protection mechanism(s). Our previous study demonstrated that the epidermis of mice that had spontaneously recovered from cutaneous graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) induced by local injection of CD4+ autoreactive T cells contained unexpectedly large number...

  3. Role of lipase from community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain USA300 in hydrolyzing triglycerides into growth-inhibitory free fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadieux, Brigitte; Vijayakumaran, Vithooshan; Bernards, Mark A; McGavin, Martin J; Heinrichs, David E

    2014-12-01

    Part of the human host innate immune response involves the secretion of bactericidal lipids on the skin and delivery of triglycerides into abscesses to control invading pathogens. Two Staphylococcus aureus lipases, named SAL1 and SAL2, were identified in the community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus strain USA300, which, presumably, are produced and function to degrade triglycerides to release free fatty acids. We show that the SAL2 lipase is one of the most abundant proteins secreted by USA300 and is proteolytically processed from the 72-kDa proSAL2 to the 44-kDa mature SAL2 by the metalloprotease aureolysin. We show that spent culture supernatants had lipase activity on both short- and long-chain fatty acid substrates and that deletion of gehB, encoding SAL2, resulted in the complete loss of these activities. With the use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, we show that SAL2 hydrolyzed trilinolein to linoleic acid, a fatty acid with known antistaphylococcal properties. When added to cultures of USA300, trilinolein and, to a lesser extent, triolein inhibited growth in a SAL2-dependent manner. This effect was shown to be due to the enzymatic activity of SAL2 on these triglycerides, since the catalytically inactive SAL2 Ser412Ala mutant was incapable of hydrolyzing the triglycerides or yielding delayed growth in their presence. Overall, these results reveal that SAL2 hydrolyzes triglycerides of both short- and long-chain fatty acids and that the released free fatty acids have the potential to cause significant delays in growth, depending on the chemical nature of the free fatty acid. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Placental amino acid transport and placental leptin resistance in pregnancies complicated by maternal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, D M; Choi, J; Dudley, D J; Li, C; Jenkins, S L; Myatt, L; Nathanielsz, P W

    2010-08-01

    HYPOTHESIS AND STUDY OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that maternal obesity is associated with increased placental amino acid transport and hyperleptinemia. Our objectives were to study placental amino acid transport and the effect of leptin on placental amino acid transport in vitro in the setting of maternal obesity. Seven lean, BMI at entry 22.4, and seven obese, BMI at entry 31.5 (p leptin-stimulated placental system A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter (SNAT) activity, placental immunoreactive protein expression of SNAT, leptin and leptin receptor, and maternal and fetal plasma leptin concentrations, with significance set at p leptin receptor (p = 0.01) and SNAT-4 (p leptin in the lean group as compared to the obese group. Maternal weight gain and offspring birth weights were not different between groups. Maternal obesity was accompanied by decreased placental SNAT activity associated with maternal hyperleptinemia and placental leptin resistance in spite of appropriate maternal weight gain and normally grown neonates. These findings suggest altered placental function that may have clinical implications in obese pregnant women.

  5. Polyoxometalate ionic liquids as self-repairing acid-resistant corrosion protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Sven; Kostrzewa, Monika; Wierschem, Andreas; Streb, Carsten

    2014-12-01

    Corrosion is a global problem for any metallic structure or material. Herein we show how metals can easily be protected against acid corrosion using hydrophobic polyoxometalate-based ionic liquids (POM-ILs). Copper metal disks were coated with room-temperature POM-ILs composed of transition-metal functionalized Keggin anions [SiW11 O39 TM(H2 O)](n-) (TM=Cu(II) , Fe(III) ) and quaternary alkylammonium cations (Cn H2 n+1 )4 N(+) (n=7-8). The corrosion resistance against acetic acid vapors and simulated "acid rain" was significantly improved compared with commercial ionic liquids or solid polyoxometalate coatings. Mechanical damage to the POM-IL coating is self-repaired in less than one minute with full retention of the acid protection properties. The coating can easily be removed and recovered by rinsing with organic solvents. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Partial characterization of chayotextle starch-based films added with ascorbic acid encapsulated in resistant starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ortiz, Miguel A; Vargas-Torres, Apolonio; Román-Gutiérrez, Alma D; Chavarría-Hernández, Norberto; Zamudio-Flores, Paul B; Meza-Nieto, Martín; Palma-Rodríguez, Heidi M

    2017-05-01

    Chayotextle starch was modified by subjecting it to a dual treatment with acid and heating-cooling cycles. This caused a decrease in the content of amylose, which showed values of 30.22%, 4.80%, 3.27% and 3.57% for native chayotextle starch (NCS), starch modified by acid hydrolysis (CMS), and CMS with one (CMS1AC) and three autoclave cycles (CMS3AC), respectively. The percentage of crystallinity showed an increase of 36.9%-62% for NCS and CMS3AC. The highest content of resistant starch (RS) was observed in CMS3AC (37.05%). The microcapsules were made with CMS3AC due to its higher RS content; the total content of ascorbic acid of the microcapsules was 82.3%. The addition of different concentrations of CMS3AC microcapsules (0%, 2.5%, 6.255% and 12.5%) to chayotextle starch-based films (CSF) increased their tensile strength and elastic modulus. The content of ascorbic acid and RS in CSF was ranged from 0% to 59.4% and from 4.84% to 37.05% in the control film and in the film mixed with CMS3AC microcapsules, respectively. Water vapor permeability (WVP) values decreased with increasing concentrations of microcapsules in the films. Microscopy observations showed that higher concentrations of microcapsules caused agglomerations due their poor distribution in the matrix of the films. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Quantifying Ongoing HIV-1 Exposure in HIV-1–Serodiscordant Couples to Identify Individuals With Potential Host Resistance to HIV-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackelprang, Romel D.; Baeten, Jared M.; Donnell, Deborah; Celum, Connie; Farquhar, Carey; de Bruyn, Guy; Essex, Max; McElrath, M. Juliana; Nakku-Joloba, Edith; Lingappa, Jairam R.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Immunogenetic correlates of resistance to HIV-1 in HIV-1–exposed seronegative (HESN) individuals with consistently high exposure may inform HIV-1 prevention strategies. We developed a novel approach for quantifying HIV-1 exposure to identify individuals remaining HIV-1 uninfected despite persistent high exposure. Methods. We used longitudinal predictors of HIV-1 transmission in HIV-1 serodiscordant couples to score HIV-1 exposure and define HESN clusters with persistently high, low, and decreasing risk trajectories. The model was validated in an independent cohort of serodiscordant couples. We describe a statistical tool that can be applied to other HESN cohorts to identify individuals with high exposure to HIV-1. Results. HIV-1 exposure was best quantified by frequency of unprotected sex with, plasma HIV-1 RNA levels among, and presence of genital ulcer disease among HIV-1–infected partners and by age, pregnancy status, herpes simplex virus 2 serostatus, and male circumcision status among HESN participants. Overall, 14% of HESN individuals persistently had high HIV-1 exposure and exhibited a declining incidence of HIV-1 infection over time. Conclusions. A minority of HESN individuals from HIV-1–discordant couples had persistent high HIV-1 exposure over time. Decreasing incidence of infection in this group suggests these individuals were selected for resistance to HIV-1 and may be most appropriate for identifying biological correlates of natural host resistance to HIV-1 infection. PMID:22926009

  8. The Role of a Host Protein (TIP) in the Resistance Response of Arabidopsis to Turnip Crinkle Virus Infection.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Jack Morris, School of Biological Sciences, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588-0118

    2008-10-20

    Our research on Turnip crinkle virus (TCV) has shown that the viral capsid protein (CP) is both a virulence factor as well as the elicitor of a hypersensitive resistance response (HR) to the virus in Arabidopsis. Initially, we identified a protein from Arabidopsis that specifically interacted with the viral CP using a yeast two-hybrid screen. This protein, designated TIP for TCV-Interacting Protein, is a member of the NAC family of plant transcription factors implicated in the regulation of development and senescence. When TCV CP was mutated to eliminate its ability to interact with TIP, the corresponding virus mutants broke the HR-mediated resistance conferred by the HRT resistance (R) gene in Arabidopsis ecotype Dijon (Di)-17. This result suggested that TIP is a component of the signal transduction pathway that leads to the genetically specified TCV resistance. We next confirmed that TIP and the viral CP interact in plant cells and that this interaction prevents nuclear localization of this transcription factor. We demonstrated that TCV CP suppresses post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), a newly discovered RNA-mediated defense system in plants. Together these results suggest that the CP is a virulence factor that could well be functioning through its interaction with TIP. We have proposed a model involving the role of TIP and CP in triggering HR mediated plant defense that fits with the current thinking about how gene-for-gene resistance may function. A unique component of our system is the opportunity to link R-gene function with the newly discovered RNA silencing pathway that is not only a potent defense against viral pathogens, but also regulates early development in plants. In the current funding period we made several significant findings: First, we completed an array analysis comparing gene expression in Arabidopsis infected with TCV and a mutant virus unable to bind TIP. Second, we produced transgenic lines that over-express and inducibly under

  9. Fatty acid profiles from the plasma membrane and detergent resistant membranes of two plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Salazar, Laura; El Hafidi, Mohammed; Gutiérrez-Nájera, Nora; Noyola-Martínez, Liliana; González-Solís, Ariadna; Gavilanes-Ruíz, Marina

    2015-01-01

    It is essential to establish the composition of the plant plasma membrane in order to understand its organization and behavior under continually changing environments. Knowledge of the lipid phase, in particular the fatty acid (FA) complex repertoire, is important since FAs determine many of the physical-chemical membrane properties. FAs are constituents of the membrane glycerolipid and sphingolipid backbones and can also be linked to some sterols. In addition, FAs are components of complex lipids that can constitute membrane micro-domains, and the use of detergent-resistant membranes is a common approach to study their composition. The diversity and cellular allocation of the membrane lipids containing FAs are very diverse and the approaches to analyze them provide only general information. In this work, a detailed FA analysis was performed using highly purified plasma membranes from bean leaves and germinating maize embryos and their respective detergent-resistant membrane preparations. The analyses showed the presence of a significant amount of very long chain FAs (containing 28C, 30C and 32C), in both plasma membrane preparations from bean and maize, that have not been previously reported. Herein is demonstrated that a significant enrichment of very long chain saturated FAs and saturated FAs can occur in detergent-resistant membrane preparations, as compared to the plasma membranes from both plant species. Considering that a thorough analysis of FAs is rarely performed in purified plasma membranes and detergent-resistant membranes, this work provides qualitative and quantitative evidence on the contributions of the length and saturation of FAs to the organization of the plant plasma membrane and detergent-resistant membranes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Salicylic acid confers enhanced resistance to Glomerella leaf spot in apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Shi, Xiangpeng; Li, Baohua; Zhang, Qingming; Liang, Wenxing; Wang, Caixia

    2016-09-01

    Glomerella leaf spot (GLS) caused by Glomerella cingulata is a newly emergent disease that results in severe defoliation and fruit spots in apple. Currently, there are no effective means to control this disease except for the traditional fungicide sprays. Induced resistance by elicitors against pathogens infection is a widely accepted eco-friendly strategy. In the present study, we investigated whether exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) could improve resistance to GLS in a highly susceptible apple cultivar (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. 'Gala') and the underlying mechanisms. The results showed that pretreatment with SA, at 0.1-1.0 mM, induced strong resistance against GLS in 'Gala' apple leaves, with SA treated leaves showing significant reduction in lesion numbers and disease index. Concurrent with the enhanced disease resistance, SA treatment markedly increased the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and defence-related enzyme activities, including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). As expected, SA treatment also induced the expression levels of five pathogenesis-related (PR) genes including PR1, PR5, PR8, Chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase. Furthermore, the most pronounced and/or rapid increase was observed in leaves treated with SA and subsequently inoculated with G. cingulata compared to the treatment with SA or inoculation with the pathogen. Together, these results suggest that exogenous SA triggered increase in reactive oxygen species levels and the antioxidant system might be responsible for enhanced resistance against G. cingulata in 'Gala' apple leaves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Resistance and Tolerance to Tropodithietic Acid, an Antimicrobial in Aquaculture, Is Hard To Select▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porsby, Cisse Hedegaard; Webber, Mark A.; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Piddock, Laura J. V.; Gram, Lone

    2011-01-01

    The antibacterial compound tropodithietic acid (TDA) is produced by bacteria of the marine Roseobacter clade and is thought to explain the fish probiotic properties of some roseobacters. The aim of the present study was to determine the antibacterial spectrum of TDA and the likelihood of development of TDA resistance. A bacterial extract containing 95% TDA was effective against a range of human-pathogenic bacteria, including both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. TDA was bactericidal against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL1344 and Staphylococcus aureus NCTC 12493 and killed both growing and nongrowing cells. Several experimental approaches were used to select mutants resistant to TDA or subpopulations of strains with enhanced tolerance to TDA. No approach (single exposures to TDA extract administered via different methods, screening of a transposon library for resistant mutants, or prolonged exposure to incremental concentrations of TDA) resulted in resistant or tolerant strains. After more than 300 generations exposed to sub-MIC and MIC concentrations of a TDA-containing extract, strains tolerant to 2× the MIC of TDA for wild-type strains were selected, but the tolerance disappeared after one passage in medium without TDA extract. S. Typhimurium mutants with nonfunctional efflux pump and porin genes had the same TDA susceptibility as wild-type strains, suggesting that efflux pumps and porins are not involved in innate tolerance to TDA. TDA is a promising broad-spectrum antimicrobial in part due to the fact that enhanced tolerance is difficult to gain and that the TDA-tolerant phenotype appears to confer only low-level resistance and is very unstable. PMID:21263047

  12. Resistance and tolerance to tropodithietic acid, an antimicrobial in aquaculture, is hard to select.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porsby, Cisse Hedegaard; Webber, Mark A; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Piddock, Laura J V; Gram, Lone

    2011-04-01

    The antibacterial compound tropodithietic acid (TDA) is produced by bacteria of the marine Roseobacter clade and is thought to explain the fish probiotic properties of some roseobacters. The aim of the present study was to determine the antibacterial spectrum of TDA and the likelihood of development of TDA resistance. A bacterial extract containing 95% TDA was effective against a range of human-pathogenic bacteria, including both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. TDA was bactericidal against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL1344 and Staphylococcus aureus NCTC 12493 and killed both growing and nongrowing cells. Several experimental approaches were used to select mutants resistant to TDA or subpopulations of strains with enhanced tolerance to TDA. No approach (single exposures to TDA extract administered via different methods, screening of a transposon library for resistant mutants, or prolonged exposure to incremental concentrations of TDA) resulted in resistant or tolerant strains. After more than 300 generations exposed to sub-MIC and MIC concentrations of a TDA-containing extract, strains tolerant to 2× the MIC of TDA for wild-type strains were selected, but the tolerance disappeared after one passage in medium without TDA extract. S. Typhimurium mutants with nonfunctional efflux pump and porin genes had the same TDA susceptibility as wild-type strains, suggesting that efflux pumps and porins are not involved in innate tolerance to TDA. TDA is a promising broad-spectrum antimicrobial in part due to the fact that enhanced tolerance is difficult to gain and that the TDA-tolerant phenotype appears to confer only low-level resistance and is very unstable.

  13. Identification of non-host semiochemicals for the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Acari: Ixodidae), from tick-resistant beagles, Canis lupus familiaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira; de Oliveira Filho, Jaires Gomes; Ferreira, Lorena Lopes; Louly, Carla Cristina Braz; Pickett, John A; Birkett, Michael A

    2015-07-01

    Studies have shown that the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, when fed on the beagle breed of dog, Canis lupus familiaris, development negatively affected in comparison with tick development after feeding on the English cocker spaniel breed. Thus leading to the suggestion that beagle dogs are be tick-resistant dogs. Behavioural studies have demonstrated that more ticks are attracted by extracts from cocker spaniels than from beagles and that the odour of beagles is a repellent. To test the hypothesis that resistant hosts produce repellent compounds, we undertook comparative chemical analysis on beagle odour and cocker spaniel extracts using coupled high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and also used Petri-dish and olfactometer behavioural assays to assess the response of ticks to identified non-host compounds. The beagle odour extracts contained almost three times as many chemical compounds as cocker spaniel samples. Several non-host compounds were identified, i.e. 2-hexanone, benzaldehyde, nonane, decane and undecane. In Petri-dish assays, 2-hexanone was repellent at 30 min at concentrations of 0.200 and 0.050 mg cm(-2), whilst at 10 min, the 0.100 mg cm(-2) concentration was repellent. Benzaldehyde repelled ticks at 30 min (0.200 mg cm(-2)) and at 5 min (0.050 mg cm(-2)). Undecane was repellent for R. sanguineus s.l. ticks for the first 5 min at the highest concentration tested. Nonane and decane did not show any significant repellency at any concentration or time evaluated. When 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde were combined, an increase in the repellency rate was observed, with activity comparable or better than N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET). In olfactometer bioassays, a 1:1 mixture of 2-hexanone:benzaldehyde and DEET were repellent for R. sanguineus s.l. adults at the concentration of 0.200 mg cm(-2). This study identified non-host semiochemicals that mediate avoidance of the beagle dog breed by R. sanguineus s

  14. Effects of simulated acidic rain on host-parasite interaction in plant diseases. [Cronartium fusiforme, Quercus phellos, Meloidogyne hapla, Phaseolus vulgaris, Uromyces phaseoli, Pseudomonas phaseolicola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shriner, D.S.

    1978-02-01

    The effects of simulated rain acidified with sulfuric acid were studied on five host-parasite systems. Plants were exposed in greenhouse or field to simulated rain of pH 3.2 or pH 6.0 in amounts and intervals common to weather patterns of North Carolina. Simulated acidic rain resulted in: (i) an 86% inhibition of the number of telia produced by Cronartium fusiforme on willow oak (Quercus phellos); (ii) a 66% inhibition in the reproduction of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla) on field-grown kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris Red Kidney); (iii) a 29% decrease in the percentage of leaf area of field-grown kidney beans affected by Uromyces phaseoli; and (iv) either stimulated or inhibited development of halo blight on kidney bean (caused by Pseudomonas phaseolicola), depending upon the stage of the disease cycle in which the treatments were applied. The effect varied as follows: (i) simulated acidic rain applied to plants before inoculation increased disease severity by 42%; (ii) suspension of bacteria in acidic rain resulted in no infection; and (iii) acidic rain applied to plants after infection inhibited disease development by 22%. Results suggest that the acidity of rain is an environmental parameter which should be of concern to plant pathologists and agricultural and forest ecologists. 22 references, 2 tables.

  15. A wheat cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase TaCAD12 contributes to host resistance to the sharp eyespot disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Rong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sharp eyespot, caused mainly by the necrotrophic fungus Rhizoctonia cerealis, is a destructive disease in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. In Arabidopsis, certain cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases (CADs have been implicated in monolignol biosynthesis and in defense response to bacterial pathogen infection. However, little is known about CADs in wheat defense responses to necrotrophic or soil-borne pathogens. In this study, we isolate a wheat CAD gene TaCAD12 in response to R. cerealis infection through microarray-based comparative transcriptomics, and study the enzyme activity and defense role of TaCAD12 in wheat. The transcriptional levels of TaCAD12 in sharp eyespot-resistant wheat lines were significantly higher compared with those in susceptible wheat lines. The sequence and phylogenetic analyses revealed that TaCAD12 belongs to IV group in CAD family. The biochemical assay proved that TaCAD12 protein is an authentic CAD enzyme and possesses catalytic efficiencies towards both coniferyl aldehyde and sinapyl aldehyde. Knock-down of TaCAD12 transcript significantly repressed resistance of the gene-silenced wheat plants to sharp eyespot caused by R. cerealis, whereas TaCAD12 overexpression markedly enhanced resistance of the transgenic wheat lines to sharp eyespot. Furthermore, certain defense genes (Defensin, PR10, PR17c, and Chitinase1 and monolignol biosynthesis-related genes (TaCAD1, TaCCR, and TaCOMT1 were up-regulated in the TaCAD12-overexpressing wheat plants but down-regulated in TaCAD12-silencing plants. These results suggest that TaCAD12 positively contributes to resistance against sharp eyespot through regulation of the expression of certain defense genes and monolignol biosynthesis-related genes in wheat.

  16. Investigation of carbon storage regulation network (csr genes) and phenotypic differences between acid sensitive and resistant Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Escherichia coli O157:H7 and related serotype strains have previously been shown to vary in acid resistance, however, little is known about strain specific mechanisms of acid resistance. We examined sensitive and resistant E. coli strains to determine the effects of growth in minimal and...

  17. The K186E Amino Acid Substitution in the Canine Influenza Virus H3N8 NS1 Protein Restores Its Ability To Inhibit Host Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogales, Aitor; Chauché, Caroline; DeDiego, Marta L; Topham, David J; Parrish, Colin R; Murcia, Pablo R; Martínez-Sobrido, Luis

    2017-11-15

    Canine influenza viruses (CIVs) are the causative agents of canine influenza, a contagious respiratory disease in dogs, and include the equine-origin H3N8 and the avian-origin H3N2 viruses. Influenza A virus (IAV) nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) is a virulence factor essential for counteracting the innate immune response. Here, we evaluated the ability of H3N8 CIV NS1 to inhibit host innate immune responses. We found that H3N8 CIV NS1 was able to efficiently counteract interferon (IFN) responses but was unable to block general gene expression in human or canine cells. Such ability was restored by a single amino acid substitution in position 186 (K186E) that resulted in NS1 binding to the 30-kDa subunit of the cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF30), a cellular protein involved in pre-mRNA processing. We also examined the frequency distribution of K186 and E186 among H3N8 CIVs and equine influenza viruses (EIVs), the ancestors of H3N8 CIV, and experimentally determined the impact of amino acid 186 in the ability of different CIV and EIV NS1s to inhibit general gene expression. In all cases, the presence of E186 was responsible for the control of host gene expression. In contrast, the NS1 protein of H3N2 CIV harbors E186 and blocks general gene expression in c