WorldWideScience

Sample records for hospital wastes technical

  1. Hospital waste sterilization: a technical and economic comparison between radiation and microwave treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tata, A.; Beone, F.

    1995-01-01

    Hospital waste (HW) disposal is becoming a problem of increasing importance in almost all industrially advanced countries. In Italy the yearly hospital waste production is about 250,000 tons and only 60,000 are treated by incineration at present time. As by a recent Italian law a meaningful percentage of HW (50 to 60%), corresponding to food residuals, plastic, paper, various organic materials, etc., could be landfilled as municipal refuses if preliminarily submitted to a suitable sterilization treatment. Under this perspective, sterilization/sanitation techniques represent now a technically and commercially viable alternative to HW thermal destruction that, besides more and more socially and politically less accepted. Electron Beam (EB) and Microwave (MW) treatments are two of the most interesting and emerging HW sterilization techniques, and, based on engineering real data, a technical and economic comparison is carried out, focusing vantages and limits of each process. (author)

  2. Waste Management Technical Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckingham, J.S. [ed.

    1967-08-31

    This Manual has been prepared to provide a documented compendium of the technical bases and general physical features of Isochem Incorporated`s Waste Management Program. The manual is intended to be used as a means of training and as a reference handbook for use by personnel responsible for executing the Waste Management Program. The material in this manual was assembled by members of Isochem`s Chemical Processing Division, Battelle Northwest Laboratory, and Hanford Engineering Services between September 1965 and March 1967. The manual is divided into the following parts: Introduction, contains a summary of the overall Waste Management Program. It is written to provide the reader with a synoptic view and as an aid in understanding the subsequent parts; Feed Material, contains detailed discussion of the type and sources of feed material used in the Waste Management Program, including a chapter on nuclear reactions and the formation of fission products; Waste Fractionization Plant Processing, contains detailed discussions of the processes used in the Waste Fractionization Plant with supporting data and documentation of the technology employed; Waste Fractionization Plant Product and Waste Effluent Handling, contains detailed discussions of the methods of handling the product and waste material generated by the Waste Fractionization Plant; Plant and Equipment, describes the layout of the Waste Management facilities, arrangement of equipment, and individual equipment pieces; Process Control, describes the instruments and analytical methods used for process control; and Safety describes process hazards and the methods used to safeguard against them.

  3. Evaluation of AFBC co-firing of coal and hospital wastes. Technical report, January 1989--August 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-01

    The purpose of this program is to expand the use of coal by utilizing CFB (circulating fluidized bed) technology to provide an environmentally safe method for disposing of waste materials. Hospitals are currently experiencing a waste management crisis. In many instances, they are no longer permitted to burn pathological and infectious wastes in incinerators. Older hospital incinerators are not capable of maintaining the stable temperatures and residence times necessary in order to completely destroy toxic substances before release into the atmosphere. In addition, the number of available landfills which can safely handle these substances is decreasing each year. The purpose of this project is to conduct necessary research investigating whether the combustion of the hospital wastes in a coal-fired circulating fluidized bed boiler will effectively destroy dioxins and other hazardous substances before release into the atmosphere. If this is proven feasible, in light of the quantity of hospital wastes generated each year, it would create a new market for coal -- possibly 50 million tons/year.

  4. Hospital waste management in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaker, Alissar

    1999-01-01

    Hospital wastes comprises approximately 80% domestic waste components, also known as non-risk waste and 20% hazardous or risk waste. The 20% of the hospital waste stream or the risk waste (also known as infectious, medical, clinical wastes) comprises components which could be potentially contaminated with infections, chemical or radioactive agents. Therefore, it should be handled and disposed of in such a manner as to minimize potential human exposure and cross-contamination. Hospital risk waste and be subdivided into seven general categories as follows: infections, anatomical/pathological, chemical, pharmaceutical, radioactive waste, sharps and pressurised containers. These waste categories are generated by many types of health care establishments, including hospitals, clinics, infirmaries.... The document presents also tables of number of hospitals and estimated bed number in different regions in Lebanon; estimated hospital risk and non-risk waste generation per tonnes per day for the years 1998 until 2010 and finally sensitivity analysis of estimated generation of hospital risk waste in Lebanon per tonnes per day for the years 1998 until 2010. The management, treatment and disposal of hospital risk waste constitute important environmental and public safety issues. It is recognised that there is alack of infrastructure for the safe and environmentally acceptable disposal of hospital waste in Lebanon

  5. Management of hospital radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantrana, D.

    1986-01-01

    The general structure of a regulatory scheme for the management of hospital radioactive wastes is presented. The responsabilities of an institution in the radioactive waste management, and storage conditions are defined. The radioactive wastes are classified in physical terms, and the criteria for evaluating the activity of solid wastes are described. The container characteristics and, the types of treatments given to the wastes are specified. (M.C.K.) [pt

  6. Hospital Waste Management - Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Edra

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of waste management in hospitals is indisputable in preserving the environment and protecting public health, but management models are rarely discussed. This study presents the legal and conceptual frameworks of good waste management practices applicable to hospitals and associated indicators. As a case study, the overall performance of Hospital Centre of São João, in Porto, was analysed based on published reports. Data on the production of waste in their different typologies were collected from 2010 to 2016, enabling a correlation of the waste production with the kg/bed/day indicator. The aim of this study was to gather data and discuss trends in a real scenario of evolution over a six-year period in order to contribute to a future research proposal on indicators that can be used as reference for benchmarking the construction of methodological guides for hospital waste management.

  7. Hospital waste management and other small producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, H.; Roy, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes waste management in hospitals and other waste producers. Low-level radioactive wastes are collected by ANDRA (French Agency for radioactive waste management) and informations on waste processing or regulations on radiation sources are given

  8. Management of hospital radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houy, J.C.; Rimbert, J.C.; Bouvet, C.; Laugle, S.

    1997-01-01

    The hospital radioactive wastes are of three types: solid, liquid and gaseous. Prior to final evacuation all these wastes are checked by a detector the threshold of which is lower than the standard. This system allows detecting activities very low under the daily recommended threshold of 37 kBq (1μ Ci), for the group II. In metabolic radiotherapy the unsealed sources of iodine 131 will form mainly the wastes arising from the rooms contaminated by the patient himself. In this service anything touching the patient's room most by systematically checked. All the rooms are provided with toilette with two compartments, one connected traditionally to the sewerage system for faeces and the other coupled to tanks for urine storing. The filled reservoirs waits around 10 month span prior to being emptied, after checking, into the sewerage system. The volume activity most be lower than 7 Bq per liter (standard). For the hot labs, injection room and in-vitro lab, the liquid waste retrieved from dedicated stainless sinks are stored in storage tanks and will waits for 2 years before evacuation. The undies coming from the metabolic radiotherapy service are possible contaminated by the patient sheets, pillow cases, etc. These undies freshly contaminated may be contaminating if the contamination is non fixated. All the undies coming from this service are checked like all the wastes by means of the fixed detector. For the solid wastes two evacuation channels are possible: the urban garbage repository for household wastes and the Brest waste repository for hospital wastes. For the liquid waste arising for urines, used washing water, etc, the evacuation will be done towards city sewerage system after storing or dilution. Concerning the liquid wastes presenting chemical risks, they will be evacuated in cans by NETRA. Concerning the gaseous wastes, trapped on active carbon filters, they will be handled like solid wastes and will be directed to the waste repository of Brest. The other

  9. Final waste classification and waste form technical position papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-05-01

    The waste classification technical position paper describes overall procedures acceptable to NRC staff which may be used by licensees to determine the presence and concentrations of the radionuclides listed in section 61.55, and thereby classifying waste for near-surface disposal. This technical position paper also provides guidance on the types of information which should be included in shipment manifests accompanying waste shipments to near-surface disposal facilities. The technical position paper on waste form provides guidance to waste generators on test methods and results acceptable to NRC staff for implementing the 10 CFR Part 61 waste form requirements. It can be used as an acceptable approach for demonstrating compliance with the 10 CFR Part 61 waste structural stability criteria. This technical position paper includes guidance on processing waste into an acceptable stable form, designing acceptable high-integrity containers, packaging cartridge filters, and minimizing radiation effects on organic ion-exchange resins. The guidance in the waste form technical position paper may be used by licensees as the basis for qualifying process control programs to meet the waste form stability requirements, including tests which can be used to demonstrate resistance to degradation arising from the effects of compression, moisture, microbial activity, radiation, and chemical changes. Generic test data (e.g., topical reports prepared by vendors who market solidification technology) may be used for process control program qualification where such generic data is applicable to the particular types of waste generated by a licensee

  10. Low-level waste program technical strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bledsoe, K.W.

    1994-01-01

    The Low-Level Waste Technical Strategy document describes the mechanisms which the Low-Level Waste Program Office plans to implement to achieve its mission. The mission is to manage the receipt, immobilization, packaging, storage/disposal and RCRA closure (of the site) of the low-level Hanford waste (pretreated tank wastes) in an environmentally sound, safe and cost-effective manner. The primary objective of the TWRS Low-level waste Program office is to vitrify the LLW fraction of the tank waste and dispose of it onsite

  11. The limitation of radioactive wastes from hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuurman, B.; IJtsma, D.; Zwigt, A.

    1987-01-01

    Interviews were made with radiation experts working at hospitals about the treatment and limiting of radioactive wastes. The authors conclude that with the aid of hospital personnel a decrease of the volume of radioactive waste is possible. 25 refs

  12. Managing mixed wastes: technical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lytle, J.E.; Eyman, L.D.; Burton, D.W.; McBrayer, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    The US Department of Energy manages wastes that are both chemically hazardous and radioactive. These mixed wastes are often unique and many have national security implications. Management practices have evolved over the more than forty years that the Department and its predecessor agencies have been managing these wastes, both in response to better understanding of the hazards involved and in response to external, regulatory influences. The Department has recently standarized its waste management practices and has initited an R and D program to address priority issues identified by its operating contractor organizations. The R and D program is guided by waste management strategy that emphasizes reduction of human exposure to hazardous wastes in the environment, reduction of the amount and toxicity of wastes generated, treatment of wastes that are generated to reduce volumes and toxicities, and identification of alternatives to land disposal of wastes that remain hazardous following maximum practicable treatment

  13. Hospital Competition, Technical Efficiency, and Quality

    OpenAIRE

    C. L. Chua; Alfons Palangkaraya; Jongsay Yong

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the link between competition and technical efficiency of public hospitals in the State of Victoria, Australia by accounting both quantity and quality of hospital output using a two-stage semi-parametric model of hospital production and Data Envelopment Analysis. On the one hand, it finds a positive relationship between efficiency and competition measured by the Hirschman-Herfindahl Index (HHI). On the other, it finds that efficiency and the number of competing hospitals, in...

  14. Hospital infections waste and its proper disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, A.Q.; Memon, A.A.; Mahar, R.B.

    2002-01-01

    Hazardous hospital waste is a unique in several ways. There are a large variety of wastes but volume is a small relative to industrial wastes. Hospital infections solid waste is getting to be serious problem day by day. This waste contribute to the overall pollution in the city; much of it is also hazardous, thus putting at risk the health of those who come into contact with it. This paper addresses the various aspects of incineration, recycling and landfill process with detailed illustration. Hospital waste management in rural hospitals of Pakistan with particular reference to Gambat Hospital is discussed in this paper, including study of existing waste management system, estimation of waste production per day from different sources of Hospital and suitable waste management system is recommended. (author)

  15. Reduced waste generation technical work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    The United States Department of Energy has established policies for avoiding plutonium losses to the waste streams and minimizing the generation of wastes produced at its nuclear facilities. This policy is evidenced in DOE Order 5820.2, which states ''Technical and administrative controls shall be directed towards reducing the gross volume of TRU waste generated and the amount of radioactivity in such waste.'' To comply with the DOE directive, the Defense Transuranic Waste Program (DTWP) supports and provides funding for specific research and development tasks at the various DOE sites to reduce the generation of waste. This document has been prepared to give an overview of current and past Reduced Waste Generation task activities which are to be based on technical and cost/benefit factors. The document is updated annually, or as needed, to reflect the status of program direction. Reduced Waste Generation (RWG) tasks encompass a wide range of goals which are basically oriented toward (1) avoiding the generation of waste, (2) changing processes or operations to reduce waste, (3) converting TRU waste into LLW by sorting or decontamination, and (4) reducing volumes through operations such as incineration or compaction

  16. Utilization of Hospital Waste Ash in Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazim Ali Memon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hospital waste management is a huge problem in Pakistan. The annual production of medical waste produced from health care facilities, in Pakistan, is around 250,000 tons. This research paper is intended to evaluate the feasibility of using of hospital waste ash obtained from Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, as partial replacement of cement. The main variable in this research is the amount of hospital waste ash (2, 4, 6 and 8% by weight of cement while the amount of cementitious material, water to cementitious material ratio, fine and coarse aggregate content were kept constant. Test results substantiate that hospital waste ash can be used in concrete. XRD (X-Ray Diffraction of hospital waste ash showed that it is rich in calcite while scanning electron micrographs indicated that the particles of hospital waste ash have highly irregular shape. The slump value, density of fresh concrete and water absorption decreased with the increase in the quantity of hospital waste ash in the mix. At 3 days of testing, the compressive strength of mixes with hospital waste ash was higher than the control mix while at 7 and 28 days the CM (Control Mix showed higher strength than the hospital waste ash mixes except the mix containing 2% hospital waste ash by weight of cement.

  17. Utilization of hospital waste ash in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, S.; Sheikh, M.

    2013-01-01

    Hospital waste management is a huge problem in Pakistan. The annual production of medical waste produced from health care facilities, in Pakistan, is around 250,000 tons. This research paper is intended to evaluate the feasibility of using of hospital waste ash obtained from Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, as partial replacement of cement. The main variable in this research is the amount of hospital waste ash (2, 4, 6 and 8% by weight of cement) while the amount of cementitious material, water to cementitious material ratio, fine and coarse aggregate content were kept constant. Test results substantiate that hospital waste ash can be used in concrete. XRD (X-Ray Diffraction) of hospital waste ash showed that it is rich in calcite while scanning electron micrographs indicated that the particles of hospital waste ash have highly irregular shape. The slump value, density of fresh concrete and water absorption decreased with the increase in the quantity of hospital waste ash in the mix. At 3 days of testing, the compressive strength of mixes with hospital waste ash was higher than the control mix while at 7 and 28 days the CM (Control Mix) showed higher strength than the hospital waste ash mixes except the mix containing 2% hospital waste ash by weight of cement. (author)

  18. Disposable products in the hospital waste stream.

    OpenAIRE

    Gilden, D. J.; Scissors, K. N.; Reuler, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    Use of disposable products in hospitals continues to increase despite limited landfill space and dwindling natural resources. We analyzed the use and disposal patterns of disposable hospital products to identify means of reducing noninfectious, nonhazardous hospital waste. In a 385-bed private teaching hospital, the 20 disposable products of which the greatest amounts (by weight) were purchased, were identified, and total hospital waste was tabulated. Samples of trash from three areas were so...

  19. Waste management project technical baseline description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sederburg, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    A systems engineering approach has been taken to describe the technical baseline under which the Waste Management Project is currently operating. The document contains a mission analysis, function analysis, requirement analysis, interface definitions, alternative analysis, system definition, documentation requirements, implementation definitions, and discussion of uncertainties facing the Project

  20. Solid Waste Program technical baseline description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, A.B.

    1994-07-01

    The system engineering approach has been taken to describe the technical baseline under which the Solid Waste Program is currently operating. The document contains a mission analysis, function analysis, system definition, documentation requirements, facility and project bases, and uncertainties facing the program.

  1. Hospital waste management in nonteaching hospitals of Lucknow City, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Kumar Manar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess hospital waste management in nonteaching hospitals of Lucknow city. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted on the staffs of nonteaching hospitals of Lucknow from September 2012 to March 2013. A total of eight hospitals were chosen as the study sample size. Simple random sampling technique was used for the selection of the nonteaching hospitals. A pre-structured and pre-tested interview questionnaire was used to collect necessary information regarding the hospitals and biomedical waste (BMW management of the hospitals. The general information about the selected hospitals/employees of the hospitals was collected. Results: Mean hospital waste generated in the eight nonteaching hospitals of Lucknow was 0.56 kg/bed/day. About 50.5% of the hospitals did not have BMW department and colored dustbins. In 37.5% of the hospitals, there were no BMW records and segregation at source. Incinerator was used only by hospital A for treatment of BMW. Hospital G and hospital H had no facilities for BMW treatment. Conclusion: There is a need for appropriate training of staffs, strict implementation of rules, and continuous surveillance of the hospitals of Lucknow to improve the BMW management and handling practices.

  2. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant technical manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, D.E. [ed.; Watrous, R.A.; Kruger, O.L. [and others

    1996-03-01

    A key element of the Hanford waste management strategy is the construction of a new facility, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP), to vitrify existing and future liquid high-level waste produced by defense activities at the Hanford Site. The HWVP mission is to vitrify pretreated waste in borosilicate glass, cast the glass into stainless steel canisters, and store the canisters at the Hanford Site until they are shipped to a federal geological repository. The HWVP Technical Manual (Manual) documents the technical bases of the current HWVP process and provides a physical description of the related equipment and the plant. The immediate purpose of the document is to provide the technical bases for preparation of project baseline documents that will be used to direct the Title 1 and Title 2 design by the A/E, Fluor. The content of the Manual is organized in the following manner. Chapter 1.0 contains the background and context within which the HWVP was designed. Chapter 2.0 describes the site, plant, equipment and supporting services and provides the context for application of the process information in the Manual. Chapter 3.0 provides plant feed and product requirements, which are primary process bases for plant operation. Chapter 4.0 summarizes the technology for each plant process. Chapter 5.0 describes the engineering principles for designing major types of HWVP equipment. Chapter 6.0 describes the general safety aspects of the plant and process to assist in safe and prudent facility operation. Chapter 7.0 includes a description of the waste form qualification program and data. Chapter 8.0 indicates the current status of quality assurance requirements for the Manual. The Appendices provide data that are too extensive to be placed in the main text, such as extensive tables and sets of figures. The Manual is a revision of the 1987 version.

  3. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant technical manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.E.; Watrous, R.A.; Kruger, O.L.

    1996-03-01

    A key element of the Hanford waste management strategy is the construction of a new facility, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP), to vitrify existing and future liquid high-level waste produced by defense activities at the Hanford Site. The HWVP mission is to vitrify pretreated waste in borosilicate glass, cast the glass into stainless steel canisters, and store the canisters at the Hanford Site until they are shipped to a federal geological repository. The HWVP Technical Manual (Manual) documents the technical bases of the current HWVP process and provides a physical description of the related equipment and the plant. The immediate purpose of the document is to provide the technical bases for preparation of project baseline documents that will be used to direct the Title 1 and Title 2 design by the A/E, Fluor. The content of the Manual is organized in the following manner. Chapter 1.0 contains the background and context within which the HWVP was designed. Chapter 2.0 describes the site, plant, equipment and supporting services and provides the context for application of the process information in the Manual. Chapter 3.0 provides plant feed and product requirements, which are primary process bases for plant operation. Chapter 4.0 summarizes the technology for each plant process. Chapter 5.0 describes the engineering principles for designing major types of HWVP equipment. Chapter 6.0 describes the general safety aspects of the plant and process to assist in safe and prudent facility operation. Chapter 7.0 includes a description of the waste form qualification program and data. Chapter 8.0 indicates the current status of quality assurance requirements for the Manual. The Appendices provide data that are too extensive to be placed in the main text, such as extensive tables and sets of figures. The Manual is a revision of the 1987 version

  4. Assessing knowledge, performance, and efficiency for hospital waste management-a comparison of government and private hospitals in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mustafa; Wang, Wenping; Chaudhry, Nawaz; Geng, Yong; Ashraf, Uzma

    2017-04-01

    Proper management of healthcare waste is a critical concern in many countries of the world. Rapid urbanization and population growth rates pose serious challenges to healthcare waste management infrastructure in such countries. This study was aimed at assessing the situation of hospital waste management in a major city of Pakistan. Simple random sampling was used to select 12 government and private hospitals in the city. Field visits, physical measurements, and questionnaire survey method were used for data collection. Information was obtained regarding hospital waste generation, segregation, collection, storage, transportation, and disposal. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) was used to classify the hospitals on the basis of their relative waste management efficiencies. The weighted average total waste generation at the surveyed hospitals was discovered to be 1.53 kg/patient/day of which 75.15% consisted of general waste and the remaining consisted of biomedical waste. Of the total waste, 24.54% came from the public hospital and the remaining came from the private hospitals. DEA showed that seven of the surveyed hospitals had scale or pure technical inefficiencies in their waste management activities. The public hospital was relatively less efficient than most of the private hospitals in these activities. Results of the questionnaire survey showed that none of the surveyed hospitals was carrying out waste management in strict compliance with government regulations. Moreover, hospital staff at all the surveyed hospitals had low level of knowledge regarding safe hospital waste management practices. The current situation should be rectified in order to avoid environmental and epidemiological risks.

  5. Hospital waste management status in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karam, R.; Oueida, F.; Tissot-Guerraz, F.; Trepo, D.; Collombel, C.

    2000-01-01

    author.The existing management of hospital waste in Lebanon currently poses both an environmental hazard as well as a public health risk. This is due mainly to lack of legislation, information and modern treatment and disposal facilities designed for this purpose. A nation-wide questionnaire survey was conducted to asses the status of hospital waste management. The study started from October 1997 till August 1998. We found that 75% of the surveyed hospitals completely ignore their total waste quantity: 73% of hospitals surveyed practice segregation at source of infectious, pathological, sharps and pharmaceuticals; more than 40% dispose of their hospital risk wastes through the municipality waste disposal, 24% by burning in open fires, 14% by on-site hospital incinerators, 11% in on-site dumping, 8% handled by a private contractor and 1% in uncontrolled landfill. We conclude that with some exceptions, the hospital waste management situation in Lebanon is very far from being satisfactory and therefore needs to be reconsidered. 1 Fig., 6 tabs., 18 refs

  6. The management of hospital radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyrin, J.O.

    1992-01-01

    Enquiries performed by nuclear medicine services together with ANDRA in order to characterize the radioactive wastes from hospital origin have led to suggest some improvements in the management of these products: improved screening on the production site by rationalized collection, planning of a local storage installation for decay of 125 I-containing products, systematic education of concerned hospital staff, in particular to prevent infectious risks, obtaining legislatively a change of class for tritiated and carbonated hospital radioactive wastes, which will be then considered as common wastes. The practical application of these arrangements in hospital by the 'radiation protection competent person' would liberate hospital departments from systematic appeal to ANDRA and thus result in money saving

  7. Radioactive hospital wastes. Radiations under control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondeelle, A.; Delmotte, H.; Gauron, C.

    2006-07-01

    A set of articles proposes an overview of legal and regulatory evolutions regarding radioactive hospital wastes. These legal measures and evolutions are notably present in the Public Health code, in the Labour code. An article outlines the role of the radiation protection expert in the process of elimination of contaminated wastes (four major steps for this elimination are indicated; peculiarities of the hospital are outlined, as well as control procedures and the importance of training and information). An article describes the specific activity of the Creteil incinerator which comprises a unit for the incineration of care activity wastes under a very constraining regulation

  8. development of improved solid hospital waste management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pre-intervention situation analysis was conducted to assess Hospital Waste Management (HWM) practices, solutions were proffered for the observed inadequacies and advocacy was made to Hospital administration for which a number of interventional measures were instituted. A post interventional survey was conducted ...

  9. Radioactive waste management in a hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shoukat; Syed, At; Ahmad, Reyaz; Rather, Tanveer A; Ajaz, M; Jan, Fa

    2010-01-01

    Most of the tertiary care hospitals use radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Safe disposal of the radioactive waste is a vital component of the overall management of the hospital waste. An important objective in radioactive waste management is to ensure that the radiation exposure to an individual (Public, Radiation worker, Patient) and the environment does not exceed the prescribed safe limits. Disposal of Radioactive waste in public domain is undertaken in accordance with the Atomic Energy (Safe disposal of radioactive waste) rules of 1987 promulgated by the Indian Central Government Atomic Energy Act 1962. Any prospective plan of a hospital that intends using radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures needs to have sufficient infrastructural and manpower resources to keep its ambient radiation levels within specified safe limits. Regular monitoring of hospital area and radiation workers is mandatory to assess the quality of radiation safety. Records should be maintained to identify the quality and quantity of radioactive waste generated and the mode of its disposal. Radiation Safety officer plays a key role in the waste disposal operations.

  10. Radioactive Waste Management in A Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shoukat; Syed, AT; Ahmad, Reyaz; Rather, Tanveer A.; Ajaz, M; Jan, FA

    2010-01-01

    Most of the tertiary care hospitals use radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Safe disposal of the radioactive waste is a vital component of the overall management of the hospital waste. An important objective in radioactive waste management is to ensure that the radiation exposure to an individual (Public, Radiation worker, Patient) and the environment does not exceed the prescribed safe limits. Disposal of Radioactive waste in public domain is undertaken in accordance with the Atomic Energy (Safe disposal of radioactive waste) rules of 1987 promulgated by the Indian Central Government Atomic Energy Act 1962. Any prospective plan of a hospital that intends using radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures needs to have sufficient infrastructural and manpower resources to keep its ambient radiation levels within specified safe limits. Regular monitoring of hospital area and radiation workers is mandatory to assess the quality of radiation safety. Records should be maintained to identify the quality and quantity of radioactive waste generated and the mode of its disposal. Radiation Safety officer plays a key role in the waste disposal operations. PMID:21475524

  11. Technical efficiency of selected hospitals in Eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Murad; Debela, Megersa; Bamud, Tewfik

    2017-12-01

    This study examines the relative technical efficiency of 12 hospitals in Eastern Ethiopia. Using six-year-round panel data for the period between 2007/08 and 2012/13, this study examines the technical efficiency, total factor productivity, and determinants of the technical inefficiency of hospitals. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) and DEA- based Malmquist productivity index used to estimate relative technical efficiency, scale efficiency, and total factor productivity index of hospitals. Tobit model used to examine the determinants of the technical inefficiency of hospitals. The DEA Variable Returns to Scale (VRS) estimate indicated that 6 (50%), 5 (42%), 3 (25%), 3 (25%), 4 (33%), and 3 (25%) of the hospitals were technically inefficient while 9 (75%), 9 (75%), 7 (58%), 7 (58%), 7 (58%) and 8 (67%) of hospitals were scale inefficient between 2007/08 and 2012/13, respectively. On average, Malmquist Total Factor Productivity (MTFP) of the hospitals decreased by 3.6% over the panel period. The Tobit model shows that teaching hospital is less efficiency than other hospitals. The Tobit regression model further shows that medical doctor to total staff ratio, the proportion of outpatient visit to inpatient days, and the proportion of inpatients treated per medical doctor were negatively related with technical inefficiency of hospitals. Hence, policy interventions that help utilize excess capacity of hospitals, increase doctor to other staff ratio, and standardize number of inpatients treated per doctor would contribute to the improvement of the technical efficiency of hospitals.

  12. Technical Assessment Of Selection Of A Waste Disposal Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Bong Hun

    1992-04-01

    This book gives overall descriptions of technical assessment of selection of a waste disposal site, which deals with standard of selection on incinerator of city waste, the method over assessment of selection of incinerator in city waste, prerequisite of technical assessment for selection of incinerator, waste incinerator and related equipment such as form, structure, quality of material, ventilation device, plumbing system and electrical installation, and total plan like plan of construction and a measure taken against environmental pollution.

  13. Selection of Technical Solutions for the Management of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The objectives of this publication are to identify and critically review the criteria to be considered while selecting waste management technologies; summarize, evaluate, rank and compare the different technical solutions; and offer a systematic approach for selecting the best matching solution. This publication covers the management of radioactive waste from all nuclear operations, including waste generated from research reactors, power reactors, and nuclear fuel cycle activities including high level waste (HLW) arising from reprocessing and spent nuclear fuel declared as waste (SFW), as well as low level waste (LLW) and intermediate level waste (ILW) arising from the production and use of radionuclides in industry, agriculture, medicine, education and research.

  14. Practices regarding hospital waste management at public and private sector hospitals of Lahore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, S.; Din, N.U.; Mohsin, J.

    2011-01-01

    Health care (Biomedical) waste is a term used for all waste arising from health care establishments. In most of health care centers of Pakistan, including Lahore, hospital wastes are simply mixed with the municipal waste in collecting bins at road-sides and disposed off similarly. Proper Management of biomedical waste, especially the hazardous one, being produced in hospital settings is important in terms of their ability to cause harm to the related per-sons and the environment as well. To Observe and compare the practices regarding Hospital Waste management of the public sector hospital with private sector hospital. Descriptive, Cross sectional. Methodology: Standardized checklist was used to assess the practices of nursing and sanitary staff. Practices regarding waste segregation were same at both hospitals. While practices regarding waste collection and transportation were better at The Children's Hospital. Public sector hospital has, paradoxically, better practices regarding hospital waste management in comparison to private sector hospital. (author)

  15. Hospital wastes management containing in radioactive refusals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campi, F.

    1999-01-01

    In large hospitals, featuring a nuclear medicine department, diagnostic examinations and metabolic therapies are performed using an amount of radio drugs per day averaging around some hundreds mCi. Part of these drugs are disposed in the conventional patient related waste and collected within the hospital itself. Before directing the wastes to the disposal, it is necessary verify that they do not contain radioactive materials. This article refers a study on the possibility to perform this verification by means of an automatic radio-metric system, in order to improve the efficiency, the speed and the safety of the control. Measures devoted to determined the minimum detectable activities for the main radionuclides used in the hospitals have been executed, and it has been designed a comprehensive device able to operate automatically, and unattended by any operator, the selection of radioactive refusals [it

  16. Guides to pollution prevention: Selected hospital waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    The hazardous wastes generated by general medical and surgical hospitals are small in volume relative to those of industrial facilities; however, the wastes are of a wide variety. Some of the hazardous materials used by hospitals that become part of their waste streams include chemotherapy and antineoplastic chemicals, solvents, formaldehyde, photographic chemicals, radionuclides, mercury, waste anesthetic gases; and other toxic, corrosive and miscellaneous chemicals. Additional wastes such as infectious waste, incinerator exhaust, laundry-related waste, utility wastes, and trash were not addressed in the guide. Reducing the generation of these materials at the source, or recycling the wastes on- or off-site, will benefit hospitals by reducing disposal costs and lowering the liabilities associated with hazardous waste disposal. The guide provides an overview of hospital waste generating processes and presents options for minimizing waste generation through source reduction and recycling

  17. Radioactive wastes and effluents in hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlier, V.

    2000-01-01

    Out of sealed sources that have a particular management and regulation, the hospitals and laboratories use radioisotopes in liquid unsealed sources. The radioisotopes receive a particular surveillance, as well for their use as for the wastes they produce. At each step of their use, a follow up of these products and induced wastes is going to be made in a rigorous way, and their noxiousness taken into account. Whatever can be the product, the aim is the same: the matter is to preserve man and his environment from noxious effects of these products. (N.C.)

  18. Waste management in small hospitals: trouble for environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Deepak

    2012-07-01

    Small hospitals are the grassroots for the big hospital structures, so proper waste management practices require to be initiated from there. Small hospitals contribute a lot in the health care facilities, but due to their poor waste management practices, they pose serious biomedical waste pollution. A survey was conducted with 13 focus questions collected from the 100 hospital present in Dehradun. Greater value of per day per bed waste was found among the small hospitals (178 g compared with 114 g in big hospitals), indicating unskilled waste management practices. Small hospitals do not follow the proper way for taking care of segregation of waste generated in the hospital, and most biomedical wastes were collected without segregation into infectious and noninfectious categories.

  19. Medical Waste Management Practices in a Southern African Hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Offsite transportation of the hospital waste is undertaken by a private waste management company. Small pickups are mainly used to transport waste daily to an off-site area for treatment and disposal. The main treatment method used in the final disposal of infectious waste is incineration. Noninfectious waste is disposed off ...

  20. Hospital waste management in developing countries: A mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mustafa; Wang, Wenping; Chaudhry, Nawaz; Geng, Yong

    2017-06-01

    Health care activities can generate different kinds of hazardous wastes. Mismanagement of these wastes can result in environmental and occupational health risks. Developing countries are resource-constrained when it comes to safe management of hospital wastes. This study summarizes the main issues faced in hospital waste management in developing countries. A review of the existing literature suggests that regulations and legislations focusing on hospital waste management are recent accomplishments in many of these countries. Implementation of these rules varies from one hospital to another. Moreover, wide variations exist in waste generation rates within as well as across these countries. This is mainly attributable to a lack of an agreement on the definitions and the methodology among the researchers to measure such wastes. Furthermore, hospitals in these countries suffer from poor waste segregation, collection, storage, transportation and disposal practices, which can lead to occupational and environmental risks. Knowledge and awareness regarding proper waste management remain low in the absence of training for hospital staff. Moreover, hospital sanitary workers, and scavengers, operate without the provision of safety equipment or immunization. Unsegregated waste is illegally recycled, leading to further safety risks. Overall, hospital waste management in developing countries faces several challenges. Sustainable waste management practices can go a long way in reducing the harmful effects of hospital wastes.

  1. Technical career opportunities in high-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Technical career opportunities in high-level radioactive waste management are briefly described in the areas of: Hydrology; geology; biological sciences; mathematics; engineering; heavy equipment operation; and skilled labor and crafts

  2. Technical Safety Requirements for the Waste Storage Facilities May 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laycak, D. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-04-16

    This document contains the Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) for the Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES, which include Area 625 (A625) and the Building 693 (B693) Yard Area of the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) at LLNL. The TSRs constitute requirements for safe operation of the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES. These TSRs are derived from the Documented Safety Analyses for the Waste Storage Facilities (DSA) (LLNL 2011). The analysis presented therein concluded that the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are low-chemical hazard, Hazard Category 2 non-reactor nuclear facilities. The TSRs consist primarily of inventory limits and controls to preserve the underlying assumptions in the hazard and accident analyses. Further, appropriate commitments to safety programs are presented in the administrative controls sections of the TSRs. The WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are used by RHWM to handle and store hazardous waste, TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE, LOW-LEVEL WASTE (LLW), mixed waste, California combined waste, nonhazardous industrial waste, and conditionally accepted waste generated at LLNL as well as small amounts of waste from other DOE facilities, as described in the DSA. In addition, several minor treatments (e.g., size reduction and decontamination) are carried out in these facilities.

  3. Technical Safety Requirements for the Waste Storage Facilities May 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laycak, D. T.

    2014-01-01

    This document contains the Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) for the Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES, which include Area 625 (A625) and the Building 693 (B693) Yard Area of the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) at LLNL. The TSRs constitute requirements for safe operation of the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES. These TSRs are derived from the Documented Safety Analyses for the Waste Storage Facilities (DSA) (LLNL 2011). The analysis presented therein concluded that the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are low-chemical hazard, Hazard Category 2 non-reactor nuclear facilities. The TSRs consist primarily of inventory limits and controls to preserve the underlying assumptions in the hazard and accident analyses. Further, appropriate commitments to safety programs are presented in the administrative controls sections of the TSRs. The WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are used by RHWM to handle and store hazardous waste, TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE, LOW-LEVEL WASTE (LLW), mixed waste, California combined waste, nonhazardous industrial waste, and conditionally accepted waste generated at LLNL as well as small amounts of waste from other DOE facilities, as described in the DSA. In addition, several minor treatments (e.g., size reduction and decontamination) are carried out in these facilities.

  4. Tank waste remediation system technical baseline summary description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    This document is one of the tools used to develop and control the mission work as depicted in the included figure. This Technical Baseline Summary Description document is the top-level tool for management of the Technical Baseline for waste storage operations

  5. Technical solutions for waste treatment in the Belene project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Büttner, K.; Eichhorn, H.

    2011-01-01

    Outline: In June 2010 NUKEM Technologies GmbH was awarded a contract from ATOMSTROYEXPORT JSC to perform the complete work package related to designing and completion of the equipment for treatment of radioactive waste on the turn-key basis for Belene NPP. Technical Solutions: Waste Streams and Technologies at UKC and UKS; Concentration Plant; Thermal Treatment of Resins Sorting Facility; Biological Waste Water Treatment; Conditioning – Cementation • Sorting of Radwaste; Plasma Facility; Grouting; Filter Press; Monitoring and Tracking

  6. The management of hospital waste products in hospitals of Bushehr Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    kamran Mirzaie

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hospital waste contains a large quantity of dangerous pathogenic agents, which are hazardous to the health of man, animal, plant and the environment. In Iran, like many other developing countries, not enough attention is paid to this matter and available information regarding the generation and disposal of medical wastes are low. The existing information about production and disposal of wastes in our hospitals is little and incomplete. In this study, a survey on hospital waste management system in Bushehr province hospitals was conducted. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 8 hospitals in Bushehr province were investigated during a period of 6 months using a questionnaire, interviews and direct observations. The questionnaire had 93 questions (open and closed about general information on the hospitals and about various systems of managing hospital waste according to the World Health Organization suggested survey questionnaire for hospital waste management in developing countries. Results: In hospitals of bushehr province, waste generation rate was 2615 kg/day, including domestic waste (51.7%, infectious waste (20.8%, sharps (15.2% and chemical and drugs wastes (12.3%. In almost all hospitals, segregation of infectious waste from domestic waste at the place of origin and putting them in special containers had been done but this segregation wasn’t complete and sometimes some hazardous waste were disposed of in domestic waste containers. All hospitals used a color coding system for waste containers, 75 % of hospitals had incinerators. In others, waste was carried out by municipal service daily. In all hospitals, all workers were trained about hospital waste management. In none of the surveyed hospitals, there was an obvious policy and plan for purchasing equipment and necessary facilities in order to dispose hospital waste correctly and also no clear budget was allocated for hospital waste management. In none of these hospitals

  7. Low-level waste management program: technical program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowrie, R.S.

    1981-01-01

    The mission of the technical program is to develop the technology component of the Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste Management Program and to manage research and development, demonstration, and documentation of the technical aspects of the program. Some of the major technology objectives are: develop and demonstrate techniques for waste generation reduction; develop and demonstrate waste treatment, handling and packaging techniques; develop and demonstrate the technology for greater confinement; and develop the technology for remedial action at existing sites. In addition there is the technology transfer objective which is to compile and issue a handbook documenting the technology for each of the above technology objectives

  8. Technical area status report for waste destruction and stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, J.D.; Harris, T.L.; DeWitt, L.M.

    1993-08-01

    The Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) was established by the Department of Energy (DOE) to direct and coordinate waste management and site remediation programs/activities throughout the DOE complex. In order to successfully achieve the goal of properly managing waste and the cleanup of the DOE sites, the EM was divided into five organizations: the Office of Planning and Resource Management (EM-10); the Office of Environmental Quality Assurance and Resource Management (EM-20); the Office of Waste Operations (EM-30); the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40); and the Office of Technology and Development (EM-50). The mission of the Office of Technology Development (OTD) is to develop treatment technologies for DOE's operational and environmental restoration wastes where current treatment technologies are inadequate or not available. The Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) was created by OTD to assist in the development of treatment technologies for the DOE mixed low-level wastes (MLLW). The MWIP has established five Technical Support Groups (TSGs) whose purpose is to identify, evaluate, and develop treatment technologies within five general technical areas representing waste treatment functions from initial waste handling through generation of final waste forms. These TSGs are: (1) Front-End Waste Handling, (2) Physical/Chemical Treatment, (3) Waste Destruction and Stabilization, (4) Second-Stage Destruction and Offgas Treatment, and (5) Final Waste Forms. This report describes the functions of the Waste Destruction and Stabilization (WDS) group. Specifically, the following items are discussed: DOE waste stream identification; summary of previous efforts; summary of WDS treatment technologies; currently funded WDS activities; and recommendations for future activities

  9. Hospital waste ashes in Portland cement mortars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genazzini, C.; Zerbino, R.; Ronco, A.; Batic, O.; Giaccio, G.

    2003-01-01

    Nowadays, most concretes incorporate mineral additions such as pozzolans, fly ash, silica fume, blast furnace slag, and calcareous filler among others. Although the technological and economical benefits were the main reasons for the use of mineral additions, the prevention of environmental contamination by means of proper waste disposal becomes a priority. The chance of incorporating hospital waste ashes in Portland cement-based materials is presented here. Ash characterization was performed by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, radioactive material detection, and fineness and density tests. Conduction calorimetry and setting time tests were developed on pastes including ash contents from 0% to 100%. Mortars were prepared including ash contents up to 50% of cement. The results of setting time, temperature development, flexural and compressive strengths, water absorption, density, and leachability are analyzed. Results indicate that Portland cement systems could become an alternative for the disposal of this type of ashes

  10. The microbiological effects of hospital wastes on the environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of twenty four (24) hospital wastes samples taken from different hospitals waste dumpsites on its surrounding soil was examined. The counts of microorganisms in hospital dumpsite soil include the following; aerobic heterotrophic counts from 4.2 x 105 to 1.6 x 1010, anaerobic heterotrophic counts from 1.0 x 105 to ...

  11. Technical report from Radioactive Waste Management Funding and Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-10-01

    As the only one Japanese organization specialized in radioactive waste, RWMC (Radioactive Waste Management Funding and Research Center) has been conducting the two major roles; R and D and the fund administration for radioactive waste management. The focus of its studies includes land disposal of LLW (Low-level radioactive wastes) and it has gradually extended to research on management and disposal techniques for high-level (HLW) and TRU wastes and studies on securing and managing the funds required for disposal of these wastes. The present document is the yearly progress report of 2006 and the main activities and research results are included on spent fuel disposal techniques including radon diffusion and emanation problem, performance studies on underground facilities for radioactive waste disposal and its management, technical assessment for geological environment, remote control techniques, artificial barrier systems proposed and its monitoring systems, and TRU disposals. (S. Ohno)

  12. Quantification classification and management of hospital waste in Lahore city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.R.; Riaz, M

    2010-01-01

    Systematic disposal of hospital waste is a major problem encountered by different countries including Pakistan. Efforts are on the way to achieve this objective techno-economically. To quantify infectious and total waste produced by the hospitals of Lahore, classify it to know the nature of their components and to collect information about its management. The background information and secondary data were collected by consultation of literature in the libraries and visiting different websites on Internet. The primary data were collected by gathering the responses of the Chief Executives, Medical Superintendents and Medical and Environmental Staff of all hospitals scheduled as reference models through interview. The total quantity of infectious waste produced by the hospitals and other health care units is approximately 785 million tons per annum while the total waste including municipal component is approximately 3,925 million tons per annum. The current status of awareness about proper health care waste disposal is improving but at a slow pace. It may be concluded that the management of hospital waste in five hospitals of Lahore city is systematic. However, the staff handling the waste was not fully trained for proper segregation of the hospital wastes. Incinerators being used for waste disposal are a major source of secondary air pollution therefore, this method should be discouraged. Instead, the feasibility of thermoelectric power generation may be looked into. Proper disposal of hospital wastes should be in placed in every hospital and trained staff should be employed for the job. (author)

  13. About the recycling of hospital wastes; Consideraciones sobre el reciclaje de residuos hospitalarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trescher, J

    1996-12-31

    Why is the hospital waste problem accurate for the last years?. Is it a fashion or the financial cost too high?. It is only definite answer. We can try to justify the interest to the problem by examining a few figures. Only in France, the hospital spending is annually about 240 billions francs. The spending for cross infection is about 5 billion francs. This cost due to the infection can result of a bad hygienic management, and for a part by neglect of production technic in collecting and treatment of hospital waste.

  14. Preliminary technical data summary defense waste processing facility stage 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    This Preliminary Technical Data Summary presents the technical basis for design of Stage 2 of the Staged Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Process changes incorporated in the staged DWPF relative to the Alternative DWPF described in PTDS No. 3 (DPSTD-77-13-3) are the result of ongoing research and development and are aimed at reducing initial capital investment and developing a process to efficiently immobilize the radionuclides in Savannah River Plant (SRP) high-level liquid waste. The radionuclides in SRP waste are present in sludge that has settled to the bottom of waste storage tanks and in crystallized salt and salt solution (supernate). Stage 1 of the DWPF receives washed, aluminum dissolved sludge from the waste tank farms and immobilizes it in a borosilicate glass matrix. The supernate is retained in the waste tank farms until completion of Stage 2 of the DWPF at which time it is filtered and decontaminated by ion exchange in the Stage 2 facility. The decontaminated supernate is concentrated by evaporation and mixed with cement for burial. The radioactivity removed from the supernate is fixed in borosilicate glass along with the sludge. This document gives flowsheets, material and curie balances, material and curie balance bases, and other technical data for design of Stage 2 of the DWPF. Stage 1 technical data are presented in DPSTD-80-38

  15. Certain Hospital Waste Management Practices in Isfahan, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdowsi, Ali; Ferdosi, Masoud; Mehrani, Zeinab; Narenjkar, Parisa

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Infected hospital wastes are among hazardous wastes, and special treatment methods are needed for their disposal. Having information about present status of medical waste management systems is of great importance in finding weak, and for future planning. Such studies have not been done for most of the hospitals in Iran. Methods: This paper reports the results of a study on the present status of medical waste management in Isfahan hospitals. A ten page researcher made questionnaire was used to collect data in terms of collection, transportation, segregation, treatment and disposal. For assessment of autoclaves, standard tests including TST (Time, Steam, and Temperature) strip test and spore tests were used. Samples were made of stack gases of incinerators. Quantity and composition of hospital wastes in Isfahan were also measured manually. Results: Of all wastes in selected hospitals, 40% were infected wastes (1.59 kg/day/bed), which is 15 to 20% higher than World Health Organization (WHO) standards. TST and Spore test results were negative in all samples. Stack gases analysis showed high concentration of CO in some samples. Besides, the combustion efficiency in some samples is less than 99.5%, which is the standard criterion in Iran. Conclusions: This study may create awareness regarding the magnitude of the problem of waste management in hospitals of Isfahan and may stimulate interests for systematic control efforts for hospital waste disposal. Hospital waste management cannot succeed without documented plans, certain equipment, defined staff trainings, and periodic evaluations. PMID:22826762

  16. Hospital waste management and toxicity evaluation: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsakona, M.; Anagnostopoulou, E.; Gidarakos, E.

    2007-01-01

    Hospital waste management is an imperative environmental and public safety issue, due to the waste's infectious and hazardous character. This paper examines the existing waste strategy of a typical hospital in Greece with a bed capacity of 400-600. The segregation, collection, packaging, storage, transportation and disposal of waste were monitored and the observed problematic areas documented. The concentrations of BOD, COD and heavy metals were measured in the wastewater the hospital generated. The wastewater's toxicity was also investigated. During the study, omissions and negligence were observed at every stage of the waste management system, particularly with regard to the treatment of infectious waste. Inappropriate collection and transportation procedures for infectious waste, which jeopardized the safety of staff and patients, were recorded. However, inappropriate segregation practices were the dominant problem, which led to increased quantities of generated infectious waste and hence higher costs for their disposal. Infectious waste production was estimated using two different methods: one by weighing the incinerated waste (880 kg day -1 ) and the other by estimating the number of waste bags produced each day (650 kg day -1 ). Furthermore, measurements of the EC 50 parameter in wastewater samples revealed an increased toxicity in all samples. In addition, hazardous organic compounds were detected in wastewater samples using a gas chromatograph/mass spectrograph. Proposals recommending the application of a comprehensive hospital waste management system are presented that will ensure that any potential risks hospital wastes pose to public health and to the environment are minimized

  17. Characterization of medical waste from hospitals in Tabriz, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taghipour, Hassan; Mosaferi, Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    Medical waste has not received enough attention in recent decades in Iran, as is the case in most economically developing countries. Medical waste is still handled and disposed of together with domestic waste, creating great health risks to health-care stuff, municipal workers, the public, and the environment. A fundamental prerequisite for the successful implementation of any medical waste management plan is the availability of sufficient and accurate information about the quantities and composition of the waste generated. The objectives of this study were to determine the quantity, generation rate, quality, and composition of medial waste generated in the major city northwest of Iran in Tabriz. Among the 25 active hospitals in the city, 10 hospitals of different size, specializations, and categories (i.e., governmental, educational, university, private, non-governmental organization (NGO), and military) were selected to participate in the survey. Each hospital was analyzed for a week to capture the daily variations of quantity and quality. The results indicated that the average (weighted mean) of total medical waste, hazardous-infectious waste, and general waste generation rates in Tabriz city is 3.48, 1.039 and, 2.439 kg/bed-day, respectively. In the hospital waste studied, 70.11% consisted of general waste, 29.44% of hazardous-infectious waste, and 0.45% of sharps waste (total hazardous-infectious waste 29.89%). Of the maximum average daily medical waste, hazardous-infectious waste, and general waste were associated with N.G.O and private hospitals, respectively. The average composition of hazardous-infectious waste was determined to be 35.72% plastics, 20.84% textiles, 16.70% liquids, 11.36% paper/cardboard, 7.17% glass, 1.35% sharps, and 6.86% others. The average composition of general waste was determined to be 46.87% food waste, 16.40% plastics, 13.33% paper/cardboard, 7.65% liquids, 6.05% textiles, 2.60% glass, 0.92% metals, and 6.18% others. The average

  18. Study on waste from hospital and clinics in Phitsanulok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwannee Adsavakulchai

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Waste generation depends on numerous factors such as established waste management methods, type of hospital establishment, hospital specialization, proportion of reusable items employed in hospital, and proportion of patients treated on a day-care basis. This study surveyed the waste from hospital and clinics in Phitsanulok and found the average daily waste generated as general, medical and hazardous waste from all hospitals in Phitsanulok Province at 1.751, 0.284 and 0.013 kg/bed respectively and at 0.323, 0.041 and 0.002 kg/bed respectively from all clinics in Phitsanulok Province. Medical waste from all hospitals consisted of needles, gloves, drain tubes, cottons and gauze, napkins, plastic syringes, swap and body parts with total daily generation at 0.452, 0.480, 0.390, 0.404, 0.018, 0.355, 0.004 and 0.382 kg/bed respectively. Information about proper waste management process is needed to improve hospital waste management. Hospital waste management is an important and necessary component of environmental health protection.

  19. Biomedical waste management in Ayurveda hospitals - current practices & future prospectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Renju; Robin, Delvin T; M, Vandanarani

    2018-03-16

    Biomedical waste management is an integral part of traditional and contemporary system of health care. The paper focuses on the identification and classification of biomedical wastes in Ayurvedic hospitals, current practices of its management in Ayurveda hospitals and its future prospective. Databases like PubMed (1975-2017 Feb), Scopus (1960-2017), AYUSH Portal, DOAJ, DHARA and Google scholar were searched. We used the medical subject headings 'biomedical waste' and 'health care waste' for identification and classification. The terms 'biomedical waste management', 'health care waste management' alone and combined with 'Ayurveda' or 'Ayurvedic' for current practices and recent advances in the treatment of these wastes were used. We made a humble attempt to categorize the biomedical wastes from Ayurvedic hospitals as the available data about its grouping is very scarce. Proper biomedical waste management is the mainstay of hospital cleanliness, hospital hygiene and maintenance activities. Current disposal techniques adopted for Ayurveda biomedical wastes are - sewage/drains, incineration and land fill. But these methods are having some merits as well as demerits. Our review has identified a number of interesting areas for future research such as the logical application of bioremediation techniques in biomedical waste management and the usage of effective micro-organisms and solar energy in waste disposal. Copyright © 2017 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The health services wastes management of a sample of brazilian hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Machline

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses the Health Services wastes management of 70 Brazilian hospitals. As the outcome of a distance course, in 2003, each hospital was required to describe its existing Health Services wastes system and its Plan for improvement.The project was administered by an association of two leading Brazilian educational entities, the Fundação Getulio Vargas and the Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. Data concerning collection, disposal and final treatment of infectious, hazardous, chemical, radioactive and common wastes were tabulated and analysed. Water supply, liquid effluents and gaseous emissions were also investigated..Their technical and economical aspects were appraised. The research indicates that the sampled hospitals are still in an incipient stage of wastes management. An extensive gap exists between the present situation and the legal and acceptable requirements they should comply with, both on health care and on environmental standpoints.

  1. Hospital waste management in El-Beheira Governorate, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Salam, Magda Magdy

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the hospital waste management practices used by eight randomly selected hospitals located in Damanhour City of El-Beheira Governorate and determined the total daily generation rate of their wastes. Physico-chemical characteristics of hospital wastes were determined according to standard methods. A survey was conducted using a questionnaire to collect information about the practices related to waste segregation, collection procedures, the type of temporary storage containers, on-site transport and central storage area, treatment of wastes, off-site transport, and final disposal options. This study indicated that the quantity of medical waste generated by these hospitals was 1.249tons/day. Almost two-thirds was waste similar to domestic waste. The remainder (38.9%) was considered to be hazardous waste. The survey results showed that segregation of all wastes was not conducted according to consistent rules and standards where some quantity of medical waste was disposed of with domestic wastes. The most frequently used treatment method for solid medical waste was incineration which is not accepted at the current time due to the risks associated with it. Only one of the hospitals was equipped with an incinerator which is devoid of any air pollution control system. Autoclaving was also used in only one of the selected hospitals. As for the liquid medical waste, the survey results indicated that nearly all of the surveyed hospitals were discharging it in the municipal sewerage system without any treatment. It was concluded that the inadequacies in the current hospital waste management practices in Damanhour City were mainly related to ineffective segregation at the source, inappropriate collection methods, unsafe storage of waste, insufficient financial and human resources for proper management, and poor control of waste disposal. The other issues that need to be considered are a lack of appropriate protective equipment and lack of training and

  2. Technical program plan, Basalt Waste Isolation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    The Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) program as administered by the DOE's Richland Operations Office and Rockwell Hanford Operations is described. The objectives, scope and scientific technologies are discussed. The work breakdown structure of the project includes: project management and support, systems integration, geosciences, hydrology, engineered barriers, test facility design and construction, engineering testing, repository studies, and schedules. The budget of the program including operating and capital cost control is also included

  3. Management of hospitals solid waste in Khartoum State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Suhair A Gayoum

    2013-10-01

    This research had been conducted during year 2012 to review existing data on hospital waste management for some of Khartoum town hospitals and to try to produce appropriate proposals acceptable for waste management and final treatment methods. The overall status of hospital waste management in Khartoum has been assessed through direct visits and designated questionnaires. Eight main hospitals were covered in the study with an overall bed capacity of 2,978. The current waste management practice observed at all studied hospitals was that most of waste, office, general, food, construction debris, and hazardous chemical materials were all mixed together as they are generated, collected, and finally disposed of. Only a small portion of waste in some hospitals (part of potentially infectious, body parts, and sharps) are collected separately and treated in a central incinerator. The estimated value of per bed generation rate in the studied hospitals was found to be 0.87 kg/day, which lies within the range for the low-income countries. In all studied hospitals, it was found that workers were working under very poor unsafe conditions with very low salaries ($35 to $45 per month on average). About 90 % were completely illiterate or had very low education levels. At the national level, no laws considering hospital waste, or even hazardous waste, were found; only some federal general environmental regulations and some procedures from town and city localities for controlling general municipal waste exist. At the hospital level, no policies or rules were found, except in the radiotherapy center, where they manage radioactive wastes under the laws of the Sudanese Atomic Agency. Urgent actions are needed for the remediation and prevention of hazards associated with this type of waste.

  4. Models for waste life cycle assessment: Review of technical assumptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentil, Emmanuel; Damgaard, Anders; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2010-01-01

    A number of waste life cycle assessment (LCA) models have been gradually developed since the early 1990s, in a number of countries, usually independently from each other. Large discrepancies in results have been observed among different waste LCA models, although it has also been shown that results...... from different LCA studies can be consistent. This paper is an attempt to identify, review and analyse methodologies and technical assumptions used in various parts of selected waste LCA models. Several criteria were identified, which could have significant impacts on the results......, such as the functional unit, system boundaries, waste composition and energy modelling. The modelling assumptions of waste management processes, ranging from collection, transportation, intermediate facilities, recycling, thermal treatment, biological treatment, and landfilling, are obviously critical when comparing...

  5. Evaluating the technical aspects of mixed waste treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagaasen, L.M.; Scott, P.A.

    1992-10-01

    This report discusses treatment of mixed wastes which is thought to be more complicated than treatment of either hazardous or radioactive wastes. In fact, the treatment itself is no more complicated: however, the regulations that define acceptability of the final waste disposal system are significantly more entangled, and sometimes in apparent conflict. This session explores the factors that influence the choice of waste treatment technologies, and expands on some of the limitations to their application. The objective of the presentation is to describe the technical factors that influence potential treatment processes and the ramifications associated with particular selections (for example, the generation of secondary waste streams). These collectively provide a framework for making informed treatment process selections

  6. A Study of Hospital Waste Generation and Management Practice in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out in Akure, the capital of Ondo State, Nigeria to assess the current practice of hospital wastes management, the magnitude and variety of wastes and the awareness of the stakeholders on the implications of their activities. The composition of wastes found in the 20 healthcare facilities visited ...

  7. Low-level radioactive waste management in hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyrin, J.O.

    1991-01-01

    In medical establishments, radioisotopes are used in diagnostic techniques, in chemotherapy or in radioimmunology. Hospitable radioactive wastes are characterized by polymorphism and low activity levels in a great volume. These wastes are also associated with infectivity and toxicity. This paper makes a balance and describes new radioactive waste management proposals. 4 refs.; 3 tabs.; 1 fig

  8. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Technical Assessment Team Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-03-17

    This report provides the results of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) technical assessment led by the Savannah River National Laboratory and conducted by a team of experts in pertinent disciplines from SRNL and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL).

  9. Technical Safety Requirements for the Waste Storage Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, H L

    2007-01-01

    This document contains Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) for the Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES, which include Area 612 (A612) and the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) Storage Area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The TSRs constitute requirements regarding the safe operation of the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES. These TSRs are derived from the Documented Safety Analysis for the Waste Storage Facilities (DSA) (LLNL 2006). The analysis presented therein determined that the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are low-chemical hazard, Hazard Category 2 non-reactor nuclear facilities. The TSRs consist primarily of inventory limits and controls to preserve the underlying assumptions in the hazard and accident analyses. Further, appropriate commitments to safety programs are presented in the administrative controls sections of the TSRs. The WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are used by RHWM to handle and store hazardous waste, TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE, LOW-LEVEL WASTE (LLW), mixed waste, California combined waste, nonhazardous industrial waste, and conditionally accepted waste generated at LLNL as well as small amounts from other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, as described in the DSA. In addition, several minor treatments (e.g., drum crushing, size reduction, and decontamination) are carried out in these facilities. The WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are located in two portions of the LLNL main site. A612 is located in the southeast quadrant of LLNL. The A612 fenceline is approximately 220 m west of Greenville Road. The DWTF Storage Area, which includes Building 693 (B693), Building 696 Radioactive Waste Storage Area (B696R), and associated yard areas and storage areas within the yard, is located in the northeast quadrant of LLNL in the DWTF complex. The DWTF Storage Area fenceline is approximately 90 m west of Greenville Road. A612 and the DWTF Storage Area are subdivided into various facilities and storage

  10. Technical Safety Requirements for the Waste Storage Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, H L

    2007-09-07

    This document contains Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) for the Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES, which include Area 612 (A612) and the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) Storage Area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The TSRs constitute requirements regarding the safe operation of the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES. These TSRs are derived from the Documented Safety Analysis for the Waste Storage Facilities (DSA) (LLNL 2006). The analysis presented therein determined that the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are low-chemical hazard, Hazard Category 2 non-reactor nuclear facilities. The TSRs consist primarily of inventory limits and controls to preserve the underlying assumptions in the hazard and accident analyses. Further, appropriate commitments to safety programs are presented in the administrative controls sections of the TSRs. The WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are used by RHWM to handle and store hazardous waste, TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE, LOW-LEVEL WASTE (LLW), mixed waste, California combined waste, nonhazardous industrial waste, and conditionally accepted waste generated at LLNL as well as small amounts from other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, as described in the DSA. In addition, several minor treatments (e.g., drum crushing, size reduction, and decontamination) are carried out in these facilities. The WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are located in two portions of the LLNL main site. A612 is located in the southeast quadrant of LLNL. The A612 fenceline is approximately 220 m west of Greenville Road. The DWTF Storage Area, which includes Building 693 (B693), Building 696 Radioactive Waste Storage Area (B696R), and associated yard areas and storage areas within the yard, is located in the northeast quadrant of LLNL in the DWTF complex. The DWTF Storage Area fenceline is approximately 90 m west of Greenville Road. A612 and the DWTF Storage Area are subdivided into various facilities and storage

  11. Independent technical review of Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility technical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will vitrify high-level radioactive waste that is presently stored as liquid, salt-cake, and sludge in 51 waste-storage tanks. Construction of the DWPF began in 1984, and the Westinghouse Savannah Company (WSRC) considers the plant to be 100% turned over from construction and 91% complete. Cold-chemical runs are scheduled to begin in November 1992, and hot start up is projected for June 1994. It is estimated that the plant lifetime must exceed 15 years to complete the vitrification of the current, high-level tank waste. In a memo to the Assistant Secretary for Defense Programs (DP-1), the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration and Waste management (EM-1) established the need for an Independent Technical Review (ITR), or the Red Team, to ''review process technology issues preventing start up of the DWPF.'' This report documents the findings of an Independent Technical Review (ITR) conducted by the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM), at the request of the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, of specified aspects of Defense Waste Process Facility (DWPF) process technology. Information for the assessment was drawn from documents provided to the ITR Team by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), and presentations, discussions, interviews, and tours held at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during the weeks of February and March 9, 1992

  12. The Natural Hospital Environment: a Socio-Technical-Material perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Juanita; Dawson, Linda

    2014-02-01

    This paper introduces two concepts into analyses of information security and hospital-based information systems-- a Socio-Technical-Material theoretical framework and the Natural Hospital Environment. The research is grounded in a review of pertinent literature with previously published Australian (Victoria) case study data to analyse the way clinicians work with privacy and security in their work. The analysis was sorted into thematic categories, providing the basis for the Natural Hospital Environment and Socio-Technical-Material framework theories discussed here. Natural Hospital Environments feature inadequate yet pervasive computer use, aural privacy shortcomings, shared workspace, meagre budgets, complex regulation that hinders training outcomes and out-dated infrastructure and are highly interruptive. Working collaboratively in many cases, participants found ways to avoid or misuse security tools, such as passwords or screensavers for patient care. Workgroup infrastructure was old, architecturally limited, haphazard in some instances, and was less useful than paper handover sheets to ensure the quality of patient care outcomes. Despite valiant efforts by some participants, they were unable to control factors influencing the privacy of patient health information in public hospital settings. Future improvements to hospital-based organisational frameworks for e-health can only be made when there is an improved understanding of the Socio-Technical-Material theoretical framework and Natural Hospital Environment contexts. Aspects within control of clinicians and administrators can be addressed directly although some others are beyond their control. An understanding and acknowledgement of these issues will benefit the management and planning of improved and secure hospital settings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Technical evaluation of proposed Ukrainian Central Radioactive Waste Processing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, R.; Glukhov, A.; Markowski, F.

    1996-06-01

    This technical report is a comprehensive evaluation of the proposal by the Ukrainian State Committee on Nuclear Power Utilization to create a central facility for radioactive waste (not spent fuel) processing. The central facility is intended to process liquid and solid radioactive wastes generated from all of the Ukrainian nuclear power plants and the waste generated as a result of Chernobyl 1, 2 and 3 decommissioning efforts. In addition, this report provides general information on the quantity and total activity of radioactive waste in the 30-km Zone and the Sarcophagus from the Chernobyl accident. Processing options are described that may ultimately be used in the long-term disposal of selected 30-km Zone and Sarcophagus wastes. A detailed report on the issues concerning the construction of a Ukrainian Central Radioactive Waste Processing Facility (CRWPF) from the Ukrainian Scientific Research and Design institute for Industrial Technology was obtained and incorporated into this report. This report outlines various processing options, their associated costs and construction schedules, which can be applied to solving the operating and decommissioning radioactive waste management problems in Ukraine. The costs and schedules are best estimates based upon the most current US industry practice and vendor information. This report focuses primarily on the handling and processing of what is defined in the US as low-level radioactive wastes

  14. Technical Safety Requirements for the Waste Storage Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laycak, D.T.

    2010-01-01

    This document contains Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) for the Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES, which include Area 625 (A625) and the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) Storage Area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The TSRs constitute requirements regarding the safe operation of the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES. These TSRs are derived from the Documented Safety Analysis for the Waste Storage Facilities (DSA) (LLNL 2009). The analysis presented therein determined that the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are low-chemical hazard, Hazard Category 2 non-reactor nuclear facilities. The TSRs consist primarily of inventory limits and controls to preserve the underlying assumptions in the hazard and accident analyses. Further, appropriate commitments to safety programs are presented in the administrative controls sections of the TSRs. The WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are used by RHWM to handle and store hazardous waste, TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE, LOW-LEVEL WASTE (LLW), mixed waste, California combined waste, nonhazardous industrial waste, and conditionally accepted waste generated at LLNL as well as small amounts from other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, as described in the DSA. In addition, several minor treatments (e.g., size reduction and decontamination) are carried out in these facilities. The WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are located in two portions of the LLNL main site. A625 is located in the southeast quadrant of LLNL. The A625 fenceline is approximately 225 m west of Greenville Road. The DWTF Storage Area, which includes Building 693 (B693), Building 696 Radioactive Waste Storage Area (B696R), and associated yard areas and storage areas within the yard, is located in the northeast quadrant of LLNL in the DWTF complex. The DWTF Storage Area fenceline is approximately 90 m west of Greenville Road. A625 and the DWTF Storage Area are subdivided into various facilities and storage areas, consisting

  15. Technical Safety Requirements for the Waste Storage Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laycak, D T

    2008-06-16

    This document contains Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) for the Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES, which include Area 625 (A625) and the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) Storage Area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The TSRs constitute requirements regarding the safe operation of the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES. These TSRs are derived from the 'Documented Safety Analysis for the Waste Storage Facilities' (DSA) (LLNL 2008). The analysis presented therein determined that the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are low-chemical hazard, Hazard Category 2 non-reactor nuclear facilities. The TSRs consist primarily of inventory limits and controls to preserve the underlying assumptions in the hazard and accident analyses. Further, appropriate commitments to safety programs are presented in the administrative controls sections of the TSRs. The WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are used by RHWM to handle and store hazardous waste, TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE, LOW-LEVEL WASTE (LLW), mixed waste, California combined waste, nonhazardous industrial waste, and conditionally accepted waste generated at LLNL as well as small amounts from other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, as described in the DSA. In addition, several minor treatments (e.g., size reduction and decontamination) are carried out in these facilities. The WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are located in two portions of the LLNL main site. A625 is located in the southeast quadrant of LLNL. The A625 fenceline is approximately 225 m west of Greenville Road. The DWTF Storage Area, which includes Building 693 (B693), Building 696 Radioactive Waste Storage Area (B696R), and associated yard areas and storage areas within the yard, is located in the northeast quadrant of LLNL in the DWTF complex. The DWTF Storage Area fenceline is approximately 90 m west of Greenville Road. A625 and the DWTF Storage Area are subdivided into various facilities and storage areas

  16. Analysis of the healthcare waste management status in Tehran hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Malekahmadi, Fariba; Yunesian, Masud; yaghmaeian, Kamyar; nadafi, Kazem

    2014-01-01

    Background Considering the importance of healthcare waste management, following the ratification of the Waste Management law in 2005 and the subsequent approval of its executive bylaw in 2006 and finally the healthcare waste management criteria passing by the parliament in 2008, a review on the status of healthcare waste management is needed to implement the mentioned law properly. Findings In this retrospective study during six months period all public hospitals in Iran’s capital city, Tehra...

  17. Draft low level waste technical summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, W.J.; Benar, C.J.; Certa, P.J.; Eiholzer, C.R.; Kruger, A.A.; Norman, E.C.; Mitchell, D.E.; Penwell, D.E.; Reidel, S.P.; Shade, J.W.

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to present an outline of the Hanford Site Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal program, what it has accomplished, what is being done, and where the program is headed. This document may be used to provide background information to personnel new to the LLW management/disposal field and to those individuals needing more information or background on an area in LLW for which they are not familiar. This document should be appropriate for outside groups that may want to learn about the program without immediately becoming immersed in the details. This document is not a program or systems engineering baseline report, and personnel should refer to more current baseline documentation for critical information

  18. Microbiological and technical aspects of anaerobic waste water purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aivasidis, A.

    1994-01-01

    Anaerobic waste water purification is likely to be another example of how innovations can result from the joint use of biological and technical concepts. No matter how far the optimization of oxygen input with aerobic waste water purification advances it will still be the less a real competitor for anaerobic techniques the more polluted the waste water is. The principle of carrier fixation to avoid their washing out, too, has often been observed in nature with sessile microorganisms. With highly polluted water, anaerobic purification does not only work at no expenditure of energy but it can also make excess energy available for use in other processes. Another important argument for anaerobic methods of waste water purification is probably the clearly reduced production of excess sludge. (orig.) [de

  19. Radioactive Waste Technical and Normative Aspects of its Disposal

    CERN Document Server

    Streffer, Christian; Kamp, Georg; Kröger, Wolfgang; Rehbinder, Eckard; Renn, Ortwin; Röhlig, Klaus-Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Waste caused by the use of radioactive material in research, medicine and technologies, above all high level waste from nuclear power plants, must be disposed of safely. However, the strategies discussed for the disposal of radioactive waste as well as proposals for choosing a proper site for final waste disposal are strongly debated. An appropriate disposal must satisfy complex technical requirements and must meet stringent conditions to appropriately protect man and nature from risks of radioactivity over very long periods. Ethical, legal and social conditions must be considered as well. An interdisciplinary team of experts from relevant fields compiled the current status and developed criteria as well as strategies which meet the requirements of safety and security for present and future generations. The study also provides specific recommendations that will improve and optimize the chances for the selection of a repository site implementing the participation of stakeholders including the general public an...

  20. Solid waste management in the hospitality industry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirani, Sanaa I; Arafat, Hassan A

    2014-12-15

    Solid waste management is a key aspect of the environmental management of establishments belonging to the hospitality sector. In this study, we reviewed literature in this area, examining the current status of waste management for the hospitality sector, in general, with a focus on food waste management in particular. We specifically examined the for-profit subdivision of the hospitality sector, comprising primarily of hotels and restaurants. An account is given of the causes of the different types of waste encountered in this sector and what strategies may be used to reduce them. These strategies are further highlighted in terms of initiatives and practices which are already being implemented around the world to facilitate sustainable waste management. We also recommended a general waste management procedure to be followed by properties of the hospitality sector and described how waste mapping, an innovative yet simple strategy, can significantly reduce the waste generation of a hotel. Generally, we found that not many scholarly publications are available in this area of research. More studies need to be carried out on the implementation of sustainable waste management for the hospitality industry in different parts of the world and the challenges and opportunities involved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Management, treatment and final disposal of solid hazardous hospital wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebiani Serrano, T.

    2000-01-01

    Medical Waste is characterized by its high risk to human health and the environment. The main risk is biological, due to the large amount of biologically contaminated materials present in such waste. However, this does not mean that the chemical and radioactive wastes are less harmful just because they represent a smaller part of the total waste. Hazardous wastes from hospitals can be divided in 3 main categories: Solid Hazardous Hospital Wastes (S.H.H.W.), Liquid Hazardous Hospital Wastes (L.H.H.W.) and Gaseous Hazardous Hospital Wastes (G.H.H.W.) Most gaseous and liquid hazardous wastes are discharged to the environment without treatment. Since this inappropriate disposal practice, however, is not visible to society, there is no societal reaction to such problem. On the contrary, hazardous solid wastes (S.H.H.W.) are visible to society and create worries in the population. As a result, social and political pressures arise, asking for solutions to the disposal problems of such wastes. In response to such pressures and legislation approved by Costa Rica on waste handling and disposal, the Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social developed a plan for the handling, treatment, and disposal of hazardous solid wastes at the hospitals and clinics of its system. The objective of the program is to reduce the risk to society of such wastes. In this thesis a cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted to determine the minimum cost at which it is possible to reach a maximum level of reduction in hazardous wastes, transferring to the environment the least possible volume of solid hazardous wastes, and therefore, reducing risk to a minimum. It was found that at the National Children's Hospital the internal handling of hazard solid wastes is conducted with a high level of effectiveness. However, once out of the hospital area, the handling is not effective, because hazardous and common wastes are all mixed together creating a larger amount of S.H.H.W. and reducing the final efficiency

  2. Health care waste management practice in a hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, R; Pradhan, B

    2010-10-01

    Health-care waste is a by-product of health care. Its poor management exposes health-care workers, waste handlers and the community to infections, toxic effects and injuries including damage of the environment. It also creates opportunities for the collection of disposable medical equipment, its re-sale and potential re-use without sterilization, which causes an important burden of disease worldwide. The purpose of this study was to find out health care waste management practice in hospital. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Narayani Sub-Regional Hospital, Birgunj from May to October 2006 using both qualitative and quantitative methods. Study population was four different departments of the hospital (Medical/Paediatric, Surgical/Ortho, Gynae/Obstetric and Emergency), Medical Superintendent, In-charges of four different departments and all sweepers. Data was collected using interview, group discussion, observation and measurement by weight and volume. Total health-care waste generated was 128.4 kg per day while 0.8 kg per patient per day. The composition of health care waste was found to be 96.8 kg (75.4%) general waste, 24.1 kg (8.8%) hazardous waste and 7.5 kg (5.8%) sharps per day by weight. Health staffs and sweepers were not practicing the waste segregation. Occupational health and safety was not given due attention. Majority of the sweepers were unaware of waste management and need of safety measures to protect their own health. Health care waste management practice in the hospital was unsatisfactory because of the lack of waste management plan and carelessness of patients, visitors and staffs. Therefore the hospital should develop the waste management plan and strictly follow the National Health Care Waste Management Guideline.

  3. Nordic study on reactor waste. Technical part 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    An important part of the Nordic studies on system- and safety analysis of the management of low and medium level radioactive waste from nuclear power plants, is the safety analysis of a Reference System. This reference system was established within the study and is described in this Technical Part 1. The reference system covers waste management Schemes that are potential possibilities in either one of the four participating Nordic countries. The reference system is based on: a power reactor system consisting of 6 BWR's of 500 MWe each, operated simultaneously over the same 30 year period, and deep bed granular ion exchange resin wastes from the Reactor Water Clean-Up System (RWCS and powdered ion exchange resin from the Spent Fuel Pool Cleanup System (SFPCS)). Both waste types are supposed to be solidified by mixing with cement and bitumen. Two basic types of containers are considered. Standard 200 liter steel drums and specially made cubicreinforced concrete moulds with a net volume of 1 m 3 . The Nordic study assumes temporary storage of the solidified waste for a maximum of 50 years before the waste is transferred to the disposal site. Transportation of the waste from the storage facilitiy to the disposal site will be by road or sea. Three different disposal facilities are considered: Shallow land burial, near surface concrete bunker, and rock cavern with about 30 m granite cover. (EG)

  4. Technical responsibilities in low-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.L.; Walker, C.K.

    1989-01-01

    North Carolina will be the host state for a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facility serving the Southeast Compact for 20 yr beginning in 1993. Primary responsibility for the project rests with the North Carolina Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Authority, a citizen board. The North Carolina project embodies a unique combination of factors that places the authority in a position to exercise technical leadership in the LLRW disposal field. First, the Southeast Compact is the largest in the United States in terms of area, population, and waste generation. second, it is in a humid rather than an arid region. Third, the citizens of the state are intensely interested in preserving life style, environment, and attractiveness of the region to tourists and are especially sensitive to the presence of waste facilities of any kind. Finally, disposal rules set by the Radiation Protection Commission and enforced by the Radiation Protection Section are stricter than the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's 10CFR61. These four factors support the authority's belief that development of the facility cannot be based solely on engineering and economics, but that social factors, including perceptions of human risk, concerns for the environment, and opinions about the desirability of hosting a facility, should be integral to the project. This philosophy guides the project's many technical aspects, including site selection, site characterization, technology selection and facility design, performance assessment modeling, and waste reduction policies. Each aspect presents its own unique problems

  5. Results of a hospital waste survey in private hospitals in Fars province, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askarian, Mehrdad; Vakili, Mahmood; Kabir, Gholamhosein

    2004-01-01

    Hospital waste is considered dangerous because it may possess pathogenic agents and can cause undesirable effects on human health and the environment. In Iran, neither rules have been compiled nor does exact information exist regarding hospital waste management. The survey presented in this article was carried out in all 15 private hospitals of Fars province (Iran) from the total numbers of 50 governmental and private hospitals located in this province, in order to determine the amount of different kinds of waste produced and the present situation of waste management. The results indicated that the waste generation rate is 4.45 kg/bed/day, which includes 1830 kg (71.44%) of domestic waste, 712 kg (27.8%) of infectious waste, and 19.6 kg (0.76%) of sharps. Segregation of the different types of waste is not carried out perfectly. Two (13.3%) of the hospitals use containers without lids for on-site transport of wastes. Nine (60%) of the hospitals are equipped with an incinerator and six of them (40%) have operational problems with the incinerators. In all hospitals municipal workers transport waste outside the hospital premises daily or at the most on alternative days. In the hospitals under study, there aren't any training courses about hospital waste management and the hazards associated with them. The training courses that are provided are either ineffective or unsuitable. Performing extensive studies all over the country, compiling and enacting rules, establishing standards and providing effective personnel training are the main challenges for the concerned authorities and specialists in this field

  6. Technical Efficiency of Teaching Hospitals in Iran: The Use of Stochastic Frontier Analysis, 1999–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Goudarzi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Hospitals are highly resource-dependent settings, which spend a large proportion of healthcare financial resources. The analysis of hospital efficiency can provide insight into how scarce resources are used to create health values. This study examines the Technical Efficiency (TE of 12 teaching hospitals affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS between 1999 and 2011. Methods The Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA method was applied to estimate the efficiency of TUMS hospitals. A best function, referred to as output and input parameters, was calculated for the hospitals. Number of medical doctors, nurses, and other personnel, active beds, and outpatient admissions were considered as the input variables and number of inpatient admissions as an output variable. Results The mean level of TE was 59% (ranging from 22 to 81%. During the study period the efficiency increased from 61 to 71%. Outpatient admission, other personnel and medical doctors significantly and positively affected the production (P< 0.05. Concerning the Constant Return to Scale (CRS, an optimal production scale was found, implying that the productions of the hospitals were approximately constant. Conclusion Findings of this study show a remarkable waste of resources in the TUMS hospital during the decade considered. This warrants policy-makers and top management in TUMS to consider steps to improve the financial management of the university hospitals.

  7. Life cycle assessment of waste management systems: Assessing technical externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen

    The life cycle assessment (LCA) of a waste management system relies on many internal characteristics such as pollution control systems and recovery efficiencies. It also relies on technical externalities supporting the waste management system in terms of capital goods and energy and material...... for the primary and secondary production of materials, 366 datasets were gathered. The materials in focus were: paper, newsprint, cardboard, corrugated board, glass, aluminium, steel and plastics (HDPE, LDPE, LLDPE, PET, PS, PVC). Only one quarter of these data concerned secondary production, thus underlining...

  8. Technical requirements document for the waste flow analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shropshire, D.E.

    1996-05-01

    Purpose of this Technical Requirements Document is to define the top level customer requirements for the Waste Flow Analysis task. These requirements, once agreed upon with DOE, will be used to flow down subsequent development requirements to the model specifications. This document is intended to be a ''living document'' which will be modified over the course of the execution of this work element. Initial concurrence with the technical functional requirements from Environmental Management (EM)-50 is needed before the work plan can be developed

  9. Nuclear waste glass melter: an update of technical progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouns, R.A.; Hanson, M.S.

    1984-08-01

    The direct slurry-fed ceramic-lined melter is currently the reference US process for treating defense and civilian high-level liquid waste. Extensive nonradioactive pilot-scale testing at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Savannah River Laboratory has proven the process, defined operating parameters, and identified successful equipment design concepts. Programs at PNL continue to support several of the planned US vitrification plants through preparation of equipment designs and flowsheet testing. Current emphasis is on remotization of equipment, radioactive verification testing, and resolution of remaining technical issues. Development of this technology, technical status, and planned development activities are discussed. 9 references, 4 figures

  10. Hospital waste processing. Tratamiento de residuos hospitalarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocafiguera, X de

    1994-01-01

    Generally speaking, Hospitalary wastes are apparently similar to any kind of urban waste. Nevertheless it must be taken into account that the origin of Hospitalary wastes is different as they can be contaminated with microbes, virus, bacteria, bacillus...Because of this they should be treated and stored with special techniques in all the process. (Author)

  11. Biomass heating at East Surrey Hospital: technical evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landen, R; Rippengal, R

    2000-07-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed evaluation of the proposed biomass heating installation at East Surrey Hospital. It is intended to allow the Trust to make a decision on whether to proceed further with the scheme and, if so, on what basis. Specific areas assessed and reported on include: existing services provision for heating and cooling; technical aspects of the proposed biomass scheme; commercial aspects of the proposed biomass scheme. (author)

  12. Technical viability and development needs for waste forms and facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pegg, I.; Gould, T.

    1996-05-01

    The objective of this breakout session was to provide a forum to discuss technical issues relating to plutonium-bearing waste forms and their disposal facilities. Specific topics for discussion included the technical viability and development needs associated with the waste forms and/or disposal facilities. The expected end result of the session was an in-depth (so far as the limited time would allow) discussion of key issues by the session participants. The session chairs expressed allowance for, and encouragement of, alternative points of view, as well as encouragement for discussion of any relevant topics not addressed in the paper presentations. It was not the intent of this session to recommend or advocate any one technology over another.

  13. The management of radioactive wastes produced by radioisotope users. Technical addendum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    This Addendum contains detailed technical information on processes and procedures that are outlined in more general terms in the Code of Practice. The information is particularly relevant to the problem of handling the relatively small quantities of waste arising from the use of radionuclides in laboratories, hospitals and industry when no special facilities for radioactive waste treatment are available on site. The Addendum is directed toward providing the radioisotope user with the type and amount of information required for him to be able to assess the alternatives available to him in terms of his particular needs, develop a preliminary design of an optimum waste-handling system and get help and guidance in his search for more detailed information.

  14. RELEASE OF DRIED RADIOACTIVE WASTE MATERIALS TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KOZLOWSKI, S.D.

    2007-01-01

    This technical basis document was developed to support RPP-23429, Preliminary Documented Safety Analysis for the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (PDSA) and RPP-23479, Preliminary Documented Safety Analysis for the Contact-Handled Transuranic Mixed (CH-TRUM) Waste Facility. The main document describes the risk binning process and the technical basis for assigning risk bins to the representative accidents involving the release of dried radioactive waste materials from the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) and to the associated represented hazardous conditions. Appendices D through F provide the technical basis for assigning risk bins to the representative dried waste release accident and associated represented hazardous conditions for the Contact-Handled Transuranic Mixed (CH-TRUM) Waste Packaging Unit (WPU). The risk binning process uses an evaluation of the frequency and consequence of a given representative accident or represented hazardous condition to determine the need for safety structures, systems, and components (SSC) and technical safety requirement (TSR)-level controls. A representative accident or a represented hazardous condition is assigned to a risk bin based on the potential radiological and toxicological consequences to the public and the collocated worker. Note that the risk binning process is not applied to facility workers because credible hazardous conditions with the potential for significant facility worker consequences are considered for safety-significant SSCs and/or TSR-level controls regardless of their estimated frequency. The controls for protection of the facility workers are described in RPP-23429 and RPP-23479. Determination of the need for safety-class SSCs was performed in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses, as described below

  15. Technical specifications for mechanical recycling of agricultural plastic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briassoulis, D.; Hiskakis, M.; Babou, E.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Technical specifications for agricultural plastic wastes (APWs) recycling proposed. • Specifications are the base for best economical and environmental APW valorisation. • Analysis of APW reveals inherent characteristics and constraints of APW streams. • Thorough survey on mechanical recycling processes and industry as it applies to APW. • Specifications for APW recycling tested, adjusted and verified through pilot trials. - Abstract: Technical specifications appropriate for the recycling of agricultural plastic wastes (APWs), widely accepted by the recycling industry were developed. The specifications establish quality standards to be met by the agricultural plastics producers, users and the agricultural plastic waste management chain. They constitute the base for the best economical and environmental valorisation of the APW. The analysis of the APW streams conducted across Europe in the framework of the European project “LabelAgriWaste” revealed the inherent characteristics of the APW streams and the inherent constraints (technical or economical) of the APW. The APW stream properties related to its recycling potential and measured during pilot trials are presented and a subsequent universally accepted simplified and expanded list of APW recycling technical specifications is proposed and justified. The list includes two sets of specifications, applied to two different quality categories of recyclable APW: one for pellet production process (“Quality I”) and another one for plastic profile production process (“Quality II”). Parameters that are taken into consideration in the specifications include the APW physical characteristics, contamination, composition and degradation. The proposed specifications are focused on polyethylene based APW that represents the vast majority of the APW stream. However, the specifications can be adjusted to cover also APW of different materials (e.g. PP or PVC) that are found in very small quantities

  16. Scientific and technical challenges of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vira, J.

    1996-01-01

    In spite of considerable spending on research and technical development, the management of nuclear wastes continues to be a difficult issue in public decision making. The nuclear industry says that it has safe solutions for the ultimate disposal of nuclear wastes, but the message has not really got through to the public at large. Although communications problems reflect the general stigmatization of nuclear power, there are obvious issues in safety and performance assessment of nuclear waste disposal which evade scientific resolution. Any scientist is concerned for his personal credibility must respect the rules and limits of scientific practice, but the intriguing question is whether he would not do better to address the layman's worries about radioactive substances? The discussion in this paper points out the intricacies of the distinction between scientific proof and judgement, with emphasis on safety assessment for nuclear waste disposal. Who are the final arbitrators? In a democratic society it is probably those who vote.Building confidence in expert judgements is a challenge for waste managers and scientists. The media may create their own 'experts', whose only necessary credential is the trust of their audience, but scientific judgements must stand the test of time.'Confidence building' is currently a key word on the whole nuclear waste management scene, and confidence in science and scientists is certainly needed for any progress towards practical implementation of plans. The means for building confidence in the decision-making process are probably different from those applied for science and scientists. (author)

  17. Evaluation of Collection and Disposal of Hospital Waste in Hospitals and Healthcare Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Nazemi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently, one of the environmental issues is waste of hospitals and healthcare facilities which due to hazardous, toxic, and disease-causing agents such as pharmaceutical, chemical and infectious disease, is of particular sensitivity. According to a 2002 survey by WHO, it was determined that 22 million people worldwide suffer from infectious diseases annually, because of contacting hospital wastes. Also based on a research conducted in 22 countries, 18 to 64 percent of hospitals wastes are not disposed properly [1]. The purpose f the study is to appraise collection and disposal of hospital wastes in hospitals and healthcare centers of Shahroud.In this sectional study, 3 university hospitals (580 beds and 10 healthcare facilities were investigated for six months (mehr-azar 89 at Shahroud. In order to determine the amount of waste, produced waste of an entire day was weighted in hospitals and health centers. In this research, proposed questionnaires of WHO for developing countries was used to evaluate collection and disposal system of hospitals waste. Collected data was coded and analyzed by SPSS ver.15.

  18. Technical issues in the geologic disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weart, W.D.

    1980-01-01

    The status of technical understanding regarding radioactive waste repositories in geologic media is improving at a rapid rate. Within a few years the knowledge regarding non-salt repositories will be on a par with that which now exists for salt. To date there is no technical reason to doubt that geologic repositories in several different geologic media can be safely implemented to provide long-term isolation of radioactive wastes. Indeed, for bedded salt, there is now sufficient knowledge to allow all the identified phenomena to be bounded with satisfactory resultant consequences. It is possible to now proceed with technical confidence in an orderly development of a bedded-salt repository at a satisfactory site. This development would call for in-situ experiments, at the earliest possible stage, to confirm or validate the predictions made for the site. These in-situ experiments will be necessary for each repository in a different rock type. If, for non-technical reasons, repository development is delayed, field test facilities should be located as soon as possible in geologic settings typical of proposed repositories. Extensive testing to resolve generic issues will allow subsequent development of repositories to proceed more rapidly with only minimal in-situ testing required to resolve site-specific concerns

  19. Radioactive waste management for a radiologically contaminated hospitalized patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina Jomir, G.; Michel, X.; Lecompte, Y.; Chianea, N.; Cazoulat, A.

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive waste management in the post-accidental phase following caring for a radiologically contaminated patient in a hospital decontamination facility must be anticipated at a local level to be truly efficient, as the volume of waste could be substantial. This management must comply with the principles set out for radioactive as well as medical waste. The first step involves identification of radiologically contaminated waste based on radioactivity measurement for volume reduction. Then, the management depends on the longest radioactive half-life of contaminative radionuclides. For a half-life inferior to 100 days, wastes are stored for their radioactivity to decay for at least 10 periods before disposal like conventional medical waste. Long-lived radioactive waste management implies treatment of liquid waste and special handling for sorting and packaging before final elimination at the French National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management (ANDRA). Following this, highly specialized waste management skills, financial responsibility issues and detention of non-medical radioactive sources are questions raised by hospital radioactive waste management in the post-accidental phase. (authors)

  20. The biomedical waste management in selected hospitals of Chittoor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Poor waste management practices pose a huge risk to the health of the public, patients, professionals and contribute to environmental degradation. Aims and objectives: Our study was aimed to assess the present status of biomedical waste management in Government and Private Hospitals. Materials and ...

  1. Analysis of the healthcare waste management status in Tehran hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekahmadi, Fariba; Yunesian, Masud; Yaghmaeian, Kamyar; Nadafi, Kazem

    2014-01-01

    Considering the importance of healthcare waste management, following the ratification of the Waste Management law in 2005 and the subsequent approval of its executive bylaw in 2006 and finally the healthcare waste management criteria passing by the parliament in 2008, a review on the status of healthcare waste management is needed to implement the mentioned law properly. In this retrospective study during six months period all public hospitals in Iran's capital city, Tehran, were selected to conduct the survey. Data collected through an expert-standardized questionnaire was analyzed by using SPSS software. The results of the current status of healthcare waste management in Tehran hospitals showed 5.6% of hospitals were ranked excellent, 50.7% good, 26.4% medium, and the 13.9% of hospitals were ranked weak and 3.5% ranked very poor. The findings showed that appropriate technologies should be used to have better disposal stage. As the ratified criteria were not fully observed by all the selected hospitals, training courses and comprehensive program conducting by each hospital could be enjoyed as practical tools to implement the all stages of healthcare waste management properly.

  2. Technical area status report for low-level mixed waste final waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayberry, J.L.; DeWitt, L.M.; Darnell, R.

    1993-08-01

    The Final Waste Forms (FWF) Technical Area Status Report (TASR) Working Group, the Vitrification Working Group (WG), and the Performance Standards Working Group were established as subgroups to the FWF Technical Support Group (TSG). The FWF TASR WG is comprised of technical representatives from most of the major DOE sites, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the EPA Office of Solid Waste, and the EPA's Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL). The primary activity of the FWF TASR Working Group was to investigate and report on the current status of FWFs for LLNM in this TASR. The FWF TASR Working Group determined the current status of the development of various waste forms described above by reviewing selected articles and technical reports, summarizing data, and establishing an initial set of FWF characteristics to be used in evaluating candidate FWFS; these characteristics are summarized in Section 2. After an initial review of available information, the FWF TASR Working Group chose to study the following groups of final waste forms: hydraulic cement, sulfur polymer cement, glass, ceramic, and organic binders. The organic binders included polyethylene, bitumen, vinyl ester styrene, epoxy, and urea formaldehyde. Section 3 provides a description of each final waste form. Based on the literature review, the gaps and deficiencies in information were summarized, and conclusions and recommendations were established. The information and data presented in this TASR are intended to assist the FWF Production and Assessment TSG in evaluating the Technical Task Plans (TTPs) submitted to DOE EM-50, and thus provide DOE with the necessary information for their FWF decision-making process. This FWF TASR will also assist the DOE and the MWIP in establishing the most acceptable final waste forms for the various LLMW streams stored at DOE facilities

  3. Technical area status report for low-level mixed waste final waste forms. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayberry, J.L.; DeWitt, L.M. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Darnell, R. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

    1993-08-01

    The Final Waste Forms (FWF) Technical Area Status Report (TASR) Working Group, the Vitrification Working Group (WG), and the Performance Standards Working Group were established as subgroups to the FWF Technical Support Group (TSG). The FWF TASR WG is comprised of technical representatives from most of the major DOE sites, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the EPA Office of Solid Waste, and the EPA`s Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL). The primary activity of the FWF TASR Working Group was to investigate and report on the current status of FWFs for LLNM in this TASR. The FWF TASR Working Group determined the current status of the development of various waste forms described above by reviewing selected articles and technical reports, summarizing data, and establishing an initial set of FWF characteristics to be used in evaluating candidate FWFS; these characteristics are summarized in Section 2. After an initial review of available information, the FWF TASR Working Group chose to study the following groups of final waste forms: hydraulic cement, sulfur polymer cement, glass, ceramic, and organic binders. The organic binders included polyethylene, bitumen, vinyl ester styrene, epoxy, and urea formaldehyde. Section 3 provides a description of each final waste form. Based on the literature review, the gaps and deficiencies in information were summarized, and conclusions and recommendations were established. The information and data presented in this TASR are intended to assist the FWF Production and Assessment TSG in evaluating the Technical Task Plans (TTPs) submitted to DOE EM-50, and thus provide DOE with the necessary information for their FWF decision-making process. This FWF TASR will also assist the DOE and the MWIP in establishing the most acceptable final waste forms for the various LLMW streams stored at DOE facilities.

  4. Disposal of liquid radioactive waste - discharge of radioactive waste waters from hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwieg, F.

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given about legal prescriptions in the FRG concerning composition and amount of the liquid waste substances and waste water disposal by emitting into the sewerage, waste water decay systems and collecting and storage of patients excretions. The radiation exposure of the population due to drainage of radioactive waste water from hospitals lower by more than two orders than the mean exposure due to nuclear-medical use. (HP) [de

  5. Technical considerations for evaluating substantially complete containment of high-level waste within the waste package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manaktala, H.K.; Interrante, C.G.

    1990-12-01

    This report deals with technical information that is considered essential for demonstrating the ability of the high-level radioactive waste package to provide ''substantially complete containment'' of its contents (vitrified waste form or spent light-water reactor fuel) for a period of 300 to 1000 years in a geological repository environment. The discussion is centered around technical considerations of the repository environment, materials and fabrication processes for the waste package components, various degradation modes of the materials of construction of the waste packages, and inspection and monitoring of the waste package during the preclosure and retrievability period, which could begin up to 50 years after initiation of waste emplacement. The emphasis in this report is on metallic materials. However, brief references have been made to other materials such as ceramics, graphite, bonded ceramic-metal systems, and other types of composites. The content of this report was presented to an external peer review panel of nine members at a workshop held at the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA), Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas, April 2--4, 1990. The recommendations of the peer review panel have been incorporated in this report. There are two companion reports; the second report in the series provides state-of-the-art techniques for uncertainty evaluations. 97 refs., 1 fig

  6. Technical considerations for evaluating substantially complete containment of high-level waste within the waste package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manaktala, H.K. (Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (USA). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses); Interrante, C.G. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (USA). Div. of High-Level Waste Management)

    1990-12-01

    This report deals with technical information that is considered essential for demonstrating the ability of the high-level radioactive waste package to provide substantially complete containment'' of its contents (vitrified waste form or spent light-water reactor fuel) for a period of 300 to 1000 years in a geological repository environment. The discussion is centered around technical considerations of the repository environment, materials and fabrication processes for the waste package components, various degradation modes of the materials of construction of the waste packages, and inspection and monitoring of the waste package during the preclosure and retrievability period, which could begin up to 50 years after initiation of waste emplacement. The emphasis in this report is on metallic materials. However, brief references have been made to other materials such as ceramics, graphite, bonded ceramic-metal systems, and other types of composites. The content of this report was presented to an external peer review panel of nine members at a workshop held at the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA), Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas, April 2--4, 1990. The recommendations of the peer review panel have been incorporated in this report. There are two companion reports; the second report in the series provides state-of-the-art techniques for uncertainty evaluations. 97 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Technical specifications for mechanical recycling of agricultural plastic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briassoulis, D; Hiskakis, M; Babou, E

    2013-06-01

    Technical specifications appropriate for the recycling of agricultural plastic wastes (APWs), widely accepted by the recycling industry were developed. The specifications establish quality standards to be met by the agricultural plastics producers, users and the agricultural plastic waste management chain. They constitute the base for the best economical and environmental valorisation of the APW. The analysis of the APW streams conducted across Europe in the framework of the European project "LabelAgriWaste" revealed the inherent characteristics of the APW streams and the inherent constraints (technical or economical) of the APW. The APW stream properties related to its recycling potential and measured during pilot trials are presented and a subsequent universally accepted simplified and expanded list of APW recycling technical specifications is proposed and justified. The list includes two sets of specifications, applied to two different quality categories of recyclable APW: one for pellet production process ("Quality I") and another one for plastic profile production process ("Quality II"). Parameters that are taken into consideration in the specifications include the APW physical characteristics, contamination, composition and degradation. The proposed specifications are focused on polyethylene based APW that represents the vast majority of the APW stream. However, the specifications can be adjusted to cover also APW of different materials (e.g. PP or PVC) that are found in very small quantities in protected cultivations in Europe. The adoption of the proposed specifications could transform this waste stream into a labelled commodity traded freely in the market and will constitute the base for the best economical and environmental valorisation of the APW. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Conclusions on the two technical panels on HLW-disposal and waste treatment processes respectively

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinkespiller, J.A.; Dejonghe, P.; Feates, F.

    1986-01-01

    The paper reports the concluding panel session at the European Community Conference on radioactive waste management and disposal, Luxembourg 1985. The panel considered the conclusions of two preceeding technical panels on high level waste (HLW) disposal and waste treatment processes. Geological disposal of HLW, waste management, safety assessment of waste disposal, public opinion, public acceptance of the manageability of radioactive wastes, international cooperation, and waste management in the United States, are all discussed. (U.K.)

  9. Transuranic waste program at EG and G Idaho, Inc. Annual technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.H.; Tolman, C.R.

    1980-12-01

    This document summarizes the objectives and technical achievements of the transuranic (TRU) waste research and development program conducted at EG and G Idaho, Inc., during fiscal year 1980. The TRU waste activities covered in this report include: INEL TRU Waste EIS (Environmental Impact Statement), including preparation of the EIS, Support Studies, and the Public Participation Program; INEL TRU Waste Projects, including System Analysis, Stored Waste projects, and Buried Waste projects; and Waste Management Materials Studies, including Process Control and Durability studies

  10. Incineration or autoclave? A comparative study in isfahan hospitals waste management system (2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdowsi, Ali; Ferdosi, Masoud; Mehrani, Mohammd Javad

    2013-03-01

    treatment of bulky wastes such as Anatomical wastes, their usage seems logic considering the very low amounts of such wastes. Also, considering the amount of generated wastes in Isfahan hospitals, a combination of centralized and non-centralized autoclaves is recommended for treatment of infected wastes. Mobile autoclaves may also be considered according to technical and economical conditions. It must not be forgotten that the priority must be given to the establishment of waste management systems particularly to personnel training to produce less wastes and to well separate them.

  11. Incineration or Autoclave? A Comparative Study in Isfahan Hospitals Waste Management System (2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdowsi, Ali; Ferdosi, Masoud; Mehrani, Mohammd Javad

    2013-01-01

    . Yet, despite the inefficiency of autoclaves in treatment of bulky wastes such as Anatomical wastes, their usage seems logic considering the very low amounts of such wastes. Also, considering the amount of generated wastes in Isfahan hospitals, a combination of centralized and non-centralized autoclaves is recommended for treatment of infected wastes. Mobile autoclaves may also be considered according to technical and economical conditions. It must not be forgotten that the priority must be given to the establishment of waste management systems particularly to personnel training to produce less wastes and to well separate them. PMID:23678340

  12. Management of healthcare waste in a small hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Révia Ribeiro Castro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It aimed to conduct a situational analysis of the production and management of waste generated in a small hospital in the interior of the state of Ceará, Brazil, in 2014. Data collection occurred through systematic observation using checklist to verify routine procedures and questionnaires applied with the manager and employees responsible for hospital sectors. In the waste, it were found biological materials, anatomical parts, product of fertilization without vital signs, laboratory samples leftovers, containers and materials resulting from the health care process, chemical, household and sharps waste. It was verified improperly discarded waste according to current regulations. It is concluded the need for information and training of professionals who handle and dispose of healthcare waste.

  13. Technical resource documents and technical handbooks for hazardous-wastes management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schomaker, N.B.; Bliss, T.M.

    1986-07-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency is preparing a series of Technical Resource Documents (TRD's) and Technical Handbooks to provide best engineering control technology to meet the needs of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) respectively. These documents and handbooks are basically compilation of research efforts of the Land Pollution Control Division (LPCD) to date. The specific areas of research being conducted under the RCRA land disposal program relate to laboratory, pilot and field validation studies in cover systems, waste leaching and solidification, liner systems and disposal facility evaluation. The technical handbooks provide the EPA Program Offices and Regions, as well as the states and other interested parties, with the latest information relevant to remedial actions.

  14. development of improved solid hospital waste management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2016-07-03

    Jul 3, 2016 ... procurement of waste segregation practices, double chambered incinerator while evaluation of medical and health .... Government area of Kwara state in the north central ... with an international organization were conducted.

  15. Socio-economic impact of improper hospital waste management on waste disposal employees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.R.; Raza, Z. L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Improper disposal of hospital waste results in spread of disease to the community and its handlers. Objectives: To study the socio-economic impact of inappropriate disposal of hospital waste on the health of the waste disposal staff. Materials and Methods: Interviews were conducted from 50 hospital waste collectors of Lahore and using a pre-structured questionnaire, the information was filled. The data were statistically analyzed for frequencies, and cross tabulation. Results: The improper disposal of hospital waste lead to disease in 45 hospital waste collectors. Eighteen waste collectors were infected with respiratory diseases,14 with skin infection, 7 with tuberculosis and 6 with hepatitis. Only 8 workers were provided with special clothes by the hospital management. The chances of getting infection was high in those who were not provided with special clothes like, gowns, gloves and shoes as compared to those who were provided with these.The total cost of recovery for these diseases also varied with an amount of Rs. 68,340 for the treatment of hepatitis, Rs. 3,150 for tuberculosis, Rs. 1,500 for respiratory diseases and Rs. 1,000 for skin infection. Only 12 workers were given a small remuneration ranging from Rs.100-400 per month as compensation from the hospital administration. Conclusions: Use of protective clothing by the hospital waste disposal collectors can significantly reduce their exposure to the diseases. Policy message: Provision of clothing and gloves to the waste disposal collectors, would help significantly in reducing diseases like tuberculosis, hepatitis, respiratory diseases and skin infection. (author)

  16. Disposal of mixed waste: Technical, institutional, and policy factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M.; Letourneau, M.J.; Case, J.T.

    1996-01-01

    In conjunction with the affected States as part of their interactions required by the Federal Facilities Compliance Act, the Department of Energy has been developing a process for a disposal configuration for its mixed low-level waste (MLLW). This effort, spanning more than two years, has reduced the potential disposal sites from 49 to 15. The remaining 15 sites have been subjected to a performance evaluation to determine their strengths and weaknesses for disposal of MLLW. The process has included institutional and policy factors as well as strictly technical analyses, and technical analyses must be supported by technical analyses, and technical analyses must be performed within a framework which includes some institutional considerations, with the institutional considerations selected for inclusion largely a matter of policy. While the disposal configuration process is yet to be completed, the experience to date offers a viable approach for solving some of these issues. Additionally, several factors remain to be addressed before an MLLW disposal configuration can be developed

  17. Large Hospital 50% Energy Savings: Technical Support Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnema, E.; Studer, D.; Parker, A.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2010-09-01

    This Technical Support Document documents the technical analysis and design guidance for large hospitals to achieve whole-building energy savings of at least 50% over ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004 and represents a step toward determining how to provide design guidance for aggressive energy savings targets. This report documents the modeling methods used to demonstrate that the design recommendations meet or exceed the 50% goal. EnergyPlus was used to model the predicted energy performance of the baseline and low-energy buildings to verify that 50% energy savings are achievable. Percent energy savings are based on a nominal minimally code-compliant building and whole-building, net site energy use intensity. The report defines architectural-program characteristics for typical large hospitals, thereby defining a prototype model; creates baseline energy models for each climate zone that are elaborations of the prototype models and are minimally compliant with Standard 90.1-2004; creates a list of energy design measures that can be applied to the prototype model to create low-energy models; uses industry feedback to strengthen inputs for baseline energy models and energy design measures; and simulates low-energy models for each climate zone to show that when the energy design measures are applied to the prototype model, 50% energy savings (or more) are achieved.

  18. Environmental impacts of waste management in the hospitality industry: Creating a waste management plan for Bergvik Kartano

    OpenAIRE

    Adigwe, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Many hospitality industries find it difficult to control or manage solid wastes, such as food, containers, paper, cardboard and scrap metals, which are waste generated on a daily basis depending on the industry. Most hospitality industries tend to lag behind when it comes to the collection of waste. Only a fraction of the¬¬ waste collected receives proper disposal. When waste is not collected sufficiently and the disposal is inappropriate the waste can accumulate and cause water, land and air...

  19. [Biomedical waste management in five hospitals in Dakar, Senegal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiaye, M; El Metghari, L; Soumah, M M; Sow, M L

    2012-10-01

    Biomedical waste is currently a real health and environmental concern. In this regard, a study was conducted in 5 hospitals in Dakar to review their management of biomedical waste and to formulate recommendations. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted from 1 April to 31 July 2010 in five major hospitals of Dakar. A questionnaire administered to hospital managers, heads of departments, residents and heads of hospital hygiene departments as well as interviews conducted with healthcare personnel and operators of waste incinerators made it possible to assess mechanisms and knowledge on biomedical waste management. Content analysis of interviews, observations and a data sheet allowed processing the data thus gathered. Of the 150 questionnaires distributed, 98 responses were obtained representing a response rate of 65.3%. An interview was conducted with 75 employees directly involved in the management of biomedical waste and observations were made on biomedical waste management in 86 hospital services. Sharps as well as blood and liquid waste were found in all services except in pharmacies, pharmaceutical waste in 66 services, infectious waste in 49 services and anatomical waste in 11 services. Sorting of biomedical waste was ill-adapted in 53.5% (N = 46) of services and the use of the colour-coding system effective in 31.4% (N = 27) of services. Containers for the safe disposal of sharps were available in 82.5% (N = 71) of services and were effectively utilized in 51.1% (N = 44) of these services. In most services, an illadapted packaging was observed with the use of plastic bottles and bins for waste collection and overfilled containers. With the exception of Hôpital Principal, the main storage area was in open air, unsecured, with biomedical waste littered on the floor and often mixed with waste similar to household refuse. The transfer of biomedical waste to the main storage area was done using trolleys or carts in 67.4% (N = 58) of services and

  20. Separate collection of plastic waste, better than technical sorting from municipal solid waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feil, Alexander; Pretz, Thomas; Jansen, Michael; Thoden van Velzen, Eggo U

    2017-02-01

    The politically preferred solution to fulfil legal recycling demands is often implementing separate collection systems. However, experience shows their limitations, particularly in urban centres with a high population density. In response to the European Union landfill directive, mechanical biological waste treatment plants have been installed all over Europe. This technology makes it possible to retrieve plastic waste from municipal solid waste. Operators of mechanical biological waste treatment plants, both in Germany and the Netherlands, have started to change their mechanical separation processes to additionally produce plastic pre-concentrates. Results from mechanical biological waste treatment and separate collection of post-consumer packaging waste will be presented and compared. They prove that both the yield and the quality of plastic waste provided as feedstock for the production of secondary plastic raw material are largely comparable. An economic assessment shows which conditions for a technical sorting plant are economically attractive in comparison to separate collection systems. It is, however, unlikely that plastic recycling will ever reach cost neutrality.

  1. An overview of technical requirements on durable concrete production for near surface disposal facilities for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolentino, Evandro; Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive waste can be generated by a wide range of activities varying from activities in hospitals to nuclear power plants, to mines and mineral processing facilities. General public have devoted nowadays considerable attention to the subject of radioactive waste management due to heightened awareness of environmental protection. The preferred strategy for the management of all radioactive waste is to contain it and to isolate it from the accessible biosphere. The Federal Government of Brazil has announced the construction for the year of 2014 and operation for the year of 2016 of a near surface disposal facility for low and intermediate level radioactive waste. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of technical requirements related to production of durable concrete to be used in near surface disposal facilities for radioactive waste concrete structures. These requirements have been considered by researchers dealing with ongoing designing effort of the Brazilian near surface disposal facility. (author)

  2. SEM Model Medical Solid Waste Hospital Management In Medan City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simarmata, Verawaty; Pandia, Setiaty; Mawengkang, Herman

    2018-01-01

    In daily activities, hospitals, as one of the important health care unit, generate both medical solid waste and non-medical solid waste. The occurrence of medical solid waste could be from the results of treatment activities, such as, in the treatment room for a hospital inpatient, general clinic, a dental clinic, a mother and child clinic, laboratories and pharmacies. Most of the medical solid waste contains infectious and hazardous materials. Therefore it should be managed properly, otherwise it could be a source of new infectious for the community around the hospital as well as for health workers themselves. Efforts surveillance of various environmental factors need to be applied in accordance with the principles of sanitation focuses on environmental cleanliness. One of the efforts that need to be done in improving the quality of the environment is to undertake waste management activities, because with proper waste management is the most important in order to achieve an optimal degree of human health. Health development in Indonesian aims to achieve a future in which the Indonesian people live in a healthy environment, its people behave clean and healthy, able to reach quality health services, fair and equitable, so as to have optimal health status, health development paradigm anchored to the healthy. The healthy condition of the individual and society can be influenced by the environment. Poor environmental quality is a cause of various health problems. Efforts surveillance of various environmental factors need to be applied in accordance with the principles of sanitation focuses on environmental cleanliness. This paper proposes a model for managing the medical solid waste in hospitals in Medan city, in order to create healthy environment around hospitals.

  3. Waste-to-energy: Technical, economic and ecological point of views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassitto, L.

    1997-01-01

    Overwhelming waste-recycling should be considered more as a psychological than as a technological method to deal with wastes. The best waste disposal systems should actually grant mass or energy recovery from technical, economic and ecological point-of-views. Highest results seem to be granted by waste-to-energy technologies since energy content is the best preserved property after using materials

  4. Hospital solid waste management practices in Limpopo Province, South Africa: A case study of two hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemathaga, Felicia; Maringa, Sally; Chimuka, Luke

    2008-01-01

    The shortcomings in the management practices of hospital solid waste in Limpopo Province of South Africa were studied by looking at two hospitals as case studies. Apart from field surveys, the generated hospital waste was weighed to compute the generation rates and was followed through various management practices to the final disposal. The findings revealed a major policy implementation gap between the national government and the hospitals. While modern practices such as landfill and incineration are used, their daily operations were not carried according to minimum standards. Incinerator ash is openly dumped and wastes are burned on landfills instead of being covered with soil. The incinerators used are also not environmentally friendly as they use old technology. The findings further revealed that there is no proper separation of wastes according to their classification as demanded by the national government. The mean percentage composition of the waste was found in the following decreasing order: general waste (60.74%) > medical waste (30.32%) > sharps (8.94%). The mean generation rates were found to be 0.60 kg per patient per day

  5. Nordic study on reactor waste. Technical part 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The ground disposal alternatives examined in the Nordic study are based on establishment of relevant product specifications which can be adapted to the safety analysis of the entire waste handling sequence. Such product specifications would in turn influence the choice of incorporation techniques and may enable an optimization of the process. In order to interprete the small-scale laboratory tests with respect to long-term performance of full-scale products there were accomplished: - qualitative evaluations of the relevance of product properties for normal and abnormal events during storage, transport and disposal; - attempts to quantify the relevance of different properties, i.e. their influence on radiation doses from different stages of well specified waste management system; - assessments of available laboratory tests and of correlations between results from such tests and the long-term performance of full-scale technical products; - studies of reaction mechanisms and parameters that can affect the long-term performance of disposed products; - laboratory incorporation experiments to study impacts of process variables on the fixation of ion exchange wastes in cement and bitumen; - full-scale tests to study product performance under simulated accident conditions. (EG)

  6. Technical conservatism in the design and analysis of a nuclear-waste repository in basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.A.

    1982-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's National Waste Terminal Storage Program has adopted a policy of technical conservatism to guide the design and analysis of geologic disposal systems for commercial high-level radioactive waste. Technical conservatism serves as the programmatic philosophy for managing uncertainty in the performance of the disposal system. The implementation of technical conservatism as applied to a nuclear waste repository in basalt is discussed. Preliminary assessments of the performance of the waste package, repository, and site subsystems are compared to key proposed regulatory criteria. The comparison shows that there are substantial safety margins in the predicted performance of the nuclear waste repository in basalt

  7. Technical development of graphite waste treatment in NUPEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saishu, S.; Inoue, T.

    2001-01-01

    In Japan, Tokai Power Station, which is a Gas Cooled Reactor and uses graphite as moderator, ceased operation at the end of March in 1998 and it is planned to transfer to decommissioning stage. In this decommissioning stage it is very important to be able to treat and dispose the graphite waste in order to carry out the decommissioning safely and economically. NUPEC has been developing the graphite treatment and disposal technology since 1997 and we introduce the outline of the technical development. For the technology on high density packing into disposal container, the high density packing method and the assessment method on nuclide leaching characteristics were developed, and the cementing test for graphite powder by using Tokai spare graphite was performed and the hydrophobic characteristics between graphite and cement was grasped and the accelerator candidature for affinity was selected. From the view point of economical treatment, the incinerating technology was selected as candidature, and the methods for incinerating graphite and treating off gas are developed. The method of collecting C-14 in off gas was selected for reducing the off gas radiation level. The applicability of actual graphite treatment technology was considered from the view point of safety, economics and preparation of technical standard; the technical theme appeared, the developing planning items were established, and the detailed and actual scale tests will be carried out according to the planning. (author)

  8. Material Not Categorized As Waste (MNCAW) data report. Radioactive Waste Technical Support Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, C.; Heath, B.A.

    1992-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Headquarters, requested all DOE sites storing valuable materials to complete a questionnaire about each material that, if discarded, could be liable to regulation. The Radioactive Waste Technical Support Program entered completed questionnaires into a database and analyzed them for quantities and type of materials stored. This report discusses the data that TSP gathered. The report also discusses problems revealed by the questionnaires and future uses of the data. Appendices contain selected data about material reported.

  9. Sustainable network of independent technical expertise for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serres, Christophe; Rocher, Muriel; Lemy, Frank; Havlova, Vaclava; Mrskova, Adela; Heriard Dubreuil, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: SITEX is a 24-month FP7 project led by IRSN and bringing together 15 organisations representing technical safety organisations (TSO) and safety authorities, as well as civil society outreach specialists involved in the 'regulatory' review process of geological disposal of radioactive waste. SITEX aims at establishing the conditions required for developing a sustainable network of experts from various horizons (authorities, TSO, academic organisations, civil society,...) capable of developing and coordinating the technical expertise that is required from the stakeholders in charge of delivering opinion, independently from the waste management organisations (WMO), on the safety of geological disposals. The SITEX programme of work is split into a set of six work packages that address technical and organisational issues allowing to propose a structure of the missions and operating mode of the future network. These issues relate on the one hand to the study of the potential for sharing and developing technical expertise practices amongst stakeholders, on the other hand on the ability to implement co-ordinated R and D programmes run by TSO in order to develop the scientific knowledge necessary to perform independent technical assessments. Two major perspectives are identified for the future of the SITEX network: its ability to foster co-operation between regulatory bodies, TSO, implementers and civil society with a view to enhancing common understanding of key safety issues and challenges and to identifying possible harmonisation of practices; the constitution of a scientific task force (mainly driven by TSO) for research definition and implementation at the European level allowing to improve the co-ordination of scientific programmes between TSO and developing its own skills and analytical tools, independently of the WMO. A comprehensive list of safety issues relevant to the development and implementation of a geological repository has

  10. Knowledge and Attitude of Hospital Personnel Regarding Medical Waste Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amouei A.1 PhD,

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims Considering the importance of medical waste recognition by health centers staffs and its role on maintenance and improvement of social and environmental health, this study aimed to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practices of hospital staffs regarding to medical waste management. Instrument & Methods The current descriptive, analytical and cross-sectional research was carried out on the staffs of the Ayatollah Rohani Hospital of Babol City, Iran, in 2013. 130 employees were selected by stratified sampling method. A researcher-made questionnaire (accessible as an attachment containing 4 parts of demographic information, knowledge (15 questions, attitude (6 questions and practices (6 questions was used for data gathering. The data was analyzed by SPSS 17 software using Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Findings The participants mean scores of knowledge, attitude, and practice were 10.7±1.6 (out of 15, 5.5±0.8 (out of 6, and 4.5±1.5 (out of 6, respectively. 12% (16 people of the participants had low, 72% (93 people of the participants had medium, and 16% (21 people of them had high knowledge toward hospital waste management. 16% (21 people of the participants had medium and 84% (109 people of them had high attitude toward hospital waste management. 4% (5 people, 46% (60 people and 50% (65 people of the participants had low, medium and high practice, respectively. Conclusion The level of knowledge, attitude and practice of the Ayatollah Rohani Hospital of Babol City, Iran, regarding hospital waste management is acceptable.

  11. Hospital waste management status in Iran: a case study in the teaching hospitals of Iran University of Medical Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzadkia, Mahdi; Moradi, Arash; Mohammadi, Mojtaba Shah; Jorfi, Sahand

    2009-06-01

    Hospital waste materials pose a wide variety of health and safety hazards for patients and healthcare workers. Many of hospitals in Iran have neither a satisfactory waste disposal system nor a waste management and disposal policy. The main objective of this research was to investigate the solid waste management in the eight teaching hospitals of Iran University of Medical Sciences. In this cross-sectional study, the main stages of hospital waste management including generation, separation, collection, storage, and disposal of waste materials were assessed in these hospitals, located in Tehran city. The measurement was conducted through a questionnaire and direct observation by researchers. The data obtained was converted to a quantitative measure to evaluate the different management components. The results showed that the waste generation rate was 2.5 to 3.01 kg bed(-1) day(-1), which included 85 to 90% of domestic waste and 10 to 15% of infectious waste. The lack of separation between hazardous and non-hazardous waste, an absence of the necessary rules and regulations applying to the collection of waste from hospital wards and on-site transport to a temporary storage location, a lack of proper waste treatment, and disposal of hospital waste along with municipal garbage, were the main findings. In order to improve the existing conditions, some extensive research to assess the present situation in the hospitals of Iran, the compilation of rules and establishment of standards and effective training for the personnel are actions that are recommended.

  12. Technical nursing students interacting with family members of hospitalized children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Yukari Takahashi Onishi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To understand technical nursing students' meaning of interacting with family members of hospitalized children. Method: Symbolic Interactionism was used as the theoretical framework and Qualitative Content Analysis was the methodological procedure. A total of eight graduates from an institution situated in the city of Osasco, Sao Paulo state, participated in this study. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews. Results: A total of five representative themes were revealed: Dealing with difficult situations with family members; Perceiving oneself to be unprepared to interact with family members; Family members being a helpful tool; Developing strategies to obtain a good interaction with family members; and Teachers being facilitators of the interaction with family members. Final considerations: To be acquainted with this experience has led to the understanding of the need to include the theme of family care in the curriculum of the Technical Nursing Course. Additionally, the present study contributed to reflections on the importance of such knowledge for this population and to the development of future studies, as this theme has been scarcely explored in the literature.

  13. Technical nursing students interacting with family members of hospitalized children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Juliana Yukari Takahashi; Ribeiro, Circéa Amália; Silva, Maria Cristina Ferreira Carlos Rodrigues da; Borba, Regina Issuzu Hirooka de

    2017-01-01

    To understand technical nursing students' meaning of interacting with family members of hospitalized children. Symbolic Interactionism was used as the theoretical framework and Qualitative Content Analysis was the methodological procedure. A total of eight graduates from an institution situated in the city of Osasco, Sao Paulo state, participated in this study. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews. A total of five representative themes were revealed: Dealing with difficult situations with family members; Perceiving oneself to be unprepared to interact with family members; Family members being a helpful tool; Developing strategies to obtain a good interaction with family members; and Teachers being facilitators of the interaction with family members. To be acquainted with this experience has led to the understanding of the need to include the theme of family care in the curriculum of the Technical Nursing Course. Additionally, the present study contributed to reflections on the importance of such knowledge for this population and to the development of future studies, as this theme has been scarcely explored in the literature.

  14. Waste management assessment and technical review programme. WATRP. An international peer review service for radioactive waste management activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    International Atomic Energy Agency provides international peer review services in radioactive waste management to those Member States that have established radioactive waste management programmes. Such services are provided within Waste Management Assessment and Technical Review Programme (WATRP). The main objective of WATRP is to provide international expertise and information on a requested subject in the field of radioactive waste management and to validate that programmes and activities are sound and performing well. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. Repurposing Waste Streams: Lessons on Integrating Hospital Food Waste into a Community Garden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, Adri M; Hanson, Ryan; George, Daniel R

    2018-04-06

    There have been increasing efforts in recent decades to divert institutional food waste into composting programs. As major producers of food waste who must increasingly demonstrate community benefit, hospitals have an incentive to develop such programs. In this article, we explain the emerging opportunity to link hospitals' food services to local community gardens in order to implement robust composting programs. We describe a partnership model at our hospital in central Pennsylvania, share preliminary outcomes establishing feasibility, and offer guidance for future efforts. We also demonstrate that the integration of medical students in such efforts can foster systems thinking in the development of programs to manage hospital waste streams in more ecologically-friendly ways.

  16. On the disposal of solid radioactive wastes at hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogge, B.; Lewe, P.

    1987-01-01

    The disposal of radioactive materials in hospitals represents a considerable problem from the point of view of economics and organisation as well as from the point of view of radiological safety. On the one-hand, groups of people (nursing personal and clean-up crews) are involved in the handling of contaminated materials who can be instructed in special handling procedures only to a limited degree with the result that simple and clear procedures must be developed; on the other hand, such simply structured routes of disposal result in enormous volumes of radioactive waste, which represent a considerable cost factor. At the Offenbach City Hospital a concept has been created which takes these problems into account. It consists of nuclide-specific collection in groups, reduction of volume by breaking up of materials, interim storage, and government approved disposal as special hospital waste materials. (orig.) [de

  17. Technical issues in licensing low-level radioactive waste facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junkert, R. [California Dept. of Health Services, CA (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The California Department of Health Service spent two years in the review of an application for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in California. During this review period a variety of technical issues had to be evaluated and resolved. One of the first issues was the applicability and use of NRC guidance documents for the development of LLW disposal facilities. Other technical issues that required intensive evaluations included surface water hydrology, seismic investigation, field and numerical analysis of the unsaturated zone, including a water infiltration test. Source term verification became an issue because of one specific isotope that comprised more than 90% of the curies projected for disposal during the operational period. The use of trench liners and the proposed monitoring of the unsaturated zone were reviewed by a highly select panel of experts to provide guidance on the need for liners and to ensure that the monitoring system was capable of monitoring sufficient representative areas for radionuclides in the soil, soil gas, and soil moisture. Finally, concerns about the quality of the preoperational environmental monitoring program, including data, sample collection procedures, laboratory analysis, data review and interpretation and duration of monitoring caused a significant delay in completing the licensing review.

  18. ``Recycling'' Nuclear Power Plant Waste: Technical Difficulties and Proliferation Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Edwin

    2007-04-01

    One of the most vexing problems associated with nuclear energy is the inability to find a technically and politically viable solution for the disposal of long-lived radioactive waste. The U.S. plan to develop a geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel at Yucca Mountain in Nevada is in jeopardy, as a result of managerial incompetence, political opposition and regulatory standards that may be impossible to meet. As a result, there is growing interest in technologies that are claimed to have the potential to drastically reduce the amount of waste that would require geologic burial and the length of time that the waste would require containment. A scenario for such a vision was presented in the December 2005 Scientific American. While details differ, these technologies share a common approach: they require chemical processing of spent fuel to extract plutonium and other long-lived actinide elements, which would then be ``recycled'' into fresh fuel for advanced reactors and ``transmuted'' into shorter-lived fission products. Such a scheme is the basis for the ``Global Nuclear Energy Partnership,'' a major program unveiled by the Department of Energy (DOE) in early 2006. This concept is not new, but has been studied for decades. Major obstacles include fundamental safety issues, engineering feasibility and cost. Perhaps the most important consideration in the post-9/11 era is that these technologies involve the separation of plutonium and other nuclear weapon-usable materials from highly radioactive fission products, providing opportunities for terrorists seeking to obtain nuclear weapons. While DOE claims that it will only utilize processes that do not produce ``separated plutonium,'' it has offered no evidence that such technologies would effectively deter theft. It is doubtful that DOE's scheme can be implemented without an unacceptable increase in the risk of nuclear terrorism.

  19. Branch technical position for performance assessment of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, A.C.; Abramson, L.; Byrne, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has developed a Draft Branch Technical Position on Performance Assessment of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities. The draft technical position addresses important issues in performance assessment modeling and provides a framework and technical basis for conducting and evaluating performance assessments in a disposal facility license application. The technical position also addresses specific technical policy issues and augments existing NRC guidance pertaining to LLW performance assessment

  20. Liquid radioactive wastes from hospitals by polymeric membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnal, J.M.; Sancho, M.; Verdu, G.; Campayo, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Streams containing I''125 produced from RIA process, classified as radioactive waste of low activity, are generated by all different treatments applied in IN VITRO techniques. Consequently, an accumulation of solutions containing I''125 is produced in the order of 50-100 L/month approximately. The storage at sanitary centres and the accumulation caused by it creates a serious problem in the hospital. According to the specific activity and the installation spill authorization, one can choose between three ways of handling: direct discharge, temporal storage until the radioactive waste come to decay and then discharged, waste management by the authorised company (ENRESA). If the third way of discharge is applied the treatment of waste using membranes should be considered. Using membranes, important reduction coefficients in volume in the order of 10:1 are obtained. The aim of this work is the declassification of the I''125 solutions as a liquid radioactive waste using membrane techniques. Both, a radioactive concentrated waste and non-contaminated waste are obtained. (Author)

  1. Regulations on radioactive waste in hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiso, M.L.

    2017-01-01

    In hospitals that have a radiotherapy service, the contaminated sewage follows a specific way, first it comes from specific toilets that must be use by patients undergoing a radiotherapy treatment, and secondly it is stored in tanks and its radioactivity is measured regularly and when the radioactivity level is in conformity with regulations, sewage is disposed as any non-contaminated sewage. Regulations impose a radioactive level below 100 Becquerel per liter for I 131 and 10 Becquerel per liter for other nuclides for the sewage to be disposed. A new system named ST-10 allows the in-line and real-time measurement and the identification of nuclides in sewage and can say if the measured values are consistent with the patient treatment. (A.C.)

  2. Waste Management Program. Technical progress report, Aporil-June 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1984-02-01

    This quarterly report provides current information on operations and development programs for the management of radioactive wastes from operation of the Savannah River Plant. The studies on environmental and safety assessments, process and equipment development, TRU waste, and low-level waste are a part of the Long-Term Waste Management Technology Program. The following studies are reported for the SR Interim Waste Operations Program: surveillance and maintenance, waste concentration, low-level effluent waste, tank replacement/waste transfer, and solid waste storage and related activities.

  3. Waste Management Program. Technical progress report, October-December 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    This quarterly report provides current information on operations and development programs for the management of radioactive wastes from operation of the Savannah River Plant and offplant participants. The studies on environmental and safety assessments, in situ storage or disposal, waste from development and characterization, process and equipment development, and low-level waste management are a part of the Long-Term Waste Management Technology Program. The following studies are reported for the SR Interim Waste Operations Program: surveillance and maintenance, waste concentration, low-level effluent waste, tank replacement/waste transfer, and solid waste storage and related activities

  4. 75 FR 13066 - Hazardous Waste Technical Corrections and Clarifications Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... hazardous waste and specific types of hazardous waste management facilities, the land disposal restrictions... requirements, the standards for owners and operators of hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal... hazardous waste management facilities, the land disposal restrictions program, and the hazardous waste...

  5. The 1996 meeting of the national technical workgroup on mixed waste thermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The National Technical Workgroup on Mixed Waste Thermal Treatment held its annual meeting in Atlanta Georgia on March 12-14, 1996. The National Technical Workgroup (NTW) and this meeting were sponsored under an interagency agreement between EPA and DOE. The 1996 Annual Meeting was hosted by US DOE Oak Ridge Operations in conjunction with Lockheed Martin Energy Systems - Center for Waste Management. A new feature of the annual meeting was the Permit Writer Panel Session which provided an opportunity for the state and federal permit writers to discuss issues and potential solutions to permitting mixed waste treatment systems. In addition, there was substantial discussion on the impacts of the Waste Combustion Performance Standards on mixed waste thermal treatment which are expected to proposed very soon. The 1996 meeting also focussed on two draft technical resource documents produced by NTW on Waste Analysis Plans and Compliance Test Procedures. Issues discussed included public involvement, waste characterization, and emission issues

  6. Technical bases for leak detection surveillance of waste storage tanks. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.G.; Badden, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    This document provides the technical bases for specification limits, monitoring frequencies and baselines used for leak detection and intrusion (for single shell tanks only) in all single and double shell radioactive waste storage tanks, waste transfer lines, and most catch tanks and receiver tanks in the waste tank farms and associated areas at Hanford

  7. ASSESSMENT OF MEDICAL WASTE MANAGEMENT IN EDUCATIONAL HOSPITALS OF TEHRAN UNIVERSITY MEDICAL SCIENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Dehghani, K. Azam, F. Changani, E. Dehghani Fard

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The management of medical waste is of great importance due to its potential environmental hazards and public health risks. In the past, medical waste was often mixed with municipal solid waste and disposed in residential waste landfills or improper treatment facilities in Iran. In recent years, many efforts have been made by environmental regulatory agencies and waste generators to better managing the wastes from healthcare facilities. This study was carried in 12 educational hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The goals of this study were to characterize solid wastes generated in healthcare hospitals, to report the current status of medical waste management and to provide a framework for the safe management of these wastes at the considered hospitals. The methodology was descriptive, cross-sectional and consisted of the use of surveys and interviews with the authorities of the healthcare facilities and with personnel involved in the management of the wastes. The results showed that medical wastes generated in hospitals were extremely heterogeneous in composition. 42% of wastes were collected in containers and plastic bags. In 75% of hospitals, the stay-time in storage sites was about 12-24h. 92% of medical wastes of hospitals were collected by covered-trucks. In 46% of hospitals, transferring of medical wastes to temporary stations was done manually. The average of waste generation rates in the hospitals was estimated to be 4.42kg/bed/day.

  8. Melt processing of radioactive waste: A technical overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlienger, M.E.; Buckentin, J.M.; Damkroger, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear operations have resulted in the accumulation of large quantities of contaminated metallic waste which are stored at various DOE, DOD, and commercial sites under the control of DOE and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This waste will accumulate at an increasing rate as commercial nuclear reactors built in the 1950s reach the end of their projected lives, as existing nuclear powered ships become obsolete or unneeded, and as various weapons plants and fuel processing facilities, such as the gaseous diffusion plants, are dismantled, repaired, or modernized. For example, recent estimates of available Radioactive Scrap Metal (RSM) in the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex have suggested that as much as 700,000 tons of contaminated 304L stainless steel exist in the gaseous diffusion plants alone. Other high-value metals available in the DOE complex include copper, nickel, and zirconium. Melt processing for the decontamination of radioactive scrap metal has been the subject of much research. A major driving force for this research has been the possibility of reapplication of RSM, which is often very high-grade material containing large quantities of strategic elements. To date, several different single and multi-step melting processes have been proposed and evaluated for use as decontamination or recycling strategies. Each process offers a unique combination of strengths and weaknesses, and ultimately, no single melt processing scheme is optimum for all applications since processes must be evaluated based on the characteristics of the input feed stream and the desired output. This paper describes various melt decontamination processes and briefly reviews their application in developmental studies, full scale technical demonstrations, and industrial operations

  9. 75 FR 79328 - Technical Corrections to the Standards Applicable to Generators of Hazardous Waste; Alternative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    .... 611519 Other Technical and Trade Schools. 61161, 611610 Fine Arts Schools. Teaching Hospitals: 54194, 541940 Veterinary Services (Animal Hospitals). 622 Hospitals. 6221, 62211, 622110 General Medical and...; and (3) teaching hospitals that are either owned by or have a formal written affiliation agreement...

  10. Technical efficiency and productivity of Chinese county hospitals: an exploratory study in Henan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhaohui; Tao, Hongbing; Cai, Miao; Lin, Haifeng; Lin, Xiaojun; Shu, Qin; Zhang, Ru-Ning

    2015-09-09

    Chinese county hospitals have been excessively enlarging their scale during the healthcare reform since 2009. The purpose of this paper is to examine the technical efficiency and productivity of county hospitals during the reform process, and to determine whether, and how, efficiency is affected by various factors. 114 sample county hospitals were selected from Henan province, China, from 2010 to 2012. Data envelopment analysis was employed to estimate the technical and scale efficiency of sample hospitals. The Malmquist index was used to calculate productivity changes over time. Tobit regression was used to regress against 4 environmental factors and 5 institutional factors that affected the technical efficiency. (1) 112 (98.2%), 112 (98.2%) and 104 (91.2%) of the 114 sample hospitals ran inefficiently in 2010, 2011 and 2012, with average technical efficiency of 0.697, 0.748 and 0.790, respectively. (2) On average, during 2010-2012, productivity of sample county hospitals increased by 7.8%, which was produced by the progress in technical efficiency changes and technological changes of 0.9% and 6.8%, respectively. (3) Tobit regression analysis indicated that government subsidy, hospital size with above 618 beds and average length of stay assumed a negative sign with technical efficiency; bed occupancy rate, ratio of beds to nurses and ratio of nurses to physicians assumed a positive sign with technical efficiency. There was considerable space for technical efficiency improvement in Henan county hospitals. During 2010-2012, sample hospitals experienced productivity progress; however, the adverse change in pure technical efficiency should be emphasised. Moreover, according to the Tobit results, policy interventions that strictly supervise hospital bed scale, shorten the average length of stay and coordinate the proportion among physicians, nurses and beds, would benefit hospital efficiency. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where

  11. Technical efficiency and productivity of Chinese county hospitals: an exploratory study in Henan province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhaohui; Tao, Hongbing; Cai, Miao; Lin, Haifeng; Lin, Xiaojun; Shu, Qin; Zhang, Ru-ning

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Chinese county hospitals have been excessively enlarging their scale during the healthcare reform since 2009. The purpose of this paper is to examine the technical efficiency and productivity of county hospitals during the reform process, and to determine whether, and how, efficiency is affected by various factors. Setting and participants 114 sample county hospitals were selected from Henan province, China, from 2010 to 2012. Outcome measures Data envelopment analysis was employed to estimate the technical and scale efficiency of sample hospitals. The Malmquist index was used to calculate productivity changes over time. Tobit regression was used to regress against 4 environmental factors and 5 institutional factors that affected the technical efficiency. Results (1) 112 (98.2%), 112 (98.2%) and 104 (91.2%) of the 114 sample hospitals ran inefficiently in 2010, 2011 and 2012, with average technical efficiency of 0.697, 0.748 and 0.790, respectively. (2) On average, during 2010–2012, productivity of sample county hospitals increased by 7.8%, which was produced by the progress in technical efficiency changes and technological changes of 0.9% and 6.8%, respectively. (3) Tobit regression analysis indicated that government subsidy, hospital size with above 618 beds and average length of stay assumed a negative sign with technical efficiency; bed occupancy rate, ratio of beds to nurses and ratio of nurses to physicians assumed a positive sign with technical efficiency. Conclusions There was considerable space for technical efficiency improvement in Henan county hospitals. During 2010–2012, sample hospitals experienced productivity progress; however, the adverse change in pure technical efficiency should be emphasised. Moreover, according to the Tobit results, policy interventions that strictly supervise hospital bed scale, shorten the average length of stay and coordinate the proportion among physicians, nurses and beds, would benefit hospital efficiency

  12. Mixed waste focus area integrated technical baseline report. Phase I, Volume 2: Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This document (Volume 2) contains the Appendices A through J for the Mixed Waste Focus Area Integrated Technical Baseline Report Phase I for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Included are: Waste Type Managers' Resumes, detailed information on wastewater, combustible organics, debris, unique waste, and inorganic homogeneous solids and soils, and waste data information. A detailed list of technology deficiencies and site needs identification is also provided

  13. HANFORD SITE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT TECHNICAL INFORMATION DOCUMENT [SEC 1 THRU 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FRITZ, L.L.

    2004-01-01

    This Technical Information Document (TID) provides engineering data to support DOE/EIS-0286, ''Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program Environmental Impact Statement''. Assumptions and waste volumes used to calculate engineering data are also provided in this document. This chapter provides a brief description of: the Solid Waste Management Program (including a description of waste types and known characteristics of waste covered under the program), the Hanford Site (including a general discussion of the operating areas), and the alternatives analyzed. The Hanford Site Solid Waste Management Program and DOE/EIS-0286 address solid radioactive waste types generated by various activities from both onsite and offsite generators. The Environmental Restoration (ER) waste management activities are not within the scope of DOE/EIS-0286 or this TID. Activities for processing and disposal of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) are not within the scope of the Solid Waste Management Program and this TID

  14. Development of technical design for waste processing and storage facilities for Novi Han repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canizares, J.; Benitez, J.C.; Asuar, O.; Yordanova, O.; Demireva, E.; Stefanova, I.

    2005-01-01

    Empresarion Agrupados Internacional S.A. (Spain) and ENPRO Consult Ltd. (Bulgaria) were awarded a contract by the Central Finance and Contracts Unit to develop the technical design of the waste processing and storage facilities at the Novi Han repository. At present conceptual design phase is finished. This conceptual design covers the definition of the basic design requirements to be applied to the installations defined above, following both European and Bulgarian legislation. In this paper the following items are considered: 1) Basic criteria for the layout and sizing of buildings; 2) Processing of radioactive waste, including: treatment and conditioning of disused sealed sources; treatment of liquid radioactive wastes; treatment of solid radioactive waste; conditioning of liquid and solid radioactive waste; 3) Control of waste packages and 4) Storage of radioactive waste, including storage facility and waste packages. An analysis of inventories of stored and estimated future wastes and its subsequent processes is also presented and the waste streams are illustrated

  15. Co-firing coal and hospital waste in a circulating fluidized bed boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulthard, E.J.; Korenberg, J.; Oswald, K.D.

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy - Morgantown Energy Technology Center and the Pennsylvania Energy Development Authority are co-funding a project which will demonstrate the reduction of infectious hospital waste to an environmentally safe disposable ash by cofiring the waste with coal in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB). The main objective of this paper is increased utilization of coal but the project also provides a solution to a problem which has grown rapidly and become very visible in recent years (e.g., hospital waste washed up on beaches). The application of CFB boilers in hospitals introduces an economical clean coal technology into a size range and market dominated by gas and oil combustion systems. The use of CFB represents the utilization of state-of-the-art technology for burning coal in an environmentally benign manner. SO 2 , NO x , CO and particulate emissions lower than the latest New Source Performance Standards have proven to be achievable in CFB combustion systems. By processing the infectious waste in a steam generation system which operates continuously, the problem of creating excessive gaseous emissions during repeated start-ups (as is the case with current incinerator technology) is avoided. The operating conditions with respect to residence time, temperature and turbulence that are inherent to a CFB combustion system, provide an excellent environment for complete combustion and destruction of potentially hazardous solid and gaseous emissions (e.g., dioxins). The limestone, which is injected into the combustion system to reduce SO 2 emissions, will also react with chlorine. Thus chlorine compound emissions and the corrosive nature of the flue gas are reduced. The work efforts to date indicate that infectious waste thermal processing in a coal-fired CFB is a technically and economically viable on-site disposal option

  16. Technical and economic optimization study for HLW waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deffes, A.

    1989-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the technical and economic aspects of high level waste (HLW) management with the objective of optimizing the interim storage duration and the dimensions of the underground repository site. The procedure consisted in optimizing the economic criterion under specified constraints. The results are intended to identify trends and guide the choice from among available options; simple and highly flexible models were therefore used in this study, and only nearfield thermal constraints were taken into consideration. Because of the present uncertainty on the physicochemical properties of the repository environment and on the unit cost figures, this study focused on developing a suitable method rather than on obtaining definitive results. With the physical and economic data bases used for the two media investigated (granite and salt) the optimum values found show that it is advisable to minimize the interim storage time, and that the geological repository should feature a high degree of spatial dilution. These results depend to a considerable extent on the assumption of high interim storage costs

  17. Balancing the technical, administrative, and institutional forces in defense waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindman, T.B.

    1988-01-01

    Defense radioactive waste results from the Department of Energy's (DOE) national defense and nuclear weapons production activities. In 1983, the President submitted to Congress the Defense Waste Management Plan (DWMP) for defense high-level and transuranic wastes. The Plan proposed a workable approach for the final disposition of these wastes. The Department is still following the path laid out in this Plan. The proper management of this waste requires that technical, administrative, and institutional forces which are often neither well understood nor well documented be properly balanced. This paper clarifies the role these three forces play in the Defense waste management programs and provides examples of their impacts on specific programs

  18. An analysis of the technical status of high level radioactive waste and spent fuel management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, T.; Miller, C.; Bullard, E.; Campbell, R.; Chockie, A.; Divita, E.; Douthitt, C.; Edelson, E.; Lees, L.

    1977-01-01

    The technical status of the old U.S. mailine program for high level radioactive nuclear waste management, and the newly-developing program for disposal of unreprocessed spent fuel was assessed. The method of long term containment for both of these waste forms is considered to be deep geologic isolation in bedded salt. Each major component of both waste management systems is analyzed in terms of its scientific feasibility, technical achievability and engineering achievability. The resulting matrix leads to a systematic identification of major unresolved technical or scientific questions and/or gaps in these programs.

  19. Study on the collection and disposal of hospital solid wastes in Karaj City (Iran)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farzadkia, M.; Sabily, M.; Ghanbary, S.

    2009-01-01

    Hospitals and other health care institutions generate waste day in and day out which may be a potential health hazard to the health care workers, the general public and, the flora and fauna of that area. Safe and effective management of hospital waste is not only a legal necessity but also a social responsibility. Many of hospitals in Iran neither have a satisfactory waste disposal system nor a waste management and disposal policy. (Author)

  20. Conversion of transuranic waste to low level waste by decontamination: a technical and economic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, R.P.; Hazelton, R.F.

    1984-12-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of using in-situ decontamination techniques to convert glove boxes and other large TRU-contaminated components directly into LLW. The results of the technical evaluation indicate that in-situ decontamination of these types of components to non-TRU levels is technically feasible. Applicable decontamination techniques include electropolishing, hand scrubbing, chemical washes/sprays, strippable coatings and Freon spray-cleaning. The removal of contamination from crevices and other holdup areas remains a problem, but may be solved through further advances in decontamination technology. Also, the increase in the allowable maximum TRU level from 10 nCi/g to 100 nCi/g as defined in DOE Order 5820.2 reduces the removal requirement and facilitates measurement of the remaining quantities. The major emphasis of the study was on a cost/benefit evaluation that included a review and update of previous analyses and evaluations of TRU-waste volume reduction and conversion options. The results of the economic evaluation show, for the assumptions used, that there is a definite cost incentive to size reduce large components, and that decontamination of sectioned material has become cost competitive with the size reduction options. In-situ decontamination appears to be the lowest cost option when based on routine-type operations conducted by well-trained and properly equipped personnel. 16 references, 1 figure, 7 tables

  1. US Department of Energy mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal focus area technical baseline development process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roach, J.A.; Gombert, D.

    1996-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) created the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (MWFA) to develop and facilitate implementation of technologies required to meet its commitments for treatment of mixed wastes under the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCA), and in accordance with the Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Mixed wastes include both mixed low-level waste (MLLW) and mixed transuranic (MTRU) waste. The goal of the MWFA is to develop mixed waste treatment systems to the point of implementation by the Environmental Management (EM) customer. To accomplish this goal, the MWFA is utilizing a three step process. First, the treatment system technology deficiencies were identified and categorized. Second, these identified needs were prioritized. This resulted in a list of technical deficiencies that will be used to develop a technical baseline. The third step, the Technical Baseline Development Process, is currently ongoing. When finalized, the technical baseline will integrate the requirements associated with the identified needs into the planned and ongoing environmental research and technology development activities supported by the MWFA. Completion of this three-step process will result in a comprehensive technology development program that addresses customer identified and prioritized needs. The MWFA technical baseline will be a cost-effective, technically-defensible tool for addressing and resolving DOE's mixed waste problems

  2. Waste Management Program. Technical progress report, July-December, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    This report provides information on operations and development programs for the management of radioactive wastes from operation of the Savannah River Plant and offplant participants. The studies on environmental and safety assessments, other support, in situ storage or disposal, waste form development and characterization, process and equipment development, and the Defense Waste Processing Facility are a part of the Long-Term Waste Management Technology Program. The following studies are reported for the SR Interim Waste Operations: tank farm operation, inspection program, burial ground operations, and waste transfer/tank replacement

  3. Savannah River Site sample and analysis plan for Clemson Technical Center waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagstrom, T.

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of this sampling and analysis plan is to determine the chemical, physical and radiological properties of the SRS radioactive Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) liquid waste stream, to verify that it conforms to Waste Acceptance Criteria of the Department of Energy (DOE) East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) Incineration Facility. Waste being sent to the ETTP TSCA Incinerator for treatment must be sufficiently characterized to ensure that the waste stream meets the waste acceptance criteria to ensure proper handling, classification, and processing of incoming waste to meet the Waste Storage and Treatment Facility's Operating Permits. This sampling and analysis plan is limited to WSRC container(s) of homogeneous or multiphasic radioactive PCB contaminated liquids generated in association with a treatability study at Clemson Technical Center (CTC) and currently stored at the WSRC Solid Waste Division Mixed Waste Storage Facility (MWSF)

  4. Ownership and technical efficiency of hospitals: evidence from Ghana using data envelopment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehu-Appiah, Caroline; Sekidde, Serufusa; Adjuik, Martin; Akazili, James; Almeida, Selassi D; Nyonator, Frank; Baltussen, Rob; Asbu, Eyob Zere; Kirigia, Joses Muthuri

    2014-04-08

    In order to measure and analyse the technical efficiency of district hospitals in Ghana, the specific objectives of this study were to (a) estimate the relative technical and scale efficiency of government, mission, private and quasi-government district hospitals in Ghana in 2005; (b) estimate the magnitudes of output increases and/or input reductions that would have been required to make relatively inefficient hospitals more efficient; and (c) use Tobit regression analysis to estimate the impact of ownership on hospital efficiency. In the first stage, we used data envelopment analysis (DEA) to estimate the efficiency of 128 hospitals comprising of 73 government hospitals, 42 mission hospitals, 7 quasi-government hospitals and 6 private hospitals. In the second stage, the estimated DEA efficiency scores are regressed against hospital ownership variable using a Tobit model. This was a retrospective study. In our DEA analysis, using the variable returns to scale model, out of 128 district hospitals, 31 (24.0%) were 100% efficient, 25 (19.5%) were very close to being efficient with efficiency scores ranging from 70% to 99.9% and 71 (56.2%) had efficiency scores below 50%. The lowest-performing hospitals had efficiency scores ranging from 21% to 30%.Quasi-government hospitals had the highest mean efficiency score (83.9%) followed by public hospitals (70.4%), mission hospitals (68.6%) and private hospitals (55.8%). However, public hospitals also got the lowest mean technical efficiency scores (27.4%), implying they have some of the most inefficient hospitals.Regarding regional performance, Northern region hospitals had the highest mean efficiency score (83.0%) and Volta Region hospitals had the lowest mean score (43.0%).From our Tobit regression, we found out that while quasi-government ownership is positively associated with hospital technical efficiency, private ownership negatively affects hospital efficiency. It would be prudent for policy-makers to examine the

  5. TECHNICAL GUIDANCE DOCUMENT: CONSTRUCTION QUALITY MANAGEMENT FOR REMEDIAL ACTION AND REMEDIAL DESIGN WASTE CONTAINMENT SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Technical Guidance Document is intended to augment the numerous construction quality control and construction quality assurance (CQC and CQA) documents that are available far materials associated with waste containment systems developed for Superfund site remediation. In ge...

  6. Monitoring the Durability Performance of Concrete in Nuclear Waste Containment. Technical Progress Report No. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulm, Franz-Josef

    2000-01-01

    OAK-B135 Monitoring the Durability Performance of Concrete in Nuclear Waste Containment. Technical Progress Report No. 3(NOTE: Part II A item 1 indicates ''PAPER'', but a report is attached electronically)

  7. Geologic disposal of radioactive waste: Ethical and technical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.

    1999-01-01

    Ethical goals that future people should be protected and should not have to protect themselves from our radioactive waste are claimed by geologic repository projects. The best test of sufficient protection is to show that the calculated individual doses to future farming families are well below a regulatory limit. That limit should be no greater than what is now adopted to protect the public from operating licensed facilities. Present US calculations show doses, at times well beyond 10,000 years, that exceed current accepted limits by at least three orders of magnitude. Notwithstanding, there is a good chance that the goals can still be achieved by careful technical design of the geologic confinement system. But many in the US now propose ways that would allow greater individual exposures from radionuclides that eventually leak from a geologic repository. Examples include: (a) the 10,000-year cutoff proposed by industry, the US Congress, EPA, and DOE, thus obscuring the later times when higher doses are certain to result; (b) the vicinity-average dose proposed by industry and the US Congress; (c) the probabilistic critical groups proposed by EPRI and by the National Research Council's TYMS committee; (d) proposals to rely on future humans to detect and cleanup excessive amounts of radioactivity that may escape from a repository, and (e) the move to base compliance on calculated doses from well water drawn at considerable distance from Yucca Mountain. Each of these proposals would lead to a far more lenient radiation protection standard than current standards. Each of these proposals is without sufficient scientific basis for its use as a protector of public health. Each of these proposals would violate one or more of the ethical goals. Each is made without adequate discussion and explanation and without explaining how and why it would violate one or more of the ethical goals. What if serious work on alternatives fails to produce conservatively calculated and

  8. Waste Management Program: Technical progress report, July-December 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    This report provides information on operations and development programs relating to the management of radioactive wastes at the Savannah River Plant. Information on environmental and safety assessments, waste form development, and process and equipment development are reported for long-term waste management. 13 refs., 20 figs., 16 tabs

  9. RELEASE OF DRIED RADIOACTIVE WASTE MATERIALS TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KOZLOWSKI, D.S.

    2005-01-01

    The body of this document analyzes scenarios involving releases of dried tank waste from the DBVS dried waste transfer system and OGTS HEPA filters. Analyses of dried waste release scenarios from the CH-TRUM WPU are included as Appendix D

  10. Waste Management Program: Technical progress report, January-June 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    This report provides information on operations and development programs relating to the management of radioactive wastes at the Savannah River Plant. Information on environmental and safety assessments, waste form development, and process and equipment development are reported for long-term waste management. 35 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs

  11. Identifying the key personnel in a nurse-initiated hospital waste reduction program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott-Levy, Ruth; Fazzini, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Hospitals in the United States generate more than 6600 tons of trash a day and approximately 85% of the waste is nonhazardous solid waste such as food, cardboard, and plastic. Treatment and management of hospital waste can lead to environmental problems for the communities that receive the waste. One health system's shared governance model provided the foundation to develop a nurse-led hospital waste reduction program that focused on point-of-care waste management. Waste reduction program development required working with a variety of departments within and external to the health system. The interdisciplinary approach informed the development of the waste reduction program. This article identifies the key departments that were necessary to include when developing a hospital waste reduction program.

  12. National Waste Terminal Storage Program: management and technical program plan, FY 1976--FY 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The discussion on the management plan covers the program, responsibilities, general program schedule and logic, Office of Waste Isolation organization and facilities, management approach, administrative plan, and public affairs plan. The technical program plan includes geological studies, technical support studies, engineering studies, waste facility projects, environmental studies, system studies, data management, and international activities. The information contained in this report is obsolete and of historical interest only

  13. Developing a master plan for hospital solid waste management: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karamouz, Mohammad; Zahraie, Banafsheh; Kerachian, Reza; Jaafarzadeh, Nemat; Mahjouri, Najmeh

    2007-01-01

    Disposal of about 1750 tons of solid wastes per day is the result of a rapid population growth in the province of Khuzestan in the south west of Iran. Most of these wastes, especially hospital solid wastes which have contributed to the pollution of the environment in the study area, are not properly managed considering environmental standards and regulations. In this paper, the framework of a master plan for managing hospital solid wastes is proposed considering different criteria which are usually used for evaluating the pollution of hospital solid waste loads. The effectiveness of the management schemes is also evaluated. In order to rank the hospitals and determine the share of each hospital in the total hospital solid waste pollution load, a multiple criteria decision making technique, namely analytical hierarchy process (AHP), is used. A set of projects are proposed for solid waste pollution control and reduction in the proposed framework. It is partially applied for hospital solid waste management in the province of Khuzestan, Iran. The results have shown that the hospitals located near the capital city of the province, Ahvaz, produce more than 43% of the total hospital solid waste pollution load of the province. The results have also shown the importance of improving management techniques rather than building new facilities. The proposed methodology is used to formulate a master plan for hospital solid waste management

  14. ECOLOGICAL AND TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE UTILISATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Borowski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a survey of radioactive waste disposal technologies used worldwide in terms of their influence upon natural environment. Typical sources of radioactive waste from medicine and industry were presented. In addition, various types of radioactive waste, both liquid and solid, were described. Requirements and conditions of the waste’s storage were characterised. Selected liquid and solid waste processing technologies were shown. It was stipulated that contemporary methods of radioactive waste utilisation enable their successful neutralisation. The implementation of these methods ought to be mandated by ecological factors first and only then economical ones.

  15. Mixed waste focus area technical baseline report. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    As part of its overall program, the MWFA uses a national mixed waste data set to develop approaches for treating mixed waste that cannot be treated using existing capabilities at DOE or commercial facilities. The current data set was originally compiled under the auspices of the 1995 Mixed Waste Inventory Report. The data set has been updated over the past two years based on Site Treatment Plan revisions and clarifications provided by individual sites. The current data set is maintained by the MWFA staff and is known as MWFA97. In 1996, the MWFA developed waste groupings, process flow diagrams, and treatment train diagrams to systematically model the treatment of all mixed waste in the DOE complex. The purpose of the modeling process was to identify treatment gaps and corresponding technology development needs for the DOE complex. Each diagram provides the general steps needed to treat a specific type of waste. The NWFA categorized each MWFA97 waste stream by waste group, treatment train, and process flow. Appendices B through F provide the complete listing of waste streams by waste group, treatment train, and process flow. The MWFA97 waste strewn information provided in the appendices is defined in Table A-1

  16. Technical basis for classification of low-activity waste fraction from Hanford site tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, C.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-17

    The overall objective of this report is to provide a technical basis to support a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission determination to classify the low-activity waste from the Hanford Site single-shell and double-shell tanks as `incidental` wastes after removal of additional radionuclides and immobilization.The proposed processing method, in addition to the previous radionuclide removal efforts, will remove the largest practical amount of total site radioactivity, attributable to high-level wastes, for disposal in a deep geologic repository. The remainder of the waste would be considered `incidental` waste and could be disposed onsite.

  17. Technical basis for classification of low-activity waste fraction from Hanford site tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, C.A.

    1996-09-20

    The overall objective of this report is to provide a technical basis to support a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission determination to classify the low-activity waste from the Hanford Site single-shell and double-shell tanks as `incidental` wastes after removal of additional radionuclides and immobilization.The proposed processing method, in addition to the previous radionuclide removal efforts, will remove the largest practical amount of total site radioactivity, attributable to high-level waste, for disposal is a deep geologic repository. The remainder of the waste would be considered `incidental` waste and could be disposed onsite.

  18. Technical and economic evaluation of controlled disposal options for very low level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.J.; Vance, J.N.

    1990-08-01

    Over the past several years, there has been considerable interest by the nuclear industry in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) explicitly defined an activity level in plant waste materials at which the radiological impacts would be so low as to be considered Below Regulatory Concern (BRC). In January 1989, Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) completed an extensive industry research effort to develop the technical bases for establishing criteria for the disposal of very low activity wastes in ordinary disposal facilities. The Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMARC), with assistance from the Edison Electric Institute (EEI) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), drafted a petition titled: ''Petition for Rulemaking Regarding Disposal of Below Regulatory Concern Radioactive Wastes from Commercial Nuclear Power Plants.'' Subsequent to the industry making a final decision for submittal of the drafted BRC petition, EPRI was requested to evaluate the technical and economic impact of six BRC options. These options are: take no action in pursuing a BRC waste exemption, petition the NRC for authorization to disposal of any BRC waste in any ordinary disposal facility, limit disposal of BRC waste to the nuclear power plant site, limit disposal of BRC waste to the nuclear power plant site and other utility owned property, petition for a mixed waste exemption, and petition for single waste stream exemptions in sequence (i.e. soil, followed by sewage sludge, etc.). The petition and technical bases were written to support the disposal of any BRC waste type in any ordinary disposal facility. These documents do not provide all of the technical and economic information needed to completely assessment the BRC options. This report provides the technical and economic basis for a range of options concerning disposal of very low activity wastes. 3 figs., 20 tabs

  19. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isoltaion in geologic formations. Volume 19. Thermal analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Y/OWI/TM-36/19, ''Thermal Analyses,'' is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-36, which supplements the ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-44. The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. This volume discusses the thermal impacts of the isolated high level and spent-fuel wastes in geologic formations. A detailed account of the methodologies employed is given as well as selected results of the analyses

  20. Long-term high-level waste technology. Composite quarterly technical report, July-September 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornman, W.R.

    1981-02-01

    This composite quarterly technical report summarizes work performed at participating sites to immobilize high-level radioactive wastes. The technical information included in this report is structured along the lines of the Work Breakdown Structure adopted for use in the High-Level Waste Management Technology (WBS) program. The functions and work elements of the WBS are as follows: function 1 - program management and support, which includes work elements of management and budget, environmental and safety assessments, and other support; function 2 - waste preparation, which includes in-situ storage or disposal, waste retrieval, and separation and concentration; function 3 - waste fixation with work elements of waste form development and characterization, and process and equipment development; and function 4 - final handling which includes canister development and characterization, and onsite storage or disposal

  1. External collection of Hospital Wastes: Danish example. Recogida externa de residuos hospitalarios: el ejemplo danes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, P

    1994-01-01

    Hospital Waste not only comes from hospital, in recent years, the potential hazard and nuisance caused by similar waste categories from other sources have been focused on more and more. Typical examples of such sources are: doctor's practice, dentist's clinics, veterinary hospitals, medical and biochemical laboratories, pharmacies, nursing homes, visting nurses, private homes, public conveniences, public places in troubled areas.

  2. Technical bases for OCRWM's [Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management] policy decisions on international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprecher, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the technical factors that contributed to the formulation of the international safeguards policy enunciated in September 1988 by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), which is the federal organization responsible for the implementation of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended

  3. Status of Waste Management in Selected Hospitals of Isfahan in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Amiri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hospital wastes are considered as a serious threat for public health. Hospital waste management may help to control disease transmission and have remarkable economic advantages. The purpose of this study was to assess  the hospitals' waste management in Isfahan, Iran in 2014. Methods: Data of this descriptive and cross-sectional study were collected through a check list for surveying hospital waste management. Validity of checklist was confirmed by analysis of face validity and field experts' opinions. Cronbach's alpha of 0.80 was calculated. Data were then analyzed using descriptive statistics in Excell software. Results: In the studied hospitals "Elimination" dimension was inappropriate while the "Human resources involved in waste management" dimension was estimated relatively appropriate. Other dimensions were estimated as appropriate. Infectious wastes consisted of about 10.89 % of the total wastes in hospitals and the average of waste generation for each bed was 3.67 kg per day. There was no environmental unit in the studied hospitals and only one of them did not have waste management unit. Conclusion: Despite the fact that waste management status in hospitals under study was relatively appropriate, but given the importance of the issue, it is essential to improve the current situation especially in some aspects of waste management. 

  4. Nuclear graphite waste management. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-05-01

    The purpose of the seminar was to bring together the specialists dealing with various aspects of radioactive graphite waste management to exchange and review information on the decommissioning, characterisation, processing and disposal of irradiated graphite from reactor cores and other graphite waste associated with reactor operation. The seminar covered radioactive graphite characterisation, the effect of irradiation on graphite components, Wigner energy, radioactive graphite waste treatment, conditioning, interim storage and long term disposal options. Individual papers presented at the seminar were indexed separately

  5. Healthcare waste management in selected government and private hospitals in Southeast Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angus Nnamdi Oli

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The availability of material for waste segregation at point of generation, compliance of healthcare workers to healthcare waste management guidelines and the existence of infection control committee in both hospitals is generally low and unsatisfactory.

  6. Anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste: Technical developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, C.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The anaerobic biogasification of organic wastes generates two useful products: a medium-Btu fuel gas and a compost-quality organic residue. Although commercial-scale digestion systems are used to treat municipal sewage wastes, the disposal of solid organic wastes, including municipal solid wastes (MSW), requires a more cost-efficient process. Modern biogasification systems employ high-rate, high-solids fermentation methods to improve process efficiency and reduce capital costs. The design criteria and development stages are discussed. These systems are also compared with conventional low-solids fermentation technology.

  7. Technical and logistic provisions for the delivery of radioactive wastes in the final repository Konrad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poeppinghaus, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The beginning of radioactive waste delivery to the final repository Konrad is planned for 2019. The main issue for the technical and logistic provisions is the development of a concept for the transport of the licensed radioactive waste containers to the site, including a turning concept for cylindrical waste forms and planning, construction and manufacture of transport equipment. Further issues include a logistic concept considering specific boundary conditions as administrative processes, priorities, special features of the delivering institutions and technical requirements of the repository.

  8. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of ISO14001 on Hospital Wastes Management Using AHP in Tehran Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Noorisepehr

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lack of enough supervision, wrong and partial planning in the part of hospital residuals management cause high volume of production from variety of residuals which controlling them impose high costs to every society. In order to improve hospital wastes management, implementing a system of environmental management like ISO14001 can improve the environmental performance of organization and introduce the ways of solving problems to managers. The main objective of this study was to identify and prioritize the effective factors in the implementation of ISO 14001 and the benefits of its implementation in hospitals of Tehran. Methods: In this study, after the identification of success factors and benefits of ISO 14001 implementation in hospitals of Tehran, the method of analytical hierarchy process is used in order to understand the importance and relative priority of these successful important factors and their benefits. Results: Results show that the most important successful factors, based on the importance, are management commitment, education and training, communications and community relations and documentation and control.  Also, the most important benefits, of ISO 14001 implementation, are cost reduction in waste management, increasing the awareness and commitment of staff, risk management practices improvement and work process and procedures improvement. Conclusion: Findings of the study indicate that which success factors of ISO 14001 requires more attention by managers and are in priority while implementing them.

  9. Evaluation of Success Factors of ISO14001 in Hospital Wastes Management Using AHP in Tehran Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Norisepehr

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lack of enough supervision, wrong and partial planning in the part of hospital residuals management cause high volume of production from variety of residuals which controlling them impose high costs to every society. In order to improve hospital wastes management, implementing a system of environmental management like ISO14001 can improve the environmental performance of organization. The main objective of this study was to identify and prioritize the effective factors in the implementation of ISO 14001 and the benefits of its implementation in hospitals of Tehran. Methods: In this study, After the identification of success factors and benefits of ISO 14001 implementation in hospitals of Tehran, In order to understand the importance and relative priority of these successful important factors and their benefits, the method of analytical hierarchy process is used. Results: The results of study show that the most important successful factors Due to the importance are management commitment, education and training, Communications and Community Relations and documentation and control. Also the most important benefits are costs reduction in wastes management, increase awareness and commitment of staff, improve risk management practices and work process and procedures. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that which success factors of ISO 14001 requires more attention by managers and are in priority when implementing them.

  10. Analysis Of Liquid Waste Management At Dr. Mohammad Hoesin Palembang's Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Hartini, Resi; Hasyim, Hamzah; Ainy, Asmaripa

    2011-01-01

    Background : The hospital is an institution that service activities of preventive, curative, rehabilitative and promotive health. These activities produce solid, liquid, and gas waste. Liquid waste can cause diseases and environment pollution so need special waste management. Dr. Mohammad Hoesin Palembang's Hospital producea lot of liquid waste. Method : This study is a descriptive research with qualitative approach. Sources of information consist four informants. The research are using dept...

  11. TECHNICAL NOTE LIQUID WASTE DISPOSAL IN URBAN LOW ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the ideal case the liquid waste can safely be disposed of in a properly designed and integrated network of pipes, which collect and transmit the liquid waste into a treatment plant. However, such a system is costly and needs a substantial amount of initial investment to start operating and subsequently to maintain.

  12. 75 FR 12989 - Hazardous Waste Technical Corrections and Clarifications Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... regulations that relate to hazardous waste identification, manifesting, the hazardous waste generator..., NW., Washington, DC 20460. Attention Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-RCRA-2008-0678. Please include a total of 2 copies. Hand Delivery: EPA West Building, Room 3334, 1301 Constitution Ave., NW., Washington, DC. Such...

  13. Influence of non-technical policies on choices of waste solidification technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trubatch, S.L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes and discusses non-technical policy considerations which may improperly influence decisions on the solidification of low-level radioactive wastes (''LLW''). These policy considerations are contained principally in several State and Federal statutes which regulate various aspects of LLW disposal. One policy consideration in particular, the unqualified bias in favor of volume reduction, is shown to present a substantial potential for leading to technically suboptimal decisions on the appropriate processes for solidifying LLW. To avoid the unintended skewing of technical decisions by non-technical policy considerations, certain current policies may need to be revised to ensure that the choices of waste treatment, including decisions on solidification, are based primarily on reasonable assurance of adequate protection of public health and safety. This goal may be realized in part by basing any disposal fee structure on more than just LLW volume to include consideration of the waste's activity and its difficulty of confinement

  14. The Basalt Waste Isolation Project technical program evaluation process: A criteria-based method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babad, H.; Evans, C.; Wolfe, B.A.

    1982-01-01

    The need to objectively evaluate the progress being made by the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) toward establishing the feasibility of siting a nuclear waste repository in basalt (NWRB) mandates a process for evaluating the technical work of the project. To assist BWIP management in the evaluation process, the Systems Department staff has developed a BWIP Technical Program Evaluation Process (TPEP). The basic process relates progress on project technical work to the BWIP Functional and System Performance Criteria as defined in National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Criteria Documents. The benefits of the TPEP to BWIP and future plans for TPEP are discussed. During fiscal year (FY) 1982, TPEP will be further formalized and further applied to the review of BWIP technical activities

  15. Basalt Waste Isolation Project Technical Program Evaluation Process: a criteria-based method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babad, H.; Evans, G.C.; Wolfe, B.A.

    1982-01-01

    The need to objectively evaluate the progress being made by the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) toward establishing the feasibility of siting a nuclear waste repository in basalt (NWRB) mandates a process for evaluating the technical work of the project. To assist BWIP management in the evaluation process, the Systems Department staff has developed a BWIP Technical Program Evaluation Process (TPEP). The basic process relates progress on project technical work to the SWIP Functional and System Performance Criteria as defined in National Waste Terminal Storage (MWTS) Criteria Documents. The benefits of the TPEP to BWIP and future plans for TPEP are discussed. During fiscal year (FY) 1982, TPEP wll be further formalized and further applied to the review of BWIP technical activities

  16. Northeast Regional environmental impact study: Waste disposal technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saguinsin, J. L. S.

    1981-04-01

    The potential for cumulative and interactive environmental impacts associated with the conversion of multiple generating stations in the Northeast is assessed. The estimated quantities and composition of wastes resulting from coal conversion, including ash and SO2 scrubber sludge, are presented. Regulations governing the use of ash and scrubber sludge are identified. Currently available waste disposal schemes are described. The location, capacity, and projected life of present and potential disposal sites in the region are identified. Waste disposal problems, both hazardous and nonhazardous, are evaluated. Environmental regulations within the region as they pertain to coal conversion and as they affect the choice of conversion alternatives are discussed. A regional waste management strategy for solid waste disposal is developed.

  17. Application of life cycle assessment for hospital solid waste management: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mustafa; Wang, Wenping; Chaudhry, Nawaz

    2016-10-01

    This study was meant to determine environmental aspects of hospital waste management scenarios using a life cycle analysis approach. The survey for this study was conducted at the largest hospital in a major city of Pakistan. The hospital was thoroughly analyzed from November 2014 to January 2015 to quantify its wastes by category. The functional unit of the study was selected as 1 tonne of disposable solid hospital waste. System boundaries included transportation of hospital solid waste and its treatment and disposal by landfilling, incineration, composting, and material recycling methods. These methods were evaluated based on their greenhouse gas emissions. Landfilling and incineration turned out to be the worst final disposal alternatives, whereas composting and material recovery displayed savings in emissions. An integrated system (composting, incineration, and material recycling) was found as the best solution among the evaluated scenarios. This study can be used by policymakers for the formulation of an integrated hospital waste management plan. This study deals with environmental aspects of hospital waste management scenarios. It is an increasing area of concern in many developing and resource-constrained countries of the world. The life cycle analysis (LCA) approach is a useful tool for estimation of greenhouse gas emissions from different waste management activities. There is a shortage of information in existing literature regarding LCA of hospital wastes. To the best knowledge of the authors this work is the first attempt at quantifying the environmental footprint of hospital waste in Pakistan.

  18. Treatment of solid wastes. Preventing waste production, recovery, waste collection, waste disposal, sanitation. Procedures, technical processes, legal foundations. 2. rev. ed. Behandlung fester Abfaelle. Vermeiden, Verwerten, Sammeln, Beseitigen, Sanieren. Verfahrensweise, technische Realisierung, rechtliche Grundlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattler, K.; Emberger, J.

    1990-01-01

    The book 'Treatment of Solid Wastes' was compiled by the group 'Environmental Protection/Waste Disposal' and looks at disposal methods and processes. The initial chapters deal with technical methods of environmental protection, describe laws and legal regulations pertaining to waste disposal, explain the quantities and composition of the waste matter and give an overview of the treatments which are available. Methods and technical process of waste collection, transport, sorting, recapturing of valuable matter, biochemical and thermal conversion and depositing. Treatment of poisonous wastes and old sites are dealt with in the final chapters. (orig./EF).

  19. Transuranic-waste program at EG and G Idaho, Inc. Annual technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinley, K.B.

    1982-11-01

    This report summarizes the objectives and accomplishments of Transuranic (TRU) Waste Program conducted at EG and G Idaho, Inc., during FY 1982. The TRU Waste Program included: (1) Preparation of a revised draft of the Recommendation of a Long-Term Strategy (RLTS) document; (2) Preparation of environmental documentation, including a technical report, Environmental and Other Evaluations of Alternatives for Management of Defense Transuranic Waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, IDO-10103, as well as two environmental evaluations; (3) Preparation of a certification plan and procedures; (4) A nondestructive examination (NDE) project, which includes development of real-time radiography for waste certification, and container integrity equipment for waste container certification; (5) Development of an assay system; (6) Completion of a conceptual design for the Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) and SWEPP Support; and (7) Gas-generation analyses and tests. These TRU waste projects were funded at $1640K

  20. Potential for radioactive patient excreta in hospital trash and medical waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evdokimoff, V.; Cash, C.; Buckley, K.

    1994-01-01

    Radioactive excreta from nuclear medicine patients can enter solid waste as common trash and medical biohazardous waste. Many landfills and transfer stations now survey these waste streams with scintillation detectors which may result in rejection of a hospital's waste. Our survey indicated that on the average either or both of Boston University Medical Center Hospital's waste streams can contain detectable radioactive excreta on a weekly basis. To avoid potential problems, radiation detectors were installed in areas where housekeepers carting trash and medical waste must pass through to ensure no radioactivity leaves the institution. 3 refs

  1. Socio-technical systems analysis of waste to energy from municipal solid waste in developing economies: a case for Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyamu Hope O.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste generation is an inevitable by-product of human activity, and it is on the rise due to rapid urbanisation, industrialisation, increased wealth and population. The composition of municipal solid waste (MSW in developed and developing economies differ, especially with the organic fraction. Research shows that the food waste stream of MSW in developing countries is over 50%. The case study for this investigation, Nigeria, has minimal formal recycling or resource recovery programs. The average composition of waste from previous research in the country is between 50–70% putrescible and 30–50% non-putrescible, presenting significant resource recovery potential in composting and biogas production. Waste-to-energy (WtE is an important waste management solution that has been successfully implemented and operated in most developed economies. This contribution reports the conditions that would be of interest before WtE potentials of MSW is harnessed, in an efficient waste management process in a developing economy like Nigeria. The investigation presents a set of socio-technical parameters and transition strategy model that would inform a productive MSW management and resource recovery, in which WtE can be part of the solution. This model will find application in the understanding of the interactions between the socio-economic, technical and environmental system, to promote sustainable resource recovery programs in developing economies, among which is WtE.

  2. Tank Waste Remediation System retrieval and disposal mission technical baseline summary description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    This document is prepared in order to support the US Department of Energy's evaluation of readiness-to-proceed for the Waste Retrieval and Disposal Mission at the Hanford Site. The Waste Retrieval and Disposal Mission is one of three primary missions under the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project. The other two include programs to characterize tank waste and to provide for safe storage of the waste while it awaits treatment and disposal. The Waste Retrieval and Disposal Mission includes the programs necessary to support tank waste retrieval, wastefeed, delivery, storage and disposal of immobilized waste, and closure of tank farms. This mission will enable the tank farms to be closed and turned over for final remediation. The Technical Baseline is defined as the set of science and engineering, equipment, facilities, materials, qualified staff, and enabling documentation needed to start up and complete the mission objectives. The primary purposes of this document are (1) to identify the important technical information and factors that should be used by contributors to the mission and (2) to serve as a basis for configuration management of the technical information and factors

  3. Development of technical information database for high level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Koji; Takada, Susumu; Kawanishi, Motoi

    2005-01-01

    A concept design of the high level waste disposal information database and the disposal technologies information database are explained. The high level waste disposal information database contains information on technologies, waste, management and rules, R and D, each step of disposal site selection, characteristics of sites, demonstration of disposal technology, design of disposal site, application for disposal permit, construction of disposal site, operation and closing. Construction of the disposal technologies information system and the geological disposal technologies information system is described. The screen image of the geological disposal technologies information system is shown. User is able to search the full text retrieval and attribute retrieval in the image. (S.Y. )

  4. Physicochemical basics for production of uranium concentrate from wastes of hydrometallurgical plants and technical waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khakimov, N.; Nazarov, Kh.M.; Khojiyon, M.; Mirsaidov, I.U.; Nazarov, K.M.; Barotov, B.B.

    2012-01-01

    Physicochemical and technological basics for reprocessing of uranium industry wastes of Northern Tajikistan shows that the most perspective for reprocessing is Chkalovsk tailing's wastes. Engineer and geological condition and content of radionuclides in wastes are investigated. It is determined that considered wastes by radioactivity are low-active and they can be reprocessed with the purpose of U 3 O 8 production. Grinding, crumbling, thickening and etc. operations are decreased during the wastes reprocessing process. Uranium output is more than 90%. Optimal parameters of products extraction from uranium mining industry wastes are found. Characteristics of mine and technical waters of uranium industry wastes are studied. Characteristics of mine and technical waters of Kiik-Tal and Istiklol city (former Taboshar) showed the expediency of uranium oxide extraction from them. The reasons for non-additional recovery extraction from dumps of State Enterprise 'Vostokredmet' by classical methods of uranium leaching are studied. Kinetics of sulfuric leaching of residues from anthropogenic deposit of Map 1-9 (Chkalovsk city) is investigated. Carried out investigations are revealing the flow mechanism process of residues' sulfuric leaching and enable selection of radiation regime of U 3 O 8 production. Kinetics of sorption process of uranium extraction from mine and technical waters of uranium industry wastes is studied. High sorption properties of apricot's shell comparing to other sorbents are revealed. Basic process flow diagram for reprocessing of uranium tailing wastes is developed as well as diagram for uranium extraction from mine and technical waters from uranium industry wastes which consists of the following stages: acidification, sorption, burning, leaching, sedimentation, filtration, drying.

  5. Physicochemical basics for production of uranium concentrate from wastes of hydrometallurgical plants and technical waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khakimov, N.; Nazarov, Kh.M.; Khojiyon, M.; Mirsaidov, I.U.; Nazarov, K.M.; Barotov, B.B.

    2012-01-01

    Physicochemical and technological basics for reprocessing of uranium industry wastes of Northern Tajikistan shows that the most perspective for reprocessing is Chkalovsk tailing's wastes. Engineer and geological condition and content of radionuclides in wastes are investigated. It is determined that considered wastes by radioactivity are low-active and they can be reprocessed with the purpose of U 3 O 8 production. Grinding, crumbling, thickening and etc. operations are decreased during the wastes reprocessing process. Uranium output is more than 90%. Optimal parameters of products extraction from uranium mining industry wastes are found. Characteristics of mine and technical waters of uranium industry wastes are studied. Characteristics of mine and technical waters of Kiik-Tal and Istiklol city (former Taboshar) showed the expediency of uranium oxide extraction from them. The reasons for non-additional recovery extraction from dumps of State Enterprise 'Vostokredmet' by classical methods of uranium leaching are studied. Kinetics of sulfuric leaching of residues from anthropogenic deposit of Map 1-9 (Chkalovsk city) is investigated. Carried out investigations are revealing the flow mechanism process of residues' sulfuric leaching and enable selection of radiation regime of U 3 O 8 production. Kinetics of sorption process of uranium extraction from mine and technical waters of uranium industry wastes is studied. High sorption properties of apricot's shell comparing to other sorbents are revealed. Basic process flow diagram for reprocessing of uranium tailing wastes is developed as well as diagram for uranium extraction from mine and technical waters from uranium industry wastes which consists of the following stages: acidification, sorption, burning, leaching, sedimentation, filtration, drying.

  6. Technical efficiency of district hospitals: Evidence from Namibia using Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutirua Kautoo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In most countries of the sub-Saharan Africa, health care needs have been increasing due to emerging and re-emerging health problems. However, the supply of health care resources to address the problems has been continuously declining, thus jeopardizing the progress towards achieving the health-related Millennium Development Goals. Namibia is no exception to this. It is therefore necessary to quantify the level of technical inefficiency in the countries so as to alert policy makers of the potential resource gains to the health system if the hospitals that absorb a lion's share of the available resources are technically efficient. Method All public sector hospitals (N = 30 were included in the study. Hospital capacity utilization ratios and the data envelopment analysis (DEA technique were used to assess technical efficiency. The DEA model used three inputs and two outputs. Data for four financial years (1997/98 to 2000/2001 was used for the analysis. To test for the robustness of the DEA technical efficiency scores the Jackknife analysis was used. Results The findings suggest the presence of substantial degree of pure technical and scale inefficiency. The average technical efficiency level during the given period was less than 75%. Less than half of the hospitals included in the study were located on the technically efficient frontier. Increasing returns to scale is observed to be the predominant form of scale inefficiency. Conclusion It is concluded that the existing level of pure technical and scale inefficiency of the district hospitals is considerably high and may negatively affect the government's initiatives to improve access to quality health care and scaling up of interventions that are necessary to achieve the health-related Millennium Development Goals. It is recommended that the inefficient hospitals learn from their efficient peers identified by the DEA model so as to improve the overall performance of the health

  7. Assessment of pharmaceutical waste management at selected hospitals and homes in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasu, Samuel; Kümmerer, Klaus; Kranert, Martin

    2012-06-01

    The practice of use and disposal of waste from pharmaceuticals compromises the safety of the environment as well as representing a serious health risk, as they may accumulate and stay active for a long time in the aquatic environment. This article therefore presents the outcome of a study on pharmaceutical waste management practices at homes and hospitals in Ghana. The study was conducted at five healthcare institutions randomly selected in Ghana, namely two teaching hospitals (hospital A, hospital B), one regional hospital (hospital C), one district hospital (hospital D) and one quasi-governmental hospital (hospital E). Apart from hospital E which currently has a pharmaceutical waste separation programmr as well as drug return programme called DUMP (Disposal of Unused Medicines Program), all other hospitals visited do not have any separate collection and disposal programme for pharmaceutical waste. A survey was also carried out among the general public, involving the questioning of randomly selected participants in order to investigate the household disposal of unused and expired pharmaceuticals. The results from the survey showed that more than half of the respondents confirmed having unused, left-over or expired medicines at home and over 75% disposed of pharmaceutical waste through the normal waste bins which end up in the landfills or dump sites.

  8. Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of hospital waste in the city of Behshahr-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabihollah Yousefi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, the rapid increase in quantity and type of waste has resulted to environmental pollution and health hazards which serve as a major challenge to humans. The level of this waste can be so high that dangerous chemicals and biological contaminants can be found in ordinary household waste. Major sources of waste in every city are mostly from care/health centers. Hence, this study aims to investigate the quantitative and qualitative waste taken from hospitals in the city. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, four city hospitals were examined in the city. For this purpose, a questionnaire was designed for quantitative analysis method and weighing scales based on the Ministry of Health questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS software and for statistical analyses, Excel and Graph Pad Prism 5 were used. Results: According to findings, the total amount of hospital waste comprising infectious waste, sharp and pharmaceutical chemicals were related to Imam Khomeini hospital with values of 44 220 012 and 10 kg per day respectively, with 220 kg per day of general waste related to same hospital. Hence, the total weight of waste produced per capita, for infectious waste, general waste, chemical waste, and sharp - machinery were 2.35 ± 0.25, 0.39 ± 0.075, 1.25 ± 0.66, 0.05 ± 0.028 and 0.021 ± 0.015 kg per day per bed respectively. Conclusion: The data should be more focused on waste management and frequent orientation to hospitalized patients. This evaluation indicates the poor management of hospital wastes in view of collection, separation, infectious waste care, temporary storage station and on-time transmission and health disposal.

  9. Report of the Technical Committee for Hospitality, Tourism, Recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This color-coded committee report identifies the skills and knowledge required by employees in the hospitality/tourism/recreation occupational area. The reports of four subcommittees focused on food/beverage, hotel/motel, recreation/leisure, and travel/tourism skills are also included. Introductory materials include a general statement of the…

  10. 76 FR 17970 - Board Meeting: April 27, 2011-Amherst, New York; the U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... the 2008-9 study on Quantitative Risk Assessment of the State Licensed Radioactive Waste Disposal Area... of vitrified high-level radioactive waste (HLW); determination of waste classification of the melter... NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD Board Meeting: April 27, 2011--Amherst, New York; the U.S...

  11. Treatment methods for radioactive mixed wastes in commercial low-level wastes: technical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKenzie, D.R.; Kempf, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    Treatment options for the management of three generic categories of radioactive mixed waste in commercial low-level wastes (LLW) have been identified and evaluated. These wastes were characterized as part of a BNL study in which LLW generators were surveyed for information on potential chemical hazards in their wastes. The general treatment options available for mixed wastes are destruction, immobilization, and reclamation. Solidification, absorption, incineration, acid digestion, wet-air oxidation, distillation, liquid-liquid wastes. Containment, segregation, decontamination, and solidification or containment of residues, have been considered for lead metal wastes which have themselves been contaminated and are not used for purposes of waste disposal shielding, packaging, or containment. For chromium-containing wastes, solidification, incineration, wet-air oxidation, acid digestion, and containment have been considered. For each of these wastes, the management option evaluation has included an assessment of testing appropriate to determine the effect of the option on both the radiological and potential chemical hazards present

  12. Treatment methods for radioactive mixed wastes in commercial low-level wastes: technical considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKenzie, D.R.; Kempf, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    Treatment options for the management of three generic categories of radioactive mixed waste in commercial low-level wastes (LLW) have been identified and evaluated. These wastes were characterized as part of a BNL study in which LLW generators were surveyed for information on potential chemical hazards in their wastes. The general treatment options available for mixed wastes are destruction, immobilization, and reclamation. Solidification, absorption, incineration, acid digestion, wet-air oxidation, distillation, liquid-liquid wastes. Containment, segregation, decontamination, and solidification or containment of residues, have been considered for lead metal wastes which have themselves been contaminated and are not used for purposes of waste disposal shielding, packaging, or containment. For chromium-containing wastes, solidification, incineration, wet-air oxidation, acid digestion, and containment have been considered. For each of these wastes, the management option evaluation has included an assessment of testing appropriate to determine the effect of the option on both the radiological and potential chemical hazards present.

  13. Technical justifications for the tests and criteria in the waste form technical position appendix on cement stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siskind, B.; Cowgill, M.G.

    1992-01-01

    As part of its technical assistance to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) developed a background document for the cement stabilization appendix, Appendix A, to Rev. 1 of the Technical Position on Waste Form (TP). Here we present an overview of this background document, which provides technical justification for the stability tests to be performed on cement-stabilized waste forms and for the criteria posed in each test, especially for those tests which have been changed from their counterparts in the May 1983 Rev. 0 TP. We address guidelines for procedures from Appendix A which are considered in less detail or not at all in the Rev. 0 of the TP, namely, qualification specimen preparation (mixing, curing, storage), statistical sampling and analysis, process control program specimen preparation and examination, and surveillance specimens. For each waste form qualification test, criterion or procedural guidelines, we consider the reason for its inclusion in Appendix A, the changes from Rev. 0 of the TP (if applicable), and a discussion of the justification or rationale for these changes

  14. Technical justifications for the tests and criteria in the waste form Technical position appendix on cement stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siskind, B.; Cowgill, M.G.

    1992-01-01

    As part of its technical assistance to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) developed a background document for the cement stabilization appendix. Appendix A, to Rev. 1 of the Technical Position on Waste Form (TP). Here we present an overview of this background document, which provides technical justification for the stability tests to be performed on cement-stabilized waste forms and for the criteria posed in each test) especially for those tests which have been changed from their counterparts in the May 1983 Rev. 0 TP. We address guidelines for procedures from Appendix A which are considered in less detail or not at all in the Rev. 0 of the TP, namely, qualification specimen preparation (mixing, curing, storage), statistical sampling and analysis, process control program specimen preparation and examination, and surveillance specimens. For each waste form qualification test, criterion or procedural guideline, we consider the reason for its inclusion in Appendix A, the changes from Rev. 0 of the TP (if applicable), and a discussion of the justification or rationale for these changes. (author)

  15. Composite quarterly technical report: long-term high-level waste technology, October-December 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornman, W.R.

    1981-04-01

    The technical information in this report summarizes work performed at participating sites to immobilize high-level radioactive wastes. The areas reported are in: program management and support; waste preparation; waste fixation; and final handling. Majority of the studies were in the area of waste fixation, some of which are: leaching tests of ceramic forms, high silica glass, graphite powder and other carbon preparations; viscosity measurements for a range of waste-glass compositions from references borosilicate glass to high-alumina glasses; neutron activation analysis for measuring leach rates; preparation of SYNROC D spheres; formulations for preparing ceramics from defense waste composition; development of a pilot-scale glass melter, and kinetic studies of slag formation in glass melters

  16. Technical basis for external dosimetry at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, E.W.; Wu, C.F.; Goff, T.E.

    1993-01-01

    The WIPP External Dosimetry Program, administered by Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Waste Isolation Division, for the US Department of Energy (DOE), provides external dosimetry support services for operations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Site. These operations include the receipt, experimentation with, storage, and disposal of transuranic (TRU) wastes. This document describes the technical basis for the WIPP External Radiation Dosimetry Program. The purposes of this document are to: (1) provide assurance that the WIPP External Radiation Dosimetry Program is in compliance with all regulatory requirements, (2) provide assurance that the WIPP External Radiation Dosimetry Program is derived from a sound technical base, (3) serve as a technical reference for radiation protection personnel, and (4) aid in identifying and planning for future needs. The external radiation exposure fields are those that are documented in the WIPP Final Safety Analysis Report

  17. Technical report on treatment of radioactive slurry liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Gyeong Hwan; Jo, Eun Sung; Park, Seung Kook; Jung, Ki Jung

    1999-06-01

    By literature survey, this report deals with the technology on typical pre-treatment and filtration of radioactive slurry liquid waste, produced during the operation of TRIGA Mark-II, III research reactor, and produced during the decommission/decontamination of TRIGA Mark-II, III research reactor. It is reviewed pre-treatment procedure, both physical and chemical that optimise the dewatering characteristics, and also surveyed types of dewatering devices based on centrifuges, vacuum and pressure filters with particular reference to various combined field approaches using two or more complementary driving forces to achieve better performance. Dewatering operations and devises on filtration of radioactive slurry liquid waste are also analysed. (author)

  18. Radioactive waste storage: historical outlook and socio technical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, J.C.

    1993-07-01

    The radioactive waste storage remains, in most of the industrialized concerned countries, one extremely debated question. This problem may, if an acceptable socially answer is not found, to create obstacles to the whole nuclear path. This study aim was to analyze the controversy in an historical outlook. The large technological plans have always economical, political, sociological, , psychological and so on aspects, that the experts may be inclined to neglect. ''Escape of radioactivity is unlikely, as long as surveillance of the waste is maintained, that is, as long as someone is present to check for leaks or corrosion or malfunctioning of and to take action, if any of these occur. 444 refs., 32 figs

  19. Hanford Site Composite Analysis Technical Approach Description: Waste Form Release.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardie, S. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Paris, B. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Apted, M. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-09-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in DOE O 435.1 Chg. 1, Radioactive Waste Management, requires the preparation and maintenance of a composite analysis (CA). The primary purpose of the CA is to provide a reasonable expectation that the primary public dose limit is not likely to be exceeded by multiple source terms that may significantly interact with plumes originating at a low-level waste disposal facility. The CA is used to facilitate planning and land use decisions that help assure disposal facility authorization will not result in long-term compliance problems; or, to determine management alternatives, corrective actions or assessment needs, if potential problems are identified.

  20. Assessment of medical waste management in seven hospitals in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufunsho Awodele

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical waste (MW can be generated in hospitals, clinics and places where diagnosis and treatment are conducted. The management of these wastes is an issue of great concern and importance in view of potential public health risks associated with such wastes. The study assessed the medical waste management practices in selected hospitals and also determined the impact of Lagos Waste Management Authority (LAWMA intervention programs. A descriptive cross-sectional survey method was used. Methods Data were collected using three instrument (questionnaire, site visitation and in –depth interview. Two public (hospital A, B and five private (hospital C, D, E, F and G which provide services for low, middle and high income earners were used. Data analysis was done with SPSS version 20. Chi-squared test was used to determine level of significance at p < 0.05. Results The majority 56 (53.3 % of the respondents were females with mean age of 35.46 (±1.66 years. The hospital surveyed, except hospital D, disposes both general and medical waste separately. All the facilities have the same process of managing their waste which is segregation, collection/on-site transportation, on-site storage and off–site transportation. Staff responsible for collecting medical waste uses mainly hand gloves as personal protective equipment. The intervention programs helped to ensure compliance and safety of the processes; all the hospitals employ the services of LAWMA for final waste disposal and treatment. Only hospital B offered on-site treatment of its waste (sharps only with an incinerator while LAWMA uses hydroclave to treat its wastes. There are no policies or guidelines in all investigated hospitals for managing waste. Conclusions An awareness of proper waste management amongst health workers has been created in most hospitals through the initiative of LAWMA. However, hospital D still mixes municipal and hazardous wastes. The treatment of waste

  1. End-of-waste criteria for waste plastic for conversion. Technical proposals.

    OpenAIRE

    VILLANUEVA KRZYZANIAK Alejandro; EDER Peter

    2014-01-01

    This report is the JRC-IPTS contribution to the development of the end-of-waste criteria for waste plastic in accordance with Article 6 of Directive 2008/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on waste (the Waste Framework Directive). This report includes a possible set of end-of-waste criteria and shows how the proposals were developed based on a comprehensive techno-economic analysis of the waste plastic production chain and an analysis of the economic, environmental and le...

  2. Technical appraisal of the current situation in the field of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Industrial activities are regarded as safe even though a small risk always exists. The philosophy of radiation protection accepts this and recognises that some level of risk will also be associated with safe radioactive waste management. Therefore the objective of radioactive waste management is to look for a strategy which, taken as a whole, is considered safe and provides an acceptable balance of all the radiological, technical, social, political and economic considerations. The RWMC's appraisal underlines the need for such a balance while concentrating on radiological and technical factors, particularly on the long term safety aspects of radioactive waste management. The fundamental conclusion is that detailed short and long term safety assessments can now be made which give confidence that radiation protection objectives can be met with currently available technology for most waste types, and at a cost which is only a small fraction of the overall cost of nuclear-generated power

  3. Biomedical solid waste management in an Indian hospital: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, Gayathri V.; Pokhrel, Kamala

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this study were: (i) to assess the waste handling and treatment system of hospital bio-medical solid waste and its mandatory compliance with Regulatory Notifications for Bio-medical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 1998, under the Environment (Protection Act 1986), Ministry of Environment and Forestry, Govt. of India, at the chosen KLE Society's J. N. Hospital and Medical Research Center, Belgaum, India and (ii) to quantitatively estimate the amount of non-infectious and infectious waste generated in different wards/sections. During the study, it was observed that: (i) the personnel working under the occupier (who has control over the institution to take all steps to ensure biomedical waste is handled without any adverse effects to human health and the environment) were trained to take adequate precautionary measures in handling these bio-hazardous waste materials, (ii) the process of segregation, collection, transport, storage and final disposal of infectious waste was done in compliance with the Standard Procedures, (iii) the final disposal was by incineration in accordance to EPA Rules 1998 (iv) the non-infectious waste was collected separately in different containers and treated as general waste, and (v) on an average about 520 kg of non-infectious and 101 kg of infectious waste is generated per day (about 2.31 kg per day per bed, gross weight comprising both infectious and non-infectious waste). This hospital also extends its facility to the neighboring clinics and hospitals by treating their produced waste for incineration

  4. MIXING OF INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS IN WASTE TANKS TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SANDGREN, K.R.

    2006-01-01

    This document presents onsite radiological, onsite toxicological, and offsite toxicological consequences, risk binning, and control decision results for the mixing of incompatible materials in waste tanks representative accident. Revision 4 updates the analysis to consider bulk chemical additions to single shell tanks (SSTs)

  5. 11. annual report of the technical advisory committee on the nuclear fuel waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    The Eleventh Annual Report of the Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) assesses the scientific and technical progress made within the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program (NFWMP) during the period July 1989 to June 1990. The Committee notes that the general concept of a multibarrier system involving geologic media and engineered systems is based on known technologies and current scientific knowledge, and has gained strong international scientific and engineering support as currently the most feasible and practical. TAC continues to endorse the full investigation of the concept of nuclear waste disposal deep in plutonic formations, such as those in the Canadian Shield

  6. Identification of technical problems encountered in the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, D.G.; Epler, J.S.; Rose, R.R.

    1980-03-01

    A review of problems encountered in the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes has been made in support of the technical aspects of the National Low-Level Waste (LLW) Management Research and Development Program being administered by the Low-Level Waste Management Program Office, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The operating histories of burial sites at six major DOE and five commercial facilities in the US have been examined and several major problems identified. The problems experienced st the sites have been grouped into general categories dealing with site development, waste characterization, operation, and performance evaluation. Based on this grouping of the problem, a number of major technical issues have been identified which should be incorporated into program plans for further research and development. For each technical issue a discussion is presented relating the issue to a particular problem, identifying some recent or current related research, and suggesting further work necessary for resolving the issue. Major technical issues which have been identified include the need for improved water management, further understanding of the effect of chemical and physical parameters on radionuclide migration, more comprehensive waste records, improved programs for performance monitoring and evaluation, development of better predictive capabilities, evaluation of space utilization, and improved management control

  7. Identification of technical problems encountered in the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, D.G.; Epler, J.S.; Rose, R.R.

    1980-03-01

    A review of problems encountered in the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes has been made in support of the technical aspects of the National Low-Level Waste (LLW) Management Research and Development Program being administered by the Low-Level Waste Management Program Office, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The operating histories of burial sites at six major DOE and five commercial facilities in the US have been examined and several major problems identified. The problems experienced st the sites have been grouped into general categories dealing with site development, waste characterization, operation, and performance evaluation. Based on this grouping of the problem, a number of major technical issues have been identified which should be incorporated into program plans for further research and development. For each technical issue a discussion is presented relating the issue to a particular problem, identifying some recent or current related research, and suggesting further work necessary for resolving the issue. Major technical issues which have been identified include the need for improved water management, further understanding of the effect of chemical and physical parameters on radionuclide migration, more comprehensive waste records, improved programs for performance monitoring and evaluation, development of better predictive capabilities, evaluation of space utilization, and improved management control.

  8. Independent technical review of the Bin and Alcove test programs at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    This Independent Technical Review (ITR) assessed the need for and technical validity of the proposed Bin and Alcove test programs using TRU-waste at the WIPP site. The ITR Team recommends that the planned Bin and Alcove tests be abandoned, and that new activities be initiated in support of the WIPP regulatory compliance processes. Recommendations in this report offer an alternate path for expeditiously attaining disposal certification and permitting

  9. Preliminary technical data summary for the Defense Waste Processing Facility, Stage 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    This Preliminary Technical Data Summary presents the technical basis for design of Stage 1 of the Staged Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), a process to efficiently immobilize the radionuclides in Savannah River Plant (SRP) high-level liquid waste. The radionuclides in SRP waste are present in sludge that has settled to the bottom of waste storage tanks and in crystallized salt and salt solution (supernate). Stage 1 of the DWPF receives washed, aluminum dissolved sludge from the waste tank farms and immobilizes it in a borosilicate glass matrix. The supernate is retained in the waste tank farms until completion of Stage 2 of the DWPF at which time it filtered and decontaminated by ion exchange in the Stage 2 facility. The decontaminated supernate is concentrated by evaporation and mixed with cement for burial. The radioactivity removed from the supernate is fixed in borosilicate glass along with the sludge. This document gives flowsheets, material, and curie balances, material and curie balance bases, and other technical data for design of the Stage 1 DWPF

  10. Technical feasibility study on volumetric reduction of radioactive wastes using plasma technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prado, E.S.P.; Dellamano, J.C.; Carneiro, A.L.G.; Santos, R.C.; Potiens Junior, A.J. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Petraconi, G., E-mail: edu.petraconi@usp.br [Instituto Tecnológico da Aeronáutica (ITA), São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The radioactive waste arising from nuclear reactors, hospitals, industry and research institutes are generated daily with a considerable amount. To final dispose of these radioactive waste safely and cost effectively, they must be transformed into physical and chemical compounds suitable for radionuclides immobilization with maximum volume and exhaust gaseous reduction. In this scope, among the promising technologies for the radioactive waste treatment, plasma technology allows reducing substantially the waste volume after exposing them to temperatures above 2,500 deg C. In the planning and management of radioactive waste, the challenges related to plasma technology are presented as a motivation factor for the possible implantation of plasma reactors in nuclear plants and research centers aiming at improving the process of radioactive waste management. (author)

  11. Technical feasibility study on volumetric reduction of radioactive wastes using plasma technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado, E.S.P.; Dellamano, J.C.; Carneiro, A.L.G.; Santos, R.C.; Potiens Junior, A.J.; Petraconi, G.

    2017-01-01

    The radioactive waste arising from nuclear reactors, hospitals, industry and research institutes are generated daily with a considerable amount. To final dispose of these radioactive waste safely and cost effectively, they must be transformed into physical and chemical compounds suitable for radionuclides immobilization with maximum volume and exhaust gaseous reduction. In this scope, among the promising technologies for the radioactive waste treatment, plasma technology allows reducing substantially the waste volume after exposing them to temperatures above 2,500 deg C. In the planning and management of radioactive waste, the challenges related to plasma technology are presented as a motivation factor for the possible implantation of plasma reactors in nuclear plants and research centers aiming at improving the process of radioactive waste management. (author)

  12. Healthcare waste management in selected government and private hospitals in Southeast Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Angus Nnamdi Oli; Callistus Chibuike Ekejindu; David Ufuoma Adje; Ifeanyi Ezeobi; Obiora Shedrack Ejiofor; Christian Chibuzo Ibeh; Chika Flourence Ubajaka

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To assess healthcare workers’ involvement in healthcare waste management in public and private hospitals.Methods:Validated questionnaires(n = 660) were administered to randomly selected healthcare workers from selected private hospitals between April and July 2013.Results:Among the healthcare workers that participated in the study,187(28.33%) were medical doctors,44(6.67%) were pharmacists,77(11.67%) were medical laboratory scientist,35(5.30%) were waste handlers and 317(48.03%) were nurses.Generally,the number of workers that have heard about healthcare waste disposal system was above average 424(69.5%).More health-workers in the government(81.5%) than in private(57.3%) hospitals were aware of healthcare waste disposal system and more in government hospitals attended training on it.The level of waste generated by the two hospitals differed significantly(P=0.0086) with the generation level higher in government than private hospitals.The materials for healthcare waste disposal were significantly more available(P=0.001) in government than private hospitals.There was no significant difference(P = 0.285) in syringes and needles disposal practices in the two hospitals and they were exposed to equal risks(P =0.8510).Fifty-six(18.5%) and 140(45.5%) of the study participants in private and government hospitals respectively were aware of the existence of healthcare waste management committee with 134(44.4%) and 19(6.2%) workers confirming that it did not exist in their institutions.The existence of the committee was very low in the private hospitals.Conclusions:The availability of material for waste segregation at point of generation,compliance of healthcare workers to healthcare waste management guidelines and the existence of infection control committee in both hospitals is generally low and unsatisfactory.

  13. Hospital workers' perceptions of waste: a qualitative study involving photo-elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Sarah L; Kleppel, Reva; Lindenauer, Peter K; Rothberg, Michael B

    2013-10-01

    To elicit sources of waste as viewed by hospital workers. Qualitative study using photo-elicitation, an ethnographic technique for prompting in-depth discussion. U.S. academic tertiary care hospital. Physicians, nurses, pharmacists, administrative support personnel, administrators and respiratory therapists. A purposive sample of personnel at an academic tertiary care hospital was invited to take up to 10 photos of waste. Participants discussed their selections using photos as prompts during in-depth interviews. Transcripts were analysed in an iterative process using grounded theory; open and axial coding was performed, followed by selective and thematic coding to develop major themes and subthemes. Twenty-one participants (nine women, average number of years in field=19.3) took 159 photos. Major themes included types of waste and recommendations to reduce waste. Types of waste comprised four major categories: Time, Materials, Energy and Talent. Participants emphasised time wastage (50% of photos) over other types of waste such as excess utilisation (2.5%). Energy and Talent were novel categories of waste. Recommendations to reduce waste included interventions at the micro-level (eg, individual/ward), meso-level (eg, institution) and macro-level (eg, payor/public policy). The waste hospital workers identified differed from previously described waste both in the types of waste described and the emphasis placed on wasted time. The findings of this study represent a possible need for education of hospital workers about known types of waste, an opportunity to assess the impact of novel types of waste described and an opportunity to intervene to reduce the waste identified.

  14. Technical report on natural evaporation system for radioactive liquid waste treatment arising from TRIGA research reactors' decontamination and decommissioning activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, J. S.; Jung, K. J.; Baek, S. T.; Jung, U. S.; Park, S. K.; Jung, K. H.

    1999-01-01

    This technical report described that radioactive liquid waste treatment for dismantling/decontamination of TRIGA Mark research reactor in Seoul. That is, we try safety treatment of operation radioactive liquid waste during of operating TRIGA Mark research reactor and dismantling radioactive liquid waste during R and D of research reactor hereafter, and by utilizing of new natural evaporation facility with describing design criteria of new natural evaporation facility. Therefore, this technical report described the quantity of present radioactive liquid waste and dismantling radioactive liquid waste hereafter, analysis the status of radial-rays/radioactivity, and also treatment method of this radioactive liquid waste. Also, we derived the method that the safeguard of outskirts environment and the cost down of radioactive liquid waste treatment by minimize of the radioactive liquid waste quantities, through-out design/operation of new natural evaporation facility for treatment of operation radioactive liquid waste and dismantling radioactive liquid waste. (author). 6 refs., 12 tabs., 5 figs

  15. Enviromental impact of a hospital waste incineration plant in Krakow (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielar, Agnieszka; Helios-Rybicka, Edeltrauda

    2013-07-01

    The environmental impact of a hospital waste incineration plant in Krakow was investigated. The objective of this study was to assess the degree of environmental effect of the secondary solid waste generated during the incineration process of medical waste. The analysis of pollution of the air emissions and leaching test of ashes and slag were carried out. The obtained results allowed us to conclude that (i) the hospital waste incineration plant significantly solves the problems of medical waste treatment in Krakow; (ii) the detected contaminant concentrations were generally lower than the permissible values; (iii) the generated ashes and slag contained considerable concentrations of heavy metals, mainly zinc, and chloride and sulfate anions. Ashes and slag constituted 10-15% of the mass of incinerated wastes; they are more harmful for the environment when compared with untreated waste, and after solidification they can be deposited in the hazardous waste disposal.

  16. The technical challenge of mechanized excavation for nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.I.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the historical background of the tunnel boring machine and discusses its integration into the design of a nuclear waste repository. It is essential that the designers of a project utilize the productivity of the system to their advantage. An example would be the construction of a pair of small tunnels instead of a single large diameter access ramp. The pair of tunnels would be more effective in use and less expensive to bore than the single all-purpose tunnel. The designers of an underground nuclear waste repository must recognize the capabilities of the Tunnel Boring Machine system and tailor their design to employ the technological advantages which have been made in recent years

  17. Technical experiences for liquid radioactive waste in FR Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plecas, I.; Pavlovic, R.; Pavlovic, S.

    2002-01-01

    Yugoslavia is a country without any Nuclear Power Plant on its territory. In the last forty years, in Nuclear Sciences Institute 'Vinca', as a result of the two reactors operation, named RA and RB, and as a result of the radionuclides application in medicine, industry and agriculture, radioactive waste materials of different levels of specific activity were generated. As a temporary solution, radioactive waste materials are stored in two interim storage facilities. Radwaste that were immobilized in the inactive matrices are to be placed into the concrete containers, for the further manipulation and disposal. The present paper reports the results on preliminary removal of sludge from the bottom of the spent fuel storage pool in RA reactor, mechanical filtration of the pool water and sludge conditioning and storage. (authors)

  18. Draft Technical Position Subtask 1.1: waste package performance after repository closure. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.S.; Schweitzer, D.G.

    1983-08-01

    This document provides guidance to the DOE on the issues and information necessary for the NRC to evaluate waste package performance after repository closure. Minimal performance objectives of the waste package are required by proposed 10 CFR 60. This Draft Technical Position describes the various options available to the DOE for compliance and discusses advantages and disadvantages of various choices. Examples are discussed dealing with demonstrability, predictability and reasonable assurance. The types of performance are considered. The document summarizes presently identified high priority issues needed to evaluate waste package performance after repository closure. 20 references, 7 tables

  19. Developing models for the prediction of hospital healthcare waste generation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfahun, Esubalew; Kumie, Abera; Beyene, Abebe

    2016-01-01

    An increase in the number of health institutions, along with frequent use of disposable medical products, has contributed to the increase of healthcare waste generation rate. For proper handling of healthcare waste, it is crucial to predict the amount of waste generation beforehand. Predictive models can help to optimise healthcare waste management systems, set guidelines and evaluate the prevailing strategies for healthcare waste handling and disposal. However, there is no mathematical model developed for Ethiopian hospitals to predict healthcare waste generation rate. Therefore, the objective of this research was to develop models for the prediction of a healthcare waste generation rate. A longitudinal study design was used to generate long-term data on solid healthcare waste composition, generation rate and develop predictive models. The results revealed that the healthcare waste generation rate has a strong linear correlation with the number of inpatients (R(2) = 0.965), and a weak one with the number of outpatients (R(2) = 0.424). Statistical analysis was carried out to develop models for the prediction of the quantity of waste generated at each hospital (public, teaching and private). In these models, the number of inpatients and outpatients were revealed to be significant factors on the quantity of waste generated. The influence of the number of inpatients and outpatients treated varies at different hospitals. Therefore, different models were developed based on the types of hospitals. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. A total quality management approach to healthcare waste management in Namazi Hospital, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askarian, Mehrdad; Heidarpoor, Peigham; Assadian, Ojan

    2010-11-01

    Healthcare waste comprises all wastes generated at healthcare facilities, medical research centers and laboratories. Although 75-90% of these wastes are classified as household waste posing no potential risk, 10-25% are deemed to be hazardous, representing a potential threat to healthcare workers, patients, the environment and even the general population, if not disposed of appropriately. If hazardous and non-hazardous waste is mixed and not segregated prior to disposal, costs will increase substantially. Medical waste management is a worldwide issue. In Iran, the majority of problems are associated with an exponential growth in the healthcare sector together with low- or non-compliance with guidelines and recommendations. The aim of this study was to reduce the amounts of infectious waste by clear definition and segregation of waste at the production site in Namazi Hospital in Shiraz, Iran. Namazi Hospital was selected as a study site with an aim to achieving a significant decrease in infectious waste and implementing a total quality management (TQM) method. Infectious and non-infectious waste was weighed at 29 admission wards over a 1-month period. Before the introduction of the new guidelines and the new waste management concept, weight of total waste was 6.67 kg per occupied bed per day (kg/occupied bed/day), of which 73% was infectious and 27% non-infectious waste. After intervention, total waste was reduced to 5.92 kg/occupied bed/day, of which infectious waste represented 61% and non-infectious waste 30%. The implementation of a new waste management concept achieved a 26% reduction in infectious waste. A structured waste management concept together with clear definitions and staff training will result in waste reduction, consequently leading to decreased expenditure in healthcare settings. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of waste treatment requirements for DOE mixed wastes: Technical basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    The risks and costs of managing DOE wastes are a direct function of the total quantities of 3wastes that are handled at each step of the management process. As part of the analysis of the management of DOE low-level mixed wastes (LLMW), a reference scheme has been developed for the treatment of these wastes to meet EPA criteria. The treatment analysis in a limited form was also applied to one option for treatment of transuranic wastes. The treatment requirements in all cases analyzed are based on a reference flowsheet which provides high level treatment trains for all LLMW. This report explains the background and basis for that treatment scheme. Reference waste stream chemical compositions and physical properties including densities were established for each stream in the data base. These compositions are used to define the expected behavior for wastes as they pass through the treatment train. Each EPA RCRA waste code was reviewed, the properties, chemical composition, or characteristics which are of importance to waste behavior in treatment were designated. Properties that dictate treatment requirements were then used to develop the treatment trains and identify the unit operations that would be included in these trains. A table was prepared showing a correlation of the waste physical matrix and the waste treatment requirements as a guide to the treatment analysis. The analysis of waste treatment loads is done by assigning wastes to treatment steps which would achieve RCRA compliant treatment. These correlation's allow one to examine the treatment requirements in a condensed manner and to see that all wastes and contaminant sets are fully considered

  2. Generation of organic waste from institutions in Denmark: case study of the Technical University of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Boldrin, Alessio; Scheutz, Charlotte

    at least 60% of organic waste – that cannot be prevented or reduced –generated by service sector, should be source-segregated and collected separately. In order to establish the baseline of the current situation, and to allow for any evaluation of performance against target indicators, data on solid waste...... generation and composition are required. The overall aim of this study was to quantify the potential for source-segregated organic waste as well as mixed waste from institution. This study was carried at the Department of Environmental Engineering at Technical University of Denmark. In the course...... and public holidays, when the offices were officially closed. Furthermore, the composition of source-segregated organic waste was analysed to investigate its purity. During the sampling period, the number of employees coming to work at the department was recorded. These data were used to investigate any...

  3. LLNL/YMP Waste Container Fabrication and Closure Project; GFY technical activity summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-10-01

    The Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program is studying Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a suitable site for the first US high-level nuclear waste repository. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has the responsibility for designing and developing the waste package for the permanent storage of high-level nuclear waste. This report is a summary of the technical activities for the LLNL/YMP Nuclear Waste Disposal Container Fabrication and Closure Development Project. Candidate welding closure processes were identified in the Phase 1 report. This report discusses Phase 2. Phase 2 of this effort involved laboratory studies to determine the optimum fabrication and closure processes. Because of budget limitations, LLNL narrowed the materials for evaluation in Phase 2 from the original six to four: Alloy 825, CDA 715, CDA 102 (or CDA 122) and CDA 952. Phase 2 studies focused on evaluation of candidate material in conjunction with fabrication and closure processes.

  4. Guidance document for revision of DOE Order 5820.2A, Radioactive Waste Technical Support Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudera, D.E.; McMurtrey, C.D.; Meagher, B.G.

    1993-04-01

    This document provides guidance for the revision of DOE Order 5820.2A, ''Radioactive Waste Management.'' Technical Working Groups have been established and are responsible for writing the revised order. The Technical Working Groups will use this document as a reference for polices and procedures that have been established for the revision process. The overall intent of this guidance is to outline how the order will be revised and how the revision process will be managed. In addition, this document outlines technical issues considered for inclusion by a Department of Energy Steering Committee

  5. Mixing of incompatible materials in waste tanks technical basis document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SANDGREN, K.R.

    2003-01-01

    This technical basis document was developed to support the Tank Farms Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) and describes the risk binning process, the technical basis for assigning risk bins, and the controls selected for the mixing of incompatible materials representative accident and associated represented hazardous conditions. The purpose of the risk binning process is to determine the need for safety-significant structures, systems, and components (SSCs) and/or technical safety requirement (TSR)-level controls for a given representative accident or represented hazardous conditions based on an evaluation of the FR-equency and consequence. Note that the risk binning process is not applied to facility workers, because all facility worker hazardous conditions are considered for safety-significant SSCs and/or TSR level controls. Determination of the need for safety-class SSCs was performed in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for US Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses'', as described in this report

  6. Regional analysis of potential energy production from agricultural wastes: technical and economic study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Have, H

    1981-01-01

    The possibilities for utilization of agricultural wastes for energy production are analyzed in two Danish counties, Ringkoebing and Vestsjaelland, which have different agricultural production patterns. The quantitative analysis shows that the major waste products, surplus straw, waste wood and animal waste, in total with present technique can cover about 28% of the demand for heat energy (mostly space heating) in both counties. The potential coverage from straw, wood and animal waste is about 3, 3 and 22% in Ringkoebing and 18, 2 and 8% in Vestsjaelland respectively. A technical analysis indicates that direct combustion is the most favorable conversion method for straw and wood while biological conversion at present is best suited for animal waste. An economic analysis based on costs of collection, storage, transport and conversion of wastes and costs of corresponding oil and oil conversion were made. From a community point of view only straw and wood are found to be competitive to the expensive gas fuel oil when burned in automatically stoked furnaces. From a heating station point of view waste utilization is more attractive because of the sales tax on oil products. Here straw and wood are competitive fuels to both gas and heavy fuel oil in all the analyzed systems except from the small manually stoked furnaces. Animal waste seems to be competitive only when replacing gas fuel oil in medium size (500 kW) well utilized aerobic fermenters.

  7. Long-term high-level waste technology. Composite quarterly technical report, January-March 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornman, W.R.

    1981-08-01

    This composite quarterly technical report summarizes work performed at participating sites to immobilize high-level radioactive wastes. The report is structured along the lines of the Work Breakdown Structure adopted for use in the High-Level Waste Management Technology program. These are: (1) program management and support with subtasks of management and budget, environmental and safety assessments, and other support; (2) waste preparation with subtasks of in-situ storage or disposal, waste retrieval, and separation and concentration; (3) waste fixation with subtasks of waste form development and characterization, and process and equipment development; and (4) final handling with subtasks of canister development and characterization and onsite storage or disposal. Some of the highlights are: preliminary event trees defining possible accidents were completed in the safety assessment of continued in-tank storage of high-level waste at Hanford; two low-cost waste forms (tailored concrete and bitumen) were investigated as candidate immobilization forms at the Hanford in-situ disposal studies of high-level waste; in comparative impact tests at the same impact energy per specimen volume, the same mass of respirable sizes was observed at ANL for SRL Frit 131 glass, SYNROC B ceramic, and SYNROC D ceramic; leaching tests were conducted on alkoxide glasses; glass-ceramic, concrete, and SYNROC D; a process design description was written for the tailored ceramic process

  8. Sustainable network of independent technical expertise for radioactive waste disposal (SITEX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serres, Christophe; Rocher, Muriel [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Bernier, Frederic [FANC, Brussels (Belgium); Havlova, Vaclava [UJV Rez, a.s., Rez (Czech Republic); Mrskova, Adela [DECOM A.S., Trnava (Slovakia); Dubreuil, Gilles Heriard [MUTADIS, Paris (France)

    2013-07-01

    SITEX is a 24 months FP7 Euratom project (from January 2012 to December 2013) led by IRSN and bringing together organisations representing technical safety organisations and nuclear safety authorities performing technical and scientific assessment of geological disposals for radioactive waste in the framework of their respective national regulatory review process of the safety case. Civil society outreach specialists of interaction with civil society are also involved in the project. SITEX aims at establishing the conditions required for developing sustainable interactions among experts from various horizons (nuclear safety authorities, technical safety organisations, civil society organisations..) capable of developing and coordinating joint and harmonized activities in relation with the safety assessment of the safety case. Among foreseen activities, partnership with the civil society experts is considered as a key function of the future network in order to contribute in enhancing trust in the decision making process. The SITEX program of work is split into a set of six workpackages that address technical and organizational issues allowing in fine to propose a structure of the activities and operating modes of the future network. These issues relate on the one hand to the study of the potential for sharing and developing technical expertise practices independently from the expertise developed by waste management organisations, on the other hand on the ability to implement coordinated R and D programs run by technical safety organisations in order to develop the scientific knowledge necessary to perform technical assessments. (orig.)

  9. Treatment methods for radioactive mixed wastes in commercial low-level wastes - technical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKenzie, D.R.; Kempf, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    Treatment options for the management of three generic categories of radioactive mixed waste in commercial low-level wastes (LLW) have been identified and evaluated. These wastes were characterized as part of a BNL study in which LLW generators were surveyed for information on potential chemical hazards in their wastes. The general treatment options available for mixed wastes are destruction, immobilization, and reclamation. Solidification, absorption, incineration, acid digestion, wet-air oxidation, distillation, liquid-liquid solvent extraction, and specific chemical destruction techniques have been considered for organic liquid wastes. Containment, segregation, decontamination, and solidification or containment of residues, have been considered for lead metal wastes which have themselves been contaminated and are not used for purposes of waste disposal shielding, packaging, or containment. For chromium-containing wastes, solidification, incineration, wet-air oxidation, acid digestion, and containment have been considered. Fore each of these wastes, the management option evaluation has included an assessment of testing appropriate to determine the effect of the option on both the radiological and potential chemical hazards present

  10. Urban Waste and Sanitation Services for Sustainable Development: Harnessing social and technical diversity in East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van B.J.M.; Buuren, van J.C.L.; Mgana, S.

    2014-01-01

    Urban sanitation and solid waste sectors are under significant pressure in East Africa due to the lack of competent institutional capacity and the growth of the region’s urban population. This book presents and applies an original analytical approach to assess the existing socio-technical mixtures

  11. The Michigan high-level radioactive waste program: Final technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report comprises the state of Michigan's final technical report on the location of a proposed high-level radioactive waste disposal site. Included are a list of Michigan's efforts to review the DOE proposal and a detailed report on the application of geographic information systems analysis techniques to the review process

  12. Mixed Waste Focus Area integrated technical baseline report, Phase 1: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (MWFA) to develop and facilitate implementation of technologies required to meet the Department's commitments for treatment of mixed low-level and transuranic wastes. The mission of the MWFA is to provide acceptable treatment systems, developed in partnership with users and with participation of stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators, that are capable of treating DOE's mixed waste. These treatment systems include all necessary steps such as characterization, pretreatment, and disposal. To accomplish this mission, a technical baseline is being established that forms the basis for determining which technology development activities will be supported by the MWFA. The technical baseline is the prioritized list of deficiencies, and the resulting technology development activities needed to overcome these deficiencies. This document presents Phase I of the technical baseline development process, which resulted in the prioritized list of deficiencies that the MWFA will address. A summary of the data and the assumptions upon which this work was based is included, as well as information concerning the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) mixed waste technology development needs. The next phase in the technical baseline development process, Phase II, will result in the identification of technology development activities that will be conducted through the MWFA to resolve the identified deficiencies

  13. LISREL Model Medical Solid Infectious Waste Hazardous Hospital Management In Medan City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simarmata, Verawaty; Siahaan, Ungkap; Pandia, Setiaty; Mawengkang, Herman

    2018-01-01

    Hazardous and toxic waste resulting from activities at most hospitals contain various elements of medical solid waste ranging from heavy metals that have the nature of accumulative toxic which are harmful to human health. Medical waste in the form of gas, liquid or solid generally include the category or the nature of the hazard and toxicity waste. The operational in activities of the hospital aims to improve the health and well-being, but it also produces waste as an environmental pollutant waters, soil and gas. From the description of the background of the above in mind that the management of solid waste pollution control medical hospital, is one of the fundamental problems in the city of Medan and application supervision is the main business licensing and control alternatives in accordance with applicable regulations.

  14. Performance of on-site Medical waste disinfection equipment in hospitals of Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Taghipour

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The number of studies available on the performance of on-site medical waste treatment facilities is rare, to date. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of onsite medical waste treatment equipment in hospitals of Tabriz, Iran. Methods: A various range of the on-site medical waste disinfection equipment (autoclave, chemical disinfection, hydroclave, and dry thermal treatment was considered to select 10 out of 22 hospitals in Tabriz to be included in the survey. The apparatus were monitored mechanically, chemically, and biologically for a six months period in all of the selected hospitals. Results: The results of the chemical monitoring (Bowie-Dick tests indicated that 38.9% of the inspected autoclaves had operational problems in pre-vacuum, air leaks, inadequate steam penetration into the waste, and/or vacuum pump. The biological indicators revealed that about 55.55% of the samples were positive. The most of applied devices were not suitable for treating anatomical, pharmaceutical, cytotoxic, and chemical waste. Conclusion: Although on-site medical waste treating facilities have been installed in all the hospitals, the most of infectious-hazardous medical waste generated in the hospitals were deposited into a municipal solid waste landfill, without enough disinfection. The responsible authorities should stringently inspect and evaluate the operation of on-site medical waste treating equipment. An advanced off-site central facility with multi-treatment and disinfection equipment and enough capacity is recommended as an alternative.

  15. Municipal solid waste processing methods: Technical-economic comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertanza, G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper points out the advantages and disadvantages of municipal solid waste processing methods incorporating different energy and/or materials recovery techniques, i.e., those involving composting or incineration and those with a mix of composting and incineration. The various technologies employed are compared especially with regard to process reliability, flexibility, modularity, pollution control efficiency and cost effectiveness. For that which regards composting, biodigestors are examined, while for incineration, the paper analyzes systems using combustion with complete recovery of vapour, combustion with total recovery of available electric energy, and combustion with cogeneration. Each of the processing methods examined includes an iron recovery cycle

  16. FFCAct Clearinghouse, directory of abstracts: Radioactive waste technical support program. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    The Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAct) Clearinghouse is a card catalog of information about the FFCAct and its requirements for developing Site Treatment Plans (STP). The information available in the clearinghouse includes abstracts describing computer applications, technical reports, and a list of technical experts. This report contains 61 abstracts from the database relating to radioactive waste management. The clearinghouse includes information on characterization, retrieval, treatment, storage, and disposal elements of waste management as they relate to the FFCAct and the treatment of mixed wastes. Subject areas of information being compiled include: commercial treatment capabilities; listings of technical experts for assistance in selecting and evaluating treatment options and technologies; mixed waste data and treatability groups; guidance on STP development; life-cycle costs planning estimates for facilities; references to documentation on available technologies and technology development activities; Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) for treatment facilities; regulatory, health and safety issues associated with treatment facilities and technologies; and computer databases, applications, and models for identifying and evaluating treatment facilities and technologies. Access to the FFCAct clearinghouse is available to the DOE and its DOE contractors involved in STP development and other FFCAct activities

  17. Criteria and technical concept for demonstrating greater confinement disposal of radioactive wastes at Arid Western Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, P.H.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes the work of two documents; the Criteria for Greater Confinement of Radioactive Wastes at Arid Western Sites, NVO-234, March 1981, (within this report, referred to as the GCDF Criteria Document); and the Draft Technical Concept for a Test of Greater Confinement Disposal of Radioactive Waste in Unsaturated Media at the Nevada Test Site, FBDU-343-004, June 1981, (referred within this report as the Technical Concept for the GCDF). For the past two years, Ford, Bacon and Davis has been performing technical services for the Department of Energy at the Nevada Test Site in development of defense low-level waste management concepts, including the greater confinement disposal concept with particular application to arid sites. The investigations have included the development of Criteria for Greater Confinement Disposal, NVO-234, which we published in May of this year; then the draft for the technical concept for greater confinement disposal, published in June; leading up to the point where we are now. The final technical concept and design specifications should be published imminently. The document is prerequisite to the actual construction and implementation of the demonstration facility this fiscal year

  18. Hospital structure and technical efficiency in the production of nuclear medicine. Doctoral thesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, G.W.

    1976-01-01

    The relationship of hospital structure to production efficiency is explored. The hospital subindustry on which this research centers is nuclear medicine. The hypotheses generated were that technical efficiency is reduced by increased competitive intensity, by a lack of profit incentive, by a broader service range, and by in-house training of technical personnel. Most data employed in the study were gathered from the American College of Radiology and the Energy Research and Development Administration Census of Nuclear Medicine. More specific information came from questionnaires sent to 2,050 short-term general hospitals known to have a nuclear medicine facility. Of the responses 1,362 were usable for the study. A major study finding was that over half of the variations observed in technical efficiency were attributable to the structural elements being studied. The research indicated that competition for staff physicians has a role in reducing technical efficiency; that the output effect of in-house manpower training was relatively unimportant; and that profit incentives do have a significant impact. It is suggested that increased technical efficiency could be achieved through reduced competitive intensity, stronger profit orientation, and reduced service range. A bibliography is included

  19. A technical basis for meeting waste form stability requirements of 10 CFR 61

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, W.Y.; Skoski, L.; Eng, R.; Tuite, P.T.

    1988-01-01

    To assure that solidified low level waste forms meet the stability requirements of 10 CFR 61 regulations, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has published Branch Technical Positions (BTPs) and draft Regulatory Guide on waste form stability. These guidance documents describe the test procedures and acceptance criteria for six stability parameters: leachability, compressive strength, immersion effect, radiation effect, thermal stability and biodegradability. The most recent set of recommended tests and acceptance criteria are presented in the November 1986 Preliminary Draft Regulatory Guide Low Level Waste Form Stability. The objective of this study was to: (1) investigate the regulatory and technical bases for the required stability tests, (2) evaluate the relevance of these tests and acceptance criteria based on actual test results, and (3) recommended alternatives to the testing and acceptance criteria. The latter two objectives are discussed in this paper

  20. [Technical efficiency of traditional hospitals and public enterprises in Andalusia (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero Tabanera, Luis; Martín Martín, José Jesús; López del Amo González, Ma del Puerto

    2015-01-01

    To assess the technical efficiency of traditional public hospitals without their own legal identity and subject to administrative law, and that of public enterprise hospitals, with their own legal identities and partly governed by private law, all of them belonging to the taxypayer-funded health system of Andalusia during the period 2005 -2008. The study included the 32 publicly-owned hospitals in Andalusia during the period 2005-2008. The method consisted of two stages. In the first stage, the indices of technical efficiency of the hospitals were calculated using Data Envelopment Analysis, and the change in total factor productivity was estimated using the Malmquist index. The results were compared according to perceived quality, and a sensitivity analysis was conducted through an auxiliary model and bootstrapping. In the second stage, a bivariate analysis was performed between hospital efficiency and organization type. Public enterprises were more efficient than traditional hospitals (on average by over 10%) in each of the study years. Nevertheless, a process of convergence was observed between the two types of organizations because, while the efficiency of traditional hospitals increased slightly (by 0.50%) over the study period, the performance of public enterprises declined by over 2%. The possible reasons for the greater efficiency of public enterprises include their greater budgetary and employment flexibility. However, the convergence process observed points to a process of mutual learning that is not necessarily efficient. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 23. Environmental effluent analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Y/OWI/TM-36/23, ''Environmental Effluent Analysis,'' is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-36, which supplements the ''Contribution to Drat Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-44. The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. This volume discusses the releases to the environment of radioactive and non-radioactive materials that arise during facility construction and waste handling operations, as well as releases that could occur in the event of an operational accident. The results of the analyses are presented along with a detailed description of the analytical methodologies employed

  2. Method for assessment of the technical potential of the plant agricultural waste suitable for energy purposes in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, V.

    2004-01-01

    A method for assessment of technical potential of quantitatively important plant agriculture waste; straw from wheat and barley; corn stalks; sunflower stalks and heads; tobacco stalks; orchard prunings and vineyard prunings suitable for energy purposes for Bulgarian conditions is developed. Data for assessment of the technical potential for 2002 using this method are presented. A comparison between technical potential of mentioned wastes, final energy consumption in agriculture and all branches of Bulgarian economy for 2002 is made. (author)

  3. Composition and production rate of pharmaceutical and chemical waste from Xanthi General Hospital in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voudrias, Evangelos; Goudakou, Lambrini; Kermenidou, Marianthi; Softa, Aikaterini

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We studied pharmaceutical and chemical waste production in a Greek hospital. ► Pharmaceutical waste comprised 3.9% w/w of total hazardous medical waste. ► Unit production rate for total pharmaceutical waste was 12.4 ± 3.90 g/patient/d. ► Chemical waste comprised 1.8% w/w of total hazardous medical waste. ► Unit production rate for total chemical waste was 5.8 ± 2.2 g/patient/d. - Abstract: The objective of this work was to determine the composition and production rates of pharmaceutical and chemical waste produced by Xanthi General Hospital in Greece (XGH). This information is important to design and cost management systems for pharmaceutical and chemical waste, for safety and health considerations and for assessing environmental impact. A total of 233 kg pharmaceutical and 110 kg chemical waste was collected, manually separated and weighed over a period of five working weeks. The total production of pharmaceutical waste comprised 3.9% w/w of the total hazardous medical waste produced by the hospital. Total pharmaceutical waste was classified in three categories, vial waste comprising 51.1%, syringe waste with 11.4% and intravenous therapy (IV) waste with 37.5% w/w of the total. Vial pharmaceutical waste only was further classified in six major categories: antibiotics, digestive system drugs, analgesics, hormones, circulatory system drugs and “other”. Production data below are presented as average (standard deviation in parenthesis). The unit production rates for total pharmaceutical waste for the hospital were 12.4 (3.90) g/patient/d and 24.6 (7.48) g/bed/d. The respective unit production rates were: (1) for vial waste 6.4 (1.6) g/patient/d and 13 (2.6) g/bed/d, (2) for syringe waste 1.4 (0.4) g/patient/d and 2.8 (0.8) g/bed/d and (3) for IV waste 4.6 (3.0) g/patient/d and 9.2 (5.9) g/bed/d. Total chemical waste was classified in four categories, chemical reagents comprising 18.2%, solvents with 52.3%, dyes and tracers with 18.2% and

  4. [Analysis of the technical efficiency of hospitals in the Spanish National Health Service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Romero, Carmen; Ortega-Díaz, M Isabel; Ocaña-Riola, Ricardo; Martín-Martín, José Jesús

    To analyse the technical efficiency and productivity of general hospitals in the Spanish National Health Service (NHS) (2010-2012) and identify explanatory hospital and regional variables. 230 NHS hospitals were analysed by data envelopment analysis for overall, technical and scale efficiency, and Malmquist index. The robustness of the analysis is contrasted with alternative input-output models. A fixed effects multilevel cross-sectional linear model was used to analyse the explanatory efficiency variables. The average rate of overall technical efficiency (OTE) was 0.736 in 2012; there was considerable variability by region. Malmquist index (2010-2012) is 1.013. A 23% variability in OTE is attributable to the region in question. Statistically significant exogenous variables (residents per 100 physicians, aging index, average annual income per household, essential public service expenditure and public health expenditure per capita) explain 42% of the OTE variability between hospitals and 64% between regions. The number of residents showed a statistically significant relationship. As regards regions, there is a statistically significant direct linear association between OTE and annual income per capita and essential public service expenditure, and an indirect association with the aging index and annual public health expenditure per capita. The significant room for improvement in the efficiency of hospitals is conditioned by region-specific characteristics, specifically aging, wealth and the public expenditure policies of each one. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Large Hospitals - 50% Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnema, E.; Leach, M.; Pless, S.

    2013-06-01

    This Technical Support Document describes the process and methodology for the development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Large Hospitals: Achieving 50% Energy Savings Toward a Net Zero Energy Building (AEDG-LH) ASHRAE et al. (2011b). The AEDG-LH is intended to provide recommendations for achieving 50% whole-building energy savings in large hospitals over levels achieved by following Standard 90.1-2004. The AEDG-LH was created for a 'standard' mid- to large-size hospital, typically at least 100,000 ft2, but the strategies apply to all sizes and classifications of new construction hospital buildings. Its primary focus is new construction, but recommendations may be applicable to facilities undergoing total renovation, and in part to many other hospital renovation, addition, remodeling, and modernization projects (including changes to one or more systems in existing buildings).

  6. Final environmental assessment: TRU waste drum staging building, Technical Area 55, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Much of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) research on plutonium metallurgy and plutonium processing is performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), in Los Alamos, New Mexico. LANL's main facility for plutonium research is the Plutonium Facility, also referred to as Technical Area 55 (TA-55). The main laboratory building for plutonium work within the Plutonium Facility (TA-55) is the Plutonium Facility Building 4, or PF-4. This Environmental Assessment (EA) analyzes the potential environmental effects that would be expected to occur if DOE were to stage sealed containers of transuranic (TRU) and TRU mixed waste in a support building at the Plutonium Facility (TA-55) that is adjacent to PF-4. At present, the waste containers are staged in the basement of PF-4. The proposed project is to convert an existing support structure (Building 185), a prefabricated metal building on a concrete foundation, and operate it as a temporary staging facility for sealed containers of solid TRU and TRU mixed waste. The TRU and TRU mixed wastes would be contained in sealed 55-gallon drums and standard waste boxes as they await approval to be transported to TA-54. The containers would then be transported to a longer term TRU waste storage area at TA-54. The TRU wastes are generated from plutonium operations carried out in PF-4. The drum staging building would also be used to store and prepare for use new, empty TRU waste containers

  7. Low level mixed waste thermal treatment technical basis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Place, B.G.

    1994-12-01

    Detailed characterization of the existing and projected Hanford Site Radioactive Mixed Waste (RMW) inventory was initiated in 1993 (Place 1993). This report presents an analysis of the existing and projected RMW inventory. The subject characterization effort continues to be in support of the following engineering activities related to thermal treatment of Hanford Site RMW: (1) Contracting for commercial thermal treatment; (2) Installation and operation of an onsite thermal treatment facility (Project W-242); (3) Treatment at another Department of Energy (DOE) site. The collation of this characterization information (data) has emphasized the establishment of a common data base for the entire existing RMW inventory so that the specification of feed streams destined for different treatment facilities can be coordinated.

  8. Low level mixed waste thermal treatment technical basis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Place, B.G.

    1994-12-01

    Detailed characterization of the existing and projected Hanford Site Radioactive Mixed Waste (RMW) inventory was initiated in 1993 (Place 1993). This report presents an analysis of the existing and projected RMW inventory. The subject characterization effort continues to be in support of the following engineering activities related to thermal treatment of Hanford Site RMW: (1) Contracting for commercial thermal treatment; (2) Installation and operation of an onsite thermal treatment facility (Project W-242); (3) Treatment at another Department of Energy (DOE) site. The collation of this characterization information (data) has emphasized the establishment of a common data base for the entire existing RMW inventory so that the specification of feed streams destined for different treatment facilities can be coordinated

  9. Medical waste disposal at a hospital in Mpumalanga Province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    waste at the medical, dental or nursing schools they attend in order ... age, gender or years of experience, there was an association between professional category and knowledge and practices ..... Medical waste segregated into infectious and.

  10. Radioactive waste disposal programme 2008 of the waste-management-compelled bodies. Technical report 08-01

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-10-01

    Important steps in the management of radioactive waste have already been implemented in Switzerland and there is now wide experience in carrying out the associated activities. In terms of preparing for deep geological disposal, the necessary scientific and technical work is well advanced and the feasibility of implementing geological repositories that provide the required long-term safety has been successfully demonstrated for all wastes arising in Switzerland. Test feasibility demonstrations have also been approved by the Federal Council. Sufficient knowledge is available to allow the next steps in the selection of repository sites to be performed. The legal framework and organisational measures are also in place. The conceptual part of the Sectoral Plan for deep geological repositories regulates the details of the site selection process to be conducted over the next years. The origin, types and volumes of radioactive waste to be disposed of in Switzerland are known. The reference case assumes operation of the existing nuclear power plants for a period of 50 years and a collection period up to around 2050 for radioactive waste from medicine, industry and research. The types and volumes of radioactive waste that would arise in the case of extension of the operating lifetime of the existing power plants and the collection period for waste from medicine, industry and research by 10 years are included for planning purposes. Also considered are the wastes to be expected in the case of an additional production of 5 GW e for a period of 60 years. The resulting wastes are conditioned, characterised and inventoried on an ongoing basis. Before conditioning of a waste stream begins, the proposed conditioning procedure is evaluated by Nagra in terms of the suitability for disposal of the resulting waste packages. A model inventory of waste that will arise in the future has also been compiled. This provides a reliable basis for planning and implementing geological repositories

  11. Technical area status report for low-level mixed waste final waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayberry, J.L.; Huebner, T.L.; Ross, W.; Nakaoka, R.; Schumacher, R.; Cunnane, J.; Singh, D.; Darnell, R.; Greenhalgh, W.

    1993-08-01

    This report presents information on low-level mixed waste forms.The descriptions of the low-level mixed waste (LLMW) streams that are considered by the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) are given in Appendix A. This information was taken from descriptions generated by the Mixed Waste Treatment Program (MWTP). Appendix B provides a list of characteristic properties initially considered by the Final Waste Form (FWF) Working Group (WG). A description of facilities available to test the various FWFs discussed in Volume I of DOE/MWIP-3 are given in Appendix C. Appendix D provides a summary of numerous articles that were reviewed on testing of FWFS. Information that was collected by the tests on the characteristic properties considered in this report are documented in Appendix D. The articles reviewed are not a comprehensive list, but are provided to give an indication of the data that are available

  12. Technical performance characterization of fourier transform profilometry for quantitative waste volume determination under Hanford waste tank conditions - 16281

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monts, David L.; Jang, Ping-Rey; Long, Zhiling; Norton, Olin P.; Gresham, Lawrence L.; Su, Yi; Lindner, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    The Hanford Site in western Washington state is currently in the process of an extensive effort to empty and close its radioactive single-shell and double-shell waste storage tanks. Before this can be accomplished, it is necessary to know how much residual material is left in a given waste tank and the chemical makeup of the residue. The Institute for Clean Energy Technology (ICET) at Mississippi State University is currently developing an quantitative in-tank inspection system based on Fourier Transform Profilometry, FTP. FTP is a non-contact, 3-D shape measurement technique. By projecting a fringe pattern onto a target surface and observing its deformation due to surface irregularities from a different view angle, FTP is capable of determining the height (depth) distribution (and hence volume distribution) of the target surface, thus reproducing the profile of the target accurately under a wide variety of conditions. Hence FTP has the potential to be utilized for quantitative determination of residual wastes within Hanford waste tanks. We report the results of a technical feasibility study to document the accuracy and precision of quantitative volume determination using the Fourier transform profilometry technique under simulated Hanford waste tank conditions. We have initiated a technical feasibility assessment of the Fourier transform profilometry (FTP) technique for determining the volume of residual waste in Hanford radioactive waste tanks; preliminary results to date are presented in this paper. We find that we achieve FTP volume determinations with relatively small errors under conditions corresponding to the most challenging within a Hanford waste tank-viewing non-descript targets at a distance of 16.1 m (53 ft) and an angle of 62 deg.. We have determined that we can minimize measurement uncertainty by maximizing the camera-to-projector distance d, using an optical zoom of at least 5x, and ensuring that FTP images are only recorded after instrumental warm

  13. Technical efficiency of public district hospitals and health centres in Ghana: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirigia Joses M

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Government of Ghana has been implementing various health sector reforms (e.g. user fees in public health facilities, decentralization, sector-wide approaches to donor coordination in a bid to improve efficiency in health care. However, to date, except for the pilot study reported in this paper, no attempt has been made to make an estimate of the efficiency of hospitals and/or health centres in Ghana. The objectives of this study, based on data collected in 2000, were: (i to estimate the relative technical efficiency (TE and scale efficiency (SE of a sample of public hospitals and health centres in Ghana; and (ii to demonstrate policy implications for health sector policy-makers. Methods The Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA approach was used to estimate the efficiency of 17 district hospitals and 17 health centres. This was an exploratory study. Results Eight (47% hospitals were technically inefficient, with an average TE score of 61% and a standard deviation (STD of 12%. Ten (59% hospitals were scale inefficient, manifesting an average SE of 81% (STD = 25%. Out of the 17 health centres, 3 (18% were technically inefficient, with a mean TE score of 49% (STD = 27%. Eight health centres (47% were scale inefficient, with an average SE score of 84% (STD = 16%. Conclusion This pilot study demonstrated to policy-makers the versatility of DEA in measuring inefficiencies among individual facilities and inputs. There is a need for the Planning and Budgeting Unit of the Ghana Health Services to continually monitor the productivity growth, allocative efficiency and technical efficiency of all its health facilities (hospitals and health centres in the course of the implementation of health sector reforms.

  14. hospital waste management as primary healthcare ce ste

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2014-04-02

    Apr 2, 2014 ... The operations of health facilities generate waste; h facilities generate waste; ... Also, 66% use protective hand ... e Centres (PHCs) in Zaria, Nigeria. e Centres ... f sophisticated instruments have ... with medical waste materials such as used syringes. [10]. ..... The practice of the use of personal protective.

  15. Structure of technical systems: interpersonal networks and performance in nuclear waste and photovoltaic research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrum, W.M. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The organization of scientific technology in modern, industrialized societies is examined by comparing two large-scale, multi-organizational, mission-oriented research networks. Using national data from personal interviews with 297 scientists, engineers, research managers, and policy makers from 97 organizations involved in nuclear waste management and solar-photovoltaic development, this study develops and tests hypotheses on the relationships among governmental, academic, private, and public interest sectors and the kinds of social linkages which are associated with technical performance. The principal finding is that in photovoltaic research, contacts with the research community are associated with high levels of performance, while for nuclear waste researchers, they are not. Instead, linkages to the governmental sector predict performance in nuclear waste research. This difference is explained by the governmental domination of the nuclear-waste system and the lack of private-sector involvement

  16. Technical Performance Capability of Fourier Transform Profilometry for Quantitative Waste Volume Determination under Hanford Waste Tank Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monts, D.L.; Jang, P.R.; Long, Z.; Norton, O.P.; Okhuysen, W.P.; Su, Y.; Waggoner, Ch.A.

    2009-01-01

    The Hanford Site is currently in the process of an extensive effort to empty and close its radioactive single-shell and double-shell waste storage tanks. Before this can be accomplished, it is necessary to know how much residual material is left in a given waste tank and the chemical makeup of the residue. The Institute for Clean Energy Technology (ICET) at Mississippi State University is currently developing a quantitative in-tank inspection system based on Fourier Transform Profilometry (FTP). FTP is a non-contact, 3-D shape measurement technique. By projecting a fringe pattern onto a target surface and observing its deformation due to surface irregularities from a different view angle, FTP is capable of determining the height (depth) distribution (and hence volume distribution) of the target surface, thus reproducing the profile of the target accurately under a wide variety of conditions. Hence FTP has the potential to be utilized for quantitative determination of residual wastes within Hanford waste tanks. We report the results of a technical feasibility study to document the accuracy and precision of quantitative volume determination using the Fourier transform profilometry technique under simulated Hanford waste tank conditions. (authors)

  17. Development of a technical scheme for the management of chemical dangerous substances in hospitable environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calleja Amador, C.E.

    2002-01-01

    The chemical substances that are used in the hospitals, and their remainders, represent risks for the environment, the health and security of those who work in these establishments, and of the civil population. The deficiency of a norm that establishes the directives for the handling responsible for such products in the hospitals that our country has motivated the elaboration of a technical scheme that serves as it guides for the correct manipulation, storage and safe disposition of chemical substances in the twenty-nine hospitals of the Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social, establishing Procedures of Standard Operation for its management. To development of the guideline proposal it took a sample of hospitals that includes three levels of comple complexity: national, regional and peripheral. Applying a methodology of evaluation of risks two factors of risk of hospitable were determined, the zones and the population but affected by the existence of chemical substances, which allowed to identify some operative deficiencies in the product handling diverse. The qualitative analysis of the results lead to the elaboration of a technical scheme that includes an instrument for the identification of risks, guideline for the management responsible for hospitable chemical substances, a friendly tool computations like complementary source of intelligence and the proposal of a governing group in charge of the monitoring of the fulfillment of these lineament. (Author) [es

  18. Improved low-level radioactive waste management practices for hospitals and research institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    This report provides a general overview and a compendium of source material on low-level radioactive waste management practices in the institutional sector. Institutional sector refers to hospitals, universities, clinics, and research facilities that use radioactive materials in scientific research and the practice of medicine, and the manufacturers of radiopharmaceuticals and radiography devices. This report provides information on effective waste management practices for institutional waste to state policymakers, regulatory agency officials, and waste generators. It is not intended to be a handbook for actual waste management, but rather a sourcebook of general information, as well as a survey of the more detailed analysis

  19. Determination of medical waste composition in hospitals of Sana'a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... The mean individual components of generated waste in the studied hospitals were; ... for designing and plan the properly management for the collecting system and the healthy ...

  20. FLASH Technology: Full-Scale Hospital Waste Water Treatments Adopted in Aceh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rame; Tridecima, Adeodata; Pranoto, Hadi; Moesliem; Miftahuddin

    2018-02-01

    A Hospital waste water contains a complex mixture of hazardous chemicals and harmful microbes, which can pose a threat to the environment and public health. Some efforts have been carried out in Nangroe Aceh Darussalam (Aceh), Indonesia with the objective of treating hospital waste water effluents on-site before its discharge. Flash technology uses physical and biological pre-treatment, followed by advanced oxidation process based on catalytic ozonation and followed by GAC and PAC filtration. Flash Full-Scale Hospital waste water Treatments in Aceh from different district have been adopted and investigated. Referring to the removal efficiency of macro-pollutants, the collected data demonstrate good removal efficiency of macro-pollutants using Flash technologies. In general, Flash technologies could be considered a solution to the problem of managing hospital waste water.

  1. KUALITAS LIMBAH PADAT MEDIS RUMAH SAKIT (Quality of Solid Medical Waste in Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riris Nainggolan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Hospital is one of critical and important part of health care chain due to improvement of it. Hospital can cause nosocomial case for example cellulitis at Dr. Sutomo Hospital in Surabaya because the environment of it not fulfil the health requirements. Several studies reported that hospital environmental health not yet fulfil all the health requirements needed. Only 56.5% used incenerator with unperfect result in temperature which is only reached 200°C. The need of waste management recently have taken attention to improve its quality. Important factors such as volume and waste characteristics are major concern. According to measurement result held in Latin America showed that the hospital garbage and waste production every day per bed about 3.6 Kgs while in England approximately 3.3 Kgs. This research aimed to have characteristic information and the medical waste management of several hospital in Jakarta and Medan. The collection of data conducted through research and book reference, interview and laboratory test for 9 (nine parameters. Characteristic and solid medical waste volume in this research are 2.5-53 Kgs of infectious waste. 0.8-60 Kgs of solid material, 0.8-3 Kgs of unused human anatomy, 0.5-3.3 Kgs of chemical side products, 2-6.6 Kgs of plastic waste. Number of patients with one day care per year about 1228 people while for several days care about 4928 people. From the test results showed that Cu, Se, Zn and Cr value over the quality standard requirements based on Government Acts no 18, 1999.Keywords: Medical waste, Waste Quality, Hospital

  2. Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project melter system preliminary design technical review meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy, T.L.; Raivo, B.D.; Soelberg, N.R.; Wiersholm, O.

    1995-02-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project sponsored a plasma are melter technical design review meeting to evaluate high-temperature melter system configurations for processing heterogeneous alpha-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (ALLW). Thermal processing experts representing Department of Energy contractors, the Environmental Protection Agency, and private sector companies participated in the review. The participants discussed issues and evaluated alternative configurations for three areas of the melter system design: plasma torch melters and graphite arc melters, offgas treatment options, and overall system configuration considerations. The Technical Advisory Committee for the review concluded that graphite arc melters are preferred over plasma torch melters for processing ALLW. Initiating involvement of stakeholders was considered essential at this stage of the design. For the offgas treatment system, the advisory committee raised the question whether to a use wet-dry or a dry-wet system. The committee recommended that the waste stream characterization, feed preparation, and the control system are essential design tasks for the high-temperature melter treatment system. The participants strongly recommended that a complete melter treatment system be assembled to conduct tests with nonradioactive surrogate waste material. A nonradioactive test bed would allow for inexpensive design and operational changes prior to assembling a system for radioactive waste treatment operations

  3. Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project melter system preliminary design technical review meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, T.L.; Raivo, B.D.; Soelberg, N.R.; Wiersholm, O.

    1995-02-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project sponsored a plasma are melter technical design review meeting to evaluate high-temperature melter system configurations for processing heterogeneous alpha-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (ALLW). Thermal processing experts representing Department of Energy contractors, the Environmental Protection Agency, and private sector companies participated in the review. The participants discussed issues and evaluated alternative configurations for three areas of the melter system design: plasma torch melters and graphite arc melters, offgas treatment options, and overall system configuration considerations. The Technical Advisory Committee for the review concluded that graphite arc melters are preferred over plasma torch melters for processing ALLW. Initiating involvement of stakeholders was considered essential at this stage of the design. For the offgas treatment system, the advisory committee raised the question whether to a use wet-dry or a dry-wet system. The committee recommended that the waste stream characterization, feed preparation, and the control system are essential design tasks for the high-temperature melter treatment system. The participants strongly recommended that a complete melter treatment system be assembled to conduct tests with nonradioactive surrogate waste material. A nonradioactive test bed would allow for inexpensive design and operational changes prior to assembling a system for radioactive waste treatment operations.

  4. Healthcare waste management in selected government and private hospitals in Southeast Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Angus Nnamdi Oli; Callistus Chibuike Ekejindu; David Ufuoma Adje; Ifeanyi Ezeobi; Obiora Shedrack Ejiofor; Christian Chibuzo Ibeh; Chika Flourence Ubajaka

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess healthcare workers' involvement in healthcare waste management in public and private hospitals. Methods: Validated questionnaires (n = 660) were administered to randomly selected healthcare workers from selected private hospitals between April and July 2013. Results: Among the healthcare workers that participated in the study, 187 (28.33%) were medical doctors, 44 (6.67%) were pharmacists, 77 (11.67%) were medical laboratory scientist, 35 (5.30%) were waste handlers...

  5. Impact of intervention on healthcare waste management practices in a tertiary care governmental hospital of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, Binaya; Gupta, Gopal Kumar; Mainali, Dhiraj

    2014-09-26

    Healthcare waste is produced from various therapeutic procedures performed in hospitals, such as chemotherapy, dialysis, surgery, delivery, resection of gangrenous organs, autopsy, biopsy, injections, etc. These result in the production of non-hazardous waste (75-95%) and hazardous waste (10-25%), such as sharps, infectious, chemical, pharmaceutical, radioactive waste, and pressurized containers (e.g., inhaler cans). Improper healthcare waste management may lead to the transmission of hepatitis B, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This evaluation of waste management practices was carried out at gynaecology, obstetrics, paediatrics, medicine and orthopaedics wards at Government of Nepal Civil Service Hospital, Kathmandu from February 12 to October 15, 2013, with the permission from healthcare waste management committee at the hospital. The Individualized Rapid Assessment tool (IRAT), developed by the United Nations Development Program Global Environment Facility project, was used to collect pre-interventional and post-interventional performance scores concerning waste management. The healthcare waste management committee was formed of representing various departments. The study included responses from focal nurses and physicians from the gynaecology, obstetrics, paediatrics, medicine and orthopaedics wards, and waste handlers during the study period. Data included average scores from 40 responders. Scores were based on compliance with the IRAT. The waste management policy and standard operating procedure were developed after interventions, and they were consistent with the national and international laws and regulations. The committee developed a plan for recycling or waste minimization. Health professionals, such as doctors, nurses and waste handlers, were trained on waste management practices. The programs included segregation, collection, handling, transportation, treatment and disposal of waste, as well as occupational health and safety issues

  6. Optimised anaerobic treatment of house-sorted biodegradable waste and slaughterhouse waste in a high loaded half technical scale digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, C; Grasmug, M; Smeets, W; Braun, R; Kirchmayr, R

    2006-01-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of organic wastes from households, slaughterhouses and meat processing industries was optimised in a half technical scale plant. The plant was operated for 130 days using two different substrates under organic loading rates of 10 and 12 kgCOD.m(-3).d(-1). Since the substrates were rich in fat and protein components (TKN: 12 g.kg(-1) the treatment was challenging. The process was monitored on-line and in the laboratory. It was demonstrated that an intensive and stable co-digestion of partly hydrolysed organic waste and protein rich slaughterhouse waste can be achieved in the balance of inconsistent pH and buffering NH4-N. In the first experimental period the reduction of the substrate COD was almost complete in an overall stable process (COD reduction >82%). In the second period methane productivity increased, but certain intermediate products accumulated constantly. Process design options for a second digestion phase for advanced degradation were investigated. Potential causes for slow and reduced propionic and valeric acid degradation were assessed. Recommendations for full-scale process implementation can be made from the experimental results reported. The highly loaded and stable codigestion of these substrates may be a good technical and economic treatment alternative.

  7. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 2. Commercial waste forms, packaging and projections for preconceptual repository design studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Y/OWI/TM-36/2, ''Commercial Waste Forms, Packaging and Projections for Preconceptual Repository Design Studies,'' is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-36, which supplements the ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-44. The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. This volume contains the data base for waste forms, packages, and projections from the commercial waste defined by the Office of Waste Isolation in ''Nuclear Waste Projections and Source Term Data for FY 1977,'' Y/OWI/TM-34. Also, as an alternative data base for repository design and analysis, waste forms, packages, and projections for commercial waste defined by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory (BPNL) have been included. This data base consists of a reference case for use in the alternative design study and a definition of combustible wastes for use in mine fire and hydrogen generation analyses

  8. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 2. Commercial waste forms, packaging and projections for preconceptual repository design studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Y/OWI/TM-36/2, ''Commercial Waste Forms, Packaging and Projections for Preconceptual Repository Design Studies,'' is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-36, which supplements the ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-44. The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. This volume contains the data base for waste forms, packages, and projections from the commercial waste defined by the Office of Waste Isolation in ''Nuclear Waste Projections and Source Term Data for FY 1977,'' Y/OWI/TM-34. Also, as an alternative data base for repository design and analysis, waste forms, packages, and projections for commercial waste defined by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory (BPNL) have been included. This data base consists of a reference case for use in the alternative design study and a definition of combustible wastes for use in mine fire and hydrogen generation analyses.

  9. Challenges in legislation, recycling system and technical system of waste electrical and electronic equipment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengen; Ding, Yunji; Liu, Bo; Pan, De'an; Chang, Chein-chi; Volinsky, Alex A

    2015-11-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has been one of the fastest growing waste streams worldwide. Effective and efficient management and treatment of WEEE has become a global problem. As one of the world's largest electronic products manufacturing and consumption countries, China plays a key role in the material life cycle of electrical and electronic equipment. Over the past 20 years, China has made a great effort to improve WEEE recycling. Centered on the legal, recycling and technical systems, this paper reviews the progresses of WEEE recycling in China. An integrated recycling system is proposed to realize WEEE high recycling rate for future WEEE recycling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Regulations for the management of radioactive wastes from hospitals, universities and institutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Zhiping; Sun Weiqi; Zhou Qingru

    1987-01-01

    One of the drafts of the regulations for the management of radioactive wastes from hospitals, universities, and institutes in China is described. The design concepts for the trucks and drums to be used for transporting and handling the wastes are also described

  11. Healthcare waste management in Uganda: management and generation rates in public and private hospitals in Kampala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugambe, R.K.; Ssempebwa, J.C.; Tumwesigye, N.M.; Vliet, van B.J.M.; Adedimeji, A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to assess the management, characteristics and generation of healthcare waste (HCW) in public and private hospitals in Kampala City, Uganda. Methods We employed mainly qualitative methods through the use of a waste inventory, observations, document review and key

  12. Technical, institutional and economic factors important for developing a multinational radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    Countries planning and implementing nuclear energy programmes should assume responsibility for the safe management and final disposal of radioactive waste from their programmes. However, there are countries whose radioactive waste volumes do not easily justify a national repository, and/or countries which do not have the resources or favorable natural conditions for waste disposal to dedicate to a national repository project. These countries would benefit from multinational co-operation for the disposal. Interest in the concept of a multinational repository for radioactive waste has been expressed by several Member States and the waste management community in the light of the potential benefit to the partner countries from the safety, technical and economic standpoints. However, such an approach involves many political and public acceptance issues and therefore a consensus among countries or regions concerned is a prerequisite. In this context, it was deemed appropriate that the IAEA access the technical, institutional, ethical and economic factors to be taken into account in the process of such consensus building. This report is intended to provide an assessment which can serve as a general basis for establishing a waste management policy and/or further assessing specific issues such as ownership and liability, institutional aspects and problems related to long term commitments. This report is divided into five sections where the first section gives background, objectives, scope and structure of the report. Section 2 discusses multinational repository concept in terms of needs and the role of a multinational repository, interaction between host and partner countries and formulation of a multinational repository. Section 3 identifies basic issues to be considered for establishing a multinational repository, and some specific issues relating to specific waste categories. Section 4 analyses potential benefits and challenges to be addresses in establishing a

  13. Assessment of health care waste management in sajjadieh hospital in Torbat Jam and addressing the improving procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Sajjadi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Health-care waste is one of the most crucial issues in solid waste management due to its adverse effects on human health and the environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the present situation of health-care waste management in Sajadieh Hospital in Torbat-e Jam to find the major challenges and offer the best practice regarding this issue. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Sajadieh hospital in Torbat-e Jam in 2017. The total amount of waste produced in hospital was measured for 3 months. Waste management pattern was carried out based on a checklist obtained from the Ministry of Health (MOH of Iran. Excel software was employed for data analysis. Results: In total, the mean amount of wastes generated in studied hospital was 658.9 kg/day, including domestic waste (397.6 kg/day and hazardous waste (261.4 kg/day. The highest amount of hazardous wastes was generated in operating room with 32.9 kg/day. Quantity analysis of total waste showed that food wastes (25% comprise the highest fraction. Based on MOH checklist, the status of the waste management practices was determined as fair. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that despite the segregation of hospital wastes, the amount of hazardous wastes were higher than recommended guidelines. Therefore, more attention of the authorities and the correction of hospital waste management are required.

  14. Measuring and Benchmarking Technical Efficiency of Public Hospitals in Tianjin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Dong, Siping

    2015-01-01

    China has long been stuck in applying traditional data envelopment analysis (DEA) models to measure technical efficiency of public hospitals without bias correction of efficiency scores. In this article, we have introduced the Bootstrap-DEA approach from the international literature to analyze the technical efficiency of public hospitals in Tianjin (China) and tried to improve the application of this method for benchmarking and inter-organizational learning. It is found that the bias corrected efficiency scores of Bootstrap-DEA differ significantly from those of the traditional Banker, Charnes, and Cooper (BCC) model, which means that Chinese researchers need to update their DEA models for more scientific calculation of hospital efficiency scores. Our research has helped shorten the gap between China and the international world in relative efficiency measurement and improvement of hospitals. It is suggested that Bootstrap-DEA be widely applied into afterward research to measure relative efficiency and productivity of Chinese hospitals so as to better serve for efficiency improvement and related decision making. PMID:26396090

  15. EVALUATION OF BIOMEDICAL WASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN MULTI-SPECIALITY TERTIARY HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Srivastav

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biomedical Waste (BMW, collection and proper disposal has become a significant concern for both the medical and the general community The scientific “Hospital waste Management “is of vital importance as its improper management poses risks to the health care workers ,waste handlers patients, community in general and largely the environment. Objectives: (i To assess current practices of Bio-medical Waste management including generation, collection, transportation storage, treatment and disposal technologies in tertiary health care center. (ii To assess health andsafetypracticesfor the health care personnel involved in Bio-Medical waste Management. Materials and Methods: Waste management practices in tertiary care-centre was studied during May 2010 June 2010. The information/data regarding Bio-Medical Waste Management practices and safety was collected by way of semi structured interview, proforma being the one used for WASTE AUDITING QUESTIONNAIRE. The information collected was verified by personal observations of waste management practices in each ward of hospital. Results : SRMS-IMS generates 1. 25Kgs waste per bed per day and maximum waste is generated in wards. The institute has got separate color coded bins in each ward for collection of waste but segregation practices needs to be more refined. The safety measures taken by health care workers was not satisfactory it was not due to unavailability of Personal protective measures but because of un-awareness of health hazards which may occur due to improper waste management practices. Thus it is concluded that there should be strict implementation of a waste management policy set up in the institute, training and motivation must be given paramount importance to meet the current needs and standard of bio-medical waste management.

  16. Technical and economic evaluation of processes being developed for solid waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tittlova, E.; Hladky, E.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis was made of the economic benefits of two developed processes for reducing the volume of solid radioactive wastes prior to disposal, namely compacting and incineration. Input data were obtained from the actual production of solid radioactive wastes at the V-1 nuclear power plant, from compacting on site, and the operation of an experimental incineration plant. The two WWER-440 units of the V-1 nuclear power plant generate ca 200 m 3 of wastes per annum (not including air filters and wood) of which 69% is assumed to be incinerable and 27% compactable. The rest is disposed of without prior volume reduction. Disposal costs are assessed at 7,500 Czechoslovak crowns per 1 m 3 of wastes, representing a total of 1.5 million crowns per annum. As compared with the disposal of unprocessed wastes the compacting of 95% of wastes generated, reduces the costs of transport and disposal to 25%. With both compacting and incineration, the costs represent 16 to 25% of the initial sum, depending on the ratio of the two processes. The high capital costs of building the incineration plant will thus be offset by the reduction in costs of the radioactive waste disposal. From the technical point of view the analysis did not make a detailed comparison of the properties of the compacted incinerable wastes and ash with regard to stability and leachability of radionuclides. It did also not take into account operating costs and the technological challenge of the two waste volume redution processes. (Z.M.)

  17. Technical, normative and social aspects of the site selection process for radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branco, Otavio E.A.; Rodrigues, Paulo C.H.; Carvalho Filho, Carlos A.; Cota, Stela D.S.; Ferreira, Vinicius V.M.; Peres, Sueli S.; Hiromoto, Goro

    2009-01-01

    In force since 2001, the Federal Law 10.308 states, in article 37, that the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN should start studies for the implementation of a final radioactive waste repository, 'in the shortest timeframe technically feasible'. Nevertheless, not only technical aspects have to be taken into account to accomplish with this schedule, but, also factors of political, economic and social nature. In this paper, the importance and impact of public acceptance aspects are discussed, as well as the methodology of site selection for radioactive wastes repositories, and proposals to accommodate the emanated criteria from the existing legislation. Additionally, practical results from the international experience in the implementation of such deposits are presented. (author)

  18. the biomedical waste management in selected hospitals of chittoor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    management in Government and Private Hospitals. Materials and .... supply of the color coded bags has many deficiencies in both types of .... Journal of Academy of Hospital Administration ... Resource Centre, National Rural Health. Mission: ...

  19. Technical and socio-political issues in radioactive waste disposal 1986. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, F.L.; Kasperson, R.E.; Andersson, T.L.; Parker, S.A.

    1987-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to provide an integrated technical and socio-political analysis of how six countries (Federal Republic of Germany, France, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom and the United States of America) have responded to four key issues in radioactive waste management: a) What constitutes 'safe' or 'absolutely safe' disposal, b) site selection processes, c) timing and type of interim storage. (orig./HP)

  20. A Study of Hospital Waste Generation and Management Practice in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    The composition of wastes found in the 20 healthcare facilities visited included garbage, ... and allied, clothing materials, wastewater with blood traces and the likes. ... personally controlled. ... containers or recapped and stored in a special safety box kept ... Finally disinfection of waste before any kind of contact was done.

  1. The WIPP research and development program: providing the technical basis for defense waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, Th.O.

    1983-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located in southeastern New Mexico, is being developed by the US Department of Energy as a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive wastes from the defense programs of the United States. Underground workings are at a depth of 660 in a bedded-salt formation. Site investigations began in the early 1970s and are culminating with the completion of the Site and Preliminary Design Validation (SPDV) program in 1983 in which two shafts and several thousand feet of underground drifts are being constructed. The underground facility will be used for in situ tests and demonstrations that address technical issues associated with the disposal of transuranic and defense high-level wastes (DHLW) in bedded salt. These tests are based on several years of laboratory tests, field tests in mines, and analytical modeling studies. They primarily address repository development in bedded salt, including thermal-structural interactions plugging and sealing, and facility operations; and waste package interactions, including the effects of the waste on local rock salt and the evaluation of waste package materials. In situ testing began in the WIPP with the initiation of the SPDV program in 1981. In 1983, a major series of tests will begin to investigate the response of the rock salt without the use of any radioactivity

  2. 78 FR 28051 - Federal Plan Requirements for Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators Constructed On or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... to our description of our standard-setting process; correcting erroneous cross-references in the... Before December 1, 2008, and Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources: Hospital/Medical... Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources: Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators AGENCY...

  3. Process Technical Basis Documentation Diagram for a solid-waste processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benar, C.J.; Petersen, C.A.

    1994-02-01

    The Process Technical Basis Documentation Diagram is for a solid-waste processing facility that could be designed to treat, package, and certify contact-handled mixed low-level waste for permanent disposal. The treatment processes include stabilization using cementitious materials and immobilization using a polymer material. The Diagram identifies several engineering/demonstration activities that would confirm the process selection and process design. An independent peer review was conducted at the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company to determine the technical adequacy of the technical approach for waste form development. The peer review panel provided comments and identified documents that it felt were needed in the Diagram as precedence for Title I design. The Diagram is a visual tool to identify traceable documentation of key activities, including those documents suggested by the peer review, and to show how they relate to each other. The Diagram is divided into three sections: (1) the Facility section, which contains documents pertaining to the facility design, (2) the Process Demonstration section, which contains documents pertaining to the process engineering/demonstration work, and 3) the Regulatory section, which contains documents describing the compliance strategy for each acceptance requirement for each feed type, and how this strategy will be implemented

  4. Safe injections and waste management among healthcare workers at a regional hospital in northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Josefine; Pembe, Andrea B; Urasa, Miriam; Darj, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Unsafe injections and substandard waste management are public health issues exposing healthcare workers and the community to the risk of infections. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and practice of safe injections and health care waste management among healthcare workers at a regional hospital in northern Tanzania. This cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in a regional hospital in northern Tanzania. Data was collected through a self-administered questionnaire with additional observations of the incinerator, injections, waste practices, and the availability of medical supplies. Data was analysed in SPSS descriptive statistics and chi-square tests were performed. A total of 223 of 305 (73%) healthcare workers from different cadres were included in the study. The majority of healthcare workers had adequate knowledge and practice of safe injections, but inadequate knowledge about waste management. The majority of the staff reported knowledge of HIV as a risk factor, however, had less knowledge about other blood-borne infections. Guidelines and posters on post exposure prophylaxes and waste management -were present at the hospital, however, the incinerator had no fence or temperature gauge. In conclusion, healthcare workers reported good knowledge and practice of injections, and high knowledge of HIV transmission routes. However, the hospital is in need of a well functioning incinerator and healthcare workers require sufficient medical supplies. There was a need for continual training about health care waste management and avoidance of blood-borne pathogens that may be transmitted through unsafe injections or poor health care waste management.

  5. Buckling design criteria for waste package disposal containers in mined salt repositories: Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallett, R.H.

    1986-12-01

    This report documents analytical and experimental results from a survey of the technical literature on buckling of thick-walled cylinders under external pressure. Based upon these results, a load factor is suggested for the design of waste package containers for disposal of high-level radioactive waste in repositories mined in salt formations. The load factor is defined as a ratio of buckling pressure to allowable pressure. Specifically, a load factor which ranges from 1.5 for plastic buckling to 3.0 for elastic buckling is included in a set of proposed buckling design criteria for waste disposal containers. Formulas are given for buckling design under axisymmetric conditions. Guidelines are given for detailed inelastic buckling analyses which are generally required for design of disposal containers

  6. Technical and Economic Problems Associated with the Development of Methods of Processing and Using Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiriet, L.; Sauteron, J.; Oger, C.

    1968-01-01

    The paper briefly reviews the various techniques used in processing the radioactive wastes which unavoidably result from the generation of electric power from nuclear sources. The paper goes on to define the relative importance, in nuclear fuel cycles, of the problem raised by these wastes. Emphasis is placed on the economic influence of management policies on the cost of power generation, and hence on the relative position of nuclear energy. A substantial percentage of these wastes can be economically utilized. Attention is drawn to the major technical and economic features of the industry which will come into being as a result of this utilization. The major uses anticipated are discussed: radiation sources, heat sources, auxiliary power generation. The paper concludes that satisfactory solutions have already been found to these problems, and describes possible improvements. (author) [fr

  7. Process waste assessment approach, training and technical assistance for DOE contractors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pemberton, S.

    1994-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors are faced with a large waste management problem as are other industries. One of the tools used in a successful waste minimization pollution prevention (WMin/P2) program is a process waste assessment (PWA). The purpose of this project was to share the Kansas City Plant's (KCP's) PWA expertise with other DOE personnel and DOE contractors. This consisted of two major activities: (1) The KCP's PWA graded approach methodology was modified with the assistance of DOE/Defense Program's laboratories, and (2) PWA training and technical assistance were provided to interested DOE personnel and DOE contractors. This report documents the FY93 efforts, lesson learned, and future plans for both PWA-related activities

  8. Review on technical issues influencing the performance of chemical barriers of TRU waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Tomonari; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Tsukamoto, Masaki; Yokoyama, Hayaichi

    1997-01-01

    Studies of technical issues influencing the performance assessment of TRU waste disposal which is occurred from the nuclear fuel reprocessing were reviewed in related to the development of safety analysis method. Especially, the chemical containment was investigated as a key barrier to radionuclide migration. TRU waste including long-lived radionuclides need long-term performance assessment which could be assumed only by the chemical barrier. The description of technical issues concerned with the performance of TRU waste repository has been divided into the following categories: long-term degradation of cementitious materials as engineered barrier for radionuclide migration, effect of colloids, organic macromolecules and organic degradation products on chemical behavior of radionuclides, gas generation by corrosion of metallic wastes, and effects of microbial activity. Preliminary performance assessment indicated that important factors affecting performance of chemical barriers in near-field were the distribution coefficient and the solubility of radionuclides in near-field groundwater. Therefore, it was identified that key issues associated with performance of chemical barrier were evaluation of (a) the long-term change of distribution coefficient of cementitious material through the degradation under repository condition and (b) chemical speciation change of radionuclides such as increase of solubility by the presence of colloidal-size materials. (author)

  9. Technical approach for the management of UMTRA ground water investigation-derived wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    During characterization, remediation, or monitoring activities of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, ground water samples are collected to assess the extent and amount of waterborne contamination that might have come from the mill tailings. This sampling sometimes occurs in contaminated areas where ground water quality has been degraded. Ground water sampling activities may result in field-generated wastes that must be disposed of in a manner protective of human health and the environment. During ground water sampling, appropriate measures must be taken to dispose of presampling purge water and well development water that is pumped to flush out any newly constructed wells. Additionally, pumping tests may produce thousands of gallons of potentially contaminated ground water that must be properly managed. In addition to the liquid wastes, there is the potential for bringing contaminated soils to the ground surface during the drilling and installation of water wells in areas where the subsurface soils may be contaminated. These soils must be properly managed as well. This paper addresses the general technical approach that the UMTRA Project will follow in managing field-generated wastes from well drilling, development, sampling, and testing. It will provide guidance for the preparation of Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) for the management and disposal of field-generated wastes from ground water monitoring and remediation activities

  10. Communication of technical information to lay audiences. [National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowes, J.E.; Stamm, K.R.; Jackson, K.M.; Moore, J.

    1978-05-01

    One of the objectives of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program is to provide terminal storage facilities for commercial radioactive wastes in various geologic formations at multiple locations in the United States. The activities performed under the NWTS Program will affect regional, state, and local areas, and widespread public interest in this program is expected. Since a large part of the NWTS Program deals with technical information it was considered desirable to initiate a study dealing with possible methods of effectively transmitting this technical information to the general public. This study has the objective of preparing a state-of-the-art report on the communication of technical information to lay audiences. The particular task of communicating information about the NWTS Program to the public is discussed where appropriate. The results of this study will aid the NWTS Program in presenting to the public the quite diverse technical information generated within the program so that a widespread, thorough public understanding of the NWTS Program might be achieved. An annotated bibliography is included.

  11. Investigation of soils affected by burnt hospital wastes in Nigeria using PIXE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ephraim P, Inyang; Ita, Akpan; Eusebius I, Obiajunwa

    2013-12-01

    Improper management of hospital waste has been reported to be responsible for several acute outbreaks like the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). In spite of these challenges, hospital wastes are sometimes not properly handled in Nigeria. To date, there has not been an adequate study on the effect and fate of burnt hospital waste on agricultural soil. The effect of burnt hospital wastes on the agricultural soil was conducted on soils sampled around farm settlement near Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex, Ile-Ife, South West Nigeria. PIXE technique was employed with a 1.7 MV 5SDH Tandem Pelletron accelerator available at Centre for Energy Research and Development O.A.U Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Eleven elements- Si, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Zr and Pb were detected and their concentrations and enrichment factors determined. The presence of Pb and Cl at the elevated concentrations range of (77.8 ± 3.5 - 279.6 ± 97.6 and 102.2 ± 37.4 -167.2±17.43) ppm respectively in this study, is of serious health concern because of the agricultural practices in the neighborhoods of the study sites. There is a need for proper handling of hospital and other related hazardous wastes because of the possibility of such posing serious environmental pollution problems.

  12. Bio-Medical Waste Managment in a Tertiary Care Hospital: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Anita; Ahuja, Sanjiv; Madan, Molly; Asthana, Ajay Kumar

    2016-11-01

    Bio-Medical Waste (BMW) management is of utmost importance as its improper management poses serious threat to health care workers, waste handlers, patients, care givers, community and finally the environment. Simultaneously, the health care providers should know the quantity of waste generated in their facility and try to reduce the waste generation in day-to-day work because lesser amount of BMW means a lesser burden on waste disposal work and cost saving. To have an overview of management of BMW in a tertiary care teaching hospital so that effective interventions and implementations can be carried out for better outcome. The observational study was carried out over a period of five months from January 2016 to May 2016 in Chhatrapati Shivaji Subharti Hospital, Meerut by the Infection Control Team (ICT). Assessment of knowledge was carried out by asking set of questions individually and practice regarding awareness of BMW Management among the Health Care Personnel (HCP) was carried out by direct observation in the workplace. Further, the total BMW generated from the present setup in kilogram per bed per day was calculated by dividing the mean waste generated per day by the number of occupied beds. Segregation of BMW was being done at the site of generation in almost all the areas of the hospital in color coded polythene bags as per the hospital protocol. The different types of waste being collected were infectious solid waste in red bag, soiled infectious waste in yellow bag and sharp waste in puncture proof container and blue bag. Though awareness (knowledge) about segregation of BMW was seen in 90% of the HCP, 30%-35% did not practice. Out of the total waste generated (57912 kg.), 8686.8 kg. (15%) was infectious waste. Average infectious waste generated was 0.341 Kg per bed per day. The transport, treatment and disposal of each collected waste were outsourced and carried out by 'Synergy' waste management Pvt. Ltd. The practice of BMW Management was lacking in 30

  13. Manual to radioactive waste management produced in hospitals, research and education centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villasenor N, L.F.; Mejia L, M.

    1996-01-01

    This manual collects the experience on the disposal and management of the wastes produced in the preparation and application of radioactive material. Although the content is not so extensive, the authors have tried to provide the necessary guidelines and adequate information for the management of the wastes produced in hospitals and research and education centers. The objective of this work is to describe the basis and principles for the establishment of a minimization program, a segregation program and a provisional waste storage, in order to reduce the generation of wastes, personal exposure and the environmental impact. (authors). 5 refs

  14. Situation analysis of health care waste management in private sector hospitals in federal capital territory, islamabad, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, M.; Hasan, S.; Umar, M.; Azad, A.H.

    2015-01-01

    The deleterious and harmful effects of hospital waste on environment and human health is well documented in Pakistan. The hospital waste that may be produced as a result of patient care in hospitals, clinical settings including the diagnostic laboratories is one of the potential health hazards. It significantly contributes to the transfusion transmitted diseases and ever increasing incidence of HBV, HCV and HIV. (author)

  15. Composition and production rate of pharmaceutical and chemical waste from Xanthi General Hospital in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voudrias, Evangelos; Goudakou, Lambrini; Kermenidou, Marianthi; Softa, Aikaterini

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the composition and production rates of pharmaceutical and chemical waste produced by Xanthi General Hospital in Greece (XGH). This information is important to design and cost management systems for pharmaceutical and chemical waste, for safety and health considerations and for assessing environmental impact. A total of 233 kg pharmaceutical and 110 kg chemical waste was collected, manually separated and weighed over a period of five working weeks. The total production of pharmaceutical waste comprised 3.9% w/w of the total hazardous medical waste produced by the hospital. Total pharmaceutical waste was classified in three categories, vial waste comprising 51.1%, syringe waste with 11.4% and intravenous therapy (IV) waste with 37.5% w/w of the total. Vial pharmaceutical waste only was further classified in six major categories: antibiotics, digestive system drugs, analgesics, hormones, circulatory system drugs and "other". Production data below are presented as average (standard deviation in parenthesis). The unit production rates for total pharmaceutical waste for the hospital were 12.4 (3.90) g/patient/d and 24.6 (7.48) g/bed/d. The respective unit production rates were: (1) for vial waste 6.4 (1.6) g/patient/d and 13 (2.6) g/bed/d, (2) for syringe waste 1.4 (0.4) g/patient/d and 2.8 (0.8) g/bed/d and (3) for IV waste 4.6 (3.0) g/patient/d and 9.2 (5.9) g/bed/d. Total chemical waste was classified in four categories, chemical reagents comprising 18.2%, solvents with 52.3%, dyes and tracers with 18.2% and solid waste with 11.4% w/w of the total. The total production of chemical waste comprised 1.8% w/w of the total hazardous medical waste produced by the hospital. Thus, the sum of pharmaceutical and chemical waste was 5.7% w/w of the total hazardous medical waste produced by the hospital. The unit production rates for total chemical waste for the hospital were 5.8 (2.2) g/patient/d and 1.1 (0.4) g/exam/d. The respective

  16. The microbiological effects of hospital wastes on the environment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... pathological, infectious, hazardous chemicals, radioactive wastes, stock cultures, blood .... suppurative disease as stated by Ernest et al. (1984), C. equi has the .... Ministry of. Environment and Forest notification. New Delhi. p.

  17. Technical Safety Requirements for the B695 Segment of the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, H L

    2007-01-01

    This document contains Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs) for the Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) Division's B695 Segment of the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The TSRs constitute requirements regarding the safe operation of the B695 Segment of the DWTF. The TSRs are derived from the Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) for the B695 Segment of the DWTF (LLNL 2004). The analysis presented there determined that the B695 Segment of the DWTF is a low-chemical hazard, Hazard Category 3, nonreactor nuclear facility. The TSRs consist primarily of inventory limits as well as controls to preserve the underlying assumptions in the hazard analyses. Furthermore, appropriate commitments to safety programs are presented in the administrative controls section of the TSRs. The B695 Segment of the DWTF (B695 and the west portion of B696) is a waste treatment and storage facility located in the northeast quadrant of the LLNL main site. The approximate area and boundary of the B695 Segment of the DWTF are shown in the B695 Segment of the DWTF DSA. Activities typically conducted in the B695 Segment of the DWTF include container storage, lab-packing, repacking, overpacking, bulking, sampling, waste transfer, and waste treatment. B695 is used to store and treat radioactive, mixed, and hazardous waste, and it also contains equipment used in conjunction with waste processing operations to treat various liquid and solid wastes. The portion of the building called Building 696 Solid Waste Processing Area (SWPA), also referred to as B696S in this report, is used primarily to manage solid radioactive waste. Operations specific to the SWPA include sorting and segregating low-level waste (LLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste, lab-packing, sampling, and crushing empty drums that previously contained LLW. A permit modification for B696S was submitted to DTSC in January 2004 to store and treat hazardous and mixed

  18. Technical Safety Requirements for the B695 Segment of the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, H L

    2007-09-07

    This document contains Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs) for the Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) Division's B695 Segment of the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The TSRs constitute requirements regarding the safe operation of the B695 Segment of the DWTF. The TSRs are derived from the Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) for the B695 Segment of the DWTF (LLNL 2004). The analysis presented there determined that the B695 Segment of the DWTF is a low-chemical hazard, Hazard Category 3, nonreactor nuclear facility. The TSRs consist primarily of inventory limits as well as controls to preserve the underlying assumptions in the hazard analyses. Furthermore, appropriate commitments to safety programs are presented in the administrative controls section of the TSRs. The B695 Segment of the DWTF (B695 and the west portion of B696) is a waste treatment and storage facility located in the northeast quadrant of the LLNL main site. The approximate area and boundary of the B695 Segment of the DWTF are shown in the B695 Segment of the DWTF DSA. Activities typically conducted in the B695 Segment of the DWTF include container storage, lab-packing, repacking, overpacking, bulking, sampling, waste transfer, and waste treatment. B695 is used to store and treat radioactive, mixed, and hazardous waste, and it also contains equipment used in conjunction with waste processing operations to treat various liquid and solid wastes. The portion of the building called Building 696 Solid Waste Processing Area (SWPA), also referred to as B696S in this report, is used primarily to manage solid radioactive waste. Operations specific to the SWPA include sorting and segregating low-level waste (LLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste, lab-packing, sampling, and crushing empty drums that previously contained LLW. A permit modification for B696S was submitted to DTSC in January 2004 to store and treat hazardous and

  19. Wrong low level radioactive waste management in hospitals and improvement steps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keren, M.

    2000-01-01

    Hospitals are producers of great amounts of all kind of waste, including dangerous waste. The dangerous waste can be toxic, biological, radioactive, or a mixture of several kinds. There are clear procedures how to store and treat every kind of waste separately, according to its characteristics. Radioactive waste should be disposed only to a central radwaste disposal site. If the radioactive waste is mixed with biological waste, and contains long half-life isotopes, it should be neutralized from biological hazards before disposal to radwaste storage site. If the waste contains short half-life isotopes, it should be stored in a proper intermediate storage facility till a complete decay of the radioactive elements, and then treated as not radioactive. The existing procedures are old and a new proposal for radwaste procedures was prepared but not implemented. After several repetitive violations of the old regulations by some hospitals, it was decided to advance the implementation of the new proposal. This proposal consists of a detailed procedures for segregation, storage, decay and disposal of radwaste. It is based on the new recommendations of the IAEA. The responsibility for implementing the regulations is on the producers of the waste. This paper summarizes the violations and describes the main recommendations for improving procedures. The competent authority used moderate enforcement steps because of the delay in the implementation of the new procedures. As a matter of fact, the competent authority concluded that it's own investigation procedures should improve, but we shall not discuss it in this paper. (author)

  20. Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter high-level waste solidification technical manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.E.

    1980-09-01

    This technical manual summarizes process and equipment technology developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory over the last 20 years for vitrification of high-level liquid waste by the Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter process. Pacific Northwest Laboratory experience includes process development and demonstration in laboratory-, pilot-, and full-scale equipment using nonradioactive synthetic wastes. Also, laboratory- and pilot-scale process demonstrations have been conducted using actual high-level radioactive wastes. In the course of process development, more than 26 tonnes of borosilicate glass have been produced in 75 canisters. Four of these canisters contained radioactive waste glass. The associated process and glass chemistry is discussed. Technology areas described include calciner feed treatment and techniques, calcination, vitrification, off-gas treatment, glass containment (the canister), and waste glass chemistry. Areas of optimization and site-specific development that would be needed to adapt this base technology for specific plant application are indicated. A conceptual Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter system design and analyses are provided in the manual to assist prospective users in evaluating the process for plant application, to provide equipment design information, and to supply information for safety analyses and environmental reports. The base (generic) technology for the Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter process has been developed to a point at which it is ready for plant application

  1. Technical support for the Ukrainian State Committee for Nuclear Radiation Safety on specific waste issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    The government of Ukraine, a now-independent former member of the Soviet Union, has asked the United States to assist its State Committee for Nuclear and Radiation Safety (SCNRS) in improving its regulatory control in technical fields for which it has responsibility. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is providing this assistance in several areas, including management of radioactive waste and spent fuel. Radioactive wastes resulting from nuclear power plant operation, maintenance, and decommissioning must be stored and ultimately disposed of appropriately. In addition, radioactive residue from radioisotopes used in various industrial and medical applications must be managed. The objective of this program is to provide the Ukrainian SCNRS with the information it needs to establish regulatory control over uranium mining and milling activities in the Zheltye Vody (Yellow Waters) area and radioactive waste disposal in the Pripyat (Chernobyl) area among others. The author of this report, head of the Environmental Technology Section, Health Sciences Research Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, accompanied NRC staff to Ukraine to meet with SCNRS staff and visit sites in question. The report highlights problems at the sites visited and recommends license conditions that SCNRS can require to enhance safety of handling mining and milling wastes. The author's responsibility was specifically for the visit to Zheltye Vody and the mining and milling waste sites associated with that facility. An itinerary for the Zheltye Vody portion of the trip is included as Appendix A

  2. Low-level radioactive wastes managements in universities, institutes and hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Sadatake

    1979-01-01

    Japan Radioisotope Association, which is distributing radioisotopes, also is collecting radioactive wastes from hospitals and other establishments using radioisotopes across the country. These wastes are then transferred to Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute for treatment. However, the capacity of JAERI is currently insufficient for the quantities transferred from JRA. A main cause for such difficulty as above is the increase in medical isotopes, i.e. radiopharmaceuticals, which are used in vivo and in vitro. From the RI consumptions thus far, the future demands and waste quantities are estimated for the purpose of establishing an overall joint treatment system. The following matters are described; the present situation of waste management in JRA and JAERI; current transitional phase; and radiopharmaceutical wastes (radiopharmaceuticals, their consumptions and future demands, and resultant waste RIs). (J.P.N.)

  3. ANL technical support program for DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, J.K.; Bradley, C.R.; Buck, E.C.; Cunnane, J.C.; Dietz, N.L.; Ebert, W.L.; Emery, J.W.; Feng, X.; Gerding, T.J.; Gong, M.; Hoh, J.C.; Mazer, J.J.; Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Bourcier, W.L.; Morgan, L.E.; Newton, L.; Nielsen, J.K.; Phillips, B.L.; Ewing, R.C.; Wang, L.; Li, H.; Tomozawa, M.

    1993-05-01

    A program was established for DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) to evaluate factors that are anticipated to affect waste glass reaction during repository disposal, especially in an unsaturated environment typical of what may be expected for the proposed Yucca Mountain repository site. This report covers progress in FY 1992 on the following tasks: 1. A compendium of the characteristics of high-level nuclear waste borosilicate glass has been written. 2. A critical review of important parameters that affect the reactivity of glass in an unsaturated environment is being prepared. 3. A series of tests has been started to evaluate the reactivity of fully radioactive glasses in a high-level waste repository environment and compare it to the reactivity of synthetic, nonradioactive glasses of similar composition. 4. The effect of radiation upon the durability of waste glasses at a high glass surface area-to-liquid volume (SA/V) ratio and a high gas-to-liquid volume ratio will be assessed. These tests address both vapor and high SA/V liquid conditions. 5. A series of tests is being performed to compare the extent of reaction of nuclear waste glasses at various SAN ratios. Such differences in the SAN ratio may significantly affect glass durability. 6. A series of natural analogue tests is being analyzed to demonstrate a meaningful relationship between experimental and natural alteration conditions. 7. Analytical electron microscopy (AEM), infrared spectroscopys and nuclear resonant profiling are being used to assess the glass/water reaction pathway by identifying intermediate phases that appear on the reacting glass. Additionally, colloids from the leach solutions are being studied using AEM. 8. A technical review of AEM results is being provided. 9. A study of water diffusion involving nuclear waste glasses is being performed. 10. A mechanistically based model is being developed to predict the performance of glass over repository-relevant time periods

  4. Management of radioactive waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory: a technical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This review was performed for the US Department of Energy by a panel of the Board on Radioactive Waste Management under the National Research Council's Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources. In summary, ORNL's waste management practices have kept offsite doses low; some of the practices are temporary and improvised - they may not be as satisfactory in the future; reducing anticipated future releases will be difficult because the limited number of candidate waste disposal locations are characterized by topographic peculiarities; and a major ORNL accomplishment has been the demonstration that hydrofracture can be a successful method of disposal for at least low- and intermediate-level waste. The panel obtained its information over a 2-year period by examining a large body of technical literature, by making six visits to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and through briefings by representatives of government agencies and their subcontractors. Chapter 2 contains the charge to the panel. Chapters 3, 4, and 5 describe the site, the waste that is present, and the methods used to handle it. Chapters 6 through 10 treat the manner in which the performance of the waste-handling system is monitored, the criteria against which performance is assessed, the panel's assessment of performance, and consideration of alternative methods for future handling of radioactive waste. Chapter 11 contains a brief comparison of ORNL with other sites. The panel's principal conclusions and recommendations are summarized below and treated in detail in subsequent chapters. In general, the conclusions and recommendations considered by the panel to be the most important are provided first. 123 refs., 30 figs., 24 tabs

  5. [Multilevel analysis of the technical efficiency of hospitals in the Spanish National Health System by property and type of management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Romero, Carmen; Ortega-Díaz, M Isabel; Ocaña-Riola, Ricardo; Martín-Martín, José Jesús

    2018-05-11

    To analyze technical efficiency by type of property and management of general hospitals in the Spanish National Health System (2010-2012) and identify hospital and regional explanatory variables. 230 hospitals were analyzed combining data envelopment analysis and fixed effects multilevel linear models. Data envelopment analysis measured overall, technical and scale efficiency, and the analysis of explanatory factors was performed using multilevel models. The average rate of overall technical efficiency of hospitals without legal personality is lower than hospitals with legal personality (0.691 and 0.876 in 2012). There is a significant variability in efficiency under variable returns (TE) by direct, indirect and mixed forms of management. The 29% of the variability in TE es attributable to the Region. Legal personality increased the TE of the hospitals by 11.14 points. On the other hand, most of the forms of management (different to those of the traditional hospitals) increased TE in varying percentages. At regional level, according to the model considered, insularity and average annual income per household are explanatory variables of TE. Having legal personality favours technical efficiency. The regulatory and management framework of hospitals, more than public or private ownership, seem to explain technical efficiency. Regional characteristics explain the variability in TE. Copyright © 2018 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Knowledge and practices about hospital waste disposal and universal safety precautions in class IV employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megha, Khobragade; Daksha, Pandit

    2013-01-01

    Norms and guidelines are formed for safe disposal of hospital waste but question is whether these guidelines are being followed and if so, to what extent. Hence, this study was conducted with objective to study the knowledge and practices about hospital waste disposal and universal safety precautions in class IV employee and to study its relationship with education, occupation and training. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a teaching hospital in Mumbai using semi-structured questionnaire in which Class IV employee were included. Questionnaire was filled by face to face interview. Data were analyzed using SPSS. 48.7% Class IV employee were not trained. More than 40% were following correct practices about disinfection of infectious waste. None of the respondents were using protective footwear while handling hospital waste. Only 25.5% were vaccinated for hepatitis B. 16% had done HIV testing due to contact with blood, body fluid, needle stick injury. Knowledge and practices about hospital waste disposal and universal precaution were statistically significant in trained respondents. Training of employees should be given top priority; those already in service should be given on the job training at the earliest.

  7. Study, analysis and design of plasma torch for the elimination of hospital wastes in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Ramirez, Ximena Jesus

    2014-01-01

    Within the field of new technologies in industry, the use of plasma is notable for its high speed of expansion and development. Currently one of its uses is the elimination of waste as it allows to avoid problems such as the formation of airborne byproducts and hazardous solids that represent a serious problem for the environment and human health. Plasma, when it is at extreme temperatures above 3,000 Celsius, causes inorganic waste to disintegrate and to vitrify on a solid residue while organic waste is converted into gases. Unlike any other thermal treatment of waste (incineration, gasification, pyrolysis, etc.) and because it is not a combustion process, but atomization of matter, no pollutant emissions into the atmosphere (dioxins and similar) or ash, there are only simple gases and an inert solid completely vitrified that can be used in the construction, for the obtaining of urban furniture, as decorative element, for example. The project proposes to develop an experimental device, laboratory plasma torch, to investigate its application in the reduction of hospital waste. It is expected to model, design and construct an experimental device that produces a plasma jet, whose temperature is adequate to perform hospital waste treatments at the laboratory level. The main objective of the project is to contribute to the generation of knowledge in the field of hospital waste reduction through the use of technological applications of plasmas, generating the necessary research for the study of art and technological development at the experimental level in the indicated field

  8. Report: Hospital waste management--awareness and practices: a study of three states in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, P Hanumantha

    2008-06-01

    The study was conducted in Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh in India. Hospitals/nursing homes and private medical practitioners in urban as well as rural areas and those from the private as well as the government sector were covered. Information on (a) awareness of bio-medical waste management rules, (b) training undertaken and (c) practices with respect to segregation, use of colour coding, sharps management, access to common waste management facilities and disposal was collected. Awareness of Bio-medical Waste Management Rules was better among hospital staff in comparison with private medical practitioners and awareness was marginally higher among those in urban areas in comparison with those in rural areas. Training gained momentum only after the dead-line for compliance was over. Segregation and use of colour codes revealed gaps, which need correction. About 70% of the healthcare facilities used a needle cutter/destroyer for sharps management. Access to Common Waste Management facilities was low at about 35%. Dumping biomedical waste on the roads outside the hospital is still prevalent and access to Common Waste facilities is still limited. Surveillance, monitoring and penal machinery was found to be deficient and these require strengthening to improve compliance with the Bio-medical Waste Management Rules and to safeguard the health of employees, patients and communities.

  9. Methodology for the technical evaluation of disposal systems for Greater-Than-Class C low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamar, D.A.; Raymond, J.R.

    1990-07-01

    This paper presents the methodology that will be used for the evaluation of alternative disposal concepts for Greater-Than-Class C low-level radioactive waste. The primary focus will be on the technical evaluation of various disposal concepts leading toward the identification of technically feasible disposal systems

  10. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 16. Repository preconceptual design studies: BPNL waste forms in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Volume 16, ''Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: BPNL Waste Forms in Salt,'' is one of a 23 volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-36, which supplements the ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-44. The series provide a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. This document describes a preconceptual design for a nuclear waste storage facility in salt. The waste forms assumed to arrive at the repository were supplied by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories (BPNL). The facility design consists of several chambers excavated deep within a geologic formation together with access shafts and supportive surface structures. The facility design provides for: receiving and unloading waste containers; lowering them down shafts to the mine level; transporting them to the proper storage area and emplacing them in mined storage rooms. Drawings of the facility design are contained in TM-36/17, ''Drawings for Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: BPNL Waste Forms in Salt.''

  11. Technical evaluation of two methods for composting of organic wastes to be used in domestic vegetables gardens

    OpenAIRE

    Campos-Rodríguez, Rooel; Brenes-Peralta, Laura; Jiménez-Morales, María Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    The need to achieve organic waste management solutions has led to treatment options of waste like composting. This practice is defined as the transformation of organic wastes by biological means in controlled conditions; the result is a fertilizer or substrate which can be used in agriculture. In this investigation, a technical evaluation of two composting methods to be applied in home vegetable gardens was carried out. The first  method for degrading of residues evaluated consists in the add...

  12. A system dynamics approach for hospital waste management in a city in a developing country: the case of Nablus, Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khatib, Issam A; Eleyan, Derar; Garfield, Joy

    2016-09-01

    Hospitals and health centers provide a variety of healthcare services and normally generate hazardous waste as well as general waste. General waste has a similar nature to that of municipal solid waste and therefore could be disposed of in municipal landfills. However, hazardous waste poses risks to public health, unless it is properly managed. The hospital waste management system encompasses many factors, i.e., number of beds, number of employees, level of service, population, birth rate, fertility rate, and not in my back yard (NIMBY) syndrome. Therefore, this management system requires a comprehensive analysis to determine the role of each factor and its influence on the whole system. In this research, a hospital waste management simulation model is presented based on the system dynamics technique to determine the interaction among these factors in the system using a software package, ithink. This model is used to estimate waste segregation as this is important in the hospital waste management system to minimize risk to public health. Real data has been obtained from a case study of the city of Nablus, Palestine to validate the model. The model exhibits wastes generated from three types of hospitals (private, charitable, and government) by considering the number of both inpatients and outpatients depending on the population of the city under study. The model also offers the facility to compare the total waste generated among these different types of hospitals and anticipate and predict the future generated waste both infectious and non-infectious and the treatment cost incurred.

  13. A preliminary redrafting of the Italian technical guide no.26 on radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tocci, M.

    1993-01-01

    The recent National Energy Plan confirms the need for reprocessing of the nuclear spent fuel arising from the Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) that were definitively put out of operation after Chernobyl accident. Two campaigns concerning the Italian spent fuel reprocessing are starting at this time. The first-one is related to LATINA (MAGNOX, GCR 160 MWe) while the second one will concern GARIGLIANO (BWR 160 MWe), CAORSO (BWR 840 MWe) and TRINO (PWR, 200 MWe). The first campaign will involve about 600 tons of MAGNOX spent fuel arising from LATINA NPP which will be reprocessed in the next future by BNFL (British Nuclear Fuel Limited) at Sellafield. The vitrified High Level Wastes (HLW) shall return to Italy starting from 1994. ENEA-DISP (Italian directorate for Nuclear Safety) has received from BNFL the technical specifications of the glass blocks. The approval of those specifications is scheduled by the end of 1993, in order to allow the delivery of the wastes. During the licensing iter ENEA-DISP will use its own Technical Guide N. 26, which identifies and specifies the basic criteria and requirements for an appropriate waste management policy. (author). 4 figs., 5 refs

  14. Results of technical and economical examinations for substantiation of special plant design for reprocessing and radioactive wastes disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galkin, A.V.; Baldov, A.N.

    2001-01-01

    In the paper the results of technical and economical examinations for substantiation of special plant design for reprocessing and radioactive wastes disposal are presented. Ground for the examination conducting was Health of Nation Programme ratified by the President and a number of Governmental decisions. The special plant is planned in the Mangystau Region. In the framework of feasibility study the data base by the worldwide known technologies was implemented, on reprocessing and experience of radioactive waste disposal. The technical requirements for the special plant construction are determined. The alternative options by structure content and site location of the special plant and radioactive waste disposal are cited

  15. Proceedings of the ninth annual DOE low-level waste management forum: executive summary, technical and special session summaries, attendees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This first volume of proceedings contains summaries of each of six technical sessions as well as three special sessions held during the conference. The six technical sessions were: Disposal technology and facility development (15 papers); Institutional and regulatory issues (10); Performance assessment (14); Waste characterization and verification (7); Site closure and stabilization (6); and Waste treatment (8). The three special sessions were: 1) Review of criteria for guidance on alternative disposal technology; 2) Hazardous waste regulatory update; and 3) Challenges to meeting the 1993 deadline. All papers have been indexed for inclusion on the Energy Data Base

  16. Sharp Injuries Among Hospital Waste Handlers | Olaitan | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , C as well as other before commencing on their jobs. Workers should be screened for infective diseases that can be of legal problem while at the job and the workers should be effectively immunized. Key words: sharp injuries, waste, handlers, ...

  17. Hospital waste management in Katsina State | Umar | Bayero ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article has bee retracted by the editor. Healthcare settings which restore and maintain community health are also threatening their well being. An anonymous questionnaire survey was conducted in Katsina State to determine the awareness about waste management policy and practices. Attitude related to the issue ...

  18. Healthcare waste management practices and risk perceptions: findings from hospitals in the Algarve region, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Vera; Teixeira, Margarida Ribau

    2010-12-01

    The management of healthcare wastes is receiving greater attention because of the risks to both human health and the environment caused by inadequate waste management practices. In that context, the objective of this study was to analyse the healthcare waste management practices in hospitals of the Algarve region, Portugal, and in particular to assess the risk perceptions of, and actual risk to, healthcare staff. The study included three of the six hospitals in the region, covering 41% of the bed capacity. Data were collected via surveys, interviews, and on-site observations. The results indicate that waste separation is the main deficiency in healthcare waste practice, with correct separation being positively related to the degree of daily contact with the waste. Risk perceptions of healthcare staff show the highest levels for the environment (4.24) and waste workers (4.08), and the lowest for patients (3.29) and visitors (2.80), again being positively associated with the degree of daily contact. Risk perceptions of healthcare staff are related to the difficulties of the correct separation of wastes and the lack of knowledge concerning the importance of that separation. The risk of infection with needlesticks/sharps is higher during patient care than during waste handling, and the frequency of these injuries is related to the daily tasks of each healthcare group (doctors, nurses, and housekeepers). Furthermore, legislative definitions and classifications of healthcare wastes appear to have conditioned the management practices associated with, and the perceptions of risk concerning, healthcare wastes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Getting a taste for food waste: a mixed methods ethnographic study into hospital food waste before patient consumption conducted at three New Zealand foodservice facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonan, Sarah; Mirosa, Miranda; Spence, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Foodservice organizations, particularly those in hospitals, are large producers of food waste. To date, research on waste in hospitals has focused primarily on plate waste and the affect of food waste on patient nutrition outcomes. Less focus has been placed on waste generation at the kitchen end of the hospital food system. We used a novel approach to understand reasons for hospital food waste before consumption and offer recommendations on waste minimization within foodservices. A mixed methods ethnographic research approach was adopted. Three New Zealand hospital foodservices were selected as research sites, all of which were contracted to an external foodservice provider. Data collection techniques included document analyses, observations, focus groups with kitchen staff, and one-on-one interviews with managers. Thematic analysis was conducted to generate common themes. Most food waste occurred during service and as a result of overproduction. Attitudes and habits of foodservice personnel were considered influential factors of waste generation. Implications of food waste were perceived differently by different levels of staff. Whereas managers raised discussion from a financial perspective, kitchen staff drew upon social implications. Organizational plans, controls, and use of pre-prepared ingredients assisted in waste minimization. An array of factors influenced waste generation in hospital foodservices. Exploring attitudes and practices of foodservice personnel allowed an understanding of reasons behind hospital food waste and ways in which it could be minimized. This study provides a foundation for further research on sustainable behavior within the wider foodservice sector and dietetics practice. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. NRC regulations for disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in geologic repositories: technical criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.B.; Bell, M.J.; Regnier, E.P.

    1983-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission is promulgating regulations specifying the technical criteria fo disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in geologic repositories. The proposed rule was published for public comment in July 1981. Public comments have been received and considered by the Commission staff. The Commission will soon approve and publish a revised final rule. While the final rule being considered by the Commission is fundamentally the same as the proposed rule, provisions have been added to permit flexibility in the application of numerical criteria, some detailed design requirements have been deleted, and other changes have been made in response to comments. The rule is consistent with the recently enacted Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982

  1. Technical soaps - a possibility of decontaminating thorium-contaminated waste waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drathen, H.; Erichsen, L. v.

    1977-01-01

    Thorium-contaminated waste waters showing a concentration of thorium higher than 10sup(-5) mol/l can be quantitatively decontaminated by adding soaps. Concentrations of impurity ions of both tap and sea waters have been taken into consideration. As there is no difference between soaps and soap mixtures concerning the quantity of precipitation rates, technical soaps are from the economic point of view best suited for decontaminating thorium-contaminated waste waters. Having a soap concentration of 200% of the stoichiometric amount of thorium and a concentration of impurity ions of 10sup(-2) mol/l, it is assumed that decontamination factors of more than 20 can be reached in one step. (orig.) [de

  2. Implementation of technical conservatism in the development of nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbiener, W.A.; Hall, R.J.; Matthews, S.C.

    1981-01-01

    Implementation of the Department of Energy program policy on technical conservatism takes two forms - conservatism in the conduct of the program, and conservatism in the performance of the disposal system. The first is achieved by a stepwise approach to system development and operation, the systems (multibarrier) viewpoint, the retrievability requirement, and the extensive use of peer reviews throughout the conduct of the program. The second is achieved by the proper selection and application of conservative design and operational limits. This paper discusses each approach individually. The inherent uncertainties associated with geologic disposal of nuclear waste dictate that conservatism be prudently applied in the conduct of the program, in the disposal system design, analysis, and performance, and in applying current mining technology to waste disposal. An example is presented to illustrate an approach to establishing design margins

  3. Technical development for geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Hidekazu; Sugino, Hiroyuki; Kawakami, Susumu; Yamanaka, Yumiko

    1997-01-01

    Technical developments for geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes materials research and design technique for engineered barriers (overpack and buffer material) were studied to evaluate more reliable disposal systems for high-level radioactive wastes. A lifetime prediction model for the maximum corrosion depth of carbon steel was developed. A preferable alloys evaluation method for crevice corrosion was established for titanium. Swelling pressure and water permeability of bentonite as a buffer material was measured, and coupled hydro-thermo-mechanical analysis code for bentonite was also studied. The CIP (cold isostatic pressing) method for monolithically formed buffer material was tested. A concept study on operation equipment for the disposal site was performed. Activities of microorganisms involved in underground performance were investigated. (author)

  4. ANL Technical Support Program for DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, J.K.; Bradley, C.R.; Buck, E.C.; Cunnane, J.C.; Dietz, N.L.; Ebert, W.L.; Emery, J.W.; Feng, X.; Gerding, T.J.; Gong, M.; Hoh, J.C.; Mazer, J.J.; Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Bourcier, W.L.; Morgan, L.E.; Nielsen, J.K.; Steward, S.A.; Ewing, R.C.; Wang, L.M.; Han, W.T.; Tomozawa, M.

    1992-03-01

    This report provides an overview of progress during FY 1991 for the Technical Support Program that is part of the ANL Technology Support Activity for DOE, Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). The purpose is to evaluate, before hot start-up of the Defenses Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), factors that are likely to affect glass reaction in an unsaturated environment typical of what may be expected for the candidate Yucca Mountain repository site. Specific goals for the testing program include the following: (1) to review and evaluate available information on parameters that will be important in establishing the long-term performance of glass in a repository environment; (2) to perform testing to further quantify the effects of important variables where there are deficiencies in the available data; and (3) to initiate long-term testing that will bound glass performance under a range of conditions applicable to repository disposal

  5. Greater-than-Class C low-level waste characterization technical review process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchison, D.; Magleby, M.

    1990-01-01

    Existing volume projections of greater-than-Class C low-level waste (GTCC LLW) vary significantly. The Department of Energy (DOE) National Low-Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP) has undertaken activities to develop a best estimate of GTCC LLW volumes and activities for use as the planning basis. Initial information about the generation of GTCC LLW was obtained through a DOE Energy Information Administration survey. That information, combined with information from other related literature, formed the basis of a computer model, which projects potential GTCC LLW. This paper describes uncertainties in existing GTCC LLW characterization and volume projections data and describes the technical review process that is being used to assist in projections of GTCC LLW expected for storage and disposal. 8 refs., 2 tabs.

  6. Greater-than-Class C low-level waste characterization technical review process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchison, D.; Magleby, M.

    1990-01-01

    Existing volume projections of greater-than-Class C low-level waste (GTCC LLW) vary significantly. The Department of Energy (DOE) National Low-Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP) has undertaken activities to develop a best estimate of GTCC LLW volumes and activities for use as the planning basis. Initial information about the generation of GTCC LLW was obtained through a DOE Energy Information Administration survey. That information, combined with information from other related literature, formed the basis of a computer model, which projects potential GTCC LLW. This paper describes uncertainties in existing GTCC LLW characterization and volume projections data and describes the technical review process that is being used to assist in projections of GTCC LLW expected for storage and disposal. 8 refs., 2 tabs

  7. Technical requirements for the actinide source-term waste test program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, M.L.F.; Molecke, M.A.

    1993-10-01

    This document defines the technical requirements for a test program designed to measure time-dependent concentrations of actinide elements from contact-handled transuranic (CH TRU) waste immersed in brines similar to those found in the underground workings of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This test program wig determine the influences of TRU waste constituents on the concentrations of dissolved and suspended actinides relevant to the performance of the WIPP. These influences (which include pH, Eh, complexing agents, sorbent phases, and colloidal particles) can affect solubilities and colloidal mobilization of actinides. The test concept involves fully inundating several TRU waste types with simulated WIPP brines in sealed containers and monitoring the concentrations of actinide species in the leachate as a function of time. The results from this program will be used to test numeric models of actinide concentrations derived from laboratory studies. The model is required for WIPP performance assessment with respect to the Environmental Protection Agency`s 40 CFR Part 191B.

  8. Technical requirements for the actinide source-term waste test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, M.L.F.; Molecke, M.A.

    1993-10-01

    This document defines the technical requirements for a test program designed to measure time-dependent concentrations of actinide elements from contact-handled transuranic (CH TRU) waste immersed in brines similar to those found in the underground workings of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This test program wig determine the influences of TRU waste constituents on the concentrations of dissolved and suspended actinides relevant to the performance of the WIPP. These influences (which include pH, Eh, complexing agents, sorbent phases, and colloidal particles) can affect solubilities and colloidal mobilization of actinides. The test concept involves fully inundating several TRU waste types with simulated WIPP brines in sealed containers and monitoring the concentrations of actinide species in the leachate as a function of time. The results from this program will be used to test numeric models of actinide concentrations derived from laboratory studies. The model is required for WIPP performance assessment with respect to the Environmental Protection Agency's 40 CFR Part 191B

  9. Evaluation of AFBC co-firing of coal and hospital wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-01

    The purpose of this program is to expand the use of coal by utilizing CFB (circulating fluidized bed) technology to provide an environmentally safe method for disposing of waste materials. Hospitals are currently experiencing a waste management crisis. In many instances, they are no longer permitted to burn pathological and infectious wastes in incinerators. Older hospital incinerators are not capable of maintaining the stable temperatures and residence times necessary in order to completely destroy toxic substances before release into the atmosphere. In addition, the number of available landfills which can safely handle these substances is decreasing each year. The purpose of this project is to conduct necessary research investigating whether the combustion of the hospital wastes in a coal-fired circulating fluidized bed boiler will effectively destroy dioxins and other hazardous substances before release into the atmosphere. If this is proven feasible, in light of the quantity of hospital wastes generated each year, it would create a new market for coal -- possibly 50 million tons/year.

  10. Conceptual framework for the study of food waste generation and prevention in the hospitality sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papargyropoulou, Effie; Wright, Nigel; Lozano, Rodrigo; Steinberger, Julia; Padfield, Rory; Ujang, Zaini

    2016-03-01

    Food waste has significant detrimental economic, environmental and social impacts. The magnitude and complexity of the global food waste problem has brought it to the forefront of the environmental agenda; however, there has been little research on the patterns and drivers of food waste generation, especially outside the household. This is partially due to weaknesses in the methodological approaches used to understand such a complex problem. This paper proposes a novel conceptual framework to identify and explain the patterns and drivers of food waste generation in the hospitality sector, with the aim of identifying food waste prevention measures. This conceptual framework integrates data collection and analysis methods from ethnography and grounded theory, complemented with concepts and tools from industrial ecology for the analysis of quantitative data. A case study of food waste generation at a hotel restaurant in Malaysia is used as an example to illustrate how this conceptual framework can be applied. The conceptual framework links the biophysical and economic flows of food provisioning and waste generation, with the social and cultural practices associated with food preparation and consumption. The case study demonstrates that food waste is intrinsically linked to the way we provision and consume food, the material and socio-cultural context of food consumption and food waste generation. Food provisioning, food consumption and food waste generation should be studied together in order to fully understand how, where and most importantly why food waste is generated. This understanding will then enable to draw detailed, case specific food waste prevention plans addressing the material and socio-economic aspects of food waste generation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion (AFBC) co-firing of coal and hospital waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    The proposed project involves co-firing of coal and medical waste (including infectious medical waste) in an atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor (AFBC) to safely dispose of medical waste and produce steam for hospital needs. Combustion at the design temperature and residence time (duration) in the AFBC has been proven to render infectious medical waste free of disease producing organisms. The project would be located at the Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center in Lebanon, Pennsylvania. The estimated cost of the proposed AFBC facility is nearly $4 million. It would be jointly funded by DOE, Veterans Affairs, and Donlee Technologies, Inc., of York, Pennsylvania, under a cooperative agreement between DOE and Donlee. Under the terms of this agreement, $3.708 million in cost-shared financial assistance would be jointly provided by DOE and the Veterans Affairs (50/50), with $278,000 provided by Donlee. The purposes of the proposed project are to: (1) provide the VA Medical Center and the Good Samaritan Hospital (GSH), also of Lebanon, Pennsylvania, with a solution for disposal of their medical waste; and (2) demonstrate that a new coal-burning technology can safely incinerate infectious medical waste, produce steam to meet hospital needs, and comply with environmental regulations

  12. Technical basis for a minimum hydroxide concentration in tanks containing dilute waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapp, P.E.

    1995-05-01

    Laboratory tests were performed to address the protection of waste tank steel from corrosion in situations of elevated temperatures up to 75 C (hot spots) in the sludge layer of Extended Sludge Processing (ESP) tanks. Coupon immersion tests were conducted at 75 C in two ESP simulants at four hydroxide (or pH) levels. The nitrite concentrations of the simulants were calculated from the ESP technical standards based on a temperature of 40 C. The results showed that a hydroxide concentration of at least 0.01 M prevented significant corrosion of the steel at the elevated temperature. This conclusion provides the technical basis for the revised minimum hydroxide concentration of 0.01 M in the draft WSRC 241-82H Control Room Process Requirements, for the ESP tanks

  13. Scientific and technical basis for the near surface disposal of low and intermediate level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This report presents an overview of the scientific and technical basis for the disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste in near surface repositories. The focus is on basic principles, approaches, methodologies and technical criteria that can be used to develop and assess the performance of a disposal facility, and for building confidence in repository safety. This includes consideration of the multiple barrier concept, the performance of engineered barriers, the role of natural barriers and the development of a safety case. The emphasis is on defining the conditions relevant to the containment of the radionuclides in the repository and the processes that may affect the integrity of the engineered barriers. Both generic and specific data requirements for repository development and the assurance of safety are addressed. A large number of bibliographical references are given to support the information provided in this report

  14. Thirteenth annual report of the Technical Advisory Committee on the Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-15

    This report details activities since the last reporting period by the Technical Advisory Committee (TAC). The emphasis of the work in the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program (CNFWMP) has been on the writing of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and the associated set of the primary reference document as well as supporting documents. These are in preparation for submission to the Environmental Assessment Review Panel who will lead the national evaluation of the disposal concept under the auspices of the Federal Environmental Assessment Review Office (FEARO).

  15. Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste: A Long-Term Socio-Technical Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Jantine

    2016-06-01

    In this article we investigate whether long-term radioactive waste management by means of geological disposal can be understood as a social experiment. Geological disposal is a rather particular technology in the way it deals with the analytical and ethical complexities implied by the idea of technological innovation as social experimentation, because it is presented as a technology that ultimately functions without human involvement. We argue that, even when the long term function of the 'social' is foreseen to be restricted to safeguarding the functioning of the 'technical', geological disposal is still a social experiment. In order to better understand this argument and explore how it could be addressed, we elaborate the idea of social experimentation with the notion of co-production and the analytical tools of delegation, prescription and network as developed by actor-network theory. In doing so we emphasize that geological disposal inherently involves relations between surface and subsurface, between humans and nonhumans, between the social, material and natural realm, and that these relations require recognition and further elaboration. In other words, we argue that geological disposal concurrently is a social and a technical experiment, or better, a long-term socio-technical experiment. We end with proposing the idea of 'actor-networking' as a sensitizing concept for future research into what geological disposal as a socio-technical experiment could look like.

  16. The formation of technic soil in a revegetated uranium ore waste rock pile (Limousin, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boekhout, Flora; Gérard, Martine; Kanzari, Aisha; Calas, Georges; Descostes, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Mining took place in France between 1945 and 2001 during which time ~210 different sites were exploited and/or explored. A total of 76 Kt of uranium was produced, 52 Mt of ore was extracted, but also 200 Mt of waste rocks was produced, the majority of which, with uranium levels corresponding to the natural environment. So far, the processes of arenisation and technic soil formation in waste rock piles are not well understood but have important implications for understanding the environmental impact and long-term speciation of uranium. Understanding weathering processes in waste rock piles is essential to determine their environmental impact. The main objectives of this work are to assess 1) the micromorphological features and neo-formed U-bearing phases related to weathering and 2) the processes behind arenisation of the rock pile. The site that was chosen is the Vieilles Sagnes waste rock pile in Fanay (Massif Central France) that represents more or less hydrothermally altered granitic rocks that have been exposed to weathering since the construction of the waste rock pile approximately 50 years ago. Two trenches were excavated to investigate the vertical differentiation of the rock pile. This site serves as a key location for studying weathering processes of waste rock piles, as it has not been reworked after initial construction and has therefore preserved information on the original mineralogy of the waste rock pile enabling us to access post emplacement weathering processes. The site is currently overgrown by moss, meter high ferns and small trees. At present day the rock pile material can be described as hydrothermally altered rocks and rock fragments within a fine-grained silty clay matrix exposed to surface conditions and weathering. A sandy "paleo" technic soil underlies the waste rock pile and functions as a natural liner by adsorption of uranium on clay minerals. Post-mining weathering of rock-pile material is superimposed on pre-mining hydrothermal and

  17. Waste management barriers in developing country hospitals: Case study and AHP analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmonico, Diego V de Godoy; Santos, Hugo H Dos; Pinheiro, Marco Ap; de Castro, Rosani; de Souza, Regiane M

    2018-01-01

    Healthcare waste management is an essential field for both researchers and practitioners. Although there have been few studies using statistical methods for its evaluation, it has been the subject of several studies in different contexts. Furthermore, the known precarious practices for waste management in developing countries raise questions about its potential barriers. This study aims to investigate the barriers in healthcare waste management and their relevance. For this purpose, this paper analyses waste management practices in two Brazilian hospitals by using case study and the Analytic Hierarchy Process method. The barriers were organized into three categories - human factors, management, and infrastructure, and the main findings suggest that cost and employee awareness were the most significant barriers. These results highlight the main barriers to more sustainable waste management, and provide an empirical basis for multi-criteria evaluation of the literature.

  18. [Waste management in hospitals. Current situation in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, W; Hansen, D; Hilgenhöner, M; Grandek, M; Heinemann, A; Blättler, T

    2009-07-01

    In 20 hospitals in North Rhine-Westphalia in-plant handling wastes and the delivery of the waste to the disposer were examined. Deficits were seen regarding risk assessment and operating instructions, support by company doctors, personal protection equipment, and break areas for the waste collecting personnel. Also the qualification of the waste management officer and his/her time contingent, correct declaration of the wastes, the training of the waste collecting personnel, the cleaning of multi-use containers and transportation vehicles, storage of the wastes at the collecting points, and the use of sharp collecting boxes were to be partly criticized. Consequences and recommendations are given, concerning the company's obligations (e.g., provide risk assessment, operating instructions), waste management officer (e.g., qualification, enough time contingent, regular inspections), waste collecting personnel (e.g., training courses), industrial safety (e.g., protection equipment, break area wash places), company doctors, transportation vehicles in the house (e.g., regular cleaning), one-way collectors (e.g., labelling at the site of the collection), multi-use collectors (e.g., cleaning), and compressing containers (e.g., larger maintenance openings).

  19. Decontamination of hospital wastes by the combined action of ionising radiation and heat - the thermorad process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Icre, P.; Rocquigny, H. de

    1995-01-01

    The Thermorad process is used for decontaminating hospital wastes at the hospital as they are collected from the different departments. The process utilises the combined microbiological effects of ionising radiation (5 kGy) and dry heat (60 o C). The treatment unit, which is compact and of small size, contains a cobalt 60 source of under 100,000 curies and has an annual treatment capacity of 5000 m 3 . (author)

  20. Technical and economic assessment of power generation from municipal solid waste incineration on steam cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Luna, Carlos Manuel; Carrocci, Luiz Roberto; Ferrufino, Gretta Larisa Aurora Arce; Balestieri, Jose Antonio Perrella [Dept. of Energy. UNESP, Sao Paulo State University, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)], e-mails: carrocci@feg.unesp.br, perrella@feg.unesp.br

    2010-07-01

    Nowadays, there is a concern in development of environmentally friendly methods for a municipal solid waste (MSW) management and demand for renewable energy sources. The source of waste is increasing, and the capacity and availability Landfill treatment and disposal are coming to be insufficient. In Sao Paulo City, the 10 million inhabitants produce 10,000 t of residential solid waste daily, being that 76% this quantity goes to landfill sites. In order to adopt a new treatment technology for MSW that will promote a solution minimizing this problem, within the order of priorities regarding waste management, the MSW incineration with energy recovery shown as the leading choice on the point of view of efficiency in converting energy. MSW incineration with energy recovery received wide acceptance from various countries including European Union members and the rest of the world in the past 15 years. Incineration has the ability decrease 90 % the volume of waste to be used in landfills, increasing the useful life of existing as well as a reduction in the emission of greenhouse gases. MSW incineration systems have a low global warming potential (GWP). now has become a less important source of dioxins and furans due to the current available technology. MSW incineration with energy recovery could contribute considerably in the energy matrix, thus promote the conservation of non-renewable resources. This paper proposes the assessment the technical and economic feasibility of a steam cycle with conventional steam generator for MSW incineration with energy recovery for power generation in Sao Paulo City. Will be developed a thermoeconomic analysis aiming at the total power generation product of MSW incineration, and the assessment investment cost regarding the total sale of power generated. The study shows that Sao Paulo City has potential for power generation from the MSW incineration, although it has a high cost investment this technology shown as a suitable alternative for

  1. Three dimensional visualization breakthrough in analysis and communication of technical information for nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, D.H.; Cerny, B.A.; Hill, E.R.; Krupka, K.M.; Smoot, J.L.; Smith, D.R.; Waldo, K.

    1990-11-01

    Computer graphics systems that provide interactive display and manipulation of three-dimensional data are powerful tools for the analysis and communication of technical information required for characterization and design of a geologic repository for nuclear waste. Greater understanding of site performance and repository design information is possible when performance-assessment modeling results can be visually analyzed in relation to site geologic and hydrologic information and engineering data for surface and subsurface facilities. In turn, this enhanced visualization capability provides better communication between technical staff and program management with respect to analysis of available information and prioritization of program planning. A commercially-available computer system was used to demonstrate some of the current technology for three-dimensional visualization within the architecture of systems for nuclear waste management. This computer system was used to interactively visualize and analyze the information for two examples: (1) site-characterization and engineering data for a potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada; and (2) three-dimensional simulations of a hypothetical release and transport of contaminants from a source of radionuclides to the vadose zone. Users may assess the three-dimensional distribution of data and modeling results by interactive zooming, rotating, slicing, and peeling operations. For those parts of the database where information is sparse or not available, the software incorporates models for the interpolation and extrapolation of data over the three-dimensional space of interest. 12 refs., 4 figs

  2. Avoidable Technical and Clinical Denial Write-Off Management in Hospitals, Physician Offices, and Clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terra, Sandra Marlene; Byrne, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the various types of technical and clinical denials that are usually "written off" and proposes strategies to prevent this loss. For purposes of this writing, avoidable technical and clinical denial write-offs are defined as revenue lost from "first-pass" denials rejections. For example, a procedure that requires an authorization is performed without having had an authorization obtained. After appeals and attempts to recoup the revenue, often unsuccessful, the organization ultimately "writes off" the revenue as not collectable. The question to ask is: Are these claims really not collectable or can actionable steps be taken to conserve these dollars and improve the bottom line? Acute care hospitals, physician offices, and clinics. In today's environment, the need to manage costs is ubiquitous. Cost management is on the priority list of all savvy health care executives, even if margins are healthy, revenue is under pressure, and the magnitude of cost reduction needed is greater than what past efforts have achieved. As hospitals and physician clinics prioritize areas for improvement, reduction in lost revenue-especially avoidable lost revenue-should be at the top of the list. Attentively managing claim denial write-offs will significantly reduce lost revenue. There is significant interface between case management and the revenue cycle. Developing core competencies for reducing clinical and technical denials should be a critical imperative in overall cost management strategy. Case managers are well placed to prevent these unnecessary losses through accurate status determination and clinical documentation review. These clinical professionals can also provide insight into work flow and other processes inherent in the preauthorization process.

  3. Record of Technical Change No.2 for ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 143: Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Record of Technical Change provides updates to the technical information included in ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 143: Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada.''

  4. Applying waste heat recovery system in a sewage sludge dryer – A technical and economic optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tańczuk, Mariusz; Kostowski, Wojciech; Karaś, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A modernization of waste heat recovery system in a sludge drying plant is proposed. • Energy performance analysis rejected the downsize case of modernization. • Optimal system sizes regarding Net Present Value and Net Present Value Ratio do not coincide. • Up to 683 MW h/y of chemical energy savings for optimal heat exchanger size. • Higher profitability for the larger heat exchanger cases: paybacks below 3.65 years. - Abstract: Drying of digested sewage sludge, as an important alternative to sludge disposal at dumping sites, should comply with the requirements of high energy efficiency as well as economic feasibility. The technical and economic optimization analysis of installing a waste process heat recovery unit in a medium-temperature belt dryer operated in a municipal waste water treatment plant was carried out. Inlet capacity of the plant is 1.83 Mg of wet sludge per hour. The post-process air was indicated as a source of waste heat and the configuration of a heat recovery system was proposed. The main objective of the research was to find the optimal size of a chosen type of waste heat recovery heat exchanger for preheating ambient air to the process. The maximization of Net Present Value, and, alternatively, also Net Present Value Ratio were selected for the objective function of the optimization procedure. Simulation of yearly operation of waste heat exchanger was made for a range of different heat exchanging areas (101–270 m"2) regarding given parameters of a post-process air and different temperatures of ambient air. Energy performance of the modernization was evaluated and economic indices were calculated for each of the analyzed cases. The location of the maximum of optimization function was found and the calculations show higher profitability of the cases with larger waste heat exchanger. It can be concluded that the location of optimum of the objective function is very sensitive to the price of natural gas supplied to the

  5. Review of the scientific and technical criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The panel has evaluated the scientific and technical adequacy of work being done on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project to satisfy the charge to the panel set out in Chapter 1. The panel concluded that the scientific work has been carried out with a high degree of professional competence. The panel notes that the geology revealed by shaft sinking and excavation of drifts and the preliminary measurements generally confirm the geologic expectations derived from surface explorations and boreholes. The purity and volume of the salt, the absence of brine pockets at the repository horizon in the areas excavated, the absence of breccia pipes and of toxic gases, and the nearly horizontal bedding of the salt indicate that a repository can be constructed that will meet the geologic criteria for site selection. Thus, the important issues about the geology at the site have been resolved, but there remain some issues about the hydrology and design of the facility that should be resolved before large-scale transuranic (TRU) waste emplacement begins. The panel's conclusions and recommendations regarding the following studies are presented: site selection and characterization; in-situ tests and experiments; waste acceptance criteria; design and construction of underground facilities; and performance assessment. 65 references, 17 figures, 3 tables

  6. Evolution of EPA/DOE technical cooperation in remediation of radiation/mixed waste contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, Robert S.; Garcia-Frias, Beverly; Wolbarst, Anthony B.; Coe, Larry J.

    1992-01-01

    The EPA Office of Radiation Programs (ORP) and the DOE Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) are cooperating in efforts related to restoration of radioactive and mixed waste sites. The impetus for these efforts derived from DOE's need to perform restoration activities according to CERCLA/RCRA requirements, and from ORP's role as a supplier of radiation expertise to federal agencies. These activities include: assessing remediation technology, developing radioanalytical protocols; matching cleanup technologies to soil characteristics; developing a process for the evaluation, selection, and appropriate use of groundwater models; reviewing incinerator practices; and addressing technical issues associated with the WIPP. Cooperative projects planned for the future include: evaluation of methodologies for streamlining the restoration process; assessment of the applicability of process knowledge for waste characterization; evaluation of recycling of radioactive metals; and expansion of selected environmental protection initiatives at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Public acceptance is a crucial component of the remediation process. An underlying objective of these cooperative initiatives is to address issues of concern to the public in an open and honest fashion. (author)

  7. Construction demolition wastes, Waelz slag and MSWI bottom ash: a comparative technical analysis as material for road construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegas, I; Ibañez, J A; San José, J T; Urzelai, A

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the study is to analyze the technical suitability of using secondary materials from three waste flows (construction and demolition waste (CDW), Waelz slag and municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash), under the regulations and standards governing the use of materials for road construction. A detailed technical characterization of the materials was carried out according to Spanish General Technical Specifications for Road Construction (PG3). The results show that Waelz slag can be adequate for using in granular structural layers, while CDW fits better as granular material in roadbeds. Likewise, fresh MSWI bottom ash can be used as roadbed material as long as it does not contain a high concentration of soluble salts. This paper also discusses the adequacy of using certain traditional test methods for natural soils when characterizing secondary materials for use as aggregates in road construction.

  8. Characterization of radioactive waste from a university hospital and evaluation of the management process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, I.M.R.; Batista, A.S.M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: University hospitals, due to their educational nature, are generally of tertiary size with a wide availability of imaging equipment for diagnosis and / or treatment. The Hospital das Clínicas of the Federal University of Minas Gerais (HC / UFMG) has sectors of Nuclear Medicine, Conventional and Interventional Radiology, Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance. The Faculty of Medicine still has a Molecular Imaging Center, equipped with a Positron Emission Tomography (CT) equipment coupled to CT (PET-CT). So who makes use of radionuclide emitting equipment and equipment of different types of radiation should be considered regarding the principles of radioprotection. Methods: A survey of the radioactive waste generated by the Hospital das Clínicas of the Federal University of Minas Gerais (HC / UFMG) was carried out regarding the type, origin, treatment organization, route and destination. Results: It was observed that the sector that generates the most radioactive waste is Nuclear Medicine. The most used radionuclides are shown in the table in comparison with the most relevant ones in the management aspect of waste, taking into account the half-life and emission type. Conclusion: The management of radioactive waste at the Hospital das Clínicas of UFMG is the responsibility of the sectors that generate them until they are safe to be considered common waste, that is, after decay. They follow the guidelines of the Brazilian National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), Norm CNEN NN 8.01, ensuring safety in the handling of radioactive waste of short half-life

  9. Waste management in three public hospitals of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil - doi:10.5020/18061230.2010.p221

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keila Tivirolli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the management of health service waste generated in three public hospitals of Mato Grosso do Sul (Brazil, including qualitative and quantitative parameters. Methods: This was an observational and descriptive study. We assessed the waste management in two large public hospitals (HG1, 240 hospital beds and HG2, 343 beds and in a small sized one (HP, 35 hospital beds. The data were collected in situ, by direct observation of the procedures for waste management and by quantifying the mass of waste generated by working sector in the three hospitals. Results: The study revealed that the internal management of waste generated in the three health care unities was not adequate, and that their workers were not trained on the proper management of waste and the use of personal protective equipment. The average rates of waste generation determined in HG1, HG2 and HP were, respectively, 4.7, 4.8 and 2.4 Kg.hospital bed-1.day-1, that fit the range of values reported in the literature. Conclusion: The detected inadequacies directly put at risk the health of workers and others who attend the three assessed hospitals and the outside comunity, which may be exposed to pathogens or toxic agents present in such waste.

  10. Assessment of Infectious Waste Management Practices at Hospital with Excellent Accreditation Level in Bandung, Cimahi and East Jakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitria Novi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study includes the procedures available and methods of handling and disposing of infectious waste at Military hospital with Excellent Accreditation level in Bandung, Cimahi and East Jakarta, Indonesia. A total three (3 military hospitals with equal type of hospital and level accreditation were surveyed during the course of this research. The methods consisted of survey and interview with the authorities of the hospital and the personal involved in the management of the generated waste. The information was collected using forms specially developed for this purpose. Site visits were conducted to support and supplement information gathered in the survey. Assessment of infectious waste handling divided into six parameters: Hospital policy at organizational structure, status of cleaning services worker, classification/segregation process, collect and transport the infectious waste, condition of temporary storage of infectious waste and disposal phase of infectious waste. The result showed that the hospital with highest level of accreditation have less appropriate practices when it comes to segregation, collecting, storage and disposal of waste generated in comparison to developed country. It appears that hospital authorities should pay better attention to educational planning, organizational resources and supervision at infectious waste management.

  11. Food intake, plate waste and its association with malnutrition in hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simzari, Kobra; Vahabzadeh, Davoud; Nouri Saeidlou, Sakineh; Khoshbin, Susan; Bektas, Yener

    2017-11-16

    Hospital malnutrition is a worldwide dilemma and challenge. High levels of plate waste contribute to malnutrition-related complications in hospital. We investigated the association between the levels of plate waste, food intake and patient satisfaction with nutritional risk and malnutrition prevalence in three hospital settings. The sample population of 120 patients, aged 18-65 year, admitted consecutively over a 12 month period to 3 different educational university hospitals was included. For all the patients, diet history, anthropometric measurements, body mass index and patient satisfaction with the hospital food service was evaluated. Weight plate waste for all daily meals was done and actual intakes computed individually for each day. Nutrition risk screening (NRS)-2002 (≥ 3) tool was used for estimating the nutritionally at-risk population. Results: From one hundred twenty non-critically ill patients with a mean 8.9 ± 3.5 day length of hospital stay, 40.8% (49) were men and 59.2% (71) were female. Mean energy and protein requirements were 2,030.3 ± 409.03 kcal/day and 76.13 ± 15.33 g/day respectively. Mean intakes were 1,326 ± 681.44 kcal/day and 66.81 ± 31.66 g/day respectively. The mean percent of plate waste for lunch and dinner were 37.7 ± 29.88 and 30.4 ± 23.61 respectively. In the total population, 25% of patients were satisfied and 75% patients were unsatisfied with hospital foods. Based on BMI ( 10%), malnutrition prevalence was 12.5% and 14.2% respectively during hospitalization. The prevalence of nutritionally at-risk population was 30% at admission time and reached 33.3% at discharge. Plate waste and hospital malnutrition were highly prevalent in accompanying with increasing nutritionally risk progression. So it should be addressed as an important health issue and appropriate strategies for stimulating governmental policies should be adopted.

  12. Development of a technical process concerning the immobilisation of nuclear waste by embedding into ceramic matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, G.; Krause, H.

    1993-12-01

    Ceramic is considered a highly qualified matrix for the embedding of all radioactive waste concentrates arising from reprocessing and fabricating UO 2 /PuO 2 -mixed oxide fuel elements and it may take up all long-lived or highly active radionuclides. Parallel to product development a technically feasible process has been started. The wastes are mixed with the ceramics-forming agents in a wet medium. A double-shaft extruder may be used. Backfitting of the extruder for use in a hot cell may be carried out easily. Experiments are presented and conceptions developed as to how the facility may be designed under aggravated boundary conditions of irradiation and remote handling. The process consists of the following stages: Preliminary treatment of the four waste suspensions, without dehydration; continuous dosage into a double-shaft extruder, where preliminary drying and then addition of the fifth waste type (dry ash) as well as of the mixture of ceramics-forming agents takes place; mixing and preferably extrusion. Heat treatment from the drying and calcination temperatures up to the sintering temperature of 1250-1300 C in a stationary heated electric furnace, filling of the hot material into canisters, filling of the cavities with liquid glas, and sealing of the cansiters. Except for an experiment with dissolver residues, all experiments were inactive. Conventional devices were applied with the aim of investigated their suitability for the process as well as for the conditions of remote handling and inrradiation. A facility, which was to be located downstream of a 350 t/a reprocessing plant, would have to have a throughput of about 40 kg/h ceramic product or 6 canisters per day. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Technical procedures for utilities and solid waste: Environmental Field Program, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    The evaluation of environmental issues and concerns and the addressing of statutory requirements are fundamental parts in the characterization of the site in Deaf Smith County, Texas for the US Department of Energy's Salt Repository Project (SRP). To ensure that the environmental field program comprehensively addresses the issues and requirements of the project, a site study plan (SSP) has been prepared for Utilities and Solid Waste considerations. This technical procedure (TP) has been developed to implement the field program described in the Utilities and Solid Waste Site Study Plan. The purpose and scope of the Utilities and Solid Waste Technical Procedure is to develop and implement a data collection procedure to fulfill the data base needs of the Utilities and Solid Waste SSP. The procedure describes a method of obtaining, assessing and verifying the capabilities of the regional service utilities and disposal contractors. This data base can be used to identify a preferred service source for the engineering contractor. The technical procedure was produced under the guidelines established in Technical Administrative Procedure No. 1.0, Preparation, Review and Approval of Technical Procedures

  14. Assessment of the health care waste generation rates and its management system in hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debere Mesfin Kote

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare waste management options are varying in Ethiopia. One of the first critical steps in the process of developing a reliable waste management plan requires a widespread understanding of the amount and the management system. This study aimed to assess the health care waste generation rate and its management system in some selected hospitals located in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods Six hospitals in Addis Ababa, (three private and three public, were selected using simple random sampling method for this work. Data was recorded by using an appropriately designed questionnaire, which was completed for the period of two months. The calculations were based on the weights of the health care wastes that were regularly generated in the selected hospitals over a one week period during the year 2011. Average generation indexes were determined in relation to certain important factors, like the type of hospitals (public vs private. Results The median waste generation rate was found to be varied from 0.361- 0.669 kg/patient/day, comprised of 58.69% non-hazardous and 41.31% hazardous wastes. The amount of waste generated was increased as the number of patients flow increased (rs=1. Public hospitals generated high proportion of total health care wastes (59.22% in comparison with private hospitals (40.48%. The median waste generation rate was significantly vary between hospitals with Kruskal-Wallis test (X2=30.65, p=0.0001. The amount of waste was positively correlated with the number of patients (p Conclusion These findings revealed that the management of health care waste at hospitals in Addis Ababa city was poor.

  15. Physico-chemical basics for production of uranium concentrate from wastes of hydrometallurgical plants and technical waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, I.; Nazarov, K.

    2014-01-01

    Physico-chemical and technological basics for reprocessing of uranium industry wastes of Northern Tajikistan shows that the most perspective site for reprocessing is Chkalovkst tailings wastes. The engineering and geological conditions and content of radionuclides in wastes were investigated. It was determined that considered by radioactivity the wastes are low activity and they can be reprocessed for the purpose of U_3O_8 production. Characteristics of mine and technical waters of uranium industry wastes were studied. Characteristics of mine and technical waters of Kiik-Tal and Istiklol city (former Taboshar) showed the expediency of uranium oxide extraction from them. The reasons for non-additional recovery extraction from dumps of SE “Vostokredmet” by classical methods of uranium leaching are studied. The kinetics of sulfuric leaching of residues from anthropogenic deposit of Map 1-9 (Chkalovsk City) were also investigated. Further investigations are to reveal the flow mechanism process of sulfuric leaching of residues and to enable the selection of a radiation regime for U_3O_8 production. The kinetics of sorption process of uranium extraction from mine and technical waters of uranium industry wastes were studied. High sorption properties of apricot shell compared to other sorbents were revealed. A basic process flow diagram for reprocessing of uranium tailing wastes was developed as well as diagrams for uranium extraction from mine and technical waters from uranium industry wastes. The process consists of the following stages: acidification, sorption, burning, leaching, sedimentation, filtration and drying. The possibility of uranium extraction from natural uranic waters of a complicated salt composition was considered. Investigations revealed that uranium extraction from brines containing chloride ion is possible. A developed uranium extraction scheme from Sasik-Kul lake’s brine consists of the following main stages: evaporation, leaching, chloride

  16. Heavy Metal Contamination of Soils around a Hospital Waste Incinerator Bottom Ash Dumps Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Adama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste incineration is the main waste management strategy used in treating hospital waste in many developing countries. However, the release of dioxins, POPs, and heavy metals in fly and bottom ash poses environmental and public health concerns. To determine heavy metal (Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ag in levels in incinerator bottom ash and soils 100 m around the incinerator bottom ash dump site, ash samples and surrounding soil samples were collected at 20 m, 40 m, 60 m, 80 m, 100 m, and 1,200 m from incinerator. These were analyzed using the absorption spectrophotometer method. The geoaccumulation (Igeo and pollution load indices (PLI were used to assess the level of heavy metal contamination of surrounding soils. The study revealed high concentrations in mg/kg for, Zn (16417.69, Pb (143.80, Cr (99.30, and Cd (7.54 in bottom ash and these were above allowable limits for disposal in landfill. The study also found soils within 60 m radius of the incinerator to be polluted with the metals. It is recommended that health care waste managers be educated on the implication of improper management of incinerator bottom ash and regulators monitor hospital waste incinerator sites.

  17. Heavy Metal Contamination of Soils around a Hospital Waste Incinerator Bottom Ash Dumps Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adama, M; Esena, R; Fosu-Mensah, B; Yirenya-Tawiah, D

    2016-01-01

    Waste incineration is the main waste management strategy used in treating hospital waste in many developing countries. However, the release of dioxins, POPs, and heavy metals in fly and bottom ash poses environmental and public health concerns. To determine heavy metal (Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ag) in levels in incinerator bottom ash and soils 100 m around the incinerator bottom ash dump site, ash samples and surrounding soil samples were collected at 20 m, 40 m, 60 m, 80 m, 100 m, and 1,200 m from incinerator. These were analyzed using the absorption spectrophotometer method. The geoaccumulation (I geo) and pollution load indices (PLI) were used to assess the level of heavy metal contamination of surrounding soils. The study revealed high concentrations in mg/kg for, Zn (16417.69), Pb (143.80), Cr (99.30), and Cd (7.54) in bottom ash and these were above allowable limits for disposal in landfill. The study also found soils within 60 m radius of the incinerator to be polluted with the metals. It is recommended that health care waste managers be educated on the implication of improper management of incinerator bottom ash and regulators monitor hospital waste incinerator sites.

  18. Heavy Metal Contamination of Soils around a Hospital Waste Incinerator Bottom Ash Dumps Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adama, M.; Esena, R.; Fosu-Mensah, B.; Yirenya-Tawiah, D.

    2016-01-01

    Waste incineration is the main waste management strategy used in treating hospital waste in many developing countries. However, the release of dioxins, POPs, and heavy metals in fly and bottom ash poses environmental and public health concerns. To determine heavy metal (Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ag) in levels in incinerator bottom ash and soils 100 m around the incinerator bottom ash dump site, ash samples and surrounding soil samples were collected at 20 m, 40 m, 60 m, 80 m, 100 m, and 1,200 m from incinerator. These were analyzed using the absorption spectrophotometer method. The geoaccumulation (I geo) and pollution load indices (PLI) were used to assess the level of heavy metal contamination of surrounding soils. The study revealed high concentrations in mg/kg for, Zn (16417.69), Pb (143.80), Cr (99.30), and Cd (7.54) in bottom ash and these were above allowable limits for disposal in landfill. The study also found soils within 60 m radius of the incinerator to be polluted with the metals. It is recommended that health care waste managers be educated on the implication of improper management of incinerator bottom ash and regulators monitor hospital waste incinerator sites. PMID:27034685

  19. Hospital Workers' Awareness of Health and Environmental Impacts of Poor Clinical Waste Disposal in the Northwest Region of Cameroon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mochungong, Peter I K; Gulis, Gabriel; Sodemann, Morten

    2010-01-01

    a survey to evaluate hospital workers' awareness of health and environmental impacts of poor clinical waste disposal in Cameroon. We randomly distributed 500 questionnaires to hospital workers in three hospitals in the Northwest Region of Cameroon in April 2008. In addition, we observed collection......Due to the infectious nature of some clinical waste, poor disposal practices have sparked concern regarding the impact on public health and the environment. Lack of sufficient knowledge of the associated risks may be a strong factor contributing to inadequate disposal practices. We conducted......, segregation, transportation, and disposal of clinical waste at the three hospitals. Of 475 total respondents, most lacked sufficient awareness of any environmental or public health impacts of poor clinical waste disposal and had never heard of any policy--national or international--on safe clinical waste...

  20. Production controls (PC) and technical verification testing (TVT). A methodology for the control and tracking of LILW waste package conditioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, A.M.; Nieto, J.L.L.; Garrido, J.G.

    2003-01-01

    As part of its low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) characterisation and acceptance activities, ENRESA has set up a quality control programme that covers the different phases of radioactive waste package production and implies different levels of tracking in generation, assessment of activity and control of the documentation associated therewith. Furthermore, ENRESA has made available the mechanisms required for verification, depending on the results of periodic sampling, of the quality of the end product delivered by the waste producers. Both processes are included within the framework of two programmes of complementary activities: production controls (PC) and technical verification testing (TVT). (orig.)

  1. Performance evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste. Volume 2: Technical basis and discussion of results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M.; Hospelhorn, M.B.

    1996-03-01

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a performance evaluation to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Volume 1 summarizes the process for selecting the fifteen sites, the methodology used in the evaluation, and the conclusions derived from the evaluation. Volume 2 first describes the screening process used to determine the sites to be considered in the PEs. This volume then provides the technical details of the methodology for conducting the performance evaluations. It also provides a comparison and analysis of the overall results for all sites that were evaluated. Volume 3 contains detailed evaluations of the fifteen sites and discussions of the results for each site

  2. KNOWLEDGE AND AWARENESS REGARDING BIOMEDICAL WASTE MANAGEMENT AMONG EMPLOYEES OF A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Bansal

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: A hospital is an establishment where the persons suffering with the variety of communicable and non communicable diseases are visiting to take medical care facilities. Hospitals and other healthcare establishments in India produce a significant quantity of waste, posing serious problems for its disposal, an issue that has received scant attention. Objective: To assess the level of knowledge regarding biomedical waste and its management among hospital personnel. Material and Methods: The present study was a cross sectional study carried out in a tertiary care hospital of Gwalior in year 2008. Medical, para-medical and non-medical personnel working at their current position for at least 6 months were included as study participants. Self made scoring system was used to categorize the participants as having Good, Average and Poor knowledge. Statistical Analysis: Percentage and Proportion were applied to interpret the result. Results: The score was highest for medical and least for non-medical staff. Conclusion: The present study concludes that regular training programs should be organized about the guidelines and rules of biomedical waste management at all level.

  3. Diagnose and Redesign of the handling and treatment processes of the solid waste in the Hospital Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos Arrieta, G.; Navarro Blanco, D

    1999-01-01

    In the Hospital Mexico a program for the handling of the solid waste was implemented. The program consists on placing recipients, in all the corridors, for each type of waste (recyclable, toxic, dangerous, kitchens). However, this measure doesn't eliminate the risk that the waste represents for the community and the environment. The handling of the solid waste includes the selection or classification, the gathering, the transportation, and the temporary storage. While the treatment consists on the application of procedures that reduce the polluting properties of the waste. The planning of the topic is: To diagnose and to redesign of the handling processes and internal treatment of the hospital solid waste (HSW) in the Hospital Mexico. The contribution of the Industrial Engineering is given in the thematic of redesign of processes; the complementary areas are engineering of the human factor, environmental impact and normalization. The current problem that undergoes the Hospital was defined as follows: The Hospital Mexico cannot assure that the handling and current treatment of the solid waste diminish the risk that they represent to the health of the hospital community and the deterioration of the environment. This problem contains the independent variables such as the handling and current treatment of the solid waste, and the dependent variables such as the risk to the health of the community and deterioration of the environment. Based on the problem, the following hypothesis is established: The current conditions of handling and the lack of internal treatment of the solid waste in the Hospital Mexico, causes that the waste is a risk for the health of the hospital community and the deterioration of the environment. The project was structured in three denominated stages: Diagnose, Design and Validation, which respond to different general and specific objectives. In the stage of diagnose, to determine that the waste generated in the centers of health contain

  4. Proceedings from the technical workshop on near-field performance assessment for high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellin, P.; Apted, M.; Gago, J.

    1991-12-01

    This report contains the proceedings of 'Technical workshop of near-filed performance assessment for high-level waste' held in Madrid October 15-17, 1990. It includes the invited presentations and summaries of the scientific discussions. The workshop covered several topics: * post-emplacement environment, * benchmarking of computer codes, * glass release, * spent-fuel release, * radionuclide solubility, * near-field transport processes, * coupled processes in the near-field, * integrated assessments, * sensitivity analyses and validation. There was an invited presentation on each topic followed by an extensive discussion. One of the points highlighted in the closing discussion of the workshop was the need for international cooperation in the field of near-field performance assessment. The general opinion was that this was best achieved in smaller groups discussing specific questions. (au) Separate abstracts were prepared for 9 papers in this volume

  5. Fiscal Year 2001 Tank Characterization Technical Sampling Basis and Waste Information Requirements Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ADAMS, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    The Fiscal Year 2001 Tank Characterization Technical Sampling Basis and Waste Information Requirements Document (TSB-WIRD) has the following purposes: (1) To identify and integrate sampling and analysis needs for fiscal year (FY) 2001 and beyond. (2) To describe the overall drivers that require characterization information and to document their source. (3) To describe the process for identifying, prioritizing, and weighting issues that require characterization information to resolve. (4) To define the method for determining sampling priorities and to present the sampling priorities on a tank-by-tank basis. (5) To define how the characterization program is going to satisfy the drivers, close issues, and report progress. (6)To describe deliverables and acceptance criteria for characterization deliverables

  6. Technical considerations in the design of near surface disposal facilities for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-11-01

    Good design is an important step towards ensuring operational as well as long term safety of low and intermediate level waste (LILW) disposal. The IAEA has produced this report with the objective of outlining the most important technical considerations in the design of near surface disposal facilities and to provide some examples of the design process in different countries. This guidance has been developed in light of experience gained from the design of existing near surface disposal facilities in a range of Member States. In particular the report provide information on design objective, design requirements, and design phases. The report focuses on: near surface disposal facilities accepting solidified LILW; disposal facilities on or just below the ground surface, where the final protective covering is of the order of a few metres thick; and disposal facilities several tens of metres below the ground surface (including rock cavern type facilities)

  7. The U.S. nuclear waste management program - technical progress at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, L.H. [U.S. Department of Energy (United States)

    2001-07-01

    This paper discusses the current status of a national program being developed by the U.S. Department of Energy for the management of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste produced by civilian nuclear power generation and defense-related activities. In 1987 the U.S. Congress directed the Department to characterize the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada and determine its suitability for development of a geologic repository. This paper will focus on the technical progress that has been made after more than 15 years of scientific and engineering investigations at Yucca Mountain, and the remaining work that is being done to support a decision on whether to recommend the site for development of a geologic repository. (author)

  8. Improved Management of the Technical Interfaces Between the Hanford Tank Farm Operator and the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant - 13383

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, Garth M. [Bechtel National Inc., 2435 Stevens Center Place, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States); Saunders, Scott A. [Washington River Protection Solutions, P.O. Box 850, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is constructing the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford site in Washington to treat and immobilize approximately 114 million gallons of high level radioactive waste (after all retrievals are accomplished). In order for the WTP to be designed and operated successfully, close coordination between the WTP engineering, procurement, and construction contractor, Bechtel National, Inc. and the tank farms operating contractor (TOC), Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, is necessary. To develop optimal solutions for DOE and for the treatment of the waste, it is important to deal with the fact that two different prime contractors, with somewhat differing contracts, are tasked with retrieving and delivering the waste and for treating and immobilizing that waste. The WTP and the TOC have over the years cooperated to manage the technical interface. To manage what is becoming a much more complicated interface as the WTP design progresses and new technical issues have been identified, an organizational change was made by WTP and TOC in November of 2011. This organizational change created a co-located integrated project team (IPT) to deal with mutual and interface issues. The Technical Organization within the One System IPT includes employees from both TOC and WTP. This team has worked on a variety of technical issues of mutual interest and concern. Technical issues currently being addressed include: - The waste acceptance criteria; - Waste feed delivery and the associated data quality objectives (DQO); - Evaluation of the effects of performing a riser cut on a single shell tank on WTP operations; - The disposition of secondary waste from both TOC and WTP; - The close coordination of the TOC double shell tank mixing and sampling program and the Large Scale Integrated Test (LSIT) program for pulse jet mixers at WTP along with the associated responses to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation

  9. Improved Management of the Technical Interfaces Between the Hanford Tank Farm Operator and the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant - 13383

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, Garth M.; Saunders, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is constructing the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford site in Washington to treat and immobilize approximately 114 million gallons of high level radioactive waste (after all retrievals are accomplished). In order for the WTP to be designed and operated successfully, close coordination between the WTP engineering, procurement, and construction contractor, Bechtel National, Inc. and the tank farms operating contractor (TOC), Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, is necessary. To develop optimal solutions for DOE and for the treatment of the waste, it is important to deal with the fact that two different prime contractors, with somewhat differing contracts, are tasked with retrieving and delivering the waste and for treating and immobilizing that waste. The WTP and the TOC have over the years cooperated to manage the technical interface. To manage what is becoming a much more complicated interface as the WTP design progresses and new technical issues have been identified, an organizational change was made by WTP and TOC in November of 2011. This organizational change created a co-located integrated project team (IPT) to deal with mutual and interface issues. The Technical Organization within the One System IPT includes employees from both TOC and WTP. This team has worked on a variety of technical issues of mutual interest and concern. Technical issues currently being addressed include: - The waste acceptance criteria; - Waste feed delivery and the associated data quality objectives (DQO); - Evaluation of the effects of performing a riser cut on a single shell tank on WTP operations; - The disposition of secondary waste from both TOC and WTP; - The close coordination of the TOC double shell tank mixing and sampling program and the Large Scale Integrated Test (LSIT) program for pulse jet mixers at WTP along with the associated responses to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation

  10. TECHNICAL EVALUATION OF THE SAFE TRANSPORTATION OF WASTE CONTAINERS COATED WITH POLYUREA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VAIL, T.S.

    2007-03-30

    This technical report is to evaluate and establish that the transportation of waste containers (e.g. drums, wooden boxes, fiberglass-reinforced plywood (FRP) or metal boxes, tanks, casks, or other containers) that have an external application of polyurea coating between facilities on the Hanford Site can be achieved with a level of onsite safety equivalent to that achieved offsite. Utilizing the parameters, requirements, limitations, and controls described in the DOE/RL-2001-36, ''Hanford Sitewide Transportation Safety Document'' (TSD) and the Department of Energy Richland Operations (DOE-RL) approved package specific authorizations (e.g. Package Specific Safety Documents (PSSDs), One-Time Requests for Shipment (OTRSs), and Special Packaging Authorizations (SPAS)), this evaluation concludes that polyurea coatings on packages does not impose an undue hazard for normal and accident conditions. The transportation of all packages on the Hanford Site must comply with the transportation safety basis documents for that packaging system. Compliance with the requirements, limitations, or controls described in the safety basis for a package system will not be relaxed or modified because of the application of polyurea. The inspection criteria described in facility/projects procedures and work packages that ensure compliance with Container Management Programs and transportation safety basis documentation dictate the need to overpack a package without consideration for polyurea. This technical report reviews the transportation of waste packages coated with polyurea and does not credit the polyurea with enhancing the structural, thermal, containment, shielding, criticality, or gas generating posture of a package. Facilities/Projects Container Management Programs must determine if a container requires an overpack prior to the polyurea application recognizing that circumstances newly discovered surface contamination or loss of integrity may require a previously

  11. TECHNICAL EVALUATION OF THE SAFE TRANSPORTATION OF WASTE CONTAINERS COATED WITH POLYUREA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VAIL, T.S.

    2007-01-01

    This technical report is to evaluate and establish that the transportation of waste containers (e.g. drums, wooden boxes, fiberglass-reinforced plywood (FRP) or metal boxes, tanks, casks, or other containers) that have an external application of polyurea coating between facilities on the Hanford Site can be achieved with a level of onsite safety equivalent to that achieved offsite. Utilizing the parameters, requirements, limitations, and controls described in the DOE/RL-2001-36, ''Hanford Sitewide Transportation Safety Document'' (TSD) and the Department of Energy Richland Operations (DOE-RL) approved package specific authorizations (e.g. Package Specific Safety Documents (PSSDs), One-Time Requests for Shipment (OTRSs), and Special Packaging Authorizations (SPAS)), this evaluation concludes that polyurea coatings on packages does not impose an undue hazard for normal and accident conditions. The transportation of all packages on the Hanford Site must comply with the transportation safety basis documents for that packaging system. Compliance with the requirements, limitations, or controls described in the safety basis for a package system will not be relaxed or modified because of the application of polyurea. The inspection criteria described in facility/projects procedures and work packages that ensure compliance with Container Management Programs and transportation safety basis documentation dictate the need to overpack a package without consideration for polyurea. This technical report reviews the transportation of waste packages coated with polyurea and does not credit the polyurea with enhancing the structural, thermal, containment, shielding, criticality, or gas generating posture of a package. Facilities/Projects Container Management Programs must determine if a container requires an overpack prior to the polyurea application recognizing that circumstances newly discovered surface contamination or loss of integrity may require a previously un

  12. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 10. Repository preconceptual design studies: granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Volume 10 ''Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: Granite,'' is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-36, which supplements the ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-44. The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. This document describes a preconceptual design for a nuclear waste storage facility in granite. The facility design consists of several chambers excavated deep within a geologic formation together with access shafts and supportive surface structures. The facility design provides for: receiving and unloading waste containers; lowering them down shafts to the mine level; transporting them to the proper storage area, and emplacing them in mined storage rooms. Drawings of the facility design are contained in TM-36/11, ''Drawings for Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: Granite.''

  13. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 8. Repository preconceptual design studies: salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Volume 8 ''Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: Salt,'' is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-36, which supplements the ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-44. The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. This document describes a preconceptual design for a nuclear waste storage facility in salt. The facility design consists of several chambers excavated deep within a geologic formation together with access shafts and supportive surface structures. The facility design provides for: receiving and unloading waste containers; lowering them down shafts to the mine level; transporting them to the proper storage area, and emplacing them in mined storage rooms. Drawings of the facility design are contained in TM-36/9, ''Drawings for Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: Salt.''

  14. Report: Searching for a way to sustainability: technical and policy analyses of solid waste issues in Kathmandu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangi, Mohan B; Cohen, Ronald R H; Urynowicz, Michael A; Poudyal, Khem N

    2009-05-01

    Kathmandu Metropolitan City has attempted to reorganize its solid waste management a number of times. The German Technical and Financial Aid Organization led early efforts that were followed by a number of more recent experiments that left the city with an unsustainable solid waste management system following the termination of foreign aid. To examine this failure, the research team evaluated household surveys, field observations, interviews, and other primary and secondary information within the context of technical, social, and institutional analyses. The survey results show that the solid waste collection rates are far below the 90% claimed by the metropolis and street sweeping consumes approximately 51% of its solid waste budget. As a result of the relatively low collection rates the city residents are encouraged to dump waste into public lands. Consequently, too much of the city's resources are focused on sweeping rather than collection. Kathmandu needs to recognize informal waste picking, privatize, use local techniques, build capacity, promote bottom-up and participatory styles of management, and regulate policies to maintain solid waste management.

  15. Application of non-intrusive geophysical techniques at the Mixed Waste Landfill, Technical Area 3, Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peace, J.L.; Goering, T.J.

    1996-03-01

    The Environmental Restoration Project at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico is tasked with assessment and remediation of the Mixed Waste Landfill in Technical Area 3. The Mixed Waste Landfill is an inactive radioactive and mixed waste disposal site. The landfill contains disposal pits and trenches of questionable location and dimension. Non-intrusive geophysical techniques were utilized to provide an effective means of determining the location and dimension of suspected waste disposal trenches before Resource Conservation and Recovery Act intrusive assessment activities were initiated. Geophysical instruments selected for this investigation included a Geonics EM-31 ground conductivity meter, the new Geonics EM-61 high precision, time-domain metal detector, and a Geometrics 856 total field magnetometer. The results of these non-intrusive geophysical techniques were evaluated to enhance the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of future waste-site investigations at Environmental Restoration Project sites

  16. Guidance document for revision of DOE Order 5820.2A, Radioactive Waste Technical Support Program. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudera, D.E.; McMurtrey, C.D.; Meagher, B.G.

    1993-04-01

    This document provides guidance for the revision of DOE Order 5820.2A, ``Radioactive Waste Management.`` Technical Working Groups have been established and are responsible for writing the revised order. The Technical Working Groups will use this document as a reference for polices and procedures that have been established for the revision process. The overall intent of this guidance is to outline how the order will be revised and how the revision process will be managed. In addition, this document outlines technical issues considered for inclusion by a Department of Energy Steering Committee.

  17. Risk perception of various technical options in the field of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, F.X.

    1996-01-01

    The author's group had a wide ranging discussion of risk and, at the very end of the discussion got to the question that was posed to them, which is that of risk perception of various technical options in the field of radioactive waste management. Some of the points that were made in this discussion is a reality that the group, as decision-makers, have to deal with, and it has to be treated as a reality. Secondly, the scientist looks at risk from the classic definition of ''probability times consequences'', but the public only looks at the consequences side of the equation, and too often the probability of something happening is treated as a probability of one that it will actually happen. A third problem that was identified in this area is that often the efforts to make the disposal of waste safer may contribute, in the public mind, to the fact that the risk is even more hazardous. And the last problem is that people do not trust what a decision maker is saying when he talks about the fact that there is little probability of something happening. The group then went on to a discussion of how he should try to treat risk perception. One point that was made is that voluntary acceptance of a risk is important. A second point that was made on how to deal with risk perception problems is that the group could try to put the risk of radioactive waste disposal in the perspective of other risks to society, from the chemical industry for instance. The group also talked about the possibility of putting the benefits in perspective for people. Another point was that the group should have different communications strategies for different audiences. But, the more the public is involved in the decision making process, the more comfortable they are going to be with the risk, and the more consistent the perception of risk may be with the scientific definition thereof. In terms of new technologies, new innovations on the generation and management of waste, although these may actually

  18. An analysis of alternative New Technical Strategy flowsheets for tank waste remediation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booker, C.P.

    1994-01-01

    The Hanford Tank remediation plans have gone through a few revisions for the best waste processing system. Some designs have been complex while others have been fairly simple. One of the key means in understanding and selecting among the various proposed systems is a discrete events modeling of the system. This modeling provides insight into (1) The total required size of the system; (2) The amount of material, such as reagents and other added materials that must be supplied; (3) The final mass of waste that must be stored; and (4) Areas within the system where a small change can greatly effect the total system. Discrete events modeling also provides the means by which various proposed systems may be compared. It is the framework in which variations within a particular system may be explored and compared to other instantiations. This study examines the current New Technical Strategy flowsheet system with discrete event modeling. Some of the possible variations within that system are examined and compared. Further, an previously proposed, more complex system is examined

  19. Implementation of technical conservatism in the development of nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) waste management program is committed to assuring the safe disposal of radioactive waste. It is recognized that long-term disposal concepts will contain inherent uncertainties in predictive techniques and scientific information. Accordingly, conservative approaches ae being followed to enhance levels of confidence that the disposal system will perform in such a manner that the established performance requirements will be met. Limiting values of critical parameters will be established for each site based on its inherent characteristics prior to beginning site development. The performance limits will be established for each geometric region of the repository system and be applied simultaneously to assure that no single limit is violated over the repository life cycle. A site-specific set of specifications will be determined when the site is fully characterized, establishing a conservative design basis to increase confidence in safe system performance. The implementation of the NWTS program policy on technical conservatism, as discussed in this document, takes two forms--(1) conservatism in the conduct of the program and (2) conservatism in the performance of the disposal system. The first is achieved by a stepwise approach to system development and operation, the systems viewpoint, the retrievability requirement, and the extensive use of peer reviews throughout the conduct of the program. The second is achieved by the proper selection and application of conservative design and operational limits

  20. Technical considerations and problems associated with long-term storage of low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siskind, B.

    1991-01-01

    If a state or regional compact does not have adequate disposal capacity for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), then extended storage of certain LLRW may be necessary. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) contracted with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) several years ago (1984--86) to address the technical issues of extended storage. The dual objectives of this study were (1) to provide practical technical assessments for NRC to consider in evaluating specific proposals for extended storage and (2) to help ensure adequate consideration by NRC, Agreement States, and licensees of potential problems that may arise from existing or proposed extended storage practices. In this summary of that study, the circumstances under which extended storage of LLRW would most likely result in problems during or after the extended storage period are considered and possible mitigative measures to minimize these problems are discussed. These potential problem areas include: (1) the degradation of carbon steel and polyethylene containers during storage and the subsequent need for repackaging (resulting in increased occupational exposure), (2) the generation of hazardous gases during storage, and (3) biodegradative processes in LLRW

  1. Technical and operational feasibility of psychrophilic anaerobic digestion biotechnology for processing ammonia-rich waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massé, Daniel I.; Rajagopal, Rajinikanth; Singh, Gursharan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Long-term anaerobic digestion (AD) process at high-ammonia (>5 gN/L) is limited. • PADSBR technology was validated to treat N-rich waste with 8.2 ± 0.3 gNH 3 -N/L. • Excess ammonia (8.2 gN/L) did not affect the digestion process with no inhibition. • VFA, an indicator for process stability, did not accumulate in PADSBR. • Biomass acclimation in PADSBR ensured a high-stabilization of the AD process. - Abstract: Ammonia nitrogen plays a critical role in the performance and stability of anaerobic digestion (AD) of ammonia rich wastes like animal manure. Nevertheless, inhibition due to high ammonia remains an acute limitation in AD process. A successful long-term operation of AD process at high ammonia (>5 gN/L) is limited. This study focused on validating technical feasibility of psychrophilic AD in sequencing batch reactor (PADSBR) to treat swine manure spiked with NH 4 Cl up to 8.2 ± 0.3 gN/L, as a representative of N-rich waste. CODt, CODs, VS removals of 86 ± 3, 82 ± 2 and 73 ± 3% were attained at an OLR of 3 gCOD/L.d, respectively. High-ammonia had no effect on methane yields (0.23 ± 0.04 L CH 4 /gTCOD fed ) and comparable to that of control reactors, which fed with raw swine manure alone (5.5 gN/L). Longer solids/hydraulic retention times in PADSBRs enhanced biomass acclimation even at high-ammonia. Thus VFA, an indicator for process stability, did not accumulate in PADSBR. Further investigation is essential to establish the maximum concentrations of TKN and free ammonia that the PADSBR can sustain

  2. The role of risk perception and technical information in scientific debates over nuclear waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins-Smith, Hank C.; Silva, Carol L.

    1998-01-01

    This article examines how members of the lay public factor risk perceptions, trust and technical information from differing scientific sources into policy judgements about potentially hazardous facilities. Focusing on radwaste storage repositories, we examine how members of the public filter new information about potential hazards through risk perceptions, and adjust their own beliefs about risks in light of that information. Scientists play a large (and increasing) role in public policy debates concerning nuclear waste issues, in which public perceptions of human health and environmental risks often differ substantially from scientific consensus about those risks. Public concerns and uncertainties are compounded when scientists from competing groups (government agencies, scientific institutions, industries, and interest groups) make different claims about the likely health and environmental consequences of different policy options. We show the processes by which the public receive and process scientific information about nuclear waste management risks using data taken from interviews with 1800 randomly selected individuals (1200 in New Mexico, and 600 nationwide). Among the more important findings are: (1) members of the public are able to make quite reasonable estimates about what kinds of positions on the risks of nuclear waste disposal will be taken by scientists from differing organizations (e.g. scientists from environmental groups, government agencies, or the nuclear industry); (2) in assessing the credibility of scientific claims, members of the public place great emphasis on the independence of the scientists from those who fund the research; and (3) prior expectations about the positions (or expected biases) of scientists from different organizations substantially affects the ways in which members of the public weigh (and utilize) information that comes from these scientists

  3. Monitoring, Verification, and Treatment of Infectious Wastes and Their Optimal Management in the Hospitals of Qom City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Fahiminia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Given that no comprehensive studies have yet been conducted on treatment of infectious wastes in hospitals of Qom City, this research was performed with the purpose of investigating the treatment methods used in these hospitals and monitoring the performance of waste elimination devices. Methods: Required information was obtained through in-person visit and observing the current situation, and the variables affecting waste treatment were extracted based on the type of treatment systems, and were collected, and accordingly, biological monitoring tests were designed for the studied hospitals. The data were analyzed using Fisher's exact test. Results: In this study, from 9 active hospitals in Qom Province, only 3 hospitals were equipped with waste treatment system. In hospital A, growth of Bacillus stearothermophilus spore were observed in 6.25% of the samples, while no microbial growth was recorded in hospital B. The initial investment to buy the machine in hospital A was about four times than that of hospital B. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that treatment device of hospital B is more appropriate compared to the devices of hospital A due to complete destruction of spores, lower cost (for purchase, and maintenance. .

  4. The control of hospital wastes - 'ACROnic du nucleaire' nr 86, September 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-09-01

    This article first describes how radioactive elements are used in hospital and research departments: in nuclear medicine (for radiotherapy, in vivo diagnosis), in isotopic analysis laboratories, in research laboratories. It indicates the nature and characteristics of frequently used radio-elements (type of emission, maximum energy, percentage of emission, period). It evokes the regulation related to waste management, and comments the assessment of controls of effluents of hospitals as they have been performed by the ACRO (variation in time during the day, technetium activity, iodine 131 activity, indium 111 activity from 2004 to 2008, other detected radionuclides). It discusses the impact on the environment (in waterways)

  5. Is Effective and Structured Training Key to Successful Biomedical Waste Management in Hospital : A Study

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Shishir Basarkar

    2014-01-01

    Background The study is interventional in nature because the training has been done as an intervention. The study was done to find out the impact of training on knowledge level of the hospital staff who is dealing with biomedical waste on day to day basis. Methodology The study was conducted on 184 staff members during July – Sept 2012 in multispecialty tertiary care hospital. The survey form was prepared and was applied to all participants in person before and after the training was condu...

  6. Regular Recycling of Wood Ash to Prevent Waste Production (RecAsh). Technical Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Lars E-mail: lars.t.andersson@skogsstyreslen.se

    2007-03-15

    At present, the extraction of harvest residues is predicted to increase in Sweden and Finland. As an effect of the intensified harvesting, the export of nutrients and acid buffering substances from the growth site is also increased. Wood ash could be used to compensate forest soils for such losses. Most wood fuel ash is today often deposited in landfills. If the wood ash is recycled, wood energy is produced without any significant waste production. Ash recycling would therefore contribute to decreasing the production of waste, and to maintaining the chemical quality of forest waters and biological productivity of forest soils in the long term. The project has developed, analysed and demonstrated two regular ash-recycling systems. It has also distributed knowledge gathered about motives for ash recycling as well as technical and administrative solutions through a range of media (handbooks, workshops, field demonstrations, reports, web page and information videos). Hopefully, the project will contribute to decreasing waste problems related to bio-energy production in the EU at large. The project has been organised as a separate structure at the beneficiary and divided in four geographically defined subprojects, one in Finland and three in Sweden (Central Sweden, Northern Sweden, and South-western Sweden). The work in each subproject has been lead by a subproject leader. Each subproject has organised a regional reference group. A project steering committee has been established consisting of senior officials from all concerned partners. The project had nine main tasks with the following main expected deliverables and output: 1. Development of two complete full-scale ash-recycling systems; 2. Production of handbooks of the ash recycling system; 3. Ash classification study to support national actions for recommendations; 4. Organise regional demonstrations of various technical options for ash treatment and spreading; 5. Organise national seminars and demonstrations of

  7. Technical Advisory Committee on the nuclear fuel waste management program : thirteenth annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shemilt, L.W.

    1993-03-01

    Since the last reporting period by the Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) the emphasis of the work in the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program (CNFWMP) has been on the writing of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and the associated set of nine primary reference documents as well as supporting documents. These are in preparation for submission to the Environmental Assessment Review Panel who will lead the national evaluation of the disposal concept under the auspices of the Federal Environmental Assessment Review Office (FEARO). The disposal concept developed over the last fourteen years by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) and anticipated to be presented by means of the EIS in 1994, is based on a multiple system of natural and man-made barriers wherein nuclear waste is first enclosed in corrosion-resistant containers, designed to last at least 500 years, and then placed in a vault excavated 500 - 1000 m deep in granitic rocks of the Canadian Shield. After container emplacement either in or on the floor of the vault, and with a surrounding buffer material of a bentonite clay/sand mixture, the vault will be backfilled and sealed with crushed rock, buffer and sand, as will be the shafts and exploratory boreholes. The case study being presented by AECL to demonstrate the safety of this concept and the technology to implement it, relies on computer simulations of a hypothetical disposal site with geological characteristics similar to those at the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in the Whiteshell Research Area (WRA) located in Manitoba. The preliminary simulation results suggest that safe containment can be achieved provided that the waste is surrounded by a sparsely-fractured zone of rock wherein movement of contaminants carried by groundwater is modelled as a diffusive as opposed to a advective process. The principal focus of work during the past year within the environmental and safety assessment has been to complete the Post

  8. A survey of Trace Metals Determination in Hospital Waste Incinerator in Lucknow City, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Kumar

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Information on the elemental content of incinerator burning of human organ, animal and medical waste is scanty in India Nineteen trace elements were analyzed in the incinerator ash from four major hospitals, one municipal waste incinerator and two R & D laboratories engaged in animal experiment in Lucknow city. Concentrations of Zinc and Lead were found to be very high in comparison to other metals due to burning of plastic products. The source of Ca, P and K are mainly bone, teeth and other animal organs. A wide variation in trace concentration of several toxic elements have been seen due to variation in initial waste composition, design of the incinerator and operating conditions.

  9. Disposal of wastes from radiopharmaceuticals administered in human body in hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Masao

    1976-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals used in hospitals have remarkably increased in amount. Among radioactive matters discharged from pharmaceuticals administered into human bodies, a small amount of radio-pharmaceuticals remained in disporsable containers and syringes, excreta from patients administered such drugs and their washing, may cause the problems, radioisotopes with short half-life such as sup(99m)Tc tend to be administered increasingly while radioisotopes with long life have been decreasing. Long life radioactive wastes and short life wastes have to be strictly separated. And then long life radioisotopes wastes have to be condensed and stored, less than a tenth of the maximum allowable density after decay to discharge. Radioactive gas as 133 Xe should be diffused by ventilation. This is the time to make the numerical guide concerning the problem. (Kobatake, H.)

  10. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 7. Baseline rock properties-basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Y/OWI/TM-36/7 Baseline Rock Properties--Basalt, is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-36'' which supplements a ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-44.'' The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. This report contains an evaluation of the results of a literature survey to define the rock mass properties of a generic basalt, which could be considered as a geological medium for storing radioactive waste. The general formation and structure of basaltic rocks is described. This is followed by specific descriptions and rock property data for the Dresser Basalt, the Amchitka Island Basalt, the Nevada Test Site Basalt and the Columbia River Group Basalt. Engineering judgment has been used to derive the rock mass properties of a typical basalt from the relevant intact rock property data and the geological information pertaining to structural defects, such as joints and faults

  11. A mixed methods investigation into the use of non-technical skills by community and hospital pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, A; Weidmann, A E

    2015-01-01

    Non-technical skills refer to the social and cognitive factors that may influence efficient and safe job performance. Non-technical skills are an important element of patient safety in a variety of health care disciplines, including surgery, anesthesia and nursing. However, the use of non-technical skills in pharmacy practice has not yet been fully assessed. To examine attitudes toward, and use of, non-technical skills by pharmacy personnel. A mixed methods approach was used: An attitude survey explored pharmacy personnel attitudes towards non-technical skills and inter-professional collaboration, with community and hospital pharmacy staff (n = 62). Qualitative interviews were then conducted using the critical incident technique, with community pharmacists (n = 11). The survey results demonstrated differences in the opinions of community and hospital pharmacists on three non-technical skill constructs: team structure, mutual support, and situation monitoring, with community pharmacists reporting significantly more positive attitudes about all three constructs. Both groups reported low levels of collaboration with primary care physicians. The interviews identified five non-technical skills as key elements of successful pharmacist performance from the interview transcripts: teamwork; leadership; task management; situation awareness; decision-making. The survey and interviews identified the non-technical skills that are important to pharmacists. This represents the first step towards the development of a behavioral rating system for training purposes that could potentially improve the non-technical skills of pharmacists and enhance patient safety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of Medicare Advantage penetration and hospital competition on technical efficiency of nursing care in US intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Ari; Scott, Linda D; Park, Chang; Vincent, Catherine; Ryan, Catherine J; Lee, Taewha

    2018-04-10

    This study aimed to evaluate technical efficiency of US intensive care units and determine the effects of environmental factors on technical efficiency in providing quality of nursing care. Data were obtained from the 2014 National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Data envelopment analysis was used to estimate technical efficiency for each intensive care unit. Multilevel modeling was used to determine the effects of environmental factors on technical efficiency. Overall, Medicare Advantage penetration and hospital competition in a market did not create pressure for intensive care units to become more efficient by reducing their inputs. However, these 2 environmental factors showed positive influences on technical efficiency in intensive care units with certain levels of technical efficiency. The implications of the study results for management strategies and health policy may vary according to the levels of technical efficiency in intensive care units. Further studies are needed to examine why and how intensive care units with particular levels of technical efficiency are differently affected by certain environmental factors. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Public and private hospital services reform using data envelopment analysis to measure technical, scale, allocative, and cost efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhzadeh, Yaghoub; Roudsari, Abdul V; Vahidi, Reza Gholi; Emrouznejad, Ali; Dastgiri, Saeed

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to suggest a suitable context to develop efficient hospital systems while maintaining the quality of care at minimum expenditures. This research aimed to present a model of efficiency for selected public and private hospitals of East Azerbaijani Province of Iran by making use of Data Envelopment Analysis approach in order to recognize and suggest the best practice standards. Among the six inefficient hospitals, 2 (33%) had a technical efficiency score of less than 50% (both private), 2 (33%) between 51 and 74% (one private and one public) and the rest (2, 33%) between 75 and 99% (one private and one public). In general, the public hospitals are relatively more efficient than private ones; it is recommended for inefficient hospitals to make use of the followings: transferring, selling, or renting idle/unused beds; transferring excess doctors and nurses to the efficient hospitals or other health centers; pensioning off, early retirement clinic officers, technicians/technologists, and other technical staff. The saving obtained from the above approaches could be used to improve remuneration for remaining staff and quality of health care services of hospitals, rural and urban health centers, support communities to start or sustain systematic risk and resource pooling and cost sharing mechanisms for protecting beneficiaries against unexpected health care costs, compensate the capital depreciation, increasing investments, and improve diseases prevention services and facilities in the provincial level.

  14. Technical feasibility of a concept radioactive waste disposal facility in Boom clay in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vardon, P.J.; Hicks, M.A.; Fokker, P.A.; Fokkens, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The current management strategy in the Netherlands for radioactive waste is interim storage for approximately 100 years, followed by final deep geological disposal. At present, both Boom Clay and Salt formations are being considered and investigated via the OPERA (Onderzoeks Programma Eindberging Radioactief Afval) and CORA (Commissie Opberging Radioactief Afval) research programmes respectively, instigated by COVRA (Centrale Organisatie Voor Radioactief Afval). This paper outlines the on-going investigation into the initial technical feasibility of a high-level radioactive waste disposal facility, located within a stratum of Boom Clay, as part of the OPERA research programme. The feasibility study is based on the current Belgian Super-container concept, incorporating specific features relevant to the Netherlands, including the waste inventory and possible future glaciation. The repository is designed to be situated at approximately 500 m depth in a Boom Clay stratum of approximately 100 m thickness, and will co-host vitrified High Level Waste (HLW), spent fuel from research reactors, non-heat generating HLW, Low and Intermediate Level Waste (LILW) and depleted uranium. The total footprint is designed to be 3050 m by 1300 m, and will be segregated by waste type. The waste will be stored in drifts drilled perpendicular to the main galleries and will vary in length and diameter depending upon waste type. The repository life-cycle can be considered in three phases: (i) the pre-operation phase, including the conceptual development, site investigation and selection, design and construction; (ii) the operational phase, including waste emplacement and any period of time prior to closure; and (iii) the post-operational phase. The research on the technical feasibility of the repository will investigate whether the repository can be constructed and whether it is able to perform the appropriate safety functions and meet

  15. Evaluation of an education and training intervention to reduce health care waste in a tertiary hospital in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera, Margarita; Andrés-Prado, Maria José; Rodríguez-Caravaca, Gil; Latasa, Pello; Mosquera, Marta E G

    2014-08-01

    In recent decades there has been a significant increase in waste generation. Training interventions in advanced health care waste management can improve the segregation of regulated medical waste and reduce volume and costs. We carried out a quasi-experimental intervention study with before and after training session analysis to compare waste segregation. Descriptive analysis of the segregated health care waste and an evaluation of the quality of segregation were done. A comparison of monthly average waste to assess the effectiveness of the educational intervention was performed. After the intervention, there was a significant reduction in the monthly average health care waste volume of 6.2%. Statistically significant differences in the infectious waste and genotoxic/pharmaceutical waste weight segregated before and after the intervention (P waste weight reduction and the improvement of waste classification, a savings cost of €125,205 was achieved. The health care waste management training improves biomedical waste segregation at the hospital, reducing the health care waste volume and costs as an added value. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Proceedings of the research conference on post-accident waste management safety (RCWM2016) and the technical seminar on safety research for radioactive waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motooka, Takafumi; Yamagishi, Isao

    2017-03-01

    Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS) is responsible to promote international cooperation in the R and D activities on the decommissioning of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station and to develop the necessary human resources. CLADS held the Research Conference on Post-accident Waste Management Safety (RCWM2016) on 7th November, 2016 and the Technical Seminar on Safety Research for Radioactive Waste Storage on 8th November, 2016. This report compiles the abstracts and the presentation materials in the above conference and seminar. (author)

  17. Solid Waste Integrated Forecast Technical (SWIFT) Report FY2001 to FY2046 Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BARCOT, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    This report provides up-to-date life cycle information about the radioactive solid waste expected to be managed by Hanford's Waste Management (WM) Project from onsite and offsite generators. It includes: an overview of Hanford-wide solid waste to be managed by the WM Project; program-level and waste class-specific estimates; background information on waste sources; and comparisons to previous forecasts and other national data sources. This report does not include: waste to be managed by the Environmental Restoration (EM-40) contractor (i.e., waste that will be disposed of at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF)); waste that has been received by the WM Project to date (i.e., inventory waste); mixed low-level waste that will be processed and disposed by the River Protection Program; and liquid waste (current or future generation). Although this report currently does not include liquid wastes, they may be added as information becomes available

  18. Licensing of alternative methods of disposal of low-level radioactive waste: Branch technical position, Low-Level Waste Licensing Branch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higginbotham, L.B.; Dragonette, K.S.; Pittiglio, C.L. Jr.

    1986-12-01

    This branch technical position statement identifies and describes specific methods of disposal currently being considered as alternatives to shallow land burial, provides general guidance on these methods of disposal, and recommends procedures that will improve and simplify the licensing process. The statement provides answers to certain questions that have arisen regarding the applicability of 10 CFR 61 to near-surface disposal of waste, using methods that incorporate engineered barriers or structures, and other alternatives to conventional shallow land burial disposal practices. This position also identifies a recently published NRC contractor report that addresses the applicability of 10 CFR 61 to a range of generic disposal concepts and which provides technical guidance that the staff intends to use for these concepts. This position statement combined with the above-mentioned NRC contractor report fulfills the requirements of Section 8(a) of Public Law 99-240, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985

  19. Preliminary risk assessment for nuclear waste disposal in space. Volume I. Executive summary of technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, E.E.; Denning, R.S.; Friedlander, A.L.

    1982-01-01

    Three major conclusions come from this preliminary risk assessment of nuclear waste disposal in space. Preliminary estimates of space disposal risk are low, even with the estimated uncertainty bounds. If calculated mined geologic repository (MGR) release risks remain low, and the EPA requirements continue to be met, then no additional space disposal study effort is warranted. If risks perceived by the public are significant in the acceptance of mined geologic repositories, then consideration of space disposal as an MGR complement is warranted. As a result of this study, the following recommendations are made to NASA and the US DOE: During the continued evaluation of the mined geologic repository risk over the years ahead by DOE, if any significant increase in the calculated health risk is predicted for the MGR, then space disposal should be reevaluated at that time. The risks perceived by the public for the MGR should be evaluated on a broad basis by an independent organization to evaluate acceptance. If, in the future, MGR risks are found to be significant due to some presently unknown technical or social factor, and space disposal is selected as an alternative that may be useful in mitigating the risks, then the following space disposal study activities are recommended: improvement in chemical processing technology for wastes; payload accident response analysis; risk uncertainty analysis for both MGR and space disposal; health risk modeling that includes pathway and dose estimates; space disposal cost modeling; assessment of space disposal perceived (by public) risk benefit; and space systems analysis supporting risk and cost modeling

  20. Eleventh annual U.S. DOE low-level radioactive waste management conference: Executive summary, opening plenary, technical session summaries, and attendees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-01-01

    The conference consisted of ten technical sessions, with three sessions running simultaneously each day. Session topics included: regulatory updates; performance assessment;understanding remedial action efforts; low-level waste strategy and planning (Nuclear Energy); low-level waste strategy and planning (Defense); compliance monitoring; decontamination and decommissioning; waste characterization; waste reduction and minimization; and prototype licensing application workshop. Summaries are presented for each of these sessions.

  1. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 22. Nuclear considerations for repository design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Y/OWI/TM-36/22, ''Nuclear Considerations for Repository Design,'' is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-36, which supplements the ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-44. The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. Included in this volume are baseline design considerations such as characteristics of canisters, drums, casks, overpacks, and shipping containers; maximum allowable and actual decay-heat levels; and canister radiation levels. Other topics include safeguard and protection considerations; occupational radiation exposure including ALARA programs; shielding of canisters, transporters and forklift trucks; monitoring considerations; mine water treatment; canister integrity; and criticality calculations

  2. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 5. Baseline rock properties-granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Y/OWI/TM-36/5, Baseline Rock Properties--Granite, is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-36'' which supplements a ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-44.'' The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. This report, on the rock properties of typical granites, includes an evaluation of the various test results reported in the literature. Firstly, a literature survey was made in order to obtain a feel for the range of rock properties encountered. Then, granites representative of different geologic ages and from different parts of the United States were selected and studied in further detail. Some of the special characteristics of granite, such as anisotropy, creep and weathering were also investigated. Lastly, intact properties for a typical granite were selected and rock mass properties were derived using appropriate correction factors

  3. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 21. Ground water movement and nuclide transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-04-01

    This volume, TM-36/21 Ground Water Movement and Nuclide Transport, is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-36'' which supplements a ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-44.'' The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. The studies presented in this volume consider the effect of the construction of the repository and the consequent heat generation on the ground water movement. Additionally, the source concentrations and leach rates of selected radionuclides were studied in relation to the estimated ground water inflow rates. Studies were also performed to evaluate the long term migration of radionuclides as affected by the ground water flow. In all these studies, three geologic environments are considered; granite, shale and basalt.

  4. Nuclear biomedical and hospital waste management at the University of Brussels (VUB): optimization in the Belgian context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggermont, G.; Covens, P.

    2002-01-01

    Low level nuclear waste (LLW) from biomedical research laboratories and from hospitals has specific characteristics, requiring a different management than the LLW from nuclear energy. Biomedical waste generally does not contain emitters and essentially consists of short-lived β/γ-emitters and a range of pure β-emitters, which are difficult to measure. Except for 3 H and 1 4C , the radionuclides found in biomedical waste have half-lives less then 100 days and hence do not require nuclear disposal. Limited quantities of accelerator activation products (mainly 6 5Z n and 6 0C o) and compact sealed sources of 6 0C o, 1 37C s, 2 26R a and 1 92I r form the only exceptions. National nuclear waste agencies typically do not have a specific policy for treatment and disposal of this type of LLW. In 2001 new price increases were announced for specific categories of this waste. They were implemented by NIRAS/ONDRAF early 2002. The major universities and academic hospitals expressed concern. The Health Council has considered the problem and has recently recommended to the authorities a set of measures to prevent non authorised liberation of this waste. Moreover non-nuclear waste companies have noticed a considerable growing inventory of radioactivity in incoming waste transports before treatment. A variety of radionuclides and activities were found in a diversity of origins from municipal waste over medical waste to industrial waste. Dismantling of accelerators and their shielding could add considerable amounts of waste. Due to the escalating costs and the lack of acceptance of near-surface disposal facilities, the university of Brussels (VUB) and its hospital, have developed a successful on-site waste decay storage program in collaboration with Canberra Europe, which is discussed hereafter

  5. Technical baseline description of high-level waste and low-activity waste feed mobilization and delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, I.G.

    1997-01-01

    This document is a compilation of information related to the high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) feed staging, mobilization, and transfer/delivery issues. Information relevant to current Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) inventories and activities designed to feed the Phase I Privatization effort at the Hanford Site is included. Discussions on the higher level Phase II activities are offered for a perspective on the interfaces

  6. Management of radioactive waste at INR-technical support for processing of radioactive waste from nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujoreanu, D.; Popescu, I.V.; Bujoreanu, L.

    2009-01-01

    The Institute for nuclear research (INR) subsidiary of the Romanian authority for nuclear activities has its own radwaste treatment plant (STDR). STDR is supposed to treat and condition radioactive waste from the nuclear fuel facility, the TRIGA reactor, post irradiation examination laboratories and other research laboratories of NRI. The main steps of waste processing are: pretreatment (collection, characterization, segregation, decontamination)., treatment (waste volume reduction, radionuclide removal, compositional change), conditioning (immobilization and containerization), interim storage of the packages in compliance with safety requirements for the protection of human health and environmental protection, transport of the packages containing radioactive waste, disposal.

  7. Technical conservatisms in NWTS repository conceptual designs. National Waste Terminal Storage Repository No. 1: special study No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    Prior studies have developed conceptual designs for National Waste Terminal Storage Repositories 1 and 2. Due to the considerable detail and volume of the documents describing these designs, it is often difficult to identify and comprehend the substantial conservatisms contained within them. This study identifies and explains the major technical conservatisms in these two conceptual designs in a concise and readily understandable format. The areas discussed include thermal loading of the geologic structure, rock mechanics and underground design, waste throughput capacity, hoisting systems, nuclear criticality safety, confinement of radioactive materials, occupational exposure and health physics, environmental effects, and cost estimates. Conservatisms are described in detail, quantified where possible, and compared to appropriate criteria

  8. Technologies for gas cooled reactor decommissioning, fuel storage and waste disposal. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-09-01

    Gas cooled reactors (GCRs) and other graphite moderated reactors have been important part of the world's nuclear programme for the past four decades. The wide diversity in status of this very wide spectrum of plants from initial design to decommissioning was a major consideration of the International Working group on Gas Cooled Reactors which recommended IAEA to convene a Technical Committee Meeting dealing with GCR decommissioning, including spent fuel storage and radiological waste disposal. This Proceedings includes papers 25 papers presented at the Meeting in three sessions entitled: Status of Plant Decommissioning Programmes; Fuels Storage Status and Programmes; waste Disposal and decontamination Practices. Each paper is described here by a separate abstract

  9. Reflecting socio-technical combinations in radioactive waste management. Results from the InSOTEC European research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallenbach-Herbert, Beate; Bergmans, Anne; Martell, Meritxell; Schroeder, Jantine

    2015-01-01

    InSOTEC is a three-year collaborative social sciences research project funded under the European Atomic Energy Community's 7th Framework Programme FP7. The project aims to generate a better understanding of the complex interplay between the technical and the social in the context of geological disposal of radioactive waste. In doing so, InSOTEC has moved beyond the social and technical division that is frequently being found in this context by - investigating the consideration of social sciences and the recognition of socio-technical combinations in research programs on geological disposal, - analyzing the socio-technical entanglement in selected contexts like siting, reversibility and retrievability, demonstrating safety and technology transfer on the basis of case studies, and - exploring the integration of diverse stakeholders in technology oriented networks. The analyses reveal that activities in the context of geological disposal, whether related to research, planning, siting etc., rather support the divide of social and technical aspects than fostering the consideration of their entanglement. Reasons identified for this are manifold. The wish to reduce complexity by focusing stakeholder involvement on social questions and fixing the technical part ''when acceptance is reached'' is only one of them. However, the analyses also show that over the long timescales of repository planning and implementation, robust management strategies must provide the flexibility to adapt to both technical and social developments and demands. Understanding the socio-technical interplay and creating structures for its consideration provides the basis for dealing with this challenge. This presentation will focus on the main findings of the InSOTEC project with regard to the consideration of socio-technical combinations in practice. These insights are currently under development and will be finalized at the end of the project in June 2014. We will reflect on

  10. Reflecting socio-technical combinations in radioactive waste management. Results from the InSOTEC European research project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallenbach-Herbert, Beate [Oeko-Institut e.V., Darmstadt (Germany); Bergmans, Anne [Antwerp Univ. (Belgium); Martell, Meritxell [Merience Strategic Thinking, Olerdola (Spain); Schroeder, Jantine [Antwerp Univ. (Belgium); SCK - CEN, Mol (Belgium)

    2015-07-01

    InSOTEC is a three-year collaborative social sciences research project funded under the European Atomic Energy Community's 7th Framework Programme FP7. The project aims to generate a better understanding of the complex interplay between the technical and the social in the context of geological disposal of radioactive waste. In doing so, InSOTEC has moved beyond the social and technical division that is frequently being found in this context by - investigating the consideration of social sciences and the recognition of socio-technical combinations in research programs on geological disposal, - analyzing the socio-technical entanglement in selected contexts like siting, reversibility and retrievability, demonstrating safety and technology transfer on the basis of case studies, and - exploring the integration of diverse stakeholders in technology oriented networks. The analyses reveal that activities in the context of geological disposal, whether related to research, planning, siting etc., rather support the divide of social and technical aspects than fostering the consideration of their entanglement. Reasons identified for this are manifold. The wish to reduce complexity by focusing stakeholder involvement on social questions and fixing the technical part ''when acceptance is reached'' is only one of them. However, the analyses also show that over the long timescales of repository planning and implementation, robust management strategies must provide the flexibility to adapt to both technical and social developments and demands. Understanding the socio-technical interplay and creating structures for its consideration provides the basis for dealing with this challenge. This presentation will focus on the main findings of the InSOTEC project with regard to the consideration of socio-technical combinations in practice. These insights are currently under development and will be finalized at the end of the project in June 2014. We will reflect on

  11. Technical and Socioeconomic Potential of Biogas from Cassava Waste in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemausuor, Francis; Addo, Ahmad; Darkwah, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    This study analyses technical potential and ex ante socioeconomic impacts of biogas production using cassava waste from agroprocessing plants. An analysis was performed for two biodigesters in two cassava processing communities in Ghana. The results showed that the two communities generate an excess of 4,500 tonnes of cassava peels per year. Using approximately 5% of the peels generated and livestock manure as inoculum can generate approximately 75,000 m(3) of gas with an estimated 60% methane content from two separate plants of capacities 500 m(3) and 300 m(3) in the two communities. If used internally as process fuel, the potential gas available could replace over 300 tonnes of firewood per year for cassava processing. The displacement of firewood with gas could have environmental, economic, and social benefits in creating sustainable development. With a 10 percent discount rate, an assumed 20-year biodigester will have a Net Present Value of approximately US$ 148,000, 7-year Payback Period, and an Internal Rate of Return of 18.7%. The project will create 10 full-time unskilled labour positions during the investment year and 4 positions during operation years.

  12. Technical and allocative inefficiencies and factor elasticities of substitution. An analysis of energy waste in Iran's manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khiabani, Nasser; Hasani, Karim [Department of Economics, Institute for Management and Planning Studies, Mokhtar Asgari Str.10, 19395, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    Ignoring technical and allocative inefficiencies or embedding one of them alone in a system of input demands may result in biased elasticities. We consider a comprehensive model including technical inefficiency (in input and output forms) and allocative inefficiency and apply it to panel data from Iran's manufacturing sector. The results show that the presence of both inefficiencies affects the computed elasticities of demand and substitution. Moreover, in spite of current waste of energy in Iran's manufacturing, the elimination of environmental constraints will prompt the manufacturing firms to increase the utilization of energy relative to both capital and labor. (author)

  13. Biomedical waste management: Study on the awareness and practice among healthcare workers in a tertiary teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bio-medical waste has a higher potential of infection and injury to the healthcare worker, patient and the surrounding community. Awareness programmes on their proper handling and management to healthcare workers can prevent the spread of infectious diseases and epidemics. This study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital to assess the impact of training, audits and education/implementations from 2009 to 2012 on awareness and practice of biomedical waste segregation. Our study reveals focused training, strict supervision, daily surveillance, audits inspections, involvement of hospital administrators and regular appraisals are essential to optimise the segregation of biomedical waste.

  14. Biomedical waste management: study on the awareness and practice among healthcare workers in a tertiary teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, L; Paul, H; Premkumar, J; Paul, R; Michael, J S

    2015-01-01

    Bio-medical waste has a higher potential of infection and injury to the healthcare worker, patient and the surrounding community. Awareness programmes on their proper handling and management to healthcare workers can prevent the spread of infectious diseases and epidemics. This study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital to assess the impact of training, audits and education/implementations from 2009 to 2012 on awareness and practice of biomedical waste segregation. Our study reveals focused training, strict supervision, daily surveillance, audits inspections, involvement of hospital administrators and regular appraisals are essential to optimise the segregation of biomedical waste.

  15. The safety of non-incineration waste disposal devices in four hospitals of Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshad, Aliasghar; Gholami, Hamid; Farzadkia, Mahdi; Mirkazemi, Roksana; Kermani, Majid

    2014-01-01

    The safe management of hospital waste is a challenge in many developing countries. The aim of this study was to compare volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions and the microbial disinfectant safety in non-incineration waste disposal devices. VOC emissions and microbial infections were measured in four non-incineration waste disposal devices including: autoclave with and without a shredder, dry heat system, and hydroclave. Using NIOSH and US EPA-TO14 guidelines, the concentration and potential risk of VOCs in emitted gases from four devices were assessed. ProSpore2 biological indicators were used to assess the microbial analysis of waste residue. There was a significant difference in the type and concentration of VOCs and microbial infection of residues in the four devices. Emissions from the autoclave with a shredder had the highest concentration of benzene, ethyl benzene, xylene, and BTEX, and emissions from the hydroclave had the highest concentration of toluene. The highest level of microbial infection was observed in the residues of the autoclave without a shredder. There is an increased need for proper regulation and control of non-incinerator devices and for monitoring and proper handling of these devices in developing countries.

  16. The safety of non-incineration waste disposal devices in four hospitals of Tehran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshad, Aliasghar; Gholami, Hamid; Farzadkia, Mahdi; Mirkazemi, Roksana; Kermani, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Background: The safe management of hospital waste is a challenge in many developing countries. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions and the microbial disinfectant safety in non-incineration waste disposal devices. Methods: VOC emissions and microbial infections were measured in four non-incineration waste disposal devices including: autoclave with and without a shredder, dry heat system, and hydroclave. Using NIOSH and US EPA-TO14 guidelines, the concentration and potential risk of VOCs in emitted gases from four devices were assessed. ProSpore2 biological indicators were used to assess the microbial analysis of waste residue. Results: There was a significant difference in the type and concentration of VOCs and microbial infection of residues in the four devices. Emissions from the autoclave with a shredder had the highest concentration of benzene, ethyl benzene, xylene, and BTEX, and emissions from the hydroclave had the highest concentration of toluene. The highest level of microbial infection was observed in the residues of the autoclave without a shredder. Conclusions: There is an increased need for proper regulation and control of non-incinerator devices and for monitoring and proper handling of these devices in developing countries. PMID:25000113

  17. Healthcare waste management: qualitative and quantitative appraisal of nurses in a tertiary care hospital of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivalli, Siddharudha; Sanklapur, Vasudha

    2014-01-01

    The nurse's role in healthcare waste management is crucial. (1) To appraise nurses quantitatively and qualitatively regarding healthcare waste management; (2) to elicit the determinants of knowledge and attitudes of healthcare waste management. A cross-sectional study was undertaken at a tertiary care hospital of Mangalore, India. Self-administered pretested questionnaire and "nonparticipatory observation" were used for quantitative and qualitative appraisals. Percentage knowledge score was calculated based on their total knowledge score. Nurses' knowledge was categorized as excellent (>70%), good (50-70%), and poor (70% score). Most (86%) expressed the need of refresher training. No study variable displayed significant association (P > 0.05) with knowledge. Apt segregation practices were followed except in casualty. Patients and entourages misinterpreted the colored containers. Nurses' knowledge and healthcare waste management practices were not satisfactory. There is a need of refresher trainings at optimum intervals to ensure sustainability and further improvement. Educating patients and their entourages and display of segregation information board in local language are recommended.

  18. Healthcare Waste Management: Qualitative and Quantitative Appraisal of Nurses in a Tertiary Care Hospital of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharudha Shivalli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The nurse’s role in healthcare waste management is crucial. Objectives. (1 To appraise nurses quantitatively and qualitatively regarding healthcare waste management; (2 to elicit the determinants of knowledge and attitudes of healthcare waste management. Method. A cross-sectional study was undertaken at a tertiary care hospital of Mangalore, India. Self-administered pretested questionnaire and “nonparticipatory observation” were used for quantitative and qualitative appraisals. Percentage knowledge score was calculated based on their total knowledge score. Nurses’ knowledge was categorized as excellent (>70%, good (50–70%, and poor (70% score. Most (86% expressed the need of refresher training. No study variable displayed significant association (P>0.05 with knowledge. Apt segregation practices were followed except in casualty. Patients and entourages misinterpreted the colored containers. Conclusion. Nurses’ knowledge and healthcare waste management practices were not satisfactory. There is a need of refresher trainings at optimum intervals to ensure sustainability and further improvement. Educating patients and their entourages and display of segregation information board in local language are recommended.

  19. Measuring and Benchmarking Technical Efficiency of Public Hospitals in Tianjin, China: A Bootstrap-Data Envelopment Analysis Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Dong, Siping

    2015-01-01

    China has long been stuck in applying traditional data envelopment analysis (DEA) models to measure technical efficiency of public hospitals without bias correction of efficiency scores. In this article, we have introduced the Bootstrap-DEA approach from the international literature to analyze the technical efficiency of public hospitals in Tianjin (China) and tried to improve the application of this method for benchmarking and inter-organizational learning. It is found that the bias corrected efficiency scores of Bootstrap-DEA differ significantly from those of the traditional Banker, Charnes, and Cooper (BCC) model, which means that Chinese researchers need to update their DEA models for more scientific calculation of hospital efficiency scores. Our research has helped shorten the gap between China and the international world in relative efficiency measurement and improvement of hospitals. It is suggested that Bootstrap-DEA be widely applied into afterward research to measure relative efficiency and productivity of Chinese hospitals so as to better serve for efficiency improvement and related decision making. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Public and Private Hospital Services Reform Using Data Envelopment Analysis to Measure Technical, Scale, Allocative, and Cost Efficiencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Emrouznejad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to suggest a suitable context to develop efficient hospitalsystems while maintaining the quality of care at minimum expenditures.Methods: This research aimed to present a model of efficiency for selected public and privatehospitals of East Azerbaijani Province of Iran by making use of Data Envelopment Analysis approachin order to recognize and suggest the best practice standards.Results: Among the six inefficient hospitals, 2 (33% had a technical efficiency score of lessthan 50% (both private, 2 (33% between 51 and 74% (one private and one public and the rest(2, 33% between 75 and 99% (one private and one public.Conclusion: In general, the public hospitals are relatively more efficient than private ones; it isrecommended for inefficient hospitals to make use of the followings: transferring, selling, orrenting idle/unused beds; transferring excess doctors and nurses to the efficient hospitals orother health centers; pensioning off, early retirement clinic officers, technicians/technologists,and other technical staff. The saving obtained from the above approaches could be used to improveremuneration for remaining staff and quality of health care services of hospitals, rural andurban health centers, support communities to start or sustain systematic risk and resource poolingand cost sharing mechanisms for protecting beneficiaries against unexpected health carecosts, compensate the capital depreciation, increasing investments, and improve diseases preventionservices and facilities in the provincial level.

  1. Environmental, technical and technological aspects of hazardous waste management in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyssa, Justyna

    2017-10-01

    The issue of recovery and disposal of hazardous waste is not a new concern. The waste comes from various processes and technologies and therefore the bigger emphasis should be placed on reducing quantities of generated hazardous waste (which is often connected with changes in the technology of manufacturing a given product) and limitation of their negative influence on natural environment. Plants specializing in waste processing processes should meet the so-called cardinal triad of conditions deciding on the full success of investment, and namely: economic effectiveness, ecological efficiency and social acceptance. The structure of generation of hazardous waste in EU-28 has been presented in the paper. Methods of hazardous waste disposal in Poland have been discussed. Economic and ecological criteria for the selection of technology of hazardous waste disposal have been analyzed. The influence of the hazardous waste on the environment is also presented. For four groups of waste, which are currently stored, alternative methods of disposal have been proposed.

  2. Solid waste integrated forecast technical (SWIFT) report: FY1997 to FY 2070, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valero, O.J.

    1997-01-01

    This web site provides an up-to-date report on the radioactive solid waste expected to be managed by Hanford's Waste Management (WM) Project from onsite and offsite generators. It includes: an overview of Hanford-wide solid waste to be managed by the WM Project; program-level and waste class-specific estimates; background information on waste sources; and comparisons with previous forecasts and with other national data sources. This web site does not include: liquid waste (current or future generation); waste to be managed by the Environmental Restoration (EM-40) contractor (i.e., waste that will be disposed of at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF)); or waste that has been received by the WM Project to date (i.e., inventory waste). The focus of this web site is on low-level mixed waste (LLMW), and transuranic waste (both non-mixed and mixed) (TRU(M)). Some details on low-level waste and hazardous waste are also provided. Currently, this web site is reporting data that was requested on 10/14/96 and submitted on 10/25/96. The data represent a life cycle forecast covering all reported activities from FY97 through the end of each program's life cycle. Therefore, these data represent revisions from the previous FY97.0 Data Version, due primarily to revised estimates from PNNL. There is some useful information about the structure of this report in the SWIFT Report Web Site Overview

  3. An assessment of radiographers’ technical and protective performance in hospitals affiliated to Birjand University of Medical Sciences in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Reza Tavakkoli

    2014-08-01

    Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, all the 26 radiolographers working in the radiology wards of Vali-asr and Imam Reza hospitals of Birjand participated. In order to collect data about their performance, a checklist whose reliability and validity had been approved was provided. For the radiography staff 17 technical and 12 protective items during three work shifts were checked and recorded. In order to measure their awareness of technical and protective principles, a 12-item questionnaire was completed by each of them. The obtained data was statistically analyzed by means of SPSS software using X2. Results: Mean Performance score in the technical area in the three work shifts was 15±1.60, and that of the protective area was 10.9±1.1 both of which were at an average level. Around 46.5% of the subjects gave correct answers to protective and 37.2% of them to the technical questions. The comparison of technical and protective performance scores showed no significant difference in terms of work shifts, education, gender, and type of employment (P>0.05. Conclusion: The radiographers’ awareness of technical and protective principles was at a very low level. Therefore, both quality academic training and in-service education seem necessary.

  4. Analysis of Waste in the Production of Flour California Red Worm (eisenia foet) in Manabí Technical Universitypilot Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Ulbio Alcívar-Cedeño; Alex Dueñas-Rivadeneira; Eli Sacon-Vera; Gretel Villanueva-Ramos; Luis Bravo-Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    The necessity for have efficient tools in the environmental assessment of production processesis treated in this paper. This work is related to a previous work made in the Technical University of Manabi, forprotein supplements production from unconventional raw materials, specifically Earthworm (Eisenia foetida)flour, using various ecotoxicological methods to evaluategeneratedwaste in pilot production, in order to contribute to compliance the environmental regulations.Liquid wastes generated ...

  5. A multi-criteria assessment of scenarios on thermal processing of infectious hospital wastes: A case study for Central Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karagiannidis, A.; Papageorgiou, A.; Perkoulidis, G.; Sanida, G.; Samaras, P.

    2010-01-01

    In Greece more than 14,000 tonnes of infectious hospital waste are produced yearly; a significant part of it is still mismanaged. Only one off-site licensed incineration facility for hospital wastes is in operation, with the remaining of the market covered by various hydroclave and autoclave units, whereas numerous problems are still generally encountered regarding waste segregation, collection, transportation and management, as well as often excessive entailed costs. Everyday practices still include dumping the majority of solid hospital waste into household disposal sites and landfills after sterilization, still largely without any preceding recycling and separation steps. Discussed in the present paper are the implemented and future treatment practices of infectious hospital wastes in Central Macedonia; produced quantities are reviewed, actual treatment costs are addressed critically, whereas the overall situation in Greece is discussed. Moreover, thermal treatment processes that could be applied for the treatment of infectious hospital wastes in the region are assessed via the multi-criteria decision method Analytic Hierarchy Process. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis was performed and the analysis demonstrated that a centralized autoclave or hydroclave plant near Thessaloniki is the best performing option, depending however on the selection and weighing of criteria of the multi-criteria process. Moreover the study found that a common treatment option for the treatment of all infectious hospital wastes produced in the Region of Central Macedonia, could offer cost and environmental benefits. In general the multi-criteria decision method, as well as the conclusions and remarks of this study can be used as a basis for future planning and anticipation of the needs for investments in the area of medical waste management.

  6. Nuclear waste management technical support in the development of nuclear waste form criteria for the NRC. Task 1. Waste package overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dayal, R.; Lee, B.S.; Wilke, R.J.; Swyler, K.J.; Soo, P.; Ahn, T.M.; McIntyre, N.S.; Veakis, E.

    1982-02-01

    In this report the current state of waste package development for high level waste, transuranic waste, and spent fuel in the US and abroad has been assessed. Specifically, reviewed are recent and on-going research on various waste forms, container materials and backfills and tentatively identified those which are likely to perform most satisfactorily in the repository environment. Radiation effects on the waste package components have been reviewed and the magnitude of these effects has been identified. Areas requiring further research have been identified. The important variables affecting radionuclide release from the waste package have been described and an evaluation of regulatory criteria for high level waste and spent fuel is presented. Finally, for spent fuel, high level, and TRU waste, components which could be used to construct a waste package having potential to meet NRC performance requirements have been described and identified.

  7. Nuclear waste management technical support in the development of nuclear waste form criteria for the NRC. Task 1. Waste package overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayal, R.; Lee, B.S.; Wilke, R.J.; Swyler, K.J.; Soo, P.; Ahn, T.M.; McIntyre, N.S.; Veakis, E.

    1982-02-01

    In this report the current state of waste package development for high level waste, transuranic waste, and spent fuel in the US and abroad has been assessed. Specifically, reviewed are recent and on-going research on various waste forms, container materials and backfills and tentatively identified those which are likely to perform most satisfactorily in the repository environment. Radiation effects on the waste package components have been reviewed and the magnitude of these effects has been identified. Areas requiring further research have been identified. The important variables affecting radionuclide release from the waste package have been described and an evaluation of regulatory criteria for high level waste and spent fuel is presented. Finally, for spent fuel, high level, and TRU waste, components which could be used to construct a waste package having potential to meet NRC performance requirements have been described and identified

  8. 75 FR 79304 - Technical Corrections to the Standards Applicable to Generators of Hazardous Waste; Alternative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... Trade Schools. 61161, 611610 Fine Arts Schools. Teaching Hospitals: 54194, 541940 Veterinary Services (Animal Hospitals). 622 Hospitals. 6221, 62211, 622110 General Medical and Surgical Hospitals. 6222, 62221... have a formal written affiliation agreement with a college or university; and (3) teaching hospitals...

  9. The Cost of Health Service Waste Management of (HSWM: A Case Study of Intensive Care Unit of Infectious Diseases at a Public Hospital in São Paulo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chennyfer Dobbins Paes da Rosa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Health Service Waste Management is a set of technical and legal procedures for waste management in any type of health facilities. It is known about the limited resources, so reducing environmental costs can contribute to the management of hospital costs. The objective was to estimate the cost of the phases of HSWM to the Intensive Care Unit for public service. Data collecting was done through a script of questions and observations on site at the Emilio Ribas Infectious Diseases Institute in Sao Paulo. The ABC costing method was used. The most costly step was wrapping (40.68%, followed by segregation (40.17%, which is justified by both being associated with health workers’ salaries. The daily cost of the management of health care waste from segregation to final disposal in the ICU was R$ 4,288.81 a day, being R$ 314.80/bed-patient/day. To know the cost of an activity allows for the analysis of strategies for price negotiation. Health care waste is little remembered when pricing a daily ICU, many managers believe this value to be irrelevant; but< if not measured, it may bring losses to the institution.

  10. Technical summary of groundwater quality protection program at Savannah River Plant. Volume 1. Site geohydrology, and solid and hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, E.J.; Gordon, D.E.

    1983-12-01

    The program for protecting the quality of groundwater underlying the Savannah River Plant (SRP) is described in this technical summary report. The report is divided into two volumes. Volume I contains a discussion of the general site geohydrology and of both active and inactive sites used for disposal of solid and hazardous wastes. Volume II includes a discussion of radioactive waste disposal. Most information contained in these two volumes is current as of December 1983. The groundwater quality protection program has several elements which, taken collectively, are designed to achieve three major goals. These goals are to evaluate the impact on groundwater quality as a result of SRP operations, to restore or protect groundwater quality by taking corrective action as necessary, and to ensure disposal of waste materials in accordance with regulatory guidelines

  11. Scoping evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of hazardous metals in mixed low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruebel, M.M.; Waters, R.D.; Langkopf, B.S.

    1997-05-01

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a scoping evaluation to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of the hazardous metals in mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Eight hazardous metals were evaluated: arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, and silver. The analysis considered transport only through the groundwater pathway. The results are reported as site-specific estimates of maximum concentrations of each hazardous metal in treated mixed low-level waste that do not exceed the performance measures established for the analysis. Also reported are site-specific estimates of travel times of each hazardous metal to the point of compliance

  12. Disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in the unsaturated zone: technical considerations and response to comments. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackbarth, C.J.; Nicholson, T.J.; Evans, D.D.

    1985-10-01

    On July 22, 1985, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) promulgated amendments to 10 CFR Part 60 concerning disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in geologic repositories in the unsaturated zone (50 FR 29641). This report contains a discussion of the principal technical issues considered by the NRC staff during the development of these amendments. It expands or revises certain technical discussions originally presented in draft NUREG-1046 (February 1984) based on public comment letters and an increasing understanding of the physical, geochemical, and hydrogeologic processes operative in unsaturated geologic media. The following issues related to disposal of HLW within the unsaturated zone are discussed: hydrogeologic properties and conditions, heat dissipation and temperature, geochemisty, retrievability, potential for exhumation of the radioactive waste by natural causes and by human intrusion, the effects of future climatic changes on the level of the regional water table, and transport of radionuclides in the gaseous state. The changes to 10 CFR Part 60 in definitions, siting criteria, and design criteria for the geologic repository operations area are discussed. Other criteria examined by the NRC staff but which were not changed in rule are the minimum 300-meter depth for waste emplacement, limitations on exploratory boreholes, backfill requirements, waste package design criteria, and provisions for ventilation

  13. Technical feasibility of a Dutch radioactive waste repository in Boom Clay : Plugs and seals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, Jun; Vardon, P.J.; Hicks, M.A.; Hart, J; Fokker, PA

    2017-01-01

    Radioactive substances and ionizing radiation are used in medicine, industry, agriculture, re- search, education and electricity production. This generates radioactive waste. In the Neth- erlands, this waste is collected, treated and stored by COVRA (Centrale Organisatie Voor Radioactief Afval).

  14. Current technics and management strategy for Pu-contaminated wastes at PNC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) was designated as a leading organization for the Pu-contaminated waste technology program in Japan. For this purpose, number of efforts in the research and development are proceeding. That is, Pu-contaminated waste technology including volume reduction system and the immobilization of wastes is being developed. The design of a Pu-contaminated waste treatment facility (PWTF) is being made for the demonstration of the technology developed. Studies are in progress to find the criteria for waste products in disposal. The current procedures and strategy for the management of Pu-contaminated wastes at PNC are described as follows: current and future management; technology development including controlled air incineration, acid digestion, immobilization melting, dismantling, and liquid waste treatment; the Pu-contaminated waste treatment facility. (J.P.N.)

  15. Long-term high-level waste technology. Composite quarterly technical report, October-December 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornman, W.R.

    1980-06-01

    This document summarizes work for the immobilization of high-level radioactive wastes from the chemical reprocessing of nuclear reactor fuels. The progress is reported in two main areas: site technology, and alternative waste form development

  16. Preparation of a technology development roadmap for the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) System : report of the ATW separations technologies and waste forms technical working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.; Duguid, J.; Henry, R.; Karell, E.J.; Laidler, J.J.; McDeavitt, S.M.; Thompson, M.; Toth, L.M.; Williamson, M.; Willit, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    In response to a Congressional mandate to prepare a roadmap for the development of Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) technology, a Technical Working Group comprised of members from various DOE laboratories was convened in March 1999 for the purpose of preparing that part of the technology development roadmap dealing with the separation of certain radionuclides for transmutation and the disposal of residual radioactive wastes from these partitioning operations. The Technical Working Group for ATW Separations Technologies and Waste Forms completed its work in June 1999, having carefully considered the technology options available. A baseline process flowsheet and backup process were identified for initial emphasis in a future research, development and demonstration program. The baseline process combines aqueous and pyrochemical processes to permit the efficient separation of the uranium, technetium, iodine and transuranic elements from the light water reactor (LWR) fuel in the head-end step. The backup process is an all- pyrochemical system. In conjunction with the aqueous process, the baseline flowsheet includes a pyrochemical process to prepare the transuranic material for fabrication of the ATW fuel assemblies. For the internal ATW fuel cycle the baseline process specifies another pyrochemical process to extract the transuranic elements, Tc and 1 from the ATW fuel. Fission products not separated for transmutation and trace amounts of actinide elements would be directed to two high-level waste forms, one a zirconium-based alloy and the other a glass/sodalite composite. Baseline cost and schedule estimates are provided for a RD and D program that would provide a full-scale demonstration of the complete separations and waste production flowsheet within 20 years

  17. Preparation of a technology development roadmap for the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) System : report of the ATW separations technologies and waste forms technical working group.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, E.; Duguid, J.; Henry, R.; Karell, E.; Laidler, J.; McDeavitt, S.; Thompson, M.; Toth, M.; Williamson, M.; Willit, J.

    1999-08-12

    In response to a Congressional mandate to prepare a roadmap for the development of Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) technology, a Technical Working Group comprised of members from various DOE laboratories was convened in March 1999 for the purpose of preparing that part of the technology development roadmap dealing with the separation of certain radionuclides for transmutation and the disposal of residual radioactive wastes from these partitioning operations. The Technical Working Group for ATW Separations Technologies and Waste Forms completed its work in June 1999, having carefully considered the technology options available. A baseline process flowsheet and backup process were identified for initial emphasis in a future research, development and demonstration program. The baseline process combines aqueous and pyrochemical processes to permit the efficient separation of the uranium, technetium, iodine and transuranic elements from the light water reactor (LWR) fuel in the head-end step. The backup process is an all- pyrochemical system. In conjunction with the aqueous process, the baseline flowsheet includes a pyrochemical process to prepare the transuranic material for fabrication of the ATW fuel assemblies. For the internal ATW fuel cycle the baseline process specifies another pyrochemical process to extract the transuranic elements, Tc and 1 from the ATW fuel. Fission products not separated for transmutation and trace amounts of actinide elements would be directed to two high-level waste forms, one a zirconium-based alloy and the other a glass/sodalite composite. Baseline cost and schedule estimates are provided for a RD&D program that would provide a full-scale demonstration of the complete separations and waste production flowsheet within 20 years.

  18. Environmental, technical and technological aspects of hazardous waste management in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Pyssa Justyna

    2017-01-01

    The issue of recovery and disposal of hazardous waste is not a new concern. The waste comes from various processes and technologies and therefore the bigger emphasis should be placed on reducing quantities of generated hazardous waste (which is often connected with changes in the technology of manufacturing a given product) and limitation of their negative influence on natural environment. Plants specializing in waste processing processes should meet the so-called cardinal triad of conditions...

  19. TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF BULK VITRIFICATION PROCESS/ PRODUCT FOR TANK WASTE TREATMENT AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HANFORD SITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCHAUS, P.S.

    2006-01-01

    At the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) is being constructed to immobilize both high-level waste (IUW) for disposal in a national repository and low-activity waste (LAW) for onsite, near-surface disposal. The schedule-controlling step for the WTP Project is vitrification of the large volume of LAW, current capacity of the WTP (as planned) would require 50 years to treat the Hanford tank waste, if the entire LAW volume were to be processed through the WTP. To reduce the time and cost for treatment of Hanford Tank Waste, and as required by the Tank Waste Remediation System Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision and the Hanford Federal Facility Consent Agreement (Tn-Party Agreement), DOE plans to supplement the LAW treatment capacity of the WTP. Since 2002, DOE, in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Agency and State of Washington Department of Ecology has been evaluating technologies that could provide safe and effective supplemental treatment of LAW. Current efforts at Hanford are intended to provide additional information to aid a joint agency decision on which technology will be used to supplement the WTP. A Research, Development and Demonstration permit has been issued by the State of Washington to build and (for a limited time) operate a Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) facility to provide information for the decision on a supplemental treatment technology for up to 50% of the LAW. In the Bulk Vitrification (BV) process, LAW, soil, and glass-forming chemicals are mixed, dried, and placed in a refractory-lined box, Electric current, supplied through two graphite electrodes in the box, melts the waste feed, producing a durable glass waste-form. Although recent modifications to the process have resulted in significant improvements, there are continuing technical concerns

  20. TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF BULK VITRIFICATION PROCESS & PRODUCT FOR TANK WASTE TREATMENT AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SCHAUS, P.S.

    2006-07-21

    At the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) is being constructed to immobilize both high-level waste (IUW) for disposal in a national repository and low-activity waste (LAW) for onsite, near-surface disposal. The schedule-controlling step for the WTP Project is vitrification of the large volume of LAW, current capacity of the WTP (as planned) would require 50 years to treat the Hanford tank waste, if the entire LAW volume were to be processed through the WTP. To reduce the time and cost for treatment of Hanford Tank Waste, and as required by the Tank Waste Remediation System Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision and the Hanford Federal Facility Consent Agreement (Tn-Party Agreement), DOE plans to supplement the LAW treatment capacity of the WTP. Since 2002, DOE, in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Agency and State of Washington Department of Ecology has been evaluating technologies that could provide safe and effective supplemental treatment of LAW. Current efforts at Hanford are intended to provide additional information to aid a joint agency decision on which technology will be used to supplement the WTP. A Research, Development and Demonstration permit has been issued by the State of Washington to build and (for a limited time) operate a Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) facility to provide information for the decision on a supplemental treatment technology for up to 50% of the LAW. In the Bulk Vitrification (BV) process, LAW, soil, and glass-forming chemicals are mixed, dried, and placed in a refractory-lined box, Electric current, supplied through two graphite electrodes in the box, melts the waste feed, producing a durable glass waste-form. Although recent modifications to the process have resulted in significant improvements, there are continuing technical concerns.

  1. Multicriteria decision methodology for selecting technical alternatives in the Mixed Waste Integrated Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrada, J.J.; Berry, J.B.

    1993-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) has as one of its tasks the identification of a decision methodology and key decision criteria for the selection methodology. The aim of a multicriteria analysis is to provide an instrument for a systematic evaluation of distinct alternative projects. Determination of this methodology will clarify (1) the factors used to evaluate these alternatives, (2) the evaluator's view of the importance of the factors, and (3) the relative value of each alternative. The selected methodology must consider the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) decision-making criteria for application to the analysis technology subsystems developed by the DOE Office of Technology Development. This report contains a compilation of several decision methodologies developed in various national laboratories, institutions, and universities. The purpose of these methodologies may vary, but the core of the decision attributes are very similar. Six approaches were briefly analyzed; from these six, in addition to recommendations made by the MWIP technical support group leaders and CERCLA, the final decision methodology was extracted. Slight variations are observed in the many methodologies developed by different groups, but most of the analyzed methodologies address similar aspects for the most part. These common aspects were the core of the methodology suggested in this report for use within MWIP for the selection of technologies. The set of criteria compiled and developed for this report have been grouped in five categories: (1) process effectiveness, (2) developmental status, (3) life-cycle cost, (4) implementability, and (5) regulatory compliance

  2. Financial performance monitoring of the technical efficiency of critical access hospitals: a data envelopment analysis and logistic regression modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Asa B; Kerr, Bernard J; Bastian, Nathaniel D; Fulton, Lawrence V

    2012-01-01

    From 1980 to 1999, rural designated hospitals closed at a disproportionally high rate. In response to this emergent threat to healthcare access in rural settings, the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 made provisions for the creation of a new rural hospital--the critical access hospital (CAH). The conversion to CAH and the associated cost-based reimbursement scheme significantly slowed the closure rate of rural hospitals. This work investigates which methods can ensure the long-term viability of small hospitals. This article uses a two-step design to focus on a hypothesized relationship between technical efficiency of CAHs and a recently developed set of financial monitors for these entities. The goal is to identify the financial performance measures associated with efficiency. The first step uses data envelopment analysis (DEA) to differentiate efficient from inefficient facilities within a data set of 183 CAHs. Determining DEA efficiency is an a priori categorization of hospitals in the data set as efficient or inefficient. In the second step, DEA efficiency is the categorical dependent variable (efficient = 0, inefficient = 1) in the subsequent binary logistic regression (LR) model. A set of six financial monitors selected from the array of 20 measures were the LR independent variables. We use a binary LR to test the null hypothesis that recently developed CAH financial indicators had no predictive value for categorizing a CAH as efficient or inefficient, (i.e., there is no relationship between DEA efficiency and fiscal performance).

  3. Optimization of sodium bicarbonate injection for acid scrubbing in hospital waste incineration plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozainee, M.; Salleh, M.; Mutahharah, M.M.; Anwar Johari

    2010-01-01

    Optimization of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) injection for acid hydrochloric (HCl) scrubbing was conducted on a hospital waste incineration plant. The plant employs a rotary kiln system having burning capacity of 350 kg/h hospital waste (average calorific value of 17.4 MJ/kg) and is operated on a 24 hr/ day basis. Currently, NaHCO 3 injection rate is 25 kg/h as recommended by manufacturer to meet the Department of Environment (DOE) standard emission limit of 200 mg/Nm 3 HCl. Testing of HCl emission at various injection rates of 25, 20, 15 and 10 kg/ h results in HCl final concentration in the range of 0.58-7.13, 5.63-7.74, 0.07-2.99 and 3-28 mg/Nm 3 respectively. The results showed that NaHCO 3 injection rate as low as 10 kg/ h could still meet the HCl stipulated emission limit. Economic comparison between 25 and 10 kg/ h injection rates showed that total saving on NaHCO 3 and disposal of fly ash was RM 22,000 per month (equivalent to saving RM 260,000 per year) when using 10 kg/ h injection rate. It was concluded from the study that optimum injection rate would not only save cost and reduce wastage but also reduce bag house loading rate and prolong the life span of filter bags. (author)

  4. Evaluation of low-level solid radioactive waste generated by a large hospital and disposed of with ordinary refuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, L.; Pedroli, G.; Monciardini, M.; Bianchi, L.; Novario, R.; Beretta, A.

    1996-01-01

    In the Lombardy region some hospitals have recently been reported to the local authorities because of the presence of radioactivity in hospital refuse sent to the municipal tips for incineration. On various occasions the refuse collectors coming from the hospitals had to return with their refuse as traces of radioactivity were detected at the entrance to the tips equipped with monitoring systems. Hospitals administering radioactive substances for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes produce radioactive waste mainly in solid and liquid form. This waste is principally present in patient excreta and in contaminated materials. Radioactive waste present in patient excreta is normally disposed of through the sewage system provided that the concentration limits and annual activity stipulated by law are respected. The contaminated materials coming from the departments that carry out radioisotopic investigations and therapy with unsealed sources can be collected separately and sent to a tip after a period of storage to permit radioactive decay. However, part of the radioactive waste escapes all checks and inevitably mixes with normal refuse or with special hospital refuse that is not considered radioactive. This occurs in the case of: 1. excreta from patients who are not hospitalised after a radioisotopic investigation and materials contaminated by the excreta; 2. excreta from hospitalised patients which are eliminated outside the nuclear medicine and radiotherapy departments; 3. contaminated materials produced with unsealed sources in hospital departments other than those of nuclear medicine and radiotherapy; The waste indicated in point 1 is probably the main problem in ecological terms as the patients who are not hospitalised eliminate radioactive excreta into domestic sewage systems and can also contaminate materials that are disposed of with normal household refuse. In this case any solution to the problem would seriously affect diagnostic activities carried out in the

  5. Radioactive waste handling and disposal at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haj, Abdalla N; Lobriguito, Aida M; Al Anazi, Ibrahim

    2012-08-01

    King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre (KFSHRC) is the largest specialized medical center in Saudi Arabia. It performs highly specialized diagnostic imaging procedures with the use of various radionuclides required by sophisticated dual imaging systems. As a leading institution in cancer research, KFSHRC uses both long-lived and short-lived radionuclides. KFSHRC established the first cyclotron facility in the Middle East, which solved the in-house high demand for radionuclides and the difficulty in importing them. As both user and producer of high standard radiopharmaceuticals, KFSHRC generates large volumes of low and high level radioactive wastes. An old and small radioactive facility that was used for storage of radioactive waste was replaced with a bigger warehouse provided with facilities that will reduce radiation exposure of the staff, members of the public, and of the environment in the framework of "as low as reasonably achievable." The experiences and the effectiveness of the radiation protection program on handling and storage of radioactive wastes are presented.

  6. Plan of environmental administration for the handling of ordinary and specific accustomed to waste of Los Chiles Hospital (Alajuela)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parini Corella, P.

    1999-01-01

    The area of study of the present project is the treatment of waste, likewise, the objective of this project was to design a plan of Environmental Administration for the handling of the ordinary and specific accustomed to waste generated in the Los Chiles Hospital. For all this, firstly one carries out an diagnose. In the first stage of diagnose, it was necessary to elaborate an initial tool that allowed to know the position of the Institution in environmental matter. To develop this they take into account different elements of the norm ISO-14000, specifically of the norms ISO-14001 and ISO-14004, the environmental legislation of our country, aspects of the strategic planning, elements of occupational security and some existent politicians at Managerial level of the CCSS related with the administration in the handling of hospital waste. With regard to this finish, one carries out a study on the situation of the Hospital, since this information constitutes the base for the elaboration of the Institutional Program, for the acquisition of inputs, the assignment of resources and for the establishment of the Program of Control of Monitoreo the diagnoses sandal five points: Generation and composition of the waste handling,resources, knowledge and attitudes,mechanism of Control. As for the evaluation of the different stages that you/they constitute the administration of the manipulation of the hospital accustomed to waste, three stages could be identified in the Los Chiles Hospital, that is: generation and deposit, gathering, transporting and final decomposition. The first one is since a complex stage it depends on several such factors as: the activity type that is carried out when the waste, the place is generated where is taken to end happiness activity, the type or nature of the waste and different people that can give origin to these waste. The second stage, the handling of the accustomed to waste, involves exclusively personal of toilet and some infirmary assistants

  7. Implementing Selective Waste Collection: The Articulation between Pedagogical Theory and Practice in the Pollution and Ecology Class in the Environmental Control Technical Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocas, Giselle; Gonzalez, Wania R. Coutinho; Araujo, Flavia Monteiro de Barros

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on the implementation of selective waste collection in a school located on the outskirts of the city of Rio de Janeiro. The participants consisted mainly of 64 students taking an Environmental Control technical course during 2007 and 2008. By addressing selective waste collection, the pedagogical proposal aimed at: a) enabling…

  8. ANL technical support program for DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. Annual report, October 1991--September 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, J.K.; Bradley, C.R.; Buck, E.C.; Cunnane, J.C.; Dietz, N.L.; Ebert, W.L.; Emery, J.W.; Feng, X.; Gerding, T.J.; Gong, M.; Hoh, J.C.; Mazer, J.J.; Wronkiewicz, D.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bourcier, W.L.; Morgan, L.E.; Newton, L.; Nielsen, J.K.; Phillips, B.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Ewing, R.C.; Wang, L. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Li, H.; Tomozawa, M. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    1993-05-01

    A program was established for DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) to evaluate factors that are anticipated to affect waste glass reaction during repository disposal, especially in an unsaturated environment typical of what may be expected for the proposed Yucca Mountain repository site. This report covers progress in FY 1992 on the following tasks: 1. A compendium of the characteristics of high-level nuclear waste borosilicate glass has been written. 2. A critical review of important parameters that affect the reactivity of glass in an unsaturated environment is being prepared. 3. A series of tests has been started to evaluate the reactivity of fully radioactive glasses in a high-level waste repository environment and compare it to the reactivity of synthetic, nonradioactive glasses of similar composition. 4. The effect of radiation upon the durability of waste glasses at a high glass surface area-to-liquid volume (SA/V) ratio and a high gas-to-liquid volume ratio will be assessed. These tests address both vapor and high SA/V liquid conditions. 5. A series of tests is being performed to compare the extent of reaction of nuclear waste glasses at various SAN ratios. Such differences in the SAN ratio may significantly affect glass durability. 6. A series of natural analogue tests is being analyzed to demonstrate a meaningful relationship between experimental and natural alteration conditions. 7. Analytical electron microscopy (AEM), infrared spectroscopys and nuclear resonant profiling are being used to assess the glass/water reaction pathway by identifying intermediate phases that appear on the reacting glass. Additionally, colloids from the leach solutions are being studied using AEM. 8. A technical review of AEM results is being provided. 9. A study of water diffusion involving nuclear waste glasses is being performed. 10. A mechanistically based model is being developed to predict the performance of glass over repository-relevant time periods.

  9. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 6. Baseline rock properties-shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Y/OWI/TM36/6 Baseline Rock Properties--Shale, is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-36'' which supplements a ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-44.'' The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. The report is a result of a literature survey of the rock properties of shales occurring in the United States. Firstly, data were collected from a wide variety of sources in order to obtain a feel for the range of properties encountered. Secondly, some typical shales were selected for detailed review and these are written up as separate chapters in this report. Owing to the wide variability in lithology and properties of shales occurring in the United States, it became necessary to focus the study on consolidated illite shales. Using the specific information already generated, a consistent set of intact properties for a typical, consolidated illite shale was obtained. Correction factors, largely based on geological considerations, were then applied to the intact data in order to yield typical rock mass properties for this type of shale. Lastly, excavation problems in shale formations were reviewed and three tunnel jobs were written up as case histories

  10. [Outsourcing: theory and practice at a clinical hospital in Szczecin exemplified by medical waste transport and treatment service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlega, Dariusz; Nowacki, Przemysław; Lewiński, Dariusz; Chmurowicz, Ryszard; Ciećwiez, Sylwester

    2011-01-01

    Outsourcing proves to be a useful tool in the difficult process of improving the financial result of hospitals. Outsourcing means separation of some functions and services in one entity and their transfer to another. The aim of this study was to analyze the use of outsourcing at the Second Independent Public University Hospital of the Pomeranian Medical University (SPSK 2 PUM) in Szczecin. We studied the transport and treatment of medical waste. Outsourcing of waste treatment services led to financial savings. The cost of treatment of one kilogram of waste by an external company was PLN 2.53. The same service provided by the hospital would cost approximately PLN 7 per kilogram. Appropriate attention should be paid to the quality of services. It seems useful to have appropriate tools for quality control and monitoring. SPSK 2 PUM can serve as a good example of effective use of outsourcing.

  11. [MANAGEMENT OF HEALTHCARE WASTE IN THE HOSPITAL SETTING. UNDERSTANDING RISK MANAGEMENT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galimany-Masclans, Jordi; Torres-Egea, Pilar; Sancho-Agredano, Raúl; Girbau-García, Ma Rosa; Fabrellas, Núria; Torrens-Garcia, Ma Llum; Martínez-Estalella, Gemma

    2015-05-01

    The sanitary waste represents a potential hazard for health workers. Given the high risk of infection in labor accidents, the correct management of sanitary waste minimizes this risk and improves labor and environment conditions. To identify risk perception with health professionals in relation to the advanced sorting and management of healthcare waste (HW). The current study is a descriptive, cross-sectional. The sample size was 177 health workers (nurse assistants, nurses, physicians, lab technicians) from three hospitals in Barcelona (Catalonia). Homemade questionnaire and questions with a free and spontaneous association and incomplete sentences were used to analyze labor variables, perception of risk and personal security through a Likert scale. Using a score from 1 (the lowest perception of risk) to 5 (the high perception of risk) to assess the risk perception, the average value for nurse assistants, nurses, physicians, and lab technicians was 3.71, 3.75, 3.83 and 4.03, respectively. Referring to items with free and spontaneous response association, 44.8% of workers consider HW as a biohazard, 29.6% consider it as waste material, 22.1% state that it must be managed properly and 3.5% described it as unknown residues. The results suggest that all health professionals generally have a perception of high risk. The lab technicians have a higher perception of the real risk of inadequate management of HW A 63.2% report that everyone has to make a proper management to preserve their occupational health; the 59% consider that the HW are a biological risk to the general population and only the 47.8% that are harmful to public health. Although it should be noted that only 44.8% think that HW are toxic and dangerous.

  12. Economic and technical advantages of high temperature processes in high level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouan, A.; Jacquet-Francillon, N.; Cler, M.

    1991-01-01

    The estimated waste management costs incurred for the three principal waste forms produced by reprocessing spent fuel are compared from a theoretical economic standpoint. The cost of vitrifying concentrated fission product solutions is considered first, together with the estimated additional costs of transportation and final storage in a geological repository. Fuel cladding waste treatments are then examined by comparing the relative costs of cementation, compaction and melting; processes for disposal of incinerable alpha-bearing wastes are also considered. In each case, the processes ensuring the greatest waste volume reduction not only result in the lowest management cost, but are also most effective in ensuring the highest possible containment quality for the final waste package

  13. Economic and technical advantages of high-temperature processes in high-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouan, A.; Jacquet-Francillon, N.; Cler, M.; Chaudon, L.

    1991-01-01

    The estimated waste management costs incurred for the three principal waste forms produced by reprocessing spent fuel are compared from a theoretical economic standpoint. The cost of vitrifying concentrated fission product solutions is considered first, together with the estimated additional costs of transportation and final storage in a geological repository. Fuel cladding waste treatments are then examined by comparing the relative costs of cementation, compaction and melting; processes for disposal of incinerable alpha-bearing wastes are also considered. In each case, the processes ensuring the greatest waste volume reduction not only result in the lowest management cost, but are also most effective in ensuring the highest possible containment quality for the final waste package

  14. High-level-waste containment for a thousand years: unique technical and research problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    In the United States the present policy for disposal of high level nuclear wastes is focused on isolation of solidified wastes in a mined geologic repository. Safe isolation is to be achieved by utilizing both natural and man-made barriers which will act in concert to assure the overall conservative performance of the disposal system. The incorporation of predictable man-made barriers into the waste disposal strategy has generated some new and unique problems for the scientific community

  15. Technical and socio-political issues in radioactive waste disposal 1986. Vol. 1A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, F.L.; Kasperson, R.E.; Andersson, T.L.; Parker, S.A.

    1987-11-01

    Review of radioactive waste management activities and goals in the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, USA, European Communities, IAEA, NEA, ICRP and UNSCEAR. (HP)

  16. Solid Waste Integrated Forecast Technical (SWIFT) Report FY 2001 to FY 2046 Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BARCOT, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    In an effort to maintain an up-to-date Solid Waste Forecast, Fluor Hanford, Inc. requested a midyear update to the FY2001 Solid Waste Forecast collected in June 2000. Below is a list of generators reporting significant changes from the baseline FY2001 forecast, as well as approved generators previously not reporting wastes. The updated data was collected in February 2001. The cumulative effect of the changes in the near term was minor. Included in this update are waste generation maps for onsite facilities. The maps are updated annually and use the baseline forecast as a data reference

  17. Characterisation, dissemination and persistence of gentamicin resistant Escherichia coli from a Danish university hospital to the waste water environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lotte; Sandvang, Dorthe; Hansen, Lars H

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the potential spread of gentamicin resistant (GEN(R)) Escherichia coli isolates or GEN(R) determinants from a Danish university hospital to the waste water environment. Waste water samples were collected monthly from the outlets of the hospital bed wards...... (aac(3)-II, aac(3)-IV, ant(2'')-I, armA), phenotypic resistance pattern, and virulence genes (hlyA, chuA, sfaS, fogG, malX, traT, iutA, fyuA, iroN, cnf1) to investigate if the hospital and waste water could be reservoirs of antimicrobial resistance and virulence. The ability for GEN(R) determinants......, indicating a potential spread of the gene from patient isolates to waste water isolates. Regardless of origin, most isolates exhibited multi-resistance and contained several virulence genes. In conclusion, our study showed a possible spread of aac(3)-II from the hospital to the waste water. Most of the GEN...

  18. LOGISTICS OF WASTE MANAGEMENT IN HEALTHCARE INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Marczak

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The waste management system in health care is a tool that allows to conduct reasonable steps to reduce their amount, collection, storage and transport, and provide a high level of utilization or disposal. Logistics solutions in waste management are intended to make full use of the infrastructure and technical resources, optimize costs, ensure the safety and health at work and meet legal requirements. The article discusses the elements of the logistics system of waste management in hospital, necessary to ensure the smooth flow of waste from its origin to landfilling. The following criteria were characterized: technical and technological, ecological and economic that can be used in the analysis and evaluation of solutions in waste management in the hospital. Finally, solutions to improve waste management system in the hospital on the example of the real object have been presented.

  19. Final report of the systems engineering technical advisory board for the Tank Waste Remediation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranowski, F.P.; Goodlett, C.B.; Beard, S.J.; Duckworth, J.P.; Schneider, A.; Zahn, L.L.

    1993-03-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) is one segment of the environmental restoration program at the Hanford site. The scope is to retrieve the contents of both the single shell and double shell tanks and process the wastes into forms acceptable for long term storage and/or permanent disposal. The quantity of radioactive waste in tanks is significantly larger and substantially more complex in composition than the radioactive waste stored in tanks at other DOE sites. The waste is stored in 149 single shell tanks and 28 double shell tanks. The waste was produced over a period from the mid 1940s to the present. The single shell tanks have exceeded their design life and are experiencing failures. The oldest of the double shell tanks are approaching their design life. Spar double shell tank waste volume is limited. The priorities in the Board`s view are to manage safely the waste tank farms, accelerate emptying of waste tanks, provide spare tank capacity and assure a high degree of confidence in performance of the TWRS integrated program. At its present design capacity, the glass vitrification plant (HWVP) will require a period of about 15 years to empty the double shell tanks; the addition of the waste in single shell tanks adds another 100 years. There is an urgent need to initiate now a well focused and centralized development and engineering program on both larger glass melters and advanced separations processes that reduce radioactive constituents in the low-level waste (LLW). The Board presents its conclusions and has other suggestions for the management plan. The Board reviews planning schedules for accelerating the TWRS program.

  20. Final report of the systems engineering technical advisory board for the Tank Waste Remediation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranowski, F.P.; Goodlett, C.B.; Beard, S.J.; Duckworth, J.P.; Schneider, A.; Zahn, L.L.

    1993-03-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) is one segment of the environmental restoration program at the Hanford site. The scope is to retrieve the contents of both the single shell and double shell tanks and process the wastes into forms acceptable for long term storage and/or permanent disposal. The quantity of radioactive waste in tanks is significantly larger and substantially more complex in composition than the radioactive waste stored in tanks at other DOE sites. The waste is stored in 149 single shell tanks and 28 double shell tanks. The waste was produced over a period from the mid 1940s to the present. The single shell tanks have exceeded their design life and are experiencing failures. The oldest of the double shell tanks are approaching their design life. Spar double shell tank waste volume is limited. The priorities in the Board's view are to manage safely the waste tank farms, accelerate emptying of waste tanks, provide spare tank capacity and assure a high degree of confidence in performance of the TWRS integrated program. At its present design capacity, the glass vitrification plant (HWVP) will require a period of about 15 years to empty the double shell tanks; the addition of the waste in single shell tanks adds another 100 years. There is an urgent need to initiate now a well focused and centralized development and engineering program on both larger glass melters and advanced separations processes that reduce radioactive constituents in the low-level waste (LLW). The Board presents its conclusions and has other suggestions for the management plan. The Board reviews planning schedules for accelerating the TWRS program

  1. Management of Low-Level Radioactive Waste from Research, Hospitals and Nuclear Medical Centers in Egypt - 13469

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, M.A.; Selim, Y.T.; Lasheen, Y.F. [Hot Labs and Waste Management Center, Atomic Energy Authority, 3 Ahmed El-Zomor St., El-Zohour District, Naser City, 11787, Cairo (Egypt)

    2013-07-01

    The application of radioisotopes and radiation sources in medical diagnosis and therapy is an important issue. Physicians can use radioisotopes to diagnose and treat diseases. Methods of treatment, conditioning and management of low level radioactive wastes from the use of radiation sources and radioisotopes in hospitals and nuclear medicine application, are described. Solid Radioactive waste with low-level activity after accumulation, minimization, segregation and measurement, are burned or compressed in a compactor according to the international standards. Conditioned drums are transported to the interim storage site at the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority (EAEA) represented in Hot Labs and Waste Management Center (HLWMC) for storage and monitoring. (authors)

  2. Scoping evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste. Examples: Sandia National Laboratories and Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruebel, M.R.; Parsons, A.M.; Waters, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    The disposal of mixed low-level waste has become an issue for the U.S. Department of Energy and the States since the inception of the Federal Facilities Compliance Act in 1992. Fifteen sites, including Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), have been evaluated to estimate their technical capabilities for disposal of this type of waste after it has been subjected to treatment processes. The analyses were designed to quantify the maximum permissible concentrations of radioactive and hazardous constituents in mixed low-level waste that could potentially be disposed of in a facility at one of the fifteen sites and meet regulatory requirements. The evaluations provided several major insights about the disposal of mixed low-level waste. All of the fifteen sites have the technical capability for disposal of some waste. Maximum permissible concentrations for the radioactive component of the waste at and sites such as SNL and LANL are almost exclusively determined by pathways other than through groundwater. In general, for the hazardous component of the waste, travel times through groundwater to a point 100 meters from the disposal facility are on the order of thousands of years. The results of the evaluations will be compared to actual treated waste that may be disposed of in a facility at one of these fifteen evaluated sites. These comparisons will indicate which waste streams may exceed the disposal limitations of a site and which component of the waste limits the technical acceptability for disposal. The technical analyses provide only partial input to the decision-making process for determining the disposal sites for mixed low-level waste. Other, less quantitative factors such as social and political issues will also be considered

  3. Occupational Exposure to Infection: A study on Healthcare Waste Handlers of a Tertiary Care Hospital in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivalli, Siddharudha; Sowmyashree, H

    2015-11-01

    Occupational exposure to infection is an important public health concern. Such accidents are associated with a few, but pose significant risk to worker's health, family and the community. 1) To assess the knowledge and attitude of waste handlers regarding healthcare waste management in tertiary care hospital of Mangalore. 2) To assess the occupational risk of exposure to infection in their work setting. A cross-sectional study was conducted among healthcare waste handlers (involved in collection, storage and safe disposal) in a tertiary care hospital of Mangalore, India. A semi-structured and pre-tested proforma was used to assess respondents' knowledge and percentage score was calculated based on a scoring system. Chi square and independent sample t tests were applied to judge the association of study variables with knowledge and occupational risk of infection. A total of 43 healthcare waste handlers participated in the study and all were females. Almost half of them had poor knowledge (healthcare waste management. As much as 41.8% of them had exposure to healthcare waste and 'needle stick injury' was the most common type. Age, literacy and experience did not significantly (p>0.05) influence the knowledge and occupational risk of infection. Respondents' knowledge regarding healthcare waste management was unsatisfactory. They were at high risk of occupational exposure to infection. It emphasizes the need of refresher training and reinforcement of personal protection measures in their work setting. © Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 2011.

  4. Technical feasibility of a Dutch radioactive waste repository in Boom Clay : Thermo-hydro-mechanical behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vardon, P.J.; Buragohain, Poly; Hicks, M.A.; Hart, J; Fokker, PA; Graham, C

    2017-01-01

    OPERA-PU-TUD321c
    Radioactive substances and ionizing radiation are used in medicine, industry, agriculture, re- search, education and electricity production. This generates radioactive waste. In the Neth- erlands, this waste is collected, treated and stored by COVRA (Centrale Organisatie Voor

  5. Technical feasibility of a Dutch radioactive waste repository in Boom Clay : Tunnel crossings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, Jun; Vardon, P.J.; Hicks, M.A.; Hart, J; Fokker, PA

    2017-01-01

    OPERA-PU-TUD321b
    Radioactive substances and ionizing radiation are used in medicine, industry, agriculture, re- search, education and electricity production. This generates radioactive waste. In the Neth- erlands, this waste is collected, treated and stored by COVRA (Centrale Organisatie Voor

  6. Policy and technical considerations for intermediate-level and low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System