Full Text Available Our paper empirically examines how the decision to purchase private insurance and hospitalization are made based on household income, socio-demographic factors, and private health insurance factors in both Japan and the USA. Using these two data-sets, we found some similarities and dissimilarities between Japan and the United States. As income of households rises, households have a positive effect on purchasing health insurance as a normal good. Another similarity between the two countries is seen in the income effect on risk of hospitalization, which is negative for both Japanese and US cases. For dissimilarity, the insurance premium effect on risk of hospitalization is positive for the Japanese case, while negative for the US case. Since the Japanese insurance data had variables such as payments per day of hospitalization if household gets hospitalized, insurance payments upon death of an insured person, and annuity payments at maturity, we tested to see if these characteristics affect the risk of hospitalization for households; we do not eliminate a possibility of adverse selection. For the US pure health issuance characteristics, an increase in premium of health insurance policies cause individuals to substitute more health capital investment which causes lower risk of hospitalization.
Trish, Erin E; Herring, Bradley J
The US health insurance industry is highly concentrated, and health insurance premiums are high and rising rapidly. Policymakers have focused on the possible link between the two, leading to ACA provisions to increase insurer competition. However, while market power may enable insurers to include higher profit margins in their premiums, it may also result in stronger bargaining leverage with hospitals to negotiate lower payment rates to partially offset these higher premiums. We empirically examine the relationship between employer-sponsored fully-insured health insurance premiums and the level of concentration in local insurer and hospital markets using the nationally-representative 2006-2011 KFF/HRET Employer Health Benefits Survey. We exploit a unique feature of employer-sponsored insurance, in which self-insured employers purchase only administrative services from managed care organizations, to disentangle these different effects on insurer concentration by constructing one concentration measure representing fully-insured plans' transactions with employers and the other concentration measure representing insurers' bargaining with hospitals. As expected, we find that premiums are indeed higher for plans sold in markets with higher levels of concentration relevant to insurer transactions with employers, lower for plans in markets with higher levels of insurer concentration relevant to insurer bargaining with hospitals, and higher for plans in markets with higher levels of hospital market concentration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This paper explores the impact of employer-provided health insurance on hospital competition and hospital mergers. Under employer-provided health insurance, employer executives act as agents for their employees in selecting health insurance options for their firm. The paper investigates whether a merger of hospitals favored by executives will result in a larger price increase than a merger of competing hospitals elsewhere. This is found to be the case even when the executive has the same opportunity cost of travel as her employees and even when the executive is the sole owner of the firm, retaining all profits. This is consistent with the Federal Trade Commission's findings in its challenge of Evanston Northwestern Healthcare's acquisition of Highland Park Hospital. Implications of the model are further tested with executive location data and hospital data from Florida and Texas.
To examine the effects of hospital and insurer markets concentration on transaction prices for inpatient hospital services. Measures of hospital and insurer markets concentration derived from American Hospital Association and HealthLeaders-InterStudy data are linked to 2005-2008 inpatient administrative data from Truven Health MarketScan Databases. Uses a reduced-form price equation, controlling for cost and demand shifters and accounting for possible endogeneity of market concentration using instrumental variables (IV) technique. The findings suggest that greater hospital concentration raises prices, whereas greater insurer concentration depresses prices. A hypothetical merger between two of five equally sized hospitals is estimated to increase hospital prices by about 9 percent (p costs. © Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Health insurance helps protect you from high medical care costs. It is a contract between you and your ... Many people in the United States get a health insurance policy through their employers. In most cases, the ...
Conversion of hospitals, health insurers, and health plans from nonprofit to for-profit ownership has become a focus of national debate. The author examines why nonprofit ownership has been dominant in the US health system and assesses the strength of the argument that nonprofits provide community benefits that would be threatened by for-profit conversion. The author concludes that many of the specific community benefits offered by nonprofits, such as care for the poor, could be maintained or replaced by adequate funding of public programs and that quality and fairness in treatment can be better assured through clear standards of care and adequate monitoring systems. As health care becomes increasingly commercialized, the most difficult parts of nonprofits' historic mission to preserve are the community orientation, leadership role, and innovation that nonprofit hospitals and health plans have provided out of their commitment to a community beyond those to whom they sell services.
Grigorakis, Nikolaos; Floros, Christos; Tsangari, Haritini; Tsoukatos, Evangelos
The Greek state has reduced their funding on health as part of broader efforts to limit the large fiscal deficits and rising debt ratios to GDP. Benefits cuts and limitations of Social Health Insurance (SHI) reimbursements result in substantial Out of Pocket (OOP) payments in the Greek population. In this paper, we examine social health insurance's risk pooling mechanisms and the catastrophic impact that OOP payments may have on insured's income and well-being. Using data collected from a cross sectional survey in Greece, we find that the OOP payments for inpatient care in private hospitals have a positive relationship with SHI funding. Moreover, we show that the SHI funding is inadequate to total inpatient financing. We argue that the Greek health policy makers have to give serious consideration to the perspective of a SHI system which should be supplemented by the Private Health Insurance (PHI) sector. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Leblanc, Soline; Blein, Cécile; Andremont, Antoine; Bandinelli, Pierre-Alain; Galvain, Thibaut
OBJECTIVE To describe the hospital stays of patients with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and to measure the hospitalization costs of CDI (as primary and secondary diagnoses) from the French national health insurance perspective DESIGN Burden of illness study SETTING All acute-care hospitals in France METHODS Data were extracted from the French national hospitalization database (PMSI) for patients covered by the national health insurance scheme in 2014. Hospitalizations were selected using the International Classification of Diseases, 10 th revision (ICD-10) code for CDI. Hospital stays with CDI as the primary diagnosis or the secondary diagnosis (comorbidity) were studied for the following parameters: patient sociodemographic characteristics, mortality, length of stay (LOS), and related costs. A retrospective case-control analysis was performed on stays with CDI as the secondary diagnosis to assess the impact of CDI on the LOS and costs. RESULTS Overall, 5,834 hospital stays with CDI as the primary diagnosis were included in this study. The total national insurance costs were €30.7 million (US $33,677,439), and the mean cost per hospital stay was €5,267±€3,645 (US $5,777±$3,998). In total, 10,265 stays were reported with CDI as the secondary diagnosis. The total national insurance additional costs attributable to CDI were estimated to be €85 million (US $93,243,725), and the mean additional cost attributable to CDI per hospital stay was €8,295±€17,163, median, €4,797 (US $9,099±$8,827; median, $5,262). CONCLUSION CDI has a high clinical and economic burden in the hospital, and it represents a major cost for national health insurance. When detected as a comorbidity, CDI was significantly associated with increased LOS and economic burden. Preventive approaches should be implemented to avoid CDIs. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:906-911.
Atinga Roger A
Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2003 Ghana introduced a social health insurance scheme which resulted in the separation of purchasing of health services by the health insurance authority on the one hand and the provision of health services by hospitals at the other side of the spectrum. This separation has a lot of implications for managing accredited hospitals. This paper examines whether decoupling purchasing and service provision translate into opportunities or challenges in the management of accredited hospitals. Methods A qualitative exploratory study of 15 accredited district hospitals were selected from five of Ghana’s ten administrative regions for the study. A semi-structured interview guide was designed to solicit information from key informants, Health Service Administrators, Pharmacists, Accountants and Scheme Managers of the hospitals studied. Data was analysed thematically. Results The results showed that under the health insurance scheme, hospitals are better-off in terms of cash flow and adequate stock levels of drugs. Adequate stock of non-drugs under the scheme was reportedly intermittent. The major challenges confronting the hospitals were identified as weak purchasing power due to low tariffs, non computerisation of claims processing, unpredictable payment pattern, poor gate-keeping systems, lack of logistics and other new and emerging challenges relating to moral hazards and the use of false identity cards under pretence for medical care. Conclusion Study’s findings have a lot of policy implications for proper management of hospitals. The findings suggest rationalisation of the current tariff structure, the application of contract based payment system to inject efficiency into hospitals management and piloting facility based vetting systems to offset vetting loads of the insurance authority. Proper gate-keeping mechanisms are also needed to curtail the phenomenon of moral hazard and false documentation.
Atinga, Roger A; Mensah, Sylvester A; Asenso-Boadi, Francis; Adjei, Francis-Xavier Andoh
In 2003 Ghana introduced a social health insurance scheme which resulted in the separation of purchasing of health services by the health insurance authority on the one hand and the provision of health services by hospitals at the other side of the spectrum. This separation has a lot of implications for managing accredited hospitals. This paper examines whether decoupling purchasing and service provision translate into opportunities or challenges in the management of accredited hospitals. A qualitative exploratory study of 15 accredited district hospitals were selected from five of Ghana's ten administrative regions for the study. A semi-structured interview guide was designed to solicit information from key informants, Health Service Administrators, Pharmacists, Accountants and Scheme Managers of the hospitals studied. Data was analysed thematically. The results showed that under the health insurance scheme, hospitals are better-off in terms of cash flow and adequate stock levels of drugs. Adequate stock of non-drugs under the scheme was reportedly intermittent. The major challenges confronting the hospitals were identified as weak purchasing power due to low tariffs, non computerisation of claims processing, unpredictable payment pattern, poor gate-keeping systems, lack of logistics and other new and emerging challenges relating to moral hazards and the use of false identity cards under pretence for medical care. Study's findings have a lot of policy implications for proper management of hospitals. The findings suggest rationalisation of the current tariff structure, the application of contract based payment system to inject efficiency into hospitals management and piloting facility based vetting systems to offset vetting loads of the insurance authority. Proper gate-keeping mechanisms are also needed to curtail the phenomenon of moral hazard and false documentation.
Background In 2003 Ghana introduced a social health insurance scheme which resulted in the separation of purchasing of health services by the health insurance authority on the one hand and the provision of health services by hospitals at the other side of the spectrum. This separation has a lot of implications for managing accredited hospitals. This paper examines whether decoupling purchasing and service provision translate into opportunities or challenges in the management of accredited hospitals. Methods A qualitative exploratory study of 15 accredited district hospitals were selected from five of Ghana’s ten administrative regions for the study. A semi-structured interview guide was designed to solicit information from key informants, Health Service Administrators, Pharmacists, Accountants and Scheme Managers of the hospitals studied. Data was analysed thematically. Results The results showed that under the health insurance scheme, hospitals are better-off in terms of cash flow and adequate stock levels of drugs. Adequate stock of non-drugs under the scheme was reportedly intermittent. The major challenges confronting the hospitals were identified as weak purchasing power due to low tariffs, non computerisation of claims processing, unpredictable payment pattern, poor gate-keeping systems, lack of logistics and other new and emerging challenges relating to moral hazards and the use of false identity cards under pretence for medical care. Conclusion Study’s findings have a lot of policy implications for proper management of hospitals. The findings suggest rationalisation of the current tariff structure, the application of contract based payment system to inject efficiency into hospitals management and piloting facility based vetting systems to offset vetting loads of the insurance authority. Proper gate-keeping mechanisms are also needed to curtail the phenomenon of moral hazard and false documentation. PMID:22726666
Andriyani Rahmah Fahriati
Full Text Available National health insurance is one of the government programs to facilitate health services for the people. The purpose of this research to determine whether there are effects of National Health Insurance program (JKN on profitability and service quality at Juanda Kuningan Hospital, of West Java. The method using the paired-t-test to analyze the difference between before and after the National Health Insurance program. The result showed that there is a difference in profitability and service quality between pre and post the implementation of national health insurance program. Gross profit margin measured the profitability, net profit margin, return on total assets, and return on equity. This result means that the value of the company's profitability is better when the program JKN yet takes place in the Juanda hospital. While on the service quality variable it is found that the mean value is higher when the JKN program has conducted at the hospital.DOI: 10.15408/etk.v17i1.7064
C.A. Brandenburg (Claudia)
textabstractThe Dutch government has started a process of reformation in the Dutch healthcare. The goal of this reformation is cost efficient healthcare in the Netherlands. Hospitals and health insurance companies in the Netherlands experience changes in regulations and funding. They are expected
Mostert, S; Njuguna, F; van de Ven, P M; Olbara, G; Kemps, L J P A; Musimbi, J; Strother, R M; Aluoch, L M; Skiles, J; Buziba, N G; Sitaresmi, M N; Vreeman, R C; Kaspers, G J L
Kenyan national policies for public hospitals dictate that patients are retained on hospital wards until their hospital bills are paid, but this payment process differs for patients with or without access to National Hospital Insurance Fund (NHIF) at diagnosis. Whether these differences impact treatment outcomes has not been described. Our study explores whether childhood cancer treatment outcomes in Kenya are influenced by health-insurance status and hospital retention policies. This study combined retrospective review of medical records with an illustrative case report. We identified children diagnosed with malignancies at a large Kenyan academic hospital between 2007 and 2009, their treatment outcomes, and health-insurance status at diagnosis. Between 2007 and 2009, 222 children were diagnosed with malignancies. Among 180 patients with documented treatment outcome, 54% abandoned treatment, 22% had treatment-related death, 4% progressive/relapsed disease, and 19% event-free survival. Health-insurance status at diagnosis was recorded in 148 children: 23% had NHIF and 77% had no NHIF. For children whose families had NHIF compared with those who did not, the relative risk for treatment abandonment relative to event-free survival was significantly smaller (relative-risk ratio = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.12-0.81, P = 0.016). The case report illustrates difficulties that Kenyan families might face when their child is diagnosed with cancer, has no NHIF, and is retained in hospital. Children with NHIF at diagnosis had significantly lower chance of abandoning treatment and higher chance of survival. Childhood cancer treatment outcomes could be improved by interventions that prevent treatment abandonment and improve access to NHIF. Hospital retention of patients over unpaid medical bills must stop. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Han, Jung Mi; Boo, Eun Hee; Kim, Jung A; Yoon, Soo Jin; Kim, Seong Woo
Objectives This study evaluated the qualitative and quantitative performances of the newly developed information system which was implemented on November 4, 2011 at the National Health Insurance Corporation Ilsan Hospital. Methods Registration waiting time and changes in the satisfaction scores for the key performance indicators (KPI) before and after the introduction of the system were compared; and the economic effects of the system were analyzed by using the information economics approach. Results After the introduction of the system, the waiting time for registration was reduced by 20%, and the waiting time at the internal medicine department was reduced by 15%. The benefit-to-cost ratio was increased to 1.34 when all intangible benefits were included in the economic analysis. Conclusions The economic impact and target satisfaction rates increased due to the introduction of the new system. The results were proven by the quantitative and qualitative analyses carried out in this study. This study was conducted only seven months after the introduction of the system. As such, a follow-up study should be carried out in the future when the system stabilizes. PMID:23115744
Hung, Jung-Hua; Chang, Li
Taiwan implemented the National Health Insurance system (NHI) in 1995. After the NHI, the insurance coverage expanded and the quality of healthcare improved, however, the healthcare costs significantly escalated. The objective of this study is to determine what factors have direct impact on the increased costs after the NHI. Panel data analysis is used to investigate changes and factors affecting cost containment at Taipei municipal hospitals from 1990 to 2001. The results show that the expansion of insured healthcare coverage (especially to the elderly and the treatment of more complicated types of diseases), and the increased competition (requiring the growth of new technology and the longer average length of stay) are important driving forces behind the increase of hospital costs, directly influenced by the advent of the NHI. Therefore, policymakers should emphasize health prevention activities and disease management programs for the elderly to improve cost containment. In addition, hospital managers should find ways to improve the hospital efficiency (shorten the LOS) to reduce excess services and medical waste. They also need to better understand their market position and acquire suitable new-tech equipment earlier, to be a leader, not a follower. Finally, policymakers should establish related benchmark indices for what drivers up hospital costs (micro-aspect) and to control healthcare expenditures (macro-level).
Wallace, Robyn A
Preventable poor health outcomes for adults with intellectual disability in health settings have been known about for years. Subsequent analysis and the sorts of reasonable adjustments required in health and disability support settings to address these health gaps are well described, but have not really been embedded in practice in any significant way in either setting. As far as health is concerned, implementation of the National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS, the Scheme) affords an opportunity to recognise individual needs of people with intellectual disability to provide reasonable and necessary functional support for access to mainstream health services, to build capacity of mainstream health providers to supply services and to increase individual capacity to access services. Together these strands have potential to transform health outcomes. Success of the Scheme, however, rests on as yet incompletely defined operational interaction between NDIS and mainstream health services and inherently involves the disability sector. This interaction is especially relevant for adults with intellectual disability, known high users of hospitals and for whom hospital outcomes are particularly poor and preventable. Keys to better hospital outcomes are first, the receiving of quality person-centred healthcare from physicians and hospitals taking into account significance of intellectual disability and second, formulation of organised quality functional supports during hospitalisation. Achieving these require sophisticated engagement between consumers, the National Disability Insurance Agency, Commonwealth, State and Territory government leaders, senior hospital and disability administrators, NDIS service providers and clinicians and involves cross fertilisation of values, sharing of operational policies and procedures, determination of boundaries of fiscal responsibility for functional supports in hospital. © 2018 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.
Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Office of Healthcare Programs (OHP), previously known as the Office of Insured Health Care Facilities, is located within the Office of Housing and administers...
This doctoral thesis presents an analysis of regulated markets especially focusing on the behavior of the actors, the effects of regulatory interventions on market outcome, and the necessity of the regulation itself. With respect to the particular characteristics, three different markets are analyzed: the German market for photovoltaic capacity, the German hospital sector, and the market for health insurance with respect to outpatient care. Chapter two provides an analysis of the German system of feed-in tariffs for photovoltaic power with respect to effectiveness and efficiency. To ensure a certain volume of investment in photovoltaic capacity investors receive fixed feed-in tariffs for 20 years for each unit of energy they feed into the grid. This remuneration is reduced according to a certain cut-off scheme for devices which will be installed in the future. In the past view years, an enormous volume of photovoltaic devices has been installed, especially in the weeks before the cut-offs. To analyze the efficiency and the effectiveness of the German feed-in tariff system, first, the determinants of such investment are analyzed by estimating an Error Correction model. The results of the estimation are used to simulate alternative mechanisms of adjusting the feed-in tariffs and compare them to the current regime in terms of target achievement and social costs. One of the key results is that the current system causes early investments, but does not induce over-investment. Moreover, it is shown that a system of continuously adjusted feed-in tariffs could be more appropriate than the current regime and that the adjustment should be related to the investment costs. In chapter three, the German hospital market which is characterized by regulated treatment fees and several different ownership types is analyzed. This part of the thesis tries to answer the question how the existence of non-profit hospitals influences market outcome and welfare compared to a market where
The CERN-AUSTRIA Agreement, which implemented CERN's health insurance scheme, expired on 31 December 1999.In accordance with CERN's rules, a call for tenders for the management of the health insurance scheme was issued and the contract was once again awarded to AUSTRIA. In June 1999, the Finance Committee thus authorised the Management to conclude a new contract with AUSTRIA, which came into force on 1st January 2000.Continuity is thus assured on favourable conditions and the transition from one contract to the other will entail no substantial changes in the system for those insured at CERN except for a few minor and purely formal amendmentsWHAT REMAINS UNCHANGEDThe list of benefits, i.e. the 'cover' provided by the system, is not changed;Neither is the reimbursement procedure.AUSTRIA's office at CERN and its opening hours as well as its city headquarters remain the same. The envelopes containing requests for reimbursement have had to be sent (since the end of 1998) to :Rue des Eaux-Vives 94Case postale 64021...
Change of name for AUSTRIA As of October 1, the AUSTRIA Assurances S.A. company will change its name to: UNIQA Assurances S.A. It inherits the same name as its parent Austrian company, which adopted it towards the end of 1999. This change has no effect on the contract which binds it to CERN for the administration of our Health Insurance Scheme. New insurance cards will be sent to you by UNIQA and the printed forms and envelopes will gradually be updated with the new name. Postal and phone addresses remain unaffected by the change. You should address your postal mail to: UNIQA Assurances rue des Eaux Vives 94 case postale 6402 1211 Genève 6 You may telephone your usual contact persons at the same numbers as before and send e-mails to the UNIQA office at CERN at: UNIQA.Assurances@cern.ch
Morrisey, M A
To review the empirical literature on the effects of selective contracting and hospital competition on hospital prices, travel distance, services, and quality; to review the effects of managed care penetration and competition on health insurance premiums; and to identify areas for further research. Selective contracting has allowed managed care plans to obtain lower prices from hospitals. This finding is generalizable beyond California and is stronger when there is more competition in the hospital market. Travel distances to hospitals of admission have not increased as a result of managed care. Evidence on the diffusion of technology in hospitals and the extent to which hospitals have specialized as a result of managed care is mixed. Little research on the effects on quality has been undertaken, but preliminary evidence suggests that hospital quality has not declined and may have improved. Actual mergers in the hospital market have not affected hospital prices. Much less research has been focused on managed care markets. Greater market penetration and greater competition among managed care plans are associated with lower managed care premiums. Greater HMO penetration appears to be much more effective than PPO penetration in leading to lower premiums. While workers are willing to change plans when faced with higher out-of-pocket premiums, there is little evidence of the willingness of employers to switch plan offerings. Preliminary evidence suggests that greater managed care penetration has led to lower overall employer premiums, but the results differ substantially between employers with and without a self-insured plan. Much more research is needed to examine all aspects of managed care markets. In hospital markets, particular attention should be focused on the effects on quality and technology diffusion.
You, Chang Hoon; Choi, Ji Heon; Kang, Sungwook; Oh, Eun-Hwan; Kwon, Young Dae
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease with a high prevalence across the world as well as in South Korea. Most cases of diabetes can be adequately managed at physician offices, but many diabetes patients receive outpatient care at hospitals. This study examines the relationship between supplementary private health insurance (SPHI) ownership and the use of hospitals among diabetes outpatients within the universal public health insurance scheme. Data from the 2011 Korea Health Panel, a nationally representative sample of Korean individuals, was used. For the study, 6,379 visits for diabetes care were selected while controlling for clustered errors. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine determinants of hospital outpatient services. This study demonstrated that the variables of self-rated health status, comorbidity, unmet need, and alcohol consumption significantly correlated with the choice to use a hospital services. Patients with SPHI were more likely to use medical services at hospitals by 1.71 times (95% CI 1.068-2.740, P = 0.026) compared to patients without SPHI. It was confirmed that diabetic patients insured by SPHI had more use of hospital services than those who were not insured. People insured by SPHI seem to be more likely to use hospital services because SPHI lightens the economic burden of care.
Dominggus N. Sani; A. L. Rantetampang; Agus Zainuri
Improved access for the public in order to ensure that the efforts of personal health services that provide inpatient, outpatient, emergency, and other supporting services. To get health insurance better and thorough, the government issued a health insurance, so that it can be felt by all walks of life and can improve patient satisfaction. Hospitals type D Primaries only provide care services Grade 3 (three) to increase access for the public in order to guarantee health care efforts and a pro...
Xie, Yang; Schreier, Günter; Chang, David C W; Neubauer, Sandra; Redmond, Stephen J; Lovell, Nigel H
Healthcare administrators worldwide are striving to both lower the cost of care whilst improving the quality of care given. Therefore, better clinical and administrative decision making is needed to improve these issues. Anticipating outcomes such as number of hospitalization days could contribute to addressing this problem. In this paper, a method was developed, using large-scale health insurance claims data, to predict the number of hospitalization days in a population. We utilized a regression decision tree algorithm, along with insurance claim data from 300,000 individuals over three years, to provide predictions of number of days in hospital in the third year, based on medical admissions and claims data from the first two years. Our method performs well in the general population. For the population aged 65 years and over, the predictive model significantly improves predictions over a baseline method (predicting a constant number of days for each patient), and achieved a specificity of 70.20% and sensitivity of 75.69% in classifying these subjects into two categories of 'no hospitalization' and 'at least one day in hospital'.
Mao, Chun-Tai; Liu, Min-Hui; Hsu, Kuang-Hung; Fu, Tieh-Cheng; Wang, Jong-Shyan; Huang, Yu-Yen; Yang, Ning-I; Wang, Chao-Hung
Multidisciplinary disease management programmes (MDPs) for heart failure have been shown to be effective in Western countries. However, it is not known whether they improve outcomes in a high population density country with a national health insurance programme. In total, 349 patients hospitalized because of heart failure were randomized into control and MDP groups. All-cause death and re-hospitalization related to heart failure were analyzed. The median follow-up period was approximately 2 years. Mean patient age was 60 years; 31% were women; and 50% of patients had coronary artery disease. MDP was associated with fewer all-cause deaths [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.27-0.91, P = 0.02] and heart failure-related re-hospitalizations (HR = 0.44, 95% CI = 0.25-0.77, P = 0.004). MDP was still associated with better outcomes for all-cause death (HR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.29-0.98, P = 0.04) and heart failure-related re-hospitalization (HR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.26-0.81, P = 0.007), after adjusting for age, diuretics, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, hypertension, sodium, and albumin. However, MDPs' effect on all-cause mortality and heart failure-related re-hospitalization was significantly attenuated after adjusting for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers or β-blockers. A stratified analysis showed that MDP combined with guideline-based medication had synergistic effects. MDP is effective in lowering all-cause mortality and re-hospitalization rates related to heart failure under a national health insurance programme. MDP synergistically improves the effectiveness of guidelines-based medications for heart failure.
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Health Insurance Basics KidsHealth / For Teens / Health Insurance Basics What's ... thought advanced calculus was confusing. What Exactly Is Health Insurance? Health insurance is a plan that people buy ...
Hospital utilization and out of pocket expenditure in public and private sectors under the universal government health insurance scheme in Chhattisgarh State, India: Lessons for universal health coverage.
Nandi, Sulakshana; Schneider, Helen; Dixit, Priyanka
Research on impact of publicly financed health insurance has paid relatively little attention to the nature of healthcare provision the schemes engage. India's National Health Insurance Scheme or RSBY was made universal by Chhattisgarh State in 2012. In the State, public and private sectors provide hospital services in a context of extensive gender, social, economic and geographical inequities. This study examined enrolment, utilization (public and private) and out of pocket (OOP) expenditure for the insured and uninsured, in Chhattisgarh. The Chhattisgarh State Central sample (n = 6026 members) of the 2014 National Sample Survey (71st Round) on Health was extracted and analyzed. Variables of enrolment, hospitalization, out of pocket (OOP) expenditure and catastrophic expenditure were descriptively analyzed. Multivariate analyses of factors associated with enrolment, hospitalization (by sector) and OOP expenditure were conducted, taking into account gender, socio-economic status, residence, type of facility and ailment. Insurance coverage was 38.8%. Rates of hospitalization were 33/1000 population among the insured and 29/1000 among the uninsured. Of those insured and hospitalized, 67.2% utilized the public sector. Women, rural residents, Scheduled Tribes and poorer groups were more likely to utilize the public sector for hospitalizations. Although the insured were less likely to incur out of pocket (OOP) expenditure, 95.1% of insured private sector users and 66.0% of insured public sector users, still incurred costs. Median OOP payments in the private sector were eight times those in the public sector. Of households with at least one member hospitalized, 35.5% experienced catastrophic health expenditures (>10% monthly household consumption expenditure). The study finds that despite insurance coverage, the majority still incurred OOP expenditure. The public sector was nevertheless less expensive, and catered to the more vulnerable groups. It suggests the need to
Hospital utilization and out of pocket expenditure in public and private sectors under the universal government health insurance scheme in Chhattisgarh State, India: Lessons for universal health coverage.
Full Text Available Research on impact of publicly financed health insurance has paid relatively little attention to the nature of healthcare provision the schemes engage. India's National Health Insurance Scheme or RSBY was made universal by Chhattisgarh State in 2012. In the State, public and private sectors provide hospital services in a context of extensive gender, social, economic and geographical inequities. This study examined enrolment, utilization (public and private and out of pocket (OOP expenditure for the insured and uninsured, in Chhattisgarh. The Chhattisgarh State Central sample (n = 6026 members of the 2014 National Sample Survey (71st Round on Health was extracted and analyzed. Variables of enrolment, hospitalization, out of pocket (OOP expenditure and catastrophic expenditure were descriptively analyzed. Multivariate analyses of factors associated with enrolment, hospitalization (by sector and OOP expenditure were conducted, taking into account gender, socio-economic status, residence, type of facility and ailment. Insurance coverage was 38.8%. Rates of hospitalization were 33/1000 population among the insured and 29/1000 among the uninsured. Of those insured and hospitalized, 67.2% utilized the public sector. Women, rural residents, Scheduled Tribes and poorer groups were more likely to utilize the public sector for hospitalizations. Although the insured were less likely to incur out of pocket (OOP expenditure, 95.1% of insured private sector users and 66.0% of insured public sector users, still incurred costs. Median OOP payments in the private sector were eight times those in the public sector. Of households with at least one member hospitalized, 35.5% experienced catastrophic health expenditures (>10% monthly household consumption expenditure. The study finds that despite insurance coverage, the majority still incurred OOP expenditure. The public sector was nevertheless less expensive, and catered to the more vulnerable groups. It suggests
Full Text Available Objective: Mental health is an important part of individual, social and occupational life. World Health Organization defines mental health as absolute ability of performing social, physical and mental roles. Inattention to mental health is one of the important factors that lowers efficacy, uses up human powers, causes physical and mental complications and job exhaustion, especially in professional services. As health personnel is major part of health services and their high job incentive is a necessity for their health insurance, this research was implemented to assess their mental health quality. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional, correlative study which is conducted on 190 health personnel. The questionnaire consisted of two parts: Demographic characteristics and Goldenberg general health questionnaire-28 data analysis was performed by using SPSS and statistical methods were independent samples t-test, chi-square, one-way ANOVA and Pearson correlative index. Results: Two-third of cases were female, mean age was 32.22. 76.3% were married, 49.5% had no child, and most of the others had one child. 32.2% of cases had mental disorders (score > 23. Conclusion: Mean score of cases was 21, this score comparing with the general population of Iran is high. Mental health of health personnel for many reasons is at risk. According to these findings, great stressors of such jobs are: Facing with unexpected situations, work turns, especially night turns, organizational and individual factors.
... Women's Health Policy Women’s Health Insurance Coverage Women’s Health Insurance Coverage Published: Oct 31, 2017 Facebook Twitter LinkedIn ... that many women continue to face. Sources of Health Insurance Coverage Employer-Sponsored Insurance: Approximately 57.9 million ...
Lin, Lan-Ping; Lee, Jiunn-Tay; Lin, Fu-Gong; Lin, Pei-Ying; Tang, Chi-Chieh; Chu, Cordia M.; Wu, Chia-Ling; Lin, Jin-Ding
Nationwide data were collected concerning inpatient care use and medical expenditure of people with disabilities (N = 937,944) among national health insurance beneficiaries in Taiwan. Data included gender, age, hospitalization frequency and expenditure, healthcare setting and service department, discharge diagnose disease according to the ICD-9-CM…
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000879.htm Understanding health insurance plans To use the sharing features on this ... plan for you and your family. Types of Health Insurance Plans Depending on how you get your health ...
Klek, Stanislaw; Chourdakis, Michael; Abosaleh, Dima Abdulqudos; Amestoy, Alejandra; Baik, Hyun Wook; Baptista, Gertrudis; Barazzoni, Rocco; Fukushima, Ryoji; Hartono, Josef; Jayawardena, Ranil; Garcia, Rafael Jimenez; Krznaric, Zeljko; Nyulasi, Ibolya; Parallada, Gabriela; Francisco, Eliza Mei Perez; Panisic-Sekeljic, Marina; Perman, Mario; Prins, Arina; Del Rio Requejo, Isabel Martinez; Reddy, Ravinder; Singer, Pierre; Sioson, Marianna; Ukleja, Andrew; Vartanian, Carla; Fuentes, Nicolas Velasco; Waitzberg, Dan Linetzky; Zoungrana, Steve Leonce; Galas, Aleksander
Protein-energy and micronutrient malnutrition are global public health problems which, when not prevented and severe, require medical management by clinicians with nutrition expertise, preferably as a collectively skilled team, especially when disease-related. This study aimed to investigate barriers and facilitators of clinical nutrition services (CNS), especially the use of oral, enteral (EN) and parenteral (PN) nutrition in institutional and home settings. An international survey was performed between January and December 2014 in twenty-six countries from all continents. Electronic questionnaires were distributed to 28 representatives of clinical nutrition (PEN) societies, 27 of whom responded. The questionnaire comprised questions regarding a country's economy, reimbursement for CNS, education about and the use of EN and PN. The prevalence of malnutrition was not related to gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita (p=0.186). EN and PN were used in all countries surveyed (100%), but to different extents. Reimbursement of neither EN nor PN use depended on GDP, but was associated with increased use of EN and PN in hospitals (p=0.035), although not evident for home or chronic care facilities. The size of GDP did not affect the use of EN (p=0.256), but it mattered for PN (p=0.019). A worldwide survey by nutrition support societies did not find a link between national economic performance and the implementation of medical nutrition services. Reimbursement for CNS, available through health insurance systems, is a factor in effective nutrition management.
El Enein, Nagwa Younes Abou; Zaghloul, Ashraf Ahmad
Nurses' knowledge of pressure ulcer prediction, prevention and management plays a very important role in the incidence and prevalence of pressure ulcers in health-care systems. The aim of the current study was to assess the nurse's knowledge about prevention and management of pressure ulcer at one of the largest health insurance hospitals in Alexandria. A descriptive cross-sectional study using an interview questionnaire format to assess the nurses' knowledge (n = 122) regarding prevention of pressure ulcers. The overall mean per cent score for nurses was below the minimum acceptable level. The mean per cent score for nurses was below 70% for nine measures of the 15 correct measures, which accounted for 60% of the measures of pressure ulcer prevention. Correct answers for non-useful measures for preventing pressure ulcers accounted for 66% of the non-useful measures on the questionnaire. It had been concluded that the nurses' knowledge regarding pressure ulcer prevention is below the acceptable levels. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Grigorakis, Nikolaos; Floros, Christos; Tsangari, Haritini; Tsoukatos, Evangelos
The high level of out of pocket (OOP) payments constitutes a major concern for Greece and several other European and OECD countries as a result of the significant down turning of their public health finances due to the 2008 financial crisis. The basic objective of this study is to provide empirical evidence on the effect of combining social health insurance (SHI) and private health insurance (PHI) on OOP payments. Further, this study examines the catastrophic impact of OOP payments on insured's welfare using the incidence and intensity methodological approach of measuring catastrophic health care expenditures. Conducting a cross-sectional survey in Greece in 2013, we find that the combination of SHI-PHI has a strong negative influence on insured OOP payments for inpatient health care in private hospitals. Furthermore, our results indicate that SHI coverage is not sufficient by itself to manage with this issue. Moreover, we find that poor people present a greater tendency to incur catastrophic OOP expenditures for hospital health care in private providers. Drawing evidence from Greece, a country with huge fiscal problems that has suffered the consequences of the economic crisis more than any other, could be a starting point for policymakers to consider the perspective of SHI-PHI co-operation against OOP payments more seriously.
Keiding, Hans; Hansen, Bodil O.
In this paper, we present a simple model of health insurance with asymmetric information, where we compare two alternative ways of organizing the insurance market. Either as a competitive insurance market, where some risks remain uninsured, or as a compulsory scheme, where however, the level...... competitive insurance; this situation turns out to be at least as good as either of the alternatives...
Brals, Daniëlla; Aderibigbe, Sunday A; Wit, Ferdinand W; van Ophem, Johannes C M; van der List, Marijn; Osagbemi, Gordon K; Hendriks, Marleen E; Akande, Tanimola M; Boele van Hensbroek, Michael; Schultsz, Constance
Access to quality obstetric care is considered essential to reducing maternal and new-born mortality. We evaluated the effect of the introduction of a multifaceted voluntary health insurance programme on hospital deliveries in rural Nigeria. We used an interrupted time-series design, including a control group. The intervention consisted of providing voluntary health insurance covering primary and secondary healthcare, including antenatal and obstetric care, combined with improving the quality of healthcare facilities. We compared changes in hospital deliveries from 1 May 2005 to 30 April 2013 between the programme area and control area in a difference-in-differences analysis with multiple time periods, adjusting for observed confounders. Data were collected through household surveys. Eligible households ( n = 1500) were selected from a stratified probability sample of enumeration areas. All deliveries during the 4-year baseline period ( n = 460) and 4-year follow-up period ( n = 380) were included. Insurance coverage increased from 0% before the insurance was introduced to 70.2% in April 2013 in the programme area. In the control area insurance coverage remained 0% between May 2005 and April 2013. Although hospital deliveries followed a common stable trend over the 4 pre-programme years ( P = 0.89), the increase in hospital deliveries during the 4-year follow-up period in the programme area was 29.3 percentage points (95% CI: 16.1 to 42.6; P health insurance but who could make use of the upgraded care delivered significantly more often in a hospital during the follow-up period than women living in the control area ( P = 0.04). Voluntary health insurance combined with quality healthcare services is highly effective in increasing hospital deliveries in rural Nigeria, by improving access to healthcare for insured and uninsured women in the programme area. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and
Hamar, Brent; Wells, Aaron; Gandy, William; Haaf, Andreas; Coberley, Carter; Pope, James E; Rula, Elizabeth Y
Hospital admissions are the source of significant health care expenses, although a large proportion of these admissions can be avoided through proper management of chronic disease. In the present study, we evaluate the impact of a proactive chronic care management program for members of a German insurance society who suffer from chronic disease. Specifically, we tested the impact of nurse-delivered care calls on hospital admission rates. Study participants were insured individuals with coronary artery disease, heart failure, diabetes, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who consented to participate in the chronic care management program. Intervention (n = 17,319) and Comparison (n = 5668) groups were defined based on records of participating (or not participating) in telephonic interactions. Changes in admission rates were calculated from the year prior to (Base) and year after program commencement. Comparative analyses were adjusted for age, sex, region of residence, and disease severity (stratification of 3 [least severe] to 1 [most severe]). Overall, the admission rate in the Intervention group decreased by 6.2% compared with a 14.9% increase in the Comparison group (P management care calls can help reduce hospital admissions among German health insurance members with chronic disease.
International Labour Office. Geneva
This manual provides an overview of social health insurance schemes and looks at the development of health care policies and feasibility issues. It also examines the design of health insurance schemes, health care benefits, financing and costs and considers the operational and strategic information requirements.
N. Ele Grace; O. Ogbonna Brian; M. Ochei Uche; U. Odili Valentine
Background: The fundamental concept of health insurance is risk sharing and burden bearing. The scheme is undermined by limitations ranging from very frequent use of the services more than necessary by enrollees, to cost escalation, poor management, and skimming. Assessment of services is a quality control measure in patients’ care and service delivery. It helps to identify gaps for improvement of care and services. Objective: This study assessed the effectiveness of NHIS from the perspec...
Kim, Sungjae; Kim, Jinhyun
The purpose of this study was to propose optimal hospitalization fees for nurse staffing levels and to improve the current nursing fee policy. A break-even analysis was used to evaluate the impact of a nursing fee policy on hospital's financial performance. Variables considered included the number of beds, bed occupancy rate, annual total patient days, hospitalization fees for nurse staffing levels, the initial annual nurses' salary, and the ratio of overhead costs to nursing labor costs. Data were collected as secondary data from annual reports of the Hospital Nursing Association and national health insurance. The hospitalization fees according to nurse staffing levels in general hospitals are required to sustain or decrease in grades 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7, and increase in grades 5 and 6. It is suggested that the range between grade 2 and 3 be sustained at the current level, the range between grade 4 and 5 be widen or merged into one, and the range between grade 6 and 7 be divided into several grades. Readjusting hospitalization fees for nurse staffing level will improve nurse-patient ratio and enhance the quality of nursing care in hospitals. Follow-up studies including tertiary hospitals and small hospitals are recommended.
This paper provides empirical evidence on the role of public health insurance in mitigating adverse outcomes associated with health shocks. Exploiting the rollout of a universal health insurance program in rural China, I find that total household income and consumption are fully insured against health shocks even without access to health insurance. Household labor supply is an important insurance mechanism against health shocks. Access to health insurance helps households to maintain investme...
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans. 60-741.25 Section 60-741.25 Public Contracts and Property Management... Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans. (a) An insurer, hospital, or medical service...
The French government has decided that, with effect from 1 June 2014, persons resident in France but working in Switzerland (hereinafter referred to as “frontaliers”) will no longer be entitled to opt for private French health insurance provision as their sole and principal health insurance. The right of choice, which was granted by the Bilateral Agreement on the Free Movement of Persons between Switzerland and the European Union and which came into force on 1 June 2002, exempts “frontaliers” from the obligation to become a member of Switzerland’s compulsory health insurance scheme (LAMal) if they can prove that they have equivalent coverage in France, provided by either the French social security system (CMU) or a private French insurance provider. As the latter option of private health insurance as an alternative to membership of LAMal will be revoked under the new French legislation that will come into force on 1 June 2014, current “...
Brooks, J M; Dor, A; Wong, H S
Employers' increased sensitivity to health care costs has forced insurers to seek ways to lower costs through effective bargaining with providers. What factors determine the prices negotiated between hospitals and insurers? The hospital-insurer interaction is captured in the context of a bargaining model, in which the gains from bargaining are explicitly defined. Appendectomy was chosen because it is a well-defined procedure with little clinical variation. Our results show that certain hospital institutional arrangements (e.g. hospital affiliations), HMO penetration, and greater hospital concentration improve hospitals' bargaining position. Furthermore, hospitals' bargaining effectiveness has diminished over time and varies across states.
This paper provides empirical evidence on the role of public health insurance in mitigating adverse outcomes associated with health shocks. Exploiting the rollout of a universal health insurance program in rural China, I find that total household income and consumption are fully insured against health shocks even without access to health insurance. Household labor supply is an important insurance mechanism against health shocks. Access to health insurance helps households to maintain investment in children's human capital during negative health shocks, which suggests that one benefit of health insurance could arise from reducing the use of costly smoothing mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Shaikh, Maaz; Woodward, Mark; Rahimi, Kazem; Patel, Anushka; Rath, Santosh; MacMahon, Stephen; Jha, Vivekanand
Information about use of major surgery in India is scarce. This study aims to bridge this gap by auditing hospital claims from the Rajiv Aarogyasri Community Health Insurance Scheme (RACHIS) that provides access to free tertiary care for major surgery through state-funded insurance to 68 million beneficiaries with limited household incomes-81% of population in states of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh (combined Human Development Index 0·485). Beneficiary households receive an annual coverage of INR 200 000 (US$3333) for admissions to any empanelled public or private hospital. Publicly available deidentified hospital claim data for all surgical procedures conducted between mid-2008 and mid-2012 were compiled across all 23 districts in Telangana and Andhra Pradesh. 677 332 surgical admissions (80% at private hospitals) were recorded at a mean annual rate of 259 per 100 000 beneficiaries (95% CI 235-283), excluding cataract and caesarean sections as these were not covered under the insurance programme. Men accounted for 56% of admissions. Injury was the most common cause for surgical admission (185 733; 27%) with surgical correction of long bone fractures being the most common procedure (144 997; 20%) identified in the audit. Diseases of digestive (110 922; 16%), genitourinary (82 505; 12%), and musculoskeletal system (70 053; 10%) were other leading causes for surgical admissions. Most hospital bed-days were used for injuries (584 days per 100 000 person years; 31%), digestive diseases (314 days; 17%), and musculoskeletal system (207 days; 11%), costing 19% (INR 4·4 billion), 13% (3·03 billion), and 11% (2·5 billion) of claims, respectively. Cardiovascular surgeries (53 023; 8%) alone accounted for 21% (INR 4·9 billion) of cost. Annual per capita cost of surgical claims was US$1·49 (95% CI 1·32-1·65). Our findings are limited to a population socioeconomically representative of India and other countries with low-income and middle
Cosic, Filip; Porter, Tabitha; Norsworthy, Cameron; Price, Rohan; Bedi, Harvinder
Objective The aim of the present study was to quantify and compare patient health literacy between privately insured and public orthopaedic patients. Methods As part of the present cross-sectional study, elective postoperative orthopaedic patients across two sites were recruited and asked to complete a questionnaire at the first postoperative out-patient review. Patients were divided into three groups: (1) a public group (Public); (2) a private group (Private-pre); and (3) a private group that completed the questionnaire immediately after the out-patient review (Private-post). The questionnaire consisted of six questions regarding surgical management, expected recovery time and postoperative instructions. Patients were further asked to grade their satisfaction regarding information received throughout their management. Results In all, 150 patients completed the questionnaire, 50 in each of the three groups. Patients in the Public, Private-pre and Private-post groups answered a mean 2.74, 3.24 and 4.70 of 6 questions correctly respectively. The Private-pre group was 1.46-fold more likely to demonstrate correct health literacy than the Public group, whereas the Private-post group was 2.44-fold more likely to demonstrate improved health literacy than the Private-pre group. Patient satisfaction with information received was not associated with health literacy. Conclusion Limited health literacy in orthopaedic patients continues to be an area of concern. Both private and public orthopaedic patients demonstrated poor health literacy, but private patients demonstrated significant improvement after the out-patient review. What is known about the topic? Limited health literacy is a growing public health issue worldwide, with previous literature demonstrating a prevalence of low health literacy of 26% and marginal health literacy of 20% among all patient populations. Of concern, limited health literacy has been shown to result in a range of adverse health outcomes, including
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Health insurance, life... VETERANS, AND ARMED FORCES SERVICE MEDAL VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-300.25 Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans. (a) An insurer, hospital, or medical service company, health...
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Health insurance, life... SEPARATED VETERANS, AND OTHER PROTECTED VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-250.25 Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans. (a) An insurer, hospital, or medical service company, health...
Kinney, E D; Lefkowitz, B
Issues in current capital cost reimbursement to community hospitals by Medicare and Medicaid are described, and options for change analyzed. Major reforms in the way the federal government pays for capital costs--in particular substitution of other methods of payment for existing depreciation reimbursement--could have significant impact on the structure of the health care system and on government expenditures. While such reforms are likely to engender substantial political opposition, they may be facilitated by broader changes in the reimbursement system.
Moriya, Asako S; Vogt, William B; Gaynor, Martin
There has been substantial consolidation among health insurers and hospitals, recently, raising questions about the effects of this consolidation on the exercise of market power. We analyze the relationship between insurer and hospital market concentration and the prices of hospital services. We use a national US dataset containing transaction prices for health care services for over 11 million privately insured Americans. Using three years of panel data, we estimate how insurer and hospital market concentration are related to hospital prices, while controlling for unobserved market effects. We find that increases in insurance market concentration are significantly associated with decreases in hospital prices, whereas increases in hospital concentration are non-significantly associated with increases in prices. A hypothetical merger between two of five equally sized insurers is estimated to decrease hospital prices by 6.7%.
Health Insurance aims at filling a gap in actuarial literature, attempting to solve the frequent misunderstanding in regards to both the purpose and the contents of health insurance products (and ‘protection products’, more generally) on the one hand, and the relevant actuarial structures on the other. In order to cover the basic principles regarding health insurance techniques, the first few chapters in this book are mainly devoted to the need for health insurance and a description of insurance products in this area (sickness insurance, accident insurance, critical illness covers, income protection, long-term care insurance, health-related benefits as riders to life insurance policies). An introduction to general actuarial and risk-management issues follows. Basic actuarial models are presented for sickness insurance and income protection (i.e. disability annuities). Several numerical examples help the reader understand the main features of pricing and reserving in the health insurance area. A short int...
Granting public hospitals greater autonomy and creating organizational arrangements that mimic the private sector and encourage competition is often promoted as a way to increase efficiency and public accountability and to improve quality of care at these facilities. The existence of good-quality health infrastructure, in turn, encourages the population to join and support the social health insurance system and achieve universal coverage. This article provides a critical review of hospital autonomization, using Vietnam's experience to assess the influence of hospital autonomy on the sustainability of Vietnam's social health insurance. The evidence suggests that a reform process based on greater autonomy of resource mobilization and on the retention and use of own-source revenues can create perverse incentives among managers and health care providers, leading to the development of a two-tiered provision of clinical care, provider-induced supply of an inefficient service mix, a high degree of duplication, wasteful investment, and cost escalation. Rather than complementing social health insurance and helping the country to achieve universal coverage, granting public hospitals greater autonomy that mimics the private sector may indeed undermine the legitimacy and sustainability of social health insurance as health care costs escalate and higher quality of care remains elusive.
Dimitriyadis, I.; Öney, Ü. N.
This study is an extension to a simulation study that has been developed to determine ruin probabilities in health insurance. The study concentrates on inpatient and outpatient benefits for customers of varying age bands. Loss distributions are modelled through the Allianz tool pack for different classes of insureds. Premiums at different levels of deductibles are derived in the simulation and ruin probabilities are computed assuming a linear loading on the premium. The increase in the probability of ruin at high levels of the deductible clearly shows the insufficiency of proportional loading in deductible premiums. The PH-transform pricing rule developed by Wang is analyzed as an alternative pricing rule. A simple case, where an insured is assumed to be an exponential utility decision maker while the insurer's pricing rule is a PH-transform is also treated.
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Annually, a large amount of fees that are paid by hospitals, will not be reimbursed as deductions by health insurance which imposes irreparable financial losses on hospitals. The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of deductions imposed on social security and health insurance`s bills and its causes related to inpatients in two hospitals affiliated with Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Material and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Alavi and Madani hospitals affiliated with Tabriz University of Medical Sciences by using 2015 data. Researcher-designed checklist was used for data collecting. According to population size, census method and random sampling were used in Alavi and Madani hospitals, respectively. Gathered data were analyzed through descriptive statistics assisted by Excel v.13 software. Results: In the studied hospitals, most of the deductions in the Alavi and Madani hospitals were related to charge of surgeon and angioplasty, respectively. Also, in Alavi Hospital among deductions factors, the most repeated one was extra application in contrary to determined tariffs. In both hospitals, the role of the human factor in cases of error cannot be denied. Extra applications, inaccuracy in registration costs and lack of knowledge of the approved insurance tariffs are the main important factors influential on the deduction. Conclusion: Due to high rates of preventable deductions in both hospitals and being given the multiplicity and variety of services offered at the health centers, establishing income monitoring unit in hospitals and use of experienced staff is inevitable.
Ye, Ting; Wu, Yue; Zhang, Liang
Background: Health insurance coverage is of great importance; yet, it is unclear whether there is some geographic variation in health insurance benefit for urban and rural patients covered by a same basic health insurance, especially in China.Objective: To identify the potential geographic variation in health insurance benefit and its possible socioeconomic and geographical factors at the town level.Methods: All the beneficiaries underthe health insurance who had the in-hospital experience in...
Yan, Yu-Hua; Lu, Chen-Luan
National Health Insurance Administration established Pharma Cloud System in July 2014. The purpose is to decrease therapeutic duplications and enhance public medication safety. Comparison will be made among individual hospitals and the administering branches of National Health Insurance Bureau (NHIB) on the statistical data on the inquiry of the cloud medication history record system to understand the result of the installation and advocacy of this system. The results show (1) there were 2,329,846 entries of data collected from the branches of the NHIB from 2015 on cloud medication history record and 50,224 entries of data from individual hospitals. (2) The inquiry rate at the branches of the NHIB was 43.2% from January to April, 2015 and at individual hospitals was 18.8%. (3) The improvement rate at the branches of the NHIB was 32.5% and at the individual hospitals was 47.0% from January to April, 2015.
... to know what your insurance company is paying…Health Insurance: Understanding What It CoversRead Article >>Insurance & BillsHealth Insurance: Understanding What It CoversYour insurance policy lists a package of medical benefits such as tests, drugs, and treatment services. These ...
Presswala, R G
In India, indemnity health insurance started about 3 decades ago. Mediclaim was the most popular product. Indian insurers and multinational companies have not been enthusiastic about starting health insurance in spite of the availability of a good market because health insurers have historically incurred losses. Losses have been caused by poor administration. Because it is a small portion of their total businesses, insurers have never tried sincerely to improve deficiencies or taken special interest. Hospital management and medical specialists have the spirit of entrepreneurship and are prepared to learn quickly and follow managed care principles, though they are not currently practiced in India. Actuarial data from the health insurance industry is sparse, but data from alternative sources will be helpful for starting managed healthcare. In my opinion, if properly administered, a "limited" managed care product with appropriate precautions and premium levels will be successful and profitable and will compete with present indemnity products in India.
Harmon, C; Nolan, B
The numbers buying private health insurance in Ireland have continued to grow, despite a broadening in entitlement to public care. About 40% of the population now have insurance, although everyone has entitlement to public hospital care. In this paper, we examine in detail the growth in insurance coverage and the factors underlying the demand for insurance. Attitudinal responses reveal the importance of perceptions about waiting times for public care, as well as some concerns about the quality of that care. Individual characteristics, such as education, age, gender, marital status, family composition and income all influence the probability of purchasing private insurance. We also examine the relationship between insurance and utilization of hospital in-patient services. The positive effect of private insurance appears less than that of entitlement to full free health care from the state, although the latter is means-tested, and may partly represent health status. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Dutta, Mousumi; Husain, Zakir
In recent years universal health coverage has become an important issue in developing countries. Successful introduction of such a social security system requires knowledge of the relationship between socio-economic status and usage of health care services. This paper examines this relationship, and analyzes the impact of introducing health insurance into the model, using data for India, a major developing country with poor health outcomes. In contrast to similar works undertaken for develope...
Liu, Chien-Tsai; Yang, Pei-Tun; Yeh, Yu-Ting; Wang, Bin-Long
To investigate the impacts of the first phase of Taiwan's Bureau of National Health Insurance (TBNHI) smart card project on existing hospital information systems. TBNHI has launched a nationwide project for replacement of its paper-based health insurance cards by smart cards (or NHI-IC cards) since November 1999. The NHI-IC cards have been used since 1 July 2003, and they have fully replaced the paper-based cards since 1 January 2004. Hospitals must support the cards in order to provide medical services for insured patients. We made a comprehensive study of the current phase of the NHI-IC card system, and conducted a questionnaire survey (from 1 October to 30 November, 2003) to investigate the impacts of NHI-IC cards on the existing hospital information systems. A questionnaire was distributed by mail to 479 hospitals, including 23 medical centers, 71 regional hospitals, and 355 district hospitals. The returned questionnaires were also collected by prepaid mail. The questionnaire return rates of the medical centers, regional hospitals and district hospitals were 39.1, 29.6 and 20.9%, respectively. In phase 1 of the project, the average number of card readers purchased per medical center, regional hospital, and district hospital were 202, 45 and 10, respectively. The average person-days for the enhancement of existing information systems of a medical center, regional hospital and district hospital were 175, 74 and 58, respectively. Three months after using the NHI-IC cards most hospitals (60.6%) experienced prolonged service time for their patients due to more interruptions caused mainly by: (1) impairment of the NHI-IC cards (31.2%), (2) failure in authentication of the SAMs (17.0%), (3) malfunction in card readers (15.3%) and (4) problems with interfaces between the card readers and hospital information systems (15.8%). The overall hospital satisfaction on the 5-point Likert scale was 2.86. Although most hospitals were OK with the project, there was about 22
Boone, Jan; Schottmüller, Christoph
Standard insurance models predict that people with high risks have high insurance coverage. It is empirically documented that people with high income have lower health risks and are better insured. We show that income differences between risk types lead to a violation of single crossing...... in an insurance model where people choose treatment intensity. We analyse different market structures and show the following: If insurers have market power, the violation of single crossing caused by income differences and endogenous treatment choice can explain the empirically observed outcome. Our results do...
... Student Health Insurance Coverage AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), HHS. ACTION... health insurance coverage under the Public Health Service Act and the Affordable Care Act. The proposed rule would define ``student health insurance [[Page 7768
Jha, Saurabh; Baker, Tom
Insurance plays an important role in the United States, most importantly in but not limited to medical care. The authors introduce basic economic concepts that make medical care and health insurance different from other goods and services traded in the market. They emphasize that competitive pricing in the marketplace for insurance leads, quite rationally, to risk classification, market segmentation, and market failure. The article serves as a springboard for understanding the basis of the reforms that regulate the health insurance market in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Copyright © 2012 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shaikh, Maaz; Woodward, Mark; Rahimi, Kazem; Patel, Anushka; Rath, Santosh; MacMahon, Stephen; Jha, Vivekanand
Information on the use of major surgery in India is scarce. In this study we aimed to bridge this gap by auditing hospital claims from Rajiv Aarogyasri Community Health Insurance Scheme, which provides access to free hospital care through state-funded insurance to 68 million beneficiaries, an estimated 81% of population in the states of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh. Publicly available deidentified hospital claim data for all surgery procedures conducted between mid-2008 and mid-2012 were compiled across all 23 districts in Telangana and Andhra Pradesh. A total of 677,332 operative admissions (80% at private hospitals) were recorded at an annual rate of 259 per 100,000 beneficiaries, with male subjects accounting for 56% of admissions. Injury was the most common cause for operative admission (27%) with operative correction of long bone fractures being the most common procedure (20%) identified in the audit. Diseases of the digestive (16%), genitourinary (12%), and musculoskeletal (10%) systems were other leading causes for operative admissions. Most hospital bed-days were used by admissions for injuries (31%) and diseases of the digestive (17%) and musculoskeletal system (11%) costing 19%, 13%, and 11% of reimbursement. Operations on the circulatory system (8%) accounted for 21% of reimbursements. Annual per capita cost of operative claims was US$1.48. The use of surgery by an insured population in India continued to be low despite access to financing comparable with greater spending countries, highlighting need for strategies, beyond traditional health financing, that prioritize improvement in access, delivery, and use of operative care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lin, Jin-Ding; Hung, Wen-Jiu; Lin, Lan-Ping; Lai, Chia-Im
There were not many studies to provide information on health access and health utilization of people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The present study describes a general profile of hospital admission and the medical cost among people with ASD, and to analyze the determinants of medical cost. A retrospective study was employed to analyze…
Bradley, Cathy J.; Neumark, David; Motika, Meryl
Background Employment-contingent health insurance (ECHI) has been criticized for tying insurance to continued employment. Our research sheds light on two central issues regarding employment-contingent health insurance: whether such insurance “locks” people who experience a health shock into remaining at work; and whether it puts people at risk for insurance loss upon the onset of illness, because health shocks pose challenges to continued employment. Objective To determine how men’s dependence on their own employer for health insurance affects labor supply responses and health insurance coverage following a health shock. Data Sources We use the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) surveys from 1996 through 2008 to observe employment and health insurance status at interviews two years apart, and whether a health shock occurred in the intervening period between the interviews. Study Selection All employed married men with health insurance either through their own employer or their spouse’s employer, interviewed in at least two consecutive HRS waves with non-missing data on employment, insurance, health, demographic, and other variables, and under age 64 at the second interview. We limited the sample to men who were initially healthy. Data Extraction Our analytical sample consisted of 1,582 men of whom 1,379 had ECHI at the first interview, while 203 were covered by their spouse’s employer. Hospitalization affected 209 men with ECHI and 36 men with spouse insurance. A new disease diagnosis was reported by 103 men with ECHI and 22 men with other insurance. There were 171 men with ECHI and 25 men with spouse employer insurance who had a self-reported health decline. Data Synthesis Labor supply response differences associated with ECHI – with men with health shocks and ECHI more likely to continue working – appear to be driven by specific types of health shocks associated with future higher health care costs but not with immediate increases in morbidity that
Yalda Mousa Zadeh
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Today, a major part of health system resources are allocated to hospitals. So, the control of these resources and correct and efficient use of them are the important tasks of management. This study was conducted to determine the deductions of Iran health insurance in the first half of 2014 in a public hospital in Tabriz. Material and Methods: This was a cross sectional study. The study population included records of patients hospitalized in the first half of 2014. All cases with deduction were selected as sample. Data collection was performed using a researcher-made checklist. Checklist information was collected through records of patients and interview. Then, data were analyzed using Excel software. Results: Most deductions were related to physician visits (61116000 Rials, laboratory (46881797 Rials and surgery commission (26114487 Rials, respectively. Most of the deductions were in October (70613244 Rials and lowest deductions were in February (6838945 Rials. The most important factor of deductions was related to additional request. Conclusion: According to deduction cases and the most important factor related to it (additional request, It can be concluded that greatest amount of deductions are due to employees' mistakes. In this regard, emphasis on clinical guidelines and physicians’ training is necessary. Negotiations and clarifying the amount of liability of insurance organizations can prevent deductions.
Nicole Maestas; Kathleen J. Mullen; Alexander Strand
As health insurance becomes available outside of the employment relationship as a result of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), the cost of applying for Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI)–potentially going without health insurance coverage during a waiting period totaling 29 months from disability onset–will decline for many people with employer-sponsored health insurance. At the same time, the value of SSDI and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) participation will decline for individuals...
Yawson, A E; Biritwum, R B; Nimo, P K
In 2003, Ghana introduced the national health insurance scheme (NHIS) to promote access to healthcare. This study determines consumer and provider factors which most influence the NHIS at a municipal health facility in Ghana. This is an analytical cross-sectional study at the Winneba Municipal Hospital (WHM) in Ghana between January-March 2010. A total of 170 insured and 175 uninsured out-patients were interviewed and information extracted from their folders using a questionnaire. Consumers were from both the urban and rural areas of the municipality. The mean number of visits by insured consumers to a health facility in previous six months was 2.48 +/- 1.007 and that for uninsured consumers was 1.18 +/- 0.387(p-valueconsumers visited the health facility at significantly more frequent intervals than uninsured consumers (χ(2) = 55.413, p-valueconsumers received more different types of medications for similar disease conditions and more laboratory tests per visit than the uninsured. In treating malaria (commonest condition seen), providers added multivitamins, haematinics, vitamin C and intramuscular injections as additional medications more for insured consumers than for uninsured consumers. Findings suggest consumer and provider moral hazard may be two critical factors affecting the NHIS in the Effutu Municipality. These have implications for the optimal functioning of the NHIS and may affect long-term sustainability of NHIS in the municipality. Further studies to quantify financial/ economic cost to NHIS arising from moral hazard, will be of immense benefit to the optimal functioning of the NHIS.
McCue, Michael J; McCluer, R Forrest
Few, if any, researchers have analyzed the performance indicators of companies that offer bond insurance to hospitals and healthcare systems. The authors of this study analyzed the key financial and operational indicators of independent hospitals and hospitals within large multihospital systems that are insured by the 5 major bond insurance companies. The authors examined 87 insured bond issues; the results of this study show that some insurers cover healthcare facilities that have strong operational traits and others focus on financial factors.
Roemer, M I
Implementation of social insurance for financing health services has yielded different patterns depending on a country's economic level and its government's political ideology. By the late 19th century, thousands of small sickness funds operated in Europe, and in 1883 Germany's Chancellor Bismarck led the enactment of a law mandating enrollment by low-income workers. Other countries followed, with France completing Western European coverage in 1928. The Russian Revolution in 1917 led to a National Health Service covering everyone from general revenues by 1937. New Zealand legislated universal population coverage in 1939. After World War II, Scandinavian countries extended coverage to everyone and Britain introduced its National Health Service covering everyone with comprehensive care and financed by general revenues in 1948. Outside of Europe Japan adopted health insurance in 1922, covering everyone in 1946. Chile was the first developing country to enact statutory health insurance in 1924 for industrial workers, with extension to all low-income people with its "Servicio Nacional de Salud" in 1952. India covered 3.5 percent of its large population with the Employees' State Insurance Corporation in 1948, and China after its 1949 revolution developed four types of health insurance for designated groups of workers and dependents. Sub-Saharan African countries took limited health insurance actions in the late 1960s and 1970s. By 1980, some 85 countries had enacted social security programs to finance or deliver health services or both.
Full Text Available BackgroundWe assessed the association of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (DPP4i with hospitalization for heart failure (HF using the Korean Health Insurance claims database.MethodsWe collected data on newly prescribed sitagliptin, vildagliptin, and pioglitazone between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2012 (mean follow-up of 336.8 days to 935,519 patients with diabetes (518,614 males and 416,905 females aged 40 to 79 years (mean age of 59.4 years.ResultsDuring the study, 998 patients were hospitalized for primary HF (115.7 per 100,000 patient-years. The incidence rate of hospitalization for HF was 117.7 per 100,000 per patient-years among patients on pioglitazone, 105.7 for sitagliptin, and 135.8 for vildagliptin. The hospitalization rate for HF was greatest in the first 30 days after starting the medication, which corresponded to a significantly higher incidence at days 0 to 30 compared with days 31 to 360 for all three drugs. The hazard ratios were 1.85 (pioglitazone, 2.00 (sitagliptin, and 1.79 (vildagliptin. The incidence of hospitalization for HF did not differ between the drugs for any time period.ConclusionThis study showed an increase in hospitalization for HF in the initial 30 days of the DPP4i and pioglitazone compared with the subsequent follow-up period. However, the differences between the drugs were not significant.
Kerssens, Jan J; Groenewegen, Peter P
Allowing consumers greater choice of health plans is believed to be the key to high quality and low costs in social health insurance. This study investigates consumer preferences (361 persons, response rate 43%) for hypothetical health plans which differed in 12 characteristics (premium, deductibles, no-claim discount, extension of insurance and financial services, red tape involved, medical help-desk, choice of family physicians and hospitals, dental benefits, physical therapy benefits, benefits for prescription drugs and homeopathy). In 90% the health plan with the most attractive characteristics was preferred, indicating a predominantly rational kind of choice. The most decisive characteristics for preference were: complete dental benefits, followed by zero deductibles, and free choice of hospitals.
The relationship between the State and the health insurance passes through an institutional and financial crisis, leading the government to decide a new governance of the health care system and of the health insurance. The onset of the institutional crisis is the consequence of the confusion of the roles played by the State and the social partners. The social democracy installed by the French plan in 1945 and the autonomy of management of the health insurance established by the 1967 ordinances have failed. The administration parity (union and MEDEF) flew into pieces. The State had to step in by failing. The light is put on the financial crisis by the evolution of ONDAM (National Objective of the Health Insurance Expenses) which appears in the yearly law financing Social Security. The drift of the real expenses as compared to the passed ONDAM bill is constant and worsening. The question of reform includes the link between social democracy to be restored (social partners) and political democracy (Parliament and Government) to establish a contractual democracy. The Government made the announcement of an ONDAM sincere and medically oriented, based on tools agreed upon by all parties. The region could become a regulating step involving a regional health council. An accounting magistrate would be needed to consider not only the legal aspect but to include economic fallouts of health insurance. The role and the missions of the Social Security Accounting Committee should be reinforced.
Changes implemented on 1 January 2011 In addition to the information provided in the Official News section of the Bulletin concerning the CHIS, the following changes are in place since 1 January 2011. Benefits The list of benefits including the ceilings will remain initially unchanged while the CHIS Board prepares proposals to the Director-General, who has been authorized by the Council to take timely measures to limit the increase of the CHIS expenses, by encouraging the use of health care providers and treatments which provide the best quality-to-cost ratio. Termination of the agreement with “La Metairie” Attempts to find an agreement with the management of “La Metairie” on the conditions to continue to collaborate failed. The present agreement that CHIS, as well as the other international organisations (WHO, ILO/ITU, UNOG) had signed, therefore came to an end on 31 December 2010. As a result, the rules applicable to hospitals without an agreement will apply to &...
.... The final regulations clarify that these benefits constitute health insurance when they are offered by... insurance. Limited Scope Dental and Vision Benefits The proposed regulations defined health insurance to... revising the definition of health insurance to exclude limited scope dental and vision benefits (sometimes...
After democratic changes in 1990 and the declaration of independence in 1991, Croatia inherited an archaic system of economy, similar to all the other post-communist countries, which had especially negative effects on the health system. Health services were divided into 113 independent offices with their own local rules; they could not truly support the health care system, which gradually stagnated, both organizationally and technologically. Such an administrative system devoured 17.5% of the total funds, and primary care used only 10.3% of this. Despite the costly hospital medicine the entire system was financed with US$300 per citizen. The system was functioning only because of professionalism and enthusiasm of well-educated medical personnel. Such health policy had a negative effect on all levels of the system, with long-term consequences. The new health insurance system instituted a standard of 1,700 insureds per family medicine team, reducing hospital capacities to 3.8 beds per 1,000 citizens for acute illnesses. Computerization of the system makes possible the transparency of accounting income and expenses. In a relatively short period, in spite of the war, and in a complex, socially and ethically delicate area, Croatian Health Insurance Institute has successfully carried out the rationalization and control of spending, without lowering the level of health care or negatively influencing the vital statistics data.
Full Text Available In 2006, the Netherlands commenced market based reforms in its health care system. The reforms included selective contracting of health care providers by health insurers. This paper focuses on how health insurers may increase their market share on the health insurance market through selective contracting of health care providers. Selective contracting is studied by eliciting the preferences of health care consumers for attributes of health care services that an insurer could negotiate on behalf of its clients with health care providers. Selective contracting may provide incentives for health care providers to deliver the quality that consumers need and demand. Selective contracting also enables health insurers to steer individual patients towards selected health care providers. We used a stated preference technique known as a discrete choice experiment to collect and analyze the data. Results indicate that consumers care about both costs and quality of care, with healthy consumers placing greater emphasis on costs and consumers with poorer health placing greater emphasis on quality of care. It is possible for an insurer to satisfy both of these criteria by selective contracting health care providers who consequently purchase health care that is both efficient and of good quality.
LAYTON, TIMOTHY J.; MCGUIRE, THOMAS G.; SINAIKO, ANNA D.
In order to encourage entry and lower prices, most regulated markets for health insurance include policies that seek to reduce the uncertainty faced by insurers. In addition to risk adjustment of premiums paid to plans, the Health Insurance Marketplaces established by the Affordable Care Act implement reinsurance and risk corridors. Reinsurance limits insurer costs associated with specific individuals, while risk corridors protect against aggregate losses. Both tighten the insurer's distribut...
Jacobs, M Orry; Eggbeer, Bill
The introduction of the state health insurance exchanges, as provided for in the Affordable Care Act, has many strategic implications for healthcare providers: Unprecedented transparency; The "Walmart Effect", with patients playing a greater role as healthcare consumers; A rise in narrow networks spurred by low prices and narrow geographies; The potential end of the cross subsidy of Medicare and Medicaid by commercial plans; The possible end of not-for-profit status for hospitals
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A set of seven (7) public use files containing information on health insurance issuers participating in the Health Insurance Marketplace and certified qualified...
... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State Children's Health Insurance Program... Insurance Program Memorandum for the Secretary of Health and Human Services The State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) encourages States to provide health coverage for uninsured children in families...
Konovalov, R.; Kumlander, Deniss
This paper proposes the idea to use Clinical Decision Support software in Health Insurance Company as a tool to reduce the expenses related to Medication Errors. As a prove that this class of software will help insurance companies reducing the expenses, the research was conducted in eight hospitals in United Arab Emirates to analyze the amount of preventable common Medication Errors in drug prescription.
Conclusions: This study revealed that the volume of THAs performed by individual surgeons was a more important determinant of hospital utilization than hospital volume. Perioperative adverse events were associated with patients' age and comorbidity.
Full Text Available In August 2003, the Ghanaian Government made history by implementing the first National Health Insurance System (NHIS in Sub-Saharan Africa. Within three years, over half of the country’s population had voluntarily enrolled into the National Health Insurance Scheme. This study had three objectives: 1 To estimate the risk factors that influences the Ghana national health insurance claims. 2 To estimate the magnitude of each of the risk factors in relation to the Ghana national health insurance claims. In this work, data was collected from the policyholders of the Ghana National Health Insurance Scheme with the help of the National Health Insurance database and the patients’ attendance register of the Koforidua Regional Hospital, from 1st January to 31st December 2011. Quantitative analysis was done using the generalized linear regression (GLR models. The results indicate that risk factors such as sex, age, marital status, distance and length of stay at the hospital were important predictors of health insurance claims. However, it was found that the risk factors; health status, billed charges and income level are not good predictors of national health insurance claim. The outcome of the study shows that sex, age, marital status, distance and length of stay at the hospital are statistically significant in the determination of the Ghana National health insurance premiums since they considerably influence claims. We recommended, among other things that, the National Health Insurance Authority should facilitate the institutionalization of the collection of appropriate data on a continuous basis to help in the determination of future premiums.
... Health Insurance Providers Fee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of... insurance for United States health risks. This fee is imposed by section 9010 of the Patient Protection and... insurance for United States health risks. DATES: Written or electronic comments must be received by June 3...
Szilagyi, Peter G.
Few people would disagree that children with disabilities need adequate health insurance. But what kind of health insurance coverage would be optimal for these children? Peter Szilagyi surveys the current state of insurance coverage for children with special health care needs and examines critical aspects of coverage with an eye to helping policy…
Sekhri, Neelam; Savedoff, William
Private health insurance is playing an increasing role in both high- and low-income countries, yet is poorly understood by researchers and policy-makers. This paper shows that the distinction between private and public health insurance is often exaggerated since well regulated private insurance markets share many features with public insurance systems. It notes that private health insurance preceded many modern social insurance systems in western Europe, allowing these countries to develop the mechanisms, institutions and capacities that subsequently made it possible to provide universal access to health care. We also review international experiences with private insurance, demonstrating that its role is not restricted to any particular region or level of national income. The seven countries that finance more than 20% of their health care via private health insurance are Brazil, Chile, Namibia, South Africa, the United States, Uruguay and Zimbabwe. In each case, private health insurance provides primary financial protection for workers and their families while public health-care funds are targeted to programmes covering poor and vulnerable populations. We make recommendations for policy in developing countries, arguing that private health insurance cannot be ignored. Instead, it can be harnessed to serve the public interest if governments implement effective regulations and focus public funds on programmes for those who are poor and vulnerable. It can also be used as a transitional form of health insurance to develop experience with insurance institutions while the public sector increases its own capacity to manage and finance health-care coverage.
Thailand has a universal multi-payer system with two main types of health insurance: National Health Security Office or public health insurance and private insurance. National health insurance is designed for people who are not eligible to be members of any employment-based health insurance program. Although private health insurance is also available, all Thai citizens are required to be enrolled in either national health insurance or employees? health insurance. There are many differences be...
Hsu, Min-Huei; Yeh, Yu-Ting; Chen, Chien-Yuan; Liu, Chien-Hsiang; Liu, Chien-Tsai
Doctor shopping (or hospital shopping), which means changing doctors (or hospitals) without professional referral for the same or similar illness conditions, is common in Hong Kong, Taiwan and Japan. Due to the lack of infrastructure for sharing health information and medication history among hospitals, doctor-shopping patients are more likely to receive duplicate medications and suffer adverse drug reactions. The Bureau of National Health Insurance (BNHI) adopted smart cards (or NHI-IC cards) as health cards in Taiwan. With their NHI-IC cards, patients can freely access different medical institutions. Because an NHI-IC card carries information about a patient's prescribed medications received from different hospitals nationwide, we used this system to address the problem of duplicate medications for outpatients visiting multiple hospitals. A computerized physician order entry (CPOE) system was enhanced with the capability of accessing NHI-IC cards and providing alerts to physicians when the system detects potential duplicate medications at the time of prescribing. Physician responses to the alerts were also collected to analyze changes in physicians' behavior. Chi-square tests and two-sided z-tests with Bonferroni adjustments for multiple comparisons were used to assess statistical significance of differences in actions taken by physicians over the three months. The enhanced CPOE system for outpatient services was implemented and installed at the Pediatric and Urology Departments of Taipei Medical University Wan-Fang Hospital in March 2007. The "Change Log" that recorded physician behavior was activated during a 3-month study period from April to June 2007. In 67.93% of patient visits, the physicians read patient NHI-IC cards, and in 16.76% of the reads, the NHI-IC card contained at least one prescribed medication that was taken by the patient. Among the prescriptions issued by physicians, on average, there were 2.36% prescriptions containing at least one
In many welfare states, tightening financial constraints suggest excluding some medical services, including new ones, from social security coverage. This may create opportunities for private health insurance. This study analyses the performance of supplementary private health insurance (SPHI) in markets for excluded services in terms of population covered, risk selection and insurer profits. Using a utility-based simulation model, the insurance market is described as a composite of sub-market...
Schwierz, Christoph; Wübker, Achim; Wübker, Ansgar; Kuchinke, Björn A
This paper shows that patients with private health insurance (PHI) are being offered significantly shorter waiting times than patients with statutory health insurance (SHI) in German acute hospital care. This behavior may be driven by the higher expected profitability of PHI relative to SHI holders. Further, we find that hospitals offering private insurees shorter waiting times when compared with SHI holders have a significantly better financial performance than those abstaining from or with less discrimination.
A new document which groups together the general principles, the contributions, benefits, reimbursement procedures and other information making up the Rules of the CERN Health Insurance Scheme has been established. It was approved by the Director-General on 7th July 2000 and is being distributed to all contributing members of the Scheme. It has been dispatched by internal mail to members of the personnel and by postal mail to pensioners. These Rules will enter into force on 1st September 2000. Please make sure that you have received your copy. Should this not be the case, an additional copy may be obtained by telephoning 78003
A new document which groups together the general principles, the contributions, benefits, reimbursement procedures and other information making up the Rules of the CERN Health Insurance Scheme has been established. It was approved by the Director-General on 7th July 2000 and is being distributed to all contributing members of the Scheme. It has been dispatched by internal mail to members of the personnel and by postal mail to pensioners. These Rules will enter into force on 1st September 2000. Please make sure that you have received your copy. Should this not be the case, an additional copy may be obtained by telephoning 78003.
Daysal, N. Meltem
In this paper, I examine the impact of uninsured patients on the health of the insured, focusing on one health outcome -- the in-hospital mortality rate of insured heart attack patients. I employ panel data models using patient discharge and hospital financial data from California (1999-2006). My...... results indicate that uninsured patients have an economically significant effect that increases the mortality rate of insured heart attack patients. I show that these results are not driven by alternative explanations, including reverse causality, patient composition effects, sample selection...... of care to insured heart attack patients in response to reduced revenues, the evidence I have suggests a modest increase in the quantity of cardiac services without a corresponding increase in hospital staff....
M. van Dijk (Machiel); M. Pomp (Marc); R.C.H.M. Douven (Rudy); T. Laske-Aldershof (Trea); F.T. Schut (Erik); W. de Boer (Willem); A. Boo (Anne)
textabstractAim: To estimate the price sensitivity of consumer choice of health insurance firm. Method: Using paneldata of the flows of insured betweenpairs of Dutch sickness funds during the period 1993-2002, we estimate the sensitivity of these flows to differences in insurance premium. Results:
... health insurance kicks in. As a general rule, insurance plans with low premiums have high deductibles, and plans with high premiums ... other plans due to hardship. This type of insurance can have low premiums but very high deductibles. Plans generally cover less ...
The health insurance business in India has seen a growth of over 25% per annum in the last few years with the expansion of the private health insurance sector. The premium incomes of health insurance have crossed the Rs 8,000 crore mark with the share of private companies increasing to over 41%. This is despite the fact that from the perspective of patients, health insurance is not a good deal, especially when they need it most. This raises a number of ethical issues regarding how the health insurance business runs and how medical practice adjusts to it for profiteering. This article uses the personal experience of the author to argue that health insurance in an unregulated environment can only lead to unethical practices, further victimising the patient. Further, publicly financed healthcare which operates in an environment regulating both public and private healthcare provisioning is the only way to assure access to ethical and equitable healthcare to people.
Kerssens, J.J.; Groenewegen, P.P.
Objective: To promote managed competition in Dutch health insurance, the insured are now able to change health insurers. They can choose a health insurer with a low flat-rate premium, the best supplementary insurance and/or the best service. As we do not know why people prefer one health insurer to
Baicker, Katherine; Mullainathan, Sendhil; Schwartzstein, Joshua
A fundamental implication of standard moral hazard models is overuse of low-value medical care because copays are lower than costs. In these models, the demand curve alone can be used to make welfare statements, a fact relied on by much empirical work. There is ample evidence, though, that people misuse care for a different reason: mistakes, or “behavioral hazard.” Much high-value care is underused even when patient costs are low, and some useless care is bought even when patients face the full cost. In the presence of behavioral hazard, welfare calculations using only the demand curve can be off by orders of magnitude or even be the wrong sign. We derive optimal copay formulas that incorporate both moral and behavioral hazard, providing a theoretical foundation for value-based insurance design and a way to interpret behavioral “nudges.” Once behavioral hazard is taken into account, health insurance can do more than just provide financial protection—it can also improve health care efficiency. PMID:23930294
Hidalgo, Hector; Chipulu, Maxwell; Ojiako, Udechukwu
The objective of this study is to identify how risk and social variables are likely to be impacted by an increase in private sector participation in health insurance provision. The study focuses on the Chilean health insurance industry, traditionally dominated by the public sector. Predictive risk modelling is conducted using a database containing over 250,000 health insurance policy records provided by the Superintendence of Health of Chile. Although perceived with suspicion in some circles, risk segmentation serves as a rational approach to risk management from a resource perspective. The variables that have considerable impact on insurance claims include the number of dependents, gender, wages and the duration a claimant has been a customer. As shown in the case study, to ensure that social benefits are realised, increased private sector participation in health insurance must be augmented by regulatory oversight and vigilance. As it is clear that a "community-rated" health insurance provision philosophy impacts on insurance firm's ability to charge "market" prices for insurance provision, the authors explore whether risk segmentation is a feasible means of predicting insurance claim behaviour in Chile's private health insurance industry.
Jung Hoon Woo
Full Text Available The Korean National Health Insurance, which provides universal coverage for the entire Korean population, is now facing financial instability. Frequent emergency department (ED users may represent a medically vulnerable population who could benefit from interventions that both improve care and lower costs. To understand the nature of frequent ED users in Korea, we analyzed claims data from a population-based national representative sample. We performed both bivariate and multivariable analyses to investigate the association between patient characteristics and frequent ED use (4+ ED visits in a year using claims data of a 1% random sample of the Korean population, collected in 2009. Among 156,246 total ED users, 4,835 (3.1% were frequent ED users. These patients accounted for 14% of 209,326 total ED visits and 17.2% of $76,253,784 total medical expenses generated from all ED visits in the 1% data sample. Frequent ED users tended to be older, male, and of lower socio-economic status compared with occasional ED users (p < 0.001 for each. Moreover, frequent ED users had longer stays in the hospital when admitted, higher probability of undergoing an operative procedure, and increased mortality. Among 8,425 primary diagnoses, alcohol-related complaints and schizophrenia showed the strongest positive correlation with the number of ED visits. Among the frequent ED users, mortality and annual outpatient department visits were significantly lower in the alcohol-related patient subgroup compared with other frequent ED users; furthermore, the rate was even lower than that for non-frequent ED users. Our findings suggest that expanding mental health and alcohol treatment programs may be a reasonable strategy to decrease the dependence of these patients on the ED.
Woo, Jung Hoon; Grinspan, Zachary; Shapiro, Jason; Rhee, Sang Youl
The Korean National Health Insurance, which provides universal coverage for the entire Korean population, is now facing financial instability. Frequent emergency department (ED) users may represent a medically vulnerable population who could benefit from interventions that both improve care and lower costs. To understand the nature of frequent ED users in Korea, we analyzed claims data from a population-based national representative sample. We performed both bivariate and multivariable analyses to investigate the association between patient characteristics and frequent ED use (4+ ED visits in a year) using claims data of a 1% random sample of the Korean population, collected in 2009. Among 156,246 total ED users, 4,835 (3.1%) were frequent ED users. These patients accounted for 14% of 209,326 total ED visits and 17.2% of $76,253,784 total medical expenses generated from all ED visits in the 1% data sample. Frequent ED users tended to be older, male, and of lower socio-economic status compared with occasional ED users (p users had longer stays in the hospital when admitted, higher probability of undergoing an operative procedure, and increased mortality. Among 8,425 primary diagnoses, alcohol-related complaints and schizophrenia showed the strongest positive correlation with the number of ED visits. Among the frequent ED users, mortality and annual outpatient department visits were significantly lower in the alcohol-related patient subgroup compared with other frequent ED users; furthermore, the rate was even lower than that for non-frequent ED users. Our findings suggest that expanding mental health and alcohol treatment programs may be a reasonable strategy to decrease the dependence of these patients on the ED. PMID:26809051
Kim, Hye Yeong; Lee, Jinhyung
The widespread adoption of health information technology (IT) will help contain health care costs by decreasing inefficiencies in healthcare delivery. Theoretically, health IT could lower hospitals' malpractice insurance premiums (MIPs) and improve the quality of care by reducing the number and size of malpractice. This study examines the relationship between health IT investment and MIP using California hospital data from 2006 to 2007. To examine the effect of hospital IT on malpractice insurance expense, a generalized estimating equation (GEE) was employed. It was found that health IT investment was not negatively associated with MIP. Health IT was reported to reduce medical error and improve efficiency. Thus, it may reduce malpractice claims from patients, which will reduce malpractice insurance expenses for hospitals. However, health IT adoption could lead to increases in MIPs. For example, we expect increases in MIPs of about 1.2% and 1.5%, respectively, when health IT and labor increase by 10%. This study examined the effect of health IT investment on MIPs controlling other hospital and market, and volume characteristics. Against our expectation, we found that health IT investment was not negatively associated with MIP. There may be some possible reasons that the real effect of health IT on MIPs was not observed; barriers including communication problems among health ITs, shorter sample period, lower IT investment, and lack of a quality of care measure as a moderating variable.
... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 618....440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 618.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a recipient...
... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Health and insurance benefits and... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 5.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance...
... Prohibited § 23.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 23.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Health and insurance...
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Health and insurance benefits... Activities Prohibited § 1211.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 1211.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its...
... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 5.440 Section... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 5.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or...
... § 1317.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 1317.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a recipient... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health and insurance...
... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 106.39... Prohibited § 106.39 Health and insurance benefits and services. In providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a recipient shall not...
... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health and insurance benefits... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 19.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 19.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health and insurance benefits and... Activities Prohibited § 3.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 3.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its...
... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 25.440... Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 25.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 25.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit...
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 1042.440... in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1042.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 1042.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service...
... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 196... Activities Prohibited § 196.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 196.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its...
... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Health and insurance benefits and services. 36.440 Section... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 36.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 36.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or...
... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Health and insurance benefits and....440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 113.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a recipient...
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 86.39... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.39 Health and insurance benefits and services. In providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 2555... Activities Prohibited § 2555.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 2555.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its...
... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 15a.39... Programs and Activities Prohibited § 15a.39 Health and insurance benefits and services. In providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a...
Kerssens, Jan J.; Groenewegen, Peter P.
Objective To promote managed competition in Dutch health insurance, the insured are now able to change heaith insurers. They can choose a health insurer with a low flat-rate premium, the best supplementary insurance and/or the best service. As we do not know why people prefer one health insurer to
Full Text Available The paper represents an analysis in the domain of the social insurances for health care. It emphasizesthe necessity and the opportunity of creating in Romania a medical service market based on the competingsystem. In Romania, the social insurances for health care are at their very beginning. The development of thedomain of the private insurances for health care is prevented even by its legislation, due to the lack of anormative act that may regulate the management of the private insurances for health care. The establishment ofthe legislation related to the optional insurances for health care might lead to some activity norms for thecompanies which carry out optional insurances for health care. The change of the legislation is made in order tocreate normative and financial opportunities for the development of the optional medical insurances. Thischange, as part of the social protection of people, will positively influence the development of the medicalinsurance system. The extension of the segment of the optional insurances into the medical insurance segmentincreases the health protection budget with the value of the financial sources which do not belong to thebudgetary funds.
Hypoglycemia hospitalization frequency in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a comparison of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors and insulin secretagogues using the French health insurance database
Full Text Available Bruno Detournay,1 Serge Halimi,2,3 Julien Robert,1 Céline Deschaseaux,4 Sylvie Dejager5,6 1Cemka-Eval, Bourg-la Reine, France; 2Department of Diabetology, Endocrinology and Nutrition, Grenoble University Hospital Center, Grenoble, France; 3University Joseph Fourier, Grenoble, France; 4Novartis Pharma SAS, Market Access Department, Rueil-Malmaison, France; 5Novartis Pharma SAS, Medical and Scientific Affairs, Rueil Malmaison, France; 6Department of Diabetology, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Pitié-Salpétrière Hospital, Paris, France Aim: We aimed to compare the frequency of severe hypoglycemia leading to hospitalization (HH and emergency visits (EV for any cause in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus exposed to dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4 inhibitors (DPP4-i versus those exposed to insulin secretagogues (IS; sulfonylureas or glinides. Methods: Data were extracted from the EGB (Echantillon Généraliste des Bénéficiaires database, comprising a representative sample of ~1% of patients registered in the French National Health Insurance System (~600,000 patients. Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients exposed to regimens containing either a DPP4-i (excluding treatment with IS, insulin, or glucagon-like peptide 1 analog or IS (excluding treatment with insulin and any incretin therapy between 2009 and 2012 were selected. HH and EV during the exposure periods were identified in both cohorts. A similar analysis was conducted considering vildagliptin alone versus IS. Comparative analyses adjusting for covariates within the model (subjects matched for key characteristics and using multinomial regression models were performed. Results: Overall, 7,152 patients exposed to any DPP4-i and 1,440 patients exposed to vildagliptin were compared to 10,019 patients exposed to IS. Eight patients (0.11% from the DPP4-i cohort and none from the vildagliptin cohort (0.0% were hospitalized for hypoglycemia versus 130 patients (1.30% from the IS cohort (138
Full Text Available The objectives of this research are to: 1 compare the effect of premium earnings products of health insurances after the launching of national social health insurance (JKN-BPJS (Badan Penyelenggara Jaminan Sosial for health; 2 analyze the internal and external factors of private/commercial health insurance companies; 3 formulate a marketing strategyy for health insurance product after the operation of JKN-BPJS for health. It is a challenge for commercial health insurance to survive and thrive with the existence of JKN-BPJS for health which is compulsory to Indonesia’s citizens to be a member. The research begins by analyzing premium earnings of the commercial health insurance company one year before and after the implementation of JKN-BPJS for health, the intensive interviews and questionnaires to the chosen resource person (purposive samplings, the analysis on Internal Factor Evaluation (IFE, External Factor Evaluation (EFE, Matrix IE and SWOT are used in the research. Then it is continued by arranging a strategic priority using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. The result from the research is there is totally no decreasing premium earnings for the commercial health insurance company although the growth trend shows a slight drop. The appropriate strategy for the health insurance company in the commercial sector is the differentiation where the implication is involving customer service quality improvement, product innovation, and technology and infrastructure development. Keywords: commercial health insurance company, Marketing Strategy, AHP Analysis, national social health insurance
Dillingh, Rik; Kooreman, Peter; Potters, Jan
This paper provides new field evidence on the role of probability numeracy in health insurance purchase. Our regression results, based on rich survey panel data, indicate that the expenditure on two out of three measures of health insurance first rises with probability numeracy and then falls again.
The National Employer Health Insurance Survey (NEHIS) was developed to produce estimates on employer-sponsored health insurance data in the United States. The NEHIS was the first Federal survey to represent all employers in the United States by State and obtain information on all...
This paper explores the consequences of the oft ignored fact that public health insurance must actually be supplied by the state. Depending how the state is modeled, different health insurance outcomes are expected. The benevolent model of the state does not account for many actual features of public health insurance systems. One alternative is to use a standard public choice model, where state action is determined by interaction between self-interested actors. Another alternative--related to a strand in public choice theory--is to model the state as Leviathan. Interestingly, some proponents of public health insurance use an implicit Leviathan model, but not consistently. The Leviathan model of the state explains many features of public health insurance: its uncontrolled growth, its tendency toward monopoly, its capacity to buy trust and loyalty from the common people, its surveillance ability, its controlling nature, and even the persistence of its inefficiencies and waiting lines.
Davis, J B
This paper examines the lack of health insurance coverage in the US as a public policy issue. It first compares the problem of health insurance coverage to the problem of unemployment to show that in terms of the numbers of individuals affected lack of health insurance is a problem comparable in importance to the problem of unemployment. Secondly, the paper discusses the methodology involved in measuring health insurance coverage, and argues that the current method of estimation of the uninsured underestimates the extent that individuals go without health insurance. Third, the paper briefly introduces Amartya Sen's functioning and capabilities framework to suggest a way of representing the extent to which individuals are uninsured. Fourth, the paper sketches a means of operationalizing the Sen representation of the uninsured in terms of the disability-adjusted life year (DALY) measure.
Baranes, Edmond; Bardey, David
This article examines a model of competition between two types of health insurer: Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs) and nonintegrated insurers. HMOs vertically integrate health care providers and pay them at a competitive price, while nonintegrated health insurers work as indemnity plans and pay the health care providers freely chosen by policyholders at a wholesale price. Such difference is referred to as an input price effect which, at first glance, favors HMOs. Moreover, we assume that policyholders place a positive value on the provider diversity supplied by their health insurance plan and that this value increases with the probability of disease. Due to the restricted choice of health care providers in HMOs a risk segmentation occurs: policyholders who choose nonintegrated health insurers are characterized by higher risk, which also tends to favor HMOs. Our equilibrium analysis reveals that the equilibrium allocation only depends on the number of HMOs in the case of exclusivity contracts between HMOs and providers. Surprisingly, our model shows that the interplay between risk segmentation and input price effects may generate ambiguous results. More precisely, we reveal that vertical integration in health insurance markets may decrease health insurers' premiums.
Full Text Available The paper represents an analysis in the domain of the social insurances for health care. It emphasizes the necessity and the opportunity ofcreating in Romania a medical service market based on the competing system. In Romania, the social insurances for health care are at their verybeginning. The development of the domain of the private insurances for health care is prevented even by its legislation, due to the lack of a normativeact that may regulate the management of the private insurances for health care. The establishment of the legislation related to the optional insurancesfor health care might lead to some activity norms for the companies which carry out optional insurances for health care. The change of the legislationis made in order to create normative and financial opportunities for the development of the optional medical insurances. This change, as part of thesocial protection of people, will positively influence the development of the medical insurance system. The extension of the segment of the optionalinsurances into the medical insurance segment increases the health protection budget with the value of the financial sources which do not belong tothe budgetary funds.
Meltem Daysal, N.
Abstract: In this paper, I examine the impact of uninsured patients on the health of the insured, focusing on one health outcome - the in-hospital mortality rate of insured heart attack patients. I employ panel data models using patient discharge and hospital financial data from California
Ammar, Walid; Awar, May
The Ministry of Labor (MOL) has submitted to the Council of Ministers a social security reform plan. The Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) considers that health financing should be dealt with as part of a more comprehensive health reform plan that falls under its prerogatives. While a virulent political discussion is taking place, major stakeholders' inputs are very limited and civil society is totally put away from the whole policy making process. The role of the media is restricted to reproducing political disputes, without meaningful substantive debate. This paper discusses health insurance reform from labor market as well as public health perspectives, and aims at launching a serious public debate on this crucial issue that touches the life of every citizen.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Affordable Care Act is bringing an unprecedented level of scrutiny and transparency to health insurance rate increases. The Act ensures that, in any State, any...
Salim, Anas Mustafa Ahmed; Hamed, Fatima Hashim Mahmoud
It has been 20 years since the introduction of health insurance in Sudan. This study was the first one that explored health insurance services in Sudan from the perspectives of the insurers. This was a qualitative, exploratory, interview study. The sampling frame was the list of Social Health Insurance and Private Health Insurance institutions in Sudan. Participants were selected from the four Social Health Insurance institutions and from five Private Health Insurance companies. The study was conducted in January and February 2017. In-depth individual interviews were conducted with a convenient sample of key executives from the different health insurers. Ideas and themes were identified and analysed using thematic analysis. The result showed that universal coverage was not achieved despite long time presence of Social Health Insurance and Private Health Insurance in Sudan. All participants described their services as comprehensive. All participants have good perception of the quality of the services they provide, although none of them investigated customer satisfaction. The main challenges facing Social Health Insurance are achieving universal coverage, ensuring sustainability and recruitment of the informal sector and self-employed population. Consumers' affordability of the premiums is the main obstacle for Private Health Insurance, while rising healthcare cost due to economic inflation is a challenge facing both Social Health Insurance and Private Health Insurance. In spite of the presence of Social Health Insurance and Private Health Insurance in Sudan, the country is still far from achieving universal coverage. Moreover, the sustainability of health insurance is questionable. The main reasons include low governmental financial resources and lack of affordability by beneficiaries especially for Private Health Insurance. This necessitates finding solutions to improve them or trying other types of health insurance. The quality of services provided by Social
Kevin Lang; Hong Kang
We develop a model in which firms hire heterogeneous workers but must offer all workers insurance benefits under similar terms. In equilibrium, some firms offer free health insurance, some require an employee premium payment and some do not offer insurance. Making the employee contribution pre-tax lowers the cost to workers of a given employee premium and encourages more firms to charge. This increases the offer rate, lowers the take-up rate, increases (decreases) coverage among high (low) de...
... Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Final regulations. SUMMARY: This document contains final regulations relating to the health insurance premium tax... categories of immigrants described in the Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act. One...
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Health and insurance... insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 101-4.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a recipient shall not...
Wang, Chan; Nie, Pu-Yan
Poor medical care and high fees are two major problems in the world health care system. As a result, health care insurance system reform is a major issue in developing countries, such as China. Governments should take the effect of health care insurance system reform on the competition of hospitals into account when they practice a reform. This article aims to capture the influences of asymmetric medical insurance subsidy and the importance of medical quality to patients on hospitals competition under non-price regulation. We establish a three-stage duopoly model with quantity and quality competition. In the model, qualitative difference and asymmetric medical insurance subsidy among hospitals are considered. The government decides subsidy (or reimbursement) ratios in the first stage. Hospitals choose the quality in the second stage and then support the quantity in the third stage. We obtain our conclusions by mathematical model analyses and all the results are achieved by backward induction. The importance of medical quality to patients has stronger influence on the small hospital, while subsidy has greater effect on the large hospital. Meanwhile, the importance of medical quality to patients strengthens competition, but subsidy effect weakens it. Besides, subsidy ratios difference affects the relationship between subsidy and hospital competition. Furthermore, we capture the optimal reimbursement ratio based on social welfare maximization. More importantly, this paper finds that the higher management efficiency of the medical insurance investment funds is, the higher the best subsidy ratio is. This paper states that subsidy is a two-edged sword. On one hand, subsidy stimulates medical demand. On the other hand, subsidy raises price and inhibits hospital competition. Therefore, government must set an appropriate subsidy ratio difference between large and small hospitals to maximize the total social welfare. For a developing country with limited medical resources
Okebukola, Peter O; Brieger, William R
Despite a stated goal of achieving universal coverage, the National Health Insurance Scheme of Nigeria had achieved only 4% coverage 12 years after it was launched. This study assessed the plans of the National Health Insurance Scheme to achieve universal health insurance coverage in Nigeria by 2015 and discusses the challenges facing the scheme in achieving insurance coverage. In-depth interviews from various levels of the health-care system in the country, including providers, were conducted. The results of the analysis suggest that challenges to extending coverage include the difficulty in convincing autonomous state governments to buy into the scheme and an inadequate health workforce that might not be able to meet increased demand. Recommendations for increasing the scheme's coverage include increasing decentralization and strengthening human resources for health in the service delivery systems. Strong political will is needed as a catalyst to achieving these goals. © The Author(s) 2016.
Halbersma, R.S.; Mikkers, M.C.; Motchenkova, E.; Seinen, I.
In 2005, competition was introduced in part of the hospital market in the Netherlands. Using a unique dataset of transaction and list prices between hospitals and insurers in the years 2005 and 2006, we estimate the influence of buyer and seller concentration on the negotiated prices in the first
This document contains final regulations relating to the health insurance premium tax credit enacted by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010.These final regulations provide guidance to individuals related to employees who may enroll in eligible employer-sponsored coverage and who wish to enroll in qualified health plans through Affordable Insurance Exchanges (Exchanges) and claim the premium tax credit.
Jia, Liying; Yuan, Beibei; Huang, Fei; Lu, Ying; Garner, Paul; Meng, Qingyue
evaluated the effects of strategies on increasing health insurance coverage for vulnerable populations. We defined strategies as measures to improve the enrolment of vulnerable populations into health insurance schemes. Two categories and six specified strategies were identified as the interventions. At least two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. We undertook a structured synthesis. We included two studies, both from the United States. People offered health insurance information and application support by community-based case managers were probably more likely to enrol their children into health insurance programmes (risk ratio (RR) 1.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.44 to 1.96, moderate quality evidence) and were probably more likely to continue insuring their children (RR 2.59, 95% CI 1.95 to 3.44, moderate quality evidence). Of all the children that were insured, those in the intervention group may have been insured quicker (47.3 fewer days, 95% CI 20.6 to 74.0 fewer days, low quality evidence) and parents may have been more satisfied on average (satisfaction score average difference 1.07, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.42, low quality evidence).In the second study applications were handed out in emergency departments at hospitals, compared to not handing out applications, and may have had an effect on enrolment (RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.18, low quality evidence). Community-based case managers who provide health insurance information, application support, and negotiate with the insurer probably increase enrolment of children in health insurance schemes. However, the transferability of this intervention to other populations or other settings is uncertain. Handing out insurance application materials in hospital emergency departments may help increase the enrolment of children in health insurance schemes. Further studies evaluating the effectiveness of different strategies for expanding health insurance coverage in vulnerable population are
La Forgia, Ambar; Maeda, Jared Lane K; Banthin, Jessica S
As the health insurance industry becomes more consolidated, hospitals and health systems have started to enter the insurance business. Insurers are also rapidly acquiring providers. Although these "vertically" integrated plan providers are small players in the insurance market, they are becoming more numerous. The health insurance marketplaces (HIMs) offer a unique setting to study integrated plan providers relative to other insurer types because the HIMs were designed to promote competition. In this descriptive study, the authors compared the premiums of the lowest priced silver plans of integrated plan providers with other insurer types on the 2015 and 2016 HIMs. Integrated plan providers were associated with modestly lower premiums relative to most other insurer types. This study provides early insights into premium competition on the HIMs. Examining integrated plan providers as a separate insurer type has important policy implications because they are a growing segment of the marketplaces and their pricing behavior may influence future premium trends.
Most theoretical and empirical work on efficient health insurance has been based on models with linear insurance schedules (a constant co-insurance parameter). In this paper, dynamic optimization techniques are used to analyse the properties of optimal non-linear insurance schedules in a model similar to one originally considered by Spence and Zeckhauser (American Economic Review, 1971, 61, 380-387) and reminiscent of those that have been used in the literature on optimal income taxation. The results of a preliminary numerical example suggest that the welfare losses from the implicit subsidy to employer-financed health insurance under US tax law may be a good deal smaller than previously estimated using linear models.
This study assesses the impact of the NHIS scheme in promoting access to health care. It identifies a need for all stakeholders to engage in the active promotion of awareness on health insurance as option of health care provisioning. It argues that health insurance can make health care more accessible to a wider segment ...
Board on Health Care Services Staff; Institute of Medicine Staff; Institute of Medicine; National Academy of Sciences
...: Insurance and Health Care , explores the myths and realities of who is uninsured, identifies social, economic, and policy factors that contribute to the situation, and describes the likelihood faced...
... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplemental Health Insurance Panel. 403.220... Programs § 403.220 Supplemental Health Insurance Panel. (a) Membership. The Supplemental Health Insurance... determines whether or not a State regulatory program for Medicare supplemental health insurance policies...
Goldman, Dana; Leibowitz, Arleen; Robalino, David
Objective: To determine the sensitivity of employees’ health insurance decisions—including the decision to not choose health maintenance organization or fee-for-service coverage—during periods of rapidly escalating healthcare costs. Study Design: A retrospective cohort study of employee plan choices at a single large firm with a “cafeteria-style” benefits plan wherein employees paid all the additional cost of purchasing more generous insurance. Methods: We modeled the probabil...
Jiang, Ke; You, Daming; Li, Zhendong; Wei, Wei; Mainstone, Mitchell
The emergence of rural health insurance plays a crucial role in alleviating the pressure on rural medical expenditure. Under the current medical system in northern China, rural medical insurance may reduce the free referral of patients with chronic diseases among hospitals. This study was carried out based on the results of an investigation of rural chronically-ill patients in eight county hospitals in northern China, as well as through the comparison and analysis of patients with chronic diseases, considering whether they were with or without rural health insurance. The main results showed that both age ( χ 2 = 22.9, p rural peoples' willingness to buy health insurance. Meanwhile, both the quality of the hospital's treatment ( B = 0.555, p rural health insurance had weakened the three relationships upon which the aforementioned correlations were based.
... 1545-BK59 Fees on Health Insurance Policies and Self-Insured Plans for the Patient-Centered Outcomes... certain health insurance policies and plan sponsors of certain self-insured health plans to fund the... health insurance policies) or R. Lisa Mojiri-Azad at (202) 622-6080 (regarding self- insured health...
Vardell, Emily Johanna
The concept of health insurance literacy, which can be defined as "the extent to which consumers can make informed purchase and use decisions" (Kim, Braun, & Williams, 2013, p. 3), has only recently become a focus of health literacy research. Though employees have been making health insurance decisions for many years, the Affordable…
Carroll, Anne; Corman, Hope; Curtis, Marah A; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E
To assess the extent to which housing instability is associated with gaps in health insurance coverage of preschool-age children. Secondary analysis of data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, a nationally representative study of children born in the United States in 2001, was conducted to investigate associations between unstable housing-homelessness, multiple moves, or living with others and not paying rent-and children's subsequent health insurance gaps. Logistic regression was used to adjust for potentially confounding factors. Ten percent of children were unstably housed at age 2, and 11% had a gap in health insurance between ages 2 and 4. Unstably housed children were more likely to have gaps in insurance compared to stably housed children (16% vs 10%). Controlling for potentially confounding factors, the odds of a child insurance gap were significantly higher in unstably housed families than in stably housed families (adjusted odds ratio 1.27; 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.61). The association was similar in alternative model specifications. In a US nationally representative birth cohort, children who were unstably housed at age 2 were at higher risk, compared to their stably housed counterparts, of experiencing health insurance gaps between ages 2 and 4 years. The findings from this study suggest that policy efforts to delink health insurance renewal processes from mailing addresses, and potentially routine screenings for housing instability as well as referrals to appropriate resources by pediatricians, would help unstably housed children maintain health insurance. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dobson, Allen; DaVanzo, Joan E; El-Gamil, Audrey M; Berger, Gregory
Two key health reform bills in the House of Representatives and Senate include the option of a "public plan" as an additional source of health coverage. At least initially, the plan would primarily be structured to cover many of the uninsured and those who now have individual coverage. Because it is possible, and perhaps even likely, that this new public payer would pay less than private payers for the same services, such a plan could negatively affect hospital margins. Hospitals may attempt to recoup losses by shifting costs to private payers. We outline the financial pressures that hospitals and private payers could experience under various assumptions. High uninsured enrollment in a public plan would bolster hospital margins; however, this effect is reversed if the privately insured enter a public plan in large proportions, potentially stressing the hospital industry and increasing private insurance premiums.
Sweden initiated a dental health care insurance in 1973. The health insurance is outlined, current problems and political issues are described. The benefits and limitations are described.......Sweden initiated a dental health care insurance in 1973. The health insurance is outlined, current problems and political issues are described. The benefits and limitations are described....
Jia, Liying; Yuan, Beibei; Huang, Fei; Lu, Ying; Garner, Paul; Meng, Qingyue
) studies and Interrupted time series (ITS) studies that evaluated the effects of strategies on increasing health insurance coverage for vulnerable populations. We defined strategies as measures to improve the enrolment of vulnerable populations into health insurance schemes. Two categories and six specified strategies were identified as the interventions. Data collection and analysis At least two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. We undertook a structured synthesis. Main results We included two studies, both from the United States. People offered health insurance information and application support by community-based case managers were probably more likely to enrol their children into health insurance programmes (risk ratio (RR) 1.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.44 to 1.96, moderate quality evidence) and were probably more likely to continue insuring their children (RR 2.59, 95% CI 1.95 to 3.44, moderate quality evidence). Of all the children that were insured, those in the intervention group may have been insured quicker (47.3 fewer days, 95% CI 20.6 to 74.0 fewer days, low quality evidence) and parents may have been more satisfied on average (satisfaction score average difference 1.07, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.42, low quality evidence). In the second study applications were handed out in emergency departments at hospitals, compared to not handing out applications, and may have had an effect on enrolment (RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.18, low quality evidence). Authors' conclusions Community-based case managers who provide health insurance information, application support, and negotiate with the insurer probably increase enrolment of children in health insurance schemes. However, the transferability of this intervention to other populations or other settings is uncertain. Handing out insurance application materials in hospital emergency departments may help increase the enrolment of children in health insurance schemes. Further studies
Community-based health insurance knowledge, concern, preferences, and financial planning for health care among informal sector workers in a health district of Douala, Cameroon. ... This is mainly due to the lack of awareness and limited knowledge on the basic concepts of a CBHI by this target population. Solidarity ...
Kerssens, J.J.; Groenewegen, P.P.
Allowing consumers greater choice of health plans is believed to be the key to high quality and low costs in social health insurance. This study investigates consumer preferences (361 persons, response rate 43%) for hypothetical health plans with differed in 12 characteristics (premium, deductibles,
Douven, Rudy C H M; Schut, Frederik T
In this paper we examine the pricing behaviour of nonprofit health insurers in the Dutch social health insurance market. Since for-profit insurers were not allowed in this market, potential spillover effects from the presence of for-profit insurers on the behaviour of nonprofit insurers were absent. Using a panel data set for all health insurers operating in the Dutch social health insurance market over the period 1996-2004, we estimate a premium model to determine which factors explain the price setting behaviour of nonprofit health insurers. We find that financial stability rather than profit maximisation offers the best explanation for health plan pricing behaviour. In the presence of weak price competition, health insurers did not set premiums to maximize profits. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that regulations on financial reserves are needed to restrict premiums. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Health seeking behaviour in the event of illness is influenced by the availability of good health care facilities and health care financing mechanisms. Micro health insurance not only promotes formal health care utilization at private providers but also reduces the cost of care by providing the insurance coverage. Objectives: This paper explores the impact of Sampoorna Suraksha Programme, a micro health insurance scheme on the health seeking behaviour of households during illness in Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in three randomly selected districts in Karnataka, India in the first half of the year 2011. The hypothesis was tested using binary logistic regression analysis on the data collected from randomly selected 1146 households consisting of 4961 individuals. Results: Insured individuals were seeking care at private hospitals than public hospitals due to the reduction in financial barrier. Moreover, equity in health seeking behaviour among insured individuals was observed. Conclusion : Our finding does represent a desirable result for health policy makers and micro finance institutions to advocate for the inclusion of health insurance in their portfolio, at least from the HSB perspective.
Savitha, S; Kiran, Kb
Health seeking behaviour in the event of illness is influenced by the availability of good health care facilities and health care financing mechanisms. Micro health insurance not only promotes formal health care utilization at private providers but also reduces the cost of care by providing the insurance coverage. This paper explores the impact of Sampoorna Suraksha Programme, a micro health insurance scheme on the health seeking behaviour of households during illness in Karnataka, India. The study was conducted in three randomly selected districts in Karnataka, India in the first half of the year 2011. The hypothesis was tested using binary logistic regression analysis on the data collected from randomly selected 1146 households consisting of 4961 individuals. Insured individuals were seeking care at private hospitals than public hospitals due to the reduction in financial barrier. Moreover, equity in health seeking behaviour among insured individuals was observed. Our finding does represent a desirable result for health policy makers and micro finance institutions to advocate for the inclusion of health insurance in their portfolio, at least from the HSB perspective.
Paez, Kathryn A.; Mallery, Coretta J.; Noel, HarmoniJoie; Pugliese, Christopher; McSorley, Veronica E.; Lucado, Jennifer L.; Ganachari, Deepa
Understanding health insurance is central to affording and accessing health care in the United States. Efforts to support consumers in making wise purchasing decisions and using health insurance to their advantage would benefit from the development of a valid and reliable measure to assess health insurance literacy. This article reports on the development of the Health Insurance Literacy Measure (HILM), a self-assessment measure of consumers' ability to select and use private health insurance...
Satisfaction with Quality of Care Received by Patients without National Health Insurance Attending a Primary Care Clinic in a Resource-Poor Environment of a Tertiary Hospital in Eastern Nigeria in the Era of Scaling up the Nigerian Formal Sector Health Insurance Scheme
Iloh, GUP; Ofoedu, JN; Njoku, PU; Okafor, GOC; Amadi, AN; Godswill-Uko, EU
Background: The increasing importance of the concept of patients’ satisfaction as a valuable tool for assessing quality of care is a current global healthcare concerns as regards consumer-oriented health services. Aim: This study assessed satisfaction with quality of care received by patients without national health insurance (NHI) attending a primary care clinic in a resource-poor environment of a tertiary hospital in South-Eastern Nigeria. Subject and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study carried out on 400 non-NHI patients from April 2011 to October 2011 at the primary care clinic of Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia, Nigeria. Adult patients seen within the study period were selected by systematic sampling using every second non-NHI patient that registered to see the physicians and who met the selection criteria. Data were collected using pretested, structured interviewer administered questionnaire designed on a five points Likert scale items with 1 and 5 indicating the lowest and highest levels of satisfaction respectively. Satisfaction was measured from the following domains: patient waiting time, patient–staff communication, patient-staff relationship, and cost of care, hospital bureaucracy and hospital environment. Operationally, patients who scored 3 points and above in the assessed domain were considered satisfied while those who scored less than 3 points were dissatisfied. Results: The overall satisfaction score of the respondents was 3.1. Specifically, the respondents expressed satisfaction with patient–staff relationship (3.9), patient–staff communication (3.8), and hospital environment (3.6) and dissatisfaction with patient waiting time (2.4), hospital bureaucracy (2.5), and cost of care (2.6). Conclusion: The overall non-NHI patient's satisfaction with the services provided was good. The hospital should set targets for quality improvement in the current domains of satisfaction while the cost of care has implications for government
Golberstein, Ezra; Busch, Susan H
Policymakers frequently mandate that employers or insurers provide insurance benefits deemed to be critical to individuals' well-being. However, in the presence of private market imperfections, mandates that increase demand for a service can lead to price increases for that service, without necessarily affecting the quantity being supplied. We test this idea empirically by looking at mental health parity mandates. This study evaluated whether implementation of parity laws was associated with changes in mental health provider wages. Quasi-experimental analysis of average wages by state and year for six mental health care-related occupations were considered: Clinical, Counseling, and School Psychologists; Substance Abuse and Behavioral Disorder Counselors; Marriage and Family Therapists; Mental Health Counselors; Mental Health and Substance Abuse Social Workers; and Psychiatrists. Data from 1999-2013 were used to estimate the association between the implementation of state mental health parity laws and the Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act and average mental health provider wages. Mental health parity laws were associated with a significant increase in mental health care provider wages controlling for changes in mental health provider wages in states not exposed to parity (3.5 percent [95% CI: 0.3%, 6.6%]; pwages. Health insurance benefit expansions may lead to increased prices for health services when the private market that supplies the service is imperfect or constrained. In the context of mental health parity, this work suggests that part of the value of expanding insurance benefits for mental health coverage was captured by providers. Given historically low wage levels of mental health providers, this increase may be a first step in bringing mental health provider wages in line with parallel health professions, potentially reducing turnover rates and improving treatment quality.
Human Resources Division
Affected by the salary adjustments on 1 January 2001 and the evolution of the staff members and fellows population, the average reference salary, which is used as an index for fixed contributions and reimbursement maxima, has changed significantly. An adjustment of the amounts of the reimbursement maxima and the fixed contributions is therefore necessary, as from 1 January 2001. Reimbursement maxima The revised reimbursement maxima will appear on the leaflet summarizing the benefits for the year 2001, which will be sent out with the forthcoming issue of the CHIS Bull'. This leaflet will also be available from the divisional secretariats and from the UNIQA office at CERN. Fixed contributions The fixed contributions, applicable to some categories of voluntarily insured persons, are set as follows (amounts in CHF for monthly contributions) : voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with normal health insurance cover : 910.- (was 815.- in 2000) voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with reduced heal...
... eliminating annual and lifetime dollar limits would result in dramatic premium hikes for student plans and.... Industry and university commenters noted that student health insurance coverage benefits typically... duplication of benefits and makes student plans more affordable. Industry commenters noted that student health...
Yeung, Ryan; Gunton, Bradley; Kalbacher, Dylan; Seltzer, Jed; Wesolowski, Hannah
Enacted in 1997, the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) represented the largest expansion of U.S. public health care coverage since the passage of Medicare and Medicaid 32 years earlier. Although the program has recently been reauthorized, there remains a considerable lack of thorough and well-designed evaluations of the program. In…
Barnes, Kayleigh; Mukherji, Arnab; Mullen, Patrick; Sood, Neeraj
This paper estimates the impact of social health insurance on financial risk by utilizing data from a natural experiment created by the phased roll-out of a social health insurance program for the poor in India. We estimate the distributional impact of insurance on of out-of-pocket costs and incorporate these results with a stylized expected utility model to compute associated welfare effects. We adjust the standard model, accounting for conditions of developing countries by incorporating consumption floors, informal borrowing, and asset selling which allow us to separate the value of financial risk reduction from consumption smoothing and asset protection. Results show that insurance reduces out-of-pocket costs, particularly in higher quantiles of the distribution. We find reductions in the frequency and amount of money borrowed for health reasons. Finally, we find that the value of financial risk reduction outweighs total per household costs of the insurance program by two to five times. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Glied, Sherry A; Altman, Stuart H
The United States relies on competition to balance costs and quality in the health care system. But concentration is increasing throughout the hospital, physician, and insurer markets. Midsize community hospitals face declining demand and growing competition from both larger hospitals and smaller freestanding diagnostic and surgical centers, leaving the midsize hospitals vulnerable to closure or merger with other facilities. Competition among insurers has been limited by the development of hospital systems that extend the bargaining power of "must-have" hospitals (those perceived to provide the best care for complex and less common conditions) across local health care markets. Government antitrust enforcement could play an important role in maintaining competition in both the hospital and insurer markets, but in many markets, the impact of that enforcement has been limited to date. Policy makers should consider supplementing antitrust activities with strategies that combine competition and regulation-for example, by regulating selected prices and structuring competition to cover entire insurance markets. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Affordable Care Act requires the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) to develop quality data collection and reporting tools such as a Quality...
Frank, Richard G; McGuire, Thomas G
Two important individual health insurance markets-Medicare Advantage and the Marketplaces-are tightly regulated but rely on competition among insurers to supply and price health insurance products. Many local health insurance markets have little competition, which increases prices to consumers. Furthermore, both markets are highly subsidized in ways that can exacerbate the impact of market power-that is, the ability to set price above cost-on health insurance prices. Policy makers need to foster robust competition in both sectors and avoid designing subsidies that make the market-power problem worse. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
A reimbursement category for "apps" does not exist in German statutory health insurance. Nevertheless different ways for reimbursement of digital health care products or processes exist. This article provides an overview and a description of the most relevant finance and reimbursement categories for apps in German statutory health insurance. The legal qualifications and preconditions of reimbursement in the context of single contracts with one health insurance fund will be discussed as well as collective contracts with national statutory health insurance funds. The benefit of a general outline appeals especially in respect to the numerous new players and products in the health care market. The article will highlight that health apps can challenge existing legal market access and reimbursement criteria and paths. At the same time, these criteria and paths exist. In terms of a learning system, they need to be met and followed.
Should Governments engage health insurance intermediaries? A comparison of benefits with and without insurance intermediary in a large tax funded community health insurance scheme in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.
Nagulapalli, Srikant; Rokkam, Sudarsana Rao
A peculiar phenomenon of engaging insurance intermediaries for government funded health insurance schemes for the poor, not usually found globally, is gaining ground in India. Rajiv Aarogyasri Scheme launched in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh, is first largest tax funded community health insurance scheme in the country covering more than 20 million poor families. Aarogyasri Health Care Trust (trust), the scheme administrator, transfers funds to hospitals through two routes one, directly and the other through an insurance intermediary. The objective of this paper is to find out if engaging an insurance intermediary has any effect on cost efficiency of the insurance scheme. We used payment data of RAS for the period 2007-12, to find out the influence of insurance intermediary on the two variables, benefit cost ratio defined as benefit payment divided by premium payment, and claim denial ratio defined as benefit payment divided by treatment cost. Relationship between scheme expenditure and number of beds empanelled under the scheme is examined. OLS regression is used to perform all analyses. We found that adding an additional layer of insurance intermediary between the trust and hospitals reduced the benefit cost ratio under the scheme by 12.2% (p-value = 0.06). Every addition of 100 beds under the scheme increases the scheme payments by US$ 0.75 million (p-value insurance and trust modes narrowed down from 2.84% in government hospitals to 0.41% in private hospitals (p-value insurance intermediary has the twin effects of reduction in benefit payments to beneficiaries, and chocking fund flow to government hospitals. The idea of engaging insurance intermediary should be abandoned.
Vercruysse, W.; Dhaene, J.; Denuit, M.; Pitacco, E.; Antonio, K.
For lifelong health insurance covers, medical inflation not incorporated in the level premiums determined at policy issue requires an appropriate increase of these premiums and/or the corresponding reserves during the term of the contract. In this paper, we investigate appropriate premium indexing
Association du personnel
In the last issue of Echo, we highlighted CERN’s obligation to guarantee a social security scheme for all employees, pensioners and their families. In that issue we talked about the first component: pensions. This time we shall discuss the other component: the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS).
During the 1990s, Chinese state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and collective enterprises continually decreased coverage of public health insurance to their employees. This paper investigates this changing pattern of health insurance coverage in China using panel data from the China Nutrition and Health Survey (1991-2000). It is the first attempt in this literature that tries to identify precisely the effects of specific policies and reforms on health insurance coverage in the transitional period of China. The fixed effects linear model clustering at the province level is used for estimation, and results are compared to alternative models, including pooled OLS, random effects GLS model and fixed effects logit model. Strong empirical evidence is found that unemployment as a side effect of the Open Door Policy, and the deregulation of SOE and collective enterprises were the main causes for the decreasing trend. For example, urban areas that were highly affected by the Open Door Policy were associated with 17 percentage points decrease in the insurance coverage. Moreover, I found evidence that the gaps between SOE and non-SOE employees, collective and non-collective employees, urban and rural employees have considerably decreased during the ten years.
Doncho M. Donev
Full Text Available This article gives an insight to the current health insurance system in the Republic of Macedonia. Special emphasis is given to the specificities and practice of both obligatory and voluntary health insurance, to the scope of the insured persons and their benefits and obligations, the way of calculating and payment of the contributions and the other sources of revenues for health insurance, user participation in health care expenses, payment to the health care providers and some other aspects of realization of health insurance in practice. According to the Health Insurance Law, which was adopted in March 2000, a person can become an insured to the Health Insurance Fund on various modalities. More than 90% of the citizens are eligible to the obligatory health insurance, which provides a broad scope of basic health care benefits. Till end of 2008 payroll contributions were equal to 9.2%, and from January 1st, 2009 are equal to 7.5% of gross earned wages and almost 60% of health sector revenues are derived from them. Within the autonomy and scope of activities of the Health Insurance Fund the structures of the revenues and expenditures are presented. Health financing and reform of the payment to health care providers are of high importance within the ongoing health care reform in Macedonia. It is expected that the newly introduced methods of payments at the primary health care level (capitation and at the hospital sector (global budgeting, DRGs will lead to increased equity, efficiency and quality of health care in hospitals and overall system
Following a long series of discussions with the Administration of the La Tour Hospital, a tariff agreement has been concluded between the Hospital and the CERN Health Insurance Scheme. In the case of hospitalisations, this new agreement will apply to admissions on or after 1st September 2004 and will result, in particular, in the reintroduction of the third-party payer system. In the case of out-patient treatment, billing will be according to the Swiss medical tariff system TARMED and Uniqa will act as third-party guarantor. Further details will be published in the next issue of the CHISBull'. Tel.74484
W.P.M.M. van de Ven (Wynand); F.T. Schut (Erik)
textabstractIn 1988 the Dutch government launched a proposal for a national health insurance based on regulated competition. The mandatory benefits package should be offered by competing insurers and should cover both non-catastrophic risks (like hospital care, physician services and drugs) and
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This Web site discusses and provides downloadable data on state and program type, number of children ever enrolled, and the percentage of growth compared to the...
Okorafor, Okore Apia
A recent health reform proposal in South Africa proposes universal access to a comprehensive package of healthcare services in the public sector, through the implementation of a national health insurance (NHI) scheme. Implementation of the scheme is likely to involve the introduction of a payroll tax. It is implied that the introduction of the payroll tax will significantly reduce the size of the private health insurance market. The objective of this study was to estimate the impact of an NHI payroll tax on the demand for private health insurance in South Africa, and to explore the broader implications for health policy. The study applies probit regression analysis on household survey data to estimate the change in demand for private health insurance as a result of income shocks arising from the proposed NHI. The introduction of payroll taxes for the proposed NHI was estimated to result in a reduction to private health insurance membership of 0.73%. This suggests inelasticity in the demand for private health insurance. In the literature on the subject, this inelasticity is usually due to quality differences between alternatives. In the South African context, there may be other factors at play. An NHI tax may have a very small impact on the demand for private health insurance. Although additional financial resources will be raised through a payroll tax under the proposed NHI reform, systemic problems within the South African health system can adversely affect the ability of the NHI to translate additional finances into better quality healthcare. If these systemic challenges are not adequately addressed, the introduction of a payroll tax could introduce inefficiencies within the South African health system.
Shiva Raj Mishra
Full Text Available The health system in Nepal is characterized by a wide network of health facilities and community workers and volunteers. Nepal's Interim Constitution of 2007 addresses health as a fundamental right, stating that every citizen has the right to basic health services free of cost. But the reality is a far cry. Only 61.8% of the Nepalese households have access to health facilities within 30 min, with significant urban (85.9% and rural (59% discrepancy. Addressing barriers to health services needs urgent interventions at the population level. Recently (February 2015, the Government of Nepal formed a Social Health Security Development Committee as a legal framework to start implementing a social health security scheme (SHS after the National Health Insurance Policy came out in 2013. The program has aimed to increase the access of health services to the poor and the marginalized, and people in hard to reach areas of the country, though challenges remain with financing. Several aspects should be considered in design, learning from earlier community-based health insurance schemes that suffered from low enrollment and retention of members as well as from a pro-rich bias. Mechanisms should be built for monitoring unfair pricing and unaffordable copayments, and an overall benefit package be crafted to include coverage of major health services including non-communicable diseases. Regulations should include such issues as accreditation mechanisms for private providers. Health system strengthening should move along with the roll-out of SHS. Improving the efficiency of hospital, motivating the health workers, and using appropriate technology can improve the quality of health services. Also, as currently a constitution drafting is being finalized, careful planning and deliberation is necessary about what insurance structure may suit the proposed future federal structure in Nepal.
Zallman, Leah; Nardin, Rachel; Sayah, Assaad; McCormick, Danny
Under the Massachusetts health reform, low income residents (those with incomes below 150 % of the Federal Poverty Level [FPL]) were eligible for Medicaid and health insurance exchange-based plans with minimal cost-sharing and no premiums. Those with slightly higher incomes (150 %-300 % FPL) were eligible for exchange-based plans that required cost-sharing and premium payments. We conducted face to face surveys in four languages with a convenience sample of 976 patients seeking care at three hospital emergency departments five years after Massachusetts reform. We compared perceived affordability of insurance, financial burden, and satisfaction among low cost sharing plan recipients (recipients of Medicaid and insurance exchange-based plans with minimal cost-sharing and no premiums), high cost sharing plan recipients (recipients of exchange-based plans that required cost-sharing and premium payments) and the commercially insured. We found that despite having higher incomes, higher cost-sharing plan recipients were less satisfied with their insurance plans and perceived more difficulty affording their insurance than those with low cost-sharing plans. Higher cost-sharing plan recipients also reported more difficulty affording medical and non-medical health care as well as insurance premiums than those with commercial insurance. In contrast, patients with low cost-sharing public plans reported higher plan satisfaction and less financial concern than the commercially insured. Policy makers with responsibility for the benefit design of public insurance available under health care reforms in the U.S. should calibrate cost-sharing to income level so as to minimize difficulty affording care and financial burdens.
One of the most controversial issues in restructuring the Polish health insurance system is the implementation of private voluntary insurance and creation within it a new insurance product known as occupational health services (OHS). In this article some opportunities and dilemmas likely to be faced by providers and employers/employees, when contracting with insurance institutions, are considered as a contribution to the discussion on private insurance in Poland. The basic question is how private insurance institutions could influence the promotion of different preventive activities at the company level by motivating both OHS providers and employers. The descriptive qualitative method has been applied in the analysis of legal acts, scientific publications selected according to keywords (Pubmed), documents and expert evaluations and research project results. Taking into account the experiences of European countries, described in publications, international experts' opinions and results of research projects the solution proposed in Poland could be possible under the following several prerequisites: inclusion of a full scope of occupational health services into the insurance product, constant supervision of occupational medicine professionals, monitoring of the health care quality and the relations between private insurers and OHS provider and implementation of the economic incentives scheme to ensure an adequate position of OHS providers on the market. The proposed reconstruction of the health insurance system, comprising undoubtedly positive elements, may entail some threats in the area of health, organization and economy. Private voluntary health insurance implementation requires precisely defined solutions concerning the scope of insurance product, motivation scheme and information system.
... Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of... relating to the health insurance premium tax credit enacted by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care... be able to purchase private health insurance through State-based competitive marketplaces called...
Dror, David M; Radermacher, Ralf; Khadilkar, Shrikant B; Schout, Petra; Hay, François-Xavier; Singh, Arbind; Koren, Ruth
Microinsurance--low-cost health insurance based on a community, cooperative, or mutual and self-help arrangements-can provide financial protection for poor households and improve access to health care. However, low benefit caps and a low share of premiums paid as benefits--both designed to keep these arrangements in business--perversely limited these schemes' ability to extend coverage, offer financial protection, and retain members. We studied three schemes in India, two of which are member-operated and one a commercial scheme, using household surveys of insured and uninsured households and interviews with managers. All three enrolled poor households and raised their use of hospital services, as intended. Financial exposure was greatest, and protection was least, in the commercial scheme, which imposed the lowest caps on benefits and where income was the lowest.
Full Text Available Health financing is a core necessity for sustainable healthcare delivery. Access inequalities due to financial restrictions in low-middle income countries, and in Africa especially, significantly affect disease rates and health statistics in these regions. This paper focuses on the role of a national health insurance cover as a funding medium in Nigeria, highlighting the theoretical premise of health insurance, its driving forces, key benefits and key limitations particular to the country under scrutiny. Emphasis is laid on its overall effect on the pressing public health issue of health inequality.
... Facilities, and Hospital Mortgage Insurance Premiums for Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 AGENCY: Office of the... with HUD regulations, this Notice announces the mortgage insurance premiums (MIPs) for Federal Housing Administration (FHA) Multifamily, Healthcare Facilities, and Hospital mortgage insurance programs that have...
Since its election to office in 1996, reform of Private Health Insurance (PHI) has been the most obvious health policy focus of the Howard Government. The reform process has focussed on price, product, promotion, legislation and regulation. It has resulted in one of the largest new Commonwealth health outlays in recent memory. Health insurance funds have emerged as active purchasers of care, not just passive reimbursers of costs. PHI fund reserves have moved from precarious liquidity to healthy surplus. Private hospitals are busier than ever before, but margins are slim. Anecdotally, public hospitals report little benefit to date. Waiting lists have not been reduced, and their budgets are unchanged as a result of the $2 Bn allocated under the 30% Rebate scheme. The paper begins by describing the origins of the PHI reform. Its objectives, policy initiatives, results to date and criticisms are analysed. Criticisms include the actual and opportunity costs. Specific concerns remain as to its effectiveness to date in reducing pressure on public hospitals, and perceived lack of equity for certain client groups. The most significant result is that much of the reform package is here to stay including the expensive and much criticised 30% rebate. Like Medicare before it, the PHI reforms have achieved bipartisan support. The paper concludes by describing future implications for Government, industry, consumers and the medical profession.
One popular explanation for this low rate of employee coverage is the presence of numerous state regulations which mandate that group health insurance plans must include certain benefits. By raising the minimum costs of providing any health insurance coverage, these mandated benefits make it impossible for firms which would have desired to offer minimal health insurance at a low cost to do so. I use data on insurance coverage among employees in small firms to investigate whether this problem ...
Mohan, Arun V; McCormick, Danny; Woolhandler, Steffie; Himmelstein, David U; Boyd, J Wesley
Previous research on health and life insurers' financial investments has highlighted the tension between profit maximization and the public good. We ascertained health and life insurance firms' holdings in the fast food industry, an industry that is increasingly understood to negatively impact public health. Insurers own $1.88 billion of stock in the 5 leading fast food companies. We argue that insurers ought to be held to a higher standard of corporate responsibility, and we offer potential solutions.
Tel : 7-3635
Please note that, from 1 July 2002, the tariff agreement between CERN and the Hôpital de la Tour will no longer be in force. As a result the members of the CERN Health Insurance Scheme will no longer obtain a 5% discount for quick payment of bills. More information on the termination of the agreement and the implications for our Health Insurance Scheme will be provided in the next issue of the CHIS Bull', due for publication in the first half of July. It will be sent to your home address, so, if you have moved recently, please check that your divisional secretariat has your current address. Tel.: 73635 The Organization's Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS) has launched its own Web pages, located on the Website of the Social & Statutory Conditions Group of HR Division (HR-SOC). The address is short and easy-to-remember www.cern.ch/chis The pages currently available concentrate on providing basic information. Over the coming months it is planned to fill out the details and introduce new topics. Please give us ...
Health care spending in both the governmental and private sectors skyrocketed over the last century. This article examines the rapid growth of health care expenditures by analyzing the extent of this financial boom as well some of the reasons why health care financing has become so expensive. It also explores how the market concentration of insurance companies has led to growing insurer profits, fewer insurance providers, and less market competition. Based on economic data primarily from the Government Accountability Office, the Kaiser Family Foundation, and the American Medical Associa tion, it has become clear that this country needs more competitive rates for the business of health insurance. Because of the unique dynamics of health insurance payments and financing, America needs to promote affordability and innovation in the health insurance market and lower the market's high concentration levels. In the face of booming insurance profits, soaring premiums, many believe that in our consolidated health insurance market, the "business of insurance" should not be exempt from antitrust laws. All in all, it is in our nation's best interest that Congress restore the application of antitrust laws to health sector insurers by passing the Health Insurance Industry Antitrust Enforcement Act as an amendment to the McCarran-Ferguson Act's "business of insurance" provision.
... Requirements for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Coverage of Preventive Services... regulations published July 19, 2010 with respect to group health plans and health insurance coverage offered... plans, and health insurance issuers providing group health insurance coverage. The text of those...
Lattof, Samantha R
People working in Ghana's informal sector have low rates of enrolment in the publicly funded National Health Insurance Scheme. Informal sector workers, including migrant girls and women from northern Ghana working as head porters (kayayei), report challenges obtaining insurance and seeking formal health care. This article analyses how health insurance status affects kayayei migrants' care-seeking behaviours. This mixed-methods study involved surveying 625 migrants using respondent-driven sampling and conducting in-depth interviews with a sub-sample of 48 migrants. Analyses explore health status and health seeking behaviours for recent illness/injury. Binary logistic regression modelled the effects of selected independent variables on whether or not a recently ill/injured participant (n = 239) sought health care. Although recently ill/injured participants (38.4%) desired health care, less than half (43.5%) sought care. Financial barriers overwhelmingly limit kayayei migrants from seeking health care, preventing them from registering with the National Health Insurance Scheme, renewing their expired health insurance policies, or taking time away from work. Both insured and uninsured migrants did not seek formal health services due to the unpredictable nature of out-of-pocket expenses. Catastrophic and impoverishing medical expenses also drove participants' migration in search of work to repay loans and hospital bills. Health insurance can help minimize these expenditures, but only 17.4% of currently insured participants (58.2%) reported holding a valid health insurance card in Accra. The others lost their cards or forgot them when migrating. Access to formal health care in Accra remains largely inaccessible to kayayei migrants who suffer from greater illness/injury than the general female population in Accra and who are hindered in their ability to receive insurance exemptions. With internal migration on the rise in many settings, health systems must recognize the
Ahlin, Tanja; Nichter, Mark; Pillai, Gopukrishnan
The percentage of India's national budget allocated to the health sector remains one of the lowest in the world, and healthcare expenditures are largely out-of-pocket (OOP). Currently, efforts are being made to expand health insurance coverage as one means of addressing health disparity and reducing catastrophic health costs. In this review, we document reasons for rising interest in health insurance and summarize the country's history of insurance projects to date. We note that most of these projects focus on in-patient hospital costs, not the larger burden of out-patient costs. We briefly highlight some of the more popular forms that government, private, and community-based insurance schemes have taken and the results of quantitative research conducted to assess their reach and cost-effectiveness. We argue that ethnographic case studies could add much to existing health service and policy research, and provide a better understanding of the life cycle and impact of insurance programs on both insurance holders and healthcare providers. Drawing on preliminary fieldwork in South India and recognizing the need for a broad-based implementation science perspective (studying up, down and sideways), we identify six key topics demanding more in-depth research, among others: (1) public awareness and understanding of insurance; (2) misunderstanding of insurance and how this influences health care utilization; (3) differences in behavior patterns in cash and cashless insurance systems; (4) impact of insurance on quality of care and doctor-patient relations; (5) (mis)trust in health insurance schemes; and (6) health insurance coverage of chronic illnesses, rehabilitation and OOP expenses.
K.P.M. Winssen van (Kayleigh)
markdownabstractThe health insurance density in the Netherlands is among the highest in the world. This is shown by the fact that, in 2016, only 12 per cent of the Dutch insured opted for a reduction of health insurance coverage in the form of a voluntary deductible, while, at the same time, 84 per
... offer discounts to healthy activities in the area: Biking, hiking, or walking tours Museums Fitness clubs Farms Festivals Your hospital may offer discounts for: Retail stores such as sporting goods, health food, and art stores Acupuncture Skin care Eye ...
Community Based Health Insurance Knowledge and Willingness to Pay; A Survey of a Rural Community in ... Journal Home > Vol 6, No 1 (2012) > ... and is the most appropriate insurance model for rural areas where incomes are unstable.
... (PQRS), the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), and the Pioneer Accountable Care Organization... No. 93.773, Medicare--Hospital Insurance; and Program No. 93.774, Medicare-- Supplementary Medical...
Lavelle, Bridget; Smock, Pamela J
This article bridges the literatures on the economic consequences of divorce for women with that on marital transitions and health by focusing on women's health insurance. Using a monthly calendar of marital status and health insurance coverage from 1,442 women in the Survey of Income and Program Participation, we examine how women's health insurance changes after divorce. Our estimates suggest that roughly 115,000 American women lose private health insurance annually in the months following divorce and that roughly 65,000 of these women become uninsured. The loss of insurance coverage we observe is not just a short-term disruption. Women's rates of insurance coverage remain depressed for more than two years after divorce. Insurance loss may compound the economic losses women experience after divorce and contribute to as well as compound previously documented health declines following divorce.
Lavelle, Bridget; Smock, Pamela J.
This article bridges the literatures on the economic consequences of divorce for women with that on marital transitions and health by focusing on women's health insurance. Using a monthly calendar of marital status and health insurance coverage from 1,442 women in the Survey of Income and Program Participation, we examine how women's health insurance changes after divorce. Our estimates suggest that roughly 115,000 American women lose private health insurance annually in the months following divorce and that roughly 65,000 of these women become uninsured. The loss of insurance coverage we observe is not just a short-term disruption. Women's rates of insurance coverage remain depressed for more than two years after divorce. Insurance loss may compound the economic losses women experience after divorce, and contribute to as well as compound previously documented health declines following divorce. PMID:23147653
Bingley, Paul; Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Jørgensen, Michael
There are large differences in labor force participation rates by health status. We examine to what extent these differences are determined by the provisions of Disability Insurance and other pension programs. Using administrative data for Denmark we find that those in worse health and with less...... schooling are more likely to receive DI. The gradient of DI participation across health quintiles is almost twice as steep as for schooling - moving from having no high school diploma to college completion. Using an option value model that accounts for different pathways to retirement, applied to a period...... spanning a major pension reform, we find that pension program incentives in general are important determinants of retirement age. Individuals in poor health and with low schooling are significantly more responsive to economic incentives than those who are in better health and with more schooling. Similar...
Willemse-Duijmelinck, Daniëlle M I D; van de Ven, Wynand P M M; Mosca, Ilaria
Nearly everyone with a supplementary insurance (SI) in the Netherlands takes out the voluntary SI and the mandatory basic insurance (BI) from the same health insurer. Previous studies show that many high-risks perceive SI as a switching cost for BI. Because consumers' current insurer provides them with a guaranteed renewability, SI is a switching cost if insurers apply selective underwriting to new applicants. Several changes in the Dutch health insurance market increased insurers' incentives to counteract adverse selection for SI. Tools to do so are not only selective underwriting, but also risk rating and product differentiation. If all insurers use the latter tools without selective underwriting, SI is not a switching cost for BI. We investigated to what extent insurers used these tools in the periods 2006-2009 and 2014-2015. Only a few insurers applied selective underwriting: in 2015, 86% of insurers used open enrolment for all their SI products, and the other 14% did use open enrolment for their most common SI products. As measured by our indicators, the proportion of insurers applying risk rating or product differentiation did not increase in the periods considered. Due to the fear of reputation loss insurers may have used 'less visible' tools to counteract adverse selection that are indirect forms of risk rating and product differentiation and do not result in switching costs. So, although many high-risks perceive SI as a switching cost, most insurers apply open enrolment for SI. By providing information to high-risks about their switching opportunities, the government could increase consumer choice and thereby insurers' incentives to invest in high-quality care for high-risks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Enthoven, A C; Kronick, R
Roughly 35 million Americans have no health care coverage. Health care expenditures are out of control. The problems of access and cost are inextricably related. Important correctable causes include cost-unconscious demand, a system not organized for quality and economy, market failure, and public funds not distributed equitably or effectively to motivate widespread coverage. We propose Public Sponsor agencies to offer subsidized coverage to those otherwise uninsured, mandated employer-provided health insurance, premium contributions from all employers and employees, a limit on tax-free employer contributions to employee health insurance, and "managed competition". Our proposed new government revenues equal proposed new outlays. We believe our proposal will work because efficient managed care does exist and can provide satisfactory care for a cost far below that of the traditional fee-for-service third-party payment system. Presented with an opportunity to make an economically responsible choice, people choose value for money; the dynamic created by these individual choices will give providers strong incentives to render high-quality, economical care. We believe that providers will respond to these incentives.
Kanika Kapur; Jeannette Rogowski
This paper examines the role of employer provided health insurance in the retirement decisions of dual working couples. The near elderly have high-expected medical expenditures; therefore, availability of health insurance is an important factor in their retirement decisions. We determine if access to retiree health insurance for early retirement enables couples to time their retirement together %u2013 a behavior called %u201Cjoint retirement.%u201D We find that wives%u2019 retiree health insu...
... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 40 and 46 [REG-136008-11] RIN 1545-BK59 Fees on Health Insurance Policies and Self-Insured Plans for the Patient-Centered Outcomes... on issuers of certain health insurance policies and plan sponsors of certain self-insured health...
... 1545-BK59 Fees on Health Insurance Policies and Self-Insured Plans for the Patient-Centered Outcomes... Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act on issuers of certain health insurance policies and plan... arrangements) or Rebecca L. Baxter at (202) 622-3970 (regarding health insurance policies). SUPPLEMENTARY...
Nearly half of the Irish population is covered by private health insurance. In recent years, premium inflation has been significantly ahead of overall inflation and has been accelerating. This has contributing to a drop in the numbers insured since the peak in 2008. The fall in the numbers with private health insurance also has implications for the public health system. Factors behind this premium inflation include rising charges for beds in public hospitals, increasing volume of treatments and increasing quality of service and cover. While some progress has been made by insurers on reducing fees paid to consultants and private hospitals, unless the quantity or quality of care are addressed then premium inflation is unlikely to abate.
This paper introduces a tractable model of health insurance with both moral hazard and adverse selection. We show that government sponsored universal basic insurance should cover treatments with the biggest adverse selection problems. Treatments not covered by basic insurance can be covered on the
This paper introduces a tractable model of health insurance with both moral hazard and adverse selection. We show that government sponsored universal basic insurance should cover treatments with the biggest adverse selection problems. Treatments not covered by basic insurance can be covered on the
Perianayagam, Arokiasamy; Goli, Srinivas
India’s health care and health financing provision is characterized by too little Government spending on health, meager health insurance coverage, declining public health care use contrasted by highest levels of private out-of-pocket health spending in the world. To understand the interconnectedness of these disturbing outcomes, this paper envisions a theoretical framework of health insurance and health care revisits the existing health insurance schemes and assesses the health insurance cove...
Dzúrová, Dagmar; Winkler, Petr; Drbohlav, Dušan
The Czech government has identified commercial health insurance as one of the major problems for migrants' access to health care. Non-EU immigrants are eligible for public health insurance only if they have employee status or permanent residency. The present study examined migrants' access to the public health insurance system in Czechia. A cross-sectional survey of 909 immigrants from Ukraine and Vietnam was conducted in March and May 2013, and binary logistic regression was applied in data analysis. Among immigrants entitled to Czech public health insurance due to permanent residency/asylum, 30% were out of the public health insurance system, and of those entitled by their employment status, 50% were out of the system. Migrants with a poor knowledge of the Czech language are more likely to remain excluded from the system of public health insurance. Instead, they either remain in the commercial health insurance system or they simultaneously pay for both commercial and public health insurance, which is highly disadvantageous. Since there are no reasonable grounds to stay outside the public health insurance, it is concluded that it is lack of awareness that keeps eligible immigrants from entering the system. It is suggested that no equal access to health care exists without sufficient awareness about health care system.
Full Text Available The Czech government has identified commercial health insurance as one of the major problems for migrants’ access to health care. Non-EU immigrants are eligible for public health insurance only if they have employee status or permanent residency. The present study examined migrants’ access to the public health insurance system in Czechia. A cross-sectional survey of 909 immigrants from Ukraine and Vietnam was conducted in March and May 2013, and binary logistic regression was applied in data analysis. Among immigrants entitled to Czech public health insurance due to permanent residency/asylum, 30% were out of the public health insurance system, and of those entitled by their employment status, 50% were out of the system. Migrants with a poor knowledge of the Czech language are more likely to remain excluded from the system of public health insurance. Instead, they either remain in the commercial health insurance system or they simultaneously pay for both commercial and public health insurance, which is highly disadvantageous. Since there are no reasonable grounds to stay outside the public health insurance, it is concluded that it is lack of awareness that keeps eligible immigrants from entering the system. It is suggested that no equal access to health care exists without sufficient awareness about health care system.
Merchant, Raina M; Finne, Kristen; Lardy, Barbara; Veselovskiy, German; Korba, Caey; Margolis, Gregg S; Lurie, Nicole
Health insurance plans serve a critical role in public health emergencies, yet little has been published about their collective emergency preparedness practices and policies. We evaluated, on a national scale, the state of health insurance plans' emergency preparedness and policies. A survey of health insurance plans. We queried members of America's Health Insurance Plans, the national trade association representing the health insurance industry, about issues related to emergency preparedness issues: infrastructure, adaptability, connectedness, and best practices. Of 137 health insurance plans queried, 63% responded, representing 190.6 million members and 81% of US plan enrollment. All respondents had emergency plans for business continuity, and most (85%) had infrastructure for emergency teams. Some health plans also have established benchmarks for preparedness (eg, response time). Regarding adaptability, 85% had protocols to extend claim filing time and 71% could temporarily suspend prior medical authorization rules. Regarding connectedness, many plans shared their contingency plans with health officials, but often cited challenges in identifying regulatory agency contacts. Some health insurance plans had specific policies for assisting individuals dependent on durable medical equipment or home healthcare. Many plans (60%) expressed interest in sharing best practices. Health insurance plans are prioritizing emergency preparedness. We identified 6 policy modifications that health insurance plans could undertake to potentially improve healthcare system preparedness: establishing metrics and benchmarks for emergency preparedness; identifying disaster-specific policy modifications, enhancing stakeholder connectedness, considering digital strategies to enhance communication, improving support and access for special-needs individuals, and developing regular forums for knowledge exchange about emergency preparedness.
E. Schokkaert (Schokkaert); T.G.M. van Ourti (Tom); D. de Graeve (Diana); A. Lecluyse (Ann); C. van de Voorde (Carine)
textabstractThe effects of supplemental health insurance on health-care consumption crucially depend on specific institutional features of the health-care system. We analyse the situation in Belgium, a country with a very broad coverage in compulsory social health insurance and where supplemental
Health insurance becomes a viable alternative for financing health care amidst the high cost of health care. This study, conducted in 1997, uses a valuation method to assess the willingness of individuals from the working sector in Accra, Ghana, to join and pay premium for a proposed National Health Insurance Scheme ...
Risk of new acute myocardial infarction hospitalization associated with use of oral and parenteral non-steroidal anti-inflammation drugs (NSAIDs: a case-crossover study of Taiwan's National Health Insurance claims database and review of current evidence
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have documented the increased cardiovascular risk associated with the use of some nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs. Despite this, many old NSAIDs are still prescribed worldwide. Most of the studies to date have been focused on specific oral drugs or limited by the number of cases examined. We studied the risk of new acute myocardial infarction (AMI hospitalization with current use of a variety of oral and parenteral NSAIDs in a nationwide population, and compared our results with existing evidence. Methods We conducted a case-crossover study using the Taiwan's National Health Insurance claim database, identifying patients with new AMI hospitalized in 2006. The 1-30 days and 91-120 days prior to the admission were defined as case and matched control period for each patient, respectively. Uses of NSAIDs during the respective periods were compared using conditional logistic regression and adjusted for use of co-medications. Results 8354 new AMI hospitalization patients fulfilled the study criteria. 14 oral and 3 parenteral NSAIDs were selected based on drug utilization profile among 13.7 million NSAID users. The adjusted odds ratio, aOR (95% confidence interval, for risk of AMI and use of oral and parenteral non-selective NSAIDs were 1.42 (1.29, 1.56 and 3.35 (2.50, 4.47, respectively, and significantly greater for parenteral than oral drugs (p for interaction Conclusions The collective evidence revealed the tendency of increased AMI risk with current use of some NSAIDs. A higher AMI risk associated with use of parenteral NSAIDs was observed in the present study. Ketorolac had the highest associated risk in both oral and parenteral NSAIDs studied. Though further investigation to confirm the association is warranted, prescribing physicians and the general public should be cautious about the potential risk of AMI when using NSAIDs.
Nosratnejad, Shirin; Rashidian, Arash; Akbari Sari, Ali; Moradi, Najme
Complementary health insurance is increasingly used to remedy the limitations and shortcomings of the basic health insurance benefit packages. Hence, it is essential to gather reliable information about the amount of Willingness to Pay (WTP) for health insurance. We assessed the WTP for health insurance in Iran in order to suggest an affordable complementary health insurance. The study sample consisted of 300 household heads all over provinces of Iran in 2013. The method applied was double bounded dichotomous choice and open-ended question approach of contingent valuation. The average WTP for complementary health insurance per person per month by double bounded dichotomous choice and open-ended question method respectively was 199000 and 115300 Rials (8 and 4.6 USD, respectively). Household's heads with higher levels of income and those who worked had more WTP for the health insurance. Besides, the WTP increased in direct proportion to the number of insured members of each household and in inverse proportion to the family size. The WTP value can be used as a premium in a society. As an important finding, the study indicated that the households were willing to pay higher premiums than currently collected for the complementary health insurance coverage in Iran. This offers the policy makers the opportunity to increase the premium and provide good benefits package for insured people of country then better risk pooling.
Murphy, Brigid M; Schoenman, Julie A; Pirani, Hafiza
To examine health insurance companies' role in employee wellness. Case studies of eight insurers. Wellness activities in work, clinical, online, and telephonic settings. Senior executives and wellness program leaders from Blue Cross Blue Shield health insurers and from one wellness organization. Telephone interviews with 20 informants. Health insurers were engaged in wellness as part of their mission to promote health and reduce health care costs. Program components included the following: education, health risk assessments, incentives, coaching, environmental consultation, targeted programming, onsite biometric screening, professional support, and full-time wellness staff. Programs relied almost exclusively on positive incentives to encourage participation. Results included participation rates as high as 90%, return on investment ranging from $1.09 to $1.65, and improved health outcomes. Health insurers have expertise in developing, implementing, and marketing health programs and have wide access to employers and their employees' health data. These capabilities make health insurers particularly well equipped to expand the reach of wellness programming to improve the health of many Americans. By coupling members' medical data with wellness-program data, health insurers can better understand an individual's health status to develop and deliver targeted interventions. Through program evaluation, health insurers can also contribute to the limited but growing evidence base on employee wellness programs.
David M Dror
Full Text Available Background & objectives: The evidence-base of the impact of community-based health insurance (CBHI on access to healthcare and financial protection in India is weak. We investigated the impact of CBHI in rural Uttar Pradesh and Bihar s0 tates of India on insured households′ self-medication and financial position. Methods: Data originated from (i household surveys, and (ii the Management Information System of each CBHI. Study design was "staggered implementation" cluster randomized controlled trial with enrollment of one-third of the treatment group in each of the years 2011, 2012 and 2013. Around 40-50 per cent of the households that were offered to enroll joined. The benefits-packages covered outpatient care in all three locations and in-patient care in two locations. To overcome self-selection enrollment bias, we constructed comparable control and treatment groups using Kernel Propensity Score Matching (K-PSM. To quantify impact, both difference-in-difference (DiD, and conditional-DiD (combined K-PSM with DiD were used to assess robustness of results. Results: Post-intervention (2013, self-medication was less practiced by insured HHs. Fewer insured households than uninsured households reported borrowing to finance care for non-hospitalization events. Being insured for two years also improved the HH′s location along the income distribution, namely insured HHs were more likely to experience income quintile-upgrade in one location, and less likely to experience a quintile-downgrade in two locations. Interpretation & conclusions: The realized benefits of insurance included better access to healthcare, reduced financial risks and improved economic mobility, suggesting that in our context health insurance creates welfare gains. These findings have implications for theoretical, ethical, policy and practice considerations.
Cebi, Merve; Woodbury, Stephen A
The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990 enacted a refundable tax credit for low-income working families who purchased health insurance coverage for their children. This health insurance tax credit (HITC) existed during tax years 1991, 1992, and 1993, and was then rescinded. A difference-in-differences estimator applied to Current Population Survey data suggests that adoption of the HITC, along with accompanying increases in the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), was associated with a relative increase of about 4.7 percentage points in the private health insurance coverage of working single mothers with high school or less education. Also, a difference-in-difference-in-differences estimator, which attempts to net out the possible influence of the EITC increases but which requires strong assumptions, suggests that the HITC was responsible for about three-quarters (3.6 percentage points) of the total increase. The latter estimate implies a price elasticity of health insurance take-up of -0.42. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Li, Xiaoxue; Ye, Jinqi
This study examines how regulations in private health insurance markets affect coverage of public insurance. We focus on mental health parity laws, which mandate private health insurance to provide equal coverage for mental and physical health services. The implementation of mental health parity laws may improve a quality dimension of private health insurance but at increased costs. We graphically develop a conceptual framework and then empirically examine whether the regulations shift individuals from private to public insurance. We exploit state-by-year variation in policy implementation in 1999-2008 and focus on a sample of veterans, who have better access to public insurance than non-veterans. Using data from the Current Population Survey, we find that the parity laws reduce employer-sponsored insurance (ESI) coverage by 2.1% points. The drop in ESI is largely offset by enrollment gains in public insurance, namely through the Veterans Affairs (VA) benefit and Medicaid/Medicare programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This paper takes a different approach to estimating demand for medical care that uses the negotiated prices between insurers and providers as an instrument. The instrument is viewed as a textbook "cost shifting" instrument that impacts plan offerings, but is unobserved by consumers. The paper finds a price elasticity of demand of around -0.20, matching the elasticity found in the RAND Health Insurance Experiment. The paper also studies within-market variation in demand for prescription drugs and other medical care services and obtains comparable price elasticity estimates. Published by Elsevier B.V.
This article explores the relationship between the components of the services provided by complementary voluntary health insurance (CVHI), to which users ascribe different levels of importance. Research model that consists of four constructs (importance of quality service, additional coverage, price discounts of CVHI and insurance company reputation) and an indicator of the importance of insurance premium of CVHI was tested with structural equation modelling (SEM) on the sample of 300 Sloveni...
On May 16, the HR department published in the CERN Bulletin an article concerning cross-border workers (“frontaliers”) and the exercise of the right of choice in health insurance: « In view of the Agreement concluded on 7 July 2016 between Switzerland and France regarding the choice of health insurance system* for persons resident in France and working in Switzerland ("frontaliers"), the Swiss authorities have indicated that those persons who have not “formally exercised their right to choose a health insurance system before 30 September 2017 risk automatically becoming members of the Swiss LAMal system” and having to “pay penalties to their insurers that may amount to several years’ worth of contributions”. Among others, this applies to spouses of members of the CERN personnel who live in France and work in Switzerland. » But the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS), provides insuranc...
Jou, Judy; Kozhimannil, Katy B; Blewett, Lynn A; McGovern, Patricia M; Abraham, Jean M
This study evaluates the associations between workplace accommodations for pregnancy, including paid and unpaid maternity leave, and changes in women's health insurance coverage postpartum. Secondary analysis using Listening to Mothers III, a national survey of women ages 18 to 45 years who gave birth in U.S. hospitals during 2011 to 2012 (N = 700). Compared with women without access to paid maternity leave, women with access to paid leave were 0.4 times as likely to lose private health insurance coverage, 0.3 times as likely to lose public health coverage, and 0.3 times as likely to become uninsured after giving birth. Workplace accommodations for pregnant employees are associated with health insurance coverage via work continuity postpartum. Expanding protections for employees during pregnancy and after childbirth may help reduce employee turnover, loss of health insurance coverage, and discontinuity of care.
Cyber attacks on a hospital's computer network is a new crime to be reckoned with. Should your hospital consider internet insurance? The author explains this new phenomenon and presents a risk assessment for determining network vulnerabilities.
Objective. To determine the attitudes of South African general practitioners (GPs) to national health insurance (NHI), social health insurance (SHI) and other related health system reforms. Design. A national survey using postal questionnaires and telephonic follow-up of non-responders. Setting. GPs throughout South Africa.
... Health Insurance Providers Fee; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION... guidance on the annual fee imposed on covered entities engaged in the business of providing health insurance for United States health risks. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Charles J. Langley, Jr. at (202...
Lavelle, Bridget; Smock, Pamela J.
This article bridges the literatures on the economic consequences of divorce for women with that on marital transitions and health by focusing on women's health insurance. Using a monthly calendar of marital status and health insurance coverage from 1,442 women in the Survey of Income and Program Participation, we examine how women's health…
Shan, Linghan; Li, Ye; Ding, Ding; Wu, Qunhong; Liu, Chaojie; Jiao, Mingli; Hao, Yanhua; Han, Yuzhen; Gao, Lijun; Hao, Jiejing; Wang, Lan; Xu, Weilan; Ren, Jiaojiao
Deteriorations in the patient-provider relationship in China have attracted increasing attention in the international community. This study aims to explore the role of trust in patient satisfaction with hospital inpatient care, and how patient-provider trust is shaped from the perspectives of both patients and providers. We adopted a mixed methods approach comprising a multivariate logistic regression model using secondary data (1200 people with inpatient experiences over the past year) from the fifth National Health Service Survey (NHSS, 2013) in Heilongjiang Province to determine the associations between patient satisfaction and trust, financial burden and perceived quality of care, followed by in-depth interviews with 62 conveniently selected key informants (27 from health and 35 from non-health sectors). A thematic analysis established a conceptual framework to explain deteriorating patient-provider relationships. About 24% of respondents reported being dissatisfied with hospital inpatient care. The logistic regression model indicated that patient satisfaction was positively associated with higher level of trust (OR = 14.995), lower levels of hospital medical expenditure (OR = 5.736-1.829 as compared with the highest quintile of hospital expenditure), good staff attitude (OR = 3.155) as well as good ward environment (OR = 2.361). But patient satisfaction was negatively associated with medical insurance for urban residents and other insurance status (OR = 0.215-0.357 as compared with medical insurance for urban employees). The qualitative analysis showed that patient trust-the most significant predictor of patient satisfaction-is shaped by perceived high quality of service delivery, empathic and caring interpersonal interactions, and a better designed medical insurance that provides stronger financial protection and enables more equitable access to health care. At the core of high levels of patient dissatisfaction with hospital care is the lack of trust. The
Hartnedy, J A
Why does health insurance cost so much? According to the vice president at the insurance company that pioneered high-deductible health insurance to go with medical savings accounts, a big factor is that insurance companies are being asked to solve social problems. Mr Hartnedy offers a solution to America's healthcare-delivery plight that includes empowerment of individuals and preservation of choice.
Ellis, Randall P; Albert Ma, Ching-To
Because less healthy employees value health insurance more than the healthy ones, when health insurance is newly offered job turnover rates for healthier employees decline less than turnover rates for the less healthy. We call this adverse job turnover, and it implies that a firm's expected health costs will increase when health insurance is first offered. Health insurance premiums may fail to adjust sufficiently fast because state regulations restrict annual premium changes, or insurers are reluctant to change premiums rapidly. Even with premiums set at the long run expected costs, some firms may be charged premiums higher than their current expected costs and choose not to offer insurance. High administrative costs at small firms exacerbate this dynamic selection problem. Using 1998-1999 MEDSTAT MarketScan and 1997 Employer Health Insurance Survey data, we find that expected employee health expenditures at firms that offer insurance have lower within-firm and higher between-firm variance than at firms that do not. Turnover rates are systematically higher in industries in which firms are less likely to offer insurance. Simulations of the offer decision capturing between-firm health-cost heterogeneity and expected turnover rates match the observed pattern across firm sizes well. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Paez, Kathryn A.; Mallery, Coretta J.; Noel, HarmoniJoie; Pugliese, Christopher; McSorley, Veronica E.; Lucado, Jennifer L.; Ganachari, Deepa
Understanding health insurance is central to affording and accessing health care in the United States. Efforts to support consumers in making wise purchasing decisions and using health insurance to their advantage would benefit from the development of a valid and reliable measure to assess health insurance literacy. This article reports on the development of the Health Insurance Literacy Measure (HILM), a self-assessment measure of consumers' ability to select and use private health insurance. The authors developed a conceptual model of health insurance literacy based on formative research and stakeholder guidance. Survey items were drafted using the conceptual model as a guide then tested in two rounds of cognitive interviews. After a field test with 828 respondents, exploratory factor analysis revealed two HILM scales, choosing health insurance and using health insurance, each of which is divided into a confidence subscale and likelihood of behavior subscale. Correlations between the HILM scales and an objective measure of health insurance knowledge and skills were positive and statistically significant which supports the validity of the measure. PMID:25315595
In this podcast women will learn how the Health Insurance Marketplace meets the needs of women. The Marketplace allows women to find quality health coverage and gives women more choice and control over their health coverage.
Mathur, Tanuj; Das, Gurudas; Gupta, Hemendra
Most studies have associated "un-affordability" as a plausible cause for the lower take-up of private voluntary health insurance plans. However, others refuted this claim on the pretext that when people can afford "inpatient-care" from pocket then insurance premium cost is far less than those payments. Thus, economic factors remain insufficient in clearly explaining the reason for poor private voluntary health insurance take-up. An attempt is being made by shifting the focus towards non-economic factors and understanding the role of perception and health insurance literacy in transforming people preferences to invest in private voluntary health insurance plans. The study findings will conspicuously support decision-makers in developing strategy to increase the private voluntary health insurance take-up.
Danis, Marion; Goold, Susan Dorr; Parise, Carol; Ginsburg, Marjorie
To demonstrate that employees can gain understanding of the financial constraints involved in designing health insurance benefits. While employees who receive their health insurance through the workplace have much at stake as the cost of health insurance rises, they are not necessarily prepared to constructively participate in prioritizing their health insurance benefits in order to limit cost. Structured group exercises. Employees of 41 public and private organizations in Northern California. Administration of the CHAT (Choosing Healthplans All Together) exercise in which participants engage in deliberation to design health insurance benefits under financial constraints. Change in priorities and attitudes about the need to exercise insurance cost constraints. Participants (N = 744) became significantly more cognizant of the need to limit insurance benefits for the sake of affordability and capable of prioritizing benefit options. Those agreeing that it is reasonable to limit health insurance coverage given the cost increased from 47% to 72%. It is both possible and valuable to involve employees in priority setting regarding health insurance benefits through the use of structured decision tools.
Wu, Yue; Zhang, Liang; Liu, Xuejiao; Ye, Ting; Wang, Yongfei
Health insurance contributes to reducing the economic burden of disease and improving access to healthcare. In 2016, the Chinese government announced the integration of the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) and Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI) to reduce system segmentation. Nevertheless, it was unclear whether there would be any geographic variation in health insurance benefits if the two types of insurance were integrated. The aim of this study was to identify the potential geographic variation in health insurance benefits and the related contributing factors. This cross-sectional study was carried out in Qianjiang District, where the NCMS and URBMI were integrated into Urban and Rural Resident Basic Medical Insurance Scheme (URRBMI) in 2010. All beneficiaries under the URRBMI were hospitalized at least once in 2013, totaling 445,254 persons and 65,877 person-times, were included in this study. Town-level data on health insurance benefits, healthcare utilization, and socioeconomic and geographical characteristics were collected through health insurance system, self-report questionnaires, and the 2014 Statistical Yearbook of Qianjiang District. A simplified Theil index at town level was calculated to measure geographic variation in health insurance benefits. Colored maps were created to visualize the variation in geographic distribution of benefits. The effects of healthcare utilization and socioeconomic and geographical characteristics on geographic variation in health insurance benefits were estimated with a multiple linear regression analysis. Different Theil index values were calculated for different towns, and the Theil index values for compensation by person-times and amount were 2.5028 and 1.8394 in primary healthcare institutions and 1.1466 and 0.9204 in secondary healthcare institutions. Healthcare-seeking behavior and economic factors were positively associated with health insurance benefits in compensation by person-times significantly
incentive to reduce utilization Subsidy to leave TRICARE and use other private health insurance Increases in TRICARE premiums and co-pays This...analysis develops the estimated cost of providing health care through a premium -based insurance model consistent with an employer-sponsored benefit...State Income Plan premium data Contract cost data 22 May 2015 9 Agenda Overview Background Data Insurance Cost Estimate Methodology
Background The Government of Kenya is making plans to implement a social health insurance program by transforming the National Hospital Insurance Fund (NHIF) into a universal health coverage program. The objective of this study was to examine the determinants associated with health insurance ownership among women in Kenya. Methods Data came from the 2008–09 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, a nationally representative survey. The sample comprised 8,435 women aged 15–49 years. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used to describe the characteristics of the sample and to identify factors associated with health insurance ownership. Results Being employed in the formal sector, being married, exposure to the mass media, having secondary education or higher, residing in households in the middle or rich wealth index categories and residing in a female-headed household were associated with having health insurance. However, region of residence was associated with a lower likelihood of having insurance coverage. Women residing in Central (OR = 0.4; p insured compared to their counterparts in Nairobi province. Conclusions As the Kenyan government transforms the NHIF into a universal health program, it is important to implement a program that will increase equity and access to health care services among the poor and vulnerable groups. PMID:24678655
Atanasov, Pavel; Baker, Tom
What are the barriers to voluntary take-up of high-deductible plans? We address this question using a large-scale employer survey conducted after an open-enrollment period in which a new high-deductible plan was first introduced. Only 3% of the employees chose this plan, despite the respondents' recognition of its financial advantages. Employees who believed that the high-deductible plan provided access to top physicians in the area were three times more likely to choose it than employees who did not share this belief. A framed field experiment using a similar choice menu showed that displaying additional financial information did not increase high-deductible plan take-up. However, when plans were presented as identical except for the deductible, respondents were highly likely to choose the high-deductible plan, especially in a two-way choice. These results suggest that informing plan choosers about high-deductible plans' health access provisions may affect choice more strongly than focusing on their financial advantages. © The Author(s) 2014.
A CERN pensioner, member of the Organization's Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS), recently provided fake documents in support of claims for medical expenses, in order to receive unjustified reimbursement from the CHIS. The Administrator of the CHIS, UNIQA, suspected a case of fraud: Accordingly, an investigation and interview of the person concerned was carried out and brought the Organization to the conclusion that fraud had actually taken place. Consequently and in accordance with Article VIII 3.12 of the CHIS Rules, it was decided to exclude this member permanently from the CHIS. The Organization takes the opportunity to remind Scheme members that any fraud or attempt to fraud established within the framework of the CHIS exposes them to: - disciplinary action, according to the Staff Rules and Regulations, for CERN members of the personnel; - definitive exclusion from the CHIS for members affiliated on a voluntary basis. Human Resources Division Tel. 73635
New versions of the following forms for claims and requests to the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS) have been released: form for claiming reimbursement of medical expenses, form for requesting advance reimbursement, and dental estimate form (for treatments foreseen to exceed 800 CHF). The new forms are available in French and English. They can either be completed electronically before being printed and signed, or completed in paper form. New detailed instructions can be found at the back of the claim form; CHIS members are invited to read them carefully. The electronic versions (PDF) of all the forms are available on the CHIS website and on the UNIQA Member Portal. CHIS Members are requested to use these new forms forthwith and to discard any previous version. Questions regarding the above should be addressed directly to UNIQA (72730 or 022.718 63 00 or firstname.lastname@example.org).
Goldman, Dana P; Leibowitz, Arleen A; Robalino, David A
To determine the sensitivity of employees' health insurance decisions--including the decision to not choose health maintenance organization or fee-for-service coverage--during periods of rapidly escalating healthcare costs. A retrospective cohort study of employee plan choices at a single large firm with a "cafeteria-style" benefits plan wherein employees paid all the additional cost of purchasing more generous insurance. We modeled the probability that an employee would drop coverage or switch plans in response to employee premium increases using data from a single large US company with employees across 47 states during the 3-year period of 1989 through 1991, a time of large premium increases within and across plans. Premium increases induced substantial plan switching. Single employees were more likely to respond to premium increases by dropping coverage, whereas families tended to switch to another plan. Premium increases of 10% induced 7% of single employees to drop or severely cut back on coverage; 13% to switch to another plan; and 80% to remain in their existing plan. Similar figures for those with family coverage were 11%, 12%, and 77%, respectively. Simulation results that control for known covariates show similar increases. When faced with a dramatic increase in premiums--on the order of 20%--nearly one fifth of the single employees dropped coverage compared with 10% of those with family coverage. Employee coverage decisions are sensitive to rapidly increasing premiums, and single employees may be likely to drop coverage. This finding suggests that sustained premium increases could induce substantial increases in the number of uninsured individuals.
... family members under the FEHB and the Federal Employees Dental and Vision Insurance Program (FEDVIP... procedure, Government employees, Health facilities, Health insurance, Health professions, Hostages, Iraq... Administrative practice and procedure, Government employees, Health insurance, Taxes, Wages. 5 CFR Part 894...
... Insurance Program expenditures. 457.618 Section 457.618 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS... Children's Health Insurance Program expenditures. (a) Expenditures. (1) Primary expenditures are...
Guy, Gery P; Adams, E Kathleen; Atherly, Adam
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) will substantially increase public health insurance eligibility and alter the costs of insurance coverage. Using Current Population Survey (CPS) data from the period 2000-2008, we examine the effects of public and private health insurance premiums on the insurance status of low-income childless adults, a population substantially affected by the ACA. Results show higher public premiums to be associated with a decrease in the probability of having public insurance and an increase in the probability of being uninsured, while increased private premiums decrease the probability of having private insurance. Eligibility for premium assistance programs and increased subsidy levels are associated with lower rates of uninsurance. The magnitudes of the effects are quite modest and provide important implications for insurance expansions for childless adults under the ACA.
...'s Health Insurance Programs, and Exchanges: Essential Health Benefits in Alternative Benefit Plans...-2334-P] RIN 0938-AR04 Medicaid, Children's Health Insurance Programs, and Exchanges: Essential Health... 2010 (collectively referred to as the Affordable Care Act), and the Children's Health Insurance Program...
Full Text Available Abstract Background More than 72% of health expenditure in India is financed by individual households at the time of illness through out-of-pocket payments. This is a highly regressive way of financing health care and sometimes leads to impoverishment. Health insurance is recommended as a measure to protect households from such catastrophic health expenditure (CHE. We studied two Indian community health insurance (CHI schemes, ACCORD and SEWA, to determine whether insured households are protected from CHE. Methods ACCORD provides health insurance cover for the indigenous population, living in Gudalur, Tamil Nadu. SEWA provides insurance cover for self employed women in the state of Gujarat. Both cover hospitalisation expenses, but only upto a maximum limit of US$23 and US$45, respectively. We reviewed the insurance claims registers in both schemes and identified patients who were hospitalised during the period 01/04/2003 to 31/03/2004. Details of their diagnoses, places and costs of treatment and self-reported annual incomes were obtained. There is no single definition of CHE and none of these have been validated. For this research, we used the following definition; "annual hospital expenditure greater than 10% of annual income," to identify those who experienced CHE. Results There were a total of 683 and 3152 hospital admissions at ACCORD and SEWA, respectively. In the absence of the CHI scheme, all of the patients at ACCORD and SEWA would have had to pay OOP for their hospitalisation. With the CHI scheme, 67% and 34% of patients did not have to make any out-of-pocket (OOP payment for their hospital expenses at ACCORD and SEWA, respectively. Both CHI schemes halved the number of households that would have experienced CHE by covering hospital costs. However, despite this, 4% and 23% of households with admissions still experienced CHE at ACCORD and SEWA, respectively. This was related to the following conditions: low annual income, benefit
Association du personnel
In ECHO no. 41 on 5 November “Health insurance: what is the current situation?” we explained to you the situation of our Health Insurance Scheme and the ideas currently being discussed to ensure its future balance. If you missed this episode, you should catch up on it now so that you understand what follows.
Withagen-Koster, A.A. (A. A.); R.C. van Kleef (Richard); F. Eijkenaar (Frank)
textabstractA major challenge in regulated health insurance markets is to mitigate risk selection potential. Risk selection can occur in the presence of unpriced risk heterogeneity, which refers to predictable variation in health care spending not reflected in either premiums by insurers or risk
de Meza, D
With rare exceptions the provision of actuarially fair health insurance tends to substantially increase the demand for medical care by redistributing income from the healthy to the sick. This suggests that previous studies which attribute all the extra demand for medical care to moral hazard effects may overestimate the efficiency costs of health insurance.
... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 [TD 9611] RIN 1545-BL49 Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Final regulations. SUMMARY: This document contains final regulations relating to the health insurance premium tax credit...
... the health insurance premium tax credit enacted by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 [TD 9590] RIN 1545-BJ82 Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION...
Pan, Jay; Tian, Sen; Zhou, Qin; Han, Wei
Equity is one of the essential objectives of the social health insurance. This article evaluates the benefit distribution of the China's Urban Residents' Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI), covering 300 million urban populations. Using the URBMI Household Survey data fielded between 2007 and 2011, we estimate the benefit distribution by the two-part model, and find that the URBMI beneficiaries from lower income groups benefited less than that of higher income groups. In other words, government subsidy that was supposed to promote the universal coverage of health care flew more to the rich. Our study provides new evidence on China's health insurance system reform, and it bears meaningful policy implication for other developing countries facing similar challenges on the way to universal coverage of health insurance. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Nosratnejad, Shirin; Rashidian, Arash; Mehrara, Mohsen; Sari, Ali Akbari; Mahdavi, Ghadir; Moeini, Maryam
Objective: The substantial level of out-of-pocket expenditure for health care by the population causes policy makers to draw particular attention to the proposal of a social health insurance for uninsured members of the community. Hence, it is essential to gather reliable information about the amount of Willingness To Pay (WTP) for health insurance. We assessed the WTP for health insurance in Iran in order to suggest an affordable social health insurance. Method: The study sample included 300 household heads in all Iranian provinces. The double bounded dichotomous choice approach was used to elicit the WTP. Result: The average WTP for social health insurance per person per month was 137 000 Rial (5.5 $US). Household heads with higher levels of education, income and those who worked had more WTP for the health insurance. Besides, the WTP increased in direct proportion to the number of insured members of each household and in inverse proportion to the family size. Conclusions: From a policy point of view, the WTP value can be used as a premium in a society. An important finding of this study is that although households’ Willingness To Pay is not more than the total insurance premium, households are willing to pay more than the premium they ought to pay for health insurance coverage. That is, total insurance premium is 150 000 Rials and households ought to pay approximately half of this sum. This can afford policy makers the ideal opportunity to provide good insurance coverage for medical services according to the need of society. PMID:25168979
Full Text Available This paper describes a multistate project that addressed the growing need for health insurance information for individuals by focusing on the Affordable Care Act (ACA and health insurance education and outreach efforts in targeted areas of the country in federally-facilitated marketplaces with high numbers of uninsured and underinsured individuals. Specifically, the project provided ACA and health insurance information to individuals in formal and informal settings to assist them in choosing a health insurance plan through the Marketplace. Education and outreach activities included group workshops and presentations, Q&A sessions, and panel discussions; one-on-one in-person consultations, phone consultations, and email consultations; and information provided through websites, blog posts, Facebook posts, tweets, YouTube videos, email blasts, newsletters, newspaper articles, and radio and TV programs. Health insurance enrollment assistance was provided by volunteers and some Extension educators or referrals were made to Navigators or Certified Application Counselors for enrollment assistance.
Motlagh, Soraya Nouraei; Gorji, Hassan Abolghasem; Mahdavi, Ghadir; Ghaderi, Hossein
Introduction: In the majority of developing countries, the volume of medical insurance services, provided by social insurance organizations is inadequate. Thus, supplementary medical insurance is proposed as a means to address inadequacy of medical insurance. Accordingly, in this article, we attempted to provide the context for expansion of this important branch of insurance through identification of essential factors affecting demand for supplementary medical insurance. Method: In this study, two methods were used to identify essential factors affecting choice of supplementary medical insurance including Classification and Regression Trees (CART) and Bayesian logit. To this end, Excel® software was used to refine data and R® software for estimation. The present study was conducted during 2012, covering all provinces in Iran. Sample size included 18,541 urban households, selected by Statistical Center of Iran using 3-stage cluster sampling approach. In this study, all data required were collected from the Statistical Center of Iran. Results: In 2012, an overall 8.04% of the Iranian population benefited from supplementary medical insurance. Demand for supplementary insurance is a concave function of age of the household head, and peaks in middle-age when savings and income are highest. The present study results showed greater likelihood of demand for supplementary medical insurance in households with better economic status, higher educated heads, female heads, and smaller households with greater expected medical expenses, and household income is the most important factor affecting demand for supplementary medical insurance. Conclusion: Since demand for supplementary medical insurance is hugely influenced by households’ economic status, policy-makers in the health sector should devise measures to improve households’ economic or financial access to supplementary insurance services, by identifying households in the lower economic deciles, and increasing their
Hall, Jennifer D; Harding, Rose L; DeVoe, Jennifer E; Gold, Rachel; Angier, Heather; Sumic, Aleksandra; Nelson, Christine A; Likumahuwa-Ackman, Sonja; Cohen, Deborah J
Changes in health insurance policies have increased coverage opportunities, but enrollees are required to annually reapply for benefits which, if not managed appropriately, can lead to insurance gaps. Electronic health records (EHRs) can automate processes for assisting patients with health insurance enrollment and re-enrollment. We describe community health centers' (CHC) workflow, documentation, and tracking needs for assisting families with insurance application processes, and the health information technology (IT) tool components that were developed to meet those needs. We conducted a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews and observation of clinic operations and insurance application assistance processes. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. We diagramed workflows and shared information with a team of developers who built the EHR-based tools. Four steps to the insurance assistance workflow were common among CHCs: 1) Identifying patients for public health insurance application assistance; 2) Completing and submitting the public health insurance application when clinic staff met with patients to collect requisite information and helped them apply for benefits; 3) Tracking public health insurance approval to monitor for decisions; and 4) assisting with annual health insurance reapplication. We developed EHR-based tools to support clinical staff with each of these steps. CHCs are uniquely positioned to help patients and families with public health insurance applications. CHCs have invested in staff to assist patients with insurance applications and help prevent coverage gaps. To best assist patients and to foster efficiency, EHR based insurance tools need comprehensive, timely, and accurate health insurance information.
Full Text Available Objectives of the study: the study aims to analyze the issue of social health insurance in Romania and to provide legislative solutions in combating them. The research methods used are the qualitative research method and the observation method. Results and implications of the study: 1 establish a 2020-2030 Strategy to prevent disease by launching national campaigns for healthy eating, reducing smoking and alcohol consumption, and introducing the color scheme for food; 2 decentralizing the system, establishing a public-private partnership, increasing the patient's freedom in choosing doctors and services; 3 limiting the cost of medical care by introducing caps, as well as co-payments; 4 institutional reform of the public sector in this area. In some opinions, "Experience in other countries consistently suggests that introducing a private funding system would create more problems than it would solve. That is why efforts should be focused rather on institutional reform of the public sector"; 5 developing legislation to make differentiated payments for medical services; 6 closure of non-accredited hospitals and their privatization; 7 establishment of private health insurance houses.
Wherry, Laura R; Kenney, Genevieve M; Sommers, Benjamin D
Over the past 30 years, there have been major expansions in public health insurance for low-income children in the United States through Medicaid, the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), and other state-based efforts. In addition, many low-income parents have gained Medicaid coverage since 2014 under the Affordable Care Act. Most of the research to date on health insurance coverage among low-income populations has focused on its effect on health care utilization and health outcomes, with much less attention to the financial protection it offers families. We review a growing body of evidence that public health insurance provides important financial benefits to low-income families. Expansions in public health insurance for low-income children and adults are associated with reduced out of pocket medical spending, increased financial stability, and improved material well-being for families. We also review the potential poverty-reducing effects of public health insurance coverage. When out of pocket medical expenses are taken into account in defining the poverty rate, Medicaid plays a significant role in decreasing poverty for many children and families. In addition, public health insurance programs connect families to other social supports such as food assistance programs that also help reduce poverty. We conclude by reviewing emerging evidence that access to public health insurance in childhood has long-term effects for health and economic outcomes in adulthood. Exposure to Medicaid and CHIP during childhood has been linked to decreased mortality and fewer chronic health conditions, better educational attainment, and less reliance on government support later in life. In sum, the nation's public health insurance programs have many important short- and long-term poverty-reducing benefits for low-income families with children. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cataracts are the leading cause of blindness in China, and poverty is a major barrier to having cataract surgery. In 2003, the Chinese government began a series of new national health insurance reforms, including the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS and the Urban Resident Basic Health Insurance scheme (URBMI. These two programs, combined with the previously existing Urban Employee Basic Health Insurance (UEBMI program, aimed to make it easier for individuals to receive medical treatment. This study reports cataract surgery numbers in rural and urban populations and the proportion of these who had health insurance in Chongqing, China from 2003 to 2008. Methods The medical records of a consecutive case series, including 14,700 eyes of 13,262 patients who underwent age-related cataract surgery in eight hospitals in Chongqing from January 1, 2003, to December 31, 2008, were analysed retrospectively via multi-stage cluster sampling. Results In the past six years, the total number of cataract surgeries had increased each year as had the number of patients with insurance. Both the number of surgeries and the number of insured patients were much higher in the urban group than in the rural group. The rate of increase in the rural group however was much higher than in the urban group, especially in 2007 and 2008. The odds ratios of having health insurance for urban vs. rural individuals were relatively stable from 2003 to 2006, but it decreased in 2007 and was significantly lower in 2008. Conclusions Health insurance appears to be an important factor associated with increased cataract surgery in Chongqing, China. With the implementation of health insurance, the number of Chongqing's cataract surgeries was increased year by year.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Authors of Insurance Coverage and Whither Thou Goest for Health Information in 2012, recently published in Volume 4, Issue 4 of the Medicare and Medicaid Research...
Jul 5, 2013 ... Background: Health insurance is a social security system that aims to ... civil servants have no appreciable advantage in terms of access to and cost of health .... self‑medication, pharmaceutical shops, traditional healers,.
ence of social health insurance, and some Asian countries have more recently .... Mexico, special funds subsidised by the government and social security, were ..... show how powerful interest groups can influence the direction of health care ...
... and 156 Medicaid and Children's Health Insurance Programs: Essential Health Benefits in Alternative... Secretary 45 CFR Parts 155 and 156 [CMS-2334-F] RIN 0938-AR04 Medicaid and Children's Health Insurance... Medicaid and the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) eligibility notices, delegation of appeals, and...
Vonk, Robert A A; Schut, Frederik T
For almost a century, the Netherlands was marked by a large market for voluntary private health insurance alongside state-regulated social health insurance. Throughout this period, private health insurers tried to safeguard their position within an expanding welfare state. From an institutional
...] Medicare, Medicaid, and Children's Health Insurance Programs: Announcement of Temporary Moratoria on... combat fraud, waste, and abuse in Medicare, Medicaid, and the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP... Health Insurance Programs; Additional Screening Requirements, Application Fees, Temporary Enrollment...
Barnes, Andrew J; Hanoch, Yaniv
As coverage is expanded in health systems that rely on consumers to choose health insurance plans that best meet their needs, interest in whether consumers possess sufficient understanding of health insurance to make good coverage decisions is growing. The recent IJHPR article by Green and colleagues-examining understanding of supplementary health insurance (SHI) among Israeli consumers-provides an important and timely answer to the above question. Indeed, their study addresses similar problems to the ones identified in the US health care market, with two notable findings. First, they show that overall-regardless of demographic variables-there are low levels of knowledge about SHI, which the literature has come to refer to more broadly as "health insurance literacy." Second, they find a significant disparity in health insurance literacy between different SES groups, where Jews were significantly more knowledgeable about SHI compared to their Arab counterparts.The authors' findings are consistent with a growing body of literature from the U.S. and elsewhere, including our own, presenting evidence that consumers struggle with understanding and using health insurance. Studies in the U.S. have also found that difficulties are generally more acute for populations considered the most vulnerable and consequently most in need of adequate and affordable health insurance coverage.The authors' findings call attention to the need to tailor communication strategies aimed at mitigating health insurance literacy and, ultimately, access and outcomes disparities among vulnerable populations in Israel and elsewhere. It also raises the importance of creating insurance choice environments in health systems relying on consumers to make coverage decisions that facilitate the decision process by using "choice architecture" to, among other things, simplify plan information and highlight meaningful differences between coverage options.
Zhou, Zhongliang; Zhou, Zhiying; Gao, Jianmin; Yang, Xiaowei; Yan, Ju'e; Xue, Qinxiang; Chen, Gang
Urban population in China is mainly covered by two medical insurance schemes: the Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance (UEBMI) for urban employees in formal sector and the Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI) for the left urban residents, mainly the unemployed, the elderly and children. This paper studies the effects of UEBMI and URBMI on health services utilisation in Shaanxi Province, Western China. Cross-sectional data from the 4th National Health Services Survey - Shaanxi Province was studied. The propensity score matching and the coarsened exact matching methods have been used to estimate the average medical insurance effect on the insured. Compared to the uninsured, robust results suggest that UEBMI had significantly increased the outpatient health services utilisation in the last two weeks (pinsured was associated with higher health services utilisation, compared with the uninsured, none of the improvement was statistically significant (p>0.10). It was also found that compared with the uninsured, basic medical insurance enrollees were more likely to purchase inpatient treatments in lower levels of hospitals, consistent with the incentive of the benefit package design. Basic Medical insurance schemes have shown a positive but limited effect on increasing health services utilisation in Shaanxi Province. The benefit package design of higher reimbursement rates for lower level hospitals has induced the insured to use medical services in lower level hospitals for inpatient services.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to find out the gender disparities in Ghana national health insurance claims. In this work, data was collected from the policyholders of the Ghana National Health Insurance Scheme with the help of the National Health Insurance database and the patients’ attendance register of the Koforidua Regional Hospital, from 1st January to 31st December 2011. The generalized linear regression (GLR models and the SPSS version 17.0 were used for the analysis. Among men, the younger people prefer attending hospital for treatment as compared to their adult counterparts. In contrast to women, younger women favor attending hospital for treatment as compared to their adult counterparts. Among men, various levels of income impact greatly on their propensity to make an insurance claim, whereas among women only the highest income level did as compared to lowest income level.Men, who completed senior high school education, were less likely to make an insurance claim as compared to their counterparts with basic or no education. However it was women who had basic education that preferred using the hospital as compared to their more educated counterparts. It is suggested that the government should consider building more health centers, clinics and cheap-compounds in at least every community, to help reduce the travel time in accessing health care. The ministry of health and the Ghana health service should engage older citizens by encouraging them to use hospitals when they are sick instead of other alternative care providers.
... from 2010 to 2013 were also evaluated using logistic regression analysis. State-specific health insurance estimates are ... coverage options; compare health insurance plans based on cost, benefits, and other important features; choose a plan; ...
Fontenelle, Leonardo Ferreira; Camargo, Maria Beatriz Junqueira de; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Gonçalves, Helen; Maciel, Ethel Leonor Noia; Barros, Aluísio J D
This study was designed to assess the reasons for health insurance coverage in a population covered by the Family Health Strategy in Brazil. We describe overall health insurance coverage and according to types, and analyze its association with health-related and socio-demographic characteristics. Among the 31.3% of persons (95%CI: 23.8-39.9) who reported "health insurance" coverage, 57.0% (95%CI: 45.2-68.0) were covered only by discount cards, which do not offer any kind of coverage for medical care, but only discounts in pharmacies, clinics, and hospitals. Both for health insurance and discount cards, the most frequently cited reasons for such coverage were "to be on the safe side" and "to receive better care". Both types of coverage were associated statistically with age (+65 vs. 15-24 years: adjusted odds ratios, aOR = 2.98, 95%CI: 1.28-6.90; and aOR = 3.67; 95%CI: 2.22-6.07, respectively) and socioeconomic status (additional standard deviation: aOR = 2.25, 95%CI: 1.62-3.14; and aOR = 1.96, 95%CI: 1.34-2.97). In addition, health insurance coverage was associated with schooling (aOR = 7.59, 95%CI: 4.44-13.00) for complete University Education and aOR = 3.74 (95%CI: 1.61-8.68) for complete Secondary Education, compared to less than complete Primary Education. Meanwhile, neither health insurance nor discount card was associated with health status or number of diagnosed diseases. In conclusion, studies that aim to assess private health insurance should be planned to distinguish between discount cards and formal health insurance.
Most American adults under 65 obtain health insurance through their employers or their spouses’ employers. The absence of a universal healthcare system in the United States puts Americans at considerable risk for losing their coverage when transitioning out of jobs or marriages. Scholars have found evidence of reduced job mobility among individuals who are dependent on their employers for healthcare coverage. This paper finds similar relationships between insurance and divorce. I apply the hazard model to married individuals in the longitudinal Survey of Income Program Participation (N=17,388) and find lower divorce rates among people who are insured through their partners’ plans without alternative sources of their own. Furthermore, I find gender differences in the relationship between healthcare coverage and divorce rates: insurance dependent women have lower rates of divorce than men in similar situations. These findings draw attention to the importance of considering family processes when debating and evaluating health policies. PMID:26949269
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 8a.440 Section 8a.440 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce... benefits and services. Subject to § 8a.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life...
Berg, B. van den; Dommelen, P. van; Stam, P.; Laske-Aldershof, T.; Buchmueller, T.; Schut, F.T.
Legislation that came into effect in 2006 has dramatically altered the health insurance system in the Netherlands, placing greater emphasis on consumer choice and competition among insurers. The potential for such competition depends largely on consumer preferences for price and quality of service
Abstract Consumers, when buying health insurance, do not know the exact value of each treatment that they buy coverage for. This leads them to overvalue some treatments and undervalue others. We show that the insurance market cannot correct these mistakes. This causes research labs to overinvest in
Mohammadi, Effat; Raissi, Ahmad Reza; Barooni, Mohsen; Ferdoosi, Massoud; Nuhi, Mojtaba
Health system reforms are the most strategic issue that has been seriously considered in healthcare systems in order to reduce costs and increase efficiency and effectiveness. The costs of health system finance in our country, lack of universal coverage in health insurance, and related issues necessitate reforms in our health system financing. The aim of this research was to prepare a structure of framework for social health insurance in Iran and conducting a comparative study in selected countries with social health insurance. This comparative descriptive study was conducted in three phases. The first phase of the study examined the structure of health social insurance in four countries - Germany, South Korea, Egypt, and Australia. The second phase was to develop an initial model, which was designed to determine the shared and distinguishing points of the investigated structures, for health insurance in Iran. The third phase was to validate the final research model. The developed model by the Delphi method was given to 20 professionals in financing of the health system, health economics and management of healthcare services. Their comments were collected in two stages and its validity was confirmed. The study of the structure of health insurance in the selected countries shows that health social insurance in different countries have different structures. Based on the findings of the present study, the current situation of the health system, and the conducted surveys, the following framework is suitable for the health social insurance system in Iran. The Health Social Insurance Organization has a unique service by having five funds of governmental employees, companies and NGOs, self-insured, villagers, and others, which serves as a nongovernmental organization under the supervision of public law and by decision- and policy-making of the Health Insurance Supreme Council. Membership in this organization is based on the nationality or residence, which the insured by
Health insurance literacy is an emerging concept in the health education and health promotion field. The passage of the Affordable Care Act highlighted the link between health insurance and health outcomes. However, the law does not specifically address how the public should be educated on choosing an appropriate health insurance plan. Research shows adults, regardless of previous health insurance status, are likely confused and uncertain about their selection. The University of Maryland Extension developed and created health insurance Smart Choice Health Insurance™ to reduce confusion and increase confidence and capability to make this decision. Andragogy, an adult learning theory, was used to guide the development of the program and help ensure best practices are used to achieve desired outcomes. Using the six principles of andragogy, the team incorporated reality-based case studies, allowed adults time to practice, and emphasized choice making and many other elements to create an atmosphere conducive to adult learning. Results from Smart Choice indicate the program is successful in reducing confusion and increasing confidence. Furthermore, feedback from participants and trained educators indicates that adults were engaged in the program and found the materials useful. Based on program success, creation of new health insurance literacy programs grounded in adult education principles is under way.
Robert Clark; Olivia S. Mitchell
Economic theory predicts that employer-provided retiree health insurance (RHI) benefits have a crowd-out effect on household wealth accumulation, not dissimilar to the effects reported elsewhere for employer pensions, Social Security, and Medicare. Nevertheless, we are unaware of any similar research on the impacts of retiree health insurance per se. Accordingly, the present paper utilizes a unique data file on respondents to the Health and Retirement Study, to explore how employer-provided r...
Luft, Harold S.; Maerki, Susan C.
Although it is recognized that many people have duplicate private health insurance coverage, either through separate purchase or as health benefits in multi-earner families, there has been little analysis of the factors determining duplicate coverage rates. A new data source, the Survey of Income and Education, offers a comparison with the only previous source of state level data, the estimates from the Health Insurance Association of America. The R2 between the two sets is only .3 and certai...
Hamid, Syed Abdul
Introducing compulsory health insurance for government employees bears immense importance for stepping towards universal healthcare coverage in Bangladesh. Lack of scientific study on designing such scheme, in the Bangladesh context, motivates this paper. The study aims at designing a comprehensive insurance package simultaneously covering health, life and accident related disability risks of the public employees, where the health component would extend to all dependent family members. ...
Sood, Neeraj; Bendavid, Eran; Mukherji, Arnab; Wagner, Zachary; Nagpal, Somil; Mullen, Patrick
To evaluate the effects of a government insurance program covering tertiary care for people below the poverty line in Karnataka, India, on out-of-pocket expenditures, hospital use, and mortality. Geographic regression discontinuity study. 572 villages in Karnataka, India. 31,476 households (22,796 below poverty line and 8680 above poverty line) in 300 villages where the scheme was implemented and 28,633 households (21,767 below poverty line and 6866 above poverty line) in 272 neighboring matched villages ineligible for the scheme. A government insurance program (Vajpayee Arogyashree scheme) that provided free tertiary care to households below the poverty line in about half of villages in Karnataka from February 2010 to August 2012. Out-of-pocket expenditures, hospital use, and mortality. Among households below the poverty line, the mortality rate from conditions potentially responsive to services covered by the scheme (mostly cardiac conditions and cancer) was 0.32% in households eligible for the scheme compared with 0.90% among ineligible households just south of the eligibility border (difference of 0.58 percentage points, 95% confidence interval 0.40 to 0.75; Ppoverty line (households above the poverty line were not eligible for the scheme), with a mortality rate from conditions covered by the scheme of 0.56% in eligible villages compared with 0.55% in ineligible villages (difference of 0.01 percentage points, -0.03 to 0.03; P=0.95). Eligible households had significantly reduced out-of-pocket health expenditures for admissions to hospitals with tertiary care facilities likely to be covered by the scheme (64% reduction, 35% to 97%; PIndia. © Sood et al 2014.
Srivastava, Preety; Chen, Gang; Harris, Anthony
This study uses data from the 2004-2006 Australian National Survey of Adult Oral Health and a simultaneous equation framework to investigate the interrelationships between dental health, private dental insurance and the use of dental services. The results show that insurance participation is influenced by social and demographic factors, health and health behaviours. In turn, these factors affect the use of dental services, both directly and through insurance participation. Our findings confirm that affordability is a major barrier to visiting the dentist for oral health maintenance and treatment. Our results suggest that having supplementary insurance is associated with some 56 percentage points higher probability of seeing the dentist in the general population. For those who did not have private insurance cover, we predict that conditional on them facing the same insurance conditions, on average, having insurance would increase their visits to the dentist by 43 percentage points. The uninsured in the survey have lower income, worse oral health and lower rates of preventive and treatment visits. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Affected by both the salary adjustment index on 1.1.2000 and the evolution of the staff members and fellows population, the average reference salary, which is used as an index for fixed contributions and reimbursement maximal, has changed significantly. An adjustment of the amounts of the reimbursement maximal and the fixed contributions is therefore necessary, as from 1 January 2000.Reimbursement maximalThe revised reimbursement maximal will appear on the leaflet summarising the benefits for the year 2000, which will soon be available from the divisional secretariats and from the AUSTRIA office at CERN.Fixed contributionsThe fixed contributions, applicable to some categories of voluntarily insured persons, are set as follows (amounts in CHF for monthly contributions):voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with complete coverage:815,- (was 803,- in 1999)voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with reduced coverage:407,- (was 402,- in 1999)voluntarily insured no longer dependent child:326,- (was 321...
Full Text Available Health services and especially hospitals, are amongst the employers with the largest number of employees in the country. Those employed in the service have the right to as high a standard of occupational health as found in industry at its best. Health services in hospitals should use techniques of preventive employees and reduces absenteeism due to sickness and other causes. It health requirements of the employees. Hospitals should serve as examples to the public regarding health education, preventive medicine and job safety. Hospitals have a moral and legal obligation to: — provide a safe and healthful working environment for employees; — protect employees from special risks and hazards associated with their occ u p a t i o n s , su c h as c o n t a g io u s diseases; — protect patients from risks associated with unhealthy employees. Experience in other employee groups has shown that an occupational health service results in healthier, more effective employees and reduces absenteeism due to sickness and other causes. It also reduces labour turnover and Workmen’s compensation and other insurance claims.
Tilford, J M; Robbins, J M; Shema, S J; Farmer, F L
To examine the healthcare utilization and costs of previously uninsured rural children. Four years of claims data from a school-based health insurance program located in the Mississippi Delta. All children who were not Medicaid-eligible or were uninsured, were eligible for limited benefits under the program. The 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey (NMES) was used to compare utilization of services. The study represents a natural experiment in the provision of insurance benefits to a previously uninsured population. Premiums for the claims cost were set with little or no information on expected use of services. Claims from the insurer were used to form a panel data set. Mixed model logistic and linear regressions were estimated to determine the response to insurance for several categories of health services. The use of services increased over time and approached the level of utilization in the NMES. Conditional medical expenditures also increased over time. Actuarial estimates of claims cost greatly exceeded actual claims cost. The provision of a limited medical, dental, and optical benefit package cost approximately $20-$24 per member per month in claims paid. An important uncertainty in providing health insurance to previously uninsured populations is whether a pent-up demand exists for health services. Evidence of a pent-up demand for medical services was not supported in this study of rural school-age children. States considering partnerships with private insurers to implement the State Children's Health Insurance Program could lower premium costs by assembling basic data on previously uninsured children.
... Requirements for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Internal Claims and Appeals and... interim final regulations published July 23, 2010 with respect to group health plans and health insurance..., group health plans, and health insurance issuers providing group health insurance coverage. The text of...
Friedrichs, M; Friedel, H; Bödeker, W
This study investigates differences in sex, age, and educational level between participants and non-participants of prevention bonus programmes. The differences in the utilisation of drugs, hospital care, and sickness absence before the start of the programmes between these groups are also shown. Finally the economic benefit of the health insurance funds attributed to these programmes is estimated. Data from some 5.2 million insured subjects of 74 company health insurance funds in Germany were linked to information on enrollment into a prevention bonus programme anonymously. In a descriptive analysis the differences in the sociodemographic patterns between both groups are shown as well as the differences in costs to the health insurances in the three sectors mentioned above. The benefit to the health insurance funds is estimated by means of an analysis of covariance. Prevention bonus programmes yields an annual benefit of at least 129 euro per participant. Men aged 40 and older and women aged 30 and older are more likely to opt into such a programme. The same is true for persons with a higher educational level. There are only few differences in health-care utilisation between the participants and non-participants of the programmes before enrollment. Only 1.4% of all insured persons participated in the programmes. There is at least a short-term gain to both involved parties: the insured and the health insurance funds. The programmes are not dominated by deadweight effects. Long-term effects and effectiveness of prevention bonus programmes still have to be investigated. Copyright Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.
Shippee, Tetyana P; Kozhimannil, Katy B; Rowan, Kathleen; Virnig, Beth A
Breast reconstruction after mastectomy offers clinical, cosmetic, and psychological benefits compared with mastectomy alone. Although reconstruction rates have increased, racial/ethnic disparities in breast reconstruction persist. Insurance coverage facilitates access to care, but few studies have examined whether health insurance ameliorates disparities. We used the Nationwide Inpatient Sample for 2002 through 2006 to examine the relationships between health insurance coverage, race/ethnicity, and breast reconstruction rates among women who underwent mastectomy for breast cancer. We examined reconstruction rates as a function of the interaction of race and the primary payer (self-pay, private health insurance, government) while controlling for patient comorbidity, and we used generalized estimating equations to account for clustering and hospital characteristics. Minority women had lower breast reconstruction rates than White women (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.57 for African American; AOR, 0.70 for Hispanic; AOR, 0.45 for Asian; p women (AOR, 0.33) and those with public coverage were less likely to undergo reconstruction (AOR, 0.35; p women. Racial/ethnic disparities were less prominent within insurance types. Minority women, whether privately or publicly insured, had lower odds of undergoing reconstruction than White women. Among those without insurance, reconstruction rates did not differ by race/ethnicity. Insurance facilitates access to care, but does not eliminate racial/ethnic disparities in reconstruction rates. Our findings-which reveal persistent health care disparities not explained by patient health status-should prompt efforts to promote both access to and use of beneficial covered services for women with breast cancer. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... insurance coverage. 148.122 Section 148.122 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDIVIDUAL HEALTH INSURANCE MARKET... health insurance coverage. (a) Applicability. This section applies to all health insurance coverage in...
Price, James H.; Rickard, Megan
Background: Health insurance coverage increases access to health care. There has been an erosion of employer-based health insurance and a concomitant rise in children covered by public health insurance programs, yet more than 8 million children are still without health insurance coverage. Methods: This study was a national survey to assess the…
This article explores the challenges of implementing the proposed National Health Insurance for South Africa (SA), based on the six building blocks of the World Health Organization Health System Framework. In the context of the current SA health system, leadership, finance, workforce, technologies, information and service ...
In this podcast women will learn how the Health Insurance Marketplace meets the needs of women. The Marketplace allows women to find quality health coverage and gives women more choice and control over their health coverage. Created: 4/2/2014 by Office of Women's Health. Date Released: 4/2/2014.
health industry acting as insurance brokers and broker organisations and these make private health care cost expensive and has made it unaffordable unless innovative policies are instituted to curtail this trend. With South Africa's estimated population of fifty-two million, the private health sector provides health care to ...
Couch, Kenneth A., Ed.; Joyce, Theodore J., Ed.
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) is the most significant health policy legislation since Medicare in 1965. The need to address rising health care costs and the lack of health insurance coverage is widely accepted. Health care spending is approaching 17 percent of gross domestic product and yet 45 million Americans remain…
Moran, J R; Chernew, M E; Hirth, R A
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of worker heterogeneity, firm size, and establishment size on the breadth of employer health insurance offerings. DATA SOURCES: The data were drawn from the 1993 Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Employer Health Insurance Survey of 22,000 business establishments selected randomly from ten states. STUDY DESIGN: The analysis was cross-sectional, using ordered probit models to relate the breadth of plan offerings to firm characteristics. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Firms wi...
Furl, Renae; Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu; Lyden, Elizabeth; Swindells, Susan
The introduction of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) has provided unprecedented opportunities for uninsured people with HIV infection to access health insurance, and to examine the impact of this change in access. AIDS Drug Assistance Programs (ADAPs) have been directed to pursue uninsured individuals to enroll in the ACA as both a cost-saving strategy and to increase patient access to care. We evaluated the impact of ADAP-facilitated health insurance enrollment on health outcomes, and demographic and clinical factors that influenced whether or not eligible patients enrolled. During the inaugural open enrollment period for the ACA, 284 Nebraska ADAP recipients were offered insurance enrollment; 139 enrolled and 145 did not. Comparisons were conducted and multivariate models were developed considering factors associated with enrollment and differences between the insured and uninsured groups. Insurance enrollment was associated with improved health outcomes after controlling for other variables, and included a significant association with undetectable viremia, a key indicator of treatment success (p insurance. The National HIV/AIDS Strategy calls for new interventions to improve HIV health outcomes for disproportionately impacted populations. This study provides evidence to prioritize future ADAP-facilitated insurance enrollment strategies to reach minority populations and unstably housed individuals.
A.-F. Roos (Anne-Fleur); F.T. Schut (Erik)
textabstractLike many other countries, the Netherlands has a health insurance system that combines mandatory basic insurance with voluntary supplementary insurance. Both types of insurance are founded on different principles. Since basic and supplementary insurance are sold by the same health
... Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Rules Relating to Status as a Grandfathered Health Plan... contracts of insurance. The temporary regulations provide guidance to employers, group health plans, and health insurance issuers providing group health insurance coverage. The IRS is issuing the temporary...
... Requirements for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Under the Patient Protection and Affordable... Labor and the Office of Consumer Information and Insurance Oversight of the U.S. Department of Health... guidance to employers, group health plans, and health insurance issuers providing group health insurance...
Royalty, Anne Beeson
In recent years the cost of health insurance has been increasing much faster than wages. In the face of these rising costs, many employers will have to make difficult decisions about whether to cut back health benefits or to compensate workers with lower wages or lower wage growth. In this paper, we ask the question, "Which do workers value more -- one additional dollar's worth of health benefits or one more dollar in their pockets?" Using a new approach to obtaining estimates of insured workers' marginal valuation of health benefits this paper estimates how much, on average, employees value the marginal dollar paid by employers for their workers' health insurance. We find that insured workers value the marginal health premium dollar at significantly less than the marginal wage dollar. However, workers value insurance generosity very highly. The marginal dollar spent on health insurance that adds an additional dollar's worth of observable dimensions of plan generosity, such as lower deductibles or coverage of additional services, is valued at significantly more than one dollar.
Christiani, Yodi; Byles, Julie E; Tavener, Meredith; Dugdale, Paul
We examined women's access to health insurance in Indonesia. We analyzed IFLS-4 data of 1,400 adult women residing in four major cities. Among this population, the health insurance coverage was 24%. Women who were older, involved in paid work, and with higher education had greater access to health insurance (p health insurance across community levels (Median Odds Ratios = 3.40). Given the importance of health insurance for women's health, strategies should be developed to expand health insurance coverage among women in Indonesia, including the disparities across community levels. Such problems might also be encountered in other developing countries with low health insurance coverage.
Board on Health Care Services Staff; Institute of Medicine Staff; Institute of Medicine; National Academy of Sciences
...? How does the system of insurance coverage in the U.S. operate, and where does it fail? The first of six Institute of Medicine reports that will examine in detail the consequences of having a large uninsured population, Coverage Matters...
Fenny, Ama Pokuah; Enemark, Ulrika; Asante, Felix A
Ghana has initiated various health sector reforms over the past decades aimed at strengthening institutions, improving the overall health system and increasing access to healthcare services by all groups of people. The National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) instituted in 2005, is an innovative...... system aimed at making health care more accessible to people who need it. Currently, there is a growing amount of concern about the capacity of the NHIS to make quality health care accessible to its clients. A number of studies have concentrated on the effect of health insurance status on demand...... for health services, but have been quiet on supply side issues. The main aim of this study is to examine the overall satisfaction with health care among the insured and uninsured under the NHIS. The second aim is to explore the relations between overall satisfaction and socio-demographic characteristics...
Rickard, Megan L.; Price, James H.; Telljohann, Susan K.; Dake, Joseph A.; Fink, Brian N.
Background: Superintendents' perceptions regarding the effect of health insurance status on academics, the role schools should play in the process of obtaining health insurance, and the benefits/barriers to assisting students in enrolling in health insurance were surveyed. Superintendents' basic knowledge of health insurance, the link between…
Pérez-Perdomo, R; Pérez-Cardona, C; Rodríguez-Lugo, L
The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in persons covered by a health insurance company. The medical claims of persons insured with Triple S Health Insurance Co. of Puerto Rico, whose main diagnosis was diabetes (ICD9-250.0-9), were selected for analysis. Prevalence and medical utilization rates were estimated. General characteristics and services utilization were compared by age and sex using the chi-square distribution. Overall prevalence was 4.73%. Prevalence in the male population (5.07%) was higher than that of females (4.43%) in all age groups, but the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The proportion of diabetic cases was larger in the > 60 age group. 64% of the cases had 1 or more visits to a physician office, 2% were hospitalized, and almost 3% had emergency room visits. 29% of the cases had insulin prescriptions while 59% had oral prescriptions. The younger age group (diabetes in this group was lower than the prevalence reported in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. This may be partially explained by the fact that the study group did not represent the composition of the Puerto Rican population. Prevalence studies using other groups will be helpful to determine the prevalence of diabetes in Puerto Rico.
Krieger, Miriam; Felder, Stefan
Rather than conforming to the assumption of perfect rationality in neoclassical economic theory, decision behavior has been shown to display a host of systematic biases. Properly understood, these patterns can be instrumentalized to improve outcomes in the public realm. We conducted a laboratory experiment to study whether decisions over health insurance policies are subject to status quo bias and, if so, whether experience mitigates this framing effect. Choices in two treatment groups with status quo defaults are compared to choices in a neutrally framed control group. A two-step design features sorting of subjects into the groups, allowing us to control for selection effects due to risk preferences. The results confirm the presence of a status quo bias in consumer choices over health insurance policies. However, this effect of the default framing does not persist as subjects repeat this decision in later periods of the experiment. Our results have implications for health care policy, for example suggesting that the use of non-binding defaults in health insurance can facilitate the spread of co-insurance policies and thereby help contain health care expenditure.
Krieger, Miriam; Felder, Stefan
Rather than conforming to the assumption of perfect rationality in neoclassical economic theory, decision behavior has been shown to display a host of systematic biases. Properly understood, these patterns can be instrumentalized to improve outcomes in the public realm. We conducted a laboratory experiment to study whether decisions over health insurance policies are subject to status quo bias and, if so, whether experience mitigates this framing effect. Choices in two treatment groups with status quo defaults are compared to choices in a neutrally framed control group. A two-step design features sorting of subjects into the groups, allowing us to control for selection effects due to risk preferences. The results confirm the presence of a status quo bias in consumer choices over health insurance policies. However, this effect of the default framing does not persist as subjects repeat this decision in later periods of the experiment. Our results have implications for health care policy, for example suggesting that the use of non-binding defaults in health insurance can facilitate the spread of co-insurance policies and thereby help contain health care expenditure. PMID:23783222
Full Text Available Rather than conforming to the assumption of perfect rationality in neoclassical economic theory, decision behavior has been shown to display a host of systematic biases. Properly understood, these patterns can be instrumentalized to improve outcomes in the public realm. We conducted a laboratory experiment to study whether decisions over health insurance policies are subject to status quo bias and, if so, whether experience mitigates this framing effect. Choices in two treatment groups with status quo defaults are compared to choices in a neutrally framed control group. A two-step design features sorting of subjects into the groups, allowing us to control for selection effects due to risk preferences. The results confirm the presence of a status quo bias in consumer choices over health insurance policies. However, this effect of the default framing does not persist as subjects repeat this decision in later periods of the experiment. Our results have implications for health care policy, for example suggesting that the use of non-binding defaults in health insurance can facilitate the spread of co-insurance policies and thereby help contain health care expenditure.
Meng, Qingyue; Fang, Hai; Liu, Xiaoyun; Yuan, Beibei; Xu, Jin
Fragmentation in social health insurance schemes is an important factor for inequitable access to health care and financial protection for people covered by different health insurance schemes in China. To fulfil its commitment of universal health coverage by 2020, the Chinese Government needs to prioritise addressing this issue. After analysing the situation of fragmentation, this Review summarises efforts to consolidate health insurance schemes both in China and internationally. Rural migrants, elderly people, and those with non-communicable diseases in China will greatly benefit from consolidation of the existing health insurance schemes with extended funding pools, thereby narrowing the disparities among health insurance schemes in fund level and benefit package. Political commitments, institutional innovations, and a feasible implementation plan are the major elements needed for success in consolidation. Achievement of universal health coverage in China needs systemic strategies including consolidation of the social health insurance schemes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lofgren, Curt; Thanh, Nguyen X; Chuc, Nguyen Tk; Emmelin, Anders; Lindholm, Lars
The inequity caused by health financing in Vietnam, which mainly relies on out-of-pocket payments, has put pre-payment reform high on the political agenda. This paper reports on a study of the willingness to pay for health insurance among a rural population in northern Vietnam, exploring whether the Vietnamese are willing to pay enough to sufficiently finance a health insurance system. Using the Epidemiological Field Laboratory for Health Systems Research in the Bavi district (FilaBavi), 2070 households were randomly selected for the study. Existing FilaBavi interviewers were trained especially for this study. The interview questionnaire was developed through a pilot study followed by focus group discussions among interviewers. Determinants of households' willingness to pay were studied through interval regression by which problems such as zero answers, skewness, outliers and the heaping effect may be solved. Households' average willingness to pay (WTP) is higher than their costs for public health care and self-treatment. For 70-80% of the respondents, average WTP is also sufficient to pay the lower range of premiums in existing health insurance programmes. However, the average WTP would only be sufficient to finance about half of total household public, as well as private, health care costs. Variables that reflect income, health care need, age and educational level were significant determinants of households' willingness to pay. Contrary to expectations, age was negatively related to willingness to pay. Since WTP is sufficient to cover household costs for public health care, it depends to what extent households would substitute private for public care and increase utilization as to whether WTP would also be sufficient enough to finance health insurance. This study highlights potential for public information schemes that may change the negative attitude towards health insurance, which this study has uncovered. A key task for policy makers is to win the trust of the
... Medicaid, Children's Health Insurance Programs, and Exchanges: Essential Health Benefits in Alternative...'s Health Insurance Programs, and Exchanges: Essential Health Benefits in Alternative Benefit Plans... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services 42 CFR Parts 430...
D. Mch1tyre. Objective. To determine general practitioners' attitudes to national health insurance (NHI) and to capitation as a ... GPs who approved the introduction of NHI varied depending ... Health Economics Unit, Department of Community Health, University .... in Table I. They were then asked a series of closed questions.
Fenny, Ama P; Asante, Felix A; Enemark, Ulrika; Hansen, Kristian S
Health insurance is attracting more and more attention as a means for improving health care utilization and protecting households against impoverishment from out-of-pocket expenditures. Currently about 52 percent of the resources for financing health care services come from out of pocket sources or user fees in Africa. Therefore, Ghana serves as in interesting case study as it has successfully expanded coverage of the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS). The study aims to establish the treatment-seeking behaviour of households in Ghana under the NHI policy. The study relies on household data collected from three districts in Ghana covering the 3 ecological zones namely the coastal, forest and savannah.Out of the 1013 who sought care in the previous 4 weeks, 60% were insured and 71% of them sought care from a formal health facility. The results from the multinomial logit estimations show that health insurance and travel time to health facility are significant determinants of health care demand. Overall, compared to the uninsured, the insured are more likely to choose formal health facilities than informal care including self-medication when ill. We discuss the implications of these results as the concept of the NHIS grows widely in Ghana and serves as a good model for other African countries.
Mossialos, Elias; Thomson, Sarah M S
The authors examine the role and nature of the market for voluntary health insurance in the European Union and review the impact of public policy, at both the national and E.U. levels, on the development of this market in recent years. The conceptual framework, based on a model of industrial analysis, allows a wide range of policy questions regarding market structure, conduct, and performance. By analyzing these three aspects of the market for voluntary health insurance, the authors are also able to raise questions about the equity and efficiency of voluntary health insurance as a means of funding health care in the European Union. The analysis suggests that the market for voluntary health insurance in the European Union suffers from significant information failures that seriously limit its potential for competition or efficiency and also reduce equity. Substantial deregulation of the E.U. market for voluntary health insurance has stripped regulatory bodies of their power to protect consumers and poses interesting challenges for national regulators, particularly if the market is to expand in the future. In a deregulated environment, it is questionable whether this method of funding health care will encourage a more efficient and equitable allocation of resources.
Marton, James; Talbert, Jeffery C
This study uses the introduction of premiums into Kentucky's Children's Health Insurance Program (KCHIP) to examine whether the enrollment impact of new premiums varies by child health type. We also examine the extent to which children find alternative coverage after premium nonpayment. Public insurance claims data suggest that those with chronic health conditions are less likely to leave public coverage. We find little evidence of a differential impact of premiums on enrollment among the chronically ill. Our survey of nonpayers shows that 56% of responding families found alternative private or public health coverage for their children after losing CHIP.
Full Text Available While Japan’s success in achieving universal health insurance over a short period with controlled healthcare costs has been studied from various perspectives, that of beneficiaries have been overlooked. We conducted a secondary analysis of an opinion poll on health insurance in 1967, immediately after reaching universal coverage. We found that people continued to face a slight barrier to healthcare access (26.8% felt medical expenses were a heavy burden and had high expectations for health insurance (60.5% were satisfied with insured medical services and 82.4% were willing to pay a premium. In our study, younger age, having children before school age, lower living standards, and the health insurance scheme were factors that were associated with a willingness to pay premiums. Involving high-income groups in public insurance is considered to be the key to ensuring universal coverage of social insurance.
Full Text Available The significant gap between the quality of life and the level of health expenditure has led to the need to reconsider the modalities and the sources of collecting and redirecting the funds of the sanitary sector in such a way that sustainable medical results are generated for the entire population of the globe. Under these circumstances, the role of private health insurance is constantly increasing, even though its importance is still being influenced by the types of social policy and the dimension of the public health sector at national level. Due to the impact of these factors, the actual dimension of private health insurance market varies significantly across countries. In order to be able to realistically assess the level of development of the private health insurance market in Romania, the analysis has to be taken further than the simplistic measurement of indicators such as income and expenditure.
Ossa, Diego F; Towse, Adrian
The potential use of genetic tests in insurance has raised concerns about discrimination and individuals losing access to health care either because of refusals to test for treatable diseases, or because test-positives cannot afford premiums. Governments have so far largely sought to restrict the use of genetic information by insurance companies. To date the number of tests available with significant actuarial value is limited. However, this is likely to change, raising more clearly the question as to whether the social costs of adverse selection outweigh the social costs of individuals not accessing health care for fear of the consequences of test information being used in insurance markets. In this contribution we set out the policy context and model the potential trade-offs between the losses faced by insurers from adverse selection by insurees (which will increase premiums reducing consumer welfare) and the detrimental health effects that may result from persons refusing to undergo tests that could identify treatable health conditions. It argues that the optimal public policy on genetic testing should reflect overall societal benefit, taking account of these trade-offs. Based on our model, the factors that influence the outcome include: the size of and value attached to the health gains from treatment; deterrent effects of a disclosure requirement on testing for health reasons; incidence of the disease; propensity of test-positives to adverse select; policy value adverse selectors buy in a non-disclosure environment; and price elasticity of demand for insurance. Our illustrative model can be used as a benchmark for developing other scenarios or incorporating real data in order to address the impact of different policies on disclosure and requirement to test.
Woolhandler, Steffie; Himmelstein, David U; Angell, Marcia; Young, Quentin D
The United States spends more than twice as much on health care as the average of other developed nations, all of which boast universal coverage. Yet more than 41 million Americans have no health insurance. Many more are underinsured. Confronted by the rising costs and capabilities of modern medicine, other nations have chosen national health insurance (NHI). The United States alone treats health care as a commodity distributed according to the ability to pay, rather than as a social service to be distributed according to medical need. In this market-driven system, insurers and providers compete not so much by increasing quality or lowering costs, but by avoiding unprofitable patients and shifting costs back to patients or to other payers. This creates the paradox of a health care system based on avoiding the sick. It generates huge administrative costs that, along with profits, divert resources from clinical care to the demands of business. In addition, burgeoning satellite businesses, such as consulting firms and marketing companies, consume an increasing fraction of the health care dollar. We endorse a fundamental change in US health care--the creation of an NHI program. Such a program, which in essence would be an expanded and improved version of traditional Medicare, would cover every American for all necessary medical care. An NHI program would save at least 200 billion dollars annually (more than enough to cover all of the uninsured) by eliminating the high overhead and profits of the private, investor-owned insurance industry and reducing spending for marketing and other satellite services. Physicians and hospitals would be freed from the concomitant burdens and expenses of paperwork created by having to deal with multiple insurers with different rules, often designed to avoid payment. National health insurance would make it possible to set and enforce overall spending limits for the health care system, slowing cost growth over the long run. An NHI program
Peterson, Lauren; Comfort, Alison; Hatt, Laurel; van Bastelaer, Thierry
As a growing number of low- and middle-income countries commit to achieving universal health coverage, one key challenge is how to extend coverage to informal sector workers. Micro health insurance (MHI) provides a potential model to finance health services for this population. This study presents lessons from a pilot study of a mandatory MHI plan offered by a private insurance company and distributed through a microfinance bank to urban, informal sector workers in Lagos, Nigeria. Study methods included a survey of microfinance clients, key informant interviews, and a review of administrative records. Demographic, health care seeking, and willingness-to-pay data suggested that microfinance clients, particularly women, could benefit from a comprehensive MHI plan that improved access to health care and reduced out-of-pocket spending on health services. However, administrative data revealed declining enrollment, and key informant interviews further suggested low use of the health insurance plan. Key implementation challenges, including changes to mandatory enrollment requirements, insufficient client education and marketing, misaligned incentives, and weak back-office systems, undermined enrollment and use of the plan. Mandatory MHI plans, intended to mitigate adverse selection and facilitate private insurers' entry into new markets, present challenges for covering informal sector workers, including when distributed through agents such as a microfinance bank. Properly aligning the incentives of the insurer and the agent are critical to effectively distribute and service insurance. Further, an urban environment presents unique challenges for distributing MHI, addressing client perceptions of health insurance, and meeting their health care needs. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Buchmueller, Thomas C; Ohri, Sabina
To examine the effect of price on the demand for health insurance by early retirees between the ages of 55 and 64. Administrative health plan enrollment data from a medium-sized U.S. employer. The analysis takes advantage of a natural experiment created by the firm's health insurance contribution policy. The amount the firm contributes toward retiree health insurance coverage depends on when a person retired and her years of service at that date. As a result of this policy, there is considerable variation in out-of-pocket premiums faced by individuals in the data. This variation is independent of the nonprice attributes of the health insurance plans offered and is plausibly exogenous to individual characteristics that are likely to affect the demand for insurance. A probit model is used to estimate the decision to take-up employer-sponsored health insurance by early retirees between the ages of 55 and 64. Demand for insurance is measured as a function of out-of-pocket premiums and a set of individual characteristics. We find that price has a small but statistically significant effect on the decision to take up coverage. Estimated price elasticities range from -0.10 to -0.16, depending on the sample. The implied elasticities are comparable with results found in previous studies using very different data. Our estimates indicate that policy proposals for a Medicare buy-in or a nongroup tax credit will have a modest impact on take-up rates of near-elderly retirees.
Wong, Charlene A; Asch, David A; Vinoya, Cjloe M; Ford, Carol A; Baker, Tom; Town, Robert; Merchant, Raina M
We describe young adults' perspectives on health insurance and HealthCare.gov, including their attitudes toward health insurance, health insurance literacy, and benefit and plan preferences. We observed young adults aged 19-30 years in Philadelphia from January to March 2014 as they shopped for health insurance on HealthCare.gov. Participants were then interviewed to elicit their perceived advantages and disadvantages of insurance and factors considered important for plan selection. A 1-month follow-up interview assessed participants' plan enrollment decisions and intended use of health insurance. Data were analyzed using qualitative methodology, and salience scores were calculated for free-listing responses. We enrolled 33 highly educated young adults; 27 completed the follow-up interview. The most salient advantages of health insurance for young adults were access to preventive or primary care (salience score .28) and peace of mind (.27). The most salient disadvantage was the financial strain of paying for health insurance (.72). Participants revealed poor health insurance literacy with 48% incorrectly defining deductible and 78% incorrectly defining coinsurance. The most salient factors reported to influence plan selection were deductible (.48) and premium (.45) amounts as well as preventive care (.21) coverage. The most common intended health insurance use was primary care. Eight participants enrolled in HealthCare.gov plans: six selected silver plans, and three qualified for tax credits. Young adults' perspective on health insurance and enrollment via HealthCare.gov can inform strategies to design health insurance plans and communication about these plans in a way that engages and meets the needs of young adult populations. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Frese, Richard; Kitchen, Patrick
The hospital CFO often works with the hospital's actuary and external auditor to calculate the reserves recorded in financial statements. Hospital management, usually the CFO, needs to decide the discount rate that is most appropriate. A formal policy addressing the rationale for discounting and the rationale for selecting the discount rate can be helpful to the CFO, actuary, and external auditor.
Fenny, Ama P.; Enemark, Ulrika; Asante, Felix A.; Hansen, Kristian S.
Ghana has initiated various health sector reforms over the past decades aimed at strengthening institutions, improving the overall health system and increasing access to healthcare services by all groups of people. The National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) instituted in 2005, is an innovative system aimed at making health care more accessible to people who need it. Currently, there is a growing amount of concern about the capacity of the NHIS to make quality health care accessible to its clients. A number of studies have concentrated on the effect of health insurance status on demand for health services, but have been quiet on supply side issues. The main aim of this study is to examine the overall satisfaction with health care among the insured and uninsured under the NHIS. The second aim is to explore the relations between overall satisfaction and socio-demographic characteristics, health insurance and the various dimensions of quality of care. This study employs logistic regression using household survey data in three districts in Ghana covering the 3 ecological zones (coastal, forest and savannah). It identifies the service quality factors that are important to patients’ satisfaction and examines their links to their health insurance status. The results indicate that a higher proportion of insured patients are satisfied with the overall quality of care compared to the uninsured. The key predictors of overall satisfaction are waiting time, friendliness of staff and satisfaction of the consultation process. These results highlight the importance of interpersonal care in health care facilities. Feedback from patients’ perception of health services and satisfaction surveys improve the quality of care provided and therefore effort must be made to include these findings in future health policies. PMID:24999137
Fenny, Ama Pokuaa; Enemark, Ulrika; Asante, Felix A; Hansen, Kristian S
Ghana has initiated various health sector reforms over the past decades aimed at strengthening institutions, improving the overall health system and increasing access to healthcare services by all groups of people. The National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) instituted in 2005, is an innovative system aimed at making health care more accessible to people who need it. Currently, there is a growing amount of concern about the capacity of the NHIS to make quality health care accessible to its clients. A number of studies have concentrated on the effect of health insurance status on demand for health services, but have been quiet on supply side issues. The main aim of this study is to examine the overall satisfaction with health care among the insured and uninsured under the NHIS. The second aim is to explore the relations between overall satisfaction and socio-demographic characteristics, health insurance and the various dimensions of quality of care. This study employs logistic regression using household survey data in three districts in Ghana covering the 3 ecological zones (coastal, forest and savannah). It identifies the service quality factors that are important to patients' satisfaction and examines their links to their health insurance status. The results indicate that a higher proportion of insured patients are satisfied with the overall quality of care compared to the uninsured. The key predictors of overall satisfaction are waiting time, friendliness of staff and satisfaction of the consultation process. These results highlight the importance of interpersonal care in health care facilities. Feedback from patients' perception of health services and satisfaction surveys improve the quality of care provided and therefore effort must be made to include these findings in future health policies.
Jin, Yinzi; Hou, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Donglan
Background China is reforming and restructuring its health insurance system to achieve the goal of universal coverage. This study aims to understand the determinants of public, private and multiple insurance coverage among people of retirement-age in China. Methods We used data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Survey 2011 and 2013, a nationally representative survey of Chinese people aged 45 and over. Multinomial logit regression was performed to identify the determinants of public, private and multiple health insurance coverage. We also conducted logit regression to examine the association between public insurance coverage and demand for private insurance. Results In 2013, 94.5% of this population had at least one type of public insurance, and 12.2% purchased private insurance. In general, we found that rural residents were less likely to be uninsured (Relative Risk Ratio (RRR) = 0.40, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.34–0.47) and were less likely to buy private insurance (RRR = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.16–0.31). But rural-to-urban migrants were more likely to be uninsured (RRR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.24–1.57). Public health insurance coverage may crowd out private insurance market (Odds Ratio = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.48–0.63), particularly among enrollees of Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance. There exists a huge socioeconomic disparity in both public and private insurance coverage. Conclusion The migrants, the poor and the vulnerable remained in the edge of the system. The growing private insurance market did not provide sufficient financial protection and did not cover the people with the greatest need. To achieve universal coverage and reduce socioeconomic disparity, China should integrate the urban and rural public insurance schemes across regions and remove the barriers for the middle-income and low-income to access private insurance. PMID:27564320
Pan, Jay; Lei, Xiaoyan; Liu, Gordon G
Whether health insurance matters for health has long been a central issue for debate when assessing the full value of health insurance coverage in both developed and developing countries. In 2007, the government-led Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI) program was piloted in China, followed by a nationwide implementation in 2009. Different premium subsidies by government across cities and groups provide a unique opportunity to employ the instrumental variables estimation approach to identify the causal effects of health insurance on health. Using a national panel survey of the URBMI, we find that URBMI beneficiaries experience statistically better health than the uninsured. Furthermore, the insurance health benefit appears to be stronger for groups with disadvantaged education and income than for their counterparts. In addition, the insured receive more and better inpatient care, without paying more for services. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Stacey A. Tovino
Full Text Available This article compares and contrasts public and private health insurance coverage of skilled medical rehabilitation, including cognitive rehabilitation, physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language pathology, and skilled nursing services (collectively, skilled care. As background, prior scholars writing in this area have focused on Medicare coverage of skilled care and have challenged coverage determinations limiting Medicare coverage to beneficiaries who are able to demonstrate improvement in their conditions within a specific period of time (the Improvement Standard. By and large, these scholars have applauded the settlement agreement approved on 24 January 2013, by the U.S. District Court for the District of Vermont in Jimmo v. Sebelius (Jimmo, as well as related motions, rulings, orders, government fact sheets, and Medicare program manual statements clarifying that Medicare covers skilled care that is necessary to prevent or slow a beneficiary’s deterioration or to maintain a beneficiary at his or her maximum practicable level of function even though no further improvement in the beneficiary’s condition is expected. Scholars who have focused on beneficiaries who have suffered severe brain injuries, in particular, have framed public insurance coverage of skilled brain rehabilitation as an important civil, disability, and educational right. Given that approximately two-thirds of Americans with health insurance are covered by private health insurance and that many private health plans continue to require their insureds to demonstrate improvement within a short period of time to obtain coverage of skilled care, scholarship assessing private health insurance coverage of skilled care is important but noticeably absent from the literature. This article responds to this gap by highlighting state benchmark plans’ and other private health plans’ continued use of the Improvement Standard in skilled care coverage decisions and
Wang, Wenjuan; Temsah, Gheda; Mallick, Lindsay
While research has assessed the impact of health insurance on health care utilization, few studies have focused on the effects of health insurance on use of maternal health care. Analyzing nationally representative data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), this study estimates the impact of health insurance status on the use of maternal health services in three countries with relatively high levels of health insurance coverage-Ghana, Indonesia and Rwanda. The analysis uses propensity score matching to adjust for selection bias in health insurance uptake and to assess the effect of health insurance on four measurements of maternal health care utilization: making at least one antenatal care visit; making four or more antenatal care visits; initiating antenatal care within the first trimester and giving birth in a health facility. Although health insurance schemes in these three countries are mostly designed to focus on the poor, coverage has been highly skewed toward the rich, especially in Ghana and Rwanda. Indonesia shows less variation in coverage by wealth status. The analysis found significant positive effects of health insurance coverage on at least two of the four measures of maternal health care utilization in each of the three countries. Indonesia stands out for the most systematic effect of health insurance across all four measures. The positive impact of health insurance appears more consistent on use of facility-based delivery than use of antenatal care. The analysis suggests that broadening health insurance to include income-sensitive premiums or exemptions for the poor and low or no copayments can increase use of maternal health care. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.
Kuo Ken N
Full Text Available Abstract Background Taiwan established a system of universal National Health Insurance (NHI in March, 1995. Today, the NHI covers more than 98% of Taiwan's population and enrollees enjoy almost free access to healthcare with small co-payment by most clinics and hospitals. Yet while this expansion of coverage will almost inevitably have improved access to health care, however, it cannot be assumed that it will necessarily have improved the health of the population. The aim of this study was to determine whether the introduction of National Health Insurance (NHI in Taiwan in 1995 was associated with a change in deaths from causes amenable to health care. Methods Identification of discontinuities in trends in mortality considered amenable to health care and all other conditions (non-amenable mortality using joinpoint regression analysis from 1981 to 2005. Results Deaths from amenable causes declined between 1981 and 1993 but slowed between 1993 and 1996. Once NHI was implemented, the decline accelerated significantly, falling at 5.83% per year between 1996 and 1999. In contrast, there was little change in non-amenable causes (0.64% per year between 1981 and 1999. The effect of NHI was highest among the young and old, and lowest among those of working age, consistent with changes in the pattern of coverage. NHI was associated with substantial reductions in deaths from circulatory disorders and, for men, infections, whilst an earlier upward trend in female cancer deaths was reversed. Conclusions NHI was associated in a reduction in deaths considered amenable to health care; particularly among those age groups least likely to have been insured previously.
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services [CMS-9953-PN] Health Insurance Exchanges; Application by the Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care To Be... Federal Register announcing the result of our determination. (Health Insurance Exchanges; Application by...
Full Text Available Purpose of the article: The main purpose of the article is to define the term “financial health of a commercial insurance company” and identify the factors that influence management and its economic results of a commercial insurance company. The above mentioned term will be faced with other similar terms such as financial stability, financial strength, solvency, liquidity or profitability (always with emphasis on the insurance sector. Related to this purpose, this hypothesis is formulated: “Financial health of a commercial insurance company can be identified in the long perspective with the term financial stability and as its synonym the concept of solvency can be stated.” Methodology/methods: The methods of description, analysis, deduction and induction will be used in the article. The research part is based on a qualitative basis. It combines three methods of qualitative research: interviews with experts, a structured interview with open questions, a questionnaire with open questions. Its subject is a managed conversation with leading experts in the field of insurance and related branches, who answered questions related to the topic. Evaluation of interviews was done by method of interview analysis, respectively thematic analysis and subsequent synthesis based on respondents’ answers. The synthesis is used as a method to gain new knowledge. The conclusions are the basis for discussion for the theory completion in the case of the term mentioned above and for statements to other contexts that are defined in the objectives of the article. Synthetic approach is applied in the formulation of conclusions of the research. Significant findings for the theory are obtained by abstraction, as derived from observations of the issues, i.e. financial health of a commercial insurance company. The evaluation also includes a summary of significant matters and it reflects the opinion of the author devised throughout literature and based on interviews
Kalin, T; Kandus, G; Trcek, D; Zupan, B
The Slovenian national health insurance company started a full-scale deployment of the insurance smart card that is at the present used for insurance data and identification purpose only. There is ample capacity on the cards that were selected, to contain much more data than needed for the purely administrative and charging purposes. There are plans to include some basic medical information, donor information, etc. On the other hand, there are no firm plans to use the security infrastructure and the extensive network, connecting the insurance company with the more than 200 self service terminals positioned at the medical facilities through the country to build an integrated medical information system that would be very beneficial to the patients and the medical community. This paper is proposing some possible future developments and further discusses on the security issues involved with such countrywide medical information system.
Background: Health insurance is a social security system that aims to facilitate fair financing of health costs through pooling and judicious utilization of financial resources, in order to provide financial risk protections and cost burden sharing for people against high cost of healthcare through various prepayment methods ...
Background: The National Health Insurance Scheme was established under Act 35 of 1999 by the Federal Government of Nigeria and is aimed at providing easy access to health care for all Nigerians at an affordable cost through various prepayment systems. It is totally committed to achieving universal coverage and ...
Boone, J.; Douven, R.C.M.H.; Droge, C.; Mosca, I.
In countries like the US and the Netherlands health insurance is provided by private firms. These private firms can offer both individual and group contracts. The strategic and welfare implications of such group contracts are not well understood. Using a Dutch data set of about 700 group health
Adverse selection as it relates to health care policy will be a key economic issue in many upcoming elections. In this article, the author lays out a 30-minute classroom experiment designed for students to experience the kind of elevated prices and market collapse that can result from adverse selection in health insurance markets. The students…
Ghana is one of the first sub-Saharan African countries to introduce national health insurance to ensure more equity in access to health care. The response of the population has been disappointing, however. This study describes and examines an experiment with so called 'problem-solving groups' that
Morrisey, Michael A; Kilgore, Meredith L; Nelson, Leonard Jack
Tort reform may affect health insurance premiums both by reducing medical malpractice premiums and by reducing the extent of defensive medicine. The objective of this study is to estimate the effects of noneconomic damage caps on the premiums for employer-sponsored health insurance. Employer premium data and plan/establishment characteristics were obtained from the 1999 through 2004 Kaiser/HRET Employer Health Insurance Surveys. Damage caps were obtained and dated based on state annotated codes, statutes, and judicial decisions. Fixed effects regression models were run to estimate the effects of the size of inflation-adjusted damage caps on the weighted average single premiums. State tort reform laws were identified using Westlaw, LEXIS, and statutory compilations. Legislative repeal and amendment of statutes and court decisions resulting in the overturning or repealing state statutes were also identified using LEXIS. Using a variety of empirical specifications, there was no statistically significant evidence that noneconomic damage caps exerted any meaningful influence on the cost of employer-sponsored health insurance. The findings suggest that tort reforms have not translated into insurance savings.
Full Text Available Objective: Setting research priorities in the research management cycle is a key. It is important to set the research priorities to make optimal use of scarce resources. The aim of this research was to determine the research needs of Health Insurance Organization based on its health care centers research needs.Methods: This is a qualitative, descriptive and cross-sectional study that was conducted in 2011. A purposeful sample of 60 participants from 14 hospitals, seven dispensaries, five dental clinics, two rehabilitation centers, four radiology centers, six medical diagnostic laboratories, 12 pharmacies, and 20 medical offices that were contracted with the Health Insurance Organization in Iran was interviewed. The framework analysis method (a qualitative research method was used for analysis of interviews. Atlas-Ti software was used to analyze quantitative data, respectively. The topics were prioritized using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP method through Expert Choice software.Results: Based on the problems extracted in our qualitative study, 12 research topics were proposed by the experts. Among these “Design of standard treatment protocols,” “Designing model of ranking the health care centers under contract,” and “Pathology of payment system” took the priority ranks of 1 to 3, earning the scores of 0.44, 0.42, and 0.37, respectively.Conclusion: Considering limited resources and unlimited needs and to prevent research resource wasting, conducting research related to health care providers in the Health Insurance Organization can help it achieve its goals.
...] Medicare, Medicaid, and Children's Health Insurance Programs; Renewal, Expansion, and Renaming of the...'s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) about options for selecting health care coverage under these and... needs are for experts in health disparities, State Health Insurance Assistance Programs (SHIPs), health...
Aron-Dine, Aviva; Einav, Liran; Finkelstein, Amy
We re-present and re-examine the analysis from the famous RAND Health Insurance Experiment from the 1970s on the impact of consumer cost sharing in health insurance on medical spending. We begin by summarizing the experiment and its core findings in a manner that would be standard in the current age. We then examine potential threats to the validity of a causal interpretation of the experimental treatment effects stemming from different study participation and differential reporting of outcomes across treatment arms. Finally, we re-consider the famous RAND estimate that the elasticity of medical spending with respect to its out-of-pocket price is −0.2, emphasizing the challenges associated with summarizing the experimental treatment effects from non-linear health insurance contracts using a single price elasticity. PMID:24610973
This essay outlines a concept for a "flexible benefits" tax credit for expanding health insurance coverage and other purposes such as retirement savings plans (with potential withdrawals for higher education, first-home ownership, and catastrophic medical expenses). Two examples are presented. The advantages of a flexible benefits tax credit are considered in terms of efficient use of the budget surplus to help meet the varied (and changing) needs of American families, to eliminate major national gaps in health insurance and pension coverage, and to advance other objectives. If the budget surplus is used wisely, political decisionmakers could achieve health insurance coverage for most uninsured workers and children and assure a future with real economic security for American families.
Objectives. I examined the relationship between insurance coverage, which may influence physician incentives and maternal choices, and cesarean delivery before labor. Methods. I analyzed hospital discharge data for mothers without previous cesarean deliveries in New Jersey between 2004 and 2007, with adjustment for maternal age, race, marital status, and maternal, fetal, and placental conditions. Results. Nearly 1 in 7 women (13.9%) had a cesarean delivery without laboring. Insurance status was strongly associated with cesarean birth. Women insured by Medicaid (adjusted relative risk [ARR] = 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.84, 0.91) or self-paying (ARR = 0.81; 95% CI = 0.78, 0.85) had a significantly lower likelihood, and women insured by BlueCross (ARR = 1.06; 95% CI = 1.03, 1.09) or standard commercial plans (ARR = 1.06; 95% CI = 1.02, 1.10) had a significantly higher likelihood of cesarean delivery than did women insured by commercial health maintenance organizations. These associations persisted in subsets restricted to lower-risk women and in qualitative sensitivity analyses for a hypothetical single, binary, unmeasured confounder. Conclusions. Insurance status has a small, independent impact on whether a woman without a previous cesarean delivery proceeds to labor or has a cesarean delivery without labor. PMID:21940911
Goudie, Anthony; Carle, Adam C
Nearly 30 percent of young adults with special health care needs in Ohio lack health insurance, compared to 5 percent of the state's children with special health care needs. As children with such needs become too old for Medicaid or insurance through their parents' employer, they face great challenges in obtaining insurance. Lack of insurance is highly predictive of unmet needs, which in turn are predictive of costly hospital-based encounters. Young adults with special health care needs who are uninsured are more than twice as likely as their peers with insurance to forgo filling prescriptions and getting care and to have problems getting care. Even after insurance status is accounted for, young adults with special health care needs are more likely than children with such needs to not fill prescriptions because of cost and to delay or forgo needed care. This study demonstrates that continuous and adequate health insurance is vital to the continued well-being of children with special health care needs as they transition to young adulthood.
Siskou, Olga; Kaitelidou, Daphne; Economou, Charalampos; Kostagiolas, Peter; Liaropoulos, Lycourgos
The health care system in Greece is financed in almost equal proportions by public and private sources. Private expenditure, consists mostly of out-of-pocket and under-the-table payments. Such payments strongly suggest dissatisfaction with the public system, due to under financing during the last 25 years. This gap has been filled rapidly by the private sector. From this point of view, one might suggest that the flourishing development of private provision may lead in turn to a corresponding growth in private health insurance (PHI). This paper aims to examine the role of PHI in Greece, to identify the factors influencing its development, and to make some suggestions about future policies and trends. In the decade of 1985-1995 PHI show increasing activity, reflecting the intention of some citizens to seek health insurance solutions in the form of supplementary cover in order to ensure faster access, better quality of services, and increased consumer choice. The benefits include programs covering hospital expenses, cash benefits, outpatient care expenses, disability income insurance, as well as limited managed care programs. However, despite recent interest, PHI coverage remains low in Greece compared to other EU countries. Economic, social and cultural factors such as low average household income, high unemployment, obligatory and full coverage by social insurance, lead to reluctance to pay for second-tier insurance. Instead, there is a preference to pay a doctor or hospital directly even in the form of under-the-table payments (which are remarkably high in Greece), when the need arises. There are also factors endogenous to the PHI industry, related to market policies, low organisational capacity, cream skimming, and the absence of insurance products meeting consumer requirements, which explain the relatively low state of development of PHI in Greece.
Health care systems often face competing goals and priorities, which make reforms challenging. This study analyzed factors influencing the success of a health care system based on urban health insurance reform evolution in China, and offers recommendations for improvement. Findings based on health insurance reform strategies and mechanisms that did or did not work can effectively inform improvement of health insurance system design and practice, and overall health care system performance, including equity, efficiency, effectiveness, cost, finance, access, and coverage, both in China and other countries. This study is the first to use historical comparison to examine the success and failure of China's health care system over time before and after the economic reform in the 1980s. This study is also among the first to analyze the determinants of Chinese health system effectiveness by relating its performance to both technical reasons within the health system and underlying nontechnical characteristics outside the health system, including socioeconomics, politics, culture, values, and beliefs. In conclusion, a health insurance system is successful when it fits its social environment, economic framework, and cultural context, which translates to congruent health care policies, strategies, organization, and delivery. No health system can survive without its deeply rooted socioeconomic environment and cultural context. That is why one society should be cautious not to radically switch from a successful model to an entirely different one over time. There is no perfect health system model suitable for every population-only appropriate ones for specific nations and specific populations at the right place and right time. (Population Health Management 2016;19:291-297).
Zhang, Chuanchuan; Lei, Xiaoyan; Strauss, John; Zhao, Yaohui
We document the recent profile of health insurance and health care among mid-aged and older Chinese using data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study conducted in 2011. Overall health insurance coverage is about 93%. Multivariate regressions show that respondents with lower income as measured by per capita expenditure have a lower chance of being insured, as do the less-educated, older, and divorced/widowed women and rural-registered people. Premiums and reimbursement rates of health insurance vary significantly by schemes. Inpatient reimbursement rates for urban people increase with total cost to a plateau of 60%; rural people receive much less. Demographic characteristics such as age, education, marriage status, per capita expenditure, and self-reported health status are not significantly associated with share of out-of-pocket cost after controlling community effects. For health service use, we find large gaps that vary across health insurance plans, especially for inpatient service. People with access to urban health insurance plans are more likely to use health services. In general, Chinese people have easy access to median low-level medical facilities. It is also not difficult to access general hospitals or specialized hospitals, but there exists better access to healthcare facilities in urban areas. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
González-Block, Miguel A; de la Sierra-de la Vega, Luz A
Abstract Background A total of 12.7 million Mexicans reside as migrants in the United States, of whom only 45% have health insurance in this country while access to health insurance by migrants in Mexico is fraught with difficulties. Health insurance has been shown to impact the use of health care in both countries. This paper quantifies hospitalizations by migrants who return from the US seeking medical care in public and private hospitals in the US-Mexico border area and in communities of o...
Palmisano, Donald J; Emmons, David W; Wozniak, Gregory D
Recent reports showing an increase in the number of uninsured individuals in the United States have given heightened attention to increasing health insurance coverage. The American Medical Association (AMA) has proposed a system of tax credits for the purchase of individually owned health insurance and enhancements to individual and group health insurance markets as a means of expanding coverage. Individually owned insurance would enable people to maintain coverage without disruption to existing patient-physician relationships, regardless of changes in employers or in work status. The AMA's plan would empower individuals to choose their health plan and give patients and their physicians more control over health care choices. Employers could continue to offer employment-based coverage, but employees would not be limited to the health plans offered by their employer. With a tax credit large enough to make coverage affordable and the ability to choose their own coverage, consumers would dramatically transform the individual and group health insurance markets. Health insurers would respond to the demands of individual consumers and be more cautious about increasing premiums. Insurers would also tailor benefit packages and develop new forms of coverage to better match the preferences of individuals and families. The AMA supports the development of new health insurance markets through legislative and regulatory changes to foster a wider array of high-quality, affordable plans.
Vonk, Robert A A; Schut, Frederik T
For almost a century, the Netherlands was marked by a large market for voluntary private health insurance alongside state-regulated social health insurance. Throughout this period, private health insurers tried to safeguard their position within an expanding welfare state. From an institutional logics perspective, we analyze how private health insurers tried to reconcile the tension between a competitive insurance market pressuring for selective underwriting and actuarially fair premiums (the insurance logic), and an upcoming welfare state pressuring for universal access and socially fair premiums (the welfare state logic). Based on primary sources and the extant historiography, we distinguish six periods in which the balance between both logics changed significantly. We identify various strategies employed by private insurers to reconcile the competing logics. Some of these were temporarily successful, but required measures that were incompatible with the idea of free entrepreneurship and consumer choice. We conclude that universal access can only be achieved in a competitive individual private health insurance market if this market is effectively regulated and mandatory cross-subsidies are effectively enforced. The Dutch case demonstrates that achieving universal access in a competitive private health insurance market is institutionally complex and requires broad political and societal support.
Morrill, Melinda Sandler
Employer-provided health insurance for public sector workers is a significant public policy issue. Underfunding and the growing costs of benefits may hinder the fiscal solvency of state and local governments. Findings from the private sector may not be applicable because many public sector workers are covered by union contracts or salary schedules and often benefit modifications require changes in legislation. Research has been limited by the difficulty in obtaining sufficiently large and representative data on public sector employees. This article highlights data sources researchers might utilize to investigate topics concerning health insurance for active and retired public sector employees. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
At the end of 2006, the Management of Clinique La Colline canceled its 2005 tariff agreement with the health insurance schemes of international organizations (CERN, ILO-ITU, WHO, UNOG). The proposed 2007 tariffs were unacceptable to these schemes as they included an average increase of 12%. No agreement was found and therefore this clinic is no longer approved by the CHIS, according to the definition given in the Rules of the CERN Health Insurance Scheme. Our Administrator, UNIQA, will no longer act as paying third party for any hospitalisation which has not already been planned and agreed. More information will appear in the next issue of the CHISBull'. Tel.74484
Barker, Abigail R; McBride, Timothy D; Kemper, Leah M; Mueller, Keith
This policy brief analyzes the 2014 premiums associated with qualified health plans (QHPs) made available through new health insurance marketplaces (HIMs), an implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010. We report differences in premiums by insurance rating areas while controlling for other important factors such as the actuarial value of the plan (metal level), cost-of-living differences, and state-level decisions over type of rating area. While market equilibrium, based on experience and understanding of the characteristics of the new market, should not be expected this soon, preliminary results give policymakers key issues to monitor.
... Department of Health and Human Services 45 CFR Part 147 Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers... SERVICES [CMS-9993-IFC2] 45 CFR Part 147 RIN 0938-AQ66 Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers... for group health plans and health insurance coverage in the group and individual markets under...
Karara, Gustave; Verbeke, Frank; Nyssen, Marc
In this retrospective study, the authors monitored the patient health coverage in 6 Rwandan hospitals in the period between 2011 and 2014. Among the 6 hospitals, 2 are third level hospitals, 2 district hospitals and 2 private hospitals. Patient insurance and financial data were extracted and analyzed from OpenClinic GA, an open source hospital information system (HIS) used in those 6 hospitals. The percentage of patients who had no health insurer globally decreased from 35% in 2011 to 15% in 2014. The rate of health insurance coverage in hospitals varied between 75% in private hospitals and 84% in public hospitals. The amounts paid by the patients for health services decreased in private hospitals to 25% of the total costs in 2014 (-7.4%) and vary between 14% and 19% in public hospitals. Although the number of insured patients has increased and the patient share decreased over the four years of study, the patients' out-of-pocket payments increased especially for in-patients. This study emphasizes the value of integrated hospital information systems for this kind of health economics research in developing countries.
Barry, Colleen L.; Ridgely, M. Susan
A fundamental concern with competitive health insurance markets is that they will not supply efficient levels of coverage for treatment of costly, chronic, and predictable illnesses, such as mental illness. Since the inception of employer-based health insurance, coverage for mental health services has been offered on a more limited basis than…
Polsky, Daniel; Stein, Rebecca; Nicholson, Sean; Bundorf, M Kate
To determine how the characteristics of the health benefits offered by employers affect worker insurance coverage decisions. The 1996-1997 and the 1998-1999 rounds of the nationally representative Community Tracking Study Household Survey. We use multinomial logistic regression to analyze the choice between own-employer coverage, alternative source coverage, and no coverage among employees offered health insurance by their employer. The key explanatory variables are the types of health plans offered and the net premium offered. The models include controls for personal, health plan, and job characteristics. When an employer offers only a health maintenance organization married employees are more likely to decline coverage from their employer and take-up another offer (odds ratio (OR)=1.27, phealth plan coverage an employer offers affects whether its employees take-up insurance, but has a smaller effect on overall coverage rates for workers and their families because of the availability of alternative sources of coverage. Relative to offering only a non-HMO plan, employers offering only an HMO may reduce take-up among those with alternative sources of coverage, but increase take-up among those who would otherwise go uninsured. By modeling the possibility of take-up through the health insurance offers from the employer of the spouse, the decline in coverage rates from higher net premiums is less than previous estimates.
Gavin, John N; Goodman, George; Goroff, David B
The owners of a health insurance/managed care business may want to sell that business for a variety of reasons. Health care provider systems may want to exit that business due to operating losses, difficulty in complying with regulations, the inherent conflict in operating that business as part of a provider system, or the desire to focus on being a health care provider. Health insurers/HMOs may want to sell all or a portion of their business due to operating losses, difficulty in servicing a particular market, or a desire to focus on other markets. No matter what reason prompts a seller to undertake a sale, a sale of health insurance/managed care business can be a complicated transaction involving a multitude of issues. This article will focus first on the ways in which such a sale may be structured. The article will then discuss some transactional issues that may arise in the negotiations for the sale of a health insurance/managed care business. The article will then focus on some particular legal issues that arise in each sale-e.g., antitrust, HIPAA, regulatory approvals, and charitable issues. Finally, this article will provide an overview of tax structuring considerations.
Jehu-Appiah, C.; Aryeetey, G.C.; Agyepong, I.; Spaan, E.J.; Baltussen, R.M.
OBJECTIVE: This paper identifies, ranks and compares perceptions of insured and uninsured households in Ghana on health care providers (quality of care, service delivery adequacy, staff attitudes), health insurance schemes (price, benefits and convenience) and community attributes (health 'beliefs
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services [CMS-6051-N] Medicare, Medicaid, and Children's Health Insurance Programs; Provider Enrollment Application Fee Amount... period entitled ``Medicare, Medicaid, and Children's Health Insurance Programs; Additional Screening...
K.P.M. Winssen van (Kayleigh); R.C. van Kleef (Richard); W.P.M.M. van de Ven (Wynand)
textabstractIn health insurance, voluntary deductibles are offered to the insured in return for a premium rebate. Previous research has shown that 11 % of the Dutch insured opted for a voluntary deductible (VD) in health insurance in 2014, while the highest VD level was financially profitable for
Bijlsma, M.; Boone, Jan; Zwart, G.T.J.
We analyze the role of community rating in the optimal design of a risk adjustment scheme in competitive health insurance markets when insurers have better information on their customers’ risk profiles than the sponsor of health insurance. The sponsor offers insurers a menu of risk adjustment
The financial exuberance that eventually culminated in the recent world economic crisis also ushered in dramatic shifts in how health care is financed, administered, and imagined. Drawing on research conducted in the mid-2000s at a health insurance company in Puerto Rico, this article shows how health care has been financialized in many ways that include: (1) privatizing public services; (2) engineering new insurance products like high deductible plans and health savings accounts; (3) applying financial techniques to premium payments to yield maximum profitability; (4) a managerial focus on shareholder value; and (5) prioritizing mergers and financial speculation. The article argues that financial techniques obfuscate how much health care costs, foster widespread gaming of reimbursement systems that drives up prices, and "unpool" risk by devolving financial and moral responsibility for health care onto individual consumers. © 2015 by the American Anthropological Association.
... Part III Department of Health and Human Services 45 CFR Part 158 Health Insurance Issuers... 0950-AA06 Health Insurance Issuers Implementing Medical Loss Ratio (MLR) Requirements Under the Patient... health insurance issuers under the Public Health Service Act, as added by the Patient Protection and...
... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Current State child health insurance coverage and... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Introduction; State Plans for Child Health Insurance Programs and Outreach Strategies...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Part 158 [CMS-9998-IFC3] Health Insurance Issuers..., entitled ``Health Insurance Issuers Implementing Medical Loss Ratio (MLR) Requirements Under the Patient...) requirements for health insurance issuers under section 2718 of the Public Health Service Act, as added by the...
Bhat Ramesh; Jain Nishant
Health insurance policies are generally one-year policies and to remain part of the insurance poll, policyholders are required to renew their policies each year. Understanding the factors that affect the demand and renewal decisions to continue in health insurance programme is imperative for future growth and development of the insurance sector. We extend our previous work on factors affecting the decision to purchase health insurance to understand the factors affecting the renewal of insuran...
Keegan, Conor; Teljeur, Conor; Turner, Brian; Thomas, Steve
The determinants of consumer mobility in voluntary health insurance markets providing duplicate cover are not well understood. Consumer mobility can have important implications for competition. Consumers should be price-responsive and be willing to switch insurer in search of the best-value products. Moreover, although theory suggests low-risk consumers are more likely to switch insurer, this process should not be driven by insurers looking to attract low risks. This study utilizes data on 320,830 VHI healthcare policies due for renewal between August 2013 and June 2014. At the time of renewal, policyholders were categorized as either 'switchers' or 'stayers', and policy information was collected for the prior 12 months. Differences between these groups were assessed by means of logistic regression. The ability of Ireland's risk equalization scheme to account for the relative attractiveness of switchers was also examined. Policyholders were price sensitive (OR 1.052, p sensitivity declined with age. Age (OR 0.971; p Consumers appear price-responsive, which is important for competition provided it is based on correct incentives. Risk equalization payments largely eliminated the profitable status of switchers, although further refinements may be required.
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Health care financing reforms in both China and Vietnam have resulted in greater financial difficulties in accessing health care, especially for the rural poor. Both countries have been developing rural health insurance for decades. This study aims to evaluate and compare equity in access to health care in rural health insurance system in the two countries. Methods Household survey and qualitative study were conducted in 6 counties in China and 4 districts in Vietnam. Health insurance policy and its impact on utilization of outpatient and inpatient service were analyzed and compared to measure equity in access to health care. Results In China, Health insurance membership had no significant impact on outpatient service utilization, while was associated with higher utilization of inpatient services, especially for the higher income group. Health insurance members in Vietnam had higher utilization rates of both outpatient and inpatient services than the non-members, with higher use among the lower than higher income groups. Qualitative results show that bureaucratic obstacles, low reimbursement rates, and poor service quality were the main barriers for members to use health insurance. Conclusions China has achieved high population coverage rate over a short time period, starting with a limited benefit package. However, poor people have less benefit from NCMS in terms of health service utilization. Compared to China, Vietnam health insurance system is doing better in equity in health service utilization within the health insurance members. However with low population coverage, a large proportion of population cannot enjoy the health insurance benefit. Mutual learning would help China and Vietnam address these challenges, and improve their policy design to promote equitable and sustainable health insurance.
Introduction Health care financing reforms in both China and Vietnam have resulted in greater financial difficulties in accessing health care, especially for the rural poor. Both countries have been developing rural health insurance for decades. This study aims to evaluate and compare equity in access to health care in rural health insurance system in the two countries. Methods Household survey and qualitative study were conducted in 6 counties in China and 4 districts in Vietnam. Health insurance policy and its impact on utilization of outpatient and inpatient service were analyzed and compared to measure equity in access to health care. Results In China, Health insurance membership had no significant impact on outpatient service utilization, while was associated with higher utilization of inpatient services, especially for the higher income group. Health insurance members in Vietnam had higher utilization rates of both outpatient and inpatient services than the non-members, with higher use among the lower than higher income groups. Qualitative results show that bureaucratic obstacles, low reimbursement rates, and poor service quality were the main barriers for members to use health insurance. Conclusions China has achieved high population coverage rate over a short time period, starting with a limited benefit package. However, poor people have less benefit from NCMS in terms of health service utilization. Compared to China, Vietnam health insurance system is doing better in equity in health service utilization within the health insurance members. However with low population coverage, a large proportion of population cannot enjoy the health insurance benefit. Mutual learning would help China and Vietnam address these challenges, and improve their policy design to promote equitable and sustainable health insurance. PMID:22376290
Castano, Ramon; Zambrano, Andres
Reducing the impact of insurance market failures with regulations such as community-rated premiums, standardized benefit packages and open enrolment, yield limited effect because they create room for selection bias. The Colombian social health insurance system started a market approach in 1993 expecting to improve performance of preexisting monopolistic insurance funds by exposing them to competition by new entrants. This paper tests the hypothesis that market failures would lead to biased selection favoring new entrants. Two household surveys are analyzed using Self-Reported Health Status and the presence of chronic conditions as prospective indicators of individual risk. Biased selection is found to take place, leading to adverse selection among incumbents, and favorable selection among new entrants. This pattern is absent in 1997 but is evident in 2003. Given that the two incumbents analyzed are public organizations, the fiscal implications of the findings in terms of government bailouts, are analyzed.
Gould, Elise; Hertel-Fernandez, Alexander
This paper examines recent trends in health insurance cost and coverage for the near-elderly population (aged 55 to 64), with particular attention directed toward the implications of the 2007 recession. We examine coverage by demographic and socioeconomic characteristics from the Current Population Survey and the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. We also estimate the effects of projected increases in the unemployment rate for employer-sponsored insurance coverage of the near elderly in 2009 and 2010. Erosion in coverage is likely to be exacerbated in the short run by the 2007 recession, given rapidly rising unemployment among this age cohort, and in the long-run, given the inability of the labor market to support increased labor market participation of older Americans in jobs that would have traditionally provided health insurance coverage.
Cowan, Benjamin; Schwab, Benjamin
During prime working years, women have higher expected healthcare expenses than men. However, employees' insurance rates are not gender-rated in the employer-sponsored health insurance (ESI) market. Thus, women may experience lower wages in equilibrium from employers who offer health insurance to their employees. We show that female employees suffer a larger wage gap relative to men when they hold ESI: our results suggest this accounts for roughly 10% of the overall gender wage gap. For a full-time worker, this pay gap due to ESI is on the order of the expected difference in healthcare expenses between women and men. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Goldberg, L G; Greenberg, W
In our previous paper, we showed that market forces can play a significant role in controlling health care costs and that a considerable amount of cost containment effort was pursued by third-party insurers in Oregon in the 1930s and 1940s. Although physicians were able to thwart this cost-control effort, a 1986 Supreme Court decision, FTC v. Indiana Federation of Dentists, found that a boycott of insurers by dentists violated Section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act. Further investigation of recent developments, including the recent Wickline v. California decision, indicates that the primary barriers to cost containment today are not obstructive tactics by providers or provider-controlled health insurance plans. Rather, the primary barriers are increases in the development and diffusion of new technology and society's apparent preference for paying for new tests and procedures regardless of economic efficiency.
Were, Lawrence P O; Were, Edwin; Wamai, Richard; Hogan, Joseph; Galarraga, Omar
Healthcare financing through health insurance is gaining traction as developing countries strive to achieve universal health coverage and address the limited access to critical health services for specific populations including pregnant women and their children. However, these reforms are taking place despite limited evaluation of impact of health insurance on maternal health in developing countries including Kenya. In this study we evaluate the association of health insurance with access and utilization of obstetric delivery health services for pregnant women in Kenya. Nationally representative data from the Kenya Demographic and Health Survey 2008-09 was used in this study. 4082 pregnant women with outcomes of interest - Institutional delivery (Yes/No - delivery at hospital, dispensary, maternity home, and clinic) and access to skilled birth attendants (help by a nurse, doctor, or trained midwife at delivery) were selected from 8444 women ages 15-49 years. Linear and logistic regression, and propensity score adjustment are used to estimate the causal association of enrollment in insurance on obstetric health outcomes. Mothers with insurance are 23 percentage points (p insured. In addition mothers of lower socio-economic status benefit more from enrollment in insurance compared to mothers of higher socio-economic status. For both institutional delivery and access to skilled birth attendants, the average difference of the association of insurance enrollment compared to not enrolling for those of low SES is 23 percentage points (p health insurance is associated with increased access and utilization of obstetric delivery health services for pregnant women. Notably, those of lower socio-economic status seem to benefit the most from enrollment in insurance.
Clark, Robert L; Mitchell, Olivia S
Economic theory predicts that employer-provided retiree health insurance (RHI) benefits have a crowd-out effect on household wealth accumulation, not dissimilar to the effects reported elsewhere for employer pensions, Social Security, and Medicare. Nevertheless, we are unaware of any similar research on the impacts of retiree health insurance per se. Accordingly, the present paper utilizes a unique data file on respondents to the Health and Retirement Study, to explore how employer-provided retiree health insurance may influence net household wealth among public sector employees, where retiree healthcare benefits are still quite prevalent. Key findings include the following: Most full-time public sector employees anticipate having employer-provided health insurance coverage in retirement, unlike most private sector workers.Public sector employees covered by RHI had substantially less wealth than similar private sector employees without RHI. In our data, Federal workers had about $82,000 (18%) less net wealth than private sector employees lacking RHI; state/local workers with RHI accumulated about $69,000 (or 15%) less net wealth than their uninsured private sector counterparts.After controlling on socioeconomic status and differences in pension coverage, net household wealth for Federal employees was $116,000 less than workers without RHI and the result is statistically significant; the state/local difference was not. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Committee on the Consequences of Uninsurance
.... Being uninsured is associated with a range of adverse health, social, and economic consequences for individuals and their families, for the health care systems in their communities, and for the nation as a whole...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Poverty due to illness has become a substantial social problem in rural China since the collapse of the rural Cooperative Medical System in the early 1980s. Although the Chinese government introduced the New Rural Cooperative Medical Schemes (NRCMS in 2003, the associations between different health insurance benefit package designs and healthcare utilization remain largely unknown. Accordingly, we sought to examine the impact of health insurance benefit design on health care utilization. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from a household survey of 15,698 members of 4,209 randomly-selected households in 7 provinces, which were representative of the provinces along the north side of the Yellow River. Interviews were conducted face-to-face and in Mandarin. Our analytic sample included 9,762 respondents from 2,642 households. In each household, respondents indicated the type of health insurance benefit that the household had (coverage for inpatient care only or coverage for both inpatient and outpatient care and the number of outpatient visits in the 30 days preceding the interview and the number of hospitalizations in the 365 days preceding the household interview. People who had both outpatient and inpatient coverage compared with inpatient coverage only had significantly more village-level outpatient visits, township-level outpatient visits, and total outpatient visits. Furthermore, the increased utilization of township and village-level outpatient care was experienced disproportionately by people who were poorer, whereas the increased inpatient utilization overall and at the county level was experienced disproportionately by people who were richer. CONCLUSION: The evidence from this study indicates that the design of health insurance benefits is an important policy tool that can affect the health services utilization and socioeconomic equity in service use at different levels. Without careful
Wang, Hong; Liu, Yu; Zhu, Yan; Xue, Lei; Dale, Martha; Sipsma, Heather; Bradley, Elizabeth
Poverty due to illness has become a substantial social problem in rural China since the collapse of the rural Cooperative Medical System in the early 1980s. Although the Chinese government introduced the New Rural Cooperative Medical Schemes (NRCMS) in 2003, the associations between different health insurance benefit package designs and healthcare utilization remain largely unknown. Accordingly, we sought to examine the impact of health insurance benefit design on health care utilization. We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from a household survey of 15,698 members of 4,209 randomly-selected households in 7 provinces, which were representative of the provinces along the north side of the Yellow River. Interviews were conducted face-to-face and in Mandarin. Our analytic sample included 9,762 respondents from 2,642 households. In each household, respondents indicated the type of health insurance benefit that the household had (coverage for inpatient care only or coverage for both inpatient and outpatient care) and the number of outpatient visits in the 30 days preceding the interview and the number of hospitalizations in the 365 days preceding the household interview. People who had both outpatient and inpatient coverage compared with inpatient coverage only had significantly more village-level outpatient visits, township-level outpatient visits, and total outpatient visits. Furthermore, the increased utilization of township and village-level outpatient care was experienced disproportionately by people who were poorer, whereas the increased inpatient utilization overall and at the county level was experienced disproportionately by people who were richer. The evidence from this study indicates that the design of health insurance benefits is an important policy tool that can affect the health services utilization and socioeconomic equity in service use at different levels. Without careful design, health insurance may not benefit those who are most in need
Belcher, J R; Palley, H A
This article explores the unequal access to health care in the context of efforts by the American Medical Association (AMA) and its allies to maintain a market-maximizing health care system. The coalition between the AMA and its traditional allies is breaking down, in part, because of converging developments creating an atmosphere which may be more conducive to national health care reform and the development of a reformed health care delivery system that will be accessible, adequate, and equitable in meeting the health care and related social service needs of the American people.
... 45 CFR Part 147 Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Relating to Status as a... for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Relating to Status as a Grandfathered Health Plan... and Insurance Oversight, Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Interim final rules with...
... Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Rules Relating to Status as a Grandfathered Health Plan... of Consumer Information and Insurance Oversight of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services... health insurance coverage offered in connection with a group health plan under the Employee Retirement...
... 37208) entitled, ``Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers: Rules Relating to Internal Claims..., ``Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers: Rules Relating to Internal Claims and Appeals and... external review processes for group health plans and health insurance issuers offering coverage in the...
... 45 CFR Parts 144, 146, and 147 Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Dependent... 144, 146, and 147 RIN 0991-AB66 Interim Final Rules for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance... requirements for group health plans and health insurance issuers in the group and individual markets under...
Li, Ye; Wu, Qunhong; Xu, Ling; Legge, David; Hao, Yanhua; Gao, Lijun; Ning, Ning; Wan, Gang
To assess the degree to which the Chinese people are protected from catastrophic household expenditure and impoverishment from medical expenses and to explore the health system and structural factors influencing the first of these outcomes. Data were derived from the Fourth National Health Service Survey. An analysis of catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment from medical expenses was undertaken with a sample of 55 556 households of different characteristics and located in rural and urban settings in different parts of the country. Logistic regression was used to identify the determinants of catastrophic health expenditure. The rate of catastrophic health expenditure was 13.0%; that of impoverishment was 7.5%. Rates of catastrophic health expenditure were higher among households having members who were hospitalized, elderly, or chronically ill, as well as in households in rural or poorer regions. A combination of adverse factors increased the risk of catastrophic health expenditure. Families enrolled in the urban employee or resident insurance schemes had lower rates of catastrophic health expenditure than those enrolled in the new rural corporative scheme. The need for and use of health care, demographics, type of benefit package and type of provider payment method were the determinants of catastrophic health expenditure. Although China has greatly expanded health insurance coverage, financial protection remains insufficient. Policy-makers should focus on designing improved insurance plans by expanding the benefit package, redesigning cost sharing arrangements and provider payment methods and developing more effective expenditure control strategies.
Fairlie, Robert W; Kapur, Kanika; Gates, Susan
The focus on employer-provided health insurance in the United States may restrict business creation. We address the limited research on the topic of "entrepreneurship lock" by using recent panel data from matched Current Population Surveys. We use difference-in-difference models to estimate the interaction between having a spouse with employer-based health insurance and potential demand for health care. We find evidence of a larger negative effect of health insurance demand on business creation for those without spousal coverage than for those with spousal coverage. We also take a new approach in the literature to examine the question of whether employer-based health insurance discourages business creation by exploiting the discontinuity created at age 65 through the qualification for Medicare. Using a novel procedure of identifying age in months from matched monthly CPS data, we compare the probability of business ownership among male workers in the months just before turning age 65 and in the months just after turning age 65. We find that business ownership rates increase from just under age 65 to just over age 65, whereas we find no change in business ownership rates from just before to just after for other ages 55-75. We also do not find evidence from the previous literature and additional estimates that other confounding factors such as retirement, partial retirement, social security and pension eligibility are responsible for the increase in business ownership in the month individuals turn 65. Our estimates provide some evidence that "entrepreneurship lock" exists, which raises concerns that the bundling of health insurance and employment may create an inefficient level of business creation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mwabu Germano M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies conducted in developed countries using economic models show that individual- and household- level variables are important determinants of health insurance ownership. There is however a dearth of such studies in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between health insurance ownership and the demographic, economic and educational characteristics of South African women. Methods The analysis was based on data from a cross-sectional national household sample derived from the South African Health Inequalities Survey (SANHIS. The study subjects consisted of 3,489 women, aged between 16 and 64 years. It was a non-interventional, qualitative response econometric study. The outcome measure was the probability of a respondent's ownership of a health insurance policy. Results The χ2 test for goodness of fit indicated satisfactory prediction of the estimated logit model. The coefficients of the covariates for area of residence, income, education, environment rating, age, smoking and marital status were positive, and all statistically significant at p ≤ 0.05. Women who had standard 10 education and above (secondary, high incomes and lived in affluent provinces and permanent accommodations, had a higher likelihood of being insured. Conclusion Poverty reduction programmes aimed at increasing women's incomes in poor provinces; improving living environment (e.g. potable water supplies, sanitation, electricity and housing for women in urban informal settlements; enhancing women's access to education; reducing unemployment among women; and increasing effective coverage of family planning services, will empower South African women to reach a higher standard of living and in doing so increase their economic access to health insurance policies and the associated health services.
Wijnvoord, Elisabeth C.; Buitenhuis, Jan; Brouwer, Sandra; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; de Boer, Michiel R.
Background: Exclusions are used by insurers to neutralize higher than average risks of sickness absence (SA). However, differentiating risk groups according to one's medical situation can be seen as discrimination against people with health problems in violation of a 2006 United Nations convention.
Wijnvoord, Elisabeth C; Buitenhuis, Jan; Brouwer, Sandra; van der Klink, Jac J L; de Boer, Michiel R
BACKGROUND: Exclusions are used by insurers to neutralize higher than average risks of sickness absence (SA). However, differentiating risk groups according to one's medical situation can be seen as discrimination against people with health problems in violation of a 2006 United Nations convention.
The objectives of this study are two folds: firstly to explore the magnitude of catastrophic expenditure, and secondly to determine its contributing factor,s including the protective impact of the voluntary community based health insurance schemes in Tanzania. The study covered 274 respondents. Study findings have shown ...
Social health insurance was introduced in Nigeria in 1999 and had since been restricted to workers in the formal public sector. There are plans for scaling up to include rural populations in a foreseeable future. Information on willingness to participate and pay a premium in the programme by rural populations is dearth.
Bien, Franck; Alary, David
In this note, we generalize the results obtained by Barday and Lesur (2005) by considering a bivariated non separable utility function. We characterize optimal health insurance contracts. Moreover, we show that under moral hazard a suﬃciently high risk aversion implies that the optimal coverage and the optimal preventive eﬀort are higher than with perfect information.
This study explored patterns of fraud and abuse that exist in the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) claims in the Awutu-Effutu-Senya District using data mining techniques, with a specific focus on malaria-related claims. The study employed quantitative research approach with survey design as a strategy of enquiry.
Shell in collaboration with four communities in Obio-Akpor LGA, Port Harcourt, started a Community Health Insurance Scheme in February 2010. An evaluation of enrollees' utilization and perception of the services provided was done. Methodology: Quantitative data were collected by the use of structured interviewer ...
the private sector in Africa is embracing joint health insurance schemes for their ... the unemployed, the under-employed and the unemployable (who ...... Agyepong, A.I. and Adjei, S., 2008, 'Public Social Policy Development and Implementation: .... Johannesburg, South Africa', WBI Learning Resource Series: World Bank.
In 2007, out-of-pocket expenditures accounted for 90% of total private expenditure on healthcare in India. The cost of coping with serious disease can be ruinous for families living below the poverty line. The Rajiv Aarogyasri Health Insurance Scheme was established in Andrha Pradesh to mitigate catastrophic healthcare ...
... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 1 and 602 [TD 9590] RIN 1545-BJ82 Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit Correction In rule document 2012-12421 appearing on pages 30377-30400 in the issue of Wednesday, May 23, 2012, make the following corrections: 0 1. On page 30385, in the...
Quynh, Nga Le Thi; Groot, Wim; Tomini, Sonila M.; Tomini, Florian
This study provides a systematic review of empirical evidence on the labour supply effects of health insurance. The outcomes in the 63 studies reviewed include labour supply in terms of hours worked and the probability of employment, self-employment and the level of economic formalisation. One of
Shafi, Shahid; Ogola, Gerald; Fleming, Neil; Rayan, Nadine; Kudyakov, Rustam; Barnes, Sunni A; Ballard, David J
Viability of trauma centers is threatened by cost of care provided to patients without health insurance. The health care reform of 2010 is likely to benefit trauma centers by mandating universal health insurance by 2014. However, the financial benefit of this mandate will depend on the reimbursement provided. The study hypothesis was that compensation for the care of uninsured trauma patients at Medicare or Medicaid rates will lead to continuing losses for trauma centers. Financial data for first hospitalization were obtained from an urban Level I trauma center for 3 years (n = 6,630; 2006-2008) and linked with clinical information. Patients were grouped into five payments categories: commercial (29%), Medicaid (8%), Medicare (20%), workers' compensation (6%), and uninsured (37%). Prediction models for costs and payments were developed for each category using multiple regression models, adjusting for patient demographics, injury characteristics, complications, and survival. These models were used to predict payments that could be expected if uninsured patients were covered by different insurance types. Results are reported as net margin per patient (payments minus total costs) for each insurance type, with 95% confidence intervals, discounted to 2008 dollar values. Patients were typical for an urban trauma center (median age of 43 years, 66% men, 82% blunt, 5% mortality, and median length of stay 4 days). Overall, the trauma center lost $5,655 per patient, totaling $37.5 million over 3 years. These losses were encountered for patients without insurance ($14,343), Medicare ($4,838), and Medicaid ($15,740). Patients with commercial insurance were profitable ($5,295) as were those with workers' compensation ($6,860). Payments for the care of the uninsured at Medicare/Medicaid levels would lead to continued losses at $2,267 to $4,143 per patient. The health care reforms of 2010 would lead to continued losses for trauma centers if uninsured are covered with Medicare
Full Text Available The promising financing scheme of health insurance in Ukraine should be found at the present stage of its development. The health care system in Ukraine is cumbersome and outdated. It is based on the Semashko model with rigid management and financing procedures. The disadvantages accumulated in the national health care system due to lack of modernization, disregard of the population needs, non-use of modern global trends, the inefficient operation of the system and the high level of corruption cause the underlying situation. The decision of new government policy in the sector is introduction of new financial mechanisms, in order to ensure human rights in the health sector. Methodology. The study is based on a comparison of systems of financing of medicine in Ukraine and in other countries, provided advantages and disadvantages of each model. Results showed that the availability of medical services is the key problem in any society. The availability of health care services is primarily determined by the proportion of services guaranteed by the government (government guarantees. In some countries such as the United States, practically the whole medicine is funded by voluntary health insurance (VHI. In Europe the mandatory health insurance (MHI and government funding are the most significant source of funds. Practical importance. The improvement of the demographic situation, the preservation and improvement of public health, improvement of social equity and citizens' rights in respect of medical insurance. Value/originality. Premiums for health insurance are the source of funding. Based on the new model requirements it is necessary to create an appropriate regulation, which would determine its organizational and regulatory framework. This process is primarily determined by identification and setting rules governing the relationship between patients, health care providers and insurers, creation of the conditions and the implementation of quality
Nyman, John A
An important source of value is missing from the conventional welfare analysis of moral hazard, namely, the effect of income transfers (from those who purchase insurance and remain healthy to those who become ill) on purchases of medical care. Income transfers are contained within the price reduction that is associated with standard health insurance. However, in contrast to the income effects contained within an exogenous price decrease, these income transfers act to shift out the demand for medical care. As a result, the consumer's willingness to pay for medical care increases and the resulting additional consumption is welfare increasing.
By rescuing an obscure and almost forgotten parliamentary controversy in Chile, this article shows how private property and solidarity cohabit in health insurance. To do so, it follows both pragmatist sociology, where controversies are seen as situations in which social formations are questioned....... And, by analysing a parliamentary controversy regarding insurance, it complements recent work that is starting to study how finance commodities are enacted not only in traditional market encounters but also in a varied array of collateral sites, including courts, social policy and regulation...
... 0938-AR79 Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP); Final Allotments to States, the District of... and expand health insurance coverage to uninsured, low-income children under the Children's Health...). States may implement the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) through a separate state program...
... Insurance Program (CHIP). 431.636 Section 431.636 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES...'s Health Insurance Program (CHIP). (a) Statutory basis. This section implements— (1) Section 2102(b... coordination between a State child health program and other public health insurance programs. (b) Obligations...
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Average cost of a health insurance policy. 100.2... VACCINE INJURY COMPENSATION § 100.2 Average cost of a health insurance policy. For purposes of determining..., less certain deductions. One of the deductions is the average cost of a health insurance policy, as...
... Parts 144, 147, 150, et al. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Health Insurance Market Rules... and 156 [CMS-9972-P] RIN 0938-AR40 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Health Insurance Market... Affordable Care Act with respect to health insurance issuers and group health plans that are non-federal...
... 0938-AR45 Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP); Final Allotments to States, the District of... and expand health insurance coverage to uninsured, low-income children under the Children's Health... under title XXI of the Social Security Act (the Act). States may implement Children's Health Insurance...
Bolhaar, J.A.; van der Klaauw, B.; Lindeboom, M.
We find that asymmetric information is important for the uptake of supplementary private health insurance and health care utilization. We use dynamic panel data models to investigate the sources of asymmetric information and distinguish short-run selection effects into insurance from long-run
Hendriks, M.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Delnoij, D.M.J.
In 2006, a number of far-reaching reforms have been implemented in the Dutch health insurance system. Giving Dutch consumers the freedom to change health plans every year increases consumer mobility. The idea is that especially consumers who are dissatisfied with their insurer will decide to switch
Liu, Xiaoting; Wong, Hung; Liu, Kai
Against the achievement of nearly universal coverage for social health insurance for the elderly in China, a problem of inequity among different insurance schemes on health outcomes is still a big challenge for the health care system. Whether various health insurance schemes have divergent effects on health outcome is still a puzzle. Empirical evidence will be investigated in this study. This study employs a nationally representative survey database, the National Survey of the Aged Population in Urban/Rural China, to compare the changes of health outcomes among the elderly before and after the reform. A one-way ANOVA is utilized to detect disparities in health care expenditures and health status among different health insurance schemes. Multiple Linear Regression is applied later to examine the further effects of different insurance plans on health outcomes while controlling for other social determinants. The one-way ANOVA result illustrates that although the gaps in insurance reimbursements between the Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance (UEBMI) and the other schemes, the New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) and Urban Residents Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI) decreased, out-of-pocket spending accounts for a larger proportion of total health care expenditures, and the disparities among different insurances enlarged. Results of the Multiple Linear Regression suggest that UEBMI participants have better self-reported health status, physical functions and psychological wellbeing than URBMI and NCMS participants, and those uninsured. URBMI participants report better self-reported health than NCMS ones and uninsured people, while having worse psychological wellbeing compared with their NCMS counterparts. This research contributes to a transformation in health insurance studies from an emphasis on the opportunity-oriented health equity measured by coverage and healthcare accessibility to concern with outcome-based equity composed of health expenditure and health
Following the 2010 five-yearly review of financial and social conditions, which included the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS), the CERN Council decided in December 2010 to progressively increase the level of contributions over the period 2011-2015. For 2012, the contribution rate of active and retired CHIS members will be 4.41%. The amounts of the fixed premiums for voluntarily insured members (e.g. users and associates) as well as the supplementary contributions for spouses with income from a professional activity increase accordingly : Voluntary contributions The full contribution based on Reference Salary II is now 1094 CHF per month. This fixed amount contribution is applied to voluntarily affiliated users and associates with normal coverage. Half of this amount (547 CHF) is applied to apprentices as well as to voluntarily affiliated users and associates with reduced coverage. Finally, an amount of 438 CHF is applied to children maintaining their insurance cover on a voluntary and tempo...
Herring, Bradley; Pauly, Mark V
Theoretical models of guaranteed renewable insurance display front-loaded premium schedules. Such schedules both cover lifetime total claims of low-risk and high-risk individuals and provide an incentive for those who remain low-risk to continue to purchase the policy. Questions have been raised of whether actual individual insurance markets in the US approximate the behavior predicted by these models, both because young consumers may not be able to "afford" front-loading and because insurers may behave strategically in ways that erode the value of protection against risk reclassification. In this paper, the optimal competitive age-based premium schedule for a benchmark guaranteed renewable health insurance policy is estimated using medical expenditure data. Several factors are shown to reduce the amount of front-loading necessary. Indeed, the resulting optimal premium path increases with age. Actual premium paths exhibited by purchasers of individual insurance are close to the optimal renewable schedule we estimate. Finally, consumer utility associated with the feature is examined.
Sinaiko, Anna D; Hirth, Richard A
We analyze employee health plan choices when the choice set offered by their employer includes a dominated plan. During our study period, one-third of workers were enrolled in the dominated plan. Some may have selected the plan before it was dominated and then failed to switch out of it. However, a substantial number actively chose the dominated plan when they had an unambiguously better choice. These results suggest limitations in the ability of health reform based solely on consumer choice to achieve efficient outcomes and that implementation of health reform should anticipate, monitor and account for this consumer behavior. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Anwen; Nikoloski, Zlatko; Mossialos, Elias
China's recent healthcare reforms aim to provide fair and affordable health services for its huge population. In this paper, we investigate the association between China's health insurance and out-of-pocket (OOP) healthcare expenditure. We further explore the heterogeneity in this association. Using data of 32,387 middle-aged and elderly individuals drawn from the 2011 and 2013 waves of China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), we report five findings. First, having health insurance increases the likelihood of utilizing healthcare and reduces inpatient OOP expenditure. Second, healthcare benefits are distributed unevenly: while low- and medium-income individuals are the main beneficiaries with reduced OOP expenditure, those faced with very high medical bills are still at risk, owing to limited and shallow coverage in certain aspects. Third, rural migrants hardly benefit from having health insurance, suggesting that institutional barriers are still in place. Fourth, health insurance does not increase patient visits to primary care facilities; hospitals are still the main provider of healthcare. Nonetheless, there is some evidence that patients shift from higher-tier to lower-tier hospitals. Last, OOP spending on pharmaceuticals is reduced for inpatient care but not for outpatient care, suggesting that people rely on inpatient care to obtain reimbursable drugs, putting further pressure on the already overcrowded hospitals. Our findings suggest that China's health insurance system has been effective in boosting healthcare utilization and lowering OOP hospitalization expenditure, but there still remain challenges due to the less generous rural scheme, shallow outpatient care coverage, lack of insurance portability, and an underdeveloped primary healthcare system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This paper is a qualitative assessment of a public health insurance scheme in the state of Andhra Pradesh, south India, called the Rajiv Aarogyasri Community Health Insurance Scheme (or Aarogyasri, using the case-study method. Focusing on inpatient hospital care and especially on surgical treatments leaves the scheme wanting in meeting the health care needs of and addressing the impoverishing health expenditure incurred by the poor, especially those living in rural areas. Though well-intentioned, people from vulnerable sections of society may find the scheme ultimately unhelpful for their needs. Through an in-depth qualitative approach, the paper highlights not just financial difficulties but also the non-financial barriers to accessing health care, despite the existence of a scheme such as Aarogyasri. Narrative evidence from poor households offers powerful insights into why even the most innovative state health insurance schemes may not achieve their goals and systemic corrections needed to address barriers to health care.
... age 50 Contraception – Food and Drug Administration-approved contraceptive methods, sterilization procedures, and patient education and counseling, ... and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well-Being Mental Health Sex and Birth Control ...
... 45 CFR Part 147 Interim Final Rules for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to... Interim Final Rules for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Internal Claims and... of Labor; Office of Consumer Information and Insurance Oversight, Department of Health and Human...
... Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Providing Dependent Coverage of Children to Age 26 Under... Information and Insurance Oversight of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services are issuing substantially similar interim final regulations with respect to group health plans and health insurance coverage...
... Requirements for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Internal Claims and Appeals and... the Office of Consumer Information and Insurance Oversight of the U.S. Department of Health and Human... health insurance coverage offered in connection with a group health plan under the Employee Retirement...
... to the interim final regulations implementing the rules for group health plans and health insurance... dates. These interim final regulations generally apply to group health plans and group health insurance... from HHS on private health insurance for consumers can be found on the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid...
... Requirement for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers To Provide Coverage of Preventive Services... Insurance Oversight of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services are issuing substantially similar interim final regulations with respect to group health plans and health insurance coverage offered in...
Bien, Franck; Alary, David
In this paper, we want to characterize the optimal health insurance contract with adverse selection and moral hazard. We assume that policyholders differ by the permanent health status loss and choose an unobservable preventive effort in order to reduce the probability of illness which is ex-ante identical. The difference in illness'after-effect modifies policyholders' preventive actions. By the way, they differ in probabilities of illness leading to a situation close to Rothschild and Stigli...
objective of this paper is to examine factors influencing outpatient care demand in ..... Endogeneity of health insurance arises because the decision to purchase health ... insurance plan, or by purchasing privately a generous coverage. Existing ...
Glaser, William G
In "Health Insurance in practice", the author pinpoints the strengths and weaknesses of health insurance programs in developing countries and uses a lessons-from-abroad approach to offer suggestions...
..., 433, 447, and 457 [CMS-2292-P] RIN 0938-AQ32 Medicaid and Children's Health Insurance Programs... Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) disallowance process to allow States the option to retain... [[Page 46685
Busse, Reinhard; Blümel, Miriam; Knieps, Franz; Bärnighausen, Till
Bismarck's Health Insurance Act of 1883 established the first social health insurance system in the world. The German statutory health insurance system was built on the defining principles of solidarity and self-governance, and these principles have remained at the core of its continuous development for 135 years. A gradual expansion of population and benefits coverage has led to what is, in 2017, universal health coverage with a generous benefits package. Self-governance was initially applied mainly to the payers (the sickness funds) but was extended in 1913 to cover relations between sickness funds and doctors, which in turn led to the right for insured individuals to freely choose their health-care providers. In 1993, the freedom to choose one's sickness fund was formally introduced, and reforms that encourage competition and a strengthened market orientation have gradually gained importance in the past 25 years; these reforms were designed and implemented to protect the principles of solidarity and self-governance. In 2004, self-governance was strengthened through the establishment of the Federal Joint Committee, a major payer-provider structure given the task of defining uniform rules for access to and distribution of health care, benefits coverage, coordination of care across sectors, quality, and efficiency. Under the oversight of the Federal Joint Committee, payer and provider associations have ensured good access to high-quality health care without substantial shortages or waiting times. Self-governance has, however, led to an oversupply of pharmaceutical products, an excess in the number of inpatient cases and hospital stays, and problems with delivering continuity of care across sectoral boundaries. The German health insurance system is not as cost-effective as in some of Germany's neighbouring countries, which, given present expenditure levels, indicates a need to improve efficiency and value for patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights
Munge, Kenneth; Mulupi, Stephen; Barasa, Edwine W; Chuma, Jane
Purchasing refers to the process by which pooled funds are paid to providers in order to deliver a set of health care interventions. Very little is known about purchasing arrangements in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and certainly not in Kenya. This study aimed to critically analyse purchasing arrangements in Kenya, using the National Hospital Insurance Fund (NHIF) as a case study. We applied a principal-agent relationship framework, which identifies three pairs of principal-agent relationships (government-purchaser, purchaser-provider, and citizen-purchaser) and specific actions required within them to achieve strategic purchasing. A qualitative case study approach was applied. Data were collected through document reviews (statutes, policy and regulatory documents) and in-depth interviews (n=62) with key informants including NHIF officials, Ministry of Health (MoH) officials, insurance industry actors, and health service providers. Documents were summarised using standardised forms. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using a thematic framework approach. The regulatory and policy framework for strategic purchasing in Kenya was weak and there was no clear accountability mechanism between the NHIF and the MoH. Accountability mechanisms within the NHIF have developed over time, but these emphasized financial performance over other aspects of purchasing. The processes for contracting, monitoring, and paying providers do not promote equity, quality, and efficiency. This was partly due to geographical distribution of providers, but also due to limited capacity within the NHIF. There are some mechanisms for assessing needs, preferences, and values to inform design of the benefit package, and while channels to engage beneficiaries exist, they do not always function appropriately and awareness of these channels to the beneficiaries is limited. Addressing the gaps in the NHIF's purchasing performance requires a number of approaches
Hägglin, Catharina; Boman, Ulla Wide
Severe dental fear/phobia (DF) is a problem for both dental care providers and for patients who often suffer from impaired oral health and from social and emotional distress.The aim of this paper was to present the Swedish model for DF treatment within the National Health Insurance System, and to describe the dental phobia treatment and its outcome at The Dental Fear Research and Treatment Clinic (DFRTC) in Gothenburg. A literature review was made of relevant policy documents on dental phobia treatment from the National Health Insurance System and for Västra Götaland region on published outcome studies from DFRTC. The treatment manual of DFRTC was also used. In Sweden, adult patients with severe DF are able to undergo behavioral treatment within the National Health Insurance System if the patient and caregivers fulfil defined criteria that must be approved for each individual case. At DFRTC dental phobia behavioral treatment is given by psychologists and dentists in an integrated model. The goal is to refer patients for general dental care outside the DFRTC after completing treatment. The DF treatment at DFRTC has shown positive effects on dental fear, attendance and acceptance of dental treatment for 80% of patients. Follow-up after 2 and 10 years confirmed these results and showed improved oral health. In addition, positive psychosomatic and psychosocial side-effects were reported, and benefits also for society were evident in terms of reduced sick-leave. In conlusion, in Sweden a model has been developed within the National Health Insurance System helping individuals with DF. Behavioral treatment conducted at DFRTC has proven successful in helping patients cope with dental care, leading to regular attendance and better oral health.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In contrast to the considerable body of literature concerning the disabilities of the general population, little information exists pertaining to the disabilities of the farm population. Focusing on the disability issue to the insurants in the Farmers' Health Insurance (FHI program in Taiwan, this paper examines the associations among socio-demographic characteristics, insured factors, and the introduction of the national health insurance program, as well as the types and payments of disabilities among the insurants. Methods A unique dataset containing 1,594,439 insurants in 2008 was used in this research. A logistic regression model was estimated for the likelihood of received disability payments. By focusing on the recipients, a disability payment and a disability type equation were estimated using the ordinary least squares method and a multinomial logistic model, respectively, to investigate the effects of the exogenous factors on their received payments and the likelihood of having different types of disabilities. Results Age and different job categories are significantly associated with the likelihood of receiving disability payments. Compared to those under age 45, the likelihood is higher among recipients aged 85 and above (the odds ratio is 8.04. Compared to hired workers, the odds ratios for self-employed and spouses of farm operators who were not members of farmers' associations are 0.97 and 0.85, respectively. In addition, older insurants are more likely to have eye problems; few differences in disability types are related to insured job categories. Conclusions Results indicate that older farmers are more likely to receive disability payments, but the likelihood is not much different among insurants of various job categories. Among all of the selected types of disability, a highest likelihood is found for eye disability. In addition, the introduction of the national health insurance program decreases the
Full Text Available Background: Indonesian's health care system is characterized by underutilized of the health-care infrastructure. One of the ways to improve the demand for formal health care is through health insurance. Responding to this potentially effective policy leads the Government of Indonesia to expand health insurance coverage by enacting the National Social Security Act in 2004. In this particular issue, understanding provider choice is therefore a key to address the broader policy question as to how the current low uptake of health care services could be turned in to an optimal utilization. Objective:To estimate a model of provider choice for outpatient care in Indonesia with specific attention being paid to the role of health insurance. Methods: A total of 16485 individuals were obtained from the second wave of the Indonesian Family Life survey. A multinomial logit regression model was applied to a estimate provider choice for outpatient care in three provider alternative (public, private and self-treatment. A policy simulation is reported as to how expanding insurance benefits could change the patterns of provider choice for outpatient health care services. Results: Individuals who are covered by civil servant insurance (Askes are more likely to use public providers, while the beneficiaries of private employees insurance (Jamsostek are more likely to use private ones compared with the uninsured population. The results also reveal that less healthy, unmarried, wealthier and better educated individuals are more likely to choose private providers than public providers. Conclusions: Any efforts to improve access to health care through health insurance will fail if policy-makers do not accommodate peoples' preferences for choosing health care providers. The likely changes in demand from public providers to private ones need to be considered in the current social health insurance reform process, especially in devising premium policies and benefit packages
Newacheck, Paul W; Houtrow, Amy J; Romm, Diane L; Kuhlthau, Karen A; Bloom, Sheila R; Van Cleave, Jeanne M; Perrin, James M
Because of their elevated need for services, health insurance is particularly important for children with special health care needs. In this article we assess how well the current system is meeting the insurance needs of children with special health care needs and how emerging trends in health insurance may affect their well-being. We begin with a review of the evidence on the impact of health insurance on the health care experiences of children with special health care needs based on the peer-reviewed literature. We then assess how well the current system meets the needs of these children by using data from 2 editions of the National Survey of Children With Special Health Care Needs. Finally, we present an analysis of recent developments and emerging trends in the health insurance marketplace that may affect this population. Although a high proportion of children with special health care needs have insurance at any point in time, nearly 40% are either uninsured at least part of the year or have coverage that is inadequate. Recent expansions in public coverage, although offset in part by a contraction in employer-based coverage, have led to modest but significant reductions in the number of uninsured children with special health care needs. Emerging insurance products, including consumer-directed health plans, may expose children with special health care needs and their families to greater financial risks. Health insurance coverage has the potential to secure access to needed care and improve the quality of life for these children while protecting their families from financially burdensome health care expenses. Continued vigilance and advocacy for children and youth with special health care needs are needed to ensure that these children have access to adequate coverage and that they fare well under health care reform.
Aryeetey, G.C.; Westeneng, J.; Spaan, E.J.; Jehu-Appiah, C.; Agyepong, I.A.; Baltussen, R.M.
BACKGROUND: Ghana since 2004, begun implementation of a National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) to minimize financial barriers to health care at point of use of service. Usually health insurance is expected to offer financial protection to households. This study aims to analyze the effect health
Schmid, Christian P R; Beck, Konstantin
Risk equalization mechanisms mitigate insurers' incentives to practice risk selection. On the other hand, incentives to limit healthcare spending can be distorted by risk equalization, particularly when risk equalization payments depend on realized costs instead of expected costs. In addition, cost based risk equalization mechanisms may incentivize health insurers to distort the allocation of resources among different services. The incentives to practice risk selection, to limit healthcare spending, and to distort the allocation of resources can be measured by fit, power, and balance, respectively. We apply these three measures to evaluate the risk adjustment mechanism in Switzerland. Our results suggest that it performs very well in terms of power but rather poorly in terms of fit. The latter indicates that risk selection might be a severe problem. We show that re-insurance can reduce this problem while power remains on a high level. In addition, we provide evidence that the Swiss risk equalization mechanism does not lead to imbalances across different services. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stavrunova, Olena; Yerokhin, Oleg
We analyze the effect of an individual insurance mandate (Medicare Levy Surcharge) on the demand for private health insurance (PHI) in Australia. With administrative income tax return data, we show that the mandate has several distinct effects on taxpayers' behavior. First, despite the large tax penalty for not having PHI coverage relative to the cost of the cheapest eligible insurance policy, compliance with mandate is relatively low: the proportion of the population with PHI coverage increases by 6.5 percentage points (15.6%) at the income threshold where the tax penalty starts to apply. This effect is most pronounced for young taxpayers, while the middle aged seem to be least responsive to this specific tax incentive. Second, the discontinuous increase in the average tax rate at the income threshold created by the policy generates a strong incentive for tax avoidance which manifests itself through bunching in the taxable income distribution below the threshold. Finally, after imposing some plausible assumptions, we extrapolate the effect of the policy to other income levels and show that this policy has not had a significant impact on the overall demand for private health insurance in Australia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Behrendt, Christian-Alexander; Heidemann, Franziska; Rieß, Henrik Christian; Stoberock, Konstanze; Debus, Sebastian Eike
The expansion of procedures in multidisciplinary vascular medicine has sparked a controversy regarding measures of quality improvement. In addition to primary registries, the use of health insurance claims data is becoming of increasing importance. However, due to the fact that health insurance claims data are not collected for scientific evaluation but rather for reimbursement purposes, meticulous validation is necessary before and during usage in research and quality improvement matters. This review highlights the advantages and disadvantages of such data sources. A recent comprehensive expert opinion panel examined the use of health insurance claims data and other administrative data sources in medicine. Results from several studies concerning the validity of administrative data varied significantly. Validity of these data sources depends on the clinical relevance of the diagnoses considered. The rate of implausible information was 0.04 %, while the validity of the considered diagnoses varied between 80 and 97 % across multiple validation studies. A matching study between health insurance claims data of the third-largest German health insurance provider, DAK-Gesundheit, and a prospective primary registry of the German Society for Vascular Surgery demonstrated a good level of validity regarding the mortality of endovascular and open surgical treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm in German hospitals. In addition, a large-scale international comparison of administrative data for the same disorder presented important results in treatment reality, which differed from those from earlier randomized controlled trials. The importance of administrative data for research and quality improvement will continue to increase in the future. When discussing the internal and external validity of this data source, one has to distinguish not only between its intended usage (research vs. quality improvement), but also between the included diseases and/or treatment procedures
Cheng, Scott; Tsai, Kai-ya; Nascimento, Lori M; Cousineau, Michael R
To determine whether enrollment events may serve as a venue to identify eligible individuals, enroll them into health insurance programs, and educate them about the changes the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act will bring about. More than 2900 surveys were administered to attendees of 7 public health insurance enrollment events in California. Surveys were used to identify whether participants had any change in understanding of health reform after participating in the event. More than half of attendees at nearly all events had no knowledge about health reform before attending the event. On average, more than 80% of attendees knew more about health reform following the event and more than 80% believed that the law would benefit their families. Enrollment events can serve as an effective method to educate the public on health reform. Further research is recommended to explore in greater detail the impact community enrollment events can have on expanding public understanding of health reform.
... Organizations § 352.309 Retirement, health benefits, and group life insurance. (a) Agency action. An employee... entitled to retain coverage for retirement, health benefits, and group life insurance purposes if he or she... he or she wishes to retain coverage under the retirement, health benefits, and group life insurance...
... Parts 144, 147, 150, et al. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Health Insurance Market Rules... Insurance Market Rules; Rate Review AGENCY: Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final rule implements provisions related to fair health insurance premiums, guaranteed...
...-AA06 Health Insurance Issuers Implementing Medical Loss Ratio (MLR) Requirements Under the Patient... Register (FR Doc 2010-29596 (75 FR 74864)) entitled ``Health Insurance Issuers Implementing Medical Loss... request for comments entitled ``Health Insurance Issuers Implementing Medical Loss Ratio (MLR...
... Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2009 for Adjustments to the Federal Medical... section 614 of the Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2009 (CHIPRA), Public Law... Medicaid program and required by Section 614 of the Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act...
... Tax Credit for Employee Health Insurance Expenses of Small Employers AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service... Section 45R(a) provides for a health insurance tax credit in the case of an eligible small employer for... employee enrolled in health insurance coverage offered by the employer in an amount equal to a uniform...
... Parts 402 and 403 [CMS-5060-P] RIN 0938-AR33 Medicare, Medicaid, Children's Health Insurance Programs...'s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) to report annually to the Secretary certain payments or transfers... State plan under title XIX (Medicaid) or XXI of the Act (the Children's Health Insurance Program, or...
... of the Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2009 for Adjustments to the Federal... subject to adjustment pursuant to section 614 of the Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization... assistance expenditures under the Children's Health Insurance Program under title XXI of the Social Security...
... Information Reporting by Applicable Large Employers on Health Insurance Coverage Offered Under Employer... credit to help individuals and families afford health insurance coverage purchased through an Affordable... or group health insurance coverage offered by an employer to the employee that is (1) a governmental...
... Parts 431, 447, and 457 Medicaid Program and Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP); Revisions to... 431, 447, and 457 [CMS-6150-F] RIN 0938-AP69 Medicaid Program and Children's Health Insurance Program... final rule implements provisions from the Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of...
... 0938-AM50 Health Insurance Reform; Announcement of Maintenance Changes to Electronic Data Transaction Standards Adopted Under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 AGENCY: Office of... of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 standards made by the Designated...
... on Measurement Criteria for Children's Health Insurance Program; Reauthorization Act Pediatric... enacted in the Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act (CHIPRA). DATES: The meeting will...) reauthorized the Child Health Insurance Program (CHIP) originally established in 1997, and in Title IV of the...
McIntosh, Belinda J.; Compton, Michael T.; Druss, Benjamin G.
A growing trend in college and university health care is the requirement that students demonstrate proof of health insurance prior to enrollment. An increasing number of schools are contracting with insurance companies to provide students with school-based options for health insurance. Although this is advantageous to students in some ways, tying…
... [CMS-2291-F] RIN 0938-AP53 Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP); Allotment Methodology and States... under Title XXI of the Social Security Act (the Act), for the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), as amended by the Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2009 (CHIPRA), by the...
Duku, Stephen Kwasi Opoku; Nketiah-Amponsah, Edward; Janssens, Wendy; Pradhan, Menno
This study's objective is to provide an alternative explanation for the low enrolment in health insurance in Ghana by analysing differences in perceptions between the insured and uninsured of the non-technical quality of healthcare. It further explores the association between insurance status and perception of healthcare quality to ascertain whether insurance status matters in the perception of healthcare quality. Data from a survey of 1,903 households living in the catchment area of 64 health centres were used for the analysis. Two sample independent t-tests were employed to compare the average perceptions of the insured and uninsured on seven indicators of non-technical quality of healthcare. A generalised ordered logit regression, controlling for socio-economic characteristics and clustering at the health facility level, tested the association between insurance status and perceived quality of healthcare. The perceptions of the insured were found to be significantly more negative than the uninsured and those of the previously insured were significantly more negative than the never insured. Being insured was associated with a significantly lower perception of healthcare quality. Thus, once people are insured, they tend to perceive the quality of healthcare they receive as poor compared to those without insurance. This study demonstrated that health insurance status matters in the perceptions of healthcare quality. The findings also imply that perceptions of healthcare quality may be shaped by individual experiences at the health facilities, where the insured and uninsured may be treated differently. Health insurance then becomes less attractive due to the poor perception of the healthcare quality provided to individuals with insurance, resulting in low demand for health insurance in Ghana. Policy makers in Ghana should consider redesigning, reorganizing, and reengineering the National Healthcare Insurance Scheme to ensure the provision of better quality healthcare
Sieverding, Maia; Onyango, Cynthia; Suchman, Lauren
Incorporating private healthcare providers into social health insurance schemes is an important means towards achieving universal health coverage in low and middle income countries. However, little research has been conducted about why private providers choose to participate in social health insurance systems in such contexts, or their experiences with these systems. We explored private providers' perceptions of and experiences with participation in two different social health insurance schemes in Sub-Saharan Africa-the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Ghana and the National Hospital Insurance Fund (NHIF) in Kenya. In-depth interviews were held with providers working at 79 facilities of varying sizes in three regions of Kenya (N = 52) and three regions of Ghana (N = 27). Most providers were members of a social franchise network. Interviews covered providers' reasons for (non) enrollment in the health insurance system, their experiences with the accreditation process, and benefits and challenges with the system. Interviews were coded in Atlas.ti using an open coding approach and analyzed thematically. Most providers in Ghana were NHIS-accredited and perceived accreditation to be essential to their businesses, despite challenges they encountered due to long delays in claims reimbursement. In Kenya, fewer than half of providers were NHIF-accredited and several said that their clientele were not NHIF enrolled. Understanding of how the NHIF functioned was generally low. The lengthy and cumbersome accreditation process also emerged as a major barrier to providers' participation in the NHIF in Kenya, but the NHIS accreditation process was not a major concern for providers in Ghana. In expanding social health insurance, coordinated efforts are needed to increase coverage rates among underserved populations while also accrediting the private providers who serve those populations. Market pressure was a key force driving providers to gain and maintain accreditation
Sieverding, Maia; Onyango, Cynthia
Background Incorporating private healthcare providers into social health insurance schemes is an important means towards achieving universal health coverage in low and middle income countries. However, little research has been conducted about why private providers choose to participate in social health insurance systems in such contexts, or their experiences with these systems. We explored private providers’ perceptions of and experiences with participation in two different social health insurance schemes in Sub-Saharan Africa—the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Ghana and the National Hospital Insurance Fund (NHIF) in Kenya. Methods In-depth interviews were held with providers working at 79 facilities of varying sizes in three regions of Kenya (N = 52) and three regions of Ghana (N = 27). Most providers were members of a social franchise network. Interviews covered providers’ reasons for (non) enrollment in the health insurance system, their experiences with the accreditation process, and benefits and challenges with the system. Interviews were coded in Atlas.ti using an open coding approach and analyzed thematically. Results Most providers in Ghana were NHIS-accredited and perceived accreditation to be essential to their businesses, despite challenges they encountered due to long delays in claims reimbursement. In Kenya, fewer than half of providers were NHIF-accredited and several said that their clientele were not NHIF enrolled. Understanding of how the NHIF functioned was generally low. The lengthy and cumbersome accreditation process also emerged as a major barrier to providers’ participation in the NHIF in Kenya, but the NHIS accreditation process was not a major concern for providers in Ghana. Conclusions In expanding social health insurance, coordinated efforts are needed to increase coverage rates among underserved populations while also accrediting the private providers who serve those populations. Market pressure was a key force
Full Text Available Incorporating private healthcare providers into social health insurance schemes is an important means towards achieving universal health coverage in low and middle income countries. However, little research has been conducted about why private providers choose to participate in social health insurance systems in such contexts, or their experiences with these systems. We explored private providers' perceptions of and experiences with participation in two different social health insurance schemes in Sub-Saharan Africa-the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS in Ghana and the National Hospital Insurance Fund (NHIF in Kenya.In-depth interviews were held with providers working at 79 facilities of varying sizes in three regions of Kenya (N = 52 and three regions of Ghana (N = 27. Most providers were members of a social franchise network. Interviews covered providers' reasons for (non enrollment in the health insurance system, their experiences with the accreditation process, and benefits and challenges with the system. Interviews were coded in Atlas.ti using an open coding approach and analyzed thematically.Most providers in Ghana were NHIS-accredited and perceived accreditation to be essential to their businesses, despite challenges they encountered due to long delays in claims reimbursement. In Kenya, fewer than half of providers were NHIF-accredited and several said that their clientele were not NHIF enrolled. Understanding of how the NHIF functioned was generally low. The lengthy and cumbersome accreditation process also emerged as a major barrier to providers' participation in the NHIF in Kenya, but the NHIS accreditation process was not a major concern for providers in Ghana.In expanding social health insurance, coordinated efforts are needed to increase coverage rates among underserved populations while also accrediting the private providers who serve those populations. Market pressure was a key force driving providers to gain and maintain
Background Having health insurance is associated with a number of beneficial health outcomes. However, previous research suggests that patients tend to avoid health insurance information and often misunderstand or lack knowledge about many health insurance terms. Health insurance knowledge is particularly low among young adults. Objective The purpose of this study was to design and test an interactive newsgame (newsgames are games that apply journalistic principles in their creation, for example, gathering stories to immerse the player in narratives) about health insurance. This game included entry-level information through scenarios and was designed through the collation of national news stories, local personal accounts, and health insurance company information. Methods A total of 72 (N=72) participants completed in-person, individual gaming sessions. Participants completed a survey before and after game play. Results Participants indicated a greater self-reported understanding of how to use health insurance from pre- (mean=3.38, SD=0.98) to postgame play (mean=3.76, SD=0.76); t71=−3.56, P=.001. For all health insurance terms, participants self-reported a greater understanding following game play. Finally, participants provided a greater number of correct definitions for terms after playing the game, (mean=3.91, SD=2.15) than they did before game play (mean=2.59, SD=1.68); t31=−3.61, P=.001. Significant differences from pre- to postgame play differed by health insurance term. Conclusions A game is a practical solution to a difficult health issue—the game can be played anywhere, including on a mobile device, is interactive and will thus engage an apathetic audience, and is cost-efficient in its execution. PMID:29146564
... regulations authorizing the exemption of group health plans and group health insurance coverage sponsored by... plans and group health insurance issuers on April 16, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Amy Turner... addition, information from HHS on private health insurance for consumers can be found on the CMS Web site...
... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of Consumer Information and Insurance Oversight 45 CFR Part 147 RIN 0950-AA17 [OCIIO-9991-IFC2] Amendment to the Interim Final Rules for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance... Administration, Department of Labor; Office of Consumer Information and Insurance Oversight, Department of Health...
... Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Coverage of Preventive Services Under the Patient... and health insurance coverage in the group and individual markets under provisions of the Patient... plans and group health insurance issuers for plan years beginning on or after September 23, 2010. These...
Richardson, Jeff R J; Segal, Leonie
The cost to government of the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) is rising at over 10 percent per annum. The government subsidy to Private Health Insurance (PHI) is about $2.4 billion and rising. Despite this, the queues facing public patients - which were the primary justification for the assistance to PHI - do not appear to be shortening. Against this backdrop, we seek to evaluate recent policies. It is shown that the reason commonly given for the support of PHI - the need to preserve the market share of private hospitals and relieve pressure upon public hospitals - is based upon a factually incorrect analysis of the hospital sector in the last decade. It is similarly true that the 'problem' of rising pharmaceutical expenditures has been exaggerated. The common element in both sets of policies is that they result in cost shifting from the public to the private purse and have little to do with the quality or quantity of health services.
Woode, Maame Esi
The goal of this study was to look at the educational spill-over effects of health insurance on schooling with a focus on the Rwandan Community Based Health Insurance Programme, the Mutual Health Insurance scheme. Using a two-person general equilibrium overlapping generations model, this paper theoretically analyses the possible effect of health insurance on the relationship between parental health shocks and child schooling. Individuals choose whether or not they want to incur a medical cost by seeking care in order to reduce the effect of health shocks on their labour market availability and productivity. The theoretical results show that, health shocks negatively affect schooling irrespective of insurance status. However, if the health shock is severe (incapacitating) or sudden in nature, there is a discernible mitigating effect of health insurance on the negative impact of parental ill health on child schooling. The results are tested empirically using secondary data from the third Integrated Household Living Conditions Survey (EICV) for Rwanda, collected in 2011. A total of 2401 children between the ages of 13 and 18 are used for the analysis. This age group is selected due to the age of compulsory education in Rwanda. Based on average treatment effect on treated we find a statistically significant difference in attendance between children with MHI affiliated parents and those with uninsured parents of about 0.044. The negative effect of a father being severely ill is significant only for uninsured household. For the case of the mother, this effect is felt by female children with uninsured parents only when the illness is sudden. The observed effects are more pronounced for older children. While the father's ill health (sever or sudden) significantly and negatively affects their working hours, health insurance plays appears to increase their working hours. The effects of health insurance extend beyond health outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights
Asa Ebba Cristina Laurell
Full Text Available Objectives: This article analyzes the content and outcome of ongoing health reforms in Latin America: Universal Health Coverage with Health Insurance, and the Universal and Public Health Systems. It aims to compare and contrast the conceptual framework and practice of each and verify their concrete results regarding the guarantee of the right to health and access to required services. It identifies a direct relationship between the development model and the type of reform. The neoclassical-neoliberal model has succeeded in converting health into a field of privatized profits, but has failed to guarantee the right to health and access to services, which has discredited the governments. The reform of the progressive governments has succeeded in expanding access to services and ensuring the right to health, but faces difficulties and tensions related to the permanence of a powerful, private, industrial-insurance medical complex and persistence of the ideologies about medicalized 'good medicine'. Based on these findings, some strategies to strengthen unique and supportive public health systems are proposed.
Pitsenberger, William H
The cost of healthcare, and consequently of health insurance, continues to increase dramatically. A growing chorus calls for replacing the fundamental method by which people purchase insurance today--through their employers--with a system of individually acquired insurance. This article argues that changing how Americans purchase health insurance could change the dynamics between insurers and healthcare providers in a way that could favorably impact costs, primarily through reliance on highly limited provider networks. It examines the bases of legal obstacles to limited provider networks embedded in both statutory and case law and urges re-examination of those bases in light of changes in the distribution system of health insurance.
Wicks, E K; Curtis, R E; Haugh, K
HIPCs, or health care purchasing cooperatives, are attracting widespread interest as a key element of the managed competition approach to health reform. HIPCs perform several useful roles for individuals and small employers unable to obtain health insurance coverage in the current system by spreading risk more evenly and purchasing coverage in a given region or market area. While HIPCs are generally associated with managed competition, they are also compatible with reform strategies that require employers to pay for coverage or those that provide incentives for expanded coverage.
Marquis, M Susan; Buntin, Melinda Beeuwkes; Escarce, José J; Kapur, Kanika; Louis, Thomas A; Yegian, Jill M
This paper summarizes the results from a study of consumer decision making in California's individual health insurance market. We conclude that price subsidies will have only modest effects on participation and that efforts to reduce nonprice barriers might be just as effective. We also find that there is substantial pooling in the individual market and that it increases over time because people who become sick can continue coverage without new underwriting. Finally, we show that people prefer more-generous benefits and that it is difficult to induce people in poor health to enroll in high-deductible health plans.
Bes, Romy E; Wendel, Sonja; Curfs, Emile C; Groenewegen, Peter P; de Jong, Judith D
In a demand oriented health care system based on managed competition, health insurers have incentives to become prudent buyers of care on behalf of their enrolees. They are allowed to selectively contract care providers. This is supposed to stimulate competition between care providers and both increase the quality of care and contain costs in the health care system. However, health insurers are reluctant to implement selective contracting; they believe their enrolees will not accept this. One reason, insurers believe, is that enrolees do not trust their health insurer. However, this has never been studied. This paper aims to study the role played by enrolees' trust in the health insurer on their acceptance of selective contracting. An online survey was conducted among 4,422 people insured through a large Dutch health insurance company. Trust in the health insurer, trust in the purchasing strategy of the health insurer and acceptance of selective contracting were measured using multiple item scales. A regression model was constructed to analyse the results. Trust in the health insurer turned out to be an important prerequisite for the acceptance of selective contracting among their enrolees. The association of trust in the purchasing strategy of the health insurer with acceptance of selective contracting is stronger for older people than younger people. Furthermore, it was found that men and healthier people accepted selective contracting by their health insurer more readily. This was also true for younger people with a low level of trust in their health insurer. This study provides insight into factors that influence people's acceptance of selective contracting by their health insurer. This may help health insurers to implement selective contracting in a way their enrolees will accept and, thus, help systems of managed competition to develop.
Background In a demand oriented health care system based on managed competition, health insurers have incentives to become prudent buyers of care on behalf of their enrolees. They are allowed to selectively contract care providers. This is supposed to stimulate competition between care providers and both increase the quality of care and contain costs in the health care system. However, health insurers are reluctant to implement selective contracting; they believe their enrolees will not accept this. One reason, insurers believe, is that enrolees do not trust their health insurer. However, this has never been studied. This paper aims to study the role played by enrolees’ trust in the health insurer on their acceptance of selective contracting. Methods An online survey was conducted among 4,422 people insured through a large Dutch health insurance company. Trust in the health insurer, trust in the purchasing strategy of the health insurer and acceptance of selective contracting were measured using multiple item scales. A regression model was constructed to analyse the results. Results Trust in the health insurer turned out to be an important prerequisite for the acceptance of selective contracting among their enrolees. The association of trust in the purchasing strategy of the health insurer with acceptance of selective contracting is stronger for older people than younger people. Furthermore, it was found that men and healthier people accepted selective contracting by their health insurer more readily. This was also true for younger people with a low level of trust in their health insurer. Conclusion This study provides insight into factors that influence people’s acceptance of selective contracting by their health insurer. This may help health insurers to implement selective contracting in a way their enrolees will accept and, thus, help systems of managed competition to develop. PMID:24083663
Nahata, Leena; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Caltabellotta, Nicole M; Tishelman, Amy C
Transgender youth are at high risk for mental health morbidities. Based on treatment guidelines, puberty blockers and gender-affirming hormone therapy should be considered to alleviate distress due to discordance between an individual's assigned sex and gender identity. The goals of this study were to examine the: (1) prevalence of mental health diagnoses, self-injurious behaviors, and school victimization and (2) rates of insurance coverage for hormone therapy, among a cohort of transgender adolescents at a large pediatric gender program, to understand access to recommended therapy. An IRB-approved retrospective medical record review (2014-2016) was conducted of patients with ICD 9/10 codes for gender dysphoria referred to pediatric endocrinology within a large multidisciplinary gender program. Researchers extracted the following details: demographics, age, assigned sex, identified gender, insurance provider/coverage, mental health diagnoses, self-injurious behavior, and school victimization. Seventy-nine records (51 transgender males, 28 transgender females) met inclusion criteria (median age: 15 years, range: 9-18). Seventy-three subjects (92.4%) were diagnosed with one or more of the following conditions: depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, eating disorders, autism spectrum disorder, and bipolar disorder. Fifty-nine (74.7%) reported suicidal ideation, 44 (55.7%) exhibited self-harm, and 24 (30.4%) had one or more suicide attempts. Forty-six (58.2%) subjects reported school victimization. Of the 27 patients prescribed gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues, only 8 (29.6%) received insurance coverage. Transgender youth face significant barriers in accessing appropriate hormone therapy. Given the high rates of mental health concerns, self-injurious behavior, and school victimization among this vulnerable population, healthcare professionals must work alongside policy makers toward insurance coverage reform.
Fenny, Ama P; Asante, Felix A; Enemark, Ulrika
or user fees in Africa. Therefore, Ghana serves as in interesting case study as it has successfully expanded coverage of the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS). The study aims to establish the treatment-seeking behaviour of households in Ghana under the NHI policy. The study relies on household data...... as the concept of the NHIS grows widely in Ghana and serves as a good model for other African countries....
Percheski, Christine; Bzostek, Sharon
Objectives To estimate the impacts of public health insurance coverage on health care utilization and unmet health care needs for children in immigrant families. Methods We use survey data from National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) (2001-2005) linked to data from Medical Expenditures Panel Survey (MEPS) (2003-2007) for children with siblings in families headed by at least one immigrant parent. We use logit models with family fixed effects. Results Compared to their siblings with public insurance, uninsured children in immigrant families have higher odds of having no usual source of care, having no health care visits in a 2 year period, having high Emergency Department reliance, and having unmet health care needs. We find no statistically significant difference in the odds of having annual well-child visits. Conclusions for practice Previous research may have underestimated the impact of public health insurance for children in immigrant families. Children in immigrant families would likely benefit considerably from expansions of public health insurance eligibility to cover all children, including children without citizenship. Immigrant families that include both insured and uninsured children may benefit from additional referral and outreach efforts from health care providers to ensure that uninsured children have the same access to health care as their publicly-insured siblings.
Gary Burtless; Pavel Svaton
Cash income offers an incomplete picture of the resources available to finance household consumption. Most American families are covered by an insurance plan that pays for some or all of the health care they consume. Only a comparatively small percentage of families pay for the full cost of this insurance out of their cash incomes. As health care has claimed a growing share of consumption, the percentage of care that is financed out of household incomes has declined. Because health care consu...
Harrington, Mary E
The Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) Reauthorization Act (CHIPRA) reauthorized CHIP through federal fiscal year 2019 and, together with provisions in the Affordable Care Act, federal funding for the program was extended through federal fiscal year 2015. Congressional action is required or federal funding for the program will end in September 2015. This supplement to Academic Pediatrics is intended to inform discussions about CHIP's future. Most of the new research presented comes from a large evaluation of CHIP mandated by Congress in the CHIPRA. Since CHIP started in 1997, millions of lower-income children have secured health insurance coverage and needed care, reducing the financial burdens and stress on their families. States made substantial progress in simplifying enrollment and retention. When implemented optimally, Express Lane Eligibility has the potential to help cover more of the millions of eligible children who remain uninsured. Children move frequently between Medicaid and CHIP, and many experienced a gap in coverage with this transition. CHIP enrollees had good access to care. For nearly every health care access, use, care, and cost measure examined, CHIP enrollees fared better than uninsured children. Access in CHIP was similar to private coverage for most measures, but financial burdens were substantially lower and access to weekend and nighttime care was not as good. The Affordable Care Act coverage options have the potential to reduce uninsured rates among children, but complex transition issues must first be resolved to ensure families have access to affordable coverage, leading many stakeholders to recommend funding for CHIP be continued. Copyright © 2015 Academic Pediatric Association. All rights reserved.
Nichols, L M; Blumberg, L J
The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996 has been praised and criticized for asserting federal authority to regulate health insurance. We review the history of federalism and insurance regulation and find that HIPAA is less of a departure from traditional federal authority than it is an application of existing tools to meet evolving health policy goals. This interpretation could clarify future health policy debates about appropriate federal and state responsibilities. We also report on the insurance environments and the HIPAA implementation choices of thirteen states. We conclude with criteria for judging the success of HIPAA and the evolving federal/state partnership in health insurance regulation.
Fitzpatrick, Maria D.
Despite the widespread provision of retiree health insurance for public sector workers, little attention has been paid to its effects on employee retirement. This is in contrast to the large literature on health-insurance-induced “job-lock” in the private sector. I use the introduction of retiree health insurance for public school employees in combination with administrative data on their retirement to identify the effects of retiree health insurance. As expected, the availability of retiree health insurance for older workers allows employees to retire earlier. These behavioral changes have budgetary implications, likely making the programs self-financing rather than costly to taxpayers. PMID:25479889
Olson, Gary; Talbert, Pearson
In 2005, St. Luke's Hospital in Chesterfield, Mo., launched the "Passport to Wellness" program to help employers reduce preventable illnesses by providing access to screenings, health education, health coaching, disease management, and healthy lifestyle programs. The program was designed to influence consumer choice of hospitals and physicians and influence health insurance purchasing decisions. St. Luke's program also met goals created by local businesses, including identifying health risks of each employer's workforce and reducing health-related costs.
Yang, Zhou; Gilleskie, Donna B.; Norton, Edward C.
Prescription drug coverage creates a change in medical care consumption, beyond standard moral hazard, arising both from the differential cost-sharing and the relative effectiveness of different types of care. We model the dynamic supplemental health insurance decisions of Medicare beneficiaries, their medical care demand, and subsequent health…
Background National/social health insurance schemes have increasingly been seen in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) as a vehicle to universal health coverage (UHC) and a viable alternative funding mechanism for the health sector. Several countries, including Ghana, have thus introduced and implemented mandatory national health insurance schemes (NHIS) as part of reform efforts towards increasing access to health services. Ghana passed mandatory national health insurance (NHI)...
Schäfer, I; Rustenbach, S J; Radtke, M; Augustin, J; Glaeske, G; Augustin, M
In Germany, population-based data on the epidemiology of psoriasis are still rare. This study aims to assess the prevalence of psoriasis in the total population as well as for subgroups relevant to health care. As further epidemiological parameters the severity and regional distribution of psoriasis were analysed. A secondary analysis of data collected routinely for the members of a nationwide statutory health insurance company was conducted. Prevalences were calculated for a closed cohort of continuously insured persons in 2005. Defined criteria for the existence of psoriasis were at least one diagnoses of psoriasis (ICD-10) relating to ambulatory or hospital treatment or disability. 33,981 of the 1,344,071 continuously insured persons in 2005 were diagnosed with psoriasis, thus the one-year-prevalence in this cohort was 2.53%. Up to the age of 80 years the prevalence rate was increasing with increasing age and highest for the age groups from 50 to 79 years (range: 3.99-4.18%). Insured persons up to 20 years had a prevalence of 0.73%. Regional differences showed up after stratification for broad categories (1 digit) of ZIP codes: Lowest prevalence rates were seen in the south (2.17%) and highest (2.78%) in the north and western regions of Germany. If the prevalence rate of 2.5% assessed in this study is applied to the total resident population, 2 million people are treated because of psoriasis in Germany. Routine data from health insurance companies are a relevant and suitable data source to assess the prevalence of chronic diseases (under medical treatment) in the population. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Health and insurance benefits and... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.440 Health and insurance... insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a recipient shall not discriminate on...
... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 17... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 17.440 Health and insurance... insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a recipient shall not discriminate on...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 229... on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 229.440 Health and insurance... insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a recipient shall not discriminate on...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1253.440 Health and insurance... insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a recipient shall not discriminate on...
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Health and insurance benefits and... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 28.440 Health and insurance... insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a recipient shall not discriminate on...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 146... the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 146.440 Health and insurance... insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a recipient shall not discriminate on...
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 41.440 Health and insurance... insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a recipient shall not discriminate on...
Bazyar, Mohammad; Rashidian, Arash; Kane, Sumit; Vaez Mahdavi, Mohammad Reza; Akbari Sari, Ali; Doshmangir, Leila
There are fragmentations in Iran's health insurance system. Multiple health insurance funds exist, without adequate provisions for transfer or redistribution of cross subsidy among them. Multiple risk pools, including several private secondary insurance schemes, have resulted in a tiered health insurance system with inequitable benefit packages for different segments of the population. Also fragmentation might have contributed to inefficiency in the health insurance systems, a low financial protection against healthcare expenditures for the insured persons, high coinsurance rates, a notable rate of insurance coverage duplication, low contribution of well-funded institutes with generous benefit package to the public health insurance schemes, underfunding and severe financial shortages for the public funds, and a lack of transparency and reliable data and statistics for policy-making. We have conducted a policy analysis study, including qualitative interviews of key informants and document analysis. As a result we introduce three policy options: keeping the existing structural fragmentations of social health insurance (SHI)schemes but implementing a comprehensive "policy integration" strategy; consolidation of existing health insurance funds and creating a single national health insurance scheme; and reducing fragmentation by merging minor well-resourced funds together and creating two or three large insurance funds under the umbrella of the existing organizations. These policy options with their advantages and disadvantages are explained in the paper. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.
Carol Rapaport; Reagan Murray
Between 1988 and 1997, the percentage of children in New York and New Jersey receiving public health insurance increased modestly, while the percentage of children with private insurance showed a sharp decline. The net effect of these changes has been a marked rise in the share of Second District children without any health insurance.
Boone, J.; Schottmuller, C.
Standard insurance models predict that people with high (health) risks have high insurance coverage. It is empirically documented that people with high income have lower health risks and are better insured. We show that income differences between risk types lead to a violation of single crossing in
Bazyar, Mohammad; Rashidian, Arash; Kane, Sumit; Vaez Mahdavi, Mohammad Reza; Akbari Sari, Ali; Doshmangir, Leila
There are fragmentations in Iran’s health insurance system. Multiple health insurance funds exist, without adequate provisions for transfer or redistribution of cross subsidy among them. Multiple risk pools, including several private secondary insurance schemes, have resulted in a tiered health insurance system with inequitable benefit packages for different segments of the population. Also fragmentation might have contributed to inefficiency in the health insurance systems, a low financial protection against healthcare expenditures for the insured persons, high coinsurance rates, a notable rate of insurance coverage duplication, low contribution of well-funded institutes with generous benefit package to the public health insurance schemes, underfunding and severe financial shortages for the public funds, and a lack of transparency and reliable data and statistics for policy-making. We have conducted a policy analysis study, including qualitative interviews of key informants and document analysis. As a result we introduce three policy options: keeping the existing structural fragmentations of social health insurance (SHI)schemes but implementing a comprehensive "policy integration" strategy; consolidation of existing health insurance funds and creating a single national health insurance scheme; and reducing fragmentation by merging minor well-resourced funds together and creating two or three large insurance funds under the umbrella of the existing organizations. These policy options with their advantages and disadvantages are explained in the paper. PMID:27239868
Aryeetey, Genevieve Cecilia; Westeneng, Judith; Spaan, Ernst; Jehu-Appiah, Caroline; Agyepong, Irene Akua; Baltussen, Rob
Ghana since 2004, begun implementation of a National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) to minimize financial barriers to health care at point of use of service. Usually health insurance is expected to offer financial protection to households. This study aims to analyze the effect health insurance on household out-of-pocket expenditure (OOPE), catastrophic expenditure (CE) and poverty. We conducted two repeated household surveys in two regions of Ghana in 2009 and 2011. We first analyzed the effect of OOPE on poverty by estimating poverty headcount before and after OOPE were incurred. We also employed probit models and use of instrumental variables to analyze the effect of health insurance on OOPE, CE and poverty. Our findings showed that between 7-18 % of insured households incurred CE as a result of OOPE whereas this was between 29-36 % for uninsured households. In addition, between 3-5 % of both insured and uninsured households fell into poverty due to OOPE. Our regression analyses revealed that health insurance enrolment reduced OOPE by 86 % and protected households against CE and poverty by 3.0 % and 7.5 % respectively. This study provides evidence that high OOPE leads to CE and poverty in Ghana but enrolment into the NHIS reduces OOPE, provides financial protection against CE and reduces poverty. These findings support the pro-poor policy objective of Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme and holds relevance to other low and middle income countries implementing or aiming to implement insurance schemes.
Cardon, James H; Showalter, Mark H
We develop an infinite horizon utility maximization model of the interaction between insurance choice and tax-preferred health savings accounts. The model can be used to examine a wide range of policy options, including flexible spending accounts, health savings accounts, and health reimbursement accounts. We also develop a 2-period model to simulate various implications of the model. Key results from the simulation analysis include the following: (1) with no adverse selection, use of unrestricted health savings accounts leads to modest welfare gains, after accounting for the tax revenue loss; (2) with adverse selection and an initial pooling equilibrium comprised of "sick" and "healthy" consumers, introducing HSAs can, but does not necessarily, lead to a new pooling equilibrium. The new equilibrium results in a higher coinsurance rate, an increase in expected utility for healthy consumers, and a decrease in expected utility for sick consumers; (3) with adverse selection and a separating equilibrium, both sick and healthy consumers are better off with a health savings account; (4) efficiency gains are possible when insurance contracts are explicitly linked to tax-preferred health savings accounts.
Bridgelal-Nagassar, R J; James, K; Nagassar, R P; Maharaj, S
To determine the association between health insurance/health benefit and medication adherence amongst adult diabetic patients in Kingston, Jamaica. This was a cross-sectional study. The target population was diabetics who attended the diabetic outpatient clinics in health centres in Kingston. Two health centres were selectively chosen in Kingston. All diabetic patients attending the diabetic clinics and over the age of 18 years were conveniently sampled. The sample size was 260. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was utilized which assessed health insurance/health benefit. Adherence was measured by patients' self-reports of medication usage in the previous week. The Chi-squared test was used to determine the significance of associations. Sample population was 76% female and 24% male. Type 2 diabetics comprised 93.8%. More than 95% of patients were over the age of 40 years. Approximately 32% of participants were employed. Approximately 75% of patients had health insurance/health benefit. Among those who had health insurance or health benefit, 71.5% were adherent and 28.5% were non-adherent. This difference was statistically significant (χ2 = 6.553, p = 0.01). Prevalence of medication non-adherence was 33%. AIn Kingston, diabetic patients who are adherent are more likely to have health insurance/health benefit ( p = 0.01).
Staff members, fellows and pensioners are reminded that any change in their marital status, as well as any change in their spouse or registered partner’s income or health insurance cover, must be reported to CERN in writing within 30 calendar days, in accordance with Articles III 6.01 to 6.03 of the Rules of the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS). Such changes may affect the conditions of the spouse or registered partner’s membership of the CHIS or the payment of the supplementary contribution to it for the spouse or registered partner’s insurance cover. For more information see: http://cern.ch/chis/contribsupp.asp From 1.1.2008, the indexed amounts of the supplementary monthly contribution for the different monthly income brackets are as follows, expressed in Swiss francs: more than 2500 CHF and up to 4250 CHF: 134.- more than 4250 CHF and up to 7500 CHF: 234.- more than 7500 CHF and up to 10,000 CHF: 369.- more than 10,000 CHF: 470.- It is in the member of the ...
Pollitz, K; Tapay, N; Hadley, E; Specht, J
The authors monitored the implementation of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) from 1997 to 1999. Regulators in all states and relevant federal agencies were interviewed and applicable laws and regulations studied. The authors found that HIPAA changed legal protections for consumers' health coverage in several ways. They examine how the process of regulating such coverage was affected at the state and federal levels and under an emerging partnership of the two. Despite some early implementation challenges, HIPAA's successes have been significant, although limited by the law's incremental nature.