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Sample records for hospital seoul south

  1. Same Day Surgery at the 121st General Hospital Seoul, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    s ................................................................................. 42 A ppendices ...diagnosed condition of a patient. If the patient is more acutely ill than average and requires extra care, the hospital must pay any cost beyond the DRG...Integration of "well" patients with acutely ill Staff less experienced to meet outpatient health Minimal construction care needs Physician can work

  2. Familiarity with, knowledge of, and attitudes toward epilepsy in residents of Seoul, South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi-Kwon, S; Park, K A; Lee, H J; Park, M S; Lee, C H; Cheon, S E; Youn, M H; Lee, S K; Chung, C-K

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the perceptions of epilepsy in Seoul, South Korea, a country where social stigma toward epilepsy is still pronounced. We randomly selected 1000 persons living in Seoul and performed telephone interviews regarding public awareness, knowledge, and attitudes toward epilepsy. Among 1000 respondents, the 92% who had read or heard about epilepsy became the subjects of the study. Word of mouth was most often referenced as a source of knowledge (78%). Forty-seven percentage believed that epilepsy is inheritable, whereas 5% thought that epilepsy is a mental illness. Marriage of their children to an epileptic person, childbearing by women with epilepsy, and employing a person with epilepsy were opposed by more than 50% of respondents. The reasons for the negative attitudes were that epilepsy was hereditary and untreatable (P media or school health education is urgently needed to improve knowledge about, and attitudes toward epilepsy.

  3. A survey of the radiographic cassettes disinfection of university hospitals in seoul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kweon, Dae Cheol; Park, Peom; Kim, Moon Sun; Kim, Dong Sung

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to prevent nosocomial infection in patients through contact of radiographic cassettes. Data were collected from radiographers working in 29 university hospitals in Seoul in February and March 2001. Radiographic cassettes were disinfected daily in 5 hospitals, weekly in 4 hospitals, monthly in 5 hospitals, bimonthly in 1 hospital and once every three months in another hospital. 12 other hospitals do not practice regular disinfections of radiographic cassettes. Gauze soaked in disinfectant solution is used in 7 hospitals while 11 hospitals used cotton and cloth soaked in disinfectant solution to clean the radiographic cassettes. 26 hospitals used 99% alcohol based disinfectant solutions while 3 hospitals used 75% alcohol based disinfectant, 26 hospitals use of intercourse cassettes outpatients and in patients. In 26 hospitals, all patients shared the same set of radiographic cassettes used in the hospitals, or in 26 hospitals, separate sets of radiographic cassettes are used for outpatients and inpatients. Separate sets of cassettes are used for ICU and inpatients in 6 others hospitals. 23 hospitals used the same sets of radiographic cassettes for all their patients. radiographic cassettes are cleaned in wash area in the study room of the radiographic department in 17 hospitals. 12 other hospitals do not have designated cleaning areas for the cassettes. All radiographers practiced hands washing with soap. All 29 hospitals surveyed have infection control committee. However, only 9 out of the 29 hospitals surveyed provided Infection · disinfections control education to radiographers. Only 3 hospitals have radiographers sitting in the infection control committee. Infection management education is conducted in 63 hospitals annually, twice a year in 1 hospital and once every 3 months in 2 hospitals

  4. Secondary Organic Aerosol Production over Seoul, South Korea, during KORUS-AQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nault, B.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Day, D. A.; Schroder, J. C.; Blake, D. R.; Brune, W. H.; Choi, Y.; DiGangi, J. P.; Fried, A.; Huey, L. G.; Knote, C. J.; Montzka, D. D.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Jimenez, J. L.; Armin, W.

    2017-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is rapidly produced over and downwind of urban areas, causing important effects on health, visibility, and climate. However, multiple studies over different cities have shown that the production of SOA over urban areas cannot be accounted for when only using traditional volatile compounds (e.g., aromatics). Non-traditional anthropogenic volatile compounds—semi- and intermediate-volatile organic compounds (S/IVOC) are needed to account the observed urban SOA production. At this time, only a few megacities have been well characterized for urban SOA production; however, urban SOA production has not been well characterized in a megacity embedded in a region of rapid economic growth and energy consumption. In this study, we utilize observations from the NASA DC-8 over Seoul, South Korea, during the NASA/NIER 2016 KORean United States-Air Quality (KORUS-AQ) study to investigate the influence of transported OA and SOA precursors to Seoul versus the influence of local emissions of SOA precursors on the observed SOA production. We utilize the ambient gas-phase and OA observations over Seoul and the Western Sea along with Oxidation Flow Reactor (OFR) observations and FLEXPART tracer analysis to investigate the influence of transport versus local emissions. We find that the contribution of transported OA and SOA precursors to Seoul, during the campaign, was minor and had a small impact on the observed SOA production. Using the observed traditional volatile compounds, along with estimates of S/IVOC, brought near closure for the observed SOA production. We found that greater than 90% of the SOA production can be accounted for by reactive organic compounds with OH lifetimes less than 1 day, consistent with several previous megacity studies, further suggesting that local SOA precursor emissions are dominant. Our study highlights the need to further investigate and account for speciated S/IVOC measurements, as these represented an estimated 60

  5. Children at risk: A comparison of child pedestrian traffic collisions in Santiago, Chile, and Seoul, South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazquez, Carola; Lee, Jae Seung; Zegras, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    We examine and compare pedestrian-vehicle collisions and injury outcomes involving school-age children between 5 and 18 years of age in the capital cities of Santiago, Chile, and Seoul, South Korea. We conduct descriptive analysis of the child pedestrian-vehicle collision (P-VC) data (904 collisions for Santiago and 3,505 for Seoul) reported by the police between 2010 and 2011. We also statistically analyze factors associated with child P-VCs, by both incident severity and age group, using 3 regression models: negative binomial, probit, and spatial lag models. Descriptive statistics suggest that child pedestrians in Seoul have a higher risk of being involved in traffic crashes than their counterparts in Santiago. However, in Seoul a greater proportion of children are unharmed as a result of these incidents, whereas more child pedestrians are killed in Santiago. Younger children in Seoul suffer more injuries from P-VCs than in Santiago. The majority of P-VCs in both cities tend to occur in the afternoon and evening, at intersections in Santiago and at midblock locations in Seoul. Our model results suggest that the resident population of children is positively associated with P-VCs in both cities, and school concentrations apparently increase P-VC risk among older children in Santiago. Bus stops are associated with higher P-VCs in Seoul, and subway stations relate to higher P-VCs among older children in Santiago. Zone-level land use mix was negatively related to child P-VCs in Seoul but not in Santiago. Arterial roads are associated with fewer P-VCs, especially for younger children in both cities. A share of collector roads is associated with increased P-VCs in Seoul but fewer P-VCs in Santiago. Hilliness is related to fewer P-VCs in both cities. Differences in these model results for Santiago and Seoul warrant additional analysis, as do the differences in results across model type (negative binomial versus spatial lag models). To reduce child P-VCs, this study

  6. Deprivation and suicide mortality across 424 neighborhoods in Seoul, South Korea: a Bayesian spatial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Tae-Ho; Noh, Maengseok; Han, Junhee; Jung-Choi, Kyunghee; Khang, Young-Ho

    2015-12-01

    A neighborhood-level analysis of mortality from suicide would be informative in developing targeted approaches to reducing suicide. This study aims to examine the association of community characteristics with suicide in the 424 neighborhoods of Seoul, South Korea. Neighborhood-level mortality and population data (2005-2011) were obtained to calculate age-standardized suicide rates. Eight community characteristics and their associated deprivation index were employed as determinants of suicide rates. The Bayesian hierarchical model with mixed effects for neighborhoods was used to fit age-standardized suicide rates and other covariates with consideration of spatial correlations. Suicide rates for 424 neighborhoods were between 7.32 and 71.09 per 100,000. Ninety-nine percent of 424 neighborhoods recorded greater suicide rates than the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development member countries' average. A stepwise relationship between area deprivation and suicide was found. Neighborhood-level indicators for lack of social support (residents living alone and the divorced or separated) and socioeconomic disadvantages (low educational attainment) were positively associated with suicide mortality after controlling for other covariates. Finding from this study could be used to identify priority areas and to develop community-based programs for preventing suicide in Seoul, South Korea.

  7. The Effects of Health Coverage Schemes on Length of Stay and Preventable Hospitalization in Seoul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungah Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Medical Aid program is government’s medical benefit program to secure the minimum livelihood and medical services for low-income Korean households. In Seoul, the number of Medical Aid beneficiaries has grown, driving an increases in the length of stay (LOS and healthcare cost. Until now, studies have focused on quantity indicators, such as LOS, but only a few studies have been conducted on the service quality. We investigated both LOS and the preventable hospitalization (PH rate as proxy indicators for the quantity and quality of services provided to Medical Aid beneficiaries in Seoul. To understand the program’s impact, we extracted appropriate data of Medical Aid beneficiaries and data of the lower 20% of National Health Insurance (NHI enrollees, performed Propensity Score Matching (PSM, and controlled the variables related to disease severity. The differences between Medical Aid beneficiaries and NHI enrollees were estimated using multilevel analysis. The LOS of Medical Aid beneficiaries was longer, and the preventable hospitalization (PH rate was higher than that of NHI enrollees. It implies that these beneficiaries did not receive timely and adequate healthcare services, despite their high rate of service utilization. Thus, indicators such as patient’s visits and screening related to PHs should be included in management policies to improve primary care.

  8. Noise and room acoustic conditions in a tertiary referral hospital in Seoul, Korea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Cho, Wan-Ho; Chang, Ji-ho

    2018-01-01

    Noise levels and room acoustic parameters at a tertiary referral hospital, Seoul National University Hospital in Korea, are investigated. Through a questionnaire, acoustically problematic rooms are identified. Noise levels in emergency rooms (ERs) and intensive care units (ICUs) are measured over...... level for the first night was 66 dBA, which came down to 56 dBA for the next day. The reason for the higher noise level for the first night in the ICU was frequent alarm sound and treatment noise related to a critical patient. The noise level in the measured ERs is about 10 dB lower than those measured...... about three days. Acoustically critical and problematic rooms in the otolaryngology department are measured: examination rooms, operating rooms, nurse stations, patient rooms, and audiometric rooms. The equivalent A-weighted noise level, LAeq, ranges from 54 to 56 dBA in two ERs. In an ICU, the noise...

  9. Hospital information systems: experience at the fully digitized Seoul National University Bundang Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sooyoung; Hwang, Hee; Jheon, Sanghoon

    2016-08-01

    The different levels of health information technology (IT) adoption and its integration into hospital workflow can affect the maximization of the benefits of using of health IT. We aimed at sharing our experiences and the journey to the successful adoption of health IT over 13 years at a tertiary university hospital in South Korea. The integrated system of comprehensive applications for direct care, support care, and smart care has been implemented with the latest IT and a rich user information platform, achieving the fully digitized hospital. The users experience design methodology, barcode and radio-frequency identification (RFID) technologies, smartphone and mobile technologies, and data analytics were integrated into hospital workflow. Applications for user-centered electronic medical record (EMR) and clinical decision support (CDS), closed loop medication administration (CLMA), mobile EMR and dashboard system for care coordination, clinical data warehouse (CDW) system, and patient engagement solutions were designed and developed to improve quality of care, work efficiency, and patient safety. We believe that comprehensive electronic health record systems and patient-centered smart hospital applications will go a long way in ensuring seamless patient care and experience.

  10. A Multilevel Analysis of the Compositional and Contextual Association of Social Capital and Subjective Well-Being in Seoul, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sehee; Kim, Heaseung; Lee, Hee-Sun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the association between social capital and subjective well-being (life satisfaction) by using multilevel analysis considering both individual and area-level social capital while adjusting for various control variables at multiple-levels in Seoul, South Korea. The data was from the 2010 (Wave 2) Seoul Welfare…

  11. Human impacts on groundwater flow and contamination deduced by multiple isotopes in Seoul City, South Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosono, Takahiro, E-mail: hosono@chikyu.ac.jp [Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, 457-4 Motoyama Kamigamo, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8047 (Japan); Ikawa, Reo, E-mail: r_ikawa@es.sci.kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Shimada, Jun, E-mail: jshimada@sci.kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Nakano, Takanori, E-mail: nakanot@chikyu.ac.jp [Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, 457-4 Motoyama Kamigamo, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8047 (Japan); Saito, Mitsuyo, E-mail: misaito@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, 1-7-1, Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima, 739-8521 (Japan); Onodera, Shin-ichi, E-mail: sonodera@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima University, 1-7-1, Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima, 739-8521 (Japan); Lee, Kang-Kun, E-mail: kklee@snu.ac.kr [School of Earth and Environmental Science, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Shinrim-dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Taniguchi, Makoto, E-mail: makoto@chikyu.ac.jp [Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, 457-4 Motoyama Kamigamo, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8047 (Japan)

    2009-04-15

    The influence of human activities on the flow system and contamination of groundwater were investigated in Seoul City, South Korea, one of the largest Asian cities, using a combination of isotopes ({delta}D, T, {delta}{sup 15}N, {delta}{sup 18}O, {delta}{sup 34}S, and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr). Eighteen representative groundwater and river water samples, which were collected over a wide area of the city, were compared with previously reported data. The distribution of stable isotopes ({delta}D and {delta}{sup 18}O) with groundwater potential data shows that recharged groundwater from either the surrounding mountainous area as well as the Han River and other surface streams discharged towards the northern-central part of the city, where a subway tunnel pumping station is located. It is suggested from T values (3.3 to 5.8 T.U.) that groundwater was recharged in the last 30 to 40 years. The {delta}{sup 34}S and {delta}{sup 15}N of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and NO{sub 3}{sup -} data were efficiently used as indicators of contamination by human activities. These isotopes clarified that the contribution of anthropogenic contaminants i.e., industrial and household effluents, waste landfills, and fertilizers, are responsible for the enrichment by SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} (> 30 ppm as SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) and NO{sub 3}{sup -} (> 20 ppm as NO{sub 3}{sup -}) of groundwater. The {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr values of groundwater vary (0.71326 to 0.75058) in accordance with the host rocks of different origins. Mineral elements such as Ca are also suggested to be derived naturally from rocks. The groundwater under Seoul City is greatly affected by transportation of pollutants along the groundwater flow controlled by subway tunnel pumping, contributing to the degradation of water quality in urbanized areas.

  12. Human impacts on groundwater flow and contamination deduced by multiple isotopes in Seoul City, South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosono, Takahiro; Ikawa, Reo; Shimada, Jun; Nakano, Takanori; Saito, Mitsuyo; Onodera, Shin-ichi; Lee, Kang-Kun; Taniguchi, Makoto

    2009-01-01

    The influence of human activities on the flow system and contamination of groundwater were investigated in Seoul City, South Korea, one of the largest Asian cities, using a combination of isotopes (δD, T, δ 15 N, δ 18 O, δ 34 S, and 87 Sr/ 86 Sr). Eighteen representative groundwater and river water samples, which were collected over a wide area of the city, were compared with previously reported data. The distribution of stable isotopes (δD and δ 18 O) with groundwater potential data shows that recharged groundwater from either the surrounding mountainous area as well as the Han River and other surface streams discharged towards the northern-central part of the city, where a subway tunnel pumping station is located. It is suggested from T values (3.3 to 5.8 T.U.) that groundwater was recharged in the last 30 to 40 years. The δ 34 S and δ 15 N of SO 4 2- and NO 3 - data were efficiently used as indicators of contamination by human activities. These isotopes clarified that the contribution of anthropogenic contaminants i.e., industrial and household effluents, waste landfills, and fertilizers, are responsible for the enrichment by SO 4 2- (> 30 ppm as SO 4 2- ) and NO 3 - (> 20 ppm as NO 3 - ) of groundwater. The 87 Sr/ 86 Sr values of groundwater vary (0.71326 to 0.75058) in accordance with the host rocks of different origins. Mineral elements such as Ca are also suggested to be derived naturally from rocks. The groundwater under Seoul City is greatly affected by transportation of pollutants along the groundwater flow controlled by subway tunnel pumping, contributing to the degradation of water quality in urbanized areas.

  13. Assessing the cold temperature effect on hospital visit by allergic rhinitis in Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyomi; Kim, Honghyok; Lee, Jong-Tae

    2018-08-15

    The association between temperature and health outcome has been studied in worldwide. However, studies for mild diseases such as AR, with high prevalence and considerable economic burden, are lacking compared to other relatively severe respiratory diseases. We aimed to assess the trend of hospital visit by AR and estimate the cold temperature effect on hospital visit by allergic rhinitis in Seoul, Korea, 2003-2011. We fitted generalized additive model with quasi-poisson distribution, controlling for humidity, long-term trend, day of week, national holiday, and influenza epidemic. We estimated the cumulative cold temperature effect (10%, -1.7°C) referent to 7.9°C for the considered lag periods using distributed lag non-linear model: vary from the day of hospital visit to 10days before. Stratified analysis by season was also conducted. To adjust for possible confounding effect of air pollutants, we additionally adjusted for PM 10 , O 3 and NO 2 respectively. Hospital visit counts and rates per 1,000,000 show increasing trend especially in elderly population (over 65years). Hospital visit rate is higher in children population (ageeffects were found in the total (1.094(95%CI: 1.037, 1.153)), male (1.100 (95%CI: 1.010, 1.163)), female (1.088 (95%CI: 1.059, 1.170)) and adult (1.113 (95%CI: 1.059, 1.170)) population with consideration of 3-day lag period. In the stratified analysis by the season, the strongest effect was shown in the autumn (Sep-Nov) season. Confounding effects by air pollutants were not found. In this study, we found significant increasing trend of hospital visit by AR. This study provides suggestive evidence of cold temperature effect on hospital visit by AR. To reduce the growing burden of AR, it is important to find possible related environmental risk factors. More studies should be conducted for better understanding of temperature effect on AR. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparisons of spectral aerosol single scattering albedo in Seoul, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Jungbin; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Torres, Omar; Jethva, Hiren; Li, Zhanqing; Kim, Jhoon; Koo, Ja-Ho; Go, Sujung; Irie, Hitoshi; Labow, Gordon; Eck, Thomas F.; Holben, Brent N.; Herman, Jay; Loughman, Robert P.; Spinei, Elena; Lee, Seoung Soo; Khatri, Pradeep; Campanelli, Monica

    2018-04-01

    Quantifying aerosol absorption at ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths is important for monitoring air pollution and aerosol amounts using current (e.g., Aura/OMI) and future (e.g., TROPOMI, TEMPO, GEMS, and Sentinel-4) satellite measurements. Measurements of column average atmospheric aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA) are performed on the ground by the NASA AERONET in the visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths and in the UV-VIS-NIR by the SKYNET networks. Previous comparison studies have focused on VIS and NIR wavelengths due to the lack of co-incident measurements of aerosol and gaseous absorption properties in the UV. This study compares the SKYNET-retrieved SSA in the UV with the SSA derived from a combination of AERONET, MFRSR, and Pandora (AMP) retrievals in Seoul, South Korea, in spring and summer 2016. The results show that the spectrally invariant surface albedo assumed in the SKYNET SSA retrievals leads to underestimated SSA compared to AMP values at near UV wavelengths. Re-processed SKYNET inversions using spectrally varying surface albedo, consistent with the AERONET retrieval improve agreement with AMP SSA. The combined AMP inversions allow for separating aerosol and gaseous (NO2 and O3) absorption and provide aerosol retrievals from the shortest UVB (305 nm) through VIS to NIR wavelengths (870 nm).

  15. Characteristics of long-lasting haze episodes observed in Seoul, South Korea, for 2009-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae-Jung; Kim, Jeong Eun; Cha, Joo Wan; Song, Seungjoo; Ryoo, Sang-Boom; Kim, Yong Pyo

    2018-03-01

    The meteorological, physical, chemical, and optical characteristics of long-lasting haze in Seoul were studied. Four episodes were observed between 2009 and 2014, all in winter. PM10 mass concentration (PM10), chemical species, and aerosol optical depth (AOD) were analyzed along with the synoptic meteorological conditions. During the episodes, the temporal variations of the PM10 generally proceeded from the west along the Yellow Sea. The ground-based AOD was also high in Seoul and other sites. High AOD (MODIS) distributions were observed to move from China to Korea. The high sulfate concentration, along with the high sulfur oxidation ratio value of the third and fourth episodes (Eps. 3 and 4), respectively, corroborated the possible long-range transport of air pollutants. Stagnant meteorological conditions were a reason for the occurrence of long-lasting hazes. An anticyclone system had a dominant influence on the Korean peninsula during all episodes. The air mass over China was able to rise, and that over Korea was more stagnant in terms of climatology except Ep. 2. In addition to transport from outside, locally emitted air pollutants contributed to the PM10 partly due to the stagnant conditions, during which diurnal variations in NO2 and nitrates showed similar peak times during Eps. 3 and 4. Analysis of the episodes consistently showed that the long-lasting haze episodes were influenced by both the long-range transport of air pollutants from outside Seoul, mostly from China, and the accumulation of air pollutants that were locally emitted and transformed.

  16. [Comparison of recent IgG anti-HAV prevalence between two hospitals in Seoul and Gyeonggi area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Yeob; Sohn, Joo Hyun; Ahn, Sang Bong; Son, Byoung Kwan; Lee, Hang Lak; Eun, Chang Soo; Jeon, Yong Cheol; Han, Dong Soo

    2007-09-01

    Recently, the incidence of acute hepatitis A has increased nationwide and is related to the low rate of IgG anti-HAV. This study compared the prevalence of IgG anti-HAV in two university hospitals located in a large city and in a small city including a rural region according to age, gender, and the year of diagnosis. IgG anti-HAV was measured in a total of 4299 patients, who visited Seoul or Guri Hanyang University Hospital between January 2002 and December 2006. The positive rates of the antibody in Seoul and Guri hospitals were 52.7% vs 57.1% in under the age of 1, 40.7% vs 42.2% in age of 1 to 4, 31.8% vs 30.3% in age of 5 to 9, 24.8% vs 27.1% in age of 10 to 14, 11.6% vs 18.2% in age of 15 to 19, 23.0% vs 20.3% in age of 20 to 24, 40.5% vs 42.9% in age of 25 to 29, 67.5% vs 75.0% in age of 30 to 34, 86.5% vs 88.1% in age of 35 to 39, 95.3% vs 93.6% in age of 40 to 44, 97.0% vs 98.7% in age of 45 to 49, and 98.5% vs 98.6% in patients who were more than 50, respectively. The positive rates of the antibody were not significantly different between two sites according to each age group and gender. The results confirmed the low rates of IgG anti-HAV, particularly in the ages of 10-24 that match the age group of recently increased incidence of acute hepatitis A nationwide. Therefore, measurement of the antibody and vaccination should be considered in this age group.

  17. Assessing Urban Water Management Sustainability of a Megacity: Case Study of Seoul, South Korea

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    Hyowon Kim

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Many cities are facing various water-related challenges caused by rapid urbanization and climate change. Moreover, a megacity may pose a greater risk due to its scale and complexity for coping with impending challenges. Infrastructure and governance also differ by the level of development of a city which indicates that the analysis of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM and water governance are site-specific. We examined the status of IWRM of Seoul by using the City Blueprint® Approach which consists of three different frameworks: (1 Trends and Pressures Framework (TPF, (2 City Blueprint Framework (CBF and (3 the water Governance Capacity Framework (GCF. The TPF summarizes the main social, environmental and financial pressures that may impede water management. The CBF assesses IWRM of the urban water cycle. Finally, the GCF identifies key barriers and opportunities to develop governance capacity. The results indicate that nutrient recovery from wastewater, stormwater separation, and operation cost recovery of water and sanitation services are priority areas for Seoul. Furthermore, the local sense of urgency, behavioral internalization, consumer willingness to pay, and financial continuation are identified as barriers limiting Seoul’s governance capacity. We also examined and compared the results with other mega-cities, to learn from their experiences and plans to cope with the challenges in large cities.

  18. Characteristics of cloud-to-ground lightning activity over Seoul, South Korea in relation to an urban effect

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    S. K. Kar

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Cloud-to-ground (CG lightning flash data collected by the lightning detection network installed at the Korean Meteorological Administration (KMA have been used to study the urban effect on lightning activity over and around Seoul, the largest metropolitan city of South Korea, for the period of 1989–1999. Negative and positive flash density and the percentage of positive flashes have been calculated. Calculation reveals that an enhancement of approximately 60% and 42% are observed, respectively, for negative and positive flash density over and downwind of the city. The percentage decrease of positive flashes occurs over and downwind of Seoul and the amount of decrease is nearly 20% compared to upwind values. The results are in good agreement with those obtained by Steiger et al. (2002 and Westcott (1995. CG lightning activities have also been considered in relation to annual averages of PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm and sulphur dioxide (SO2 concentrations. Interesting results are found, indicating that the higher concentration of SO2 contributes to the enhancement of CG lightning flashes. On the other hand, the contribution from PM10 concentration has not appeared in this study to be as significant as SO2 in the enhancement of CG lightning flashes. Correlation coefficients of 0.33 and 0.64 are found between the change in CG lightning flashes and the PM10 and SO2, respectively, for upwind to downwind areas, suggesting a significant influence of the increased concentration of SO2 on the enhancement of CG flashes.

  19. Statistical properties of effective drought index (EDI) for Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Mokpo in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Hyeok; Kim, Ki-Beom; Chang, Heon-Young

    2014-08-01

    Time series of drought indices has been considered mostly in view of temporal and spatial distributions of a drought index so far. Here we investigate the statistical properties of a daily Effective Drought Index (EDI) itself for Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Mokpo for the period of 100 years from 1913 to 2012. We have found that both in dry and wet seasons the distribution of EDI as a function of EDI follows the Gaussian function. In dry season the shape of the Gaussian function is characteristically broader than that in wet seasons. The total number of drought days during the period we have analyzed is related both to the mean value and more importantly to the standard deviation. We have also found that according to the distribution of the number of occasions where the EDI values of several consecutive days are all less than a threshold, the distribution follows the exponential distribution. The slope of the best fit becomes steeper not only as the critical EDI value becomes more negative but also as the number of consecutive days increases. The slope of the exponential distribution becomes steeper as the number of the city in which EDI is simultaneously less than a critical EDI in a row increases. Finally, we conclude by pointing out implications of our findings.

  20. Isolation of an H5N8 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Strain from Wild Birds in Seoul, a Highly Urbanized Area in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Lee, Dong-Hun; Jeong, Jei-Hyun; Yuk, Seong-Su; Erdene-Ochir, Tseren-Ochir; Noh, Jin-Yong; Hong, Woo-Tack; Jeong, Sol; Gwon, Gyeong-Bin; Lee, Sang-Won; Choi, In-Soo; Song, Chang-Seon

    2017-07-01

    Asian-lineage H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) have caused recurrent outbreaks in poultry and wild birds. In January 2014, H5N8 HPAIV caused outbreaks in South Korea and subsequently spread to East Asia, Europe, and North America. We report the isolation of an H5N8 HPAIV strain from wild birds in Seoul, the most-developed city in South Korea. We analyzed the complete genome sequence of this isolate and estimated its origin using a phylogenetic analysis. The Seoul H5N8 isolate clustered phylogenetically with strains isolated from migratory wild birds but was distinct from Korean poultry isolates. This H5N8 virus was likely introduced into the urbanized city by migratory wild birds. Therefore, wild bird habitats in urbanized areas should be carefully monitored for HPAIV.

  1. Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeons’ Perception of the Concentration of Cardiovascular Operations in Seoul Metropolitan Area’s Hospitals

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    Hyo Seon Jeong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the concentration of cardiovascular surgical procedures in a metropolitan area and investigate the perception of specialists regarding governmental policies to resolve this imbalance. Methods: From March to May 2015, surveys were distributed to members of the Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery Association. The final pool of research subjects consisted of 75 respondents. Subjects were queried regarding the concentration of cardiovascular operations in metropolitan areas, alternatives to the imbalance, and governmental policies to resolve the inequalities. Results: Survey participants responded that South Korea needs governmental policies to alleviate the concentration of cardiovascular surgery patients in large metropolitan hospitals. Participants agreed that the freedom to choose medical institutions and improved accessibility to metropolitan hospitals due to advanced transportation systems were some of the causes for the concentration. A majority (98.7% of respondents thought establishing thoracic and cardiovascular surgery centers in provinces was an appropriate solution to alleviate the concentration. Thoracic and cardiovascular surgery specialists were ranked as the number one group on which to focus development. Conclusion: Developing and carrying out policies to establish thoracic and cardiovascular surgery centers in provinces will alleviate the regional imbalance in available heart surgery services and an overall improvement in cardiovascular disease treatment in South Korea.

  2. Covariation in community- and individual-based community capacity and health behavior: a multilevel analysis of populations in Seoul, South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo

    2012-01-01

    Community capacity is defined as the degree to which the human, physical, and potential resources of a neighborhood are organized based on mutual solidarity among the residents. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between community capacity and health behaviors in Seoul, South Korea. Multilevel models controlling for socioeconomic variables were used to measure the association between community capacity and health behaviors in 25 districts and 404 subdistricts (n = 14 228). Community capacity was determined to be significant at the more local community level, as it was a significant variable in the subdistrict analysis for explaining health behaviors such as smoking, drinking, and exercising. Community capacity exists not only at the individual level but also at the community level. High community capacity further enhanced the positive effects of individual capacity on health behavior and further weakened the negative effects.

  3. A study of user requests regarding the fully electronic health record system at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital: challenges for future electronic health record systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sooyoung; Kim, Seok; Lee, Seungja; Lee, Kee-Hyuck; Baek, Rong-Min; Hwang, Hee

    2013-05-01

    Although the adoption rates for Electronic Health Records (EHRs) are growing, significant opportunities for further advances in EHR system design remain. The goal of this study was to identify issues that should be considered in the design process for the successful development of future systems by analyzing end users' service requests gathered during a recent three-year period after a comprehensive EHR system was implemented at Seoul National University's Bundang Hospital in South Korea. Data on 11,400 service requests from end users of the EHR system made from 2008 through 2010 were used in this study. The requests were categorized as program modification/development, data request, insurance-fee identification/generation, patient-record merging, or other. The authors further subcategorized the requests for program modification/development into the following nine areas of concern: (1) indicators and statistics, (2) patient safety and quality of care, (3) special task-oriented functionalities, (4) ease of use and user interface, (5) system speed, (6) interoperability and integration, (7) privacy and security, (8) customer service, and (9) miscellaneous. The system users were divided into four groups--direct care, care support, administrative/insurance, and general management--to identify each group's needs and concerns. The service requests for program modification/development, data request, insurance-fee identification/generation, patient-record merging, and other issues constituted approximately 49.2%, 33.9%, 11.4%, 4.0%, and 1.5% of the total data set, respectively. The number of data-request service requests grew over the three years studied. Different groups of users were found to have different concerns according to their activities and tasks. Within the program-modification/development category, end users were most frequently concerned with ease of use and user interface (38.1% of the total) and special task-oriented functionalities (29.3% of the total) in

  4. Regional contributions to particulate matter concentration in the Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea: seasonal variation and sensitivity to meteorology and emissions inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Eunhye; Bae, Changhan; Cho, Jeong Hoon; Kim, Byeong-Uk; Kim, Soontae

    2017-09-01

    The impact of regional emissions (e.g., domestic and international) on surface particulate matter (PM) concentrations in the Seoul metropolitan area (SMA), South Korea, and its sensitivities to meteorology and emissions inventories are quantitatively estimated for 2014 using regional air quality modeling systems. Located on the downwind side of strong sources of anthropogenic emissions, South Korea bears the full impact of the regional transport of pollutants and their precursors. However, the impact of foreign emissions sources has not yet been fully documented. We utilized two regional air quality simulation systems: (1) a Weather Research and Forecasting and Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) system and (2) a United Kingdom Met Office Unified Model and CMAQ system. The following combinations of emissions inventories are used: the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-Phase B, the Inter-comparison Study for Asia 2010, and the National Institute of Environment Research Clean Air Policy Support System. Partial contributions of domestic and foreign emissions are estimated using a brute force approach, adjusting South Korean emissions to 50 %. Results show that foreign emissions contributed ˜ 60 % of SMA surface PM concentration in 2014. Estimated contributions display clear seasonal variation, with foreign emissions having a higher impact during the cold season (fall to spring), reaching ˜ 70 % in March, and making lower contributions in the summer, ˜ 45 % in September. We also found that simulated surface PM concentration is sensitive to meteorology, but estimated contributions are mostly consistent. Regional contributions are also found to be sensitive to the choice of emissions inventories.

  5. Implementation Issues of Virtual Desktop Infrastructure and Its Case Study for a Physician's Round at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sooyoung; Kim, Seok; Kim, Taegi; Kim, Jon Soo; Baek, Rong-Min; Suh, Chang Suk; Chung, Chin Youb; Hwang, Hee

    2012-12-01

    The cloud computing-based virtual desktop infrastructure (VDI) allows access to computing environments with no limitations in terms of time or place such that it can permit the rapid establishment of a mobile hospital environment. The objective of this study was to investigate the empirical issues to be considered when establishing a virtual mobile environment using VDI technology in a hospital setting and to examine the utility of the technology with an Apple iPad during a physician's rounds as a case study. Empirical implementation issues were derived from a 910-bed tertiary national university hospital that recently launched a VDI system. During the physicians' rounds, we surveyed patient satisfaction levels with the VDI-based mobile consultation service with the iPad and the relationship between these levels of satisfaction and hospital revisits, hospital recommendations, and the hospital brand image. Thirty-five inpatients (including their next-of-kin) and seven physicians participated in the survey. Implementation issues pertaining to the VDI system arose with regard to the highly availability system architecture, wireless network infrastructure, and screen resolution of the system. Other issues were related to privacy and security, mobile device management, and user education. When the system was used in rounds, patients and their next-of-kin expressed high satisfaction levels, and a positive relationship was noted as regards patients' decisions to revisit the hospital and whether the use of the VDI system improved the brand image of the hospital. Mobile hospital environments have the potential to benefit both physicians and patients. The issues related to the implementation of VDI system discussed here should be examined in advance for its successful adoption and implementation.

  6. Implementation Issues of Virtual Desktop Infrastructure and Its Case Study for a Physician's Round at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Sooyoung; Kim, Seok; Kim, Taegi; Kim, Jon Soo; Baek, Rong-Min; Suh, Chang Suk; Chung, Chin Youb; Hwang, Hee

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The cloud computing-based virtual desktop infrastructure (VDI) allows access to computing environments with no limitations in terms of time or place such that it can permit the rapid establishment of a mobile hospital environment. The objective of this study was to investigate the empirical issues to be considered when establishing a virtual mobile environment using VDI technology in a hospital setting and to examine the utility of the technology with an Apple iPad during a physici...

  7. Radiologic Review of an Outbreak of the Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus Infection at a University Hospital in Seoul, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Seung Hee; Kang, Eun Young; Kim, Yoon Kyung; Woo, Ok Hee; Yong, Hwan Seok; Oh, Yu Whan; Kim, Jang Su

    2011-01-01

    To assess the frequency of radiologic abnormalities and investigate the radiologic findings of patients with a pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection at a University hospital in Seoul, Korea. In November 2009, 9,427 patients were tested for pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus and 3,849 (41%) were positive. Among them, only 338 (9%) underwent chest radiographs and 13 (0.3%) received chest CT. Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed all the radiologic images. Among the 338 patients, 287 (85%) were normal and 51 (15%) showed abnormalities. The frequency of abnormalities was significantly higher in children (41/212=19%) than in adults (10/126=8%) (p = 0.005). Of them, 42 (82%) patients had airspace pneumonia, whereas the remaining patients showed a bronchopneumonia pattern. Unilateral (82%) involvement was more common than bilateral (18%) involvement. Among patients who received chest CT, 12 (92%) showed abnormalities, with bilateral (67%) and random (75%) involvement being more common. Ground-glass opacity (67%) and centrilobular nodules (58%) were the more common CT findings. Only a small number of patients were critically ill enough to undergo further radiologic evaluation as a result of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection, and most patients had normal chest radiographs. Unilateral airspace pneumonia was the most common abnormality in patients infected with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus.

  8. Food Availability in School Stores in Seoul, South Korea after Implementation of Food- and Nutrient-Based Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seul Ki; Frongillo, Edward A.; Blake, Christine E.; Thrasher, James F.

    2017-01-01

    Background: To improve school store food environments, the South Korean government implemented 2 policies restricting unhealthy food sales in school stores. A food-based policy enacted in 2007 restricts specific food sales (soft drinks); and a nutrient-based policy enacted in 2009 restricts energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) food sales. The…

  9. Relationship between occupational stress and depressive mood among interns and residents in a tertiary hospital, Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Keon; Lee, Sunhwa; Choi, Yoon Hee

    2015-06-01

    Occupational stress can have a harmful effect on the individual both physically and psychologically. In Korea, occupational stress of physician is rarely demonstrated. Although it is well reported that physicians tend to have a high incidence of minor psychiatric disorders, the magnitude of the problem remains unclear. Interns and residents are thought to be under substantial amount of stress, and tend to have psychiatric disorder. In this paper, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between the occupational stress and depression of residents. The participants of this study were surgical and medical residents in a tertiary hospital in Korea. For measurement of occupational stress, we used an occupational stress scale. In addition, to evaluate the prevalence of depression, we used the Beck Depression Inventory. Female doctors showed higher degree of occupational stress than the males. The interns and chief residents showed higher degree of occupational stress than the other residents. Interestingly, in this study, most of the participants experienced a depressive mood. Compared with the general population, job demand and culture of workplace were high. Occupational stress was the only significant predictor of a depressive mood. Hospital residents experience a high degree of occupational stress leading to a depressed mood due to various risk factors. Therefore, it is essential to recognize the occupational stress of residents early, to encourage positive competition and peer and social support, and to help improve the residents' ability to cope with stress.

  10. Characterizing the influence of transportation infrastructure on Emergency Medical Services (EMS) in urban area-A case study of Seoul, South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jungwoo; You, Myoungsoon; Yoon, Yoonjin

    2017-01-01

    In highly urbanized area where traffic condition fluctuates constantly, transportation infrastructure is one of the major contributing factors to Emergency Medical Service (EMS) availability and patient outcome. In this paper, we assess the impact of traffic fluctuation to the EMS first response availability in urban area, by evaluating the k-minute coverage under 21 traffic scenarios. The set of traffic scenarios represents the time-of-day and day-of-week effects, and is generated by combining road link speed information from multiple historical speed databases. In addition to the k-minute area coverage calculation, the k-minute population coverage is also evaluated for every 100m by 100m grid that partitions the case study area of Seoul, South Korea. In the baseline case of traveling at the speed limit, both the area and population coverage reached nearly 100% when compared to the five-minute travel time national target. Employing the proposed LoST (Loss of Serviceability due to Traffic) index, which measures coverage reduction in percentage compared to the baseline case, we find that the citywide average LoST for area and population coverage are similar at 34.2% and 33.8%. However, district-wise analysis reveals that such reduction varies significantly by district, and the magnitude of area and population coverage reduction is not always proportional. We conclude that the effect of traffic variation is significant to successful urban EMS first response performance, and regional variation is evident among local districts. Complexity in the urban environment requires a more adaptive approach in public health resource management and EMS performance target determination.

  11. Characterizing the influence of transportation infrastructure on Emergency Medical Services (EMS in urban area-A case study of Seoul, South Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungwoo Cho

    Full Text Available In highly urbanized area where traffic condition fluctuates constantly, transportation infrastructure is one of the major contributing factors to Emergency Medical Service (EMS availability and patient outcome. In this paper, we assess the impact of traffic fluctuation to the EMS first response availability in urban area, by evaluating the k-minute coverage under 21 traffic scenarios. The set of traffic scenarios represents the time-of-day and day-of-week effects, and is generated by combining road link speed information from multiple historical speed databases. In addition to the k-minute area coverage calculation, the k-minute population coverage is also evaluated for every 100m by 100m grid that partitions the case study area of Seoul, South Korea. In the baseline case of traveling at the speed limit, both the area and population coverage reached nearly 100% when compared to the five-minute travel time national target. Employing the proposed LoST (Loss of Serviceability due to Traffic index, which measures coverage reduction in percentage compared to the baseline case, we find that the citywide average LoST for area and population coverage are similar at 34.2% and 33.8%. However, district-wise analysis reveals that such reduction varies significantly by district, and the magnitude of area and population coverage reduction is not always proportional. We conclude that the effect of traffic variation is significant to successful urban EMS first response performance, and regional variation is evident among local districts. Complexity in the urban environment requires a more adaptive approach in public health resource management and EMS performance target determination.

  12. Health and Prevention Enhancement (H-PEACE): a retrospective, population-based cohort study conducted at the Seoul National University Hospital Gangnam Center, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Changhyun; Choe, Eun Kyung; Choi, Ji Min; Hwang, Yunji; Lee, Young; Park, Boram; Chung, Su Jin; Kwak, Min-Sun; Lee, Jong-Eun; Kim, Joo Sung; Park, Sue Kyung; Cho, Sang-Heon

    2018-04-19

    The Health and Prevention Enhancement (H-PEACE) study was designed to investigate the association of diagnostic imaging results, biomarkers and the predisease stage of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as malignancies and metabolic diseases, in an average-risk population in Korea. This study enrolled a large-scale retrospective cohort at the Healthcare System Gangnam Center, Seoul National University Hospital, from October 2003 to December 2014. The baseline and follow-up information collected in the predisease stage of NCDs allows for evaluation of an individual's potential NCD risk, which is necessary for establishing personalised prevention strategies. A total of 91 336 health examinees were included in the cohort, and we repeatedly measured and collected information for 50.9% (n=46 484) of the cohort members. All participants completed structured questionnaires (lifestyle, medical history, mini-dietary assessment index, sex-specific variables and psychiatric assessment), doctors' physical examinations, laboratory blood and urine tests and digital chest X-ray imaging. For participants with available data, we also obtained information on specific diagnostic variables using advanced diagnostic tests, including coronary CT for coronary calcium scores, colonoscopy and brain MRI. Furthermore, 17 455 of the participants who provided informed consent and donated blood samples were enrolled into the Gene-environmental interaction and phenotype study, a subcohort of the H-PEACE, from October 2013, and we analysed genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism array data for 6579 of these blood samples. The data obtained from this cohort will be used to facilitate advanced and accurate diagnostic techniques related to NCDs while considering various phenotypes. Potential collaborators can access the dataset after receiving approval from our institutional review board. Applications can be submitted on the study homepage (http://en-healthcare.snuh.org/HPEACEstudy).

  13. Influence of fossil-fuel power plant emissions on the surface fine particulate matter in the Seoul Capital Area, South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byeong-Uk; Kim, Okgil; Kim, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Soontae

    2016-09-01

    The South Korean government plans to reduce region-wide annual PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm) concentrations in the Seoul Capital Area (SCA) from 2010 levels of 27 µg/m(3) to 20 µg/m(3) by 2024. At the same time, it is inevitable that emissions from fossil-fuel power plants will continue to increase if electricity generation expands and the generation portfolio remains the same in the future. To estimate incremental PM2.5 contributions due to projected electricity generation growth in South Korea, we utilized an ensemble forecasting member of the Integrated Multidimensional Air Quality System for Korea based on the Community Multi-scale Air Quality model. We performed sensitivity runs with across-the-board emission reductions for all fossil-fuel power plants in South Korea to estimate the contribution of PM2.5 from domestic fossil-fuel power plants. We estimated that fossil-fuel power plants are responsible for 2.4% of the annual PM2.5 national ambient air quality standard in the SCA as of 2010. Based on the electricity generation and the annual contribution of fossil-fuel power plants in 2010, we estimated that annual PM2.5 concentrations may increase by 0.2 µg/m(3) per 100 TWhr due to additional electricity generation. With currently available information on future electricity demands, we estimated that the total future contribution of fossil-fuel power plants would be 0.87 µg/m(3), which is 12.4% of the target reduction amount of the annual PM2.5 concentration by 2024. We also approximated that the number of premature deaths caused by existing fossil-fuel power plants would be 736 in 2024. Since the proximity of power plants to the SCA and the types of fuel used significantly impact this estimation, further studies are warranted on the impact of physical parameters of plants, such as location and stack height, on PM2.5 concentrations in the SCA due to each precursor. Improving air quality by reducing fine particle

  14. S(eoul Search: The Changing Religious Landscape in Seoul and Its Implications for Defining “Asia”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nami Kim

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a saying that if one looks at Seoul at night from afar, one will see a large city covered with neon-lit red crosses. It is also said that a Christian church can be found on every other block in the streets of Seoul, the capital of the Republic of Korea (also known as South Korea. To be sure, this is not the case. Yet this embellished illustration of Seoul as a Christian symbol of a cross-covered city conveys the message that Christianity is no longer a foreign or a Western religion, but has, rather, become a major religious tradition in South Korea as represented in its capital. Christianity may not be the majority religion in terms of demographics, but it has certainly become a dominant religion in terms of social and political influence as well as economic power in South Korea.

  15. Prevalence and management status of urologic diseases in geriatric hospitals in South Korea: A field research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Heon Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We aimed to investigate the current management status of urologic diseases in geriatric hospitals in South Korea. Materials and Methods: Questionnaire surveys and in-depth person-to-person interviews were conducted at 13 hospitals within the Seoul and Incheon areas. Results: The study was carried out from July to December 2014; 75.6% of patients (1,858/2,458 and 77.5% (779/1,031 of medical personnel responded to our survey. All surveys and interviews were performed by urology specialists, fellows, residents, or nurses. The hospitals included in the study had an average of 215.2 beds (range, 110–367, 189.1 patients (range, 90–345, and 40.2 nurses (range, 10–83. The average number of physicians was 6.2 (range, 3–11, but none of these were certified urologists. Only 4 hospitals provided consultation services for urological disorders. In total, 64% of patients had urological disorders, although only 20.7% of patients were receiving medication. Most patients were being treated using urological interventions; diapers (49.7%, indwelling catheters (19.5%, clean intermittent catheters (12.2%, and external collection urinary drainage (7.9%. However, most interventions were inadequately implemented, and only 17% of the patients had been examined by a certified urologist. Urological complications were found in 20.2% of patients, and secondary complications occurred in 18.8%. Excluding redundant cases, the total prevalence of urological complications was 39.0%. Conclusions: Urologic diseases are poorly managed, and no certified urologists work in geriatric hospitals. Therefore, more designated urologists are needed in geriatric hospitals.

  16. Management accounting for hospitals | Leyenaar | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 87, No 10 (1997) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load here if your ...

  17. Gastroenterology training in private hospitals: India vs South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Chris Jacob Johan; Puri, Amarender Singh; Reddy, Duvvur Nageshwar

    2010-01-01

    In South Africa, nurses and doctors are emigrating in significant numbers. Job satisfaction, safety and ensuring career progression are important in retaining doctors to make a career in Republic of South Africa (RSA). Due to budgetary constraints many hospitals have not been upgraded. Coming home after overseas training seems difficult. In RSA it takes a minimum of 13 years for a young specialist to become registered and 15 years for subspecialists. Career progression, creating more specialist trainees in public and private hospitals and shortening the period of professional training are potential solutions to the problem. India, which has a population of more than 1 billion people, is struggling with similar problems. For the past 10-15 years, private hospitals have assisted in manpower development for medical specialist and subspecialist careers. Currently their private sector trains 60% of their recognised (sub)specialities fellows. A national task force for specialist training in RSA should be instituted. It should discuss, based on the current status and projected specialist and subspecialist personnel requirements, the future structure and logistics of training needs. This is required in all subspecialities including gastroenterology, as has been done in India. It is hoped that as a consequence well-trained doctors, similar to those in India, might move to provincial hospitals in rural areas, upgrading the medical services and keeping medical power in South Africa. South Africa should become a model for Sub-Saharan Africa, as India already is for South-East Asia. PMID:20180232

  18. The role ofprivate hospitals in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    effect in April 1980, and were implemented subse- quent to the .... cannot be left to the workings of the market, but will require a ... able to plan in advance and would have strong in- centives to .... ered by the basic package of goods and may be allowed to take out .... of these hospitals might remain to provide luxury care.

  19. Management of snakebites at a rural South African hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... snakebites at this rural hospital where they were treated frequently. It is crucial for primary care physicians to be familiar with the most common venomous snakes in South Africa and the management of their bites in humans. Elevation of the affected limb, administration of intravenous fluids and administration of analgesia, ...

  20. Primary prevention in psychiatry in general hospitals in South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Mamta; Chadda, Rakesh Kumar; Kallivayalil, Roy Abraham

    2017-01-01

    The focus of primary prevention is on reducing the disease incidence. Primary prevention in mental health has been given minimal priority in low-resource settings with no significant investments. General hospitals are one of the main providers of mental health services in South Asia. This paper focuses on primary prevention activities, which can be undertaken in a general hospital in South Asia with abysmally low-mental health resources. For implementing primary prevention in psychiatry, a general hospital may be conceptualized as a population unit, located in a well-populated area with easy accessibility where different kinds of communities, for example, students and resident doctors, consultants, patients and their caregivers, and paramedical, nursing, administrative and other supportive staff, coexist and have varied functions. All the functional components of the general hospital psychiatric units (GHPUs) offer scope for introducing primary preventive psychiatry services. Psychiatrists in GHPUs can lead efforts for primary prevention in mental health in the hospital by employing strategies in the framework of universal, selective, and indicated prevention. The preventive strategies could be targeted at the patients visiting the hospital for various health services and their caregivers, employees, and the trainees. Similar principles can be employed in teaching and training. PMID:29497199

  1. Management of incomplete abortion in South African public hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, H C; Jewkes, R; Levin, J; Dickson-Tetteh, K; Rees, H

    2003-04-01

    To describe the current management of incomplete abortion in South African public hospitals and to discuss the extent to which management is clinically appropriate. A multicentre, prospective descriptive study. South African public hospitals that manage gynaecological emergencies. Hospitals were selected using a stratified random sampling method. All women who presented to the above sampled hospitals with incomplete abortion during the three week data collection period in 2000 were included. A data collection sheet was completed at the time of discharge for each woman admitted with a diagnosis of incomplete, complete, missed or inevitable abortion during the study period. Information gathered included demographic data, clinical signs and symptoms at admission, medical management, surgical management, anaestetic management, use of blood products and antibiotics and complications. Three clinical severity categories were used for the purpose of data analysis and interpretation. Detail of medical management, detail of surgical management, use of blood products and antibiotics, methods of analgesia and anaesthesia used, and use of abortifacients. There is a trend towards low cost technology such as the use of manual vacuum aspiration and sedation anaesthesia; however, this is mainly limited to the better resourced tertiary hospitals linked to academic units. The use of antibiotics and blood products has decreased but much of the use is inappropriate. The use of abortifacients does include some use of misoprostol but merely as an adjunct to surgical evacuation. The management of incomplete abortion remains a problem in South Africa, a low income country that is still managing a common clinical problem with costly interventions. The evidence of a trend towards low cost technology is promising, albeit limited to tertiary centres. This study has given us information as how to best address this problem. More training in low cost methods is needed, targeting in particular the

  2. How a south Florida hospital targeted Hispanic consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, A

    1988-02-01

    Last month's "Case in Point" presented AMI Parkway Regional Medical Center, a 412-bed acute care hospital in North Miami Beach, Fla. The hospital's administration has recognized the ethnic make-up of the South Florida market (white, black and Hispanic) and wants to increase its penetration into the large and potentially lucrative Latin market. The hospital is one of six in South Florida that are owned by American Medical International Inc., Los Angeles. Parkway recently completed a modernization and development program that resulted in an expanded emergency department, state-of-the-art critical care units, a cost-saving ambulatory unit and facilities for outpatient and community education programs. Positioned in a fiercely competitive market, Parkway has adopted an aggressive marketing posture. The marketing function has been elevated to one of six hospital divisions, sharing equal footing with finance, professional services, administrative services, nursing and human resources. Given the hospital's reputation for action and the previous success of programs based on market research, the assistant administrator for marketing and business development secured support for research on the Latin market.

  3. Seoul's greenbelt: an experiment in urban containment

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Bengston; Youn Yeo-Chang

    2005-01-01

    Urban containment policies are considered by some to be a promising approach to growth management. The greenbelt-based urban containment policy of Seoul, Republic of Korea is examined as a case study. Seoul's greenbelt has generated both significant social costs and benefits. Korea's greenbelt policy is currently being revised, largely due to pressure from...

  4. Crimes In New York And Seoul A Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia G. Patino

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Across the world highly populated urban areas are widely regarded as generators of various crimes. From petty crimes to organized crime activities cities and other urban areas provide some form of haven for criminal activities and their proponents. In this paper we look at two highly-urbanized areas New York City and Seoul South Korea. We look to compare the crime trends and activities in these two areas and see if there are points of comparison by which these two are similar or if they are separated by some factors..

  5. Re-Locating the National: Spatialization of the National Past in Seoul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soochul

    2009-01-01

    This article is an attempt to make sense of the emerging culture of mobility in Seoul in the 1990s. The 1990s in a South Korean context is emblematic of a changed social reality and transformation. Grand narratives of development, anti-state democratization activism and Cold War politics were losing their effect and authority. Meanwhile, new…

  6. Workplace Violence Against Nurses: Vhembe District Hospitals, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahani, Tshifularo Olga; Akinsola, Henry Abayomi; Mabunda, Jabu; Oni, Helen Tosin

    2017-02-01

    Work-related violence is a common problem worldwide. In South Africa, the Medical Research Council conducted a study on workplace violence in the health care industry and reported that most respondents had experienced it in different forms. This study aimed to identify the types and causes of workplace violence toward nurses in Thulamela hospitals, Vhembe district. The study employed a quantitative approach using a cross-sectional design. The target population was all nurses working in one regional and two district hospitals in the municipality. The sample consisted of 100 randomly selected participants from each hospital giving a total sample size of 300. Prior to the data collection, an ethical clearance and written informed consent were obtained from each participant. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Analysis was done using SPSS Version 20.0. The study revealed that 85% of the respondents (255) had experienced workplace violence in the last 12 months with a range of 95% for threats to 60% for bullying. Regarding the gender of the perpetrators, females (71%) were the main perpetrators. This study concludes that workplace violence is a major occupational health issue in the district, most especially among the psychiatric nurses.

  7. Using long-term ground-based HSRL and geostationary observations in combination with model re-analysis to help disentangle local and long-range transported aerosols in Seoul, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, C.; Holz, R.; Eloranta, E. W.; Reid, J. S.; Kim, S. W.; Kuehn, R.; Marais, W.

    2017-12-01

    The University of Wisconsin High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) has been continuously operating at Seoul National University as part of the Korea-United States Air Quality Study (KORUS-AQ). The instrument was installed in March of 2016 and continues to operate as of August 2017, providing a truly unique data set to monitor aerosol and cloud properties. With its capability to separate the molecular and particulate scattering, the HSRL is able to detect extremely thin aerosol layers with sub-molecular scattering sensitivity. The system deployed in Seoul has depolarization measurements at 532 nm as well as a near IR channel at 1064 nm providing discrimination between dust, smoke, pollution, water clouds, and ice clouds. As will be presented, these capabilities can be used to produce three channel combined RGB images that provide visualization of small changes in the aerosol properties. A primary motivation of KORUS-AQ was to determine the relative effects of transported pollution and local pollution on air quality in Seoul. We hypothesize that HSRL-based image analysis algorithms combined with satellite and model re-analysis has the potential to identify cases when remote sources of aerosols and pollution are advected into the boundary layer with impacts to the surface air quality. To facilitate this research we have developed the capability to combine ten-minute geostationary imagery from Himawari-8, nearby radiosondes, model output, surface PM measurements, and AERONET data over the HSRL site. On a case-by-case basis, it is possible to separate layers of aerosols with different scattering properties using these tools. Additionally, a preliminary year-long aerosol climatology with integrated geo-stationary retrievals and modeling data will be presented. The focus is on investigating correlations between the HSRL aerosol measurements (depolarization, color ratio, extinction, and lidar ratio) with the model output and aerosol sources. This analysis will use recently

  8. Hospital solid waste management practices in Limpopo Province, South Africa: A case study of two hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemathaga, Felicia; Maringa, Sally; Chimuka, Luke

    2008-01-01

    The shortcomings in the management practices of hospital solid waste in Limpopo Province of South Africa were studied by looking at two hospitals as case studies. Apart from field surveys, the generated hospital waste was weighed to compute the generation rates and was followed through various management practices to the final disposal. The findings revealed a major policy implementation gap between the national government and the hospitals. While modern practices such as landfill and incineration are used, their daily operations were not carried according to minimum standards. Incinerator ash is openly dumped and wastes are burned on landfills instead of being covered with soil. The incinerators used are also not environmentally friendly as they use old technology. The findings further revealed that there is no proper separation of wastes according to their classification as demanded by the national government. The mean percentage composition of the waste was found in the following decreasing order: general waste (60.74%) > medical waste (30.32%) > sharps (8.94%). The mean generation rates were found to be 0.60 kg per patient per day

  9. A study on gamma dose rate in Seoul (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, You Hyun; Kim, Chang Kyun; Choi, Jong Hak; Kim, Jeong Min

    2001-01-01

    This study was conducted to find out gamma dose rate in Seoul, from January to December in 2000, and the following results were achieved : The annual gamma dose rate in Seoul was 17.24 μR/hr as average. The annual gamma dose rate in subway of Seoul was 14.96 μR/hr as average. The highest annual gamma dose rate was Dong-daemon ku. Annual gamma dose rate in Seoul was higher autumn than winter

  10. Notes from a field hospital south of Mosul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn V, John M; Amouri, Omar F; Reed, Pete

    2018-03-06

    This short letter from the field is offered as a rapid communiqué of the emergency medical situation in Mosul and surrounding areas on the eve of the final onslaught to liberate the city. This letter is based on emergency medical work at two World Health Organization (WHO) and Ministry of Health (MoH) Iraq lead Role II+ Field Hospital facilities south of Mosul City from April to June 2017; these facilities are currently and temporarily managed and administered by private medical industry until full handover to MoH Iraq, with WHO support and expert facilitation. The prominence of non-state actors in the conflict, using hybrid warfare tactics that maximize casualties, makes health security a particular challenge for the global community. This challenge requires health leaders and other actors in the region to set clear strategic goals that support public health of the many millions displaced, maimed and affected by the war. Whether in clinical medicine, development, peace and stability operations, or global health diplomacy, the shared values and conviction to best serve vulnerable communities and mitigate morbidity must embrace the lessons of evidenced based practice derived from military medical experience. WHO is leading the charge in disaster response for the conflict in Iraq, and many challenges remain. This might also include developing a new process in emergency medical response that utilizes private contracting to improve efficiency in delivery and overall sustainability.

  11. Urbanization of scrub typhus disease in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Won; Ha, Na-Young; Ryu, Boyeong; Bang, Ji Hwan; Song, Hoyeon; Kim, Yuri; Kim, Gwanghun; Oh, Myoung-don; Cho, Nam-Hyuk; Lee, Jong-koo

    2015-05-01

    Scrub typhus is an endemic disease in Asia. It has been a rural disease, but indigenous urban cases have been observed in Seoul, South Korea. Urban scrub typhus may have a significant impact because of the large population. Indigenous urban scrub typhus was epidemiologically identified in Seoul, the largest metropolitan city in South Korea, using national notifiable disease data from 2010 to 2013. For detailed analysis of clinical features, patients from one hospital that reported the majority of cases were selected and compared to a historic control group. Chigger mites were prospectively collected in the city using a direct chigger mite-collecting trap, and identified using both phenotypic and 18S rDNA sequencing analyses. Their infection with Orientia tsutsugamushi was confirmed by sequencing the 56-kDa antigen gene. Eighty-eight cases of urban scrub typhus were determined in Seoul. The possible sites of infection were mountainous areas (56.8%), city parks (20.5%), the vicinity of one's own residence (17.0%), and riversides (5.7%). Eighty-seven chigger mites were collected in Gwanak mountain, one of the suspected infection sites in southern Seoul, and seventy-six (87.4%) of them were identified as Helenicula miyagawai and eight (9.2%) as Leptotrombidium scutellare. Pooled DNA extracted from H. miyagawai mites yielded O. tsutsugamushi Boryong strain. Twenty-six patients from one hospital showed low APACHE II score (3.4 ± 2.7), low complication rate (3.8%), and no hypokalemia. We identified the presence of indigenous urban scrub typhus in Seoul, and a subgroup of them had mild clinical features. The chigger mite H. miyagawai infected with O. tsutsugamushi within the city was found. In endemic area, urban scrub typhus needs to be considered as one of the differential febrile diseases and a target for prevention.

  12. Medical costs, Cesarean delivery rates, and length of stay in specialty hospitals vs. non-specialty hospitals in South Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Ju Kim

    Full Text Available Since 2011, specialty hospitals in South Korea have been known for providing high- quality care in specific clinical areas. Much research related to specialty hospitals and their performance in many such areas has been performed, but investigations about their performance in obstetrics and gynecology are lacking. Thus, we aimed to compare specialty vs. non-specialty hospitals with respect to mode of obstetric delivery, especially the costs and length of stay related to Cesarean section (CS procedures, and to provide evidence to policy-makers for evaluating the success of hospitals that specialize in obstetric and gynecological (OBGYN care.We obtained National Health Insurance claim data from 2012 to 2014, which included information from 418,141 OBGYN cases at 214 hospitals. We used a generalized estimating equation model to identify a potential association between the likelihood of CS at specialty hospitals compared with other hospitals. We also evaluated medical costs and length of stay in specialty hospitals according to type of delivery.We found that 150,256 (35.9% total deliveries were performed by CS. The odds ratio of CS was significantly lower in specialty hospitals (OR: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.93-0.96compared to other hospitals Medical costs (0.74% and length of stay (1% in CS cases increased in specialty hospitals, although length of stay following vaginal delivery was lower (0.57% in specialty hospitals compared with other hospitals.We determined that specialty hospitals are significantly associated with a lower likelihood of CS delivery and shorter length of stay after vaginal delivery. Although they are also associated with higher costs for delivery, the increased cost could be due to the high level of intensive care provided, which leads to improve quality of care. Policy-makers should consider incentive programs to maintain performance of specialty hospitals and promote efficiency that could reduce medical costs accrued by patients.

  13. The profile of meningitis in a tertiary paediatric hospital in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Meningitis in children is a major health problem worldwide, leading to high rates of mortality and morbidity. Objectives. To describe the profile of patients treated for meningitis at a leading tertiary paediatric hospital (Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital) in South Africa. Methods. This study describes all ...

  14. A case study investigation of the indoor environmental noise in four urban South African hospitals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Reenen, CA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This multiple case study was designed to investigate acoustics in multi-bed general wards in four urban South African hospitals. Evidence-based research shows that a quiet indoor environment has positive outcomes for hospital patients and staff...

  15. Influences on hospital admission for asthma in south Asian and white adults: qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, C; Kaur, G; Gantley, M; Feder, G; Hillier, S; Goddard, J; Packe, G

    2001-10-27

    To explore reasons for increased risk of hospital admission among south Asian patients with asthma. Qualitative interview study using modified critical incident technique and framework analysis. Newham, east London, a deprived area with a large mixed south Asian population. 58 south Asian and white adults with asthma (49 admitted to hospital with asthma, 9 not admitted); 17 general practitioners; 5 accident and emergency doctors; 2 out of hours general practitioners; 1 asthma specialist nurse. Patients' and health professionals' views on influences on admission, events leading to admission, general practices' organisation and asthma strategies, doctor-patient relationship, and cultural attitudes to asthma. South Asian and white patients admitted to hospital coped differently with asthma. South Asians described less confidence in controlling their asthma, were unfamiliar with the concept of preventive medication, and often expressed less confidence in their general practitioner. South Asians managed asthma exacerbations with family advocacy, without systematic changes in prophylaxis, and without systemic corticosteroids. Patients describing difficulty accessing primary care during asthma exacerbations were registered with practices with weak strategies for asthma care and were often south Asian. Patients with easy access described care suggesting partnerships with their general practitioner, had better confidence to control asthma, and were registered with practices with well developed asthma strategies that included policies for avoiding hospital admission. The different ways of coping with asthma exacerbations and accessing care may partly explain the increased risk of hospital admission in south Asian patients. Interventions that increase confidence to control asthma, confidence in the general practitioner, understanding of preventive treatment, and use of systemic corticosteroids in exacerbations may reduce hospital admissions. Development of more sophisticated

  16. Management of snakebites at a rural South African hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    antivenom, inappropriate first aid, the regional effects of envenomation ... is crucial for primary care physicians to be familiar with the most common venomous snakes in South Africa and the ..... Pediatric and Neonatal Emergency Care.

  17. Work-related well-being of South African hospital pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiaan Rothmann

    2011-06-01

    Research purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate whether job stress and coping strategies could predict the work-related well-being (burnout and work engagement of hospital pharmacists in South Africa. Motivation for the study: Information about the work-related well-being and coping strategies of hospital pharmacists could be used to plan individual and organisational interventions which can be used to retain them and to manage their well-being and performance. Research design, approach and method: A survey design was used. A stratified random sample (N = 187 of pharmacists in South African hospitals was studied. The Maslach Burnout Inventory – Human Services Survey, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Pharmacist Stress Inventory and the COPE questionnaire were administered. Main findings: The results showed that job related stress and three coping strategies (approach coping, avoidant coping, and turning to religion predicted burnout and work engagement of South African hospital pharmacists. Practical implications: Job stressors that are in the main responsible for the unfavourable work environment and that lead to the development of burnout amongst hospital pharmacists should be addressed. It is also important to enhance the coping capabilities of the hospital pharmacists. Contribution/value-add: The findings of this study provide insight into the factors impacting on the work-related well-being of hospital pharmacists in South Africa.

  18. The relationship between bed size and profitability in South Carolina hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yang K; Glover, Saundra H; Stoskopf, Carleen H; Boyd, Suzan D

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to identify factors affecting hospital profitability and to find the optimal hospital bed size that assures maximum profit. This is a cross-sectional study using survey data obtained from acute care hospitals in South Carolina in 1997. The relationship of hospital profitability and hospital bed size revealed that when bed size increases, hospital profitability increases, decreases, and then increases again. For the patient profit proportion, the turning points in bed size are 238.22 and 560.08. For the total profit proportion, the turning points in bed size are 223.31 and 503.86. The results on the relationship between bed size and hospital profitability indicate that medium-size hospitals have less profitability.

  19. Management of incomplete abortions at South African public hospitals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 87, No 4 (1997) > ... Length of hospital stay, details of medical management, details of surgical ... Of these, 767 (95.9%) were in hospital for 1 day or more, and 753 (95.3%) women underwent evacuation of the uterus.

  20. Accepting telemedicine in a circulatory medicine ward in major hospitals in South Korea: patients' and health professionals' perception of real-time electrocardiogram monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seo-Joon; Jung, Tae-Young; Lee, Tae-Ro; Han, Jae-Hoon

    2018-04-20

    South Korean government is currently in progress of expanding the coverage of telemedicine projects as part of an attempt to vitalize service industry, but is facing fierce opposition from KMA. Practice of telemedicine requires sufficient discussions among related parties. Although the participation of medical specialists is important, agreement from the public is essential. Three main tertiary care centers in Seoul were selected for data collection. A total of 224 patients (patients n = 180, patient guardian n = 44) and medical professionals (n = 41) were selected using simple random sampling. Mixed method of quantitative survey and qualitative semi-interview was used. This study analyzed patients' and medical professionals' perception about the application of telemedicine in cardiology ward in tertiary care centers to provide baseline data when developing and applying telemedicine services. Results implied high need for encouraging telemedicine projects in order to appeal needs among population by providing experience (p < 0.001) and knowledge (p < 0.001). Other results showed that the need for electrocardiography monitoring was high among not only in remote areas but also in areas close to the capital. 64.52% of all participants thought that telemedicine was needed, and 73.21% of participants were willing to use telemedicine service if provided. Semi-interviews revealed that participants expected more cost and time saving services through remote treatment, by not having to visit long distance hospitals frequently. Research results oppose Korean Medical Association's opinion that the population is against enforcing telemedicine related laws. The findings in this study reflect an up-to-date perception of telemedicine among patients and medical professionals in a tertiary care centers' cardiology ward. Moreover, the study provides a baseline that is needed in order to overcome past failures and to successfully implement telemedicine in South

  1. Prevalence of Legionella spp. in water systems of hospitals and hotels in South Western Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragou, K; Kokkinos, P; Gogos, C; Alamanos, Y; Vantarakis, A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Legionella spp. in water systems of hospitals and hotels located in South Western Greece, to study the molecular epidemiology of the isolated strains and their possible association with bacterial contamination (total count and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), the water pH, and temperature. A prevalence survey for Legionella spp. by culturing techniques in water distribution systems of eight hospitals and nine hotels occurred in South Western Greece. Water sampling and microbiological analysis were carried out following the ISO methods. Legionella pneumophila was detected in 33% and 36% of the distribution systems of hospitals and hotels, respectively. Our survey results suggest a frequent prevalence of elevated concentrations of Legionella spp. in water systems of hospitals and hotels. Our investigation has confirmed the need to regularly monitor the microbiological condition of water systems in hospitals and hotels.

  2. Hilton's Rest and Pain, Guy's Hospital personalities and Guy's South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    H Dubovsky. Guy's Hospital occupies a unique position in medical history. John Hilton (1805 ... unsuitability of temperament, became a leading English poet. ... existed at the time a keen competitive rugby league among ... rugby football side.

  3. Childhood liver diseases in Ga-Rankuwa Hospital, South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rankuwa Hospital Histopathology Laboratory. Design: A retrospective study. Setting: Ga-Rankuwa Histopathology Laboratory. Subjects: Seventy two patients who underwent a liver biopsy during the study period. Methods: Laboratory records ...

  4. The development of hospitalbased palliative care services in public hospitals in the Western Cape South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Gwyther

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available With the recent approval of a South African (SA National Policy Framework and Strategy for Palliative Care by the National Health Council, it is pertinent to reflect on initiatives to develop palliative care services in public hospitals. This article reviews the development of hospital-based palliative care services in the Western Cape, SA. Palliative care services in SA started in the non-governmental sector in the 1980s. The first SA hospital-based palliative care team was established in Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital in 2001. The awareness of the benefit of palliative care in the hospital setting led to the development of isolated pockets of excellence providing palliative care in the public health sector in SA. This article describes models for palliative care at tertiary, provincial and district hospital level, which could inform development of hospital-based palliative care as the national policy for palliative care is implemented in SA.

  5. The activities of hospital nursing unit managers and quality of patient care in South African hospitals: a paradox?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J. Armstrong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Improving the quality of health care is central to the proposed health care reforms in South Africa. Nursing unit managers play a key role in coordinating patient care activities and in ensuring quality care in hospitals. Objective: This paper examines whether the activities of nursing unit managers facilitate the provision of quality patient care in South African hospitals. Methods: During 2011, a cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted in nine randomly selected hospitals (six public, three private in two South African provinces. In each hospital, one of each of the medical, surgical, paediatric, and maternity units was selected (n=36. Following informed consent, each unit manager was observed for a period of 2 hours on the survey day and the activities recorded on a minute-by-minute basis. The activities were entered into Microsoft Excel, coded into categories, and analysed according to the time spent on activities in each category. The observation data were complemented by semi-structured interviews with the unit managers who were asked to recall their activities on the day preceding the interview. The interviews were analysed using thematic content analysis. Results: The study found that nursing unit managers spent 25.8% of their time on direct patient care, 16% on hospital administration, 14% on patient administration, 3.6% on education, 13.4% on support and communication, 3.9% on managing stock and equipment, 11.5% on staff management, and 11.8% on miscellaneous activities. There were also numerous interruptions and distractions. The semi-structured interviews revealed concordance between unit managers’ recall of the time spent on patient care, but a marked inflation of their perceived time spent on hospital administration. Conclusion: The creation of an enabling practice environment, supportive executive management, and continuing professional development are needed to enable nursing managers to lead the provision

  6. Oesophageal squamous cell cancer in a South African tertiary hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Oesophageal cancer is the eighth most common cancer .... patients from the entire eastern seaboard of South Africa. Patients ... a school graduate and a household income of more than R10 .... (p = 0.63); however a significant difference in dental care .... Coping with esophageal cancer approaches worldwide.

  7. Oesophageal squamous cell cancer in a South African tertiary hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The site of tumour location was in the middle 96 (60.4%), distal 42(26.4%) and proximal 17(10.6%) oesophagus. The male to female ratio was 1:1 ... with HIV negative patients. Key words: Oesophageal cancer, squamous cell cancer, HIV, dental hygiene, socioeconomic status, South Africa, esophageal cancer, risk factors ...

  8. Factors predisposing to low birth weight in Jimma Hospital South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Low birth weight continues to remain a major public health problem in Ethiopia in contrast to what is observed in many developing countries. Objectives: To assess some of the predisposing factors to low birth weight among deliveries in Jimma hospital. Design: Cross-sectional case referent study.

  9. Audit of appendicectomies at Frere Hospital | Rogers | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. We sought to evaluate the surgical service in the central part of the Eastern Cape Province by reviewing the practice of appendicectomy at Frere Hospital. Specifically, it was our aim to compare the service to those patients who reside in and outside the East London metropolitan area and the outcomes of patients ...

  10. Glass injuries seen in the emergency department of a South African district hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Nzaumvila, Doudou; Govender, Indiran; Kramer, Efraim B.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The emergency department of Embhuleni Hospital frequently manages patients with glass-related injuries. This study assessed these injuries and the glass that caused them in more detail. AIM: The objectives of our study included determining the type of glass causing these injuries and describing the circumstances associated with different types of glass injuries. SETTING: The emergency department of Embhuleni Hospital in Elukwatini, Mpumalanga province, South Africa. METHODS: This ...

  11. Community/hospital indicators in South African public sector mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Crick; Flisher, Alan J

    2003-12-01

    The need to balance resources between community and hospital-based mental health services in the post-deinstitutionalisation era has been well-documented. However, few indicators have been developed to monitor the relationship between community and hospital services, in either developed or developing countries. There is a particular need for such indicators in the South African context, with its history of inequitable services based in custodial institutions under apartheid, and a new policy that proposes the development of more equitable community-based care. Indicators are needed to measure the distribution of resources and the relative utilisation of community and hospital-based services during the reform process. These indicators are potentially useful for assessing the implementation of policy objectives over time. To develop and document community/hospital indicators in public sector mental health services in South Africa. A questionnaire was distributed to provincial mental health coordinators requesting numbers of full-time equivalent (FTE) staff who provide mental health care at all service levels, annual patient admissions to hospitals and annual patient attendances at ambulatory care facilities. The information was supplemented by consultations with mental health coordinators in each of the 9 provinces. Population data were obtained from preliminary findings of the 1996 census. The community/hospital indicator measuring staff distribution was defined as the ratio of staff employed in community settings to all staff, expressed as a percentage. The community/hospital indicator measuring patient service utilisation was defined as the ratio of the annual ambulatory care attendance rate per 100,000 population to the sum of this rate and the annual hospital admission rate per 100,000 population, expressed as a percentage. Of psychiatric public sector staff, 25% are located in community settings in South Africa (provincial range: 11-70%). If hospital outpatient

  12. OH Reactivity Observations during the MAPS-Seoul Campaign: Contrasts between Urban and Suburban Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, D.; Jeong, D.; Blake, D. R.; Wang, M. D.; Kim, D. S.; Lee, G.; Lee, M.; Jung, J.; Ahn, J.; Cho, G.; Guenther, A. B.; Kim, S.

    2015-12-01

    Direct total OH reactivity was observed in the urban and suburban environments of Seoul, South Korea using a comparative reactivity method (CRM) during the MAPS-Seoul field campaign. In addition, CO, NOx, SO2, ozone, VOCs, aerosol, physical, and chemical parameters were also deployed. By comparing the observed total OH reactivity results with calculated OH reactivity from the trace gas observational datasets, we will evaluate our current status in constraining reactive gases in the urban and suburban environments in the East Asian megacity. Observed urban OH reactivity will be presented in the context of the ability to constrain anthropogenic reactive trace gas emissions. It will then be compared to the observed suburban results from Taehwa Research Forest (located ~ 50 km from the Seoul City Center). Our understanding of reactive trace gases in an environment of high BVOC emissions in a mildly aged anthropogenic influences will be evaluated. Using an observational constrained box model with detailed VOC oxidation schemes (e.g. MCM), we will discuss: 1) what is the amount of missing OH reactivity 2) what are the potential sources of the missing OH reactivity, and 3) what are the implications on regional air quality?

  13. The opinion of patients at a local South Africa teaching hospital on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: This study aimed to determine how South African patients at a regional state hospital perceived the practice of physicians accepting gifts from the pharmaceutical industry. The physician-patient relationship is built on trust, with an understanding that the physician will act ethically and in patients' best interests.

  14. A review of governance of maternity services at South Tipperary general hospital

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flory, David

    2015-09-01

    This review of the governance of maternity services at South Tipperary General Hospital has focussed on the systems and processes for assurance of service quality, risk management and patient safety primarily inside the hospital but also in the Hospital Group structure within which it operates. The effectiveness of the governance arrangements is largely determined by the quality of the leadership and management – both clinical and general – which designs, implements, and oversees those systems and processes and is ultimately responsible and accountable.\\r\

  15. The Relationship between Obesity and Urban Environment in Seoul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungah; Shon, Changwoo; Yi, Seonju

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a global pandemic that brings about a myriad of health consequences. In the past, policies for combating obesity mainly focused on improving individual health and behavior, but nowadays some policies have changed and now concentrate on improving the built environment believing this can improve health through positive changes to health-related behaviors. We examined whether both individual and environmental factors were associated with body mass index in Seoul, the capital city of South Korea. Data from the 2011 and 2013 Community Health Surveys were used (n = 20,147 men and 25,300 women). We staged multilevel logistic regression models to estimate the effect of individual and environmental factors on obesity. Among individual covariates, high-risk drinking, the time spent watching TV and surfing the Internet, high salt intake, stress, and the negative recognition of health were significantly associated with obesity. When controlling individual covariates, the number of sports facilities, number of fried chicken stores, and food insecurity level were statistically associated with probability of obesity. Therefore, this study emphasizes that it is important not only to improve the health behavior of the individual, but also to improve the urban environment in order to reduce the obesity rates of city dwellers. PMID:28792465

  16. How can a change in the operating system of the mental health review board promote the discharge of long-term hospitalized psychiatric patients? A case study of Seoul city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung-Soo; Lim, Hee-Young; Kim, Youngki; Lee, Yong-Suk

    2014-01-01

    One of the most typical and chronic problem in Korean mental health system is the prolonged length of hospital stay. In contrast to there are many components which leads to long length of stay of psychiatric patients in Korean situation such as low and fixed medical fee for psychiatric inpatient treatment, shortage of community resources, lack of care-givers' awareness and so on, there are just few mechanisms to handle this issue such as Mental Health Review Board (MHRB) which is based on Mental Health Act since 1995. However, the discharge order rate was very low and there community care system after discharge order is still very weak. The Korean government has revised the Mental Health Act in 2008 and changed the operating principals of the MHRB from a regional level to a local level to strengthen the function of MHRB. However, the discharge order rate versus the whole evaluation requests still remains at a very low level or less than 5%. And it is still very difficult to execute a discharge order against a patient whose symptoms and conditions become psychiatrically stabilized enough for discharge, due to a shortage of community care facilities and a lack of social support system. These results are exactly same with former studies. Any policies to promote psychiatric discharge including MHRB are needed to take the comprehensive factors into consideration, such as payment program, community infrastructure, increasing care-givers' acceptance and so on. Despite of the political trial of Korean government to reduce length of stay of chronic psychiatric patients, it was not successful. Still it had failed to propose a detailed policy measure in terms of the above-mentioned prerequisites. Therefore, new system and program developments including reform of payment system which reflect prior studies' recommendations are essential.

  17. Exploring interhospital transfers and partnerships in the hospital sector in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assareh, Hassan; Achat, Helen M; Levesque, Jean-Frederic; Leeder, Stephen R

    2017-12-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to explore characteristics of interhospital transfers (IHT) and sharing of care among hospitals in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Methods Data were extracted from patient-level linked hospital administrative datasets for separations from all NSW acute care hospitals from 1 July 2013 to 30 June 2015. Patient discharge and arrival information was used to identify IHTs. Characteristics of patients and related hospitals were then analysed. Results Transfer-in patients accounted for 3.9% of all NSW admitted patients and, overall, 7.3% of NSW admissions were associated with transfers (IHT rate). Patients with injuries and circulatory system diseases had the highest IHT rate, accounting for one-third of all IHTs. Patients were more often transferred to larger than smaller hospitals (61% vs 29%). Compared with private hospitals, public hospitals had a higher IHT rate (8.4% vs 5.1%) and a greater proportion of transfer-out IHTs (52% vs 28%). Larger public hospitals had lower IHT rates (3-8%) compared with smaller public hospitals (13-26%). Larger public hospitals received and retransferred higher proportions of IHT patients (52-58% and 11% respectively) than their smaller counterparts (26-30% and 2-3% respectively). Less than one-quarter of IHTs were between the public and private sectors or between government health regions. The number of interacting hospitals and their interactions varied across hospital peer groups. Conclusion NSW IHTs were often to hospitals with greater speciality services. The patterns of interhospital interactions could be affected by organisational and regional preferences. What is known about the topic? IHTs aim to provide efficient and effective care. Nonetheless, information on transfers and the sharing of care among hospitals in an Australian setting is lacking. Studies of transfers and hospital partnership patterns will inform efforts to improve patient-centred transfers and hospital accountability

  18. Parasuicide among youth in a general hospital in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Mhlongo

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Parasuicide cases among youth (15-24 years referred to the clinical psychology section of a regional hospital from 1995 to 1998 were reviewed. In all 100 cases (37 males and 63 females were identified being about 10% of the caseload. As part of the clinical psychological assessment sociodemographic, clinical characteristics, trigger factors, employed methods and suicide intentions were analysed. Most patients were students (79% or unemployed (16%. The major method employed to attempt suicide was ingestion of harmful substances (like paraffin, pesticides or battery acid(73%. Acute social conflicts (38%, socio-economic deprivation (17%, AIDS phobia (17%, academic failure (14%, teenage pregnancy (10% and mental illness (5% triggered suicide attempts. Fifty-eight percent of the attempts were categorised as demonstrative and 27% as genuine. The psychodynamics of parasuicides are discussed in case studies and with reference to other studies.

  19. Vulnerability to temperature-related mortality in Seoul, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Ji-Young; Anderson, G Brooke; Bell, Michelle L; Lee, Jong-Tae

    2011-01-01

    Studies indicate that the mortality effects of temperature may vary by population and region, although little is known about the vulnerability of subgroups to these risks in Korea. This study examined the relationship between temperature and cause-specific mortality for Seoul, Korea, for the period 2000-7, including whether some subgroups are particularly vulnerable with respect to sex, age, education and place of death. The authors applied time-series models allowing nonlinear relationships for heat- and cold-related mortality, and generated exposure-response curves. Both high and low ambient temperatures were associated with increased risk for daily mortality. Mortality risk was 10.2% (95% confidence interval 7.43, 13.0%) higher at the 90th percentile of daily mean temperatures (25 deg. C) compared to the 50th percentile (15 deg. C). Mortality risk was 12.2% (3.69, 21.3%) comparing the 10th (-1 deg. C) and 50th percentiles of temperature. Cardiovascular deaths showed a higher risk to cold, whereas respiratory deaths showed a higher risk to heat effect, although the differences were not statistically significant. Susceptible populations were identified such as females, the elderly, those with no education, and deaths occurring outside of a hospital for heat- and cold-related total mortality. Our findings provide supportive evidence of a temperature-mortality relationship in Korea and indicate that some subpopulations are particularly vulnerable.

  20. Safety climate and attitude toward medication error reporting after hospital accreditation in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunjoo

    2016-09-01

    This study compared registered nurses' perceptions of safety climate and attitude toward medication error reporting before and after completing a hospital accreditation program. Medication errors are the most prevalent adverse events threatening patient safety; reducing underreporting of medication errors significantly improves patient safety. Safety climate in hospitals may affect medication error reporting. This study employed a longitudinal, descriptive design. Data were collected using questionnaires. A tertiary acute hospital in South Korea undergoing a hospital accreditation program. Nurses, pre- and post-accreditation (217 and 373); response rate: 58% and 87%, respectively. Hospital accreditation program. Perceived safety climate and attitude toward medication error reporting. The level of safety climate and attitude toward medication error reporting increased significantly following accreditation; however, measures of institutional leadership and management did not improve significantly. Participants' perception of safety climate was positively correlated with their attitude toward medication error reporting; this correlation strengthened following completion of the program. Improving hospitals' safety climate increased nurses' medication error reporting; interventions that help hospital administration and managers to provide more supportive leadership may facilitate safety climate improvement. Hospitals and their units should develop more friendly and intimate working environments that remove nurses' fear of penalties. Administration and managers should support nurses who report their own errors. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Park Accessibility Impacts Housing Prices in Seoul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Han Park

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Housing prices are determined by a variety of factors, including the features of the building and the neighborhood environment, and a potential buyer decides to buy a house after reviewing these factors and concluding that it is worth the price. We used Hedonic Price Methods to find the relationship between monetary value of house and access conditions to urban parks. Two meaningful results were discovered in this study: first, as the distance from the park increases, the value of the park inherent in the housing price decreases; second, the greater walking accessibility, to the park, the higher the park value inherent in housing prices. Despite presenting shorter distances to walk and more entrances, poorly accessible zones were deemed as such due to the necessity of crossing an arterial road. This indicates that the results can define accessibility not as the Euclidian distance but as the shortest walking distance while considering crossroads and park entrances. The results of this study have significant implications for urban park economic impact analyses in Seoul. Also, the increase in housing prices closer to parks supports the idea that access is dependent on the residents’ socioeconomic status. Lastly, the results of this study can improve walking accessibility to the park.

  2. Planned home and hospital births in South Australia, 1991-2006: differences in outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennare, Robyn M; Keirse, Marc J N C; Tucker, Graeme R; Chan, Annabelle C

    2010-01-18

    To examine differences in outcomes between planned home births, occurring at home or in hospital, and planned hospital births. Population-based study using South Australian perinatal data on all births and perinatal deaths during the period 1991-2006. Analysis included logistic regression adjusted for predictor variables and standardised perinatal mortality ratios. Perinatal death, intrapartum death, death attributed to intrapartum asphyxia, Apgar score home births accounted for 0.38% of 300,011 births in South Australia. They had a perinatal mortality rate similar to that for planned hospital births (7.9 v 8.2 per 1000 births), but a sevenfold higher risk of intrapartum death (95% CI, 1.53-35.87) and a 27-fold higher risk of death from intrapartum asphyxia (95% CI, 8.02-88.83). Review of perinatal deaths in the planned home births group identified inappropriate inclusion of women with risk factors for home birth and inadequate fetal surveillance during labour. Low Apgar scores were more frequent among planned home births, and use of specialised neonatal care as well as rates of postpartum haemorrhage and severe perineal tears were lower among planned home births, but these differences were not statistically significant. Planned home births had lower caesarean section and instrumental delivery rates, and a seven times lower episiotomy rate than planned hospital births. Perinatal safety of home births may be improved substantially by better adherence to risk assessment, timely transfer to hospital when needed, and closer fetal surveillance.

  3. Pharmaceutical Logistics at the 121st General Hospital, Seoul, Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Giraud, Roger S

    2004-01-01

    ...). The sample consists of 122 days of pharmaceutical requisitions. Pharmaceutical logistics data are used to estimate a multiple regression model of OST for demand satisfaction and accommodation, requisition cost and volume and source of supply...

  4. Seasonal variation and trends in stroke hospitalizations and mortality in a South American community hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Alejandro; Gerschcovich, Eliana Roldan; Díaz, Adriana A; Antía, Fabiana; Gonorazky, Sergio

    2013-10-01

    Numerous studies have reported the presence of temporal variations in biological processes. Seasonal variation (SV) in stroke has been widely studied, but little data have been published on this phenomenon in the Southern Hemisphere, and there have been no studies reported from Argentina. The goals of the present study were to describe the SV of admissions and deaths for stroke and examine trends in stroke morbidity and mortality over a 3-year period in a community hospital in Argentina. Hospital discharge reports from the electronic database of vital statistics between 1999 and 2001 were examined retrospectively. Patients who had a main discharge diagnosis of stroke (ischemic or hemorrhagic) or cerebrovascular accident (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes 431, 432, 434, and 436) were selected. The study sample included 1382 hospitalizations by stroke (3.5% of all admissions). In-hospital mortality demonstrated a winter peak (25.5% vs 17% in summer; P = .001). The crude seasonal stroke attack rate (ischemic and hemorrhagic) was highest in winter (164 per 100,000 population; 95% CI, 159-169 per 100,000) and lowest in summer (124 per 100,000; 95% CI, 120-127 per 100,000; P = .008). Stroke admissions followed a seasonal pattern, with a winter-spring predominance (P = .008). Our data indicate a clear SV in stroke deaths and admissions in this region of Argentina. The existence of SV in stroke raises a different hypothesis about the rationale of HF admissions and provides information for the organization of care and resource allocation. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. HOSPITALIZATIONS DUE TO RESPIRATORY PROBLEMS DURING DIWALI FESTIVAL IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN SOUTH INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The burning of firecrackers during Diwali festival produces an adverse respiratory outcome. However, there are no published articles on the impact of fireworks on hospital admission due to acute respiratory issues, hospital stay, and respiratory mortality during Diwali in India. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a prospective, open label, observational study. It was conducted in patients admitted to the pulmonary emergency unit with respiratory symptoms 15 days before and after Diwali. It was conducted after the approval of ethics committee and written informed consent. RESULTS The number of admissions post-Diwali were significantly more compared to pre-Diwali from both rural and urban locations (p<0.001. The mean duration of hospital stay was significantly less pre-Diwali (7.59±0.74 days compared to post-Diwali (9.46±0.44 days. Also, significantly increased number of patients required ventilator support post Diwali. CONCLUSION The findings from the present study validate the deterioration of respiratory health during Diwali festival in India. There should be more awareness campaigns about the harmful effects of fire-crackers. Patients suffering from respiratory problems should be advised to avoid heavy exposure to fireworks

  6. IAEA/WHO postal dose audits for radiotherapy hospitals in Eastern and South-Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izewska, J.; Vatnitsky, S.; Shortt, K.R.

    2004-01-01

    The IAEA/WHO TLD programme has been in operation for 34 years. In this period the calibration of approximately 5200 high-energy photon beams in over 1300 radiotherapy hospitals in 115 countries worldwide was checked. Of these, 18% of the audits were performed in Eastern and South-Eastern Europe. There are large contrasts in the region; while the results are very good for most countries, a few countries struggle with basic problems in dosimetry. The hospitals operating radiotherapy services without qualified medical physicists or dosimetry equipment have poorer results than those properly equipped and staffed. Only about 2/3 of TLD audit participants in Eastern Europe have the appropriate dosimetry equipment. To achieve consistency of the audit results within Eastern and South-Eastern Europe, strengthening of radiotherapy infrastructure in a few countries would be necessary. (authors)

  7. Nurse Interaction With Clients In Communication Therapeutic Study Analysis Of Symbolic Interactionism Hospital South Sulawesi

    OpenAIRE

    Hj.Indirawaty; Syamsuddin AB

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to describe briefly on the application of social interaction which made nurses to clients while performing therapeutic communication at the Hospital of South Sulawesi with frame symbolic interactionism. Result achieved against the system carried nurse interaction with clients who patterned on therapeutic communication. At the stage of pre-interaction system is applied such as before the nurse interacts with the client well in advance to prepare the way of dressing re...

  8. Pattern of cardiovascular admissions at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi, South East Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Osuji, Charles Ukachukwu; Onwubuya, Emmanuel Ikechukwu; Ahaneku, Gladys Ifesinachi; Omejua, Emeka Godwin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the top killer diseases in the world sparing neither developed or developing countries. The study was carried out to determine the pattern of cardiovascular admissions at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi South East Nigeria. Methods The study was a retrospective study covering the period January 2007 to December 2009. SPSS version 13 software was used to analyze data. Results 537 (15%) patients were admitted into the study ou...

  9. Prevalence of psychological distress and associated factors in urban hospital outpatients in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of psychological distress and associated factors among outpatients in an urban hospital in South Africa. Method. A sample of 1 532 consecutively selected patients (56.4% men and 43.6% women from various hospital outpatient departments were interviewed with a structured questionnaire. Results. Based on assessment with the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, a measure of psychological distress, 17.1% of the patients (15.5% of men and 19.4% of women had severe psychological distress. Logistic multiple regression identified no income, poor health status, migraine headache and tuberculosis as significant factors associated with severe psychological stress for men. For women the factors identified were lower education, no income, having been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted disease, stomach ulcer and migraine headache. Conclusion. The study found a high prevalence of psychological distress among hospital outpatients in South Africa. Brief psychological therapies for adult patients with anxiety, depression or mixed common mental health problems treated in hospital outpatient departments are indicated. Accurate diagnosis of co-morbid depressive and anxiety disorders in patients with chronic medical illness is essential in understanding the cause and optimising the management of somatic symptom burden.

  10. Development of nutrition standards and therapeutic diet specifications for public hospitals in New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Peter; Hazlewood, Tanya; Pang, Glen

    2014-09-01

    In New South Wales (NSW), a new suite of nutrition standards for menus and specifications for therapeutic diets to be used in hospitals has been developed. These standards were required to facilitate centralised menu planning and food production, with the move to management of most hospital food services by HealthShare NSW, a state-wide business unit of NSW Health. The standards also aim to improve communication between health professionals, particularly with the increasing use of computerised meal-ordering systems. Nutrition standards have been developed for adult, paediatric and mental health inpatients, and specifications for 147 different adult and paediatric therapeutic diets. There is still significant variation in the nutrition standards for nutrition and therapeutic diets in hospitals across the Australian states, and a move to a more nationally harmonised approach would be welcome. Further research is required to examine the impact of these standards on operating efficiency and patient care outcomes.

  11. Anaesthesia and hospital links: strengthening healthcare through South-North hospital partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, E H O; Percy, D B

    2007-12-01

    Health services can respond to the needs of the poorest people in developing countries if those who work in the front line of health care are supported and motivated and if development needs in services and training programmes can be filled. This can be achieved when a Health Link between a southern hospital and/or training school and its northern counterpart is designed to build a disciplined and long-term programme of staff development including the needs of anaesthetic services, which meets the needs identified by the southern partner. Development of anaesthetic practice is best carried out in the context of an institution-wide Health Link where not only the staff and systems involved in anaesthesia but all the essential 'back office' or support services are also supported and developed.

  12. An essential hospital package for South Africa--selection criteria, costs and affordability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderlund, N

    1999-07-01

    In 1995 the Committee of Enquiry into National Health Insurance (NHI) recommended that formally employed individuals and their employers be required to fund at least a minimum package of hospital cover for workers and their dependents. This has recently been echoed in a Department of Health policy paper on social health insurance. This research aims to define and cost a minimum package of essential hospital care for competing (public and private) health insurers in South Africa. CRITERIA FOR PACKAGE DEFINITION: Based on the objectives implict in the NHI Committee report, the following criteria were used to define the essential package: (i) the extent to which there was another appropriate responsible party who should pay for treatment; (ii) the degree of discretion in deciding whether or not to provide treatment (roughly equivalent to 'urgency'); and (iii) the cost and effectiveness of treatment. On the basis of the above criteria, 396 out of 598 possible interventions were included in the package. Using local mine hospital and private sector utilisation rates and mine hospital cost data, it was estimated that the essential inpatient package would cost around R502 per enrollee per year, using 1998 prices, for a working age population and their dependents. Age-sex standardised outpatient care costs in the mine hospital population studied were estimated at R183 per person per year. It was therefore estimated that the total inpatient and outpatient hospital package would cost around R685 per person per year. The results presented in this paper are intended to inform the process of defining a national essential hospital benefit package. Assuming that contributions were proportionally related to income, and that costs should not exceed 6% of wages, the package should be affordable to all of those earning above R20,000 per year. Significant additional work is required, firstly at a technical level to assess the appropriateness of the prioritization approach used here

  13. "A dictate of both interest and mercy"? Slave hospitals in the antebellum South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Stephen C

    2010-01-01

    As a contribution to debates on slave health and welfare, this article investigates the variety, functions, and overall significance of infirmaries for the enslaved in the antebellum South. Newspapers, case histories, and surviving institutional records of antebellum Southern infirmaries providing medical treatment for slaves offer a unique opportunity to examine the development of modern American medicine within the "peculiar institution," and to explore a complex site of interactions between the enslaved, physicians, and slave owners. The world of the medical college hospital in South Carolina and an experimenting clinic in Alabama are reconstructed using newspapers and medical case histories. The Patient Register of the Hotel Dieu (1859-64) and the Admission Book of Touro Infirmary (1855-60) are used to highlight the types of enslaved patients sent to these two New Orleans commercial hospitals and to explore connections between the practice of medicine and the business of slave trading in the city. In addition to providing physicians with a steady income, slave infirmaries were key players in the domestic slave trade, as well as mechanisms for professionalization and the mobilization of medical ideas in the American South.

  14. Seizure-related hospital admissions, readmissions and costs: Comparisons with asthma and diabetes in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellon, Michelle L; Barton, Christopher; McCaffrey, Nikki; Parker, Denise; Hutchinson, Claire

    2017-08-01

    Seizures are listed as an Ambulatory Care Sensitive Condition (ACSC), where, in some cases, hospitalisation may be avoided with appropriate preventative and early management in primary care. We examined the frequencies, trends and financial costs of first and subsequent seizure-related hospital admissions in the adult and paediatric populations, with comparisons to bronchitis/asthma and diabetes admissions in South Australia between 2012 and 2014. De-identified hospital separation data from five major public hospitals in metropolitan South Australia were analysed to determine the number of children and adults admitted for the following Australian Refined Diagnosis Related Groups: seizure related conditions; bronchitis/asthma; and diabetes. Additional data included length of hospital stay and type of admission. Demographic data were analysed to identify whether social determinants influence admission, and a macro costing approach was then applied to calculate the financial costs to the Health Care System. The rate of total seizure hospitalizations was 649 per 100,000; lower than bronchitis/asthma (751/100,000), yet higher than diabetes (500/100,000). The highest proportions of subsequent separations were recorded by children with seizures regardless of complexity (47% +CSCC; 17% -CSCC) compared with asthma (11% +CSCC; 14% -CSCC) or diabetes (14% +CSCC; 13% -CSCC), and by adults with seizures with catastrophic or severe complications/comorbidity (25%), compared with diabetes (22%) or asthma (14%). The mean cost per separation in both children and adults was highest for diabetes (AU$4438/$7656), followed by seizures (AU$2408/$5691) and asthma (AU$2084/$3295). Following the lead of well-developed and resourced health promotion initiatives in asthma and diabetes, appropriate primary care, community education and seizure management services (including seizure clinics) should be targeted in an effort to reduce seizure related hospitalisations which may be avoidable

  15. A strategy for enhancing financial performance: a study of general acute care hospitals in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mankyu; Lee, Keon-Hyung

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the determinants of hospital profitability were evaluated using a sample of 142 hospitals that had undergone hospital standardization inspections by the South Korea Hospital Association over the 4-year period from 1998 to 2001. The measures of profitability used as dependent variables in this study were pretax return on assets, after-tax return on assets, basic earning power, pretax operating margin, and after-tax operating margin. Among those determinants, it was found that ownership type, teaching status, inventory turnover, and the average charge per adjusted inpatient day positively and statistically significantly affected all 5 of these profitability measures. However, the labor expenses per adjusted inpatient day and administrative expenses per adjusted inpatient day negatively and statistically significantly affected all 5 profitability measures. The debt ratio negatively and statistically significantly affected all 5 profitability measures, with the exception of basic earning power. None of the market factors assessed were shown to significantly affect profitability. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that the profitability of hospitals can be improved despite deteriorating external environmental conditions by facilitating the formation of sound financial structures with optimal capital supplies, optimizing the management of total assets with special emphasis placed on inventory management, and introducing efficient control of fixed costs including labor and administrative expenses.

  16. Differences in Hospital Readmission Risk across All Payer Groups in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Hrishikesh; Axon, Robert Neal; Brittingham, Jordan; Lyons, Genevieve Ray; Cole, Laura; Turley, Christine B

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate differences in hospital readmission risk across all payers in South Carolina (SC). South Carolina Revenue and Fiscal Affairs Office (SCRFA) statewide all payer claims database including 2,476,431 hospitalizations in SC acute care hospitals between 2008 and 2014. We compared the odds of unplanned all-cause 30-day readmission for private insurance, Medicare, Medicaid, uninsured, and other payers and examined interaction effects between payer and index admission characteristics using generalized estimating equations. SCRFA receives claims and administrative health care data from all SC health care facilities in accordance with SC state law. Odds of readmission were lower for females compared to males in private, Medicare, and Medicaid payers. African Americans had higher odds of readmission compared to whites across private insurance, Medicare, and Medicaid, but they had lower odds among the uninsured. Longer length of stay had the strongest association with readmission for private and other payers, whereas an increased number of comorbidities related to the highest readmission odds within Medicaid. Associations between index admission characteristics and readmission likelihood varied significantly with payer. Findings should guide the development of payer-specific quality improvement programs. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  17. HIV-Related Medical Admissions to a South African District Hospital Remain Frequent Despite Effective Antiretroviral Therapy Scale-Up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meintjes, Graeme; Kerkhoff, Andrew D.; Burton, Rosie; Schutz, Charlotte; Boulle, Andrew; van Wyk, Gavin; Blumenthal, Liz; Nicol, Mark P.; Lawn, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    The public sector scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in South Africa commenced in 2004. We aimed to describe the hospital-level disease burden and factors contributing to morbidity and mortality among hospitalized HIV-positive patients in the era of widespread ART availability. Between June

  18. Accomplishments and future suggestions of 2012 seoul nuclear security summit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae San [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The second Seoul Nuclear Security Summit was held in Seoul, March 26{approx}27, 2012. It was a very big political event for nuclear security. National and International organization leaders had a time to discuss in depth issues about nuclear security; nuclear terrorism, illicit trafficking of nuclear /radiological materials, sabotages for nuclear facilities, etc. Why did many national leaders still take part in the second nuclear security summit compared to Washington summit and what is the importance of nuclear security? This paper will be the answer from those questions and handle the background, outcomes and future tasks of nuclear security summit. And suggestions for the next summits were considered in the conclusion part.

  19. Accomplishments and future suggestions of 2012 seoul nuclear security summit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae San

    2012-01-01

    The second Seoul Nuclear Security Summit was held in Seoul, March 26∼27, 2012. It was a very big political event for nuclear security. National and International organization leaders had a time to discuss in depth issues about nuclear security; nuclear terrorism, illicit trafficking of nuclear /radiological materials, sabotages for nuclear facilities, etc. Why did many national leaders still take part in the second nuclear security summit compared to Washington summit and what is the importance of nuclear security? This paper will be the answer from those questions and handle the background, outcomes and future tasks of nuclear security summit. And suggestions for the next summits were considered in the conclusion part

  20. Contraceptive Awareness and Practice Among Antenatal Attendees in a Tertiary Hospital in South-South Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniekan Monday Abasiattai

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Use of effective contraceptive methods has been shown to improve health, sexual life and partner relations and also significantly reduce maternal and infant mortality by protecting against unplanned pregnancy, high fertility and high parity. The aim of this study is to determine the degree of awareness and practice of contraception by women in Uyo, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Semi-structured questionnaires were administered to three hundred and seventy women in the antenatal clinic of the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital. Results: Majority of the respondents were 21-30 years old (64.1%, 53.8% were multiparous and 66.5% had tertiary level education. Three hundred and twenty women (87.6% had heard about contraception (OR=49.6, P< 0.001, while only 49.5% of the respondents had practiced contraception previously (OR=0.96, P=0.76 of which the male condom (40.0% and the safe period/calendar method (31.1% were the most commonly practiced methods. Majority of the respondents (66.8% preferred to have 3 to 4 children and 78.4% of the respondents would want to used a method of contraception to either space their family or limit child bearing (OR=13.14, P< 0.001. Fear of side effects (20.0% and previous bad experience (8.8% were the most common reasons given by those respondents who would not want to practice contraception. Conclusion: This study reveals a high level of awareness of contraception but a significant unmet need among the respondents. There is need to intensify public enlightenment campaigns in our environment emphasizing the benefits and safety of modern contraceptive methods. Community leaders and heads of social groups and women organisations should be co-opted in the dissemination of accurate information on contraception. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000: 29-34

  1. Combined Oral Contraceptive Pills: Profile of Acceptors in a Tertiary Hospital in South-South Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abasiattai, A M; Utuk, M N; Ojeh, S O; Eyo, U E

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Combined oral contraceptive pills were the first contraceptive method to provide sexual freedom of choice for women through reliable, personal and private control of fertility. They are the most widely used hormonal contraceptives and also the most popular non-surgical method of contraception. OBJECTIVE: To review the profile of acceptors of combined oral contraceptive pills at the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo. METHODOLOGY: An 8 year review of all clients that accepted combined oral contraceptive pills in the family planning clinic. RESULTS: There were 1,146 new contraceptive acceptors during the period of study out of which 309 (27.9%) accepted the pills. Majority of the clients were between 20 and 29 years of age (54.0%), were multiparous (72.8%), Christians (99.7%) and 61.2% had tertiary level education. Two hundred and fifty-five women (82.5%) desired to use combined oral contraceptive pills to space births while 7.8% wanted to limit child bearing. There was a high discontinuation rate among the women (45.0%) and out of these 87.9% of the clients changed to other contraceptive methods. All the clients commenced their pills within seven days of menstruation and only the low dose monophasic preparations were available in the family planning unit and thus were given to the clients. CONCLUSION: Women who accept to initiate combined oral contraceptive pills in our center are young, well educated, multiparous women who want to space their pregnancies. However, due to the high discontinuation rate among the clients, there is need for further studies evaluating reasons for the high discontinuation rate, exploring interactions between clients and providers' and also providers' attitude towards combined pills in our environment.

  2. Geothermal heating project at St. Mary's Hospital, Pierre, South Dakota. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-12-01

    St. Mary's Hospital, Pierre, South Dakota, with the assistance of the US Department of Energy, drilled a 2176 ft well into the Madison Aquifer ot secure 108/sup 0/F artesian flow water at 385 gpm (475 psig shut-in pressure). The objective was to provide heat for domestic hot water and to space heat 163,768 sq. ft. Cost savings for the first three years were significant and, with the exception of a shutdown to replace some corroded pipe, the system has operated reliably and continuously for the last four years.

  3. Pattern of sudden death at Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, South West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinwusi PO

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Patience Olayinka Akinwusi,1,2 Akinwumi Oluwole Komolafe,3 Olanrewaju Olayinka Olayemi,2 Adeleye Abiodun Adeomi41Department of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Osun State University, 2Department of Medicine, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, 3Department of Morbid Anatomy, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching, Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Osun State, 4Department of Community Medicine, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, NigeriaBackground: The purpose of this study was to determine the etiology and epidemiologic characteristics of sudden death at Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, South West Nigeria.Methods: This was a retrospective descriptive study of all cases of natural unexpected death, either occurring out of hospital or less than 24 hours after admission to LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, over a nine-year period from January 2003 to December 2011. Data were generated from information in the case notes and autopsy reports for these cases.Results: Sudden death accounted for 29 (4.0% of 718 adult medical deaths and 1.0% of all adult medical admissions. Out-of-hospital deaths occurred in 72.4% of cases. The mean age of the patients was 46.8 ± 11.5 (range 25–74 years. The male to female ratio was 6.25:1. Cardiovascular disease were the most common cause of death (51.7%, followed by respiratory disease (20.7%, pulmonary thromboembolism (10.4%, central nervous system disease (13.8%, gastrointestinal disorders (13.8%, severe chemical/drug poisoning (13.8%, and combined cardiovascular and central nervous system disease (13.8%. Hypertension-related causes were responsible for 14/29 (48.3% of the sudden deaths. Hypertensive heart disease accounted for 86.7% of the cardiovascular deaths, hypertensive heart failure accounted for 73.3%, whilst all heart failure cases accounted for 80.0%. Left ventricular hypertrophy was present in 69.2% of the patients with hypertensive heart disease. Moderate to severe

  4. Hospital Nurses' Competencies in Disaster Situations: A Qualitative Study in the South of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Sandra M; Witt, Regina R

    2015-12-01

    Introduction Hospital nurses play a key role in the aftermath of the occurrence of disasters and need specific competencies to work in these situations. From a global perspective, few models exist that focus on disaster nursing. This study aimed to identify hospital nurses' competencies in disaster situations. A qualitative, descriptive, exploratory study was developed using focus groups as a method of data collection. Three meetings were held from June through September 2012 with nurses who worked at a hospital used as reference for disaster situations in the South of Brazil. Thematic analysis of collected data generated the competencies. For statement standardization, a format consistent with a verb, a noun, and a complement was adopted. The group validated 17 competencies, which were organized according to the phases of emergency management described by the World Health Organization (WHO) and classified in domain areas of management, health care, communication, and education. The competencies identified in this study can contribute to the education and practice of nurses in the hospital ambience, strengthening its capacity to face disaster situations.

  5. Green Roof for Stormwater Management in a Highly Urbanized Area: The Case of Seoul, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shafique

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization changes natural pervious surfaces to hard, impervious surfaces such as roads, buildings and roofs. These modifications significantly affect the natural hydrologic cycle by increasing stormwater runoff rates and volume. Under these circumstances, green roofs offer multiple benefits including on-site stormwater management that mimics the natural hydrologic conditions in an urban area. It can retain a large amount of rainwater for a longer time and delay the peak discharge. However, there is very limited research that has been carried out on the retrofitted green roof for stormwater management for South Korean conditions. This study has investigated the performance of retrofitted green roofs for stormwater management in a highly urbanized area of Seoul, the capital city of Korea. In this study, various storm events were monitored and the research results were analyzed to check the performance of the green roof with controlling the runoff in urban areas. Results also allowed us to conclude that the retention mainly depends on the intensity and duration of the rain events. From the analysis, average runoff retention on the green roof was 10% to 60% in different rain events. The application of an extensive green roof provides promising results for stormwater management in the highly urbanized area of Seoul.

  6. Psychiatric hospital beds and prison populations in South America since 1990: does the Penrose hypothesis apply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, Adrian P; Chow, Winnie S; Arduino, Margarita; Barrionuevo, Hugo; Fritsch, Rosemarie; Girala, Nestor; Minoletti, Alberto; Mitkiewicz, Flávia; Rivera, Guillermo; Tavares, María; Priebe, Stefan

    2015-02-01

    In 1939, English mathematician, geneticist, and psychiatrist Lionel Sharples Penrose hypothesized that the numbers of psychiatric hospital beds and the sizes of prison populations were inversely related; 75 years later, the question arises as to whether the hypothesis applies to recent developments in South America. To explore the possible association of changes in the numbers of psychiatric hospital beds with changes in the sizes of prison populations in South America since 1990. We searched primary sources for the numbers of psychiatric hospital beds in South American countries since 1990 (the year that the Latin American countries signed the Caracas Declaration) and compared these changes against the sizes of prison populations. The associations between the numbers of psychiatric beds and the sizes of prison populations were tested using fixed-effects regression of panel data. Economic variables were considered as covariates. Sufficiently reliable and complete data were obtained from 6 countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay. The numbers of psychiatric beds and the sizes of prison populations. Since 1990, the numbers of psychiatric beds decreased in all 6 countries (ranging from -2.0% to -71.9%), while the sizes of prison populations increased substantially (ranging from 16.1% to 273.0%). Panel data regression analysis across the 6 countries showed a significant inverse relationship between numbers of psychiatric beds and sizes of prison populations. On average, the removal of 1 bed was associated with 5.18 more prisoners (95% CI, 3.10-7.26; P = .001), which was reduced to 2.78 prisoners (95% CI, 2.59-2.97; P prison populations remained practically unchanged when income inequality was considered as a covariate (-4.28 [95% CI, -5.21 to -3.36]; P prison populations have increased against a background of strong economic growth. The changes appear to be associated because the numbers of beds decreased more extensively when and

  7. Cefazolin high-inoculum effect in methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus from South American hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón, Sandra; Reyes, Jinnethe; Carvajal, Lina Paola; Rojas, Natalia; Cortés, Fabián; Panesso, Diana; Guzmán, Manuel; Zurita, Jeannete; Adachi, Javier A; Murray, Barbara E; Nannini, Esteban C; Arias, Cesar A

    2013-12-01

    Clinical failures with cefazolin have been described in high-inoculum infections caused by methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) producing type A β-lactamase. We investigated the prevalence of the cefazolin inoculum effect (InE) in MSSA from South American hospitals, since cefazolin is used routinely against MSSA due to concerns about the in vivo efficacy of isoxazolyl penicillins. MSSA isolates were recovered from bloodstream (n = 296) and osteomyelitis (n = 68) infections in two different multicentre surveillance studies performed in 2001-02 and 2006-08 in South American hospitals. We determined standard-inoculum (10(5)cfu/mL) and high-inoculum (10(7) cfu/mL) cefazolin MICs. PFGE was performed on all isolates that exhibited a cefazolin InE. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and sequencing of part of blaZ were performed on representative isolates. The overall prevalence of the cefazolin InE was 36% (131 isolates). A high proportion (50%) of MSSA isolates recovered from osteomyelitis infections exhibited the InE, whereas it was observed in 33% of MSSA recovered from bloodstream infections. Interestingly, Ecuador had the highest prevalence of the InE (45%). Strikingly, 63% of MSSA isolates recovered from osteomyelitis infections in Colombia exhibited the InE. MLST revealed that MSSA isolates exhibiting the InE belonged to diverse genetic backgrounds, including ST5, ST8, ST30 and ST45, which correlated with the prevalent methicillin-resistant S. aureus clones circulating in South America. Types A (66%) and C (31%) were the most prevalent β-lactamases. Our results show a high prevalence of the cefazolin InE associated with type A β-lactamase in MSSA isolates from Colombia and Ecuador, suggesting that treatment of deep-seated infections with cefazolin in those countries may be compromised.

  8. Safety and affordability of an elective Saturday list at Pietersburg Hospital Limpopo South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Mavhungu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. The backlog of patients waiting for operations continues to be a problem in many public hospitals in South Africa (SA, with elective surgery procedures being postponed for up to 2 years.Objective. To determine the rate of death in hospital or out of hospital within 30 days of an elective procedure performed on a Saturday, and to determine the cost incurred by paying staff members who perform these operations.Method. A prospective, observational descriptive cohort study of all patients undergoing inpatient general surgery operations during weekdays and weekends between 1 September 2015 and 31 August 2016 (1 year at Pietersburg Hospital (PBH, Limpopo, SA. Microsoft Excel 2010 (Microsoft, USA was used to analyse and derive descriptive statistics. The finance department at the hospital calculated the overtime pay for theatre staff who operated on Saturdays.Results. The study included 1 352 operations (607 elective and 745 emergency procedures. Saturday elective operations contributed 133/607 (22%, and the rate of death for these operations was 1.5%. The most common procedures performed on a Saturday were hernia repair and amputation. The cost for 8 hours of work on a Saturday was ZAR13 900, amounting to a total of ZAR333 600 for 24 Saturdays.Conclusion. Performing minor surgery on a Saturday had a mortality rate of 1.5%, and a theatre staff cost of ~ZAR2 317 per patient, excluding surgeons’ fees. If surgeons were to be paid the costs would be ZAR3 450 per patient.

  9. Monitoring middle-atmospheric water vapor over Seoul by using a 22 GHz ground-based radiometer SWARA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ka, Soohyun; de Wachter, Evelyn; Kaempfer, Niklaus; Oh, Jung Jin

    2010-10-01

    Water vapor is the strongest natural greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. It is most abundant in the troposphere at low altitudes, due to evaporation at the ocean surface, with maximum values of around 6 g/kg. The amount of water vapor reaches a minimum at tropopause level and increases again in the middle atmosphere through oxidation of methane and vertical transport. Water vapor has both positive and negative effects on global warming, and we need to study how it works on climate change by monitoring water vapor concentration in the middle atmosphere. In this paper, we focus on the 22 GHz ground-based radiometer called SWARA (Seoul Water vapor Radiometer) which has been operated at Sookmyung women's university in Seoul, Korea since Oct. 2006. It is a joint project of the University of Bern, Switzerland, and the Sookmyung Women's University of Seoul, South Korea. The SWARA receives 22.235 GHz emitted from water vapor spontaneously and converts down to 1.5 GHz with +/- 0.5 GHz band width in 61 kHz resolution. To represent 22.235 GHz water vapor spectrum precisely, we need some calibration methods because the signal shows very weak intensity in ~0.1 K on the ground. For SWARA, we have used the balancing and the tipping curve methods for a calibration. To retrieve the water vapor profile, we have applied ARTS and Qpack software. In this paper, we will present the calibration methods and water vapor variation over Seoul for the last 4 years.

  10. Vulnerabilities to Temperature Effects on Acute Myocardial Infarction Hospital Admissions in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yeon Kwon

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Most previous studies have focused on the association between acute myocardial function (AMI and temperature by gender and age. Recently, however, concern has also arisen about those most susceptible to the effects of temperature according to socioeconomic status (SES. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of heat and cold on hospital admissions for AMI by subpopulations (gender, age, living area, and individual SES in South Korea. The Korea National Health Insurance (KNHI database was used to examine the effect of heat and cold on hospital admissions for AMI during 2004–2012. We analyzed the increase in AMI hospital admissions both above and below a threshold temperature using Poisson generalized additive models (GAMs for hot, cold, and warm weather. The Medicaid group, the lowest SES group, had a significantly higher RR of 1.37 (95% CI: 1.07–1.76 for heat and 1.11 (95% CI: 1.04–1.20 for cold among subgroups, while also showing distinctly higher risk curves than NHI for both hot and cold weather. In additions, females, older age group, and those living in urban areas had higher risks from hot and cold temperatures than males, younger age group, and those living in rural areas.

  11. Post-traumatic stress disorder among paramedic and hospital emergency personnel in south-east Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sedigheh Iranmanesh; Batool Tirgari; Hojat Sheikh Bardsiri

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Paramedic and emergency personnel may encounter directly many events that threat their own wellbeing during their daily work.This study was conducted to examine the prevalence rate of post-traumatic stress disorder(PTSD) among two groups of paramedic and emergency personnel in south-east Iran.METHODS:The study employed a descriptive design and was conducted in four hospital emergency wards and a pre-hospital emergency base supervised by Kerman Medical University.Using Mississippi PTSD,we assessed the prevalence rate in paramedics(n=150) and emergency personnel(n=250).RESULTS:The two groups had different levels of education,marital status,experience of traumatic events,work hours per month,and gender.Most(94%) of paramedic and hospital emergency personnel reported moderate PTSD.The two groups had significant different levels of PTSD in all subscale.CONCLUSION:The study suggests that health care managers should organize systematic and dynamic policies and procedures in dealing with PTSD to assist both groups of personnel.

  12. Integrating biomedical and herbal medicine in Ghana - experiences from the Kumasi South Hospital: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boateng, Millicent Addai; Danso-Appiah, Anthony; Turkson, Bernard Kofi; Tersbøl, Britt Pinkowski

    2016-07-07

    Over the past decade there has been growing interest in the use of herbal medicine both in developed and developing countries. Given the high proportion of patients using herbal medicine in Ghana, some health facilities have initiated implementation of herbal medicine as a component of their healthcare delivery. However, the extent to which herbal medicine has been integrated in Ghanaian health facilities, how integration is implemented and perceived by different stakeholders has not been documented. The study sought to explore these critical issues at the Kumasi South Hospital (KSH) and outline the challenges and motivations of the integration process. Qualitative phenomenological exploratory study design involving fieldwork observations, focus group discussion, in-depth interviews and key informants' interviews was employed to collect data. Policies and protocols outlining the definition, process and goals of integration were lacking, with respondents sharing different views about the purpose and value of integration of herbal medicine within public health facilities. Key informants were supportive of the initiative. Whilst biomedical health workers perceived the system to be parallel than integrated, health personnel providing herbal medicine perceived the system as integrated. Most patients were not aware of the herbal clinic in the hospital but those who had utilized services of the herbal clinic viewed the clinic as part of the hospital. The lack of a regulatory policy and protocol for the integration seemed to have led to the different perception of the integration. Policy and protocol to guide the integration are key recommendations.

  13. Prevalence of Alcohol Use and Associated Factors in Urban Hospital Outpatients in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendry Van der Heever

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of alcohol use and associated factors among outpatients in an urban hospital in South Africa. The sample included 1,532 (56.4% men and women 43.6% consecutively selected patients from different hospital outpatient departments. Results indicate that 41.2% of men and 18.3% of women were found to be hazardous drinkers, and 3.6% of men and 1.4% of women meet criteria for probable alcohol dependence or harmful drinking as defined by the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT. Two in five patients (40.5% were hazardous or harmful drinkers and/or had anxiety or depression. Logistic multiple regression found that for men tobacco use and not having been diagnosed with diabetes and for women tobacco use and having been diagnosed with migraine headache was associated with hazardous and harmful drinking. Although the study is cross-sectional, it does identify groups that may be at high risk of alcohol misuse and for whom intervention is urgent. Because prevalence of hazardous and harmful alcohol use is high in this population, routine screening should be introduced in hospital out-patient settings.

  14. Let him not be alone: perspectives of older British South Asian minority ethnic patients on dying in acute hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasalu, Munikumar Ramasamy

    2017-09-02

    To investigate older British South Asians' views on dying at acute hospitals. Older people, including those from ethnic minorities prefer 'home as a haven' for their last days of life; however, they are more likely to die in hospital. Constructive grounded theory was used as a methodological approach that informed data collection to data analysis. Open meetings with 11 local South Asian community organisations enabled the researchers to recruit a total of 55 older South Asians in this study. Data were collected using gender-based focus groups (n=5) and in-depth, semi-structured interviews (n=29). Transcripts were analysed using Nvivo 9. Three key themes were identified: 'mistrust', 'let him not be alone' and 'family as a protective shield'. The theme 'mistrust' is explored through examination of beliefs, attitudes and expectations about 'hospital' as a place in the care of the dying. The theme of 'let him not be alone' draws the family's preferences and concerns in relation to leaving their older dying relative alone in the hospital. The final theme of 'family as a protective shield' describes the element of family care as a protective shield for their older one to have peaceful end-of-life care moments in the hospital. Allowing older relatives to die in hospital seems to evoke feelings of missed filial responsibilities and guilt among family carers among older ethnic minorities. The presence of cultural paranoia and mistrust often led minorities to experience sub-standard end-of-life care in acute hospitals.

  15. Specialized consultant in radiological safety to the south central hospital of high speciality, PEMEX. II.- August of 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeles C, A.; Vizuet G, J.; Benitez S, J. A.; Rodriguez A, F.; Garcia A, J.

    2001-12-01

    The south central hospital of high speciality, dependent of PEMEX, It request consultant of the ININ to be able to maintain their sanitary license for the use of X-ray equipment for the radiologic diagnostic.The proposal of the ININ was to be a program of technical attendance, schedule monthly to be able to solve the observations that are presented in the use of those equipment, and that the hospital can conserve its respective sanitary license.(Author)

  16. Specialized consultant in radiological safety to the south central hospital of high speciality, PEMEX. III.- September of 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeles C, A.; Vizuet G, J.; Benitez S, J. A.; Rodriguez A, F.; Garcia A, J.

    2001-12-01

    The south central hospital of high speciality, dependent of PEMEX, It request consultant of the ININ to be able to maintain their sanitary license for the use of X-ray equipment for the radiologic diagnostic.The proposal of the ININ was to be a program of technical attendance, schedule monthly to be able to solve the observations that are presented in the use of those equipment, and that the hospital can conserve its respective sanitary license.(Author)

  17. Specialized consultant in radiological safety to the south central hospital of high speciality, PEMEX. I. - July of 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeles C, A.; Vizuet G, J.

    2001-09-01

    The south central hospital of high speciality, dependent of PEMEX, It request consultant of the ININ to be able to maintain their sanitary license for the use of X-ray equipment for the radiologic diagnostic.The proposal of the ININ was to be a program of technical attendance, schedule monthly to be able to solve the observations that are presented in the use of those equipment, and that the hospital can conserve its respective sanitary license.(Author)

  18. Specialized consultant in radiological safety to the south central hospital of high speciality, PEMEX. IV. - October of 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeles C, A.; Vizuet G, J.; Benitez S, J. A.; Garcia A, J.; Rodriguez A, F.

    2002-01-01

    The south central hospital of high speciality, dependent of PEMEX, It request consultant of the ININ to be able to maintain their sanitary license for the use of X-ray equipment for the radiologic diagnostic.The proposal of the ININ was to be a program of technical attendance, schedule monthly to be able to solve the observations that are presented in the use of those equipment, and that the hospital can conserve its respective sanitary license.(Author)

  19. Specialized consultant in radiological safety to the south central hospital of high speciality, PEMEX. V. - November of 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeles C, A.; Vizuet G, J.; Benitez S, J. A.; Garcia A, J.; Rodriguez A, F.

    2002-01-01

    The south central hospital of high speciality, dependent of PEMEX, It request consultant of the ININ to be able to maintain their sanitary license for the use of X-ray equipment for the radiologic diagnostic.The proposal of the ININ was to be a program of technical attendance, schedule monthly to be able to solve the observations that are presented in the use of those equipment, and that the hospital can conserve its respective sanitary license.(Author)

  20. International society of blood transfusion working party on red cell immunogenetics and terminology: report of the Seoul and London meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storry, J. R.; Castilho, L.; Chen, Q.; Daniels, G.; Denomme, G.; Flegel, W. A.; Gassner, C.; de Haas, M.; Hyland, C.; Keller, M.; Lomas-Francis, C.; Moulds, J. M.; Nogues, N.; Olsson, M. L.; Peyrard, T.; van der Schoot, C. E.; Tani, Y.; Thornton, N.; Wagner, F.; Wendel, S.; Westhoff, C.; Yahalom, V.

    2017-01-01

    The Working Party has met twice since the last report: in Seoul, South Korea 2014, and in London, UK 2015, both in association with the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) Congress. As in previous meetings, matters pertaining to blood group antigen nomenclature were discussed. Eleven new blood group antigens were added to seven blood group systems. This brings the current total of blood group antigens recognized by the ISBT to 346, of which 308 are clustered within 36 blood groups systems. The remaining 38 antigens are currently unassigned to a known blood group system. PMID:29093749

  1. Severe Enterovirus Infections in Hospitalized Children in the South of England: Clinical Phenotypes and Causative Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Hans; Pelosi, Emanuela; Cooper, Andrea; Pappachan, John; Sykes, Kim; MacIntosh, Iain; Gbesemete, Diane; Clark, Tristan W; Patel, Sanjay V; Faust, Saul N; Tebruegge, Marc

    2016-07-01

    Most enterovirus surveillance studies lack detailed clinical data, which limits their clinical usefulness. This study aimed to describe the clinical spectrum and outcome of severe enterovirus infections in children, and to determine whether there are associations between causative enterovirus genotypes and clinical phenotypes. Retrospective analysis of microbiological and clinical data from a tertiary children's hospital in the South of England over a 17-month period (2012-2013). In total, 30 patients were identified, comprising sepsis (n = 9), myocarditis (n = 8), meningitis (n = 8) and encephalitis (n = 5). Cases with sepsis or myocarditis were significantly younger than those with central nervous system disease (median age 21 and 15 days vs. 79 days; P = 0.0244 and P = 0.0310, respectively). There was considerable diversity in the causative genotypes in each of the clinical phenotypes, with some predominance of echoviruses in the meningitis group, and coxsackie B viruses in the myocarditis group. Thirteen cases required mechanical ventilation, 11 cases inotropic support, 3 cases dialysis and 3 cases extracorporal membrane oxygenation. The overall mortality was 10% (sepsis group, n = 1; myocarditis group, n = 2). Of the survivors, 5 (19%) had long-term sequelae (myocardial dysfunction, n = 2; neurological sequelae, n = 3). Patients with encephalitis had the longest hospital stay (median: 16 days), compared with 9, 6 and 3 days in patients with myocarditis, sepsis and meningitis, respectively (P = 0.005). Enterovirus infections, particularly enteroviral myocarditis and encephalitis, can cause significant morbidity and mortality. The results show that there are currently no strong associations between clinical phenotypes and particular causative enterovirus genotypes in the South of England.

  2. Severe Enterovirus Infections in Hospitalized Children in the South of England

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Hans; Pelosi, Emanuela; Cooper, Andrea; Pappachan, John; Sykes, Kim; MacIntosh, Iain; Gbesemete, Diane; Clark, Tristan W.; Patel, Sanjay V.; Faust, Saul N.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most enterovirus surveillance studies lack detailed clinical data, which limits their clinical usefulness. This study aimed to describe the clinical spectrum and outcome of severe enterovirus infections in children, and to determine whether there are associations between causative enterovirus genotypes and clinical phenotypes. Methods: Retrospective analysis of microbiological and clinical data from a tertiary children’s hospital in the South of England over a 17-month period (2012–2013). Results: In total, 30 patients were identified, comprising sepsis (n = 9), myocarditis (n = 8), meningitis (n = 8) and encephalitis (n = 5). Cases with sepsis or myocarditis were significantly younger than those with central nervous system disease (median age 21 and 15 days vs. 79 days; P = 0.0244 and P = 0.0310, respectively). There was considerable diversity in the causative genotypes in each of the clinical phenotypes, with some predominance of echoviruses in the meningitis group, and coxsackie B viruses in the myocarditis group. Thirteen cases required mechanical ventilation, 11 cases inotropic support, 3 cases dialysis and 3 cases extracorporal membrane oxygenation. The overall mortality was 10% (sepsis group, n = 1; myocarditis group, n = 2). Of the survivors, 5 (19%) had long-term sequelae (myocardial dysfunction, n = 2; neurological sequelae, n = 3). Patients with encephalitis had the longest hospital stay (median: 16 days), compared with 9, 6 and 3 days in patients with myocarditis, sepsis and meningitis, respectively (P = 0.005). Conclusions: Enterovirus infections, particularly enteroviral myocarditis and encephalitis, can cause significant morbidity and mortality. The results show that there are currently no strong associations between clinical phenotypes and particular causative enterovirus genotypes in the South of England. PMID:26882165

  3. The study to estimate the floating population in Seoul, Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Geon Woo; Lee, Yong Jin; Kim, Youngeun; Hong, Seung-Han; Kim, Soohwaun; Kim, Jeong Soo; Lee, Jong Tae; Shin, Dong Chun; Lim, Youngwook

    2017-01-01

    Traffic-related pollutants have been reported to increase the morbidity of respiratory diseases. In order to apply management policies related to motor vehicles, studies of the floating population living in cities are important. The rate of metro rail transit system use by passengers residing in Seoul is about 54% of total public transportation use. Through the rate of metro use, the people-flow ratios in each administrative area were calculated. By applying a people-flow ratio based on the o...

  4. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Seoul area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jai Ki; Chung, Ok Sun; Kim, Hong Suk [Seoul Monitoring Station, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    The following results were obtained through the environmental radiation monitoring in 2002 at the Seoul Monitoring Station: gamma exposure rate : 10.8 - 13.3 {mu}R/h, mean gross beta activity in airborne dust : 84.1 {+-} 46.2 mBq/m{sup 3}, mean gross beta activity in fallout dust : 11.9 {+-} 5.6 MBq/km{sup 2} - 30 days, meab gross beta activity in precipitation : 317 {+-} 465 mBq/L, mean gross beta activity in tap water : 71.2 {+-} 23.0 mBq/L. All the monitored variables remained in the corresponding normal ranges, which implies that there were no abnormal situations of environmental radiation in the Seoul-Gyunggi districts in 2002. Radioactivity contents in foodstuffs consumed in Seoul and Gyunggi districts were analyzed for use in assessment of population doses via dietary intakes. Samples include 16 foodstuffs (peanut, walnut, pine seeds, chessnut, acorn, sesame, perilla seeds, oak mushroom, meadow mushroom, velvet foot, oyster mushroom, instant coffee, green tea leaves, ginseng tea, rice and Chinese cabbage). Two indicator samples, pine needle and mug wort, were also included. Relatively higher concentrations of {sup 137}Cs, a man-made nuclide, were found in coffee and oak mushroom(0.554 and 0.480 Bq/kg, respectively). A few hundreds Bq/kg of {sup 40}K were found in most of the foodstuffs with higher concentrations in coffee and green tea leaves(786 and 574 Bq/kg, respectively)

  5. The prevalence of HIV among blood donors at Juba Teaching Hospital Blood Bank, South Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth L L Sube

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of HIV among blood donors in Juba Teaching Hospital Blood Bank, South Sudan in 2013. Method and Materials This is a retrospective study that involved the abstraction of data from registers at the blood bank. Data were collected onto data sheets and entered into a computer database. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS Version 20 Software. A p value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Out of 1095 blood donors, 1074 (98.1% were males and 21 (1.9% were females. The mean age and the range for the whole group was 29+7.16 (15-69 yrs. The prevalence of HIV was higher among males than females 85 (7.9% vs 1 (4.8% respectively but this was not statistical significant (p=0.6. The 20 to 29 year age group had the highest prevalence of 49 (57% with no statistical significance (p=0.3.The prevalence of HIV was 7.0 % (86 and there were co-infections between HIV and HBV, HCV and syphilis of 14 (50%, 5 (18%, 9 (32% with p=0.7, p=0.1, p=0.8 respectively. Blood group O positive had the highest percentage 58.1 % (n=50 and was the commonest group. Conclusion In this study, HIV prevalence is very high among blood donors at the Juba Teaching Hospital blood bank.

  6. An analysis of diagnostic practices in a mammography unit in a tertiary hospital in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare A. Surridge

    2017-03-01

    Objectives: To perform an audit of the UGCNB biopsies performed at the Grey’s Hospital Mammography Department and assess the accuracy of the radiologists’ use of the BI-RADS scoring system. Methods: Records of all patients who underwent UGCNB biopsy between 01 January 2014 and 31 October 2015 were reviewed. A retrospective study was performed. Results: A total of 304 UGCNB biopsies were performed on 291 patients. The mean age was 49.2 (s.d. = 15.9 years. Tissue samples from 303 lesions were adequate for histological assessment, and of these, 51% of the lesions were malignant whilst 49% were benign. The most common malignant and benign diagnoses were invasive ductal carcinoma and fibroadenoma respectively. The BI-RADS scoring of the radiologists demonstrated a positive predictive value of 61.6% for the identification of possible malignant lesions. Conclusion: This study describes the patient and lesion profile and unit practices in a tertiary hospital setting in South Africa. The radiologists’ application of the BI-RADS scoring largely conforms to the BI-RADS guidelines. The study highlights several challenges encountered by a breast imaging programme in an under-resourced setting as well as making recommendations in overcoming these challenges.

  7. Disparities in acute in-hospital cardiovascular care for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal South Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavella, Rosanna; McBride, Katharine; Keech, Wendy; Kelly, Janet; Rischbieth, Amanda; Zeitz, Christopher; Beltrame, John F; Tideman, Philip A; Brown, Alex

    2016-09-05

    To assess differences in the rates of angiography and subsequent revascularisation for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal South Australians who presented with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS); to explore the reasons for any observed differences. Analysis of administrative data with logistic regression modelling to assess the relationship between Aboriginal status and the decision to undertake diagnostic angiography. A detailed medical record review of Aboriginal admissions was subsequently undertaken. Emergency ACS admissions to SA cardiac catheterisation hospitals, 2007-2012. 13 701 admissions of patients with an ACS, including 274 Aboriginal patients (2.1%). Rates of coronary angiography and revascularisation; documentation of justification for non-invasive management. After adjustment for age, comorbidities and remoteness, Aboriginal patients presenting with an ACS were significantly less likely than non-Aboriginal patients to undergo angiography (odds ratio [OR], 0.4; 95% CI, 0.3-0.5; P Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal patients who had undergone angiography. Reasons for Aboriginal patients not undergoing angiography included symptoms being deemed non-cardiac (16%), non-invasive test performed (8%), and discharge against medical advice (11%); the reasons were unclear for 36% of Aboriginal patients. After controlling for age and other factors, the rate of coronary angiography was lower among Aboriginal patients with an ACS in SA. The reasons for this disparity are complex, including patient-related factors and their preferences, as well as the appropriateness of the intervention. Improved consideration of the hospital experience of Aboriginal patients must be a priority for reducing health care disparities.

  8. Nurse Interaction With Clients In Communication Therapeutic Study Analysis Of Symbolic Interactionism Hospital South Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hj.Indirawaty

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to describe briefly on the application of social interaction which made nurses to clients while performing therapeutic communication at the Hospital of South Sulawesi with frame symbolic interactionism. Result achieved against the system carried nurse interaction with clients who patterned on therapeutic communication. At the stage of pre-interaction system is applied such as before the nurse interacts with the client well in advance to prepare the way of dressing reception duties of nurse and studying the book status of each client. Introduction or orientation phase nurses visit each client and when the first met uttered a greeting before asking the clients condition when the interaction takes place he uses verbal and non-verbal language and attitude shown in full client hospitality and courtesy. Stage work nurses do an evaluation or action on the clients condition in accordance with the termination task. Midwife stage nurse re-evaluate the client and conclude the development of the clients condition and report a doctor who handles client. The fourth aspect of the application using the analysis of symbolic interactionism

  9. Antibiotic-Related Adverse Drug Reactions at a Tertiary Care Hospital in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Young Jung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs are any unwanted/uncomfortable effects from medication resulting in physical, mental, and functional injuries. Antibiotics account for up to 40.9% of ADRs and are associated with several serious outcomes. However, few reports on ADRs have evaluated only antimicrobial agents. In this study, we investigated antibiotic-related ADRs at a tertiary care hospital in South Korea. Methods. This is a retrospective cohort study that evaluated ADRs to antibiotics that were reported at a 2400-bed tertiary care hospital in 2015. ADRs reported by physicians, pharmacists, and nurses were reviewed. Clinical information reported ADRs, type of antibiotic, causality assessment, and complications were evaluated. Results. 1,277 (62.8% patients were considered antibiotic-related ADRs based on the World Health Organization-Uppsala Monitoring Center criteria (certain, 2.2%; probable, 35.7%; and possible, 62.1%. Totally, 44 (3.4% patients experienced serious ADRs. Penicillin and quinolones were the most common drugs reported to induce ADRs (both 16.0%, followed by third-generation cephalosporins (14.9%. The most frequently experienced side effects were skin manifestations (45.1% followed by gastrointestinal disorders (32.6%. Conclusion. Penicillin and quinolones are the most common causative antibiotics for ADRs and skin manifestations were the most frequently experienced symptom.

  10. E-health readiness assessment for e-health framework for Africa: a case study of hospitals in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Coleman, A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed e-healthcare readiness of rural and urban hospitals in North West Province of South Africa. Outcome of assessment led to creation of e-health architectural framework for e-health solutions. Assessment was conducted in usage...

  11. Healthcare Costs for Acute Hospitalized and Chronic Heart Failure in South Korea: A Multi-Center Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Hyemin; Chung, Wook Jin; Lee, Hae Young; Yoo, Byung Soo; Choi, Jin Oh; Han, Seoung Woo; Jang, Jieun; Lee, Eui Kyung; Kang, Seok Min

    2017-09-01

    Although heart failure (HF) is recognized as a leading contributor to healthcare costs and a significant economic burden worldwide, studies of HF-related costs in South Korea are limited. This study aimed to estimate HF-related costs per Korean patient per year and per visit. This retrospective cohort study analyzed data obtained from six hospitals in South Korea. Patients with HF who experienced ≥one hospitalization or ≥two outpatient visits between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2013 were included. Patients were followed up for 1 year [in Korean won (KRW)]. Among a total of 500 patients (mean age, 66.1 years; male sex, 54.4%), the mean 1-year HF-related cost per patient was KRW 2,607,173, which included both, outpatient care (KRW 952,863) and inpatient care (KRW 1,654,309). During the post-index period, 22.2% of patients had at least one hospitalization, and their 1-year costs per patient (KRW 8,530,290) were higher than those of patients who had only visited a hospital over a 12-month period (77.8%; KRW 917,029). Among 111 hospitalized patients, the 1-year costs were 1.7-fold greater in patients (n=52) who were admitted to the hospital via the emergency department (ED) than in those (n=59) who were not (KRW 11,040,453 vs. KRW 6,317,942; pSouth Korea was related to hospitalization, especially admissions via the ED. Appropriate treatment strategies including modification of risk factors to prevent or decrease hospitalization are needed to reduce the economic burden on HF patients. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2017

  12. Initial Analysis of VOCs Speciation in CREATE Emissions Inventory using the MAPS-Seoul Aircraft Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, C.; Woo, J. H.; Lee, Y.; Kim, J.; Choi, K. C.; Kim, Y.; Kim, J.; Jang, Y. K.; Kim, S.

    2016-12-01

    As the first international cooperative air quality field study, the MAPS-Seoul (Megacity Air Pollution Studies-Seoul) aircraft mission was conducted in May - June 2016 over the South Korea, to understand of climate and atmospheric environment. The aircraft carried observation instruments for measurements of GHGs, ozone and its precursors, aerosols, and chemical tracers. The CREATE (Comprehensive Regional Emissions inventory for Atmospheric Environment) emissions inventory and SMOKE-Asia emission processing system were used to support chemical forecasting and to serve as a priori for evaluation. Initial results of comparison studies show large discrepancies in VOC species over the South Korea - especially over urban regions. Several VOC species observed high near megacities and petro-chemical plants but under-predicted by chemical transport models (CTMs) - possibly due to relatively low emissions. The chemical speciation profiles and emissions inventory for each emission sources, therefore, have to be re-visited to improve emissions information. In this study, we have; 1) re-examined our emissions inventory and emission speciation processes, 2) and tried to find possible missing sources and alternative chemical speciation profiles, to improve our modelling emissions inventory. Initial review of the mapping and classification profiles, the original US chemical speciation profiles were found to be low in partitioning painting and surface coating sources, although they are the very significant contributors. Unlike other major national cities in China, Shanghai's VOC emissions fraction seems very similar to that of Seoul. Continuous analysis of major urban and industrial areas of the country will be presented at site.Acknowledgements : This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as "Climate Change Correspondence Program". This work was supported by a grant from the National Institute of Environment Research (NIER), funded by the Ministry of Environment

  13. The indirect costs of agency nurses in South Africa: a case study in two public sector hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispel, Laetitia C; Moorman, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Globally, flexible work arrangements - through the use of temporary nursing staff - are an important strategy for dealing with nursing shortages in hospitals. The objective of the study was to determine the direct and indirect costs of agency nurses, as well as the advantages and the problems associated with agency nurse utilisation in two public sector hospitals in South Africa. Following ethical approval, two South African public sector hospitals were selected purposively. Direct costs were determined through an analysis of hospital expenditure information for a 5-year period from 2005 until 2010, obtained from the national transversal Basic Accounting System database. At each hospital, semi-structured interviews were conducted with the chief executive officer, executive nursing services manager, the maternity or critical care unit nursing manager, the human resource manager, and the finance manager. Indirect costs measured were the time spent on pre-employment checks, and nurse recruitment, orientation, and supervision. All expenditure is expressed in South African Rands (R: 1 USD=R7, 2010 prices). In the 2009/10 financial year, Hospital 1 spent R38.86 million (US$5.55 million) on nursing agencies, whereas Hospital 2 spent R10.40 million (US$1.49 million). The total estimated time spent per week on indirect cost activities at Hospital 1 was 51.5 hours, and 60 hours at Hospital 2. The estimated monetary value of this time at Hospital 1 was R962,267 (US$137,467) and at Hospital 2 the value was R300,121 (US$42,874), thus exceeding the weekly direct costs of nursing agencies. Agency nurses assisted the selected hospitals in dealing with problems of nurse recruitment, absenteeism, shortages, and skills gaps in specialised clinical areas. The problems experienced with agency nurses included their perceived lack of commitment, unreliability, and providing sub-optimal quality of patient care. Hospital managers and policy-makers need to address the effective

  14. The indirect costs of agency nurses in South Africa: a case study in two public sector hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia C. Rispel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, flexible work arrangements – through the use of temporary nursing staff – are an important strategy for dealing with nursing shortages in hospitals. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the direct and indirect costs of agency nurses, as well as the advantages and the problems associated with agency nurse utilisation in two public sector hospitals in South Africa. Methods: Following ethical approval, two South African public sector hospitals were selected purposively. Direct costs were determined through an analysis of hospital expenditure information for a 5-year period from 2005 until 2010, obtained from the national transversal Basic Accounting System database. At each hospital, semi-structured interviews were conducted with the chief executive officer, executive nursing services manager, the maternity or critical care unit nursing manager, the human resource manager, and the finance manager. Indirect costs measured were the time spent on pre-employment checks, and nurse recruitment, orientation, and supervision. All expenditure is expressed in South African Rands (R: 1 USD=R7, 2010 prices. Results: In the 2009/10 financial year, Hospital 1 spent R38.86 million (US$5.55 million on nursing agencies, whereas Hospital 2 spent R10.40 million (US$1.49 million. The total estimated time spent per week on indirect cost activities at Hospital 1 was 51.5 hours, and 60 hours at Hospital 2. The estimated monetary value of this time at Hospital 1 was R962,267 (US$137,467 and at Hospital 2 the value was R300,121 (US$42,874, thus exceeding the weekly direct costs of nursing agencies. Agency nurses assisted the selected hospitals in dealing with problems of nurse recruitment, absenteeism, shortages, and skills gaps in specialised clinical areas. The problems experienced with agency nurses included their perceived lack of commitment, unreliability, and providing sub-optimal quality of patient care. Conclusion

  15. Challenges associated with the management of gynecological cancers in a tertiary hospital in South East Nigeria

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    Iyoke CA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chukwuemeka Anthony Iyoke,1 George Onyemaechi Ugwu,1 Euzebus Chinonye Ezugwu,1 Frank Okechukwu Ezugwu,2 Osaheni Lucky Lawani,3 Azubuike Kanayo Onyebuchi3 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, Park Lane, Enugu, 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria Background: There are reports of increasing incidence of gynecological cancers in developing countries and this trend increases the need for more attention to gynecological cancer care in these countries. Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe the presentation and treatment of gynecological cancers and identify barriers to successful gynecological cancer treatment in a tertiary hospital in South East Nigeria. Methods: This study was a retrospective longitudinal analysis of the presentation and treatment of histologically diagnosed primary gynecological cancers from 2000 to 2010. Analysis was by descriptive and inferential statistics at the 95% level of confidence using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 17 software. Results: Records of 200 gynecological cancers managed during the study period were analyzed. Over 94% of cervical cancers presented in advanced stages of the disease and received palliative/symptomatic treatment. Only 1.9% of cervical cancer patients had radical surgical intervention, and postoperative mortality from these radical surgeries was 100%. Approximately 76% of patients with ovarian cancer had debulking surgery as the mainstay of treatment followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. Postoperative mortality from ovarian cancer surgery was 63%. Cutting edge cytotoxic drugs were not used as chemotherapy for ovarian and chorionic cancers. Compliance with chemotherapy was poor, with over 70% of ovarian cancer patients failing to complete the

  16. Management of physical child abuse in South Africa: literature review and children's hospital data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, T L; van Dijk, M; Al Malki, I; van As, A B

    2013-11-01

    The reason for this review is the lack of data on the management of physical abused children in Africa. The primary goal of the first part is to outline the management of physical child abuse in (South) Africa and provide suggestions for other governments in Africa on which to base their management of physical child abuse, at both governmental and hospital management level. The main aim of the second part is to outline the extent of the problem as seen at the Red Cross Memorial Children's Hospital (RCH) in Cape Town. The National Library of Medicine's PubMed database was searched for articles specifically about the management of physical child abuse. Hospital data were analysed in two phases: one addressed various types of assault in order to assess the number of patients admitted to the trauma unit of RCH between 1991 and 2009, and the other to identify all children with suspected non-accidental injury (NAI) presenting to the trauma unit at RCH from January 2008 until December 2010. Information on physical abuse of children in Africa in the English scientific literature remains disappointing with only two articles focusing on its management. RCH data for the period 1991-2009 recorded a total number of 6415 children hospitalised with injuries following assault, who accounted for 4.2% of all trauma admissions. Types of abuse included assault with a blunt or sharp instrument, rape/sexual assault and human bite wounds. Over the last 2 decades, there has been a minor decline in the number of cases of severe abuse requiring admission; admissions for other injuries have remained stable. More detailed analysis of hospital data for 2008-2010, found that boys were far more commonly assaulted than girls (70.5% vs 29.5%). Physical abuse appeared to be the most common cause of abuse; 89.9% of all boys and 60.5% of all girls presented after physical abuse. In order to eradicate child abuse, awareness of it as to be promoted in the community at large. Because the types of child

  17. 'This place is making me more depressed': The organisation of care for suicide attempters in a South African hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantjes, Jason; Nel, Annemi; Louw, Kerry-Ann; Frenkel, Louise; Benjamin, Ereshia; Lewis, Ian

    2017-09-01

    People who attend hospital following a suicide attempt represent a well-delineated high-risk group of patients who may be amenable to targeted interventions to reduce the risk of suicidal behaviour. Little is, however, known about how hospitals in South Africa respond to suicide attempters, what quality of care these patients receive or what possibilities exist for hospital-based suicide prevention interventions. We describe an ethnographic study conducted at a large hospital in South Africa to investigate the impact of current procedures and practices on the care received by those who attempt suicide. Findings suggest that the organisation of care within the hospital is a significant barrier to patients receiving optimal care and represents a lost opportunity for suicide prevention. Findings highlight the mismatch between the needs of suicide attempters and current services and call attention to the need for greater psychological input as well as hospital-based suicide prevention interventions that can be offered to patients without necessitating admissions.

  18. Midwives’ knowledge and use of partographs at Juba Teaching Hospital, South Sudan

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    Clara Roba Alfred

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence shows that good knowledge of partographs and proper application of this knowledge results in a remarkable reduction in prolonged and obstructed labour and reduces maternal mortality. Obstructed labour can be prevented by a simple and cost-effective health intervention tool, the partograph. A partograph is a graphical record of the progress of labour and salient conditions of the mother and foetus plotted against time in hours. This provides an opportunity for early identification of deviation from normal progress. Early detection of prolonged labour greatly contributes to prevention of obstructed labour and related complications. Objective: To assess midwives’ knowledge and use of partographs in the maternity ward of Juba Teaching Hospital, South Sudan. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted to assess utilisation of partographs among healthcare providers in Juba Teaching Hospital. All providers working at the time of the study were included. An interviewer administered questionnaire prepared in English was used to assess socio-demographic and other related variables of respondents as well as knowledge and practice. Ethical procedures were followed at every step. Results: Only 20% of the 30 respondents were registered midwives, 67% knew the components -of a partograph, and 93% could differentiate between normal and abnormal labour with the use of a partograph. The factors affecting the use of partographs included; shortage of partographs in the ward, lack of protocols on partograph use, understanding semantics of the English language, absence of refresher training, late reporting of mothers to the ward, and a shortage of staff. Conclusions: Despite good knowledge of the partograph, about half of the providers do not use them. We recommend training and recruitment of more qualified midwives, a continuous supply of partographs to improve use of partographs continuous supportive supervision, mentoring of

  19. Pattern of cardiovascular admissions at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi, South East Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuji, Charles Ukachukwu; Onwubuya, Emmanuel Ikechukwu; Ahaneku, Gladys Ifesinachi; Omejua, Emeka Godwin

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the top killer diseases in the world sparing neither developed or developing countries. The study was carried out to determine the pattern of cardiovascular admissions at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi South East Nigeria. The study was a retrospective study covering the period January 2007 to December 2009. SPSS version 13 software was used to analyze data. 537 (15%) patients were admitted into the study out of 3546 patients {females 1756 and 1790} admitted into medical wards. 322 (60%) of study population were males and 215 (40%) females. 359(67.5%) were discharged, 170 (32%) died and 8 (0.5%) were discharged against medical advice. The majority of the deaths 105(61.8%), were in patients with CVA. Most of the deaths (111 or 65.3%) occurred within the first seven days of admission. The mean age of the population was 60.7 years ±15.9 with a range of 18 to 110 years. The length of stay in hospital ranged between 1 and 140 days with a mean of 13.5 ± 13.9 days and a median of 10 days. 33 of the subjects were single, 406 were married, 94 were widowed (11 males and 83 females) and 4 were divorced. 46.7% (251) were admitted for CVA and 30.9% (166) for heart failure. Cardiomyopathy/valvular heart diseases (clinical diagnosis due to absence of echocardiography) constituted 3.9%, hypertension 20.5% and pre-existing hypertension with uremia 1.9%. The study has shown that cardiovascular disease contributed significantly to medical admissions the elderly accounting for a significant proportion. There is thus the need for intensification of primary preventive strategies for cardiovascular diseases.

  20. Nature and pattern of primary teeth extractions in a tertiary care hospital setting in South India

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    Shini Susan Samuel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many studies have been carried out on the prevalence of dental diseases in children although not much information is available regarding its outcome among Indian children. Aim: The aim of the present study was to analyze the type of primary tooth extracted and the reasons for the extraction among children attending a tertiary care hospital in the Southern part of India. Materials and Methods: The dental records of pediatric patients who had visited the dental clinic of a tertiary care hospital located in Tamil Nadu, South India from December 2013 to November 2016 were reviewed. Patients who underwent extraction of at least one primary tooth under local or general anesthesia were included in the study. Results: A total of 943 primary teeth were extracted from 447 patients over 3 years. The most commonly extracted tooth type was the first primary molar followed by the primary central incisor. Grouping by age, the most frequently extracted tooth type between 2 and 5 years was the primary central incisor, the first primary molar among the 6–9-year-old and the second primary molar among 10–15-year-old. The majority of primary teeth extractions were performed in the age group of 6–9 years. No significant gender differences were noted. The most common reason for extraction of primary teeth in children was dental caries. Conclusions: This study demonstrates a high prevalence of untimely primary teeth extractions in young children and dental caries continues to be the leading cause. It clearly reflects on the lack of infant oral health care, the inadequacy of awareness and underutilization of oral health services among children in India.

  1. 'Waiting for' and 'waiting in' public and private hospitals: a qualitative study of patient trust in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Paul R; Rokkas, Philippa; Cenko, Clinton; Pulvirenti, Mariastella; Dean, Nicola; Carney, A Simon; Meyer, Samantha

    2017-05-05

    Waiting times for hospital appointments, treatment and/or surgery have become a major political and health service problem, leading to national maximum waiting times and policies to reduce waiting times. Quantitative studies have documented waiting times for various types of surgery and longer waiting times in public vs private hospitals. However, very little qualitative research has explored patient experiences of waiting, how this compares between public and private hospitals, and the implications for trust in hospitals and healthcare professionals. The aim of this paper is to provide a deep understanding of the impact of waiting times on patient trust in public and private hospitals. A qualitative study in South Australia, including 36 in-depth interviews (18 from public and 18 from private hospitals). Data collection occurred in 2012-13, and data were analysed using pre-coding, followed by conceptual and theoretical categorisation. Participants differentiated between experiences of 'waiting for' (e.g. for specialist appointments and surgery) and 'waiting in' (e.g. in emergency departments and outpatient clinics) public and private hospitals. Whilst 'waiting for' public hospitals was longer than private hospitals, this was often justified and accepted by public patients (e.g. due to reduced government funding), therefore it did not lead to distrust of public hospitals. Private patients had shorter 'waiting for' hospital services, increasing their trust in private hospitals and distrust of public hospitals. Public patients also recounted many experiences of longer 'waiting in' public hospitals, leading to frustration and anxiety, although they rarely blamed or distrusted the doctors or nurses, instead blaming an underfunded system and over-worked staff. Doctors and nurses were seen to be doing their best, and therefore trustworthy. Although public patients experienced longer 'waiting for' and 'waiting in' public hospitals, it did not lead to widespread distrust

  2. Aerobiological study of pollen and mold in Seoul, Korea

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    Jae-Won Oh

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In a large number of allergic individuals, inhalant allergens are important causative and triggering agents in respiratory allergies. It is essential to survey the pollen and mold around the patient’s environment for the diagnosis and treatment of airborne allergy. Rotorod samplers were installed at well-ventilated places in seven collecting stations in Seoul, the capital of Korea, which has a population of 12 million. Airborne particles carrying allergens were collected daily from each station for 2 years (1 October 1995 to 30 September 1997. After being stained with Calberla’s fuchsin, they were identified, counted and recorded. The weather in Seoul was also recorded. Pollen was found from the middle of February through to the end of December. The peak date for pollen was 12 May (peak mean daily count: 701 grains/m3/day and for mold it was 23 June (peak mean daily count: 936 spores/m3/day. Alder, birch, pine, oak, maple, elm, juniper, willow, and gingko trees were prevalent during the tree season, lasting from the middle of February to late July. Then sagebrush, ragweed, Japanese hop, and pigweed followed during the weed season, which lasts from the middle of July to the end of December. In skin prick test results, house dust mite was the most common positive allergen in Seoul, followed by cockroach. Among the pollens, mugwort was the most common positive, followed by ragweed mix, alder, birch, and grasses mix. Among the molds, there were high counts of Cladosporium and Alternaria during the year, excluding January. Ascospore of Lepto-spheria was highest during the monsoon season.

  3. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Seoul area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jai Ki; Kim, Hong Suk [Seoul Monitoring Station, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    The following results were obtained through the environmental radiation monitoring in 2003 at the Seoul monitoring station : gamma exposure rate : 10.8 - 13.3 {mu}R/h, mean gross beta activity in airborne dust : 4.31 {+-} 2.01 mBq/m{sup 3} (after 48 hours), mean gross beta activity in fallout dust : 11.5 {+-} 4.3 MBq/km{sup 2} - 30 days, meab gross beta activity in precipitation : 230 {+-} 246 mBq/L, mean gross beta activity in tap water : 69.3 {+-} 15.7 mBq/L. All the monitored variables remained in the corresponding normal ranges, which implies that there were no abnormal situations of environmental radiation in the Seoul district in 2003. Radioactivity contents in foodstuffs consumed in Seoul and northern part of Gyunggi district were analyzed for use in assessment of population doses via dietary intakes. Samples include 16 foodstuffs(peanut, walnut, pine seeds, chessnut, acorn, sesame, perilla seeds, oak mushroom, meadow mushroom, velvet foot, oyster mushroom, instant coffee, green tea leaves, ginseng tea, rice and Chinese cabbage). Two indicator samples, pine needle and mugwort, were also included. Relatively higher concentrations of {sup l37}Cs, a man-made nuclide, were found in coffee and oak mushroom(0.733 and 0.339 Bq/kg{center_dot}fresh, respectively). A few hundreds Bq/kg{center_dot}fresh of {sup 40}K were found in most of the foodstuffs with higher concentrations in coffee and green tea leaves (1300 and 579 Bq/kg{center_dot}fresh, respectively)

  4. Drought over Seoul and Its Association with Solar Cycles

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    Jong-Hyeok Park

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated drought periodicities occurred in Seoul to find out any indication of relationship between drought in Korea and solar activities. It is motivated, in view of solar-terrestrial connection, to search for an example of extreme weather condition controlled by solar activity. The periodicity of drought in Seoul has been re-examined using the wavelet transform technique as the consensus is not achieved yet. The reason we have chosen Seoul is because daily precipitation was recorded for longer than 200 years, which meets our requirement that analyses of drought frequency demand long-term historical data to ensure reliable estimates. We have examined three types of time series of the Effective Drought Index (EDI. We have directly analyzed EDI time series in the first place. And we have constructed and analyzed time series of histogram in which the number of days whose EDI is less than -1.5 for a given month of the year is given as a function of time, and one in which the number of occasions where EDI values of three consecutive days are all less than -1.5 is given as a function of time. All the time series data sets we analyzed are periodic. Apart from the annual cycle due to seasonal variations, periodicities shorter than the 11 year sunspot cycle, ~ 3, ~ 4, ~ 6 years, have been confirmed. Periodicities to which theses short periodicities (shorter than Hale period may be corresponding are not yet known. Longer periodicities possibly related to Gleissberg cycles, ~ 55, ~ 120 years, can be also seen. However, periodicity comparable to the 11 year solar cycle seems absent in both EDI and the constructed data sets.

  5. Urban heat island effect on cicada densities in metropolitan Seoul

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    Hoa Q. Nguyen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Urban heat island (UHI effect, the ubiquitous consequence of urbanization, is considered to play a major role in population expansion of numerous insects. Cryptotympana atrata and Hyalessa fuscata are the most abundant cicada species in the Korean Peninsula, where their population densities are higher in urban than in rural areas. We predicted a positive relationship between the UHI intensities and population densities of these two cicada species in metropolitan Seoul. Methods To test this prediction, enumeration surveys of cicada exuviae densities were conducted in 36 localities located within and in the vicinity of metropolitan Seoul. Samples were collected in two consecutive periods from July to August 2015. The abundance of each species was estimated by two resource-weighted densities, one based on the total geographic area, and the other on the total number of trees. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to identify factors critical for the prevalence of cicada species in the urban habitat. Results C. atrata and H. fuscata were major constituents of cicada species composition collected across all localities. Minimum temperature and sampling period were significant factors contributing to the variation in densities of both species, whereas other environmental factors related to urbanization were not significant. More cicada exuviae were collected in the second rather than in the first samplings, which matched the phenological pattern of cicadas in metropolitan Seoul. Cicada population densities increased measurably with the increase in temperature. Age of residential complex also exhibited a significantly positive correlation to H. fuscata densities, but not to C. atrata densities. Discussion Effects of temperature on cicada densities have been discerned from other environmental factors, as cicada densities increased measurably in tandem with elevated temperature. Several mechanisms may contribute to the abundance of

  6. Spatial Homophily of Commercial Areas: The Case of Seoul

    OpenAIRE

    Go-Eun Kim; Mack Joong Choi

    2017-01-01

    This paper attempts to answer the question of whether or not “segregation”, or at least “differentiation”, takes place in commercial areas in terms of “spatial homophily”. Based on the 2010 Household Travel Survey data in the Seoul metropolitan area, we first identify Seoul’s top 20 destinations for weekend shopping and leisure trips. Then, using traveler information regarding gender, age, and income, we calculate the percentage of female visitors, as well as the average and the coefficient o...

  7. Multivariate analysis between air pollutants and meteorological variables in Seoul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.; Lim, J.

    2005-01-01

    Multivariate analysis was conducted to analyze the relationship between air pollutants and meteorological variables measured in Seoul from January 1 to December 31, 1999. The first principal component showed the contrast effect between O 3 and the other pollutants. The second principal component showed the contrast effect between CO, SO 2 , NO 2 , and O 3 , PM 10 , TSP. Based on the cluster analysis, three clusters represented different air pollution levels, seasonal characteristics of air pollutants, and meteorological conditions. Discriminant analysis with air environment index (AEI) was carried out to develop an air pollution index function. (orig.)

  8. Peripartum hysterectomy: two years experience at Nelson Mandela Academic hospital, Mthatha, Eastern Cape South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandabwa, J N; Businge, C; Longo-Mbenza, B; Mdaka, M L; Kiondo, P

    2013-06-01

    Obstetric haemorrhage is the leading direct cause of maternal mortality in South Africa. To determine the incidence, indications, associations and maternal outcomes of emergency peripartum hysterectomies. A descriptive and retrospective analysis of patients who had peripartum hysterectomy between 1(st) February 2007 and 31(st) January 2009 in Nelson Mandela Academic Hospital at Mthatha city. The incidence of 0.95% of peripartum hysterectomies (n=63 or 9.5/1000 births) increased with the increasing maternal age from 0.121% at age of less than 20 years to 0.5% at age more or equal to 30 years. Similarly the incidence increased with parity from 0.332% for Primiparity to 0.468% at parity of four or more. The indications for the operation were uterine atony 19/63 (30.2%), secondary haemorrhage/puerperal sepsis 17/63 (27%) and ruptured uterus 16/63 (23.4%). The main intra operative complication was haemorrhage 13/63 (20.6%). Repeat laparotomy was done in 10/63 (15%) of patients due to haemorrhage. Admission to intensive care unit was 25/63 (39.7%). The case specific mortality rate was of 19 % (n=12). The main causes of death were hypovolaemic shock and septicemia. The incidence of peripartum hysterectomies was high and was associated with ruptured uterus and puerperal sepsis which are preventable.

  9. Knowledge, Skills and Competencies of Hospitality Companies in the South Moravian Region

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    Klapalova Alena

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, a survey focused on barriers to entrepreneurship among managers and/or owners of companies in the hospitality industry in the South Moravian Region was carried out (Klapalová,2011 at the College of Business and Hotel Management in Brno. Results of this survey revealed that knowledge together with skills and competencies was considered to be the biggest barrier to sustainable successful entrepreneurship of these companies and this perception wasalso confirmed by Spearman’s correlations analysis with statistically significant coefficient at the 0.05 level (Spearman’s rho=0.214, p=0.18, when analyzing the relation to financial performanceof companies. The issue of knowledge was not investigated deeper in the survey but it raised several questions for further research. This paper offers preliminary and partial results of an inquiry done during the autumn and winter 2011 and spring and summer 2012 which takes up the previous survey from 2009 with the aim to explore the types of knowledge, skills and competencies perceived as the most important for company success and as the most missing in nowadays entrepreneurship of inquired companies. Three relationships of knowledge categories were analysed: relation to the age and size of companies and relation to the indicators of financial performance. The findings have several managerial implications, both for business practice and educational organisations.

  10. Causes of gastrointestinal colic at an equine referral hospital in South Africa (1998 - 2007

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    A. Voigt

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The most common causes of gastrointestinal colic at an equine referral hospital in South Africa were determined following retrieval of the medical records of horses admitted during a 10-year study period. The study included 935 horses of which 28 % were admitted after hours. Most horses were Thoroughbreds (54 %, male (57 %, with a mean age of 8.2 years and originated from the Gauteng Province (81 %. Heart rate (98 %, mucous membrane colour (95 % and auscultation of the abdomen (91 % were the clinical data commonly obtained at admission. Packed cell volume, total serum protein and white cell count were recorded in 78 %, 75 % and 44 % of horses respectively. Transrectal palpation (93 %, nasogastric intubation (84 %, intravenous catheterisation (74 % and abdominocentesis (53 % were the most frequently performed procedures. Medical intervention was performed in 558 horses (60 %. The common causes of medical colic were impactions (39 %, tympany (7 % and displacement of the large colon (6 %. An exploratory laparotomy was performed in 331 horses (36 %. The common causes of surgical colic were displacement (29 %, impaction (22 % and small intestinal strangulating lesions (18 %. Death occurred in 3 % of horses, while euthanasia before medical intervention was performed in 4 %. Overall, medical intervention was successful in 93 % of horses and 67 % in horses managed surgically. In conclusion, 55 % of all the equine admissions responded to medical intervention and the recovery rate for horses receiving both medical and surgical intervention was comparable to that reported in other studies.

  11. Risk factors associated with postpartum haemorrhage at Juba Teaching Hospital, South Sudan, 2011

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    Thomas Tako Akim Ujjiga

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study risk factors associated with post partum haemorrhage (PPH in Juba Teaching Hospital, South Sudan. Method: An unmatched case control study was conducted in which 44 cases and 88 Controls were involved, from September to December 2011. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire in face to face interviews, and analyzed using Epi-info 3.5.3 statistical programme to determine if there was a correlation. Results: Maternal demographic and obstetric characteristics were found to be associated with the risk of bleeding during Bivariate analysis. However, age was found to confound emergency admission, uterotonic use (Oxytocin and Misoprostol use and delivery type, the latter being modified, in the development of post partum haemorrhage. Conclusion: These results indicate that active management of the third stage of labour (AMTSL and prompt intervention reduced the risk of developing PPH. Understanding the factors that cause PPH will allow us to better strengthen and effect pre delivery and emergency obstetric care which may help us reduce maternal mortality due to post partum haemorrhage.

  12. Infection Rate in 1033 Elective Neurosurgical Procedures at a University Hospital in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongwei; Liu, Xiyao; Wang, Zhanxiang

    2017-09-01

    Objective  Infection following surgery is a serious complication, especially in neurosurgery. The aim of the study is to report the change of incidence rates of infection in patients undergoing elective neurosurgical procedures at a university hospital in South China as well as the risk factors. Material and Methods  The medical records and postoperative courses for patients undergoing 1,033 neurosurgical procedures from 2008 to 2014 were reviewed retrospectively to determine the incidence of neurosurgical infection, the identity of the offending organisms, and the factors associated with infection. Results  A total of 33 patients (40 cases) experienced postoperative infection representing 3.19% of the study population. Twenty cases were incision infections (1.94%), and 20 were cranial/spinal infections (1.94%) including 15 intracranial infections and 5 intraspinal infections. The 2.4-fold greater incidence of postoperative infection in 2008 to 2010 was compared with that in 2011 to 2014 with perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis ( p neurosurgery (1.08%). The most common offending organism was Staphylococcus aureus (27.5%). Foreign body implantation, operative time > 4 hours, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak (13 infections in 158 patients; p <0.001) were risk factors for infections ( p <0.05). Conclusion  The neurosurgical infection rate is usually low with perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis even in developing countries. Less foreign body implantation, shorter operative times, and controlling CSF leak could reduce infection rates. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Why do some hospitals achieve better care of severely malnourished children than others? Five-year follow-up of rural hospitals in Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puoane, Thandi; Cuming, Katie; Sanders, David; Ashworth, Ann

    2008-11-01

    Staff at 11 rural hospitals in an under-resourced region of Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, participated in an intervention to improve the quality of care of severely malnourished children through training and support aimed at implementing the WHO case-management guidelines. Despite similar intervention inputs, some hospitals reduced their case-fatality rates by at least half, whereas others did not. The aim of this study was to investigate reasons for this disparity. Two successful and two poorly performing hospitals were purposively selected based on their case-fatality rates, which were 30% in those performing poorly. Comparative data were collected during June to October 2004 through structured observations of ward procedures, compilation of hospital data on case-loads and resources, and staff interviews and discussions related to attitudes, teamwork, training, supervision, managerial support and leadership. The four study hospitals had broadly similar resources, infrastructure and child:nurse ratios, and all had made changes to their clinical and dietary management following training. Case-management was broadly in line with WHO guidelines but the study revealed clear differences in institutional culture which influenced quality of care. Staff in the successful hospitals were more attentive and assiduous than staff in the poorly performing hospitals, especially in relation to rehydration procedures, feeding and the recording of vital signs. There was a strong emphasis on in-service training and induction of incoming staff in the successful hospitals and better supervision of junior staff and carers. Nurses had more positive attitudes towards malnourished children and their carers, and were less judgmental. Underlying factors were differences in leadership, teamwork, and managerial supervision and support. We conclude that unless there are supportive structures at managerial level, the potential benefits of efficacious interventions and related training

  14. Managerial competencies of hospital managers in South Africa: a survey of managers in the public and private sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pillay Rubin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa has large public and private sectors and there is a common perception that public sector hospitals are inefficient and ineffective while the privately owned and managed hospitals provide superior care and are more sustainable. The underlying assumption is that there is a potential gap in management capacity between the two sectors. This study aims to ascertain the skills and competency levels of hospital managers in South Africa and to determine whether there are any significant differences in competency levels between managers in the different sectors. Methods A survey using a self administered questionnaire was conducted among hospital managers in South Africa. Respondents were asked to rate their proficiency with seven key functions that they perform. These included delivery of health care, planning, organizing, leading, controlling, legal and ethical, and self-management. Ratings were based on a five point Likert scale ranging from very low skill level to very high skill level. Results The results show that managers in the private sector perceived themselves to be significantly more competent than their public sector colleagues in most of the management facets. Public sector managers were also more likely than their private sector colleagues to report that they required further development and training. Conclusion The findings confirm our supposition that there is a lack of management capacity within the public sector in South Africa and that there is a significant gap between private and public sectors. It provides evidence that there is a great need for further development of managers, especially those in the public sector. The onus is therefore on administrators and those responsible for management education and training to identify managers in need of development and to make available training that is contextually relevant in terms of design and delivery.

  15. Characteristics and Factors Associated with Death among Patients Hospitalized for Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome, South Korea, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jaeseung; Kwon, Donghyok; Youn, Seung-Ki; Park, Ji-Hyuk

    2015-10-01

    In South Korea, nationwide surveillance for severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) began during 2013. Among 301 surveillance cases, 35 hospitalized case-patients in 25 areas were confirmed by using virologic testing, and 16 (46%) case-patients subsequently died. The SFTS cases occurred during May-November and peaked during June (9 cases, 26%). The incidence of SFTS was higher in the southern regions of South Korea. Age and neurologic symptoms, including decreased level of consciousness and slurred speech, were heavily associated with death; neurologic symptoms during the first week after disease onset were also associated with death. Although melena was common among patients who died, no other hemorrhagic manifestations were substantively more common among those who died. No effective treatments, including ribavirin, were identified. Expansion of SFTS surveillance to include the outpatient sector and development of an antibody test would enhance completeness of SFTS detection in South Korea.

  16. Epidemiology and clinical characteristics of patients hospitalized for ocular trauma in South-Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wanpeng; Zhou, Yalan; Zeng, Jun; Shi, Meng; Chen, Baihua

    2017-09-01

    Ocular trauma is a major cause of visual loss, but little is known about its epidemiology and clinical characteristics in China. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of ocular trauma and assess prognostic factors in Changsha, Hunan, located in South-Central China. A retrospective case series (ICD codes: S05) study of ocular trauma in patients was performed at the Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2014. Demographic information, injury causes, ocular trauma types and initial and final visual acuity (VA) were recorded and analysed. The ocular trauma score (OTS) was calculated to assess the extent of the eye injury, prognosis and factors associated with visual impairment. All patient data were collected from the medical records system. Of the 2009 patients presenting during this 5-year period, 1695 (84.4%) were males and 314 (15.6%) were females. The average age of all patients was 37.0 ± 19.3 years (range from 1 to 87 years). The age distribution showed a peak in the ocular trauma population in the 41- to 50-year age group (24%, n = 482), followed by the 51- to 60-year age group (16.9%, n = 339). Overall, open-globe injuries had a higher frequency (70.7%, n = 1420) than closed-globe injuries (28.6%, n = 575) and thermal/chemical injuries (0.7%, n = 14). Of the open-globe injuries, corneal penetration was the most common injury (32.2%, n = 646) followed by rupture (21.5%, n = 432) and an intraocular foreign body (16.2%, n = 325). Overall, the most frequent ocular trauma setting was the workplace (39.6%, n = 795), followed by the home (28.4%, n = 570), and the most frequent activity was ironwork. Firecracker- and firework-associated ocular trauma was significantly higher during the months of January and February than during other months (50.0%, n = 112, p firework-related ocular trauma occurred during the months adjacent to the Chinese New Year

  17. CORRELATION BETWEEN SERVICE QUALITY AND PATIENT LOYALTY AT OUTPATIENT DEPARTMENT IN SPECIALITY EYE HOSPITAL OF SOUTH SUMATERA PROVINCE

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    Adelina Fitri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increasing number of hospitals in Indonesia, which is managed by the government and private demand to provide giving the level of care, professionalism and the maximum of competence to reflect the best quality of service. Quality gives special encouragement for company to understand customer expectations which in turn can increase customer satisfaction and create customer loyalty. The objective of the study is analyse correlation between service quality and patient loyalty Method: This study used a survey of analytical methods, with the cross-sectional approach. The samples in this study were patients who were treated in outpatient installation specialty eye hospital South Sumatera Province with total 102 people based on inclusion criteria. The Sampling was taken by proportions random sampling. The data analysis was performed in univariate and bivariate statistical fisher-exact test. The data were presented in p-value, prevalence ratio(PR and 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results: Generally 46.2% respondent who are loyal aged 41-64 years, 32.3% graduate from primary school and 80.6% have distance >5 KM from hospital. From the bivariate analyzes relating to patients loyalty in specialty eye hospital South Sumatera Province are access to services (95% CI 4.3 PR (1.293-14.300 and officer interaction with patients (95% CI 6.786 PR (2.140-21.515, whereas safety (95% CI PR 1.248(0.281-5.540, convenience (95% CI PR 4.136 (1.201-14.246 and waiting times (95% CI PR 1.951 (0.259-14.717 does not have a correlation with patient loyalty. Conclusion: The loyalty of patients in Specialty Eyes Hospital South Sumatera Province have been affected by access to services and officer interaction with the patient.

  18. Hospitals

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This database contains locations of Hospitals for 50 states and Washington D.C. , Puerto Rico and US territories. The dataset only includes hospital facilities and...

  19. Incidence of myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery: Experience at Groote Schuur Hospital Cape Town South Africa

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    R Dyer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Myocardial injury after non-cardiac surgery (MINS is a newly recognised entity identified as an independent risk factor associated with increased 30-day all-cause mortality. MINS increases the risk of death in the perioperative period by ~10-fold. More than 80% of patients with MINS are asymptomatic, so the majority of diagnoses are missed. Awareness of MINS is therefore important for perioperative physicians.Objectives. To investigate the incidence of MINS after elective elevated-risk non-cardiac surgery at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa (SA.Methods. Patients aged ≥45 years undergoing elective elevated-risk non-cardiac surgery were enrolled via convenience sampling. The new fifth-generation high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T blood test was used postoperatively to identify MINS. Preoperative troponin levels were not measured.Results. Among 244 patients included in the study, the incidence of MINS was 4.9% (95% confidence interval (CI 2.8 - 8.5, which was not significantly different from that in a major international prospective observational study (VISION (8.0% (95% CI 7.5 - 8.4; p=0.080.Conclusions. Our SA cohort had a lower cardiovascular risk profile but a similar incidence of MINS to that described in international literature. The impact of MINS on morbidity and mortality is therefore likely to be proportionally higher in SA than in published international studies. The limited sample size and lower event rate weaken our conclusions. Larger studies are required to establish patient and surgical risk factors for MINS, allowing for revision of cardiovascular risk prediction models in SA. 

  20. The politics of black patients' identity: ward-rounds on the 'black side' of a South African psychiatric hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, L

    1991-06-01

    There are many macrosocial studies of the political organisation of health and mental health care in South Africa, and the maldistribution of resources by race is well known. Little attention, however, has been given to the minutiae of the negotiation of power in the clinical setting. This article, which reports on part of a larger study of aspects of culture in South African psychiatry, focuses on interactions in ward-rounds on the 'Black side' of a South African psychiatric hospital. Through analysis of cases, the complexity of interpreting what transpires in such a setting and the central role that the concept of culture has in debates amongst staff members are demonstrated. Close analysis demonstrates the inadequacy of models which seek to locate the institutional racism of apartheid psychiatry in the motives of individual clinicians. Clinicians may simultaneously reproduce and subvert aspects of apartheid practice. A consideration of the social positioning of the clinician both as a South African and as a practitioner of psychiatry is central to the development of psychiatry in a post-apartheid South Africa.

  1. Management of severe acute malnutrition in children under 5 years through the lens of health care workers in two rural South African hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Muzigaba, Moise; van Wyk, Brian; Puoane, Thandi

    2018-01-01

    Background Despite the widespread implementation of the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for the management of severe malnutrition in South Africa, poor treatment outcomes for children under 5 years are still observed in some hospitals, particularly in rural areas. Objective To explore health care workers’ perceptions about upstream and proximal factors contributing to poor treatment outcomes for severe acute malnutrition in two district hospitals in South Africa. Methods An explora...

  2. Management of severe acute malnutrition in children under 5 years through the lens of health care workers in two rural South African hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Moise Muzigaba; Brian van Wyk; Thandi Puoane

    2018-01-01

    Background: Despite the widespread implementation of the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for the management of severe malnutrition in South Africa, poor treatment outcomes for children under 5 years are still observed in some hospitals, particularly in rural areas.Objective: To explore health care workers’ perceptions about upstream and proximal factors contributing to poor treatment outcomes for severe acute malnutrition in two district hospitals in South Africa.Methods: An explor...

  3. Mental health conditions in Korean atomic bomb survivors. A survey in Seoul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshimoto, Rika; Nakane, Hideyuki; Kim, Hyen

    2011-01-01

    More than 60 years have elapsed since the atomic bombings to Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and since all of the atomic bomb survivors have become old, the importance of caring their mental health has become increasing in Japan. Although approximately 70% of overseas atomic bomb are living in Korea, there have been quite few studies on their mental health. The objectives of the present study were to elucidate whether the mental health conditions of atomic bomb survivor in Korea are similar to those in Japan. The subjects were 181 Korean atomic bomb survivors living in Korea (cases) and 209 outpatients of a hospital in Seoul who were not exposed to atomic bombs (controls). Interviewers administered them at the hospital a questionnaire with Impact of Event Scale-Revised, General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ-12), Korean version of short form Geriatric Depression Scale and the K scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Excluding subjects with incomplete responses we analyzed 162 cases and 189 controls. The proportion of subjects with high score of GHQ-12 (≥4) was significantly higher in cases (78/162 or 48.1%) than in controls (42/189 or 22.2%) (p<0.0001, Fisher's exact test). The present results, though preliminary, indicate that atomic bomb survivors in Korea have also mental health problems similar to those observed in Japanese atomic bomb survivors, indicating the necessity of a larger study. (author)

  4. The Factors of Local Energy Transition in the Seoul Metropolitan Government: The Case of Mini-PV Plants

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    Jae-Seung Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As a way of enhancing urban sustainability, Seoul Special City, the capital of South Korea, has shown strong enthusiasm for urban energy transition by tackling climate change and expanding renewable energy. The Seoul Metropolitan Government (SMG has adopted the “One Less Nuclear Power Plant (OLNPP” strategy since April 2012 and specific policy measures, including a mini-photovoltaic (PV plant program, were introduced to facilitate the energy transition. However, varying degrees of success were achieved by 25 district-level local governments (Gu with mini-PV plant programs. This study explored the reason why those local governments showed different levels of performance despite the strong will of municipal government (SMG to implement urban energy transitions through the mini-PV plant program. The tested hypotheses were based on capacity, political context, public awareness and geographical diffusion. The findings indicated that institutional capacity, financial dependence, political orientation and public perception had positively affected the performance of mini-PV plant installation at each district level. Especially, the political will of each district mayor played an important role in the implementation of the policy.

  5. Perceptions of health care professionals on the safety and security at Odi District Hospital, Gauteng, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, Sunday O; Mabuza, Langalibalele H

    2017-10-27

    For optimum delivery of service, an establishment needs to ensure a safe and secure environment. In 2011, the South African government promulgated the National Core Standards for Health Establishments for safety and security for all employees in all establishments. Little is known about whether these standards are being complied to.Aim and setting: To assess the perceptions of health care professionals (HCPs) on safety and security at Odi District Hospital. A sample of 181 out of a total of 341 HCPs was drawn through a systematic sampling method from each HCP category. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire. The SPSS® statistical software version 22 was used for data analysis. The level of statistical significance was set at < 0.05. There were more female respondents than male respondents (136; 75.10%). The dominant age group was 28-47 years (114; 57.46%). Perceptions on security personnel, their efficiency and the security system were significantly affirmed (p = 0.0001). The hospital infrastructure, surroundings and plan in emergencies were perceived to be safe (p < 0.0001). The hospital lighting system was perceived as inadequate (p = 0.0041). Only 36 (20.2%) HCPs perceived that hospital authorities were concerned about employees' safety (p < 0.0001). HCPs had positive perceptions regarding the hospital's security system. Except for the negative perceptions of the lighting system and the perceived lack of hospital authorities' concern for staff safety, perceptions of the HCPs on the hospital working environment were positive. The hospital authorities need to establish the basis of negative perceptions and enforce remedial measures to redress them.

  6. Acinetobacter baumannii: Epidemiological and Beta-Lactamase Data From Two Tertiary Academic Hospitals in Tshwane, South Africa

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    Michelle Lowe

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen that is increasingly responsible for hospital-acquired infections. The increasing prevalence of carbapenem resistant A. baumannii has left clinicians with limited treatment options. Last line antimicrobials (i.e., polymyxins and glycylcyclines are often used as treatment options. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of selected β-lactamase genes from A. baumannii isolates obtained from patients with hospital-acquired infections and to determine the genetic relationship and epidemiological profiles among clinical A. baumannii isolates collected from two tertiary academic hospitals in the Tshwane region, South Africa (SA. Multiplex-PCR (M-PCR assays were performed to detect selected resistance genes. The collected isolates’ genetic relatedness was determined by using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and multilocus sequence typing (MLST. The acquired oxacillinase (OXA genes, notably blaOXA-23-like were prevalent in the A. baumannii isolates. The M-PCR assays showed that the isolates collected from hospital A contained the OXA-23-like (96%; n = 69/72 genes and the isolates collected from hospital B contained the OXA-23-like (91%; n = 63/69 and OXA-58-like (4%; n = 3/69 genes. Colistin resistance was found in 1% of the isolates (n = 2/141 and tigecycline intermediate resistance was found in 6% of the isolates (n = 8/141. The A. baumannii isolates were genetically diverse. Molecular epidemiological data showed that specific sequence types (STs (ST106, ST229, ST258 and ST208 were established in both hospitals, while ST848 was established in hospital A and ST502, ST339 and the novel ST1552 were established in hospital B. ST848 (established in hospital A was predominately detected in ICU wards whereas ST208, ST339 and the novel ST1552 (established in hospital B were detected in ICUs and the general wards. The origin of the A. baumannii isolates in the hospitals may be due to

  7. Profile of acne vulgaris-A hospital-based study from South India

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    Adityan Balaji

    2009-01-01

    androgenicity ( P = 0.108. Seborrheic dermatitis (21.35% was the most common disease associated. Seasonal variation was observed only in 80 patients (25.9%; 71 patients (23% exacerbated in summer and 9 patients (2.9% in winter. Smokers had more severe grade of acne vulgaris compared to nonsmokers ( P = 0.001. Conclusion: This study brings out the clinical profile of acne vulgaris in a tertiary care hospital in South India.

  8. Factors associated with recidivism at a South African forensic psychiatric hospital

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    Nirvana Morgan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study examines common factors associated with recidivism among state patients at a South African forensic psychiatric hospital. More specifically, demographic, clinical and criminological factors of a recidivist group are compared to a non-recidivist group with the intention of understanding to what extent these factors might determine the likelihood of re-offending. Method: A retrospective case file review of 293 inpatients and a random selection of 120 outpatients was conducted. For the purpose of the study, a patient was classified as a recidivist if an additional charge or act of violence was added to the file while the patient was on leave of absence in the community. Of the inpatients, only those who met the criteria for recidivism were included in the study. All 120 randomly selected outpatients were included. Demographic, clinical and criminological data were captured for all patients. Results: Eighty recidivists were compared with 100 non-recidivists. Using the × 2 and Fischer’s exact test, substance-use disorder, antisocial personality disorder, an index offence of assault and in-ward adverse events were found to be associated with recidivism (p < 0.05. Using logistic regression analysis, the odds of recidivism in a patient with an index offence of assault was 8.4 times of those who did not commit assault as an index offence (95.0% CI 1.6–43.1. The odds of recidivism for patients with cannabis use was 2.8 (95.0% CI 1.3–6.0 and for patients with in-ward adverse sexual behaviour was 17.2 (95.0% CI 2.0–150. Conclusion: Substance-use disorder and antisocial personality disorder are associated with higher risk for recidivism. This study also highlights that a less serious offence such as assault had a higher association with recidivism. Patients noted to display adverse sexual behaviour in the ward pose a potentially high risk for re-offence. Important criminal history factors and certain clinical factors could not

  9. Chart review of acute myocardial infarction at a district hospital in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

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    Roland Chetty

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Incidence and prevalence of non-communicable diseases, including ischaemic heart disease (IHD and associated acute myocardial infarction (AMI, are increasing in South Africa. Local studies are needed as contextual factors, such as healthcare systems, gender and ethnicity, may affect presentation and management. In AMI, reviews on time between onset of chest pain and initiation of urgent treatment are useful, as delays in initiation of thrombolytic treatment significantly increase morbidity and mortality. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the profile and management of patients admitted with ischaemic chest pain.Setting: The study was carried out in a busy urban-based district hospital in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The population served is poor, and patients are mainly Indian with associated high risk of IHD. Methods: A chart review of all patients seen at the hospital with acute ischaemic chest pain between 01 March and 31 August 2014 was undertaken. Results: More male than female patients were admitted, with a wide variation in age. Most eligible patients received required thrombolytic intervention within an acceptable time period after arrival at hospital. Conclusion: Chest pain and AMI were a relatively common presentation at the study site, and urgent diagnosis and initiation of fibrinolytic therapy are essential. The encouraging door-toneedle time may have been influenced by the availability of specialist family physicians, trained as ‘expert generalists’ to provide appropriate care in a variety of settings and consultant support to junior staff. The role of the family physician and primary healthcare doctor in primary prevention are re-emphasised through the study findings. Keywords: Acute myocardial infarction; KwaZulu-Natal; district hospital; Asian population; hospital chart review; door-to-needle-time

  10. Examining leadership as a strategy to enhance health care service delivery in regional hospitals in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Sagaren; Gerwel Proches, Cecile N; Kader, Abdulla

    2018-01-01

    Background Four public hospitals in South Africa, which render both specialized and nonspecialized services to thousands of patients, were examined to determine the impact of leadership on health care service delivery. These hospitals were inundated by various problems that were impacting negatively on health care service delivery. Purpose This research study aimed to gain a comprehensive understanding of the challenges, complexities and constraints facing public health care in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) and to examine leadership as a strategy to enhance healthcare service delivery with a particular focus on four regional hospitals in the KZN Province. Methods The mixed-method research approach was utilized. Purposive sampling and stratified random sampling were employed in the research setting, and in-depth, semistructured interviews and questionnaires were used to collect data. Data were analyzed using the Nvivo computer software package for in-depth interviews and the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software for the quantitative analysis. Results The research findings showed that the current leadership framework adopted by the health care leaders in regional hospitals in KZN is weak and is contributing to poor health care service delivery. Conclusion This study, therefore, aimed to address the current challenges and weaknesses that are impacting negatively on health care service delivery in regional hospitals in the KZN Province and made recommendations for improvement. PMID:29535529

  11. Examining leadership as a strategy to enhance health care service delivery in regional hospitals in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Sagaren; Gerwel Proches, Cecile N; Kader, Abdulla

    2018-01-01

    Four public hospitals in South Africa, which render both specialized and nonspecialized services to thousands of patients, were examined to determine the impact of leadership on health care service delivery. These hospitals were inundated by various problems that were impacting negatively on health care service delivery. This research study aimed to gain a comprehensive understanding of the challenges, complexities and constraints facing public health care in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) and to examine leadership as a strategy to enhance healthcare service delivery with a particular focus on four regional hospitals in the KZN Province. The mixed-method research approach was utilized. Purposive sampling and stratified random sampling were employed in the research setting, and in-depth, semistructured interviews and questionnaires were used to collect data. Data were analyzed using the Nvivo computer software package for in-depth interviews and the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software for the quantitative analysis. The research findings showed that the current leadership framework adopted by the health care leaders in regional hospitals in KZN is weak and is contributing to poor health care service delivery. This study, therefore, aimed to address the current challenges and weaknesses that are impacting negatively on health care service delivery in regional hospitals in the KZN Province and made recommendations for improvement.

  12. Responses of Two Invasive Plants Under Various Microclimate Conditions in the Seoul Metropolitan Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Uhram; Mun, Saeromi; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Lee, Eun Ju

    2012-06-01

    The possible consequences of global warming on plant communities and ecosystems have wide-ranging ramifications. We examined how environmental change affects plant growth as a function of the variations in the microclimate along an urban-suburban climate gradient for two allergy-inducing, invasive plants, Humulus japonicus and Ambrosia artemisiifolia var. elatior. The environmental factors and plant growth responses were measured at two urban sites (Gangbuk and Seongbuk) and two suburban sites (Goyang and Incheon) around Seoul, South Korea. The mean temperatures and CO2 concentrations differed significantly between the urban (14.8 °C and 439 ppm CO2) and suburban (13.0 °C and 427 ppm CO2) sites. The soil moisture and nitrogen contents of the suburban sites were higher than those at the urban sites, especially for the Goyang site. The two invasive plants showed significantly higher biomasses and nitrogen contents at the two urban sites. We conducted experiments in a greenhouse to confirm the responses of the plants to increased temperatures, and we found consistently higher growth rates under conditions of higher temperatures. Because we controlled the other factors, the better performance of the two invasive plants appears to be primarily attributable to their responses to temperature. Our study demonstrates that even small temperature changes in the environment can confer significant competitive advantages to invasive species. As habitats become urbanized and warmer, these invasive plants should be able to displace native species, which will adversely affect people living in these areas.

  13. Airborne mapping of Seoul's atmosphere: Trace gas measurements from GeoTASO during KORUS-AQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowlan, C. R.; Al-Saadi, J. A.; Castellanos, P.; Chance, K.; Gonzalez Abad, G.; Janz, S. J.; Judd, L.; Kowalewski, M. G.; Liu, X.

    2017-12-01

    The Geostationary Trace gas and Aerosol Sensor Optimization (GeoTASO) instrument is a pushbroom airborne remote sensing instrument capable of making measurements of air quality and ocean color using backscattered UV and visible light. GeoTASO is an airborne test-bed for the upcoming Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) and Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS) geostationary satellite missions, which will measure air quality over North America and Asia, respectively. GeoTASO also acts as a satellite analogue during field campaigns. GeoTASO flew on the NASA Langley Research Center UC-12 aircraft during the Korea-United States Air Quality Study in May-June 2016, collecting spectra over South Korea during 30 flights over 19 flight days. These observations can be used to derive 2-D maps of tropospheric trace gases including ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, nitrous acid and glyoxal below the aircraft at spatial resolutions between 250 m x 250 m and 1 km x 1 km, depending on the gas. We present spatially resolved trace gas retrievals over Seoul and its surrounding industrial regions, and comparisons with correlative satellite and campaign data.

  14. EVALUATION OF ELDERLY MOBILITY BASED ON TRANSIT CARD DATA IN SEOUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Young Song

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the travel patterns of senior citizens in Seoul using Automatic Fare Collection (AFC data. We focused specifically on mode choices and transfer patterns. Results showed that 99% of trips made by senior citizens (individuals over 65 years old, who were given free subway transit passes, consisted of single-mode trips. Average travel time was 31 minutes, and subway travel times were longer than bus travel times. Individuals made fewer transfers, took longer metro trips, and paid smaller fares when using their free subway transit cards. They were more negatively sensitive to bus travel time than metro travel time. Encouraging older adult travelers to use transfers that increase costs to a modest extent might help improve travel quality among a group of individuals who find it difficult to enter the metro system or who are uncomfortable making inter-metro transfers. Additionally, as older adults have more time, yet are economically disadvantaged and take more leisure trips, travel improvements could include adopting a time-flexible fare discount. We discuss these improvements in terms of the individual and social benefits afforded to transit passengers in South Korea.

  15. Hospital-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A cross-sectional analysis of risk factors in South African tertiary public hospitals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliwe L Shuping

    Full Text Available Hospital-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (HA-MRSA remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. We conducted a study to determine risk factors for HA-MRSA in order to inform control strategies in South Africa.We used surveillance data collected from five tertiary hospitals in Gauteng and Western Cape provinces during 2014 for analysis. A case of HA-MRSA was defined as isolation of MRSA from a blood culture 48 hours after admission and/or if the patient was hospitalised in the six months prior to the current culture. Multivariable logistic regression modelling was used to determine risk factors for HA-MRSA.Of the 9971 patients with positive blood cultures, 7.7% (772 had S. aureus bacteraemia (SAB. The overall prevalence of MRSA among those with SAB was 30.9% (231/747; 95% confidence interval [CI] 27.6%- 34.3%. HA-MRSA infections accounted for 28.3% of patients with SAB (207/731; 95% CI 25.1%- 31.7%. Burns (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 12.7; 95% CI 4.7-34.4, age ≤1 month (aOR 8.7; 95% CI 3.0-24.6, residency at a long-term care facility (aOR 5.2; 95% CI, 1.5-17.4, antibiotic use within two months of the current SAB episode (aOR 5.1; 95% CI 2.8-9.1, hospital stay of 13 days or more (aOR 2.8; 95% CI 1.3-5.6 and mechanical ventilation (aOR 2.2; 95% CI 1.07-4.6, were independent risk factors for HA-MRSA infection.The prevalence of MRSA remains high in South African tertiary public hospitals. Several identified risk factors of HA-MRSA infections should be considered when instituting infection and prevention strategies in public-sector hospitals, including intensifying the implementation of antimicrobial stewardship programmes. There is an urgent need to strengthen infection prevention and control in burn wards, neonatal wards, and intensive care units which house mechanically ventilated patients.

  16. Hospital-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A cross-sectional analysis of risk factors in South African tertiary public hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuonza, Lazarus; Musekiwa, Alfred; Iyaloo, Samantha; Perovic, Olga

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Hospital-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (HA-MRSA) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. We conducted a study to determine risk factors for HA-MRSA in order to inform control strategies in South Africa. Methods We used surveillance data collected from five tertiary hospitals in Gauteng and Western Cape provinces during 2014 for analysis. A case of HA-MRSA was defined as isolation of MRSA from a blood culture 48 hours after admission and/or if the patient was hospitalised in the six months prior to the current culture. Multivariable logistic regression modelling was used to determine risk factors for HA-MRSA. Results Of the 9971 patients with positive blood cultures, 7.7% (772) had S. aureus bacteraemia (SAB). The overall prevalence of MRSA among those with SAB was 30.9% (231/747; 95% confidence interval [CI] 27.6%– 34.3%). HA-MRSA infections accounted for 28.3% of patients with SAB (207/731; 95% CI 25.1%– 31.7%). Burns (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 12.7; 95% CI 4.7–34.4), age ≤1 month (aOR 8.7; 95% CI 3.0–24.6), residency at a long-term care facility (aOR 5.2; 95% CI, 1.5–17.4), antibiotic use within two months of the current SAB episode (aOR 5.1; 95% CI 2.8–9.1), hospital stay of 13 days or more (aOR 2.8; 95% CI 1.3–5.6) and mechanical ventilation (aOR 2.2; 95% CI 1.07–4.6), were independent risk factors for HA-MRSA infection. Conclusion The prevalence of MRSA remains high in South African tertiary public hospitals. Several identified risk factors of HA-MRSA infections should be considered when instituting infection and prevention strategies in public-sector hospitals, including intensifying the implementation of antimicrobial stewardship programmes. There is an urgent need to strengthen infection prevention and control in burn wards, neonatal wards, and intensive care units which house mechanically ventilated patients. PMID:29145465

  17. What are key determinants of hospital admissions, readmission rate and day case rate within the South African medical schemes population?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nondumiso Gugu Khumalo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available  BACKGROUND: In South Africa, private hospitals absorb a high proportion of the total health expenditure on private health care. Between 2008-2010 private hospital expenditure which includes ward fees, theatre fees, consumables, medicines and per diem arrangements consumed between 40.5% and 40.9% of the total benefits paid by medical schemes from the risk pool, whilst in-hospital managed care fees ranged between 1.8% and 2.8% for the equivalent years.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to highlight key factors contributing to utilisation of hospital services within the medical schemes population and to recommend “appropriate” and cost effective strategies on hospital utilisation management.METHODS: A cross sectional survey informed by retrospective analysis of quantitative data was used. Researchers also triangulated quantitative data with systematic review of literature.RESULTS: The results show that demographic indicators such as age profile, dependency ratio, pensioner ratio and prevalence of chronic conditions are not the only key factors influencing hospital admissions, but rather the effectiveness of each medical scheme in containing hospital admissions is also influenced by available technical capacity on utilisation review and audit as well as the managed care methodology including the philosophy underpinning benefit option design.CONCLUSION: This study highlights the importance of “value based” managed care programs linked to benefit option design in health care utilisation management. The choice of one managed care program over the other often leads to tradeoffs whereby unintended consequences emanate. Medical schemes are therefore encouraged to continuously review their managed care programs to ensure value for money as well as better access and health outcomes.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/fe.v13i2.207

  18. Microseismicity in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea, and its implications for the seismic hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K.; Kim, W.; Kang, S.; Ryoo, Y.; Kim, M.; Park, Y.; Kyung, J.

    2012-12-01

    On 9 February 2010, a minor earthquake occurred in the northwest of South Korea. The earthquake was widely felt in the Seoul National Capital Area (SNCA). The earthquake attracted much attention from media, politicians, policy makers and the public, who raised concerns about seismic hazards and risks in the Korea Peninsula, in particular, to the SNCA. SNCA includes the Seoul and Incheon metropolitans and most of the Gyeonggi province. It has a population of 24.5 million (as of 2007) and is ranked as the second largest metropolitan area in the world. The SNCA has been the center of the economics, politics, and culture during the past half millennium since the city has been designated as the capital city in 1394. We applied waveform correlation detector to 2007-2010 continuously recorded seismic data to identify repeating earthquakes. We identify 9 micro-earthquakes during 2007-2010 periods which are not reported in the KNSN bulletin because their magnitudes are too small. Estimated magnitudes using amplitude ratios measured at the station SEO indicate the smallest event detected by the waveform cross correlation technique in the study is as low as 0.19. The number of events for our interpretation becomes 11 including two previously reported events and nine newly identified micro-earthquakes. All of them occur in a very small area. While there are historic documents reporting earthquakes in the SNCA, repeating earthquakes or clustered seismicity from the instrumental earthquake record have not reported before. We have determined the focal mechanism solution for the representative events (9 February 2010, ML 3.0) using the first-motion polarities. The preferred focal mechanism solution for the representative event is the WNW-ESE striking fault, which are consistent with the precisely determined earthquake hypocenter distribution. It is also consistent with the results in the previous studies of stress orientation in and around the Korean peninsula. The new list of

  19. Impacts of urban land-surface forcing on ozone air quality in the Seoul metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-H. Ryu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Modified local meteorology owing to heterogeneities in the urban–rural surface can affect urban air quality. In this study, the impacts of urban land-surface forcing on ozone air quality during a high ozone (O3 episode in the Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea, are investigated using a high-resolution chemical transport model (CMAQ. Under fair weather conditions, the temperature excess (urban heat island significantly modifies boundary layer characteristics/structures and local circulations. The modified boundary layer and local circulations result in an increase in O3 levels in the urban area of 16 ppb in the nighttime and 13 ppb in the daytime. Enhanced turbulence in the deep urban boundary layer dilutes pollutants such as NOx, and this contributes to the elevated O3 levels through the reduced O3 destruction by NO in the NOx-rich environment. The advection of O3 precursors over the mountains near Seoul by the prevailing valley-breeze circulation in the mid- to late morning results in the build-up of O3 over the mountains in conjunction with biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC emissions there. As the prevailing local circulation in the afternoon changes to urban-breeze circulation, the O3-rich air masses over the mountains are advected over the urban area. The urban-breeze circulation exerts significant influences on not only the advection of O3 but also the chemical production of O3 under the circumstances in which both anthropogenic and biogenic (natural emissions play important roles in O3 formation. As the air masses that are characterized by low NOx and high BVOC levels and long OH chain length are advected over the urban area from the surroundings, the ozone production efficiency increases in the urban area. The relatively strong vertical mixing in the urban boundary layer embedded in the

  20. 'Practice what you preach': Nurses' perspectives on the Code of Ethics and Service Pledge in five South African hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Janine; Phakoe, Maureen; Rispel, Laetitia C

    2015-01-01

    A recent focus of the global discourse on the health workforce has been on its quality, including the existence of codes of ethics. In South Africa, the importance of ethics and value systems in nursing was emphasised in the 2011 National Nursing Summit. The study explored hospital nurses' perceptions of the International Code of Ethics for Nurses; their perceptions of the South African Nurses' Pledge of Service; and their views on contemporary ethical practice. Following university ethics approval, the study was done at a convenience sample of five hospitals in two South African provinces. In each hospital, all day duty nurses in paediatric, maternity, adult medical, and adult surgical units were requested to complete a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire focused on their perceptions of the Code of Ethics and the Pledge, using a seven-point Likert scale. STATA(®) 13 and NVIVO 10 were used to analyse survey data and open-ended responses, respectively. The mean age of survey participants (n=69) was 39 years (SD=9.2), and the majority were female (96%). The majority agreed with a statement that they will promote the human rights of individuals (98%) and that they have a duty to meet the health and social needs of the public (96%). More nuanced responses were obtained for some questions, with 60% agreeing with a statement that too much emphasis is placed on patients' rights as opposed to nurses' rights and 32% agreeing with a statement that they would take part in strike action to improve nurses' salaries and working conditions. The dilemmas of nurses to uphold the Code of Ethics and the Pledge in face of workplace constraints or poor working conditions were revealed in nurses' responses to open-ended questions. Continuing education in ethics and addressing health system deficiencies will enhance nurses' professional development and their ethical decision-making and practice.

  1. Hospital reform and staff morale in South Africa: a case study of Dr ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-02-16

    Feb 16, 2012 ... in South Africa, can affect budget, equipment, the work ..... There is insufficient appreciation by management and an insufficient reward .... literature review of selected theories dealing with job satisfaction and motivation.

  2. The development of a national surveillance system for monitoring blood use and inventory levels at sentinel hospitals in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Y A; Kim, H H; Joung, U S; Kim, C Y; Shin, Y H; Lee, S W; Kim, H J

    2010-04-01

    We developed a web-based program for a national surveillance system to determine baseline data regarding the supply and demand of blood products at sentinel hospitals in South Korea. Sentinel hospitals were invited to participate in a 1-month pilot-test. The data for receipts and exports of blood from each hospital information system were converted into comma-separated value files according to a specific conversion rule. The daily data from the sites could be transferred to the web-based program server using a semi-automated submission procedure: pressing a key allowed the program to automatically compute the blood inventory level as well as other indices including the minimal inventory ratio (MIR), ideal inventory ratio (IIR), supply index (SI) and utilisation index (UI). The national surveillance system was referred to as the Korean Blood Inventory Monitoring System (KBIMS) and the web-based program for KBIMS was referred to as the Blood Inventory Monitoring System (BMS). A total of 30 256 red blood cell (RBC) units were submitted as receipt data, however, only 83% of the receipt data were submitted to the BMS server as export data (25 093 RBC units). Median values were 2.67 for MIR, 1.08 for IIR, 1.00 for SI, 0.88 for UI and 5.33 for the ideal inventory day. The BMS program was easy to use and is expected to provide a useful tool for monitoring hospital inventory levels. This information will provide baseline data regarding the supply and demand of blood products in South Korea.

  3. Anesthesia-related and perioperative mortality: An audit of 8493 cases at a tertiary pediatric teaching hospital in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Heidi M; Thomas, Jenny; Wilson, Graeme S; de Kock, Marianna

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to quantify the incidence of anesthesia-related and perioperative mortality at a large tertiary pediatric hospital in South Africa. This study included all children aged anesthesia caused the death; (ii) anesthesia may have contributed to or influenced the timing of death; or (iii) anesthesia was entirely unrelated to the death. There were 47 deaths within 30 days of anesthesia prior to discharge from hospital during this 12-month period. The in-hospital mortality within 24 h of administration of anesthesia was 16.5 per 10 000 cases (95% confidence intervals [CI]=7.8-25.1) and within 30 days of administration of anesthesia was 55.3 per 10 000 cases (95% CI=39.5-71.2). Age under 1 year (OR 4.5; 95% CI=2.5-8.0, P=.012) and cardiac surgery and interventional cardiology procedures (OR 2.5; 95% CI=1.2-5.2, Prisk of perioperative mortality. The overall 24-h and 30-day anesthesia-related and in-hospital perioperative mortality rates in our study are comparable with other similar studies from tertiary pediatric centers. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Geographical distribution and profile of medical doctors in public sector hospitals of the Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntuli, Samuel T; Maboya, Edwin

    2017-09-27

    The shortage and unequal distribution of medical doctors in low- and middle-income countries continues to be a public health concern. To establish the geographical distribution and demographic profile of medical doctors in public sector hospitals of the Limpopo Province, South Africa. The PERSAL system was used to obtain information on the number of medical doctors employed in public sector hospitals of the Limpopo Province. Data were exported from PERSAL's database and then analysed using STATA version 9.0. The mean age of the 887 medical doctors was 40.1 ± 11.2 years (range 24-79 years). Sixty per cent of the doctors were male, 66% were aged ≤ 45 years and 84% were African. Most of the doctors (86%) were medical officers, of which 55% had < 5 years working experience. Overall, the doctor-to-population ratio for the five districts in the province was 16.4/100 000, with Capricorn (33.7/100 000) and Waterberg (20.2/100 000) recording the highest ratios. A large proportion (43%) of medical officers are employed in the Capricorn District, of which 71% were practising at the tertiary hospital. This study demonstrated a shortage and maldistribution of medical doctors in the public sector hospitals of the Limpopo Province. This has a potentially negative effect on the delivery of an appropriate and efficient healthcare service to the population and requires urgent attention.

  5. The effect of social capital on job satisfaction and quality of care among hospital nurses in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ji In; Lee, Eunjoo

    2016-10-01

    To identify the level of social capital and its effect on job satisfaction and self-reported quality of care of nurses working in hospital settings in South Korea. There are few studies on social capital and its relationship to workplace outcomes in the nursing profession internationally. A cross-sectional, correlational design was adopted with a convenience sample of 432 nurses from two university-affiliated teaching hospitals in South Korea. Nurses' social capital was positively related to job satisfaction and self-reported quality of care. Social capital explained 50% and 24%, respectively, of the variance in job satisfaction and reported quality of care. By improving social capital, nurses' job satisfaction could be enhanced and result in better quality of care for patients. Strategies to improve social capital in nursing organisations are necessary to improve job satisfaction and the quality of care provided by nurses. Nurse managers and administrators should encourage nurse participation in organisational affairs and decision-making processes to improve social capital by developing a trusting work environment with shared values and support nurses who work with peers, superiors, and subordinates. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullins, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The challenge could be briefly seen in these terms: hospitals as places for treatment where there’s a technology focus and hospitals for healing where there’s a human focus. In the 60s - 70s wave of new hospital building, an emphasis on technology can be seen. It’s time to move from the technology...... focus. It is not enough to consider only the factors of function within architecture, hygiene, economy and logistics. We also need to look at aspects of aesthetics, bringing nature into the building, art, color, acoustics, volume and space as we perceive them. Contemporary methods and advances...... placed, accessible, provided with plenty of greenery, and maximize sensory impressions, providing sounds, smells, sight and the possibility to be touched. This is a very well documented area I can say. Hygiene, in terms of architecture can give attention to hand wash facilities and their positioning...

  7. Prosodic Marking of Narrow Focus in Seoul Korean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Sung Jeon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores prosodic marking of narrow (corrective focus in Seoul Korean. Korean lacks lexical stress and it has a phonologized association between the Accentual Phrase (AP initial segment and intonation. In the experiment, 4 speakers read sentences including a two-item list which were designed to elicit either an L or H AP-initial tone. The durational variations, the pitch events at prosodic boundaries, and 'F''0 'span in 32 sentences read neutrally and 64 sentences read with one of the items under focus were analyzed. The results show that the focused constituent consistently initiates a new prosodic phrase. In comparison to the neutrally spoken or defocused counterpart, the focused constituent was more likely to be realized as an Intonational Phrase (IP in some contexts. Bitonal IP boundary tones were more likely to occur under focus than monotonal tones. In addition, in focused constituents, durational expansion particularly at the phrase-edges, expansion in 'F''0 'span, and raising of the phrase-initial pitch were observed. On the other hand, defocused constituents were not phonetically reduced compared to the neutral counterparts. The results imply that the phonetic cues spreading over the focused constituent complement the exaggerated prosodic boundaries.

  8. Spatial Homophily of Commercial Areas: The Case of Seoul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go-Eun Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to answer the question of whether or not “segregation”, or at least “differentiation”, takes place in commercial areas in terms of “spatial homophily”. Based on the 2010 Household Travel Survey data in the Seoul metropolitan area, we first identify Seoul’s top 20 destinations for weekend shopping and leisure trips. Then, using traveler information regarding gender, age, and income, we calculate the percentage of female visitors, as well as the average and the coefficient of variation of age and income, for each destination. These statistics are employed to identify which groups and which shopping and leisure activity centers are characterized distinctively by spatial homophily. As a result, it is proved that “differentiation” takes place in commercial areas in terms of “spatial homophily”. Moreover, paying attention to the “Old Age, Low Income” cluster in the old downtown area, we can raise the possibility of “segregation” in commercial areas.

  9. Identifying airborne fungi in Seoul, Korea using metagenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seung-Yoon; Fong, Jonathan J; Park, Myung Soo; Chang, Limseok; Lim, Young Woon

    2014-06-01

    Fungal spores are widespread and common in the atmosphere. In this study, we use a metagenomic approach to study the fungal diversity in six total air samples collected from April to May 2012 in Seoul, Korea. This springtime period is important in Korea because of the peak in fungal spore concentration and Asian dust storms, although the year of this study (2012) was unique in that were no major Asian dust events. Clustering sequences for operational taxonomic unit (OTU) identification recovered 1,266 unique OTUs in the combined dataset, with between 223᾿96 OTUs present in individual samples. OTUs from three fungal phyla were identified. For Ascomycota, Davidiella (anamorph: Cladosporium) was the most common genus in all samples, often accounting for more than 50% of all sequences in a sample. Other common Ascomycota genera identified were Alternaria, Didymella, Khuskia, Geosmitha, Penicillium, and Aspergillus. While several Basidiomycota genera were observed, Chytridiomycota OTUs were only present in one sample. Consistency was observed within sampling days, but there was a large shift in species composition from Ascomycota dominant to Basidiomycota dominant in the middle of the sampling period. This marked change may have been caused by meteorological events. A potential set of 40 allergy-inducing genera were identified, accounting for a large proportion of the diversity present (22.5᾿7.2%). Our study identifies high fungal diversity and potentially high levels of fungal allergens in springtime air of Korea, and provides a good baseline for future comparisons with Asian dust storms.

  10. Challenges of information systems strategy implementation in public hospitals: a South African experience

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hwabamungu, B

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available on this phenomenon in the healthcare sector. Building on previous IS strategizing research we explored the challenges of Information Systems strategy implementation. We then explored the challenges of IS strategy implementation in public hospitals in developing...

  11. Hospital reform and staff morale in South Africa: a case study of Dr ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-02-16

    Feb 16, 2012 ... Settings and subjects: This study included all medical and nursing staff working at ... Keywords: hospital reform, staff morale, quality of care, healthcare resources ..... of healthcare workers' goals to cure patients.3 This differs.

  12. The profile of meningitis in a tertiary paediatric hospital in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods. This study describes all patients treated for suspected meningitis at our hospital from 2010 to 2012. Data were .... Weight loss, neck stiffness, altered level of consciousness and lethargy were ..... Direct application of MALDI-TOF mass.

  13. care unit in a regional hospital in the Western Cape, South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neonatal deaths occur due to asphyxia, preterm delivery, sepsis and tetanus.[2] A country's ... The study was conducted at the large regional hospital in Worcester,. SA. Worcester .... 45% very low birth weight and 10% had an extremely low ...

  14. The role of skeletal scintigraphy in nuclear oncology at a medium-sized hospital in South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, W.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Skeletal scintigraphy (SS) has been a workhorse in nuclear medicine departments, whether the department is in a developed country or in a developing country. It also plays an essential role in nuclear oncology in staging or diagnosing cancers or monitoring management of cancer patients. With the availability of improved imaging modalities like positron emission tomography, the role of skeletal scintigraphy is changing accordingly. This study was performed to evaluate the role of SS in nuclear oncology at a medium-sized (900-bed) university hospital in South Korea, by reviewing hospital cases along with the statistics of recently published papers in the journal of Clinical Nuclear Medicine. The hospital does not have a PET. The study period was three years (from 2000 to 2002). The SS is requested from many specialties for various reasons. Only cancer-related cases were selected. Using PubMed database, relevant articles in the Clinical Nuclear Medicine were assessed. To retrieve the articles, the keywords 'skeletal scintigraphy' and 'bone scan' were combined by using Boolean operation. There were a total of 9707 SS out of 16429 nuclear medicine imaging cases at the hospital during the study period. The hospital had 49% of SS contributed to cancer patients, while 52% percent of the SS in the CNM dealt with cancers. During the same period, articles regarding PET were 273 of which 171 were cancer-related PET studies (62%, more often than SS). 59% of the total nuclear medicine studies performed at the hospital were SS, whereas only 9% of the total articles were SS and 5% dealt with cancer-related cases. The cases of SS and cancer-related SS at the hospital increased during the period, whereas the articles in the CNM decreased. Analytic statistics were not considered necessary. In conclusion, there is an increasing demand of SS in nuclear oncology at a medium-sized hospital with non-availability of PET and the proportions of SS and cancer-related SS to the

  15. La enseñanza del español en las universidades de Corea del Sur: handicaps y propuestas didácticas para Hankuk University of foreign studies (Seúl / The teaching of Spanish as a second language at the South Korea universities: handicaps and didactic proposals for Hankuk University of foreign studies (Seoul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Lucas Onieva López

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of Spanish instructors that are being demanded abroad is increasing every day, especially in the Asian countries. From our experience as Spanish instructors in South Korea, concretely in the Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, in this article we want to highlight how to teach Spanish at the university level in the country. To help in the improvement of the language teaching, we will recommend the Spanish Department reform or change certain habits

  16. Stakeholder influence in public sector information systems strategy implementation-The case of public hospitals in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwabamungu, Boroto; Brown, Irwin; Williams, Quentin

    2018-01-01

    Recent literature on organisational strategy has called for greater emphasis on individuals (stakeholders) and what they do in the process of strategizing. Public sector organisations have to engage with an array of heterogeneous stakeholders in fulfilling their mandate. The public health sector in particular needs to engage with a diversity of stakeholders at local, regional and national levels when strategising. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of stakeholder relations on the implementation of Information Systems (IS) strategy in public hospitals in South Africa. An interpretive approach using two provinces was employed. The Activity Analysis and Development (ActAD) framework, an enhanced form of activity theory, was used as the theoretical framework. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews, meetings, documents analysis, physical artefacts and observation. The collected data was analysed using thematic analysis. Findings reveal that IS strategy implementation in public hospitals involves a large and complex network of stakeholder groups at different levels, and over different time periods. These stakeholder groups act in accordance with formal and informal roles, rules and modalities. Various contextual conditions together with the actions of, and interactions between stakeholder groups give rise to the situationality of stakeholder relations dynamics and strategy implementation. The multiple actions and interactions over time lead to the realisation of some aspects of the IS strategy in public hospitals. Given the complexity and dynamism of the context there are also certain unplanned implementations as well. These relationships are captured in a Stakeholder Relations Influence (SRI) framework. The SRI framework can be assistive in the assessment and mapping of stakeholders and stakeholder relations, and the assessment of the implications of these relations for effective IS strategy implementation in public hospitals. The

  17. Management of physical child abuse in South Africa:Literature review and children's hospital data analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, T.L. (T. L.); M. van Dijk (Monique); Al Malki, I. (I.); A.B. van As (Àrjan Bastiaan)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The reason for this review is the lack of data on the management of physical abused children in Africa. The primary goal of the first part is to outline the management of physical child abuse in (South) Africa and provide suggestions for other governments in Africa on which

  18. The effects of a language barrier in a South African district hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-08-11

    Aug 11, 2006 ... Levin M. Language as a barrier to care for Xhosa-speaking patients at a South African paediatric ... of the Western Cape where staff mainly speak Afrikaans or. English and a large .... the other day a child died, and the mom stands there, and we literally sit .... But what other options do you have? (Afrikaans-.

  19. 59 months at Al-Sabah Children Hospital, Juba, South Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Malnutrition is a critical public health concern in South Sudan where an estimated 200,000 children aged under five years are at risk of being malnourished. Studies have shown that adequate and timely treatment of these children leads to reduced mortality. Objective: To determine the proportion of children ...

  20. Genotypic characterisation of Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing bacteraemia at Tygerberg hospital, western cape province, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orth, H.; Salaam-Dreyer, Z.; Makgotlho, E.; Sinha, B.; Wasserman, E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: There is a paucity of studies on the genotypic characterisation of invasive S. aureus strains and the incidence of communityacquired methicillin resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) infections in South Africa. In this study we characterized S. aureus isolates from bacteraemia episodes using

  1. Treatment Outcomes and Costs of Providing Antiretroviral Therapy at a Primary Health Clinic versus a Hospital-Based HIV Clinic in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Lawrence C.; Rosen, Sydney B.; Brennan, Alana; Moyo, Faith; Sauls, Celeste; Evans, Denise; Modi, Shookdev L.; Sanne, Ian; Fox, Matthew P.

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2010 South Africa revised its HIV treatment guidelines to allow the initiation and management of patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) by nurses, rather than solely doctors, under a program called NIMART (Nurse Initiated and Managed Antiretroviral Therapy). We compared the outcomes and costs of NIMART between the two major public sector HIV treatment delivery models in use in South Africa today, primary health clinics and hospital-based HIV clinics. Methods and findings The s...

  2. Healthiness of Food and Beverages for Sale at Two Public Hospitals in New South Wales, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie Tsai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Our aim was to conduct objective, baseline food environment audits of two major western Sydney public hospitals and compare them to recently revised state nutritional guidelines. (2 Methods: A cross-sectional assessment was conducted (June–July2017 across 14 fixed food outlets and 70 vending machines in two hospitals using an audit tool designed to assess the guideline’s key food environment parameters of availability, placement, and promotion of ‘Everyday’ (healthy and ‘Occasional’ (less healthy products. (3 Results: Availability: Overall, Everyday products made up 51% and 44% of all products available at the two hospitals. Only 1/14 (7% fixed outlets and 16/70 (23% vending machines met the guideline’s availability benchmarks of ≥75% Everyday food and beverages. Proportion of Everyday products differed among different types of food outlets (café, cafeteria, convenience stores. Placement: On average, food outlets did not meet recommendations of limiting Occasional products in prominent positions, with checkout areas and countertops displaying over 60% Occasional items. Promotion: Over two-thirds of meal deals at both hospitals included Occasional products. (4 Conclusion: Baseline audit results show that substantial improvements in availability, placement, and promotion can be made at these public hospitals to meet the nutrition guidelines. Audits of other NSW hospitals using the developed tool are needed to investigate similarities and differences in food environment between sites. These findings highlight the need for ongoing tracking to inform whether the revised guidelines are leading to improved food environments in health facilities.

  3. Specialized consultant in radiological safety to the south central hospital of high speciality, PEMEX. IV. - October of 2001; Asesoria especializada en seguridad radiologica a la clinica al hospital central sur de alta especialidad, PEMEX. IV.- Octubre de 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeles C, A.; Vizuet G, J.; Benitez S, J. A.; Garcia A, J.; Rodriguez A, F

    2002-01-15

    The south central hospital of high speciality, dependent of PEMEX, It request consultant of the ININ to be able to maintain their sanitary license for the use of X-ray equipment for the radiologic diagnostic.The proposal of the ININ was to be a program of technical attendance, schedule monthly to be able to solve the observations that are presented in the use of those equipment, and that the hospital can conserve its respective sanitary license.(Author)

  4. Specialized consultant in radiological safety to the south central hospital of high speciality, PEMEX. V. - November of 2001; Asesoria especializada en seguridad radiologica al hospital central sur de alta especialidad, PEMEX. V.- Noviembre de 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeles C, A; Vizuet G, J; Benitez S, J A; Garcia A, J; Rodriguez A, F

    2002-01-15

    The south central hospital of high speciality, dependent of PEMEX, It request consultant of the ININ to be able to maintain their sanitary license for the use of X-ray equipment for the radiologic diagnostic.The proposal of the ININ was to be a program of technical attendance, schedule monthly to be able to solve the observations that are presented in the use of those equipment, and that the hospital can conserve its respective sanitary license.(Autho000.

  5. Specialized consultant in radiological safety to the south central hospital of high speciality, PEMEX. I. - July of 2001; Asesoria especializada en seguridad radiologica al hospital central sur de alta especialidad, PEMEX I.- Julio de 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeles C, A.; Vizuet G, J

    2001-09-15

    The south central hospital of high speciality, dependent of PEMEX, It request consultant of the ININ to be able to maintain their sanitary license for the use of X-ray equipment for the radiologic diagnostic.The proposal of the ININ was to be a program of technical attendance, schedule monthly to be able to solve the observations that are presented in the use of those equipment, and that the hospital can conserve its respective sanitary license.(Author)

  6. Specialized consultant in radiological safety to the south central hospital of high speciality, PEMEX. II.- August of 2001; Asesoria especializada en seguridad radiologica al hospital central sur de alta especialidad, PEMEX II.- Agosto de 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeles C, A.; Vizuet G, J.; Benitez S, J. A.; Rodriguez A, F.; Garcia A, J

    2001-12-15

    The south central hospital of high speciality, dependent of PEMEX, It request consultant of the ININ to be able to maintain their sanitary license for the use of X-ray equipment for the radiologic diagnostic.The proposal of the ININ was to be a program of technical attendance, schedule monthly to be able to solve the observations that are presented in the use of those equipment, and that the hospital can conserve its respective sanitary license.(Author)

  7. Specialized consultant in radiological safety to the south central hospital of high speciality, PEMEX. III.- September of 2001; Asesoria especializada en seguridad radiologica al hospital central sur de alta especialidad, PEMEX III.- Septiembre de 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeles C, A.; Vizuet G, J.; Benitez S, J. A.; Rodriguez A, F.; Garcia A, J

    2001-12-15

    The south central hospital of high speciality, dependent of PEMEX, It request consultant of the ININ to be able to maintain their sanitary license for the use of X-ray equipment for the radiologic diagnostic.The proposal of the ININ was to be a program of technical attendance, schedule monthly to be able to solve the observations that are presented in the use of those equipment, and that the hospital can conserve its respective sanitary license.(Author)

  8. The study to estimate the floating population in Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Geon Woo; Lee, Yong Jin; Kim, Youngeun; Hong, Seung-Han; Kim, Soohwaun; Kim, Jeong Soo; Lee, Jong Tae; Shin, Dong Chun; Lim, Youngwook

    2017-01-01

    Traffic-related pollutants have been reported to increase the morbidity of respiratory diseases. In order to apply management policies related to motor vehicles, studies of the floating population living in cities are important. The rate of metro rail transit system use by passengers residing in Seoul is about 54% of total public transportation use. Through the rate of metro use, the people-flow ratios in each administrative area were calculated. By applying a people-flow ratio based on the official census count, the floating population in 25 regions was calculated. The reduced level of deaths among the floating population in 14 regions having the roadside monitoring station was calculated as assuming a 20% reduction of mobile emission based on the policy. The hourly floating population size was calculated by applying the hourly population ratio to the regional population size as specified in the official census count. The number of people moving from 5 a.m. to next day 1 a.m. could not be precisely calculated when the population size was applied, but no issue was observed that would trigger a sizable shift in the rate of population change. The three patterns of increase, decrease, and no change of population in work hours were analyzed. When the concentration of particulate matter less than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter was reduced by 20%, the number of excess deaths varied according to the difference of the floating population. The effective establishment of directions to manage the pollutants in cities should be carried out by considering the floating population. Although the number of people using the metro system is only an estimate, this disadvantage was supplemented by calculating inflow and outflow ratio of metro users per time in the total floating population in each region. Especially, 54% of metro usage in public transport causes high reliability in application.

  9. The study to estimate the floating population in Seoul, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geon Woo Lee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Traffic-related pollutants have been reported to increase the morbidity of respiratory diseases. In order to apply management policies related to motor vehicles, studies of the floating population living in cities are important. The rate of metro rail transit system use by passengers residing in Seoul is about 54% of total public transportation use. Through the rate of metro use, the people-flow ratios in each administrative area were calculated. By applying a people-flow ratio based on the official census count, the floating population in 25 regions was calculated. The reduced level of deaths among the floating population in 14 regions having the roadside monitoring station was calculated as assuming a 20% reduction of mobile emission based on the policy. The hourly floating population size was calculated by applying the hourly population ratio to the regional population size as specified in the official census count. The number of people moving from 5 a.m. to next day 1 a.m. could not be precisely calculated when the population size was applied, but no issue was observed that would trigger a sizable shift in the rate of population change. The three patterns of increase, decrease, and no change of population in work hours were analyzed. When the concentration of particulate matter less than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter was reduced by 20%, the number of excess deaths varied according to the difference of the floating population. The effective establishment of directions to manage the pollutants in cities should be carried out by considering the floating population. Although the number of people using the metro system is only an estimate, this disadvantage was supplemented by calculating inflow and outflow ratio of metro users per time in the total floating population in each region. Especially, 54% of metro usage in public transport causes high reliability in application.

  10. Urbanization and the groundwater budget, metropolitan Seoul area, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon-Young; Lee, Kang-Kun; Sung, Ig Hwan

    2001-07-01

    The city of Seoul is home to more than 10 million people in an area of 605 km2. Groundwater is ed for public water supply and industrial use, and to drain underground facilities and construction sites. Though most tap water is supplied from the Han River, the quantity and quality of groundwater is of great concern to Seoul's citizens, because the use of groundwater for drinking water is continuously increasing. This study identifies the major factors affecting the urban water budget and quality of groundwater in the Seoul area and estimates the urban water budget. These factors include leakage from the municipal water-supply system and sewer systems, precipitation infiltration, water-level fluctuations of the Han River, the subway pumping system, and domestic pumping. The balance between groundwater recharge and discharge is near equilibrium. However, the quality of groundwater and ability to control contaminant fluxes are impeded by sewage infiltration, abandoned landfills, waste dumps, and abandoned wells. Résumé. La ville de Séoul possède une population de plus de 10 millions d'habitants, pour une superficie de 605 km2. Les eaux souterraines sont pompées pour l'eau potable et pour les usages industriels, ainsi que pour drainer les équipements souterrains et les sites en construction. Bien que l'essentiel de l'eau potable provienne de la rivière Han, la quantité et la qualité de l'eau souterraine présentent un grand intérêt pour les habitants de Séoul, parce qu'on utilise de plus en plus l'eau souterraine pour l'eau potable. Cette étude identifie les facteurs principaux qui affectent la qualité de l'eau souterraine dans la région de Séoul et fait l'estimation du bilan d'eau urbaine. Les principaux facteurs affectant le bilan d'eau urbaine et la qualité de l'eau souterraine sont les fuites du réseau d'adduction et du réseau d'égouts, l'infiltration des eaux de précipitation, les fluctuations du niveau de la rivière Han, le réseau de pompage

  11. Fresh-frozen plasma use in a South African tertiary hospital | Visser ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite available guidelines on indications for fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) transfusion, inappropriate use is increasing worldwide. We evaluated FFP administration to patients admitted to the Steve Biko Academic Hospital over 4 months, including indications for use and completeness of requisition forms. Transfusions were ...

  12. Disease patterns in the medical wards of a rural South African hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypertension dominated the disease pattern followed by pulmonary tuberculosis, gastro-enteritis, pneumonia, diabetes, and asthma. The findings of this study suggest that diseases prominent in the affluent urban population affect patients seen at this rural hospital. The focus of primary care physicians should be to manage ...

  13. Common geriatric emergencies in a rural hospital in South-Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-11-02

    Nov 2, 2011 ... epidemiologically recognized as constitutional risk factor ... Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive hospital-based study of 216 geriatric patients who .... (hypertension and hypertension-related heart failure) the ... [7,8] This finding has ... measured with sphygmomanometer, majority of geriatric.

  14. Instant noodle consumption is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors among college students in Seoul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, In Sil; Kim, Hyesook; Jo, Hee Kyung; Lim, Chun Soo; Kim, Jong Seung; Kim, Soo Jin; Kwon, Oran; Oh, Bumjo; Chang, Namsoo

    2017-06-01

    Increased consumption of instant noodles has recently been reported to be positively associated with obesity and cardiometabolic syndrome in South Korea, which has the highest per capita instant noodle consumption worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the association between instant noodle consumption and cardiometabolic risk factors among college students in Seoul. The study subjects consisted of 3,397 college students (1,782 male; 1,615 female) aged 18-29 years who participated in a health checkup. Information on instant noodle consumption was obtained from the participants' answers to a question about their average frequency of instant noodle intake over the 1 year period prior to the survey. Statistical analysis using a general linear model that adjusted for age, body mass index, gender, family income, health-related behaviors, and other dietary factors important for cardiometabolic risk, showed a positive association between the frequency of instant noodle consumption and plasma triglyceride levels, diastolic blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose levels in all subjects. Compared to the group with the lowest frequency of instant noodle intake (≤ 1/month), the odds ratio for hypertriglyceridemia in the group with an intake of ≥ 3/week was 2.639 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.393-5.000] for all subjects, while it was 2.149 (95% CI, 1.045-4.419) and 5.992 (95% CI, 1.859-21.824) for male and female students, respectively. In female students, diastolic blood pressure was also higher among more frequent consumers of instant noodles. Our results suggest that frequent consumption of instant noodles may be associated with increased cardiometabolic risk factors among apparently healthy college students aged 18-29 years.

  15. Intracranial suppuration: Review of an 8-year experience at Umtata General Hospital and Nelson Mandela Academic Hospital, Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwary, M A

    2015-09-21

    Intracranial suppuration (ICS) is a life-threatening condition caused by various disease processes and consisting of brain abscess and extradural and subdural empyema. The major causes have changed over the decades. To the author's knowledge, the incidence of ICS in South Africa (SA) has not been established. To determine the incidence of ICS, overall and according to age and gender, and to identify the source and distribution of ICS. The archive of the radiology departments at Umtata General Hospital and Nelson Mandela Academic Hospital in the Transkei region, Eastern Cape Province, SA, was searched retrospectively for computed tomography (CT) reports of patients diagnosed with ICS. Cases in which the CT images, patients' clinical information and CT reports were available for an uninterrupted period of at least 1 year were included. Five time frames were established, encompassing 8 years of data. The first time frame established an incidence of ICS of 1/100,000/year for the Transkei region. All the time frames were utilised to determine the incidence according to gender and age, and the source and distribution of ICS. The incidence of ICS was higher among males than females, and highest in the age groups 0-10 and 11-20 years. A seasonal variation in the incidence of sinusitis- and meningitis-related ICS was noted. Numbers of cases declined during the last 3 years of the study period. Sinusitis, head trauma, ear infection and meningitis were the major sources of ICS. A pulmonary source was not a major feature. In the last 4 years, trauma became the commonest source of ICS. A steady decline in ear infection- and meningitis-related ICS was noted.

  16. Typical occupational accidents with employees of a university hospital in the south of Brazil: epidemiology and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sêcco, Iara Aparecida de Oliveira; Robazzi, Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz; Shimizu, Denise Sayuri; Rúbio, Márcia Maria da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Descriptive epidemiologic study that aimed to analyze the typical occupational accidents notified by employees of a university hospital in the South of Brazil from 1997 to 2002, and to estimate their risk indicators. A total of 717 accidents were registered; 86% of them (616) were typical and presented an annual average risk coefficient of 6.0 per 100 employees. The groups that presented more risks for accidents were cooks, woodworkers and nursing auxiliaries, while hands were the most affected area. Regarding the accidents nature, the greatest risks involved biological material. Hence, it is necessary to orient personnel about the legal aspects of occupational accidents and review work processes, especially those related to employees who perform activities at greater risk of transmissible diseases like AIDS and hepatitis B and C.

  17. Specialized consulting in radiological safety to the south central hospital of high specialty, PEMEX. VI. December of 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeles C, A.; Vizuet G, J.; Benitez S, J.A.; Garcia A, J.; Rodriguez A, F.

    2002-01-01

    It is a report of a specialized consulting in radiological safety that to be carried the ININ to PEMEX for the South Central Hospital of High Specialty, to maintain the sanitary license for the use of X-ray equipment of medical diagnostic, and guarantee these services with a program of quality assurance. To give fulfilment to that requests it is programmed a technical assistance monthly, with reports of results during the development of the service. In this document it is carried a report of the advances and results in the month of december of the 2001, where the following documents are analyzed: Manual of radiological safety, program of quality assurance, operation procedures, procedure of maintenance team, procedure of medical radiological control of the specialized personnel; also are annotate the obtained results and their observations. (Author)

  18. Awareness and Practice of Cervical Smear as A Screening Procedure for Cervical Cancer among Female Nurses in A Tertiary Hospital in South-South Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imoh Unang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Carcinoma of the cervix, the second most common cancer among women remains a public health problem. Though this preventable cancer occurs more commonly in the developing world, it is almost non-existent in developed countries where there are well established screening programs. The aim of this study is to determine the degree of awareness and practice of cervical smear as a screening procedure for cervical cancer among female nurses in a tertiary health facility in south-south Nigeria. METHOD: Semi-structured questionnaires were distributed to all the female nurses at the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital. RESULTS: The ages of the respondents were between 21 - 60 years with the modal age group being 31- 40 years (48.9%. Majority of the respondents were married (59.7% and 36.4% of them had practiced nursing for over 10 years. Majority of the respondents (94.3% had heard of the cervical smear and 79.5% of the nurses knew that cervical smears were used to detect premalignant diseases of the cervix. Only 7.4% of the nurses had undergone screening for cervical cancer. Common reasons given by the respondents who had not screened were not being a candidate for cervical cancer (31.9% and ignorance as to where screening is done (28.8%. The most common sources of information about cervical smear were the hospital (87.5% and textbooks (13.6%. CONCLUSION: The level of awareness of the cervical smear as a preventive tool for cervical cancer was high but utilization of the test was disappointingly low. Modern concepts of cancer prevention and control should be included in the curriculum of the school of nursing and nurses should be involved in the organisation of health talks to members of the community on cervical cancer and its prevention. The print and electronic media should be made to participate in the dissemination of information on the prevention of cervical cancer in our environment. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(6.000: 675-680

  19. The accuracy of nurse performance of the triage process in a tertiary hospital emergency department in Gauteng Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L N Goldstein

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Triage in the emergency department (ED is necessary to prioritise management according to the severity of a patient’s condition.The South African Triage Scale (SATS is a hospital-based triage tool that has been adopted by numerous EDs countrywide.Many factors can influence the outcome of a patient’s triage result, and evaluation of performance is therefore pivotal. Objectives. To determine how often patients were allocated to the correct triage category and the extent to which they were incorrectly promoted or demoted, and to determine the main reasons for errors in a nurse-led triage system. Methods. Triage forms from a tertiary hospital ED in Gauteng Province, South Africa, were collected over a 1-week period and reviewed retrospectively. Results. A total of 1 091 triage forms were reviewed. Triage category allocations were correct 68.3% of the time. Of the incorrect category assignments, 44.4% of patients were promoted and 55.6% demoted. Patients in the green category were most commonly promoted (29.4% and patients who should have been in orange were most commonly demoted (35.0%. Trauma patients were more likely to be incorrectly promoted and non-trauma patients to be incorrectly demoted. Mistakes were mainly due to discriminator errors (57.8%, followed by numerical miscalculations (21.5%. The leading omitted discriminators were ‘abdominal pain’, ‘chest pain’ and ‘shortness of breath’. Conclusions. Mis-triaging using the SATS can be attributed to incorrect or lack of discriminator use, numerical miscalculations and other human errors. Quality control and quality assurance measures must target training in these areas to minimise mis-triage in the ED.

  20. Laboratory surveillance of influenza-like illness in seven teaching hospitals, South Korea: 2011-2012 season.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Yun Noh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A well-constructed and properly operating influenza surveillance scheme is essential for public health. This study was conducted to evaluate the distribution of respiratory viruses in patients with influenza-like illness (ILI through the first teaching hospital-based surveillance scheme for ILI in South Korea. METHODS: Respiratory specimens were obtained from adult patients (≥18 years who visited the emergency department (ED with ILI from week 40, 2011 to week 22, 2012. Multiplex PCR was performed to detect respiratory viruses: influenza virus, adenovirus, coronavirus, respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, human metapneumovirus, parainfluenza virus, bocavirus, and enterovirus. RESULTS: Among 1,983 patients who visited the ED with ILI, 811 (40.9% were male. The median age of patients was 43 years. Influenza vaccination rate was 21.7% (430/1,983 during the 2011-2012 season. At least one comorbidity was found in 18% of patients. The positive rate of respiratory viruses was 52.1% (1,033/1,983 and the total number of detected viruses was 1,100. Influenza A virus was the dominant agent (677, 61.5% in all age groups. The prevalence of human metapneumovirus was higher in patients more than 50 years old, while adenovirus was detected only in younger adults. In 58 (5.6% cases, two or more respiratory viruses were detected. The co-incidence case was identified more frequently in patients with hematologic malignancy or organ transplantation recipients, however it was not related to clinical outcomes. CONCLUSION: This study is valuable as the first extensive laboratory surveillance of the epidemiology of respiratory viruses in ILI patients through a teaching hospital-based influenza surveillance system in South Korea.

  1. An investigation of diverticular disease among black patients undergoing colonoscopy at Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital, Pretoria, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vally, M; Koto, M Z; Govender, M

    2017-01-30

    Diverticular disease was previously thought to be non-existent in the black African population. Studies over the past four decades, however, have shown a steady increase in the prevalence of the disease. To report on the profile and current prevalence of diverticular disease in the black South African (SA) population at Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital, Pretoria, SA. A retrospective descriptive study was performed in black SA patients who were diagnosed with diverticular disease by colonoscopy between 1 January and 31 December 2015. Of 348 patients who had undergone colonoscopies and who were eligible for inclusion in this study, 47 were diagnosed with diverticular disease - a prevalence of 13.50% (95% confidence interval 10.30 - 17.50). The greatest number of patients diagnosed were in their 7th and 8th decades, with an age range of 46 - 86 (mean 67) years. There was a female predominance of 57.45%. Lower gastrointestinal bleeding was the most common (65.96%) indication for colonoscopy. The left colon was most commonly involved (72.34%), followed by the right colon (55.31%). A substantial number of patients had pancolonic involvement (27.65%). This retrospective study suggests that there has been a considerable increase in the prevalence of diverticular disease among black South Africans, possibly owing to changes in dietary habits and socioeconomic status.

  2. An investigation of diverticular disease among black patients undergoing colonoscopy at Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital, Pretoria, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Vally

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Diverticular disease was previously thought to be non-existent in the black African population. Studies over the past four decades, however, have shown a steady increase in the prevalence of the disease. Objective. To report on the profile and current prevalence of diverticular disease in the black South African (SA population at Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital, Pretoria, SA. Methods. A retrospective descriptive study was performed in black SA patients who were diagnosed with diverticular disease by colonoscopy between 1 January and 31 December 2015. Results. Of 348 patients who had undergone colonoscopies and who were eligible for inclusion in this study, 47 were diagnosed with diverticular disease – a prevalence of 13.50% (95% confidence interval 10.30 - 17.50. The greatest number of patients diagnosed were in their 7th and 8th decades, with an age range of 46 - 86 (mean 67 years. There was a female predominance of 57.45%. Lower gastrointestinal bleeding was the most common (65.96% indication for colonoscopy. The left colon was most commonly involved (72.34%, followed by the right colon (55.31%. A substantial number of patients had pancolonic involvement (27.65%. Conclusion. This retrospective study suggests that there has been a considerable increase in the prevalence of diverticular disease among black South Africans, possibly owing to changes in dietary habits and socioeconomic status.

  3. Factors Related to Healthcare Service Quality in Long-term Care Hospitals in South Korea: A Mixed-methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Minsung; Choi, Mankyu

    2017-10-01

    The environment of long-term care hospitals (LTCHs) is critical to the management of the quality of their services and to patient safety, as highlighted by international studies. However, there is a lack of evidence on this topic in South Korea. This study aimed to examine the factors affecting healthcare quality in LTCHs and to explore the effectiveness of their quality management. This study used a mixed methods approach with quantitative data collected in a national survey and qualitative data from semi-structured interviews with practice-based managers. The samples included 725 nationally representative LTCHs in South Korea for the quantitative analysis and 15 administrators for the in-depth interviews. A higher installation rate of patient-safety and hygiene-related facilities and staff with longer-tenures, especially nurses, were more likely to have better healthcare quality and education for both employees and patients. The need for patient-safety- and hygiene-related facilities in LTCHs that serve older adults reflects their vulnerability to certain adverse events (e.g., infections). Consistent and skillful nursing care to improve the quality of LTCHs can be achieved by developing relevant educational programs for staff and patients, thereby strengthening the relationships between them.

  4. Satisfaction and adherence of patients with amputations to physiotherapy service at public hospitals in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verusia, Chetty; Tanuja, Dunpath; Simira, Meghnath; Sarisha, Mothalal; Varuna, Sewmungal; Ursula, Kunene; Thalente, Ntshakala

    2015-06-01

    Individuals who have undergone a lower limb amputation require comprehensive rehabilitation from the multidisciplinary team to ensure optimal treatment outcomes and social integration. Physiotherapists play a pivotal role within the multidisciplinary team and offer patients physical and psychosocial rehabilitative care. Determining patients' satisfaction levels and exploring factors affecting adherence to physiotherapy interventions can inform practice and improve service delivery of rehabilitation within resource poor settings such as South Africa. To determine the level of satisfaction with physiotherapy services rendered to acute and sub-acute in-patients with lower limb amputations and to explore factors affecting adherence to physiotherapy intervention. A prospective survey of 35 patients with lower limb amputations from four public hospitals in South Africa was undertaken. A modified version of the Hampstead rehabilitation centre patient satisfaction questionnaire was utilised. Majority of participants were satisfied with the physiotherapy services whilst a few reported dissatisfaction. Three themes emerged whilst exploring the patients' experience relating to adherence to physiotherapy programmes. Themes included service delivery, patient-therapist interaction and participation barriers and facilitators. Recommendations aimed to improve quality of care and healthcare outcomes thereby enhancing the participants' adherence to the physiotherapy programme.

  5. Clinical, immunologic and insulin secretory characteristics of young black South African patients with diabetes: Hospital based single centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekpebegh, C O; Longo-Mbenza, B

    2013-03-01

    To classify and characterize the clinical features of various diabetes classes among young black South Africans. Cross sectional study of 60 black patients with diabetes, all less than 30 years of age and attending Nelson Mandela Academic Hospital, Mthatha, South Africa. Diabetes was classified as Types 1A, 1B and 2 based on the anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase status and serum C-peptide response to intravenous injection of glucagon. Mean age was 19.6±4.8 years (n=60) with similar gender distribution. The mean duration of diabetes was 24.2±45.1 months. Type 1A was the class of diabetes in 55% (n=33/60) of patients. Type 1B and 2 accounted for 30% (n=18/60) and 15% (n=9/60) of patients respectively. Patients classified as Type 2 had higher waist circumference and higher prevalence of acanthosis nigricans than Types 1A and 1B groups. History of diabetes in a first degree relative and hypertension were found in similar proportions of patients with Types 1A, 1B and 2 diabetes. Five Type 1A diabetes patients had body mass index of 26.2-41kg/m(2) and this included two newly diagnosed patients with body mass index of 26.7kg/m(2) and 33.2kg/m(2). The majority of our young black South Africans with diabetes are of the Type 1A class. Acanthosis nigricans was not found in any patient with Type 1 A diabetes. A minority of Type 1 A diabetes patients were obese at initial diagnosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Infant feeding practices among HIV-positive mothers at Tembisa hospital, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armelia Chaponda

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: In the postnatal hospital setting of this study, the feeding choices of mothers were influenced by nursing personnel. Nursing personnel could marry the influential ‘authority’ they have with correct and consistent information, in order to change feeding behaviour. Significant ‘others’ like grandmothers and other relatives also influenced decisions on infant feeding. As such, family dynamics need to be considered when encouraging breastfeeding.

  7. Urban Containment Policies and the Protection of Natural Areas: The Case of Seoul's Greenbelt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David N. Bengston

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Countries around the world have responded to the problems associated with rapid urban growth and increasingly land-consumptive development patterns by creating a wide range of policy instruments designed to manage urban growth. Of the array of growth management techniques, urban containment policies are considered by some to be a promising approach. This paper focuses on greenbelts, the most restrictive form of urban containment policy. The long-standing greenbelt of Seoul, Republic of Korea is examined as a case study. Seoul's greenbelt has generated both significant social costs and benefits. Costs include higher land and housing prices in the urban area surrounded by the greenbelt, additional costs incurred by commuters who live beyond the greenbelt and work in Seoul, and increased congestion and related quality of life impacts. Benefits include the amenity value of living near the greenbelt, recreational resources, bequest and heritage values, fiscal savings due to increased efficiency in the provision of public services and infrastructure, and a wide range of life-supporting ecosystem services. After standing virtually unchanged for almost three decades, Korea's greenbelt policy is currently being revised and weakened, largely due to pressure from greenbelt landowners and developers. Although there is no definitive answer to the question of whether Seoul would be a more or less "sustainable city" today without the greenbelt, it is certain that in the absence of the greenbelt, Seoul would have lost much of its rich natural heritage and essential ecosystem services.

  8. Newborn transport in South Australia, 1978-80: experience of the Queen Victoria Hospital, Adelaide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, A G; Fitzgerald, A M; Dahlenburg, G W

    1982-01-23

    389 infants were transported to the Queen Victoria Hospital, Adelaide between 1978 and 1980. Twenty-three percent (99) of the infants were ventilated, and 49% (189) received intravenous or intra-arterial therapy. Fifty-six percent (217) of the infants required transport because of prematurity; 11% (46) because of perinatal asphyxia in babies weighing more than 2,500 g. Only one baby died during transport, while 14% of the babies died subsequently. A core temperature of less than 36 degrees C in either hospital is important; a cold baby is 3.5 times more likely to die (X2=25.46, P less than 0.001). The transport of babies over distances greater than 300 kilometres is peculiar to Australia. Significantly more of these babies were cold than those retrieved from hospitals near Adelaide (X2=4.7, P less than 0.05), and significantly more died. Difficulty in transferring mothers in preterm labour may be another reason these babies did relatively badly. Better education and facilities will be important if we are to improve their survival chances.

  9. STANDARD PRECAUTIONS: AN ASSESSMENT OF AWARENESS AMONG HEALTH CARE PERSONNEL IN A TEACHING HOSPITAL, SOUTH INDIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeetha

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Standard precautions ar e crucial in the prevention and transmission of Healthcare associated infections ( HAI and transmission of blood - borne pathogens like Hepatitis B, Human Immunodeficiency Virus & Hepatitis C. They are not well u nderstood or implemented by health care practitioners. Hence this study was taken up to determine and compare knowledge, attitude of standard precautions among health care personnel at a teaching hospital, Bangalore. OBJECTIVE : To assess knowledge, attitud e, practices and compliance of Standard precautions among health care workers at a teaching hospital. METHODOLOGY : One hundred and fifty seven health care personnel participated in this study. A pretest and post test was administered to the study group. A pre - structured questionnaire on standard precautions was prepared which included knowledge, attitude and practices. RESULTS : 116 ( 73.88% nurses had knowledge about hand hygiene, but only 82 ( 52.2% nurses practiced hand hygiene before and after patient care. Knowledge about PPE measures like gloves, face mask & goggles, gowns were known to 101(64.33%, 56 ( 35.66% & 69 ( 43.94% nurses respectively. 117 ( 74.52% nurses discarded needles & sharps in correct puncture proof containers, but their correct knowled ge regarding colour coding of hospital waste segregation was comparatively less i.e. 104 ( 66.24%. 119 ( 75.79% of the nurses had practice of recapping the needles after use. CONCLUSION : There was significant improvement in the knowledge and practice of stan dard precautions in the present study after incorporating good training practices

  10. A study on the menstruation of Korean adolescent girls in Seoul

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    Jin Chul Lee

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Westernized eating habits have been associated with earlyage menstruation, which increases the incidence of dysmenorrhea and premenstrual syndrome among adolescent girls. We therefore surveyed changes in menarche timing and the general menstrual characteristics of adolescent girls in Seoul, Korea. Methods : We surveyed 538 teenage girls who visited our hospital between July and November 2007. Items explored included age at menarche, general menstrual characteristics, occurrence of premenstrual syndrome and treatment thereof, and an association between present dysmenorrhea and a family history of the condition. Results : Average age at menarche was 12.6 years, with 29% (n=156 subjects beginning menstruation at age 12 years. The prevalence of dysmenorrhea was 82% (n=435. The main symptoms were abdominal (53.2% and lower back pain (34.2%, and 15.2% of girls who experienced such symptoms required medication. Present dysmenorrhea, and a family history thereof, were statistically correlated (P&lt;0.05. In addition, 58.8% (n=316 of teenage girls had symptoms of premenstrual syndrome. The most frequent psychological symptoms were fatigue (36.4% and nervousness (38.7%, whereas the most common physical symptom was menstrual cramps (46.5%. Most subjects (87.6% tolerated the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome without medication; 11.4% took medicines including painkillers; but only 0.1% of subjects visited a doctor. Conclusion : The average age at menarche in Korean girls was 12.6 years, thus younger than in the past. Most teenage girls experienced dysmenorrhea and premenstrual syndrome, but few consulted a doctor. Organized treatment plans are required to manage menstrual problems in teenage girls.

  11. Airborne Bacterial Communities in Three East Asian Cities of China, South Korea, and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Young; Park, Eun Ha; Lee, Sunghee; Ko, GwangPyo; Honda, Yasushi; Hashizume, Masahiro; Deng, Furong; Yi, Seung-Muk; Kim, Ho

    2017-07-17

    The global diversity of airborne bacteria has not yet been studied, despite its importance in human health and climate change. Here, we focused on the diversity of airborne bacteria and their correlations with meteorological/environmental conditions in China, South Korea, and Japan. Beijing (China) had more diverse airborne bacteria, followed by Seoul (South Korea) and Nagasaki (Japan), and seasonal variations were observed. Beijing and Seoul had more diverse airborne bacteria during the winter, whereas Nagasaki showed greater diversity during the summer. According to principal component analysis and Bray-Curtis similarity, higher similarity was observed between Beijing and Seoul than between Seoul and Nagasaki during all seasons except summer. Among meteorological/environmental variables, temperature and humidity were highly correlated with the diversity of airborne bacteria on the measurement day, whereas wind speeds and the frequency of northwest winds were highly correlated for 2-3-day moving averages. Thus, proximity and resuspension could enhance bacterial diversity in East Asian cities.

  12. Antimicrobial resistance patterns of Staphylococcus species isolated from cats presented at a veterinary academic hospital in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qekwana, Daniel Nenene; Sebola, Dikeledi; Oguttu, James Wabwire; Odoi, Agricola

    2017-09-15

    Antimicrobial resistance is becoming increasingly important in both human and veterinary medicine. This study investigated the proportion of antimicrobial resistant samples and resistance patterns of Staphylococcus isolates from cats presented at a veterinary teaching hospital in South Africa. Records of 216 samples from cats that were submitted to the bacteriology laboratory of the University of Pretoria academic veterinary hospital between 2007 and 2012 were evaluated. Isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing against a panel of 15 drugs using the disc diffusion method. Chi square and Fisher's exact tests were used to assess simple associations between antimicrobial resistance and age group, sex, breed and specimen type. Additionally, associations between Staphylococcus infection and age group, breed, sex and specimen type were assessed using logistic regression. Staphylococcus spp. isolates were identified in 17.6% (38/216) of the samples submitted and 4.6% (10/216) of these were unspeciated. The majority (61.1%,11/18) of the isolates were from skin samples, followed by otitis media (34.5%, 10/29). Coagulase Positive Staphylococcus (CoPS) comprised 11.1% (24/216) of the samples of which 7.9% (17/216) were S. intermedius group and 3.2% (7/216) were S. aureus. Among the Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) (1.9%, 4/216), S. felis and S. simulans each constituted 0.9% (2/216). There was a significant association between Staphylococcus spp. infection and specimen type with odds of infection being higher for ear canal and skin compared to urine specimens. There were higher proportions of samples resistant to clindamycin 34.2% (13/25), ampicillin 32.4% (2/26), lincospectin 31.6% (12/26) and penicillin-G 29.0% (11/27). Sixty three percent (24/38) of Staphylococcus spp. were resistant to one antimicrobial agent and 15.8% were multidrug resistant (MDR). MDR was more common among S. aureus 28.6% (2/7) than S. intermedius group isolates 11.8% (2

  13. Improving access to health care in a rural regional hospital in South Africa: Why do patients miss their appointments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Lucy; Jenkins, Louis S; Emmink, Benjamin

    2017-03-30

    Access to health services is one of the Batho Pele ('people first') values and principles of the South African government since 1997. This necessitated some changes around public service systems, procedures, attitudes and behaviour. The challenges of providing health care to rural geographically spread populations include variations in socio-economic status, transport opportunities, access to appointment information and patient perceptions of costs and benefits of seeking health care. George hospital, situated in a rural area, serves 5000 outpatient visits monthly, with non-attendance rates of up to 40%. The aim of this research was to gain a greater understanding of the reasons behind non-attendance of outpatient department clinics to allow locally driven, targeted interventions. This was a descriptive study. We attempted to phone all patients who missed appointments over a 1-month period (n = 574). Only 20% were contactable with one person declining consent. Twenty-nine percent had no telephone number on hospital systems, 7% had incorrect numbers, 2% had died and 42% did not respond to three attempts. The main reasons for non-attendance included unaware of appointment date (16%), out of area (11%), confusion over date (11%), sick or admitted to hospital (10%), family member sick or died (7%), appointment should have been cancelled by clerical staff (6%) and transport (6%). Only 9% chose to miss their appointment. The other 24% had various reasons. Improved patient awareness of appointments, adjustments in referral systems and enabling appointment cancellation if indicated would directly improve over two-thirds of reasons for non-attendance. Understanding the underlying causes will help appointment planning, reduce wasted costs and have a significant impact on patient care.

  14. The impact of patient demographics and comorbidities upon burns admitted to Tygerberg Hospital Burns Unit, Western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloake, T; Haigh, T; Cheshire, J; Walker, D

    2017-03-01

    In South Africa, burns are a major public health problem responsible for significant morbidity and long-term physical disability. This is, in part, due to a significant proportion of the urban population living in poorly constructed, combustible accommodation. The presence of co-morbid diseases such as diabetes and malignancy in patients with burns has been associated with a poorer outcome. The impact of other diseases such as HIV has yet to be defined. A retrospective data collection study analysed the 221 patients admitted to Tygerberg Hospital Burns Unit in 2011 and the first six months of 2013. Using hospital records, patient demographic data was collected alongside burn agent, ICU admission, complications, and patient outcome in terms of length of stay and mortality. The most common burn agent was hot liquid (45.7%). A significant proportion of patients were subject to intentional attacks (34.3%). Shack fires and flame accounted cumulatively for 85% of total inhalational burns, the highest rates of admission to ICU (85.5%), the highest rate of complications, as well as 92.3% of all total fatalities. HIV+ patients had a higher mortality (13.3% vs 5%, p=0.22) and a higher complication rate (46.7% vs 30%, p=0.21). There was no difference in length of stay between the HIV+ and HIV- cohort (12days vs. 15.5 days, p=0.916). Burns are a significant yet preventable cause of mortality and morbidity. The rising number of shack fires, responsible for extensive burns and resultant mortality is concerning and indicates urgent attention and action. HIV complicates the recovery from burn and is responsible for an increased rate of in hospital mortality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  15. Causes of deaths in children under-five years old at a tertiary hospital in Limpopo province of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntuli, Sam Thembelihle; Malangu, Ntambwe; Alberts, Marianne

    2013-02-15

    Accurate and timely information on the causes of child deaths is essential in guiding efforts to improve child survival, by providing data from which health profiles can be constructed and relevant health policies formulated. The purpose of this study was to identify causes of death in children younger than 5 years-old in a tertiary hospital in South Africa. Death certificates from the Pietersburg/Mankweng hospital complex, for the period of January 1, 2008 through December 31, 2010, were obtained for all patients younger than 5 years and were retrospectively reviewed. Data were collected using a data collection form designed for the study. Information abstracted included: date of death, age, sex, and cause of death. A total of 1266 deaths were recorded, the sex ratio was 1.26 boys per girl. About 611 (48%) of deaths were listed as neonatal deaths (0-28 days), 387 (31%) were listed as infant deaths (29 days-11 months), and 268 (21%) as children's death (1-4 years). For neonates the leading causes of death were: prematurity/low birth weight, birth asphyxia and pneumonia. For the infant death group, the leading causes of death were pneumonia, diarrhea, and HIV/AIDS; and in the children's group, the leading causes were injuries, diarrhea and pneumonia. There was no statistical significant difference in the proportions of causes of death based on the sex of children. The top 10 leading causes of death in children under-5 years old treated at Pietersburg/Mankweng Hospital Complex were in descending order: prematurity/low birth weight, pneumonia, diarrheal diseases, birth asphyxia, and severe malnutrition, HIV/AIDS, hydrocephalus, unintentional injuries, meningitis and other infections. These ten conditions represent 73.9% of causes of death at this facility. A mix of multi-faceted interventions is needed to address these causes of death in children.

  16. A survey of digital radiography practice in four South African teaching hospitals: an illuminative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyathi, T; Chirwa, Tf; van der Merwe, Dg

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess radiographer familiarity and preferences with digital radiography in four teaching hospitals and thereafter make recommendations in line with the migration from screen film to digital radiography. A questionnaire was designed to collect data from either qualified or student radiographers from four teaching hospitals. From the four teaching hospitals, there were a total of 205 potential respondents. Among other things, responses regarding experiences and preferences with digital radiography, quality control procedures, patient dose, advantages and disadvantages of digital radiography were sought. The information collected was based on self-reporting by the participants. The study is exploratory in nature and descriptive statistics were generated from the collected data using Microsoft Excel 2007 and StatsDirect software. Sixty-three out of 205 (31%) radiographers from all the four radiology centers responded to the circulated questionnaire. Only 15% (8) of the qualified radiographers had 4 or more years of experience with digital radiography compared to 68% (36) for the same amount of experience with screen-film radiography. Sixty-one percent (38) of the participants had been exposed to digital radiography during their lectures while at university. A small proportion, 16% (10) of the respondents underwent formal training in quality control procedures on the digital X-ray units they were using. Slightly more than half (55%) of the participants felt it was easier for them to retake an image in digital radiography than in screen film radiography. The results of this survey showed that the participants are familiar with digital radiography and have embraced this relatively new technology as shown by the fact that they can identify both its advantages and disadvantages as applied to clinical practice. However, there are minimal quality control procedures specific to digital radiography being undertaken as such there is need for

  17. Assessment of cost of illness for diabetic patients in South Indian tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leelavathi D Acharya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The impact of diabetes on health-care expenditures has been increasingly recognized. To formulate an effective health planning and resource allocation, it is important to determine economic burden. Objective: The objective of this study is to assess the cost of illness (COI for diabetic inpatients with or without complications. Methodology: The study was conducted in the medicine wards of tertiary care hospital after ethical approval by the Institutional Ethical Committee. A total of 116 each diabetic with or without complications were selected and relevant data were collected using COI questionnaire and data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Mann–Whitney U test is used to assess the statistical significant difference in the cost of treatment of diabetes alone and with complications'. P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Total COI includes the cost of treatment, investigation, consultation fee, intervention cost, transportation, days lost due to work, and hospitalization. The median of total COI for diabetic care without any complication was Rs. 22,456.97/- per patient per annum and with complication was Rs. 30,634.45/-. Patients on dialysis had to spend 7.3 times higher, and patients with cardiac intervention had to spend 7.4 times higher than diabetic patients without any complication. Conclusion: Treatment costs were many times higher in patients with complications and with cardiac and renal interventions. Complications in diabetic patients will increase the economic burden to family and also to the society.

  18. Job stress, satisfaction, and coping strategies among medical interns in a South Indian tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramouleeswaran, Susmita; Edwin, Natasha C; Braganza, Deepa

    2014-07-01

    It has previously been demonstrated that there is a significant drop in all domains of quality of life among interns during internship. A modified version of the health consultant's job stress and satisfaction questionnaire (HCJSSQ) was used to assess and quantify aspects of internship that were perceived as stressful and satisfying. Methods used to cope with work place stress were explored. A prospective cohort study was undertaken among 93 medical interns doing a rotating internship at the Christian Medical College and Hospital, a tertiary-care hospital in southern India. After completion of 6 months of internship, the modified version of the HCJSSQ was administered to all participants. The data were entered into Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 9 by double data entry technique. Percentages of interns reporting high levels of stress, satisfaction were calculated. While 63.4% of interns reported high levels of satisfaction, 45.2% of the interns experienced high levels of stress, 17.6% coped with work stress by using alcohol and nicotine, and 37% coped through unhealthy eating habits. More people found internship satisfying than stressful. However, a high proportion found it stressful, and many reported unhealthy coping mechanisms.

  19. Leadership in nursing: An experience of hospital nurses in the south of Santa Catarina/SC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalila Felipe Bitencourt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative research using the case study, it’s order to understand the vision of nurses in a hospital in the southern of Santa Catarina/SC about their experience as leaders of nursing team. Participants were ten nurses working in this role. Data collection was performed in the hospital, between the months of May and June 2012, using the technique of semi-structured interview, based on the guiding question of the study. The analysis of data was performed qualitative and comprised the organization, classification and final analysis. The results show that most nurses do not feel prepared to exercise a leading role, which derives, in most cases, the lack of academic preparation, institutional issues and the reasons inherent in early stage, especially insecurity. The professionals working in other categories of nursing at the same institution need to learn to position themselves against the new post, especially in dealing with colleagues who are now under his leadership. While most have expressed difficulties in the process of transition between academia and professional life were identified that professionals are clear about the roles, skills and abilities necessary for leadership. It is also noted that nurses feel that in some situations they cannot exercise their leadership in the way they consider most appropriate.

  20. LEADERSHIP IN NURSING: AN EXPERIENCE OF HOSPITAL NURSES IN THE SOUTH OF SANTA CATARINA/SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalila Felipe Bitencourt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative research using the case study, it’s order to understand the vision of nurses in a hospital in the southern of Santa Catarina/SC about their experience as leaders of nursing team. Participants were ten nurses working in this role. Data collection was performed in the hospital, between the months of May and June 2012, using the technique of semi-structured interview, based on the guiding question of the study. The analysis of data was performed qualitative and comprised the organization, classification and final analysis. The results show that most nurses do not feel prepared to exercise a leading role, which derives, in most cases, the lack of academic preparation, institutional issues and the reasons inherent in early stage, especially insecurity. The professionals working in other categories of nursing at the same institution need to learn to position themselves against the new post, especially in dealing with colleagues who are now under his leadership. While most have expressed difficulties in the process of transition between academia and professional life were identified that professionals are clear about the roles, skills and abilities necessary for leadership. It is also noted that nurses feel that in some situations they cannot exercise their leadership in the way they consider most appropriate.

  1. Determinants of maternal mortality: a hospital based study from south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, P; Agrawal, A; Swain, S

    1995-01-01

    During 1981-1986, 86 maternal deaths transpired at the obstetrics department of the Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research in Pondicherry, India. The maternal mortality rate stood at 5.8/1000 births. 31.4% were primigravidae. The percentage of maternal deaths characterized as gravidae 2-4, 5, and multigravidae was 42.9%, 9.3%, and 16.4%, respectively. The leading causes of death were sepsis (41.9%), especially septic abortion (30.2%); eclampsia-severe preeclampsia (10.5%); ruptured uterus (9.3%); and hemorrhage and prolonged labor (8.1% each). Direct obstetric causes of death accounted for 81.4% of all maternal deaths. Indirect obstetric causes of death were hepatitis (5.8%), heart disease (4.7%), and severe anemia (2.3%). Most of the women who died were illiterate (97.6%), poor (98.8%), and had received no prenatal care (94.2%). 47.7% traveled more than 60 km to the hospital. Quacks or untrained traditional birth attendants had excessively interfered with about 33% before they reached the hospital, especially the septic induced abortion, obstructed labor, and ruptured uterus cases. Among the 48 women who delivered before dying, there were 24 live births (5 of whom died during the early neonatal period) and 24 still births. These findings indicate a need for a cooperative effort to improve and expand maternal and child health care in the community.

  2. Radon exposure assessment for underground workers: A case of Seoul Subway Police officers in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, M. H.; Chang, B. U.; Kim, Y.; Cho, K. W.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is the systematic and individual assessment of the annual effective dose due to inhaled radon for the Seoul Subway Police officers, Korea. The annual average radon concentrations were found to be in the range of 18.9-114 Bq -3 in their workplaces. The total annual effective doses which may likely to be received on duty were assessed to be in the range of 0.41-1.64 mSv.y -1 . These were well below the recommended action level 10 mSv.y -1 by ICRP. However, the effective doses were higher than subway station staff in Seoul, Korea. (authors)

  3. Metabolic syndrome and associated factors among psychiatric patients in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, South West Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaye, Sintayehu; Bekele, Shiferaw; Tolessa, Daniel; Cheneke, Waqtola

    2018-04-24

    Metabolic syndrome is a multisystem disorder which coined to describe the recognized clustering of metabolic and cardiovascular abnormalities including obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and abnormalities of glucose homeostasis. To assess the prevalence and associated factors of metabolic syndrome among psychiatric patients in Jimma University Specialized Hospital. This study was conducted at Jimma University Specialized hospital psychiatric ward from May 15 to July 16, 2015. A cross-sectional study design and consecutive sampling technique were used. A single population proportion formula was used to include a total of 360 psychiatric patients. An interview administered structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic and some clinical data. Anthropometric data were collected based on standard guild line for anthropometric measurement. Five milliliter of venous blood was collected from ante-cubital fossa after overnight fasting for 8 h. Semi-automated clinical chemistry analyzer (Temis Linear) was used for biochemical laboratory analysis. Data analysis was performed by using SPSS version-20 software. Binary and multiple logistic regressions were used to identify the association between dependent and independent variables. P value less than 0.05 was taken as statistically significant association. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among psychiatric patients was 28.9%. Age greater than 30 years old (AOR: 5.2, CI: 2.3, 11.8, P. value metabolic syndrome among diabetic patients in the study area. The other independent variables such as family history of hypertension, chewing chat, Psychotropic drugs, duration of treatment, regularly eating fruits and vegetables had no statistically significant association with metabolic syndrome (P. value > 0.05). There was high prevalence of metabolic syndrome among the psychiatric patients. Therefore; close assessment, management and treatment of metabolic syndrome among patients with psychiatry problem is

  4. Job related stress among nurses working in Jimma Zone public hospitals, South West Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagget, Tadesse; Molla, Ashagre; Belachew, Tefera

    2016-01-01

    Occupational stress exists in every profession, nevertheless, the nursing profession appears to experience more stress at work compared to other health care workers. Unmanaged stress leads to high levels of employee dissatisfaction, illness, absenteeism, high turnover, and decreased productivity that compromise provision of quality service to clients. However, there is a scarcity of information about nurses' job stress in Jimma zone public hospital nurses. The aim of the present study was to assess job related stress and its predictors among nurses working in Jimma Zone public hospitals, South-West Ethiopia in 2014. An institution based cross sectional study was conducted from March 10 to April 10, 2014 through a census of nurses who are working in Jimma Zone public hospitals using a structured self-administered questionnaire. SPSS Statistics Version 20 used. For the outcome variable: overall job related stress, the participant's responses on each item score summed: a stress score ranging from a minimum of 26 and maximum score of 116. The higher the sum the more the stressed the nurse. The level of stress calculated through tertial the lower to low stress, the middle to moderate & the higher to high stress. Moreover, bivariate and multivariable linear regressions done to see the association between the predictor (sex, age, mutual understanding at work, Job satisfaction and working unit/department) and the outcome variable (Job related stress). A total of 341 nurses working in Jimma Zone public hospitals were given the questionnaire, and the response rate was 92.3 % (315). This study indicated an average overall job related stress level of 58.46 ± 12.62. The highest level of job related stress was on the sub scale of dealing with death & dying mean score of 62.94 % followed by uncertainty regarding patient treatment 57.72 % and workload 57.6 %. While job related stress from sexual harassment had the lowest mean score of 46.19 %. Overall job related stress varies

  5. Nurses and care workers’ perceptions of their nurse-patient therapeutic relationship in private general hospitals, Gauteng, South Africa

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    Anna E. van den Heever

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Facilitation of a therapeutic relationship is an essential skill in nursing, particularly in mental-health care. Nurses and care workers in private general hospitals are exposed to the emotional effects of physical illness as well as the increase in admission of patients with mental-health needs. Poor nurse-patient relationships have been reported by patients and in the media. The researchers experienced incidents of apparent misunderstandings during nurse-patient interactions whilst working in private general hospitals. No studies have been done regarding how nurses and care workers perceive a therapeutic relationship with patients in terms of the patients’ emotional and mental-health needs. A quantitative, contextual and deductive study was conducted in three private general hospitals in Gauteng, South Africa with a purposive sample of 154 nurses and 30 care workers. Based on the concepts of a therapeutic relationship, empathy, positive regard, genuineness, concreteness and self-exploration, nurses and care workers’ perceptions of facilitating a therapeutic relationship were self-assessed using five-point scales in a questionnaire. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and non-parametric statistical techniques. Specific hypotheses were tested to identify whether statistically-significant differences existed between the perceptions of two or more groups of nurses and care workers. Results showed a general insensitivity and lack of awareness and reflection on the part of nurses and care workers with regard to the patients’ emotional needs. When categories of nurses were compared, no statistically-significant differences were found between the perceptions of the various groups tested. There is a need for self-awareness, continued interpersonal skills training and supervision of nurses and care workers. A large percentage of the participants were younger than 40 years, subprofessional, with less than 10 years’ experience as

  6. To relieve the sufferings of humanity, irrespective of party, politics or creed?: conflict, consensus and voluntary hospital provision in Edwardian South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Steven

    2003-08-01

    This article examines the provision of voluntary hospital facilities for injured workers in the mining valleys of Edwardian South Wales. It considers the co-operation and conflict that characterized efforts to establish hospitals, and examines the attitudes and activities of workers, employers, and other interested groups. Despite certain instances of disagreement and conflict, this article demonstrates the significant levels of co-operation and consensus that characterized the efforts of employers and workers to provide communities with hospital facilities. This co-operation was perhaps surprising considering the bitter industrial conflict and social unrest of that period. The article uses this material to question assertions that hospitals reflect the social and political milieus of the communities in which they were situated and argues that the social relations produced by hospital provision sometimes coincided with wider social and industrial relations, but at other times differed from them or transcended them. Furthermore, the article demonstrates that the co-operation between employers and workers in the provision of hospitals in Edwardian South Wales did not stabilize social and industrial relations in the way that historians of associational voluntarism in other contexts have found.

  7. Adverse Drug Reactions Causing Admission to Medical Wards: A Cross-Sectional Survey at 4 Hospitals in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouton, Johannes P; Njuguna, Christine; Kramer, Nicole; Stewart, Annemie; Mehta, Ushma; Blockman, Marc; Fortuin-De Smidt, Melony; De Waal, Reneé; Parrish, Andy G; Wilson, Douglas P K; Igumbor, Ehimario U; Aynalem, Getahun; Dheda, Mukesh; Maartens, Gary; Cohen, Karen

    2016-05-01

    Limited data exist on the burden of serious adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in sub-Saharan Africa, which has high HIV and tuberculosis prevalence. We determined the proportion of adult admissions attributable to ADRs at 4 hospitals in South Africa. We characterized drugs implicated in, risk factors for, and the preventability of ADR-related admissions.We prospectively followed patients admitted to 4 hospitals' medical wards over sequential 30-day periods in 2013 and identified suspected ADRs with the aid of a trigger tool. A multidisciplinary team performed causality, preventability, and severity assessment using published criteria. We categorized an admission as ADR-related if the ADR was the primary reason for admission.There were 1951 admissions involving 1904 patients: median age was 50 years (interquartile range 34-65), 1057 of 1904 (56%) were female, 559 of 1904 (29%) were HIV-infected, and 183 of 1904 (10%) were on antituberculosis therapy (ATT). There were 164 of 1951 (8.4%) ADR-related admissions. After adjustment for age and ATT, ADR-related admission was independently associated (P ≤ 0.02) with female sex (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.51, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.06-2.14), increasing drug count (aOR 1.14 per additional drug, 95% CI 1.09-1.20), increasing comorbidity score (aOR 1.23 per additional point, 95% CI 1.07-1.41), and use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) if HIV-infected (aOR 1.92 compared with HIV-negative/unknown, 95% CI 1.17-3.14). The most common ADRs were renal impairment, hypoglycemia, liver injury, and hemorrhage. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, insulin, rifampicin, and warfarin were most commonly implicated, respectively, in these 4 ADRs. ART, ATT, and/or co-trimoxazole were implicated in 56 of 164 (34%) ADR-related admissions. Seventy-three of 164 (45%) ADRs were assessed as preventable.In our survey, approximately 1 in 12 admissions was because of an ADR. The range of ADRs and implicated drugs reflect South Africa's high HIV

  8. What keeps health professionals working in rural district hospitals in South Africa?

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    Louis S. Jenkins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The theme of the 2014 Southern African Rural Health Conference was ‘Building resilience in facing rural realities’. Retaining health professionals in South Africa is critical for sustainable health services. Only 12% of doctors and 19% of nurses have been retained in the rural areas. The aim of the workshop was to understand from health practitioners why they continued working in their rural settings. Conference workshop: The workshop consisted of 29 doctors, managers, academic family physicians, nurses and clinical associates from Southern Africa, with work experience from three weeks to 13 years, often in deep rural districts. Using the nominal group technique, the following question was explored, ‘What is it that keeps you going to work every day?’ Participants reflected on their work situation and listed and rated the important reasons for continuing to work. Results: Five main themes emerged. A shared purpose, emanating from a deep sense of meaning, was the strongest reason for staying and working in a rural setting. Working in a team was second most important, with teamwork being related to attitudes and relationships, support from visiting specialists and opportunities to implement individual clinical skills. A culture of support was third, followed by opportunities for growth and continuing professional development, including teaching by outreaching specialists. The fifth theme was a healthy work-life balance. Conclusion: Health practitioners continue to work in rural settings for often deeper reasons relating to a sense of meaning, being part of a team that closely relate to each other and feeling supported.

  9. Birth preparedness and complication readiness among prenatal attendees in a teaching hospital in South West Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aduloju, Olusola P; Akintayo, Akinyemi A; Aduloju, Tolulope; Akin-Akintayo, Oladunni O

    2017-11-01

    To assess birth preparedness and complication readiness (BPCR) as well as knowledge of danger signs during pregnancy, labor/delivery, and the postpartum period. A cross-sectional study was undertaken of pregnant women attending the prenatal clinic at a tertiary hospital in Nigeria between October and December 2016. A pretested and structured questionnaire was used to collect data on BPCR, and logistic regression was performed to determine factors affecting BPCR. Of 325 participants, 274 (84.3%) had knowledge of BPCR components, and 265 (81.5%) were well prepared for birth and its complications. However, only 89 (27.4%) knew key danger signs during labor/delivery and 81 (24.9%) knew those in the first 2 days after delivery. Older age, higher parity, tertiary education of women, paid employment of women and their spouses, higher social class, frequent prenatal visits, and knowledge of danger signs were significantly associated with BPCR (Pteaching pregnant women to recognize key danger signs. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  10. Causes and pattern of death in a tertiary hospital in south eastern Nigeria

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    C C Nwafor Chukwuemeka Charles

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Morbidity and mortality pattern is a reflection of disease burden. The aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive report of the causes of death in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria, a developing tropical nation. Methods and Material: We carried out a retrospective descriptive cross-sectional study of all records of deaths from January 2004 to December 2008 in Federal Medical Centre Umuahia, Abia, State in Southeast Nigeria. Results: Of a total of 18,107 patients were admitted during the study period, 2;172 deaths representing 12% mortality rate and comprising 1;230 (56.6% males and 942 (43.4% females were recorded. The age of patients ranged from birth to 100 years with a mean of 41.41 ± 26.30 years and 25-44 years age group being the most affected (n = 587, 27.1%. The overall leading cause of death was the infections group, which accounted for 837 (37.6% deaths. Other major causes were cardiovascular system -related deaths 534 (24.7%, neonatal causes 173 (8.0%, trauma 155 (7.1%, diabetes mellitus complications 144 (6.6% and neoplasia 76 (3.5%. Conclusion: Majority of the leading causes of mortality in this study are preventable. Our data reflects the effects of double disease burden of infections and non- communicable communicable diseases in a developing nation.

  11. Profile of injury cases admitted to a tertiary level hospital in south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthkarsh, Pallavi Sarji; Suryanarayana, S P; Gautham, M S; Shivraj, N S; Murthy, N S; Pruthvish, S

    2012-01-01

    Injuries now rank among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality the world over. Injuries are steadily increasing in developing countries like India. Systematic and scientific efforts in injury prevention and control are yet to begin in India. Data on injuries are very essential to plan preventive and control measures. The objective of this study is to know the profile of the injury cases admitted to M S Ramaiah hospital, Bangalore, India, using a cross-sectional study design for six months, i.e. from Oct 2008 to April 2009. The mean age of the study population was 35.3 years (SD = 15.38), 69.1% were injured in road traffic accidents (RTA), 28.7% due to falls and 2.2% due to burns. Nearly 14.4% were under the influence of alcohol. Nearly 73.6% of RTA cases were two-wheeler users, 48.5% had not followed sign boards and 56.5% had not obeyed the one-way rules, 63.5% of the two-wheeler users did not use helmets. Also, 38% of two wheelers had two pillion riders, whereas 57% of four-wheeler users had not used a seat belt. Among falls, 58% occurred at home, 49% occurred due to slippery surface. Road traffic accidents were the most common cause for injuries, in which two wheelers were most commonly involved. Strict enforcement of traffic rules and education on road safety are very essential to prevent injuries.

  12. Factors influencing nurse absenteeism in a general hospital in Durban, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudaly, P; Nkosi, Z Z

    2015-07-01

    To establish reasons for absenteeism amongst professional nurses, enrolled nurses and enrolled nurse auxiliaries in a general hospital in Durban, in order to recommend strategies that could decrease absenteeism. Nurses endure increased workload, resulting in burnout and absenteeism in workplace environments that already suffer staff shortages. This study was a quantitative, non-experimental survey. The study population consisted of 60 nurses, including professional and enrolled nurses and enrolled nurse auxiliaries. The survey consisted of closed-ended questions to options of 'agree' and 'disagree' and an open-ended section. Family matters, lack of motivation to attend work, illness, finance, favouritism, unfriendly nurse managers, long work hours, increased workload, unsatisfactory work conditions, lack of equipment, unfair promotions and selection of nurses for training, staff shortages, lack of a reward system and incoherent decision-making caused nurse absenteeism. Personal, professional and organisational factors may cause nurse absenteeism, crippling the health sector further against the backdrop of human and mechanical resource shortage. Nurse managers have an important role in reducing absenteeism by addressing the employees' concerns, which can lead to productivity, increased staff morale, decreased medical hazards and satisfied patients. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. A Case Study of MOOCs Design and Administration at Seoul National University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Cheolil; Kim, Sunyoung; Kim, Mihwa; Han, Songlee; Seo, Seungil

    2014-01-01

    This research, based on the case study of edX at Seoul National University, which is running Korea's first Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), discussed and proposed the roles of principal facilitators, the process, and the relationships among various facilitators in selecting, designing, opening and administrating MOOCs classes. Researches on…

  14. Analyzing the differences between Seoul versus other Regions in response to Nuclear Power Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Seung Kook [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chul Min [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Seoul citizens do not feel any seriousness about the recent issues related to NPP, since they do not have NPP in nearby region. Despite Seoul Metropolitan Government has been conducting 'reduce one NPP' campaign for 4 years with large budget, the awareness of Seoul citizens' NPP is very low. From this point of view, it can be seen that the campaign failed to increase the awareness of NPP. Besides, Seoul citizens are living in the most distant region from NPP so that they lack the opportunity to access the information about the safety of the facility in direct way. They formed overall image about nuclear power through information from the media and indirect experience. The public usually pay attention to negative or incendiary news more than the positive ones. They are more likely to have a simply negative image from incendiary news, such as the movement against radioactive waste disposal siting in Guleopdo and Buan, Fukushima accident, radioactive rain, Japanese seafood imports, nuclear scandal, etc. Even media that has positive nuances can raise doubts about nuclear power. In addition, the public usually have lower opportunity to feel an affinity for nuclear power, and show the problems related to nuclear power in the third party's stance. According to the mere exposure theory, it can be the cause of having negative stance.

  15. Microbiological Spectrum of Brain Abscess at a Tertiary Care Hospital in South India: 24-Year Data and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lakshmi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial abscesses are life-threatening infections that pose a diagnostic challenge not only to the neurosurgeon but also to the microbiologists. Detailed studies documenting the spectrum of infecting agents involved in brain abscesses are limited from India. Materials and Methods. This is a retrospective analysis of 352 samples from 1987 to 2010 analyzed at a tertiary care hospital in South India from 1987 to 2010, to document the changing trends with time. Results. The age of the patients ranged from 2 to 80 years, a larger number of males being affected. Otogenic infections were the most common cause while cryptogenic abscesses were 20%. Gram stain and culture positivity were 78% each. Gram-positive and negative facultative aerobes and obligate anaerobes were also on the rise. Unusual organisms, like Burkholderia pseudomallei, Salmonella typhi, Nocardia species, Cladosporium bantiana, Fonsecaea pedrosoi, Entamoeba histolytica, and Acanthamoeba were also isolated and/or detected from the brain abscesses aspirate or resected tissue. Summary. New and emerging pathogens associated with brain abscess, especially in immunosuppressed individuals, have renewed the necessity of an early detection, and it will be of great value in appropriate management of patients with brain abscess.

  16. Immediate post-partum haemorrhage: Epidemiological aspects and maternal prognosis at South N’djamena District Hospital (Chad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabkika Bray Madoue

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Post-partum haemorrhage defined as blood loss after delivery over 500mls, affects all countries and is the commonest cause of maternal mortality. It is a frequent obstetric emergency in developing countries. Objective: To identify the causes of post-partum haemorrhage and identify adequate management of immediate post-partum haemorrhage and thus reduce maternal mortality. Patients and methods: This was a prospective and descriptive study of one year from 1st January 2014 to 31stDecember 2014 conducted at South N’Djamena district hospital. Before including a patient in our survey her consent was obtained after explaining to her the need for the survey. All consenting patients with post-partum haemorrhage were included. Data were analyzed using SPSS17.0. Results: We recorded 100 cases of post-partum haemorrhage among 6815 deliveries giving an incidence of 1.47%. The average age of the women was 25.0 years. The majority of deliveries (90% were vaginal. The main cause of immediate post-partum haemorrhage was a third stage of labour bleeding (66% followed by genital lesions (32%. The management was medical (uterotonic drug, fluid replacement and blood transfusion, obstetric (manual removal of placenta or clot, and surgical (suture of lesions, vascular ligature and hysterectomy. There were two maternal deaths (2%. Conclusion: Post-partum haemorrhage is often fatal in our region. Preventive measures and efficient management can help to improve maternal prognosis.

  17. A Retrospective Analysis of Thyroid Disease in Pregnancy at Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital Soweto South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Nicolaou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThyroid diseases in pregnancy are associated with adverse outcomes for mother and fetus.No studies have been reported examining the spectrum and nature of such disorders in the Black population of South Africa.AimsTo examine thyroid disorders in pregnancy at Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital in Soweto, by assessing the causes, management and outcomes.MethodsA retrospective review of thyroid disorders was undertaken in 88 patients, attending the Antenatal Endocrine Clinic over a four-year period. All underwent initial and follow-up clinical and biochemical assessments.Maternal delivery records and thyroid function tests of the neonates 48 hours or later following delivery were reviewed.ResultsFifty-eight (66% were hyperthyroid, 23(26% hypothyroid, and 7(8% had euthyroid colloid goiters. Forty-eight (83% hyperthyroid patients had Graves’ disease, whilst had gestational hyperthyroidism. Regarding the hypothyroid patients, more than half followed I131 ablation for Graves’ disease. Eighty-seven percent of the hyperthyroid and 83% of the hypothyroid patients were euthyroid prior to delivery. One fatal maternal outcome, due to uterine rupture and six intra-partum fetal losses occurred. Amongst neonates, there was one case of a tracheo-esophageal fistula and one of neonatal thyrotoxicosis.ConclusionThis is the first report in sub-Saharan Africa detailing thyroid diseases in pregnancy.

  18. Detection of Urinary Tract Infection (UTI Among Pregnant Women in Oluyoro Catholic Hospital, Ibadan, South-Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okonko, I. O.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the detection of urinary tract infections among 80 pregnant women in Oluyoro Catholic Hospital Ibadan, South-Western, Nigeria for a period of 6 months. It was carried out to detect the presence of urinary tract infection in pregnant women, and to isolate and to identify the pathogens responsible for the infection. A total of 80 clean voided mid-stream urine samples were collected from pregnant women between the ages of 21-40 years. The results showed 38 bacterial isolates with an incidence of 47.5% in this population. The isolates were identified based on colonial morphology, microscopic characteristics, and biochemical tests using Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology. Escherichia coli 16(42.1% was the most predominant organism. This was followed by Staphylococcus aureus 11(28.9%, Klebsiella aerogenes 7(18.4%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 2(5.3%, and a mixed culture of Klebisella aerogenes and Staphylococcus aureus 2(5.3%. Urine microscopy revealed the presence of Pus cells in the urine samples collected. Two samples, representing 2.5% of the samples contained yeast cells, suggesting that Candidiasis was also predominant. The high incidence rate of 47.5% reported in this study should be of great concern, as not only do UTIs pose a threat to health, but they also impose an economic and social burden due to the stigma associated with these infections.

  19. Clinical characteristics, angiographic profile and in hospital mortality in acute coronary syndrome patients in south indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajni Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim was to study the clinical profile, risk factors prevalence, angiographic distribution, and severity of coronary artery stenosis in acute coronary syndrome (ACS patients of South Indian population. Materials and Methods: A total of 1562 patients of ACS were analyzed for various risk factors, angiographic pattern and severity of coronary heart disease, complications and in hospital mortality at Sri Jayadeva Institute of Cardiovascular Research and Sciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India. Results: Mean age of presentation was 54.71 ± 19.90 years. Majority were male 1242 (79.5% and rest were females. Most patients had ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI 995 (63.7% followed by unstable angina (UA 390 (25% and non-STEMI (NSTEMI 177 (11.3%. Risk factors; smoking was present in 770 (49.3%, hypertension in 628 (40.2%, diabetes in 578 (37%, and obesity in (29.64% patients. Angiography was done in 1443 (92.38% patients. left anterior descending was most commonly involved, left main (LM coronary artery was least common with near similar frequency of right coronary artery and left circumflex involvement among all three groups of ACS patients. Single-vessel disease was present in 168 (45.28% UA, 94 (56.29% NSTEMI and 468 (51.71% STEMI patients. Double-vessel disease was present in 67 (18.08% UA, 25 (14.97% NSTEMI and 172 (19.01% STEMI patients. Triple vessel disease was present in 28 (7.55% UA, 16 (9.58% NSTEMI, 72 (7.95% STEMI patients. LM disease was present in 12 (3.23% UA, 2 (1.19% NSTEMI and 9 (0.99% STEMI patients. Complications; ventricular septal rupture occurred in 3 (0.2%, free wall rupture in 2 (0.1%, cardiogenic shock in 45 (2.9%, severe mitral regurgitation in 3 (0.2%, complete heart block in 11 (0.7% patients. Total 124 (7.9% patients died in hospital after 2.1 ± 1.85 days of admission. Conclusion: STEMI was most common presentation. ACS occurred a decade earlier in comparison to Western population. Smoking was most prevalent

  20. Working towards implementation of a nuclear medicine accreditation program in a South African teaching hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiselen, T.; Ellmann, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Quality assurance in Nuclear Medicine is of utmost importance in order to ensure optimal scintigraphic results and correct patient management and care. The implementation of a good quality assurance program should address all factors that playa role in the optimal functioning of a department. It should be developed by scientific findings as well as national and international guidelines. Aim: To develop a tailor made program that can be managed according to the individual needs and requirements of a Nuclear Medicine department in a teaching hospital. This program is aimed at international accreditation of the department. Materials and methods: Auditing of the following aspects was conducted: organizational, clinical and technical, personnel satisfaction, patient experience and satisfaction, referring physicians experience and satisfaction. Information was collected by means of questionnaires to groups and individuals for opinion polls; one-to-one interviews with personnel and patients; technical evaluation of equipment according to manufacturer's specifications and international standards; laboratory equipment evaluation according to precompiled guidelines and investigation of laboratory procedures for standardization and radiation safety. Existing procedure protocols were measured against international guidelines and evaluated for possible shortcomings of technical as well as cosmetic details, and data storage facilities were evaluated in terms of user friendliness, viability and cost effectiveness. A number of international accreditation experts were also visited to establish the validity of our results. Results: Patient questionnaires indicated overall satisfaction with personal service providing, but provision of written and understandable information, long waiting periods and equipment must receive attention. Staff questionnaires indicated a general lack of communication between different professional groups and the need for

  1. Acute perforated peptic ulcer: on clinical experience in an urban tertiary hospital in south east Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugochukwu, A I; Amu, O C; Nzegwu, M A; Dilibe, U C

    2013-01-01

    Acute perforated peptic ulcer is a leading cause of generalized peritonitis and its management has continued to be a challenging task in our environment. There is a paucity of published reports on acute perforated peptic ulcers in our environment. This study was conducted to evaluate the different pattern of risk factors clinical presentations, management and clinical outcome of patients with acute perforated peptic ulcer in our setting and to highlight the factors that continue to account for the high mortality and morbidity as seen here. A retrospective study where data of seventy-six (76) patients managed for generalized peritonitis due to acute peptic ulcer perforation over a five year period (January 2006-December 2010) were retrieved from medical records of Enugu State University of Science and Technology Hospital (ESUTH). The patients' biodata, clinical and operative findings and treatment outcome were extracted and analysed, after institutional ethical approval was secured. All other cases of generalized peritonitis not traceable to acute peptic ulcer perforation were excluded from the study. There were76 patients; 58 males and 18 females (M:F = 3.2:1) Their ages ranged from 20 to 80years with a mean of 39.5yr and SD ± 13.10years. Majority of the patients 49(64.4%) were 40years of age and below and only 24 (31.6%) had a previous history suggestive of chronic peptic ulcer disease. Twenty five (32.9%) patients presented within 24 h of onset of symptoms of perforation with a mortality of 8.0%. Slightly more than half of our patients 39(51.3%) presented between 24 and 48 h with mortality of 17.9%. Twelve patients (15.8%) presented between 48 and 72 h and the mortality in this group was 58.3%. The latter two groups accounted for most of the mortality in our series. All perforations were anterior perforations within the first 2.5 cm of the duodenum and all had simple closure with pedicled omental patch and peritoneal toilet with copious volumes of warm

  2. The accuracy of radiology speech recognition reports in a multilingual South African teaching hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toit, Jacqueline du; Hattingh, Retha; Pitcher, Richard

    2015-01-01

    had no bearing. SR technology consistently increased inaccuracies in Tygerberg Hospital (TBH) radiology reports, thereby potentially compromising patient care. Awareness of increased error rates in SR reports, particularly amongst those transcribing in a second-language, is important for effective implementation of SR in a multilingual healthcare environment

  3. Source apportionment of the particulate PAHs at Seoul, Korea: impact of long range transport to a megacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Y. Lee

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Northeast Asia including China, Korea, and Japan is one of the world's largest fossil fuel consumption regions. Seoul, Korea, is a megacity in Northeast Asia. Its emissions of air pollutants can affect the region, and in turn it is also affected by regional emissions. To understand the extent of these influences, major sources of ambient particulate PAHs in Seoul were identified and quantified based on measurements made between August 2002 and December 2003. The chemical mass balance (CMB model was applied. Seven major emission sources were identified based on the emission data in Seoul and Northeast Asia: Gasoline and diesel vehicles, residential coal use, coke ovens, coal power plants, biomass burning, and natural gas (NG combustion. The major sources of particulate PAHs in Seoul during the whole measurement period were gasoline and diesel vehicles, together accounted for 31% of the measured particulate PAHs levels. However, the source contributions showed distinct daily and seasonal variations. High contributions of biomass burning and coal (residential and coke oven were observed in fall and winter, accounting for 63% and 82% of the total concentration of PAHs, respectively. Since these sources were not strong in and around Seoul, they are likely to be related to transport from outside of Seoul, from China and/or North Korea. This implies that the air quality in a mega-city such as Seoul can be influenced by the long range transport of air pollutants such as PAHs.

  4. Increasing Recovery of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria from Respiratory Specimens over a 10-Year Period in a Tertiary Referral Hospital in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Koh, Won-Jung; Chang, Boksoon; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Jeon, Kyeongman; Kim, Su-Young; Lee, Nam Yong; Ki, Chang-Seok; Kwon, O Jung

    2013-01-01

    Background The number of patients with pulmonary disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has been increasing worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term trends in the NTM recovery rate from respiratory specimens over a 10-year period in a tertiary referral hospital in South Korea. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of mycobacterial cultures of respiratory specimens at Samsung Medical Center from January 2001 to December 2011. Results During the study pe...

  5. KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE TOWARDS HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS AND ITS VACCINE AMONG PHARMACY STUDENTS OF TERTIARY TEACHING UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL IN SOUTH INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Raghupathi Mahitha; T. S. Arunprasath

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cervical cancer in women can be effectively prevented by HPV vaccine. Healthcare professionals including pharmacists have a role in creating awareness about this vaccine to public. In this context, it was decided to study awareness level about HPV among pharmacy students. The aim of the study is to study the knowledge and attitude towards human papilloma virus and it’s vaccine among pharmacy students of tertiary teaching university hospital in South India. MATERIA...

  6. Acute undifferentiated febrile illness in patients presenting to a Tertiary Care Hospital in South India: clinical spectrum and outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kundavaram Paul Prabhakar Abhilash

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute undifferentiated febrile illness (AUFI may have similar clinical presentation, and the etiology is varied and region specific. Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted in a tertiary hospital in South India. All adult patients presenting with AUFI of 3-14 days duration were evaluated for etiology, and the differences in presentation and outcome were analyzed. Results: The study cohort included 1258 patients. A microbiological cause was identified in 82.5% of our patients. Scrub typhus was the most common cause of AUFI (35.9% followed by dengue (30.6%, malaria (10.4%, enteric fever (3.7%, and leptospirosis (0.6%. Both scrub typhus and dengue fever peaked during the monsoon season and the cooler months, whereas no seasonality was observed with enteric fever and malaria. The mean time to presentation was longer in enteric fever (9.9 [4.7] days and scrub typhus (8.2 [3.2] days. Bleeding manifestations were seen in 7.7% of patients, mostly associated with dengue (14%, scrub typhus (4.2%, and malaria (4.6%. The requirement of supplemental oxygen, invasive ventilation, and inotropes was higher in scrub typhus, leptospirosis, and malaria. The overall mortality rate was 3.3% and was highest with scrub typhus (4.6% followed by dengue fever (2.3%. Significant clinical predictors of scrub typhus were breathlessness (odds ratio [OR]: 4.96; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.38-7.3, total whole blood cell count >10,000 cells/mm 3 (OR: 2.31; 95% CI: 1.64-3.24, serum albumin <3.5 g % (OR: 2.32; 95% CI: 1.68-3.2. Overt bleeding manifestations (OR: 2.98; 95% CI: 1.84-4.84, and a platelet count of <150,000 cells/mm 3 (OR: 2.09; 95% CI: 1.47-2.98 were independent predictors of dengue fever. Conclusion: The similarity in clinical presentation and diversity of etiological agents demonstrates the complexity of diagnosis and treatment of AUFI in South India. The etiological profile will be of use in the development of

  7. Organisational culture and trust as influences over the implementation of equity-oriented policy in two South African case study hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, Ermin; Gilson, Lucy; Govender, Veloshnee; Nkosi, Moremi

    2017-09-15

    This paper uses the concepts of organisational culture and organisational trust to explore the implementation of equity-oriented policies - the Uniform Patient Fee Schedule (UPFS) and Patients' Rights Charter (PRC) - in two South African district hospitals. It contributes to the small literatures on organisational culture and trust in low- and middle-income country health systems, and broader work on health systems' people-centeredness and "software". The research entailed semi-structured interviews (Hospital A n = 115, Hospital B n = 80) with provincial, regional, district and hospital managers, as well as clinical and non-clinical hospital staff, hospital board members, and patients; observations of policy implementation, organisational functioning, staff interactions and patient-provider interactions; and structured surveys operationalising the Competing Values Framework for measuring organisational culture (Hospital A n = 155, Hospital B n = 77) and Organisational Trust Inventory (Hospital A n = 185, Hospital B n = 92) for assessing staff-manager trust. Regarding the UPFS, the hospitals' implementation approaches were similar in that both primarily understood it to be about revenue generation, granting fee exemptions was not a major focus, and considerable activity, facility management support, and provincial support was mobilised behind the UPFS. The hospitals' PRC paths diverged quite significantly, as Hospital A was more explicit in communicating and implementing the PRC, while the policy also enjoyed stronger managerial support in Hospital A than Hospital B. Beneath these experiences lie differences in how people's values, decisions and relationships influence health system functioning and in how the nature of policies, culture, trust and power dynamics can combine to create enabling or disabling micro-level implementation environments. Achieving equity in practice requires managers to take account of "unseen" but important factors such as

  8. Predictors of Treatment Failure among Adult Antiretroviral Treatment (ART) Clients in Bale Zone Hospitals, South Eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haile, Demewoz; Takele, Abulie; Gashaw, Ketema; Demelash, Habtamu; Nigatu, Dabere

    2016-01-01

    Treatment failure defined as progression of disease after initiation of ART or when the anti-HIV medications can't control the infection. One of the major concerns over the rapid scaling up of ART is the emergence and transmission of HIV drug resistant strains at the population level due to treatment failure. This could lead to the failure of basic ART programs. Thus this study aimed to investigate the predictors of treatment failure among adult ART clients in Bale Zone Hospitals, South east Ethiopia. Retrospective cohort study was employed in four hospitals of Bale zone named Goba, Robe, Ginir and Delomena. A total of 4,809 adult ART clients were included in the analysis from these four hospitals. Adherence was measured by pill count method. The Kaplan Meier (KM) curve was used to describe the survival time of ART patients without treatment failure. Bivariate and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used for identifying associated factors of treatment failure. The incidence rate of treatment failure was found 9.38 (95% CI 7.79-11.30) per 1000 person years. Male ART clients were more likely to experience treatment failure as compared to females [AHR = 4.49; 95% CI: (2.61-7.73)].Similarly, lower CD4 count (ART was found significantly associated with higher odds of treatment failure [AHR = 3.79; 95% CI: (2.46-5.84).Bedridden [AHR = 5.02; 95% CI: (1.98-12.73)] and ambulatory [AHR = 2.12; 95% CI: (1.08-4.07)] patients were more likely to experience treatment failure as compared to patients with working functional status. TB co-infected clients had also higher odds to experience treatment failure [AHR = 3.06; 95% CI: (1.72-5.44)]. Those patients who had developed TB after ART initiation had higher odds to experience treatment failure as compared to their counter parts [AHR = 4.35; 95% CI: (1.99-9.54]. Having other opportunistic infection during ART initiation was also associated with higher odds of experiencing treatment failure [AHR = 7.0, 95

  9. Predictors of Treatment Failure among Adult Antiretroviral Treatment (ART Clients in Bale Zone Hospitals, South Eastern Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demewoz Haile

    Full Text Available Treatment failure defined as progression of disease after initiation of ART or when the anti-HIV medications can't control the infection. One of the major concerns over the rapid scaling up of ART is the emergence and transmission of HIV drug resistant strains at the population level due to treatment failure. This could lead to the failure of basic ART programs. Thus this study aimed to investigate the predictors of treatment failure among adult ART clients in Bale Zone Hospitals, South east Ethiopia.Retrospective cohort study was employed in four hospitals of Bale zone named Goba, Robe, Ginir and Delomena. A total of 4,809 adult ART clients were included in the analysis from these four hospitals. Adherence was measured by pill count method. The Kaplan Meier (KM curve was used to describe the survival time of ART patients without treatment failure. Bivariate and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used for identifying associated factors of treatment failure.The incidence rate of treatment failure was found 9.38 (95% CI 7.79-11.30 per 1000 person years. Male ART clients were more likely to experience treatment failure as compared to females [AHR = 4.49; 95% CI: (2.61-7.73].Similarly, lower CD4 count (<100 m3/dl at initiation of ART was found significantly associated with higher odds of treatment failure [AHR = 3.79; 95% CI: (2.46-5.84.Bedridden [AHR = 5.02; 95% CI: (1.98-12.73] and ambulatory [AHR = 2.12; 95% CI: (1.08-4.07] patients were more likely to experience treatment failure as compared to patients with working functional status. TB co-infected clients had also higher odds to experience treatment failure [AHR = 3.06; 95% CI: (1.72-5.44]. Those patients who had developed TB after ART initiation had higher odds to experience treatment failure as compared to their counter parts [AHR = 4.35; 95% CI: (1.99-9.54]. Having other opportunistic infection during ART initiation was also associated with higher odds of

  10. Statement at Nuclear Security Summit, 27 March 2012, Seoul, South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Mr President, Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen, The Fukushima Daiichi accident last year reminded us of the important connections between nuclear safety and nuclear security. Implementing multiple safety measures at nuclear plants also helps to protect them against terrorist sabotage. In order to take this work forward, I have just established a Nuclear Security Guidance Committee. All of you can participate in developing best practices in nuclear security, taking account of nuclear safety considerations. During the course of yesterday and today, all of you have referred to the activities of the IAEA, so I hope you will let me share some of the details of those activities with you. Last year, in a sting operation, police in the Republic of Moldova seized a quantity of high enriched uranium. The uranium was carried in a shielded container to prevent it from being detected. The smugglers claimed that the seized material was just a sample and that they could provide more. This case showed a new and worrying level of sophistication. I mention this example to demonstrate that the seriousness of the threat of nuclear terrorism has not diminished. But I also wanted to show that, by working together, we can respond effectively. In this case, the IAEA had provided training to around 60 Moldovan officials and given them some 70 items of specialist equipment. Thanks to that cooperation, the Moldovan police were able to stop the smuggling. This Summit is considering not just the security of nuclear materials, but also that of radioactive sources. These materials, such as cobalt-60, could be used along with conventional explosives to make so-called dirty bombs. A dirty bomb detonated in a major city could cause mass panic, as well as serious economic and environmental consequences. Ladies and Gentlemen, National governments have primary responsibility for nuclear security, but international cooperation is vital. In the past two years, there have been some positive developments, but more needs to be done. In addressing nuclear security, information has a vital importance. More than 100 countries now report incidents of thefts or other illicit activities involving nuclear and other radioactive materials to the IAEA Illicit Trafficking Database. It tracks several hundred incidents every year, but this could just be the tip of the iceberg. I would like to see all countries participating in the Database. We are presently working with many of you to establish global networks of Nuclear Security Support Centres to improve nuclear security. Upon the request of IAEA Member States, we are coordinating these activities. One area where more action is urgently needed by the Member States is ratification of the Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials. The Amendment was agreed in 2005 but has still not entered into force. The problem with the original Convention is that it covers only the physical protection of nuclear material in international transport. The Amendment would expand its coverage to include the protection of nuclear material in domestic use, transport and storage, and the protection of nuclear facilities. Entry into force of the Amendment would make an important difference to global nuclear security. Ladies and Gentlemen, Strengthening nuclear security is not just about spending money on 'guns, gates and guards.' Human elements such as training specialist staff and transferring know-how are of equal importance. In the past ten years, the IAEA has trained over 10,000 people in more than 120 countries in nuclear security. We have helped countries put a considerable amount of high enriched uranium into more secure storage. We are receiving more requests for peer reviews which is a very encouraging sign. Ladies and Gentlemen, I welcome and thank you for your support for the IAEA, as expressed at this Summit and the communique which you are about to adopt. We will work with all of you to help make the world more secure from nuclear terrorism. Thank you. (IAEA)

  11. Data Mining Approaches for Landslide Susceptibility Mapping in Umyeonsan, Seoul, South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunmin Lee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The application of data mining models has become increasingly popular in recent years in assessments of a variety of natural hazards such as landslides and floods. Data mining techniques are useful for understanding the relationships between events and their influencing variables. Because landslides are influenced by a combination of factors including geomorphological and meteorological factors, data mining techniques are helpful in elucidating the mechanisms by which these complex factors affect landslide events. In this study, spatial data mining approaches based on data on landslide locations in the geographic information system environment were investigated. The topographical factors of slope, aspect, curvature, topographic wetness index, stream power index, slope length factor, standardized height, valley depth, and downslope distance gradient were determined using topographical maps. Additional soil and forest variables using information obtained from national soil and forest maps were also investigated. A total of 17 variables affecting the frequency of landslide occurrence were selected to construct a spatial database, and support vector machine (SVM and artificial neural network (ANN models were applied to predict landslide susceptibility from the selected factors. In the SVM model, linear, polynomial, radial base function, and sigmoid kernels were applied in sequence; the model yielded 72.41%, 72.83%, 77.17% and 72.79% accuracy, respectively. The ANN model yielded a validity accuracy of 78.41%. The results of this study are useful in guiding effective strategies for the prevention and management of landslides in urban areas.

  12. Teaching Religious Studies to Undergraduate Non-Majors at Seoul National University, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yohan

    2015-01-01

    This essay is part of a collection of short essays solicited from authors around the globe who teach religion courses at the college level (not for professional religious training). They are published together with an introduction in "Teaching Theology and Religion" 18:3 (July 2015). The authors were asked to provide a brief overview of…

  13. Etiology and outcome determinants of intracerebral hemorrhage in a south Indian population, A hospital-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil K Narayan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is paucity of methodologically sound published studies on intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH from India, on pub med/embase search. Aims: To explore etiology of ICH and correlate the causes, location, and size of hemorrhage to clinical outcome. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based descriptive study from South Indian eastern coastal town of Puducherry; 60 consecutive subjects aged > 12 years, predominantly of inbred Tamil population, with head CT evidence of intracerebral hemorrhage not associated with trauma and brain tumors, were recruited. Outcome at three months was measured using Glasgow Outcome scale, NIHSS and mortality. SPSS v 19 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Commonest etiological factor was hypertension, followed by bleeding diathesis, thrombolysis for myocardial infarction, and cortical vein thrombosis. Most frequent locations of hematoma were basal ganglia, thalamus, internal capsule, and cerebral and cerebellar parenchyma. Hematoma volume correlated significantly with systolic and mean arterial pressure but not with diastolic blood pressure. Poor outcome was correlated to size (P < 0.05 and intraventricular extension of hematoma (P < 0.05, and to systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure, but not to age, gender, smoking, alcoholism, ischemic heart disease, and blood sugar level. Among diabetic patients with ICH, the size of hematoma (P = 0.04 and severity of coma (P = 0.01 at admission were significantly worse compared to the non-diabetic, but not the outcome at three months [Glasgow outcome scale or mortality (P = 0.94 and 0.14]. Conclusions: The location of hemorrhage and correlation with outcome agreed with the patterns described for the non-white races in prior reports. Independence of outcome to diabetic status despite a more severe initial presentation may indicate importance of good care, even in high risk groups.

  14. Lived experiences of parents of premature babies in the intensive care unit in a private hospital in Johannesburg, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Steyn

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many of the 15 million premature babies born worldwide every year survive because of advanced medical interventions. Their parents have intense experiences when their babies are in the intensive care unit (ICU, and these have an impact on their thoughts, feelings and relationships, including their relationships with their premature babies. Objectives: The aim of the study was to explore and describe the lived experiences of parents of premature babies in an ICU. Method: Research design was qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual. A purposive sample of parents with premature babies in an ICU in a private hospital in Johannesburg Gauteng in South Africa was used. Eight parents, four mothers and four fathers, married and either Afrikaans or English-speaking, were included in the study. Data were collected by conducting in-depth phenomenological interviews with them and making use of field notes. Trustworthiness was ensured by implementing the strategies of credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability. Ethical principles such as autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice were adhered to throughout the research process. Results: Thematic analyses were utilised to analyse the data. Two themes in the experiences of parents with premature babies in ICU became apparent. Parents experienced thoughts, emotions and hope while their premature babies were in the ICU as well as challenges in their relationships and these challenges influenced their experiences. Recommendations: Mindfulness of intensive care nurses should be facilitated so that intensive care nurses can promote the mental health of parents with premature babies in the ICU. Conclusion: Parents with premature babies in the ICU have thoughts and emotional experiences which include hope and they affect parents’ relationships.

  15. Lived experiences of parents of premature babies in the intensive care unit in a private hospital in Johannesburg, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyn, Erika; Poggenpoel, Marie; Myburgh, Chris

    2017-02-28

    Many of the 15 million premature babies born worldwide every year survive because of advanced medical interventions. Their parents have intense experiences when their babies are in the intensive care unit (ICU), and these have an impact on their thoughts, feelings and relationships, including their relationships with their premature babies. The aim of the study was to explore and describe the lived experiences of parents of premature babies in an ICU. Research design was qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual. A purposive sample of parents with premature babies in an ICU in a private hospital in Johannesburg Gauteng in South Africa was used. Eight parents, four mothers and four fathers, married and either Afrikaans or English-speaking, were included in the study. Data were collected by conducting in-depth phenomenological interviews with them and making use of field notes. Trustworthiness was ensured by implementing the strategies of credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability. Ethical principles such as autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice were adhered to throughout the research process. Thematic analyses were utilised to analyse the data. Two themes in the experiences of parents with premature babies in ICU became apparent. Parents experienced thoughts, emotions and hope while their premature babies were in the ICU as well as challenges in their relationships and these challenges influenced their experiences. Mindfulness of intensive care nurses should be facilitated so that intensive care nurses can promote the mental health of parents with premature babies in the ICU. Parents with premature babies in the ICU have thoughts and emotional experiences which include hope and they affect parents' relationships.

  16. Pathogenic factors associated with development of disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC) in a tertiary academic hospital in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, Elizabeth S; Mayne, Anthony L H; Louw, Susan J

    2018-01-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC) is a thrombotic microangiopathy arising from consumption of both coagulation factors and platelets. DIC is triggered by a number of clinical conditions including severe infection, trauma and obstetric complications. Early diagnosis and treatment of the underlying condition is paramount. A high clinical index of suspicion is needed to ensure that patients at risk of developing DIC are appropriately investigated. In order to establish the clinical conditions most frequently associated with DIC, we reviewed all DIC screens received at a tertiary hospital in Johannesburg, South Africa over a 1 year period. The commonest clinical condition associated with DIC in our population was infection with 84% of patients infected with an identified pathogen. The most frequently diagnosed pathogen was HIV followed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other bacterial infections. In the majority of cases, bacteria were isolated from blood cultures. In 47 patients, HIV was the only pathogen which could be isolated. A relative risk ratio of 2.73 and an odds ratio of 29.97 was attributed to HIV for development of a DIC. A malignancy was present in 51 of the patients of which approximately 60% had co-existing infection. No cause could be attributed in 30 patients. Infection was identified in the majority of the patients diagnosed with DIC in this study. HIV showed the highest relative risk ratio of all pathogens although previous studies have not suggested that HIV was strongly associated with DIC. In almost half of the HIV infected patients, there was no other pathogen isolated despite extensive investigation. This suggests that HIV has a strong association with the development of DIC, warranting further research into the relationship between HIV and disseminated microvascular thrombosis.

  17. Knowledge and attitude toward interdisciplinary team working among obstetricians and gynecologists in teaching hospitals in South East Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyoke, Chukwuemeka Anthony; Lawani, Lucky Osaheni; Ugwu, George Onyemaechi; Ajah, Leonard Ogbonna; Ezugwu, Euzebus Chinonye; Onah, Paul; Onwuka, Chidinma Ifechi

    2015-01-01

    Interdisciplinary team working could facilitate the efficient provision and coordination of increasingly diverse health services, thereby improving the quality of patient care. The purpose of this study was to describe knowledge of interdisciplinary team working among obstetricians and gynecologists in two teaching hospitals in South East Nigeria and to determine their attitude toward an interdisciplinary collaborative approach to patient care in these institutions. This was a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics and was carried out using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software version 17.0 for Windows. In total, 116 doctors participated in the study. The mean age of the respondents was 31.9±7.0 (range 22-51) years. Approximately 74% of respondents were aware of the concept of interdisciplinary team working. Approximately 15% of respondents who were aware of the concept of interdisciplinary team working had very good knowledge of it; 52% had good knowledge and 33% had poor knowledge. Twenty-nine percent of knowledgeable respondents reported ever receiving formal teaching/training on interdisciplinary team working in the course of their professional development. About 78% of those aware of team working believed that interdisciplinary teams would be useful in obstetrics and gynecology practice in Nigeria, with 89% stating that it would be very useful. Approximately 77% of those aware of team working would support establishment and implementation of interdisciplinary teams at their centers. There was a high degree of knowledge of the concept and a positive attitude toward interdisciplinary team working among obstetricians and gynecologists in the study centers. This suggests that the attitude of physicians may not be an impediment to implementation of a collaborative interdisciplinary approach to clinical care in the study centers.

  18. The effectiveness of the South African Triage Toll use in Mahalapye District Hospital – Emergency Department, Botswana

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    Stephane T. Tshitenge

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study aimed to determine the proportion of each priority level of patients, time of performance in each priority level, and the reliability of the South African Triage Scale (SATS tool at the Mahalapye District Hospital - Emergency Department (MDH-ED, a setting where the majority of the nurses were not formally trained on the use of the SATS. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study using case records in MDH-ED from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2014. A panel of experts from the Mahalapye site of the Family Medicine Department, University of Botswana, reviewed and scored each selected case record that was compared with the scores previously attributed to the nurse triage. Results: From the 315 case records, both the nurse triage and the panel of expert triage assigned the majority of cases in the routine category (green, 146 (46% and 125 (40%, respectively, or in the urgent category (yellow, they assigned 140 (44% and 111 (35% cases, respectively.Overall, there was an adequate agreement between the nurse triage and the panel of expert triage (k = 0.4, 95% confidence interval: 0.3–0.5, although the level of agreement was satisfactory. Conclusion: Findings of the study reported that the profile of the priority-level categories in MDH-ED was made in the majority of routine and urgent patients, only the routine and the emergency patients were seen within the targeted time and they had a satisfactory level of reliability (between 0.4 and 0.6.

  19. Hospital distribution in a metropolitan city: assessment by a geographical information system grid modelling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Soo Lee

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Grid models were used to assess urban hospital distribution in Seoul, the capital of South Korea. A geographical information system (GIS based analytical model was developed and applied to assess the situation in a metropolitan area with a population exceeding 10 million. Secondary data for this analysis were obtained from multiple sources: the Korean Statistical Information Service, the Korean Hospital Association and the Statistical Geographical Information System. A grid of cells measuring 1 × 1 km was superimposed on the city map and a set of variables related to population, economy, mobility and housing were identified and measured for each cell. Socio-demographic variables were included to reflect the characteristics of each area. Analytical models were then developed using GIS software with the number of hospitals as the dependent variable. Applying multiple linear regression and geographically weighted regression models, three factors (highway and major arterial road areas; number of subway entrances; and row house areas were statistically significant in explaining the variance of hospital distribution for each cell. The overall results show that GIS is a useful tool for analysing and understanding location strategies. This approach appears a useful source of information for decision-makers concerned with the distribution of hospitals and other health care centres in a city.

  20. Terrorism in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Soon Joo; Choi, Jin Tae; Arnold, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    South Korea has experienced > 30 suspected terrorism-related events since 1958, including attacks against South Korean citizens in foreign countries. The most common types of terrorism used have included bombings, shootings, hijackings, and kidnappings. Prior to 1990, North Korea was responsible for almost all terrorism-related events inside of South Korea, including multiple assassination attempts on its presidents, regular kidnappings of South Korean fisherman, and several high-profile bombings. Since 1990, most of the terrorist attacks against South Korean citizens have occurred abroad and have been related to the emerging worldwide pattern of terrorism by international terrorist organizations or deranged individuals. The 1988 Seoul Olympic Games provided a major stimulus for South Korea to develop a national emergency response system for terrorism-related events based on the participation of multiple ministries. The 11 September 2001 World Trade Center and Pentagon attacks and the 2001 United States of America (US) anthrax letter attacks prompted South Korea to organize a new national system of emergency response for terrorism-related events. The system is based on five divisions for the response to specific types of terrorist events, involving conventional terrorism, bioterrorism, chemical terrorism, radiological terrorism, and cyber-terrorism. No terrorism-related events occurred during the 2002 World Cup and Asian Games held in South Korea. The emergency management of terrorism-related events in South Korea is adapting to the changing risk of terrorism in the new century.

  1. Prevalence and Impact of Diabetes Mellitus Among Patients with Active Pulmonary Tuberculosis in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Hye; Lee, Jung Mo; Kang, Young Ae; Leem, Ah Young; Kim, Eun Young; Jung, Ji Ye; Park, Moo Suk; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Se Kyu; Chang, Joon; Kim, Song Yee

    2017-04-01

    South Korea has an increasing prevalence of diabetes and a relatively high burden of tuberculosis. We aimed to determine the prevalence of diabetes in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and examine the effect of diabetes on tuberculosis treatment outcomes. Data from patients ≥30 years diagnosed with and treated for PTB between January 2010 and December 2012 at Severance Hospital, a 2000-bed tertiary referral hospital in Seoul, South Korea, were analyzed and compared with data from a contemporaneous general population sample extracted from KNHANES V. Diabetes prevalence was 24.2% (252/1044) among patients with PTB and 11.6% (1700/14,655) among controls. Diabetes [odds ratios (OR) 2.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.56-4.21, P Diabetes was the only factor associated with unsuccessful treatment outcomes (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.03-2.70, P = 0.039). The prevalence of diabetes was markedly higher in patients with PTB than in a sample of the general South Korean population. Diabetes may delay sputum conversion and adversely affect treatment outcomes; detection and management of diabetes in patients with PTB is crucial.

  2. An Estimation of Construction and Demolition Debris in Seoul, Korea: Waste Amount, Type, and Estimating Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seongwon; Hwang, Yongwoo

    1999-08-01

    Construction and demolition (C&D) debris is generated at the site of various construction activities. However, the amount of the debris is usually so large that it is necessary to estimate the amount of C&D debris as accurately as possible for effective waste management and control in urban areas. In this paper, an effective estimation method using a statistical model was proposed. The estimation process was composed of five steps: estimation of the life span of buildings; estimation of the floor area of buildings to be constructed and demolished; calculation of individual intensity units of C&D debris; and estimation of the future C&D debris production. This method was also applied in the city of Seoul as an actual case, and the estimated amount of C&D debris in Seoul in 2021 was approximately 24 million tons. Of this total amount, 98% was generated by demolition, and the main components of debris were concrete and brick.

  3. Air quality monitoring at Seoul, Korea as a part of East-Asian air surveillance network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Y.; Sekine, Y.; Kim, H.K.; Otoshi, T.

    1989-01-01

    Global scale air pollution study is a recent trend due to a perception that air pollution is changing climate and other essential earth's conditions that could seriously affect our lives. One of the important tasks which can contribute to protect our natural environment must be to know about the present and changing air quality. For this purpose, a regional air monitoring plan was designed by a research group and has proceeded to set up stations in the eastern Asia including Japan, Korea and China to get continuous data which can contribute to world wide data base of air quality. This project was initiated at Seoul, Korea in April, 1986 by the method of National Air Surveillance Network, Japan. Airborne particles were collected by so-called Hi-vol and Lo-vol, and their components were analyzed by neutron activation analysis and others. The results of Seoul sampling as a first step of this network plan are presented

  4. Molecular detection of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) in feral cats from Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jusun; Kang, Jun-Gu; Oh, Sung-Suck; Chae, Jeong-Byoung; Cho, Yun-Kyung; Cho, Young-Sun; Lee, Hang; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2017-01-01

    This study tested serum samples of feral cats from a highly urbanized habitat, Seoul, Korea to determine the infection to severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV). From 126 samples tested, SFTSV was detected by RT-PCR in 22 (17.5%) cats from various sites of Seoul. Sequences identified from this study were grouped with clusters from China and Japan. Our result provides data that SFTSV may have been circulating in settings that were suspected to have relatively low risk, such as highly urbanized habitats. Thus it warrants further study to investigate the ecology of SFTSV in urban-dwelling animals including ticks, human and other potential host species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Internal Exposure of a Seoul Subway Passenger due to Radon Inhalation: Before and After PSD Installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ji-Yong; Kim, Eun-Hee [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Radon is the major source of public exposure to natural radiation and is also known to cause lung cancer. Platform screen doors (PSD) were installed primarily for passenger's safety purposes. Radon concentration and aerosol distribution have been changed since PSD installation. In this study, we have assessed the annual effective dose of regular subway passengers, before and after PSD installation, by employing current available data on air concentration of radon in Seoul subways with aerosol size distributions taken into account. ICRP recommends that the reference value for internal dose from radon be between 1.0 and 20.0 mSv. Korean Ministry of Environment enacted the indoor radon regulation, which requires the indoor radon level should not exceed 148 Bq/m{sup 3}. Radon concentrations in Seoul subways and annual dose estimates meet the requirements.

  6. Internal Exposure of a Seoul Subway Passenger due to Radon Inhalation: Before and After PSD Installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Ji-Yong; Kim, Eun-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Radon is the major source of public exposure to natural radiation and is also known to cause lung cancer. Platform screen doors (PSD) were installed primarily for passenger's safety purposes. Radon concentration and aerosol distribution have been changed since PSD installation. In this study, we have assessed the annual effective dose of regular subway passengers, before and after PSD installation, by employing current available data on air concentration of radon in Seoul subways with aerosol size distributions taken into account. ICRP recommends that the reference value for internal dose from radon be between 1.0 and 20.0 mSv. Korean Ministry of Environment enacted the indoor radon regulation, which requires the indoor radon level should not exceed 148 Bq/m 3 . Radon concentrations in Seoul subways and annual dose estimates meet the requirements

  7. Radon exposure assessment for underground workers: a case of Seoul Subway Police officers in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Myeong Han; Chang, Byung-Uck; Kim, Yongjae; Cho, Kun-Woo

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study is the systematic and individual assessment of the annual effective dose due to inhaled radon for the Seoul Subway Police officers, Korea. The annual average radon concentrations were found to be in the range of 18.9-114 Bq·m(-3) in their workplaces. The total annual effective doses which may likely to be received on duty were assessed to be in the range of 0.41-1.64 mSv·y(-1). These were well below the recommended action level 10 mSv·y(-1) by ICRP. However, the effective doses were higher than subway station staff in Seoul, Korea.

  8. Modification of the gravity model and application to the metropolitan Seoul subway system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Segun; Lee, Keumsook; Park, Jong Soo; Choi, M Y

    2012-08-01

    The Metropolitan Seoul Subway system is examined through the use of the gravity model. Exponents describing the power-law dependence on the time distance between stations are obtained, which reveals a universality for subway lines of the same topology. In the short (time) distance regime the number of passengers between stations does not grow with the decrease in the distance, thus deviating from the power-law behavior. It is found that such reduction in passengers is well described by the Hill function. Further, temporal fluctuations in the passenger flow data, fitted to the gravity model modified by the Hill function, are analyzed to reveal the Yule-type nature inherent in the structure of Seoul.

  9. Confucianism and Qualitative Interviewing: Working Seoul to Soul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunghee Park

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available With the internationalization of higher education, research settings and researcher backgrounds are becoming increasingly complex, further complicating disciplinary assumptions, traditions and techniques. This article highlights key practical and conceptual issues that arose during planning fieldwork, fieldwork conduct, subsequent analysis and writing up of a qualitative study carried out within a Confucian setting. Drawing on the experience with a detailed research study of a pay for performance scheme (involving 31 in-depth interviews undertaken by a South Korean researcher, this article explores conceptual and practical issues that emerged between Anglophone methods and countries with a Confucian heritage. It is discussed how processes of sampling/recruitment, ethics, fieldwork conduct (including insider relations, power hierarchies, and translation are complicated in such settings. The article seeks to expand our understandings of qualitative research vis-à-vis contemporary Confucian cultures, something which has previously not been well addressed and which is part of the ongoing project of "globalizing qualitative research." URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs150274

  10. Landschaftsplanung als Steuerungsinstrument im Urbanisierungsprozess am Beispiel der beiden Hauptstädte Seoul und Berlin

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ji-Young

    2017-01-01

    Als Begleiterscheinungen des rasanten Wirtschaftswachstums und der nicht behutsamen Raumentwicklungen Südkoreas seit Beginn der 60er Jahre kristallisierten sich monotone Stadtstrukturen, regionaler Identitätsverlust und enorme ökologische Belastung als negative Erscheinungsformen der Raumordnung heraus. Erhebliche Umweltbelastungen, Veränderungen des Stadtbilds und die Flächeninanspruchnahme sind vor allem in der Hauptstadt Seoul signifikante Folgen der städtischen Ausdehnung und Verdichtung....

  11. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in feral cats in Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Eun; Kim, Neung-Hee; Chae, Hee-Sun; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Nam, Ho-Woo; Lee, Won-Ja; Kim, Sun-Heung; Lee, Jung-Hark

    2011-02-01

    The present study assessed the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in feral cat populations in Seoul using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 456 feral cats from 17 wards in Seoul was surveyed. The overall prevalence of T. gondii infection was 15.8% (69/456) by ELISA and 17.5% (80/456) by PCR; by gender, 17% (44/259) by ELISA and 16.2% (42/259) by PCR in males and 14.3% (28/196) by ELISA and 19.4% (38/196) by PCR in females. On a baseline of the Han River, prevalence was 15.1% (29/192) by ELISA and 15.6% (30/192) by PCR in the upper region and 16.4% (43/264) by ELISA and 18.9% (50/264) by PCR in the lower area. This suggested that toxoplasmosis is widespread throughout Seoul's feral cat population and it is critical that the city institute policies for the control of the feral cat population to reduce the risk of toxoplasmosis transmission to animals, including humans.

  12. Management of severe acute malnutrition in children under 5 years through the lens of health care workers in two rural South African hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzigaba, Moise; Van Wyk, Brian; Puoane, Thandi

    2018-01-30

    Despite the widespread implementation of the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for the management of severe malnutrition in South Africa, poor treatment outcomes for children under 5 years are still observed in some hospitals, particularly in rural areas. To explore health care workers' perceptions about upstream and proximal factors contributing to poor treatment outcomes for severe acute malnutrition in two district hospitals in South Africa. An explorative descriptive qualitative study was conducted. Four focus group discussions were held with 33 hospital staff (senior clinical and management staff, and junior clinical staff) using interview guide questions developed based on the findings from an epidemiological study that was conducted in the same hospitals. Qualitative data were analysed using the framework analysis. Most respondents believed that critical illness, which was related to early and high case fatality rates on admission, was linked to a web of factors including preference for traditional medicine over conventional care, gross negligence of the child at household level, misdiagnosis of severe malnutrition at the first point of care, lack of specialised skills to deal with complex presentations, shortage of patient beds in the hospital and policies to discharge patients before optimal recovery. The majority believed that the WHO guidelines were effective and relatively simple to implement, but that they do not make much difference among severe acute malnutrition cases that are admitted in a critical condition. Poor management of cases was linked to the lack of continuity in training of rotating clinicians, sporadic shortages of therapeutic resources, inadequate staffing levels after normal working hours and some organisational and system-wide challenges beyond the immediate control of clinicians. Findings from this study suggest that effective management of paediatric severe acute malnutrition in the study setting is affected by a

  13. Epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus-associated acute lower respiratory tract infection hospitalizations among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected South African children, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyes, Jocelyn; Cohen, Cheryl; Pretorius, Marthi; Groome, Michelle; von Gottberg, Anne; Wolter, Nicole; Walaza, Sibongile; Haffejee, Sumayya; Chhagan, Meera; Naby, Fathima; Cohen, Adam L; Tempia, Stefano; Kahn, Kathleen; Dawood, Halima; Venter, Marietjie; Madhi, Shabir A

    2013-12-15

    There are limited data on respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection among children in settings with a high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We studied the epidemiology of RSV-associated acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRTI) hospitalizations among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children in South Africa. Children aged infection among HIV-infected and uninfected children were examined. The relative risk of hospitalization in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children was calculated in 1 site with population denominators. Of 4489 participants, 4293 (96%) were tested for RSV, of whom 1157 (27%) tested positive. With adjustment for age, HIV-infected children had a 3-5-fold increased risk of hospitalization with RSV-associated ALRTI (2010 relative risk, 5.6; [95% confidence interval (CI), 4.5-6.4]; 2011 relative risk, 3.1 [95% CI, 2.6-3.6]). On multivariable analysis, HIV-infected children with RSV-associated ALRTI had higher odds of death (adjusted odds ratio. 31.1; 95% CI, 5.4-179.8) and hospitalization for >5 days (adjusted odds ratio, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.5-10.6) than HIV-uninfected children. HIV-infected children have a higher risk of hospitalization with RSV-associated ALRTI and a poorer outcome than HIV-uninfected children. These children should be targeted for interventions aimed at preventing severe RSV disease.

  14. Nurses and care workers’ perceptions of their nurse-patient therapeutic relationship in private general hospitals, Gauteng, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E. van den Heever

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Facilitation of a therapeutic relationship is an essential skill in nursing, particularly in mental-health care. Nurses and care workers in private general hospitals are exposed to the emotional effects of physical illness as well as the increase in admission of patients with mental-health needs. Poor nurse-patient relationships have been reported by patients and in the media. The researchers experienced incidents of apparent misunderstandings during nurse-patient interactions whilst working in private general hospitals. No studies have been done regarding how nurses and care workers perceive a therapeutic relationship with patients in terms of the patients’ emotional and mental-health needs. A quantitative, contextual and deductive study was conducted in three private general hospitals in Gauteng, South Africa with a purposive sample of 154 nurses and 30 care workers. Based on the concepts of a therapeutic relationship, empathy, positive regard, genuineness, concreteness and self-exploration, nurses and care workers’ perceptions of facilitating a therapeutic relationship were self-assessed using five-point scales in a questionnaire. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and non-parametric statistical techniques. Specific hypotheses were tested to identify whether statistically-significant differences existed between the perceptions of two or more groups of nurses and care workers. Results showed a general insensitivity and lack of awareness and reflection on the part of nurses and care workers with regard to the patients’ emotional needs. When categories of nurses were compared, no statistically-significant differences were found between the perceptions of the various groups tested. There is a need for self-awareness, continued interpersonal skills training and supervision of nurses and care workers. A large percentage of the participants were younger than 40 years, subprofessional, with less than 10 years’ experience as

  15. Right care, right place, right time: improving the timeliness of health care in New South Wales through a public-private hospital partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Carla; Carter, David J

    2017-10-01

    Objective The overall aim of the study was to investigate and assess the feasibility of improving the timeliness of public hospital care through a New South Wales (NSW)-wide public-private hospital partnership. Methods The study reviewed the academic and professional grey literature, and undertook exploratory analyses of secondary data acquired from two national health data repositories informing in-patient access and utilisation across NSW public and private hospitals. Results In 2014-15, the NSW public hospital system was unable to deliver care within the medically recommended time frame for over 27400 people who were awaiting elective surgery. Available information indicates that the annual commissioning of 15% of public in-patient rehabilitation bed days to the private hospital system would potentially free up enough capacity in the NSW public hospital system to enable elective surgery for all public patients within recommended time frames. Conclusions The findings of the study justify a strategic whole-of-health system approach to reducing public patient wait times in NSW and highlight the need for research efforts aimed at securing a better understanding of available hospital capacity across the public and private hospital systems, and identifying and testing workable models that improve the timeliness of public hospital care. What is known about the topic? There are very few studies available to inform public-private hospital service partnerships and the opportunities available to improve timely health care access through such partnerships. What does this paper add? This paper has the potential to open and prompt timely discussion and debate, and generate further fundamental investigation, on public-private hospital service partnerships in Australia where opportunity is available to address elective surgery wait times in a reliable and effective manner. What are the implications for practitioners? The NSW Ministry of Health and its Local Health Districts

  16. Gene S characterization of Hantavirus species Seoul virus isolated from Rattus norvegicuson an Indonesian island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Perwitasari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Hantavirus hidup dan berkembang biak di tubuh hewan pengerat, salah satunya Rattus norvegicus yang banyak ditemukan di daerah kepulauan di Indonesia. Hantavirus spesies Seoul virus (SEOV adalah virus RNA negatif rantai tunggal yang termasuk dalam keluarga Bunyaviridae, mempunyai beberapa gen spesifik terutama gen S yang dapat dikembangkan untuk uji diagnostik. Tujuan penelitian ini ialah untuk mengetahui karakter dari gen S dari Hantavirus spesies Seoulvirus.Metode:Pada penelitian ini dilakukan sekuensing gen S yang berasal dari jaringan paru-paru rodensia.  Fragmen DNA yang disekuensing menggunakan primer DNA SEOS-28F danSEOS -360R,VNS-1501F dan VNS-CSR. Hasil sekuensing dianalisis menggunakan program seqscapedan dianalisis menggunakan program Bioedit dan Mega5. Analisis filogenetik untuk homologi nukleotida dan asam amino dari ketiga strain Kepulauan Seribu tersebut dibandingkan dengan spesies hantavirus lainnya yang diambil dari genebank. Hasil:Analisis Homologi nukleotida dan asam amino antara strain Kepulauan Seribu dengan SEOV menunjukkan homologi nukleotida tertinggi pada strain KS74 (88,4% dan terendah pada KS90 (87,2%, sedangkan homologi asam amino tertinggi adalah strain KS74 (91.3% dan terendah pada strain KS90 (89,5%. Kesimpulan:Karakter gen S virus yang ditemukan di Kepulauan Seribu sebanding dengan virus SEOV yang ditemukan di Singapura dan Korea.  (Health Science Indones 2014;1:1-6Kata kunci:Seoul virus, gen S, Kepulauan Seribu, IndonesiaAbstractBackground: Hantavirus lives and reproduces in the body of rodents. Rattus norvegicuswas one found in the Kepulauan Seribu islands of Indonesia. Hantavirus species Seoul virus (SEOV is a negative single chain RNA viruses included in the family Bunyaviridae. It has a few specific genes, especially genes S that can be developed for a diagnostic test. The aim of this study was to ascertain the character of gene S of hantavirus species Seoul virus. Methods: Gene

  17. ‘Practice what you preach’: Nurses’ perspectives on the Code of Ethics and Service Pledge in five South African hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine White

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: A recent focus of the global discourse on the health workforce has been on its quality, including the existence of codes of ethics. In South Africa, the importance of ethics and value systems in nursing was emphasised in the 2011 National Nursing Summit. Objective: The study explored hospital nurses’ perceptions of the International Code of Ethics for Nurses; their perceptions of the South African Nurses’ Pledge of Service; and their views on contemporary ethical practice. Methods: Following university ethics approval, the study was done at a convenience sample of five hospitals in two South African provinces. In each hospital, all day duty nurses in paediatric, maternity, adult medical, and adult surgical units were requested to complete a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire focused on their perceptions of the Code of Ethics and the Pledge, using a seven-point Likert scale. STATA® 13 and NVIVO 10 were used to analyse survey data and open-ended responses, respectively. Results: The mean age of survey participants (n=69 was 39 years (SD=9.2, and the majority were female (96%. The majority agreed with a statement that they will promote the human rights of individuals (98% and that they have a duty to meet the health and social needs of the public (96%. More nuanced responses were obtained for some questions, with 60% agreeing with a statement that too much emphasis is placed on patients’ rights as opposed to nurses’ rights and 32% agreeing with a statement that they would take part in strike action to improve nurses’ salaries and working conditions. The dilemmas of nurses to uphold the Code of Ethics and the Pledge in face of workplace constraints or poor working conditions were revealed in nurses’ responses to open-ended questions. Conclusion: Continuing education in ethics and addressing health system deficiencies will enhance nurses’ professional development and their ethical decision-making and

  18. ‘Practice what you preach’: Nurses’ perspectives on the Code of Ethics and Service Pledge in five South African hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Janine; Phakoe, Maureen; Rispel, Laetitia C.

    2015-01-01

    Background A recent focus of the global discourse on the health workforce has been on its quality, including the existence of codes of ethics. In South Africa, the importance of ethics and value systems in nursing was emphasised in the 2011 National Nursing Summit. Objective The study explored hospital nurses’ perceptions of the International Code of Ethics for Nurses; their perceptions of the South African Nurses’ Pledge of Service; and their views on contemporary ethical practice. Methods Following university ethics approval, the study was done at a convenience sample of five hospitals in two South African provinces. In each hospital, all day duty nurses in paediatric, maternity, adult medical, and adult surgical units were requested to complete a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire focused on their perceptions of the Code of Ethics and the Pledge, using a seven-point Likert scale. STATA® 13 and NVIVO 10 were used to analyse survey data and open-ended responses, respectively. Results The mean age of survey participants (n=69) was 39 years (SD=9.2), and the majority were female (96%). The majority agreed with a statement that they will promote the human rights of individuals (98%) and that they have a duty to meet the health and social needs of the public (96%). More nuanced responses were obtained for some questions, with 60% agreeing with a statement that too much emphasis is placed on patients’ rights as opposed to nurses’ rights and 32% agreeing with a statement that they would take part in strike action to improve nurses’ salaries and working conditions. The dilemmas of nurses to uphold the Code of Ethics and the Pledge in face of workplace constraints or poor working conditions were revealed in nurses’ responses to open-ended questions. Conclusion Continuing education in ethics and addressing health system deficiencies will enhance nurses’ professional development and their ethical decision-making and practice. PMID:25971398

  19. Factors associated with patients' choice of physician in the Korean population: Database analyses of a tertiary hospital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kidong Kim

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the factors influencing patients' choice of physician at the first visit through database analysis of a tertiary hospital in South Korea. We collected data on the first treatments performed by physicians who had treated patients for at least 3 consecutive years over 10 years (from 2003 to 2012 from the database of Seoul National University's affiliated tertiary hospital. Ultimately, we obtained data on 524,012 first treatments of 319,004 patients performed by 115 physicians. Variables including physicians' age and medical school and patients' age were evaluated as influencing factors for the number of first treatments performed by each physician in each year using a Poisson regression through generalized estimating equations with a log link. The number of first treatments decreased over the study period. Notably, the relative risk for first treatments was lower among older physicians than among younger physicians (relative risk 0.96; 95% confidence interval 0.95 to 0.98. Physicians graduating from Seoul National University (SNU also had a higher risk for performing first treatments than did those not from SNU (relative risk 1.58; 95% confidence interval 1.18 to 2.10. Finally, relative risk was also higher among older patients than among younger patients (relative risk 1.03; 95% confidence interval 1.01 to 1.04. This study systematically demonstrated that physicians' age, whether the physician graduated from the highest-quality university, and patients' age all related to patients' choice of physician at the first visit in a tertiary university hospital. These findings might be due to Korean cultural factors.

  20. Suicide Risk, Meaning in Life, and Need for Life Respect in Adults and Elderly Among Public Hospital Outpatients in South Korea: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung-Ah; Kim, Shin-Jeong; Kim Ellis, Hyon

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the differences in suicide risk, meaning in life, and need for life respect among three age groups (young adults, the middle aged, and the elderly) of 540 public hospital outpatients in South Korea. This was a cross-sectional study. Among these 3 age groups, we observed significant differences in suicide risk, meaning in life, and need for life respect according to education level, marital status, living arrangements, type of disease, gender, and monthly income. These findings might contribute to the prevention of suicide in the future and the implementation of better community-based nursing care.

  1. Overturning refusal of a hospital to terminate life support for a brain-dead mother until the fetus was born: What is the law in South Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuoid-Mason, David Jan

    2014-06-19

    In a Texas case the court granted a husband an order for the removal of life support from his brain-dead pregnant wife after a hospital tried to keep her on it until the fetus was born. In South Africa the court would have issued a similar order, but for different reasons. Here, unlawfully and intentionally subjecting a pregnant corpse to life-support measures to keep a fetus alive against the wishes of the family would amount to the crime of violating a corpse.

  2. Validation of administrative hospital data for identifying incident pancreatic and periampullary cancer cases: a population-based study using linked cancer registry and administrative hospital data in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton, Nicola; Walton, Richard; Roder, David; Aranda, Sanchia; Currow, David

    2016-07-01

    Informing cancer service delivery with timely and accurate data is essential to cancer control activities and health system monitoring. This study aimed to assess the validity of ascertaining incident cases and resection use for pancreatic and periampullary cancers from linked administrative hospital data, compared with data from a cancer registry (the 'gold standard'). Analysis of linked statutory population-based cancer registry data and administrative hospital data for adults (aged ≥18 years) with a pancreatic or periampullary cancer case diagnosed during 2005-2009 or a hospital admission for these cancers between 2005 and 2013 in New South Wales, Australia. The sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) of pancreatic and periampullary cancer case ascertainment from hospital admission data were calculated for the 2005-2009 period through comparison with registry data. We examined the effect of the look-back period to distinguish incident cancer cases from prevalent cancer cases from hospital admission data using 2009 and 2013 as index years. Sensitivity of case ascertainment from the hospital data was 87.5% (4322/4939), with higher sensitivity when the cancer was resected (97.9%, 715/730) and for pancreatic cancers (88.6%, 3733/4211). Sensitivity was lower in regional (83.3%) and remote (85.7%) areas, particularly in areas with interstate outflow of patients for treatment, and for cases notified to the registry by death certificate only (9.6%). The PPV for the identification of incident cases was 82.0% (4322/5272). A 2-year look-back period distinguished the majority (98%) of incident cases from prevalent cases in linked hospital data. Pancreatic and periampullary cancer cases and resection use can be ascertained from linked hospital admission data with sufficient validity for informing aspects of health service delivery and system-level monitoring. Limited tumour clinical information and variation in case ascertainment across population subgroups are

  3. The household costs of health care in rural South Africa with free public primary care and hospital exemptions for the poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudge, Jane; Gilson, Lucy; Russell, Steve; Gumede, Tebogo; Mills, Anne

    2009-04-01

    To measure the direct cost burdens (health care expenditure as a percent of total household expenditure) for households in rural South Africa, and examine the expenditure and use patterns driving those burdens, in a setting with free public primary health care and hospital exemptions for the poor. Data on illness events, treatment patterns and health expenditure in the previous month were assessed from a cross-sectional survey of 280 households conducted in the Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance site, South Africa. On average, a household experiencing illness incurred a direct cost burden of 4.5% of total household expenditure. A visit to a public clinic generated a mean burden of 1.3%. Complex sequences of treatments led 20% of households to incur a burden over 10%, with transport costs generating 42% of this burden. An outpatient public hospital visit generated a burden of 8.2%, as only 58% of those eligible obtained an exemption; inpatient stays incurred a burden of 45%. Consultations with private providers incurred a mean burden of 9.5%. About 38% of individuals who reported illness did not take any treatment action, 55% of whom identified financial and perceived supply-side barriers as reasons. The low overall mean cost burden of 4.5% suggests that free primary care and hospital exemptions provided financial protection. However, transport costs, the difficulty of obtaining hospital exemptions, use of private providers, and complex treatment patterns meant state-provided protection had limitations. The significant non-use of care shows the need for other measures such as more outreach services and more exemptions in rural areas. The findings also imply that fee removal anywhere must be accompanied by wider measures to ensure improved access.

  4. Newborn follow-up after discharge from a tertiary care hospital in the Western Cape region of South Africa: a prospective observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milambo, Jean Paul Muambangu; Cho, KaWing; Okwundu, Charles; Olowoyeye, Abiola; Ndayisaba, Leonidas; Chand, Sanjay; Corden, Mark H

    2018-01-01

    Current practice in the Western Cape region of South Africa is to discharge newborns born in-hospital within 24 h following uncomplicated vaginal delivery and two days after caesarean section. Mothers are instructed to bring their newborn to a clinic after discharge for a health assessment. We sought to determine the rate of newborn follow-up visits and the potential barriers to timely follow-up. Mother-newborn dyads at Tygerberg Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa were enrolled from November 2014 to April 2015. Demographic data were obtained via questionnaire and medical records. Mothers were contacted one week after discharge to determine if they had brought their newborns for a follow-up visit, and if not, the barriers to follow-up. Factors associated with follow-up were analyzed using logistic regression. Of 972 newborns, 794 (82%) were seen at a clinic for a follow-up visit within one week of discharge. Mothers with a higher education level or whose newborns were less than 37 weeks were more likely to follow up. The follow-up rate did not differ based on hospital length of stay. Main reported barriers to follow-up included maternal illness, lack of money for transportation, and mother felt follow-up was unnecessary because newborn was healthy. Nearly 4 in 5 newborns were seen at a clinic within one week after hospital discharge, in keeping with local practice guidelines. Further research on the outcomes of this population and those who fail to follow up is needed to determine the impact of postnatal healthcare policy.

  5. Ecological Study on Hospitalizations for Cancer, Cardiovascular, and Respiratory Diseases in the Industrial Area of Etang-de-Berre in the South of France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Etang-de-Berre area is a large industrialized area in the South of France, exposing 300,000 inhabitants to the plumes of its industries. The possible associated health risks are of the highest concern to the population, who asked for studies investigating their health status. A geographical ecological study based on standardized hospitalizations ratios for cancer, cardiovascular, and respiratory diseases was carried out over the 2004–2007 period. Exposure to air pollution was assessed using dispersion models coupled with a geographic information system to estimate an annual mean concentration of sulfur dioxide (SO2 for each district. Results showed an excess risk of hospitalization for myocardial infarction in women living in districts with medium or high SO2 exposure, respectively, 38% [CI 95% 4 : 83] and 54% [14 : 110] greater than women living in districts at the reference level exposure. A 26% [2 : 57] excess risk of hospitalization for myocardial infarction was also observed in men living in districts with high SO2 levels. No excess risk of hospitalization for respiratory diseases or for cancer was observed, except for acute leukemia in men only. Results illustrate the impact of industrial air pollution on the cardiovascular system and call for an improvement of the air quality in the area.

  6. Emergence of criticality in the transportation passenger flow: scaling and renormalization in the Seoul bus system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Segun; Lee, Keumsook; Choi, Moo Young; Fortin, Jean-Yves

    2014-01-01

    Social systems have recently attracted much attention, with attempts to understand social behavior with the aid of statistical mechanics applied to complex systems. Collective properties of such systems emerge from couplings between components, for example, individual persons, transportation nodes such as airports or subway stations, and administrative districts. Among various collective properties, criticality is known as a characteristic property of a complex system, which helps the systems to respond flexibly to external perturbations. This work considers the criticality of the urban transportation system entailed in the massive smart card data on the Seoul transportation network. Analyzing the passenger flow on the Seoul bus system during one week, we find explicit power-law correlations in the system, that is, power-law behavior of the strength correlation function of bus stops and verify scale invariance of the strength fluctuations. Such criticality is probed by means of the scaling and renormalization analysis of the modified gravity model applied to the system. Here a group of nearby (bare) bus stops are transformed into a (renormalized) "block stop" and the scaling relations of the network density turn out to be closely related to the fractal dimensions of the system, revealing the underlying structure. Specifically, the resulting renormalized values of the gravity exponent and of the Hill coefficient give a good description of the Seoul bus system: The former measures the characteristic dimensionality of the network whereas the latter reflects the coupling between distinct transportation modes. It is thus demonstrated that such ideas of physics as scaling and renormalization can be applied successfully to social phenomena exemplified by the passenger flow.

  7. Analysis of the effect of local heat island in Seoul using LANDSAT image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K. I.; Ryu, J.; Jeon, S. W.

    2017-12-01

    The increase in the rate of industrialization due to urbanization has caused the Urban Heat Island phenomenon which means that the temperature of the city is higher than the surrounding area, and its intensity is increasing with climate change. Among the cities where heat island phenomenon occur, Seoul city has different degree of urbanization, green area ratio, energy consumption, and population density by each district unit. As a result, the strength of heat island phenomenon is also different. The average maximum temperature in each region may differ by more than 3 °, which is bigger than the suburbs in Seoul and it means that analysis of UHI effect by regional unit is needed. Therefore, this study is to extract the UHI Intensity of the regional unit of the Seoul Metropolitan City using the satellite image, analyzed the difference of intensity according to the regional unit. And do linear regression analysis with variables included in three categories(regional meteorological conditions, anthropogenic heat generation, land use factors). As a result, The UHI Intensity value of the Gu unit is significantly different from the UHI Intensity distribution of the Dong unit. The variable having the greatest positive correlation with UHI Intensity was NDBI(Normalized Difference Built-up Index) which shows the distribution of urban area, and Urban area ratio also has high correlation. There was a negative correlation between mean wind speed but there was no significant correlation between population density and power consumption. The result of this study is to identify the regional difference of UHI Intensity and to identify the factors inducing heat island phenomenon. so It is expected that it will provide direction in urban thermal environment design and policy development in the future.

  8. Emergence of criticality in the transportation passenger flow: scaling and renormalization in the Seoul bus system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segun Goh

    Full Text Available Social systems have recently attracted much attention, with attempts to understand social behavior with the aid of statistical mechanics applied to complex systems. Collective properties of such systems emerge from couplings between components, for example, individual persons, transportation nodes such as airports or subway stations, and administrative districts. Among various collective properties, criticality is known as a characteristic property of a complex system, which helps the systems to respond flexibly to external perturbations. This work considers the criticality of the urban transportation system entailed in the massive smart card data on the Seoul transportation network. Analyzing the passenger flow on the Seoul bus system during one week, we find explicit power-law correlations in the system, that is, power-law behavior of the strength correlation function of bus stops and verify scale invariance of the strength fluctuations. Such criticality is probed by means of the scaling and renormalization analysis of the modified gravity model applied to the system. Here a group of nearby (bare bus stops are transformed into a (renormalized "block stop" and the scaling relations of the network density turn out to be closely related to the fractal dimensions of the system, revealing the underlying structure. Specifically, the resulting renormalized values of the gravity exponent and of the Hill coefficient give a good description of the Seoul bus system: The former measures the characteristic dimensionality of the network whereas the latter reflects the coupling between distinct transportation modes. It is thus demonstrated that such ideas of physics as scaling and renormalization can be applied successfully to social phenomena exemplified by the passenger flow.

  9. Public Willingness to Pay for Transforming Jogyesa Buddhist Temple in Seoul, Korea into a Cultural Tourism Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seul-Ye Lim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Jogyesa Buddhist Temple (JBT, located in Seoul, Korea, is the chief temple of the Jogye Order, which represents Korean Buddhism. The Seoul government plans to transform the JBT into a cultural tourism resource and a historical site. This study attempts to analyze the willingness to pay (WTP for implementing the transformation, which includes building a new shopping arcade for Buddhist culture and tourism, constructing a museum for the teaching of history and an experience center for Korean traditional culture in the precincts of JBT, and making an open space for domestic and/or foreign visitors. To this end, the study looks into the WTP for the implementation, reporting on a contingent valuation (CV survey that was conducted with 500 Seoul households. The single-bounded dichotomous choice CV model and a spike model were applied to derive the WTP responses and analyze the WTP data with zero observations, respectively. The mean yearly WTP was computed to be KRW 7129 (USD 6.30 per household for the next five years, with the estimate being statistically significant at the 1% level. Expanding the value to the Seoul population gives us KRW 25.4 billion (USD 22.5 million per year. The present value of the total WTP amounts to KRW 114.6 billion (USD 101.3 million using a social discount rate of 5.5%. We can conclude that Seoul households are ready to shoulder some of the financial burden of implementing the transformation.

  10. Latent class analysis on internet and smartphone addiction in college students

    OpenAIRE

    Mok, Jung-Yeon; Choi, Sam-Wook; Kim, Dai-Jin; Choi, Jung-Seok; Lee, Jaewon; Ahn, Heejune; Choi, Eun-Jeung; Song, Won-Young

    2014-01-01

    Jung-Yeon Mok,1 Sam-Wook Choi,1,2 Dai-Jin Kim,3 Jung-Seok Choi,4 Jaewon Lee,2 Heejune Ahn,5 Eun-Jeung Choi,6 Won-Young Song7 1Eulji Addiction Institute, Eulji University, Seoul, South Korea; 2Department of Psychiatry, Gangnam Eulji Hospital, Eulji University, Seoul, South Korea; 3Department of Psychiatry, Seoul St Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea; 4Department of Psychiatry, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea; 5Depar...

  11. Exploring spatial planning and functional program impact on microbial diversity and distribution in two South African hospital microbiomes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nice, Jaco A

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical and experimental research approach on the impact of spatial planning and functional program on the microbial load, distribution and organism diversity in hospital environments. The investigation aims to identify...

  12. Time-course monitoring of urban bioaerosol bacterial communities and its use in microbial hazard identification during Asian Dust events in Seoul, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.

    2015-12-01

    The microbial communities transported by Asian dust events have attracted much attention as bioaerosols because the transported airborne microbes may strongly influence the downwind ecosystems and potentially human health in East Asia. Bioaerosol study has received relatively little attention and their characterization and risk assessments remain poorly developed. We used high throughput 16S rRNA gene targeted pyrosequencing and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) to monitor airborne bacterial communities and assess their potential risk. We monitored microbial communities in bioaerosol in Seoul between 2011 and 2013 using high volume air samplers. Six samples were collected during Asian dust (AD) events and the other 34 samples were urban air collected during non-Asian dust (non-AD) events. According to the qPCR result, the gene copy numbers of 16S rRNA genes were significantly higher during the AD events (P culture methods. 16S rRNA gene sequences of several pathogens were detected and their relative abundances appeared to have increased with increased concentrations of PM10. About 1% of Bacillus isolates were identified as known pathogenic B. cereus, confirming their presence in Asian dust samples. The qPCR detection of bceT gene, which codes for an enterotoxin in B. cereus group, was significantly increased in the AD dust samples over the non-AD samples. The following MLST assessment and virulence test of cultivated Bacillus isolates showed that B. cereus, B. licheniformis and B. mycoides were identified as pathogenic bacteria, and these pathogenic bacteria were usually more abundant during AD events. To assess the possible associations of identified pathogens on the hospital stroke admissions of residents in Seoul, we identified sixteen bioaerosol episodes using Poisson regression and calculated relative risk. The findings are useful in building a database for bacterial pathogens in AD events.

  13. Accreditation status of hospital pharmacies and their challenges of medication management: A case of south Iranian largest university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barati, Omid; Dorosti, Hesam; Talebzadeh, Alireza; Bastani, Peivand

    2016-01-01

    Considering the importance of accreditation for hospital pharmacies, this study was to determine the challenges of medication management in hospital pharmacies affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. The study was a mix-method research conducted in two qualitative and quantitative phases during the years 2014-2015 in Shiraz, Iran. National Accreditation Standard checklist for hospitals was used for data collection in the first phase, and Delphi method was applied in three rounds to achieve the most challenges of medication management and the related solutions. Results indicated a medium status of accreditation for all three dimensions in the above hospital pharmacies (3.53, 42.15 and 7, respectively). Lack of clinical pharmacists, nonparticipation of the pharmacy director in annual budgeting, lack of access to patient information, discontinuity of pharmaceutical care for patients discharged, defects in pharmacy staff training, lack of legislation in support of pharmacists and lack of adequate access to physicians' prescriptions, shortages in reporting medication errors, and lack of evidence related to microbial contamination are the most challenges extracted from the second phase. It seems that the studied hospital pharmacies encounter numerous problems regarding accreditation, pharmaceutical care as well as appropriate medication management and supply chain. Attempts to solve these problems can play an important role in improving the efficiency and effectiveness of pharmacies in Iran.

  14. Accreditation status of hospital pharmacies and their challenges of medication management: A case of south Iranian largest university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Barati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of accreditation for hospital pharmacies, this study was to determine the challenges of medication management in hospital pharmacies affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. The study was a mix-method research conducted in two qualitative and quantitative phases during the years 2014–2015 in Shiraz, Iran. National Accreditation Standard checklist for hospitals was used for data collection in the first phase, and Delphi method was applied in three rounds to achieve the most challenges of medication management and the related solutions. Results indicated a medium status of accreditation for all three dimensions in the above hospital pharmacies (3.53, 42.15 and 7, respectively. Lack of clinical pharmacists, nonparticipation of the pharmacy director in annual budgeting, lack of access to patient information, discontinuity of pharmaceutical care for patients discharged, defects in pharmacy staff training, lack of legislation in support of pharmacists and lack of adequate access to physicians' prescriptions, shortages in reporting medication errors, and lack of evidence related to microbial contamination are the most challenges extracted from the second phase. It seems that the studied hospital pharmacies encounter numerous problems regarding accreditation, pharmaceutical care as well as appropriate medication management and supply chain. Attempts to solve these problems can play an important role in improving the efficiency and effectiveness of pharmacies in Iran.

  15. Seoul, Keep Your Paddies! Implications for the Conservation of Hylid Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borzee, Amael

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity is plummeting worldwide, and the major causes of such decline include habitat degradation and climate change. While cities do contribute to the negative impact to the environment, they can also serve as strategic centres for conservation programs. Sites qualifying as biogeographic islands within metropolitan Seoul were studied for the occurrence of two hylid species: the endangered Hyla suweonensis and the abundant H. japonica. This study demonstrates that neither habitat diversity nor surface area, but solely the occurrence of aggregated rice paddies is a requisite for H. suweonensis, hypothetically due to its strict breeding requirements. On the contrary, H. japonica occurrence was not affected by any of these factors, and all types of habitats studied were adequate for this species. The presence of an endangered species within the boundaries of one of the most populated metropolises suggests a strong natural resilience, which should be enhanced with appropriate actions. We emphasize that the management plans therein can, and should, be used as the first step in the conservation of H. suweonensis in metropolitan Seoul.

  16. Urban Sustainability Versus Green-Washing—Fallacy and Reality of Urban Regeneration in Downtown Seoul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Schuetze

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the planning paradigm shift related to the contested “urban renaissance” mega-project in Downtown Seoul (Korea. Similar to other global cities, over the last few decades, different mega-projects have been successfully implemented in Seoul. These projects have been considered engines for urban renewals and transformation. This paper builds on the analysis of the failure and re-framing planning strategy for the Green Corridor (GC mega-project, part of the “Urban Renaissance Master Plan for Downtown Seoul”. The GC case reveals various critical insights for urban sustainability: (i the current mega-projects’ sustainability fallacy, related to top-down, technocratic densification, and greening practices; and (ii the untapped potential of Asian traditional and irregular small scale urban patterns, and their related socio-cultural value in addressing the renaissance of the long term urban sustainability. In particular, the discussed research findings point out that urban renaissance enabling sustainability principles requires integrated, small scale, incremental, and adaptive (stepwise urban planning and design processes that go well beyond general strategies following the so-called “green growth” paradigm.

  17. [Distribution of airborne fungi, particulate matter and carbon dioxide in Seoul metropolitan subway stations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Youn; Park, Jae Beom; Kim, Chi Nyon; Lee, Kyung Jong

    2006-07-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the level of airborne fungi and environmental factors in Seoul metropolitan subway stations and to provide fundamental data to protect the health of subway workers and passengers. The field survey was performed from November in 2004 to February in 2005. A total 22 subway stations located at Seoul subway lines 1-4 were randomly selected. The measurement points were subway workers' activity areas (station office, bedroom, ticket office and driver's seat) and the passengers' activity areas (station precincts, inside train and platform). Air sampling for collecting airborne fungi was carried out using a one-stage cascade impactor. The PM and CO2 were measured using an electronic direct recorder and detecting tube, respectively. In the activity areas of the subway workers and passengers, the mean concentrations of airborne fungi were relatively higher in the workers' bedroom and station precinct whereas the concentration of particulate matter, PM10 and PM2.5, were relatively higher in the platform, inside the train and driver's seat than in the other activity areas. There was no significant difference in the concentration of airborne fungi between the underground and ground activity areas of the subway. The mean PM10 and PM2.5 concentration in the platform located at underground was significantly higher than that of the ground (psubway line 1-4 were not serious enough to cause respiratory disease in subway workers and passengers. This indicates that there is little correlation between airborne fungi and particulate matter.

  18. Specialized consulting in radiological safety to the south central hospital of high specialty, PEMEX. VI. December of 2001; Asesoria especializada en seguridad radiologica al hospital central sur de alta especialidad. PEMEX. VI. Diciembre de 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeles C, A.; Vizuet G, J.; Benitez S, J.A.; Garcia A, J.; Rodriguez A, F. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2002-01-15

    It is a report of a specialized consulting in radiological safety that to be carried the ININ to PEMEX for the South Central Hospital of High Specialty, to maintain the sanitary license for the use of X-ray equipment of medical diagnostic, and guarantee these services with a program of quality assurance. To give fulfilment to that requests it is programmed a technical assistance monthly, with reports of results during the development of the service. In this document it is carried a report of the advances and results in the month of december of the 2001, where the following documents are analyzed: Manual of radiological safety, program of quality assurance, operation procedures, procedure of maintenance team, procedure of medical radiological control of the specialized personnel; also are annotate the obtained results and their observations. (Author)

  19. Optimal medical therapy for secondary prevention after an acute coronary syndrome: 18-month follow-up results at a tertiary teaching hospital in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byeon HJ

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Hee Ja Byeon,1,* Young-Mo Yang,2,* Eun Joo Choi21Department of Pharmacy, Chosun University Hospital, 2Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Chosun University, Gwangju, South Korea*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS is a fatal cardiovascular disease caused by atherosclerotic plaque erosion or rupture and formation of coronary thrombus. The latest guidelines for ACS recommend the combined drug regimen, comprising aspirin, P2Y12 inhibitor, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor blocker, β-blocker, and statin, at discharge after ACS treatment to reduce recurrent ischemic cardiovascular events. This study aimed to examine prescription patterns of secondary prevention drugs in Korean patients with ACS after hospital discharge, to access the appropriateness of secondary prevention drug therapy for ACS, and to evaluate whether to persistently use discharge medications for 18 months.Methods: This study was retrospectively conducted with the patients who were discharged from the tertiary hospital, located in South Korea, after ACS treatment between September 2009 and August 2013. Data were collected through electronic medical record.Results: Among 3,676 patients during the study period, 494 were selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. The regimen of aspirin + clopidogrel + β-blocker + angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin II receptor blocker + statin was prescribed to 374 (75.71% patients with ACS at discharge. Specifically, this regimen was used in 177 (69.69% unstable angina patients, 44 (70.97% non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients, and 153 (85.96% ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients. Compared with the number of ACS patients with all five guideline-recommended drugs at discharge, the number of ACS patients using them 12 (n=169, 34.21% and 18 (n=105, 21.26% months after discharge tended to be gradually

  20. A Window into South Korean Culture: Stress and Coping in Female High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderGast, Tim S.; Foxx, Sejal Parikh; Flowers, Claudia; Rouse, Andrew Thomas; Decker, Karen M.

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to increase multicultural competence, professional counselors in the United States analyzed archival data from high school students from Seoul, South Korea. A sample of all female (N = 577) high school students responded to survey questions related to stress and coping. Results demonstrated statistical significance in levels of stress…

  1. Prevalence of Internet Addiction and Correlations with Family Factors among South Korean Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo Kyung; Kim, Jae Yop; Cho, Choon Bum

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of Internet addiction among South Korean adolescents and explored family factors associated with such addiction. The study participants were middle and high school students residing in Seoul. One-tenth (10.7%) of the 903 adolescents surveyed scored at least 70 on the Internet Addiction Scale. These youths…

  2. Citizens' Political Information Behaviors during Elections on Twitter in South Korea: Information Worlds of Opinion Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Sue

    2016-01-01

    This research investigated South Korean citizens' political information behaviors on Twitter during the 2014 Seoul Mayoral election. By using the mixed methods design of network analysis, tweet content analysis, and interviews, this research examined how citizens collaboratively engaged in the political communication and deliberation via Twitter…

  3. Influence of a Supervised Mentoring Program on the Achievement of Low-Income South Korean Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sumi; Lemberger, Matthew E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a supervised mentoring program designed to improve the academic achievement of 834 low-income elementary and secondary school students in Seoul, South Korea. When compared to the control group, both elementary and middle school students exposed to the mentoring program improved in mathematic and reading…

  4. Predictors of loss to follow-up among patients on ART at a rural hospital in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnesen, Rachel; Moll, Anthony P; Shenoi, Sheela V

    2017-01-01

    Improved HIV outcomes as a result of expanded antiretroviral therapy (ART) access is threatened by increasing rates of loss to follow up (LTFU) among those on ART, largely reported in urban populations. Some reports suggest that LTFU rates are overestimated due to patient movement to other facilities and inadequate medical records. To define the proportion disengaging from HIV care as well as the characteristics of those LTFU in order to design and implement appropriate interventions to increase retention. We performed a retrospective review of patients who discontinued ART at a central hospital ART clinic in rural South Africa and compared with patients receiving care at the 15 primary health clinics (PHCs) to determine the true proportion of those who were LTFU. We also compared those who discontinued ART with those who did not at the central hospital ART clinic to determine predictors of loss to follow up. Among 3242 patients on ART, 820 were originally marked as LTFU. Among all patients, 272 (8.4%) were found at a clinic on treatment, 56 (1.7%) were found at a clinic from which they had since discontinued treatment, and 10 (0.3%) returned to care between June and July 2016, leaving 475 (14.7%) unaccounted for and thus categorized as 'true' LTFU. Factors found to be associated with discontinuation include being male, age 18-35, having a CD4 count under 200 cells/μL, and being on ART for under six months. Young men with low CD4 counts early after ART initiation are at highest risk of ART disengagement in this rural South African HIV clinic. Novel interventions targeting this group are needed to improve retention in care.

  5. Increasing Recovery of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria from Respiratory Specimens over a 10-Year Period in a Tertiary Referral Hospital in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Won-Jung; Chang, Boksoon; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Jeon, Kyeongman; Kim, Su-Young; Lee, Nam Yong; Ki, Chang-Seok; Kwon, O Jung

    2013-11-01

    The number of patients with pulmonary disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has been increasing worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term trends in the NTM recovery rate from respiratory specimens over a 10-year period in a tertiary referral hospital in South Korea. We retrospectively reviewed the records of mycobacterial cultures of respiratory specimens at Samsung Medical Center from January 2001 to December 2011. During the study period, 32,841 respiratory specimens from 10,563 patients were found to be culture-positive for mycobacteria. These included 12,619 (38%) Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 20,222 (62%) NTM isolates. The proportion of NTM among all positive mycobacterial cultures increased from 43% (548/1,283) in 2001 to 70% (3,341/4,800) in 2011 (ptrend). The recovery rate of NTM isolates from acid-fast bacilli smear-positive specimens increased from 9% (38/417) in 2001 to 64% (1,284/1,997) in 2011 (ptrend). The proportion of positive liquid cultures was higher for NTM than for M. tuberculosis (p<0.001). The most frequently isolated NTM were Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (53%) and Mycobacterium abscessus-massiliense complex (25%). The recovery rate of NTM from respiratory specimens in South Korea has increased steadily.

  6. Compliance to Occupational Safety Measures among the Paramedical Workers in a Tertiary Hospital in Karnataka, South India

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    P Phukan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The guidelines for minimizing occupational health risk from exposure to highly infectious diseases is already established but little information exists on the compliance of these measures among paramedical workers in India. Objective: To study the awareness of occupational safety measures such as universal precautions, biomedical waste handling, disposal and its compliance in their daily practice. Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was undertaken in a tertiary private hospital in Karnataka, Bangalore, India. Data was collected using a pretested and predesigned proforma from 120 respondents: 85 nurses and 35 laboratory technicians. Results: 27 (32% nurses and 20 (57% laboratory technicians could relate universal precautions to infection prevention. Only 6 (7% nurses and 2 (6% technicians had knowledge about proper hospital waste segregation. 45 (52.9% nurses and 15 (42.8% technicians had knowledge about post-exposure prophylaxis. 3 (4% nurses and 9 (26% technicians were formally trained in following universal precautions. Adequate hand washing was practiced among 17 (20% nurses and none of the technicians. Faulty practice such as recapping of needle was prevalent among 57 (67% nurses and 29 (83% technicians. 32 (38% nurses and 10 (29% technicians received hepatitis B vaccine. Conclusion: As knowledge and practice regarding different aspects of universal precautions was not satisfactory, training was warranted urgently in the study population. Also, suggestions were made to develop and implement institutional policies on the universal precautions and ensuring supply of personal protection equipment.

  7. Exploring Neighborhood Unit’s Planning Elements and Configuration Methods in Seoul and Singapore from a Walkability Perspective

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    Jeeun Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is to explore how the neighborhood-unit concept, which had been initially promoted by North America and the United Kingdom, was adopted and utilized in the Asian cities of high-density developments, such as Seoul and Singapore from a walkability perspective. Among various environmental elements of walkability in a given neighborhood unit, 10 planning elements, as well as their configuration methods, were drawn from the review of the existing studies, which became an analytical framework for this paper. The findings of the analysis are as follows. First, there were similarities, yet also marked distinctions between the cases of Seoul and Singapore, on the one hand, and those in North America and the UK on the other, with respect to the configuration methods, categorized into four groups of typologies: ‘Neighborhood Size’, ‘Neighborhood Structure’, ‘Neighborhood Network’, and ‘Neighborhood Facilities’. The differences largely resulted from the high-density developments in Seoul and Singapore. In the years since the 1990s, however, when the concept of sustainable development was strengthened, the configuration methods, related to ‘Neighborhood Structure’ and to ‘Neighborhood Facilities’ in most cases, were enhanced to suit more neighborhood walking. The initial concept of the neighborhood unit was actively modified to accommodate the high-density urban situations in Seoul and Singapore, having both positive and negative impacts on neighborhood walkability.

  8. A study on characteristics and sources of winter time atmospheric aerosols in Kyoto and Seoul using PIXE and supplementary analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, C.-J.; Kasahara, M.; Tohno, S.; Yeo, H.-G.

    1999-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols were collected using a two stages filter sampler to classify into the fine and coarse fraction in Kyoto and Seoul in winter season. Elemental concentrations of aerosols were analyzed by PIXE and EAS as well as ion concentrations by IC. Analyzed data were used to source of aerosol particles. (author)

  9. Major surgery in south India: a retrospective audit of hospital claim data from a large community health insurance programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Maaz; Woodward, Mark; Rahimi, Kazem; Patel, Anushka; Rath, Santosh; MacMahon, Stephen; Jha, Vivekanand

    2015-04-27

    Information about use of major surgery in India is scarce. This study aims to bridge this gap by auditing hospital claims from the Rajiv Aarogyasri Community Health Insurance Scheme (RACHIS) that provides access to free tertiary care for major surgery through state-funded insurance to 68 million beneficiaries with limited household incomes-81% of population in states of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh (combined Human Development Index 0·485). Beneficiary households receive an annual coverage of INR 200 000 (US$3333) for admissions to any empanelled public or private hospital. Publicly available deidentified hospital claim data for all surgical procedures conducted between mid-2008 and mid-2012 were compiled across all 23 districts in Telangana and Andhra Pradesh. 677 332 surgical admissions (80% at private hospitals) were recorded at a mean annual rate of 259 per 100 000 beneficiaries (95% CI 235-283), excluding cataract and caesarean sections as these were not covered under the insurance programme. Men accounted for 56% of admissions. Injury was the most common cause for surgical admission (185 733; 27%) with surgical correction of long bone fractures being the most common procedure (144 997; 20%) identified in the audit. Diseases of digestive (110 922; 16%), genitourinary (82 505; 12%), and musculoskeletal system (70 053; 10%) were other leading causes for surgical admissions. Most hospital bed-days were used for injuries (584 days per 100 000 person years; 31%), digestive diseases (314 days; 17%), and musculoskeletal system (207 days; 11%), costing 19% (INR 4·4 billion), 13% (3·03 billion), and 11% (2·5 billion) of claims, respectively. Cardiovascular surgeries (53 023; 8%) alone accounted for 21% (INR 4·9 billion) of cost. Annual per capita cost of surgical claims was US$1·49 (95% CI 1·32-1·65). Our findings are limited to a population socioeconomically representative of India and other countries with low-income and middle

  10. A survey of blood conservation methods in clinical practice in some urban south-eastern government hospitals in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amucheazi, A O; Ajuzeiogu, V O; Ezike, H A; Odiakosa, M C; Nwoke, O M; Onyia, E

    2011-01-01

    GENERAL OBJECTIVE: To assess the practice of blood conservation. To determine the methods of blood conservation in use, to assess the lower limit for hemoglobin for elective procedures, to determine transfusion trigger point in practice, to find out limitations in practice and ways to improve clinical practice. This was conducted in February 2009. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed among the surgeons and anesthetists in practice at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, Ebonyi State University Teaching Hospital and National Orthopaedic Hospital, Enugu. The data gathered was analyzed using the SPSS software. : Of participants who agreed to fill the questionnaires, more than 50% were males. The most prevalent specialty was general surgery (24.2%), followed by orthopedics (22.6%), obstetrics and gynecology (20.7%), and anesthesia (17.7%). The lowest hemoglobin limit before the patient was allowed into the theatre for elective procedures was 10 g/dl while individual transfusion trigger points ranged from hemoglobin of 6 to 10 g/dl. Majority of the doctors would avoid homologous blood transfusion in order to avoid transfusion-related diseases and reaction. Regarding knowledge of blood conservation methods and means of avoiding homologous blood, the use of diathermy was highest (12.33%), followed by preoperative blood donation (11.87%), use of hematinics (10.96%), and tourniquet 10.5%. Also, in practice, diathermy was the most frequently used (18.69%), followed by preoperative blood donation (16.16%), use of tourniquet (15.15%), while the Ovadje cell saver was least with 0.01%. Suggestions from respondents on the ways of limiting transfusion-related problems included optimization of patients (24.5%), improvement of standard of living (17.7%), and personnel training (13.3%). There is an agreement with the global trend geared toward minimizing the use of homologous blood by doctors in these hospitals. However

  11. A survey of blood conservation methods in clinical practice in some urban south-eastern government hospitals in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amucheazi A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available General Objective: To assess the practice of blood conservation. Specific Objectives: To determine the methods of blood conservation in use, to assess the lower limit for hemoglobin for elective procedures, to determine transfusion trigger point in practice, to find out limitations in practice and ways to improve clinical practice. Materials and Methods: This was conducted in February 2009. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed among the surgeons and anesthetists in practice at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, Ebonyi State University Teaching Hospital and National Orthopaedic Hospital, Enugu. The data gathered was analyzed using the SPSS software. Results : Of participants who agreed to fill the questionnaires, more than 50% were males. The most prevalent specialty was general surgery (24.2%, followed by orthopedics (22.6%, obstetrics and gynecology (20.7%, and anesthesia (17.7%. The lowest hemoglobin limit before the patient was allowed into the theatre for elective procedures was 10 g/dl while individual transfusion trigger points ranged from hemoglobin of 6 to 10 g/dl. Majority of the doctors would avoid homologous blood transfusion in order to avoid transfusion-related diseases and reaction. Regarding knowledge of blood conservation methods and means of avoiding homologous blood, the use of diathermy was highest (12.33%, followed by preoperative blood donation (11.87%, use of hematinics (10.96%, and tourniquet 10.5%. Also, in practice, diathermy was the most frequently used (18.69%, followed by preoperative blood donation (16.16%, use of tourniquet (15.15%, while the Ovadje cell saver was least with 0.01%. Suggestions from respondents on the ways of limiting transfusion-related problems included optimization of patients (24.5%, improvement of standard of living (17.7%, and personnel training (13.3%. Conclusion: There is an agreement with the global trend geared toward

  12. Role of Chinese wind-blown dust in enhancing environmental pollution in Metropolitan Seoul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Wonnyon [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Doh, Seong-Jae [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sjdoh@korea.ac.kr; Yu, Yongjae; Lee, Meehye [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    A suite of rock magnetic experiments and intensive microscopic observations were carried out on Asian dust deposits in Seoul, Korea, collected on 19 and 23 March 2002, 9 April 2002 and 12 April 2003. Desert-sand and loess from the dust source regions in China were also analyzed as a comparison. Asian dust showed a higher magnetic concentration than the source region samples, indicating a significant influx of magnetic particles into Asian dust had occurred during its transportation. Electron microscopy identified carbon-bearing iron-oxides as the added material. These iron-oxides were likely to have been produced by anthropogenic pollution (fossil fuel combustion) while the wind-blown dusts passing across the industrial areas of eastern China and western Korea. Such wind-paths were confirmed by a simulation of the air-mass trajectories. The magnetic technique appears to be useful for determining the anthropogenic pollution of Asian dust. - Magnetic quantification of anthropogenic pollution of Asian dust.

  13. Estimating the residential demand function for natural gas in Seoul with correction for sample selection bias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Seung-Hoon; Lim, Hea-Jin; Kwak, Seung-Jun

    2009-01-01

    Over the last twenty years, the consumption of natural gas in Korea has increased dramatically. This increase has mainly resulted from the rise of consumption in the residential sector. The main objective of the study is to estimate households' demand function for natural gas by applying a sample selection model using data from a survey of households in Seoul. The results show that there exists a selection bias in the sample and that failure to correct for sample selection bias distorts the mean estimate, of the demand for natural gas, downward by 48.1%. In addition, according to the estimation results, the size of the house, the dummy variable for dwelling in an apartment, the dummy variable for having a bed in an inner room, and the household's income all have positive relationships with the demand for natural gas. On the other hand, the size of the family and the price of gas negatively contribute to the demand for natural gas. (author)

  14. Role of Chinese wind-blown dust in enhancing environmental pollution in Metropolitan Seoul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Wonnyon; Doh, Seong-Jae; Yu, Yongjae; Lee, Meehye

    2008-01-01

    A suite of rock magnetic experiments and intensive microscopic observations were carried out on Asian dust deposits in Seoul, Korea, collected on 19 and 23 March 2002, 9 April 2002 and 12 April 2003. Desert-sand and loess from the dust source regions in China were also analyzed as a comparison. Asian dust showed a higher magnetic concentration than the source region samples, indicating a significant influx of magnetic particles into Asian dust had occurred during its transportation. Electron microscopy identified carbon-bearing iron-oxides as the added material. These iron-oxides were likely to have been produced by anthropogenic pollution (fossil fuel combustion) while the wind-blown dusts passing across the industrial areas of eastern China and western Korea. Such wind-paths were confirmed by a simulation of the air-mass trajectories. The magnetic technique appears to be useful for determining the anthropogenic pollution of Asian dust. - Magnetic quantification of anthropogenic pollution of Asian dust

  15. Exposure level and distribution characteristics of airborne bacteria and fungi in Seoul metropolitan subway stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Youn; Kim, Yoon Shin; Kim, Daekeun; Kim, Hyeon Tae

    2011-01-01

    The exposure level and distribution characteristics of airborne bacteria and fungi were assessed in the workers' activity areas (station office, bedroom, ticket office and driver's seat) and passengers' activity areas (station precinct, inside the passenger carriage, and platform) of the Seoul metropolitan subway. Among investigated areas, the levels of airborne bacteria and fungi in the workers' bedroom and station precincts were relatively high. No significant difference was found in the concentration of airborne bacteria and fungi between the underground and above ground activity areas of the subway. The genera identified in all subway activity areas with a 5% or greater detection rate were Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Bacillus and Corynebacterium for airborne bacteria and Penicillium, Cladosporium, Chrysosporium, Aspergillus for airborne fungi. Staphylococcus and Micrococcus comprised over 50% of the total airborne bacteria and Penicillium and Cladosporium comprised over 60% of the total airborne fungi, thus these four genera are the predominant genera in the subway station.

  16. Current status of managing food allergies in schools in Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soyoung; Yoon, Jihyun; Kwon, Sooyoun; Kim, Jihyun; Han, Youngshin

    2012-12-01

    Recently the need to manage food allergies in schools has been growing. This study aimed to examine the current status of managing food allergies in schools in Seoul, Korea. A questionnaire survey was conducted in cooperation with the School Dietician Association during April 2009. Among the participating 154 schools, a total of 109 (71%) were determining students' food allergy status through parental surveys based on self-reported food allergies. A total of 72 (47%) had experienced student visits to a school health room due to food allergies within one year before the survey. Over 80 percent of the schools relied on self-care only without any school-wide measures for food allergies in place. Among the 890 menu items most frequently served in school lunch programs, a total of 664 (75%) were found to contain more than one food allergen. It is highly suggested that preventive plans and treatment measures should be established to manage food allergies in schools.

  17. Antibiotic Susceptibilities of Enterococcus Species Isolated from Hospital and Domestic Wastewater Effluents in Alice, Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benson Chuks Iweriebor

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antimicrobial resistance in microorganisms are on the increase worldwide and are responsible for substantial cases of therapeutic failures. Resistance of species of Enterococcus to antibiotics is linked to their ability to acquire and disseminate antimicrobial resistance determinants in nature, and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs are considered to be one of the main reservoirs of such antibiotic resistant bacteria. We therefore determined the antimicrobial resistance and virulence profiles of some common Enterococcus spp that are known to be associated with human infections that were recovered from hospital wastewater and final effluent of the receiving wastewater treatment plant in Alice, Eastern Cape. Methods: Wastewater samples were simultaneously collected from two sites (Victoria hospital and final effluents of a municipal WWTP in Alice at about one to two weeks interval during the months of July and August 2014. Samples were screened for the isolation of enterococci using standard microbiological methods. The isolates were profiled molecularly after targeted generic identification and speciation for the presence of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes. Results: Out of 66 presumptive isolates, 62 were confirmed to belong to the Enterococcus genusof which 30 were identified to be E. faecalis and 15 E. durans. The remaining isolates were not identified by the primers used in the screening procedure. Out of the six virulence genes that were targeted only three of them; ace, efaA, and gelE were detected. There was a very high phenotypic multiple resistance among the isolates and these were confirmed by genetic analyses. Conclusions: Analyses of the results obtained indicated that hospital wastewater may be one of the sources of antibiotic resistant bacteria to the receiving WWTP. Also, findings revealed that the final effluent discharged into the environment was contaminated with multi-resistant enterococci species thus

  18. Effect of personal and work stress on burnout, job satisfaction and general health of hospital nurses in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Khamisa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The majority of studies to date have focused on the effects of work stress in the nursing environment, with the effect of personal stress in nursing being less explored. This study sought to determine whether personal stress is a more significant predictor of burnout, job satisfaction and general health than work stress. Of the 1200 nurses randomly selected to participate in the study, 895 agreed to complete six questionnaires over 3 weeks. Data was analysed using hierarchical multiple linear regression. Findings revealed that personal stress is a better predictor of burnout and general health than job satisfaction, which is better predicted by work stress. The findings of this study could inform potential solutions to reduce the impact of personal and work stress on burnout, job satisfaction and general health. Coping strategies and staffing strategies need to be evaluated within developing contexts such as South Africa to as certain their effectiveness.

  19. Deviation Value for Conventional X-ray in Hospitals in South Sulawesi Province from 2014 to 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachtiar, Ilham; Abdullah, Bualkar; Tahir, Dahlan

    2018-03-01

    This paper describes the conventional X-ray machine parameters tested in the region of South Sulawesi from 2014 to 2016. The objective of this research is to know deviation of every parameter of conventional X-ray machine. The testing parameters were analyzed by using quantitative methods with participatory observational approach. Data collection was performed by testing the output of conventional X-ray plane using non-invasive x-ray multimeter. The test parameters include tube voltage (kV) accuracy, radiation output linearity, reproducibility and radiation beam value (HVL) quality. The results of the analysis show four conventional X-ray test parameters have varying deviation spans, where the tube voltage (kV) accuracy has an average value of 4.12%, the average radiation output linearity is 4.47% of the average reproducibility of 0.62% and the averaged of the radiation beam (HVL) is 3.00 mm.

  20. Utilization of Spirituality and Spiritual Care in Nursing Practice in Public Hospitals in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

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    Sandhya Chandramohan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the views of professional nurses in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa regarding the role of spirituality and spiritual care in nursing practice and investigated whether professional nurses utilize spiritually based care in nursing practice. A cross-sectional descriptive design using multistage random sampling was utilized. Five hundred and fifty questionnaires were distributed to professional nurses between December 2012 and February 2013. A total of 385 participants completed the survey questionnaire, resulting in a 77% response rate. Data was analyzed using SSPS 0.20. The data revealed that nurses see spirituality and spiritual care as an important dimension of nursing practice but need greater preparedness. Nurses need to be effectively prepared to deal with the complexity of providing ethically based personalized spiritual care in an increasingly diverse society.

  1. Turnover of professional nurses at Mokopane Hospital in the Limpopo Province, South Africa: Experiences of nursing unit managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mmamma, Mogale L; Mothiba, Tebogo M; Nancy, Malema R

    2015-12-17

    Staff turnover of professional nurses remains a concern for public and private hospitals management because it has an impact on the morale of nurses and it may also lead to poor patient care. The objectives of this study were to explore and describe the experiences of nursing unit managers with regard to the turnover of professional nurses who were under their supervision. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive research design was used to determine the experiences of nursing unit managers related to the turnover of professional nurses. Data collection was done by using semi-structured one-to-one interviews with professional nurses .Two groups of participants were interviewed: Those working day duty (n = 9) and those working night duty (n = 3) who were at work on the anticipated days for data collection. The findings revealed that every unit was experiencing a shortage of professional nurses, which caused other nurses to work overtime with an inevitable increase in workload. That led to tiredness, conflict amongst professional nurses, job dissatisfaction, and absenteeism which compromised nursing care. This resulted in patient dissatisfaction and sometimes led to deaths that could have been prevented. It is recommended that staff turnover should be addressed by the hospital top management implementing several strategies. For example, top management could ensure that staff members work in a healthy environment with resources that they need during the provision of care, address the effects of the staff turnover, support the staff members and refrain from putting pressure on nursing unit managers whilst they are attending to problems.

  2. Toxicoepidemiology of acute poisoning cases in a secondary care hospital in rural South India: A five-year analysis

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    T H Indu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To ascertain the trend of poisoning cases admitted to the Government District Headquarters Hospital, a secondary care center in Udhagamandalam, Nilgiris District, Tamil Nadu, India, over a five-year period. Materials and Methods: The number of cases that presented to the hospital annually (incidence, mortality, and case fatality rates, socio-demographic pattern, and the nature of the poison were noted. Results: A total of 1860 poisoning cases (80 deaths were reported during the period from October 2008 to September 2013. The incidence of poisoning was found to increase every year. The average incidence was 1.60 per 1000 population, while the average case fatality rate and mortality rates were 40.51 and 0.07, respectively. A total of 1148 (62% were males. The majority of cases were seen in the 21-30 age group (41.24%. The poisonings were largely deliberate self-harm (n = 1,755; 94.35%, followed by accidental (n = 85; 4.57%. Agrochemicals were the main choice of poisoning agents and among these, organophosphates were the major cause. Conclusion: The data generated can help policy makers take decisions on the sale and availability of pesticides in this region.

  3. Occupational Exposure to Infection: A study on Healthcare Waste Handlers of a Tertiary Care Hospital in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivalli, Siddharudha; Sowmyashree, H

    2015-11-01

    Occupational exposure to infection is an important public health concern. Such accidents are associated with a few, but pose significant risk to worker's health, family and the community. 1) To assess the knowledge and attitude of waste handlers regarding healthcare waste management in tertiary care hospital of Mangalore. 2) To assess the occupational risk of exposure to infection in their work setting. A cross-sectional study was conducted among healthcare waste handlers (involved in collection, storage and safe disposal) in a tertiary care hospital of Mangalore, India. A semi-structured and pre-tested proforma was used to assess respondents' knowledge and percentage score was calculated based on a scoring system. Chi square and independent sample t tests were applied to judge the association of study variables with knowledge and occupational risk of infection. A total of 43 healthcare waste handlers participated in the study and all were females. Almost half of them had poor knowledge (healthcare waste management. As much as 41.8% of them had exposure to healthcare waste and 'needle stick injury' was the most common type. Age, literacy and experience did not significantly (p>0.05) influence the knowledge and occupational risk of infection. Respondents' knowledge regarding healthcare waste management was unsatisfactory. They were at high risk of occupational exposure to infection. It emphasizes the need of refresher training and reinforcement of personal protection measures in their work setting. © Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 2011.

  4. Nurses experiences regarding staffing patterns in the surgical wards of a private hospital in Gauteng South Africa

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    Moloko Malatji

    2017-12-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore and describe nurses' experiences regarding staffing patterns in the surgical wards of a private hospital in Gauteng in order to develop recommendations for staffing patterns in these wards. Methodology: A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design was used. Data was collected by means of in-depth semi structured individual interviews from a purposive sample of professional nurses working in the surgical wards of this hospital. Data was analysed using Tesch's method of qualitative thematic analysis. Principles of trustworthiness and ethical principles to ensure the protection of human rights were applied throughout the study. Results: The findings of the study revealed one central theme which reflected that participants experienced the staffing patterns of the surgical wards negatively. Two main themes emerged as, nurses had negative experiences in the surgical wards as well as negative emotional experiences related to the staffing patterns. Conclusion: It is evident from the findings of the study that nurses are experiencing staffing patterns negatively.

  5. Quality of care at ART clinic in Shashamanne referral hospital, West Arsi zone, Oromina National Regional State, South Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melese Belayneh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Low income nations like Ethiopia, which are heavily affected by HIV pandemic, health system needs to provide comprehensive services for escalating numbers of HIV positive patients. While demand is increasing, resources are not expanding at desirable rates to meet these demands. This leads to the risk of running poor quality antiretroviral therapy in resource limited health facilities. However, there is paucity of research based evidences on the quality of health services in the country in general, and on anti retroviral therapy in particular. Objective To assess quality of care at antiretroviral therapy clinic in Shashamanne Referral Hospital. Method A cross‐sectional study was conducted in Shashamanne Referral hospital from May 30 to June 30,2017.The study population were selected people living with HIV, antiretroviral therapy clinics and health care workers in antiretroviral therapy clinics during the study period. Stratified sampling method was used to identify study population. Interviewer administered questionnaire was employed among 204 patients to assess their satisfaction. Medical records review check list was used to get vital information from documents of 354 patients. Interview guide was also used to assess providers’ view on services. Data were entered by using SPSS version 20 and analyzed using descriptive, bivariate and multivariate techniques. Ethical clearance was obtained from Jimma University College of Public Health and Medical Sciences. Results Resources required for implementation of antiretroviral therapy wee available as per recommendation by the national Guideline. However, scarcity of some OIs and ARV drugs and absence of a few laboratory services seen in the hospital. HIV/AIDS care given in line with national guidelines but study revealed that only 42.7% of clients eligible for isoniazid preventive therapy actually taken it. Average mean satisfaction score of patients was 2.51 and significant

  6. Turnover of professional nurses at Mokopane Hospital in the Limpopo Province, South Africa: Experiences of nursing unit managers

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    Mogale L. Mmamma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staff turnover of professional nurses remains a concern for public and private hospitals management because it has an impact on the morale of nurses and it may also lead to poor patient care. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to explore and describe the experiences of nursing unit managers with regard to the turnover of professional nurses who were under their supervision. Method: A qualitative, explorative, descriptive research design was used to determine the experiences of nursing unit managers related to the turnover of professional nurses. Data collection was done by using semi-structured one-to-one interviews with professional nurses .Two groups of participants were interviewed: Those working day duty (n = 9 and those working night duty (n = 3 who were at work on the anticipated days for data collection. Results: The findings revealed that every unit was experiencing a shortage of professional nurses, which caused other nurses to work overtime with an inevitable increase in workload. That led to tiredness, conflict amongst professional nurses, job dissatisfaction, and absenteeism which compromised nursing care. This resulted in patient dissatisfaction and sometimes led to deaths that could have been prevented. Conclusion: It is recommended that staff turnover should be addressed by the hospital top management implementing several strategies. For example, top management could ensure that staff members work in a healthy environment with resources that they need during the provision of care, address the effects of the staff turnover, support the staff members and refrain from putting pressure on nursing unit managers whilst they are attending to problems.

  7. Pattern of surgical procedures performed in the orthopaedic units of a tertiary hospital in South West Nigeria

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    Thomas O Adekoya-Cole

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH is one of the foremost teaching institutions in Nigeria. It is a recognized training institution for residency training in Nigeria. However, a thorough evaluation of the procedures being undertaken by the orthopaedic teams in this centre and the impact on the type of training being passed on to the resident doctors in training is the focus of this paper. Objectives: To determine the pattern of procedures performed by the orthopaedic units of the Department of Surgery, LUTH with a view to import the findings in re-organizing its structure based on service requirement, manpower allocation and to make recommendation. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed data including age, sex, procedures and leading surgeons retrieved from all our operating theatres over a period from 1st January 2010 to 31st December 2011. The data retrieved was analyzed. Results: A total 741 procedures were performed over the 2 year period. More male patients (58.5% had procedures performed on them than the female patients. The mean age of patients treated was 37.2±15.5 years. Trauma related procedures accounted for 68.8% of the total procedures. Open reduction and internal fixation surgical operations were the most common trauma related procedure while ablative surgical operations following Diabetic Mellitus foot syndrome were the most common non-trauma related procedure performed. Conclusion: Trauma related surgery remains the most common procedures in our teaching hospital. Efforts should be made to increase the number of elective operations like Arthroplasties, Arthroscopic operations and Spinal axis correction operations being performed.

  8. Utilization Study of Antihypertensives in a South Indian Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital and Adherence to Standard Treatment Guidelines.

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    Datta, Supratim

    2016-12-01

    Hypertension represents a major health problem primarily because of its role in contributing to the initiation and progression of major cardiovascular diseases. Concerns pertaining to hypertension and its sequelae can be substantially addressed and consequent burden of disease reduced by early detection and appropriate therapy of elevated blood pressure. This cross-sectional observational study aims at analyzing the utilization pattern of antihypertensives used for the treatment of hypertension at a tertiary care hospital in perspective of standard treatment guidelines. Prescriptions were screened for antihypertensives at the medicine outpatient department of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Medical records of the patients were scrutinized after which 286 prescriptions of patients suffering from hypertension were included. The collected data were sorted and analyzed on the basis of demographic characteristics and comorbidities. The calcium channel blockers were the most frequently used antihypertensive class of drugs (72.3%). Amlodipine (55.6%) was the single most frequently prescribed antihypertensive agent. The utilization of thiazide diuretics was 9%. Adherence to the National List of Essential Medicines (NLEMs) was 65%. The combination therapy was used more frequently (51.5%) than monotherapy (48.8%). The use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin 2 receptor blockers (ACE-I/ARB) was 41.4% in diabetes. The treatment pattern, in general, conformed to standard treatment guidelines. Few areas, however, need to be addressed such as the underutilization of thiazide diuretics, need for more awareness of drugs from the NLEMs and enhanced use of ACE-I/ARB in diabetic hypertensives.

  9. Factors influencing the recommendation of the Human Papillomavirus vaccine by South African doctors working in a tertiary hospital.

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    Hoque, Muhammad Ehsanul

    2016-06-01

    In South Africa, HPV vaccination programme has been incorporated recently in the school health system. Since doctors are the most trusted people regarding health issues in general, their knowledge and attitudes regarding HPV infections and vaccination are very important for HPV vaccine program nationally. The objective of this study was to investigate factors contributing to recommendation of HPV vaccines to the patients. This was a quantitative cross-sectional study conducted among 320 doctors, using a self-administered anonymous questionnaire. All the doctors were aware of HPV and knew that HPV is transmitted sexually. Their overall level of knowledge regarding HPV infections and HPV vaccine was poor. But the majority intended to prescribe the vaccine to their patients. It was found that doctors who knew that HPV 6 and 11 are responsible for >90% of anogenital warts, their patients would comply with the counselling regarding HPV vaccination, and received sufficient information about HPV vaccination were 5.68, 4.91 and 4.46 times respectively more likely to recommend HPV vaccination to their patients, compared to their counterparts (p<0.05). There was a knowledge gap regarding HPV infection and HPV vaccine among the doctors.

  10. Long-term trends in airborne SO2 in an air quality monitoring station in Seoul, Korea, from 1987 to 2013.

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    Khan, Azmatullah; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Szulejko, Jan E; Brown, Richard J C; Jeon, Eui-Chan; Oh, Jong-Min; Shin, Yong Soon; Adelodun, Adedeji A

    2017-08-01

    Atmospheric concentration of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) was intermittently measured at an air quality monitoring (AQM) station in the Yong-san district of Seoul, Korea, between 1987 and 2013. The SO 2 level was compared with other important pollutants concurrently measured, including methane (CH 4 ), carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), ozone (O 3 ), and particulate matter (PM 10 ). If split into three different periods (period 1, 1987-1988, period 2, 1999-2000, and period 3, 2004-2013), the respective mean [SO 2 ] values (6.57 ± 4.29, 6.30 ± 2.44, and 5.29 ± 0.63 ppb) showed a slight reduction across the entire study period. The concentrations of SO 2 are found to be strongly correlated with other pollutants such as CO (r = 0.614, p = 0.02), which tracked reductions in reported emissions due to tighter emissions standards enacted by the South Korean government. There was also a clear seasonal trend in the SO 2 level, especially in periods 2 and 3, reflecting the combined effects of domestic heating by coal briquettes and meteorological conditions. Although only a 16% concentration reduction was achieved during the 27-year study duration, this is significant if one considers rapid urbanization, an 83.2% increase in population, and rapid industrialization that took place during that period. Since 1970, a network of air quality monitoring (AQM) stations has been operated by the Korean Ministry of Environment (KMOE) for routine nationwide monitoring of air pollutant concentrations in urban/suburban areas. To date, the information obtained from these stations has provided a platform for analyzing long-term trends of major pollutant species. In this study, we examined the long-term trends of SO 2 levels and relevant environmental parameters monitored continuously in the Yong-san district of Seoul between 1987 and 2013. The data were analyzed over various time scales (i.e., monthly, seasonal, and annual intervals). The results obtained from

  11. Species distribution and antifungal susceptibility patterns of Candida isolates from a public tertiary teaching hospital in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

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    Mnge, P; Okeleye, B I; Vasaikar, S D; Apalata, T

    2017-05-15

    Candida species are the leading cause of invasive fungal infections, and over the past decade there has been an increased isolation of drug resistant Candida species. This study aimed to identify the species distribution of Candida isolates and to determine their unique antifungal susceptibility and resistance patterns. During a cross-sectional study, 209 Candida isolates (recovered from 206 clinical samples) were collected and their species distribution was determined using ChromAgar Candida. The Vitek-2 system (Biomerieux, South Africa) was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to azoles (fluconazole, voriconazole), echinocandins (caspofungin, micafungin), polyenes (amphotericin B) and flucytosine. Four species of Candida were isolated, of which C. albicans was the most frequent, isolated in 45.4% (95/209) of the isolates, followed by C. glabrata: 31.1% (65/209). The MICs of the different antifungal drugs varied amongst the species of Candida. From the 130 isolates tested for MICs, 90.77% (112/130) were susceptible to all antifungal drugs and 6.9% (9/130) of the isolates were multi-drug resistant. C. dubliniensis (n=2) isolates were susceptible to all the above mentioned antifungal drugs. There was no significant difference in species distribution amongst clinical specimens and between patients' genders (P>0.05). An increase in MIC values for fluconazole and flucytosine towards the resistance range was observed. To our knowledge, this is the first report on surveillance of Candida species distribution and antifungal susceptibility at a public tertiary teaching hospital in Eastern Cape, South Africa.

  12. Comparison of cold water sponging and acetaminophen in control of fever among children attending a tertiary hospital in South Nigeria

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    Tony M Aluka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A wide range of childhood illnesses are accompanied by fever, leading to varied attempts at treatment by caregivers at home before coming to a hospital. Common modalities of treatment include use of antipyretics and physical methods such as cold water sponging, fanning and removal of clothing. These treatment modalities have been received with varied attitudes among physicians and the scientific community. This study was to assess the efficacy of both modalities in first-line management of fever in our area. Objectives: The main aim of the study is to compare the effectiveness of cold water sponging with that of oral paracetamol in the treatment of fever in children attending the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar. Subjects and Methods: This is a randomized clinical trial. Eighty-eight children aged 12-120 months who presented to the Children Outpatient Clinic (CHOP and the Children Emergency Room (CHER of University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, with acute febrile illness and axillary temperatures spanning ≥ 38.0-40.0°C. All children within the age limit whose caregivers gave consent were recruited into the study and were randomized to receive either cold water sponging or oral paracetamol. Axillary temperature, pulse rate, respiratory rate and assessment of discomforts (crying, shivering, goose pimples and convulsions were recorded every 30 min for 2 h. The results were analyzed using the SPSS statistical software and have been presented in the tables. Results: Cold water sponging was very effective in temperature reduction within the first 30 min, with 29 (70.73% having their temperature reduced to within normal limits. This declined to 12 (29.26% at 60 min and 4 (10.53% at 120 min, with the mean temperature differences from the baseline value following the same trends (1.63°C by 30 min, 0.91°C by 60 min and 0.39°C by 120 min. When compared with paracetamol, cold water sponging was more effective in

  13. Observation-based modelling and analysis of O3 Production in the Seoul Metropolitan Area during KORUS-AQ

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    Schroeder, J.; Crawford, J. H.; Fried, A.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Blake, D. R.; Blake, N. J.; Wisthaler, A.; Lee, G.; Ahn, J. Y.

    2017-12-01

    The Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA) has a population of 24 million and frequently experiences unhealthy levels of ozone (O3). In this work, data from the Korea-United States Air Quality Study (KORUS-AQ, May 2 - June 11, 2016) were used to constrain a 0-D photochemical box model, allowing for calculation of key photochemical parameters related to O3 chemistry in the SMA. During KORUS-AQ, the NASA DC-8 flew 20 research flights over the Korean Peninsula. Routine overflights of the SMA in the morning, midday, and afternoon allowed for evaluation of diurnal photochemical tendencies in both the urban core of Seoul and surrounding areas. During KORUS-AQ, the SMA experienced 39 days where the max 8-hour O3 exceeded the Korean AQS value of 60 ppbv. Box model calculations constrained with high-frequency data from the DC-8 show that rates of net O3 production (P(O3)) in urban Seoul were similar to outlying metropolitan areas across all times of day, with the highest median values occurring around midday in both cases ( 15 ppbv/hr). Although mixing ratios of key ozone precursors such as NOx and reactive VOCs were substantially higher in urban Seoul than outlying areas, net P(O3) was sustained across the region due to non-linearities in O3 chemistry. Box model calculations show that urban Seoul was strongly radical-limited, while outlying areas were either slightly NOx-limited or near the `transition' area. This suggests that P(O3) can be mitigated in urban Seoul by reducing VOC emissions, but regional air quality would benefit from reductions in both NOx and VOCs. Box model simulations of the response of P(O3) to omitting select VOCs suggest that reactive aromatics - particularly toluene, which had a median mixing ratio of 2 ppbv across SMA - contributed most to radical abundances ( 60%) and P(O3), and reductions in aromatic emissions would be most effective towards reducing P(O3). Biogenics and light alkenes account for 25% and 10% of radical abundances in the SMA, respectively

  14. The International Classification of Function Disability and Health (ICF) in adults visiting the HIV outpatient clinic at a regional hospital in Johannesburg, South Africa.

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    Van As, Melissa; Myezwa, Hellen; Stewart, Aimee; Maleka, Douglas; Musenge, Eustasius

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, 16.6% of South Africans between 15 and 49 years of age were HIV positive. The advent of anti-retroviral therapy has led to improved longevity, CD4 counts and clinical well-being of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Physical impairments, activity limitations and participation restrictions of PLWHA have profound effects on the Health-related Quality of Life and functional abilities of those with the disease, and understanding thereof may assist in the formulation of rehabilitation protocols, health care interventions as well as vocational and legislative policies. The International Classification of Function, Disability and Health (ICF) is a standardised tool, endorsed by the World Health Assembly for international use, which aims to classify functioning and disability. It is structured to assess body functions and structure, functional activities and associated personal and environmental factors.This study aimed to develop a profile of the level of functional activity, using the ICF Checklist, of an urban cohort of 45 South African individuals who are HIV positive attending an outpatient clinic at the Helen Joseph Memorial Hospital, Gauteng, South Africa. The results showed a high prevalence of physical impairments, participation restrictions and selective activity limitations and that environmental factors influence their level of ability. Specific impairments where patients had problems were mental functions (69% (n=31), sensory and pain -- 71% (n=32), digestive and metabolic functions 45% (n=20) and neuromuscular 27% (n=12). Activity limitations included major life areas' 58% (n=26), interpersonal relationships 56% (n=25), mobility 40% (n=18) and general tasks and demands 38% (n=17). Limitations in mobility were significantly associated with problems of sensory functions (p=0.05), pain (p=0.006), neuromusculoskeletal and movement-related functions (p=0.006), muscle power (p=0.006) as well as energy and drive functions (p=0.001). The study identifies

  15. A review of the management of perforated duodenal ulcers at a tertiary hospital in south western Nigeria.

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    Etonyeaku, A C; Agbakwuru, E A; Akinkuolie, A A; Omotola, C A; Talabi, A O; Onyia, C U; Kolawole, O A; Aladesuru, O A

    2013-12-01

    Gastro-duodenal perforations are common and may complicate peptic ulcer disease. Management is often by surgical closure. To determine the patterns of presentation and mode of management of duodenal ulcer perforations. Retrospective review of patients with duodenal ulcer perforations seen at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital between June 2001 and July 2011. Patients' records were reviewed for demography, duration of disease, probable risk factors, type of surgery and complications. Data obtained was analyzed using SPSS 15.0. Forty- five patients were reviewed. There were 37 males (82.2%). Mean age was 39.7years (range 15-78years). There were 10 (22.6%) students and 8(17.8%) farmers. NSAIDs abuse (11), previous peptic ulcer disease (2), and no prior dyspeptic symptoms (20) constituted 24.4%, 4.4% and 44.4% respectively of cases. Seven (16%) patients presented less than 24 hours of onset of illness. Forty one perforations (91.1%) involved the first part of duodenum. Twenty two (49%) patients had Graham's omental patch. We had one (2.2%) failed repair and six (13.3%) mortalities. Late presentation of duodenal ulcer perforation is common with high mortality. Pragmatic surgical intervention with Graham's omentopexy with broad spectrum antibiotics is still commonly practiced.

  16. The need for pharmaceutical care in an intensive care unit at a teaching hospital in South Africa

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    N Shellack

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. The role of the pharmacist has evolved over the last 2 decades beyond traditional functions such as stock control and dispensing. Objectives. To describe the functions performed by a clinical pharmacist while based in a surgical and trauma intensive care unit of a teaching hospital. Methods. An operational research study that included indications of programme success was conducted. Interventions to assess therapy and achieve definite outcomes to satisfy patients’ medicine needs were documented for 51 patients over a study period of 8 weeks.Results. A total of 181 interventions were suggested by the pharmacist, with 127 (70% accepted and implemented by the medical and nursing staff of the unit. The most frequent interventions were related to: untreated medical conditions (15.5%, appropriate therapy or course (13.8%, investigations indicated or outstanding (12.2%, and inappropriate doses and dosing frequency (11%. Interventions were also made regularly to address system errors or non-compliance and factors hindering therapeutic effect. Of the 250 h the pharmacist spent in the ward, most time was used for pharmaceutical care (28% and ward rounds (21% with members of the multidisciplinary team.Conclusions. The study results demonstrated that a clinical pharmacist’s contribution to patient care at ward level resulted in improved monitoring of pharmacotherapy. Medicine-related problems were identified and addressed.

  17. Sero-prevalence for Hepatitis B virus among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in Juba Teaching Hospital, Republic of South Sudan.

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    Kirbak, Anthony Laku Stephen; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah; Omolo, Jared; Idris, Hakim; Usman, Abdulmumini; Mbabazi, William Baguma

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus infection is a major public health problem worldwide and in Africa. This would be the first ever documented study on epidemiology of Hepatitis B infections in the newly formed Republic of South Sudan. This study was designed to estimate the sero-prevalence of Hepatitis B virus infection amongst pregnant women attending antenatal services in Juba. A cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic services in Juba Teaching Hospital, in the period between December 2012 and March 2013. Any pregnant woman, attending antenatal care services at Juba Teaching Hospital, was included if she was a resident of Juba County for at least 1 year before pregnancy. A Hepatitis B case was defined as any women participating in the study and was found to be positive for HbsAg and confirmed by ELISA. This study documented that the prevalence of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) among pregnant women attending ANC in Juba was 11% (31 out of the 280 samples). Other samples tested were indeterminate (36%), naturally immune (27.1%), susceptible (23%) and the remaining 1.8% was immune due to vaccination. Significant risk factors for Hepatitis B infection were loss of partner (OR 4.4 and CI of 1.4-13.9) and history of Jaundice (OR 1.7 and CI of 1.2-2.1). These study findings show that only 29% of infants in Juba county are born to immune mothers (naturally or vaccine induced). The remaining 70% of babies would be at risk of infection, if a birth dose of Hepatitis B is not provided. We therefore recommended introduction of Hepatitis B Vaccine birth dose into routine infants' vaccination series to eliminate this risk.

  18. Proportion of depression and its determinants among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in various tertiary care hospitals in Mangalore city of South India

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    Nitin Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Depression is found to be common among patients with diabetes and it is associated with poor outcomes in disease control. This study was carried out to find out the proportion and determinants associated with depression among patients with established type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in various tertiary care hospitals in Mangalore city of south India. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in one government and three private tertiary care hospitals in Mangalore in December 2010. All consenting patients with confirmed diagnosis of T2DM were interviewed and screened for depression by administering the 9-item PRIME-MD Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. Results: Of the 230 T2DM patients, 119 (51.7% were males. The mean age of all participants was 53.61 ± 10.7 years. The median duration of T2DM was found to be 12.1 ± 7.35 years. Among the participants, 71 (30.9% met the criteria for moderate depression, 33 (14.3% for severe depression, and the remaining 126 (54.8% had no clinically significant depression. Only 26 (11.3% patients were already aware that they were depressed, of whom just 3 had taken medical consultation. Among the risk factors, depression was found to be significantly associated with older age, female gender, low socioeconomic status, unskilled and retired employment status, having complications due to T2DM or comorbidities like hypertension and coronary artery disease, being overweight and being on insulin syringe injections. Conclusion: This study found a high proportion of depression among patients with T2DM. Therefore the care of individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM should include the screening and possible treatment of depression in order to achieve and sustain treatment goals.

  19. Awareness about basic life support and emergency medical services and its associated factors among students in a tertiary care hospital in South India

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    Akshatha Rao Aroor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The knowledge and skills about the basic life support (BLS and the advanced life support are the most important determining factors of the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR success rates. Objectives: To determine the level of awareness on BLS and skills among undergraduate and postgraduate students of medical and dental profession, as well as nursing students and interns in a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in South India. The awareness level on BLS and factors associated which include age, sex, level of training (undergraduate, internship, and postgraduate groups, course of study (nursing, dental, and medical groups, and previous exposure to BLS were assessed by using a structured questionnaire. The association of these variables with awareness level was assessed by independent t test, analysis of variance, and linear regression analysis. Results: Among 520 study subjects, 229 were students, 171 were interns, and 120 were postgraduate students. The overall mean score of awareness was 4.16 ± 1.40 (score range: 0-10. Age, sex, level of training, course of study, and previous exposure to BLS were significantly associated with awareness level in univariate analysis (P < 0.05. Linear regression model also showed that all the above variables were significantly associated with awareness level (P < 0.05. About 322 (61.9% subjects attributed lack of awareness about BLS to lack of available professional training. About 479 (92.1% responded that BLS training should be a part of medical curriculum. Conclusion: Awareness level on BLS is below average indicating the importance of professional training at all levels in a tertiary care health institution.

  20. Awareness about basic life support and emergency medical services and its associated factors among students in a tertiary care hospital in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroor, Akshatha Rao; Saya, Rama Prakash; Attar, Nazir Rahim; Saya, Ganesh Kumar; Ravinanthanan, Manikandan

    2014-07-01

    The knowledge and skills about the basic life support (BLS) and the advanced life support are the most important determining factors of the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) success rates. To determine the level of awareness on BLS and skills among undergraduate and postgraduate students of medical and dental profession, as well as nursing students and interns in a tertiary care hospital. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in South India. The awareness level on BLS and factors associated which include age, sex, level of training (undergraduate, internship, and postgraduate groups), course of study (nursing, dental, and medical groups), and previous exposure to BLS were assessed by using a structured questionnaire. The association of these variables with awareness level was assessed by independent t test, analysis of variance, and linear regression analysis. Among 520 study subjects, 229 were students, 171 were interns, and 120 were postgraduate students. The overall mean score of awareness was 4.16 ± 1.40 (score range: 0-10). Age, sex, level of training, course of study, and previous exposure to BLS were significantly associated with awareness level in univariate analysis (P < 0.05). Linear regression model also showed that all the above variables were significantly associated with awareness level (P < 0.05). About 322 (61.9%) subjects attributed lack of awareness about BLS to lack of available professional training. About 479 (92.1%) responded that BLS training should be a part of medical curriculum. Awareness level on BLS is below average indicating the importance of professional training at all levels in a tertiary care health institution.

  1. PREVALENCE AND SUSCEPTIBILITY OF EXTENDED SPECTRUM BETA-LACTAMASES IN URINARY ISOLATES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL, CHENNAI-SOUTH INDIA

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    Dr. Anbumani Narayanaswamy MD PhD

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended spectrum beta – lactamases (ESBLs are on the rise in hospital settings across the globe. The presence of ESBLs significantly affects the outcome of an infection and poses a challenge to the management of infection worldwide. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to determine the prevalence and susceptibility of extended spectrum beta – lactamase in urinary isolates of Escherichia coli (E.coli in a tertiary care hospital, Chennai-South India. A total of 450 urinary isolates of E.coli were collected over a period of six months from April 2008 to September 2008. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was determined to commonly used antibiotics using the modified Kirby-Bauer’s disc diffusion method. ESBL detection was done by the screening method of double disc synergy test and then confirmed by the phenotypic confirmatory test with combination disc as recommended by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC method using the E test strips (AB Biodisk,Sweden - as per manufacturer’s instructions. The prevalence of E.coli ESBL was 60%. The ESBL producing isolates were significantly resistant (p < 0.01 to ampicillin, trimethoprim / sulfamethoxazole, norfloxacin and nalidixic acid as compared to non-ESBL producers. Multidrug resistance was significantly (p < 0.01 higher (69% in ESBL positive isolates than non-ESBL isolates (21%. Knowledge of the prevalence of ESBL and resistance pattern of bacterial isolates in a geographical area will help the clinicians to formulate the guidelines for antibiotic therapy to avoid inappropriate use of extended spectrum cephalosporins.

  2. Stepwise introduction of the 'Best Care Always' central-line-associated bloodstream infection prevention bundle in a network of South African hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, G A; Brink, A J; Messina, A P; Feldman, C; Swart, K; van den Bergh, D

    2017-09-01

    Healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) remains a major international problem. The 'Best Care Always!' (BCA) campaign was launched in South Africa to reduce preventable HCAI, including central-line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI). The intervention took place in 43 Netcare Private Hospitals, increasing later to 49 with 958 intensive care units (ICUs) and 439 high-care (HC) beds and 1207 ICUs and 493 HC beds, respectively. Phase 1, April 2010 to March 2011, ICU infection prevention and control (IPC) nurse-driven change: commitment from management and doctors and training of IPC nurses. Bundle compliance and infections per 1000 central-line-days were incorporated as standard IPC measures and captured monthly. Phase 2, April 2011 to March 2012, breakthrough collaborative method: multiple regional learning sessions for nursing leaders, IPC nurses and unit managers. Phase 3, April 2012 to May 2016: sustained goal-setting, benchmarks, ongoing audits. A total of 1,119,558 central-line-days were recorded. Bundle compliance improved significantly from a mean of 73.1% [standard deviation (SD): 11.2; range: 40.6-81.7%] in Phase 1 to a mean of 90.5% (SD: 4.7; range: 76.5-97.2%) in Phase 3 (P = 0.0004). The CLABSI rate declined significantly from a mean of 3.55 (SD: 0.82; range: 2.54-5.78) per 1000 central-line-days in Phase 1 to a mean of 0.13 (SD: 0.09; range: 0-0.33) (P hospitals resulted in significant decreases in CLABSI. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Change-readiness of the blind: a hospital based study in a coastal town of South India.

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    Shetty, Ramya; Kulkarni, Uma D

    2014-01-01

    Blindness is a devastating condition with psychosocial and economic effects. The shortcomings result in a burden to the blind person, the family and society. Rehabilitation of the blind can transform their lives. The aim of this study was to assess the "change-readiness" of the blind to undergo a "change-management". The study was a semi-structured pre-tested questionnaire-based study of 50 blind subjects in a medical college hospital. The blind participants were assessed for depression using the Beck Depression Inventory II, for the perceived effect of blindness on family, social life and occupation. The participants were counseled to undergo psychiatric management, vocational training, use blind aids and learn Braille. The willingness of the participants with reasons was assessed using a verbal analogue scale. Pearson Chi-square test, ANOVA and the t-test were used for statistical analysis. Over two-thirds of the subjects were depressed. Family life, social life and occupation were perceived to be affected by 44%, 66% and 74%, respectively. Change-readiness scores were low for low vision and blind aids, vocational training, psychiatric management, change of job and learning Braille. The low score was due to the associated taboo, dependence, lack of skills, embarrassment, etc., The most valuable feature was the family cohesiveness. The results suggest that there is a need to modify health policy to include blind rehabilitation, to improve visibility of blind rehabilitation centers, to include family members and co-professionals while managing the blind so that we treat the "blind person" and not a "pair of blind eyes".

  4. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern and Age Dependent Etiology of Urinary Tract Infections in Nemazee Hospital, Shiraz, South-West of Iran

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    Mohammad Motamedifar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs are one of the most common bacterial diseases. The etiological agents and emergence of antimicrobial resistance UTIs vary according to time and geographical region. Objectives: The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of etiological agents of UTIs and determine their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern to locally available antibiotics. Patients and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted within six months on all patients with clinical symptoms of UTI who referred to Nemazee Teaching hospital, Shiraz, Iran. Clean catch midstream urine samples were collected and cultured on appropriate media in a short time as possible. Conventional bacteriological methods were followed for the isolation and identification of the bacteria. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were determined by locally available antibiotics by using disk diffusion method in accordance with CLSI recommendation. Results: In this study, from overall 9991 specimens analyzed 848 (8.5% culture had significant bacterial growth. Of the total positive cultures, 500 (59% cases were female. Escherichia coli (50.6% was the predominant gram-negative isolated pathogen followed by Klebsiella spp. and Enterobacter spp., respectively. Enterococcus isolates (11.2% was the most isolated gram-positive cocci. Nitrofurantoin (80.9%, gentamycin (77.9% and amikacin (65.3% had the most in-vitro antibacterial effect on E. coli isolates as the predominant cause of UTIs. Conclusions: The results of regional assessments, such as our study, provide not only useful information for prescription of more effective empirical therapy, but also good epidemiological background for comparison of our situation with other regions.

  5. Are healthcare workers ready for Ebola? An assessment of their knowledge and attitude in a referral hospital in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Akram; Khan, Muhammad Umair; Jamshed, Shazia Qasim; Kumar, Bandari Deepak; Kumar, Gogikar Sudhir; Reddy, Puchchakayala Goverdhan; Ajmera, Sudhakar

    2016-08-02

    The World Health Organization (WHO) declared the Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic to be a public health emergency of international concern. Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at the highest risk of infection, as they may come into contact with patients' blood or fluids. This study was conducted to assess knowledge and attitudes of HCWs towards EVD in India. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in a multispecialty public sector referral hospital of Telangana, India. Knowledge and attitude of HCWs were evaluated using a pre-validated questionnaire. A sample of 278 participants was selected to participate in this study. The Chi-squared test was used to assess the relationship between attitudes and demographic characteristics. Logistic regression was used examine the association between knowledge and study variables. Of 257 participants who responded (92.4% response rate), 157 (61.1%) were females. The majority of the respondents were physicians (n = 117, 45.5%). Radio and television were the major sources of information about EVD reported by participants (89%). Overall knowledge of HCWs was poor (mean knowledge score: 6.57 ± 2.57). Knowledge of physicians and experienced workers (≥ 10 years) was significantly higher than their respective groups. The overall attitude of the participants was positive (mean attitude score: 1.62 ± 0.57). Significant positive correlations between knowledge and attitude were observed. The findings indicate that participants lack basic understanding of EVD. We recommend future studies be conducted across India to identify and subsequently bridge the knowledge gaps among HCWs.

  6. Epidemiology, disease burden and outcomes of cirrhosis in a large secondary care hospital in South Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiang, J C; Bai, W W; Raos, Z; Stableforth, W; Upton, A; Selvaratnam, S; Gane, E J; Gerred, S J

    2015-02-01

    Liver cirrhosis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality; however, little is known about its impact in New Zealand. We aim to determine the disease burden, epidemiology and outcomes of cirrhotic patients. This is a retrospective study of cirrhosis patients under secondary public hospital care in a geographically defined region, between the years 2000 and 2011. Cirrhosis complications and mortality was recorded. Poisson log-linear regression analysis was performed for incidence rate ratio (IRR) and Cox regression analysis was used to analyse time-related events. Seven hundred and forty-six cirrhotic patients were analysed; most were European/Other (39.9%), Pacific islanders (21.6%), Southeast Asian/Chinese (17.8%) and Maori (12.3%). 68.4% were male. The common primary aetiologies for cirrhosis were chronic hepatitis B (CHB) cirrhosis (37.3%), alcoholic liver disease (ALD) cirrhosis (24.1%), chronic hepatitis C (CHC) cirrhosis (22.3%) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) cirrhosis (16.4%). The hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) mortality rates were highest in NAFLD and CHB cirrhosis groups (3.0 and 3.1 per 100 patient-year respectively), compared with ALD and CHC groups (2.2 and 1.4 per 100 patient-year, all P < 0.05 respectively). Patients with ALD and NAFLD cirrhosis had the highest all-cause and non-HCC mortality rate compared with viral hepatitis cirrhosis groups. The IRR for HCC incidence, liver-related mortality and HCC mortality were 1.087, 1.098 and 1.114, respectively (all P < 0.001), suggesting increasing incidence and disease burden over the study period. The number of cirrhotic patients in secondary care is increasing steadily. Cirrhosis complications and mortality rates are also rising, particularly the incidence and mortality of HCC. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  7. Foot Kinetics and Kinematics Profile in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Peripheral Neuropathy: A Hospital Based Study from South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazari, Animesh; Maiya, Arun G; N, Shivashankara K

    2018-02-01

    A kinetic change in thefoot like altered plantar pressure is the most common etiological risk factor for causing foot ulcers among people with diabetes mellitus. Kinematic alterations in joint angle and spatiotemporal parameters of the gait have also been frequently observed in participants with diabetes peripheral neuropathy. Diabetes peripheral neuropathy is the most common long-term standing complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It leads to various micro and macrovascular related complication of the foot. There is a gap in theliteraturefor biomechanical evaluation and assessment in type 2 diabetes mellitus with peripheral neuropathy in Indian population. The aim of the study was to assess and determine the biomechanical changes including kinetics and kinematics of foot among diabetic peripheral neuropathy. The cross-sectional study was conducted at Diabetic Foot Clinic, Kasturba Hospital, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India. A total of 120 participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus and peripheral neuropathywere recruited under the purposive sampling method. Participants with any active ulceration or amputation were excluded from the study. The mean age, height, weight, body mass index, duration of diabetes was 57±14 year, 164±11cm, 61±18kg, 24± 3, 12±7 year respectively. There were significant changes in overall biomechanical profile along with clinical manifestations of diabetes peripheral neuropathy.The regression analysis showed statistical significance for dynamic maximum plantar pressure at forefoot with age, weight, height, duration of diabetes, body mass index, knee & ankle joint angle at toe-off phase of gait cycle,pinprick sensation and ankle reflex (R=.71,R =.55, F (12, 108)=521.9 kPa, p=.002) Conclusions: From the present study, we conclude that people with type 2 diabetes mellitus and peripheral neuropathy have significant changes in their foot kinetics and kinematicsparameters. Therefore, they could be at higher risk of foot

  8. A retrospective quality assessment of pre-hospital emergency medical documentation in motor vehicle accidents in south-eastern Norway

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    Staff Trine

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have evaluated pre-hospital documentation quality. We retrospectively assessed emergency medical service (EMS documentation of key logistic, physiologic, and mechanistic variables in motor vehicle accidents (MVAs. Methods Records from police, Emergency Medical Communication Centers (EMCC, ground and air ambulances were retrospectively collected for 189 MVAs involving 392 patients. Documentation of Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS, respiratory rate (RR, and systolic blood pressure (SBP was classified as exact values, RTS categories, clinical descriptions enabling post-hoc inference of RTS categories, or missing. The distribution of values of exact versus inferred RTS categories were compared (Chi-square test for trend. Results 25% of ground and 11% of air ambulance records were unretrieveable. Patient name, birth date, and transport destination was documented in >96% of ambulance records and 81% of EMCC reports. Only 54% of patient encounter times were transmitted to the EMCC, but 77% were documented in ground and 96% in air ambulance records. Ground ambulance records documented exact values of GCS in 48% and SBP in 53% of cases, exact RR in 10%, and RR RTS categories in 54%. Clinical descriptions made post-hoc inference of RTS categories possible in another 49% of cases for GCS, 26% for RR, and 20% for SBP. Air ambulance records documented exact values of GCS in 89% and SBP in 84% of cases, exact RR in 7% and RR RTS categories in 80%. Overall, for lower RTS categories of GCS, RR and SBP the proportion of actual documented values to inferred values increased (All: p Conclusion EMS documentation of logistic and mechanistic variables was adequate. Patient physiology was frequently documented only as descriptive text. Our finding indicates a need for improved procedures, training, and tools for EMS documentation. Documentation is in itself a quality criterion for appropriate care and is crucial to trauma research.

  9. Pattern and outcome of postneonatal pediatric emergencies in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, South East Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndukwu, C I; Onah, S K

    2015-01-01

    Nigeria is still battling with preventable childhood deaths, being one of the six countries in which 50% of all global child deaths occur. Regular community and health facility audits are needed to determine morbidity and mortality patterns in children which will guide preventive and therapeutic interventions. The objective was to determine morbidity and mortality patterns, and identify factors influencing poor outcome of the disease in children seen in the emergency room of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi. This was a 2-year retrospective study (March 2012 to February 2014) involving all children admitted into the children emergency room (CHER). Information on the patients' biodata, diagnosis, and outcome were retrieved from the CHER doctors' log. Analysis was done using Microsoft Office Excel 2007 and Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20. The total of 1964 patients were seen (1088 males, 845 females, 31 unspecified) with a male to female ratio of 1.3:1. Under-fives constituted 78.8% of the study population. Mean duration of illness before presentation was 18.71 ± 71.94 days. Malaria, diarrheal disease, and respiratory tract infections were the most common morbidities. Sepsis had the highest case fatality rate (CFR) and was the most common cause of death among the 247 patients that died - mortality rate of 12.6%. Most deaths were in under-fives (CFR = 13.9, χ2 = 25.553, P = 0.000), with 74.1% of the mortalities occurring within 24 h of presentation. Patients who presented within a day and those that presented in the 2 nd and 3 rd weeks of onset of symptoms had CFR of 6.4-15.2%, respectively. Infectious diseases remain a menace in our environment with the eventual outcome worsened by late presentation to an appropriate health facility. There is an urgent need to create public awareness on the need to seek prompt medical attention for sick children.

  10. Bus Rapid Transit system’s influence on urban development: An inquiry to Boston and Seoul BRT systems’ technical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayogi, Lutfi

    2018-03-01

    This article explores the relation between bus rapid transit (BRT) system and urban development. This article was written through a multi-staged comprehensive literature review. It includes a general overview of widely acknowledged BRT technical characteristics. It explains the approach taken in understanding the relation between BRT system provision and urban development around the system. Findings regarding the influence of Boston Silver Line 4 and 5 and Seoul BRT systems on urban development around the systems are quoted and used as case studies. Investigation on the technical characteristics of Boston SL4/5 and Seoul BRT systems are provided. This article shows that the two BRT systems that influence urban development around the systems have technical characteristics that enable the BRT systems to have high performance. However, while the quoted BRT systems can influence urban development, they have significantly different performance.

  11. Using a structured morbidity and mortality meeting to understand the contribution of human error to adverse surgical events in a South African regional hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Damian L; Furlong, Heidi; Laing, Grant L; Aldous, Colleen; Thomson, Sandie Rutherford

    2013-10-22

    Several authors have suggested that the traditional surgical morbidity and mortality meeting be developed as a tool to identify surgical errors and turn them into learning opportunities for staff. We report our experience with these meetings. A structured template was developed for each morbidity and mortality meeting. We used a grid to analyse mortality and classify the death as: (i) death expected/death unexpected; and (ii) death unpreventable/death preventable. Individual cases were then analysed using a combination of error taxonomies. During the period June - December 2011, a total of 400 acute admissions (195 trauma and 205 non-trauma) were managed at Edendale Hospital, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa. During this period, 20 morbidity and mortality meetings were held, at which 30 patients were discussed. There were 10 deaths, of which 5 were unexpected and potentially avoidable. A total of 43 errors were recognised, all in the domain of the acute admissions ward. There were 33 assessment failures, 5 logistical failures, 5 resuscitation failures, 16 errors of execution and 27 errors of planning. Seven patients experienced a number of errors, of whom 5 died. Error theory successfully dissected out the contribution of error to adverse events in our institution. Translating this insight into effective strategies to reduce the incidence of error remains a challenge. Using the examples of error identified at the meetings as educational cases may help with initiatives that directly target human error in trauma care.

  12. Adolescent Linkage to Care After a Large-scale Transfer From a Hospital-based HIV Clinic to the Public Sector in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Avila, Lynn; Regan, Susan; Cloete, Christie; Crankshaw, Tamaryn; Rabideau, Dustin J; Freedberg, Kenneth A; Parker, Robert A; Walensky, Rochelle P; Losina, Elena; Bassett, Ingrid V

    2017-03-01

    HIV clinics formerly supported by the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief are transferring patients to public-sector clinics. We evaluated adolescent linkage to care after a large-scale transfer from a President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief-subsidized pediatric HIV clinic in Durban, South Africa. All adolescents (11-18 years) in care at a pediatric state-subsidized, hospital-based clinic (HBC) were transferred, from May to June 2012, to government sites [primary health care (PHC) clinic; community health center (CHC); and HBCs] or private clinics. Caregivers were surveyed 7-8 months after transfer to assess their adolescents' linkage to care and their reports were validated by clinic record audits in a subset of randomly selected clinics. Of the 309 (91%) caregivers reached, only 5 (2%) reported that their adolescent did not link. Of the 304 adolescents who linked, 105 (35%) were referred to a PHC, 73 (24%) to a CHC and 106 (35%) to a HBC. A total of 146 (48%) linked adolescents attended a different clinic than that assigned. Thirty-five (20%) of the 178 who linked and were assigned to a PHC or CHC ultimately attended a HBC. Based on clinic validation, the estimated transfer success was 88% (95% confidence interval: 77%-97%). The large majority of adolescents successfully transferred to a new HIV clinic, although nearly half attended a clinic other than that assigned.

  13. KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE TOWARDS HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS AND ITS VACCINE AMONG PHARMACY STUDENTS OF TERTIARY TEACHING UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL IN SOUTH INDIA

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    Raghupathi Mahitha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Cervical cancer in women can be effectively prevented by HPV vaccine. Healthcare professionals including pharmacists have a role in creating awareness about this vaccine to public. In this context, it was decided to study awareness level about HPV among pharmacy students. The aim of the study is to study the knowledge and attitude towards human papilloma virus and it’s vaccine among pharmacy students of tertiary teaching university hospital in South India. MATERIALS AND METHODS Cross sectional, questionnaire-based study among pharmacy students. RESULTS 229 pharmacy students participated in the study. The mean total knowledge score among participants was 2.69 (SD=2.260 out of the possible maximum of 11 and the mean total attitude score was 2.67 (SD=2.437 out of the possible maximum of 10. Lack of knowledge about vaccine was the main reason for not taking the vaccine. Knowledge about the vaccines improves the attitude towards it (p<0.0001. CONCLUSION There is a need to design education program for pharmacy students to increase awareness about HPV, which in turn will increase the awareness among public positively.

  14. Alcohol, hospital discharge, and socioeconomic risk factors for default from multidrug resistant tuberculosis treatment in rural South Africa: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Emily A; Theron, Danie; Franke, Molly F; van Helden, Paul; Victor, Thomas C; Murray, Megan B; Warren, Robin M; Jacobson, Karen R

    2013-01-01

    Default from multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment remains a major barrier to cure and epidemic control. We sought to identify patient risk factors for default from MDR-TB treatment and high-risk time periods for default in relation to hospitalization and transition to outpatient care. We retrospectively analyzed a cohort of 225 patients who initiated MDR-TB treatment between 2007 through 2010 at a rural TB hospital in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. Fifty percent of patients were cured or completed treatment, 27% defaulted, 14% died, 4% failed treatment, and 5% transferred out. Recent alcohol use was common (63% of patients). In multivariable proportional hazards regression, older age (hazard ratio [HR]= 0.97 [95% confidence interval 0.94-0.99] per year of greater age), formal housing (HR=0.38 [0.19-0.78]), and steady employment (HR=0.41 [0.19-0.90]) were associated with decreased risk of default, while recent alcohol use (HR=2.1 [1.1-4.0]), recent drug use (HR=2.0 [1.0-3.6]), and Coloured (mixed ancestry) ethnicity (HR=2.3 [1.1-5.0]) were associated with increased risk of default (PDefaults occurred throughout the first 18 months of the two-year treatment course but were especially frequent among alcohol users after discharge from the initial four-to-five-month in-hospital phase of treatment, with the highest default rates occurring among alcohol users within two months of discharge. Default rates during the first two months after discharge were also elevated for patients who received care from mobile clinics. Among patients who were not cured or did not complete MDR-TB treatment, the majority defaulted from treatment. Younger, economically-unstable patients and alcohol and drug users were particularly at risk. For alcohol users as well as mobile-clinic patients, the early outpatient treatment phase is a high-risk period for default that could be targeted in efforts to increase treatment completion rates.

  15. Analysis of source regions and meteorological factors for the variability of spring PM10 concentrations in Seoul, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jangho; Kim, Kwang-Yul

    2018-02-01

    CSEOF analysis is applied for the springtime (March, April, May) daily PM10 concentrations measured at 23 Ministry of Environment stations in Seoul, Korea for the period of 2003-2012. Six meteorological variables at 12 pressure levels are also acquired from the ERA Interim reanalysis datasets. CSEOF analysis is conducted for each meteorological variable over East Asia. Regression analysis is conducted in CSEOF space between the PM10 concentrations and individual meteorological variables to identify associated atmospheric conditions for each CSEOF mode. By adding the regressed loading vectors with the mean meteorological fields, the daily atmospheric conditions are obtained for the first five CSEOF modes. Then, HYSPLIT model is run with the atmospheric conditions for each CSEOF mode in order to back trace the air parcels and dust reaching Seoul. The K-means clustering algorithm is applied to identify major source regions for each CSEOF mode of the PM10 concentrations in Seoul. Three main source regions identified based on the mean fields are: (1) northern Taklamakan Desert (NTD), (2) Gobi Desert and (GD), and (3) East China industrial area (ECI). The main source regions for the mean meteorological fields are consistent with those of previous study; 41% of the source locations are located in GD followed by ECI (37%) and NTD (21%). Back trajectory calculations based on CSEOF analysis of meteorological variables identify distinct source characteristics associated with each CSEOF mode and greatly facilitate the interpretation of the PM10 variability in Seoul in terms of transportation route and meteorological conditions including the source area.

  16. Etiologic and epidemiologic analysis of bacterial infectious upper respiratory disease in Thoroughbred horses at the Seoul Race Park

    OpenAIRE

    Ryu, Seung-Ho; Koo, Hye Cheong; Lee, Young-Woo; Park, Yong Ho; Lee, Chang-Woo

    2011-01-01

    Infectious upper respiratory disease (IURD) of Thoroughbred racehorses has been a frequent problem (29.6% of incidence) at the Seoul Race Park (Korea). Risk factors for IURD include the season with a high transfer rate (summer and fall), the stabling period (≤ 3 months), and age (2 to 3 years old), suggesting that the movement and new environment may have depressed the immune system of the horses and decreased their ability to respond properly to pathogens. The bacterial strains (n = 98) isol...

  17. Simulating urban-scale air pollutants and their predicting capabilities over the Seoul metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Il-Soo; Lee, Suk-Jo; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Yoo, Chul; Lee, Yong-Hee

    2004-06-01

    Urban-scale air pollutants for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter > or = 10 microm, and ozone (O3) were simulated over the Seoul metropolitan area, Korea, during the period of July 2-11, 2002, and their predicting capabilities were discussed. The Air Pollution Model (TAPM) and the highly disaggregated anthropogenic and the biogenic gridded emissions (1 km x 1 km) recently prepared by the Korean Ministry of Environment were applied. Wind fields with observational nudging in the prognostic meteorological model TAPM are optionally adopted to comparatively examine the meteorological impact on the prediction capabilities of urban-scale air pollutants. The result shows that the simulated concentrations of secondary air pollutant largely agree with observed levels with an index of agreement (IOA) of >0.6, whereas IOAs of approximately 0.4 are found for most primary pollutants in the major cities, reflecting the quality of emission data in the urban area. The observationally nudged wind fields with higher IOAs have little effect on the prediction for both primary and secondary air pollutants, implying that the detailed wind field does not consistently improve the urban air pollution model performance if emissions are not well specified. However, the robust highest concentrations are better described toward observations by imposing observational nudging, suggesting the importance of wind fields for the predictions of extreme concentrations such as robust highest concentrations, maximum levels, and >90th percentiles of concentrations for both primary and secondary urban-scale air pollutants.

  18. FOUR-YEAR-OLD NAMSAN TUNNEL CONGESTION PRICING SCHEME IN SEOUL

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    Bongsoo SON, Ph. D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of the congestion pricing scheme at Namsan #1 and #3 tunnels in downtown Seoul four years after its implementation. The effectiveness of the scheme was measured by the changes of various traffic impacts. The traffic volume of the two tunnels was reduced by up to 25% for the first month. After that time, the traffic volume started to increase again and then exceeded the previous volume level. However, average travel speed of the two tunnel corridors improved by up to 74%. The overall traffic volume of the four alternative routes was increased; nevertheless, their average travel speed increased as well. The number of carpool vehicles occupied by 3 or more persons including the driver during the peak periods was remarkably increased. Before the congestion fee charging, toll-charged vehicles amounted to 68.5% of the total traffic volume of the two tunnels, and then the share dropped to 29% afterwards. The empirical analysis results for the effectiveness of the congestion pricing scheme are very promising.

  19. Diurnal variation of on-road air pollution in an urban street canyon in Seoul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Woo, Sung; Lee, Seung-Bok; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Bae, Gwi-Nam; Sunwoo, Young; Ma, Young-Il; Han, Dokyoung; Song, Sanghoo

    2014-05-01

    Motor vehicles are a major source of CO, NOx and particulate matters. Especially, in the surroundings of high-raised buildings, so-called an urban street canyon, air pollution levels increase due to limited dispersion of vehicle emissions. In this study, a mobile laboratory was used to measure diurnal variation of on-road concentrations of air pollutants such as NOx, particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, black carbon and particle number in the urban street canyon on the Teheran road with eight lanes in Seoul, Korea from 5th to 8th November 2013. Each traveling distance was about 3.3km. Traveling vehicle at the middle of the Teheran road was recorded by video camera, and then the car counting by vehicle types. On road measurements conducted for 3~6 hours per day. Hourly average of air pollutant concentration in morning rush hour more than two times higher than those at the daybreak. We will analyze the correlation between air pollution levels and traffic volume by vehicle types. We will discuss about spatial characteristics of on-road air pollution levels in the urban street canyon.

  20. Land-use regression panel models of NO2 concentrations in Seoul, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngkook; Guldmann, Jean-Michel

    2015-04-01

    Transportation and land-use activities are major air pollution contributors. Since their shares of emissions vary across space and time, so do air pollution concentrations. Despite these variations, panel data have rarely been used in land-use regression (LUR) modeling of air pollution. In addition, the complex interactions between traffic flows, land uses, and meteorological variables, have not been satisfactorily investigated in LUR models. The purpose of this research is to develop and estimate nitrogen dioxide (NO2) panel models based on the LUR framework with data for Seoul, Korea, accounting for the impacts of these variables, and their interactions with spatial and temporal dummy variables. The panel data vary over several scales: daily (24 h), seasonally (4), and spatially (34 intra-urban measurement locations). To enhance model explanatory power, wind direction and distance decay effects are accounted for. The results show that vehicle-kilometers-traveled (VKT) and solar radiation have statistically strong positive and negative impacts on NO2 concentrations across the four seasonal models. In addition, there are significant interactions with the dummy variables, pointing to VKT and solar radiation effects on NO2 concentrations that vary with time and intra-urban location. The results also show that residential, commercial, and industrial land uses, and wind speed, temperature, and humidity, all impact NO2 concentrations. The R2 vary between 0.95 and 0.98.

  1. Assessment of Urban Vegetation using Remote Sensing Data: a Case Study in Seoul, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Kim, J.; Yeom, J.; Kim, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Vegetation in the city has various positive effects on the entire urban ecosystem: it reduces CO2 and air temperature, improves air quality, helps to maintain the water balance of natural ground, decreases surface overflow during floods, and provides food source as well as living space for diverse wildlife. Urban green areas also have a social and educational role, e.g. for recreational activity, positive experience in a natural environment, and perception of seasonal changes. In addition, citizens can find a balance between urban green and built up spaces. However, the very high intensity of land use in urban areas changes the local urban ecosystem to a large degree and leads to enormous stress for the urban vegetation. In this study, we aim to develop a method for assessing effects of urban vegetation on ecosystem function using remote sensing technology. We use multispectral RapidEye satellite and LiDAR data for the classification of urban vegetation types in metropolitan area Seoul and test different kinds of vegetation indices focusing on the red edge of RapidEye data to assess the stress degree of the vegetation.

  2. Incidence of presbycusis of Korean populations in Seoul, Kyunggi and Kangwon provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H. N.; Kim, S. G.; Lee, H. K.; Ohrr, H.; Moon, S. K.; Chi, J.; Lee, E. H.; Park, K.; Park, D. J.; Lee, J. H.; Yi, S. W.

    2000-01-01

    Presbycusis, a bilateral sensorineural hearing loss caused by changes in the inner ear, is related to multiple factors such as noise exposure and otologic disease. In institute-based studies, we tried to determine the incidence of presbycusis in Korean populations living in Seoul, Kyunggi and Kangwon provinces by gender and age groups. The subjects were people who had visited health promotion centers. Pure tone audiometry was done over 20 years on 6,028 subjects. In a community-based study, the subjects were elderly residents of Kanghwa-do area. There were no obvious factors that could cause hearing impairment in the subjects. For the pure tone audiometry, hearing threshold was obtained by using the six-dimension method. The incidence of presbycusis for subjects aged 65 years and older was 37.8% and 8.3% for > or = 27 dB HL criterion and > or = 41 dB HL criterion, respectively. The incidence increased with age. A statistically significant difference in the hearing threshold was found between men and women aged 65 years or older. No differences were found between the community-based study and the institute- based studies. There was a high incidence (about 40%) of presbycusis among Koreans aged 65 years or older (for > or = 27 dB HL criterion). With an aging population, we anticipate that this report could be used to provide a basic data for the study of presbycusis. PMID:11068997

  3. [Depression status of academic high school students in Seoul: mediating role of entrapment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Joo; Shin, Nah-Mee; Han, Kuem-Sun; Kang, Hyun-Cheol; Cheon, Sook-Hee; Shin, Hyunjeong

    2011-10-01

    Purpose of this study was to investigate the status of depression in academic high school students and path analysis model for exploring the mediating role of entrapment to depression in relation to academic stress and perceived social support. Measurements were four reliable questionnaires measuring academic stress, social support, entrapment, and depression. Data were collected from students in 17 high schools in Seoul. Students (n=5,346) completing the questionnaires indicated depression & entrapment from academic stress. Depression was more prevalent in girls, those whose parents' household income was less than two million won, who did not live with father or mother or both due to divorce, separation, or death, and those who smoked or used alcohol. Entrapment was more prevalent in students similar to cases of depression and in seniors. According to the proposed path model, 48.6% of depression was explained by academic stress, social support, and entrapment. The indirect effect of entrapment as a mediator between academic stress and depression was verified and larger than the direct effect of academic stress on depression. Considering levels of depression and entrapment demonstrated by these students, better mental health programs with diverse strategies should be developed for their psychological well-being.

  4. Cesium-137 Contaminated Roads and Health Problems in Residents: an Epidemiological Investigation in Seoul, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Mina; Ju, Young Su; Lee, Won Jin; Hwang, Seung Sik; Yoo, Sang Chul; Choi, Kyung Hwa; Burm, Eunae; Lee, Jieon; Lee, Yun Keun; Im, Sanghyuk

    2018-02-26

    In 2011, two roads in a residential area in Seoul were found to be contaminated with the radionuclide cesium-137 (137Cs). In response to public concerns, an epidemiological study was conducted. The standardized cancer incidence ratios in the affected and neighboring regions were calculated based on the central cancer registry. Households in the region were sampled using the random stratified sampling technique, and questionnaires were administered to family members, via home visit and via students in elementary to high schools. Information on duration of residency and frequency of use of the roads was applied to calculate cumulative radiation exposure dose from the roads, alongside with the reported 137Cs contamination amounts. Information on past medical history, perceived risk, anxiety and psychological stress was also obtained. Of the 31,053 residents, 8,875 were analyzed. To examine possible associations between radiation exposure and health problems, logistic regression adjusted for covariates were performed with consideration of the sampling design, population weight and stratification. No significant association was found between self-informed diseases, including cancers, and estimated radiation exposure dose. According to an increase of radiation level, a significant increase in anxiety in all and a decline in the psychosocial wellbeing of the adults was noted. The risk perception level was higher in the elderly, females, the less educated, and the highest exposed individuals. This study provides a basis for risk communication with residents and community environmental health policy. © 2018 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  5. Epidemiological characteristics of the first water-borne outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Shinje; Kwak, Wooseok; Lee, Sangwon; Kim, Won; Oh, Jaeyeon; Youn, Seung-Ki

    2013-07-01

    The first case of human cryptosporidiosis was reported in Korea in 1995; however, an outbreak of Cryptosporidium has not been reported in Korea until now. This paper describes the first outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in Korea. On May 24, 2012, a local public health center filed a report on 126 residents with gastrointestinal symptoms in an old apartment complex in Seoul. Epidemiological investigations were implemented on 125 of the 126 patients. The patients were reported continuously over a period of 22 days. Diarrhea was the most common clinical symptom, and lasted for 5 days on average. The tap water was the only common exposure of the patients. During the environmental investigation it was discovered that the water and septic tanks were situated closely and that the waste water pipes were corroded where they passed over the water pipes. Cryptosporidium parvum was detected in 3 of the 7 stool specimens by PCR-RFLP. A number of Cryptosporidium oocysts were also detected in the water specimens from the water tank. In conclusion, Cryptosporidium parvum was the key causal pathogen of this outbreak. It is presumed that the tap water was contaminated by a sewage leak from the aged pipelines.

  6. A comparative study of pregnancy complications and outcomes for the years 1999 and 2004 at a rural hospital in South Africa: Implications for antenatal care

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    Monjurul Hoque

    2010-10-01

    Objectives: This study reviewed the demographic variables, pregnancy and obstetric complications and perinatal outcomes for the years 1999 and 2004 in a rural hospital in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, with the aim of evaluating trends and gaps that may enhance appropriate strategies for improvement of antenatal care. Method: A retrospective comparative study, with representative samples of pregnant women, were randomly selected for the respective years 1999 and 2004. Descriptive statistics were calculated depending on measurement scale. A Z-test was carried out to assess the significant difference (p < 0.05 in proportions between pregnancy complications and outcomes of the groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was undertaken to determine the significant predictors for outcome variables. Results: The numbers of pregnancies among young women (< 25 years increased significantly by 8% (p < 0.05 in the year 2004. Compared with 1999, the reduction in the numbers of pregnancies (1% among higher parity (parity 5 or more women in 2004 was remarkable. There were significant reductions of eclampsia, anaemia and post partum haemorrhage. Women with breech presentation were 3.75 times more likely to deliver preterm, and 5.45 times more likely to deliver low birth-weight babies. Similarly, women with pregnancy-induced hypertension were more likely to have preterm (OR = 3.50, 95% CI 2.83; 4.35 and low birth-weight babies (OR = 2.09, 95% CI 1.62; 2.71. Eclampsia was also a risk factor associated with preterm deliveries (OR = 6.14, 95% CI 3.74; 10.09 and low birth-weight babies (OR = 3.40, 95% CI 1.83; 6.28. Conclusion: This study suggests that further research is needed to find the causes of higher rate of teenage pregnancies and an increase in quality of antenatal care is more important in improving maternal and perinatal health. Training of staff to standard protocol and guidelines on antenatal care and care during delivery, and adherence to it, should be

  7. Birth Settings and the Validation of Neonatal Seizures Recorded in Birth Certificates Compared to Medicaid Claims and Hospital Discharge Abstracts Among Live Births in South Carolina, 1996-2013.

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    Li, Qing; Jenkins, Dorothea D; Kinsman, Stephen L

    2017-05-01

    Objective Neonatal seizures in the first 28 days of life often reflect underlying brain injury or abnormalities, and measure the quality of perinatal care in out-of-hospital births. Using the 2003 revision of birth certificates only, three studies reported more neonatal seizures recorded among home births ​or planned out-of-hospital births compared to hospital births. However, the validity of recording neonatal seizures or serious neurologic dysfunction across birth settings in birth certificates has not been evaluated. We aimed to validate seizure recording in birth certificates across birth settings using multiple datasets. Methods We examined checkbox items "seizures" and "seizure or serious neurologic dysfunction" in the 1989 and 2003 revisions of birth certificates in South Carolina from 1996 to 2013. Gold standards were ICD-9-CM codes 779.0, 345.X, and 780.3 in either hospital discharge abstracts or Medicaid encounters jointly. Results Sensitivity, positive predictive value, false positive rate, and the kappa statistic of neonatal seizures recording were 7%, 66%, 34%, and 0.12 for the 2003 revision of birth certificates in 547,177 hospital births from 2004 to 2013 and 5%, 33%, 67%, and 0.09 for the 1998 revision in 396,776 hospital births from 1996 to 2003, and 0, 0, 100%, -0.002 among 660 intended home births from 2004 to 2013 and 920 home births from 1996 to 2003, respectively. Conclusions for Practice Despite slight improvement across revisions, South Carolina birth certificates under-reported or falsely reported seizures among hospital births and especially home births. Birth certificates alone should not be used to measure neonatal seizures or serious neurologic dysfunction.

  8. Clinical characteristics and causes of heart failure adherence to treatment guidelines and mortality of patients with acute heart failure: Experience at Groote Schuur Hospital Cape Town South Africa

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    P Szymanski

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is limited information on acute heart failure (AHF and its treatment in sub-Saharan Africa.Objective. To describe the clinical characteristics and causes of heart failure (HF, adherence to HF treatment guidelines, and mortality of patients with AHF presenting to Groote Schuur Hospital (GSH, Cape Town, South Africa.Methods. This sub-study of The Sub-Saharan Africa Survey of Heart Failure (THESUS-HF was a prospective and observational survey that focused on the enrolment and follow-up of additional patients with AHF presenting to GSH and entered into the existing registry after publication of the primary THESUS-HF article in 2012. The patients were classified into prevalent (existing or incident (new cases of HF.Results. Of the 119 patients included, 69 (58.0% were female and the mean (standard deviation age was 49.9 (16.3 years. The majority of prevalent cases were patients of mixed ancestry (63.3%, and prevalent cases had more hypertension (70.0%, diabetes mellitus (36.7%, hyperlipidaemia (33.3% and ischaemic heart disease (IHD (36.7% than incident cases. The top five causes of HF were cardiomyopathy (20.2%, IHD (19.3%, rheumatic valvular heart disease (RHD (18.5%, cor pulmonale (11.8% and hypertension (10.1%, with the remaining 20.1% consisting of miscellaneous causes including pericarditis, toxins and congenital heart disease. Most patients received renin-angiotensin system blockers and loop diuretics on discharge. There was a low rate of beta-blocker, aldosterone antagonist and digoxin use. Rehospitalisation within 180 days occurred in 25.2% of cases. In-hospital mortality was 8.4% and the case fatality rate at 6 months was 26.1%.Conclusion. In Cape Town, the main causes of AHF are cardiomyopathy, IHD and RHD. AHF affects a young population and is associated with a high rate of rehospitalisation and mortality. There is serious under-use of beta-blockers, aldosterone antagonists and digoxin. Emphasis on the rigorous

  9. P02.05 Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor Epidemiology in the South Central Hospital of High Specialty from PEMEX in Mexico

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    Guerra Mora, J.; Cordoba Mosqueda, M.; Hernandez Resendiz, R.; Loya Aguilar, I.; Vicuña Gonzalez, R.; Garcia Gonzalez, U.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: The peripheral sheath tumors are part of a large group of neoplasms that range from biologically benign with minimal disorders in life quality to highly malign with life quality deterioration and high mortality. There are subtypes with high prevalence like Schwannomas and some much rarer like the intracranial peripheral nerve sheath tumor which happen to have very bad prognosis. The aim of this study is to describe the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of patients with peripheral nerve sheat tumors in a hospital of high specialty. Method and materials: Observational study with patients from March 1999 to March 2016 with confirmed diagnosis of peripheral nerve sheath tumor in the electronic files of the South Central Hospital of High Specialty PEMEX. A statistical analysis is made through the SPSS Statistics of the disease in this Institution program. Results: There were 84 patients with the diagnosis of peripheral nerve sheath tumor with a median age of 48.04 years, 65.5% were males, the most common histological type found was the Schwannoma with a 72.6%, followed by senescent Schwannoma 13.1%, neurofibroma 8.3%, and malign peripheral nerve sheath tumor 2.4%. The most frequent location was at the site of cranial nerves, followed by cervical level 27.4%, lumbar 16.7% and thoracic 9.5%. The most common initial symptom was pain in 23.8% of the patients, and the time of the onset of symptoms to the diagnosis was 31.6 months. From the total of patients 8.3% had neurofibromatosis type 1, 6.0% neurofibromatosis type 2. Conclusions: We realized in our series of reported cases that the frequency is similar to those reported in worldwide population; nevertheless the time between the onset of symptoms and the diagnosis is much higher in our cases as well as the population of patients with neurofibromatosis. This study justifies the need of attention quality improvement and the knowledge of this information the medical doctor of first

  10. Survival and predictors of mortality among human immunodeficiency virus patients on anti-retroviral treatment at Jinka Hospital, South Omo, Ethiopia: a six years retrospective cohort study

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    Ameni, Gobena

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The survival rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients receiving treatment in Ethiopia is poorly understood. This study aimed to determine the survival rate and predictors of mortality among HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy (ART) at Jinka Hospital, South Omo, Ethiopia. METHODS A 6-year retrospective cohort study was conducted using 350 patient records drawn from 1,899 patients on ART at Jinka Hospital from September 2010 to August 2015. The data were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier statistics and Cox regression models. RESULTS Of the 350 study participants, 315 (90.0%) were censored and 35 (10.0%) died. Twenty-two (62.9%) of the deaths occurred during the first year of treatment. The total follow-up encompassed 1,995 person-years, with an incidence rate of 1.75 deaths per 100 person-years. The mean survival time of patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was 30.84±19.57 months. The overall survival of patients on HAART was 64.00% (95% confidence interval [CI], 61.85 to 66.21%) at 72 months of follow-up. The significant predictors of mortality included non-disclosure of HIV status (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 5.82; 95% CI, 1.91 to 17.72), a history of tuberculosis (aHR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.41 to 3.51), and ambulatory (aHR, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.20 to 8.86) or bedridden (aHR, 4.67; 95% CI, 1.30 to 17.27) functional status, World Health Organization (WHO) clinical stage IV illness (aHR, 24.97; 95% CI, 2.75 to 26.45), and substance abusers (aHR, 3.72; 95% CI, 1.39 to 9.97). CONCLUSIONS Patients with a history of tuberculosis treatment, ambulatory or bedridden functional status, or advanced WHO clinical stage disease, as well substance abusers, should be carefully monitored, particularly in the first few months after initiating antiretroviral therapy. Patients should also be encouraged to disclose their status to their relatives. PMID:27820957

  11. Survival and predictors of mortality among human immunodeficiency virus patients on anti-retroviral treatment at Jinka Hospital, South Omo, Ethiopia: a six years retrospective cohort study

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    Erdaw Tachbele

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES The survival rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected patients receiving treatment in Ethiopia is poorly understood. This study aimed to determine the survival rate and predictors of mortality among HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy (ART at Jinka Hospital, South Omo, Ethiopia. METHODS A 6-year retrospective cohort study was conducted using 350 patient records drawn from 1,899 patients on ART at Jinka Hospital from September 2010 to August 2015. The data were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier statistics and Cox regression models. RESULTS Of the 350 study participants, 315 (90.0% were censored and 35 (10.0% died. Twenty-two (62.9% of the deaths occurred during the first year of treatment. The total follow-up encompassed 1,995 person-years, with an incidence rate of 1.75 deaths per 100 person-years. The mean survival time of patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART was 30.84±19.57 months. The overall survival of patients on HAART was 64.00% (95% confidence interval [CI], 61.85 to 66.21% at 72 months of follow-up. The significant predictors of mortality included non-disclosure of HIV status (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 5.82; 95% CI, 1.91 to 17.72, a history of tuberculosis (aHR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.41 to 3.51, and ambulatory (aHR, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.20 to 8.86 or bedridden (aHR, 4.67; 95% CI, 1.30 to 17.27 functional status, World Health Organization (WHO clinical stage IV illness (aHR, 24.97; 95% CI, 2.75 to 26.45, and substance abusers (aHR, 3.72; 95% CI, 1.39 to 9.97. CONCLUSIONS Patients with a history of tuberculosis treatment, ambulatory or bedridden functional status, or advanced WHO clinical stage disease, as well substance abusers, should be carefully monitored, particularly in the first few months after initiating antiretroviral therapy. Patients should also be encouraged to disclose their status to their relatives.

  12. Exploring the role of the ICU nurse in the antimicrobial stewardship team at a private hospital in KwaZuluNatal South Africa

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    J Rout

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Care of the critically ill patient has become increasingly challenging, with a rising incidence of resistant pathogens resulting in the ineffectiveness of many antibiotics. Severe infection is associated with prolonged intensive care unit (ICU length of stay, and increased morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. Antimicrobial stewardship (AMS aims to prevent resistance and protect patients and the wider community by promoting correct antimicrobial use. The current AMS literature has failed to describe the role of the ICU nurse in this important initiative.Objective. To explore the perceptions of AMS team members regarding the role of the ICU nurse in the AMS team.Methods. Using a qualitative research approach, purposive sampling was used to identify participants in an ICU. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 participants, including ICU shift-leader nurses, nursing management, surgeons, anaesthetists, physicians, microbiologists and pharmacists. Data were analysed and categorised using content analysis. The study was conducted in a general ICU in the private healthcare sector in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.Results. Participants representing various disciplines of the AMS team felt that the role of the ICU nurse within the team was an important part of the AMS programme. Four categories that emerged from the data are discussed: organisational, advocacy, clinical and collaborative roles.Conclusion. The role of the ICU nurse was found to be essential to the success of AMS in the ICU. These findings provide implications for practice, which, if recognised and supported by all healthcare stakeholders from ICU and hospital management, could improve AMS in this acute care area.

  13. P12.01 Epidemiology in spinal tumors treated surgically at the South Central Hospital of High Specialty from PEMEX in Mexico

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    Hernandez Resendiz, R.; Cordoba Mosqueda, M.; Guerra Mora, J.; Loya Aguilar, I.; Garcia Gonzalez, U.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: The spinal tumors are rare neoplasms, they can be primary or metastatic; in the literature they are divided in extradural and intradural, extramedullary and intramedullary, from which extradural tumors are the most frequent and are usually metastatic, the intramedullary are generally gliomas. From the primary tumors up to 78% are benign and 22% malign, the histological stripe and the involvement to the spinal compartments are of great importance for the results and the treatment which is mainly surgical, individualized and meticulously planned with the support of technological resources such as the electrophysiological monitoring during the surgery. Methods and Materials: Observational study with a range of patients from March 1999- March 2016 to whom surgical resection of the spinal tumor was performed and reported on the Electronic Files of the South Central Hospital of High Specialty PEMEX. A Statistical analysis is made with the SPSS Statistic of disease of the Institution program. Results: 23 patients with spinal tumor surgical resection were found. The median age was 53 ± 10 years. The most common clinical manifestation was radiculopathy (65%). The Karnofsky scale was used for initial evaluation where a 43% of patients had a 90 score at the moment of the diagnosis, while 65% had an ECOG 1. The most frequent tumor was the Spinal Shwannoma (39%), followed in prevalence by the Condroid Cordoma (17%), where the intradural extramedullary location was the most prevalent (78%). The medium rate of survival after the surgical procedure was from 11 months. Conclusions: Our cases and the international statistics coincide. Radiculopathy as high prevalence initial manifestation conceals us to dismiss in the sixth decade of life any possibility for spinal tumor presentation. Most of spinal tumor patients do not have any clinical deterioration in their basal state, which indicates that performing a successful surgical procedure and the right

  14. Nurses’ knowledge about and attitudes toward organ donation in state and private hospitals in Johannesburg South Africa

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    H Etheredge

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nurses are intricately involved in organ donation; however, the referral of donors appears to be declining in Johannesburg, South Africa (SA. This may be due to barriers in the referral process.Objectives. The objectives of this study were to explore nurses’ knowledge of the organ donation process and to explore personal beliefs and attitudes around organ donation.Methods. A quantitative, self-administered questionnaire was completed by nurses in Johannesburg, SA.Results. A total of 273 nurses participated, of whom most were female and <50 years old. The majority of participants (64.2% reported positive attitudes, and 63.2% stated that their personal beliefs about organ donation did not influence the advice they gave to patients. However, only 36.8% felt confident referring potential donors and 35.8% felt that referral was within their scope of practice. Most participants (84.5% felt that it was the doctor’s responsibility to refer donors, but 80.3% noted that they would refer donors themselves if there was a mandatory referral protocol. Only 61% of nurses were aware that there was access to a transplant procurement coordinator through their hospitals; however, there was uncertainty regarding the role of the coordinator.Conclusion. There is an urgent need to clarify the role of nurses in the process of organ donor referral in SA. Although nurses felt positive about organ donation, they expressed uncertainties about referring potential donors. However, if a clear protocol for referral was introduced, the majority of nurses noted that they would willingly follow it. We advocate for the development and implementation of a nationally endorsed protocol for donor referral and for the training of nurses in organ donation in SA.

  15. Obesity and its cardio-metabolic co-morbidities among adult Nigerians in a primary care clinic of a tertiary hospital in South-Eastern, Nigeria

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    Gabriel Uche Pascal Iloh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity once thought the medical problem of affluent countries now exist in Nigeria and has been described as a time bomb for the future explosion in the frequency of cardio-metabolic diseases. The most deleterious health consequences of obesity are on the cardiovascular system and associated disorder of lipid and glucose homeostasis. Aim: This study was designed to determine the magnitude of obesity and its cardio-metabolic co-morbidities among adult Nigerians in a primary care clinic of a tertiary hospital South-Eastern, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study carried out on 2391 adult Nigerians who were assessed for obesity using body mass index (BMI criterion. 206 patients who had BMI ΃30kg/m 2 were screened for cardio-metabolic co-morbidities. The data collected included basic demographic variables, weight, height, blood pressure; fasting plasma glucose and lipid profile. Results: The prevalence of obesity was 8.6%. Grade I obesity (67.5% was the most common pattern; others included grade II obesity (23.3% and grade III obesity (9.2%. Hypertension (42.7% was the most common cardio-metabolic morbidity. Others included low HDL-cholesterol (22.8%, diabetes mellitus (15.1%, high triglyceride (12.6%, high total cholesterol (9.2%, and high LDL-cholesterol (6.8%. Conclusion: Obesity and its cardio-metabolic morbidities exist among the study population. Anthropometric determination of obesity and screening for its associated cardio-metabolic co-morbidities should constitute clinical targets for intervention in primary care clinics.

  16. Prevalence of Charcot Arthropathy in Type 2 Diabetes Patients Aged over 50 Years with Severe Peripheral Neuropathy: A Retrospective Study in a Tertiary Care South Indian Hospital.

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    Salini, Dharmadas; Harish, Kumar; Minnie, Pillay; Sundaram, Karimassery R; Arun, Bal; Sandya, Chirukandath J; Mangalanandan, Thacho S; Vivek, Lakshmanan; Praveen, Valiyaparambil P

    2018-01-01

    Available literature on the prevalence of Charcot arthropathy (CA) represents mainly Western population. No study has been reported from India so far. Hence we attempted to study the prevalence of CA in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and severe peripheral neuropathy (T2DMPN), belonging to Indian population amongst whom type 2 diabetes is on the rise in alarming proportions. Medical records of 3387 patients who performed an objective vibration perception threshold test during the year 2015 were screened for T2DMPN. Out of these, 1475 T2DMPN patients above 50 years were selected and analyzed in detail for CA. CA was diagnosed based on clinical features and/or radiological investigations. The anatomical localization of the disease distribution of the affected foot was done according to Brodsky's classification. The prevalence of CA in T2DMPN patients was found to be 9.8%. The mean age of patients diagnosed with CA was 63 ± 8.36 years, and mean duration of DM for CA to develop was 18.01 ± 8.23 years. About 62.5% of the patients were male and 37.5% female. Bilateral presentation of CA was observed in 20.8% of patients. Multiple sites of the foot were affected in 48.6% of patients and belonged to type 4 classification of Brodsky. A high prevalence of CA (9.8%) was observed in the present study conducted on T2DMPN patients who presented to the endocrinology department of a tertiary care South Indian hospital. In the majority of patients, the area of foot affected belonged to type 4 classification of Brodsky.

  17. Characteristics of cloud occurrence using ceilometer measurements and its relationship to precipitation over Seoul

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    Lee, Sanghee; Hwang, Seung-On; Kim, Jhoon; Ahn, Myoung-Hwan

    2018-03-01

    Clouds are an important component of the atmosphere that affects both climate and weather, however, their contributions can be very difficult to determine. Ceilometer measurements can provide high resolution information on atmospheric conditions such as cloud base height (CBH) and vertical frequency of cloud occurrence (CVF). This study presents the first comprehensive analysis of CBH and CVF derived using Vaisala CL51 ceilometers at two urban stations in Seoul, Korea, during a three-year period from January 2014 to December 2016. The average frequency of cloud occurrence detected by the ceilometers is 54.3%. It is found that the CL51 is better able to capture CBH as compared to another ceilometer CL31 at a nearby meteorological station because it could detect high clouds more accurately. Frequency distributions for CBH up to 13,000 m providing detailed vertical features with 500-m interval show 55% of CBHs below 2 km for aggregated CBHs. A bimodal frequency distribution was observed for three-layers CBHs. A monthly variation of CVF reveals that frequency concentration of lower clouds is found in summer and winter, and higher clouds more often detected in spring and autumn. Monthly distribution features of cloud occurrence and precipitation are depending on seasons and it might be easy to define their relationship due to higher degree of variability of precipitation than cloud occurrence. However, a fluctuation of cloud occurrence frequency in summer is similar to precipitation in trend, whereas clouds in winter are relatively frequent but precipitation is not accompanied. In addition, recent decrease of summer precipitation could be mostly explained by a decrease of cloud occurrence. Anomalous precipitation recorded sometimes is considerably related to corresponding cloud occurrence. The diurnal and daily variations of CBH and CVF from ceilometer observations and the analysis of microwave radiometer measurements for two typical cloudiness cases are also reviewed

  18. Hydrochemistry of urban groundwater, Seoul, Korea: the impact of subway tunnels on groundwater quality.

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    Chae, Gi-Tak; Yun, Seong-Taek; Choi, Byoung-Young; Yu, Soon-Young; Jo, Ho-Young; Mayer, Bernhard; Kim, Yun-Jong; Lee, Jin-Yong

    2008-10-23

    Hydrogeologic and hydrochemical data for subway tunnel seepage waters in Seoul (Republic of Korea) were examined to understand the effect of underground tunnels on the degradation of urban groundwater. A very large quantity of groundwater (up to 63 million m3 year(-1)) is discharged into subway tunnels with a total length of 287 km, resulting in a significant drop of the local groundwater table and the abandonment of groundwater wells. For the tunnel seepage water samples (n = 72) collected from 43 subway stations, at least one parameter among pathogenic microbes (total coliform, heterotrophic bacteria), dissolved Mn and Fe, NH4+, NO3(-), turbidity, and color exceeded the Korean Drinking Water Standards. Locally, tunnel seepage water was enriched in dissolved Mn (avg. 0.70 mg L(-1), max. 5.58 mg L(-1)), in addition to dissolved Fe, NH4+, and pathogenic microbes, likely due to significant inflow of sewage water from broken or leaking sewer pipes. Geochemical modeling of redox reactions was conducted to simulate the characteristic hydrochemistry of subway tunnel seepage. The results show that variations in the reducing conditions occur in urban groundwater, dependent upon the amount of organic matter-rich municipal sewage contaminating the aquifer. The organic matter facilitates the reduction and dissolution of Mn- and Fe-bearing solids in aquifers and/or tunnel construction materials, resulting in the successive increase of dissolved Mn and Fe. The present study clearly demonstrates that locally significant deterioration of urban groundwater is caused by a series of interlinked hydrogeologic and hydrochemical changes induced by underground tunnels.

  19. Estimation of inhaled airborne particle number concentration by subway users in Seoul, Korea.

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    Kim, Minhae; Park, Sechan; Namgung, Hyeong-Gyu; Kwon, Soon-Bark

    2017-12-01

    Exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) causes several diseases in the human body. The smaller particles, which have relatively large surface areas, are actually more harmful to the human body since they can penetrate deeper parts of the lungs or become secondary pollutants by bonding with other atmospheric pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides. The purpose of this study is to present the number of PM inhaled by subway users as a possible reference material for any analysis of the hazards to the human body arising from the inhalation of such PM. Two transfer stations in Seoul, Korea, which have the greatest number of users, were selected for this study. For 0.3-0.422 μm PM, particle number concentration (PNC) was highest outdoors but decreased as the tester moved deeper underground. On the other hand, the PNC between 1 and 10 μm increased as the tester moved deeper underground and showed a high number concentration inside the subway train as well. An analysis of the particles to which subway users are actually exposed to (inhaled particle number), using particle concentration at each measurement location, the average inhalation rate of an adult, and the average stay time at each location, all showed that particles sized 0.01-0.422 μm are mostly inhaled from the outdoor air whereas particles sized 1-10 μm are inhaled as the passengers move deeper underground. Based on these findings, we expect that the inhaled particle number of subway users can be used as reference data for an evaluation of the hazards to health caused by PM inhalation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Chemical compositions of subway particles in Seoul, Korea determined by a quantitative single particle analysis.

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    Kang, Sunni; Hwang, HeeJin; Park, YooMyung; Kim, HyeKyoung; Ro, Chul-Un

    2008-12-15

    A novel single particle analytical technique, low-Z particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis, was applied to characterize seasonal subway samples collected at a subway station in Seoul, Korea. For all 8 samples collected twice in each season, 4 major types of subway particles, based on their chemical compositions, are significantly encountered: Fe-containing; soil-derived; carbonaceous; and secondary nitrate and/or sulfate particles. Fe-containing particles are generated indoors from wear processes at rail-wheel-brake interfaces while the others may be introduced mostly from the outdoor urban atmosphere. Fe-containing particles are the most frequently encountered with relative abundances in the range of 61-79%. In this study, it is shown that Fe-containing subway particles almost always exist either as partially or fully oxidized forms in underground subway microenvironments. Their relative abundances of Fe-containing particles increase as particle sizes decrease. Relative abundances of Fe-containing particles are higher in morning samples than in afternoon samples because of heavier train traffic in the morning. In the summertime samples, Fe-containing particles are the most abundantly encountered, whereas soil-derived and nitrate/sulfate particles are the least encountered, indicating the air-exchange between indoor and outdoor environments is limited in the summer, owing to the air-conditioning in the subway system. In our work, it was observed that the relative abundances of the particles of outdoor origin vary somewhat among seasonal samples to a lesser degree, reflecting that indoor emission sources predominate.

  1. Cross-cultural comparison of workplace stressors, ways of coping and demographic characteristics as predictors of physical and mental health among hospital nurses in Japan, Thailand, South Korea and the USA (Hawaii).

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    Lambert, Vickie A; Lambert, Clinton E; Itano, Joanne; Inouye, Jillian; Kim, Susie; Kuniviktikul, Wipada; Sitthimongkol, Yajai; Pongthavornkamol, Kanuangnit; Gasemgitvattana, Saipin; Ito, Misae

    2004-08-01

    In an attempt to cross-culturally compare factors that may contribute to the nursing shortage within countries that have produced a limited number of research findings on role stress in nurses, this research examined work stressors, ways of coping and demographic characteristics as predictors of physical and mental health among hospital nurses from Japan, South Korea, Thailand and the USA (Hawaii). Subjects (n = 1554 hospital-based nurses) were administered four self-report questionnaires: Demographic Questionnaire, "Nursing Stress Scale", "Ways of Coping Questionnaire" and "SF-36 Health Survey". Findings suggested that nurses indicated similar workplace stressors, ways of coping, and levels of physical and mental health. While subjects, across countries, demonstrated a variety of predictors of physical and mental health, several predictors were found to be the same. Cross-culturally the role of nurses may vary; however, certain factors are predictive of the status of hospital nurses' physical health and mental health. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Food deserts in Korea? A GIS analysis of food consumption patterns at sub-district level in Seoul using the KNHANES 2008-2012 data.

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    Kim, Dohyeong; Lee, Chang Kil; Seo, Dong Yeon

    2016-10-01

    The concept of "food deserts" has been widely used in Western countries as a framework to identify areas with constrained access to fresh and nutritious foods, providing guidelines for targeted nutrition and public health programs. Unlike the vast amount of literature on food deserts in a Western context, only a few studies have addressed the concept in an East Asian context, and none of them have investigated spatial patterns of unhealthy food consumption from a South Korean perspective. We first evaluated the applicability of food deserts in a Korean setting and identified four Korean-specific unhealthy food consumption indicators, including insufficient food consumption due to financial difficulty, limited consumption of fruits and vegetables, excessive consumption of junk food, and excessive consumption of instant noodles. The KNHANES 2008-2012 data in Seoul were analyzed with stratified sampling weights to understand the trends and basic characteristics of these eating patterns in each category. GIS analyses were then conducted for the data spatially aggregated at the sub-district level in order to create maps identifying areas of concern regarding each of these indicators and their combinations. Despite significant reduction in the rate of food insufficiency due to financial difficulty, the rates of excessive consumption of unhealthy foods (junk food and instant noodles) as well as limited consumption of fruits and vegetables have increased or remained high. These patterns tend to be found among relatively younger and more educated groups, regardless of income status. A GIS-based analysis demonstrated several hotspots as potential "food deserts" tailored to the Korean context based on the observed spatial patterns of undesirable food consumption. These findings could be used as a guide to prioritize areas for targeted intervention programs to facilitate healthy food consumption behaviors and thus improve nutrition and food-related health outcomes.

  3. Food deserts in Korea? A GIS analysis of food consumption patterns at sub-district level in Seoul using the KNHANES 2008-2012 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dohyeong; Seo, Dong Yeon

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The concept of "food deserts" has been widely used in Western countries as a framework to identify areas with constrained access to fresh and nutritious foods, providing guidelines for targeted nutrition and public health programs. Unlike the vast amount of literature on food deserts in a Western context, only a few studies have addressed the concept in an East Asian context, and none of them have investigated spatial patterns of unhealthy food consumption from a South Korean perspective. SUBJECTS/METHODS We first evaluated the applicability of food deserts in a Korean setting and identified four Korean-specific unhealthy food consumption indicators, including insufficient food consumption due to financial difficulty, limited consumption of fruits and vegetables, excessive consumption of junk food, and excessive consumption of instant noodles. The KNHANES 2008-2012 data in Seoul were analyzed with stratified sampling weights to understand the trends and basic characteristics of these eating patterns in each category. GIS analyses were then conducted for the data spatially aggregated at the sub-district level in order to create maps identifying areas of concern regarding each of these indicators and their combinations. RESULTS Despite significant reduction in the rate of food insufficiency due to financial difficulty, the rates of excessive consumption of unhealthy foods (junk food and instant noodles) as well as limited consumption of fruits and vegetables have increased or remained high. These patterns tend to be found among relatively younger and more educated groups, regardless of income status. CONCLUSIONS A GIS-based analysis demonstrated several hotspots as potential "food deserts" tailored to the Korean context based on the observed spatial patterns of undesirable food consumption. These findings could be used as a guide to prioritize areas for targeted intervention programs to facilitate healthy food consumption behaviors and thus

  4. Burden and predictors of Staphylococcus aureus and S. pseudintermedius infections among dogs presented at an academic veterinary hospital in South Africa (2007–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel N. Qekwana

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Staphylococci are commensals of the mucosal surface and skin of humans and animals, but have been implicated in infections such as otitis externa, pyoderma, urinary tract infections and post-surgical complications. Laboratory records provide useful information to help investigate these infections. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the burdens of these infections and use multinomial regression to examine the associations between various Staphylococcus infections and demographic and temporal factors among dogs admitted to an academic veterinary hospital in South Africa. Methods Records of 1,497 clinical canine samples submitted to the bacteriology laboratory at a veterinary academic hospital between 2007 and 2012 were included in this study. Proportions of staphylococcal positive samples were calculated, and a multinomial logistic regression model was used to identify predictors of staphylococcal infections. Results Twenty-seven percent of the samples tested positive for Staphylococcus spp. The species of Staphylococcus identified were S. pseudintermedius (19.0%, S. aureus (3.8%, S. epidermidis (0.7% and S. felis (0.1%. The remaining 2.87% consisted of unspeciated Staphylococcus. Distribution of the species by age of dog showed that S. pseudintermedius was the most common (25.6% in dogs aged 2–4 years while S. aureus was most frequent (6.3% in dogs aged 5–6 years. S. pseudintermedius (34.1% and S. aureus (35.1% were the most frequently isolated species from skin samples. The results of the multivariable multinomial logistic regression model identified specimen, year and age of the dog as significant predictors of the risk of infection with Staphylococcus. There was a significant temporal increase (RRR = 1.17; 95% CI [1.06–1.29] in the likelihood of a dog testing positive for S. pseudintermedius compared to testing negative. Dogs ≤ 8 years of age were significantly more likely to test positive for S

  5. Attitudes toward the mentally ill among community health-related personnel in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Wook; Choi, Eunkyung; Yu, Jaehak; Park, Doo-Heum; Ryu, Seung-Ho; Ha, Jee Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Prejudice and negative attitudes toward mental illness are major obstacles in the rehabilitation and functional recovery of patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the attitudes of health-related personnel toward mentally ill patients in a local urban community in South Korea. In total, 401 participants (men, 132; women, 269; mean age, 37.3 ± 9.5 years) were recruited. The participants were health-related personnel in a district of Seoul, who were recruited from three different workplaces: a local administration office, a public health center, and a community welfare center. Sociodemographic data were gathered, and the community attitudes toward the mentally ill (CAMI) inventory were administered. Comparisons of the CAMI subscales were conducted among participants using statistical analysis. Community welfare center workers showed more authoritarianism and social restriction and less community mental health ideology than the other two groups. Among the demographic variables, a shorter working career, higher education, female gender, and younger age were also related to a more negative attitude toward mentally ill patients. Community health-related personnel who have contact with patients with mental illness should be encouraged to have a fair, hospitable, and open-minded attitude. It is advisable for these workers to receive interventions such as regular educational programs early in their careers.

  6. GENERAL PRACTITIONERS AND HOSPITALS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent years in South Africa the position of the general practi- tioner in hospitals has ... ments, and it is in these hospitals that difficulties have arisen. On the other hand, ... great extent deprived of contact with his colleagues. He comes to ... eventually lose interest in the results of treatment and advances in medicine. In fact ...

  7. Aerosol radiative effects on mesoscale cloud-precipitation variables over Northeast Asia during the MAPS-Seoul 2015 campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Shin-Young; Lee, Hyo-Jung; Kang, Jeong-Eon; Lee, Taehyoung; Kim, Cheol-Hee

    2018-01-01

    The online model, Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is employed to interpret the effects of aerosol-cloud-precipitation interaction on mesoscale meteorological fields over Northeast Asia during the Megacity Air Pollution Study-Seoul (MAPS-Seoul) 2015 campaign. The MAPS-Seoul campaign is a pre-campaign of the Korea-United States Air Quality (KORUS-AQ) campaign conducted over the Korean Peninsula. We validated the WRF-Chem simulations during the campaign period, and analyzed aerosol-warm cloud interactions by diagnosing both aerosol direct, indirect, and total effects. The results demonstrated that aerosol directly decreased downward shortwave radiation up to -44% (-282 W m-2) for this period and subsequently increased downward longwave radiation up to +15% (∼52 W m-2) in the presence of low-level clouds along the thematic area. Aerosol increased cloud fraction indirectly up to ∼24% with the increases of both liquid water path and the droplet number mixing ratio. Precipitation properties were altered both directly and indirectly. Direct effects simply changed cloud-precipitation quantities via simple updraft process associated with perturbed radiation and temperature, while indirect effects mainly suppressed precipitation, but sometimes increased precipitation in the higher relative humidity atmosphere or near vapor-saturated condition. The total aerosol effects caused a time lag of the precipitation rate with the delayed onset time of up to 9 h. This implies the importance of aerosol effects in improving mesoscale precipitation rate prediction in the online approach in the presence of non-linear warm cloud.

  8. Relationship of age at menarche on anthropometric index and menstrual irregularity in late adolescent girls in Seoul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Eun Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available PurposeTo examine the relationship between menarcheal age and anthropometric indices and menstrual irregularity in late adolescent girls in Seoul.MethodsWe surveyed 4,218 fertile adolescent girls between the ages of 16 and 18 years to determine their anthropometric indices and menarcheal age. Measurements were taken from June 2008 to October 2009 at seven girl's high schools in Seoul, Korea. Participants were offered self-report questionnaire as a survey tool that included questions on anthropometric indices (height, weight, waist circumference, menarcheal age, menstrual pattern, frequency of menstruation per year.ResultsThe participants were categorized into three groups based on menarcheal age: early menarche group (younger than 2 standard deviations [SD], mid menarche group (within ±2 SD, late menarche group (older than 2 SD. The mean age of early menarche group was 9.9±0.2 years, mid menarche group 12.5±0.9 years, late menarche group 15.1±0.3 years (P < 0.001. Heights were recorded as 160.4±5.2 cm, 161.8±4.9 cm, 162.3±4.7 cm in early, mid, and late menarche group, respectively (P = 0.001. Body mass index (BMI and waist circumference significantly were lager in early menarche group than mid and late menarche ones (P < 0.001. The menarcheal age had a positive correlation with height and negative correlations with weight, BMI, waist circumference (P < 0.001. The prevalence of oligomenorrhea was more frequent in late menarche group than early and mid menarche group.ConclusionThe menarcheal age have positive relationship with height and inverse relationship with BMI and waist circumference in late adolescent girls in Seoul. Late menarcheal girls are disposed to have menstrual irregularity compared to early menarcheal girls.

  9. Environmental isotope-aided studies on river water and groundwater interaction in the region of Seoul and Taegu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong Sung Ahn

    1987-09-01

    The report provides the results and evaluations of environmental isotope analyses (O-18, H-2, H-3) undertaken in detailed field investigations carried out in the Han River Basin to study the hydrodynamics of river water and groundwater interrelationships. The conducted study, particularly near the Seoul area and the Taegu area, has enabled the delineation of the origin of groundwater in crystalline rock aquifers and limestone aquifers of the Han River Basin and evaluations as regards the groundwater flow dynamics based on environmental isotope data are given in the report. Refs, figs, tabs

  10. Evaluating the Capability of Grass Swale for the Rainfall Runoff Reduction from an Urban Parking Lot, Seoul, Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Shafique; Reeho Kim; Kwon Kyung-Ho

    2018-01-01

    This field study elaborates the role of grass swale in the management of stormwater in an urban parking lot. Grass swale was constructed by using different vegetations and local soil media in the parking lot of Mapu-gu Seoul, Korea. In this study, rainfall runoff was first retained in soil and the vegetation layers of the grass swale, and then infiltrated rainwater was collected with the help of underground perforated pipe, and passed to an underground storage trench. In this way, grass swale...

  11. Master equation approach to the intra-urban passenger flow and application to the Metropolitan Seoul Subway system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Keumsook [Department of Geography, Sungshin University, Seoul 136-742 (Korea, Republic of); Goh, Segun; Choi, M Y [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Center for Theoretical Physics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong Soo [School of Information Technology, Sungshin University, Seoul 136-742 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Woo-Sung, E-mail: kslee@sungshin.ac.kr, E-mail: mychoi@snu.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Basic Science Research Institute, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-18

    The master equation approach is proposed to describe the evolution of passengers in a subway system. With the transition rate constructed from simple geographical consideration, the evolution equation for the distribution of subway passengers is found to bear skew distributions including log-normal, Weibull, and power-law distributions. This approach is then applied to the Metropolitan Seoul Subway system: analysis of the trip data of all passengers in a day reveals that the data in most cases fit well to the log-normal distributions. Implications of the results are also discussed.

  12. Master equation approach to the intra-urban passenger flow and application to the Metropolitan Seoul Subway system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Keumsook; Goh, Segun; Choi, M Y; Park, Jong Soo; Jung, Woo-Sung

    2011-01-01

    The master equation approach is proposed to describe the evolution of passengers in a subway system. With the transition rate constructed from simple geographical consideration, the evolution equation for the distribution of subway passengers is found to bear skew distributions including log-normal, Weibull, and power-law distributions. This approach is then applied to the Metropolitan Seoul Subway system: analysis of the trip data of all passengers in a day reveals that the data in most cases fit well to the log-normal distributions. Implications of the results are also discussed.

  13. Traditional eye medicine use by newly presenting ophthalmic patients to a teaching hospital in south-eastern Nigeria: socio-demographic and clinical correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uche Judith

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study set out to determine the incidence, socio-demographic, and clinical correlates of Traditional Eye Medicine (TEM use in a population of newly presenting ophthalmic outpatients attending a tertiary eye care centre in south-eastern Nigeria. Methods In a comparative cross-sectional survey at the eye clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH, Enugu, between August 2004 - July 2006, all newly presenting ophthalmic outpatients were recruited. Participants' socio-demographic and clinical data and profile of TEM use were obtained from history and examination of each participant and entered into a pretested questionnaire and proforma. Participants were subsequently categorized into TEM- users and non-users; intra-group analysis yielded proportions, frequencies, and percentages while chi-square test was used for inter-group comparisons at P = 0.01, df = 1. Results Of the 2,542 (males, 48.1%; females, 51.9% participants, 149 (5.9% (males, 45%; females, 55% used TEM for their current eye disease. The TEMs used were chemical substances (57.7%, plant products (37.7%, and animal products (4.7%. They were more often prescribed by non-traditional (66.4% than traditional (36.9% medicine practitioners. TEMs were used on account of vision loss (58.5%, ocular itching (25.4% and eye discharge (3.8%. Reported efficacy from previous users (67.1% and belief in potency (28.2% were the main reasons for using TEM. Civil servants (20.1%, farmers (17.7%, and traders (14.1% were the leading users of TEM. TEM use was significantly associated with younger age (p Conclusion The incidence of TEM use among new ophthalmic outpatients at UNTH is low. The reasons for TEM use are amenable to positive change through enhanced delivery of promotive, preventive, and curative public eye care services. This has implications for eye care planners and implementers. To reverse the trend, we suggest strengthening of eye care programmes, even

  14. Estimation of inhaled airborne particle number concentration by subway users in Seoul, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Minhae; Park, Sechan; Namgung, Hyeong-Gyu; Kwon, Soon-Bark

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) causes several diseases in the human body. The smaller particles, which have relatively large surface areas, are actually more harmful to the human body since they can penetrate deeper parts of the lungs or become secondary pollutants by bonding with other atmospheric pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides. The purpose of this study is to present the number of PM inhaled by subway users as a possible reference material for any analysis of the hazards to the human body arising from the inhalation of such PM. Two transfer stations in Seoul, Korea, which have the greatest number of users, were selected for this study. For 0.3–0.422 μm PM, particle number concentration (PNC) was highest outdoors but decreased as the tester moved deeper underground. On the other hand, the PNC between 1 and 10 μm increased as the tester moved deeper underground and showed a high number concentration inside the subway train as well. An analysis of the particles to which subway users are actually exposed to (inhaled particle number), using particle concentration at each measurement location, the average inhalation rate of an adult, and the average stay time at each location, all showed that particles sized 0.01–0.422 μm are mostly inhaled from the outdoor air whereas particles sized 1–10 μm are inhaled as the passengers move deeper underground. Based on these findings, we expect that the inhaled particle number of subway users can be used as reference data for an evaluation of the hazards to health caused by PM inhalation. - Highlights: • Size-dependent aerosol number was measured along the path of subway user. • Particles less than 0.4 μm were inhaled in outdoor but less so as deeper underground. • Coarse particles were inhaled significantly as users moved deeper underground. - We estimated the inhaled aerosol number concentration depending on particle size along the path of subway users.

  15. Filling the gap between disaster preparedness and response networks of urban emergency management: Following the 2013 Seoul Floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Minsun; Jung, Kyujin

    2015-01-01

    To examine the gap between disaster preparedness and response networks following the 2013 Seoul Floods in which the rapid transmission of disaster information and resources was impeded by severe changes of interorganizational collaboration networks. This research uses the 2013 Seoul Emergency Management Survey data that were collected before and after the floods, and total 94 organizations involving in coping with the floods were analyzed in bootstrap independent-sample t-test and social network analysis through UCINET 6 and STATA 12. The findings show that despite the primary network form that is more hierarchical, horizontal collaboration has been relatively invigorated in actual response. Also, interorganizational collaboration networks for response operations seem to be more flexible grounded on improvisation to coping with unexpected victims and damages. Local organizations under urban emergency management are recommended to tightly build a strong commitment for joint response operations through full-size exercises at the metropolitan level before a catastrophic event. Also, interorganizational emergency management networks need to be restructured by reflecting the actual response networks to reduce collaboration risk during a disaster. This research presents a critical insight into inverse thinking of the view designing urban emergency management networks and provides original evidences for filling the gap between previously coordinated networks for disaster preparedness and practical response operations after a disaster.

  16. Comparative analysis of nanotechnology awareness in consumers and experts in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim YR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Yu-Ri Kim,1 Eun Jeong Lee,1 Sung Ha Park,2 Hyo Jin Kwon,3 Seong Soo A An,4 Sang Wook Son,5 Young Rok Seo,6 Jae-Eun Pie,7 Myoung Yoon,8 Ja Hei Kim,8 Meyoung-Kon Kim1 1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University Medical School and College, Seoul, South Korea; 2Department of Biochemistry, University of Bath, Bath, UK; 3Department of Medical Education, Korea University Medical School and College, Seoul, South Korea; 4Department of Bionanotechnology, Gachon University, Seongnam, Gyeonggi, South Korea; 5Department of Dermatology, Korea University Medical School and College, Seoul, South Korea; 6Department of Life Science, Institute of Environmental Medicine for Green Chemistry, Dongguk University, Seoul, South Korea; 7Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Science and Engineering, Anyang University, Anyang, Gyeonggi, South Korea; 8Consumers Korea, Seoul, South Korea Purpose: This study examined the need for public communication about nanotechnologies and nanoparticles by providing a comparative analysis of the differences in risk awareness of nanotechnologies and nanoparticles between consumers and experts. Methods: A total of 1,007 consumers and 150 experts participated in this study. A questionnaire was prepared examining their awareness of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials and their view of the necessity for information and education about the latest nanotechnologies and nanomaterials. Results: Our results indicated that the expert group recognized that they knew more than consumers about nanotechnology and that there was a need for relevant education in nanotechnology and nanomaterials among consumers. We found that the consumer group had a more positive attitude toward nanotechnology, even though they did not know much about it. Moreover, the consumer group was inconclusive about the type of information on nanotechnology deemed necessary for the public, as well as the suitable party to be responsible for education

  17. A cost analysis of a hospital-based palliative care outreach program: implications for expanding public sector palliative care in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongoro, Charles; Dinat, Natalya

    2011-06-01

    Increasing access to palliative care services in low- and middle-income countries is often perceived as unaffordable despite the growing need for such services because of the increasing burden of chronic diseases including HIV and AIDS. The aim of the study was to establish the costs and cost drivers for a hospital outreach palliative care service in a low-resource setting, and to elucidate possible consequential quality-of-life improvements and potential cost savings. The study used a cost accounting procedure to cost the hospital outreach services--using a step-down costing method to measure unit (average) costs. The African Palliative Care Association Palliative Outcome Score (APCA POS) was applied at five intervals to a cohort of 72 consecutive and consenting patients, enrolled in a two-month period. The study found that of the 481 and 1902 patients registered for outreach and in-hospital visits, respectively, 4493 outreach hospital visits and 3412 in-hospital visits were done per year. The costs per hospital outreach visit and in-hospital visit were US$71 and US$80, respectively. The cost per outreach visit was 50% less than the average cost of a patient day equivalent for district hospitals of $142. Some of the POS of a subsample (n=72) showed statistically significant improvements. Hospital outreach services have the potential to avert hospital admissions in generally overcrowded services in low-resource settings and may improve the quality of life of patients in their home environments. Copyright © 2011 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Seroprevalence and disease burden of acute hepatitis A in adult population in South Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Gu Yoon

    Full Text Available Adult seroprevalence of HAV is decreasing in developed countries including South Korea, due to general sanitation improvement. Although hepatitis A vaccination was introduced in South Korea more than 20 years ago, recent infection rates have not decreased. In this study, we investigate the seroprevalence of anti-HAV IgG, and estimate the national disease burden of acute hepatitis A in adult population.Seroprevalence data were collected from health promotion center of Korea University Guro Hospital, in Seoul, Korea from 2010 to 2014. Data from adults (≥20-years being tested for anti-HAV IgG were included. In addition, epidemiological and clinical data of patients diagnosed with acute hepatitis A from 2009 to 2013, were collected from Korean Statistical Information Service (KOSIS and the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS database. Data were stratified and compared by age groups.A total of 11,177 subjects were tested for anti-HAV IgG from 2010 to 2014. Age-related seroprevalence showed relatively low seropositivity in young adults. Incidence of acute hepatitis A was highest in 2009 and lowest in 2013. When categorized by age group, adults in their 20s and 30s had more HAV infections and related-admissions than older adults. However, ICU admission rate and average insurance-covered cost was high in older adults.The anti-HAV IgG seropositivity in Korean younger adult population was low while the incidence of acute hepatitis A was high, especially in the 20-39 aged. However, a substantial number of older adults were infected, and required more intensive procedures and incurred higher insurance-covered medical costs.

  19. Separating boys and girls and increasing weight? Assessing the impacts of single-sex schools through random assignment in Seoul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jaesung; Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R

    2015-06-01

    A growing body of research reports associations of school contexts with adolescents' weight and weight-related behaviors. One interesting, but under-researched, dimension of school context that potentially matters for adolescents' weight is the gender composition. If boys and girls are separated into single-sex schools, they might be less concerned about physical appearance, which may result in increased weight. Utilizing a unique setting in Seoul, Korea where students are randomly assigned to single-sex and coeducational schools within school districts, we estimate causal effects of single-sex schools on weight and weight-related behaviors. Our results show that students attending single-sex schools are more likely to be overweight, and that the effects are more pronounced for girls. We also find that girls in single-sex schools are less likely to engage in strenuous activities than their coeducational counterparts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of PM2.5 and identification of transported secondary and biomass burning contribution in Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yumi; Seo, Jihoon; Kim, Jin Young; Lee, Ji Yi; Kim, Hwajin; Kim, Bong Mann

    2018-02-01

    The chemical and seasonal characteristics of fine particulates in Seoul, Korea, were investigated based on 24-h integrated PM 2.5 measurements made over four 1-month periods in each season between October 2012 and September 2013. The four-season average concentration of PM 2.5 was 37 μg m -3 , and the major chemical components were secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) species of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium (49%), followed by organic matter (34%). The mass concentration and most of the chemical components of PM 2.5 showed clear seasonal variation, with a winter-high and summer-low pattern. The winter-to-summer sulfate ratio and the winter organic carbon (OC)-to-elemental carbon (EC) ratio were unusually high compared with those in previous studies. Strong correlations of both the sulfate level and the sulfur oxidation ratio with relative humidity, and between water-soluble OC (WSOC) and SIA in winter, suggest the importance of aqueous phase chemistry for secondary aerosols. A strong correlation between non-sea salt sulfate and Na + levels, a high Cl - /Na + ratio, and an unusual positive correlation between the nitrogen oxidation ratio and temperature during the winter indicate the influence of transported secondary emission sources from upwind urban areas and from China across the Yellow Sea. Despite the absence of local forest fires and the regulation of wood burning, a high levoglucosan concentration and its correlations with OC and WSOC indicate that Seoul was affected by biomass burning sources in the winter. The unusually high water-insoluble OC (WIOC)-to-EC ratio in winter implies additional transported combustion sources of WIOC. The strong correlation between WIOC and levoglucosan suggests the likely influence of transported biomass burning sources on the high WIOC/EC ratio during the winter.

  1. Spatial variation of contaminant elements of roadside dust samples from Budapest (Hungary) and Seoul (Republic of Korea), including Pt, Pd and Ir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, Manfred; Chon, Hyo-Taek; Marton, Laszlo

    2015-02-01

    Roadside dusts were studied to explain the spatial variation and present levels of contaminant elements including Pt, Pd and Ir in urban environment and around Budapest (Hungary) and Seoul (Republic of Korea). The samples were collected from six sites of high traffic volumes in Seoul metropolitan city and from two control sites within the suburbs of Seoul, for comparison. Similarly, road dust samples were obtained two times from traffic focal points in Budapest, from the large bridges across the River Danube, from Margitsziget (an island in the Danube in the northern part of Budapest, used for recreation) as well as from main roads (no highways) outside Budapest. The samples were analysed for contaminant elements by ICP-AES and for Pt, Pd and Ir by ICP-MS. The highest Pt, Pd and Ir levels in road dusts were found from major roads with high traffic volume, but correlations with other contaminant elements were low, however. This reflects automobile catalytic converter to be an important source. To interpret the obtained multi-element results in short, pollution index, contamination index and geo-accumulation index were calculated. Finally, the obtained data were compared with total concentrations encountered in dust samples from Madrid, Oslo, Tokyo and Muscat (Oman). Dust samples from Seoul reached top level concentrations for Cd-Zn-As-Co-Cr-Cu-Mo-Ni-Sn. Just Pb was rather low because unleaded gasoline was introduced as compulsory in 1993. Concentrations in Budapest dust samples were lower than from Seoul, except for Pb and Mg. Compared with Madrid as another continental site, Budapest was higher in Co-V-Zn. Dust from Oslo, which is not so large, contained more Mn-Na-Sr than dust from other towns, but less other metals.

  2. Tabagismo entre pacientes internados em um hospital universitário no sul do Brasil: prevalência, grau de dependência e estágio motivacional Smoking among patients hospitalized at a university hospital in the south of Brazil: prevalence, degree of nicotine dependence, and motivational stage of change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Balsini Barreto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência e o perfil do tabagismo em pacientes internados em um hospital universitário no sul do Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo transversal com pacientes maiores de 18 anos hospitalizados há mais de 24 h no Hospital Universitário da Universidade de Santa Catarina em Florianópolis. Os pacientes foram entrevistados em duas ocasiões distintas. Dados demográficos, socioeconômicos e ligados ao tabagismo foram coletados. RESULTADOS: Foram entrevistados 235 pacientes: 44 (18,7% eram tabagistas; 77 (32,8% eram ex-tabagistas; 114 (48,5% eram não tabagistas e 109 (46,7% eram tabagistas passivos. A média de idade dos fumantes foi de 45,7 ± 15,2 anos, e 29 (65,9% eram do sexo masculino. Entre os fumantes, a mediana da idade de início do tabagismo foi de 15 anos; a carga tabágica média foi de 32 ± 30,2 anos-maço; 36 (81,9% tinham consumo diário de até 20 cigarros; 20 (45,4% tinham grau de dependência à nicotina elevada ou muito elevada; 32 (72,7% já haviam tentado cessar, 39 (88,6% gostariam de cessar, 32 (72,7% aceitariam receber tratamento, 13 (29,5% fumaram durante a internação, e 13 (29,5% apresentaram síndrome de abstinência. Houve um aumento no número de pacientes nos estágios motivacionais de preparação e ação durante a internação (de 31,8% para 54,8%. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de tabagismo no estudo foi semelhante à encontrada em outros estudos no Brasil. Os resultados sugerem que nossa amostra foi significativa em relação à população de fumantes hospitalizados, que se encontra motivada à cessação do hábito tabágico durante a hospitalização, necessitando de uma abordagem sistematizada para a cessação.OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and profile of smoking among hospitalized patients at a university hospital in the south of Brazil. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study involving patients over 18 years of age hospitalized for over 24 h at the Federal

  3. Effects of untreated hospital effluents on the accumulation of toxic metals in sediments of receiving system under tropical conditions: case of South India and Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubedi, Josué Ilunga; Devarajan, Naresh; Le Faucheur, Séverine; Mputu, John Kayembe; Atibu, Emmanuel K; Sivalingam, Periyasamy; Prabakar, Kandasamy; Mpiana, Pius T; Wildi, Walter; Poté, John

    2013-10-01

    Physicochemical and ecotoxicological analyses have been performed to assess the quality of sediments receiving untreated hospital effluents from Indian and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) hospitals. The sediments were collected monthly and characterized for grain size, organic matter, total organic carbon, total carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, toxic metals and ecotoxicity. The results highlight the high concentration of toxic metals from the Indian hospital effluent receiving systems, especially for Cr, Cu, As, Zn and Hg. On the other hand, the metal concentrations in the sediment receiving system from DRC are low (e.g. maximum Hg and Zn concentration were 0.46 and 48.84 mg kg(-1) respectively). Ostracods exposed to sediment samples H2 (September month sample) and H3 (June and September month samples) were found dead after 6d of exposure whereas the higher mortality rate for Congo sediments was 23% but was accompanied with 33 ± 7% of growth inhibition. The results of this study show the variation of sediment composition on toxic metal levels as well as toxicity related to both, the type of hospitals and the sampling period. Additionally, hospital effluent disposal practices at the study sites can lead to the pollution of water resources and may generate risks for aquatic organisms and human health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Quality of acute asthma care in two tertiary hospitals in a state in South Western Nigeria: A report of clinical audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desalu, Olufemi Olumuyiwa; Adeoti, Adekunle Olatayo; Ogunmola, Olarinde Jeffrey; Fadare, Joseph Olusesan; Kolawole, Tolutope Fasanmi

    2016-01-01

    To audit the quality of acute asthma care in two tertiary hospitals in a state in the southwestern region of Nigeria and to compare the clinical practice against the recommendations of the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guideline. We carried out a retrospective analysis of 101 patients who presented with acute exacerbation of asthma to the hospital between November 2010 and October 2015. Majority of the cases were females (66.3%), audit has implicated the need to address the non-performing areas and organizational issues to improve the quality of care.

  5. Knowledge, perceptions and practices of pharmacovigilance amongst community and hospital pharmacists in a selected district of North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Joubert

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: The majority of pharmacists are familiar with the concept of PV, but less than half reported any ADR. They are willing to participate in PV processes but are unsure what their exact role playing should be. More than half indicated that they would like to see improvements to the current PV system in South Africa. The majority are prepared to undergo further education to improve their PV knowledge.

  6. Knowledge and attitude of donating and using cord blood for transfusion among patients attending Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, South East Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Chide E Okocha; Nkiru N Ezeama; John C Aneke; Chinyere U Onubogu; Charles I Okafor; Chijioke G Egbunike

    2017-01-01

    Background: Allogeneic blood for transfusion is in short supply in most parts of the developing world. Cord blood for transfusion can be a significant source of blood supply to our health institutions. Aims: This study aims to investigate the knowledge and attitude to the donation and use of umbilical cord blood (UCB) for transfusion among the patients receiving services in a tertiary health institution in South-East Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study; an a...

  7. Patient and social work factors related to successful placement of long-term psychiatric in-patients from a specialist psychiatric hospital in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, C; Lewis, C

    2011-05-01

    The slow discharge of long-term psychiatry patients from Weskoppies Hospital into the community has not matched the national and international drive towards deinstitutionalisation. This article investigates patient and social work factors related to successful community placement, in the context of limited community care facilities. Thirty-six long-term patients who were successfully placed outside of the hospital during a seven month period were compared to 235 unplaced long-term patients in terms of demographic and clinical variables. Social work services were analysed in terms of which patients received the most interventions, and the most common type of interventions. The most significant patient factors associated with successful placement were: female patients; medium-to-high level of functioning; having involved relatives living far away; a low frequency of behavioural problems (especially of cannabis abuse, verbal or physical aggression, uncontrolled sexual activity), and agitation or restlessness. These patient factors were mirrored in the social work services rendered to the long-term patients during the study period: The recipients were mostly female, in open wards (higher-functioning); and the social services utilised were mostly related to planning for placement and patient support. The lack of community care facilities in the Pretoria area that are able to care for the more difficult long-term psychiatry patients, limits successful placement and increases the burden of hospital based social workers. The problem cannot be resolved at a hospital level and needs to be addressed in the context of provincial and national health departments.

  8. Reasons given by hypertensive patients for concurrently using traditional and Western medicine at Natalspruit Hospital in the Gauteng Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabuza, Langalibalele H.; Okonta, Henry I.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background In 2007, a large number of hypertensive patients seen at Natalspruit Hospital had poor adherent to their anti-hypertension treatment which manifested itself through poor blood pressure control. On enquiry, they revealed that they were also taking traditional medicines. Objectives To explore the reasons given by hypertensive patients for concurrently using traditional and Western medicine. Methods A qualitative study was conducted amongst nine purposefully selected participants attending treatment at the hospital. Interviews were conducted in the Southern Sotho and IsiZulu languages and were audio-taped. The exploratory question was: ‘Would you tell us why you are taking traditional medicine together with the antihypertensive medicine your are receiving at this hospital?’ The transcribed and translated transcriptions were analysed using the ‘cut and paste’ method to identify themes. Results Themes that emerged were that traditional medicine was readily accessible; traditional healers displayed knowledge and confidence in their medicine; traditional medicine was perceived to counteract the side-effects of western medicine; the two streams were perceived to complement each other and both streams could lead to a ‘cure’. Patients were disappointed at the perceived bad attitude of the hospital staff. Conclusion The reasons given by hypertensive patients for their concurrent use of traditional and Western medicine centred around patients’ relatively favourable perception of traditional medicine and its practitioners. Western medicine health care practitioners should continue health education on antihypertensive medication in a manner acceptable to patients.

  9. Early urinary diversion with ileal conduit and vesicovaginostomy in the treatment of radiation cystitis due to carcinoma cervix: a study from a tertiary care hospital in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerji, John Samuel; Devasia, Antony; Kekre, Nitin Sudhakar; Chacko, Ninan

    2015-10-01

    To study the magnitude of radiation cystitis following radiation therapy for carcinoma cervix, and propose an algorithm to decide on early diversion, with or without vesicovaginostomy. Women who developed radiation cystitis following radiotherapy for carcinoma cervix from January 1998 to December 2011 were included in this retrospective study. Electronic hospital records were analysed to document the presence of radiation cystitis. All women who developed evidence of radiation-induced cystitis, according to the common toxicity and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria, were included in the study. We looked at transfusion requirements, number of hospital admissions, quality of life and cost involved. Chi-square tests were done where applicable. SPSS version 16 was used for analysis. Of the 902 patients who received radiation for carcinoma cervix in the 13-year period, 62 (6.87%) developed grade 3/4 cystitis. Twenty-eight of them underwent ileal conduit diversion, with 18 undergoing concomitant vesicovaginostomy. When compared with the patients who did not have diversion, the transfusion requirements, number of hospital admissions and quality of life had a statistically significant difference. Cost analysis of early diversion too showed a marginal benefit with early diversion. The limitation of the study was that it was retrospective in nature. In radiation cystitis, multiple hospital admissions and consequential increase in cost is the norm. In severe disease, early diversion is a prudent, cost-effective approach with good quality of life and early return to normal activity. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  10. The Development of Astronomy in Korea and the Emergence of Astrophysics in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nha, Il-Seong; L. Nha, Sarah; Orchiston, Wayne

    There are two books and one review paper that have been written about the history of astronomy in Korea. Chronologically, they are the review paper "Astronomy in Korea" (Rufus, Transactions of the Korea Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, XXVI, 1-69, 1936), and the books The Hall of Heavenly Records, Korean Astronomical Instruments and Clocks 1380-1780 (Needham et al., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1986a) and History of Astronomy in Korea (Nha, Seoul National University Press, Seoul, 2000). In order to overview the emergence and development of modern astronomy and astrophysics in South Korea, much of the present chapter is based on these three references, along with various papers published by the present authors and other astronomers.

  11. Use of major surgery in south India: A retrospective audit of hospital claim data from a large, community health insurance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Maaz; Woodward, Mark; Rahimi, Kazem; Patel, Anushka; Rath, Santosh; MacMahon, Stephen; Jha, Vivekanand

    2015-05-01

    Information on the use of major surgery in India is scarce. In this study we aimed to bridge this gap by auditing hospital claims from Rajiv Aarogyasri Community Health Insurance Scheme, which provides access to free hospital care through state-funded insurance to 68 million beneficiaries, an estimated 81% of population in the states of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh. Publicly available deidentified hospital claim data for all surgery procedures conducted between mid-2008 and mid-2012 were compiled across all 23 districts in Telangana and Andhra Pradesh. A total of 677,332 operative admissions (80% at private hospitals) were recorded at an annual rate of 259 per 100,000 beneficiaries, with male subjects accounting for 56% of admissions. Injury was the most common cause for operative admission (27%) with operative correction of long bone fractures being the most common procedure (20%) identified in the audit. Diseases of the digestive (16%), genitourinary (12%), and musculoskeletal (10%) systems were other leading causes for operative admissions. Most hospital bed-days were used by admissions for injuries (31%) and diseases of the digestive (17%) and musculoskeletal system (11%) costing 19%, 13%, and 11% of reimbursement. Operations on the circulatory system (8%) accounted for 21% of reimbursements. Annual per capita cost of operative claims was US$1.48. The use of surgery by an insured population in India continued to be low despite access to financing comparable with greater spending countries, highlighting need for strategies, beyond traditional health financing, that prioritize improvement in access, delivery, and use of operative care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Do loss to follow-up and death rates from ART care vary across primary health care facilities and hospitals in south Ethiopia? A retrospective follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshome, Wondu; Belayneh, Mehretu; Moges, Mathewos; Mekonnen, Emebet; Endrias, Misganu; Ayele, Sinafiksh; Misganaw, Tebeje; Shiferaw, Mekonnen; Tesema, Tigist

    2015-01-01

    Decentralization and task shifting has significantly improved access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Many studies conducted to determine the attrition rate in Ethiopia have not compared attrition rates between hospitals and health centers in a relatively recent cohort of patients. This study compared death and loss to follow-up (LTFU) rates among ART patients in hospitals and health centers in south Ethiopia. Data routinely collected from patients aged older than 15 years who started ART between July 2011 and August 2012 in 20 selected health facilities (12 being hospitals) were analyzed. The outcomes of interest were LTFU and death. The data were entered, cleaned, and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20.0 and Stata version 12.0. Competing-risk regression models were used. The service years of the facilities were similar (median 8 and 7.5 for hospitals and health centers, respectively). The mean patient age was 33.7±9.6 years. The median baseline CD4 count was 179 (interquartile range 93-263) cells/mm(3). A total of 2,356 person-years of observation were made with a median follow-up duration of 28 (interquartile range 22-31) months; 24.6% were either dead or LTFU, resulting in a retention rate of 75.4%. The death rates were 3.0 and 1.5 and the LTFU rate were 9.0 and 10.9 per 100 person-years of observation in health centers and hospitals, respectively. The competing-risk regression model showed that the gap between testing and initiation of ART, body mass index, World Health Organization clinical stage, isoniazid prophylaxis, age, facility type, and educational status were independently associated with LTFU. Moreover, baseline tuberculous disease, poor functional status, and follow-up at a health center were associated with an elevated probability of death. We observed a higher death rate and a lower LTFU rate in health centers than in hospitals. Most of the associated variables were also previously documented. Higher LTFU was

  13. Do loss to follow-up and death rates from ART care vary across primary health care facilities and hospitals in south Ethiopia? A retrospective follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teshome W

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Wondu Teshome,1 Mehretu Belayneh,1 Mathewos Moges,1 Emebet Mekonnen,2 Misganu Endrias,2 Sinafiksh Ayele,2 Tebeje Misganaw,2 Mekonnen Shiferaw,2 Tigist Tesema2 1School of Public and Environmental Health, Hawassa University, 2Health Research and Technology Transfer Support Process, Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples' Regional Health Bureau, Hawassa, Ethiopia Background: Decentralization and task shifting has significantly improved access to antiretroviral therapy (ART. Many studies conducted to determine the attrition rate in Ethiopia have not compared attrition rates between hospitals and health centers in a relatively recent cohort of patients. This study compared death and loss to follow-up (LTFU rates among ART patients in hospitals and health centers in south Ethiopia. Methods: Data routinely collected from patients aged older than 15 years who started ART between July 2011 and August 2012 in 20 selected health facilities (12 being hospitals were analyzed. The outcomes of interest were LTFU and death. The data were entered, cleaned, and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20.0 and Stata version 12.0. Competing-risk regression models were used. Results: The service years of the facilities were similar (median 8 and 7.5 for hospitals and health centers, respectively. The mean patient age was 33.7±9.6 years. The median baseline CD4 count was 179 (interquartile range 93–263 cells/mm3. A total of 2,356 person-years of observation were made with a median follow-up duration of 28 (interquartile range 22–31 months; 24.6% were either dead or LTFU, resulting in a retention rate of 75.4%. The death rates were 3.0 and 1.5 and the LTFU rate were 9.0 and 10.9 per 100 person-years of observation in health centers and hospitals, respectively. The competing-risk regression model showed that the gap between testing and initiation of ART, body mass index, World Health Organization clinical stage, isoniazid prophylaxis

  14. An outbreak of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp equisimilis in a hospital in the south of Brazil Surto causado por Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp equisimilis, em um hospital, no Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Stadnick Lauth de Almeida Torres

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The beta-hemolytic group C streptococci (Lancefield's group has been considered an emergent human pathogen, showing an important role as an opportunist agent, being responsible for nosocomial infections and outbreaks. This study is reporting the first outbreak of nosocomial infection caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis in Brazil. From January, 2002, to December, 2004, S. equisimilis was isolated in 67/207 (32.37% samples from secretions of patients' infected wounds, interned at the Hospital of Sanitary Dermatology in the State of Paraná (HDSPR. The prevalence of this microorganism increased from 11/42 (26.19% in 2002, 14/65 (21.54% in 2003 to 42/100 (42.00% in 2004. This increase was statistically significant (p=0.024, and this microorganism became the most frequently isolated in these patients, overtaking the rates of isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The S. equisimilis grew in pure culture, as a unique microorganism, in six samples (2.9% out of 207. Fresh feces of 15 animals (horses and sheep living in the proximities of the hospital were also examined and three of them positive for S. equisimilis. The biochemical profile of the strains isolated from the patients and from the animals was the same. These animals might have been the source of the dissemination of the outbreak in the hospital. New studies will be necessary to confirm the genetic relationship between the strains isolated from patients and animals.O estreptococo beta-hemolítico do grupo C de Lancefield tem sido considerado patógeno humano emergente, mostrando importante papel como agente oportunista, implicado algumas vezes em infecções hospitalares e surtos. Este estudo está relatando o primeiro surto de infecção hospitalar causado pelos Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis no Brasil. De janeiro de 2002 a dezembro de 2004, isolou-se S. equisimilis em 67/207 (32,37% das amostras de secreções de lesões de feridas coletadas de pacientes

  15. Evaluation of an international faculty development program for developing countries in Asia: the Seoul Intensive Course for Medical Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Hwan; Yoon, Hyun Bae; Sung, Minsun; Yoo, Dong-Mi; Hwang, Jinyoung; Kim, Eun Jung; Lee, Seunghee; Shin, Jwa-Seop

    2015-12-18

    The issue of collaboration in medical education is becoming prominent. Some faculty development programs have suggested an approach for promoting collaboration on a global level. However, non-English-speaking developing countries in Asia, especially in Southeast Asia, do not take advantage of them due to their unique context, such as language and culture. To address these issues, Seoul National University College of Medicine initiated a 6-week international faculty development program called the "Seoul Intensive Course for Medical Educators" for 16 fellows from five Asian countries (Cambodia, Laos, Mongolia, Myanmar, and Vietnam). The aim of this study is to report the evaluation results of the outcome of the program and discuss better ways of collaborating with developing countries. Three levels of collaboration-intraorganizational, intranational, and international-were central initiatives of the program. Prior to setting up the program details, we first established four design principles, following which the contents, materials, and facilitators were determined to maintain consistency with the design principles. The evaluation of the program was done with Kirkpatrick's four-level model. Most of the evaluation data for level 1 were collected by two questionnaires, the post-module survey and the post-program survey. Portfolios and progress reports were mainly used to collect outcome data for levels 2 and 3, respectively. The reaction was generally positive throughout the program and there was a significant correlation between satisfaction and relevance to one's job or needs. Despite the fellows' propensity for overestimating themselves, both the evaluators and fellows reported that there was significant improvement in learning. Opinions on the impact or urgency of the topics were slightly different from country to country; however, the answers regarding feasibility were fairly similar. Moreover, we could observe from the post-program progress reports that the

  16. Real time measurements of submicrometer aerosols in Seoul, Korea: Sources, characteristics, and processing of organic aerosols during winter time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Zhang, Q.

    2016-12-01

    Highly time-resolved chemical characterization of non-refractory submicrometer particulate matter (NR-PM1) was conducted in Seoul, the capital of Korea, using an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). The measurements were performed during winter when persistent air quality problems associated with elevated PM concentrations were observed. The average NR-PM1 concentration was 27.5 µg m-3 and the average mass was dominated by organics (44%), followed by nitrate (24%) and sulfate (10%). Five distinct sources of organic aerosol (OA) were identified from positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of the AMS data: vehicle emissions represented by a hydrocarbon-like OA factor (HOA), cooking represented by a cooking OA factor (COA), wood combustion represented by a biomass burning OA factor (BBOA), and secondary aerosol formation in the atmosphere that is represented by a semi-volatile oxygenated OA factor (SVOOA) and a low volatile oxygenated OA factor (LVOOA). These factors, on average, contributed 16, 20, 23, 15 and 26% to the total OA mass, respectively, with primary organic aerosol (POA = HOA + COA + BBOA) accounting for 59% of the OA mass. On average, both primary emissions and secondary aerosol formation are important factors affecting air quality in Seoul during winter, contributing approximately equal. However, differences in the fraction of PM source and properties were observed between high and low loading PM period. For example, during stagnant period with low wind speed (WS) (0.99 ± 0.7 m/s) and high RH (71%), high PM loadings (43.6 ± 12.4 µg m-3) with enhanced fractions of nitrate (27%) and SVOOA (8%) were observed, indicating a strong influence from locally generated secondary aerosol. On the other hand, when low PM loadings (12.6 ± 7.1 µg m-3), which were commonly associated with high WS (1.8 ± 1.1 m/s) and low RH (50 %), were observed, the fraction of regional sources, such as sulfate (12%) and LVOOA (21

  17. Injury severity in delivery-motorcycle to vehicle crashes in the Seoul metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Younshik; Song, Tai-Jin; Yoon, Byoung-Jo

    2014-01-01

    More than 56% of motorcycles in Korea are used for the purpose of delivering parcels and food. Since such delivery requires quick service, most motorcyclists commit traffic violations while delivering, such as crossing the centerline, speeding, running a red light, and driving in the opposite direction down one-way streets. In addition, the fatality rate for motorcycle crashes is about 12% of the fatality rate for road traffic crashes, which is considered to be high, although motorcycle crashes account for only 5% of road traffic crashes in South Korea. Therefore, the objective of this study is to analyze the injury severity of vehicle-to-motorcycle crashes that have occurred during delivery. To examine the risk of different injury levels sustained under all crash types of vehicle-to-motorcycle, this study applied an ordered probit model. Based on the results, this study proposes policy implications to reduce the injury severity of vehicle-to-motorcycle crashes during delivery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hospitals; hospitals13

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of Rhode Island Geospatial Extension Program — Hospital Facilities information was compiled from several various sources. Main source was the RI Department of Health Facilities Regulation database, License 2000....

  19. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in Aboriginal children attending hospital emergency departments in a regional area of New South Wales, Australia: a seven-year descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Thomas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA can cause bacterial skin infections that are common problems for Aboriginal children in New South Wales (NSW. MRSA is not notifiable in NSW and surveillance data describing incidence and prevalence are not routinely collected. The study aims to describe the epidemiology of CA-MRSA in Aboriginal children in the Hunter New England Local Health District (HNELHD. Methods: We linked data from Pathology North Laboratory Management System (AUSLAB and the HNELHD patient administration system from 33 hospital emergency departments. Data from 2008–2014 for CA-MRSA isolates were extracted. Demographic characteristics included age, gender, Aboriginality, rurality and seasonality. Results: Of the 1222 individuals in this study, 408 (33.4% were Aboriginal people. Aboriginal people were younger with 45.8% aged less than 10 years compared to 25.9% of non-Aboriginal people. Most isolates came from Aboriginal people who attended the regional Tamworth Hospital (193/511 isolates from 149 people. A larger proportion of Aboriginal people, compared to non-Aboriginal people, resided in outer regional (64.9% vs 37.2% or remote/very remote areas (2.5% vs 0.5%. Most infections occurred in summer and early autumn. For Aboriginal patients, there was a downward trend through autumn, continuing through winter and spring. Discussion: Aboriginal people at HNELHD emergency departments appear to represent a greater proportion of people with skin infections with CA-MRSA than non-Aboriginal people. CA-MRSA is not notifiable in NSW; however, pathology and hospital data are available and can provide valuable indicative data to health districts for planning and policy development.

  20. Evaluation of supportive care management outcomes in cancer chemotherapy: A prospective observational study in a tertiary care teaching hospital in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshma Susan Reji

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Evaluation of supportive care management of cancer patients experiencing drug-related problems (DRPs is a challenge because it might increase the cost due to additional therapy. The main objectives of this study were to estimate chemotherapy-associated drug-related hospital admissions in the department of medical oncology and to estimate the cost of managing chemotherapy-associated DRPs.Settings and Design: This study is a prospective observational study.Subjects and Methods: Patients with chemotherapy-related DRPs were prospectively identified from the patient's medical records. The contribution of DRPs and cost incurred due to each hospitalization was assessed.Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed using SPSS® 20.0 version.Results: Out of 55 patients analyzed for DRPs, 25 (45.5% patients in the age group of 51–60 years experienced DRPs most frequently. Most commonly occurring DRP was adverse drug reactions 42 (76.4%, which were more frequent in females. DRPs were maximum with alkylating agents 15 (27.3% and the least with hormonal agents 1 (1.8%. The mean length of hospitalization was 9.6 ± 6.5 days. The total direct medical cost was Rs. 31,540 ± 42,476, of which medicine cost accounted for Rs. 16,550 ± 25,404, constituting a major share of the total medical costs.Conclusions: Pharmacists can provide better patient care by identifying and preventing DRPs and reducing drug-related morbidity and mortality.

  1. Perceived Nurse-Physician Communication in Patient Care and Associated Factors in Public Hospitals of Jimma Zone, South West Ethiopia: Cross Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikadu Balcha Hailu

    Full Text Available Nurse-physician communication has been shown to have a significant impact on the job satisfaction and retention of staff. In areas where it has been studied, communication failure between nurses and physicians was found to be one of the leading causes of preventable patient injuries, complications, death and medical malpractice claims.The objective of this study is to determine perception of nurses and physicians towards nurse-physician communication in patient care and associated factors in public hospitals of Jimma zone, southwest Ethiopia.Institution based cross-sectional survey was conducted from March 10 to April 16, 2014 among 341 nurses and 168 physicians working in public hospitals in Jimma zone. Data was collected using a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire; entered into EpiData version 3.1 and exported to Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 16.0 for analysis. Factor analysis was carried out. Descriptive statistics, independent sample t-test, linear regression and one way analysis of variance were used. Variables with P-value < 0.05 were considered as statistically significant.The response rate of the study was 91.55%. The mean perceived nurse-physician communication scores were 50.88±19.7% for perceived professional respect and satisfaction, and 48.52±19.7% for perceived openness and sharing of patient information on nurse-physician communication. Age, salary and organizational factors were statistically significant predictors for perceived respect and satisfaction. Whereas sex, working hospital, work attitude individual factors and organizational factors were significant predictors of perceived openness and sharing of patient information in nurse-physician communication during patient care.Perceived level of nurse-physician communication mean score was low among nurses than physicians and it is attention seeking gap. Hence, the finding of our study suggests the need for developing and implementing nurse

  2. A study on the characteristics of silt loading on paved roads in the Seoul metropolitan area using a mobile monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sehyun; Jung, Yong-Won

    2012-07-01

    This study is considered the first attempt to apply a mobile monitoring system to estimating silt loading on paved roads in a megacity such as the Seoul metropolitan area. Using a mobile monitoring system developed in 2005, we estimated silt loadings on representative paved roads in the Seoul metropolitan area, including the city of Incheon, over a period of 3 yr. The temporal and spatial characteristics of silt loading were investigated for the carefully selected roads that may reflect the characteristics of the cities of Seoul and Incheon. In this study, changes in the average silt loading values were investigated in terms of land use, the temporal resolution of data acquisition (i.e., seasonal, daily, three-hour scale), the road width or number of lanes, and rainfall, which may affect the characteristics of the average silt loading significantly. It was found that the advantages of using the mobile monitoring system are its ability to obtain a large quantity of silt loading data in a short period of time and over a wide area and its ability to create a silt loading map showing the relative magnitude of silt loading in relation to a specific location, which makes it possible to easily locate hot spots.

  3. Evaluating the Capability of Grass Swale for the Rainfall Runoff Reduction from an Urban Parking Lot, Seoul, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shafique

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This field study elaborates the role of grass swale in the management of stormwater in an urban parking lot. Grass swale was constructed by using different vegetations and local soil media in the parking lot of Mapu-gu Seoul, Korea. In this study, rainfall runoff was first retained in soil and the vegetation layers of the grass swale, and then infiltrated rainwater was collected with the help of underground perforated pipe, and passed to an underground storage trench. In this way, grass swale detained a large amount of rainwater for a longer period of time and delayed peak discharge. In this field study, various real storm events were monitored and the research results were analyzed to evaluate the performance of grass swale for managing rainfall runoff in an urban area. From the analysis of field experiments, grass swale showed the significant rainfall runoff retention in different rain events. Grass swale markedly reduced total rainfall runoff volume and peak flow during the small storm events of intensity about 30 mm/h. From the analysis, on average rainfall runoff retention from the grass swale was found around 40 to 75% during the various small rain events. From the results, we can say that grass swale is a stormwater mitigation practice which can help avoid flash flooding problems in urban areas.

  4. Environmental isotope-aided studies on river water and groundwater interaction in the region of Seoul and Taegu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong Sung Ahn

    1988-01-01

    Environmental isotope-aided studies on river water and groundwater interaction in the Han River Basin in areas especially occupied by crystalline rocks and limestone have been undertaken. The result indicates that the groundwater in the Seoul area is recharged by the Han River whereas in non-urban areas it is replenished by the infiltration of precipitation, the crystalline rock aquifers are recharged by downward percolation of shallow groundwater stored in overlying alluvium. Older groundwater having a very low concentration of tritium, ranging from 0 to 2 TU, was observed at the lower Han River basin near Bupyeong. It may indicate that the water sampled was recharged at a much earlier time than the other groundwater sampled, maybe, as early as the pre-thermonuclear period. The same interaction study conducted in the Karst area has shown that there is clearly no systematic differences of tritium level between surface water and groundwater and that the residence time of groundwater in limestone is very short, probably not longer than a few months. The areas recharged by the water from the overlying alluvium into the sedimentary rock aquifer were restricted only along the Kumho River channel and its tributaries in a clastic sedimentary rock area. Bedrock groundwater whose tritium level and stable isotope composition were less than 14 TU and -6.8 respectively was observed in the central part of Taegu city. (author). 15 refs, 21 figs, 8 tabs

  5. Identification of Dobrava, Hantaan, Seoul, and Puumala viruses by one-step real-time RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitichou, Mohamed; Saleh, Sharron S; McElroy, Anita K; Schmaljohn, C; Ibrahim, M Sofi

    2005-03-01

    We developed four assays for specifically identifying Dobrava (DOB), Hantaan (HTN), Puumala (PUU), and Seoul (SEO) viruses. The assays are based on the real-time one-step reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with the small segment used as the target sequence. The detection limits of DOB, HTN, PUU, and SEO assays were 25, 25, 25, and 12.5 plaque-forming units, respectively. The assays were evaluated in blinded experiments, each with 100 samples that contained Andes, Black Creek Canal, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Rift Valley fever and Sin Nombre viruses in addition to DOB, HTN, PUU and SEO viruses. The sensitivity levels of the DOB, HTN, PUU, and SEO assays were 98%, 96%, 92% and 94%, respectively. The specificity of DOB, HTN and SEO assays was 100% and the specificity of the PUU assay was 98%. Because of the high levels of sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, we believe that these assays can be useful for diagnosing and differentiating these four Old-World hantaviruses.

  6. Heat supply systems using natural gas in the residential sector: The case of the agglomeration of Seoul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hi-Chun; Kim, Hoseok

    2008-01-01

    Combined heat and power (CHP) and district heating (DH) promotion policies are based on the assumption of high energy efficiencies. In the last two decades, however, there has been a big increase in energy efficiencies of combined-cycle gas power plants (CCs) including CHPs and gas-condensing boilers. This study tries to verify the validity of the assumption of high energy efficiency of DH. The experience in the agglomeration of Seoul shows that DH in combination with large modern CHPs is not more energy efficient but substantially more expensive compared to individual gas heating by efficient condensing boilers in combination with CCs. We argue that the Korean government should review its CHP/DH support programs and abandon the so-called heat supply monopoly for DH operators in newly developed residential areas. Such a policy intervention only distorts the space heating market and wastes valuable financial resources. Furthermore, the public should be properly informed on energy efficiency as well as energy- and system-related costs of various heat supply systems. In the light of the present improvements in the performance of gas-condensing boilers and CCs, the validity of the assumption of high energy efficiency of CHP/DH in other countries has to be reviewed

  7. Evaluating the Capability of Grass Swale for the Rainfall Runoff Reduction from an Urban Parking Lot, Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafique, Muhammad; Kim, Reeho; Kyung-Ho, Kwon

    2018-03-16

    This field study elaborates the role of grass swale in the management of stormwater in an urban parking lot. Grass swale was constructed by using different vegetations and local soil media in the parking lot of Mapu-gu Seoul, Korea. In this study, rainfall runoff was first retained in soil and the vegetation layers of the grass swale, and then infiltrated rainwater was collected with the help of underground perforated pipe, and passed to an underground storage trench. In this way, grass swale detained a large amount of rainwater for a longer period of time and delayed peak discharge. In this field study, various real storm events were monitored and the research results were analyzed to evaluate the performance of grass swale for managing rainfall runoff in an urban area. From the analysis of field experiments, grass swale showed the significant rainfall runoff retention in different rain events. Grass swale markedly reduced total rainfall runoff volume and peak flow during the small storm events of intensity about 30 mm/h. From the analysis, on average rainfall runoff retention from the grass swale was found around 40 to 75% during the various small rain events. From the results, we can say that grass swale is a stormwater mitigation practice which can help avoid flash flooding problems in urban areas.

  8. Co-benefit analysis of an air quality management plan and greenhouse gas reduction strategies in the Seoul metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Yeora

    2010-01-01

    This study assesses the co-benefits of an air quality management plan and CO 2 emission control measures in the Seoul metropolitan area. This co-benefit analysis includes NO x , PM 10 and CO 2 emission reductions and cost estimations, yielding cost-effectiveness values for each of the measures. It has been found that fuel switching from BC-oil to LNG, CNG bus operation are most cost effective in NO x and PM 10 emission reduction. For CO 2 emission reduction, landfill gas reuse and fuel switching were the most effective option. The correlation of cost-effectiveness analysis indicated that fuel switching and CNG bus operation were the most cost effective option to reduce NO x and CO 2 , PM 10 and CO 2 emissions at the same time. Based on cost effectiveness and co-benefit analysis, this study developed an alternative scenario of emission reduction measures through optimization in order to achieve both air quality improvements and CO 2 reduction targets at the minimum cost. These integrated environmental strategies make it possible to reduce 10.3 Mt of CO 2 emissions, which is beyond the target of the CO 2 reduction strategy, and achieve air quality improvement targets together and at a lower cost than the CO 2 emission reduction and air quality improvement measures combined.

  9. Relationship between Spatio-Temporal Travel Patterns Derived from Smart-Card Data and Local Environmental Characteristics of Seoul, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Kyeong Kim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available With the incorporation of an automated fare-collection system into the management of public transportation, not only can the quality of transportation services be improved but also that of the data collected from users when coupled with smart-card technology. The data collected from smart cards provide opportunities for researchers to analyze big data sets and draw meaningful information out of them. This study aims to identify the relationship between travel patterns derived from smart-card data and urban characteristics. Using seven-day transit smart-card data from the public-transportation system in Seoul, the capital city of the Republic of Korea, we investigated the temporal and spatial boarding and alighting patterns of the users. The major travel patterns, classified into five clusters, were identified by utilizing the K-Spectral Centroid clustering method. We found that the temporal pattern of urban mobility reflects daily activities in the urban area and that the spatial pattern of the five clusters classified by travel patterns was closely related to urban structure and urban function; that is, local environmental characteristics extracted from land-use and census data. This study confirmed that the travel patterns at the citywide level can be used to understand the dynamics of the urban population and the urban spatial structure. We believe that this study will provide valuable information about general patterns, which represent the possibility of finding travel patterns from individuals and urban spatial traits.

  10. Lee Sang Gak Telescope (LSGT): A Remotely Operated Robotic Telescope for Education and Research at Seoul National University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Myungshin; Choi, Changsu; Kim, Kihyun

    2015-08-01

    We introduce the Lee Sang Gak Telescope (LSGT), a remotely operated, robotic 0.43-meter telescope. The telescope was installed at the Siding Spring Observatory, Australia, in 2014 October, to secure regular and exclusive access to the dark sky and excellent atmospheric conditions in the southern hemisphere from the Seoul National University (SNU) campus. Here, we describe the LSGT system and its performance, present example images from early observations, and discuss a future plan to upgrade the system. The use of the telescope includes (i) long-term monitoring observations of nearby galaxies, active galactic nuclei, and supernovae; (ii) rapid follow-up observations of transients such as gamma-ray bursts and gravitational wave sources; and (iii) observations for educational activities at SNU. Based on observations performed so far, we find that the telescope is capable of providing images to a depth of R=21.5 mag (point source detection) at 5-σ with 15 min total integration time under good obs-erving conditions.

  11. Measuring the Externality Effects of Commercial Land Use on Residential Land Value: A Case Study of Seoul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Jin Yang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Two contrasting theories purport to explain the effects of neighborhood non-residential use on residential property values. In traditional zoning theory, separating land from commercial land use is considered to protect residential environments from negative externalities such as noise, litter, and congestion. By contrast, contemporary planning principles including Smart Growth emphasize positive impacts of mixed land use on residential environment, which lead to more walkable and sustainable communities. This study attempts to empirically investigate how positive and negative externalities of commercial land use, referred to as “proximity effects” and “disamenity effects” respectively, affect residential land values. Using data gathered in Seoul, we pay attention to two particular aspects of commercial land use: spatial concentration and neighborhood scale. Spatial concentration is determined by the number of commercial employees present in the buffer zone around an individual residential parcel. We model four geographically distinct neighborhood scales as we compare spatial concentrations in and across commercial zones. Quadratic regression analyses of our data show the trade-off relationship that a higher spatial concentration of commercial land use in a neighborhood initially results in increased residential land values, but drops off beyond a threshold level by excessive noise or crowding.

  12. Spatial distribution of particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) in Seoul Metropolitan Subway stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Youn; Kim, Yoon Shin; Roh, Young Man; Lee, Cheol Min; Kim, Chi Nyon

    2008-06-15

    The aims of this study are to examine the concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 in areas within the Seoul Metropolitan Subway network and to provide fundamental data in order to protect respiratory health of subway workers and passengers from air pollutants. A total of 22 subway stations located on lines 1-4 were selected based on subway official's guidance. At these stations both subway worker areas (station offices, rest areas, ticket offices and driver compartments) and passengers areas (station precincts, subway carriages and platforms) were the sites used for measuring the levels of PM. The mean concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were relatively higher on platforms, inside subway carriages and in driver compartments than in the other areas monitored. The levels of PM10 and PM2.5 for station precincts and platforms exceeded the 24-h acceptable threshold limits of 150 microg/m3 for PM10 and 35 microg/m3 for PM2.5, which are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). However, levels measured in station and ticket offices fell below the respective threshold. The mean PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations on platforms located underground were significantly higher than those at ground level (p<0.05).

  13. Chemical speciation of size-segregated floor dusts and airborne magnetic particles collected at underground subway stations in Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hae-Jin; Kim, BoWha; Malek, Md Abdul; Koo, Yong Sung; Jung, Jong Hoon; Son, Youn-Suk; Kim, Jo-Chun; Kim, HyeKyoung; Ro, Chul-Un

    2012-04-30

    Previous studies have reported the major chemical species of underground subway particles to be Fe-containing species that are generated from wear and friction processes at rail-wheel-brake and catenaries-pantographs interfaces. To examine chemical composition of Fe-containing particles in more details, floor dusts were collected at five sampling locations of an underground subway station. Size-segregated floor dusts were separated into magnetic and non-magnetic fractions using a permanent magnet. Using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDX), iron metal, which is relatively harmless, was found to be the dominating chemical species in the floor dusts of the subway stations can be controlled by removing magnetic indoor particles using magnets. In addition, airborne subway particles, most of which were smaller than 10 μm, were collected using permanent magnets at two underground subway stations, namely Jegi and Yangjae stations, in Seoul, Korea. XRD and SEM/EDX analyses showed that most of the magnetic aerosol particles collected at Jegi station was iron metal, whereas those at Yangjae station contained a small amount of Fe mixed with Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, and C. The difference in composition of the Fe-containing particles between the two subway stations was attributed to the different ballast tracks used. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Short and Long-Term Temporal Changes in Air Quality in a Seoul Urban Area: The Weekday/Sunday Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan E. Szulejko

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We present evidence on the short-term differences in airborne pollution levels in terms of weekday/weekend (WD/WN and weekday/Sunday (WD/Sun intervals. To this end, we analyzed the hourly data of important pollutants (nitric oxide (NO, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, ozone (O3 and carbon monoxide (CO using the data acquired in the Yong-San district of Seoul, Korea from 2009 to 2013. For each week, the pollutant ratio (Rw was estimated through either WD/WN or WD/Sun. Here, a week is defined as Sunday through Saturday, WD as Monday through Friday and WN as Sunday and Saturday. The WD/Sun Rw geometric means (and range were 2.02 (0.27–15.5 for NO, 1.29 (0.49–5.7 for NO2 and 0.89 (0.17–7.2 for O3 while the fraction of Rw (WD/Sun > 1 were 81, 71 and 38%, respectively. NO and CO levels were much higher in October through March (during Autumn and Winter than April through September (during Spring and Summer, reflecting the potential effect of fuel consumption (e.g., in terms of use patterns of nationwide city natural gas. Thus, we provide a broader interpretation on the occurrence patterns of the major pollutants (e.g., NO, NO2, O3 and CO in relation to temporal changes in man-made activities.

  15. AC Transmission Emulation Control Strategies for the BTB VSC HVDC System in the Metropolitan Area of Seoul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungyoon Song

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the Korean power system, growing power loads have recently created the problems of voltage instability and fault current in the Seoul Capital Area (SCA. Accordingly, the back-to-back (BTB voltage source converter (VSC high-voltage direct-current (HVDC system is emerging to resolve such problems with grid segmentation. However, non-convergence problems occur in this metropolitan area, due to the large change of power flow in some contingencies. Therefore, this paper proposes two kinds of AC transmission emulation control (ATEC strategies to improve the metropolitan transient stability, and to resolve the non-convergence problem. The proposed ATEC strategies are able to mitigate possible overloading of adjacent AC transmission, and maintain power balance between metropolitan regions. The first ATEC strategy uses a monitoring system that permits the reverse power flow of AC transmission, and thus effectively improves the grid stability based on the power transfer equation. The second ATEC strategy emulates AC transmission with DC link capacitors in a permissible DC-link voltage range according to angle difference, and securely improves the gird stability, without requiring grid operator schedule decisions. This paper compares two kinds of ATEC schemes: it demonstrates the first ATEC strategy with specific fault scenario with PSS/E (Power Transmission System Planning Software, and evaluates the second ATEC strategy with internal controller performance with PSCAD/EMTDC (Power System Electromagnetic Transients Simulation Software.

  16. Causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exams and college attendance: random assignment in Seoul high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R; Choi, Jaesung

    2013-04-01

    Despite the voluminous literature on the potentials of single-sex schools, there is no consensus on the effects of single-sex schools because of student selection of school types. We exploit a unique feature of schooling in Seoul-the random assignment of students into single-sex versus coeducational high schools-to assess causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exam scores and college attendance. Our validation of the random assignment shows comparable socioeconomic backgrounds and prior academic achievement of students attending single-sex schools and coeducational schools, which increases the credibility of our causal estimates of single-sex school effects. The three-level hierarchical model shows that attending all-boys schools or all-girls schools, rather than coeducational schools, is significantly associated with higher average scores on Korean and English test scores. Applying the school district fixed-effects models, we find that single-sex schools produce a higher percentage of graduates who attended four-year colleges and a lower percentage of graduates who attended two-year junior colleges than do coeducational schools. The positive effects of single-sex schools remain substantial, even after we take into account various school-level variables, such as teacher quality, the student-teacher ratio, the proportion of students receiving lunch support, and whether the schools are public or private.

  17. Evaluating the Capability of Grass Swale for the Rainfall Runoff Reduction from an Urban Parking Lot, Seoul, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafique, Muhammad; Kim, Reeho; Kyung-Ho, Kwon

    2018-01-01

    This field study elaborates the role of grass swale in the management of stormwater in an urban parking lot. Grass swale was constructed by using different vegetations and local soil media in the parking lot of Mapu-gu Seoul, Korea. In this study, rainfall runoff was first retained in soil and the vegetation layers of the grass swale, and then infiltrated rainwater was collected with the help of underground perforated pipe, and passed to an underground storage trench. In this way, grass swale detained a large amount of rainwater for a longer period of time and delayed peak discharge. In this field study, various real storm events were monitored and the research results were analyzed to evaluate the performance of grass swale for managing rainfall runoff in an urban area. From the analysis of field experiments, grass swale showed the significant rainfall runoff retention in different rain events. Grass swale markedly reduced total rainfall runoff volume and peak flow during the small storm events of intensity about 30 mm/h. From the analysis, on average rainfall runoff retention from the grass swale was found around 40 to 75% during the various small rain events. From the results, we can say that grass swale is a stormwater mitigation practice which can help avoid flash flooding problems in urban areas. PMID:29547567

  18. Does community capacity influence self-rated health? Multilevel contextual effects in Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo; Viswanath, K

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between community-level contextual effects and self-rated health (SRH) based on the perspective of community capacity rather than social capital. Community capacity for mobilization is broad cooperation for networking among indigenous social agents and grassroots organizations that may serve as potential resources. The idea of community capacity is rooted in the philosophy that a community not only faces problems but also possesses the necessary resources to solve its problems. We used nationally representative data from South Korea, 2010, drawing on 14,228 residents in 404 communities. Community capacity was measured at two levels: an individual-level indicator of community satisfaction, and community-level indicators of participation rate in community organizations, number of community-based organizations (CBOs), and number of volunteer work camps (VWCs). The outcome variable was SRH, which was categorized into two groups: the low-SRH and high-SRH groups. Confounders included gender, age, and income at the individual level, and aggregate length of residency, financial independence ratio, and aggregate income at the community level. We estimated the effects of community capacity on SRH using hierarchical generalized linear models. The likelihood of belonging to the group having low-SRH is significantly high among those respondents living in places with lower community capacity at the community level, that report lower community satisfaction, and that have lower income at the individual level. After controlling for socio-economic confounders, the odds ratios were attenuated but remained significant in the final model, which included the gender-specific model. This study revealed that SRH is related to the level of community capacity for mobilization. It is probably because CBOs and VWCs not only provide necessary information and complementary services but also play an active role in identifying and resolving health problems

  19. IK Brunel's Crimean war hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merridew, C G

    2014-07-01

    "Those wonderful huts…" (Florence Nightingale). This is the story of the British Civil Hospital, erected in 1855 at Renkioi on the south Dardanelles coast of Turkey. The spectacular hospital was a portable one designed by British engineer IK Brunel. It was his only health-related project, and it was known as a Civil Hospital because its staff were all civilians, despite its patients being military.

  20. Study of Development for RFID System to Hospital Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seung Kwon; Sung, Myung-Whun

    2015-01-01

    RFID/USN develops information systems for anytime, anywhere to anybody access Electronic Medical Records (EMR). The goal of the present study is to develop a RFID/USN-based information system for the hospital environment. First, unable to recognize, second, able to recognize as a pursuit of place and suppose the time of medical examination. A retrospective analysis of 235 RFID monitoring results, from four ENT ambulatory clinics of Seoul National University Hospital were extracted by a reader program and monitoring of RFID tag (2006.11.16~2006.12.16). RFID detection for sensing reader of this study has been put into representing "place" and "spending time" of patients for medical history taking and examination. Through the RFID of detection for specific place and spending time of medical examination, RFID/USN develops information system progressing in the EMR of hospital system.

  1. Otosclerosis among South African indigenous blacks | Tshifularo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To report cases of clinical otosclerosis histologically confirmed among indigenous South African blacks. Design: A retrospective study. Setting: Referral tertiary center, MEDUNSA, Garankuwa Hospital, South Africa. Subjects: All fifteen indigenous South African blacks diagnosed with clinical otosclerosis at ...

  2. Interactive survey of consumer awareness of nanotechnologies and nanoparticles in consumer products in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim YR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Yu-Ri Kim,1 Eun Jeong Lee,1 Sung Ha Park,2 Hyo Jin Kwon,3 Seong Soo A An,4 Sang Wook Son,5 Young Rok Seo,6 Jae-Eun Pie,7 Myoung Yoon,8 Ja Hei Kim,8 Meyoung-Kon Kim1 1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University Medical School and College, Seoul, South Korea; 2Department of Biochemistry, University of Bath, Bath, UK; 3Department of Medical Education, Korea University Medical School and College, Seoul, South Korea; 4Department of Bionanotechnology, Gachon University, Seongnam, South Korea; 5Department of Dermatology, Korea University Medical School and College, 6Department of Life Science, Institute of Environmental Medicine for Green Chemistry, Dongguk University, Seoul, South Korea; 7Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Science and Engineering, Anyang University, Anyang, Korea; 8Consumers Korea, Seoul, South Korea Background: The purpose of our study was to understand consumers' risk awareness and need for relevant information about nanotechnology and nanoparticles contained in products currently being sold in Korea. Methods: One thousand and seven adult consumers (aged 20–50 years were randomly selected from all over South Korea between November 1 and 9, 2010. We surveyed the origin and degree of their concern and their need for information and education regarding nanomaterials. Results: Analysis of the survey results showed no significant differences in responses by sex, age, and level of education, but significant differences were found in responses based on average monthly household income. Our research showed that consumers have vague expectations for and positive image of nanotechnology and nanoproducts but do not clearly understand what they are. In addition, we found that preparing and disseminating information to consumers is required in order to provide correct information about nanotechnology to the public. Conclusion: A communication system should be established among the multiple stakeholders involved

  3. Congenital malformations among newborns admitted in the neonatal unit of a tertiary hospital in Enugu, South-East Nigeria - a retrospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Congenital abnormalities are not uncommon among newborns and contribute to neonatal and infant morbidity and mortality. The prevalence and pattern of presentation vary from place to place. Many a time the exact etiology is unknown but genetic and environmental factors tend to be implicated. Methods The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of congenital malformations among newborns admitted in a tertiary hospital in Enugu, the nature of these abnormalities and the outcome/prognosis. For purposes of this study, congenital abnormalities are defined as obvious abnormality of structure or form which is present at birth or noticed within a few days after birth. A cross-sectional retrospective study in which a review of the records of all babies admitted in the Newborn Special Care Unit (NBSCU) of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Ituku/Ozalla, Enugu over a four year period (January 2007-April 2011) was undertaken. All babies admitted in the unit with the diagnosis of congenital abnormality were included in the study. Information extracted from the records included characteristics of the baby, maternal characteristics, nature/type of abnormalities and outcome. Data obtained was analyzed using SPSS 13. Rates and proportions were calculated with 95% confidence interval. The proportions were compared using students T-test. Level of significance was set at P congenital abnormalities of various types, giving a prevalence of 2.8%. Common abnormalities seen in these babies were mainly surgical birth defects and included cleft lip/cleft palate, neural tube defects (occurring either singly or in combination with other abnormalities), limb abnormalities (often in combination with neural tube defects of various types), omphalocoele, umbilical herniae, ano-rectal malformations and dysmorphism associated with multiple congenital abnormalities. Conclusions The results of this study show that 2.8% of babies admitted to a Newborn Special

  4. Congenital malformations among newborns admitted in the neonatal unit of a tertiary hospital in Enugu, South-East Nigeria--a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obu, Herbert A; Chinawa, Josephat M; Uleanya, Nwachinemere D; Adimora, Gilbert N; Obi, Ikechukwu E

    2012-07-10

    Congenital abnormalities are not uncommon among newborns and contribute to neonatal and infant morbidity and mortality. The prevalence and pattern of presentation vary from place to place. Many a time the exact etiology is unknown but genetic and environmental factors tend to be implicated. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of congenital malformations among newborns admitted in a tertiary hospital in Enugu, the nature of these abnormalities and the outcome/prognosis. For purposes of this study, congenital abnormalities are defined as obvious abnormality of structure or form which is present at birth or noticed within a few days after birth. A cross-sectional retrospective study in which a review of the records of all babies admitted in the Newborn Special Care Unit (NBSCU) of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Ituku/Ozalla, Enugu over a four year period (January 2007-April 2011) was undertaken.All babies admitted in the unit with the diagnosis of congenital abnormality were included in the study. Information extracted from the records included characteristics of the baby, maternal characteristics, nature/type of abnormalities and outcome.Data obtained was analyzed using SPSS 13. Rates and proportions were calculated with 95% confidence interval. The proportions were compared using students T-test. Level of significance was set at P congenital abnormalities of various types, giving a prevalence of 2.8%. Common abnormalities seen in these babies were mainly surgical birth defects and included cleft lip/cleft palate, neural tube defects (occurring either singly or in combination with other abnormalities), limb abnormalities (often in combination with neural tube defects of various types), omphalocoele, umbilical herniae, ano-rectal malformations and dysmorphism associated with multiple congenital abnormalities. The results of this study show that 2.8% of babies admitted to a Newborn Special Care Unit in a teaching hospital

  5. High prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine use among patients with sickle cell disease in a tertiary hospital in Lagos, South West, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busari, A A; Mufutau, M A

    2017-06-07

    Attention and interest in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has been reignited globally, most especially in patients with chronic diseases. Sickle cell disease (SCD) is one of such chronic diseases associated with devastating clinical and psychosocial consequences, thus leading those affected to seek alternative treatment apart from orthodox medicine. Hence, this study aimed to determine the prevalence, pattern and tolerability of the use of CAM in patients with SCD in the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH). This was a cross-sectional survey of 200 respondents with SCD attending the hematology clinics of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital over a period of 3 months. Data on socio-demographic characteristic, clinical profile, the types and sources of CAM used were collected using a well structured pretested questionnaire. The data obtained were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS®) version 17. Of the 200 patients who participated in the study, 113; 56.5% were males and 87; 43.5% were females. Majority of the SCD patients were 1-10 years old and their mean age was 18.8 ± 14.39 years. CAM was reportedly used by 88.5% of the respondents. Biological (herbal) products 156; 62.9% were the most commonly used CAM, followed by alternative medical systems 52; 20.9% and mind-body interventions 30; 12.1%. Relations, friends and neighbors influenced 85.2% of CAM users by recommending CAM to them. Tolerability of CAM was perceived to be excellent as only 33 (18.6%) of the respondents abandoned the use of CAM. Com