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Sample records for hospital pharmacy-based pharmaceutical

  1. Ozonation for degradation of pharmaceutical in hospital wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bester, Kai; Hansen, Kamilla S; Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini

    -pollutants (Antoniou et al., 2013). In the present work, ozonation of biological treated hospital wastewater spiked with pharmaceuticals were performed to determine the required ozone dose for 90 % removal of the investigated pharmaceuticals. Effluents with different DOC level were used to investigate the effect...... of DOC on the removal of the pharmaceuticals. Furthermore, the effect of pH on ozone decomposition was investigated in relevant pH range....

  2. Optimising patient safety using pharmaceutical intervention in domiciliary hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Ana Mafalda; Simões, Ana Margarida; Alcobia, Armando; Alves da Costa, Filipa

    2017-10-01

    Introduction The domiciliary hospitalization unit (DHU) is an innovative model of care provision, where hospital care is transferred to the patients' home. However, this shift adds a care transition layer to the process, which may increase the probability of medication errors to occur. Method A pharmacist has been integrated into the DHU team to improve medication use. We developed an observational study documenting his intervention for 6 months. Information about the patient's drug therapy before admission, during hospitalization and after hospital discharge were gathered, enabling comparison of possible discrepancies that may happen during care transitions. The pharmacist evaluated the appropriateness, necessity, effectiveness, and safety of medication and intervened when deemed appropriate. Conclusions Data suggests that a pharmacist involved in the DHU may have a positive impact on medication use. Medication review and reconciliation are examples of pharmaceutical interventions that may lead to increased effectiveness and patient safety.

  3. Microbial contamination of nonsterile pharmaceuticals in public hospital settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Mugoyela

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Veronica Mugoyela1, Kennedy D Mwambete21Department of Medicinal Chemistry, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, TanzaniaPurpose: Contamination of pharmaceuticals with microorganisms irrespective whether they are harmful or nonpathogenic can bring about changes in physicochemical characteristics of the medicines. Although sterility is not a requirement in official compendia for nonsterile pharmaceuticals, bioburdens need to be within acceptable limits. Therefore, this study investigated microbial contamination of 10 nonsterile pharmaceuticals frequently delivered to outpatients by identifying and quantifying microbial contaminants and susceptibility pattern testing on the microbes isolated.Methods: The study was carried out at Amana Municipal Hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The protocol for the study involved structured selection of representative tablets, syrups, and capsules from the hospital’s outpatient pharmacy. Constitutive microorganisms were elaborated and enumerated using standard microbiologic procedures.Results: Results showed that 50% of all tested products were heavily contaminated, and the predominant contaminants comprised Klebsiella, Bacillus, and Candida species. Furthermore, the results showed that the isolated Bacillus and Klebsiella species were resistant to Augmentin® and cloxacillin. The differences in means for cfu/mL and zones of inhibition among the microorganisms isolated were considered significant at P < 0.05.Conclusion: The nonsterile pharmaceuticals were presumably microbiologically contaminated due to poor handling during dispensing, repackaging, and/or nonadherence to good manufacturing practice. Therefore, training and educating the dispensers, as well as patients, on the proper handling and use of medicines cannot be overemphasized, because these are key aspects in controlling cross-contamination of medicines.Keywords: microorganisms

  4. [The Hospital Pharmacy Survey in Brazil: a proposal for hierarchical organization of hospital pharmaceutical services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messeder, Ana Márcia; Osorio-de-Castro, Claudia Garcia Serpa; Camacho, Luiz Antonio Bastos

    2007-04-01

    This paper discusses the development of a methodological approach to classify hospital pharmacies according to their performance, measured by structure and process indicators. The method considers the influence exerted on performance by the level of care in the hospital and the interdependence among pharmaceutical activities. Algorithms for assessing performance of hospital pharmacies were constructed for each level of care. Different weights were used for core activities in the pharmacy and other specific activities, according to the level of care in the hospital where the respective service was provided. This methodology allowed classifying hospital pharmacies from best to worst, based on performance. Independently of level of care in the hospital, no hospital pharmacies were classified as high-performance, and more than 50% were classified as low-performance.

  5. Pharmaceutical penetration of new drug and pharmaceutical market structure in Taiwan: hospital-level prescription of thiazolidinediones for diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yi-Wen; Wen, Yu-Wen; Huang, Weng-Foung; Kuo, Ken N; Chen, Pei-Fen; Shih, Hsin-Wei; Lee, Yue-Chune

    2010-06-01

    This study used Taiwan's National Health Insurance claim database (years 2000-2005) to examine how thiazolidinediones (TZD), a new class of drugs for diabetes, penetrated into Taiwan's hospitals, and its association with the concentration of all diabetes drugs at the hospital level. We collected 72 monthly summaries of diabetes prescriptions from all hospitals in Taiwan. Hospital-level pharmaceutical concentration was measured by penetration of TZD, defined as monthly market share of TZD in each hospital. Concentration of diabetes drugs was measured by Herfindahl-Hirschman indices. We found a negative association (coefficient = -0.3610) between TZD penetration and concentration of diabetes drug but a positive association between penetration of TZD and the volume of prescribed diabetes drugs (coefficient = 0.4088). In conclusion, hospital characteristics and volume of services determined the concentration of pharmaceuticals at the institution level, reflecting the heterogeneous competition between pharmaceutical companies within each hospital. Institution-level pharmaceutical concentration influences the adoption and penetration of new drugs.

  6. Optimized biofilm-based systems for removal of pharmaceuticals from hospital waste water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik R; Chhetri, Ravi; Hansen, Kamilla

    Discharge of hospital wastewater is of increasing concern, as hospitals are identified as chemical pollution source due to pharmaceutical content. This project seeks to develop the most efficient and economically feasible technology to remove pharmaceuticals from wastewater, regardless of the poi...

  7. Pharmaceutical Logistics at the 121st General Hospital, Seoul, Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Giraud, Roger S

    2004-01-01

    ...). The sample consists of 122 days of pharmaceutical requisitions. Pharmaceutical logistics data are used to estimate a multiple regression model of OST for demand satisfaction and accommodation, requisition cost and volume and source of supply...

  8. Assessment of pharmaceutical waste management at selected hospitals and homes in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasu, Samuel; Kümmerer, Klaus; Kranert, Martin

    2012-06-01

    The practice of use and disposal of waste from pharmaceuticals compromises the safety of the environment as well as representing a serious health risk, as they may accumulate and stay active for a long time in the aquatic environment. This article therefore presents the outcome of a study on pharmaceutical waste management practices at homes and hospitals in Ghana. The study was conducted at five healthcare institutions randomly selected in Ghana, namely two teaching hospitals (hospital A, hospital B), one regional hospital (hospital C), one district hospital (hospital D) and one quasi-governmental hospital (hospital E). Apart from hospital E which currently has a pharmaceutical waste separation programmr as well as drug return programme called DUMP (Disposal of Unused Medicines Program), all other hospitals visited do not have any separate collection and disposal programme for pharmaceutical waste. A survey was also carried out among the general public, involving the questioning of randomly selected participants in order to investigate the household disposal of unused and expired pharmaceuticals. The results from the survey showed that more than half of the respondents confirmed having unused, left-over or expired medicines at home and over 75% disposed of pharmaceutical waste through the normal waste bins which end up in the landfills or dump sites.

  9. The effect of pharmaceutical innovation on longevity, hospitalization and medical expenditure in Turkey, 1999-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Frank R; Tatar, Mehtap; Çalışkan, Zafer

    2014-09-01

    We investigate the impact of pharmaceutical innovation on longevity, hospitalization and medical expenditure in Turkey during the period 1999-2010 using longitudinal, disease-level data. From 1999 to 2008, mean age at death increased by 3.6 years, from 63.0 to 66.6 years. We estimate that in the absence of any pharmaceutical innovation, mean age at death would have increased by only 0.6 years. Hence, pharmaceutical innovation is estimated to have increased mean age at death in Turkey by 3.0 years during the period 1999-2008. We also examine the effect of pharmaceutical innovation on hospital utilization. We estimate that pharmaceutical innovation has reduced the number of hospital days by approximately 1% per year. We use our estimates of the effect of pharmaceutical innovation on age at death, hospital utilization and pharmaceutical expenditure to assess the incremental cost-effectiveness of pharmaceutical innovation, i.e., the cost per life-year gained from the introduction of new drugs. The baseline estimate of the cost per life-year gained from pharmaceutical innovation is $2776. Even the latter figure is a very small fraction of leading economists' estimates of the value of (or consumers' willingness to pay for) a one-year increase in life expectancy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Transitional pharmaceutical care for patients discharged from the hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karapinar, F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/308480422

    2012-01-01

    Patients visit multiple healthcare providers, obtain medications from multiple pharmacies and transition between settings, all of which can lead to inaccurate medication information and thus medication errors. To improve continuity of care, transitional pharmaceutical care programs are needed. These

  11. Biodegradation of pharmaceuticals in hospital wastewater by a hybrid biofilm and activated sludge system (Hybas)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Escola Casas, Monica; Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Ooi, Gordon Tze Hoong

    2015-01-01

    amount, the last reactor (biofilm only) appeared to have the most effective biomass in respect of removing pharmaceuticals. In the batch experiment, out of 26 compounds, 16 were assessed to degrade more than 20% of the respective pharmaceutical within the Hybas train. In the continuous flow experiment......Hospital wastewater contributes a significant input of pharmaceuticals into municipal wastewater. The combination of suspended activated sludge and biofilm processes, as stand-alone or as hybrid process, has been suggested as a possible solution for hospital wastewater treatment. Hybas......TM is a hybrid process, based on the integrated fixed-film activated sludge technology, where plastic carriers for biofilm growth are suspended within activated sludge. To investigate the potential of a hybrid system for the removal of pharmaceuticals in hospital wastewater a pilot plant consisting of a series...

  12. Using the Analytic Network Process (ANP) to assess the distribution of pharmaceuticals in hospitals – a comparative case study of a Danish and American hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feibert, Diana Cordes; Sørup, Christian Michel; Jacobsen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals are a vital part of patient treatment and the timely delivery of pharmaceuticals to patients is therefore important. Hospitals are complex systems that provide a challenging environment for decision making. Implementing process changes and technologies to improve the pharmaceutical...... distribution process can therefore be a complex and challenging undertaking. A comparative case study was conducted benchmarking the pharmaceutical distribution process at a Danish and US hospital to identify best practices. Using the ANP method, taking tangible and intangible aspects into consideration...

  13. Ozonation for source treatment of pharmaceuticals in hospital wastewater - ozone lifetime and required ozone dose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Chhetri, Ravi Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Ozonation aimed at removing pharmaceuticals was studied in an effluent from an experimental pilot system using staged moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) tanks for the optimal biological treatment of wastewater from a medical care unit of Aarhus University Hospital. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC......H for each pharmaceutical. DOC varied from 6 to 20 mg-DOC/L. The ozone required for removing each pharmaceutical, varied linearly with DOC and thus, ozone doses normalized to DOC (specific ozone dose) agreed between water samples (typically within 15%). At neutral pH the specific ozone dose required...

  14. Biodegradation of pharmaceuticals from hospital wastewater in staged Moving Bed Biofilm Reactors (MBBR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Escola, Monica; Kumar Chhetri, Ravi; Ooi, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    conditions. In both campaigns general parameters DOC removal and nitrification mainly occurred in the first tank. In the batch campaign, first order kinetic degradation fitted the concentration of pharmaceuticals in each tank except for diclofenac, propranolol, citalopram and trimethoprim. These compounds...... the wastewater treatment. In both experiments, the first tank was observed to conduct the main part of the pharmaceuticals removal, matching the general parameters data. Overall, the MBBR was shown to treat hospital wastewater efficiently. However, for removal of recalcitrant pharmaceuticals, a polishing...... treatment such as ozonation might be needed....

  15. Biodegradation of pharmaceuticals in hospital wastewater by a hybrid biofilm and activated sludge system (Hybas)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escolà Casas, Mònica [Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgsvej 399, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Chhetri, Ravi Kumar [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljøvej 113, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Ooi, Gordon [Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgsvej 399, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Hansen, Kamilla M.S. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljøvej 113, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Litty, Klaus [Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Danish Technological Institute, Kongsvang Allé 29, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Christensson, Magnus [AnoxKaldnes, Klosterängsvägen 11A, 226 47 Lund (Sweden); Kragelund, Caroline [Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Danish Technological Institute, Kongsvang Allé 29, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Andersen, Henrik R. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljøvej 113, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Bester, Kai, E-mail: kb@envs.au.dk [Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgsvej 399, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2015-10-15

    Hospital wastewater contributes a significant input of pharmaceuticals into municipal wastewater. The combination of suspended activated sludge and biofilm processes, as stand-alone or as hybrid process (hybrid biofilm and activated sludge system (Hybas™)) has been suggested as a possible solution for hospital wastewater treatment. To investigate the potential of such a hybrid system for the removal of pharmaceuticals in hospital wastewater a pilot plant consisting of a series of one activated sludge reactor, two Hybas™ reactors and one moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) has been established and adapted during 10 months of continuous operation. After this adaption phase batch and continuous experiments were performed for the determination of degradation of pharmaceuticals. Removal of organic matter and nitrification mainly occurred in the first reactor. Most pharmaceuticals were removed significantly. The removal of pharmaceuticals (including X-ray contrast media, β-blockers, analgesics and antibiotics) was fitted to a single first-order kinetics degradation function, giving degradation rate constants from 0 to 1.49 h{sup −1}, from 0 to 7.78 × 10{sup −1} h{sup −1}, from 0 to 7.86 × 10{sup −1} h{sup −1} and from 0 to 1.07 × 10{sup −1} h{sup −1} for first, second, third and fourth reactors respectively. Generally, the highest removal rate constants were found in the first and third reactors while the lowest were found in the second one. When the removal rate constants were normalized to biomass amount, the last reactor (biofilm only) appeared to have the most effective biomass in respect to removing pharmaceuticals. In the batch experiment, out of 26 compounds, 16 were assessed to degrade more than 20% of the respective pharmaceutical within the Hybas™ train. In the continuous flow experiments, the measured removals were similar to those estimated from the batch experiments, but the concentrations of a few pharmaceuticals appeared to increase

  16. Ozonation for source treatment of pharmaceuticals in hospital wastewater - ozone lifetime and required ozone dose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Chhetri, Ravi Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Ozonation aimed at removing pharmaceuticals was studied in an effluent from an experimental pilot system using staged moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) tanks for the optimal biological treatment of wastewater from a medical care unit of Aarhus University Hospital. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC......) and pH in samples varied considerably, and the effect of these two parameters on ozone lifetime and the efficiency of ozone in removing pharmaceuticals were determined. The pH in the effluent varied from 5.0 to 9.0 resulting in approximately a doubling of the required ozone dose at the highest p......H for each pharmaceutical. DOC varied from 6 to 20 mg-DOC/L. The ozone required for removing each pharmaceutical, varied linearly with DOC and thus, ozone doses normalized to DOC (specific ozone dose) agreed between water samples (typically within 15%). At neutral pH the specific ozone dose required...

  17. Biodegradation of pharmaceuticals in hospital wastewater by staged Moving Bed Biofilm Reactors (MBBR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Escola Casas, Monica; Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Ooi, Gordon Tze Hoong

    2015-01-01

    during 10 months of continuous operation. After this adaption phase batch and continuous experiments were performed for the determination of degradation of pharmaceuticals. Removal of organic matter and nitrification mainly occurred in the first reactor. Most pharmaceuticals were removed significantly...... for hospital wastewater treatment. To investigate the potential of such a hybrid system for the removal of pharmaceuticals in hospital wastewater a pilot plant consisting of a series of one activated sludge reactor, two Hybas™ reactors and one moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) has been established and adapted......− 1 for first, second, third and fourth reactors respectively. Generally, the highest removal rate constants were found in the first and third reactors while the lowest were found in the second one. When the removal rate constants were normalized to biomass amount, the last reactor (biofilm only...

  18. Pharmaceutical policies and access to medicines : a hospital-pharmacy perspective from Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ankrah, D.

    2017-01-01

    Access to quality medicines is a universal human right which featured prominently on the agenda of the World Health Organisation (WHO) over the past decades. Hospital pharmacists play a pivotal role in ensuring that treatment outcomes are optimal. This thesis studied pharmaceutical policies and

  19. Pharmaceutical pricing: an empirical study of market competition in Chinese hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Xu, Judy; Liu, Gordon; Wu, Jiuhong

    2014-03-01

    High pharmaceutical prices and over-prescribing of high-priced pharmaceuticals in Chinese hospitals has long been criticized. Although policy makers have tried to address these issues, they have not yet found an effective balance between government regulation and market forces. Our objective was to explore the impact of market competition on pharmaceutical pricing under Chinese government regulation. Data from 11 public tertiary hospitals in three cities in China from 2002 to 2005 were used to explore the effect of generic and therapeutic competition on prices of antibiotics and cardiovascular products. A quasi-hedonic regression model was employed to estimate the impact of competition. The inputs to our model were specific attributes of the products and manufacturers, with the exception of competition variables. Our results suggest that pharmaceutical prices are inversely related to the number of generic and therapeutic competitors, but positively related to the number of therapeutic classes. In addition, the product prices of leading local manufacturers are not only significantly lower than those of global manufacturers, but are also lower than their non-leading counterparts when other product attributes are controlled for. Under the highly price-regulated market in China, competition from generic and therapeutic competitors did decrease pharmaceutical prices. Further research is needed to explore whether this competition increases consumer welfare in China's healthcare setting.

  20. Comparison of pharmacy-based and diagnosis-based comorbidity measures from medical administrative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortaredona, Sébastien; Pambrun, Elodie; Verdoux, Hélène; Verger, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    Health status is sometimes quantified by chronic condition (CC) scores calculated from medical administrative data. We sought to modify two pharmacy-based comorbidity measures and compare their performance in predicting hospitalization and/or death. The reference was a diagnosis-based score. One of the two measures applied an updated approach linking specific ATC codes of dispensed drugs to 22 CCs; the other used a list of 37 drug categories, without linking them to specific CCs. Using logistic regressions that took repeated measures into account and hospitalization and/or death the following year as the outcome, we assigned weights to each CC/drug category. Comorbidity scores were calculated as the weighted sum of the 22 CCs/37 drug categories. We compared the performance of both measures in predicting hospitalization and/or death with that of a diagnosis-based score based on 30 groups of long-term illnesses (LTIs), a status granted in France to exempt beneficiaries with chronic diseases from copayments. We assessed the predictive performance of the scores with the quasi-likelihood under the independence model criterion (QIC), the c statistic and the Brier score. The two pharmacy-based scores performed better than the LTI score, with lower QIC and Brier scores and higher c statistics. Their predictive performance was very similar. While there is no clear consensus or recommendations about the optimal choice of comorbidity measure, both pharmacy-based scores may be useful for limiting confounding in observational studies among general populations of adults from health insurance databases. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Revitalization of Pharmaceutical Supply Management as an Effort to Increase Outpatient Customer Satisfaction in One of Private Hospital in Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabilla

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hospital pharmacies are required to provide appropriate pharmaceutical preparation. Therefore, hospital needs good pharmacy management system. The aims of this study was to analyze customer satisfaction and revitalization of pharmaceutical management in hospital A to improve customer satisfaction. This study was used cross sectional study with quantitative and qualitative approaches. Quantitative approach used survey method with questionnaires and data was analyzed by Partial Least Square (PLS. The results showed that the response to the IFRS employees of pharmaceutical management in hospital A had a very good categories (88.7% and customer responses to pharmaceutical supply management in hospital A in the category satisfied (75.1%. A qualitative approach using interviews with the head of the hospital pharmacy as well as the head unit of the outpatient pharmacy services and pharmacy warehouse. Pharmaceutical management in hospital A is appropriate to the standards by the government, but still needs improvement in pharmaceutical management. Therefore, revitalization of pharmaceutical management is needed as an effort to increase customer satisfaction.

  2. A Bibliometric Study of Community Pharmacy-Based Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze community pharmacy based research in Arab countries. Methods: Comprehensive review of the literature indexed by Scopus was conducted. Data from Jan 01, 2003 till December 31, 2013 was searched for documents with specific words pertaining to “community pharmacy” in any one of the 13 Middle ...

  3. Measuring patients' satisfaction with pharmaceutical services at a public hospital in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudair, Imran Fahmi; Raza, Syed Asif

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study pharmacy service impact on patient satisfaction and to determine what factors saliently link with pharmaceutical service performance at Hamad General Hospital. A patient satisfaction questionnaire was designed using the literature and consultation with Hamad General Hospital medical experts. The questionnaire contained 22 items that focused on five influencing factors: promptness; attitude; supply; location; medication education; and respondent demographic aspects. A total of 220 respondents completed the questionnaire. An exploratory factor analysis was used to group items and a structural equation model was developed to test causality between five factors along with their influence on patient satisfaction. The study establishes statistical evidence that patient satisfaction is positively influenced by service promptness, pharmacist attitude, medication counseling, pharmacy location and waiting area. Several socio-demographic characteristics have statistically different effect on satisfaction, notably: gender; marital status; health status; age; educational level; and ethnicity. However, medication supply did not influence patient satisfaction. Pharmaceutical services are recognized as an essential healthcare-system component. Their impact on customer satisfaction has been investigated in many countries; however, there is no such study in Qatar. The findings identify pharmaceutical service performance indicators and provide guidelines to improve Qatari pharmaceutical services.

  4. Consumption-based approach for assessing the contribution of hospitals towards the load of pharmaceutical residues in municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Corre, Kristell S; Ort, Christoph; Kateley, Diana; Allen, Belinda; Escher, Beate I; Keller, Jurg

    2012-09-15

    Hospitals are considered as major sources of pharmaceutical residues discharged to municipal wastewater, but recent experimental studies showed that the contribution of hospitals to the loads of selected, quantifiable pharmaceuticals in sewage treatment plant (STP) influents was limited. However such conclusions are made based on the experimental analysis of pharmaceuticals in hospital wastewater which is hindered by a number of factors such as access to suitable sampling sites, difficulties in obtaining representative samples and availability of analytical methods. Therefore, this study explores a refined and extended consumption-based approach to predict the contribution of six selected Australian hospitals to the loads of 589 pharmaceuticals in municipal wastewater. In addition, the possibility that hospital-specific substances are present at levels that may pose a risk for human health was evaluated. For 63 to 84% of the pharmaceuticals investigated, the selected hospitals are not a major point source with individual contributions likely to be less than 15% which is in line with previous experimental studies. In contrast, between 10 and 20% of the pharmaceuticals consumed in the selected hospitals are exclusively used in these hospitals. For these hospital-specific substances, 57 distinct pharmaceuticals may cause concerns for human health as concentrations predicted in hospital effluents are less than 100-fold lower than effect thresholds. However, when concentrations were predicted in the influent of the corresponding STP, only 12 compounds (including the antineoplastic vincristine, the antibiotics tazobactam and piperacillin) remain in concentration close to effect thresholds, but further decrease is expected after removal in STP, dilution in the receiving stream and drinking water treatment. The results of this study suggest that risks of human exposure to the pharmaceuticals exclusively administered in the investigated hospitals are limited and

  5. KAP AMONG DOCTORS WORKING IN HOSPITALS, REGARDING HALAL PHARMACEUTICALS; A CROSS SECTIONAL ASSESSMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeeqa, Saleha; Sarriff, Azmi; Masood, Imran; Atif, Muhammad; Farooqui, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing awareness amongst Muslims to avoid all items containing non-Halal ingredients. This sentiment has now progressed into the field of various medications. It therefore, required a study to assess the knowledge, attitude and perception (KAP) relating to pharmaceuticals containing non-Halal ingredients among doctors working in various hospitals of Malaysia. This was a cross sectional study, carried out in January 2013-February 2013 period, using a structured, self-administered questionnaires. Study settings included various government hospitals in Malaysia. Data were collected by distributing questionnaires through respective heads of the departments. Study was conducted on a sample of 243 participants. Inclusion criterion was a registered medical doctor working in a government hospital. Descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, frequency, percentage, median, inter quartile range) was applied to summarize the data, non-parametric tests were applied. χ2 Test and Fisher's Exact Test were applied to assess the association between demographic characteristics and knowledge, attitude and perception scores. Results revealed that the hospital doctors had a good and positive attitude and perception about Halal pharmaceuticals. Mean knowledge score out of maximum possible 9 score was 7.67 ± 1.68. Mean attitude score out of maximum possible 45 score was 34.10 ± 5.35 while mean perception score out of maximum possible 55 score was 45.73 ± 5.44. Mean overall KAP score out of maximum possible 109 was 87.60 ± 10.37. There was a significant, positive and weak correlation (0.20-0.29) between knowledge and attitude (r = 0.231, p attitude and perception (r = 0.588, p attitude towards Halal pharmaceuticals.

  6. The problem of unreasonably high pharmaceutical fees for patients in Chinese hospitals: a system dynamics simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meina; Zhu, Yangang; Xue, Chen; Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Lulu

    2014-04-01

    The social problem of unreasonably high pharmaceutical costs for patients in Chinese hospitals damages the interests of patients and it has a highly negative impact on the long-term development of the Chinese health service. We constructed a system dynamics model to address two problems, i.e., the unreasonably high prices of drugs and the high level of pharmaceutical fees relative to the medical costs of patients, and we suggest countermeasures and possible solutions. The program Vensim DSS was used to construct a system dynamics model to represent the problem of high pharmaceutical fees for patients in Chinese hospitals. If hospital and medical staff receive a higher kickback rate, they are more likely to prescribe unnecessary expensive drugs to make greater profits, which results in unnecessary drug consumption and irrational drug use, eventually leading to unreasonably high pharmaceutical fees. The benefit chain of the main drug suppliers should be cut off. It is necessary to break the link between the profits from pharmaceutical sales and the prescribing behavior of physicians, and hospital incomes, to avoid any conflicts of interest over how medicines are prescribed. Thus, cost-containment measures and a reformed pharmaceutical distribution system are needed to regulate physicians and hospital interaction. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

  7. Pharmaceutical interventions in medications prescribed for administration via enteral tubes in a teaching hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Carolina Justus Buhrer; Plodek, Caroline Koga; Soares, Franciny Kossemba; de Andrade, Rayza Assis; Teleginski, Fernanda; da Rocha, Maria Dagmar

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to analyze the impact of guidelines regarding errors in medications prescribed for administration through enteral tubes. Method: quantitative study, in three phases, undertaken in internal medicine, neurology and an intensive care unit in a general teaching hospital. In Phase 1, the following was undertaken: a protocol for dilution and unit-dose repackaging and administration for 294 medications via enteral tubes; a decision flowchart; operational-standard procedures for dilution and unit-dose repackaging of oral pharmaceutical forms and for administration of medications through enteral tubes. In phase 2, errors in 872 medications prescribed through enteral tubes, in 293 prescriptions for patients receiving inpatient treatment between March and June, were investigated. This was followed by training of the teams in relation to the guidelines established. In Phase 3, pharmaceutical errors and interventions in 945 medications prescribed through enteral tubes, in 292 prescriptions of patients receiving inpatient treatment between August and September, were investigated prospectively. The data collected, in a structured questionnaire, were compiled in the Microsoft Office Excel(r) program, and frequencies were calculated. Results: 786 errors were observed, 63.9% (502) in Phase 2, and 36.1% (284) in Phase 3. In Phase 3, a reduction was ascertained in the frequency of prescription of medications delivered via enteral tubes, medications which were contraindicated, and those for which information was not available. Conclusion: guidelines and pharmaceutical interventions were determined in the prevention of errors involving medications delivered through enteral tubes. PMID:27276019

  8. Pharmaceutical interventions in medications prescribed for administration via enteral tubes in a teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Justus Buhrer Ferreira Neto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: to analyze the impact of guidelines regarding errors in medications prescribed for administration through enteral tubes. Method: quantitative study, in three phases, undertaken in internal medicine, neurology and an intensive care unit in a general teaching hospital. In Phase 1, the following was undertaken: a protocol for dilution and unit-dose repackaging and administration for 294 medications via enteral tubes; a decision flowchart; operational-standard procedures for dilution and unit-dose repackaging of oral pharmaceutical forms and for administration of medications through enteral tubes. In phase 2, errors in 872 medications prescribed through enteral tubes, in 293 prescriptions for patients receiving inpatient treatment between March and June, were investigated. This was followed by training of the teams in relation to the guidelines established. In Phase 3, pharmaceutical errors and interventions in 945 medications prescribed through enteral tubes, in 292 prescriptions of patients receiving inpatient treatment between August and September, were investigated prospectively. The data collected, in a structured questionnaire, were compiled in the Microsoft Office Excel(r program, and frequencies were calculated. Results: 786 errors were observed, 63.9% (502 in Phase 2, and 36.1% (284 in Phase 3. In Phase 3, a reduction was ascertained in the frequency of prescription of medications delivered via enteral tubes, medications which were contraindicated, and those for which information was not available. Conclusion: guidelines and pharmaceutical interventions were determined in the prevention of errors involving medications delivered through enteral tubes.

  9. Assessment of the structural and process aspects of pharmaceutical care at a university hospital in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdrrahman Shemsu Surur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the structural and process components of the pharmaceutical care at Gondar University Referral Hospital (GURH. Materials and Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted on all the four pharmacies at GURH from October 1 to December 31, 2013. By adopting data collection instruments from a previously done study, the structural aspects of the pharmacies were assessed using an observation checklist and the process of pharmaceutical care delivery using a self-administered questionnaire. The data collected was entered to and analyzed using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS version 16.0. Results: none of the pharmacies had a private counseling room, fire extinguisher and meeting area. None of the pharmacy stores were equipped with fan and air ventilation system and had no cross aisles. The mean values for documentation, patient assessment and implementation of therapeutic objective were 12.14, 14.03 and 5.64 respectively. Many pharmacists (64.29% did not participate in ward rotation with physicians. The overall pharmacy professionals′ level of job satisfaction was found to be 2.77. Conclusion: There were gaps in the structure and the process of the provision of pharmaceutical care in GURH.

  10. Krankenhausbibliotheken, Pharmabibliotheken, veterinärmedizinische Bibliotheken / Hospital libraries, pharmaceutical libraries, veterinary medical libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer, Bruno

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The recent issue 1-2/2011 of GMS Medizin – Bibliothek – Information has a focus on hospital libraries, pharmaceutical libraries and veterinary medical libraries. The authors in this issue are Dagmar Nentwig (Hospital Fulda, Christa Giese (Klinikum Stuttgart, Marianne Gretz and Sascha Höning (The pharmacy library situation, Stefan Wulle (DFG-Special Subject Collection Pharmacy of Braunschweig University Library, Friedhelm O. Rump (Library of the Veterinary University Hannover Foundation and Doris Reinitzer (Library of the Veterinary University Vienna. Furthermore this focus issue features an article from Sünje Dallmeier-Tiessen and Anja Lengenfelder (Open Access in German Research – Results of the FP7 funded project Study of Open Access Publishing – SOAP, the Medical Librarian’s Bibliography 2010 and a product review from Katherine Forsythe (AAAS Special Collection on Cancer Research.

  11. Design and validation of a satisfaction survey with pharmaceutical care received in hospital pharmacyconsultation

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    Patricia Monje-Agudo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Object: To design and to validate a questionnaire to assess satisfaction with pharmaceutical care (PC received at the hospital pharmacy. Methods: Multicentric study in five andalusian hospital in January 2013. A bibliography search was performed in PUBMED; MESH term; pharmaceutical services, patients satisfaction and questionnaire. Next, the questionnaire was produced by Delphi methodology with ten items and with the following variables; demographics, socials, pharrmacologicals and clinics which the patient was asked for the consequences of the PC in his treatment and illness and for the acceptance with the received service. The patient could answer between one= very insufficient and five= excellent. Before the validation phase questionnaire, a pilot phase was carried out. Descriptive analysis, Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC were performed in both phases. Data analysis was conducted using the SPSS statistical software package release 20.0. Results: In the pilot phase were included 21 questionnaires and 154 of them in validation phase (response index of 100%. In the last phase, 62% (N=96 of patients were men. More than 50% of patients answered “excelent” in all items of questionnaire in both phases. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and ICC were 0.921 and 0.915 (95%IC: 0.847-0.961 and 0.916 and 0,910 (95%IC: 0.886-0.931 in pilot and validation phases, respectively. Conclusions: A high reliability instrument was designed and validated to evaluate the patient satisfaction with PC received at hospital pharmacy.

  12. Impact of pharmaceutical care activities on diabetic patients at a private corporate hospital

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    Sriram S

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a disease that desperately needs more pharmacist involvement. Pharmaceutical care and expanded role of pharmacist are associated with many positive diabetes related outcomes, including improved clinical measures, improved patient and provider satisfaction, and improved cost management. Studies have shown that type 2 diabetes is associated with impaired QoL as diabetes increases morbidity and decreases life expectancy. It is known that diabetes and stress are directly or indirectly related, and it is important to evaluate stress in patients with diabetes. To evaluate the impact of pharmaceutical care in patients with type 2 Diabetes mellitus and to provide education and information regarding the disease and life style modification. A prospective comparative study on impact of pharmaceutical care on type 2 diabetes mellitus patients was conducted in a private tertiary care teaching hospital in South India for a period of 6 months. Study was done on 120 eligible patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus enrolled randomly in the intervention group (with pharmaceutical care teachings or the control (without drug related educations. The intervention group patients received pharmaceutical care through diabetes education, medication counseling, instructions on lifestyle that needed modifications (necessary for better drug function and dietary regulations regarding their prescribed drugs, whereas the control group patients were deprived of any pharmaceutical care till the end of the study. Data were analyzed using SPSS software to find out the t-student test. The problem areas in diabetes (PAID questionnaire is a reliable and valid tool which is used in our study to determine diabetes specific emotional distress among our study group. A minimum score of 0 indicated no diabetes related distress. A maximum score of 100 indicated significant diabetes-related distress. The intervention group showed an improvement in the quality of life score from -2

  13. Attitudes and relationship between physicians and the pharmaceutical industry in a public general hospital in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ferrari, Aldo; Gentille, Cesar; Davalos, Long; Huayanay, Leandro; Malaga, German

    2014-01-01

    The interaction between physicians and the pharmaceutical industry influences physicians' attitudes and prescribing behavior. Although largely studied in the US, this topic has not been well studied in resource-poor settings, where a close relationship between physicians and industry still exists. To describe physician interactions with and attitudes towards the pharmaceutical industry in a public general hospital in Lima, Peru. Descriptive, cross-sectional study through an anonymous, self-filled questionnaire distributed among faculty and trainee physicians of five different clinical departments working in a Peruvian public general hospital. A transcultural validation of an existing Spanish questionnaire was performed. Exposure to marketing activities, motivations to contact pharmaceutical representatives and attitudes towards industry were studied. Collected data was analyzed by degree of training, clinical department, gender and teaching status. Attitudes were measured on a four-point LIKERT scale. 155 physicians completed the survey, of which 148 were included in the study sample. 94.5% of attending physicians reported ongoing encounters with pharmaceutical representatives. The most common industry-related activities were receiving medical samples (91.2%), promotional material (87.8%) and attending meetings in restaurants (81.8%). Respondents considered medical samples and continuing medical education the most ethically acceptable benefits. We found significant differences between attendings and residents, and teaching and non-teaching attendings. An association between the amount of encounters with pharmaceutical representatives, and attitudes towards industry and acceptance of medical samples was found. A close physician-industry relationship exists in the population under study. The contact is established mainly through pharmaceutical representatives. Medical samples are the most received and ethically accepted benefit. The attitudes of physicians on the

  14. Attitudes and relationship between physicians and the pharmaceutical industry in a public general hospital in Lima, Peru.

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    Aldo De Ferrari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The interaction between physicians and the pharmaceutical industry influences physicians' attitudes and prescribing behavior. Although largely studied in the US, this topic has not been well studied in resource-poor settings, where a close relationship between physicians and industry still exists. OBJECTIVE: To describe physician interactions with and attitudes towards the pharmaceutical industry in a public general hospital in Lima, Peru. DESIGN: Descriptive, cross-sectional study through an anonymous, self-filled questionnaire distributed among faculty and trainee physicians of five different clinical departments working in a Peruvian public general hospital. A transcultural validation of an existing Spanish questionnaire was performed. Exposure to marketing activities, motivations to contact pharmaceutical representatives and attitudes towards industry were studied. Collected data was analyzed by degree of training, clinical department, gender and teaching status. Attitudes were measured on a four-point LIKERT scale. RESULTS: 155 physicians completed the survey, of which 148 were included in the study sample. 94.5% of attending physicians reported ongoing encounters with pharmaceutical representatives. The most common industry-related activities were receiving medical samples (91.2%, promotional material (87.8% and attending meetings in restaurants (81.8%. Respondents considered medical samples and continuing medical education the most ethically acceptable benefits. We found significant differences between attendings and residents, and teaching and non-teaching attendings. An association between the amount of encounters with pharmaceutical representatives, and attitudes towards industry and acceptance of medical samples was found. CONCLUSIONS: A close physician-industry relationship exists in the population under study. The contact is established mainly through pharmaceutical representatives. Medical samples are the most received

  15. Pharmaceutical orientation at hospital discharge of transplant patients: strategy for patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Lívia Falcão; Martins, Bruna Cristina Cardoso; Oliveira, Francisco Roberto Pereira de; Cavalcante, Rafaela Michele de Andrade; Magalhães, Vanessa Pinto; Firmino, Paulo Yuri Milen; Adriano, Liana Silveira; Silva, Adriano Monteiro da; Flor, Maria Jose Nascimento; Néri, Eugenie Desirée Rabelo

    2016-01-01

    To describe and analyze the pharmaceutical orientation given at hospital discharge of transplant patients. This was a cross-sectional, descriptive and retrospective study that used records of orientation given by the clinical pharmacist in the inpatients unit of the Kidney and Liver Transplant Department, at Hospital Universitário Walter Cantídio, in the city of Fortaleza (CE), Brazil, from January to July, 2014. The following variables recorded at the Clinical Pharmacy Database were analyzed according to their significance and clinical outcomes: pharmaceutical orientation at hospital discharge, drug-related problems and negative outcomes associated with medication, and pharmaceutical interventions performed. The first post-transplant hospital discharge involved the entire multidisciplinary team and the pharmacist was responsible for orienting about drug therapy. The mean hospital discharges/month with pharmaceutical orientation during the study period was 10.6±1.3, totaling 74 orientations. The prescribed drug therapy had a mean of 9.1±2.7 medications per patient. Fifty-nine drug-related problems were identified, in which 67.8% were related to non-prescription of medication needed, resulting in 89.8% of risk of negative outcomes associated with medications due to untreated health problems. The request for inclusion of drugs (66.1%) was the main intervention, and 49.2% of the medications had some action in the digestive tract or metabolism. All interventions were classified as appropriate, and 86.4% of them we able to prevent negative outcomes. Upon discharge of a transplanted patient, the orientation given by the clinical pharmacist together with the multidisciplinary team is important to avoid negative outcomes associated with drug therapy, assuring medication reconciliation and patient safety. Descrever e analisar a orientação farmacêutica oferecida na alta de pacientes transplantados. Trata-se de um estudo transversal, descritivo e retrospectivo, que

  16. Estimation of hospital emergency room data using otc pharmaceutical sales and least mean square filters

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    Magruder SF

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surveillance of Over-the-Counter pharmaceutical (OTC sales as a potential early indicator of developing public health conditions, in particular in cases of interest to Bioterrorism, has been suggested in the literature. The data streams of interest are quite non-stationary and we address this problem from the viewpoint of linear adaptive filter theory: the clinical data is the primary channel which is to be estimated from the OTC data that form the reference channels. Method The OTC data are grouped into a few categories and we estimate the clinical data using each individual category, as well as using a multichannel filter that encompasses all the OTC categories. The estimation (in the least mean square sense is performed using an FIR (Finite Impulse Response filter and the normalized LMS algorithm. Results We show all estimation results and present a table of effectiveness of each OTC category, as well as the effectiveness of the combined filtering operation. Individual group results clearly show the effectiveness of each particular group in estimating the clinical hospital data and serve as a guide as to which groups have sustained correlations with the clinical data. Conclusion Our results indicate that Multichannle adaptive FIR least squares filtering is a viable means of estimating public health conditions from OTC sales, and provide quantitative measures of time dependent correlations between the clinical data and the OTC data channels.

  17. Pharmaceutic guidance to hypertensive patients at USP University Hospital: effect on adherence to treatment

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    Ana Luiza Pereira Moreira Mori

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in the outpatient unit of the Teaching Hospital of the University of São Paulo (USP, and studied the impact of an educational program aimed at improving hypertensive patients' compliance to treatment. Seventy five (75 hypertensive patients of both sexes took part in the study which had no age or race discrimination. Participants presented no other concomitant pathology, except obesity, diabetes and dyslipidemia. Forty one patients were allocated to an experimental group (EG. Experimental patients attended lectures on the use of medication and artery hypertension (AH and received personal pharmaceutical guidance for nine months. The control group (CG comprised 34 patients who did not attend lectures or receive pharmaceutical advice in this period. The results were assessed by means of serum levels of cholesterol and fractions of tryacylglicerol (TG, urine sodium and potassium, arterial pressure (AP, body mass index (BMI, waist-hip ratio (WHR, and also based on responses to a questionnaire focusing on AH and treatment. Patients who received the guidance showed a greater decrease in AP, TG and WHR, besides an increase of potassium excretion through urine. The experimental group also scored higher on the questionnaires compared to the CG. It was concluded that the educational process, applied under the conditions of the present study, improves clients' clinical response to antihypertensive treatment and should be included in therapeutic strategies of health care services dealing with hypertensive patients.Este trabalho, realizado no ambulatório do Hospital Universitário da USP, estudou a repercussão de um programa educacional visando melhorar a adesão do paciente hipertenso ao tratamento. Participaram do trabalho 75 pacientes de ambos os sexos, sem discriminação de idade ou raça, sem outras patologias concomitantes, exceto obesidade, diabetes e dislipidemia. Quarenta e um pacientes assistiram palestras sobre uso de

  18. Transition of care: A set of pharmaceutical interventions improves hospital discharge prescriptions from an internal medicine ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeman, Marine; Dobrinas, Maria; Maurer, Sophie; Tagan, Damien; Sautebin, Annelore; Blanc, Anne-Laure; Widmer, Nicolas

    2017-03-01

    Continuity of care between hospitals and community pharmacies needs to be improved to ensure medication safety. This study aimed to evaluate whether a set of pharmaceutical interventions to prepare hospital discharge facilitates the transition of care. This study took place in the internal medicine ward and in surrounding community pharmacies. The intervention group's patients underwent a set of pharmaceutical interventions during their hospital stay: medication reconciliation at admission, medication review, and discharge planning. The two groups were compared with regards to: number of community pharmacist interventions, time spent on discharge prescriptions, and number of treatment changes. Comparison between the groups showed a much lower (77% lower) number of community pharmacist interventions per discharge prescription in the intervention (n=54 patients) compared to the control group (n=64 patients): 6.9 versus 1.6 interventions, respectively (pdischarge prescriptions; less interventions requiring a telephone call to a hospital physician. The number of medication changes at different steps was also significantly lower in the intervention group: 40% fewer (phospital admission and discharge, 66% fewer (phospital discharge and community pharmacy care, and 25% fewer (p=0.002) between community pharmacy care and care by a general practitioner. An intervention group underwent significantly fewer medication changes in subsequent steps in the transition of care after a set of interventions performed during their hospital stay. Community pharmacists had to perform fewer interventions on discharge prescriptions. Altogether, this improves continuity of care. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of pharmacy-based measures of medication adherence

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    Vollmer William M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pharmacy databases are commonly used to assess medication usage, and a number of measures have been developed to measure patients’ adherence to medication. An extensive literature now supports these measures, although few studies have systematically compared the properties of different adherence measures. Methods As part of an 18-month randomized clinical trial to assess the impact of automated telephone reminders on adherence to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS among 6903 adult members of a managed care organization, we computed eight pharmacy-based measures of ICS adherence using outpatient pharmacy dispensing records obtained from the health plan’s electronic medical record. We used simple descriptive statistics to compare the relative performance characteristics of these measures. Results Comparative analysis found a relative upward bias in adherence estimates for those measures that require at least one dispensing event to be calculated. Measurement strategies that require a second dispensing event evidence even greater upward bias. These biases are greatest with shorter observation times. Furthermore, requiring a dispensing to be calculated meant that these measures could not be defined for large numbers of individuals (17-32 % of participants in this study. Measurement strategies that do not require a dispensing event to be calculated appear least vulnerable to these biases and can be calculated for everyone. However they do require additional assumptions and data (e.g., pre-intervention dispensing data to support their validity. Conclusions Many adherence measures require one, or sometimes two, dispensings in order to be defined. Since such measures assume all dispensed medication is used as directed, they have a built in upward bias that is especially pronounced when they are calculated over relatively short timeframes ( Trial registration The study was funded by grant R01HL83433 from the National Heart, Lung and

  20. Pharmaceutical interventions in medications prescribed for administration via enteral tubes in a teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Carolina Justus Buhrer; Plodek, Caroline Koga; Soares, Franciny Kossemba; Andrade, Rayza Assis de; Teleginski, Fernanda; Rocha, Maria Dagmar da

    2016-01-01

    to analyze the impact of guidelines regarding errors in medications prescribed for administration through enteral tubes. quantitative study, in three phases, undertaken in internal medicine, neurology and an intensive care unit in a general teaching hospital. In Phase 1, the following was undertaken: a protocol for dilution and unit-dose repackaging and administration for 294 medications via enteral tubes; a decision flowchart; operational-standard procedures for dilution and unit-dose repackaging of oral pharmaceutical forms and for administration of medications through enteral tubes. In phase 2, errors in 872 medications prescribed through enteral tubes, in 293 prescriptions for patients receiving inpatient treatment between March and June, were investigated. This was followed by training of the teams in relation to the guidelines established. In Phase 3, pharmaceutical errors and interventions in 945 medications prescribed through enteral tubes, in 292 prescriptions of patients receiving inpatient treatment between August and September, were investigated prospectively. The data collected, in a structured questionnaire, were compiled in the Microsoft Office Excel(r) program, and frequencies were calculated. 786 errors were observed, 63.9% (502) in Phase 2, and 36.1% (284) in Phase 3. In Phase 3, a reduction was ascertained in the frequency of prescription of medications delivered via enteral tubes, medications which were contraindicated, and those for which information was not available. guidelines and pharmaceutical interventions were determined in the prevention of errors involving medications delivered through enteral tubes. analisar o impacto de diretrizes sobre erros em medicamentos prescritos para administração via sondas enterais. estudo quantitativo, em três fases, realizado em clínica médica, neurologia e unidade de terapia intensiva de hospital geral universitário. Na Fase 1 elaborou-se: protocolo de diluição, unitarização - transformação e

  1. Information on the quality of substance for the preparation of pharmaceutical drugs in terms of hospital pharmacy

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    Jovović Marija Đ.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Explanation the topic The pharmaceutical activity is the activity of public or social and special interest, because it is a direct function of health care. Topic positioning and discussion The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of ensuring the quality of pharmaceutical substances that supplies hospitals, which are used for production of galenic and magistral drugs. Conclusion Compliance with national legislation, as well as establishing compliance prescribed by the European legislation in the field of drug development is binding. Therefore, all manufacturers of drugs and/or active pharmaceutical ingredients must apply quality standards prescribed by the European Pharmacopoeia in order to develop, manufacture and sales of medicines. When it comes to the quality of pharmaceutical ingredients for the production of drugs in the pharmacy, pharmacies especially in residential institutions in our country is permanently done by harmonizing national legislation in order to improve conditions for the preparation and production of galenic drugs in terms of inpatient health institutions performed in a manner that is prescribed by international regulations. This requires the adaptation of institutions, including fundamental changes in competence as national professional and administrative and regulatory rules that apply to state- and private sectors.

  2. A Bibliometric Study of Community Pharmacy-Based Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    1. 1.1. NA. Patient Education and Counseling. 1. 1.1. 2.305. Patient Preference and Adherence. 1. 1.1. 1.143. Pharmaceutical Journal. 1. 1.1. NA. Pharmacy Practice. 7. 7.5. NA. Pharmacy World and Science. 7. 7.5. 1.215. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy. 1. 1.1. 2.35. Research Journal of Medical Sciences.

  3. A pharmacy-based medication reconciliation and review program in hemodialysis patients: a prospective study

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    Patricia NJ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hemodialysis (HD patients are on multiple medications, see many prescribers and have many hospitalizations which put them at risk for medication record discrepancies and medication related problems (MRP. Being able to effectively identify and reconcile these medication issues is crucial in reducing hospitalizations, morbidities, and mortalities. The care of the hemodialysis patients can be enhanced by incorporating a pharmacist into the interprofessional team. There is little data in the literature on medication record discrepancies and MRP’s in dialysis patients. Objective: The objectives of this research were to determine the types of medication discrepancies and MRPs in dialysis patients and if recommendations for changes based on these findings were accepted by providers. Methods: Patients were asked to bring medications to the dialysis unit for review. Discrepancy and MRP recommendations were communicated to the unit staff via written progress notes. A follow-up was performed an average of 33 days later to determine if the recommendations were accepted. Results: Overall, in 93 unique patients, 376 discrepancies (3.1 per patient and 64 MRPs (0.5 per patient were identified. The most common type of discrepancy and MRP was drug omission and indication without drug, respectively. Of the total 440 interventions, 77% were ultimately accepted. Discrepancies were more likely to be accepted as compared to MRPs (85% vs. 27%, respectively. Conclusion: Medication record discrepancies and MRPs are common in dialysis patients. Recommendations related to discrepancies were more likely to be accepted by the providers as compared to MRPs. Medication records became inaccurate within 12 months. A pharmacy-based medication reconciliation and review program may have an important impact on the care of hemodialysis patients.

  4. Use of the International Pharmaceutical Federation's Basel Statements to Assess and Advance Hospital Pharmacy Practice: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penm, Jonathan; Chaar, Betty; Moles, Rebekah J

    2016-01-01

    The Basel statements of the International Pharmaceutical Federation, which provide the first global, unified vision for the hospital pharmacy profession, have recently been revised. Originally released in 2008, the Basel statements have since been made available in 21 languages, and thus have the potential for great impact around the world. To conduct a scoping review to examine the extent and nature of research activity related to the Basel statements. Google Scholar, PubMed, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts were searched using the key term "Basel statements" for relevant research articles. From each included study, data were extracted on geographic location, study design, study outcomes, and use of the Basel statements. The search strategy generated 113 results. Further refinement resulted in 14 English-language articles that met the inclusion criteria. Four of these articles focused on adapting the Basel statements to European practice, an initiative of the European Association of Hospital Pharmacists that led to development of the European statements of Hospital Pharmacy. Six studies focused on monitoring hospital pharmacy practice in Uganda, the Pacific island countries, and the Western Pacific Region. These studies provide valuable baseline data to measure and track the development of hospital pharmacy practices in their respective countries and regions. The remaining 4 studies used qualitative methods to explore the barriers to and facilitators of implementation of the Basel statements in South Africa, China, and Australia. The Basel statements have led to multiple initiatives around the world, involving more than 70 countries. The European and Western Pacific regions have been the most active. Current initiatives should be continued to ensure identification and resolution of issues related to sustaining their use over time.

  5. Use of the International Pharmaceutical Federation’s Basel Statements to Assess and Advance Hospital Pharmacy Practice: A Scoping Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penm, Jonathan; Chaar, Betty; Moles, Rebekah J

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Basel statements of the International Pharmaceutical Federation, which provide the first global, unified vision for the hospital pharmacy profession, have recently been revised. Originally released in 2008, the Basel statements have since been made available in 21 languages, and thus have the potential for great impact around the world. Objective: To conduct a scoping review to examine the extent and nature of research activity related to the Basel statements. Methods: Google Scholar, PubMed, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts were searched using the key term “Basel statements” for relevant research articles. From each included study, data were extracted on geographic location, study design, study outcomes, and use of the Basel statements. Results: The search strategy generated 113 results. Further refinement resulted in 14 English-language articles that met the inclusion criteria. Four of these articles focused on adapting the Basel statements to European practice, an initiative of the European Association of Hospital Pharmacists that led to development of the European statements of Hospital Pharmacy. Six studies focused on monitoring hospital pharmacy practice in Uganda, the Pacific island countries, and the Western Pacific Region. These studies provide valuable baseline data to measure and track the development of hospital pharmacy practices in their respective countries and regions. The remaining 4 studies used qualitative methods to explore the barriers to and facilitators of implementation of the Basel statements in South Africa, China, and Australia. Conclusion: The Basel statements have led to multiple initiatives around the world, involving more than 70 countries. The European and Western Pacific regions have been the most active. Current initiatives should be continued to ensure identification and resolution of issues related to sustaining their use over time. PMID:27168634

  6. Revision of the International Pharmaceutical Federation's Basel Statements on the future of hospital pharmacy: From Basel to Bangkok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Lee C; Moles, Rebekah J; Collins, Jack C; Gray, Andy; Sheikh, Abdul Latif; Surugue, Jacqueline; Moss, Robert J; Ivey, Marianne F; Stevenson, James G; Takeda, Yasuo; Ranjit, Eurek; Chaar, Betty; Penm, Jonathan

    2016-07-15

    The processes used to revise the 2008 Basel Statements on the future of hospital pharmacy are summarized, and the revised statements are presented. The process for revising the Basel Statements followed an approach similar to that used during their initial development. The Hospital Pharmacy Section (HPS) of the International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP) revised the 2008 FIP Basel Statements in four phases, including a survey of hospital pharmacists worldwide, an internal review, online forums, and a face-to-face "World Café" workshop in Bangkok, Thailand. The global survey on the initial Basel Statements included input from 334 respondents from 62 countries. The majority of respondents agreed that most of the initial Basel Statements were acceptable as written and did not require revision. In total, 11 statements were judged by more than 10% of respondents as needing revision or deletion. The FIP HPS executive committee used the survey results to develop 69 initial revised draft statements. After an online discussion with the international hospital pharmacy community, including individuals from 28 countries representing all six World Health Organization regions, a final set of draft statements was prepared for the live discussion involving participants from 20 countries. The final 65 revised Basel Statements were voted on and accepted. Systematic revision of the FIP Basel Statements resulted in an updated reflection of aspirational goals for the future of hospital pharmacy practice. While this revision reflects the development of new goals for hospital pharmacy practice, the core principles of the Basel Statements remain an essential foundation for the discipline. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cost of hospital care for older adults with heart failure: medical, pharmaceutical, and nursing costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titler, Marita G; Jensen, Gwenneth A; Dochterman, Joanne McCloskey; Xie, Xian-Jin; Kanak, Mary; Reed, David; Shever, Leah L

    2008-04-01

    To determine the impact of patient characteristics, clinical conditions, hospital unit characteristics, and health care interventions on hospital cost of patients with heart failure. Data for this study were part of a larger study that used electronic clinical data repositories from an 843-bed, academic medical center in the Midwest. This retrospective, exploratory study used existing administrative and clinical data from 1,435 hospitalizations of 1,075 patients 60 years of age or older. A cost model was tested using generalized estimating equations (GEE) analysis. Electronic databases used in this study were the medical record abstract, the financial data repository, the pharmacy repository; and the Nursing Information System repository. Data repositories were merged at the patient level into a relational database and housed on an SQL server. The model accounted for 88 percent of the variability in hospital costs for heart failure patients 60 years of age and older. The majority of variables that were associated with hospital cost were provider interventions. Each medical procedure increased cost by $623, each unique medication increased cost by $179, and the addition of each nursing intervention increased cost by $289. One medication and several nursing interventions were associated with lower cost. Nurse staffing below the average and residing on 2-4 units increased hospital cost. The model and data analysis techniques used here provide an innovative and useful methodology to describe and quantify significant health care processes and their impact on cost per hospitalization. The findings indicate the importance of conducting research using existing clinical data in health care.

  8. Pharmaceutical interventions in medications prescribed for administration via enteral tubes in a teaching hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Justus Buhrer Ferreira Neto; Caroline Koga Plodek; Franciny Kossemba Soares; Rayza Assis de Andrade; Fernanda Teleginski; Maria Dagmar da Rocha

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to analyze the impact of guidelines regarding errors in medications prescribed for administration through enteral tubes. Method: quantitative study, in three phases, undertaken in internal medicine, neurology and an intensive care unit in a general teaching hospital. In Phase 1, the following was undertaken: a protocol for dilution and unit-dose repackaging and administration for 294 medications via enteral tubes; a decision flowchart; operational-standard procedures f...

  9. Pharmaceutical care and medication adherence in management of psychosis in a Nigerian tertiary hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danladi, Jonathan; Falang, Kakjing D.; Barde, Raymond A.; Jimam, Nanlok S.; Dangiwa, Dauda A.; Jimoh, Hafsat O.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The primary objective of this study is to examine the medication adherence levels (as a function of pharmaceutical care) and its contributing factors in schizophrenic patients receiving antipsychotic drugs. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study administering a structured questionnaire to 231 patients. Adherence was measured through patient self-reporting. Association between independent variables and adherence to antipsychotics were measured through odds ratios (OR) in the univariate analysis while the best predictors of adherence were determined through the multiple logistic regressions. Findings: Adherence level was found to be 65.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 59.3-71.9%). The following factors were identified to be associated with adherence in the univariate analysis: age (OR 1.088), sex (OR 1.231), employment (OR 0.366), marital status (singles, OR 0.022), drug adherence counseling (OR 11.641), twice a day frequency (OR 8.434), alcohol non-intake (OR 1.469), educational level (primary OR 1.9312, secondary OR 11.022, tertiary OR 4.771), occupation (public servant 6.273). In the multivariate analysis, age, three times a day frequency of drug intake, singles and educational levels such as primary, secondary or tertiary school, strongly affected adherence (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Although patients adherence level was high (65.8%), there is a need to emphasize that pharmacists spend more time in counseling and educating patients, especially younger ones on drug adherence before any antipsychotic medications are dispensed. Furthermore, patients should be taught the use of adherence devices such as reminders so that adherence to antipsychotic medications can be optimized. PMID:24991609

  10. Pharmaceutical preparation of oxygen-15 labelled molecular oxygen and carbon monoxide gasses in a hospital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luurtsema, G; Boellaard, R; Greuter, H N J M; Rijbroek, A; Takkenkamp, K; de Geest, F G M; Buijs, F L; Harry Hendrikse, N; Franssen, E J F; van Lingen, A; Lammertsma, A A

    2010-02-01

    Clinical positron emission tomography (PET) requires safe and effective PET radiopharmaceuticals. Tracers used for measuring oxygen consumption and blood volume are [(15)O]O(2) and [(15)O]CO, respectively. In general, these oxygen-15 labelled tracers are produced using a cyclotron that accelerates deuterons onto a target filled with (14)N(2) containing a trace of oxygen. In recent years, cyclotrons have been developed that only are capable of accelerating protons. The purpose of this study was to validate and assess such a cyclotron for production and administration of oxygen-15 labelled gasses in an hospital setting. An RDS111 cyclotron (Siemens-CTI, Knoxville, USA) was validated for bolus production of [(15)O]O(2) and [(15)O]CO gasses. In addition, equipment was developed to administer these tracers to patients. Both [(15)O]O(2) and [(15)O]CO gasses could be produced in sufficient amounts, whilst meeting European Pharmacopeia requirements. Although produced oxygen-15 gasses contained a minor level of (11)C contamination, in clinical studies it was possible to correct for this contamination by delayed blood counting. An 11 MeV proton cyclotron combined with an in-house developed gas delivery system allows for the production and administration of sufficient amounts of [(15)O]-gasses for routine clinical PET studies in an hospital setting.

  11. Calidad en los Servicios Farmacéuticos Hospitalarios Quality of the pharmaceutical service at hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de las Mercedes Cuba Venereo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La calidad es un concepto clave hoy día para los servicios sanitarios. Ella es considerada una variable esencial por la mayoría de las organizaciones. No es posible hablar de buena gestión en un centro o servicio sanitario, si no se incorpora un sistema de mejora continua de la calidad, ya que hay suficiente evidencia para afirmar que dichos programas son un instrumento para elevar la eficiencia clínica y económica. Esto ha provocado una larga carrera hacia la acreditación y evaluación externa por entidades que puedan dar fe del nivel de calidad alcanzado por la organización. Es por ello que lograr un sistema de acreditación de farmacias hospitalarias, con fines no solo evaluativos sino de crecimiento y desarrollo, sería una respuesta a esta necesidad. Cabe señalar la importancia de que dicho programa se ajuste a la realidad existente en Cuba y se pueda adaptar dinámicamente a las diferentes situaciones que se presentarán.Quality is a key concept for health services today and considered as a fundamental variable for most of the organizations. It is impossible to speak about good management in a health care service or center if a permanent quality improvement system is not involved since enough evidence indicates that such programs are tools for higher clinical and economic efficiency. The aforementioned has brought about a long run for accreditation and external evaluation by agencies that are able to endorse the quality level attained by the organization in question. This is why implementing an accreditation system for hospital pharmacies, not only for evaluation but for growth and development, would be an appropriate response to this requirement. There should be pointed out the importance of adapting this program to the existing realities of Cuba and of adjusting it in a dynamic way to the many situations that may come up.

  12. Computerized pharmaceutical intervention to reduce reconciliation errors at hospital discharge in Spain: an interrupted time-series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Molina Sáez, C; Urbieta Sanz, E; Madrigal de Torres, M; Vicente Vera, T; Pérez Cárceles, M D

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that medication reconciliation at discharge is a key strategy to ensure proper drug prescription and the effectiveness and safety of any treatment. Different types of interventions to reduce reconciliation errors at discharge have been tested, many of which are based on the use of electronic tools as they are useful to optimize the medication reconciliation process. However, not all countries are progressing at the same speed in this task and not all tools are equally effective. So it is important to collate updated country-specific data in order to identify possible strategies for improvement in each particular region. Our aim therefore was to analyse the effectiveness of a computerized pharmaceutical intervention to reduce reconciliation errors at discharge in Spain. A quasi-experimental interrupted time-series study was carried out in the cardio-pneumology unit of a general hospital from February to April 2013. The study consisted of three phases: pre-intervention, intervention and post-intervention, each involving 23 days of observations. At the intervention period, a pharmacist was included in the medical team and entered the patient's pre-admission medication in a computerized tool integrated into the electronic clinical history of the patient. The effectiveness was evaluated by the differences between the mean percentages of reconciliation errors in each period using a Mann-Whitney U test accompanied by Bonferroni correction, eliminating autocorrelation of the data by first using an ARIMA analysis. In addition, the types of error identified and their potential seriousness were analysed. A total of 321 patients (119, 105 and 97 in each phase, respectively) were included in the study. For the 3966 medicaments recorded, 1087 reconciliation errors were identified in 77·9% of the patients. The mean percentage of reconciliation errors per patient in the first period of the study was 42·18%, falling to 19·82% during the intervention period (P

  13. How does the pharmaceutical industry influence prescription? A qualitative study of provider payment incentives and drug remunerations in hospitals in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei

    2016-10-01

    Over-prescription has become one major problem in China's health care sector. Incorporating interview data from hospitals in Shanghai, this paper provided empirical evidence on how the process of over-prescription was carried out in day-to-day clinical settings, and demonstrates various mechanisms that allow over-prescription to continue vigorously in the context of the Chinese health care system. In particular, this study identified four levels of incentives that over-prescription was carried out: hospital, medical department, doctors and pharmaceutical companies. Due to the insufficient funding from the government and rising operational costs, hospitals had to rely on the sales of drugs and provision of medical services to survive. This funding pressure then transferred to specific revenue targets for medical departments. A combination of incentives, including drug remunerations, bonus system, low pay and high workloads motivated over-prescription at doctor level. At pharmaceutical company level, high profits of pharmaceuticals products as well as lack of emphasis on efficacy of drugs led to under-table payments and illicit drug remunerations. The study argued that the way that the Chinese health care system operates was based on the profit-seeking principle rather than on fulfilling its social functions, and called for a systematic reform of provider incentives to eradicating the problem of over-prescription.

  14. A Pharmaceutical Care Program to Improve Adherence to Statin Therapy : A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eussen, Simone R. B. M.; van der Elst, Menno E.; Klungel, Olaf H.; Rompelberg, Cathy J. M.; Garssen, Johan; Oosterveld, Marco H.; de Boer, Anthonius; de Gier, Johan J.; Bouvy, Marcel L.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the well-known beneficial effects of statins, many patients do not adhere to chronic medication regimens. OBJECTIVE: To implement and assess the effectiveness of a community pharmacy based pharmaceutical care program developed to improve patients' adherence to statin therapy.

  15. A study on the interactions of doctors with medical representatives of pharmaceutical companies in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital of South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The promotional activities by medical representatives (MRs of the pharmaceutical companies can impact the prescribing pattern of doctors. Hence, the interaction between doctors and the pharmaceutical industry is coming under increasing scrutiny. Objective: The primary objective was to assess the attitude of the doctors toward the interaction with the MRs of the pharmaceutical company. The secondary objective was to assess the awareness of the doctors about regulations governing their interaction with the pharmaceutical company. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. This study was carried out using a pretested questionnaire containing 10 questions between June and September 2014. The doctors working in the Dhanalakshmi Srinivasan Medical College and Hospital, Perambalur (Tamil Nadu during the study period was included. Results: A total of 100 pretested questionnaires were distributed, and 81 doctors responded (response rate 81%. 37% doctors responded that they interacted with MR once a week whereas 25.9% told that they interact with MRs twice a month. About 69.1% doctors think that MR exaggerate the benefits of medicines and downplays the risks and contraindications of medicine(P = 0.000. 61.7% doctors think that MR has an impact on their prescribing (P = 0.000. 63% doctors stated that they had received promotional tools such as stationery items, drug sample, textbooks or journal reprints from MR in last 12 months (P = 0.0012. Unfortunately, 70.4% doctors have not read the guidelines about interacting with the pharmaceutical industry or its representative (P = 0.000. Conclusion: Rather than forbidding any connection between doctors and industry, it is better to establish ethical guidelines. The Medical Council of India code is a step in the right direction, but the majority of doctors in this study have not read the guidelines about interacting with the pharmaceutical industry or its representative.

  16. Expectation and satisfaction of HIV/AIDS patients toward the pharmaceutical care provided at Gondar University Referral Hospital, Northwestern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abebe TB

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tamrat Befekadu Abebe,1 Daniel Asfaw Erku,2 Begashaw Melaku Gebresillassie,1 Kaleab Taye Haile,3 Abebe Basazn Mekuria4 1Department of Clinical Pharmacy, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, 3Department of Pharmaceutics, 4Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia Purpose: Measurements of patient satisfaction help to assess the performance of health service provision and predict treatment adherence and outcomes. This study aimed to assess human HIV/AIDS patients’ expectation of and satisfaction with the pharmaceutical service delivered at Gondar University Referral Hospital, Ethiopia. Patients and methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was performed from May 11 to 25, 2015. A total of 291 patients living with HIV/AIDS were included using a simple random sampling method. Data were collected using structured questionnaires measuring expectation and satisfaction of respondents using a Likert scale of 1–5 through face-to-face interviews. The data collected were entered into and analyzed using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences. Comparison was made between those respondents who lived in and outside the town. Results: The overall mean expectation and satisfaction of respondents toward pharmacy setting and services were 3.62 and 3.13, respectively. More than half (56.1% of the participants were dissatisfied with the comfort and convenience of waiting area and private counseling room. Similarly, 69.3% of the respondents claimed that pharmacy professionals did not give information about side effects and drug–drug and drug–food interactions of antiretroviral medications. There was a statistically significant difference between respondents who live in and outside Gondar town in overall expectation (t=3.415, P=0.001 with the pharmacy setting and services. Conclusion: In this study, the overall satisfaction level of respondents with pharmaceutical service (pharmacy setting and services

  17. The role of community pharmacy-based vaccination in the USA: current practice and future directions

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    Bach AT

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Albert T Bach, Jeffery A Goad School of Pharmacy, Chapman University, Irvine, California, USA Abstract: Community pharmacy-based provision of immunizations in the USA has become commonplace in the last few decades, with success in increasing rates of immunizations. Community pharmacy-based vaccination services are provided by pharmacists educated in the practice of immunization delivery and provide a convenient and accessible option for receiving immunizations. The pharmacist's role in immunization practice has been described as serving in the roles of educator, facilitator, and immunizer. With a majority of pharmacist-provided vaccinations occurring in the community pharmacy setting, there are many examples of community pharmacists serving in these immunization roles with successful outcomes. Different community pharmacies employ a number of different models and workflow practices that usually consist of a year-round in-house service staffed by their own immunizing pharmacist. Challenges that currently exist in this setting are variability in scopes of immunization practice for pharmacists across states, inconsistent reimbursement mechanisms, and barriers in technology. Many of these challenges can be alleviated by continual education; working with legislators, state boards of pharmacy, stakeholders, and payers to standardize laws; and reimbursement design. Other challenges that may need to be addressed are improvements in communication and continuity of care between community pharmacists and the patient centered medical home. Keywords: immunization, pharmacy practice, pharmacists, continuity of care 

  18. Impact of community pharmacy-based educational intervention on patients with hypertension in Western Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sushmita; Kc, Bhuvan; Alrasheedy, Alian A; Kaundinnyayana, Atisammodavardhana; Khanal, Aarjan

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding the feasibility and impact of community pharmacy-based educational interventions on the management of chronic diseases in developing countries. The aim of this study was to establish the feasibility, and to investigate the impact, of community pharmacy-based educational intervention on knowledge, practice, and disease management of patients with hypertension in Western Nepal. A single-cohort pre-/post-intervention study was conducted from August 2012 to April 2013. The participants included in the study were patients diagnosed with hypertension attending a pharmacist-led hypertension clinic. The educational intervention was conducted by pharmacists, was individualised, and consisted of three counselling sessions over a period of six months. The patients' knowledge of hypertension, their practice of lifestyle modification and non-pharmacological approaches concerning hypertension management, and blood pressure were assessed at baseline and again after nine months by using a pre-validated questionnaire. Fifty patients met the inclusion criteria and were enrolled in the study. The median (IQR) knowledge score changed from 6 (4) to 13 (0) after the intervention (pintervention (peducational intervention by community pharmacists had improved patients' disease knowledge, practice, and management of their hypertension. Evidence suggests Nepalese community pharmacists need could play an important role in the management of chronic diseases like hypertension through simple interventions such as providing educational support for patients.

  19. What Do the Hospital Pharmacists Think about the Quality of Pharmaceutical Care Services in a Pakistani Province? A Mixed Methodology Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Murtaza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the perception of hospital pharmacists regarding quality of pharmaceutical care services in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK Province, Pakistan, through qualitative as well as quantitative approach. For qualitative study, snow ball sampling technique was used. In quantitative part, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 112 hospital pharmacists (out of 128 accessed ones from both private and public hospitals in six major divisions (divisions are the third tier of government in Pakistan, between the provinces and districts of KPK. The qualitative study yielded five major themes during thematic analysis: (a patients reporting, (b lack of patient counseling, (c lack of participation in health awareness programs, (d pharmacists reducing the prescribing errors, and (e insufficient number of pharmacists. A great proportion (67.9% of the pharmacists was unsatisfied with their participation in health awareness programs. Findings of both phases revealed that hospital pharmacists in Pakistan are not actively participating in the provision of pharmaceutical care services. They are facing various hurdles for their active participation in patient care; major obstacles include the unavailability of sufficient number of pharmacists, lack of appropriate time for patient counseling, and poor relationship between pharmacists and other health care providers.

  20. Predicted and measured concentrations of pharmaceuticals in hospital effluents. Examination of the strengths and weaknesses of the two approaches through the analysis of a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlicchi, Paola; Zambello, Elena

    2016-09-15

    This study deals with the chemical characterization of hospital effluents in terms of the predicted and measured concentrations of 38 pharmaceuticals belonging to 11 different therapeutic classes. The paper outlines the strengths and weaknesses of the two approaches through an analysis of a case study referring to a large hospital. It highlights the observed (and expected) ranges of variability for the parameters of the adopted model, presents the results of an uncertainty analysis of direct measurements (due to sampling mode and frequency and chemical analysis) and a sensitivity analysis of predicted concentrations (based on the annual consumption of pharmaceuticals, their excretion rate and annual wastewater volume generated by the hospital). Measured concentrations refer to two sampling campaigns carried out in summer and winter in order to investigate seasonal variability of the selected compounds. Predicted concentrations are compared to measured ones in the three scenarios: summer, winter and the whole year. It was found that predicted and measured concentrations are in agreement for a limited number of compounds (namely atenolol, atorvastatin and hydrochlorothiazide), and for most compounds the adoption of the model leads to a large overestimation in all three periods. Uncertainties in predictions are mainly due to the wastewater volume and excretion factor, whereas for measured concentrations, uncertainties are mainly due to sampling mode. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of sludge stabilization processes and sludge origin (urban or hospital) on the mobility of pharmaceutical compounds following sludge landspreading in laboratory soil-column experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachassagne, Delphine; Soubrand, Marilyne; Casellas, Magali; Gonzalez-Ospina, Adriana; Dagot, Christophe

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of sludge stabilization treatments (liming and anaerobic digestion) on the mobility of different pharmaceutical compounds in soil amended by landspreading of treated sludge from different sources (urban and hospital). The sorption and desorption potential of the following pharmaceutical compounds: carbamazepine (CBZ), ciprofloxacin (CIP), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), salicylic acid (SAL), ibuprofen (IBU), paracetamol (PAR), diclofenac (DIC), ketoprofen (KTP), econazole (ECZ), atenolol (ATN), and their solid-liquid distribution during sludge treatment (from thickening to stabilization) were investigated in the course of batch testing. The different sludge samples were then landspread at laboratory scale and leached with an artificial rain simulating 1 year of precipitation adapted to the surface area of the soil column used. The quality of the resulting leachate was investigated. Results showed that ibuprofen had the highest desorption potential for limed and digested urban and hospital sludge. Ibuprofen, salicylic acid, diclofenac, and paracetamol were the only compounds found in amended soil leachates. Moreover, the leaching potential of these compounds and therefore the risk of groundwater contamination depend mainly on the origin of the sludge because ibuprofen and diclofenac were present in the leachates of soils amended with urban sludge, whereas paracetamol and salicylic acid were found only in the leachates of soils amended with hospital sludge. Although carbamazepine, ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, ketoprofen, econazole, and atenolol were detected in some sludge, they were not present in any leachate. This reflects either an accumulation and/or (bio)degradation of these compounds (CBZ, CIP, SMX, KTP, ECZ, and ATN ), thus resulting in very low mobility in soil. Ecotoxicological risk assessment, evaluated by calculating the risk quotients for each studied pharmaceutical compound, revealed no high risk due to the

  2. Expectation and satisfaction of HIV/AIDS patients toward the pharmaceutical care provided at Gondar University Referral Hospital, Northwestern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Tamrat Befekadu; Erku, Daniel Asfaw; Gebresillassie, Begashaw Melaku; Haile, Kaleab Taye; Mekuria, Abebe Basazn

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of patient satisfaction help to assess the performance of health service provision and predict treatment adherence and outcomes. This study aimed to assess human HIV/AIDS patients' expectation of and satisfaction with the pharmaceutical service delivered at Gondar University Referral Hospital, Ethiopia. An institution-based cross-sectional study was performed from May 11 to 25, 2015. A total of 291 patients living with HIV/AIDS were included using a simple random sampling method. Data were collected using structured questionnaires measuring expectation and satisfaction of respondents using a Likert scale of 1-5 through face-to-face interviews. The data collected were entered into and analyzed using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences. Comparison was made between those respondents who lived in and outside the town. The overall mean expectation and satisfaction of respondents toward pharmacy setting and services were 3.62 and 3.13, respectively. More than half (56.1%) of the participants were dissatisfied with the comfort and convenience of waiting area and private counseling room. Similarly, 69.3% of the respondents claimed that pharmacy professionals did not give information about side effects and drug-drug and drug-food interactions of antiretroviral medications. There was a statistically significant difference between respondents who live in and outside Gondar town in overall expectation (t=3.415, P=0.001) with the pharmacy setting and services. In this study, the overall satisfaction level of respondents with pharmaceutical service (pharmacy setting and services) provided at Gondar University Referral Hospital was found to be low, while the overall respondents' expectation from the pharmaceutical services were exceedingly high. The hospital should implement good dispensing practice systems in relation to the services and continuing professional development to professionals in order to improve the satisfaction of patients.

  3. [Nationwide Survey on Informed Consent and Ethical Review at Hospitals Conducting Post-marketing Studies Sponsored by Pharmaceutical Companies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urushihara, Hisashi; Murakami, Yuka; Matsui, Kenji; Tashiro, Shimon

    2018-01-01

     Under the Japanese drug regulatory system, post-marketing studies (PMS) must be in compliance with Good Post-marketing Study Practice (GPSP). The GPSP Ordinance lacks standards for the ethical conduct of PMSs; although only post-marketing clinical trials are subject to Good Clinical Practice. We conducted a web-based questionnaire survey on the ethical conduct of PMSs in collaboration with the Japanese Society of Hospital Pharmacists and pharmacists belonging to the Society. 1819 hospitals around Japan answered the questionnaire, of which 503 hospitals had conducted company-sponsored PMSs in 2015. 40.2% of the hospitals had obtained informed consent from participating patients in at least one PMS conducted in 2015, the majority of which was in written form. The first and second most frequent reasons for seeking informed consent in PMSs were to meet protocol requirements, followed by the requirement to meet institutional standard operational procedures and the request of the ethical review board of the hospital. Ethical review of PMSs was conducted in 251 hospitals. Despite a lack of standards for informed consent and ethical review in PMSs, a considerable number of study sites employed informed consent and ethical review for PMSs. While company policies and protocols are likely to be major determinants of the ethical conduct of PMSs, the governmental regulatory agency should also play a significant role in implementing a standardized ethical code for the conduct of PMSs.

  4. Over-the-counter but out of reach: a pharmacy-based survey of OTC syringe sales in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollini, Robin A; Gallardo, Manuel; Ruiz, Serena; Case, Patricia; Zaller, Nickolas; Lozada, Remedios

    2014-05-01

    Sterile syringe access is critical to HIV prevention efforts targeting injection drug users (IDUs) but some pharmacies do not sell syringes over-the-counter (OTC) even where such sales are legal. We conducted a pharmacy survey in Tijuana, Mexico (where OTC sales are legal) to characterize attitudes toward syringe sales and to explore support for expanding pharmacy-based HIV prevention efforts. Of 203 respondents, 28% supported OTC syringe sales to IDUs and 74% said their pharmacy required a prescription for at least some syringe sales. Support for OTC syringe sales was independently associated with selling OTC syringes, understanding the role of sterile syringes in HIV prevention, and recognizing pharmacies as an important health resource for IDUs. Most respondents supported an expanded role for pharmacies in HIV prevention, exclusive of OTC syringe sales. Our study provides information for developing interventions to promote OTC syringe sales and expanding pharmacy-based distribution of HIV-related information and resources.

  5. Evaluation of pharmaceutical lifesaving skills training oriented pharmaceutical intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Zamami, Yoshito; Imai, Toru; Imanishi, Masaki; Takechi, Kenshi; Shiraishi, Naoko; Koyama, Toshihiro; Sagara,Hidenori; Shiino, Yasukazu; Sendo, Toshiaki; Ishizawa, Keisuke

    2016-01-01

    Background Many pharmacists are participating in team-based medical care in emergency hospitals. Therefore, there is a desperate need to improve the education system. In the present study, we provided a ?pharmaceutical lifesaving skills training? to the students in their fifth and sixth year of the pharmaceutical school and evaluated the program?s impact on the students? learning and confidence in their ability to perform pharmaceutical interventions for emergency patients. Methods We conduct...

  6. Evaluation of P-Listed Pharmaceutical Residues in Empty Pharmaceutical Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), some pharmaceuticals are considered acute hazardous wastes because their sole active pharmaceutical ingredients are P-listed commercial chemical products (40 CFR 261.33). Hospitals and other healthcare facilities have stru...

  7. A national examination of pharmacy-based immunization statutes and their association with influenza vaccinations and preventive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConeghy, Kevin W; Wing, Coady

    2016-06-24

    A series of state-level statute changes have allowed pharmacists to provide influenza vaccinations in community pharmacies. The study aim was to estimate the effects of pharmacy-based immunization statutes changes on per capita influenza vaccine prescriptions, adult vaccination rates, and the utilization of other preventive health services. A quasi-experimental study that compares vaccination outcomes over time before and after states allowed pharmacy-based immunization. Measures of per capita pharmacy prescriptions for influenza vaccines in each state came from a proprietary pharmacy prescription database. Data on adult vaccination rates and preventive health utilization were studied using multiple waves of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). The primary outcomes were changes in per capita influenza vaccine pharmacy prescriptions, adult vaccination rates, and preventive health interventions following changes. Between 2007 and 2013, the number of influenza vaccinations dispensed in community pharmacies increased from 3.2 to 20.9 million. After one year, adopting pharmacist immunization statutes increased per capita influenza vaccine prescriptions by an absolute difference (AD) of 2.6% (95% CI: 1.1-4.2). Adopting statutes did not lead to a significant absolute increase in adult vaccination rates (AD 0.9%, 95% CI: -0.3, 2.2). There also was no observed difference in adult vaccination rates among adults at high-risk of influenza complications (AD 0.8%, 95% CI: -0.2, 1.8) or among standard demographic subgroups. There also was no observed difference in the receipt of preventive health services, including routine physician office visits (AD -1.9%, 95% CI: -4.9, 1.1). Pharmacists are providing millions of influenza vaccines as a consequence of immunization statutes, but we do not observe significant differences in adult influenza vaccination rates. The main gains from pharmacy-based immunization may be in providing a more convenient way to obtain an

  8. Evaluation of pharmaceutical lifesaving skills training oriented pharmaceutical intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamami, Yoshito; Imai, Toru; Imanishi, Masaki; Takechi, Kenshi; Shiraishi, Naoko; Koyama, Toshihiro; Sagara, Hidenori; Shiino, Yasukazu; Sendo, Toshiaki; Ishizawa, Keisuke

    2016-01-01

    Many pharmacists are participating in team-based medical care in emergency hospitals. Therefore, there is a desperate need to improve the education system. In the present study, we provided a "pharmaceutical lifesaving skills training" to the students in their fifth and sixth year of the pharmaceutical school and evaluated the program's impact on the students' learning and confidence in their ability to perform pharmaceutical interventions for emergency patients. We conducted a pharmaceutical lifesaving skills training program with 12 participants who were in their fifth and six year of pharmaceutical school. We prepared a fictional scenario in which a patient with cardiac arrest has been rushed into a hospital. We measured the participants' level of knowledge of pharmaceutical lifesaving procedures and participants' confidence to perform pharmaceutical interventions before and after the training session. Using the data obtained from type II quantification method, we examined what elements in the content of the pharmaceutical lifesaving skill training attended by pharmacy students will affect the students' confidence to perform pharmaceutical interventions. In addition, using the correspondence structural analysis, we examined which sections of the content of the pharmaceutical lifesaving skill training should be improved in the future. When we evaluated the level of knowledge acquired in pharmaceutical lifesaving skills training, the post-training overall correct answer rate was significantly higher than the pre-training overall correct answer rate. And also, level of participants' confidence to perform pharmaceutical interventions similarly increased after pharmaceutical lifesaving skill training. The influence degree graph indicates that the items likely to have a major impact on the participants' confidence to perform pharmaceutical interventions was "Selecting medicine". According to the correspondence structural analysis graph based on the questionnaire

  9. Clinical pharmaceutical analysis the treatment of hypertension in patients with diabetes mellitus in the hospital Mnazi Mnoja (Zanzibar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. А. Moroz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of arterial hypertension (AH in patients with type II diabetes mellitus (DM is a significant problem of practical medicine in many aspects. In order to study the pertinence of the schemes in practice of the treatment of AH in diabetic patients with current guidelines we analyzed medical records of 348 patients aged 38 to 70 years (mean age, 49 ± 0,43 years, corresponding to the criteria in the hospital named after V.I. Lenin (Mnazi Mmoja Zanzibar (Tanzania. The investigated were divided into two groups matched for age and sex composition of the groups. The first group consisted of 301 patients with a combination of AH and DM (study group, and the second one (control consisted of 47 hypertensive patients without DM. It has been found the preference to use of converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors, respectively 83.1% and 91.5% according to the groups. In the group of the study was much larger variation of combinations of drugs, which is comparable with the existing guidelines of prescribing medicines according to the state of the target organs. The prevailing use of a combination of an ACE inhibitor, calcium channel blocker and diuretic (69.4%. There was irrational look because of absence in the arsenal of drugs non- dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers, modern beta-blockers (bisoprolol, carvedilol and the widespread use of thiazide diuretics as monotherapy use against DM. Based on the completed research the practical recommendations involved phasing of antihypertensive drugs prescription (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or a non- dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker, and then adding of the other preparations due to the therapeutic effect.

  10. Popular pharmaceutical residues in hospital wastewater: quantification and qualification of degradation products by mass spectroscopy after treatment with membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarello, M; Minetto, L; Giustina, S V Della; Beal, L L; Moura, S

    2016-08-01

    The occurrence of drugs in wastewater has been considered an imminent risk to the population, for the treatments used are usually ineffective. The presence of four popular drug residues (metformin, paracetamol, tetracycline, and enalapril) in hospital effluents, by using ultra-fast liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) with electrospray (ESI) ionization, and removal/degradation by membrane bioreactor (MBR) system are investigated in this study. For analysis method, all standard calibration curves showed satisfactory linearity (R (2) ≥ 0.993) within a relatively wide range. The recovery was between 70.4 and 105.0 %, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) values were within the ranges of 8.2 and 13.5 %. The effluent samples were collected at the end of the process treated in a bench-scale MBR treatment system and preconcentrated on solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. Following that procedure, the chemical analysis demonstrated that the MBR system was effective in enalapril 94.3 ± 7.63 %, tetracycline 99.4 ± 0.02 %, and paracetamol 98.8 ± 0.86 % removal. However, the polar metformin was less effectively removed (35.4 ± 12.49 %). Moreover, the degradation products were investigated using high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) by quadrupole-time of flight (Q-TOF), which has been indicated a tetracycline metabolite. In order to investigate the environmental impact, the wastewater potential risk was evaluated. The risk quotient (RQ) by measure environmental concentration (MEC) and its predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) ratio (RQ = MEC/PNEC) was between 0.003 (enalapril) to 0.815 (paracetamol). Finally, this work demonstrates that UFLC-MS/MS (ESI-Q) is a sensitive and selective method for drug analysis in wastewater and with ESI-Q-TOF has the accuracy required for determining the degradation products of these compounds. Also, it indicated that membrane bioreactor systems represent a new generation of

  11. Community pharmacy-based point-of-care testing: A case study of pharmacist-physician collaborative working relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacci, Jennifer L; Klepser, Donald; Tilley, Heather; Smith, Jaclyn K; Klepser, Michael E

    2018-01-01

    Building collaborative working relationships (CWRs) with physicians or other prescribers is an important step for community pharmacists in establishing a collaborative practice agreement (CPA). This case study describes the individual, context, and exchange factors that drive pharmacist-physician CWR development for community pharmacy-based point-of-care (POC) testing. Two physicians who had entered in a CPA with community pharmacists to provide POC testing were surveyed and interviewed. High scores on the pharmacist-physician collaborative index indicated a high level of collaboration between the physicians and the pharmacist who initiated the relationship. Trust was established through the physicians' personal relationships with the pharmacist or due to the community pharmacy organization's strong reputation. The physicians' individual perceptions of community pharmacy-based POC testing affected their CWRs and willingness to establish a CPA. These findings suggest that exchange characteristics remain significant factors in CWR development. Individual factors may also contribute to physicians' willingness to advance their CWR to include a CPA for POC testing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of clinical rules in a standalone pharmacy based clinical decision support system for hospitalized and nursing home patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Hugo A J M; Mestres Gonzalvo, Carlota; Cardenas, Jenny; Derijks, Hieronymus J; Janknegt, Rob; van der Kuy, Paul-Hugo M; Winkens, Bjorn; Schols, Jos M G A

    2015-06-01

    To improve the current standalone pharmacy clinical decision support system (CDSS) by identifying and quantifying the benefits and limitations of the system. Alerts and handling of the executed clinical rules were extracted from the CDSS from the period September 2011 to December 2011. The number of executed clinical rule alerts, number of actions on alerts, and the reason why alerts were classified as not relevant were analyzed. The alerts where considered clinically relevant when the pharmacist needed to contact the physician. The 4065 alerts have been separated into: 1137 (28.0%) new alerts, 2797 (68.8%) repeat alerts and 131 (3.2%) double alerts. When the alerts were analyzed, only 3.6% were considered clinically relevant. Reasons why alerts were considered as not to be relevant were: (a) the dosage was correct or already adjusted, (b) the drug was (temporarily) stopped and (c) the monitored laboratory value or drug dosage had already reverted to be within the reference limits. The reasons for no action were linked to three categorical limitations of the used system: 'algorithm alert criteria', 'CDSS optimization', and 'data delivery'. This study highlighted a number of ways in which the CDSS could be improved. These different aspects have been identified as important for developing an efficient CDSS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 42 CFR 482.25 - Condition of participation: Pharmaceutical services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition of participation: Pharmaceutical services... Hospital Functions § 482.25 Condition of participation: Pharmaceutical services. The hospital must have pharmaceutical services that meet the needs of the patients. The institution must have a pharmacy directed by a...

  14. Pharmacy-based automated medication records: methods, application, and a survey of use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, B S

    1994-10-01

    A literature review of articles describing the development and implementation of automated medication administration records is summarized, and the results of a survey undertaken of all hospitals in Missouri to determine the extent of an automated medication administration record (MAR) are reported. For hospitals with an automated MAR, the survey compiled information about the demographics of responding facilities and production and distribution, design, implementation, and procedures for use of automated MARs. The most frequently reported advantages of an automated MAR were a more legible document, increased accuracy, savings in nursing personnel time, and fewer medication errors. The most frequently reported disadvantages were increases in pharmacy personnel time, different interpretation of orders by pharmacy and nursing, and multiple entries required for a medication order to appear correctly on the MAR.

  15. Hospitals

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This database contains locations of Hospitals for 50 states and Washington D.C. , Puerto Rico and US territories. The dataset only includes hospital facilities and...

  16. Pilot-project of implantation of pharmaceutical care close to the program of bipolar mood disorder of the Hospital of Clinics of Porto Alegre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keila Maria Mendes Ceresér

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Bipolar Mood Disorder is characterized by the alternation of depressive crises with episodes of mania or euphoria, having these patients 15 to 35 times more chances of suicide, as compared with people without this disorder. The pharmacotherapy is fundamental for this disease, aiming to decrease the frequency of episodes and disease severity. In these patients, the polypharmacy has recently increased and one of the main difficulties is the adherence to treatment. The objective of this study was to contribute for the improvement of bipolar patients health conditions, developing their respective pharmacotherapeutic follow-up. Twenty eight adult bipolar patients who were participants of a specialized clinic within a tertiary hospital in Porto Alegre have been randomly selected, and the Dader Method of pharmacotherapeutic follow-up has been applied. The more common clinical comorbidities were: hypertension (50%, obesity (46.43%, and hypothyroidism (36.29%. The bipolar patients are more susceptible to clinical comorbidities, and many of them could be due to pharmacotherapy. Only 1.43% of patients presented Drug Related Problems, being all of them resolved along the study. It was also observed that 32.14% of evaluated patients presented low adherence to treatment, and between these patients, 55.56% passed to have good adherence after pharmacotherapeutic follow-up. The pharmacotherapeutic follow-up is fundamental for the improvement of patient's health. New studies, with higher number of patients and longer duration, are necessary to evaluate the percentage of patients that could be beneficiary of Pharmaceutical Care.O Transtorno do Humor Bipolar é caracterizando pela alternância de crises depressivas com episódios de mania ou euforia, tendo estes pacientes 15-35 vezes mais chances de suicídio em comparação com pessoas sem este transtorno. A farmacoterapia é fundamental, visando diminuir a freqüência dos episódios e a gravidade da doen

  17. Pharmaceutical virtue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Emily

    2006-06-01

    In the early history of psychopharmacology, the prospect of developing technologically sophisticated drugs to alleviate human ills was surrounded with a fervor that could be described as religious. This paper explores the subsequent history of the development of psychopharmacological agents, focusing on the ambivalent position of both the industry and its employees. Based on interviews with retired pharmaceutical employees who were active in the industry in the 1950s and 1960s when the major breakthroughs were made in the development of MAOIs and SSRIs, the paper explores the initial development of educational materials for use in sales campaigns. In addition, based on interviews with current employees in pharmaceutical sales and marketing, the paper describes the complex perspective of contemporary pharmaceutical employees who must live surrounded by the growing public vilification of the industry as rapacious and profit hungry and yet find ways to make their jobs meaningful and dignified. The paper will contribute to the understudied problem of how individuals function in positions that require them to be part of processes that on one description constitute a social evil, but on another, constitute a social good.

  18. EU pharmaceutical expenditure forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbinati, Duccio; Rémuzat, Cécile; Kornfeld, Åsa; Vataire, Anne-Lise; Cetinsoy, Laurent; Aballéa, Samuel; Mzoughi, Olfa; Toumi, Mondher

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives With constant incentives for healthcare payers to contain their pharmaceutical budgets, forecasting has become critically important. Some countries have, for instance, developed pharmaceutical horizon scanning units. The objective of this project was to build a model to assess the net effect of the entrance of new patented medicinal products versus medicinal products going off-patent, with a defined forecast horizon, on selected European Union (EU) Member States’ pharmaceutical budgets. This model took into account population ageing, as well as current and future country-specific pricing, reimbursement, and market access policies (the project was performed for the European Commission; see http://ec.europa.eu/health/healthcare/key_documents/index_en.htm). Method In order to have a representative heterogeneity of EU Member States, the following countries were selected for the analysis: France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Poland, Portugal, and the United Kingdom. A forecasting period of 5 years (2012–2016) was chosen to assess the net pharmaceutical budget impact. A model for generics and biosimilars was developed for each country. The model estimated a separate and combined effect of the direct and indirect impacts of the patent cliff. A second model, estimating the sales development and the risk of development failure, was developed for new drugs. New drugs were reviewed individually to assess their clinical potential and translate it into commercial potential. The forecast was carried out according to three perspectives (healthcare public payer, society, and manufacturer), and several types of distribution chains (retail, hospital, and combined retail and hospital). Probabilistic and deterministic sensitivity analyses were carried out. Results According to the model, all countries experienced drug budget reductions except Poland (+€41 million). Savings were expected to be the highest in the United Kingdom (−€9,367 million), France

  19. Pharmacy-based interventions for initiating effective contraception following the use of emergency contraception: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michie, L; Cameron, S T; Glasier, A; Larke, N; Muir, A; Lorimer, A

    2014-10-01

    In Scotland most women get emergency contraception (EC) from pharmacies. Pharmacists currently cannot provide effective ongoing contraception after EC. In this pilot study, we aimed to determine the feasibility of a larger study designed to ascertain if pharmacy-based interventions can increase the uptake of effective contraception after EC. This is a pilot study of women presenting for levonorgestrel EC to community pharmacies in Edinburgh, UK, in 2012. Pharmacies were cluster randomized to provide either standard care or one of two interventions: (a) one packet of progestogen-only pills (POPs), giving women 1 month to arrange ongoing contraception; (b) invitation to present the empty EC packet to a family planning clinic (FPC) for contraceptive advice (rapid access). One hundred sixty-eight women were recruited from 11 pharmacies to POP (n=56), rapid access (n=58) and standard care (N=54) groups, respectively. Telephone follow-up was conducted successfully in 102 women (61%) 6-8 weeks later to determine current contraceptive use. In the POP arm, 35/39 (90%) women used the pills provided, and 9/28 women (32%) in the rapid access arm attended the FPC. The proportion of women using effective contraception at follow-up was significantly greater in both POP [56% (22/39), p=<0.001] and rapid access [52% (13/25), p=0.006] groups compared to standard care [16% (5/31)]. The relative probability of a woman using an effective method of contraception versus barrier/no method, after use of EC, was 3.13 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.90-5.13] in the POP group and 2.57 (95% CI, 1.55-4.27) in the rapid access group. This promising pilot study suggests that simple pharmacy-based interventions may increase the uptake of effective contraception after EC. A larger study is required to provide further validation of these findings. For women obtaining EC from a pharmacy, simple interventions such as supplying 1 month of a POP, or offering rapid access to a FPC, hold promise as

  20. A Randomized Trial Evaluating Two Approaches for Promoting Pharmacy-Based Referrals to the Tobacco Quitline: Methods and Baseline Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zillich, Alan J.; Corelli, Robin L.; Zbikowski, Susan M.; Magnusson, L. Brooke; Fenlon, Christine M.; Prokhorov, Alexander V.; de Moor, Carl; Hudmon, Karen S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Historically, community pharmacies have not integrated tobacco cessation activities into routine practice, instead unbundling them as unique services. This approach might have limited success and viability. Objective The objective of this report is to describe the methods and baseline findings for a two-state, randomized trial evaluating two intervention approaches for increasing pharmacy-based referrals to their state’s tobacco quitline. Methods Participating community pharmacies in Connecticut (n=32) and Washington (n=32) were randomized to receive either (a) on-site education with an academic detailer, describing methods for implementing brief interventions with patients and providing referrals to the tobacco quitline, or (b) quitline materials delivered by mail. Both interventions advocated for pharmacy personnel to ask about tobacco use, advise patients who smoke to quit, and refer patients to the tobacco quitline for additional assistance with quitting. Study outcome measures include the number of quitline registrants who are referred by pharmacies (before and during the intervention period), the number of quitline materials distributed to patients, and self-reported behavior of cessation counseling and quitline referrals, assessed using written surveys completed by pharmacy personnel (pharmacists, technicians). Results Pharmacists (n=124) and pharmacy technicians (n=127), representing 64 participating pharmacies with equal numbers of retail chain and independently-owned pharmacies, participated in the study. Most pharmacists (67%) and half of pharmacy technicians (50%) indicated that they were “not at all” familiar with the tobacco quitline. During the baseline (pre-intervention) monitoring period, the quitline registered 120 patients (18 in CT and 102 in WA) who reported that they heard about the quitline from a pharmacy. Conclusion Novel tobacco intervention approaches are needed to capitalize on the community pharmacy’s frequent

  1. Attitude of Other Healthcare Professionals about Pharmaceutical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To study the awareness and attitude of other healthcare professionals about pharmaceutical care practice in Nigerian hospitals. A survey of hospital-based healthcare professionals working in three large hospitals in Nigeria was done in 2008 using a 19-item structured questionnaire instrument after due ethical approval.

  2. Community Pharmacy-Based Inducement Programs Associated With Better Medication Adherence: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Scot H; Lin, Mu; Eurich, Dean T

    2017-08-01

    Inducement programs can promote customer loyalty; however, the clinical effects of these programs are unknown. To examine relationships among inducement program use, medication adherence, and health outcomes. Alberta residents with ≥ 1 physician visit for diabetes or hypertension between April 2008 and March 2014 were eligible for this study and included if they were new statin users and alive at least 455 days after the first statin dispensation. Group assignment was based on whether all statin dispensations in the first year were obtained from pharmacies with or without inducement programs. Discontinuation was defined as no statin dispensations between 275 and 455 days after the first statin dispensation. Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) hospitalizations or deaths were identified between 456 days and 3 years after the first statin dispensation. Multivariable regression analyses were conducted to examine relationships among inducement program use, discontinuation, and ACS events. Among the 159 998 new statin users, mean age was 60.2 (±13.7) years and 67 534 (42%) were women. Statin discontinuation occurred in 22 455 (28.9%) of 77 803 inducement group participants and 25 816 (31.4%) of 82 195 noninducement group participants (adjusted odds ratio = 0.88; 95% CI = 0.86-0.90). Risk of an ACS event was similar between groups (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.00; 95% CI 0.92-1.08); however, discontinuing statin therapy was associated with a higher risk of an ACS event (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.27; 95% CI = 1.16-1.39). Inducement programs are associated with better adherence and not directly associated with risk of health outcomes.

  3. The impact of an immunization training certificate program on the perceived knowledge, skills and attitudes of pharmacy students toward pharmacy-based immunizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcum ZA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the impact of a national immunization training certificate program on the perceived knowledge, skills and attitudes of pharmacy students toward pharmacy-based immunizations.Methods: The study design utilized a pre- and post-survey administered to pharmacy students before and after the American Pharmacists Association’s (APhA Pharmacy-Based Immunization Delivery program. The primary outcome explored was a change in the perceived knowledge, skills, and attitudes of the pharmacy students. A five-point Likert scale (i.e. strongly agree = 5, strongly disagree = 1 was used for measuring the main outcomes, which was summated by adding the individual item scores in each section to form a composite score for each outcome. Results: The certificate training program resulted in a significant improvement in knowledge (38.5% increase in score, p<0.001 and skills (34.5% increase in score, p<0.001, but not attitudes (1% increase in score, p=0.210.Conclusions: The national immunization training certificate program had a positive impact on the perceived knowledge and skills of pharmacy students. However, no change was observed regarding students’ perceived attitudes toward pharmacy-based immunizations.

  4. Pharmaceutical Analysis as a Branch of Pharmaceutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Kenneth A.

    1977-01-01

    Pharmaceutical analysis is incorporated into the pharmaceutics component of the undergraduate curriculum at the University of Wisconsin. Many collaborative demonstrations, lectures, and laboratory experiments can illustrate the close relationship between analysis and modern pharmacy practice. (Author/LBH)

  5. Evaluation of a rural community pharmacy-based Waist Management Project: bringing the program to the people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellow, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Time constraints and lack of awareness of risk factors for future chronic disease development prevent many young adults from accessing lifestyle programs offered by local health services. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a rural pharmacy-based multidisciplinary healthy lifestyle pilot program on reducing risk factors for chronic disease development among young adults. Individuals under the age of 50 with chronic disease risk factors were referred to the program. All subjects were provided with free after-hours nutritional counselling from a dietitian at the local community pharmacy, a comprehensive medication review conducted by the pharmacist, gym membership and access to cooking classes and supermarket tours. Selected participants also received bulk-billed GP appointments and assistance with establishing a home vegetable garden. Body weight, waist circumference, fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity were assessed at baseline and after program conclusion. Forty participants regularly attended the program between March 2009 and March 2010. At program conclusion, mean body weight was reduced by 3.8±6.7kg (P<0.001) and waist circumference reduced by 3.9±6.5cm (P<0.001). Fruit consumption increased by 1.2±0.2 serves/day (P<0.001) and vegetable intake increased by 1.6±1.0 serves/day (P<0.001). Participants also spent an average of 88.0±47.7 more min/week (P<0.001) engaged in physical activity on completion of the program. The community pharmacy provided an accessible location for the delivery of a successful chronic disease risk reduction program targeting young adults in a rural area.

  6. Hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treatment modality. Design: It is a retrospective study of all confirmed. Burkitt's lymphoma of the head and neck region seen at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Ile. Ife (OAUTHC) between 1986 and 2002. Patients and methods: The medical records of all the patients with the histopathologically confirmed ...

  7. A non-clinical randomised controlled trial to assess the impact of pharmaceutical care intervention on satisfaction level of newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus patients in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Dinesh Kumar; Mohamed Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham; Mishra, Pranaya; Alurkar, Vijay M

    2015-02-12

    Patient satisfaction is the ultimate goal of healthcare system which can be achieved from good patient-healthcare professional relationship and quality of healthcare services provided. Study was conducted to determine the baseline satisfaction level of newly diagnosed diabetics and to explore the impact of pharmaceutical care intervention on patients' satisfaction during their follow-ups in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Nepal. An interventional, pre-post non-clinical randomised controlled study was designed among randomly distributed 162 [control group (n = 54), test 1 group (n = 54) and test 2 group (n = 54)] newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus patients by consecutive sampling method for 18 months. Diabetes Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire was used to evaluate patient's satisfaction scores at baseline, three, six, nine and, twelve months' follow-ups. Test groups patients were provided pharmaceutical care whereas control group patients only received their usual care from physician/nurses. The responses were entered in SPSS version 16. Data distribution was not normal on Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Non-parametric tests i.e. Friedman test, Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to find the differences among the groups before and after the intervention (p ≤0.05). There were significant (p patients' satisfaction scores in the test groups on Friedman test. Mann-Whitney U test identified the significant differences in satisfaction scores between test 1 and test 2 groups, control and test 1 groups and, control and test 2 groups at 3-months (p = 0.008), (p satisfaction level of diabetics in the test groups compare to the control group. Diabetic kit demonstration strengthened the satisfaction level among the test 2 group patients. Therefore, pharmacist can act as a counsellor through pharmaceutical care program and assist the patients in managing their disease. This will not only modify the patients' related outcomes and their

  8. Hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullins, Michael

    2013-01-01

    . Documentation exists in; well-being of patients and staff, sleep disorders, pain distraction, confidentiality and privacy, levels of errors in hospitals. Art and the use of color: Art can be context related so one should be aware whether it is in a private ward or the foyer and related to the experience...... in treating disease can be supported by architecture which is sensitive to the contextual conditions of healing in health facilities. It is not the intention to supplant technology, but a question of supplementing the incredible advances that have been made in medicine in recent decades. The central premise......- sick-leave and work-related injuries....

  9. Evaluating pharmaceutical waste disposal in pediatric units

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Angélica Randoli de Almeida; Ana Maria Miranda Martins Wilson; Maria Angélica Sorgini Peterlini

    2016-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE To verify the disposal of pharmaceutical waste performed in pediatric units. METHOD A descriptive and observational study conducted in a university hospital. The convenience sample consisted of pharmaceuticals discarded during the study period. Handling and disposal during preparation and administration were observed. Data collection took place at pre-established times and was performed using a pre-validated instrument. RESULTS 356 drugs disposals were identified (35.1% ...

  10. Contradicciones sociales expresadas en la práctica de la Atención Farmacéutica Hospitalaria en Cuba Social contradictions in pharmaceutical care practice at hospital setting in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivette Reyes Hernández

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: en Cuba el ejercicio de las funciones clínicas y la práctica de la Atención Farmacéutica a nivel hospitalario son limitadas pues, aunque existe un acercamiento a la concepción de estas funciones en los actuales manuales de procedimientos, los profesionales farmacéuticos realizan mayormente funciones administrativas y de dirección, además de las relacionadas con el suministro de medicamentos. Objetivo: analizar las contradicciones sociales (causas que repercuten en la práctica de la Atención Farmacéutica Hospitalaria, específicamente en Santiago de Cuba, para trazar líneas estratégicas que permitan el perfeccionamiento de esta actividad. Métodos: se aplicó una herramienta que facilita el análisis de problemas y sus soluciones, el diagrama de causa-efecto, así como el método de consenso de votación ponderada, para determinar las causas principales y secundarias que frenan dicho ejercicio a nivel hospitalario. Las principales causas analizadas fueron los recursos humanos, los métodos y estilos de dirección, los recursos materiales, los medios y las condiciones de trabajo. Resultados: los resultados de la votación ponderada mostraron que las causas de mayor ponderación en orden descendente fueron las relacionadas con los métodos y estilos de dirección con 37 puntos, los recursos humanos con 33 puntos y los recursos materiales con 18,5 puntos. Conclusiones: las contradicciones identificadas marcan caminos de investigación para resolver las problemáticas planteadas, lo que permitirá desarrollar un modelo que establezca principios para el desarrollo de la Atención Farmacéutica a nivel hospitalario diseñado sobre la base de las evaluaciones y las valoraciones realizadas y los principios de las Buenas Prácticas de Farmacia.Introduction: the clinical functions and the practice of pharmaceutical care at hospital setting are limited in Cuba. Although there is an approach to the conception of these functions in

  11. Non-pharmaceutical factors for poor glycemic control in 13,970 Chinese women with drug-treated type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional survey in 77 tertiary hospitals in four Chinese cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu J

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Juming Lu,1,* Jianping Weng,2,* Weijun Gu,1 Xiaohui Guo,3 Wenying Yang,4 Dajin Zou,5 Zhiguang Zhou,6 Dalong Zhu,7 Qiuhe Ji,8 Linong Ji,9 Xilin Yang10 1Department of Endocrinology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, 2Department of Endocrinology, Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 3Department of Endocrinology, First Hospital of Peking University, Beijing, 4Department of Endocrinology, Sino-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, 5Department of Endocrinology, Changhai Hospital of Shanghai, Shanghai, 6Department of Endocrinology, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, 7Department of Endocrinology, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, Nanjing, Jiansu, 8Department of Endocrinology, Xijing Hospital affiliated to 4th Military Medical University, Xi’an, 9Department of Endocrinology, Peking University People’s Hospital, Beijing, 10Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to the manuscript Background: Achieving good glycemic control improves clinical outcomes among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D. This study aimed to explore non-pharmaceutical factors for poor glycemic control in Chinese women with T2D who used antidiabetic drug(s. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in March to June 2011 in 77 top tertiary hospitals in Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin, and Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China (the coverage rates of the 3A hospitals: 74.4%, 76%, 55%, and 29.3%, respectively. Of 29,502 patients with T2D who used oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs alone or combined with insulin, 13,970 were women and used in the analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to obtain odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs of factors for hyperglycemia defined as HbA1c (glycated hemoglobin ≥77 mmol/mol (7.0%.Results: The mean age was 60.3 (standard deviation

  12. Ethiopian Pharmaceutical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. Journal Homepage Image. The Ethiopian Pharmaceutical Journal is an international journal devoted to research concerning all aspects of pharmaceutical sciences.

  13. 75 FR 54627 - Best Management Practices for Unused Pharmaceuticals at Health Care Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... AGENCY Best Management Practices for Unused Pharmaceuticals at Health Care Facilities AGENCY... guidance document entitled, Best Management Practices for Unused Pharmaceuticals at Health Care Facilities. The guidance is targeted at hospitals, medical clinics, doctors' offices, long-term care facilities...

  14. [The history of modern Korean pharmaceutical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Sumio

    2009-01-01

    During the Korean colonial days from 1910 to 1945, many Japanese pharmacists, druggists, apothecaries and pharmaceutical scientists worked in Korea. Although these fields belong to Japanese pharmaceutical history, there are very few papers about modern Korean pharmaceutical education written in Japanese. There is, however, a huge amount of general books written in Japanese which were published during Korean colonial days. These books are reprinted versions of originals, reprinted in Japan or Korea. It is possible to read these books at the Seoul National University Central Library, Medical Library, the History of Hospital Institute Library, the Central National Library in Seoul, the library in the Pusan Modern History Museum or the Pusan Municipal Library. While reading these books over four weeks in September 2008 in Seoul, information about modern Korean pharmaceutical education was obtained for this paper.

  15. Assessment of Patient Satisfaction with Pharmaceutical Services in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Kongola

    24. East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. Vol. 16 (2013) 24-30. *Author to whom correspondence may be addressed. Assessment of Patient Satisfaction with Pharmaceutical Services in Hospital Pharmacies in. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. M. JANDE. 1. *, A. LIWA. 2. , G. KONGOLA. 2. AND M. JUSTIN- ...

  16. Projeto Diagnóstico da Farmácia Hospitalar no Brasil: uma proposta de hierarquização dos serviços The Hospital Pharmacy Survey in Brazil: a proposal for hierarchical organization of hospital pharmaceutical services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Márcia Messeder

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivo desenvolver uma abordagem capaz de hierarquizar hospitais de acordo com o desempenho dos seus serviços de farmácia hospitalar frente a indicadores de estrutura e processo. A abordagem empregada considera questões a respeito da influência do contexto hospitalar sobre o desempenho dos serviços e a interdependência das atividades. Foram construídos algoritmos de atividades para diferentes níveis de complexidade hospitalar, considerando pontuações diferenciais de acordo com a necessidade de realização da atividade pelo serviço no nível de complexidade em que o hospital se insere. Foram atribuídos pesos diferenciados para componentes, no intuito de indicar que alguns componentes influenciam mais o desempenho do serviço. A aplicação da abordagem aos serviços de farmácia hospitalar analisados permitiu determinar os hospitais que apresentam melhor e pior desempenho dos serviços. Utilizando-se categorias de desempenho bom, regular e insuficiente, nenhum dos serviços de farmácia hospitalar, independentemente do nível de complexidade hospitalar, integra a categoria de bom, e mais de 50% dos serviços integram a categoria de insuficiente.This paper discusses the development of a methodological approach to classify hospital pharmacies according to their performance, measured by structure and process indicators. The method considers the influence exerted on performance by the level of care in the hospital and the interdependence among pharmaceutical activities. Algorithms for assessing performance of hospital pharmacies were constructed for each level of care. Different weights were used for core activities in the pharmacy and other specific activities, according to the level of care in the hospital where the respective service was provided. This methodology allowed classifying hospital pharmacies from best to worst, based on performance. Independently of level of care in the hospital, no hospital

  17. Drug Information Residency Rotation with Pharmaceutical Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Richard L.

    1986-01-01

    Program objectives of a drug information rotation at the Upjohn Company include improving communication between the pharmaceutical industry and hospital pharmacy/academia, exposing the resident to the challenges the industry encounters, improving proficiency in drug information practice, and providing insight into the working relationships of…

  18. Pharmaceutical Care Implementation: A Survey of Attitude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess the attitude, perception and practice of pharmacists in Ogun State towards pharmaceutical care implementation. Methods: Pre-tested and validated structured questionnaire was administered to selected 120 hospital and community pharmacists to determine their knowledge, attitude and practice of ...

  19. [E-commerce of pharmaceuticals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shani, Segev

    2003-05-01

    The emergence of the Internet as a new communications and information technology caused major social and cultural changes. The dramatic increase in accessibility and availability of information empowered the consumer by closing the information gap between the consumer and different suppliers. The objective of this article is to review many new internet-supported applications related to the pharmaceutical market. E-commerce is divided into two major components: Business to Consumer (B to C), and Business to Business (B to B). The main applications in B to C are dissemination of medical and drug information, and the sale of drugs through the Internet. Medical information on the Internet is vast and very helpful for patients, however, its reliability is not guaranteed. Online pharmacies increase the accessibility and availability of drugs. Nevertheless, several obstacles such as security of the data provided (both financial and clinical) prevent the widespread use of online pharmacies. Another risk is the health authorities' inability to regulate Internet sites effectively. Therefore, unregulated sale of prescription drugs, fake or substandard, often occurs on the Internet. B to B relates to physicians, clinics, hospitals, HMO's and pharmaceutical companies. There is a vast number of applications ranging from clinical research, marketing and sales promotion, to drug distribution and logistics. In conclusion, the Internet is dynamic and has contributed to the development of numerous new applications in the field of pharmaceuticals. Regulatory authorities should be active in developing new policies that will deal with those new Internet-based applications.

  20. Drug-related problems associated with self-medication and medication guided by prescription: A pharmacy-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Abinash; Pradhan, Supriya; Mohapatra, Gurukrushna; Mohapatra, Jigyansa

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to identify and compare the nature of the drug-related problems (DRPs) associated with self-medication and non-self-medication (drug use guided by a prescription). The cross-sectional, observational study was conducted on 1100 adult participants at a convenience sample of six retail private pharmacy counters. The data collection form was based on the Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe version 6.2 classification for DRPs. Descriptive statistics was used to represent the prevalence of DRPs. Chi-square test was used to find out the association between the type of medication and DRPs. Odds ratio (OR) with confidence interval (CI) was computed to find the factors determining the occurrence of DRPs. P self-medication was 18.72%. The prevalence of DRPs was 17.36%. In the self-medication group, the prevalence of DRPs was high (40.78%) as compared to the non-self-medication group (11.97%). DRP related to inappropriate drug dosing was observed in 44.83% and 40.45% subjects in self-medication and non-self-medication group, respectively (P self-medication group were about 5 times likely to have a DRP (OR: 5.06, CI: 3.59-7.14, P Self-medication is associated with a higher risk of various DRPs. Since retail pharmacy outlet is often the first point of contact between the patient and the health care system in a developing country, interventions like drug information activities at the retail pharmacy is likely to bring down the DRPs associated with self-medication.

  1. Horizon Scanning for Pharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lepage-Nefkens, Isabelle; Douw, Karla; Mantjes, GertJan

    In 2016, the Belgian, Dutch, Luxembourg and Austrian governments declared their intention to collaborate on pharmaceutical policy (BeNeLuxA Collaboration). KCE was asked to lead a task force responsible for developing a Horizon Scanning methodology for pharmaceuticals and a possible model...... and filtration of new and emerging pharmaceutical products. It will maintain and update the HS database, organise company pipeline meetings, and disseminate the HSS’s outputs.  The HS unit works closely together with the designated national HS experts in each collaborating country. The national HS experts...

  2. Pharmaceutical market in Serbia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dickov, Veselin

    2012-01-01

    Marketing concept formed around the focus on the consumers, their needs, wants and demands, evolves in the case of pharmaceutical into a care of the complex interest of constituents generating demand on this market and #8211...

  3. Discover: Pharmaceutical Information

    OpenAIRE

    Wales, Tim

    1998-01-01

    Discovering user's information needs and expectations is a vitally important step when working in any specialised subject area, none more so than in the field of pharmaceutical information. Adjusting search and sourcing strategies accordingly can save unnecessary time and expense, given the rising cost of subscriptions for periodicals and new media and the inherently expensive nature of niche pharmaceutical monographs and reference tests. The needs of the health professional pharmacist are ge...

  4. The regulation of Pharmaceutical Excipients

    OpenAIRE

    Vikrant Saluja; Bhupinder Singh Sekhon

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceutical excipients are vital components of drug formulations and are generally considered pharmacologically inert. Control of excipient manufacturing and distribution is now considered a key priority by regulatory authorities and pharmaceutical manufacturers, because adulteration of pharmaceutical excipients has resulted in adverse effects in patients. Furthermore, with the emergence of novel excipients and delivery systems, better quality and supply control of pharmaceutical excipient...

  5. Pharmaceutical care in surgical patients: Tools for measurement and intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, M.

    2015-01-01

    Assessing and improving the quality of pharmaceutical care is a major issue in hospitals nowadays. Medication safety strategies are being developed and widely introduced in hospitals to reduce medication-related harm. Surgical patients are at risk for medication-related harm, also called adverse

  6. [Fourcroy and pharmaceutical journals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnemain, Bruno

    2011-04-01

    Cadet de Gassicourt wrote a brief Eloge of Fourcroy in January 1810 as he died in December of 1809. Fourcroy had a major role concerning the new ideas on the place of pharmacy at the beginning of the 19th century. Fourcroy has had a key influence for the start of several pharmaceutical journals that wanted to emphasize the link between the new chemistry and pharmacy. None of these journals created with him will survive and one has to wait for 1909 to see the creation, without Fourcroy, of a new pharmaceutical journal, the "Journal de Pharmacie" that will become "Journal de Pharmacie et des Sciences accessoires", then "Journal de Pharmacie et de Chimie", before taking the name of"Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises", the present official journal of the French Academy of Pharmacy. In spite of the essential role of Fourcroy at the start of pharmaceutical journals, Cadet did not even mention it in his Eloge of 1810.

  7. Conceptualizing Pharmaceutical Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bent Dalgaard; Jensen, Klaes Ladeby; Gjøl, Mikkel

    2006-01-01

    In the conceptual design phase of pharmaceutical plants as much as 80%-90% of the total cost of a project is committed. It is therefore essential that the chosen concept is viable. In this design process configuration and 3D models can help validate the decisions made. Designing 3D models...... is a complex task and requires skilled users. We demonstrate that a simple 2D/3D configuration tool can support conceptualizing of pharmaceutical plants. Present paper reports on preliminary results from a full scale implementation project at a Danish engineering company....

  8. Rheology in Pharmaceutical Sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aho, Johanna; Hvidt, Søren; Baldursdottir, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Rheology is the science of flow and deformation of matter. Particularly gels and non-Newtonian fluids, which exhibit complex flow behavior, are frequently encountered in pharmaceutical engineering and manufacturing, or when dealing with various in vivo fluids. Therefore understanding rheology...... is important, and the ability to use rheological characterization tools is of great importance for any pharmaceutical scientist involved in the field. Flow can be generated by shear or extensional deformations, or a combination of both. This chapter introduces the basics of both shear and extensional rheology...

  9. Pharmaceutical Research Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M.W. Phlippen (Sandra); A. Vermeersch (Ad)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis study analyses 1400 research projects of the top 20 R&D-spending pharmaceuticals to identify the determinants of successful research projects. We provide clear evidence that externally sourced projects and projects involving biotechnologies perform better than internal projects and

  10. Pharmaceutical packaging handbook

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bauer, Edward J

    2009-01-01

    ... of the modern world. Pharmaceutical products and health care in developing countries and remote parts of the world seems like magic. Diseases that were once fatal and chronic conditions that destroyed lives have slowly been conquered by modern medicine. Views of the body, unimaginable for most of the last century with X rays, are now possible with new i...

  11. The Effectiveness of Pharmaceutical Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.R. Kappe

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPharmaceutical marketing effectiveness comprises the measurement of marketing efforts of pharmaceutical firms towards doctors and patients. These firms spend billions of dollars yearly to promote their prescription drugs. This dissertation provides empirical analyses and methods to

  12. Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research publishes scientific work in all areas of Pharmaceutical and life sciences, including (but not restricted to): medicinal plant research; herbal medicines and cosmetics; development of drugs and pharmaceuticals; quality assurance of drugs; safety and efficacy of drugs; ...

  13. Interventions to curb rising pharmaceutical costs in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Grímsson, Almar; Björnsdóttir, Ingunn

    2003-01-01

    In Iceland, drugs provided in hospitals during regular inpatient care are free of charge to the patients but outside institutional care fall under the State Social Security Institute's budget. This article details the measures taken to control drug costs and their impact in Iceland....... The cancellation of reimbursement for antibiotics in 1991 resulted in a slight decrease in sales. The change in the list of "hospital only" medicines caused massive protests from pharmacists and physicians. The pharmaceutical policy in Iceland has been problematic in its formulations and implementations....... Recommendations in the light of the problems of Icelandic pharmaceutical policies have been provided in the article....

  14. Pharmaceutical market in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselin Tima Dickov

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Marketing concept formed around the focus on the consumers, their needs, wants and demands, evolves in the case of pharmaceutical into a care of the complex interest of constituents generating demand on this market and #8211; pres scribers whose role is to select therapies, pharmacists who dispense drugs within a specialized distribution channel to the final consumer -patient, alongside the payers and #8211; the state and or insurance companies refund a part of or total costs of the pharmaceutical product. A special challenge that the subject raises is the existence of controversy generated from two sources. Marketing controversy stems from criticism leveled at the effectiveness and efficiency of marketing activities and the debatable ethical code of conduct. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2012; 1(1.000: 44-51

  15. The argument for pharmaceutical policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna

    2005-01-01

    pharmaceutical policy is made; pharmaceutical policy as a dynamic process; and the new public health as a global issue. The article ends with a short description of the remaining five articles in the series which will deal with important aspects of pharmaceutical policy. The topics include: economic pressures...... on health care systems; drug utilization from the clinical viewpoint (rational use of medicines); the impact of pharmaceutical policy on patients and the patient impact on pharmaceutical policy; the professional perspective; and finally the last article which deals with studying and evaluating......Pharmaceutical policy is a global concern. It has become a hot political topic in most countries--developed as well as developing--and can be found on the agenda of international organizations such as WHO, OECD, EU, WTO and even the World Bank. Pharmaceutical policy affects everyone in the world...

  16. Strengthening pharmaceutical care education in Ethiopia through instructional collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odegard, Peggy Soule; Tadeg, Hailu; Downing, Don; Mekonnen, Hailemeskel; Negussu, Mekonnen; Bartlein, Rebecca; Stergachis, Andy

    2011-09-10

    To describe the development, implementation, and initial outcomes of a pharmaceutical care training-of-trainers course developed to assist Ethiopian pharmacy faculty members and graduate students in the development of curriculum and provision of pharmaceutical care services of relevance to this low-income country. In this collaboration, US and Ethiopian faculty members worked together in a week-long seminar and in hospital ward rounds to develop and offer a course to facilitate faculty members, curricular, and service development in pharmaceutical care in Ethiopia. Assessments were conducted during the seminar, immediately post-seminar, at 3 months post-seminar, and at 1 year post-seminar. An examination was administered at the conclusion of the course to assess immediate learning outcomes for the graduate students. Post-course assessments of short-term (3-month) and longer-term (12-month) impact were conducted to identify pharmaceutical care services that had been implemented to assess knowledge and skill gained during the seminar. Correspondence between seminar participants and the US faculty members as well as graduate student thesis projects provided further evidence of changes at 3 and 12 months post-course. Pharmaceutical care training was developed for Ethiopian faculty members through a seminar and hospital ward rounds. Enhancements have been added to curricula for bachelor in pharmacy students and select pharmaceutical care services have been implemented through master's thesis projects.

  17. The pharmaceutical quality revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Botet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical products are patient-oriented. If they had a deficient quality they might put live at risk. Ensuring their quality is not, however, a straightforward task and this is why different approaches have been used along the way. This article analyzes them and shows how our present approach, if well implemented, is very effective in ensuring quality.Methods. This article analyzes the current pharmaceutical quality system as described by international guidances in the light of practical experience gathered by the author as an international GMP-consultant.Result. Nowadays we have come to understand that as quality is a global concept in terms of time and of requirements, it has to be assured in a global way too. This is why quality assurance is a permanent process that starts during the development of a product and goes on during its manufacturing life. Manufacturing should be performed within a pharmaceutical quality system which ensures GMP compliance. Decisions should be science and risk-based. Products and processes are monitored by means of critical variables.Conclusions. The approach followed in the 21st century for ensuring quality is very effective and allows for a progressive reduction of the level of quality risk. However, this quality system is either comprehensive or there is no quality

  18. Pharmaceuticals as Groundwater Tracers - Applications and Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheytt, T. J.; Mersmann, P.; Heberer, T.

    2003-12-01

    Pharmaceutically active substances and metabolites are found at concentrations up to the microgram/L-level in groundwater samples from the Berlin (Germany) area and from several other places world wide. Among the compounds detected in groundwater are clofibric acid, propyphenazone, diclofenac, ibuprofen, and carbamazepine. Clofibric acid, the active metabolite of clofibrate and etofibrate (blood lipid regulators) is detected in groundwater at maximum concentrations of 7300 ng/L. Among the most important input paths of drugs are excretion and disposal into the sewage system. Groundwater contamination is likely to be due to leaky sewage systems, influent streams, bank filtration, and irrigation with effluent water from sewage treatment plants. There are no known natural sources of the above mentioned pharmaceuticals. The use of pharmaceuticals as tracers may include: (a) Quantification of infiltration from underground septic tanks (b) Detection of leaky sewage systems / leaky sewage pipes (c) Estimation of the effectiveness of sewage treatment plants (d) Identification of transport pathways of other organic compounds (e) Quantification of surface water / groundwater interaction (f) Characterization of the biodegradation potential. The use of pharmaceuticals as tracers is limited by variations in input. These variations depend on the amount of drugs prescribed and used in the study area, the social structure of the community, the amount of hospital discharge, and temporal concentration variations. Furthermore, the analysis of trace amounts of pharmaceuticals is sophisticated and expensive and may therefore limit the applicability of pharmaceuticals as tracers. Finally, the transport and degradation behavior of pharmaceuticals is not fully understood. Preliminary experiments in the laboratory were conducted using sediment material and groundwater from the Berlin area to evaluate the transport and sorption behavior of selected drugs. Results of the column experiments

  19. [Logistics in the pharmaceutical service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanko, P; Fulmeková, M

    2005-11-01

    The conception of the field of pharmaceutical service defines pharmaceutical service as the basic part of pharmacy, the principal task of which is to provide pharmaceutical care as an inseparable part of providing health care. It represents a set of professional activities of the pharmacist oriented to securing human and veterinary pharmaceutical products and health care products and to optimising effective, safe and quality pharmacotherapy. Technically, pharmaceutical service is an applied discipline, as it makes use of knowledge gained in other pharmaceutical, medical, psychological, social, and economic sciences. Because of its interdisciplinary character it is necessary to extend the theory of pharmaceutical service in such a way so that it may reflect all aspects of its sphere of activity. One of the possibilities is to define the pharmacy premises as an independent functional unit which operates on the basis of valid legal standards in such a way that on the one hand it secures the provision of health (pharmaceutical) care, and on the other hand it maintains its cost-effectiveness. To keep the quality of care of the patient and the economic aspect in balance, it is necessary to define the term pharmaceutical logistics also under the conditions of Slovak (Czech) pharmacy as early satisfaction of the requirements of the patient (client) in the pharmacy premises, which means that the appropriate pharmaceutical product or health care product and the appropriate information must be at the right time in the required amount and required quality in the right place.

  20. Implications of external price referencing of pharmaceuticals in Middle East countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaló, Zoltán; Alabbadi, Ibrahim; Al Ahdab, Ola Ghaleb; Alowayesh, Maryam; Elmahdawy, Mahmoud; Al-Saggabi, Abdulaziz H; Tanzi, Vito Luigi; Al-Badriyeh, Daoud; Alsultan, Hamad S; Ali, Faleh Mohamed Hussain; Elsisi, Gihan H; Akhras, Kasem S; Vokó, Zoltán; Kanavos, Panos

    2015-01-01

    External price referencing (EPR) is applied frequently to control pharmaceutical prices. Our objective was to analyse how EPR is used in Middle Eastern (ME) countries and to compare the price corridor for original pharmaceuticals to non-pharmaceutical services not subjected to EPR. We conducted a survey on EPR regulations and collected prices of 16 patented pharmaceuticals and 14 non-pharmaceutical services in seven Middle Eastern (ME) countries. Maximum and minimum prices of each pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical technology were compared to mean prices in the countries studied by using market exchange rates. Influencing factors of pharmaceutical prices were assessed by multivariate linear regression analysis. The average price corridor is narrower for pharmaceuticals (-39.8%; +35.9%) than for outpatient and hospital services (-81.7%; +96.3%). Our analysis revealed the importance of population size and EPR implementation on drug price levels; however, EPR results in higher pharmaceutical prices in lower-income countries compared to non-pharmaceutical services.

  1. Pharmaceutical care in surgical patients: Tools for measurement and intervention

    OpenAIRE

    M. Boer

    2015-01-01

    Assessing and improving the quality of pharmaceutical care is a major issue in hospitals nowadays. Medication safety strategies are being developed and widely introduced in hospitals to reduce medication-related harm. Surgical patients are at risk for medication-related harm, also called adverse drug events. Their type of medication used, their multiple transfers along the surgical pathway and the surgical procedure itself might play an important role considering medication safety. Quality as...

  2. Assessment of Non-Sterile Pharmaceutical Compounding Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess the practices of non-sterile pharmaceutical compounding in selected 42 community and 3 hospital pharmacies in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from 01 April, 2016 to 15 May, 2016. The study revealed that the most commonly prescribed and compounded non-sterile ...

  3. ROLE OF INFORMATION PHARMACEUTICAL MARKET IN PROVIDING TRAFFIC CONTROL DRUG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Solovjov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The controversial questions of the pharmaceutical market informatization are considered. The main principles and legal frameworks to manage population ensure with medicines based on use of information technology are proposed. The logic and conception framework of related information automatization for hospitals and population under the current legislation are discussed.

  4. Pharmaceutical expenditure forecast model to support health policy decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rémuzat, Cécile; Urbinati, Duccio; Kornfeld, Åsa; Vataire, Anne-Lise; Cetinsoy, Laurent; Aballéa, Samuel; Mzoughi, Olfa; Toumi, Mondher

    2014-01-01

    With constant incentives for healthcare payers to contain their pharmaceutical budgets, modelling policy decision impact became critical. The objective of this project was to test the impact of various policy decisions on pharmaceutical budget (developed for the European Commission for the project 'European Union (EU) Pharmaceutical expenditure forecast' - http://ec.europa.eu/health/healthcare/key_documents/index_en.htm). A model was built to assess policy scenarios' impact on the pharmaceutical budgets of seven member states of the EU, namely France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Poland, Portugal, and the United Kingdom. The following scenarios were tested: expanding the UK policies to EU, changing time to market access, modifying generic price and penetration, shifting the distribution chain of biosimilars (retail/hospital). Applying the UK policy resulted in dramatic savings for Germany (10 times the base case forecast) and substantial additional savings for France and Portugal (2 and 4 times the base case forecast, respectively). Delaying time to market was found be to a very powerful tool to reduce pharmaceutical expenditure. Applying the EU transparency directive (6-month process for pricing and reimbursement) increased pharmaceutical expenditure for all countries (from 1.1 to 4 times the base case forecast), except in Germany (additional savings). Decreasing the price of generics and boosting the penetration rate, as well as shifting distribution of biosimilars through hospital chain were also key methods to reduce pharmaceutical expenditure. Change in the level of reimbursement rate to 100% in all countries led to an important increase in the pharmaceutical budget. Forecasting pharmaceutical expenditure is a critical exercise to inform policy decision makers. The most important leverages identified by the model on pharmaceutical budget were driven by generic and biosimilar prices, penetration rate, and distribution. Reducing, even slightly, the prices of

  5. Future wastewater solutions: removal of pharmaceuticals in conventional wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    with regards to discharge of pharmaceuticals in wastewater effluents. Nonetheless, the challenge of the growing number of ambulant treatments and increasing consumption of pharmaceuticals at home has not been addressed so far. Already now more than 95% of pharmaceutical consumption happens at home. Moreover...... approximately 26 micro-pollutants, including common antibiotics, pain killers, antidepressants, contrast media and blood pressure pharmaceuticals. We compared the measured concentrations in the effluents with the current emission limits required for the hospitals, and assessed the necessity of implementing...

  6. PSE in Pharmaceutical Process Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Cervera Padrell, Albert Emili; Woodley, John

    2011-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is under growing pressure to increase efficiency, both in production and in process development. This paper will discuss the use of Process Systems Engineering (PSE) methods in pharmaceutical process development, and searches for answers to questions such as: Which PSE...

  7. The argument for pharmaceutical policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna

    2005-01-01

    Pharmaceutical policy is a global concern. It has become a hot political topic in most countries--developed as well as developing--and can be found on the agenda of international organizations such as WHO, OECD, EU, WTO and even the World Bank. Pharmaceutical policy affects everyone in the world...

  8. Occurrence and fate of pharmaceuticals in wastewater treatment plants and rivers in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Won-Jin; Lee, Ji-Woo [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Pusan National University, Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Jeong-Eun, E-mail: jeoh@pusan.ac.k [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Pusan National University, Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    We measured 25 pharmaceuticals in ten municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), one hospital WWTP and five rivers in Korea. In the municipal WWTP influents, acetaminophen, acetylsalicylic acid and caffeine showed relatively high concentrations. The occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the wastewater seems to be influenced by production and consumption of pharmaceuticals. The hospital WWTP influent showed higher total concentrations of pharmaceuticals than the municipal WWTPs, and caffeine, ciprofloxacin and acetaminophen were dominant. In the rivers, caffeine was dominant, and the distribution of pharmaceuticals was related to the inflow of the wastewater. In the municipal WWTPs, the concentrations of acetaminophen, caffeine, acetylsalicylic acid, ibuprofen and gemfibrozil decreased by over 99%. The decrease of these pharmaceuticals occurred mainly during the biological processes. In the physico-chemical processes, the decrease of pharmaceuticals was insignificant except for some cases. In the hospital WWTP, ciprofloxacin, acetylsalicylic acid, acetaminophen and carbamazepine showed the decrease rates of over 80%. - We investigated distribution and fate of pharmaceuticals in rivers and WWTPs including various biological and physico-chemical processes.

  9. Spanish Rheumatology Society and Hospital Pharmacy Society Consensus on recommendations for biologics optimization in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Gonz?lez-?lvaro, Isidoro; Mart?nez-Fern?ndez, Carmen; Dorantes-Calder?n, Benito; Garc?a-Vicu?a, Rosario; Hern?ndez-Cruz, Blanca; Herrero-Ambrosio, Alicia; Ibarra-Barrueta, Olatz; Mart?n-Mola, Emilio; Monte-Boquet, Emilio; Morell-Baladr?n, Alberto; Sanmart?, Raimon; Sanz-Sanz, Jes?s; de Toro-Santos, Francisco Javier; Vela, Paloma; Rom?n Ivorra, Jos? Andr?s

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish guidelines for the optimization of biologic therapies for health professionals involved in the management of patients with RA, AS and PsA. Recommendations were established via consensus by a panel of experts in rheumatology and hospital pharmacy, based on analysis of available scientific evidence obtained from four systematic reviews and on the clinical experience of panellists. The Delphi method was used to evaluate these recommendations, both between p...

  10. Pharmaceutical Public-Private Partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagley, Constance; Tvarnø, Christina D.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a game theory and law-and-management analysis of for- profit pharmaceutical public-private partnerships, a complex type of legal arrangement in the highly regulated pharmaceutical industry. A pharmaceutical public-private partnership (PPPP) agreement is a legally binding...... contract be- tween a private pharmaceutical enterprise and a public research university (or a private university conducting publicly funded research) to support research leading to new commercial pharmaceutical and biologic products. The key purpose of this article is to provide a theoretical explanation......, leading to a win-win approach rather than a traditional competitive perspective. Thus, this article discusses how the PPPP contract should encourage the parties to collaborate with a strong focus on attaining common goals by sharing gains or losses and information, and by instituting risk and reward...

  11. SOME ASPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT OF HOSPITAL PHARMACY ABROAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Miroshnichenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We considered a number of aspects of the development of hospital pharmacy abroad. It is revealed that the focus of professional pharmaceutical associations in the information and educational fields creates the basis for creation of strategy of development of hospital pharmacy. The analysis of population dynamics of pharmaceutical staff in hospital pharmaciesis held, and the detailed characteristics of activities of certain categories of specialists of hospital pharmacies is presented.

  12. [Counterfeit pharmaceuticals in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exebio, Luis E Moreno; Rodríguez, Javier; Sayritupac, Freddy

    2010-02-01

    To determine the quantity of counterfeit pharmaceutical drugs found by the National Quality Control Center (Centro Nacional de Control de Calidad (CNCC), Instituto Nacional de Salud, Peru) during the period from 2005&2008, and the types and properties of these drugs. A form was created to amass the relevant data collected directly from CNCC reports. The reports underwent a review and analysis process, and where counterfeiting was confirmed, it was categorized by type into one of four groups. The percentage of counterfeit drugs relative to the total drugs evaluated was: 3.0% in 2005, 5.0% in 2006, 7.3% in 2007, and 9.2% in 2008. The main groups of counterfeit drugs, classified according to the World Health Organization Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System, were: alimentary tract and metabolism, 34.5% (29.1%-39.8%); antiinfectives for systemic use, 21.1% (16.5%-25.7%); nervous system, 17.1% (12.8%-21.3%); and musculo-skeletal system, 15.4% (11.3%-19.5%). The most common type of forgery occurred in cases where the drug contained the correct amount of active ingredients, but the manufacturer was one other than the one indicated (62.4% of the total counterfeit drugs); and medications that did not contain any active ingredient (22.4%). Of the counterfeit drugs, 61.0% (56.0%-67.0%) were national brands and 39.0%, (33.0%-44.0%) were imported. The pharmaceutical formulations with the highest rate of forgery were tablets, 66.0% (60.0%-71.0%); injectables, 19.0% (14.0%-23.0%); and capsules 7.0% (4.0%-10.0%). From 2005-2008, drug counterfeiting had an average annual variation of 45%. Drug counterfeiting was shown to be most prevalent among national brands - as opposed to imported medications - although the types and formulations of the fake drugs attest to a certain level of sophistication employed in the forgery process. The counterfeiting of life-saving drugs, such as antimicrobials, signifies a serious public health threat.

  13. GMK (Progenics Pharmaceuticals).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Keith L

    2002-01-01

    Progenics Pharmaceuticals is developing GMK vaccine (a ganglioside conjugate vaccine coupled to keyhole limpet hemocyanin and formulated with the adjuvant QS-21), licensed from the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, for the potential treatment of melanoma and other cancers [194258], [325284]. It was previously under co-development with Bristol-Myers Squibb, but in May 2001, all rights to the GMK vaccine were returned to Progenics [409168]. It was the first of a new class of ganglioside conjugate vaccine evaluated by Progenics [194258]. GMK vaccination induces antibodies against GM2 ganglioside capable of specifically killing melanoma cells. Melanoma patients with antibodies against GM2 ganglioside have significantly improved disease-free and overall survival compared to antibody-negative subjects. The vaccine is undergoing two phase III trials, the first comparing GMK to high-dose IFNalpha in melanoma patients with more serious disease and at a high risk of relapse, and the second, in collaboration with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, comparing GMK (14 doses of GMK over three years) to no treatment other than close monitoring of malignant melanoma patients at immediate risk of relapse [409168]. In February 1999, Lehman Brothers predicted that the vaccine had a 50% probability of reaching market, with an estimated first launch date in 2002. The analysts predicted potential peak sales in 2008 of $150 million in the US and $100 million in the rest of the world at that time [319225]. In January 2000, Lehman Brothers expected that an NDA filing would take place in 2002, with possible launch of the vaccine in 2003. In addition, Lehman Brothers estimated potential peak sales at $500 million [357788]. In August 2000, Punk, Ziegel & Company predicted that Progenics Pharmaceuticals will become sustainably profitable in 2003 following the launch of GMK and PRO-542 in 2002 [390063]. In July 2001, Ladenburg Thalmann predicted a $257 million

  14. Identificação de compostos orgânicos e farmacêuticos em esgoto hospitalar utilizando cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massa Identification of organic and pharmaceutical compositions in hospital wastewater using a gas chromatograph coupled to mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Vieira Paiva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Os resíduos líquidos provenientes dos estabelecimentos assistenciais de saúde são mais complexos do que os esgotos domésticos. Sua composição contém inúmeros compostos farmacêuticos, saneantes, elementos radiativos e de laboratórios. O conhecimento desses compostos pode auxiliar na escolha do tratamento adequado para esses esgotos e diminuir os impactos ambientais nos corpos receptores. A pesquisa foi realizada utilizando um sistema combinado (UASB e lodos ativados para tratar a água residuária de um hospital. Neste trabalho, foram realizadas análises físico-químicas para caracterização do esgoto e cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massa para identificação de compostos químicos farmacêuticos, podendo-se constatar a presença de inúmeros elementos residuais dos fármacos usados no hospital.Liquid waste residues from health care establishments are more complex than those from residential sewage. Their composition contains several pharmaceutical chemical composites, sanitizers, radioactive, and laboratorial elements. Knowing about these composites may aid in choosing the proper treatment for these sewages, and diminish the environmental impact in receptors. The study was carried out in a combined system (UASB and activated sludge to treat a hospital wastewater. In this experiment, material and chemical analyses were employed to trace sewage characteristics and gas chromatography associated with mass spectrometry to identify pharmacologic chemical composites, where innumerous residual elements were found in chromatographs.

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL STEWARDSHIP OF PHARMACEUTICALS ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPS) as environmental pollutants is a multifaceted issue whose scope continues to become better delineated since the escalation of conceited attention beginning in the 1980s. PPCPs typically occur as trace environmental pollutants (primarily in surface but also in ground waters) as a result of their widespread, continuous, combined usage in a broad range of human and veterinary therapeutic activities and practices. With respect to the risk-assessment paradigm the growing body of published work has focused primarily on the origin and occurrence of these substances. Comparatively less is known about human and ecological exposure, and even less about the documented or potential hazards associated with trace exposure to these anthropogenic substances, many of which are highly bioactive and perpetually present in many aquatic locales. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/m

  16. Pharmaceutical applications of graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żwawiak, Justyna; Zaprutko, Lucjusz

    2017-02-15

    Nowadays, dynamic development in nanotechnological sciences is observed. Nanoparticles are frequently used in medicine and pharmacy as delivery systems for different kinds of active substances. One of the latest developed substances, with an unusually wide scope of utility, is graphene. The ways of its use in different fields of industry, not only pharmaceutical and medical, have been a subject of study for many research groups since the moment of its development in 2004. Graphene in pure form is highly hydrophobic. However, the presence of defects on its surface allows chemical modifications to be made, e.g. introduction of oxygen groups by covalent bonding. Also, non-covalent modifications are extensively used, including van der Waals forces, hydrogen bonding, coordination bonds, electrostatic and π-π stacking interactions. Due to the large surface area, graphene can be used in combination therapy, consisting in simultaneous administration of two or more pharmacologically active agents. Another interesting approach is gene therapy. Application of the PEI-graphene oxide system increased the efficacy of transfection. Possibilities of graphene and graphene oxide are not limited to their use as active substance delivery systems. These compounds by themselves were also found to be bacteriostatic and antibacterial agents.

  17. Pharmaceutical applications of graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Żwawiak

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, dynamic development in nanotechnological sciences is observed. Nanoparticles are frequently used in medicine and pharmacy as delivery systems for different kinds of active substances. One of the latest developed substances, with an unusually wide scope of utility, is graphene. The ways of its use in different fields of industry, not only pharmaceutical and medical, have been a subject of study for many research groups since the moment of its development in 2004. Graphene in pure form is highly hydrophobic. However, the presence of defects on its surface allows chemical modifications to be made, e.g. introduction of oxygen groups by covalent bonding. Also, non-covalent modifications are extensively used, including van der Waals forces, hydrogen bonding, coordination bonds, electrostatic and π-π stacking interactions. Due to the large surface area, graphene can be used in combination therapy, consisting in simultaneous administration of two or more pharmacologically active agents. Another interesting approach is gene therapy. Application of the PEI-graphene oxide system increased the efficacy of transfection. Possibilities of graphene and graphene oxide are not limited to their use as active substance delivery systems. These compounds by themselves were also found to be bacteriostatic and antibacterial agents.

  18. Marketing orientation in pharmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prošić Danica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical companies are major stakeholders in the global health agenda Virtually all drugs used by patients in Europe reach markets through the promotion tactics of a small number of corporations with a tremendous impact on global health. The sector is both fast growing and highly profitable. Effective marketing strategies are a crucial ingredient in making sure pharmaceutical products and profits flow in a virtuous cycle. At first glance, the relationship between doctors and drug companies, as well as advertising practices for over-the-counter medication, appears tightly regulated. According to many consumer organizations, drug promotion in Europe today can be characterized as nice and friendly marketing. This refers to the creation of a false sense of trust that consumers associate with branded pharmaceutical products, as a result of pharmaceutical marketing efforts disguised as genuine corporate responsibility.

  19. Recognizing misleading pharmaceutical marketing online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Freitas, Julian; Falls, Brian A; Haque, Omar S; Bursztajn, Harold J

    2014-01-01

    In light of decision-making psychology, this article details how drug marketing operates across established and novel web domains and identifies some common misleading trends and influences on prescribing and patient-initiated medication requests. The Internet has allowed pharmaceutical marketing to become more salient than ever before. Although the Internet's growth has improved the dissemination of pharmaceutical information, it has also led to the increased influence of misleading pharmaceutical marketing. Such mismarketing is of concern, especially in psychiatry, since psychotropics generate considerable revenue for drug companies. In a climate of resource-limited drug regulation and time-strapped physicians, we recommend improving both independent monitoring and consumer awareness of Internet-enabled, potentially misleading, pharmaceutical marketing influences. © 2014 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  20. Salvia officinalis used in pharmaceutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemle, K. L.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents some pharmaceutical properties of Salvia officinalis, a plant belonging the Lamiaceae family, one of the oldest medicinal plants, which play an important role in improving the state of health.

  1. Pharmaceutical compounds in drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Chander

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical products and their wastes play a major role in the degradation of environment. These drugs have positive as well as negative consequences on different environmental components including biota in different ways. Many types of pharmaceutical substances have been detected with significant concentrations through various advanced instrumental techniques in surface water, subsurface water, ground water, domestic waste water, municipal waste water and industrial effluents. The central as well as state governments in India are providing supports by creating excise duty free zones to promote the pharmaceutical manufacturers for their production. As a result, pharmaceutical companies are producing different types of pharmaceutical products at large scale and also producing complex non-biodegradable toxic wastes byproducts and releasing untreated or partially treated wastes in the environment in absence of strong regulations. These waste pollutants are contaminating all types of drinking water sources. The present paper focuses on water quality pollution by pharmaceutical pollutants, their occurrences, nature, metabolites and their fate in the environment.

  2. Bioconjugation in pharmaceutical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronese, F M; Morpurgo, M

    1999-08-30

    Polymer conjugation is of increasing interest in pharmaceutical chemistry for delivering drugs of simple structure or complex compounds such peptides, enzymes and oligonucleotides. For long time drugs, mainly with antitumoral activity, have been coupled to natural or synthetic polymers with the purpose of increasing their blood permanence time, taking advantage of the increased mass that reduces kidney ultrafiltration. However only recently complex constructs were devised that exploit the 'enhanced permeability and retention' (EPR) effect for an efficient tumor targeting, the high molecular weight for adsorption or receptor mediated endocytosis and finally a lysosomotropic targeting, taking advantage of acid labile bonds or cathepsin susceptible polypeptide spacers between polymer and drug. New original, very active conjugates of this type, as those based on poly(hydroxyacrylate) polymers, are already in advanced state of development. Labile oligonucleotides, including antisense drugs, were also successfully coupled to polymers in view of an increased cell penetration and stabilization towards nucleases. However, the most active research activity resides in the field of polypeptides and proteins delivery, mainly for the two following reasons: first of all because a great number of therapeutically interesting compounds are now being produced by genetic engineering in large quantity and, secondly, because these products are difficult to administer to patients for several inherent drawbacks. Proteins are in fact easily digested by many endo- and exo-peptidases present in blood or in other body districts; most of them are immunogenic to some extent and, finally, they are rapidly excreted by kidney ultrafiltration. Covalent polymer conjugation at protein surface was demonstrated to reduce or eliminate these problems, since the bound polymer behaves like a shield hindering the approach of proteolytic enzymes, antibodies, or antigen processing cell. Furthermore, the

  3. The market for hospital medicine in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Hostenkamp

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical expenditure growth has outpaced GDP and healthcare expenditure growth rates in Denmark as in most OECD countries for the last decade. A major part of this increase was due to high growth rates in specialist areas that are typically located in hospital settings. Yet the market for hospital medicines and their procurement are still poorly understood. The present paper characterises the market for hospital medicines in Denmark in terms of its organisation and developments between 2005 and 2009. In Denmark hospital medicines are publicly financed and procurement is centrally organised. 98% of all medicines administered at Danish public hospitals are purchased through a public procurement agency by means of public tenders. Using data on actual contract prices we decompose pharmaceutical expenditure growth into the contributions from newly introduced medicines, price and volume increases and use summary statistics to compare market performance in both sectors. The market for hospital medicine is more concentrated than the pharmaceutical retail sector and the share of generics and parallel imported products is significantly lower. Between 2005 and 2009 expenditures for hospital medicines more than doubled -accounting for almost 40% of the total Danish pharmaceutical market in 2009. Price increases however - although positive and higher than in the pharmaceutical retail sector - were only moderate. The majority of the expenditure growth was due to an increase in utilisation and the introduction of new medicines in the hospital sector. Centralised tendering may therefore have important implications for competition and industry structure in the long run.

  4. Veterinary pharmaceuticals in aqueous systems and associated effects: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obimakinde, Samuel; Fatoki, Olalekan; Opeolu, Beatrice; Olatunji, Olatunde

    2017-02-01

    Environmental studies have shown that pharmaceuticals can contaminate aqueous matrices, such as groundwater, surface water, sediment as well as aquatic flora and fauna. Effluents from sewage and wastewater treatment plants, pharmaceutical industries and hospitals have been implicated in such contamination. Recent studies have however revealed significant concentrations of pharmaceuticals in wastewater from animal facilities in proximal aquatic habitats. Furthermore, epidemiological studies have shown a consistent positive correlation between exposure to some drugs of veterinary importance and increased adverse effects in aquatic biota largely due to induction of endocrine disruption, antibiotic resistance, neurotoxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative stress. The aquatic habitats and associated biota are important in the maintenance of global ecosystem and food chain. For this reason, anything that compromises the integrity and functions of the aquatic environment may lead to major upset in the world's ecosystems. Therefore, knowledge about this route of exposure cannot be neglected and monitoring of their occurrence in the environment is required. This review focuses on scientific evidence that link the presence of pharmaceuticals in aqueous matrices to animal production facilities and presents means to reduce the occurrence of veterinary pharmaceutical residues in the aquatic habitats.

  5. The Purpose and Scope of Pedagogy in Pharmaceutical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Akihiro

    2017-01-01

    The WHO and International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP) introduced the concept of the "seven-star pharmacist" in which a pharmacist is described as a caregiver, communicator, decision-maker, teacher, lifelong learner, leader and manager. In six-year pharmaceutical education programs, which have been provided in schools of pharmacy since 2006, 5th year students participate in on-site practice experiences in hospitals and community pharmacies. Thus, Japanese pharmacists also began to have a role in pharmaceutical education as teachers in clinical settings. Not only pharmacists in clinical settings, but also faculty members of pharmacy schools, had not previously been familiar with evidence-based education, and therefore they often teach in the way they were taught. Since research on teaching and learning has not been well developed in Japanese pharmaceutical education, both the model core curriculum for six-year programs and the subject benchmark statement for four-year programs are based on insufficient scientific evidence. We should promote the scholarship of teaching and learning, which promotes teaching as a scholarly endeavor and a worthy subject for research. In this review, I will summarize the needs and expectations for the establishment of pedagogy in pharmaceutical education.

  6. Influenza pandemic intervention planning using InfluSim: pharmaceutical and non- pharmaceutical interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwehm Markus

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza pandemic preparedness plans are currently developed and refined on national and international levels. Much attention has been given to the administration of antiviral drugs, but contact reduction can also be an effective part of mitigation strategies and has the advantage to be not limited per se. The effectiveness of these interventions depends on various factors which must be explored by sensitivity analyses, based on mathematical models. Methods We use the freely available planning tool InfluSim to investigate how pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical interventions can mitigate an influenza pandemic. In particular, we examine how intervention schedules, restricted stockpiles and contact reduction (social distancing measures and isolation of cases determine the course of a pandemic wave and the success of interventions. Results A timely application of antiviral drugs combined with a quick implementation of contact reduction measures is required to substantially protract the peak of the epidemic and reduce its height. Delays in the initiation of antiviral treatment (e.g. because of parsimonious use of a limited stockpile result in much more pessimistic outcomes and can even lead to the paradoxical effect that the stockpile is depleted earlier compared to early distribution of antiviral drugs. Conclusion Pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical measures should not be used exclusively. The protraction of the pandemic wave is essential to win time while waiting for vaccine development and production. However, it is the height of the peak of an epidemic which can easily overtax general practitioners, hospitals or even whole public health systems, causing bottlenecks in basic and emergency medical care.

  7. Evaluating pharmaceutical waste disposal in pediatric units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angélica Randoli de Almeida

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To verify the disposal of pharmaceutical waste performed in pediatric units. METHOD A descriptive and observational study conducted in a university hospital. The convenience sample consisted of pharmaceuticals discarded during the study period. Handling and disposal during preparation and administration were observed. Data collection took place at pre-established times and was performed using a pre-validated instrument. RESULTS 356 drugs disposals were identified (35.1% in the clinic, 31.8% in the intensive care unit, 23.8% in the surgical unit and 9.3% in the infectious diseases unit. The most discarded pharmacological classes were: 22.7% antimicrobials, 14.8% electrolytes, 14.6% analgesics/pain killers, 9.5% diuretics and 6.7% antiulcer agents. The most used means for disposal were: sharps’ disposable box with a yellow bag (30.8%, sink drain (28.9%, sharps’ box with orange bag (14.3%, and infectious waste/bin with a white bag (10.1%. No disposal was identified after drug administration. CONCLUSION A discussion of measures that can contribute to reducing (healthcare waste volume with the intention of engaging reflective team performance and proper disposal is necessary.

  8. Atividades da farmácia hospitalar brasileira para com pacientes hospitalizados: uma revisão da literatura Pharmaceutical services for inpatients provided by hospital pharmacies in Brazil: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Magarinos-Torres

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute a produção científica relacionada à farmácia hospitalar brasileira direcionada à internação, na tentativa de ampliar a visão sobre características e prioridades. Foram localizados dezessete artigos nas bases de dados Medline e Lilacs condizentes com os critérios de inclusão e exclusão definidos a priori. A maioria ateve-se aos componentes ensino/pesquisa, logística e farmacotécnica, a partir da observação de hospitais públicos localizados no Sudeste. Percebe-se a escassez de textos relacionados a atividades estruturais como gerenciamento e seleção. Estima-se que à formação acadêmica dos farmacêuticos atrele-se a percepção da manipulação como atividade preponderante nos serviços embora, atualmente, esta seja necessária apenas em um número restrito de hospitais. Soma-se a isto a baixa adequação das atividades realizadas a normas legais e padrões estabelecidos e a inexistência de revista brasileira dedicada ao tema e indexada pela BVS. Tendo em vista a maior freqüência de trabalhos oriundos do setor público, há, aparentemente, ou maior liberdade de atuação do farmacêutico neste setor ou menor produção científica, quantificada por publicações, no setor privado.This paper discusses the literature on hospital pharmacy services for in-patients in Brazil, seeking a broader view of its characteristics and priorities. Seventeen papers were located in the Medline and Lilacs databases that complied with the pre-defined inclusion/exclusion criteria. Most of them were related to teaching and research, logistics and compounding, based on observations in public hospitals in Southeast Brazil. Few studies focused on core activities such as management and selection. The academic syllabus through which pharmacy students are trained may underlie the perception that compounding is the preponderant aspect of hospital pharmacy services, although this is required in only a few institutions. Added to

  9. Virtual pharmaceutical companies: collaborating flexibly in pharmaceutical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Simon P; Stegmaier, Julia; Spycher, Rene; Seeger, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    Research and development (R&D) collaborations represent one approach chosen by the pharmaceutical industry to tackle current challenges posed by declining internal R&D success rates and fading of the blockbuster model. In recent years, a flexible concept to collaborate in R&D has emerged: virtual pharmaceutical companies (VPCs). These differ from other R&D companies, such as biotech start-ups, collaborating with big pharmaceutical companies, because they solely comprise experienced teams of managers. VPCs have only been described anecdotally in literature. Thus, we present here the characteristics of a VPC and suggest how big pharma can leverage the concept of VPCs by introducing five possible modes of collaboration. We find that one mode, investing, is particularly promising for big pharma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Pharmaceutical Industry Beamline of Pharmaceutical Consortium for Protein Structure Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Nishijima, K

    2002-01-01

    The Pharmaceutical Industry Beamline was constructed by the Pharmaceutical Consortium for Protein Structure Analysis which was established in April 2001. The consortium is composed of 22 pharmaceutical companies affiliating with the Japan Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association. The beamline is the first exclusive on that is owned by pharmaceutical enterprises at SPring-8. The specification and equipments of the Pharmaceutical Industry Beamline is almost same as that of RIKEN Structural Genomics Beamline I and II. (author)

  11. The pharmaceutical industry in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancer, R S

    1995-01-01

    Cuba has developed a relatively sophisticated pharmaceutical sector, originally to provide medicinal products for her own population and, more recently, to earn hard currency through exports. Cuba has achieved both of these goals despite the US trade embargo, which isolates Cuba from commercial relations with US firms. Cuba is opening its economy to firms from other countries through the use of joint ventures and other forms of cooperation. US firms are unable to avail themselves of these opportunities, and the opportunities are thus being lost. In the case of pharmaceuticals, the Cubans recognize that they need assistance, particularly in the areas of marketing and packaging. Allowing the participation of US firms in the Cuban pharmaceutical industry could enhance the possibility of improving worldwide health care.

  12. Chemistry in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poindexter, Graham S.; Pendri, Yadagiri; Snyder, Lawrence B.; Yevich, Joseph P.; Deshpande, Milind

    This chapter will discuss the role of chemistry within the pharmaceutical industry. Although the focus will be upon the industry within the United States, much of the discussion is equally relevant to pharmaceutical companies based in other first world nations such as Japan and those in Europe. The major objective of the pharmaceutical industry is the discovery, development, and marketing of efficacious and safe drugs for the treatment of human disease. Of course drug companies do not exist as altruistic, charitable organizations but like other share-holder owned corporations within our capitalistic society must achieve profits in order to remain viable and competitive. Thus, there exists a conundrum between the dual goals of enhancing the quality and duration of human life and that of increasing stock-holder equity. Much has been written and spoken in the lay media about the high prices of prescription drugs and the hardships this places upon the elderly and others of limited income.

  13. Pharmaceutical services in a Mexican pain relief and palliative care institute

    OpenAIRE

    Escutia Gutierrez R; Cortéz Alvarez CR; Álvarez Alvarez RM; Flores Hernandez JL; Gutiérrez Godinez J; López y Lopez JG

    2007-01-01

    Neither the purchase nor the distribution of pharmaceuticals in hospitals and community pharmacies in Mexico is under the care of pharmacists. Some are under control of physicians.This report presents the results of the implementation of somef pharmaceutical services for the Jalisco Pain Relief, and Palliative Care Institute (Palia Institute), under the direction of the Secretary of Health, Government of Jalisco. The services implemented were drug distribution system, Drug Information Service...

  14. The World Bank and pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenberg, T; Tomson, G

    2000-03-01

    Within less than a decade the World Bank has become the largest single source of finance (loans) for health in low and middle income countries as well as a major player in the field of pharmaceuticals. Often 20-50% of the recurrent government health budget in developing countries is used to procure drugs. Drugs are among the most salient and cost-effective elements of health care and often a key factor for the success of a health sector reform. However, pharmaceuticals are frequently being used irrationally, mainly due to market imperfections in health care, such as information asymmetries, leading to serious health problems and a heavy financial burden on the health system. Lending priorities set by the World Bank could be used to promote public health sector reform, leading to the rational use of affordable and available drugs of good quality in developing countries. This report provides the first analysis of World Bank activity in the pharmaceutical sector worldwide. The analysis of 77 staff appraisal reports, describing the planning phase of World Bank country projects, shows that 16% of the total World Bank health, nutrition and population budget, or approximately US$1.3 billion, has been committed to loans or credits supporting pharmaceutical activities in the programme countries between 1989-95. Roughly US$1.05 billion has been committed to procurement of drugs and medical equipment. Only 5% of the total pharmaceutical sector lending is committed to software components such as drug policy work and rational use of drugs. No more than 45% of the projects were developed in collaboration with pharmaceutical expertise. The World Bank is recommended to improve its pharmaceutical sector involvement by promoting drug policy research and development including national and international dialogue on pharmaceutical issues to ensure rational use of both drugs and loans. In this, the World Bank has an advantage given its experience from working with both the private and

  15. International research networks in pharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantner, Uwe; Rake, Bastian

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge production and scientific research have become increasingly more collaborative and international, particularly in pharmaceuticals. We analyze this tendency in general and tie formation in international research networks on the country level in particular. Based on a unique dataset...... of scientific publications related to pharmaceutical research and applying social network analysis, we find that both the number of countries and their connectivity increase in almost all disease group specific networks. The cores of the networks consist of high income OECD countries and remain rather stable...

  16. Analysis and control of issues that delay pharmaceutical projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nallam Sai Nandeswara Rao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Every project will have certain objectives and service levels to be achieved. The success of a project depends on several dimensions like time, cost/budget, quality, etc. and managing a project involves completing the project within time, within budget and with quality to satisfy the users. Because of the significance of health, pharmaceutical companies realized the importance of project management methods and techniques to make available the life saving drugs in time to the needy patients and hospitals. In literature, there is meager information about pharmaceutical project management oriented towards analysis of issues and factors that contribute to the failure or success of projects. This study attempts to analyse different issues that contribute to time delays in pharmaceutical product-based projects, group them under a finite set of prominent factors and identify remedial measures to control those delays. The feedback of project people of some big pharmaceutical firms of Indian sub-continent was collected for this purpose. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA has been used to reduce the reasons for time delays to a limited number of prominent factors and the EFA model has been further examined by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA for its validation. Remedial measures under each factor of time delays have been gathered and a framework designed to mitigate the time delays in pharmaceutical projects. The derived factors that delay the pharmaceutical projects include resource, monitoring & control, scheduling and planning problems. Important remedial measures like blended resource approach, estimation and forecast of shortage of labour and skills, regular quality training, etc. have been recommended.

  17. Unplanned Hospital Visits - Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Unplanned Hospital Visits – provider data. This data set includes provider data for the hospital return days (or excess days in acute care) measures, the unplanned...

  18. Electron microscopy of pharmaceutical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klang, Victoria; Valenta, Claudia; Matsko, Nadejda B

    2013-01-01

    During the last decades, the focus of research in pharmaceutical technology has steadily shifted towards the development and optimisation of nano-scale drug delivery systems. As a result, electron microscopic methods are increasingly employed for the characterisation of pharmaceutical systems such as nanoparticles and microparticles, nanoemulsions, microemulsions, solid lipid nanoparticles, different types of vesicles, nanofibres and many more. Knowledge of the basic properties of these systems is essential for an adequate microscopic analysis. Classical transmission and scanning electron microscopic techniques frequently have to be adapted for an accurate analysis of formulation morphology, especially in case of hydrated colloidal systems. Specific techniques such as environmental scanning microscopy or cryo preparation are required for their investigation. Analytical electron microscopic techniques such as electron energy-loss spectroscopy or energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy are additional assets to determine the elemental composition of the systems, but are not yet standard tools in pharmaceutical research. This review provides an overview of pharmaceutical systems of interest in current research and strategies for their successful electron microscopic analysis. Advantages and limitations of the different methodological approaches are discussed and recent findings of interest are presented. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We publish articles in pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines (including biotechnology, cell and molecular biology, drug utilization including adverse drug events, medical and other life sciences, and related engineering fields). Although primarily devoted to original research papers, we welcome reviews on current ...

  20. Archives: Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 95 ... Archives: Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. Journal Home > Archives: Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  1. Pediatric Exposures to Veterinary Pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi, Suzanne; Roberts, Kristin J; Stull, Jason; Spiller, Henry A; McKenzie, Lara B

    2017-03-01

    To describe the epidemiology of veterinary pharmaceutical-related exposures to children based on calls to a regional poison control center. A retrospective analysis of pediatric (≤19 years of age) exposures to pharmaceutical products intended for animal use, managed by a regional poison control center from 1999 through 2013, was conducted. Case narratives were reviewed and coded for exposure-related circumstances and intended species. Descriptive statistics were generated. From 1999 through 2013, the Central Ohio Poison Center received 1431 calls that related to a veterinary pharmaceutical exposure for children ≤19 years of age. Most of the pediatric calls (87.6%) involved children ≤5 years of age. Exploratory behavior was the most common exposure-related circumstance (61.4%) and ingestion accounted for the exposure route in 93% of cases. Substances commonly associated with exposures included: veterinary drugs without human equivalent (17.3%), antimicrobial agents (14.8%), and antiparasitics (14.6%). Based on substance and quantity, the majority of exposures (96.9%) were not expected to result in long-term or lasting health effects and were managed at home (94.1%). A total of 80 cases (5.6%) were referred to a health care facility, and 2 cases resulted in a moderate health effect. Children ≤5 years of age are most at risk for veterinary pharmaceutical-related exposures. Although most exposures do not result in a serious medical outcome, efforts to increase public awareness, appropriate product dispensing procedures, and attention to home storage practices may reduce the risk of veterinary pharmaceutical exposures to young children. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine is published quarterly and the contents include articles in Medicine, Dentistry, Pharmaceutical and Basic Medical Sciences with emphasis on health problems and solutions relating to developing countries. The readership are in - Libraries, Teaching Hospitals, Universities, ...

  3. The future of the pharmaceutical, biological and medical device industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgess LJ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Lesley J Burgess, Marli TerblancheTREAD Research/Cardiology Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Tygerberg Hospital and University of Stellenbosch, Parow, South AfricaAbstract: Numerous factors contribute to the declining pharmaceutical industry on the one hand and the rapidly growing generic industry together with the growing importance of medical devices and biologicals on the other. It is clear that the pharmaceutical industry is going to undergo a change in the next decade in order to meet the current challenges facing it and ultimately sustain its profitability and growth. This paper aims to identify a number of fairly obvious trends that are likely to have a significant impact on the product development pipeline in the next decade. It is more than clear that the current production pipeline for pharmaceutical, biotechnology and medical device industries is no longer sustainable and that urgent interventions are required in order to maintain its current level of profitability.Keywords: pharmaceutical industry, personalized medicine, trends, generics, biotechnology

  4. Diseño y evaluación de un sistema de acreditación para los Servicios Farmacéuticos Hospitalarios en Cuba Design and evaluation of an accreditation system for the hospital pharmaceutical services in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de las Mercedes Cuba Venereo

    2011-09-01

    to. Eleven processes and 58 quality indicators applicable to the Cuban context were identified. In the pharmaceutical service of the selected hospital under the pilot study, 9 processes were evaluated and 28 indicators were measured. Thirteen indicators achieved the highest level of performance, 6 were considered acceptable, 5 had to be improved whereas 4 indicators were unacceptable. The results of this pilot study proved the applicability and feasibility of the Accreditation Manual and of the Quality Indicator Guide for the hospital pharmacy services developed in this study since they were prepared using the ordinary information and controls under the regulation of the National Division of Pharmacies, the ruling body in this activity nationwide.

  5. Quality analytics of Internet pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baert, B; De Spiegeleer, B

    2010-09-01

    Trading pharmaceutical products through the Internet poses several challenges related to legal responsibilities, good distribution practices, information content and patient use, financial implications, but also regarding product quality. One of the major concerns is the well-known phenomenon of counterfeited and/or substandard drugs commercialized through rogue Internet sites. Therefore, controlling and assuring the quality of those products has become an important and challenging task for the authorities. This review gives an overview of the different quality attributes that can be evaluated to have a complete understanding of the quality of the finished pharmaceutical product traded through the Internet, as well as the current analytical techniques that serve this objective. Aspects considered are labelling and packaging, physicochemical quality attributes, identification and assay of active substances and/or excipients, impurity profiling, biopharmaceutical testing and data interpretation.

  6. Quality of Pharmacy Services in Government Hospitals in Addis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality of pharmaceutical services can be measured at the levels of the structure, process and outcome. Although quality assessments of pharmaceutical services are common in many parts of the world, there is limited information on the quality of hospital pharmacy services in Ethiopia. This study attempted to assess the ...

  7. Trends in pharmaceutical expenditures: the impact on drug benefit design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanne, LaFleur; Leslie, Fish; Brixner, Diana I

    2008-05-01

    Annual national spending for pharmaceutical agents was increasing at a rapid pace during the late 1990s and early part of the 21st century, outpacing increases in spending on hospital care and on physician services, which had dominated the industry in the 1970s. In the past few years, however, this trend has shifted, resulting in a lower growth rate in 2005. The reasons for these trends of increases and subsequent declines are explained in this article, including the slower pace of increase in generics and the increasing role of biologic agents in the rate of pharmaceutical price inflation. The sharp increases in drug spending led to changes in prescription drug benefit designs that have not been fully tested. The recent decline creates an opportunity for health plans to evaluate the value of current and new strategies and implement value-based benefit designs in accordance with the shifting focus in healthcare toward value-based patient care.

  8. Microbial factories for recombinant pharmaceuticals

    OpenAIRE

    Domingo-Espín Joan; Ferrer-Miralles Neus; Corchero José; Vázquez Esther; Villaverde Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Most of the hosts used to produce the 151 recombinant pharmaceuticals so far approved for human use by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and/or by the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) are microbial cells, either bacteria or yeast. This fact indicates that despite the diverse bottlenecks and obstacles that microbial systems pose to the efficient production of functional mammalian proteins, namely lack or unconventional post-translational modifications, proteolytic instability, po...

  9. UV imaging in pharmaceutical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jesper

    2018-01-01

    UV imaging provides spatially and temporally resolved absorbance measurements, which are highly useful in pharmaceutical analysis. Commercial UV imaging instrumentation was originally developed as a detector for separation sciences, but the main use is in the area of in vitro dissolution...... administration. UV imaging has potential for providing new insights to drug dissolution and release processes in formulation development by real-time monitoring of swelling, precipitation, diffusion and partitioning phenomena. Limitations of current instrumentation are discussed and a perspective to new...

  10. Health risks of counterfeit pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Ham, Martijn

    2003-01-01

    Pharmaceutical products are not exempt from the practice of counterfeiting. In recent years, many reports have become available demonstrating the presence of fake medicines on the market. Several studies have demonstrated that they are quite often of bad quality. It is estimated that 5% of all world trade in branded goods is counterfeit, leading to huge financial losses for the pharmaceutical industry. But much more important, from a public health point of view, is that history has shown that such products may lead to a great health risk. The essence of counterfeit products and the reason they are so dangerous is the complete absence of quality control, since they are often indistinguishable from the genuine product. The existence of counterfeit drugs has long been ignored both by the pharmaceutical industry and by drug regulatory authorities. At present initiatives are being taken, nationally and internationally, to curb counterfeiting. It is now realised that a strong regulatory agency is essential, but the initiatives can only be successful if all parties concerned actively co-operate.

  11. Progress of Pharmaceutical Continuous Crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejiang Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Crystallization is an important unit operation in the pharmaceutical industry. At present, most pharmaceutical crystallization processes are performed in batches. However, due to product variability from batch to batch and to the low productivity of batch crystallization, continuous crystallization is gaining increasing attention. In the past few years, progress has been made to allow the products of continuous crystallization to meet different requirements. This review summarizes the progress in pharmaceutical continuous crystallization from a product engineering perspective. The advantages and disadvantages of different types of continuous crystallization are compared, with the main difference between the two main types of crystallizers being their difference in residence time distribution. Approaches that use continuous crystallization to meet different quality requirements are summarized. Continuous crystallization has advantages in terms of size and morphology control. However, it also has the problem of a process yield that may be lower than that of a batch process, especially in the production of chirality crystals. Finally, different control strategies are compared.

  12. Stability of Pharmaceuticals in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Y-Uyen

    2009-01-01

    Stability testing is a tool used to access shelf life and effects of storage conditions for pharmaceutical formulations. Early research from the International Space Station (ISS) revealed that some medications may have degraded while in space. This potential loss of medication efficacy would be very dangerous to Crew health. The aim of this research project, Stability of Pharmacotherapeutic Compounds, is to study how the stability of pharmaceutical compounds is affected by environmental conditions in space. Four identical pharmaceutical payload kits containing medications in different dosage forms (liquid for injection, tablet, capsule, ointment and suppository) were transported to the ISS aboard a Space Shuttle. One of the four kits was stored on that Shuttle and the other three were stored on the ISS for return to Earth at various time intervals aboard a pre-designated Shuttle flight. The Pharmacotherapeutics laboratory used stability test as defined by the United States Pharmacopeia (USP), to access the degree of degradation to the Payload kit medications that may have occurred during space flight. Once these medications returned, the results of stability test performed on them were compared to those from the matching ground controls stored on Earth. Analyses of the results obtained from physical and chemical stability assessments on these payload medications will provide researchers additional tools to promote safe and efficacious medications for space exploration.

  13. Current Status of Regulatory Science Education in Faculties of Pharmaceutical Science in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohkin, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    I introduce the current pharmaceutical education system in Japan, focusing on regulatory science. University schools or faculties of pharmaceutical science in Japan offer two courses: a six-year course for pharmacists and a four-year course for scientists and technicians. Students in the six-year pharmaceutical course receive training in hospitals and pharmacies during their fifth year, and those in the four-year life science course start research activities during their third year. The current model core curriculum for pharmaceutical education requires them to "explain the necessity and significance of regulatory science" as a specific behavior object. This means that pharmacists should understand the significance of "regulatory science", which will lead to the proper use of pharmaceuticals in clinical practice. Most regulatory science laboratories are in the university schools or faculties of pharmaceutical sciences; however, there are too few to conduct regulatory science education. There are many problems in regulatory science education, and I hope that those problems will be resolved not only by university-based regulatory science researchers but also by those from the pharmaceutical industry and regulatory authorities.

  14. [An analysis of the pharmaceuticals market in Vietnam].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonet, D

    2001-01-01

    This article sheds a light on the Vietnamese pharmaceutical market. The progress that has been made in the recent years following the opening of the Vietnamese regime to the western world, although not easy, brought a certain number of opportunities for domestic firms and foreign investors. The pharmaceutical Vietnamese industry started to emerge at the beginning of the 1990s. Although, the consumption of drugs is low, it does reach the sum of $ 5.5 per capita. As the majority of these products are imported, foreign companies tend to dominate the market both in volume and in diversity. The state has always played an important role with the implementation of a strict price control strategy and most national drug companies remain state-owned. The production and consumption of drugs were also largely influenced by state policies as the latter also control hospitals. In the second half of the eighties, the progressive liberalisation of the country allowed private drug pharmacies to appear and advertisement campaigns became legal. Because the lack of specific products like antibiotics was clear, the government increased the flow of imports, including private imports by citizens. Sources of imports have become more diverse, although France remains an important source of supply. Fournier, Lipha and Pierre Fabre are among the French drug manufacturers located in Vietnam. Other foreign companies include from India, South Korea, Thailand and Germany. Joint ventures were also created with French and Japanese companies. The import of medical materials is subjected to authorisations from the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Foreign Trade as it is necessary to obtain a licence to do so. Licences are issued on the basis of the production of drugs that do not currently exist on the local market. But Vietnam also exports pharmaceutical products to Laos, Cambodia, and Cuba. Local resources constitute an important source of new products and have stirred a strong interest among

  15. An integrated general practice and pharmacy-based intervention to promote the use of appropriate preventive medications among individuals at high cardiovascular disease risk: protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayek, Adina; Joshi, Rohina; Usherwood, Tim; Webster, Ruth; Kaur, Baldeep; Saini, Bandana; Armour, Carol; Krass, Ines; Laba, Tracey-Lea; Reid, Christopher; Shiel, Louise; Hespe, Charlotte; Hersch, Fred; Jan, Stephen; Lo, Serigne; Peiris, David; Rodgers, Anthony; Patel, Anushka

    2016-09-23

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are responsible for significant morbidity, premature mortality, and economic burden. Despite established evidence that supports the use of preventive medications among patients at high CVD risk, treatment gaps remain. Building on prior evidence and a theoretical framework, a complex intervention has been designed to address these gaps among high-risk, under-treated patients in the Australian primary care setting. This intervention comprises a general practice quality improvement tool incorporating clinical decision support and audit/feedback capabilities; availability of a range of CVD polypills (fixed-dose combinations of two blood pressure lowering agents, a statin ± aspirin) for prescription when appropriate; and access to a pharmacy-based program to support long-term medication adherence and lifestyle modification. Following a systematic development process, the intervention will be evaluated in a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial including 70 general practices for a median period of 18 months. The 35 general practices in the intervention group will work with a nominated partner pharmacy, whereas those in the control group will provide usual care without access to the intervention tools. The primary outcome is the proportion of patients at high CVD risk who were inadequately treated at baseline who achieve target blood pressure (BP) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels at the study end. The outcomes will be analyzed using data from electronic medical records, utilizing a validated extraction tool. Detailed process and economic evaluations will also be performed. The study intends to establish evidence about an intervention that combines technological innovation with team collaboration between patients, pharmacists, and general practitioners (GPs) for CVD prevention. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12616000233426.

  16. Marketing perspectives of hospital pharmacy directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, D W; Pathak, D S

    1983-06-01

    The familiarity of hospital pharmacy directors (HPDs) with various marketing concepts for the development of pharmaceutical services was assessed. A questionnaire was designed to assess whether (1) HPDs seek input from relevant publics when evaluating or designing pharmaceutical services; (2) HPDs use marketing concepts in the development and implementation of pharmaceutical programs; and (3) marketing perspectives of HPDs differ depending on their institutional affiliations and personal characteristics. The questionnaire was sent to 320 HPDs in seven states. A total of 158 unable questionnaires were received. In response to the questions concerning input from relevant publics, HPDs agreed that they should seek input from all relevant publics with the exception of third-party agencies and patients. HPDs put more emphasis on obtaining information for evaluating existing programs and designing long-term plans from physicians, nurses, patients, and hospital administrators and less emphasis on understanding the needs of third-party agencies. HPDs seem to use marketing concepts in the development and implementation of pharmaceutical programs. HPDs indicated a clear perception of pharmacy goals, target segments among relevant publics, and a dynamic orientation toward changes in the health-care marketplace. Hospital size, level of pharmaceutical education, and years of administrative experience were found to influence the marketing perspectives of HPDs. HPDs were familiar with marketing concepts, and a favorable climate seems to exist for transferring marketing approaches to the hospital pharmacy setting.

  17. Electrochemical biosensors in pharmaceutical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric de Souza Gil

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Given the increasing demand for practical and low-cost analytical techniques, biosensors have attracted attention for use in the quality analysis of drugs, medicines, and other analytes of interest in the pharmaceutical area. Biosensors allow quantification not only of the active component in pharmaceutical formulations, but also the analysis of degradation products and metabolites in biological fluids. Thus, this article presents a brief review of biosensor use in pharmaceutical analysis, focusing on enzymatic electrochemical sensors.Em virtude do aumento da demanda por técnicas analíticas simples e de baixo custo, os biossensores têm atraído a atenção para a análise de fármacos, medicamentos e outros analitos de interesse em controle de qualidade de medicamentos. Os biossensores permitem a quantificação não somente de princípio ativo em formulações farmacêuticas, mas também de produtos de degradação e metabólitos em fluídos biológicos, bem como análise de amostras de interesse clínico e industrial, além de possibilitar a determinação de enantiômeros. Desta forma, este artigo objetiva fazer uma breve revisão a respeito do emprego de biossensores em análise farmacêutica, com ênfase em sensores eletroquímicos enzimáticos.

  18. China: current trends in pharmaceutical drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ying

    2008-04-01

    Pharmaceutical discovery and development is expensive and highly risky, even for multinational corporations. As a developing country with limited financial resources, China has been seeking the most cost-effective means to reach the same level of innovation and productivity as Western countries in the pharmaceutical industry sector. After more than 50 years of building up talent and experience, the time for China to become a powerhouse in pharmaceutical innovation is finally approaching. Returnee scientists to China are one of the reasons for the wave of new discovery and commercialization occurring within the country. The consolidation of local Chinese pharmaceutical companies and foreign investment is also providing an agreeable environment for the evolution of a new generation of biotechnology. The opportunity for pharmaceutical innovation is also being expedited by the entry of multinational companies into the Chinese pharmaceutical market, and by the outsourcing of research from these companies to China.

  19. Introduction: Institutional corruption and the pharmaceutical policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodwin, Marc A

    2013-01-01

    Today, the goals of pharmaceutical policy and medical practice are often undermined due to institutional corruption - that is, widespread or systemic practices, usually legal, that undermine an institution's objectives or integrity. In this symposium, 16 articles investigate the corruption of pharmaceutical policy, each taking a different look at the sources of corruption, how it occurs, and what is corrupted. We will see that the pharmaceutical industry's own purposes are often undermined. Furthermore, pharmaceutical industry funding of election campaigns and lobbying skews the legislative process that sets pharmaceutical policy. Moreover, certain practices have corrupted medical research, the production of medical knowledge, the practice of medicine, drug safety, the Food and Drug Administration's oversight of the pharmaceutical market, and the trustworthiness of patient advocacy organizations. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  20. Pharmaceutical Point of View on Parenteral Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawny, M.; Olijarczyk, R.; Jaroszkiewicz, E.; Jelińska, A.

    2013-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition—a form of administering nutrients, electrolytes, trace elements, vitamins, and water—is a widely used mode of therapy applied in many diseases, in patients of different ages both at home and in hospital. The success of nutritional therapy depends chiefly on proper determination of the patient's energetic and electrolytic needs as well as preparation and administration of a safe nutritional mixture. As a parenterally administered drug, it is expected to be microbiologically and physicochemically stable, with all of the components compatible with each other. It is very difficult to obtain a stable nutritional mixture due to the fact that it is a complex, two-phase drug. Also, the risk of incompatibility between mixture components and packaging should be taken into consideration and possibly eliminated. Since parenteral nutrition is a part of therapy, simultaneous use of drugs may cause pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions as well as those with the pharmaceutical phase. The aim of this paper is to discuss such aspects of parenteral nutrition as mixture stability, methodology, and methods for determining the stability of nutritional mixtures and drugs added to them. PMID:24453847

  1. Pharmaceutical Point of View on Parenteral Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stawny

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Parenteral nutrition—a form of administering nutrients, electrolytes, trace elements, vitamins, and water—is a widely used mode of therapy applied in many diseases, in patients of different ages both at home and in hospital. The success of nutritional therapy depends chiefly on proper determination of the patient’s energetic and electrolytic needs as well as preparation and administration of a safe nutritional mixture. As a parenterally administered drug, it is expected to be microbiologically and physicochemically stable, with all of the components compatible with each other. It is very difficult to obtain a stable nutritional mixture due to the fact that it is a complex, two-phase drug. Also, the risk of incompatibility between mixture components and packaging should be taken into consideration and possibly eliminated. Since parenteral nutrition is a part of therapy, simultaneous use of drugs may cause pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions as well as those with the pharmaceutical phase. The aim of this paper is to discuss such aspects of parenteral nutrition as mixture stability, methodology, and methods for determining the stability of nutritional mixtures and drugs added to them.

  2. Obesity Epidemic: Pharmaceutical Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Stephanie A

    2017-03-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease universally defined as an excess of adipose tissue resulting in body mass index (BMI) > 30.0 kg/m2. Over the past few years, the concept of prevention has gained increased awareness, thus leading to the development of additional pharmaceutical options for the treatment of obesity since 2012. Treating obesity revolves around an individualized, multi-disciplinary approach with additional focus on a healthy and supportive lifestyle to maintain the weight loss. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2017-03.asp].

  3. Novel methodology for pharmaceutical expenditure forecast

    OpenAIRE

    Vataire, Anne-Lise; Cetinsoy, Laurent; Aballéa, Samuel; Rémuzat, Cécile; Urbinati, Duccio; Kornfeld, Åsa; Mzoughi, Olfa; Toumi, Mondher

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective: The value appreciation of new drugs across countries today features a disruption that is making the historical data that are used for forecasting pharmaceutical expenditure poorly reliable. Forecasting methods rarely addressed uncertainty. The objective of this project was to propose a methodology to perform pharmaceutical expenditure forecasting that integrates expected policy changes and uncertainty (developed for the European Commission as the ‘EU Pharmaceutical e...

  4. Biocatalytic Synthesis of Chiral Pharmaceutical Intermediates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh N. Patel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of single enantiomers of drug intermediates has become increasingly important in the pharmaceutical industry. Chiral intermediates and fine chemicals are in high demand from both the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries for the preparation of bulk drug substances and agricultural products. The enormous potential of microorganisms and enzymes for the transformation of synthetic chemicals with high chemo-, regio- and enantioselectivities has been demonstrated. In this article, biocatalytic processes are described for the synthesis of chiral pharmaceutical intermediates.

  5. Supply Chain Management in Zhendong Pharmaceutical Company

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yan

    2011-01-01

    Medicines are special commodity related to people’s lives and health, therefore, pharmaceutical distribution is an industry affecting the national economy and the people's livelihood. With health care reform, changeable pharmaceutical policy and fiercely increasing competition in the medical industry, pharmaceutical distribution companies should improve their level of logistics operations and reduce overall logistics management costs in order to gain a leading position in the competition. In ...

  6. Development of a common priority list of pharmaceuticals relevant for the water cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Voogt, P.; Janex-Habibi, M.-L.; Sacher, F.; Puijker, L.; Mons, M.

    2009-01-01

    Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs), including prescription drugs, over-the-counter medications, drugs used in hospitals and veterinary drugs, have been found throughout the water cycle. A desk study was initiated by the Global Water Research Coalition to consolidate a uniform selection of

  7. The need for pharmaceutical care in an intensive care unit at a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    part of routine care in medication monitoring to evaluate prescribing patterns or identify potential or actual medication errors in the surgical and trauma intensive care unit (ICU) at Steve Biko Academic Hospital. The study was initiated to address the need for pharmaceutical care and to evaluate the effect of the presence of a ...

  8. Hospitals; hospitals13

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of Rhode Island Geospatial Extension Program — Hospital Facilities information was compiled from several various sources. Main source was the RI Department of Health Facilities Regulation database, License 2000....

  9. Entrepreneurial patent management in pharmaceutical startups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holgersson, Marcus; Phan, Tai; Hedner, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Startups fill an increasingly important role as innovators in the pharmaceutical industry, and patenting is typically central to their success. This article aims to explore patent management in pharmaceutical startups. The results show that startups need to deal with several challenges related to patenting and an 'entrepreneurial' approach to patent management is called for. Resource constraints, venture capital provision, exits and other conditions and events must be readily considered in the patent management process to build a successful pharmaceutical venture, something that could benefit the pharmaceutical industry as a whole. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pharmacy residents' attitudes toward pharmaceutical industry promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashker, Sumer; Burkiewicz, Jill S

    2007-08-15

    The attitudes of pharmacy residents toward pharmaceutical industry promotion and the perceived effects of such promotion on the knowledge and professional practice of the residents were studied. A questionnaire study of current postgraduate year 1 and postgraduate year 2 pharmacy residents was conducted. Questions were adapted from instruments used in studies of medical student or physician attitudes regarding the pharmaceutical industry. The questionnaire requested demographic information about the resident, information regarding the resident's exposure to specific types of pharmaceutical company-related activities, and the resident's perception of whether the residency program or department had policies or guidelines regarding interactions with the pharmaceutical industry. Questions investigated the attitudes toward pharmaceutical industry promotion and the perceived influence of pharmaceutical industry promotion on the professional knowledge and behavior of the residents. Responses were received from 496 pharmacy residents. Nearly all (89%) residents agreed that pharmaceutical company-sponsored educational events enhance knowledge. Almost half (43%) of the respondents reported that information from educational events influences therapeutic recommendations. One quarter (26%) of the pharmacy residents indicated prior training regarding pharmacist-industry interactions, and most (60%) residents indicated that their institution's residencies or departments have policies regarding interactions with the pharmaceutical industry. Most surveyed pharmacy residents believed that educational events sponsored by pharmaceutical companies enhance knowledge. Respondents whose institutions had policies or who had received training about such events were less likely than other respondents to perceive an influence of the events on their knowledge and behavior.

  11. Justice challenges of pharmaceutical industry global research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Páez Moreno, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    International research projects sponsored by the pharmaceutical industry are a recent modality of biomedical research, which is driven by interests that are not only scientific, but also commercial...

  12. Pharmaceuticals and Controlled Substances and Demolition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharmaceuticals and controlled substances found during residential demolition, such as prescription medications or illegal drugs, may require special treatment for disposal or recycling before demolition.

  13. Removal of micropollutants during physicochemical pretreatment of Hospital Wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, S.; Omil, F.; Lema, J. M.

    2009-07-01

    The fate and occurrence of micro-pollutants, such as pharmaceuticals, hormones or cosmetic ingredients, has attracted an increasing attention in environmental research. The main sources for such compounds in the environment include domestic sewage. hospital effluents and discharges from the pharmaceutical manufacturing industry. The aim of the presented work was to analyse the efficiency of coagulation-flocculation and flotation processes for the pre-treatment of hospital wastewaters, focusing on the removal of 12 Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCPs), including musk fragrances, anti-epileptics, tranquillisers, anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics and one iodinated contras media. (Author)

  14. SLIDE PRESENTATION--PHARMACEUTICALS AS ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    While pharmaceuticals are ubiquitous trace contaminants in the environment, thetypes, concentrations, and relative abundances of individual residues will vary depending on thegeographic locale and time of year, primarily a reflection of differing and varying prescribing andconsumption practices. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-soluble pharmaceuticals in source waters at levels that could be environmentally significant (at concentrations less than parts per billion, ppb). IAG with USGS ends in FY05. APM 20 due in FY05.Subtask 2: Coordination of interagency research and public outreach activities for PPCPs. Participate on NSTC Health and Environment subcommittee working group on PPCPs. Web site maintenance and expansion, invited technical

  15. ABSTRACT PRESENTATION--PHARMACEUTICALS AS ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharmaceuticals comprise a large and diverse array of contaminants that can occur in the environmentfrom the combined activities and actions of multitudes of individuals as well as from veterinary andagricultural use. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-soluble pharmaceuticals in source waters at levels that could be environmentally significant (at concentrations less than parts per billion, ppb). IAG with USGS ends in FY05. APM 20 due in FY05.Subtask 2: Coordination of interagency research and public outreach activities for PPCPs. Participate on NSTC Health and Environment subcommittee working group on PPCPs. Web site maintenance and expansion, invited technical presentations, invited articles for peer-reviewed journals, interviews for med

  16. Duramed Pharmaceuticals targets women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-02-01

    In August 1999, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Apri, a new oral contraceptive from Duramed Pharmaceuticals. Apri is available at approximately 30% less than the retail cost of comparable pills and is the first substitutable product equivalent to Ortho-Cept and Desogen, both of which contain 30 mcg of ethinyl estradiol and 150 mcg of desogestrel. Duramed, a longtime manufacturer of generic pharmaceuticals, has gained FDA approval for other women's health products in the last 2 years, including 1) medroxyprogesterone acetate tablets for treatment of secondary amenorrhea and abnormal uterine bleeding due to hormonal imbalance, 2) estropipate tablets for treatment of vasomotor symptoms of menopause and prevention of osteoporosis, and 3) estradiol tablets. In March 1999, Duramed also gained FDA approval for Cenestin, a conjugated estrogen drug product that is made of 9 synthetic estrogen components derived from a compound obtained from plant material. This drug is safe for short-term use in treating vasomotor symptoms such as hot flashes and sweating associated with menopause.

  17. Pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies: practice and research in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerlund, Lo Tommy; Björk, H Thony

    2006-06-01

    To describe the organization and delivery of community pharmacy and medical care, as well as pharmaceutical care practice and research, in Sweden. The Swedish retail pharmacy system of 800 community pharmacies and nearly 80 hospital pharmacies is unique in that it is organized into one single, government-owned chain, known as Apoteket AB. The pharmacy staff consists of pharmacists, prescriptionists, and pharmacy technicians. Some activities related to pharmaceutical care have been directed toward specific patient groups during annual theme campaigns. In the past few years, there has been a growing emphasis on the identification, resolution, and documentation of drug-related problems (DRPs) in Swedish pharmacy practice. A classification system for documenting DRPs and pharmacy interventions was developed in 1995 and incorporated into the software of all community pharmacies in 2001. A national DRP database (SWE-DRP) was established in 2004 to collect and analyze DRPs and interventions on a nationwide basis. Recently, a new counseling technique composed of key questions to facilitate the detection of DRPs has been tested successfully. Patient medication profiles are kept in 160 pharmacies, and a new national register of drugs dispensed to patients became available in 2006. Most pharmaceutical care studies in Sweden have focused on DRPs and resulting pharmacy interventions. Swedish community pharmacy DRP work is in the international forefront but there is a potential for further developing cognitive services, given the beneficial organization of the country's pharmacies into one single pharmacy chain. The introduction of patient medication profiles has been both late and slow and has only had a marginal effect on pharmaceutical care practice so far. The universities do not appear to have any desire to influence the practice of pharmacy and could potentially take on a more active role in preparing pharmacy students for patient-oriented services. Current threats to

  18. Convergence of tuberculosis and diabetes mellitus: time to individualise pharmaceutical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanasan, Shubashini; Ting, Kang Nee; Wong, Kok Thong; Mohd Ali, Salmiah; Muttalif, Abdul Razak; Anderson, Claire

    2011-02-01

    To assess the feasibility of providing a pharmacist-led pharmaceutical care service to patients with tuberculosis and diabetes mellitus. The study was conducted at a tertiary hospital in the northern region of Peninsular Malaysia. Methods Action research methodology was used. Pharmaceutical care issues. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus among newly diagnosed tuberculosis patients was 15% (53/352). Out of 53 patients identified, 35 participated in the study. Patients' ages ranged between 29 and 73 years (mean of 52 ± 10 years). The male: female ratio was 1.7:1. Pharmaceutical care issues identified by pharmacists were nonadherence, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, adverse drug reactions and individual patient's medication related problems. Pharmacists were able to intervene and resolve some of the pharmaceutical care issues. Pharmacists played an important role in integrating the provision of care for tuberculosis and diabetes mellitus by providing individualised pharmaceutical care management. There still remains a need to address logistic barriers that impinged on the ability to conduct the pharmaceutical care service to its full potential.

  19. The Impact of Biotechnology on Pharmaceutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Lawrence H.

    1990-01-01

    The emergence of bioactive peptides and proteins as new drug species poses formidable problems for the pharmaceutical scientist. Implications for revision or change in undergraduate and graduate pharmaceutics curricula derive from the biopharmaceutical, pharmacokinetic, and physiochemical aspects of the new drug species, which differ from…

  20. information sources and utilization patterns of pharmaceutical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    The study investigated the adequacy of pharmaceutical scientists' information environment in feeding their occupational activities. Data was collected through observation and through questionnaire administration to all the twenty-seven scientists in two large pharmaceutical companies in Lagos, Nigeria. Findings revealed ...

  1. Archives: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Allied Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 34 of 34 ... Archives: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Allied Sciences. Journal Home > Archives: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Allied Sciences. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search ...

  2. Information sources and utilization patterns of pharmaceutical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the adequacy of pharmaceutical scientists' information environment in feeding their occupational activities. Data was collected through observation and through questionnaire administration to all the twenty-seven scientists in two large pharmaceutical companies in Lagos, Nigeria. Findings revealed ...

  3. Synthetic biology advances for pharmaceutical production

    OpenAIRE

    Breitling, Rainer; Takano, Eriko

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology enables a new generation of microbial engineering for the biotechnological production of pharmaceuticals and other high-value chemicals. This review presents an overview of recent advances in the field, describing new computational and experimental tools for the discovery, optimization and production of bioactive molecules, and outlining progress towards the application of these tools to pharmaceutical production systems.

  4. Assessment of Human Pharmaceutical Products Registered in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to assess the human pharmaceutical products that have been registered in Kenya in order to determine the most common routes of administration and type of dosage forms that are used. Registered pharmaceutical products were categorized by route of administration and then sub-categorized by ...

  5. Drivers of peak sales for pharmaceutical brands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Marc; Leeflang, Peter S. H.; Verhoef, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    Peak sales are an important metric in the pharmaceutical industry. Specifically, managers are focused on the height-of-peak-sales and the time required achieving peak sales. We analyze how order of entry and quality affect the level of peak sales and the time-to-peak-sales of pharmaceutical brands.

  6. Tria Pharmaceuticals in the Baltics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kratochvil, Renate; Nell, Phillip C.

    2016-01-01

    Linda, a management consultant, had to solve a tricky problem regarding difficulties with the 'Baltic region subsidiary' of a global pharmaceutical company. She was hired by their Regional Headquarters (RHQ) for Central and Eastern Europe to disentangle this multifaceted challenge (eg sales down...... on the topic were the cultural misunderstandings between the employees of the various countries, or the company’s outdated products. Linda was challenged to, first, get a clear and comprehensive picture of the situation, and, second, propose a well-conceived solution to the RHQ. This case is written as a two......-part series to emphasize on the importance of extensive information, data, and collection of opinions to fully grasp the situation. We suggest four questions for this Teaching Case Study. Question 1 revolves around defining the case study challenges. In order to archive this, we first propose to identify...

  7. Bangladesh pharmaceutical policy and politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, M R

    1994-06-01

    An analysis of the politics of Bangladesh pharmaceutical policy in the 1980s shows how significant health policy reforms in developing countries depend on political conditions both inside and outside the country. Bangladesh's drug policy of 1982 illustrates that governments can sometimes change public policy in ways unfavourable to multinational corporations, while the failed health policy reform of 1990 shows that reforms unfavourable to powerful domestic interest groups can be more difficult to achieve, even contributing to a government's downfall. The case provides evidence of basic changes in how the international agenda for health policy is set, especially the growing role of non-governmental organizations in international agencies and national policy debates. Understanding the political patterns of policy reform in Bangladesh has important implications for strategies to affect health policy in developing countries.

  8. Analytical techniques in pharmaceutical analysis: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoom Raza Siddiqui

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of the pharmaceuticals brought a revolution in human health. These pharmaceuticals would serve their intent only if they are free from impurities and are administered in an appropriate amount. To make drugs serve their purpose various chemical and instrumental methods were developed at regular intervals which are involved in the estimation of drugs. These pharmaceuticals may develop impurities at various stages of their development, transportation and storage which makes the pharmaceutical risky to be administered thus they must be detected and quantitated. For this analytical instrumentation and methods play an important role. This review highlights the role of the analytical instrumentation and the analytical methods in assessing the quality of the drugs. The review highlights a variety of analytical techniques such as titrimetric, chromatographic, spectroscopic, electrophoretic, and electrochemical and their corresponding methods that have been applied in the analysis of pharmaceuticals.

  9. Pricing and reimbursement of pharmaceuticals in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folino-Gallo, Pietro; Montilla, Simona; Bruzzone, Mario; Martini, Nello

    2008-08-01

    In Italy the price setting of medicines reimbursed by the National Health Service is regulated at the central level by AIFA, the national regulatory authority. Prices of non reimbursed medicines are indeed freely established, with some limitations, by pharmaceutical companies. To contain pharmaceutical expenditure and rationalise the whole sector the following measures have been introduced in the past years: a threshold to public pharmaceutical expenditure (PPE); a reference price system (RPS) for off-patent medicines; a pay-back mechanism as an alternative to price cut. In 2008 Italy launched a reform of the pharmaceutical expenditure governance system with the aim to introduce stability and promote development and competitiveness in the pharmaceutical sector.

  10. Integrating systems Approaches into Pharmaceutical Sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerhoff, H.V.; Mosekilde, Erik; Noe, C. R.

    2008-01-01

    During the first week of December 2007, the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences (EUFEPS) and BioSim, the major European Network of Excellence on Systems Biology, held a challenging conference on the use of mathematical models in the drug development process. More precisely, the purpose...... of the conference was to promote the ‘Integration of Systems Approaches into Pharmaceutical Sciences’ in view of optimising the development of new effective drugs. And a challenge this is, considering both the high attrition rates in the pharmaceutical industry and the failure of finding definitive drug solutions...... for many of the diseases that plague mankind today. The conference was co-sponsored by the American College of Clinical Pharmacology, the European Center for Pharmaceutical Medicine, and the Swiss Society of Pharmaceutical Sciences and, besides representatives from the European Regulatory Agencies and FDA...

  11. Evaluating pharmaceutical waste disposal in pediatric units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Maria Angélica Randoli de; Wilson, Ana Maria Miranda Martins; Peterlini, Maria Angélica Sorgini

    2016-01-01

    To verify the disposal of pharmaceutical waste performed in pediatric units. A descriptive and observational study conducted in a university hospital. The convenience sample consisted of pharmaceuticals discarded during the study period. Handling and disposal during preparation and administration were observed. Data collection took place at pre-established times and was performed using a pre-validated instrument. 356 drugs disposals were identified (35.1% in the clinic, 31.8% in the intensive care unit, 23.8% in the surgical unit and 9.3% in the infectious diseases unit). The most discarded pharmacological classes were: 22.7% antimicrobials, 14.8% electrolytes, 14.6% analgesics/pain killers, 9.5% diuretics and 6.7% antiulcer agents. The most used means for disposal were: sharps' disposable box with a yellow bag (30.8%), sink drain (28.9%), sharps' box with orange bag (14.3%), and infectious waste/bin with a white bag (10.1%). No disposal was identified after drug administration. A discussion of measures that can contribute to reducing (healthcare) waste volume with the intention of engaging reflective team performance and proper disposal is necessary. Verificar o descarte dos resíduos de medicamentos realizado em unidades pediátricas. Estudo descritivo e observacional, realizado em um hospital universitário. A amostra de conveniência foi constituída pelos medicamentos descartados durante o período de estudo. Observaram-se a manipulação e o descarte durante o preparo e a administração. A coleta dos dados ocorreu em horários preestabelecidos e realizada por meio de instrumento pré-validado. Identificaram-se 356 descartes de medicamentos (35,1% na clínica, 31,8% na unidade de cuidados intensivos, 23,8% na cirúrgica e 9,3% na infectologia). As classes farmacológicas mais descartadas foram: 22,7% antimicrobianos, 14,8% eletrólitos, 14,6% analgésicos, 9,5% diuréticos e 6,7% antiulcerosos. Vias mais utilizadas: caixa descartável para perfurocortante com

  12. HCAHPS - Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of hospital ratings for the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS). HCAHPS is a national, standardized survey of hospital...

  13. Hospital Compare

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Hospital Compare has information about the quality of care at over 4,000 Medicare-certified hospitals across the country. You can use Hospital Compare to find...

  14. Synthetic biology for pharmaceutical drug discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trosset JY

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Yves Trosset,1 Pablo Carbonell2,3 1Bioinformation Research Laboratory, Sup’Biotech, Villejuif, France; 2Faculty of Life Sciences, SYNBIOCHEM Centre, Manchester Institute of Biotechnology, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK; 3Department of Experimental and Health Sciences (DCEXS, Research Programme on Biomedical Informatics (GRIB, Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute (IMIM, Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: Synthetic biology (SB is an emerging discipline, which is slowly reorienting the field of drug discovery. For thousands of years, living organisms such as plants were the major source of human medicines. The difficulty in resynthesizing natural products, however, often turned pharmaceutical industries away from this rich source for human medicine. More recently, progress on transformation through genetic manipulation of biosynthetic units in microorganisms has opened the possibility of in-depth exploration of the large chemical space of natural products derivatives. Success of SB in drug synthesis culminated with the bioproduction of artemisinin by microorganisms, a tour de force in protein and metabolic engineering. Today, synthetic cells are not only used as biofactories but also used as cell-based screening platforms for both target-based and phenotypic-based approaches. Engineered genetic circuits in synthetic cells are also used to decipher disease mechanisms or drug mechanism of actions and to study cell–cell communication within bacteria consortia. This review presents latest developments of SB in the field of drug discovery, including some challenging issues such as drug resistance and drug toxicity. Keywords: metabolic engineering, plant synthetic biology, natural products, synthetic quorum sensing, drug resistance

  15. Vulnerabilities to misinformation in online pharmaceutical marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Freitas, Julian; Falls, Brian A; Haque, Omar S; Bursztajn, Harold J

    2013-01-01

    Given the large percentage of Internet users who search for health information online, pharmaceutical companies have invested significantly in online marketing of their products. Although online pharmaceutical marketing can potentially benefit both physicians and patients, it can also harm these groups by misleading them. Indeed, some pharmaceutical companies have been guilty of undue influence, which has threatened public health and trust. We conducted a review of the available literature on online pharmaceutical marketing, undue influence and the psychology of decision-making, in order to identify factors that contribute to Internet users’ vulnerability to online pharmaceutical misinformation. We find five converging factors: Internet dependence, excessive trust in the veracity of online information, unawareness of pharmaceutical company influence, social isolation and detail fixation. As the Internet continues to change, it is important that regulators keep in mind not only misinformation that surrounds new web technologies and their contents, but also the factors that make Internet users vulnerable to misinformation in the first place. Psychological components are a critical, although often neglected, risk factor for Internet users becoming misinformed upon exposure to online pharmaceutical marketing. Awareness of these psychological factors may help Internet users attentively and safely navigate an evolving web terrain. PMID:23761527

  16. Strategic Management of Innovations at Pharmaceutical Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honcharova Svіtlana Yu.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to theoretical and practical issues of the use of the concept of strategic management of innovations at pharmaceutical enterprises. It studies main barriers, which restrict development of Ukrainian pharmaceutical enterprises. It analyses the state and tendencies of development of innovation activity of pharmaceutical enterprises and studies foreign experience of innovation activity. It marks out specific features of strategic management of innovation development in pharmaceutical industry. It specifies the role and advantages of methods of strategic analysis in the system of management of a pharmaceutical enterprise. It considers the essence of “innovation development” and “innovation model of development” notions and analyses their organisational and legal provision. It justifies strategic tasks of the pharmaceutical filed to focus on in order to achieve a breakthrough when building an innovation model of economic development. The article proves that the most important factors that ensure growth of efficiency of pharmaceutical production are: wide application of the concept of strategic management and creation of innovations.

  17. Vulnerabilities to misinformation in online pharmaceutical marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Freitas, Julian; Falls, Brian A; Haque, Omar S; Bursztajn, Harold J

    2013-05-01

    Given the large percentage of Internet users who search for health information online, pharmaceutical companies have invested significantly in online marketing of their products. Although online pharmaceutical marketing can potentially benefit both physicians and patients, it can also harm these groups by misleading them. Indeed, some pharmaceutical companies have been guilty of undue influence, which has threatened public health and trust. We conducted a review of the available literature on online pharmaceutical marketing, undue influence and the psychology of decision-making, in order to identify factors that contribute to Internet users' vulnerability to online pharmaceutical misinformation. We find five converging factors: Internet dependence, excessive trust in the veracity of online information, unawareness of pharmaceutical company influence, social isolation and detail fixation. As the Internet continues to change, it is important that regulators keep in mind not only misinformation that surrounds new web technologies and their contents, but also the factors that make Internet users vulnerable to misinformation in the first place. Psychological components are a critical, although often neglected, risk factor for Internet users becoming misinformed upon exposure to online pharmaceutical marketing. Awareness of these psychological factors may help Internet users attentively and safely navigate an evolving web terrain.

  18. Another development in pharmaceuticals: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streky, G

    1985-01-01

    The provision of appropriate medicines of the right kind, quality and quantity, and at reasonable prices is a central concern for any government. Simultaneously, there is increasing recognition of the serious problems inherent in the existing systems of pharmaceutical development, promotion, marketing, distribution and use in all countries and particularly in the 3rd World. The vast majority of people in most 3rd World countries have little or no access to effective and safe medicines. The Dag Hammarskjold Foundation organized a consultation on Another Development in Pharmaceuticals in June 1985. It was based on some papers commissioned for that occasion with a view to developing new approaches to fundamental problems in this field and involving both national and international actors and institutions. The basic concern of these papers was to place the debate on pharmaceuticals in its proper historical, contemporary and future context. The 5 major areas discussed were: 1) man and medicines: a historical perspective; 2) towards a healthy use of pharmaceuticals; 3) towards a healthy pharmaceutical industry by the year 2000; 4) 1st principles for the prescription, promotion and use of pharmaceuticals: towards a code of conduct; and 5) monitoring Another Development in Pharmaceuticals. 90% of the world's production of pharmaceuticals originates in the industrialized countries, which also accounts for 80% of the consumption. 3rd World countries have been supplied with a very inappropriate assortment of products by the pharmaceutical industry. There is a growing demand for improved practices that are conducive to health development. An international harmonization of regulatory standards is needed.

  19. Hospitality and hospitableness | Lashley | Research in Hospitality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Not long after the word hospitality emerged as a collective noun to describe the commercial provision of services associated with accommodation, drinking and eating, some academics began to investigate the meanings of hospitality and hospitableness. Whilst most academic programme provision related to developing ...

  20. Metrology in Pharmaceutical Industry - A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuvamoto, Priscila D.; Fermam, Ricardo K. S.; Nascimento, Elizabeth S.

    2016-07-01

    Metrology is recognized by improving production process, increasing the productivity, giving more reliability to the measurements and consequently, it impacts in the economy of a country. Pharmaceutical area developed GMP (Good Manufacture Practice) requeriments, with no introduction of metrological concepts. However, due to Nanomedicines, it is expected this approach and the consequent positive results. The aim of this work is to verify the level of metrology implementation in a Brazilian pharmaceutical industry, using a case study. The purpose is a better mutual comprehension by both areas, acting together and governmental support to robustness of Brazilian pharmaceutical area.

  1. Occupational allergy to pharmaceutical products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Occupational allergy in healthcare workers is common and can lead to significant costs from both loss of productivity within the workforce as well as those associated with diagnosis and treatment. This review aims to provide an update on drugs implicated in causing occupational allergy. Drugs traditionally reported as causing occupational allergy, such as penicillin, remain problematic. However, as their use reduces and newer drugs, such as cephalosporins, are used more frequently there is a changing pattern to occupational sensitization. In some studies up to 17% of healthcare workers now appear sensitized to cephalosporins. Other drug classes also reported include proton pump inhibitors and benzodiazepines. Interestingly, drugs such as omeprazole and tetrazepam rarely cause allergy in patients but can be very sensitizing if applied topically or inhaled. Recent studies involving pharmaceutical company employees show that this problem can no longer be considered primarily related to healthcare workers. The diagnosis of occupational allergy to drugs can be complicated and has been shown to take up to 5 years from the onset of symptoms. Ultimately, workplace avoidance remains key; however, an up to date awareness of culprit drugs and the patterns of allergy seen are key to a prompt resolution of symptoms.

  2. Mixed Reality Meets Pharmaceutical Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, William P; Mackey, Megan A; Shah, Vivek M; Hassell, Kerry M; Shah, Prashant; Wylie, Jennifer L; Gopinath, Janakiraman; Balderhaar, Henning; Li, Li; Wuelfing, W Peter; Helmy, Roy

    2017-09-01

    As science evolves, the need for more efficient and innovative knowledge transfer capabilities becomes evident. Advances in drug discovery and delivery sciences have directly impacted the pharmaceutical industry, though the added complexities have not shortened the development process. These added complexities also make it difficult for scientists to rapidly and effectively transfer knowledge to offset the lengthened drug development timelines. While webcams, camera phones, and iPads have been explored as potential new methods of real-time information sharing, the non-"hands-free" nature and lack of viewer and observer point-of-view render them unsuitable for the R&D laboratory or manufacturing setting. As an alternative solution, the Microsoft HoloLens mixed-reality headset was evaluated as a more efficient, hands-free method of knowledge transfer and information sharing. After completing a traditional method transfer between 3 R&D sites (Rahway, NJ; West Point, PA and Schnachen, Switzerland), a retrospective analysis of efficiency gain was performed through the comparison of a mock method transfer between NJ and PA sites using the HoloLens. The results demonstrated a minimum 10-fold gain in efficiency, weighing in from a savings in time, cost, and the ability to have real-time data analysis and discussion. In addition, other use cases were evaluated involving vendor and contract research/manufacturing organizations. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. ORIGINS AND RAMIFICATIONS OF PHARMACEUTICALS ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perhaps more so than with any other class of pollutants, the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPS) in the environment highlights the immediate, intimate, and inseparable connection between the personal activities of individual citizens and their environment. PPCPS, in contrast to other types of pollutants, owe their origins in the environment directly to their worldwide, universal, frequent, highly dispersed, and individually small but cumulative usage by multitudes of individuals - as opposed to the larger, highly delineated, and more controllable industrial manufacturing/usage of most high- volume synthetic chemicals. Many PPCPs (as well as their metabolites and transformation products) can enter the environment following ingestion or application by the user or administration to domestic animals. Disposal of unused/expired PPCPs in landfills and in domestic sewage is another route to the environment. The aquatic environment serves as the major, ultimate receptacle for these chemicals, for which little is known with respect to actual or potential adverse effects. Domestic sewage treatment plants are not designed to remove PPCPS, and the efficiencies with which they are removed vary from nearly complete to ineffective. While PPCPs in the environment (or domestic drinking water) are not regulated, and even though their concentrations are extremely low (ng/L-@Lg/L), the consequences of exposure to multiple compounds having different as w

  4. ORIGINS AND RAMIFICATIONS OF PHARMACEUTICALS & ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-soluble pharmaceuticals in source waters at levels that could be environmentally significant (at concentrations less than parts per billion, ppb). IAG with USGS ends in FY05. APM 20 due in FY05.Subtask 2: Coordination of interagency research and public outreach activities for PPCPs. Participate on NSTC Health and Environment subcommittee working group on PPCPs. Web site maintenance and expansion, invited technical presentations, invited articles for peer-reviewed journals, interviews for media, responding to public inquiries. S

  5. Animal-derived pharmaceutical proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redwan, el-Rashdy M

    2009-01-01

    Livestock animals have made a significant contribution to human health and well-being throughout humankind's history. A significant contribution of farm animals to human health are the longstanding use of bovine and porcine for production of insulin (for treatment of diabetes), gelatin (for pharmaceutical and other purposes), as well as horse and sheep antibody against natural venoms, toxins, drugs and microbial peptides. Gelatin being the biggest animal protein consumed in human health, follows with antibodies fragments. The chronic problem of animal-derived therapeutics, especially those of high molecular weight, is the immunogenicity induction in addition to their biosafety. However, the invertebrates and lower vertebrates donate the human being a several crucial emergency saving life small-peptides or their analogs such as Refludan, Prialt, Exendin. Not only, but the farm animals are enormously using as models for novel surgical strategies, testing of biodegradable implants and sources of tissue replacements, such as skin and heart valves. Recently, they are being harnessing as bioreactor for production of biopharmaceutical related products through gene farming with efficiency far greater than any conventional microbial or cell-culture production systems. Only 16 transgenic cows would be covering the worldwide needs from human growth hormone. The transgenic, especially animal, technology would be solving a several biopharmaceutical products disadvantages, such as cost, biosafety, immunogenicity and the availability dimensions.

  6. PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perhaps more so than with any other class of pollutants, the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPS) in the environment highlights the immediate, intimate, and inseparable connection between the individual activities of consumers and their environment. In contrast to other types of pollutants, PPCPs owe their origins in the environment directly to their worldwide, universal, frequent, highly dispersed, and individually small but aggregate/cumulative usage and disposal by multitudes of individuals. An overview of this multi-faceted issue can be found at a U.S. EPA web site (http://www.epa.gov/nerlesdl/chemistry/pharma/index.htm), which also provides a reprint of a review article published in Environmental Health Perspectives. PPCPs can enter the environment following their ingestion or application by the user or administration to domestic animals. Disposal of unused/expired PPCPS in landfills and to domestic sewage are additional routes to the environment. Domestic sewage treatment plants are not specifically engineered to remove PPCPS; the efficiencies with which they are removed from sewage vary from nearly complete to ineffective. The aquatic environment serves as the major, ultimate receptacle for most PPCPS. Little is known with respect to actual or even potential adverse effects on non-target species; human exposure via drinking water is poorly defined. While PPCPs in the environment (or domestic drinking water) are not regulated

  7. Emerging pharmaceutical therapies for COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, Sowmya P; Reddy, Aravind T; Reddy, Raju C

    2017-01-01

    COPD, for which cigarette smoking is the major risk factor, remains a worldwide burden. Current therapies provide only limited short-term benefit and fail to halt progression. A variety of potential therapeutic targets are currently being investigated, including COPD-related proinflammatory mediators and signaling pathways. Other investigational compounds target specific aspects or complications of COPD such as mucus hypersecretion and pulmonary hypertension. Although many candidate therapies have shown no significant effects, other emerging therapies have improved lung function, pulmonary hypertension, glucocorticoid sensitivity, and/or the frequency of exacerbations. Among these are compounds that inhibit the CXCR2 receptor, mitogen-activated protein kinase/Src kinase, myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate, selectins, and the endothelin receptor. Activation of certain transcription factors may also be relevant, as a large retrospective cohort study of COPD patients with diabetes found that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonists rosiglitazone and pioglitazone were associated with reduced COPD exacerbation rate. Notably, several therapies have shown efficacy only in identifiable subgroups of COPD patients, suggesting that subgroup identification may become more important in future treatment strategies. This review summarizes the status of emerging therapeutic pharmaceuticals for COPD and highlights those that appear most promising.

  8. The design and equipments of hospital pharmacies in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammad Sabzghabaee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays pharmaceutical care departments located in hospitals are amongst the important pillars of the healthcare system. The aim of this study was to evaluate designing features and equipments of hospital drugstores affiliated with Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Methods: In this cross-sectional study a self-defined and validated questionnaire was used which included all the necessary and standard needed spaces and equipments of an ideal hospital pharmacy. The questionnaire was filled in by one of the researchers in all twelve hospital drugstores located in the teaching and non-teaching hospitals affiliated with Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Data analysis was done using SPSS (version 14. Results: Results showed that 56% of drugstore space allocations were unsuitable. Used pharmaceutical equipments in 75% of surveyed hospitals were not according to the standards. Almost all of these pharmacies had rather an enough space for storage, but cold storages were not designed in 58% of them. In 66% of perused hospitals, pharmaceutical services disposal level was admissible. The structural engineering parameters like size and dimensions, available spaces, availability of structural planes, existence of air conditioning systems and brightness controllers, adequate stores for drugs and safe places for narcotics were observed in 55% of pharmacies. Conclusions: There are apparent out of standard space allocations and shortages of needed equipments for offering drug services in studied drugstores that may probably lead to a waste of time and money. These issues may reduce the efficiency and safety of pharmaceutical services and drug administration in hospitals.

  9. The design and equipments of hospital pharmacies in Isfahan, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad; Badri, Shirinsadat; Ashari, Hossein Esna; Hosseini, Seyyed Mahmood

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nowadays pharmaceutical care departments located in hospitals are amongst the important pillars of the healthcare system. The aim of this study was to evaluate designing features and equipments of hospital drugstores affiliated with Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study a self-defined and validated questionnaire was used which included all the necessary and standard needed spaces and equipments of an ideal hospital pharmacy. The questionnaire was filled in by one of the researchers in all twelve hospital drugstores located in the teaching and non-teaching hospitals affiliated with Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Data analysis was done using SPSS (version 14). RESULTS: Results showed that 56% of drugstore space allocations were unsuitable. Used pharmaceutical equipments in 75% of surveyed hospitals were not according to the standards. Almost all of these pharmacies had rather an enough space for storage, but cold storages were not designed in 58% of them. In 66% of perused hospitals, pharmaceutical services disposal level was admissible. The structural engineering parameters like size and dimensions, available spaces, availability of structural planes, existence of air conditioning systems and brightness controllers, adequate stores for drugs and safe places for narcotics were observed in 55% of pharmacies. CONCLUSIONS: There are apparent out of standard space allocations and shortages of needed equipments for offering drug services in studied drugstores that may probably lead to a waste of time and money. These issues may reduce the efficiency and safety of pharmaceutical services and drug administration in hospitals. PMID:21526085

  10. Pharmaceutical assistance in the enteral administration of drugs: choosing the appropriate pharmaceutical formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele de Lima

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study solid medications for oral delivery on the formulary of Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein (HIAE, investigating the  possibility of using these drugs through enteral feeding tubes, and recommending appropriate administration. Methods: Study carried out through survey of solid medications for oral delivery included on the formulary of HIAE, literature review, and analysis of medication monographs, manufacturer information and pharmacotechnical data of active ingredients and excipients. It was observed the factors that might hinder or complicate the administration of these drugs though enteral tubes, and was drawn an information chart with recommendations about drug administration in this context. Rresults: The study evaluated 234 medications; and the main problems of administering these drugs through enteral feeding tubes were as follows: changes in drug pharmacokinetics (38; gastrointestinal damage (9; risk of obstruction (40, drug-nutrient interactions (7; biological hazards (5 and no information (33. Cconclusions: Compiling this information helps the healthcare team to choose the appropriate pharmaceutical formulation for medications administered through enteral tubes, and may help identify adverse events related to this technique.

  11. Information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Nazila; Alibabaei, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Managing the supply chain plays an important role in creating competitive advantages for companies. Adequate information flow in supply chain is one of the most important issues in SCM. Therefore, using certain Information Systems can have a significant role in managing and integrating data and information within the supply chain. Pharmaceutical supply chain is more complex than many other supply chains, in the sense that it can affect social and political perspectives. On the other hand, managing the pharmaceutical supply chain is difficult because of its complexity and also government regulations in this field. Although, Iran has progressed a lot in pharmaceutical manufacturing, still there are many unsolved issues in managing the information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain. In this study, we reviewed the benefits of using different levels of an integrated information system in the supply chain and the possible challenges ahead.

  12. The Future of Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rantanen, Jukka; Khinast, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The entire pharmaceutical sector is in an urgent need of both innovative technological solutions and fundamental scientific work, enabling the production of highly engineered drug products. Commercial-scale manufacturing of complex drug delivery systems (DDSs) using the existing technologies...

  13. Pharmaceutical policy and the pharmacy profession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traulsen, Janine Marie; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors look at the relationship between pharmaceutical policy and the pharmacy profession with focus on pharmacy practice and pharmacists in the health care sector. Pharmaceutical policy encompasses three major policy inputs: public health policy, health care policy...... and industrial policy. In order to analyse and understand pharmaceutical policy, it is important to know how policymakers view pharmacy and pharmacists. The authors look at the issues that arise when policy regulates pharmacy as a business, and what this means for the profession. The perspective of pharmacy...... as a health care profession, as well as what it means when we view pharmaceutical policy in the context of the health sector labour market, is discussed. The authors also discuss how factors external to the profession are affecting its purpose and realm of practice, including the current trend...

  14. Pharmaceutical policy and the lay public

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traulsen, Janine M; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna

    2005-01-01

    organisations, industry and, most recently, the media. Although the overall aim of health and pharmaceutical policy is to address the needs of all citizens, there are only a few, well organised groups who are actually consulted and involved in the policymaking process, often with the support of the industry....... The reasons for this lack of citizen involvement in health and pharmaceutical policymaking are many, for example: there is no consensus about what public involvement means; there is a predominance of special interest groups with narrow, specific agendas; not all decision makers welcome lay participation...... and on pharmaceutical policy itself. The authors acknowledge that although lay involvement in policy is still in its infancy, some patient organisations have been successful and there are developments towards increased lay involvement in pharmaceutical policymaking....

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL STEWARDSHIP OF PHARMACEUTICALS - THE GREEN PHARMACY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPS) as environmental pollutants is a multifaceted issue whose scope continues to become better delineated since the escalation of conceited attention beginning in the 1980s. PPCPs typically occur as trace environme...

  16. Assessment of Veterinary Pharmaceutical Products Registered in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Topically administered dosage forms included solutions, sprays, ointments, creams, shampoos and powders, while those delivered via the intrauterine route included pessaries, solutions and suspensions. Keywords: dosage forms, administration route, veterinary pharmaceutical products, animal species, drug delivery.

  17. Pharmaceutical marketing research and the prescribing physician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Jeremy A

    2007-05-15

    Surveillance of physicians' prescribing patterns and the accumulation and sale of these data for pharmaceutical marketing are currently the subjects of legislation in several states and action by state and national medical associations. Contrary to common perception, the growth of the health care information organization industry has not been limited to the past decade but has been building slowly over the past 50 years, beginning in the 1940s when growth in the prescription drug market fueled industry interest in understanding and influencing prescribing patterns. The development of this surveillance system was not simply imposed on the medical profession by the pharmaceutical industry but was developed through the interactions of pharmaceutical salesmen, pharmaceutical marketers, academic researchers, individual physicians, and physician organizations. Examination of the role of physicians and physician organizations in the development of prescriber profiling is directly relevant to the contemporary policy debate surrounding this issue.

  18. Pharmaceutical technology management--profitable business avenue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthli, Shivanand P

    2010-01-01

    Growing research expenditure, regulatory framework and generic erosion have forced pharmaceutical companies globally to resort to pharmaceutical technology management (PTM). Indeed, the pharmaceutical industry has witnessed the impact of innovative drug delivery and device technologies and their influence on business. PTM has given a new business insight with greater profits and enhancement of product franchise. Promising breakthrough technologies have not been able to reach a commercial platform largely owing to lack of capital at the preliminary stages of the product development program. Intellectual property plays a considerable role in protecting innovative technologies. Joint ventures and strategic alliances also become important for commercializing a new technology. The synergy of PTM with options of in-licensing is expected to infuse newer opportunities to the pharmaceutical business.

  19. 16th Annual Medicinal & Pharmaceutical Sciences Congress

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Dev

    2017-01-01

    Conference Series LLC invites all the participants across the globe to attend 16th Annual Medicinal & Pharmaceutical Sciences Congress during October 16-17, 2017 Seoul, South Korea, which includes prompt keynote presentations, Oral talks, Poster presentations and Exhibitions. Med Pharma Congress is a specially designed cluster Pharma conference. The main theme of this Pharma conferences is “Developing the Synergy between Pharmaceutics and Medicinal Chemistry to Deliver Better Drugs” which cov...

  20. Raman spectroscopy in pharmaceutical product design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paudel, Amrit; Raijada, Dhara; Rantanen, Jukka

    2015-01-01

    molecular-based drug discovery, design of innovative drug delivery systems and quality control of finished products. This review presents concise accounts of various conventional and emerging Raman instrumentations including associated hyphenated tools of pharmaceutical interest. Moreover, relevant...... application cases of Raman spectroscopy in early and late phase pharmaceutical development, process analysis and micro-structural analysis of drug delivery systems are introduced. Finally, potential areas of future advancement and application of Raman spectroscopic techniques are discussed....

  1. Plant-derived pharmaceuticals - the road forward

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ma, JKC

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available -causing agents [4]; this group of PDPs is likely to attract a smaller regulatory burden compared with pharmaceuticals for humans. Among the diseases that have been targeted in trials, notable examples include canine parvovirus, foot and mouth disease virus... impact it has on surrounding crops and crops planted later in the rotation cycle that must be taken into account. Table 1. Plant-derived pharmaceutical proteins for potential medical use that have reached clinical development Product Medical condition...

  2. Synthetic biology advances for pharmaceutical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitling, Rainer; Takano, Eriko

    2015-12-01

    Synthetic biology enables a new generation of microbial engineering for the biotechnological production of pharmaceuticals and other high-value chemicals. This review presents an overview of recent advances in the field, describing new computational and experimental tools for the discovery, optimization and production of bioactive molecules, and outlining progress towards the application of these tools to pharmaceutical production systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pharmaceutical and biomedical applications of quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajwa, Neha; Mehra, Neelesh K; Jain, Keerti; Jain, Narendra K

    2016-05-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) have captured the fascination and attention of scientists due to their simultaneous targeting and imaging potential in drug delivery, in pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. In the present study, we have exhaustively reviewed various aspects of QDs, highlighting their pharmaceutical and biomedical applications, pharmacology, interactions, and toxicological manifestations. The eventual use of QDs is to dramatically improve clinical diagnostic tests for early detection of cancer. In recent years, QDs were introduced to cell biology as an alternative fluorescent probe.

  4. Pharmaceutical Distribution Market Channels in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Woś

    2009-01-01

    Distribution on the pharmaceutical market in Poland is interesting and the most difficult sphere to manage. Numerous varied and specialized companies operating on the market cause that the processes of choosing middlemen in distribution channels are very complex. The hereby article presents the role and location of the companies operating within distribution channels on the pharmaceutical market. It draws attention to the development of non-pharmacy and non-wholesale sales channels.

  5. Bromination of selected pharmaceuticals in water matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, F Javier; Acero, Juan L; Real, Francisco J; Roldan, Gloria; Casas, Francisco

    2011-11-01

    The bromination of five selected pharmaceuticals (metoprolol, naproxen, amoxicillin, phenacetin, and hydrochlorothiazide) was studied with these compounds individually dissolved in ultra-pure water. The apparent rate constants for the bromination reaction were determined as a function of the pH, obtaining the sequence amoxicillin>naproxen>hydrochlorothiazide≈phenacetin≈metoprolol. A kinetic mechanism specifying the dissociation reactions and the species formed for each compound according to its pK(a) value and the pH allowed the intrinsic rate constants to be determined for each elementary reaction. There was fairly good agreement between the experimental and calculated values of the apparent rate constants, confirming the goodness of the proposed reaction mechanism. In a second stage, the bromination of the selected pharmaceuticals simultaneously dissolved in three water matrices (a groundwater, a surface water from a public reservoir, and a secondary effluent from a WWTP) was investigated. The pharmaceutical elimination trend agreed with the previously determined rate constants. The influence of the main operating conditions (pH, initial bromine dose, and characteristics of the water matrix) on the degradation of the pharmaceuticals was established. An elimination concentration profile for each pharmaceutical in the water matrices was proposed based on the use of the previously evaluated apparent rate constants, and the theoretical results agreed satisfactorily with experiment. Finally, chlorination experiments performed in the presence of bromide showed that low bromide concentrations slightly accelerate the oxidation of the selected pharmaceuticals during chlorine disinfection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Risk-based prioritization of pharmaceuticals in the natural environment in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khazrajy, Omar S A; Boxall, Alistair B A

    2016-08-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the natural environment, raising concerns about their impact on non-target organisms or human health. One region where little is known about the exposure and effects of pharmaceuticals in the environment is Iraq. Due to the high number of pharmaceuticals used by the public health sector in Iraq (hospitals and care centres) and distributed over the counter, there is a need for a systematic approach for identifying substances that should be monitored in the environment in Iraq and assessed in terms of environmental risk. In this study, a risk-based prioritization approach was applied to 99 of the most dispensed pharmaceuticals in three Iraqi cities, Baghdad, Mosul and Basrah. Initially, information on the amounts of pharmaceuticals used in Iraq was obtained. The top used medicines were found to be paracetamol, amoxicillin and metformin with total annual consumption exceeding 1000 tonnes per year. Predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) and predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs), derived from ecotoxicological end-points and effects related to the therapeutic mode of action, were then used to rank the pharmaceuticals in terms of risks to different environmental compartments. Active pharmaceutical ingredients used as antibiotics, antidepressants and analgesics were identified as the highest priority in surface water, sediment and the terrestrial environment. Antibiotics were also prioritized according to their susceptibility to kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria or to accelerate the evolution and dissemination of antibiotic-resistant genes in water. Future work will focus on understanding the occurrence, fate and effects of some of highly prioritized substances in the environment.

  7. [The "pharmaceutical chain", important asset of health safety in France. Synthesis of the session].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, C

    2008-01-01

    The National Academy of Pharmacy underlines the importance of health safety guarantees, provided by the "pharmaceutical chain" that bring the medicine until his user (from manufacturers to dispensing pharmacists), chain of which the security of each link is controlled and guaranteed by pharmacists. The first of the safety rules lies in the very fast availability of the medicine for the patients, in every respect of the national territory, due to an efficient system of pharmaceutical distribution and to a tightened network of pharmaceutical dispensaries (that constitutes a network of expertises especially to the service of patients and public health). All along the chain, also exists a same concern to guarantee and to preserve the pharmaceutical quality of the medicines. An essential element of the health safety is the right usage of the medicine, to which contribute: information associated with the marketing of the medicine, the very important role of the dispensing pharmacist as such sanitary adviser and therapeutic education teacher, the intervention of the hospital dispensary in clinical pharmacy, the "Pharmaceutical File" under setting up, pharmacovigilance, traceability of medicines ... Pharmacists, responsible at the level of the different steps of the chain, get appropriate skills, carry out themselves their duties and are responsible in front of the National Board of Pharmacists, and their common professional knowledge reinforces the cohesion and the robustness of the chain. Facing the serious issue of counterfeiting of medicines, the pharmaceutical chain constitutes an important line of defence against the entry of counterfeited drugs into commercial channels. The academy of Pharmacy warns against all evolution that would consist to break, even partially, of the mandatory and continuous pharmaceutical control.

  8. Pharmaceutical drug detailing in primary care: extent and methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Jesper

    The dimension and methods of pharmaceutical marketing towards 47 danish general practitioners is described. Conclusions: Pharmaceutical drug detailing possesses a huge potential to influence the prescription pattern of GP's.......The dimension and methods of pharmaceutical marketing towards 47 danish general practitioners is described. Conclusions: Pharmaceutical drug detailing possesses a huge potential to influence the prescription pattern of GP's....

  9. Emerging pharmaceutical therapies for COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi SP

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sowmya P Lakshmi,1,2 Aravind T Reddy,1,2 Raju C Reddy1,2 1Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 2Veterans Affairs Pittsburgh Healthcare System, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Abstract: COPD, for which cigarette smoking is the major risk factor, remains a worldwide burden. Current therapies provide only limited short-term benefit and fail to halt progression. A variety of potential therapeutic targets are currently being investigated, including COPD-related proinflammatory mediators and signaling pathways. Other investigational compounds target specific aspects or complications of COPD such as mucus hypersecretion and pulmonary hypertension. Although many candidate therapies have shown no significant effects, other emerging therapies have improved lung function, pulmonary hypertension, glucocorticoid sensitivity, and/or the frequency of exacerbations. Among these are compounds that inhibit the CXCR2 receptor, mitogen-activated protein kinase/Src kinase, myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate, selectins, and the endothelin receptor. Activation of certain transcription factors may also be relevant, as a large retrospective cohort study of COPD patients with diabetes found that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ agonists rosiglitazone and pioglitazone were associated with reduced COPD exacerbation rate. Notably, several therapies have shown efficacy only in identifiable subgroups of COPD patients, suggesting that subgroup identification may become more important in future treatment strategies. This review summarizes the status of emerging therapeutic pharmaceuticals for COPD and highlights those that appear most promising. Keywords: pulmonary, PPAR, phosphodiesterase, emphysema, cigarette, mucus 

  10. Effect of pharmaceutical care on clinical outcomes of outpatients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao H

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hua Shao,1 Guoming Chen,1 Chao Zhu,2 Yongfei Chen,1 Yamin Liu,1 Yuxing He,2 Hui Jin3 1Department of Pharmacy, Zhongda Hospital, School of Medicine, Southeast University, 2Department of Clinical Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, 3Department of Endocrinology, Zhongda Hospital, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China Background: In the People’s Republic of China, outpatients have limited time with their physicians. Thus, compared to inpatients, outpatients have lower medication adherence and are less knowledgeable about their disease.Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pharmaceutical care on clinical outcomes of outpatients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM.Patients and methods: A randomized, controlled, prospective clinical trial was conducted recruiting a total of 240 T2DM outpatients from Zhongda Hospital, Southeast University. ­The control group (CG received only common care from medical staff, whereas the inter­vention group (IG received extra pharmaceutical care from clinical pharmacists. Biochemical data such as blood pressure (BP, fasting blood glucose (FBG, glycosylated hemoglobin A1 (HbA1c, and blood lipid were collected before and after 6-month intervention. The primary end points in this study were FBG and HbA1c.Results: After the intervention, most of the baseline clinical outcomes of the patients in IG significantly improved, while only body mass index, diastolic BP, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and total cholesterol (TC improved significantly in patients in the CG. Compared to CG, in IG, there were significant improvements in FBG, HbA1c, TC, the target attainment rates of HbA1c, and BP.Conclusion: Pharmaceutical care provided by clinical pharmacists could improve the control of diabetes of outpatients, and clinical pharmacists could play an important role in diabetes management. Keywords: clinical pharmacist, pharmaceutical care, type 2

  11. FORMATION AND FURTHER DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN PROMOTION OF PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юрий Владимирович Тарасов

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The articles addresses key notions and elements of marketing of pharmaceutical companies. Key stages and particularities of formation of pharmaceutical marketing are considered. It is proved that in general pharmaceutical market is developing under general marketing rules, however while developing strategy of promotion of pharmaceutical products specific features of the industry must be taken into consideration. The authors describes specific features of modern pharmaceutical market, which must be considered while developing policy of promotion of pharmaceutical products.The analysis is made of modern state of Russian pharmaceutical industry, its place in world pharmaceutical market. It is found that development of pharmaceutical market is directly influenced by the reform of pharmaceutical industry initiated by the Government of our country in 2008. Characteristic of current stage of market development is more strict conditions in marketing sphere and promotion of drugs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-12-2

  12. Attention to 'details': etiquette and the pharmaceutical salesman in postwar American.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Jeremy A

    2004-04-01

    This paper provides a sketch of the emerging role of the pharmaceutical salesman, or 'detail man', in the growth years of the American post-World War II pharmaceutical industry. Using training manuals, trade literature, in-house company newsletters, memoirs, and a variety of other published sources, the paper follows the delicate tactics employed by salesmen and their managers in their attempts to recast drug salesmanship as a 'professional service' fulfilling vital functions within medical education. As they worked to legitimate their presence in the nation's hospitals and clinics, particular emphasis was given to precise management of the etiquette of doctor-salesman interaction. Ultimately, the techniques employed by mid-century salesmen and their managers were to prove successful in generating a widespread acceptance of the industry representative within the clinical spaces of hospital and clinic. Indeed, many of the practices of market research and market strategy employed across the pharmaceutical industry today have their origins in the practices of the individual detail man. Exploration of the postwar pharmaceutical salesman as an overlooked historical 'type' provides significant insights into the intersection of medicine and the consumer marketplace during the later 20th century.

  13. Pharmaceutical costs of assisted reproduction in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, Maria-Reyes; Hernández, Juana; Antoñanzas, Fernando

    2013-11-01

    Assisted reproduction is one of the health services currently being considered for possible limitation or exclusion from the public health services portfolio in Spain. One of the main reasons claimed for this is the impact on the budget for pharmaceutical expenditure. The objective of this study was to assess the significance of the pharmaceutical costs of assisted reproduction in Spain. This study focused on medical practice in Spain, and is based on the opinions of experts in assisted reproduction and the results provided by professional societies' publications. The reference year is 2012 and the setting was secondary care. We have included all existing pharmaceutical modalities for assisted reproduction, as well as the most common drug for each modality. We have considered the pharmaceutical cost per cycle for artificial insemination, in vitro fertilisation with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF_ICSI), and cryotransfer and donated fresh oocytes reception. In Spain, artificial insemination has a pharmaceutical cost per cycle of between €69.36 and €873.79. This amounts to an average cycle cost of €364.87 for partner's sperm and €327.10 for donor sperm. The pharmaceutical cost of IVF_ICSI ranges between €278.16 and €1,902.66, giving an average cost per cycle of €1,139.65. In the case of cryotransfer and donated fresh oocytes reception, the pharmaceutical cost per cycle is between €22.61 and €58.73, yielding an average cost of €40.67. The budgetary impact of pharmaceutical expenditure for assisted reproduction in Spain for the year 2012 was estimated at €98.7 million. In Spain, the total pharmaceutical cost of assisted reproduction is substantial. According to our results, we can say that about 29% of the total pharmaceutical expenditure for assisted reproduction techniques is funded by the National Health System and the rest represents 2.4% of the total annual out-of-pocket family expenditure on drugs.

  14. [The reference pricing of pharmaceuticals in European countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildeyeva, G N; Starykh, D A

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the analysis of various approaches to estimation of pharmaceuticals prices in conditions of actual systems of pharmaceuticals support. The pricing is considered in pegging to actual systems of pharmaceuticals support based on the principles of insurance and co-financing. The detailed analysis is presented concerning the methodology of estimation of reference prices of pharmaceuticals in different countries of Europe. The experience of European countries in evaluation of interchangeability of pharmaceuticals is discussed.

  15. Occurrence and distribution of selected pharmaceuticals and personal care products in aquatic environments: a comparative study of regions in China with different urbanization levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Li, Xiaojuan; Zhu, Saichang

    2012-07-01

    We analyzed and compared the distributions of 13 target pharmaceuticals in different water samples from the Hangzhou metropolitan area and Linan County, Southeast China. Sampling was conducted in five hospitals, two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and Qiantang River. Samples were concentrated by solid-phase extraction and PPCP concentrations were determined by UPLC-MS/MS. Trimethoprim, erythromycin A dihydrate, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, diclofenac sodium, and atenolol were the most frequently detected pharmaceuticals in hospital effluents. Most of the pharmaceutical concentrations in hospital effluents were higher than those in the WWTP influents. Although both WWTPs adopt the anaerobic-aerobic-anoxic treatment process, the removal rates for pharmaceuticals, such as trimethoprim and diclofenac sodium, were completely different. Meanwhile, erythromycin A dihydrate, ofloxacin, penicillin-G, cephalexin, cefazolin, ibuprofen, and diclofenac sodium were detected in Qiantang River. These results indicate that hospitals are more concentrated sources of pharmaceuticals than WWTPs, and the WWTPs are not the only route of entry of pharmaceuticals into aquatic environments in these two regions.

  16. Medication review and patient counselling at discharge from the hospital by community pharmacists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hugtenburg, J. G.; Borgsteede, S. D.; Beckeringh, J. J.

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: In 2001, the Association of Amsterdam Community Pharmacists adopted a programme to improve the pharmaceutical care of patients who were discharged from hospital with five or more drug prescriptions. A comprehensive protocol for pharmaceutical care at discharge (IBOM-1) was developed. The aim

  17. [Approach to Teaching Kampo Medicine at Kyoto Pharmaceutical University].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    An approach to educating our pharmaceutical students about Kampo medicine in the six-year system of undergraduate pharmacy education at Kyoto Pharmaceutical University is introduced, including the author's opinions. Curriculum revisions have been made in our university for students entering after 2012. In teaching Kampo medicine at present, a medical doctor and an on-site pharmacist share information difficult to give in a lecture with the teaching staff in my laboratory. For example, before the curriculum revision, we conferred with a pharmacist and a doctor in the course "Kampo Medicine A, B" for 4th year students, in which students were presented a basic knowledge of Kampo medicine, the application of important Kampo medicines, combinations of crude drugs, etc. Further, in our "Introduction to Kampo Medicine" for 6th year students, presented after they have practiced in hospitals and community pharmacies, we again lecture on the pharmacological characteristics of Kampo medicines, on "pattern (Sho)", and on evidence-based medicine (EBM) and research studies of important Kampo medicines. After our curriculum revision, "Kampo Medicine A, B" was rearranged into the courses "Kampo and Pharmacognosy" and "Clinical Kampo Medicine". "Kampo and Pharmacognosy" is now provided in the second semester of the 3rd year, and in this course we lecture on the basic knowledge of Kampo medicine. An advanced lecture will be given on "Clinical Kampo Medicine" in the 6th year. We are searching for the best way to interest students in Kampo medicine, and to counteract any misunderstandings about Kampo medicine.

  18. The ethics of pharmaceutical research funding: a social organization approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Garry C

    2013-01-01

    This paper advances a social organization approach to examining unethical behavior. While unethical behaviors may stem in part from failures in individual morality or psychological blind spots, they are both generated and performed through social interactions among individuals and groups. To illustrate the value of a social organization approach, a case study of a medical school professor's first experience with pharmaceutical-company-sponsored research is provided in order to examine how funding arrangements can constrain research integrity. The case illustrates three significant ways that institutional corruption can occur in the research process. First, conflicts of norms between pharmaceutical companies, universities, and affiliated teaching hospitals can result in compromises and self-censorship. Second, normal behavior is shaped through routine interactions. Unethical behaviors can be (or can become) normal behaviors when they are produced and reproduced through a network of social interactions. Third, funding arrangements can create networks of dependency that structurally distort the independence of the academic researcher in favor of the funder's interests. More broadly, the case study demonstrates how the social organization approach deepens our understanding of the practice of ethics. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  19. Reforms in the Greek pharmaceutical market during the financial crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandoros, Sotiris; Stargardt, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Following the financial crisis of 2008, Greece has been facing severe fiscal problems associated with high public debt and deficit. Given their significant contribution to public sector expenditure, part of the effort to reduce public expenditure has involved a focus on pharmaceutical markets. Our aim is to provide an overview of recent policy changes in the Greek pharmaceutical market as a response to the crisis. We also discuss other potential measures that can be implemented. The recommendations are relevant to European countries facing debt crises, but also to any other country, as improving efficiency makes funds available to be used on other interventions. In 2010 and 2011, following the debt crisis and the agreement with the IMF, EU and ECB, the Greek government introduced several policy measures aimed at cost-containment. These changes included (a) price cuts, (b) the re-introduction of a positive list, (c) changes in the profit margins of pharmacies and wholesalers, and (d) tenders for hospital drugs. As a result, public drug expenditure decreased from €5.09 billion in 2009 to €4.25 billion in 2010 and €4.10 billion in 2011. As the need to cut expenditure becomes more urgent, seeking efficiency is possibly the only option for countries that do not wish to compromise quality of healthcare and public health. However, efficiency and cost containment are not only about introducing new policies, but also about the enforcement of existing laws and fighting corruption. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Pharmaceutical Formulation Facilities as Sources of Opioids and Other Pharmaceuticals to Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Facilities involved in the manufacture of pharmaceutical products are an under-investigated source of pharmaceuticals to the environment. Between 2004 and 2009, 35 to 38 effluent samples were collected from each of three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in New York and analyzed for seven pharmaceuticals including opioids and muscle relaxants. Two WWTPs (NY2 and NY3) receive substantial flows (>20% of plant flow) from pharmaceutical formulation facilities (PFF) and one (NY1) receives no PFF flow. Samples of effluents from 23 WWTPs across the United States were analyzed once for these pharmaceuticals as part of a national survey. Maximum pharmaceutical effluent concentrations for the national survey and NY1 effluent samples were generally 400 μg/L. Maximum concentrations of oxycodone (1700 μg/L) and metaxalone (3800 μg/L) in samples from NY3 effluent exceeded 1000 μg/L. Three pharmaceuticals (butalbital, carisoprodol, and oxycodone) in samples of NY2 effluent had median concentrations ranging from 2 to 11 μg/L. These findings suggest that current manufacturing practices at these PFFs can result in pharmaceuticals concentrations from 10 to 1000 times higher than those typically found in WWTP effluents. PMID:20521847

  1. Antihistamines prescribed off-label among paediatric patients at a tertiary care hospital setting in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Rou Wei; Mohamed Shah, Noraida

    2016-10-01

    Background Antihistamines are widely prescribed to children but should be used with caution in young children. Objective To determine the paediatric prescribing pattern of antihistamines with a focus on the off-label prescribing and factors that influence such prescribing. Setting Paediatric wards of a tertiary care hospital setting in Malaysia. Methods The pharmacy-based computer system and medical records were used to collect the required data. Labelling status of each antihistamine was determined based on the information provided in the product leaflets. Main outcome measure Antihistamines prescribed off-label and factors associated with such prescribing. Results Of the 176 hospitalised children aged higher than the recommended dose (30.2 %). Binary logistic regression showed that children aged studied locations and warrants further investigation on the consequences of such prescribing.

  2. Pharmaceutical supply chain risks: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaberidoost, Mona; Nikfar, Shekoufeh; Abdollahiasl, Akbar; Dinarvand, Rassoul

    2013-12-19

    Supply of medicine as a strategic product in any health system is a top priority. Pharmaceutical companies, a major player of the drug supply chain, are subject to many risks. These risks disrupt the supply of medicine in many ways such as their quantity and quality and their delivery to the right place and customers and at the right time. Therefore risk identification in the supply process of pharmaceutical companies and mitigate them is highly recommended. In this study it is attempted to investigate pharmaceutical supply chain risks with perspective of manufacturing companies. Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science bibliographic databases and Google scholar scientific search engines were searched for pharmaceutical supply chain risk management studies with 6 different groups of keywords. All results found by keywords were reviewed and none-relevant articles were excluded by outcome of interests and researcher boundaries of study within 4 steps and through a systematic method. Nine articles were included in the systematic review and totally 50 main risks based on study outcome of interest extracted which classified in 7 categories. Most of reported risks were related to supply and supplier issues. Organization and strategy issues, financial, logistic, political, market and regulatory issues were in next level of importance. It was shown that the majority of risks in pharmaceutical supply chain were internal risks due to processes, people and functions mismanagement which could be managed by suitable mitigation strategies.

  3. Lubricants in Pharmaceutical Solid Dosage Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjiang Li

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Lubrication plays a key role in successful manufacturing of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms; lubricants are essential ingredients in robust formulations to achieve this. Although many failures in pharmaceutical manufacturing operations are caused by issues related to lubrication, in general, lubricants do not gain adequate attention in the development of pharmaceutical formulations. In this paper, the fundamental background on lubrication is introduced, in which the relationships between lubrication and friction/adhesion forces are discussed. Then, the application of lubrication in the development of pharmaceutical products and manufacturing processes is discussed with an emphasis on magnesium stearate. In particular, the effect of its hydration state (anhydrate, monohydrate, dihydrate, and trihydrate and its powder characteristics on lubrication efficiency, as well as product and process performance is summarized. In addition, the impact of lubrication on the dynamics of compaction/compression processes and on the mechanical properties of compacts/tablets is presented. Furthermore, the online monitoring of magnesium stearate in a blending process is briefly mentioned. Finally, the chemical compatibility of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API with magnesium stearate and its reactive impurities is reviewed with examples from the literature illustrating the various reaction mechanisms involved.

  4. Pharmaceutical supply chain risks: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Supply of medicine as a strategic product in any health system is a top priority. Pharmaceutical companies, a major player of the drug supply chain, are subject to many risks. These risks disrupt the supply of medicine in many ways such as their quantity and quality and their delivery to the right place and customers and at the right time. Therefore risk identification in the supply process of pharmaceutical companies and mitigate them is highly recommended. Objective In this study it is attempted to investigate pharmaceutical supply chain risks with perspective of manufacturing companies. Methods Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science bibliographic databases and Google scholar scientific search engines were searched for pharmaceutical supply chain risk management studies with 6 different groups of keywords. All results found by keywords were reviewed and none-relevant articles were excluded by outcome of interests and researcher boundaries of study within 4 steps and through a systematic method. Results Nine articles were included in the systematic review and totally 50 main risks based on study outcome of interest extracted which classified in 7 categories. Most of reported risks were related to supply and supplier issues. Organization and strategy issues, financial, logistic, political, market and regulatory issues were in next level of importance. Conclusion It was shown that the majority of risks in pharmaceutical supply chain were internal risks due to processes, people and functions mismanagement which could be managed by suitable mitigation strategies. PMID:24355166

  5. Epidemic of medical errors and hospital-acquired infections: systemic and social causes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Charney, William

    2012-01-01

    ...) and pharmaceutical errors combined are the second or third leading killer of Americans annually: approximately 300,000 die from a combination of medical errors, hospital acquired infections (HAIs...

  6. The men behind the eponymous pharmaceuticals companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Al Aboud

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are different sources of names in medical field. Similarly, the names given to pharmaceuticals companies are derived from different things. Selecting a good name is not always easy. In fact, there are now professional companies to help finding proper names for medical organizations and medications [1]. These were of help in naming pharmaceutical companies. For instance; ”Zeneca” was an invented name created by the branding consultancy Interbrand. Interbrand had been instructed to find a name which began with a letter from either the top or bottom of the alphabet and was phonetically memorable, of no more than three syllables and did not have an offensive meaning in any language. However, using the names of the founders (eponyms is a common type of naming pharmaceuticals companies.

  7. Thermal properties of food and pharmaceutical powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiad, Mohamad Ghassan

    Foods and pharmaceuticals are complex systems usually exposed to various environmental conditions during processing and thus storage, stability, functionality and quality are key attributes that deserve careful attention. The quality and stability of foods and pharmaceuticals are mainly affected by environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity, time, and processing conditions (e.g. shear, pressure) under which they may undergo physical and/or chemical transformations. Glass transition as well as other thermal properties is a key to understand how external conditions affect physical changes of such materials. Development of new materials and understanding the physico-chemical behavior of existing ones require a scientific foundation that translates into safe and high quality foods, improved quality of pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals with lower risk to patients and functional efficacy of polymers used in food and medicinal products. This research provides an overview of the glass transition and other thermal properties and introduces novel methods developed to characterize such properties.

  8. Marketing concepts for pharmaceutical service development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, D W

    1981-02-01

    Marketing concepts as a mechanism to help pharmacy develop, communicate, and sell future pharmaceutical services to consumers are discussed. Pharmacy as a profession must define itself broadly to take advantage of future growth opportunities. These growth opportunities will be realized from unmet health-care needs and changing consumer life style trends and values. New services must therefore be oriented toward consumers (i.e., patients, health professionals, and third-party agencies) to gain acceptance. Dispensing and drug-knowledge-distribution pharmaceutical services are reviewed by a product life cycle analysis of sales profits versus time. A marketing mix for new pharmaceutical services is developed consisting of service, price, distribution, and promotion strategies. Marketing can encompass those key elements necessary to meet the organizational goals of pharmacy and provide a systematic, disciplined approach for presenting a new service to consumers.

  9. Pharmaceutical strategy and innovation: an academics perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxendale, Ian R; Hayward, John J; Ley, Steven V; Tranmer, Geoffrey K

    2007-06-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is under increasing pressure on many fronts, from investors requiring larger returns to consumer groups and health authorities demanding cheaper and safer drugs. It is also feeling additional pressure from the infringement upon its profit margins by generic drug producers. Many companies are aggressively pursuing outsourcing contracts in an attempt to counter many of the financial pressures and streamline their operations. At the same time, the productivity of the pharmaceutical industry at its science base is being questioned in terms of the number of products and the timeframes required for each company to deliver them to market. This has generated uncertainties regarding the current corporate strategies that have been adopted and the levels of innovation being demonstrated. In this essay we discuss these topics in the context of the global pharmaceutical market, investigating the basis for many of these issues and highlighting the hurdles the industry needs to overcome, especially as they relate to the chemical sciences.

  10. Pharmaceutical care: the PCNE definition 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allemann, Samuel S; van Mil, J W Foppe; Botermann, Lea; Berger, Karin; Griese, Nina; Hersberger, Kurt E

    2014-06-01

    Twenty-three years after Hepler and Strand published their well-known definition of Pharmaceutical Care (PhC), confusion remains about what the term includes and how to differentiate it from other terms. The board of the Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe (PCNE) felt the need to redefine PhC and to answer the question: "What is Pharmaceutical Care in 2013". The aims of this paper were to review existing definitions of PhC and to describe the process of developing a redefined definition. A literature search was conducted in the MEDLINE database (1964-January 2013). Keywords included "Pharmaceutical Care", "Medication (Therapy) Management", "Medicine Management", and "Pharmacist Care" in the title or abstract together with the term "defin*". To ease comparison between definitions, we developed a standardised syntax to paraphrase the definitions. During a dedicated meeting, a moderated discussion about the definition of PhC was organised. The initial literature search produced 186 hits, with eight unique PhC definitions. Hand searching identified a further 11 unique definitions. These 19 definitions were paraphrased using the standardised syntax (provider, recipient, subject, outcome, activities). Fourteen members of PCNE and 10 additional experts attended the moderated discussion. Working groups of increasing size developed intermediate definitions, which had similarities and differences to those retrieved in the literature search. At the end of the session, participants reached a consensus on a "PCNE definition of Pharmaceutical Care" reading: "Pharmaceutical Care is the pharmacist's contribution to the care of individuals in order to optimize medicines use and improve health outcomes". It was possible to paraphrase definitions of PhC using a standardised syntax focusing on the provider, recipient, subject, outcomes, and activities included in PhC practice. During a one-day workshop, experts in PhC research agreed on a definition, intended to be applicable for the

  11. The uncertainty budget in pharmaceutical industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj

    Measurements in a pharmaceutical industry are usually carried out to ascertain the quality of a product or the control of a process; in either case the measurement result serves to demonstrate that the value of the measurand is within specified limits. No method is without bias, and no result...... of their uncertainty, exactly as described in GUM [2]. Pharmaceutical industry has therefore over the last 5 years shown increasing interest in accreditation according to ISO 17025 [3], and today uncertainty budgets are being developed for all so-called critical measurements. The uncertainty of results obtained...

  12. Pharmaceutical care of elderly patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jyun-Hong; Ou, Huang-Tz; Lin, Tzu-Chieh; Lai, Edward Chia-Cheng; Kao, Yea-Huei Yang

    2016-02-01

    Care of the elderly with diabetes is more complicated than that for other age groups. The elderly and/or those with multiple comorbidities are often excluded from randomized controlled trials of treatments for diabetes. The heterogeneity of health status of the elderly also increases the difficulty in diabetes care; therefore, diabetes care for the elderly should be individualized. Motivated patients educated about diabetes benefit the most from collaborating with a multidisciplinary patient-care team. A pharmacist is an important team member by serving as an educator, coach, healthcare manager, and pharmaceutical care provider. To evaluate the effects of pharmaceutical care on glycemic control of ambulatory elderly patients with type 2 diabetes. A 421-bed district hospital in Nantou City, Taiwan. We conducted a randomized controlled clinical trial involving 100 patients with type 2 diabetes with poor glycemic control (HbA1c levels of ≥9.0 %) aged ≥65 years over 6 months. Participants were randomly assigned to a standard-care (control, n = 50) or pharmaceutical-care (intervention, n = 50) group. Pharmaceutical care was provided by a certified diabetes-educator pharmacist who identified and resolved drug-related problems and established a procedure for consultations pertaining to medication. The Mann–Whitney test was used to evaluate nonparametric quantitative data. Statistical significance was defined as P Medical expenses between groups did not significantly differ (−624.06 vs. −418.7, P = 0.767). There was no significant difference in hospitalization rates between groups. The pharmacist intervention program provided pharmaceutical services that improved long-term, safe control of blood sugar levels for ambulatory elderly patients with diabetes and did not increase medical expenses.

  13. Hospitality and hospitableness | Lashley | Research in Hospitality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research in Hospitality Management. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 5, No 1 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  14. Occurrence and removal of pharmaceuticals in a municipal sewage treatment system in the south of Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorita, Saioa; Mårtensson, Lennart; Mathiasson, Lennart

    2009-04-01

    The occurrence and removal rate of seven pharmaceuticals (ibuprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, fluoxetine, ofloxacin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin), two metabolites (norfluoxetine, clofibric acid), one degradation product (4-isobutylacetophenone) and 3 estrogens (17alpha-ethinylestradiol, 17beta-estradiol, estrone) were studied in the inlet and outlet of a tertiary sewage treatment plant (STP) in Sweden as well as between different treatment steps in the STP which includes a conventional activated sludge step. Pharmaceuticals in raw household and raw hospital sewage streams leading to the STP were as well investigated. Hydraulic retention times (HRT) of each treatment step was considered for sampling and for the calculation of the removal rates. These rates were above 90%, except for diclofenac, clofibric acid, estrone and ofloxacin. However, only diclofenac and naproxen showed significant effluent loads (>145 mg/d/1000 inh). Diclofenac was not eliminated during the treatment and in fact even higher concentrations were found at the effluent than in the inlet of the STP. 17alpha-Ethinylestradiol was not detected in any of the samples. Results indicate that a STP such as the one in Kristianstad, Sweden, with a tertiary treatment is sufficient to remove significantly most of the investigated pharmaceuticals. The chemical treatment improved the removal of several pharmaceuticals especially the antibiotics, which showed step removal rates between 55 and 70%. The expected concentration levels of the pharmaceuticals in the surface water (dilution 1 to 10) close to the outlet of the STP are below the no-observed effect-concentration (NOEC). However, despite that this would imply no important effects in the aquatic environment one cannot rule out negative consequences nearby the STP because most of the NOEC values are derived from acute toxicity data. This may underestimate the real impact of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic ecosystem.

  15. Obstacles and opportunities in Chinese pharmaceutical innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jingyun; Zhao, Junrui; Ung, Carolina Oi Lam; Hu, Yuanjia; Hu, Hao; Wang, Yitao

    2017-03-24

    Global healthcare innovation networks nowadays have expanded beyond developed countries with many developing countries joining the force and becoming important players. China, in particular, has seen a significant increase in the number of innovative firms and research organizations stepping up to the global network in recent years. Nevertheless, the intense Research and Development input has not brought about the expectable output. While China is ascending at a great speed to a leading position worldwide in terms of Research and Development investment, scientific publications and patents, the innovation capabilities in the pharmaceutical sector remain weak. This study discusses the challenges and opportunities for pharmaceutical innovation in China. One hand, academic, industrial, institutional and financial constraints were found to be the major and inevitable barriers hindering the development of drug innovation. On the other hand, unique advantages had been observed which included growing pharmaceutical market, Research and Development funding, distinctive source, and international cooperation. The most important thing for China's pharmaceutical sector to leap forward is to break though innovation barriers and integrate own advantages into global value-chain of healthcare product development.

  16. DRUG COSTS UPDATE ON THE PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    The initiative involves a venture with two Indian pharmaceutical companies and a South African generic medicine manufacturer (Aspen Pharmacare). These companies will be manufacturing generic antiretroviral medication — funding from the Foundation will allow a further reduction in price. A target annual cost quoted is.

  17. Quality Systems Implementation in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nafiisah

    The manufacturer paid a fine of only $26 000 and this incident led to the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act .... hormones, cytotoxic substances or other highly active pharmaceuticals, together with operations such as .... packaging, forms and dosage of the Paracetamol products as to be able to provide products of quality; surveys ...

  18. Patients Comprehension of Pharmaceutical Package Inserts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the knowledge and attitude of outpatients regarding pharmaceutical package inserts (PPIs) in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods: The study design was cross-sectional and conducted from August to December 2013. A previously validated questionnaire was adopted, modified and revalidated. Outpatients ...

  19. Quantification of the compactibility of pharmaceutical powders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnergaard, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate and to quantify the compactibility of pharmaceutical powders by a simple linear relationship between the diametral compressive strength of tablets and the applied compaction pressure. The mechanical strength of the tablets is characterized as the crushing...

  20. Business Model Innovation in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrensbach Rasmussen, Klement; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    Based on interviews in LEO Pharma, UCB Pharma and Novo Nordisk, we document how deep-seated changes in the pharmaceutical industry related to increasing demands from payers, the strengthening of the role of patients, changing legal demands, and declining technological opportunity, drive a process...

  1. Pharmaceutical Regulatory Framework in Ethiopia: A Critical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Effective and enforceable national regulations describing the manufacture and (re)packaging, export and import, distribution and storage, supply and sale, information and pharmaco-vigilance of medicines are required to consistently ensure optimal patient benefit. Expansion of pharmaceutical industries in ...

  2. Pharmaceutical technology, biopharmaceutics and drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Yu Seok; Lee, Beom-Jin

    2011-03-01

    The 40th annual international conference of the Korean Society of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology on Pharmaceutical Technology, Biopharmaceutics and Drug Delivery was held on 2-3 December 2010 in Jeju Special Self-Governing Providence, Korea, to celebrate its 40th anniversary. A comprehensive review of a wide spectrum of recent topics on pharmaceutical technology, biopharmaceutics and drug delivery was presented. Invited lectures and poster presentations over 2 days were divided into six parallel sessions covering areas such as biotechnology, biopharmaceutics, drug delivery, formulation/manufacture, regulatory science and frontier science. Among these, there were two sessions related to regulatory science and biopharmaceutics that were co-sponsored by the Korea Food and Drug Administration. In fact, this conference provided an opportunity for many investigators to discuss their research, collect new information and to promote the advancement of knowledge in each pharmaceutical area. This conference report summarizes the keynote podium presentations provided by many distinguished speakers, including Gordon L Amidon of the University of Michigan.

  3. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Allied Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Pharmaceutical and Allied Sciences (JOPHAS) publishes original scientific and technical research works carried out on drugs and drug-related products, within and outside Nigeria in the fields of pharmacy, microbiology, biochemistry, biotechnology, pharmacology, medical sciences and veterinary medicine.

  4. Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology: Strategies and Techniques of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The health industry is enormous today and will only get larger as the babyboomers reach old age. With such a huge customer based and an increasing demand, pharmaceutical industries will respond to patient's demands by expanding their technologies. As drugs become more complex and increasingly toxic, new modes ...

  5. Pharmaceutical Equivalence of Some Commercial Samples of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Methods: Fifteen generic brands of artesunate and five generic brands of amodiaquine tablets were obtained from drug retail outlets in Oyo and .... Materials. Artesunate reference powder was a donation from Greenlife Pharmaceuticals Nigeria Plc,. (Lagos, Nigeria) and amodiaquine reference powder was donated by Pfizer ...

  6. Toward a Regional Research Agenda on Pharmaceutical ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Toward a Regional Research Agenda on Pharmaceutical Manufacturing and Access to Medicines in Sub-Saharan Africa. Africa continues to deal with an increasing disease burden, neglect of African disease problems (such as Ebola), and continued over-reliance on imported essential medicines. Policymakers are looking ...

  7. Developing Closer Ties with the Pharmaceutical Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Gregor; Hoddinott, Susan

    1991-01-01

    The need for research administrators to understand and appreciate the pharmaceutical industry's research and development environment is discussed, using examples from Canada. The research administrator's role in the technology transfer process and implications for faculty are examined. Ways to build closer school-industry ties are discussed. (MSE)

  8. Bacteriological quality of some pharmaceutical products marketed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacteriological quality of some pharmaceutical products purchased from open markets, buses and drug stores in Uyo metropolis was studied in order to determine the level of contamination of the drugs. The drug samples examined were Tetracycline capsules, Paracetamol tablets, Ampicillin capsules, Chloroquine tablets, ...

  9. [Current challenges for the pharmaceutical research industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalchat, B

    1993-01-01

    The Research Pharmaceutical Industry is currently facing a number of increasingly complex challenges. Today indeed, the discovery and marketing of innovative medicines is linked: not only to Compagnies' abilities to solve relatively basic and traditional difficulties which have deeply changed over the past few years, for instance: the regulatory constraints, the dramatic increase in development costs, the critical mass required for investments, the development time periods and the protection of innovation, human resources and organization; but also to the acceptance of recent factors which the Research Pharmaceutical Industry must imperatively overcome, such as: the new Research channels and namely biotechnologies, the building of a pharmaceutical Europe and the internationalization of molecules, the needs of the third world, the innovation financing and the control of Health expenditures, the public opinion's shift in expectations regarding ethical and environmental issues. The Pharmaceutical Industry is currently in a shake-up phase during which it will undergo deep changes, with regard both to its activities and in relations with its environment.

  10. Assessment of pharmaceutical care practices of community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in certain pharmaceutical care activities, certain aspect of patient education and most frequently encountered drug therapy problem. Completed questionnaires were subjected to descriptive analysis. The relationship between socio-demographic profile and response was explored using chi-square and student t-test.

  11. Pharmaceutical and pharmacological approaches for bioavailability ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Much research has been done to determine drug–drug and herb–drug interactions for improving the bioavailability of etoposide. The present article gives insight on pharmaceutical and pharmacological attempts made from time to time to overcome the erratic inter- and intra-patient variability for improving the bioavailability ...

  12. Modeling the effects of pharmaceutical marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeflang, P.S.H.; Wieringa, J.E.

    Successful innovation of prescription drugs requires a substantial amount of marketing support. There is, however, much concern about the effects of marketing expenditures on the demand of pharmaceutical products (Manchanda et al., Market Lett 16(3/4):293-308, 2005). For example, excessive marketing

  13. Postgraduate Courses in Pharmaceutical Medicine in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Criscuolo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Italy has a significant tradition of excellence in the area of clinical trials (CTRs: important achievements in the clinical development of rifampicin and adriamycin, the two most famous drugs discovered in the research laboratories of two Italian pharmaceutical companies, paved the way to the establishment of a culture of clinical development, mainly in the areas of antimicrobials and oncology. Despite the fact that now the Italian market of pharmaceuticals is largely dominated by multinational companies with headquarters outside Italy, the contribution of Italian studies to the clinical development of new drugs is still significant. Indeed, it largely exceeds the percentage of Italian inhabitants versus the ones living in the remaining EU countries, as Italy has about 12% of EU population, but has a 17% share of the EU CTRs. Education in Pharmaceutical Medicine is now a must for all professionals interested to work either in pharma companies or in contract research organizations: several Italian universities are offering high quality courses, and in the last 10 years, more than 1,200 professionals received a postgraduate education in pharmaceutical medicine. This result places Italy on top of countries concerned about the professional education of people involved in drug development and will represent an asset for a larger involvement of Italian clinical sites in the global process of clinical research.

  14. Electrostatics of Pharmaceutical Aerosols for Pulmonary Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lip Kwok, Philip Chi

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a review on key research findings in the rapidly developing area of pharmaceutical aerosol electrostatics. Solids and liquids can become charged without electric fields, the former by contact or friction and the latter by flowing or spraying. Therefore, charged particles and droplets carrying net charges are produced from pharmaceutical inhalers (e.g. dry powder inhalers, metered dose inhalers, and nebulisers) due to the mechanical processes involved in aerosolisation. The charging depends on many physicochemical factors, such as formulation composition, solid state properties, inhaler material and design, and relative humidity. In silico, in vitro, and limited in vivo studies have shown that electrostatic charges may potentially influence particle deposition in the airways. However, the evidence is not yet conclusive. Furthermore, there are currently no regulatory requirements on the characterisation and control of the electrostatic properties of inhaled formulations. Besides the need for further investigations on the relationship between physicochemical factors and charging characteristics of the aerosols, controlled and detailed in vivo studies are also required to confirm whether charges can affect particle deposition in the airways. Since pharmaceutical aerosol electrostatics is a relatively new research area, much remains to be explored. Thus there is certainly potential for development. New findings in the future may contribute to the advancement of pharmaceutical aerosol formulations and respiratory drug delivery.

  15. Synthesis and pharmaceutical importance of 2-azetidinone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    no acids,9 antiviral,10 CNS,11 cholesterol absorption,12 etc. Phenothiazine is also bioactive heterocyclic com- pound and having pharmaceutical importance possess- es different biological activities viz. antibacterial,13 antifungal,2 antitubercular,14 antischizophrenic,15 anti- inflammatory,16 etc. Phenothiazine derivatives ...

  16. Pharmaceutical applications of non-linear imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, Clare J; Windbergs, Maike; Offerhaus, Herman L

    2011-09-30

    Non-linear optics encompasses a range of optical phenomena, including two- and three-photon fluorescence, second harmonic generation (SHG), sum frequency generation (SFG), difference frequency generation (DFG), third harmonic generation (THG), coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS). The combined advantages of using these phenomena for imaging complex pharmaceutical systems include chemical and structural specificities, high optical spatial and temporal resolutions, no requirement for labels, and the ability to image in an aqueous environment. These features make such imaging well suited for a wide range of pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical investigations, including material and dosage form characterisation, dosage form digestion and drug release, and drug and nanoparticle distribution in tissues and within live cells. In this review, non-linear optical phenomena used in imaging will be introduced, together with their advantages and disadvantages in the pharmaceutical context. Research on pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical applications is discussed, and potential future applications of the technology are considered. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Mergers and innovation in the pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comanor, William S; Scherer, F M

    2013-01-01

    Conflicting trends confound the pharmaceutical industry. The productivity of pharmaceutical innovation has declined in recent years. At the same time, the cohort of large companies who are the leading engines of pharmaceutical R&D has become increasingly concentrated. The concurrent presence of these trends is not sufficient to determine causation. In response to lagging innovation prospects, some companies have sought refuge in mergers and acquisitions to disguise their dwindling prospects or gain R&D synergies. On the other hand, the increased concentration brought on by recent mergers may have contributed to the declining rate of innovation. In this paper, we consider the second of these causal relationships: the likely impact of the recent merger wave among the largest pharmaceutical companies on the rate of innovation. In other words, have recent mergers, which may have been taken in response to lagging innovation, represented a self-defeating strategy that only made industry outcomes worse? Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Green chemistry volumetric titration kit for pharmaceutical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stopcock SC and Spring Sp models of Econoburette (Calibrated, RTC (NR), Ministry of Small Scale Industries, Government of India), developed for semimicro volumetric titration of pharmaceutical formulations are reported. These are economized and risk free titration where pipette is replaced by an inbuilt pipette and ...

  19. A survey of pharmaceutical company representative interactions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To examine the frequency of pharmaceutical company representative (PCR) interactions with doctors in Libya and review possible associations between these interactions and the personal and practice setting characteristics of doctors. Method: An anonymous survey questionnaire was circulated to 1,000 Libyan ...

  20. [Analysis of several containment measures of pharmaceutical expenditure in an Ambulatory Surgery Centre].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, J L; León, A; Porras, I

    2013-11-01

    In the context of the current crisis, sustainability of National Health Service must be considered a priority issue. To compare several cost saving measures in drug expenditure due to outpatient drug treatment after surgery in an Ambulatory Surgical Centre. Pharmaco-economic analysis of cost minimization of ambulatory pharmaceutical services during the year 2011. A total of 3,346 patients were operated on and discharged on the same day, were included. Treatments were collected from the discharge report of each patient. We compared changes in real outpatient drug spending after separately applying each of the following measures: 1) increasing the co-payment; 2) improving the quality of prescribing; 3) dispensing by units of drugs through pharmacies, and 4) dispensing through the hospital pharmacy service. The real outpatient pharmaceutical expenditure was 29,454.21€. Increasing the co-payment mean a transfer of 2,091.82€ from the funding institutions to users. Improving the quality of prescriptions, dispensing through units of drugs in the pharmacy, and dispensing through the hospital pharmacy service led to a pharmaceutical expenditure of 24,215.14€, 21,766.24€ and 7,827.71€, respectively. Only considering co-payment to contain pharmaceutical expenditure arising from prescribing in an Ambulatory Surgical Centre is the least effective measure. The most effective measure, for this purpose, is the supply of drugs through the hospital pharmacy service. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  1. Participants' perception of pharmaceutical clinical research: a cross-sectional controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Saldivar G

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Gerardo González-Saldivar,1 René Rodríguez-Gutiérrez,2 José Luis Viramontes-Madrid,3 Alejandro Salcido-Montenegro,2 Kevin Erick Gabriel Carlos-Reyna,2 Andrés Marcelo Treviño-Alvarez,2 Neri Alejandro Álvarez-Villalobos,4 José Gerardo González-González2 1Ophthalmology Department, 2Endocrinology Division, Hospital Universitario “Dr. José E. González”, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Monterrey, Nuevo León, 3Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Cuernavaca, Morelos, 4Medical Statistics Department, Hospital Universitario “Dr. José E. González”, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico Background: There is scarce scientific information assessing participants’ perception of pharmaceutical research in developed and developing countries concerning the risks, safety, and purpose of clinical trials.Methods: To assess the perception that 604 trial participants (cases and 604 nonparticipants (controls of pharmaceutical clinical trials have about pharmaceutical clinical research, we surveyed participants with one of four chronic diseases from 12 research sites throughout Mexico.Results: Participation in clinical trials positively influences the perception of pharmaceutical clinical research. More cases (65.4% than controls (50.7% perceived that the main purpose of pharmaceutical research is to cure more diseases and to do so more effectively. In addition, more cases considered that there are significant benefits when participating in a research study, such as excellent medical care and extra free services, with this being the most important motivation to participate for both groups (cases 52%, controls 54.5%. We also found a sense of trust in their physicians to deal with adverse events, and the perception that clinical research is a benefit to their health, rather than a risk. More controls believed that clinical trial participants’ health is put at risk

  2. Cost-containment as part of pharmaceutical policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Traulsen, Janine M

    2005-01-01

    and profit controls; 2) reimbursement system charges; 3) other fiscal measures; 4) quality measures. Pharmaceuticals policy has suffered from the pervasive misunderstanding that drugs are like any other commodity; resulting in policy makers viewing pharmaceuticals expenditures without thinking about drugs...

  3. Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: About this journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: About this journal. Journal Home > Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  4. Teaching Pharmaceutical Biotechnology at the University of Illinois at Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Michael J.; Klegerman, Melvin E.

    1988-01-01

    The Department of Pharmaceutics at the University of Illinois at Chicago has been carrying out research in pharmaceutical biotechnology that has allowed unique student involvement and promises further interdisciplinary research and instructional activities. (MSE)

  5. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: About this journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: About this journal. Journal Home > Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  6. Generic versus innovator: Analysis of the pharmaceutical qualities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. ... the belief that innovator pharmaceutical products ..... of origin of the different brands of paracetamol and ibuprofen tablets evaluated. PARACETAMOL. IBUPROFEN. Brand. NAFDAC registration. Country of origin.

  7. 99M-technetium labeled macroaggregated human serum albumin pharmaceutical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchell, Harry S.; Barak, Morton; Van Fleet, III, Parmer

    1977-05-17

    A reagent comprising macroaggregated human serum albumin having dispersed therein particles of stannous tin and a method for instantly making a labeled pharmaceutical therefrom, are disclosed. The labeled pharmaceutical is utilized in organ imaging.

  8. Bioremediation Kinetics of Pharmaceutical Industrial Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Šabić

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, concerns about the occurrence and fate of pharmaceuticals that could be present in water and wastewater has gained increasing attention. With the public’s enhanced awareness of eco-safety, environmentally benign methods based on microorganisms have become more accepted methods of removing pollutants from aquatic systems. This study investigates bioremediation of pharmaceutical wastewater from pharmaceutical company Pliva Hrvatska d.o.o., using activated sludge and bioaugmented activated sludge with isolated mixed bacterial culture. The experiments were conducted in a batch reactor in submerged conditions, at initial concentration of organic matter in pharmaceutical wastewater, expressed as COD, 5.01 g dm–3 and different initial concentrations of activated sludge, which ranged from 1.16 to 3.54 g dm–3. During the experiments, the COD, pH, concentrations of dissolved oxygen and biomass were monitored. Microscopic analyses were performed to monitor the quality of activated sludge. Before starting with the bioremediation in the batch reactor, toxicity of the pharmaceutical wastewater was determined by toxicity test using bacteria Vibrio fischeri. The obtained results showed that the effective concentration of the pharmaceutical wastewater was EC50 = 17 % and toxicity impact index was TII50 = 5.9, meaning that the untreated pharmaceutical industrial effluent must not be discharged into the environment before treatment. The results of the pharmaceutical wastewater bioremediation process in the batch reactor are presented in Table 1. The ratio γXv ⁄ γX maintained high values throughout all experiments and ranged from 0.90 and 0.95, suggesting that the concentrations of biomass remained unchanged during the experiments. The important kinetic parameters required for performance of the biological removal process, namely μmax, Ks, Ki, Y and kd were calculated from batch experiments (Table 2. Figs. 1 and 2 show the experimental

  9. Pharmaceutical policies: effects of financial incentives for prescribers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidian, Arash; Omidvari, Amir-Houshang; Vali, Yasaman; Sturm, Heidrun; Oxman, Andrew D

    2015-08-04

    The proportion of total healthcare expenditures spent on drugs has continued to grow in countries of all income categories. Policy-makers are under pressure to control pharmaceutical expenditures without adversely affecting quality of care. Financial incentives seeking to influence prescribers' behaviour include budgetary arrangements at primary care and hospital settings (pharmaceutical budget caps or targets), financial rewards for target behaviours or outcomes (pay for performance interventions) and reduced benefit margin for prescribers based on medicine sales and prescriptions (pharmaceutical reimbursement rate reduction policies). This is the first update of the original version of this review. To determine the effects of pharmaceutical policies using financial incentives to influence prescribers' practices on drug use, healthcare utilisation, health outcomes and costs (expenditures). We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (searched 29/01/2015); MEDLINE, Ovid SP (searched 29/01/2015); EMBASE, Ovid SP (searched 29/01/2015); International Network for Rational Use of Drugs (INRUD) Bibliography (searched 29/01/2015); National Health Service (NHS) Economic Evaluation Database (searched 29/01/2015); EconLit - ProQuest (searched 02/02/2015); and Science Citation Index and Social Sciences Citation Index, Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Knowledge (citation search for included studies searched 10/02/2015). We screened the reference lists of relevant reports and contacted study authors and organisations to identify additional studies. We included policies that intend to affect prescribing by means of financial incentives for prescribers. Included in this category are pharmaceutical budget caps or targets, pay for performance and drug reimbursement rate reductions and other financial policies, if they were specifically targeted at prescribing or drug utilisation. Policies in this review were defined as laws, rules

  10. The Market for Hospital Medicine in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostenkamp, Gisela

    2012-01-01

    Pharmaceutical expenditure growth has outpaced GDP and healthcare expenditure growth rates in Denmark as in most OECD countries for the last decade. A major part of this increase was due to high growth rates in specialist areas that are typically located in hospital settings. Yet the market for h...... and the introduction of new medicines in the hospital sector. Centralised tendering may therefore have important implications for competition and industry structure in the long run....... for hospital medicines and their procurement are still poorly understood. The present paper characterises the market for hospital medicines in Denmark in terms of its organisation and developments between 2005 and 2009. In Denmark hospital medicines are publicly financed and procurement is centrally organised...

  11. Effective executive management in the pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hoang; Kleiner, Brian H

    2005-01-01

    Along with the boom in information technology and vast development in genomic and proteomic discoveries, the pharmaceutical and biotech industries have been provided the means and tools to create a new page in medicinal history. They are now able to alter the classic ways to cure complex diseases thanks to the completion of the human genome project. To be able to compete in this industry, pharmaceutical management has to be effective not only internally but also externally in socially acceptable conduct. The first department that requires focus is marketing and sales. As the main driving force to increase revenues and profits, marketing and sales employees should be highly motivated by compensation. Also, customer relationships should be maintained for long-term gain. As important as marketing, research and development requires the financial support as well as the critical decision making to further expand the product pipeline. Similarly, finance and technologies should be adequately monitored and invested to provide support as well as prepare for future expansion. On top of that, manufacturing processes and operations are operated per quality systems and FDA guidelines to ensure high quality. Human Resources, on the other hand, should carry the managing and motivation from upper management through systematic recruitment, adequate training, and fair compensation. Moreover, effective management in a pharmaceutical would also require the social welfare and charity to help patients who cannot afford the treatment as well as improving the organization's image. Last but not least, the management should also prepare for the globalization of the industry. Inevitably, large pharmaceutical companies are merging with each other or acquiring smaller companies to enhance the competitive advantages as well as expand their product mix. For effectiveness in a pharmaceutical industry, management should focus more than just the daily routine tasks and short-term goals. Rather, they

  12. Adulteration of over-the-counter slimming products with pharmaceutical analogue--an emerging threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Y P; Lai, C K; Poon, W T; Ng, S W; Chan, Albert Y W; Mak, Tony W L

    2007-06-01

    To review pharmaceutical analogue adulteration of non-prescription slimming products. Retrospective study. Tertiary referral centre for toxicology analysis, Hong Kong. All patients known to have been hospitalised after taking slimming products adulterated with pharmaceutical analogues from September 2004 to December 2006. Age, reasons for hospital admission, major biochemical findings, and toxicology analysis results of the offending slimming products. N-nitrosofenfluramine, an analogue of fenfluramine with hepatotoxic effect, was found in two slimming products. Three patients were hospitalised after taking these slimming products, one of whom developed liver failure treated by liver transplantation. Another slimming product was found to contain N-desmethyl-sibutramine, an analogue of sibutramine. A patient with an unremarkable medical history developed acute psychosis after taking the latter product for 1 week. Analogues, created by modifying the chemical structures of pharmaceuticals, are used as adulterants in non-prescription slimming products, in an attempt to evade regulatory inspection. The imperceptible use of these analogues is very dangerous because they have not been tested formally for efficacy and safety. In view of the potential harm to the public, more effective and proactive measures are required to guard against the illicit use of pharmaceutical analogues. There is also a need for increased awareness among the public and the medical professionals about this emerging threat.

  13. PVC as pharmaceutical packaging material. A literature survey with special emphasis on plasticized PVC bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dooren, A A

    1991-06-21

    In this report the state of the art with respect to PVC as pharmaceutical packaging material is described. A general introduction into the applications of PVC is followed by a description of its production process. The metabolic effects of the monomer of PVC, vinyl chloride and of the most commonly used plasticizer diethylhexylphthalate are mentioned. Special attention is given to the pharmaceutical properties of plasticized PVC bags in comparison to other plastics and the environmental aspects of waste PVC disposal. Although there are emotional and political queries regarding the future use of PVC as a (pharmaceutical) packaging material, we conclude that there is no scientific justification for a total or partial ban of PVC. PVC will remain a fact of life as a cheap, versatile, high-performance and well-investigated plastic material for medical and pharmaceutical applications, to be replaced by newer plastics only for certain well-defined indications where the requirements of the plastic to be used are so specific that it will economically and technically be justified to use another polymer. Community and hospital pharmacists have to be prepared for a role in intake of waste plastic disposables, probably against deposit money, in order to fulfil the logistics needed for recycling.

  14. Pricing, Profits, and Technological Progress in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Scherer, F. M.

    1993-01-01

    The decades-old debate over pharmaceutical industry prices, profits, and innovation has again intensified. A number of events coalesced to refocus public interest on pharmaceuticals. Contributing to public concern were Bureau of Labor Statistics price index increases for pharmaceuticals far outpacing those for the products of other industries. Another prominent characteristic of the pharmaceutical industry has been its extraordinarily high reported profitability. This article examines the phe...

  15. Sulfite-containing Canadian pharmaceutical products available in 1991.

    OpenAIRE

    Miyata, M.; Schuster, B.; Schellenberg, R

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compile an inclusive list of Canadian pharmaceutical products available in 1991 that contained sulfites. DATA SOURCES: Written and oral responses from 94 pharmaceutical companies selected from the 1989 Compendium of Pharmaceuticals and Specialties. RESULTS: A list of sulfite-containing pharmaceutical products was compiled from data supplied by the 90 responding companies. Companies whose products contained no sulfites were separately identified. CONCLUSIONS: Sulfites are present...

  16. Modelling of drying processes of pharmaceutical granules. Pharmaceutical Sciences for the Future of Medicines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortier, S.T.F.C.; Vedantam, S.; De Beer, T.

    Tablets are conventionally produced via consecutive batch process steps. Recent introduction of continuous process equipment is gaining industrial importance in pharmaceutics. Transition to continuous production requires improved understanding of all operations, necessitating the development...... of mechanistic models of multi‐phase systems which in the end allow process control. This contribution focuses on continuous fluidized bed drying of pharmaceutical wet granules. A stepwise approach is used in model development, starting with the drying behaviour of single granules. Experiments to determine...

  17. Contribution of Arab countries to pharmaceutical wastewater literature: a bibliometric and comparative analysis of research output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Zyoud, Shaher H; Al-Jabi, Samah W; Sweileh, Waleed M; Awang, Rahmat

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the pharmaceutical manufacturing industry has been growing rapidly in many countries in the world, including in Arab countries. Pharmaceuticals reach aquatic environments and are prevalent at small concentrations in wastewater from the drug manufacturing industry and hospitals. Such presence also occurs in domestic wastewater and results from the disposal of unused and expired medicines. Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyze and compare the quantity and quality of publications made by researchers in Arab countries on pharmaceutical wastewater. To retrieve documents related to pharmaceutical wastewater, we used the Scopus database on November 21, 2015. All documents with terms related to pharmaceutical wastewater in the title or abstract were analysed. Results obtained from Arab countries were compared with those obtained from Turkey, Iran and Israel. Globally, a total of 6360 publications were retrieved while those from Arab countries, Iran, Turkey and Israel, were 179, 113, 96 and 54 publications respectively. The highest share of publications belonged to Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) with a total of 47 (26.2 %) publications, followed by Egypt (38; 21.2 %), Tunisia (17; 9.5 %) and Morocco (16; 8.9 %). The total number of citations was 1635, with a mean of 9.13 and a median (inter quartile range) of 3 (1.0-10.0). The study identified 87 (48.6 %) documents with 32 countries of international collaboration with Arab countries. It was noted that Arab researchers collaborated mainly with authors in Western Europe (54; 30.2 %), followed by authors from the Asiatic region (29; 16.2 %) and Northern America (15; 8.4 %). The most productive institution was King Saud University, KSA (13; 7.3 %), followed by the National Research Centre, Egypt (10; 7.3 %). This study showed that KSA has the largest share of productivity on pharmaceutical wastewater research. Bibliometric analysis demonstrated that research productivity, mainly from Arab

  18. Pharmaceutical crystallography: is there a devil in the details?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bond, A. D.

    2012-01-01

    Modern instruments for small-molecule crystallography continue to become more sophisticated and more automated. This technical progress provides a basis for frontier research in chemical and pharmaceutical crystallography, but it also encourages analytical crystallographers to become more...... are presented for pharmaceutical compounds, and the potential importance of the "details" in pharmaceutical crystallography is discussed....

  19. [Forming a concept of pharmaceutic aid in occupational diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, G P; Petrov, A G

    2014-01-01

    The review covers aspects connected with formation of concept of pharmaceutic aid in occupational diseases. The authors emphasize problems of interactions between pharmacy workers and medical organizations officers for optimizing pharmaceutic aid. Prospects of the pharmaceutic aid concept implementation into treatment of specific diseases including occupational diseases in miners are shown.

  20. R&D and Product Engineering in Global Pharmaceutical Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Riboldazzi, Sabina

    2015-01-01

    In the global pharmaceutical market, innovation and imitation processes play a key role in companies’ development policies. Through the analysis of the main pharmaceutical companies (originator and generic pharmaceutical companies), this paper aims to identify features that qualify companies themselves, with a particular focus on new product R&D processes.

  1. Pharmaceutical health care and Inuit language communications in Nunavut, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Romain, Sandra J.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Pharmaceutical communication is an essential component of pharmaceutical health care, optimally ensuring patients understand the proper administration and side effects of their medications. Communication can often be complicated by language and culture, but with pharmaceuticals, misunderstandings can prove particularly harmful. In Nunavut, to ensure the preservation and revitalization of Inuit languages, the Inuit Language Protection Act and Official Languages Act were passed requ...

  2. Pharmaceutical care in the Netherlands. History, definition and projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mil, J.W F

    1996-01-01

    The evolving concept of Pharmaceutical Care knows different interpretations in a different countries. In the Netherlands community pharmacists already perform several functions which may be part of the Pharmaceutical Care concept. The Dutch concept of Pharmaceutical care is tested in the TOM and

  3. 'Hospital ' i _

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    years and below, who presented at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching' Hospital during a. 12-year period. ... However, the role of malignancies as a cause of death- .University of Port-Harcourt Teaching Hospital,. 'Port-Harcourt . " Department of Anatomical Pathology _ ' '. '''Lecturer ' ' - .... decreasing numerical order.

  4. 76 FR 57746 - Conference on the International Conference on Harmonisation Q10 Pharmaceutical Quality System: A...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... Q10 Pharmaceutical Quality System: A Practical Approach to Effective Life- Cycle Implementation of Systems and Processes for Pharmaceutical Manufacturing; Public Conference AGENCY: Food and Drug... Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) entitled ``Pharmaceutical Quality System (ICH Q10...

  5. Jordanian pharmaceutical companies: are their marketing efforts paying off?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shaikh, Mustafa S; Torres, Ivonne M; Zuniga, Miguel A; Ghunaim, Ayman

    2011-04-01

    The pharmaceuticals industry is one of the main industries in Jordan. Jordanian pharmaceuticals rank third in the export industry of this country. This study aims to examine the strengths that Jordanian pharmaceutical companies have, which, in turn, form their competitiveness base. In addition, this study aims to identify their weaknesses and the effects of marketing their products in the local market. What is the relationship between Jordanian pharmaceutical product quality, price and value, and the competitiveness of pharmaceutical companies in the local market? Our study aims to answer this and other questions. Our results and practical implications are discussed.

  6. Factory-discharged pharmaceuticals could be a relevant source of aquatic environment contamination: review of evidence and need for knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Olivier; Porcher, Jean-Marc; Sanchez, Wilfried

    2014-11-01

    Human and veterinary active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are involved in contamination of surface water, ground water, effluents, sediments and biota. Effluents of waste water treatment plants and hospitals are considered as major sources of such contamination. However, recent evidences reveal high concentrations of a large number of APIs in effluents from pharmaceutical factories and in receiving aquatic ecosystems. Moreover, laboratory exposures to these effluents and field experiments reveal various physiological disturbances in exposed aquatic organisms. Also, it seems to be relevant to increase knowledge on this route of contamination but also to develop specific approaches for further environmental monitoring campaigns. The present study summarizes available data related to the impact of pharmaceutical factory discharges on aquatic ecosystem contaminations and presents associated challenges for scientists and environmental managers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Direct marketing of pharmaceuticals to consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Revised FDA regulations governing pharmaceutical companies' broadcast advertisements directed to consumers produced substantial increases in direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) expenditures. Proponents of DTCA claim it supports patient autonomy in the patient-physician relationship and has motivated some consumers to seek a physician's care for conditions they previously had not discussed with a doctor. However, DTCA's blend of promotion and information has produced more prescription drug awareness than knowledge--it has been largely ineffective in educating patients with medical conditions about the medications for those conditions. The evidence for DTCA's increase in pharmaceutical sales is as impressive as is the lack of evidence concerning its impact on the health of the public. Broadcast advertisements are too brief to include extensive technical information; consequently, the impact of FDA regulations to assure a fair balance of risk and benefit in DTCA is still being assessed.

  8. Raman spectroscopy in pharmaceutical product design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Amrit; Raijada, Dhara; Rantanen, Jukka

    2015-07-15

    Almost 100 years after the discovery of the Raman scattering phenomenon, related analytical techniques have emerged as important tools in biomedical sciences. Raman spectroscopy and microscopy are frontier, non-invasive analytical techniques amenable for diverse biomedical areas, ranging from molecular-based drug discovery, design of innovative drug delivery systems and quality control of finished products. This review presents concise accounts of various conventional and emerging Raman instrumentations including associated hyphenated tools of pharmaceutical interest. Moreover, relevant application cases of Raman spectroscopy in early and late phase pharmaceutical development, process analysis and micro-structural analysis of drug delivery systems are introduced. Finally, potential areas of future advancement and application of Raman spectroscopic techniques are discussed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Chitosan Modification and Pharmaceutical/Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiali Zhang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan has received much attention as a functional biopolymer for diverse applications, especially in pharmaceutics and medicine. Our recent efforts focused on the chemical and biological modification of chitosan in order to increase its solubility in aqueous solutions and absorbability in the in vivo system, thus for a better use of chitosan. This review summarizes chitosan modification and its pharmaceutical/biomedical applications based on our achievements as well as the domestic and overseas developments: (1 enzymatic preparation of low molecular weight chitosans/chitooligosaccharides with their hypocholesterolemic and immuno-modulating effects; (2 the effects of chitin, chitosan and their derivatives on blood hemostasis; and (3 synthesis of a non-toxic ion ligand—D-Glucosaminic acid from Oxidation of D-Glucosamine for cancer and diabetes therapy.

  10. LEARNING ORGANISATION CHALLENGE FOR ROMANIAN PHARMACEUTICAL SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otilia-Maria BORDEIANU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the learning organization has gone through many changes both theoretically and also as practical implementation. Learning organizations do not appear automatically, they require a strong commitment for developing the skills needed in the workplace, and this commitment should start from the top of the organization. The learning process should be managed at different levels within the organization. Learning, therefore, is made up of several different components and requires a special management. Successful companies are the result of carefully cultivated attitudes, commitments and management processes. This paper investigates the learning organization dimensions analysed in case of pharmaceutical SMEs from Romania. The results obtained in this study allow us to draw relevant conclusions, constituting a practical starting point for businesses. The paper highlights the fact that SMEs pharmaceutical companies have taken important steps toward learning organization model, but reaching different levels from one key dimension to another.

  11. New Product Introduction in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Reinholdt Nyhuus

    is unknown and negotiations with authorities have become harder, making market introduction more difficult. This dissertation treats the new product introduction process in the pharmaceutical industry from an operations perspective. The overarching aim of this dissertation is to improve the planning...... methodology in this critical process. In an empirical study, the process is first analyzed in detail, leading to the identification of several gaps in the industry’s current planning approaches. To support a set of key operational decisions towards market launch, a model is subsequently developed, considering...... uncertainty and several important industry characteristics. The model is used to gain several insights on the use of risk packaging and on keeping time-to-market short. As capacity in secondary pharmaceutical production is critical for product availability, a capacity planning model for a new drug delivery...

  12. Pharmaceutical Cocrystals: Regulatory and Strategic Aspects, Design and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak Dilip Gadade

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cocrystal is a concept of the supramolecular chemistry which is gaining the extensive interest of researchers from pharmaceutical and chemical sciences and of drug regulatory agencies. The prominent reason of which is its ability to modify physicochemical properties of active pharmaceutical ingredients. During the development of the pharmaceutical product, formulators have to optimize the physicochemical properties of active pharmaceutical ingredients. Pharmaceutical cocrystals can be employed to improve vital physicochemical characteristics of a drug, including solubility, dissolution, bioavailability and stability of pharmaceutical compounds while maintaining its therapeutic activity. It is advantageous being a green synthesis approach for production of pharmaceutical compounds. The formation polymorphic forms, solvates, hydrates and salts of cocrystals during the synthesis reported in the literature which can be a potential issue in the development of pharmaceutical cocrystals. The approaches like hydrogen bonding rules, solubility parameters, screening through the CSD database or thermodynamic characteristics can be utilized for the rational design of cocrystals and selection of coformers for synthesis multi-component cocrystals. Considering the significance of pharmaceutical cocrystals pharmaceutical regulatory authorities in the United States and Europe issued guidance documents which may be helpful for pharmaceutical product registration in these regions. In this article, we deal with the design, synthesis, strategic aspects and characteristics of cocrystals along perspectives on its regulatory and intellectual property considerations.

  13. Patent indicators: a window to pharmaceutical market success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yang; Hu, Yuanjia; Zheng, Mingli; Wang, Yitao

    2013-07-01

    Pharmaceutical success in the market is the best reward for pharmaceutical investors undergoing the lengthy, costly and risky process of pharmaceutical Research and Development (R&D). Drugs with high market revenues trigger fierce competition between pharmaceutical enterprises, as is demonstrated by the increasing Mergers & Acquisitions (M&A) cases focusing on seizing the best-selling products. On the other hand, patents, as the best shield for innovative drugs against generic drugs, become a powerful weapon for pharmaceutical enterprises to win the substantial returns generated by market exclusivity. Patents seem to be directly responsible for the commercial success of new medicines. In this context, it is of great significance to find out the empirical associations between pharmaceutical commercial success and patents. By comprehensively analysing 127 drugs marketed in the USA and their 621 American patents, this article identifies the evidence to link various patent indicators with pharmaceutical sales in actual market.

  14. Cyclodextrins: structure, physicochemical properties and pharmaceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansook, Phatsawee; Ogawa, Noriko; Loftsson, Thorsteinn

    2017-11-11

    Since their discovery over 100 years ago cyclodextrins (CDs) have been the subject of numerous scientific publications. In 2016 alone CDs were the subject of over 2200 research articles published in peer-reviewed journals and mentioned in over 2300 patents and patent applications, many of which were on pharmaceutical applications. Natural CDs and their derivatives are used as enabling pharmaceutical excipients that enhance aqueous solubility of poorly soluble drugs, increase drug permeability through biological membranes and improve drug bioavailability. Unlike conventional penetration enhancers, their hydrophilic structure and high molecular weight prevents them from penetrate into lipophilic membranes leaving biological membranes intact. The natural CDs and some of their derivatives have monographs in pharmacopeias and are also commonly used as food additives and in toiletry products. CDs form inclusion complexes with lipophilic moieties of hydrophobic drugs. Furthermore, CDs are able to form non-inclusion complexes and self-assembled aggregates; small and large complex aggregates with micellar-like structures that can enhance drug solubility. Excipients commonly used in pharmaceutical formulations may have additive or inhibiting effect on the CD solubilization. Here various methods used to investigate CD aggregate formation are reviewed as well as techniques that are used to increase the solubilizing effects of CDs; methods that enhance the apparent intrinsic solubility of drugs and/or the complexation efficacy and decrease the amount of CD needed to develop CD-containing pharmaceutical formulations. It will be explained how too much or too little CD can hamper drug bioavailability, and the role of CDs in solid dosage forms and parenteral formulations, and examples given on how CDs can enhance drug delivery after ocular, nasal and pulmonary administration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Green chemistry: A tool in Pharmaceutical Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Smita Talaviya; Falguni Majumdar

    2012-01-01

    Green chemistry expresses an area of research developing from scientific discoveries about pollution awareness and it utilizes a set of principles that reduces or eliminates the use or generation of hazardous substances in all steps of particular synthesis or process. Chemists and medicinal scientists can greatly reduce the risk to human health and the environment by following all the valuable principles of green chemistry. The most simple and direct way to apply green chemistry in pharmaceut...

  16. Comparison of environmental sustainability of pharmaceutical packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Geo Raju; Prabir Sarkar; Ekta Singla; Harpreet Singh; Rachit Kumar Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceutical companies are increasingly imparting a lot of importance on becoming more sustainable by developing medicines that are having same medicinal value but with reduced environmental impact. Type of packaging of tablets affects the emission generated during packaging of medicines. Selection of an appropriate packaging of medicine also influences the emission added to the environment. This paper aims at the comparison of environmental impacts of two different types of packaging of ta...

  17. Electrostatics in pharmaceutical aerosols for inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jennifer; Chan, Hak-Kim; Kwok, Philip Chi Lip

    2013-08-01

    Electrostatics continues to play an important role in pharmaceutical aerosols for inhalation. Despite its ubiquitous nature, the charging process is complex and not well understood. Nonetheless, significant advances in the past few years continue to improve understanding and lead to better control of electrostatics. The purpose of this critical review is to present an overview of the literature, with an emphasis on how electrostatic charge can be useful in improving pulmonary drug delivery.

  18. Using containerless methods to develop amorphous pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, J K R; Benmore, C J; Suthar, K J; Tamalonis, A J; Alderman, O L G; Sendelbach, S; Kondev, V; Yarger, J; Rey, C A; Byrn, S R

    2017-01-01

    Many pipeline drugs have low solubility in their crystalline state and require compounding in special dosage forms to increase bioavailability for oral administration. The use of amorphous formulations increases solubility and uptake of active pharmaceutical ingredients. These forms are rapidly gaining commercial importance for both pre-clinical and clinical use. Synthesis of amorphous drugs was performed using an acoustic levitation containerless processing method and spray drying. The structure of the products was investigated using in-situ high energy X-ray diffraction. Selected solvents for processing drugs were investigated using acoustic levitation. The stability of amorphous samples was measured using X-ray diffraction. Samples processed using both spray drying and containerless synthesis were compared. We review methods for making amorphous pharmaceuticals and present data on materials made by containerless processing and spray drying. It was shown that containerless processing using acoustic levitation can be used to make phase-pure forms of drugs that are known to be difficult to amorphize. The stability and structure of the materials was investigated in the context of developing and making clinically useful formulations. Amorphous compounds are emerging as an important component of drug development and for the oral delivery of drugs with low solubility. Containerless techniques can be used to efficiently synthesize small quantities of pure amorphous forms that are potentially useful in pre-clinical trials and for use in the optimization of clinical products. Developing new pharmaceutical products is an essential enterprise to improve patient outcomes. The development and application of amorphous pharmaceuticals to increase absorption is rapidly gaining importance and it provides opportunities for breakthrough research on new drugs. There is an urgent need to solve problems associated with making formulations that are both stable and that provide high

  19. Ecotoxicity and genotoxicity assessment of cytostatic pharmaceuticals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zounková, R.; Odráška, P.; Doležalová, L.; Hilscherová, Klára; Maršálek, Blahoslav; Bláha, Luděk

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 10 (2007), s. 2208-2214 ISSN 0730-7268 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 2B06171; ECODIS(XE) 518043-1 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : cytostatic pharmaceuticals * genotoxicity * antineoplastics Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.309, year: 2007

  20. Status of the structure, process and outcoms of pharmaceutical care to HIV patient in Spain. Origen study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Morillo-Verdugo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe the structure, process and outcomes with which hospital pharmacist performs health care activity, teaching and research about Pharmaceutical Care (PC in HIV patients in Spain. Methods: Observational, cross-sectional and multicenter study carried out between November 2011-February 2012 in spanish hospitals. The inclusion criteria were: hospitals pharmacy services that dispensed antiretroviral medication to HIV patients. The questionnaire had 41 questions structured in 9 groups: hospital type and person conducting the survey, structure and resources, health care activities, interventions, communication with the rest of the multidisciplinary team, adherence, and quality records, management and pharmacoeconomy and teaching and research. Descriptive analysis was performed. To analyze the existence of statistically significant relationships, we applied fisher test, chi-square or logistic regression Results: 86 hospitals completed the survey. In 93%, PC consultation was not classified by pathologies. 27.9% provided continuing PC to all patients. Adherence was determined regularly or when pharmacist suspected poor adherence (57.5 %. 20% of hospital s teaching had a program that allowed a high level of training in PC to HIV patient. 52,3% of participating centers had published scientific articles related to HIV. Conclusions: Pharmaceutical care to HIV patients in Spain need to adapt to a new situation. For this, hospital pharmacists have to consider several issues such as chronicity, comorbidity, incorporation of new technologies and the stratification of patients in order to make it more efficient.

  1. Defining Patient Centric Pharmaceutical Drug Product Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemann, Sven; Ternik, Robert L; Onder, Graziano; Khan, Mansoor A; van Riet-Nales, Diana A

    2016-09-01

    The term "patient centered," "patient centric," or "patient centricity" is increasingly used in the scientific literature in a wide variety of contexts. Generally, patient centric medicines are recognized as an essential contributor to healthy aging and the overall patient's quality of life and life expectancy. Besides the selection of the appropriate type of drug substance and strength for a particular indication in a particular patient, due attention must be paid that the pharmaceutical drug product design is also adequately addressing the particular patient's needs, i.e., assuring adequate patient adherence and the anticipate drug safety and effectiveness. Relevant pharmaceutical design aspects may e.g., involve the selection of the route of administration, the tablet size and shape, the ease of opening the package, the ability to read the user instruction, or the ability to follow the recommended (in-use) storage conditions. Currently, a harmonized definition on patient centric drug development/design has not yet been established. To stimulate scientific research and discussions and the consistent interpretation of test results, it is essential that such a definition is established. We have developed a first draft definition through various rounds of discussions within an interdisciplinary AAPS focus group of experts. This publication summarizes the outcomes and is intended to stimulate further discussions with all stakeholders towards a common definition of patient centric pharmaceutical drug product design that is useable across all disciplines involved.

  2. Pharmaceuticals that contain polycyclic hydrocarbon scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdale, Tegan P; Williams, Craig M

    2015-11-07

    Numerous variations on structural motifs exist within pharmaceutical compounds that have entered the clinic. These variations have amounted over many decades based on years of drug development associated with screening natural products and de novo synthetic systems. Caged (or bridged) bicyclic structural elements offer a variety of diverse features, encompassing three-dimensional shape, and assorted pharmacokinetic properties. This review highlights approximately 20 all carbon cage containing pharmaceuticals, ranging in structure from bicyclo[2.2.1] through to adamantane, including some in the top-selling pharmaceutical bracket. Although, a wide variety of human diseases, illnesses and conditions are treated with drugs containing the bicyclic motif, a common feature is that many of these lipophilic systems display CNS and/or neurological activity. In addition, to an extensive overview of the history and biology associated with each drug, a survey of synthetic methods used to construct these entities is presented. An analysis section compares natural products to synthetics in drug discovery, and entertains the classical caged hydrocarbon systems potentially missing from the clinic. Lastly, this unprecedented review is highly pertinent at a time when big pharma is desperately trying to escape flatland drugs.

  3. Pharmaceutical applications of graphene-based nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Gyeong; Park, Joo Y; Shon, Yuna; Shim, Gayong; Oh, Yu-Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    Graphene-based nanosheets (GNS) are atomic-thickness monolayers of hexagonally arranged, graphite-derived carbon atoms that may be composed of graphene, graphene oxide, or reduced graphene oxide. They have attracted tremendous interest for their potential in pharmaceutical applications, due to their unique physical, chemical, and mechanical properties GNS exhibit highly uniform surface areas and may have hydroxyl (-OH), epoxide (-O-), and carboxyl functional groups at their basal surfaces and plane edges, depending on their oxidized and reduced surface properties. GNS show high-level optical absorption of near infrared (NIR) light and elevate the temperature of nearby environments. Furthermore, they can be loaded with anticancer drugs via hydrophobic interactions, π-π stacking, or electrostatic binding. Given these properties, GNS can be used in chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy, photothermal therapy, and theranostics. However, although GNS appear to have far-reaching potential in the field of biomedical research, their widespread pharmaceutical application has been limited by issues such as poor stability in physiological buffers, undefined mechanisms of cellular uptake, toxicity problems, and a lack of standard preparation methods. Here, we review the current pharmaceutical applications of GNS, focusing on chemotherapy, phototherapy, combo therapy and theranostic applications with challenging issues.

  4. Corporate social responsibility: A pharmaceutical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Theron

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In the modern business environment organisations need to address two important aspects affecting their operations: the quality of management and the impact of their operations on the well-being of the society in which they operate. This dualism often results in economic, political and social dilemmas influencing the viability of organisations in general, and more specifically and recently, local and international pharmaceutical organisations operating in South Africa. This article considers the aspect of corporate social responsibility (CSR in general and attempts to identify the social-related issues impacting on the pharmaceutical industry by means of content analysis - a research technique for making replicable and valid inferences from data. It furthermore describes the re-action of pharmaceutical organisations when confronted with such social demands, and finally analyses the management of CSR against four criteria of CSR. The article confirms the importance of managers to manage CSR towards society in a proactive manner. It furthermore suggests that the "hard" factors of strategic management and financial performance should be balanced with "soft" social/people issues. It also recommends that the industry should consider - and if applicable - endorse the concept of Issues Management as an approach to the proactive management of CSR.

  5. The growing impact of pediatric pharmaceutical poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, G Randall; Woodward, Randall W; Ho, Mona

    2012-02-01

    To understand which medications, under which circumstances, are responsible for the noted increase in pediatric medication poisonings, resource use, and morbidity. Patient records from 2001-2008 were obtained from the National Poison Data System of the American Association of Poison Control Centers for children aged ≤5 years evaluated in a health care facility following exposure to a potentially toxic dose of a pharmaceutical agent. Pharmaceutical agents were classified as over-the-counter or prescription and by functional category. Exposures were classified as child self-ingested the medication or as therapeutic error. For the 8-year period, emergency visits, admissions, significant injuries, and trends in these events were calculated for each substance category. We evaluated 453 559 children for ingestion of a single pharmaceutical product. Child self-exposure was responsible for 95% of visits. Child self-exposure to prescription products dominated the health care impact with 248 023 of the visits (55%), 41 847 admissions (76%), and 18 191 significant injuries (71%). The greatest resource use and morbidity followed self-ingestion of prescription products, particularly opioids, sedative-hypnotics, and cardiovascular agents. Prevention efforts have proved to be inadequate in the face of rising availability of prescription medications, particularly more dangerous medications. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Counterfeit pharmaceuticals: current status and future projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheimer, Albert I; Chaney, Nicole M; Santella, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    To examine the problem of counterfeit drugs and its effects around the world, to consider the likely directions the problem will take, and to propose options for controlling or mitigating the problem. Recently published clinical literature identified through review of articles abstracted at MEDLINE. Search terms were counterfeiting, counterfeit drugs, substandard drugs, fake drugs, world counterfeiting, and counterfeit pharmaceuticals. Further information was abstracted from an array of informational sources, including magazines such as Business Week, newspapers such as the International Herald Tribune, National Public Radio news reports, pharmaceutical company press releases, and information from the World Health Organization. Multiple reviewers were used to retrieve relevant and current data. Relevant data were extracted independently by multiple reviewers. Traditionally, the problem of counterfeit pharmaceuticals has been limited to developing nations in Asia and Africa. Now, drug counterfeiting is rapidly becoming a worldwide concern, and counterfeit drugs are reaching the U.S. market. This article defines the problem of counterfeit drugs in its many forms and discusses the extent of the problem, with particular attention to the respective rates of counterfeiting across the globe and the origins of counterfeit drugs. Technologic advances have worsened the counterfeit drug problem. Because drug counterfeiting is a worldwide concern, worldwide action is needed to combat the problem.

  7. A Pharmaceutical Bioethics Consultation Service: Six-Year Descriptive Characteristics and Results of a Feedback Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Campen, Luann E; Allen, Albert J; Watson, Susan B; Therasse, Donald G

    2015-04-03

    Background: Bioethics consultations are conducted in varied settings, including hospitals, universities, and other research institutions, but there is sparse information about bioethics consultations conducted in corporate settings such as pharmaceutical companies. The purpose of this article is to describe a bioethics consultation service at a pharmaceutical company, to report characteristics of consultations completed by the service over a 6-year period, and to share results of a consultation feedback survey. Methods: Data on the descriptive characteristics of bioethics consultations were collected from 2008 to 2013 and analyzed in Excel 2007. Categorical data were analyzed via the pivot table function, and time-based variables were analyzed via formulas. The feedback survey was administered to consultation requesters from 2009 to 2012 and also analyzed in Excel 2007. Results: Over the 6-year period, 189 bioethics consultations were conducted. The number of consultations increased from five per year in 2008 to approximately one per week in 2013. During this time, the format of the consultation service was changed from a committee-only approach to a tiered approach (tailored to the needs of the case). The five most frequent topics were informed consent, early termination of a clinical trial, benefits and risks, human biological samples, and patient rights. The feedback survey results suggest the consultation service is well regarded overall and viewed as approachable, helpful, and responsive. Conclusions: Pharmaceutical bioethics consultation is a unique category of bioethics consultation that primarily focuses on pharmaceutical research and development but also touches on aspects of clinical ethics, business ethics, and organizational ethics. Results indicate there is a demand for a tiered bioethics consultation service within this pharmaceutical company and that advice was valued. This company's experience indicates that a bioethics consultation service raises

  8. Hospital Inspections

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Welcome to hospitalinspections.org, a website run by the Association of Health Care Journalists (AHCJ) that aims to make federal hospital inspection reports easier...

  9. Preventing hospital admissions by reviewing medication (PHARM) in primary care : an open controlled study in an elderly population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leendertse, A. J.; de Koning, G. H. P.; Goudswaard, A. N.; Belitser, S. V.; Verhoef, M.; de Gier, H. J.; Egberts, A. C. G.; van den Bemt, P. M. L. A.

    2013-01-01

    What is known and objective Limited and conflicting evidence exists on the effect of a multicomponent pharmaceutical care intervention (i.e. medication review, involving collaboration between general practitioners (GPs), pharmacists and patients) on medication-related hospitalizations, survival,

  10. Defining pharmaceutical systems strengthening: concepts to enable measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Tamara; Walkowiak, Helena; Lee, David; Aboagye-Nyame, Francis

    2017-05-01

    Pharmaceutical products are indispensable for improving health outcomes. An extensive body of work on access to and use of medicines has resulted in an assortment of tools measuring various elements of pharmaceutical systems. Until now however, there has been little attempt to conceptualize a pharmaceutical system as an entity and define its strengthening in a way that allows for measuring systems strengthening. The narrow focus of available tools limits their value in ascertaining which interventions result in stronger, more resilient systems. We sought to address this shortcoming by revisiting the current definitions, frameworks and assessment tools related to pharmaceutical systems. We conducted a comprehensive literature review and consulted with select pharmaceutical experts. On the basis of our review, we propose that a pharmaceutical system consists of all structures, people, resources, processes, and their interactions within the broader health system that aim to ensure equitable and timely access to safe, effective, quality pharmaceutical products and related services that promote their appropriate and cost-effective use to improve health outcomes. We further propose that pharmaceutical systems strengthening is the process of identifying and implementing strategies and actions that achieve coordinated and sustainable improvements in the critical components of a pharmaceutical system to make it more responsive and resilient and to enhance its performance for achieving better health outcomes. Finally, we established that, in addition to system performance and resilience, seven components of the pharmaceutical system are critical for measuring pharmaceutical systems strengthening: pharmaceutical products and related services; policy, laws and governance; regulatory systems; innovation, research and development, manufacturing, and trade; financing; human resources; and information. This work adds clarity to the concept of pharmaceutical systems and their

  11. APPROACHES TO IMPLEMENTATION OF AN INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN THE PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY. GALENICAL PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ershova Elena Vladimirovna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the issues associated with development of an integrated quality management system and its implementation into a galenical pharmaceutical company. Recently, the Russian pharmaceutical industry has been developing extensively: pharmaceutical clusters are being formed, new and innovative technologies are being developed. For the enterprises producing galenical pharmaceutical products, which feature low prices and a high level of competition, development and implementation of management systems is a way to prove their competitiveness. The purpose of this article is to review the architecture and the key elements of integrated management systems for pharmaceutical enterprises, develop an integrated management system in terms of the upcoming revision of ISO 9001:2015, as well as to describe the benefits of implementation of such systems. The presented approach is the result of an educational project implemented within the framework of the MBA programme in "Master of Business Administration (MBA" in the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Continuing Professional Education Pastukhov State Academy of Industrial Management.

  12. Novel methodology for pharmaceutical expenditure forecast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vataire, Anne-Lise; Cetinsoy, Laurent; Aballéa, Samuel; Rémuzat, Cécile; Urbinati, Duccio; Kornfeld, Åsa; Mzoughi, Olfa; Toumi, Mondher

    2014-01-01

    The value appreciation of new drugs across countries today features a disruption that is making the historical data that are used for forecasting pharmaceutical expenditure poorly reliable. Forecasting methods rarely addressed uncertainty. The objective of this project was to propose a methodology to perform pharmaceutical expenditure forecasting that integrates expected policy changes and uncertainty (developed for the European Commission as the 'EU Pharmaceutical expenditure forecast'; see http://ec.europa.eu/health/healthcare/key_documents/index_en.htm). 1) Identification of all pharmaceuticals going off-patent and new branded medicinal products over a 5-year forecasting period in seven European Union (EU) Member States. 2) Development of a model to estimate direct and indirect impacts (based on health policies and clinical experts) on savings of generics and biosimilars. Inputs were originator sales value, patent expiry date, time to launch after marketing authorization, price discount, penetration rate, time to peak sales, and impact on brand price. 3) Development of a model for new drugs, which estimated sales progression in a competitive environment. Clinical expected benefits as well as commercial potential were assessed for each product by clinical experts. Inputs were development phase, marketing authorization dates, orphan condition, market size, and competitors. 4) Separate analysis of the budget impact of products going off-patent and new drugs according to several perspectives, distribution chains, and outcomes. 5) Addressing uncertainty surrounding estimations via deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis. This methodology has proven to be effective by 1) identifying the main parameters impacting the variations in pharmaceutical expenditure forecasting across countries: generics discounts and penetration, brand price after patent loss, reimbursement rate, the penetration of biosimilars and discount price, distribution chains, and the time

  13. Novel methodology for pharmaceutical expenditure forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vataire, Anne-Lise; Cetinsoy, Laurent; Aballéa, Samuel; Rémuzat, Cécile; Urbinati, Duccio; Kornfeld, Åsa; Mzoughi, Olfa; Toumi, Mondher

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective The value appreciation of new drugs across countries today features a disruption that is making the historical data that are used for forecasting pharmaceutical expenditure poorly reliable. Forecasting methods rarely addressed uncertainty. The objective of this project was to propose a methodology to perform pharmaceutical expenditure forecasting that integrates expected policy changes and uncertainty (developed for the European Commission as the ‘EU Pharmaceutical expenditure forecast’; see http://ec.europa.eu/health/healthcare/key_documents/index_en.htm). Methods 1) Identification of all pharmaceuticals going off-patent and new branded medicinal products over a 5-year forecasting period in seven European Union (EU) Member States. 2) Development of a model to estimate direct and indirect impacts (based on health policies and clinical experts) on savings of generics and biosimilars. Inputs were originator sales value, patent expiry date, time to launch after marketing authorization, price discount, penetration rate, time to peak sales, and impact on brand price. 3) Development of a model for new drugs, which estimated sales progression in a competitive environment. Clinical expected benefits as well as commercial potential were assessed for each product by clinical experts. Inputs were development phase, marketing authorization dates, orphan condition, market size, and competitors. 4) Separate analysis of the budget impact of products going off-patent and new drugs according to several perspectives, distribution chains, and outcomes. 5) Addressing uncertainty surrounding estimations via deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Results This methodology has proven to be effective by 1) identifying the main parameters impacting the variations in pharmaceutical expenditure forecasting across countries: generics discounts and penetration, brand price after patent loss, reimbursement rate, the penetration of biosimilars and

  14. Do follow-on therapeutic substitutes induce price competition between hospital medicines? Evidence from the Danish hospital sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostenkamp, Gisela

    2013-01-01

    pioneer products were significantly reduced as a reaction to competition from follow-on drugs. Conclusion Competition between patented therapeutic substitutes did not seem to increase price competition and containment of pharmaceutical expenditures in the Danish hospital market. Strengthening hospitals......Objective The pricing of follow-on drugs, that offer only limited health benefits over existing therapeutic alternatives, is a recurring health policy debate. This study investigates whether follow-on therapeutic substitutes create price competition between branded hospital medicines. Methods New...... follow-on drugs and their incumbent therapeutic competitors were identified from Danish sales and product registration data on hospital pharmaceuticals using medically relevant criteria. We examined whether follow-on drugs adopt lower prices than their incumbent competitors, and whether incumbent...

  15. Time trends and determinants of pharmaceutical expenditure in China (1990-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lizheng; Yang, Heidi Y; Cheng, Gang; Meng, Qingyue

    2014-03-01

    Pharmaceutical policy reform is currently one of the primary areas of health reform in China. The national pharmaceutical policy of China has multiple objectives: to develop the domestic pharmaceutical industry and encourage innovation, to control escalation of total pharmaceutical expenditures (TPE) which constitute a substantial component of total health expenditures (THE), and to ensure access to essential medicines for poor and uninsured patients. The current pharmaceutical system has been criticized for its high costs, questionable prescribing practices, and poor regulation of drug quality. This study aims to examine the time trends and influential factors of TPE in China. Data from the 2010 China National Health Accounts Report and the 2010 China Health Statistics Year Book were used in the analysis. Time trends of TPE as a share of THE (TPE/THE), of gross domestic product [GDP] (TPE/GDP), and the relationship between TPE/THE and GDP were examined. The growth of TPE was examined after adjusting for health care utilization and GDP. The determinants of the TPE/THE and the TPE/GDP between 1990 and 2009 were investigated by two time-series regression models including the amount of prescriptions dispensed (using proxy variables of health utilization), the price indices of medical services, and the price indices of pharmaceuticals during that time period. Descriptive analyses showed that TPE and THE grew consistently during the years 1990-2009. The ratio of the THE/GDP increased more rapidly in recent years than the TPE/GDP. Furthermore, outpatient pharmaceutical expenditures (PEs) per visit and hospital PEs per admission grew throughout the study period. The amount of outpatient visits did not show a significant growth pattern during the 1990s, despite rapid GDP growth during that period. The time-series models showed that the TPE/THE was negatively associated with GDP during the same year (p = 0.039), as well as the medical consumer price index [CPI] (p = 0

  16. Impact of pharmaceutical care on knowledge, quality of life and satisfaction of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Pauline Siew Mei; Chua, Siew Siang; Chan, Siew Pheng

    2013-08-01

    This study describes the analysis of secondary outcomes from a previously published randomised controlled trial, which assessed the effects of pharmaceutical care on medication adherence, persistence and bone turnover markers. The main focus of this manuscript is the effect of the provision of pharmaceutical care on these secondary outcomes, and details on the design of the intervention provided, the osteoporosis care plan and materials used to deliver the intervention. To evaluate the effects of pharmaceutical care on knowledge, quality of life (QOL) and satisfaction of postmenopausal osteoporotic women prescribed bisphosphonates, and their associating factors. Randomised controlled trial, performed at an osteoporosis clinic of a tertiary hospital in Malaysia. Postmenopausal women diagnosed with osteoporosis (T-score ≤-2.5/lowtrauma fracture), just been prescribed weekly alendronate/risedronate were randomly allocated to receive intervention or standard care (controls). Intervention participants received a medication review, education on osteoporosis, risk factors, lifestyle modifications, goals of therapy, side effects and the importance of medication adherence at months 0, 3, 6 and 12. Knowledge, QOL and satisfaction. A total of 198 postmenopausal osteoporotic women were recruited: intervention = 100 and control = 98. Intervention participants reported significantly higher knowledge scores at months 3 (72.50 vs. 62.50 %), 6 (75.00 vs. 65.00 %) and 12 (78.75 vs. 68.75 %) compared to control participants. QOL scores were also lower (which indicates better QOL) at months 3 (29.33 vs. 38.41), 6 (27.50 vs. 36.56) and 12 (27.53 vs. 37.56) compared to control participants. Similarly, satisfaction score was higher in intervention participants (93.67 vs. 84.83 %). More educated women, with back pain, who were provided pharmaceutical care had better knowledge levels. Similarly, older, more educated women, with previous falls and back pain tend to have poorer QOL, whilst

  17. The Korean Pharmaceutical Industry and the Expansion of the General Pharmaceuticals Market in the 1950-1960s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu-Hwan SIHN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available After the Liberation, the Korean economy was dependent on relief supplies and aid after the ruin of the colonial regime and war. The pharmaceutical business also searched for their share in the delivery of military supplies and the distribution of relief supplies. The supply-side pharmaceutical policy made the pharmaceutical market a wholesale business. The gravity of the situation led to an increased importation of medical supplies, and wholesalers took the lead in establishing the distribution structure, whereas consumers and pharmaceutical business were relatively intimidated. The aid provided by the International Cooperation Administration (ICA marked a turning point in the Korean pharmaceutical industry after the middle of the 1950s. ICA supplied raw materials and equipment funds, while the pharmaceutical business imported advanced technology and capital. The government invited the local production of medical substances, whereas pharmaceutical businesses replaced imported medical substances with locally produced antibiotics. After the 1960s, the production of antibiotics reached saturation. Pharmaceutical businesses needed new markets to break through the stalemate, so they turned their attention to vitamins and health tonics as general pharmaceuticals, as these were suitable for mass production and mass consumption. The modernized patent medicine market after the Opening of Korea was transformed into the contemporized general pharmaceuticals market equipped with the up-to-date facilities and technology in 1960s. Pharmaceutical businesses had to advertise these new products extensively and reform the distribution structure to achieve high profits. With the introduction of TV broadcasting, these businesses invested in TV advertising and generated sizable sales figures. They also established retail pharmacy and chain stores to reform the distribution structure. The end result was a dramatic expansion of the general pharmaceuticals market. The

  18. [The Korean Pharmaceutical Industry and the Expansion of the General Pharmaceuticals Market in the 1950-1960s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihn, Kyu-Hwan

    2015-12-01

    After the Liberation, the Korean economy was dependent on relief supplies and aid after the ruin of the colonial regime and war. The pharmaceutical business also searched for their share in the delivery of military supplies and the distribution of relief supplies. The supply-side pharmaceutical policy made the pharmaceutical market a wholesale business. The gravity of the situation led to an increased importation of medical supplies, and wholesalers took the lead in establishing the distribution structure, whereas consumers and pharmaceutical business were relatively intimidated. The aid provided by the International Cooperation Administration (ICA) marked a turning point in the Korean pharmaceutical industry after the middle of the 1950s. ICA supplied raw materials and equipment funds, while the pharmaceutical business imported advanced technology and capital. The government invited the local production of medical substances, whereas pharmaceutical businesses replaced imported medical substances with locally produced antibiotics. After the 1960s, the production of antibiotics reached saturation. Pharmaceutical businesses needed new markets to break through the stalemate, so they turned their attention to vitamins and health tonics as general pharmaceuticals, as these were suitable for mass production and mass consumption. The modernized patent medicine market after the Opening of Korea was transformed into the contemporized general pharmaceuticals market equipped with the up-to-date facilities and technology in 1960s. Pharmaceutical businesses had to advertise these new products extensively and reform the distribution structure to achieve high profits. With the introduction of TV broadcasting, these businesses invested in TV advertising and generated sizable sales figures. They also established retail pharmacy and chain stores to reform the distribution structure. The end result was a dramatic expansion of the general pharmaceuticals market. The market for

  19. Ecological risk assessment of pharmaceuticals in the receiving environment of pharmaceutical wastewater in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashfaq, Muhammad; Nawaz Khan, Khujasta; Saif Ur Rehman, Muhammad; Mustafa, Ghulam; Faizan Nazar, Muhammad; Sun, Qian; Iqbal, Javed; Mulla, Sikandar I; Yu, Chang-Ping

    2017-02-01

    The pharmaceutical industry of Pakistan is growing with an annual growth rate of 10%. Besides this growth, this industry is not complying with environmental standards, and discharging its effluent into domestic wastewater network. Only limited information is available about the occurrence of pharmaceutical compounds (PCs) in the environmental matrices of Pakistan that has motivated us to aim at the occurrence and ecological risk assessment of 11 PCs of different therapeutic classes in the wastewater of pharmaceutical industry and in its receiving environmental matrices such as sludge, solid waste and soil samples near the pharmaceutical formulation units along Shiekhupura road, Lahore, Pakistan. Target PCs (paracetamol, naproxen, diclofenac, ibuprofen, amlodipine, rosuvastatin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, sparfloxacin and gemifloxacin) were quantified using in-house developed HPLC-UV. Ibuprofen (1673µg/L, 6046µg/kg, 1229µg/kg and 610µg/kg), diclofenac (836µg/L, 4968µg/kg, 6632µg/kg and 257µg/kg) and naproxen (464µg/L, 7273µg/kg, 4819µg/kg and 199µg/kg) showed the highest concentrations among 11 target PCs in wastewater, sludge, solid waste and soil samples, respectively. Ecological risk assessment, in terms of risk quotient (RQ), was also carried out based on the maximum measured concentration of PCs in wastewater. The maximum RQ values obtained were with paracetamol (64 against daphnia), naproxen (177 against fish), diclofenac (12,600 against Oncorhynchus mykiss), ibuprofen (167,300 against Oryzias latipes), ofloxacin (81,000 against Pseudomonas putida) and ciprofloxacin (440 against Microcystis aeruginosa). These results show a high level of ecological risk due to the discharge of untreated wastewater from pharmaceutical units. This risk may further lead to food web contamination and drug resistance in pathogens. Thus, further studies are needed to detect the PCs in crops as well as the government should strictly enforce environmental

  20. Spectrofluorimetric determination of fluoroquinolones in pharmaceutical preparations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulu, Sevgi Tatar

    2009-02-01

    Simple, rapid and highly sensitive spectrofluorimetric method is presented for the determination of four fluoroquinolone (FQ) drugs, ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, norfloxacin and moxifloxacin in pharmaceutical preparations. Proposed method is based on the derivatization of FQ with 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan (NBD-Cl) in borate buffer of pH 9.0 to yield a yellow product. The optimum experimental conditions have been studied carefully. Beer's law is obeyed over the concentration range of 23.5-500 ng mL -1 for ciprofloxacin, 28.5-700 ng mL -1 for enoxacin, 29.5-800 ng mL -1 for norfloxacin and 33.5-1000 ng mL -1 for moxifloxacin using NBD-Cl reagent, respectively. The detection limits were found to be 7.0 ng mL -1 for ciprofloxacin, 8.5 ng mL -1 for enoxacin, 9.2 ng mL -1 for norfloxacin and 9.98 ng mL -1 for moxifloxacin, respectively. Intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviation and relative mean error values at three different concentrations were determined. The low relative standard deviation values indicate good precision and high recovery values indicate accuracy of the proposed methods. The method is highly sensitive and specific. The results obtained are in good agreement with those obtained by the official and reference method. The results presented in this report show that the applied spectrofluorimetric method is acceptable for the determination of the four FQ in the pharmaceutical preparations. Common excipients used as additives in pharmaceutical preparations do not interfere with the proposed method.

  1. Salt forms of the pharmaceutical amide dihydrocarbamazepine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buist, Amanda R; Kennedy, Alan R

    2016-02-01

    Carbamazepine (CBZ) is well known as a model active pharmaceutical ingredient used in the study of polymorphism and the generation and comparison of cocrystal forms. The pharmaceutical amide dihydrocarbamazepine (DCBZ) is a less well known material and is largely of interest here as a structural congener of CBZ. Reaction of DCBZ with strong acids results in protonation of the amide functionality at the O atom and gives the salt forms dihydrocarbamazepine hydrochloride {systematic name: [(10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[b,f]azepin-5-yl)(hydroxy)methylidene]azanium chloride, C15H15N2O(+)·Cl(-)}, dihydrocarbamazepine hydrochloride monohydrate {systematic name: [(10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[b,f]azepin-5-yl)(hydroxy)methylidene]azanium chloride monohydrate, C15H15N2O(+)·Cl(-)·H2O} and dihydrocarbamazepine hydrobromide monohydrate {systematic name: [(10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[b,f]azepin-5-yl)(hydroxy)methylidene]azanium bromide monohydrate, C15H15N2O(+)·Br(-)·H2O}. The anhydrous hydrochloride has a structure with two crystallographically independent ion pairs (Z' = 2), wherein both cations adopt syn conformations, whilst the two hydrated species are mutually isostructural and have cations with anti conformations. Compared to neutral dihydrocarbamazepine structures, protonation of the amide group is shown to cause changes to both the molecular (C=O bond lengthening and C-N bond shortening) and the supramolecular structures. The amide-to-amide and dimeric hydrogen-bonding motifs seen for neutral polymorphs and cocrystalline species are replaced here by one-dimensional polymeric constructs with no direct amide-to-amide bonds. The structures are also compared with, and shown to be closely related to, those of the salt forms of the structurally similar pharmaceutical carbamazepine.

  2. [The aspects of pricing policy in Azerbaijan pharmaceutical sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhalilova, K I; Alieva, K Ia

    2012-01-01

    The effect of macro-, middle- and microeconomic factors on price formation in Azerbaijan pharmaceutical market has been studied. Worldwide pharmaceutical leaders have the goals to become leader on the pharmaceutical market of Azerbaijan and maximize their market share. Non-leaders pharmaceutical companies use different strategies of price formation: prime cost plus markup, or price formation on the base of current prices. It was revealed that domestic pharmaceutical market has high demand elasticity. Future market development is related to stimulation of product development, and hard penetration to the market through realization of price formation strategy. Non-state pharmaceutical organizations to achieve the purpose of survive in conditions of high competition should take in to account the factor perceptions of assortment by customers.

  3. Thick prescriptions: toward an interpretation of pharmaceutical sales practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldani, Michael J

    2004-09-01

    Anthropologists of medicine and science are increasingly studying all aspects of pharmaceutical industry practices--from research and development to the marketing of prescription drugs. This article ethnographically explores one particular stage in the life cycle of pharmaceuticals: sales and marketing. Drawing on a range of sources-investigative journalism, medical ethics, and autoethnography--the author examines the day-to-day activities of pharmaceutical salespersons, or drug reps, during the 1990s. He describes in detail the pharmaceutical gift cycle, a three-way exchange network between doctors, salespersons, and patients and how this process of exchange is currently in a state of involution. This gift economy exists to generate prescriptions (scripts) and can mask and/or perpetuate risks and side effects for patients. With implications of pharmaceutical industry practices impacting everything from the personal-psychological to the global political economy, medical anthropologists can play a lead role in the emerging scholarly discourse concerned with critical pharmaceutical studies.

  4. Review on Physicochemical, Chemical, and Biological Processes for Pharmaceutical Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenchen; Yang, Ping

    2018-02-01

    Due to the needs of human life and health, pharmaceutical industry has made great progress in recent years, but it has also brought about severe environmental problems. The presence of pharmaceuticals in natural waters which might pose potential harm to the ecosystems and humans raised increasing concern worldwide. Pharmaceuticals cannot be effectively removed by conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) owing to the complex composition, high concentration of organic contaminants, high salinity and biological toxicity of pharmaceutical wastewater. Therefore, the development of efficient methods is needed to improve the removal effect of pharmaceuticals. This review provides an overview on three types of treatment technologies including physicochemical, chemical and biological processes and their advantages and disadvantages respectively. In addition, the future perspectives of pharmaceutical wastewater treatment are given.

  5. Spectrum of Acute Pharmaceutical and Chemical Poisoning in Northern Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devendranath Sarkar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute poisoning is a major public health problem in Bangladesh. It is a common method for suicide. A clear picture regarding clinical presentation, most commonly used toxic agents, background factors and outcome of poisoned patients is necessary in every region. The aim of this study was to investigate frequency and outcome of acute pharmaceutical and chemical poisoning cases in Northern Bangladesh. Methods: This was a retrospective descriptive study on poisoned patients with 18 years of age and above who were admitted to Rangpur Medical College Hospital during 1st December 2011 to 30th November 2012. Results: During the study period, a total of 956 patients were investigated. Males slightly outnumbered females (51.6%. The majority of patients (92% were in the 18-40 year age-group. Regarding occupation, housewives were the most frequent (33.6% followed by farmers (31.7% and students (20.9%. Organophosphate compounds (OPC were the most commonly used toxic agents (73.5%. Most of poisoning cases occurred following suicidal attempts (88%. Familial disharmony was the main cause of suicidal attempts (92.3%. Univariate Analysis showed that age less than 40 years, being married, living in rural areas and educational attainment below secondary level were significantly associated with an increased risk of poisoning (P

  6. THE STUDY FOR REGIONAL RETAIL PHARMACEUTICAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Sokolova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacy organizations are an element of regional pharmaceutical market infrastructure formation. They have different character and activity type, organizational and legal forms, types of properties. The revelation of the features of retail pharmaceutical market of Yaroslavl oblast was the purpose of the study. The analysis of the data of regional department of Federal Service on Surveillance in Healthcare and Social Development of Russian Federation  n Yaroslavl oblast in the beginning of 2014 showed that there are 137 acting commercial entities, which have licenses for pharmaceutical activity. The region has 487  pharmacy organizations which implement pharmaceutical activity of state (14.6%, municipal (7.4%, and private (78.0% forms of ownership. Some companies function in Yaroslavl (43.9% and Rybinsk (22.4% municipal district. The analysis of organization and legal forms revealed that 48.9% of pharmacy organizations are registered as ltd, 14.6% are state, and 14.2% are private entrepreneurs, public limited companies amount to 10.9%, the rest pharmacy organizations are included into municipal unitary enterprises and private limited companies – 7.39% and 4.1% correspondingly. The structure of retail market is represented by single pharmacy organizations (51.1% as well as organizations joined into pharmacy chains from two and more PO (48.9%. The share of commercial entities which include one PO amounted to 14.4% of all PO. Share of pharmacy chains (42.3% which include from 2 to 9 PO are 46.8% of all PO. Pharmacy chains, which have more than 9 retails spots amount to 6.6% of the total number of commercial entities. 38.8% of PO function within them. Pharmacy chains prevalence (42.3%, joined into 9 PO; pharmacy chains, which have more than 9 PO, and include state sector PO (14.6% are the features of the regional market.

  7. The sociology of pharmaceuticals: progress and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Simon J; Gabe, Jonathan; Davis, Peter

    2008-09-01

    This paper takes a critical look at progress and prospects regarding the sociology of pharmaceuticals over the years. Key themes examined include: (i) medicalisation and pharmaceuticalisation; (ii) regulation; (iii) consumption and consumerism; (iv) expectations and innovation. Papers in the monograph are also introduced and discussed in relation to these themes. The paper concludes with some further comments and reflections on progress and prospects in this field, emphasising the continuing importance of sociological engagement with these personal and political issues in the 21(st) century.

  8. [Pharmaceutical marketers: professional and informative aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevia, A; López-Valpuesta, F J; Vázquez, J A; Castellanos, A

    1993-10-01

    This study tries to know the opinion of pharmaceutical detailers about their profession, as well as their pharmacological knowledge. 75 questionnaires were distributed to an equal number of detailers. The questionnaires were composed of two parts. In the first one, several questions about their profession were posed. In the second one, the questions were about Pharmacology. The main results were that most of them have got only lower degrees; however, they all have carried out training courses in their companies. With regard to pharmacological questions, percentage of success was 61%.

  9. Technetium-99m radiochemistry for pharmaceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagiannopoulou, Dionysia

    2017-09-01

    Technetium-99m ((99m) Tc) is a widely used radionuclide, and the development of (99m) Tc imaging agents continues to be in demand. This overview discusses basic principles of (99m) Tc radiopharmaceutical preparation and design and focuses on the (99m) Tc radiochemistry relevant to its pharmaceutical applications. The (99m) Tc complexes are described based on the most typical examples in each category, keeping up with the state-of-the-art in the field. In addition, the main current strategies to develop targeted (99m) Tc radiopharmaceuticals are summarized. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. [Review of effervescent technique in pharmaceutics research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiao-Jian; Xin, Hong-Liang; Rao, Xiao-Yong; Xiao, Zhi-Qiang; Gao, Li-Li; Sun, Ting-Ting; Guo, Qi-Li

    2008-04-01

    Effervescent technique, which can accelerate drug disintegration and dissolution, is usually applied in quick release preparations. Along with the development of pharmaceutical technique and theory, effervescent technique is used more and more extensively to adjust the behavior of drug release, such as in sustained and controlled release preparations, pulsatile drug delivery systems, and so on. This review demonstrated the new applying of effervescent technique in effervescent tablets, stomach floating forms, osmotic pump tablets and pulsatile drug delivery systems, adding to the critical common technique of effervescent forms in drug research. This will be benefit for the further research and development of effervescent technique.

  11. Preconditions of forming of loyalty management model in pharmaceutical institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Molodozhonova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The first stage of the mechanism for implementing of two-level model of efficient management of loyalty was justified. It is based on the fundamental value systems of the formation of consumer commitment and institutional commitment of pharmaceutical professionals. The stage involves recruitment, selection and adaptation period for pharmaceutical professionals and pre-use of axiological questioning of consumers of pharmaceutic goods.

  12. PARTICULARITIES OF THE LOGISTIC OPERATIONS IN THE PHARMACEUTICAL DOMAIN

    OpenAIRE

    ŞERBULESCU, Luminiţa; BUTNARU, Ana

    2010-01-01

    The management of logistic operations has a very important role in the case of pharmaceutical products. The purpose of this article is to analyze the particularity of the logistic operations management in the pharmaceutical domain. This is seen in the fact that there is the obligatory of using the exclusive distribution system, because the carriers do not have selling right to the final users. In the pharmaceutical domain, the logistic channels may be represented by a system of vertical marke...

  13. Pharmaceutical cocrystals of biguanide drugs: Metformin case study

    OpenAIRE

    Cvetkovski, Aleksandar; Bertolasi, Valerio; Gilli, Paola

    2013-01-01

    US FD’s released draft guidelines for regulatory classification of pharmaceutical cocrystals (PCC) of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) enforced by the increased interest for research on multicomponent crystal with pharmaceutical relevance brought an attention to scientiffic community broadly to spread the deffinition of PCC as solids that are crystalline single phase materials composed of two or more different molecular and/or ionic compounds generally in a stoichiometric ratio [1,2]....

  14. Mitigating pharmaceutical waste exposures: policy and program considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Amster, Eric D.

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceutical disposal and the environmental fate of medication metabolites directly impacts the public?s health in two significant ways: accidental medication ingestion of pharmaceuticals that were not disposed of properly results in inadvertent toxicity; and environmental health consequences of pharmaceuticals that were inappropriately disposed and which contaminate municipal water supply. In reviewing the effectiveness of medication disposal policy globally, it is crucial to not only dete...

  15. The pharmaceutical sector inquiry: 'Hamlet' in a nutshell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Exter, André

    2010-03-01

    In July 2009, the European Commission (DG Competition) published a Communication on the pharmaceutical sector. This inquiry was launched because there were some indications that competition in the pharmaceutical market in the European Union might not be working well. The report examines the reasons for the observed delay. This article analyses the outcomes from a critical standpoint, arguing in favour of enhanced 'soft law' accountability mechanisms in the pharmaceutical sector, defending conditional patenting and the introduction of a Community patent.

  16. Interactions and incompatibilities of pharmaceutical excipients with active pharmaceutical ingredients: a comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali S. Bharate

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies of active drug/excipient compatibility represent an important phase in the preformulation stage of the development of all dosage forms. The potential physical and chemical interactions between drugs and excipients can affect the chemical nature, the stability and bioavailability of drugs and, consequently, their therapeutic efficacy and safety. The present review covers the literature reports of interaction and incompatibilities of commonly used pharmaceutical excipients with different active pharmaceutical ingredients in solid dosage forms. Examples of active drug/excipient interactions, such as transacylation, the Maillard browning reaction, acid base reactions and physical changes are discussed for different active pharmaceutical ingredients belonging to different therapeutic categories viz antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, anti-convulsant, antibiotic, bronchodialator, antimalarial, antiemetic, antiamoebic, antipsychotic, antidepressant, anticancer, anticoagulant and sedative/hypnotic drugs and vitamins. Once the solid-state reactions of a pharmaceutical system are understood, the necessary steps can be taken to avoid reactivity and improve the stability of drug substances and products.

  17. [Chinese medicine industry 4.0:advancing digital pharmaceutical manufacture toward intelligent pharmaceutical manufacture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yi-Yu; Qu, Hai-Bin; Zhang, Bo-Li

    2016-01-01

    A perspective analysis on the technological innovation in pharmaceutical engineering of Chinese medicine unveils a vision on "Future Factory" of Chinese medicine industry in mind. The strategy as well as the technical roadmap of "Chinese medicine industry 4.0" is proposed, with the projection of related core technology system. It is clarified that the technical development path of Chinese medicine industry from digital manufacture to intelligent manufacture. On the basis of precisely defining technical terms such as process control, on-line detection and process quality monitoring for Chinese medicine manufacture, the technical concepts and characteristics of intelligent pharmaceutical manufacture as well as digital pharmaceutical manufacture are elaborated. Promoting wide applications of digital manufacturing technology of Chinese medicine is strongly recommended. Through completely informationized manufacturing processes and multi-discipline cluster innovation, intelligent manufacturing technology of Chinese medicine should be developed, which would provide a new driving force for Chinese medicine industry in technology upgrade, product quality enhancement and efficiency improvement. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  18. Hospitality Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    College of the Canyons, Valencia, CA.

    A project was conducted at College of the Canyons (Valencia, California) to initiate a new 2-year hospitality program with career options in hotel or restaurant management. A mail and telephone survey of area employers in the restaurant and hotel field demonstrated a need for, interest in, and willingness to provide internships for such a program.…

  19. Academic Hospitality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Alison; Barnett, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Academic hospitality is a feature of academic life. It takes many forms. It takes material form in the hosting of academics giving papers. It takes epistemological form in the welcome of new ideas. It takes linguistic form in the translation of academic work into other languages, and it takes touristic form through the welcome and generosity with…

  20. Category Captain Management: a new approach for healthcare suppliers to partner with their hospital customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetta, Bill

    2007-01-01

    Hospitals represent a substantial market for pharmaceutical and medical device companies. The typical approach by healthcare manufacturers and suppliers to hospitals is to send representatives or detailers to hospitals and meet with representatives of hospital formularies and purchasing officials. Classic channels systems, and specifically, Category Captain Management ("CCM") may provide more of a sustainable competitive advantage than traditional hospital detailing. The purpose of this article is to discuss how CCM might apply as an approach for healthcare suppliers to truly partner with their hospital customers.

  1. Access to pharmaceutical products in six European countries – analysis of different pharmaceutical distribution systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Walter

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to draw a comprehensive picture of the pharmaceutical wholesale sector, outlining its socio-economic importance compared to different distribution systems such as short-line wholesaling, direct sales from manufacturers, Reduced Wholesale Arrangements (RWA and Direct to Pharmacy (DTP arrangements. Its role is considered from an economic, effectiveness and, most importantly, a public health viewpoint with qualitative and quantitative methods, focusing on France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain and the UK.METHODS: First, data has been sourced from annual GIRP and IMS-Health statistics; second, a systematic literature research verified the empirical findings; third, an online-questionnaire was directed to pharmacies. Further data have been sourced from a questionnaire, addressing GIRP-full-member associations and wholesale companies (return rate 86%.RESULTS: On a weighted average, pharmaceutical full-line wholesalers in the observed countries alone pre-finance € 10.2 bn over a period of 41 days the entire medicine-market and secure the cash-flow of the social-insurers (Germany: € 2.60 bn for 38 days; Italy: € 2.27 bn for 68 days; the UK: € 1.48 bn for 36 days; France: € 1.28 bn for 22 days; Spain: € 969.76 m for 27 days; the Netherlands: € 399.09 m for 30 days on average. On average, pharmaceutical full-line wholesalers are bundling products of 18.28 manufacturers per delivery. The process costs would increase by € 164,922.43 to € 171,510.06 per year, if there were no pharmaceutical full-line wholesalers. These additional costs would have to be paid by manufacturers, pharmacies and finally by patients. Regarding the satisfaction with different distribution models, the results of the online-questionnaire show that pharmacists in the observed countries are very satisfied with the distribution through their pharmaceutical full-line wholesalers.CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that

  2. Electrochemical treatment of pharmaceutical and industrial wastewater by anodic oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menapace, H. M.; Fellerer, M.; Treschnitzer, M.

    2009-07-01

    In modern medicine pharmaceuticals play a decisive role: because of an increased life expectancy and intensive care medicine an increasing amount of pharmaceuticals is produced. thus these substances are consumed in a mass of tons per year in industrialized countries. Wastewater effluents from sewage treatment plants (STP) are important point sources for residues of pharmaceuticals and complexing agents in the aquatic environment. For this reason a research project, which started in December 2006, was established to eliminate pharmaceutical substances and complexing agents found in wastewater as micropollutants. (Author)

  3. RFID in the pharmaceutical industry: addressing counterfeits with technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Douglas

    2014-11-01

    The use of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) in the pharmaceutical industry has grown in recent years. The technology has matured from its specialized tracking and retail uses to a systemic part of supply chain management in international pharmaceutical production and distribution. Counterfeit drugs, however, remain a significant challenge for governments, pharmaceutical companies, clinicians, and patients and the use of RFID to track these compounds represents an opportunity for development. This paper discusses the medical, technological, and economic factors that support widespread adoption of RFID technology in the pharmaceutical industry in an effort to prevent counterfeit medicines from harming patients and brand equity.

  4. Pharmaceuticals Exposed to the Space Environment: Problems and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Myers, Jerry G.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Human Research Program (HRP) Health Countermeasures Element maintains ongoing efforts to inform detailed risks, gaps, and further questions associated with the use of pharmaceuticals in space. Most recently, the Pharmacology Risk Report, released in 2010, illustrates the problems associated with maintaining pharmaceutical efficacy. Since the report, one key publication includes evaluation of pharmaceutical products stored on the International Space Station (ISS). This study shows that selected pharmaceuticals on ISS have a shorter shelf-life in space than corresponding terrestrial controls. The HRP Human Research Roadmap for planetary exploration identifies the risk of ineffective or toxic medications due to long-term storage during missions to Mars. The roadmap also identifies the need to understand and predict how pharmaceuticals will behave when exposed to radiation for long durations. Terrestrial studies of returned samples offer a start for predictive modeling. This paper shows that pharmaceuticals returned to Earth for post-flight analyses are amenable to a Weibull distribution analysis in order to support probabilistic risk assessment modeling. The paper also considers the prospect of passive payloads of key pharmaceuticals on sample return missions outside of Earth's magnetic field to gather additional statistics. Ongoing work in radiation chemistry suggests possible mitigation strategies where future work could be done at cryogenic temperatures to explore methods for preserving the strength of pharmaceuticals in the space radiation environment, perhaps one day leading to an architecture where pharmaceuticals are cached on the Martian surface and preserved cryogenically.

  5. A perspective on PSE in pharmaceutical process development and innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Cervera Padrell, Albert Emili; Woodley, John

    2012-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is under growing pressure to increase efficiency, both in production and in process development. This paper discusses the central role of Process Systems Engineering (PSE) methods and tools in pharmaceutical process development and innovation, and searches for answers...... to questions such as: Which PSE methods can be applied readily? Where is more method development needed? The paper covers key subjects for development of economically and environmentally sustainable pharmaceutical processes, including Process Analytical Technology in its broadest sense, continuous...... pharmaceutical manufacturing and green processes, and is illustrated with a series of short examples taken from the literature and ongoing research projects....

  6. Toxicity reduction for pharmaceuticals mixture in water by electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boiani, Nathalia Fonseca; Tominaga, Flavio Kiyoshi; Borrely, Sueli Ivone, E-mail: flavio_tominaga@hotmail.com, E-mail: sborrely@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The incorrect disposal of products is committing the environment quality once the aquatic environment is the main vehicle for dispersion of pollutants. Among the highlighted contaminants there are the pharmaceuticals, which are also released to the aquatic environment through the domestic sewage, hospitals and effluents. The monitoring of these pharmaceuticals in the environment has grown, showing many of them as persistent pollutants. Pharmaceuticals from different therapeutic classes have been detected in domestic sewage, surface water and groundwater around the world. Several studies evidenced Fluoxetine Hydrochloride residues in waters. Another important product is the Propranolol, used for heart disease treatments as far as fluoxetine is applied for treating mental diseases. The objective of this study was to apply the radiation processing for the abatement of pollutant in waters. Electron beam accelerator was used during irradiation of the mixture (Propranolol + Fluoxetine Hydrochloride) in aqueous solution. Acute toxicity assays were carried out for Vibrio fischeri marine bacterium, 15 minutes exposure. The results showed that irradiation (2.5kGy and 5.0kGy) enhanced the average effective concentration of the mixture, which means reduction of toxicity (56.34%, 55.70% respectively). Inverse effect was obtained with 7.5 kGy and 10 kGy. (author)

  7. [Assessment of a pharmaceutical interventional programme in patients on medications with renal risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Arroyo, L; Climent Grana, E; Bosacoma Ros, N; Roca Meroño, S; Perdiguero Gil, M; Ordovás Baines, J P; Sánchez Payá, J

    2009-01-01

    To compare the adaptation of medical prescriptions according to the dosage guides in patients with renal disease, before and after applying a pharmaceutical intervention programme. The secondary objectives were to prepare a guide to dosing in renal disease and to measure the prevalence of prescription of drugs with renal risk. Non-randomised, experimental interventional study (before/after) conducted in a general hospital with 800 beds, including hospitalised patients, over the age of 18, with kidney disease and drugs with renal risk prescribed in their pharmacotherapeutic profile. The study was designed to be carried out in two descriptive cross-cutting phases (control group) and a prospective interventional cohort study (intervention group). The primary variable was the percentage non-adaptation according to the stage of renal disease. The study included 185 patients, 88 in the control group and 97 in the intervention group. In the intervention group, the prevalence of non-compliance before and after the intervention was 18.7 % and 2.1 %, representing a statistically significant reduction in non-adaptation of the dose. The costs saved with the pharmaceutical intervention programme were 1,939.63 euro over two months, the average saving per medication intervened amounting to 62.57 euro (CI 95 %, 23.99-101.14 euro; p = 0.02). The results of the study indicate that the application of a pharmaceutical care model based on the prospective validation of drugs with renal risk, very significantly improved the adaptation of dosing regimens in kidney disease.

  8. Patents and licensing in pharmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Ancevska Netkovska

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Intellectual property rights (IPR have been defined as ideas, inventions, and creative expressions based on which there is a public willingness to bestow the status of property. IPR provide certain exclusive rights to the inventors or creators of that property, in order to enable them to reap commercial benefits from their creative efforts or reputation. There are several types of intellectual property protection like patent, copyright, trademark, etc. Patent is recognition for an invention, which satisfies the criteria of global novelty, non-obviousness, and industrial application. IPR is prerequisite for better identification, planning, commercialization, rendering, and thereby protection of invention or creativity. Each industry should evolve its own IPR policies, management style, strategies, and so on depending on its area of specialty. Pharmaceutical industry currently has an evolving IPR strategy requiring a better focus and approach in the coming era. The protection of inventions with patents in the pharmaceutical industry have a specific role in the development of society and represent one of the drivers of economic development. The license agreements are considered as one of the most common types of transfer of industrial property rights. The right holders often transfer their rights to patents by concluding licensing agreement. While the patent license may give the license a right to use the technology many license agreements have provisions for the transfer of know-how in addition to the patent.

  9. ASEAN GMP and pharmaceutical industries in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soesilo, S; Sitorus, U

    1995-01-01

    Indonesia was appointed by the ASEAN Technical Cooperation in Pharmaceutical as a focal point and to coordinate the development of practical guidelines for the implementation of GMP. The ASEAN GMP Guidelines were endorsed by the ASEAN Technical Cooperation in Pharmaceutical in 1988, which among others required separation of Beta-Lactam dedicated facilities and three degrees of cleanliness for production areas. As it was realised that drug manufacturers in developing countries need more detailed guidelines to be able to implement the GMP, an Operational Manual for GMP was also prepared for providing examples of SOPs lay-outs, documentation etc. It was agreed by the technical cooperation group to leave the implementation of GMP to each member country. However, the ASEAN Manual for Inspection of GMP was drafted and endorsed by the group and training of ASEAN Drug Inspectors was organized to support the implementation. The ASEAN GMP is being implemented in Indonesia through a five-year, stepwise implementation plan, starting in 1989.

  10. Private versus social incentives for pharmaceutical innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Paula; Macho-Stadler, Inés; Pérez-Castrillo, David

    2016-12-01

    We provide a theoretical framework to contribute to the current debate regarding the tendency of pharmaceutical companies to direct their R&D toward marketing products that are "follow-on" drugs of already existing drugs, rather than toward the development of breakthrough drugs. We construct a model with a population of patients who can be treated with drugs that are horizontally and vertically differentiated. In addition to a pioneering drug, a new drug can be marketed as the result of an innovative process. We analyze physician prescription choices and the optimal pricing decision of an innovative firm. We also characterize the incentives of the innovative firm to conduct R&D activities, disentangling the quest for breakthrough drugs from the firm effort to develop follow-on drugs. Our results offer theoretical support for the conventional wisdom that pharmaceutical firms devote too many resources to conducting R&D activities that lead to incremental innovations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of environmental sustainability of pharmaceutical packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geo Raju

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical companies are increasingly imparting a lot of importance on becoming more sustainable by developing medicines that are having same medicinal value but with reduced environmental impact. Type of packaging of tablets affects the emission generated during packaging of medicines. Selection of an appropriate packaging of medicine also influences the emission added to the environment. This paper aims at the comparison of environmental impacts of two different types of packaging of tablets viz., PVC blister and aluminium blister packaging. Life cycle assessment (LCA methodology is used for this comparison. The study includes stages from Cradle to Gate that is, extraction till the packaging processes focused mainly on manufacturing. The functional unit is taken as material required for packing 1 lakh (100,000, 500 mg of paracetamol tablets. Primary data is provided by a pharmaceutical formulation industry and secondary data is obtained from a commercial LCA database available in GaBi and from literature. LCA software GaBi 7.0 is used to carry out the life cycle assessment of both kinds of packaging. Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA method, CML 2001, is used in this study. The study indicates that the PVC blister packaging performs better compared to the aluminium blister packaging in most of the impact categories considered. It is observed that the process of manufacturing of aluminium foils is a significant contributor to the overall environmental impact of aluminium blister packaging.

  12. Evaluation of hydroperoxides in common pharmaceutical excipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasylaschuk, Walter R; Harmon, Paul A; Wagner, Gabriella; Harman, Amy B; Templeton, Allen C; Xu, Hui; Reed, Robert A

    2007-01-01

    While the physical properties of pharmaceutical excipients have been well characterized, impurities that may influence the chemical stability of formulated drug product have not been well studied. In this work, the hydroperoxide (HPO) impurity levels of common pharmaceutical excipients are measured and presented for both soluble and insoluble excipients. Povidone, polysorbate 80 (PS80), polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400, and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) were found to contain substantial concentrations of HPOs with significant lot-to-lot and manufacturer-to-manufacturer variation. Much lower HPO levels were found in the common fillers, like microcrystalline cellulose and lactose, and in high molecular weight PEG, medium chain glyceride (MCG), and poloxamer. The findings are discussed within the context of HPO-mediated oxidation and formulating drug substance sensitive to oxidation. Of the four excipients with substantial HPO levels, povidone, PEG 400, and HPC contain a mixture of hydrogen peroxide and organic HPOs while PS80 contains predominantly organic HPOs. The implications of these findings are discussed with respect to the known manufacturing processes and chemistry of HPO reactivity and degradation kinetics. Defining critical HPO limits for excipients should be driven by the chemistry of a specific drug substance or product and can only be defined within this context. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  13. US Pharmaceutical Innovation in an International Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Steven; Hebert, Paul; Carpenter, Daniel; Anderson, Gerard

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We explored whether the United States, which does not regulate pharmaceutical prices, is responsible for the development of a disproportionate share of the new molecular entities (NMEs; a drug that does not contain an active moiety previously approved by the Food and Drug Administration) produced worldwide. Methods. We collected data on NMEs approved between 1992 and 2004 and assigned each NME to an inventor country. We examined the relation between the proportion of total NMEs developed in each country and the proportion of total prescription drug spending and gross domestic product (GDP) of each country represented. Results. The United States accounted for 42% of prescription drug spending and 40% of the total GDP among innovator countries and was responsible for the development of 43.7% of the NMEs. The United Kingdom, Switzerland, and a few other countries innovated proportionally more than their contribution to GDP or prescription drug spending, whereas Japan, South Korea, and a few other countries innovated less. Conclusions. Higher prescription drug spending in the United States does not disproportionately privilege domestic innovation, and many countries with drug price regulation were significant contributors to pharmaceutical innovation. PMID:20403883

  14. Old Yet New--Pharmaceuticals from Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Peter J.

    2001-02-01

    Plants or their crude extracts have been used since prehistory to treat human ailments. Plants are still used in this way in many parts of the world, but Western scientific medicine has tended to isolate active compounds, or make derivatives of them, for use as drugs. Compounds produced by the plant have been important pharmaceuticals since the isolation of morphine almost two hundred years ago and new naturally occurring compounds such as paclitaxel are continually being introduced commercially. Bioactive molecules may also be produced from chemicals found in plants by chemical modification using synthetic chemistry or microorganisms (as in the production of steroids). A third major contribution of plant chemicals to drugs is their utilization as templates for the design of new compounds made by synthesis (e.g. the discovery of aspirin and related compounds from substances in willow bark). New pharmaceuticals from plants are being discovered by examining traditional medicines and by large-scale bioassay screening processes. In addition, the chemical survival systems of plants that exist in hostile environments are receiving increasing attention as leads to discover active compounds. The knowledge of botanical relationships helps find new sources of known compounds of interest and novel compounds with similar structures from related species. Future prospects for the discovery of new compounds from plants are broadened by the new technologies of gene manipulation, tissue culture, and combinatorial chemistry, so it is very likely that natural products from plants will continue to play an important role in the fight against disease.

  15. Applications of terahertz spectroscopy to pharmaceutical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taday, Philip F

    2004-02-15

    The application of terahertz pulsed spectroscopy within the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) recent process analytical technology (PAT) initiative is considered. As a case study the potency levels in paracetamol (4-acetamidophenol) and aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) test tablets have been recovered from the terahertz absorption spectra using a multivariate partial-least-squares (PLS) calibration model. Root-mean-square errors of cross-validation (RMSECVs) of 2.85% and 3.90% were obtained for paracetamol and aspirin, respectively. Information about other excipients can also be obtained; for example, using the strong lactose absorption lines in the tablets, RMSECVs of 3.65% and 4.30% could be recovered from the paracetamol and aspirin samples, respectively. As active ingredients may also change their solid-state form during formulation processing or storage and as this can adversely affect the final dosage performance, monitoring of pharmaceutical ingredients is essential for a 'right-first-time' philosophy within the industry. Terahertz pulse spectroscopy is a high-throughput technique with many areas of potential exploitation in the pharmaceutical industry; these issues are discussed in this paper.

  16. The Future of Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The entire pharmaceutical sector is in an urgent need of both innovative technological solutions and fundamental scientific work, enabling the production of highly engineered drug products. Commercial‐scale manufacturing of complex drug delivery systems (DDSs) using the existing technologies is challenging. This review covers important elements of manufacturing sciences, beginning with risk management strategies and design of experiments (DoE) techniques. Experimental techniques should, where possible, be supported by computational approaches. With that regard, state‐of‐art mechanistic process modeling techniques are described in detail. Implementation of materials science tools paves the way to molecular‐based processing of future DDSs. A snapshot of some of the existing tools is presented. Additionally, general engineering principles are discussed covering process measurement and process control solutions. Last part of the review addresses future manufacturing solutions, covering continuous processing and, specifically, hot‐melt processing and printing‐based technologies. Finally, challenges related to implementing these technologies as a part of future health care systems are discussed. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:3612–3638, 2015 PMID:26280993

  17. Pharmaceuticals and Their Impact on the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomić, S

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceuticals are a class of emerging environmental contaminants that are extensively and increasingly being used in human and veterinary medicine and are released continuously into the environment. A variety of pharmaceuticals have been detected in many environmental samples worldwide. The establishment of chemical analysis methods able to determine more polar compounds allow the determination and identification of trace quantities of drugs and their metabolites. Most regulatory agencies require that environmental risk assessment is performed as an integral part of their approval procedures for the marketing for medicinal products. Marketing approval for medicinal products in the European Union is regulated by the Directive 2001/83/EC. Based on the Directive, the European Medicines Agency (EMA has published guidelines describing the procedure for the environmental risk assessment for medicinal products marketed in the EU. The requirements for the Environmental risk assessment (ERA in Croatia are regulated by the Medicinal Products Act (Official Gazette No. 71/07 and the Ordinance on the Procedure and Method for Granting Marketing Authorisations for Medicinal Products (Official Gazette No. 113/08.

  18. Rosmarinic Acid--Pharmaceutical and Clinical Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoah, Solomon K S; Sandjo, Louis P; Kratz, Jadel M; Biavatti, Maique W

    2016-03-01

    The biosynthesis and biotechnological production of Rosmarinic acid, a phenolic ester that is widespread in the plant kingdom, has been widely investigated. This compound has shown many remarkable biological and pharmacological activities, which have led to its pharmaceutical and analytical development, as well as clinical studies, which are summarized and analyzed here for the first time. This review compiles data from the Pubmed, Scopus, Scifinder, Web Of Science, and Science Direct databases published between 1990 and 2015, restricting the search to works with the keywords "Rosmarinic acid" in the title. The initial search identified more than 800 articles; after an initial screening and removal of duplicate works, the search was further refined, resulting in approximately 300 articles that were scrutinized and comprise this review. The articles were organized to describe extraction and isolation, analytical methods, pharmaceutical development, and biological and pharmacological activities [divided into nonclinical (in vitro, in vivo) and clinical studies], pharmacokinetic studies, and stability studies. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. US pharmaceutical innovation in an international context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyhani, Salomeh; Wang, Steven; Hebert, Paul; Carpenter, Daniel; Anderson, Gerard

    2010-06-01

    We explored whether the United States, which does not regulate pharmaceutical prices, is responsible for the development of a disproportionate share of the new molecular entities (NMEs; a drug that does not contain an active moiety previously approved by the Food and Drug Administration) produced worldwide. We collected data on NMEs approved between 1992 and 2004 and assigned each NME to an inventor country. We examined the relation between the proportion of total NMEs developed in each country and the proportion of total prescription drug spending and gross domestic product (GDP) of each country represented. The United States accounted for 42% of prescription drug spending and 40% of the total GDP among innovator countries and was responsible for the development of 43.7% of the NMEs. The United Kingdom, Switzerland, and a few other countries innovated proportionally more than their contribution to GDP or prescription drug spending, whereas Japan, South Korea, and a few other countries innovated less. Higher prescription drug spending in the United States does not disproportionately privilege domestic innovation, and many countries with drug price regulation were significant contributors to pharmaceutical innovation.

  20. Pharmaceutical significance of cellulose: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The amalgamation of polymer and pharmaceutical sciences led to the introduction of polymer in the design and development of drug delivery systems. Polymeric delivery systems are mainly intended to achieve controlled or sustained drug delivery. Polysaccharides fabricated into hydrophilic matrices remain popular biomaterials for controlled-release dosage forms and the most abundant naturally occurring biopolymer is cellulose; so hdroxypropylmethyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose and hydroxyethyl cellulose can be used for production of time controlled delivery systems. Additionally microcrystalline cellulose, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose, hydroxyethyl cellulose as well as hydroxypropyl cellulose are used to coat tablets. Cellulose acetate phthalate and hydroxymethyl cellulose phthalate are also used for enteric coating of tablets. Targeting of drugs to the colon following oral administration has also been accomplished by using polysaccharides such as hdroxypropylmethyl cellulose and hydroxypropyl cellulose in hydrated form; also they act as binders that swell when hydrated by gastric media and delay absorption. This paper assembles the current knowledge on the structure and chemistry of cellulose, and in the development of innovative cellulose esters and ethers for pharmaceuticals.

  1. Quantitative mass spectrometry methods for pharmaceutical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Glenn; Van Schepdael, Ann; Cabooter, Deirdre

    2016-10-28

    Quantitative pharmaceutical analysis is nowadays frequently executed using mass spectrometry. Electrospray ionization coupled to a (hybrid) triple quadrupole mass spectrometer is generally used in combination with solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography. Furthermore, isotopically labelled standards are often used to correct for ion suppression. The challenges in producing sensitive but reliable quantitative data depend on the instrumentation, sample preparation and hyphenated techniques. In this contribution, different approaches to enhance the ionization efficiencies using modified source geometries and improved ion guidance are provided. Furthermore, possibilities to minimize, assess and correct for matrix interferences caused by co-eluting substances are described. With the focus on pharmaceuticals in the environment and bioanalysis, different separation techniques, trends in liquid chromatography and sample preparation methods to minimize matrix effects and increase sensitivity are discussed. Although highly sensitive methods are generally aimed for to provide automated multi-residue analysis, (less sensitive) miniaturized set-ups have a great potential due to their ability for in-field usage.This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantitative mass spectrometry'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. Spectrophotometric Estimation of Sulfadoxine in Pharmaceutical Preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangita Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Four simple, sensitive, accurate and rapid visible spectrophotometric methods (A, B, C and D have been developed for the estimation of sulfadoxine in pharmaceutical preparations. They are based on the diazotization of sulfadoxine with sodium nitrite and hydrochloric acid followed by coupling with N-(1-naphthyl ethylenediamine dihydrochloride (Method A to form pink coloured chromogen, diphenylamine (Method B to form light pink coloured chromogen, chromotropic acid (in alkaline medium (Method C to form orange coloured chromogen, Resorcinol (in alkaline medium (Method D to form light orange coloured chromogen and exhibiting absorption maxima (λmax at 536 nm, 524 nm, 520 nm and 496 nm respectively. The coloured chromogens formed are stable for more than 2 h. Beer’s law was obeyed in the concentration range of 1.0 - 5.0 μg/mL in Method A , 5.0 - 25.0 μg/mL in Method B, 5.0 - 25.0 μg/mL in Method C and 4.0 - 8.0 μg/mL in Method D respectively. The results of the three analysis have been validated statistically and by recovery studies. The results obtained in the proposed methods are in good agreements with labeled amounts, when marketed pharmaceutical preparations are analyzed.

  3. BREAKTHROUGH POSITIONING STRATEGY: USAGE AT THE ENTERPRISE LEVEL RUSSIAN PHARMACEUTICAL CLUSTER

    OpenAIRE

    Pashkus V.Y.; Pashkus N. A.

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the development of pharmaceutical clusters. We study the development of the Russian pharmaceutical market, highlighted areas where there are promising pharmaceutical companies engaged in innovative activities and using modern marketing strategies, including breakthrough positioning strategy. The aim is to develop a tool positioning regional pharmaceutical cluster region-specific manufacturers and features segments of the pharmaceutical market, including: formulations, d...

  4. [THE INFLUENCE OF THE ISRAELI LEGISLATION ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PHYSICIANS AND PHARMACEUTICAL COMPANIES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissanholtz-Gannot, Rachel; Yankellevich, Ariel; Nirel, Nurit

    2016-07-01

    The relationship between physicians and pharmaceutical-companies raises many dilemmas. There are two types of solutions to these dilemmas: self-regulation and government regulation. Our goal was to review in what way legislative intervention and self-regulation standardize and affect the relationship. In addition, we examined the positions of relevant stakeholders regarding: 1. The relationship between physicians and pharmaceutical companies; 2. Future measures we should take to address the ethical dilemmas inherent in this relationship. 1. In-depth interviews with 42 senior representatives of all the relevant stakeholders, with emphasis on their organizational identity, since their points of view are influenced and shaped by organizational and professional positioning. We analyzed the interviews using the Narralizer program. 2. Analysis of three databases: The Ministry of Health, The Israel Medical Association and Pharma-Israel, regarding donations made to various parties in the health system. The influence of Israeli legislation on the relationship between physicians and pharmaceutical companies is almost imperceptible. However, in recent years, there have been changes in this relationship stemming from international self-regulation, which leads to: contractual relationships, decreases in hospitality and tighter internal control over this relationship. Regulation in Israel is not achieving its goal satisfactorily. Solutions to reduce the influence of this relationship exist. However, the first step is for the regulator to decide to what extent, if any, he wants to deal with this issue. If the regulator chooses to take the lead on this issue, we will soon face additional legislation that might limit the amount of money that the pharmaceutical companies can donate to healthcare organizations.

  5. Financial aspects and the future of the pharmaceutical industry in the United States of america.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamehic, Jasenko; Ridic, Ognjen; Ridic, Goran; Jukic, Tomislav; Coric, Jozo; Subasic, Djemo; Panjeta, Mirsad; Saban, Aida; Zunic, Lejla; Masic, Izet

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. pharmaceutical industry is defined by the U.S. Census Bureau as "companies engaged in researching, developing, manufacturing and marketing of medicines and biological for human or veterinary use". Besides its main role in improving human health, the US pharmaceutical industry represents one of the most critical, key decision makers' lobbying prone and competitive sectors in the economy. The cost in the environment of very limited government price regulation remains one of the major problems fuelling aggregate health care cost inflation. Pharmaceuticals have created huge benefits for public health and economic productivity by the means of saving lives, increasing life expectancy, reducing illness related suffering, preventing surgeries and decreasing hospital stays. The goal of this review paper is to show the present conditions and future trends of the pharmaceutical industry in the U.S. THIS PAPER REPRESENTS A THOROUGH LITERATURE REVIEW OF THE MULTIFACETED SOURCES INCLUDING: studies, books, peer reviewed journals, U.S. government sources (i.e. U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, etc.). In the thirty years pharmaceutical companies have consistently developed and launched new medicines, bringing hope to sick or - at risk patients. They also usually provide above the average financial returns for its shareholders. U.S. pharmaceutical companies had as their goal to discover blockbuster drugs. Blockbuster drugs are generally defined as drugs that solve medical problems common to hundreds of millions of people and, at the same time generate large sales increases and profits for the pharmaceutical companies. The main approach of these companies includes huge investments in research and development (R&D), innovation, marketing and sales. The trend analysis shows that for the most part the era of blockbuster drugs is nearing an end. Numerous blockbuster drugs will be coming off patent in the next few years, opening the way to generics and

  6. International experience in controlling pharmaceutical expenditure: influencing patients and providers and regulating industry - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Iyn-Hyang; Bloor, Karen; Hewitt, Catherine; Maynard, Alan

    2015-01-01

    To review international policies to control expenditure on pharmaceuticals by influencing the behaviour of patients and providers and regulating the pharmaceutical industry. Systematic review of experimental and quasi-experimental studies. Published studies were identified with an electronic search strategy using MEDLINE and EMBASE from 1980 to May 2012. Studies were eligible if they assessed the effect of policies aimed at influencing the behaviour of patients and providers, and regulating the pharmaceutical industry. Outcome measures included pharmaceutical expenditure, prices or utilization; other resource use relating to pharmaceuticals; and health outcomes and patients' or providers' behaviour relating to pharmaceutical use. Quality assessment criteria for each study design were developed based on the standard criteria recommended by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) group. The review includes studies based on randomized controlled trials and rigorous quasi-experimental designs (interrupted time-series and controlled before-and-after studies). Studies were excluded if they were conducted within a single hospital or practice; related to pharmaceutical care services or disease management; had less than 6 months of follow-up period (or less than 12 months overall for interrupted time series); if data in controlled before-and-after studies were not collected contemporaneously or if no rationale was stated for the choice of control group; or if relevant and interpretable data were not presented. A total of 255 studies met the inclusion criteria for this review. The majority of the studies relating to patients evaluated cost sharing interventions such as user charges (52 studies). User charges do reduce utilization of pharmaceuticals, and reduce public expenditure by shifting costs to patients. But they reduce the use of essential as well as non-essential drugs, and without adequate exemptions they affect vulnerable groups

  7. Pharmaceutical care in Brazil's primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Patricia Sodré; Costa, Ediná Alves; Guerra, Augusto Afonso; Acurcio, Francisco de Assis; Guibu, Ione Aquemi; Álvares, Juliana; Costa, Karen Sarmento; Karnikowski, Margô Gomes de Oliveira; Soeiro, Orlando Mario; Leite, Silvana Nair

    2017-11-13

    To characterize the activities of clinical nature developed by pharmacists in basic health units and their participation in educational activities aiming at health promotion. This article is part of the Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos - Serviços, 2015 (PNAUM - National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines - Services, 2015), a cross-sectional and exploratory study, of evaluative nature, consisting of a survey of information in a representative sample of cities, stratified by the Brazilian regions that constitute domains of study, and a subsample of primary health care services. The interviewed pharmacists (n=285) were responsible for the delivery of medicines and were interviewed in person with the use of a script. The characterization of the activities of clinical nature was based on information from pharmacists who declared to perform them, and on participation in educational activities aiming at health promotion, according to information from all pharmacists. The results are presented in frequency and their 95% confidence intervals. From the interviewed subjects, 21.3% said they perform activities of clinical nature. Of these, more than 80% considered them very important; the majority does not dispose of specific places to perform them, which hinders privacy and confidentiality in these activities. The main denominations were "pharmaceutical guidance" and "pharmaceutical care." The registration of activities is mainly made in the users' medical records, computerized system, and in a specific document filed at the pharmacy, impairing the circulation of information among professionals. Most pharmacists performed these activities mainly along with physicians and nurses; 24.7% rarely participated in meetings with the health team, and 19.7% have never participated. Activities of clinical nature performed by pharmacists in Brazil are still incipient. The difficulties found point out

  8. Lipids in pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Rodríguez, María Luisa

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a review of the applications of lipids in the pharmaceutical field has been reported. In a first stage, different lipids used as excipients in cosmetics and medicines have been described. Many vegetable oils are used in this sense: almond oil, apricot oil, avocado oil, borage oil, coffee oil, safflower oil, etc.; from de animal source, fish oil and bird oil can be employed as excipients in cosmetical formulations. Fats and waxes may be also used for this purpose. A broad range of phospholipids are suitable for use in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and diagnosis. These substances are used as vehicle for therapeutic substances, such as liposomes. Finally, a study of lipids, as a function of their biological activity, as active substances for the elaboration of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics or nutritional supplements, was carried out. Carotenoids, retinoids, tocopherols are used for their antioxidant properties, that are important to health and diagnostic medicine.En el presente trabajo se ha llevado a cabo una revisión sobre las aplicaciones de los lípidos en el campo famacéutico. En un primer apartado, se describieron los diferentes lípidos utilizados como excipientes en cosmética y medicina. En este sentido, se utilizan muchos aceites vegetales, como el aceite de almendra, albaricoque, aguacate, borraja, café, cártamo, etc.; a partir de fuente animal, pueden emplearse como excipientes en formulaciones cosméticas los aceites de pescados y de aves. También se utilizan con este propósito las grasas y las ceras. Así mismo se revisan los fosfolípidos empleados en cosmética y en diagnosis, que actúan como vehículos transportadores de sustancias activas, como los liposomas. Finalmente, se llevó a cabo un estudio de los lípidos, en función de su actividad biológica, como sustancias activas que forman parte de la elaboración de formulaciones cosméticas, farmacéuticas o suplementos nutricionales. Los carotenoides, retinoides

  9. Trademarks, the International Pharmaceutical Industry, and the Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. O'Brien (Peter)

    1977-01-01

    textabstractThere are several reasons why an examination of the impacts of trademarks in the pharmaceutical industry on the developing countries is opportune. First, the nature of supply and consumption is strongly conditioned by the trademark system. Second, the pharmaceutical sector is the most

  10. Adsorptive removal of selected pharmaceuticals by mesoporous silica SBA-15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bui, Tung Xuan, E-mail: bxtung@gist.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), 261 Cheomdan-gwagiro, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Heechul, E-mail: hcchoi@gist.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), 261 Cheomdan-gwagiro, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    The removal of five selected pharmaceuticals, viz., carbamazepine, clofibric acid, diclofenac, ibuprofen, and ketoprofen was examined by batch sorption experiments onto a synthesized mesoporous silica SBA-15. SBA-15 was synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption measurement, and point of zero charge (PZC) measurement. Pharmaceutical adsorption kinetics was rapid and occurred on a scale of minutes, following a pseudo-second-order rate expression. Adsorption isotherms were best fitted by the Freundlich isotherm model. High removal rates of individual pharmaceuticals were achieved in acidic media (pH 3-5) and reached 85.2% for carbamazepine, 88.3% for diclofenac, 93.0% for ibuprofen, 94.3% for ketoprofen, and 49.0% for clofibric acid at pH 3 but decreased with increase in pH. SBA-15 also showed high efficiency for removal of a mixture of 5 pharmaceuticals. Except for clofibric acid (35.6%), the removal of pharmaceuticals in the mixture ranged from 75.2 to 89.3%. Based on adsorption and desorption results, the mechanism of the selected pharmaceuticals was found to be a hydrophilic interaction, providing valuable information for further studies to design materials for the purpose. The results of this study suggest that mesoporous-silica-based materials are promising adsorbents for removing pharmaceuticals from not only surface water but also wastewater of pharmaceutical industrial manufactures.

  11. Knowledge and practice of pharmaceutical care by community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Years of experience in practice was found to influence pharmacists' view on confidentiality of patient information (p=0.031). There was a positive knowledge of pharmaceutical care among community pharmacists in the Jos metropolis with 81% of them reported to be practicing it. Keywords: Pharmaceutical care, Knowledge, ...

  12. Public awareness of Pharmaceutical care availability in community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmacy practice has transcended from largely a dispensary practice to pharmaceutical care practice. It is necessary to assess public awareness and demand for pharmaceutical care in Yenogoa. This study used a sample size of 450 randomly selected respondents not below 18 years of age. Only 21% of the respondents ...

  13. Capacity to deliver pharmaceutical care by community pharmacies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmacy practice has transcended from largely a dispensary practice to pharmaceutical care practice. The capacity of community pharmacies to deliver pharmaceutical care was studied using pretested self survey methods. Ninety five percent (95%) of the respondents always educated customers on drug related needs, ...

  14. Why regulatory indifference towards pharmaceutical pollution of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    But the pitfalls of pharmaceutical pollutants extend beyond acute effects to delayed effects from bioaccumulation, amplified effects from drug-drug interactions, exacerbation of drug resistance, and reduction in aquatic and terrestrial food production. Therefore, ignoring pharmaceutical pollutants deprives society of holistic ...

  15. East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences is dedicated to all aspects of Pharmaceutical Sciences research and is published in English. The scientific papers published in the Journal fall into three main categories: review papers, original research papers and short communications. Review papers in ...

  16. Practice of pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies in Jordan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To describe the current role played by pharmacists in delivering pharmaceutical care (PC) in community pharmacies in ... Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research is indexedby Science Citation Index (SciSearch), Scopus,. International ..... of interprofessional workshops focussing on the roles of the different ...

  17. Pharmaceuticals and Wastewater Tracers Along the Lower Hudson River

    Science.gov (United States)

    The behavior and fate of pharmaceutical residues in urbanized, coastal ecosystems is not well understood. In this study 16 highly prescribed pharmaceuticals were measured in the lower Hudson River and New York Harbor in order to elucidate factors and processes regulating their ...

  18. Ways of Learning in the Pharmaceutical Sales Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Carrie Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to document the ways pharmaceutical representatives learn for work and report attributes of (in)formality and other characteristics of ways of learning perceived as effective and frequently used. Design/methodology/approach: A total of agents 20 from 11 pharmaceutical manufacturers across Canada participated…

  19. Tendering and decision-making: a case on pharmaceutical products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankers, S.; Vieira, R.

    2012-01-01

    In order to contain expenditures for pharmaceuticals, the latest healthcare reforms have focused on decentralising German pharmaceutical market. Health insurance funds are now able to tender the products and subsequently conclude rebate contracts with one or more companies. Considering the enormous

  20. 75 FR 16157 - Pharmaceutical Supply Chain; Public Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Pharmaceutical Supply Chain; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public workshop. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing a public workshop entitled ``2010 PDA/FDA Pharmaceutical Supply Chain Workshop...

  1. Biotechnology, nanotechnology, and pharmacogenomics and pharmaceutical compounding, Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Loyd V

    2015-01-01

    The world of pharmaceuticals is changing rapidly as biotechnology continues to grow and nanotechnology appears on the horizon. Biotechnology is gaining in importance in extemporaneous pharmaceutical compounding, and nanotechnology and pharmacogenomics could drastically change the practice of pharmacy. This article discusses biotechnology and the factors to consider when compounding biotechnology drugs.

  2. Identification of Standards for Pharmaceutical Care in Benin City

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Pharmaceutical care (PC) is still a theoretical statement in Nigeria and not operational. The goal of this study is to identify practice standards that can be effectively applied in the implementation of pharmaceutical care in Nigeria. Method: The survey instrument (a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire) was ...

  3. Regulating the Dutch pharmaceutical market: improving efficiency or controlling costs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, de P.; Brouwer, W.B.F.; Rutten, F.H.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the Dutch pharmaceutical market, which is heavily regulated by the government. Through the regulation of prices and promoting prudent use, the Dutch government tries to bring down the cost of pharmaceuticals, which increases every year at a higher rate than total health

  4. Removal of pharmaceuticals in WWTP effluents by ozone and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For pH 6.0 effluents, the removal of pharmaceuticals was most efficient in the effluent with the lowest organic content. The addition of H2O2 had no significant effect on the quantitative removal of pharmaceuticals but enhanced the ozone decomposition rate. Thus, H2O2 addition increased the reaction rate. In practice, this ...

  5. A study of the pharmaceutical quality of chloroquine and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of the pharmaceutical quality of chloroquine and paracetamol products sold in a major Nigerian “market” ... The pharmaceutical properties of the products indicated that 6, 15, 9, and 9% of them failed tests for disintegration, dissolution, crushing strength, and percentage of active content, respectively. 4 out of the 6 ...

  6. Price competition in the Chinese pharmaceutical market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y Richard

    2006-06-01

    We study price competition between high-quality global products and low-quality local products in a developing country, i.e., China, Nearly all previous studies on pharmaceutical price competition focused on developed countries with bioequivalent generics. In China, local generic products are not bioequivalent and are deemed of lower quality, while global products in the same class are considered similar in quality and better substitutes. We hypothesize that local generic competition drives down local product price but not global product price. In addition, we hypothesize that therapeutic competition among similar global products lowers global product price. Our empirical results support both hypotheses. Number of local generic competitors has a significantly negative effect on local product price but no effect on global product price, while number of global therapeutic competitors has a significantly negative effect on global product price. Policy changes that encourage bioequivalent local products and accelerate global product approvals will enhance price competition in China.

  7. Cancer nanoimmunotherapy using advanced pharmaceutical nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Wei, Huafeng; Li, Huafei; Gao, Jie; Feng, Si-Shen; Guo, Yajun

    2014-11-01

    Immunotherapy is a promising option for cancer treatment that might cure cancer with fewer side effects by primarily activating the host's immune system. However, the effect of traditional immunotherapy is modest, frequently due to tumor escape and resistance of multiple mechanisms. Pharmaceutical nanotechnology, which is also called cancer nanotechnology or nanomedicine, has provided a practical solution to solve the limitations of traditional immunotherapy. This article reviews the latest developments in immunotherapy and nanomedicine, and illustrates how nanocarriers (including micelles, liposomes, polymer-drug conjugates, solid lipid nanoparticles and biodegradable nanoparticles) could be used for the cellular transfer of immune effectors for active and passive nanoimmunotherapy. The fine engineering of nanocarriers based on the unique features of the tumor microenvironment and extra-/intra-cellular conditions of tumor cells can greatly tip the triangle immunobalance among host, tumor and nanoparticulates in favor of antitumor responses, which shows a promising prospect for nanoimmunotherapy.

  8. Are pharmaceutical patents protected by human rights?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millum, J

    2008-11-01

    The International Bill of Rights enshrines a right to health, which includes a right to access essential medicines. This right frequently appears to conflict with the intellectual property regime that governs pharmaceutical patents. However, there is also a human right that protects creative works, including scientific productions. Does this right support intellectual property protections, even when they may negatively affect health? This article examines the recent attempt by the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights to resolve this issue and argues that it fails. This is problematic because it means defenders of the present patent regime can continue using human rights documents to support their position. I offer a new framework for resolving the problem by examining the values that underlie human rights.

  9. Post-approval fate of pharmaceutical companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinch, Michael S

    2015-02-01

    For a fortunate subset of pharmaceutical companies, a regulatory approval is the culmination of massive investment in time, work and money. What happens next? Some companies proceed to build a pipeline and obtain additional approvals. Others do not. In this present report, post-approval fate is evaluated and it was found that most companies are ultimately acquired. A subset achieved a second approval six-to-eight years after the first approval, whereas a shrinking subset, designated as 'singlets', remains active in drug discovery with only a single approval. The likelihood that a company will remain a singlet or be acquired relates to therapeutic indication, with oncology associated with increased acquisition potential and infectious-disease-based companies being less commonly acquired. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nonclinical statistics for pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book serves as a reference text for regulatory, industry and academic statisticians and also a handy manual for entry level Statisticians. Additionally it aims to stimulate academic interest in the field of Nonclinical Statistics and promote this as an important discipline in its own right. This text brings together for the first time in a single volume a comprehensive survey of methods important to the nonclinical science areas within the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. Specifically the Discovery and Translational sciences, the Safety/Toxiology sciences, and the Chemistry, Manufacturing and Controls sciences. Drug discovery and development is a long and costly process. Most decisions in the drug development process are made with incomplete information. The data is rife with uncertainties and hence risky by nature. This is therefore the purview of Statistics. As such, this book aims to introduce readers to important statistical thinking and its application in these nonclinical areas. The cha...

  11. Pharmaceutical companies pledge vaccines for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovner, J

    2000-03-11

    After the opening of the Millennium Vaccine Initiative (MVI), a program which aims to help lower the toll of infectious disease, four pharmaceutical companies pledge to develop vaccines to fight infectious diseases in the developing world. The agreement by Merck, American Home Products, SmithKline Beecham, and Aventis Pharma came as President Clinton continued to advance the MVI program. Merck announced that it would give 5 million doses of its hepatitis B vaccine over the next 5 years; American Home Products stated that it would donate 10 million doses of its Hemophilus influenzae type b vaccine. Moreover, SmithKline Beecham announced it would do pediatric trials of its malaria vaccine in Africa and renewed a pledge made in 1998 to work with WHO to donate 5 billion doses of albendazole over the next 20 years to eradicate lymphatic filariasis. In addition, Aventis Pharma promised 50 million doses of its polio vaccine for ¿war-torn nations in Africa¿.

  12. The pharmaceutical industry as a medicines provider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, David; Lexchin, Joel

    2002-11-16

    Rising prices of medicines are putting them beyond the reach of many people, even in rich countries. In less-developed countries, millions of individuals do not have access to essential drugs. Drug development is failing to address the major health needs of these countries. The prices of patented medicines usually far exceed the marginal costs of their production; the industry maintains that high prices and patent protection are necessary to compensate for high development costs of innovative products. There is controversy over these claims. Concerns about the harmful effects of the international system of intellectual property rights have led the World Trade Organization to relax the demands placed on least developed countries, and to advocate differential pricing of essential drugs. How these actions will help countries that lack domestic production capacity is unclear. Better access to essential drugs may be achieved through voluntary licensing arrangements between international pharmaceutical companies and manufacturers in developing countries.

  13. Pharmaceutical Particle Engineering via Spray Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    This review covers recent developments in the area of particle engineering via spray drying. The last decade has seen a shift from empirical formulation efforts to an engineering approach based on a better understanding of particle formation in the spray drying process. Microparticles with nanoscale substructures can now be designed and their functionality has contributed significantly to stability and efficacy of the particulate dosage form. The review provides concepts and a theoretical framework for particle design calculations. It reviews experimental research into parameters that influence particle formation. A classification based on dimensionless numbers is presented that can be used to estimate how excipient properties in combination with process parameters influence the morphology of the engineered particles. A wide range of pharmaceutical application examples—low density particles, composite particles, microencapsulation, and glass stabilization—is discussed, with specific emphasis on the underlying particle formation mechanisms and design concepts. PMID:18040761

  14. The ethics and economics of pharmaceutical pricing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker-Lue, Sara; Santoro, Michael; Koski, Greg

    2015-01-01

    The cost of drugs is a major and rapidly rising component of health-care expenditures. We survey recent literature on the ethics and economics of skyrocketing pharmaceutical prices and find that advances in economic research have increased the sharpness and focus of the ethically based calls to increase access by modifying patent protection and reducing prices. In some cases, research supports ethical arguments for broader access. Other research suggests that efforts to broaden access result in unintended consequences for innovation and the medical needs of patients. Both ethicists and economists need to be more cognizant of the real clinical settings in which physicians practice medicine with real patients. Greater cross-disciplinary interaction among economists, ethicists, and physicians can help reduce the disjunction between innovation and access and improve access and patient care. This dialogue will impact private industry and may spur new multistakeholder paradigms for drug discovery, development, and pricing.

  15. Marine-Derived Pharmaceuticals - Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindequist, Ulrike

    2016-11-01

    Marine biosphere is the largest one of the earth and harbors an enormous number of different organisms. Living conditions differ fundamentally from those in terrestrial environment. The production of specific secondary metabolites is an important adaption mechanism of marine organisms to survive in the sea. These metabolites possess biological activities which make them interesting as possible drugs for human. The review presents sources, chemistry, production and pharmacology of FDA approved marine derived pharmaceuticals arranged according to their therapeutic indication. Four of the presently seven approved drugs are used for the treatment of cancer. Each another one is applicated for treatment of viral diseases, chronic pain and to lower triglyceride level in blood. Some other products are of interest in diagnostic and as experimental tools. Besides, this article describes challenges in drug development from marine sources, especially the supply problem.

  16. Pharmaceutical advertising and Medicare Part D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakdawalla, Darius; Sood, Neeraj; Gu, Qian

    2013-12-01

    We explore how and to what extent prescription drug insurance expansions affect incentives for pharmaceutical advertising. When insurance expansions make markets more profitable, firms respond by boosting advertising. Theory suggests this effect will be magnified in the least competitive drug classes, where firms internalize a larger share of the benefits from advertising. Empirically, we find that the implementation of Part D coincides with a 14-19% increase in total advertising expenditures. This effect is indeed concentrated in the least competitive drug classes. The additional advertising raised utilization among non-elderly patients outside the Part D program by about 3.6%. This is roughly half of the direct utilization effect of Part D on elderly beneficiaries. The results suggest the presence of considerable spillover effects from publicly subsidized prescription drug insurance on the utilization and welfare of consumers outside the program. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Hospitality and hostility in hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Blegind; Aanestad, Margunn

    2007-01-01

    propose to use the concepts of hospitality and hostility to turn our attention to the interaction between the host (the surgeons) and the guest (the information system) and consider how the boundaries between them evolved in the everyday work practices. As an alternative to previous studies on technology......The purpose of this paper is to discuss the adoption of healthcare information systems (HIS) from a user perspective. Our case study concerns how a group of orthopaedic surgeons experienced and reacted to the adoption and mandatory use of an Electronic Patient Record system in a Danish hospital. We...... adoption, these concepts help us appreciate and put special emphasis on particular aspects of the adoption process: the mutual and co-constitutive relationship between the users and the technology and the continued coexistence of both positive and negative attitudes among the users. The findings suggest...

  18. Membrane Bioprocesses for Pharmaceutical Micropollutant Removal from Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cazes, Matthias; Abejón, Ricardo; Belleville, Marie-Pierre; Sanchez-Marcano, José

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review work is to give an overview of the research reported on bioprocesses for the treatment of domestic or industrial wastewaters (WW) containing pharmaceuticals. Conventional WW treatment technologies are not efficient enough to completely remove all pharmaceuticals from water. Indeed, these compounds are becoming an actual public health problem, because they are more and more present in underground and even in potable waters. Different types of bioprocesses are described in this work: from classical activated sludge systems, which allow the depletion of pharmaceuticals by bio-degradation and adsorption, to enzymatic reactions, which are more focused on the treatment of WW containing a relatively high content of pharmaceuticals and less organic carbon pollution than classical WW. Different aspects concerning the advantages of membrane bioreactors for pharmaceuticals removal are discussed, as well as the more recent studies on enzymatic membrane reactors to the depletion of these recalcitrant compounds. PMID:25295629

  19. Membrane Bioprocesses for Pharmaceutical Micropollutant Removal from Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias de Cazes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review work is to give an overview of the research reported on bioprocesses for the treatment of domestic or industrial wastewaters (WW containing pharmaceuticals. Conventional WW treatment technologies are not efficient enough to completely remove all pharmaceuticals from water. Indeed, these compounds are becoming an actual public health problem, because they are more and more present in underground and even in potable waters. Different types of bioprocesses are described in this work: from classical activated sludge systems, which allow the depletion of pharmaceuticals by bio-degradation and adsorption, to enzymatic reactions, which are more focused on the treatment of WW containing a relatively high content of pharmaceuticals and less organic carbon pollution than classical WW. Different aspects concerning the advantages of membrane bioreactors for pharmaceuticals removal are discussed, as well as the more recent studies on enzymatic membrane reactors to the depletion of these recalcitrant compounds.

  20. Cleaner production at pharmaceutical industry: first steps assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilaine Conceição Rezende

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cleaner Production (CP is an environmental management system effective to comply the environmental obligations and promote sustainable development of enterprises. In this study, the implementing possibilities of CP practices were evaluated to pharmaceutical industry, through prior identification procedures for Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Practices. The study was conducted in a scientific and health care institution, which produces pharmaceutical drugs and makes assistance for public health. The production process was evaluated and made a survey of the main points of waste and sewage generations in each stage, in order to diagnose the measures of CP established and propose new actions. Thus, by using this tool, it was possible to demonstrate the reduction of environmental impacts associated with pharmaceutical production. The Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Practices also contributed to the implementation of measures CP, preserving the final product quality, and generating environmental and economic benefits.

  1. Healthcare systems, the State, and innovation in the pharmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio José Godinho Delgado

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article discusses the relations between healthcare systems and the pharmaceutical industry, focusing on state support for pharmaceutical innovation. The study highlights the experiences of the United States, United Kingdom, and Germany, developed countries and paradigms of modern health systems (liberal, universal, and corporatist, in addition to Japan, a case of successful catching up. The study also emphasizes the experiences of China, India, and Brazil, large developing countries that have tried different catching up strategies, with diverse histories and profiles in their healthcare systems and pharmaceutical industries. Finally, with a focus on state forms of support for health research, the article addresses the mechanisms for linkage between health systems and the pharmaceutical industry, evaluating the possibilities of Brazil strengthening a virtuous interaction, favoring the expansion and consolidation of the Brazilian health system - universal but segmented ‒ and the affirmation of the innovative national pharmaceutical industry.

  2. BROMATOMATRIC ASSAY OF GATIFLOXACIN IN PHARMACEUTICALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KALSANG THARPA

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Three new, simple, and cost-effective visible spectrophotometric methods are proposed for determination of gatifloxacin (GTF using bromate-bromide mixture, and three dyes, methyl orange, indigocarmine and thymol blue, as reagents.The methods engross the addition of a known excess of bromate-bromide mixture to GTF in hydrochloric acid medium followed by determination of residual bromine by reacting with a fixed amount of either methyl orange andmeasuring the absorbance at 520 nm (method A or indigo carmine and measuring the absorbance at 610 nm (method B or thymol blue and measuring the absorbance at 550 nm (method C. In all the methods, the amount of brominereacted corresponds to the amount of GTF, and the absorbance is found to increase linearly with the concentration of GTF. Under the optimum conditions, GTF could be assayed in the concentration range 0.25-1.5, 0.5-6.0, and 0.5-10μg/mL by method A, method B and method C, respectively. The apparent molar absorptivities are calculated to be 1.6x105, 4.0x104 and 3.2x104 L mol-1 cm-1 for the method A, method B and method C, respectively, and the corresponding Sandell sensitivity values are 0.0025, 0.010 and 0.012 μg/cm2. The intra-day and inter-day precision, and the accuracy of the methods were evaluated as per the current ICH guidelines. The methods were successfully applied to the determination of GTF in pharmaceutical preparations without the interference from any of the pharmaceutical adjuvants.

  3. Methods for the comparative evaluation of pharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busse, Reinhard

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Political background: As a German novelty, the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (Institut für Qualität und Wirtschaftlichkeit im Gesundheitswesen; IGWiG was established in 2004 to, among other tasks, evaluate the benefit of pharmaceuticals. In this context it is of importance that patented pharmaceuticals are only excluded from the reference pricing system if they offer a therapeutic improvement. The institute is commissioned by the Federal Joint Committee (Gemeinsamer Bundesausschuss, G-BA or by the Ministry of Health and Social Security. The German policy objective expressed by the latest health care reform (Gesetz zur Modernisierung der Gesetzlichen Krankenversicherung, GMG is to base decisions on a scientific assessment of pharmaceuticals in comparison to already available treatments. However, procedures and methods are still to be established. Research questions and methods: This health technology assessment (HTA report was commissioned by the German Agency for HTA at the Institute for Medical Documentation and Information (DAHTA@DIMDI. It analysed criteria, procedures, and methods of comparative drug assessment in other EU-/OECD-countries. The research question was the following: How do national public institutions compare medicines in connection with pharmaceutical regulation, i.e. licensing, reimbursement and pricing of drugs? Institutions as well as documents concerning comparative drug evaluation (e.g. regulations, guidelines were identified through internet, systematic literature, and hand searches. Publications were selected according to pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Documents were analysed in a qualitative matter following an analytic framework that had been developed in advance. Results were summarised narratively and presented in evidence tables. Results and discussion: Currently licensing agencies do not systematically assess a new drug's added value for patients and society. This is why many

  4. Methods for the comparative evaluation of pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentner, Annette; Velasco-Garrido, Marcial; Busse, Reinhard

    2005-11-15

    POLITICAL BACKGROUND: As a German novelty, the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (Institut für Qualität und Wirtschaftlichkeit im Gesundheitswesen; IGWiG) was established in 2004 to, among other tasks, evaluate the benefit of pharmaceuticals. In this context it is of importance that patented pharmaceuticals are only excluded from the reference pricing system if they offer a therapeutic improvement. The institute is commissioned by the Federal Joint Committee (Gemeinsamer Bundesausschuss, G-BA) or by the Ministry of Health and Social Security. The German policy objective expressed by the latest health care reform (Gesetz zur Modernisierung der Gesetzlichen Krankenversicherung, GMG) is to base decisions on a scientific assessment of pharmaceuticals in comparison to already available treatments. However, procedures and methods are still to be established. This health technology assessment (HTA) report was commissioned by the German Agency for HTA at the Institute for Medical Documentation and Information (DAHTA@DIMDI). It analysed criteria, procedures, and methods of comparative drug assessment in other EU-/OECD-countries. The research question was the following: How do national public institutions compare medicines in connection with pharmaceutical regulation, i.e. licensing, reimbursement and pricing of drugs? Institutions as well as documents concerning comparative drug evaluation (e.g. regulations, guidelines) were identified through internet, systematic literature, and hand searches. Publications were selected according to pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Documents were analysed in a qualitative matter following an analytic framework that had been developed in advance. Results were summarised narratively and presented in evidence tables. Currently licensing agencies do not systematically assess a new drug's added value for patients and society. This is why many countries made post-licensing evaluation of pharmaceuticals a

  5. 78 FR 33441 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Caraco Pharmaceutical Laboratories, LTD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... Enforcement Administration Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Caraco Pharmaceutical..., 78 FR 12101, Caraco Pharmaceutical Laboratories, Ltd., 270 Prospect Plains Road, Cranbury, New Jersey... registration of Caraco Pharmaceutical Laboratories, Ltd., to import the basic class of controlled substance is...

  6. 77 FR 75672 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration, Halo Pharmaceutical, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration, Halo Pharmaceutical... 47114, Halo Pharmaceutical, Inc., 30 North Jefferson Road, Whippany, New Jersey 07981, made application... determined that the registration of Halo Pharmaceutical, Inc., to manufacture the listed basic classes of...

  7. 77 FR 16264 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration; Halo Pharmaceutical Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration; Halo Pharmaceutical... FR 77850, Halo Pharmaceutical Inc., 30 North Jefferson Road, Whippany, New Jersey 07981, made... determined that the registration of Halo Pharmaceutical Inc. to manufacture the listed basic classes of...

  8. 75 FR 33824 - Pharmaceutical Products and Chemical Intermediates, Fourth Review: Advice Concerning the Addition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... COMMISSION Pharmaceutical Products and Chemical Intermediates, Fourth Review: Advice Concerning the Addition of Certain Products to the Pharmaceutical Appendix to the HTS AGENCY: United States International... (Commission) instituted investigation No. 332-520, Pharmaceutical Products and Chemical Intermediates, Fourth...

  9. 78 FR 3030 - Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, Primary Care Business Unit (Sales) Division, East Operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... Employment and Training Administration Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, Primary Care Business Unit..., NJ and Off-Site Workers of Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, Primary Care Business Unit (Sales... Pharmaceuticals Corporation, Primary Care Business Unit (Sales) Division, East Hanover, New Jersey. The Department...

  10. Strategic initiatives to maintain pharmaceutical care and clinical pharmacists sufficiency in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkareem M Albekairy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The shortage of clinical pharmacists in Saudi Arabia has limited the full implementation of pharmaceutical care in most of its hospitals. The National Guard Health Affairs hospitals. This work discussed the Department of Pharmaceutical Care, and the King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences College of Pharmacy four initiatives that were planned in 2009–2010 to develop and recruit clinical pharmacists, practitioners, or faculty. Methods: The combined initiatives were aimed at (1 instituting a 4-year clinical skills development career ladder, (2 expanding the National Guard Health Affairs postgraduate residency program, (3 offering scholarships to qualified pharmacy graduates to pursue the PharmD degree and a PGY-1 residency training in the United States, and (4 recruiting non-Saudi clinical pharmacists educated and trained in the United States to ameliorate the current shortage of practitioner. Results: The current number of clinical pharmacists practicing at the National Guard Health Affairs at central region is 24, most of whom are Board Certified by the American Pharmacists Association Board of Pharmacy Specialties. Conclusions: The four initiatives, based on current trends, suggest that 60–65 positions will be added by 2017–2018, barring attrition. Saudi Arabia and many developing countries will continue to experience a shortage in clinical pharmacists due to the high demand for clinical pharmacy services. A multifaceted approach is recommended to address the problem.

  11. Pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies: practice and research in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Mauro Silveira; Correr, Cassyano Januário

    2007-09-01

    To discuss the provision of pharmaceutical services and pharmaceutical care in Brazil. Professional training and pharmaceutical services are undergoing a period of restructuring in Brazil, including the adoption of incentives for pharmaceutical care. Some important national measures include the rational use of medications, evidence-based medicine, and pharmacovigilance. A new and more generalist pharmacy curriculum is being implemented and tailored for the Brazilian Public Health System; recently, the Brazilian government has provided resources for pharmaceutical care research. A proposal for national consensus in Brazilian pharmaceutical care was published in 2002. The components of this proposal include drug dispensing, counseling, health education, symptoms advice, and pharmacotherapy follow-up. Pharmacy practice is currently focused on drug dispensing and logistic aspects of drug distribution. Professionals are satisfied with patients' confidence in being counseled by pharmacists and reveal interest in extending their role in patient care. Most pharmacy customers were originally unaware of the term "pharmaceutical care"; however, following an explanation, they showed an interest in this service. Furthermore, over 50% stated that they would pay for this service. Despite these initiatives, numerous barriers to the development of pharmaceutical care remain, the main ones being the commercial objective of most pharmacies that sell medications and the insufficient training of professionals. Although government-owned pharmacies also distribute medications, they do not meet all of the needs of the population and lack sufficient pharmacists. Several actions are required to stimulate the implementation and development of pharmaceutical care and services in Brazil. Recent research incentives in pharmaceutical care and reorientation of pharmacy education will contribute to this development.

  12. Challenges faced by the pharmaceutical industry: training graduates for employment in pharmaceutical R&D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, K G

    2001-02-01

    There is a shortfall between output from universities and demand by the pharmaceutical and health care industries for science and engineering graduates able to rapidly contribute to success in the business environment. Against a changing infrastructure of pharmaceutical research, the development of new chemical entities by major companies accounts for a high proportion of R&D expenditure. Allocation of staff is divided fairly evenly between discovery, non-clinical and clinical research activities and in all categories the new sciences are likely to be used extensively. In dealing with the shortfall the challenge comes from balancing education in basic science with training in the emerging areas of science and technology. There is a need for a 'partnership' that includes not only industry and academia but also government, since these three bodies have both synergistic and diverging interests in scientific education. On the education-training continuum, industry should recognise what it most values from academia and provide as much input and support as possible. At the same time universities must question their ability to fulfil their traditional educational role in the face of current rates of adoption of new sciences and technology. While disciplinary excellence remains vital for PhD students, multi-disciplinary programmes are becoming increasingly important to enable graduates to function effectively in the modern, globalised pharmaceutical industry.

  13. Evaluation of Collection and Disposal of Hospital Waste in Hospitals and Healthcare Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Nazemi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently, one of the environmental issues is waste of hospitals and healthcare facilities which due to hazardous, toxic, and disease-causing agents such as pharmaceutical, chemical and infectious disease, is of particular sensitivity. According to a 2002 survey by WHO, it was determined that 22 million people worldwide suffer from infectious diseases annually, because of contacting hospital wastes. Also based on a research conducted in 22 countries, 18 to 64 percent of hospitals wastes are not disposed properly [1]. The purpose f the study is to appraise collection and disposal of hospital wastes in hospitals and healthcare centers of Shahroud.In this sectional study, 3 university hospitals (580 beds and 10 healthcare facilities were investigated for six months (mehr-azar 89 at Shahroud. In order to determine the amount of waste, produced waste of an entire day was weighted in hospitals and health centers. In this research, proposed questionnaires of WHO for developing countries was used to evaluate collection and disposal system of hospitals waste. Collected data was coded and analyzed by SPSS ver.15.

  14. Emerging Pollutant of Concern: Occurrence of Pharmaceutical Compounds in Asia with Particular Preference to Southeast Asia Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim Nor Haslina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia countries were developing countries, with the rapid development for a better living condition leads to longer life expectancy, which increased total population. It may result in increased the demand of pharmaceutical in domestic use and or in hospital. Although most wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs met the local authority’s regulatory requirement, there are still many pharmaceutical compound incompletely removed and discharge to the water stream and enter the environment. Recently many studies and researches have published on the occurrence and source as well as the fate of pharmaceuticals all over the world including Asia. As part of Asia region, Southeast Asia countries (Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, Brunei, Cambodia, and Lao PDR seem has lack of research knowledge and information regarding this emerging pollutant issues compared to developed Asia country as China, Korea and Hong Kong. In this paper, it will review recent studies occurrences (surface and wastewater on most common pharmaceuticals with several recommendations to overcome and thus summarise the actual situation in Southeast Asia.

  15. Design and quality control of a pharmaceutical formulation containing natural products with antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordoñez, Adriana A L; Ordoñez, Roxana M; Zampini, Iris C; Isla, María I

    2009-08-13

    The aims of the present study were to determine the antibacterial and antifungal activity as well as mutagenicity of Sechium edule fluid extract and to obtain a pharmaceutical formulation with them. The extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens, Morganella morganii, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp. isolated from clinical samples from two hospitals of Tucuman, Argentina. Non-toxicity and mutagenicity on both Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA 100 strains until 100 microg/plate were observed. A hydrogel with carbopol acrylic acid polymer containing S. edule fluid extract as antibacterial, antimycotic and antioxidant agent was obtained. Microbiological, physical and functional stability of pharmaceutical formulation conserved at room temperature for 1 year were determined. Addition of antioxidant preservatives to store the pharmaceutical formulation was not necessary. The semisolid system showed antimicrobial activity against all gram positive and gram negative bacteria and fungi assayed. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranged from 20 to 800 microg/mL. Its activity was compared with a pharmaceutical formulation containing commercial antibiotic and antifungal. A pseudoplastic behavior and positive thixotropy were observed. Our current finding shows an antimicrobial activity of hydrogel containing S. edule extract on a large range of gram negative and gram positive multi-resistant bacteria and fungi. This topical formulation may be used as antimycotic and as antibacterial in cutaneous infections.

  16. A model of the prescription-pharmaceutical sales process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Stros

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine the factors in marketing most relevant to achieving pharmaceutical sales success and their interrelations, as well as providing a prescription-pharmaceuticals sales process model. This will enable scholars to obtain a better understanding of the marketing process for prescription pharmaceuticals, as well as enabling marketers to apply more efficient marketing approaches. The study uses a unique data set, combining primary data and secondary data from the Swiss prescription-pharmaceuticals market. The data is analysed using a multiple-regression based model. A multi-level data structure is found, suggesting that factors concerning the specific brand and also the pharmaceutical substance itself are relevant to sales success. It is revealed that the factors most relevant to sales success are: order of market entry, perceived product-quality, average price, and marketing expenditures, leading to practical recommendations for scholars and marketing professionals. The study focuses only on the Swiss prescription-pharmaceuticals market, investigating five medical drug classes. The assumption is made that these results can be generalised to similar markets and drug classes. The study develops a conceptual prescription-pharmaceuticals sales-process model; offers practical guidelines and a good basis for further scholarly research are provided; and identifies several research gaps by giving proposals for future research.

  17. Research of the nomenclature of pharmaceutical specialties in Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Убайдилла Махамбетович Датхаев

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical care, which quality largely depends on the pharmaceutical staff skills, is an integral part of the state system of implementation of the citizens’ rights to protect their health. Concerning this fact, specialists’ professional skills are state controlled and among the objects of relations in the area of remedies state regulation. The existing state control over maintenance personnel involves the implementation of specific actions, including such problem as the pharmaceutical specialties with staff positions harmonization.Aim: the aim of our research was to study the explanation of necessity to expand the range of existing RK pharmaceutical specialties. Concerning the aim of research, the task was to explain from the scientific point of view the necessity to expand the range of existing RK pharmaceutical specialties and the implementation of new specialty «Clinical pharmacist».Methods: The study was carried out by both the analytical and sociological methods.Results: As a result of our sociological research (questionnaires for pharmacists and literature analysis it was proved the level of professional knowledge and responsibilities of a particular specialty exceed the limits and expand them.Conclusion: Therefore, it follows that pharmaceutical positions range expansion is a pressing question demanding its solution. We suggest the list of pharmaceutical positions must be determined in accordance with the needs of the circulation of remedies sphere in modern conditions

  18. [Studies on the food allergenic proteins contained in pharmaceutical excipients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Shinobu; Adachi, Reiko; Miyazaki, Tamaki; Aso, Yukio; Okuda, Haruhiro; Teshima, Reiko

    2012-01-01

    Most drugs contain pharmaceutical excipients. These are pharmacologically inactive substances used as vehicles for the active ingredients of a medication. Some of these pharmaceutical excipients are produced from allergenic foods (e.g., milk, egg, peanut, soybean, and sesame) and removing proteins completely from such excipients is difficult. Therefore, if individuals with food allergy consume drugs containing allergenic food-derived excipients, eliminating the risk of developing specific allergic symptoms induced by them may not be possible. We determined the levels of proteins in pharmaceutical excipients and ethical drugs (inhalants and injections) by spectrophotometric analyses. The level of protein in the pharmaceutical excipient lactose in each sample was approximately 1 mg/g. In the case of oils from soybeans, peanuts, and sesame in pharmaceutical excipients, proteins were detected in the range 7-9 microg/g sample. We also determined levels of allergenic proteins in pharmaceutical excipients and ethical drugs using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay systems. The milk proteins in lactose were detected in the range 1.39-13.07 microg/g. The results of this study suggest that physicians, patients with food allergies, pharmacists, and healthcare providers must pay attention to presence of potential impurities those may cause allergic symptoms in pharmaceutical products.

  19. Characterization and toxicity of hospital wastewaters in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Gulsum; Kaya, Yasemin; Vergili, Ilda; Beril Gönder, Z; Özhan, Gül; Ozbek Celik, Berna; Altinkum, Serdar M; Bagdatli, Yasar; Boergers, Andrea; Tuerk, Jochen

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the study was to present first preliminary characterization of Turkish hospital wastewaters, their environmental risk, and a method for toxicity assessment. The hospital wastewater samples were collected from two of the largest medical faculty hospitals and a training and research hospital in Istanbul, Turkey. The samples from the selected hospitals were taken as grab samples on March 2014. Overall, 55 substances including pharmaceuticals and their metabolites, pesticides, and corrosion inhibitors were analyzed in all hospital wastewaters. Analysis of toxicity and the antibiotic resistance bacteria were investigated in addition to the chemical analysis in the wastewater of one hospital. Hazard quotients (HQs) and toxic units (TUs) were calculated as basis of the environmental risk assessment. Fourteen pharmaceuticals in hospital wastewater (HWW) were classified as "high risk" with HQ > 10. HQHWW values higher than 100 were determined for five antibiotics and one analgesic, namely, ofloxacin, clarithromycin, ciprofloxacin, sulfapyridine, trimethoprim, and diclofenac. Ofloxacin with an HQHWW of 9090 was observed to be the most hazardous compound. HQ and TU values of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent dropped significantly due to dilution in the sewer. Further elimination by biological degradation or adsorption was observed only in some cases. However, the decreased HQWWTPeffluent values do not the change environmental load significantly. Therefore, advanced treatment processes should be applied to remove the persistent compounds. In combination with the results on antibiotic resistance, we would prefer on-site treatment of hospital wastewater. Toxicological assessment was performed using cytotoxic and mutagenic screening tests. The results of the Ames assay showed that the native hospital wastewaters had strongly mutagenic activity with a ≤10-fold increase relative to negative controls. The mutagenic potentials of the samples were generally

  20. Public Innovation Policy in the Pharmaceutical Industry: the Cases of the EU and USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Mamedyarov

    2017-01-01

    significant expenses on the largest companies’ side. The patent statistics revealed the increasing role of developing countries, which are nevertheless still poorly involved in the pharma innovation processes. Comparison of the US and the EU innovation policies showed underdeveloped venture capital market of the EU and relatively high level of government regulation. Conclusions and Relevance: companies go through an intense period of mergers and acquisitions, and are looking for new ways of performing R&D and the expansion of product markets. Public sector of the developed countries contributes to the development of new partnerships and collaborations, hoping to spur the creation of new jobs and competencies. Pharmaceutical companies are actively collaborating with regional research institutes, universities and hospitals. Despite this high level of activity, key actors and government regulators have yet to come to an understanding of new mechanisms to stimulate innovation, taking into account the development of biotechnology, generic drugs and the growing need to revise current business models of the largest pharmaceutical companies. 

  1. PHARMACEUTICAL COMPANIES BETWEEN CRISIS AND COMPETITIVENESS - SECTORAL DIAGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela\tBÎRSAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the pharmaceutical industry was a positive constant with the indicators of industrial production even in years of crisis. Although the economic crisis in Romania decreased average growth rate of pharmaceutical companies, market value is expected to increase. The explanation comes from the fact that in order to boost productivity, pharmaceutical companies are turning to emerging countries with aging populations such as open new markets for future development. Add to this the recent health policies implemented by newly industrialized countries that are aimed at ensuring increased access to care. Analysts see the field phenomenon called "Farma-merger" a good chance for European pharmaceutical companies oriented to developing countries where drug sales should record a double-digit annual growth until 2017. In Erste Group reports stated that the impact of the crisis on the pharmaceutical industry should be limited markets for EU only their economic slowdown. This will be possible because the external indebtedness of pharmaceutical companies in the EU remains at a minimum, they are able to finance their investment plans without tapping financial markets, are not adversely affected by the current limited availability of credit resources. Therefore major pharmaceutical companies in the EU will remain a solid investment on the long term, the negative developments are limited due to high resistance to the crisis their business model segment "generic". The consequence of these developments is reflected in the recognition for the first time, the pharmaceutical sector as a strategic sector for the Romanian economy. In the context of public debate launching the National Strategy for Competitiveness 2014-2020, Generic Medicines Industry Association of Romania (APMGR local pharmaceutical industry reminds the Government proposals on correcting the current fiscal and operational regulatory framework, to allow unlocking investments in facilities

  2. Silicate release from glass for pharmaceutical preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohrer, Denise; Bortoluzzi, Fabiana; Nascimento, Paulo Cícero; Carvalho, Leandro Machado; Ramirez, Adrian Gustavo

    2008-05-01

    Glass is made of polymeric silica and other minor components, which are necessary for turning the silica into a material more easily moldable and resistant to temperature changes. Glass containers for pharmaceutical usage are classified according to their resistance to a chemical attack, a test carried out in the presence of water and heat. The test is designed to show the released alkalinity, a variable dependent on the amount of sodium oxide, one of the minor components added to the glass mass. In this work, the release of silica from glass by action of constituents from pharmaceutical formulations was investigated. The study included products used in large volumes and usually stored in glass containers. Solutions of amino acids, electrolytes, glucose, oligoelements and others such as heparin and sodium bicarbonate were individually stored in glass containers and heated at 121 degrees C for 30min, as in the water attack test. The test was also carried out only with water, where the pH varied from 2 to 12. The released silicate was measured either by photometry or atomic absorption spectrometry, depending on the nature of the sample. The results showed that silicate is released during the heating cycle even if the contact is with pure water only. The pH exerts a considerable influence on the release, being that the higher the pH, the higher the silica dissolved. An elevated pH, however, is not the only factor responsible for silica dissolution. While in the solutions of NaCl, KCl, Mg Cl2 and ZnSO4 and in most of the amino acids, the concentration of silicate was as high as in pure water (0.1-1.0mg Si/L). In the solutions of sodium acetate, bicarbonate and gluconate, its concentration was much higher, over 30mg Si/L. These results were confirmed by the analysis of commercial products, where in solutions of amino acids the level of silicate ranged from 0.14 to 0.19mg Si/L. On the other hand, calcium gluconate, sodium bicarbonate and potassium phosphate presented

  3. Global gene mining and the pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2005-09-01

    Worldwide efforts are ongoing in optimizing medical treatment by searching for the right medicine at the right dose for the individual. Metabolism is regulated by polymorphisms, which may be tested by relatively simple SNP analysis, however requiring DNA from the test individuals. Target genes for the efficiency of a given medicine or predisposition of a given disease are also subject to population studies, e.g., in Iceland, Estonia, Sweden, etc. For hypothesis testing and generation, several bio-banks with samples from patients and healthy persons within the pharmaceutical industry have been established during the past 10 years. Thus, more than 100,000 samples are stored in the freezers of either the pharmaceutical companies or their contractual partners at universities and test institutions. Ethical issues related to data protection of the individuals providing samples to bio-banks are several: nature and extent of information prior to consent, coverage of the consent given by the study person, labeling and storage of the sample and data (coded or anonymized). In general, genetic test data, once obtained, are permanent and cannot be changed. The test data may imply information that is not beneficial to the patient and his/her family (e.g., employment opportunities, insurance, etc.). Furthermore, there may be a long latency between the analysis of the genetic test and the clinical expression of the disease and wide differences in the disease patterns. Consequently, information about some genetic test data may stigmatize patients leading to poor quality of life. This has raised the issue of 'genetic exceptionalism' justifying specific regulation of use of genetic information. Discussions on how to handle sampling and data are ongoing within the industry and the regulatory sphere, the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products (EMEA) having issued a position paper, the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) having a working

  4. Role of the pharmacist in parenteral nutrition therapy: challenges and opportunities to implement pharmaceutical care in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katoue MG

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pharmacists can provide beneficial pharmaceutical care services to patients receiving Parenteral Nutrition (PN therapy by working within Nutrition Support Teams (NSTs. Objective: This study was designed to explore pharmacists’ role in PN therapy in hospitals of Kuwait, sources of PN-related information, opinions on NSTs, perceptions about the barriers to pharmaceutical care implementation and views on how to enhance their practices. Methods: Data were collected via face-to-face semi-structured interviews with the senior Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN pharmacists at all the hospitals which provide TPN preparation services (six governmental hospitals and one private hospital in Kuwait. Descriptive statistics were used to describe pharmacists’ demographic details and practice site characteristics. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. Results: The pharmacists mainly performed technical tasks such as TPN compounding with minimal role in providing direct patient care. They used multiple different sources of TPN-related information to guide their practice. They reported positive and negative experiences with physicians depending on their practice environment. None of the hospitals had a functional NST. However, pharmacists expressed preference to work within NSTs due to the potential benefits of enhanced communication and knowledge exchange among practitioners and to improve service. Pharmacists perceived several barriers to providing pharmaceutical care including lack of reliable sources of TPN-related information, lack of a standard operating procedure for TPN across hospitals, insufficient staff, time constraints and poor communication between TPN pharmacists. To overcome these barriers, they recommended fostering pharmacists’ education on TPN, establishing national standards for TPN practices, provision of pharmacy staff, development of NSTs, enhancing TPN pharmacists

  5. Hospitality and prosumption | Ritzer | Research in Hospitality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hospitality and the hospitality industry need to be reevaluated in the era of the new prosumer and smart prosuming machines. Traditional notions of hospitality hearken back to an earlier era and ongoing changes are forcing us to reconsider them. Among those changes are the decline of settings that offer hospitality; the ...

  6. Recent advances in capillary electrophoretic migration techniques for pharmaceutical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeb, Sami El; Wätzig, Hermann; El-Hady, Deia Abd; Albishri, Hassan M; de Griend, Cari Sänger-van; Scriba, Gerhard K E

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction about 30 years ago, CE techniques have gained a significant impact in pharmaceutical analysis. The present review covers recent advances and applications of CE for the analysis of pharmaceuticals. Both small molecules and biomolecules such as proteins are considered. The applications range from the determination of drug-related substances to the analysis of counterions and the determination of physicochemical parameters. Furthermore, general considerations of CE methods in pharmaceutical analysis are described. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Application of Incoherent Inelastic Neutron Scattering in Pharmaceutical Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordallo, Heloisa N.; A. Zakharov, Boris; Boidyreva, E.V.

    2012-01-01

    This study centers on the use of inelastic neutron scattering as an alternative tool for physical characterization of solid pharmaceutical drugs. On the basis of such approach, relaxation processes in the pharmaceutical compound phenacetin (p-ethoxyacetanilide, C(10)H(13)NO(2)) were evidenced...... contributes to understanding the relationships between intermolecular hydrogen bonds, intramolecular dynamics, and conformational flexibility in pharmaceuticals on a molecular level, which can help in evaluating phase stability with respect to temperature variations on processing or on storage, and is related...

  8. RECENT TRENDS IN PACKAGING SYSTEMS FOR PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Dobrucka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background:  In recent years, pharmaceutical packaging market was one of the fastest growing areas of the packaging industry. At the same time the packaging manufacturers put high demands on quality and safety. Methods: Review of innovations in packaging systems for pharmaceutical products was made including newest information of researches and achievements of recent years. Results and conclusion: Observed in recent years the development of pharmaceutical packaging market expanded due to with the huge technological advances that allow introduction of new packaging. Also, in this study presented intelligent packaging in pharmacy and innovation in child-resistance packaging.

  9. Pharmaceutical Residues Affecting the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve Kristianstads Vattenrike Wetlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björklund, Erland; Svahn, Ola; Bak, Søren Alex

    2016-01-01

    -treatment plants (WWTPs). We analysed influent and treated wastewater, leachate water, lake, river, and wetland water alongside sediment for six model pharmaceuticals. The two WWTPs investigated released pharmaceutical residues at levels close to those previously observed in Swedish monitoring exercises. Compound....../L). A small risk assessment showed that adverse single-substance toxicity on aquatic organisms within the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve is unlikely. However, the effects of combinations of a large number of known and unknown pharmaceuticals, metals, and nutrients are still unknown....

  10. Polymers in life sciences: Pharmaceutical and biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, Anna Angela; Dalmoro, Annalisa; d'Amore, Matteo; Lamberti, Gaetano; Cascone, Sara; Titomanlio, Giuseppe

    2015-12-01

    This paper deals with the work done by prof. Titomanlio and his group in the fields of pharmaceutical and biomedical applications of polymers. In particular, the main topics covered are: i) controlled drug release from pharmaceuticals based on hydrogel for oral delivery of drugs; ii) production and characterization of micro and nanoparticles based on stimuli-responsive polymers; iii) use of polymers for coronary stent gel-paving; iv) design and realization of novel methods (in-vitro and in-silico) to test polymer-based pharmaceuticals.

  11. Formulation of a Success Model in Pharmaceutical R&D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunju Rachel Kim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, pharmaceutical R&D has been demanded to increase productivity in terms of time efficiency and innovation as well. There have been discontinuous challenges coming up in this industry, such as globalized R&D competition, stricter regulation, lengthy process of clinical trials, and so on. Considering external changes, high competition, and discontinuities in the industry, it is a good time to redefine the concept of success in pharmaceutical R&D. Thus, this article attempts to formulate a new success model in pharmaceutical R&D, through contextualizing the industry’s success factors.

  12. Dynamics and sources of pharmaceutically active compounds in a coastal Mediterranean river during heavy rains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reoyo-Prats, Brice; Aubert, Dominique; Sellier, Amélie; Roig, Benoit; Palacios, Carmen

    2017-12-28

    Concentrations of pharmaceutically active compounds (PACs) in freshwater systems depend on numerous factors such as land use and hydrometeorological conditions. In the Mediterranean, heavy rain events are of particular importance as they highly influence the concentration of micropollutants found in freshwater and are a source of recurrent first foul flushes due to combined sewer overflows (CSOs). In this study, we seek to assess the dynamics of pharmaceuticals during storm events in coastal Mediterranean rivers at a fine scale and to determine their contribution to multicontamination phenomena owing to CSOs. Our results showed that, while dissolved PACs followed the same trend as other contaminants, i.e., they increased significantly during CSOs, PACs in the total fraction did not peak yet maintained their already high concentrations for slightly longer due to their release via CSOs. Pharmaceutical concentrations for both the dissolved and the total fraction were dramatically diluted during the peak river flow. A fine-scale follow-up of PACs dynamics in the total fraction, including the differentiation of sewer overflows from both the right and left river banks, as well as the analyses of a large amount of PACs molecules, allowed us to clearly identify their major sources. While domestic inputs were dominated by nicotine and caffeine, the use of gadolinium (an MRI contrast agent) as a marker, attributed the main source of medical drugs such as tramadol, ibuprofen, and diclofenac to the major public hospital of the region. Thus, identifying major sources of PACs and implementing adapted water treatments directly at those sources would be the most cost-efficient alternative to cope with pharmaceutical drugs in coastal Mediterranean aquatic environments. Moreover, PACs behavior differed depending on the molecules considered and the source of these molecules, but we could not establish a direct link between their behavior and their chemical or physical properties. Our

  13. Forward and backward transitions in pharmacy-based immunization services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrick, Salisa C

    2010-03-01

    Community pharmacies can engage in immunization services by contracting with an external workforce (outsourced mechanism) or staff pharmacists (in-house mechanism) to deliver the services. Because an outsourced mechanism generally requires lower organizational commitment, pharmacies often start with an outsourced mechanism. Later, these pharmacies can have 1 of the following transitions: sit on a fence by continuing with an outsourced mechanism, move backward by abandoning any immunization services, or move forward by implementing an in-house mechanism. Using Rogers' Diffusion of Innovations model and Behavioral Theory of the Firm as guidance, this study identified the associations between perceived characteristics of immunization services and backward/forward transitions. A cross-sectional mail survey was conducted to collect data from key informants of Washington State community pharmacies during May-July 2004 (response rate=46.9%). A total of 106 pharmacies were included in the analysis. Based on pharmacy's immunization service transitions, these pharmacies were identified as Fence sitters, Backward movers, or Forward movers. Relationships between these transitions, pharmacy characteristics, and perceived characteristics of immunization services were analyzed using bivariate and multinomial logistic regression techniques. Backward and Forward movers had less positive assessments of outsourced services when compared with Fence sitters. Backward and Forward movers differed in their perceptions of in-house services; Backward movers generally perceived no differences between these 2 services, whereas Forward movers generally perceived in-house services to be superior to outsourced services. Furthermore, the odds of being a Forward mover increased as perceived technical and social benefits of outsourced services decreased, perceived compatibility of in-house services increased, and perceived complexity of in-house services decreased. Perceived characteristics of outsourced and in-house innovations were associated with backward and forward transitions. Findings can be used to guide the development of strategies for facilitating organizational change and preventing the abandonment of immunization services. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Implementation of a community pharmacy-based falls prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casteel, Carri; Blalock, Susan J; Ferreri, Stefanie; Roth, Mary T; Demby, Karen B

    2011-10-01

    Falls are the leading cause of fatal and nonfatal unintentional injury among older adults in the United States. Multifaceted falls prevention programs, which have been reported to reduce the risk for falls among older adults, usually include a medication review and modification component. Based on a literature search, no randomized trials that have examined the effectiveness of this component have been published. The aim of this article was to report on a retrospective process evaluation of data from a randomized, controlled trial conducted to examine the effectiveness of a medication review intervention, delivered through community pharmacies, on the rate of falls among community-dwelling older adults. Patients were recruited through 32 pharmacies in North Carolina. Participants were community-dwelling older adults at high risk for falls based on age (≥ 65 years), number of concurrent medications (≥ 4), and medication classes (emphasis on CNS-active agents). The process evaluation measured the recruitment of patients into the study, the process through which the intervention was delivered, the extent to which patients implemented the recommendations for intervention, and the acceptance of pharmacists' recommendations by prescribing physicians. Of the 7793 patients contacted for study participation, 981 (12.6%) responded to the initial inquiry. A total of 801 (81.7%) participated in an eligibility interview, of whom 342 (42.7%) were eligible. Baseline data collection was completed in 186 of eligible patients (54.4%), who were randomly assigned to the intervention group (n = 93) or the control group (n = 93). Pharmacists delivered a medication review to 73 of the patients (78.5%) in the intervention group, with 41 recommendations for changes in medication, of which 10 (24.4%) were implemented. Of the 31 prescribing physicians contacted with pharmacists' recommendations, 14 (45.2%) responded, and 10 (32.3%) authorized the changes. Based on the findings from the present study, coordination of care between community pharmacists and prescribers needs to be improved for the realization of potential beneficial effects of medication management on falls prevention. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. the pharmacy screening project - an evaluation of pharmacy-based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1999-09-12

    Sep 12, 1999 ... Setting. In Pretoria, 155 pharmacies were randomly selected and all 43 pharmacies in Potchefstroom and Klerksdorp were included. Methods. ... risk factor. A screening test is not intended to be diagnostic." Persons with positive or suspected po itive creening test results are usually ubjected to further ...

  16. What happens when pharmaceuticals meet colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yingna; Chen, Xijuan; Zhuang, Jie; Chen, Xin

    2015-12-01

    Pharmaceuticals (PCs) have been widely detected in natural environment due to agricultural application of reclaimed water, sludge and animal wastes. Their potential risks to various ecosystems and even to human health have caused great concern; however, little was known about their environmental behaviors. Colloids (such as clays, metal oxides, and particulate organics) are kind of substances that are active and widespread in the environment. When PCs meet colloids, their interaction may influence the fate, transport, and toxicity of PCs. This review summarizes the progress of studies on the role of colloids in mediating the environmental behaviors of PCs. Synthesized results showed that colloids can adsorb PCs mainly through ion exchange, complexation and non-electrostatic interactions. During this process the structure of colloids and the stability of PCs may be changed. The adsorbed PCs may have higher risks to induce antibiotic resistance; besides, their transport may also be altered considering they have great chance to move with colloids. Solution conditions (such as pH, ionic strength, and cations) could influence these interactions between PCs and colloids, as they can change the forms of PCs and alter the primary forces between PCs and colloids in the solution. It could be concluded that PCs in natural soils could bind with colloids and then co-transport during the processes of irrigation, leaching, and erosion. Therefore, colloid-PC interactions need to be understood for risk assessment of PCs and the best management practices of various ecosystems (such as agricultural and wetland systems).

  17. Environmental risk management for pharmaceutical compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voulvoulis, N. [Imperial College London (United Kingdom)

    2004-09-15

    Pharmaceuticals are a highly variable group of organic compounds with the potential to cause harm to aquatic ecosystems and human health. Thousands of tones of pharmacologically active substances are used annually but surprisingly little is known about their ultimate fate in the environment. The data collected to date, rarely provide information on the processes that determine their environmental fate and although they receive considerable pharmacological and clinical testing during development, knowledge of their ecotoxicity is poor. One major concern is that antibiotics found in sewage effluent may cause increased resistance amongst natural bacterial populations. The debate over risks associated with chemicals in the environment represents more than just another disagreement in the scientific community. It has opened the door to a new way of thinking about the onset of uninherited diseases, the nature of scientific investigation, and the role of scientific knowledge in the policymaking process. For example, research evidence on endocrine disruption collected over the last few years has changed dramatically the way we think about chemical risks. In part, this change has also been attributed to the precautionary principle, as a new approach to environmental policy forged in Europe. The term ''precautionary approach'' declares an obligation to control the dangerous substances even before a definitive causal link had been established between the chemicals and health or environmental effects, and represents a radical departure from traditional approaches to risk assessment and particularly risk management, which includes an integration of the assessment, communication and mitigation of risks.

  18. Naming, labeling, and packaging of pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenagy, J W; Stein, G C

    2001-11-01

    The problem of medical errors associated with the naming, labeling, and packaging of pharmaceuticals is discussed. Sound-alike and look-alike drug names and packages can lead pharmacists and nurses to unintended interchanges of drugs that can result in patient injury or death. The existing medication-use system is flawed because its safety depends on human perfection. Simplicity, standardization, differentiation, lack of duplication, and unambiguous communication are human factors concepts that are relevant to the medication-use process. These principles have often been ignored in drug naming, labeling, and packaging. Instead, current methods are based on long-standing commercial considerations and bureaucratic procedures. The process for naming a marketable drug is lengthy and complex and involves submission of a new chemical entity and patent application, generic naming, brand naming, FDA review, and final approval. Drug companies seek the fastest possible approval and may believe that the incremental benefit of human factors evaluation is small. "Trade dress" is the concept that underlies labeling and packaging issues for the drug industry. Drug companies are resistant to changing trade dress and brand names. Although a variety of private-sector organizations have called for reforms in drug naming, labeling, and packaging standards have been proposed, the problem remains. Drug names, labels, and packages are not selected and designed in accordance with human factors principles. FDA standards do not require application of these principles, the drug industry has struggled with change, and private-sector initiatives have had only limited success.

  19. [Justice challenges of pharmaceutical industry global research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páez Moreno, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    International research projects sponsored by the pharmaceutical industry are a recent modality of biomedical research, which is driven by interests that are not only scientific, but also commercial. This combination of interests is one of the natural consequences of globalization, which has brought unquestionable benefits for the world, but has also created a wider gap between the wealthy and the poor. Given that globalization has been led by the the world's leading economies, the level of injustice in the world has increased, often to the favor of the already wealthy. Globalization has a well-established dynamics, whose main characteristic is domain over the following: technological innovation, the organization of the production of goods and services, human needs, and consumption. International biomedical research fits well in this dynamics, and the result is often a poor distribution of benefits, added to a loss of scientific integrity for the sake of commercial interests. This phenomenon raises many ethical questions and it demands a reflection from different bioethical points of view, particularly an economic ethics and a global justice.

  20. Temporal and spatial behavior of pharmaceuticals in ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The behavior of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in urban estuaries is not well understood. In this study, 15 high volume usage APIs were measured over a one year period throughout Narragansett Bay, RI, USA to determine factors controlling their concentration and distribution. Dissolved APIs ranged in concentration from not detected to 310 ng/L, with numerous APIs present at all sites and sampling periods. Eight APIs were present in suspended particulate material, ranging in concentration from behavior. The continuous discharge of wastewater treatment plant effluents into upper Narragansett Bay resulted in sustained levels of APIs, resulting in a zone of “pseudo-persistence.” For most of the APIs, there was a strong relationship with salinity, indicating conservative behavior within the estuary. Short flushing times in Narragansett Bay coupled with APIs present primarily in the dissolved phase suggests that most APIs will be diluted and transported out of the estuary, with only small amounts of several compounds removed to and sequestered in sediments. This study ide

  1. Pharmaceutical and pharmacological importance of peptide transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandsch, Matthias; Knütter, Ilka; Bosse-Doenecke, Eva

    2008-05-01

    Peptide transport is currently a prominent topic in membrane research. The transport proteins involved are under intense investigation because of their physiological importance in protein absorption and also because peptide transporters are possible vehicles for drug delivery. Moreover, in many tissues peptide carriers transduce peptidic signals across membranes that are relevant in information processing. The focus of this review is on the pharmaceutical relevance of the human peptide transporters PEPT1 and PEPT2. In addition to their physiological substrates, both carriers transport many beta-lactam antibiotics, valaciclovir and other drugs and prodrugs because of their sterical resemblance to di- and tripeptides. The primary structure, tissue distribution and substrate specificity of PEPT1 and PEPT2 have been well characterized. However, there is a dearth of knowledge on the substrate binding sites and the three-dimensional structure of these proteins. Until this pivotal information becomes available by X-ray crystallography, the development of new drug substrates relies on classical transport studies combined with molecular modelling. In more than thirty years of research, data on the interaction of well over 700 di- and tripeptides, amino acid and peptide derivatives, drugs and prodrugs with peptide transporters have been gathered. The aim of this review is to put the reports on peptide transporter-mediated drug uptake into perspective. We also review the current knowledge on pharmacogenomics and clinical relevance of human peptide transporters. Finally, the reader's attention is drawn to other known or proposed human peptide-transporting proteins.

  2. Pharmaceutically active secondary metabolites of marine actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivasagan, Panchanathan; Venkatesan, Jayachandran; Sivakumar, Kannan; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2014-04-01

    Marine actinobacteria are one of the most efficient groups of secondary metabolite producers and are very important from an industrial point of view. Many representatives of the order Actinomycetales are prolific producers of thousands of biologically active secondary metabolites. Actinobacteria from terrestrial sources have been studied and screened since the 1950s, for many important antibiotics, anticancer, antitumor and immunosuppressive agents. However, frequent rediscovery of the same compounds from the terrestrial actinobacteria has made them less attractive for screening programs in the recent years. At the same time, actinobacteria isolated from the marine environment have currently received considerable attention due to the structural diversity and unique biological activities of their secondary metabolites. They are efficient producers of new secondary metabolites that show a range of biological activities including antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, antitumor, cytotoxic, cytostatic, anti-inflammatory, anti-parasitic, anti-malaria, antiviral, antioxidant, anti-angiogenesis, etc. In this review, an evaluation is made on the current status of research on marine actinobacteria yielding pharmaceutically active secondary metabolites. Bioactive compounds from marine actinobacteria possess distinct chemical structures that may form the basis for synthesis of new drugs that could be used to combat resistant pathogens. With the increasing advancement in science and technology, there would be a greater demand for new bioactive compounds synthesized by actinobacteria from various marine sources in future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Iran’s Pharmaceutical Sectoral Innovation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Kargar Shahamat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract By reviewing economic performance, two main phenomena could be identified: The first phenomenon is prior to the third wave of the Industrial Revolution in which limited resources are the predominant input; in other words, physical and natural resources are much more credited than human resources. The second phenomenon resonates with the third wave of industrial revolution to the present time, suggesting the pivotal role of humans in production and accumulation of wealth, in which limited resources are no longer considered as predominant input. The present research seeks to understand the behavioral logic of the players of Iran's pharmaceutical sector so as to infer the innovative treatment of the firms in this sector. The concept of innovative system is indebted to the efforts economists and other scientists have made by analyzing economic development based upon technological development. Meanwhile, sectoral innovation system (SIS is a tool for analyzing a technological sector in the context of evolutionary economics with an emphasis on institutional capabilities. The structure of such an approach is composed of some components through which performance analysis of certain technological sector could be made possible. In research, we use expert panel with 12 experts from Universities, Companies, Governmental institutes. The current study wishes to explain structural model of institutional elements in this technological sector. Subsequently, in light of such an explanation, structural elements of this sector would be analyzed through identification of legal and regulatory framework, innovative culture, innovative infrastructure, financial resources, information resources, technology transfer mechanisms, commercialization support and marketing.

  4. [A hundred years since the founding of the pharmaceutical company "Salomon, Levin, Elshtein"--the origin of the TEVA Group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michlin, Amnon

    2002-09-01

    The Pharmaceutical trading company "Salomon Levin Elshtein", was founded one hundred years ago. It began in Jerusalem as a small store near the Old City walls, bought by brothers-in-law Haim Salomon (Yoel Moshe Salomon's son) and Moshe Gutel Levin. Among its first customers were the Jewish hospitals and local organizations of the Jewish settlements, who bought drugs for their pharmacies. In those days typical drugs in demand included quinine, for treating malaria and various fevers, and drugs against trachoma. In 1915 Israel Asher Elshtein joined the company, which subsequently changed its name to "Salomon Levin Elshtein" (SLE). Activities expanded and a branch opened in Jaffa. The pioneers of the pharmaceutical industry and various medical products in Israel eventually merged into the Teva Group.

  5. Radiation decontamination of pharmaceutical raw materials as an integral part of the good pharmaceutical manufacturing practice (GPMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razem, D.; Katusin-Razem, B. (Institut Rudjer Boskovic, Zagreb (Yugoslavia)); Starcevic, M.; Galekovic, B. (PLIVA Pharmaceutical Works, Zagreb (Yugoslavia))

    1990-01-01

    The microbiological quality of many raw materials used in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals and adjuvants often fails to meet the standards set by the pharmaceutical industry. Raw materials of biological provenience are particularly susceptible to contamination. This work describes the present situation regarding the microbial load of corn starch. Given the accepted microbiological criteria, irradiation treatment is proposed as integral to Good Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Practice (GPMP). The use of total viable count as a guide for specifying microbial limits for non-sterile materials is supported. Criteria for the choice of dose are discussed. (author).

  6. Pharmaceutical drug marketing strategies and tactics: a comparative analysis of attitudes held by pharmaceutical representatives and physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, R Stephen; Pettijohn, Charles E

    2005-01-01

    A variety of promotional strategies have been used to stimulate sales of pharmaceutical drugs. Traditionally, push techniques have been the predominant means used to encourage physicians to prescribe drugs and thus increase sales. Recently, the traditional push strategy has been supplemented by a pull strategy. Direct-to-consumer advertising is increasingly used to encourage consumers to request advertised drugs from their physicians. This research compares the attitudes of two of the most affected participants in the prescriptive sales processes; physicians and pharmaceutical sales representatives. The findings indicate differences between physicians and pharmaceutical sales representatives regarding the efficacy and ethical considerations of various promotional strategies.

  7. Pharmaceutical Compounds in Wastewater: Wetland Treatment as a Potential Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. White

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical compounds are being released into the aquatic environment through wastewater discharge around the globe. While there is limited removal of these compounds within wastewater treatment plants, wetland treatment might prove to be an effective means to reduce the discharge of the compounds into the environment. Wetlands can promote removal of these pharmaceutical compounds through a number of mechanisms including photolysis, plant uptake, microbial degradation, and sorption to the soil. We review relevant laboratory research on these various mechanisms and provide data on the few studies that have examined wetland removal. There is a need to document the degree to which various pharmaceutical compounds are removed in full-scale treatment wetlands, as there is a paucity of data on overall pharmaceutical removal rates.

  8. Institutional mistrust in the organization of pharmaceutical clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jill A

    2008-12-01

    In this paper I explore the politics of trust in the clinical testing of pharmaceuticals in the US. Specifically, I analyze trust in terms of its institutional manifestations in the pharmaceutical clinical trials industry. In the process of testing new drugs, pharmaceutical companies must (1) protect their proprietary information from the clinicians who conduct their studies, and (2) find a way to ensure human subjects' compliance to study protocols. Concern with these two critical issues leads drug companies to approach clinicians and research subjects with an attitude of mistrust and the desire to exert control over their activities. This orientation results in an institutionalization of mistrust that structures the relationships and activities required for the clinical development of new pharmaceutical products.

  9. Differential pricing of new pharmaceuticals in lower income European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaló, Zoltán; Annemans, Lieven; Garrison, Louis P

    2013-12-01

    Pharmaceutical companies adjust the pricing strategy of innovative medicines to the imperatives of their major markets. The ability of payers to influence the ex-factory price of new drugs depends on country population size and income per capita, among other factors. Differential pricing based on Ramsey principles is a 'second-best' solution to correct the imperfections of the global market for innovative pharmaceuticals, and it is also consistent with standard norms of equity. This analysis summarizes the boundaries of differential pharmaceutical pricing for policymakers, payers and other stakeholders in lower-income countries, with special focus on Central-Eastern Europe, and describes the feasibility and implications of potential solutions to ensure lower pharmaceutical prices as compared to higher-income countries. European stakeholders, especially in Central-Eastern Europe and at the EU level, should understand the implications of increased transparency of pricing and should develop solutions to prevent the limited accessibility of new medicines in lower-income countries.

  10. Microcap pharmaceutical firms: linking drug pipelines to market value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This article examines predictors of the future market value of microcap pharmaceutical companies. This is problematic since the large majority of these firms seldom report positive net income. Their value comes from the potential of a liquidity event such as occurs when a key drug is approved by the FDA. The typical scenario is one in which the company is either acquired by a larger pharmaceutical firm or enters into a joint venture with another pharmaceutical firm. Binary logistic regression is used to determine the impact of the firm's drug treatment pipeline and its investment in research and development on the firm's market cap. Using annual financial data from 2007 through 2010, this study finds that the status of the firm's drug treatment pipeline and its research and development expenses are significant predictors of the firm's future stock value relative to other microcap pharmaceutical firms.

  11. Boston Society's 11th Annual Applied Pharmaceutical Analysis conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Violet; Liu, Ang; Groeber, Elizabeth; Moghaddam, Mehran; Schiller, James; Tweed, Joseph A; Walker, Gregory S

    2016-02-01

    Boston Society's 11th Annual Applied Pharmaceutical Analysis conference, Hyatt Regency Hotel, Cambridge, MA, USA, 14-16 September 2015 The Boston Society's 11th Annual Applied Pharmaceutical Analysis (APA) conference took place at the Hyatt Regency hotel in Cambridge, MA, on 14-16 September 2015. The 3-day conference affords pharmaceutical professionals, academic researchers and industry regulators the opportunity to collectively participate in meaningful and relevant discussions impacting the areas of pharmaceutical drug development. The APA conference was organized in three workshops encompassing the disciplines of regulated bioanalysis, discovery bioanalysis (encompassing new and emerging technologies) and biotransformation. The conference included a short course titled 'Bioanalytical considerations for the clinical development of antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs)', an engaging poster session, several panel and round table discussions and over 50 diverse talks from leading industry and academic scientists.

  12. Pharmaceutical pricing policy in Greece: towards a different path

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kyriakos Souliotis; Manto Papageorgiou; Anastasia Politi; Athanasios Athanasiadis

    2016-01-01

    .... External reference pricing (ERP), a common pharmaceutical policy in Europe, suffers today from indigenous weaknesses that may cause market distortions and barriers to care, burdening mostly the weak economies, and hence, raising...

  13. Pharmaceutical Pricing Policy in Greece: Toward a Different Path

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Souliotis, Kyriakos; Papageorgiou, Manto; Politi, Anastasia; Athanasiadis, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    .... External reference pricing (ERP), a common pharmaceutical policy in Europe, suffers today from indigenous weaknesses that may cause market distortions and barriers to care, burdening mostly the weak economies, and hence, raising...

  14. The Utilization of Project Management in the Pharmaceutical Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krusko, Diane; Cangemi, Robert R.

    1987-01-01

    A survey of 99 pharmaceutical companies concerning their organization and use of project management techniques for research and development found that the industry is using project management increasingly in a variety of ways for better business planning and operations. (MSE)

  15. Pharmaceutical Pricing: The Use of External Reference Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Ruggeri, Kai; Nolte, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews approaches to pharmaceutical pricing in Canada, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain to inform better understanding of the role of external reference pricing and its relevance to the UK.

  16. Corrosion inhibition of aluminum 6063 using some pharmaceutical compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouda, A.S. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, El-Mansoura University, El-Mansoura 35516 (Egypt)], E-mail: asfouda@mans.edu.eg; Al-Sarawy, A.A. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, El-Mansoura University, El-Mansoura (Egypt); Ahmed, F.Sh. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science (Demitta), El-Mansoura University, El-Mansoura (Egypt); El-Abbasy, H.M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, El-Mansoura University, El-Mansoura 35516 (Egypt)

    2009-03-15

    The corrosion inhibition characteristics of some pharmaceutical compounds on aluminum 6063 in 0.5 mol l{sup -1} H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} has been studied using weight loss and galvanostatic polarization techniques. Results showed that the inhibition occurs through adsorption of the inhibitor molecules on the metal surface. The inhibition efficiency increased with increasing inhibitor concentration, but decreased with increasing temperature. The adsorption of first group pharmaceutical compounds on the metal surface is found to obey Frumkin's adsorption isotherm, but the adsorption of second group pharmaceutical compounds is found to obey Temkin's adsorption isotherm. Thermodynamic parameters for adsorption process were determined. Galvanostatic polarization studies showed that first and second groups' pharmaceutical compounds are mixed-type inhibitors and the results obtained from the two techniques are in good agreement.

  17. Recent trends and future of pharmaceutical packaging technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadbuke, Nityanand; Shahi, Sadhana; Gulecha, Bhushan; Padalkar, Abhay; Thube, Mahesh

    2013-04-01

    The pharmaceutical packaging market is constantly advancing and has experienced annual growth of at least five percent per annum in the past few years. The market is now reckoned to be worth over $20 billion a year. As with most other packaged goods, pharmaceuticals need reliable and speedy packaging solutions that deliver a combination of product protection, quality, tamper evidence, patient comfort and security needs. Constant innovations in the pharmaceuticals themselves such as, blow fill seal (BFS) vials, anti-counterfeit measures, plasma impulse chemical vapor deposition (PICVD) coating technology, snap off ampoules, unit dose vials, two-in-one prefilled vial design, prefilled syringes and child-resistant packs have a direct impact on the packaging. The review details several of the recent pharmaceutical packaging trends that are impacting packaging industry, and offers some predictions for the future.

  18. The extraterritoriality of US patents on the pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunseok

    2014-09-01

    As pharmaceutical industries have rapidly modernized and globalized, borders have been blurred and multiple entities in different countries are now involved with the manufacture, supply, distribution, dispensing and administration of even a single drug in the pharmaceutical industry. The cross jurisdictional nature of the modern pharmaceutical industry presents new challenges to limitations on the extraterritorial reach of US patents. The enforcement of US patents outside the jurisdictional boundaries of the USA has judicially evolved through cases such as Deep South, Microsoft, Bayer AG, Union Carbide, AT&T, Cardiac Pacemakers and others. This article explores the effects of recent cases on the extraterritorial enforcement of US pharmaceutical patents, particularly when different types of claims are involved.

  19. [Relationship between pharmaceutical industry and public health in vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervasi, Giuseppe; Capanna, Alessandra; Soncini, Renato; Zaratti, Laura; Franco, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines play the main role in primary prevention in Public Health as they allow the control of many infectious diseases progression, reducing complications, morbidity and mortality. Pharmaceutical industry has spread worldwide the production and distribution of vaccines; moreover, research and new technological approaches inside industry make possible new formulations and preparations with an increasing safety. In spite of these positive aspects, lack of confidence in the utility of vaccination as well as in the real role of the pharmaceutical industry has grown in importance in recent decades. Aim of the study was to analyze these issues, with regards to cost and timing of vaccine production, and complex vaccine planning, related to efficacy, safety and tolerability assessment. Relationship between pharmaceutical industry and Public Health was finally considered; in particular, the role of Public Health as mediator between the pharmaceutical industry and the general population.

  20. Impacts of international sanctions on Iranian pharmaceutical market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraghali, Abdol Majid

    2013-07-31

    Iran in recent decade faced several regional and international sanctions in foreign trade, financial and banking services. Iran national pharmaceutical industry has always played a major role in providing medicines to the Iranian patients. However, following the sanctions it has faced profound difficulties for importing of both finished products and pharmaceutical raw materials. Although medicines are exempted from sanctions, due to restriction on money transaction and proper insurance Iranian pharmaceutical companies have to pay cash in advance for imports of medicines and raw materials or to secure offshore funds at very high risks. Current situation in Iran pharmaceutical market confirms that the sanctions against Iran are affecting ordinary citizens and national health sector which resulted to reduction of availability of lifesaving medicines in the local market and has caused increasing pain and suffering for Iranian patients.