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  1. Motivation of health workers and associated factors in public hospitals of West Amhara, Northwest Ethiopia

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    Weldegebriel Z

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Zemichael Weldegebriel,1 Yohannes Ejigu,2 Fitsum Weldegebreal,3 Mirkuzie Woldie2 1Public Planning Department, Debark Hospital, Debark, North Gondar, Amhara Region, 2Department of Health Services Management, College of Public Health and Medical Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia; 3Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Health and Medical Science, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia Background: Health professionals’ motivation reflects the interaction between health professionals and their work environment. It can potentially affect the provision of health services; however, this important attribute of the workplace climate in public hospitals is not usually given serious attention to the desired level. For this reason, the authors of this study have assessed the level of motivation of health professionals and associated factors in public hospitals of West Amhara, Northwest Ethiopia.  Methods: A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted in eight public hospitals of West Amhara from June 1 to July 30, 2013. A total of 304 health professionals were included in this study. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20. The reliability of the instrument was assessed through Cronbach’s α. Factor scores were generated for the items found to represent the scales (eigenvalue greater than one in varimax rotation used in the measurement of the variables. The scores were further analyzed using one-way analysis of variance, t-tests, Pearson’s correlation, and hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses. The cut-off point for the regression analysis to determine significance was set at β (95% confidence interval, P<0.05.  Results: Mean motivation scores (as the percentage of maximum scale scores were 58.6% for the overall motivation score, 71.0% for the conscientiousness scale, 52.8% for the organizational commitment scale, 58.3% for the intrinsic motivation scale, and 64.0% for organizational

  2. Depression in diabetic patients attending University of Gondar Hospital Diabetic Clinic, Northwest Ethiopia

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    Birhanu AM

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Anteneh Messele Birhanu,1 Fekadu Mazengia Alemu,2 Tesfaye Demeke Ashenafie,3 Shitaye Alemu Balcha,4 Berihun Assefa Dachew5 1School of Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Wollo University, Dessie, 2Department of Midwifery, 3Department of Nursing, 4Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, 5Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Public Health, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia Background: Diabetes mellitus, frequently associated with comorbid depression, contributes to the double burden of individual patients and community. Depression remains undiagnosed in as many as 50%–75% of diabetes cases. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of depression among diabetic patients attending the University of Gondar Hospital Diabetic Clinic, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March to May 2014 among 422 sampled diabetic patients attending the University of Gondar Hospital Diabetic Clinic. The participants were selected using systematic random sampling. Data were collected by face-to-face interview using a standardized and pretested questionnaire linked with patient record review. Depression was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Data were entered to EPI INFO version 7 and analyzed by SPSS version 20 software. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with depression. Results: A total of 415 diabetic patients participated in the study with a response rate of 98.3%. The prevalence of depression among diabetic patients was found to be 15.4% (95% confidence interval (CI: 11.7–19.2. Only religion (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =2.65 and 95% CI: 1.1–6.0 and duration of diabetes (AOR =0.27 and 95% CI: 0.07–0.92 were the factors associated with depression among diabetic patients. Conclusion: The prevalence of depression was low as compared to other

  3. Urinary tract infection among obstetric fistula patients at Gondar University Hospital, northwest Ethiopia.

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    Wondimeneh, Yitayih; Muluye, Dagnachew; Alemu, Abebe; Atinafu, Asmamaw; Yitayew, Gashaw; Gebrecherkos, Teklay; Alemu, Agersew; Damtie, Demekech; Ferede, Getachew

    2014-01-17

    Many women die from complications related to pregnancy and childbirth. In developing countries particularly in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia, where access to emergency obstetrical care is often limited, obstetric fistula usually occurs as a result of prolonged obstructed labour. Obstetric fistula patients have many social and health related problems like urinary tract infections (UTIs). Despite this reality there was limited data on prevalence UTIs on those patients in Ethiopia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, drug susceptibility pattern and associated risk factors of UTI among obstetric fistula patients at Gondar University Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted from January to May, 2013 at Gondar University Hospital. From each post repair obstetric fistula patients, socio-demographic and UTIs associated risk factors were collected by using a structured questionnaire. After the removal of their catheters, the mid-stream urine was collected and cultured on CLED. After overnight incubation, significant bacteriuria was sub-cultured on Blood Agar Plate (BAP) and MacConkey (MAC). The bacterial species were identified by series of biochemical tests. Antibiotic susceptibility test was done by disc diffusion method. Data was entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 20. A total of 53 post repair obstetric fistula patients were included for the determination of bacterial isolate and 28 (52.8%) of them had significant bacteriuria. Majority of the bacterial isolates, 26 (92.9%), were gram negative bacteria and the predominant ones were Citrobacter 13 (24.5%) and E. coli 6 (11.3%). Enterobacter, E.coli and Proteus mirabilis were 100% resistant to tetracycline. Enterobacter, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsella pneumonia, Klebsella ozenae and Staphylococcus aureus were also 100% resistant to ceftriaxone. The prevalence of bacterial isolates in obstetric fistula patients was high and majority of the isolates were gram

  4. Motivation of health workers and associated factors in public hospitals of West Amhara, Northwest Ethiopia.

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    Weldegebriel, Zemichael; Ejigu, Yohannes; Weldegebreal, Fitsum; Woldie, Mirkuzie

    2016-01-01

    Health professionals' motivation reflects the interaction between health professionals and their work environment. It can potentially affect the provision of health services; however, this important attribute of the workplace climate in public hospitals is not usually given serious attention to the desired level. For this reason, the authors of this study have assessed the level of motivation of health professionals and associated factors in public hospitals of West Amhara, Northwest Ethiopia. A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted in eight public hospitals of West Amhara from June 1 to July 30, 2013. A total of 304 health professionals were included in this study. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20. The reliability of the instrument was assessed through Cronbach's α. Factor scores were generated for the items found to represent the scales (eigenvalue greater than one in varimax rotation) used in the measurement of the variables. The scores were further analyzed using one-way analysis of variance, t-tests, Pearson's correlation, and hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses. The cut-off point for the regression analysis to determine significance was set at β (95% confidence interval, Pmotivation scores (as the percentage of maximum scale scores) were 58.6% for the overall motivation score, 71.0% for the conscientiousness scale, 52.8% for the organizational commitment scale, 58.3% for the intrinsic motivation scale, and 64.0% for organizational burnout scale. Professional category, age, type of the hospital, nonfinancial motivators like performance evaluation and management, staffing and work schedule, staff development and promotion, availability of necessary resources, and ease of communication were found to be strong predictors of health worker motivation. Across the hospitals and professional categories, health workers' overall level of motivation with absolute level of compensation was not significantly

  5. Perceived Obstacles Faced by Diabetes Patients Attending University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

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    Akshaya Srikanth Bhagavathula

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDiabetes mellitus (DM is a non-communicable, chronic, and progressive disease that can lead to serious complications and even to premature death. A closer understanding of the DM patients’ specific obstacles will provide a greater clarity of the factors influencing their disease-related quality of life and coping with daily life. The study aimed to evaluate the obstacles of DM patients attending ambulatory clinic of the University of Gondar Hospital (UOGH, Northwest Ethiopia.MethodsA cross-sectional study was conducted from February to April 2017 at ambulatory clinic of the UOGH. A validated short version of the diabetic obstacle questionnaire was used. The internal reliability of the questionnaire was checked using Cronbach’s alpha and was found to be 92.5%. To determine any association between each of the nine sections of the questionnaire and age, sex, residence, educational status, and DM type, a binary logistic regression was performed.ResultsThe mean age of respondents was 38.69 ± 15.39 years. Compared with patients with type 1 DM, patients with type 2 DM reported poorer relationships with medical professionals (adjusted odds ratio (AOR: 2.191, p-value = 0.027 and less support from families and friends (AOR: 1.913, p-value = 0.049. Patients coming from rural areas (AOR: 2.947, p = 0.002 and having no formal education (AOR: 2.078, p = 0.029 also received less support from families and friends.ConclusionDM patients in UOGH reported several obstacles related to patients’ relationship with health professionals, lack of support from their friends, lack of knowledge about DM, and lack of motivation to exercise. Effective efforts should be initiated to improve healthier environment to educate, care and preventive services for people with DM.

  6. HIV and intestinal parasites in adult TB patients in a teaching hospital in Northwest Ethiopia.

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    Kassu, Afework; Mengistu, Getahun; Ayele, Belete; Diro, Ermias; Mekonnen, Firew; Ketema, Dereje; Moges, Feleke; Mesfin, Tsehay; Getachew, Assefa; Ergicho, Bahiru; Elias, Daniel; Wondmikun, Yared; Aseffa, Abraham; Ota, Fusao

    2007-10-01

    The level of HIV infection and intestinal parasitoses among TB patients was assessed in a hospital-based cross-sectional study involving 257 patients in Gondar, Ethiopia. In TB patients, our study reported co-infection with HIV (52.1%) and intestinal parasites (40.9%) The high prevalence of HIV and intestinal parasites indicates an increased morbidity inTB patients and emphasized the importance of continued HIV sero-surveillance, stool analysis and treatment.

  7. Seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus among voluntary counseling and testing clients at the University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

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    Sinku Y

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Yohannes Sinku,1,2 Takele Gezahegn,1 Yalewayiker Gashaw,1 Meseret Workineh,1 Tekalign Deressa1 1School of Biomedical and Laboratory Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, 2Diagnostic Laboratory Case Team, University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Gondar, Ethiopia Background: The epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection in Ethiopia varies with regions, study population, and time. Thus, timely information on HIV epidemiology is critical for the combat of the epidemic. In this study, we aim to update HIV prevalence and risk factors among voluntary counseling and testing (VCT clients at the University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia.Methods: A total of 2,120 VCT clients’ records from September 2007 to August 2010 were analyzed retrospectively. Bivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify significant predictors. Odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated. Statistical significance was set at P-value <0.05.Results: Of 2,120 VCT clients, 363 (17.1% were seropositive for HIV. A higher rate of HIV positivity was observed among female clients (20.4% than that in male clients (14.0% (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.26–1.98, P=0.00. Widowed (95% CI 10.42–34.92, P=0.00, married (95% CI 3.42–5.94, P=0.00, divorced (95% CI 2.79–5.32, P=0.00, and illiterate (95% CI 2.33–5.47, P=0.00 clients were associated with HIV infection with the odds ratios of 19.07, 4.51, 3.85, and 3.57, respectively. Clients within the age category of 35–49 years (OR 5.03, 95% CI 3.56–7.12, P=0.00 and above the age of 50 years (OR 4.99, 95% CI 2.67–9.34, P=0.00 were more likely to be infected with HIV.Conclusion: HIV is still the major concern of public health in the Gondar area as evidenced by our data. Being female, widowed, married, illiterate, and older age were the identified risk factors for HIV infection. Thus, consideration of these factors in future intervention and

  8. Diarrhoea-associated parasites in HIV-1 seropositive and sero-negative patients in a teaching hospital, Northwest Ethiopia.

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    Andualem, Berhanu; Kassu, Afework; Moges, Feleke; Gedefaw, Molla; Diro, Ermias; Mengistu, Getahun; Andargie, Gashaw

    2007-04-01

    to determine the prevalence and type of intestinal parasites in HIV infected and uninfected patients with diarrhea. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Gondar University hospital, Northwest Ethiopia, between March 2003 and October 2004. A total 312 consecutive diarrheic patients were included in the study. Stool specimens were collected and examined for intestinal parasites following direct, formol-ether concentration and modified acid fast staining methods. Among the patients, 63.8% were found to be HIV seropositive. The prevalence of intestinal parasites in HIV seropositive and seronegative diarrheic patients was 30.6% and 33.6%, respectively. The most prevalent parasites were Strongyoides stercoralis (9.0%) and Entamoeba histolytica (8.3%) followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (5.4%) and Cryptosporidium species (5. 1%). The prevalence of intestinal parasites in diarrheic patients was very high. Institution of appropriate intervention measures are needed to reduce morbidity in such patients.

  9. The pattern of acute poisoning in a teaching hospital, north-west Ethiopia.

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    Abula, Teferra; Wondmikun, Yared

    2006-04-01

    Poisoning by means of hazardous chemicals through ignorance, mishap or intentionally is becoming a serious health problem worldwide. Epidemiological data on this important health issue are, however, scarce in Ethiopia. The purpose of this study is to assess the pattern of acute poisonings and determine the approaches employed for the management of poisoning. The medical records of patients with acute poisonings presented to the Gondar University hospital between July 2001 and June 2004 were reviewed retrospectively. One hundred and two patients presenting to the emergency department of the hospital were due to acute poisoning; accounting for about 0.45% of emergency room admissions. Organophosphates, rat poison and alcohol were the commonly encountered poisoning agents (in about 70% of cases) mainly in adults possibly with suicidal or para-suicidal intention. The approaches employed in the management of poisoning mainly involved gastrointestinal decontamination procedures. Specific antidotes were used in a substantial number of patients. The fatality rate was 2.4%. Poisoning with suicidal intention is becoming a serious health problem particularly in adults. Pesticides are commonly used toxicants. The approaches in the management of poisoning are justifiable in some cases. However, much is to be done to improve the recording of patient-related information and record-keeping processes. Further large scale studies are required to investigate national trends of poisoning and factors associated with poisoning.

  10. A 5-year trend of Helicobacter pylori seroprevalence among dyspeptic patients at Bahir Dar Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

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    Workineh M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Meseret Workineh,1 Desalegn Andargie2 1Immunology and Molecular Biology, School of Biomedical and Laboratory Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, 2University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Gondar, Ethiopia Background: Helicobacter pylori infection is a major public health problem affecting half of the world’s population. The prevalence of H. pylori varies in different societies and geographical locations. Thus, timely information on H. pylori epidemiology is critical to combat this infection. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence and trend of H. pylori infection over a period of 5 years among dyspeptic patients at Bahir Dar Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia.Methods: A retrospective analysis of consecutive dyspeptic patients’ records covering the period between January 2009 and December 2013 was conducted. The hospital laboratory generated the data by a serological method of detecting the antibodies for H. pylori from serum by a one-step rapid test device. Chi-square analysis was used to identify significant predictors. A P-value of <0.05 was considered as statistically significant.Results: Among all the study subjects, 2,733 (41.6% were found to be seropositive. The seroprevalence was significantly higher in males (43.2% than in females (39.9% (χ2=9; P=0.002. In terms of age groups of the patients, high rates of H. pylori were found among the participants older than 60 years (57% (χ2=36.6; P≤0.00001. The trend analysis of H. pylori prevalence revealed a fluctuating prevalence; it was 44.5% in the year 2009 and decreased to 34% and 40% in the years 2010 and 2011, respectively. However, there was an increment to 52.5% in the year 2012, and then it decreased to 30.2% in the year 2013.Conclusion: This study showed high seroprevalence of H. pylori among the dyspeptic patients in Bahir Dar Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital. The trend of the seroprevalence varied from year to year in

  11. Poisoning cases and their management in emergency centres of government hospitals in northwest Ethiopia

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    Getnet Mequanint Adinew

    2017-06-01

    Discussion: Young females comprise a group at increased risk for suicidal poisonings. As a developing nation, pesticide and bleaching agents remain a significant cause of acute poisonings in Ethiopia. Intentional poisoning remains the most significant identified cause of poisoning overall.

  12. Surfaces and Air Bacteriology of Selected Wards at a Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Getachew, Hailu; Derbie, Awoke; Mekonnen, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    The hospital environment is a source of medically important pathogens that are mostly multidrug resistant (MDR) and posing a major therapeutic challenge. The aim of this study was to assess the surface and air bacteriology of selected wards at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital (FHRH), Northwest Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was carried out from 15th February to 30th April 2017. A total of 356 surface and air samples were collected from selected wards using 5% sheep blood agar (Oxoid, UK) and processed at FHRH microbiology laboratory following the standard bacteriological procedures. Pure isolates were tested against the recommended antibiotics using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion methods, and the susceptibility profile was determined based on Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 23 for Windows. Of the total 356 samples processed, 274 were from surfaces and 82 were from air. Among these, 141 (39.6%) showed bacterial growth, yielding a total of 190 isolates. Gram-positive isolates were predominant at 81.6% ( n =155), while the gram negatives were at 18.4% ( n =35). The main isolates were coagulase negative staphylococci ( CoNs ), 44%, followed by S. aureus , 37.4%, and Klebsiella species at 11.6%. The bacterial load on surfaces and air was found beyond the standard limits. Besides, the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the isolates showed that about 75% of the identified isolates were found resistant for two and more antimicrobial agents tested. This study showed high degree of bacterial load that is beyond the standard limits on both surfaces and air samples of the hospital. Furthermore, some 75% of the isolates were found multidrug resistant. Therefore, it is important to evaluate and strengthen the infection prevention practice of the hospital. Moreover, stakeholders should also reinforce actions to decrease the pressure of antimicrobial resistance in the studied area.

  13. Intestinal Parasitosis and Their Associated Factors among People Living with HIV at University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest-Ethiopia.

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    Eshetu, Tegegne; Sibhatu, Getinet; Megiso, Mohammed; Abere, Abrham; Baynes, Habtamu Wondifraw; Biadgo, Belete; Zeleke, Ayalew Jejaw

    2017-07-01

    Most HIV clients die of AIDS related intestinal parasitic infections rather than due to the HIV infection itself. Therefore, this study was aimed at determining the prevalence of intestinal parasite and their associated factors among HIV/AIDS clients at the University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. Institution based cross sectional study was conducted using systematic random sampling technique from March to May 2016. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Stool samples were collected and processed using direct wet mount, formol-ether concentration and modified Ziehl-Neelson staining techniques. Besides, blood samples were collected for CD4+ count estimation. Both descriptive and logistic regression analyses were used in data analysis. P-values intestinal parasitosis was found to be 29.1%. The most predominant intestinal parasite detected was cyst of Entamoeba histolytica (8.5%) followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (6.7%), Strongyloides sterocoralis (3.6%) and Cryptosporidium parvum (3.1%), whereas Schistosoma mansoni (0.9%) and Hymenolepis nana (0.9%) were the least detected. Absence of toilet (AOR= 19.4, CI: 6.46-58.3), improper hand washing before meal (AOR=11.23, 95% CI: 4.16-30.27 and CD4+ count intestinal parasites. The study indicated that intestinal parasites are still a problem among HIV/AIDS patients in the study area. Thus, routine examination for intestinal parasites and interventions should be carried out for better management of clients.

  14. Intestinal parasitosis and shigellosis among diarrheal patients in Gondar teaching hospital, northwest Ethiopia

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    Huruy Kahsay

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diarrheal diseases are the major causes of morbidity and mortality in developing world. Understanding the etiologic agents of diarrheal diseases and their association with socio-demographic characteristics of patients would help to design better preventive measures. Thus, this study was aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and enteropathogenic bacteria in diarrheic patients. Methods A cross-sectional study involving 384 consecutive diarrheal patients who visited Gondar teaching hospital, Gondar, Ethiopia from October 2006 to March 2007 was conducted. Stool specimens were collected and examined for intestinal parasites and enteropathogenic bacteria following standard parasitological and microbiological procedures. Results Intestinal parasites were diagnosed in 36.5% of the patients. The most frequently encountered protozoan parasite was Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (7.3% followed by Giardia lamblia (5.0%, Cryptosporidium parvum (1.8% and Isospora belli (1.3%. The dominant helminthic parasite identified was Ascaris lumbricoides (5.5% followed by Strongyloides stercoralis and Schistosoma mansoni (3.1% each, hookworm infection (1.8%, and Hymenolepis species (1.3%. Multiple infections of intestinal parasites were also observed in 6.3% of the patients. Among the enteropathogenic bacteria Shigella and Salmonella species were isolated from 15.6% and 1.6%, respectively, of the patients. Escherichia coli O57:H7 was not found in any of the stool samples tested. Eighty eight percent and 83.3% of the Shigella and Salmonella isolates were resistant to one or more commonly used antibiotics, respectively. Intestinal parasitosis was higher in patients who live in rural area, in patients who were washing their hands after visiting toilet either irregularly with soap and without soap or not at all, in patients who used well and spring water for household consumption, and in patients who had nausea (P P Conclusions The high

  15. Prevalence of thrombocytopenia among pregnant women attending antenatal care service at Gondar University Teaching Hospital in 2014, northwest Ethiopia.

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    Asrie, Fikir; Enawgaw, Bamlaku; Getaneh, Zegeye

    2017-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia is a common hematologic abnormality during pregnancy. Pregnant women with thrombocytopenia have a higher risk of bleeding excessively during or after childbirth, particularly if they need to have a cesarean section or other surgical intervention during pregnancy, labor or in the puerperium. The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of thrombocytopenia among pregnant women attending antenatal care service at Gondar University Hospital, northwest Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was used to assess the prevalence of thrombocytopenia among pregnant women attending antenatal care service at Gondar University Hospital from January to April 2015. A total of 217 pregnant women were included in the study and a structured pretested questionnaire was used to obtain sociodemographic information, nutritional factors, obstetrics and gynecological factors, history and clinical condition. Blood samples were collected for platelet count and other platelet parameters, which were determined by using SysmexKX 21 automation. The data were entered to Epi info version 6 software and analyzed using SPSS version 20 software. Bivariable and multivariable statistical analyses were used to evaluate the effect of independent variable over the dependent variable. A p -value of women receiving antenatal care service at Gondar University Hospital participated in the study. Thrombocytopenia among 19 pregnant women showed a prevalence of 8.8%. The mean ± standard deviation platelet count was 238.85×10 9 /L (±74.57). Thrombocytopenia was significantly associated with patients who lived rurally (crude odds ratio =4.3, 95% confidence interval 1.48-12.76). The prevalence of thrombocytopenia was 8.8% predominantly with mild type of thrombocytopenia. Thrombocytopenia was higher among pregnant women who lived rurally. Therefore, health care providers should screen routinely for thrombocytopenia to avoid excessive bleeding during pregnancy, especially in women who live

  16. Medication administration error reporting and associated factors among nurses working at the University of Gondar referral hospital, Northwest Ethiopia, 2015.

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    Bifftu, Berhanu Boru; Dachew, Berihun Assefa; Tiruneh, Bewket Tadesse; Beshah, Debrework Tesgera

    2016-01-01

    Medication administration is the final step/phase of medication process in which its error directly affects the patient health. Due to the central role of nurses in medication administration, whether they are the source of an error, a contributor, or an observer they have the professional, legal and ethical responsibility to recognize and report. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of medication administration error reporting and associated factors among nurses working at The University of Gondar Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. Institution based quantitative cross - sectional study was conducted among 282 Nurses. Data were collected using semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire of the Medication Administration Errors Reporting (MAERs). Binary logistic regression with 95 % confidence interval was used to identify factors associated with medication administration errors reporting. The estimated medication administration error reporting was found to be 29.1 %. The perceived rates of medication administration errors reporting for non-intravenous related medications were ranged from 16.8 to 28.6 % and for intravenous-related from 20.6 to 33.4 %. Education status (AOR =1.38, 95 % CI: 4.009, 11.128), disagreement over time - error definition (AOR = 0.44, 95 % CI: 0.468, 0.990), administrative reason (AOR = 0.35, 95 % CI: 0.168, 0.710) and fear (AOR = 0.39, 95 % CI: 0.257, 0.838) were factors statistically significant for the refusal of reporting medication administration errors at p-value definition, administrative reason and fear were factors statistically significant for the refusal of errors reporting at p-value definition of reportable errors and strengthen the educational status of nurses by the health care organization.

  17. Predictors of mortality among children on Antiretroviral Therapy at a referral hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: A retrospective follow up study

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    Koye Digsu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An estimated 2.5 million children were living with HIV/AIDS at the end of 2009, 2.3 million (92% in sub-Saharan Africa. Without treatment, a third of children with HIV will die of AIDS before their first birthday, half dying before two years of age. Hence, this study aimed to assess magnitude and predictors of mortality among children on Antiretroviral Therapy (ART at a referral hospital in North-West Ethiopia. Methods Institution based retrospective follow up study was carried out among HIV-positive children from January 1st, 2006 - March 31st, 2011. Information on relevant variables was collected from patients’ charts and registries. Life table was used to estimate the cumulative survival of children. Log rank tests were employed to compare survival between the different categories of the explanatory variables. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards model was fitted to identify predictors of mortality. Results A total of 549 records were included in the analysis. The mean age at initiation of treatment was 6.35 ±3.78 SD years. The median follow up period was 22 months. At the end of the follow up, 41(7.5% were dead and 384(69.9% were alive. Mortality was 4.0 deaths per 100 child-years of follow-up period. The cumulative probabilities of survival at 3, 6, 12, 24, and 60 months of ART were 0.96, 0.94, 0.93, 0.92 and 0.83 respectively. Majority (90.2% of the deaths occurred within the first year of treatment. Absence of cotrimoxazole preventive therapy (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 4.74, 95% CI: 2.17, 10.34, anaemia (haemoglobin level Conclusions There was a high rate of early mortality. Hence, starting ART very early reduces disease progression and early mortality; close follow up of all children of HIV-positive mothers is recommended to make the diagnosis and start treatment at an earlier time before they develop severe immunodeficiency.

  18. Level of insulin adherence among diabetes mellitus patients in Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar, Northwest Ethiopia, 2017: a cross-sectional study.

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    Tewabe, Tilahun; Kindie, Selamsew

    2018-05-11

    The objective of this study was to know the level of insulin adherence and to identify factors affecting insulin adherence among diabetes mellitus patients in Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar, Northwest Ethiopia. Prevalence of insulin adherence was 59.2%. Patients who are married [AOR = 0.3 (0.14-0.7)], have regular health care visit [AOR = 3.3 (1.5-7.5)] and accessing insulin with low cost [AOR = 2.9 (1.3-6.3)] were more likely to adhere insulin therapy than their counterparts. Recommendations to increase insulin adherence were: government and non-governmental organizations, volunteers and concerned bodies should support syringe and needles for diabetes patients, health care providers and responsible bodies should give intensive health education about the effect of stopping insulin medication.

  19. Determinants of virological failure among patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy in University of Gondar Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: a case-control study.

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    Bayu, Belete; Tariku, Amare; Bulti, Abera Balcha; Habitu, Yohannes Ayanaw; Derso, Terefe; Teshome, Destaw Fetene

    2017-01-01

    Viral load monitoring is used as an important biomarker for diagnosing treatment failure in patients with HIV infection/AIDS. Ethiopia has started targeted viral load monitoring. However, factors leading to virological failure are not well understood and studied. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify the determinants of virological failure among HIV-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy at the University of Gondar Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. A case-control study was conducted from May to June 2015. Cases were subjects who had already experienced virological failure; controls were those without virological failure. Data were extracted from 153 cases and 153 controls through chart review. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify factors associated with virological failure, and variables with a p -value failure was observed among patients aged failure. Therefore, evidence-based intervention should be implemented to improve adherence to ART, which in turn helps to boost immunity (CD4) and suppresses viral replication and load. Moreover, attention should be given to younger patients who have had ART for longer periods.

  20. High prevalence of pain among adult HIV-infected patients at University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

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    Azagew AW

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abere Woretaw Azagew,1 Hiwot Kassa Woreta,1 Ambaye Dejen Tilahun,2 Degefaye Zelalem Anlay3 1Department of Medical Nursing, 2Emergency and Critical Nurse Unit, 3Community Health Unit, College of Medicine and Health Science, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia Background: HIV/AIDS are pressing global health problems. Pain is a common symptom reported by patients living with HIV/AIDS. The exact cause of pain in HIV patients has not been thoroughly described, but it may, due to a symptom of HIV itself, result from opportunistic infections, as a side effect of antiretroviral drugs, concurrent neoplasia or other causes. In addition, pain perception of HIV-infected patients is highly variable and may vary based on cultural context and patient demographics. In Ethiopia, there is insufficient evidence on the prevalence and factors associated with HIV-related pain.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 422 adult HIV-infected patients at Gondar University Hospital antiretroviral care clinic from March 1 to May 1, 2016. Systematic random sampling was used to select study participants. A pretested interviewer-administered questionnaire and a standardized medical record data abstraction tool were used to collect data. A short form brief pain inventory tool was used to measure the outcome. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to identify factors associated with pain among adult HIV patients.Results: The prevalence of pain was found to be 51.2% (95% CI: 46.4%–55.9%. Headache (17.9%, abdominal pain (15.6%, and backache (13.3% were the most common symptoms of study participants. Being female (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=1.8, 95% CI: 1.1–2.9; regular alcohol intake (aOR=3.3, 95% CI: 1.5–7.2; baseline World Health Organization clinical disease stage: II (aOR=2.5, 95% CI: 1.2–4.9, III (aOR=2, 95%, CI: 1.1–3.6, and IV (aOR=2.4, 95% CI: 1.1–5.3; and the presence of a chronic comorbid condition (aOR=5.9, 95% CI

  1. Bacterial profile and drug susceptibility pattern of urinary tract infection in pregnant women at University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia.

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    Alemu, Agersew; Moges, Feleke; Shiferaw, Yitayal; Tafess, Ketema; Kassu, Afework; Anagaw, Belay; Agegn, Abebe

    2012-04-25

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common health problem among pregnant women. Proper investigation and prompt treatment are needed to prevent serious life threatening condition and morbidity due to urinary tract infection that can occur in pregnant women. Recent report in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia indicated the prevalence of UTI in pregnant women was 11.6% and Gram negative bacteria was the predominant isolates and showed multi drug resistance. This study aimed to assess bacterial profile that causes urinary tract infection and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern among pregnant women visiting antenatal clinic at University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted at University of Gondar Teaching Hospital from March 22 to April 30, 2011. Mid stream urine samples were collected and inoculated into Cystine Lactose Electrolyte Deficient medium (CLED). Colony counts yielding bacterial growth of 105/ml of urine or more of pure isolates were regarded as significant bacteriuria for infection. Colony from CLED was sub cultured onto MacConkey agar and blood agar plates. Identification was done using cultural characteristics and a series of biochemical tests. A standard method of agar disc diffusion susceptibility testing method was used to determine susceptibility patterns of the isolates. The overall prevalence of UTI in pregnant women was 10.4%. The predominant bacterial pathogens were Escherichia coli 47.5% followed by coagulase-negative staphylococci 22.5%, Staphylococcus aureus 10%, and Klebsiella pneumoniae 10%. Gram negative isolates were resulted low susceptibility to co-trimoxazole (51.9%) and tetracycline (40.7%) whereas Gram positive showed susceptibility to ceftriaxon (84.6%) and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (92.3%). Multiple drug resistance (resistance to two or more drugs) was observed in 95% of the isolates. Significant bacteriuria was observed in asymptomatic pregnant women. Periodic studies are recommended to

  2. Prevalence of Bacteriuria and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns among Diabetic and Nondiabetic Patients Attending at Debre Tabor Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

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    Seble Worku

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Urinary tract infection is a major health problem especially in developing countries. Information about bacterial pathogens isolated from urinary tract infection in diabetic patients and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns is limited in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed at isolating bacterial pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Methods. A hospital based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted at Debre Tabor. Urine sample was inoculated onto cysteine lysine electrolyte deficient (CLED medium. Bacterial pathogens were identified using standard bacteriological methods. The data were cleaned and entered into SPSS version 20. P value less than 0.05 is considered statistically significant. Result. A total of 384 study participants were included in the study. Of them, 21 (10.9% were from diabetics and 9 (4.7% of them were from nondiabetics. Large proportion of gram positive bacteria at 18 (58.1% were isolated compared to gram negatives at 13 (41.9%. Gram positive isolates were resistant to cotrimoxazole 10 (58.8%. Conclusion. The isolation rates of bacterial pathogens were higher in diabetic than nondiabetic patients. Bacteriuria was significantly associated with sex and type of diabetes. Multidrug resistance to two or more antibiotics was observed in 56.7% of bacterial isolates. Rational use of antimicrobial agent should be thought of to prevent the emergence of multidrug resistance.

  3. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and associated risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care center at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, northwest Ethiopia.

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    Derso, Adane; Nibret, Endalkachew; Munshea, Abaineh

    2016-09-30

    Parasitic infections affect tens of millions of pregnant women worldwide, and directly or indirectly lead to a spectrum of adverse maternal and fetal/placental effects. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasite infections and associated risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care center in Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar city, northwest Ethiopia. A cross-sectional hospital based study was conducted from November 2013 to January 2014 among 384 pregnant women. Stool samples were examined for the presence of trophozoites, cysts, oocysts, and ova using direct, formal-ether sedimentation, and modified Ziehl-Neelsen techniques. An overall prevalence of 31.5 % intestinal parasite infections was recorded. Eight different species of intestinal parasites were found: two protozoan and six helminth species. The highest prevalence was due to Giardia lamblia (13.3 %) followed by Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (7.8 %), hookworm (5.5 %), Ascaris lumbricoides (2.9 %), Schistosoma mansoni (2.9 %), Strongyloides stercoralis (1.6 %), Taenia spp. (0.8 %), and Hymenolepis nana (0.3 %). A relatively high prevalence of intestinal parasite infections was observed among pregnant women. Routine stool examination and provision of health education are required for early medical intervention that would affect the pregnant mothers and their foetuses.

  4. Seroprevalence of syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus infections among pregnant women who attend the University of Gondar teaching hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

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    Endris, Mengistu; Deressa, Tekalign; Belyhun, Yeshambel; Moges, Feleke

    2015-03-03

    Syphilis and HIV infections in pregnancy result in a number of adverse outcomes including neonatal death and vertical transmission. Ethiopia is a country where these infections are highly prevalent. However, data on co-morbidities of syphilis and HIV among pregnant women in Gondar are scarce. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of these infections and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care at the University of Gondar teaching hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted from February to June 2011. Structured interviews were used to collect socio-demographic and obstetric data. Sera against syphilis were screened by rapid plasma reagin test; and confirmed by Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay. HIV infection was detected by rapid HIV test kits following the national algorithms for HIV testing. Data were summarized by descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Of 385 pregnant women, reactive syphilis was noted in 11/385 (2.9%) and seroprevalence of HIV was 43/385 (11.2%). The prevalence of syphilis and HIV co-infection was 2/385(0.5%). High rate of syphilis was observed among the women with above 30 years of age (OR 3.69, 95% CI 0.83 - 16.82). Women with a history of miscarriage and stillbirth were more likely to be infected by syphilis (OR 2.22, 95% CI 0.54-9.60) and (OR 3.24, 95% CI 0.00-17.54), respectively. Our data indicated that syphilis and HIV infections are still important public health concerns among pregnant women in the Gondar area. Hence, we recommend strenuous screening of all pregnant women for these infections during antenatal care. Further, strengthening health education on the mode of transmission and prevention of HIV and syphilis is essential for effective control of these infections.

  5. High prevalence of pain among adult HIV-infected patients at University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia.

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    Azagew, Abere Woretaw; Woreta, Hiwot Kassa; Tilahun, Ambaye Dejen; Anlay, Degefaye Zelalem

    2017-01-01

    HIV/AIDS are pressing global health problems. Pain is a common symptom reported by patients living with HIV/AIDS. The exact cause of pain in HIV patients has not been thoroughly described, but it may, due to a symptom of HIV itself, result from opportunistic infections, as a side effect of antiretroviral drugs, concurrent neoplasia or other causes. In addition, pain perception of HIV-infected patients is highly variable and may vary based on cultural context and patient demographics. In Ethiopia, there is insufficient evidence on the prevalence and factors associated with HIV-related pain. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 422 adult HIV-infected patients at Gondar University Hospital antiretroviral care clinic from March 1 to May 1, 2016. Systematic random sampling was used to select study participants. A pretested interviewer-administered questionnaire and a standardized medical record data abstraction tool were used to collect data. A short form brief pain inventory tool was used to measure the outcome. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to identify factors associated with pain among adult HIV patients. The prevalence of pain was found to be 51.2% (95% CI: 46.4%-55.9%). Headache (17.9%), abdominal pain (15.6%), and backache (13.3%) were the most common symptoms of study participants. Being female (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-2.9); regular alcohol intake (aOR=3.3, 95% CI: 1.5-7.2); baseline World Health Organization clinical disease stage: II (aOR=2.5, 95% CI: 1.2-4.9), III (aOR=2, 95%, CI: 1.1-3.6), and IV (aOR=2.4, 95% CI: 1.1-5.3); and the presence of a chronic comorbid condition (aOR=5.9, 95% CI: 2.1-16.7) were significantly associated with pain. Adult HIV patients in this sample reported a high level of chronic pain. Healthcare providers should better implement a routine pain assessment among HIV-positive patients to alleviate their suffering.

  6. Bacterial profile and drug susceptibility pattern of urinary tract infection in pregnant women at University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

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    Alemu Agersew

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urinary tract infection (UTI is a common health problem among pregnant women. Proper investigation and prompt treatment are needed to prevent serious life threatening condition and morbidity due to urinary tract infection that can occur in pregnant women. Recent report in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia indicated the prevalence of UTI in pregnant women was 11.6 % and Gram negative bacteria was the predominant isolates and showed multi drug resistance. This study aimed to assess bacterial profile that causes urinary tract infection and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern among pregnant women visiting antenatal clinic at University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at University of Gondar Teaching Hospital from March 22 to April 30, 2011. Mid stream urine samples were collected and inoculated into Cystine Lactose Electrolyte Deficient medium (CLED. Colony counts yielding bacterial growth of 105/ml of urine or more of pure isolates were regarded as significant bacteriuria for infection. Colony from CLED was sub cultured onto MacConkey agar and blood agar plates. Identification was done using cultural characteristics and a series of biochemical tests. A standard method of agar disc diffusion susceptibility testing method was used to determine susceptibility patterns of the isolates. Results The overall prevalence of UTI in pregnant women was 10.4 %. The predominant bacterial pathogens were Escherichia coli 47.5 % followed by coagulase-negative staphylococci 22.5 %, Staphylococcus aureus 10 %, and Klebsiella pneumoniae 10 %. Gram negative isolates were resulted low susceptibility to co-trimoxazole (51.9 % and tetracycline (40.7 % whereas Gram positive showed susceptibility to ceftriaxon (84.6 % and amoxicillin–clavulanic acid (92.3 %. Multiple drug resistance (resistance to two or more drugs was observed in 95 % of the isolates. Conclusion

  7. Factors associated with late Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) diagnosis among peoples living with it, Northwest Ethiopia: hospital based unmatched case-control study.

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    Aniley, Abebayehu Bitew; Ayele, Tadesse Awoke; Zeleke, Ejigu Gebeye; Kassa, Assefa Andargie

    2016-10-12

    Early HIV diagnosis and access to treatment is one of the most effective ways to prevent its further spread and to protect the health of those living with the virus. However, delay in diagnosis is the major risk factor for uptake of and response to antiretroviral therapy. Institution-based unmatched case-control study design was used in the study. The study was conducted in Debre-Markos and Finote-Selam Hospitals, Northwest Ethiopia. Cases were people living with HIV who had CD4 count study as World Health Organization recommended. A total of 392 respondents (196 cases and 196 controls) were recruited and selected systematically. The data were collected by trained nurses using chart review and interviewer administered structured questionnaire. Binary Logistic Regression Model was used to identify the factors associated with late HIV diagnosis. About 95.9 % of study participants provided complete response. Having no understanding, compared to having understanding, about HIV/AIDS (AOR = 1.7, 95 %CI = 1.08-2.79) and ART (AOR = 2.1, 95 %CI: 1.25-3.72), being tested as a result of symptoms/ illness, compared to being tested for risk exposure (inverted AOR =2.5, 95 %CI: 1.64-4.76), and acquiring HIV through sexual contact, compared to acquiring it through other modes (AOR = 2.5, 95 %CI = 1.52-4.76) were positively and independently associated with late HIV diagnosis. Unlike perceived HIV stigma, having no understanding about HIV and ART, being tested for presence of symptoms/illness, and acquiring HIV through sexual contact were independent and significant factors for late HIV diagnosis.

  8. Factors associated with late Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV diagnosis among peoples living with it, Northwest Ethiopia: hospital based unmatched case-control study

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    Abebayehu Bitew Aniley

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early HIV diagnosis and access to treatment is one of the most effective ways to prevent its further spread and to protect the health of those living with the virus. However, delay in diagnosis is the major risk factor for uptake of and response to antiretroviral therapy. Methods Institution-based unmatched case-control study design was used in the study. The study was conducted in Debre-Markos and Finote-Selam Hospitals, Northwest Ethiopia. Cases were people living with HIV who had CD4 count <350cells/mm3 or WHO clinical stage III and IV regardless of the CD4 count at first presentation and controls were those who had CD4 count ≥350cells/mm3 or WHO clinical stage I and II. If both criteria were available, the CD4 count was used in the study as World Health Organization recommended. A total of 392 respondents (196 cases and 196 controls were recruited and selected systematically. The data were collected by trained nurses using chart review and interviewer administered structured questionnaire. Binary Logistic Regression Model was used to identify the factors associated with late HIV diagnosis. Results About 95.9 % of study participants provided complete response. Having no understanding, compared to having understanding, about HIV/AIDS (AOR = 1.7, 95 %CI = 1.08–2.79 and ART (AOR = 2.1, 95 %CI: 1.25–3.72, being tested as a result of symptoms/ illness, compared to being tested for risk exposure (inverted AOR =2.5, 95 %CI: 1.64–4.76, and acquiring HIV through sexual contact, compared to acquiring it through other modes (AOR = 2.5, 95 %CI = 1.52–4.76 were positively and independently associated with late HIV diagnosis. Conclusions Unlike perceived HIV stigma, having no understanding about HIV and ART, being tested for presence of symptoms/illness, and acquiring HIV through sexual contact were independent and significant factors for late HIV diagnosis.

  9. Prevalence of workplace violence in Northwest Ethiopia: a multivariate analysis.

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    Tiruneh, Bewket Tadesse; Bifftu, Berhanu Boru; Tumebo, Akililu Azazh; Kelkay, Mengistu Mekonnen; Anlay, Degefaye Zelalem; Dachew, Berihun Assefa

    2016-01-01

    Workplace violence has been acknowledged as a global problem, particularly in the health sector. However, there is scarce data on workplace violence among nurses in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of workplace violence and associated factors among nurses in northwest Ethiopia. Hospital based cross-sectional study design was employed in 386 nurses from April 1 - April 30, 2015. Data were collected through the use of self-administered questionnaire developed by the International Labor Office/International Council of Nurses/World Health Organization and Public Services International. To keep the quality of the data collection training was given to supervisors and data collectors. Piloting was done in Debark hospital two weeks before actual data collection to assess the tool's clarity and make amendments. The proposal was approved by the Institutional Review Board of University of Gondar prior to study commencement and a written consent was obtained from each study participant. The overall prevalence of workplace violence was 26.7 %. Exploratory logistic regression analyses suggested that age, number of staff in the same work shift, working in a male ward, history of workplace violence, and marital status were factors independently associated with workplace violence. The prevalence of workplace violence among nurses was high. Creating a prevention strategy involving different stakeholders is recommended.

  10. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites and Associated Factors among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Suspected Patients Attending University of Gondar Hospital, Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia.

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    Tegegne, Yalewayker; Wondmagegn, Tadelo; Worku, Ligabaw; Jejaw Zeleke, Ayalew

    2018-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are among the major public health problems in developing countries. Hence, it is significant to explore coinfection with intestinal parasites and pulmonary tuberculosis because coinfection increases the complexity of control and prevention of pulmonary tuberculosis and parasitic diseases. To assess the prevalence of intestinal parasites among pulmonary tuberculosis suspected patients. Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted at University of Gondar Hospital from March to May, 2017. Stool samples were taken from each participant and examined by direct microscopy and concentration technique. Descriptive statistics was performed and chi-square test was used to show the association between variables. P values of Intestinal parasites were detected in 50 (19.6%) among a total of 256 pulmonary tuberculosis suspected patients who were included in the study, whereas the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis was 16.8% (43/256). Pulmonary tuberculosis and intestinal parasite coinfection was detected in 5 (2.0%) of the participants. The most prevalent intestinal parasites infection in this study was Ascaris lumbricoides, 15 (5.85%), followed by Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, 14 (5.46%), and Hookworm, 13 (5.1%). The prevalence of intestinal parasites and their coinfection rate with pulmonary tuberculosis among pulmonary tuberculosis suspected patients were considerable.

  11. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites and Associated Factors among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Suspected Patients Attending University of Gondar Hospital, Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia

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    Yalewayker Tegegne

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections are among the major public health problems in developing countries. Hence, it is significant to explore coinfection with intestinal parasites and pulmonary tuberculosis because coinfection increases the complexity of control and prevention of pulmonary tuberculosis and parasitic diseases. Objective. To assess the prevalence of intestinal parasites among pulmonary tuberculosis suspected patients. Method. Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted at University of Gondar Hospital from March to May, 2017. Stool samples were taken from each participant and examined by direct microscopy and concentration technique. Descriptive statistics was performed and chi-square test was used to show the association between variables. P values of <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results. Intestinal parasites were detected in 50 (19.6% among a total of 256 pulmonary tuberculosis suspected patients who were included in the study, whereas the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis was 16.8% (43/256. Pulmonary tuberculosis and intestinal parasite coinfection was detected in 5 (2.0% of the participants. The most prevalent intestinal parasites infection in this study was Ascaris lumbricoides, 15 (5.85%, followed by Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, 14 (5.46%, and Hookworm, 13 (5.1%. Conclusion. The prevalence of intestinal parasites and their coinfection rate with pulmonary tuberculosis among pulmonary tuberculosis suspected patients were considerable.

  12. Patterns of admission and factors associated with neonatal mortality among neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

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    Demisse AG

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abayneh Girma Demisse, Fentahun Alemu, Mahlet Abayneh Gizaw, Zemene Tigabu School of Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Science, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia Introduction: The neonatal period is a highly vulnerable time for an infant completing many of the physiologic adjustments required for life outside the uterus. As a result, there are high rates of morbidity and mortality. The three major causes of mortality in developing countries include prematurity, infection, and perinatal asphyxia. The aim of this study was to identify the patterns of neonatal admission and factors associated with mortality among neonates admitted at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU of University of Gondar Hospital.Materials and methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted among all admitted neonates in the NICU of University of Gondar referral hospital from December 1, 2015 to August 31, 2016. Information was extracted retrospectively during admission from patient records and death certificates, using a pretested questionnaire. The data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20, and p-values <0.05 were considered statistically significant.Results: A total of 769 neonates was included in the study. There were 448 (58.3% male neonates, and 398 (51.8% neonates were rural residents. More than two-thirds of the 587 deliveries (76.3% were performed in tertiary hospitals. Neonatal morbidity included hypothermia 546 (71%, sepsis 522 (67.9%, prematurity 250 (34.9%, polycythemia 242 (31.5%, hypoglycemia 142 (18.5, meconium aspiration syndrome 113 (14.7%, and perinatal asphyxia 96 (12.5%. The overall mortality was 110 (14.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.9–16.9 of which 69 (62.7% deaths occurred in the first 24 hours of age. In the multivariate analysis, mortality was associated with perinatal asphyxia (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 5.97; 95% CI: 3.06–11.64, instrumental delivery (AOR: 2.99; 95% CI: 1.08–8.31, and early onset

  13. Blood donation practice and its associated factors among health professionals of University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

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    Arage, Getachew; Ibrahim, Seada; Adimasu, Endeshaw

    2017-07-19

    Blood donation has remained a challenge in developing countries, like Ethiopia. In Ethiopia there is a high reliance on family surrogate and waged blood donors which carries an attendant increased risk of transfusion transmissible infection. Health workers are expected to practice blood donation so as to create a good image to the public. A study on blood donation behavior may improve successful implementation of the blood donation programs. An institution based cross-sectional study was deployed from January to June 2015. An aggregate of 427 health workers were included in the study by using simple random sampling technique. Data were collected by using pre tested and structured questionnaire via self-administrated method. Descriptive and summary statistics were employed. Bivariate and multiple logistic regressions were computed. Odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated to determine the level of significance. A total of 427 participants were included in the final analysis (response rate = 100%). Among these participants, 33.2% of them practice blood donation. Age above 25 years [AOR = 1.8 (95% CI 1.1, 3.0)], health professionals' knowledge of blood donation [AOR = 1.9 (95% CI 1.1, 3.1)], health professionals' attitude towards blood donation [AOR = 3.0, 95% CI 1. 8, 4.9)], and the presence of family members or relatives who received blood [AOR = 5.4, 95% CI 3.7, 8.7)] were significantly and independently associated with blood donation behavior of health professionals. Blood donation practice of health professionals in this study was found to be low as compared to other studies conducted in developing countries. Health professionals' knowledge, attitude, age and the presence of family members or relatives who received blood before were independently associated with blood donation practice. Thus, awareness has to be created for health professionals to improve blood donation practices.

  14. First choice of treatment place in the pathways to epileptic care at the outpatient department of University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: Cross-sectional institutional based study.

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    Bifftu, Berhanu Boru; Dachew, Berihun Assefa; Tiruneh, Bewket Tadesse; Alemu, Wondale Getinet

    2017-01-01

    Epilepsy treatment gap range from 87% to 98%. In spite of this, there is a gross inadequacy of the availability, accessibility and affordability of Anti-Epileptic Drugs. In countries like Ethiopia, where most populations are less aware about mental health problems, most people seek help for their illness from traditional healers. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to assess the pathways to epilepsy care and associated factors. Cross-sectional study design utilized among 409 participants selected by systematic random sampling technique. Pathways to epilepsy care were assessed by using the WHO Pathway Study tool. Multivariable logistic regression was done to identify factors associated with pathways to epileptic care. Overall, 162 (39.6%) of participants first contacted with modern treatment. Two hundred and forty seven (60.4%) of participants counted traditional healers and religious healers were the most common (47.2%). Being men, attending higher education, urban residence, short duration of illness, social support and age at the onset of illness were factors associated with first contact with modern treatment. Modern treatment was not the first place of choice for the majority of the respondents. Strengthening awareness creation program about epilepsy and its treatment is highly recommended with special emphases to urban dwellers and less educated people.

  15. First choice of treatment place in the pathways to epileptic care at the outpatient department of University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: Cross-sectional institutional based study.

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    Berhanu Boru Bifftu

    Full Text Available Epilepsy treatment gap range from 87% to 98%. In spite of this, there is a gross inadequacy of the availability, accessibility and affordability of Anti-Epileptic Drugs. In countries like Ethiopia, where most populations are less aware about mental health problems, most people seek help for their illness from traditional healers. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to assess the pathways to epilepsy care and associated factors.Cross-sectional study design utilized among 409 participants selected by systematic random sampling technique. Pathways to epilepsy care were assessed by using the WHO Pathway Study tool. Multivariable logistic regression was done to identify factors associated with pathways to epileptic care.Overall, 162 (39.6% of participants first contacted with modern treatment. Two hundred and forty seven (60.4% of participants counted traditional healers and religious healers were the most common (47.2%. Being men, attending higher education, urban residence, short duration of illness, social support and age at the onset of illness were factors associated with first contact with modern treatment.Modern treatment was not the first place of choice for the majority of the respondents. Strengthening awareness creation program about epilepsy and its treatment is highly recommended with special emphases to urban dwellers and less educated people.

  16. Reasons for delay in decision making and reaching health facility among obstetric fistula and pelvic organ prolapse patients in Gondar University hospital, Northwest Ethiopia.

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    Adefris, Mulat; Abebe, Solomon Mekonnen; Terefe, Kiros; Gelagay, Abebaw Addis; Adigo, Azmeraw; Amare, Selamawit; Lazaro, Dorothy; Berhe, Aster; Baye, Chernet

    2017-08-22

    Obstetric fistula and pelvic organ prolapse remain highly prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa, where women have poor access to modern health care. Women having these problems tend to stay at home for years before getting treatment. However, information regarding the reasons contributing to late presentation to treatment is scarce, especially at the study area. The objective of this study was to assess the reasons whywomen with obstetric fistula and pelvic organ prolapse at Gondar University Hospital delay treatment. A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted among 384 women. Delay was evaluated by calculating symptom onset and time of arrival to get treatment at Gondar University Hospital. Regression analysis was conducted to elicit predictors of delay for treatment. Of the total 384 participants, 311 (80.9%) had pelvic organ prolapse and 73(19.1%) obstetric fistula. The proportion of women who delayed treatment of pelvic organ prolapse was 82.9% and that of obstetric fistula 60.9%. Fear of disclosing illness due to social stigma (AOR = 2; 1.03, 3.9) and lack of money (AOR = 1.97; 1.01, 3.86) were associated with the delay of treatment for pelvic organ prolapse,while increasing age (AOR =1.12; 1.01, 1.24) and divorce (AOR = 16.9; 1.75, 165.5) were were responsible for delaying treatment forobstetric fistula. A large numberof women with pelvic organ prolapse and obstetric fistula delayed treatment. Fear of disclosure due to social stigma and lack of moneywere the major factors that contributed to thedelay to seek treatment for pelvic organ prolapse,while increasing age and divorce were the predictors for delaying treatment for obstetric fistula.

  17. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Entrobacteriaceae in the University of Gondar Referral Hospital environments, northwest Ethiopia.

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    Engda, Tigist; Moges, Feleke; Gelaw, Aschalew; Eshete, Setegn; Mekonnen, Feleke

    2018-05-22

    This study aimed at assessing the magnitude, distribution, and the antimicrobial susceptibility of the extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Entrobacteriaceae in the University of Gondar Referral Hospital environments. Out of a total of 384 samples, 14.8% were ESBL producing Entrobacteriaceae, where 42.10% Klebsiella pneumoniae, 35.09% Escherchia coli and 7.01% Proteus mirabilis were the predominant isolates. Most ESBL producing isolates, that is, 24.56, 22.8, and 22.8% were found from waste water, sinks and bedside tables respectively. All ESBL producing Entrobacteriaceae were found to be resistant to ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, cefpirome, cefpodoxime, and amoxicillin with Clavulanic acid. Resistance rate was also high for non-beta-lactam antimicrobials, like chloramphenicol (70.18%), cotrimoxazole (64.91%), norfloxacin (42.10%), ciprofloxacin (43.86%), and gentamicin (19.30%).

  18. Assessment of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infections and associated risk factors in HIV infected patients at Debretabor hospital, South Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia

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    Melashu Balew

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infections and associated risk factors among HIV infected patients at Debretabor hospital. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among HIV/AIDS patients attending Debretabor hospital from February to April, 201 2. Venous blood samples were collected from study participants for HBsAg and anti HCV antibody tests. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify associated variables with HBsAg and anti HCV positivity. Variables having P<0.05 was taken as statistically significant association. Results: From a total of 395 HIV infected patients included in this study, 234 (59.2% were females and 161 (40.8% males with mean (依SD age of 36.31 (依9.91 years. The prevalence of HBsAg and anti HCV antibody was 6.1% and 1.3%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, multiple sexual partner (AOR=8.1, 95% CI=1.8-33.97 and history of opportunistic infections (AOR=3.17, 95% CI=1.3-7.7 were statistically associated with HBsAg positivity. History of blood transfusion (AOR=5.61, 95% CI= 1.03-36.59 was associated with presence of anti-HCV antibody. Conclusions: The prevalence of HBsAg and anti HCV antibodies in HIV coinfected patients was intermediate. However, it is relevant for HIV infected patients since viral hepatitis co-infections in HIV patients can cause multiple complications. Therefore, routine HBV and HCV screening with reliable diagnostic markers need to be carried out for close monitoring and better management in HIV patients.

  19. Mortality predictors of HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy in Debre Tabor General Hospital and Woreta Health Center, South Gondar Zone, Northwest Ethiopia

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    Mekonnen Assefa Ahunie

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the mortality predictors of HIV-infected individuals who were receiving antiretroviral treatment. Methods: Data were extracted from medical records of 698 antiretroviral therapy (ART users enrolled at Debre Tabor General Hospital and Woreta Health Center from January 2005 to June 2014 and sociodemographic, clinical and ART-related data were collected. Mortality was compared by using time-to-event Kaplan-Meier method and log rank test and Cox regression analysis were used to identify the predictors of mortality. Results: The overall mortality rate was 1.5 per 100 persons per year. Ambulatory and bedridden patients had four- and seven-fold higher risk of death [adjusted hazard ratio (HR = 4.2, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.7–10.7 and adjusted HR = 6.5, 95% CI: 2.0–20.7, respectively] as compared to those patients who had worked functional status. Patients who had poor antiretroviral drug adherence had five times higher risk of death (adjusted HR = 5.1, 95% CI: 1.6–16.3 than patients who had good antiretroviral adherence. Conclusions: Mortality rate was highly observed in the early phase of antiretroviral treatment. Poor ART adherence, being ambulatory and bedridden functional status was independent predictors of mortality.

  20. First-line antiretroviral treatment failure and associated factors in HIV patients at the University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalew, Mohammed Biset; Kumilachew, Dawit; Belay, Assefa; Getu, Samson; Teju, Derso; Endale, Desalegn; Tsegaye, Yemisirach; Wale, Zebiba

    2016-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) restores immune function and reduces HIV-related adverse outcomes. But treatment failure erodes this advantage and leads to an increased morbidity and compromised quality of life in HIV patients. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with first-line ART failure in HIV patients at the University of Gondar Teaching Hospital. A retrospective study was conducted on 340 adults who had started ART during the period of September 2011 to May 2015. Data regarding patients' sociodemographics, baseline characteristics, and treatment-related information were collected through review of their medical charts. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21. Descriptive statistics, cross-tabs, and binary and multiple logistic regressions were utilized. Pfailure. The median duration of treatment failure from initiation of treatment was 17.5 months (8-36 months). Poor adherence to treatment and low baseline CD4 cell count were found to be significant predictors of treatment failure. The prevalence of first-line ART failure was 4.1%. Treatment failure was most likely to occur for the patients who had poor drug adherence and those who were delayed to start ART till their CD4 cell count became very low (<100 cells/mm(3)).

  1. Bacterial Isolates and Their Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Wound Infections among Inpatients and Outpatients Attending the University of Gondar Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

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    Aynalem Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The widespread uses of antibiotics, together with the length of time over which they have been available, have led to the emergence of resistant bacterial pathogens contributing to morbidity and mortality. This study was aimed to assess bacterial isolates and their drug susceptibility patterns from inpatients and outpatients with pus and/or wound discharge. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the University of Gondar Referral Hospital from March to May, 2014. Wound swab samples were collected from each study participant and inoculated into appropriate media. The bacterial pathogens were identified using standard microbiological methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed using disk diffusion technique following Kirby-Bauer method. Results. A total of 137 study subjects were included in the study with bacterial isolation rate of 115 (83.9%. Of all, 81 (59.1% were males. Seventy-seven (57% of the isolates were Gram-negative and 59 (43% were Gram-positive. From the total isolates, Staphylococcus aureus was the most predominant isolate 39/115 (34% followed by Klebsiella species (13%, coagulase negative staphylococci spp. (12% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Gram-positive isolates were resistant to ampicillin (86.4%, amoxicillin (83%, penicillin (81.3%, oxacillin (74.6%, and tetracycline (59.4%, while Gram-negative isolates were resistant to amoxicillin (97.4%, ampicillin (94.8%, tetracycline (72.7%, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (66%, and chloramphenicol (54.5%. Conclusion. High prevalence of bacterial isolates was found, Staphylococcus aureus being the most dominant. High rates of multiple drug resistance pathogens to the commonly used antimicrobial agents were isolated. Therefore, concerned bodies should properly monitor the choice of antibiotics to be used as prophylaxis and empiric treatment in the study area.

  2. Nurse uniform wearing practices and associated factors among nurses working in Northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional institution based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desta, Etaferahu Alamaw; Gebrie, Mignote Hailu; Dachew, Berihun Assefa

    2015-01-01

    Wearing uniforms help in the formation of professional identity in healthcare. It fosters a strong self image and professional identity which can lead to good confidence and better performance in nursing practice. However, most nurses in Ethiopia are not wearing nursing uniforms and the reasons remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of this research is to assess nurse uniform wearing practices among nurses and factors associated with such practice in hospitals in Northwest Ethiopia. A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted from March to April, 2014 in five hospitals located in Northwest Ethiopia. A total 459 nurses participated in the study. Data was collected using a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were analyzed in order to characterize the study population. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression models were fitted. Odds ratios with 95 % confidence intervals were computed to identify factors associated with nursing uniform practice. Nurse uniform wearing practice was found to be 49.2 % of the total sample size. Around 35 % of the respondents that did not implement nurse uniform wearing practices stated that there was no specific uniform for nurses recommended by hospital management. In addition to this, nurse uniform wearing practices were positively associated with being female [AOR = 1.58, 95 % CI (1.02, 2.44)], studying nursing by choice [AOR =3.16, 95 % CI (2.03, 4.92)], and the appeal of nursing uniforms to nurses [AOR = 3.43 95 % CI (1.96, 5.98)]. Nurse uniform wearing practices were not exceptionally prevalent in Northwest Ethiopian hospitals. However, encouraging students to pursue interest-based careers and implementing a nurse uniform wearing policy may have the potential to improve such practices.

  3. HIV associated hypocalcaemia among diarrheic patients in northwest Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moges, Beyene; Amare, Bemnet; Yabutani, Timoki; Kassu, Afework

    2014-07-04

    Hypocalcaemia, defined by serum calcium level less than 8.5 mg/dl, could be caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and diarrheal diseases. In Ethiopia, while morbidities from diarrheal diseases and HIV are serious health problems, studies assessing the interactions amongst of the three do not exist. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the level of calcium among diarrheic patients with and without HIV co-infection. Consecutive diarrheic patients attending Gondar University Hospital in Ethiopia were enrolled and screened for HIV, intestinal parasites, Shigella and Salmonella. Concentration of calcium in serum was determined using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. A total of 206 diarrheic patients were included in the study (109 = HIV positive, 97 = HIV negative). Intestinal parasites and Shigella species were detected in 32.2% and 8.5% of the patients, respectively. The serum calcium levels in the patients who were found positive for Shigella species or intestinal parasites was not significantly different by the presence or absence of HIV co-infection. HIV infected diarrheic patients had significantly lower mean serum calcium levels (7.82 ± 1.23 mg/dl) than those negative for HIV (8.38 ± 1.97) (P = 0.015). The age groups 25-35 and greater than 45 years showed significantly lower mean serum calcium levels (7.77 ± 1.55 mg/dl) in comparison to the other age groups (7.84 ± 1.41 mg/dl, P = 0.009). On the other hand, females presented with significantly lower mean serum calcium levels (7.79 ± 1.60 mg/dl, P = 0.044) than males (8.26 ± 1.65 mg/dl). There is high prevalence of hypocalcaemia among diarrheic patients in northwest Ethiopia. And HIV stood out to be a major risk factor for development of hypocalcaemia among the diarrheic patients in northwest Ethiopia. Further studies are required to substantiate and characterize the mechanisms and consequences of calcium metabolism disorders among HIV infected individuals in the

  4. Vitamin A deficiency during pregnancy of HIV infected and non-infected women in tropical settings of Northwest Ethiopia

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    Bekele Assegedech

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin A deficiency (VAD is known to be a major public health problem among women of reproductive age in South East Asia and Africa. In Ethiopia, there are no studies conducted on serum vitamin A status of HIV-infected pregnant women. Therefore, the present study was aimed at determining the level of serum vitamin A and VAD among pregnant women with and without HIV infection in tropical settings of Northwest Ethiopia. Methods In this cross-sectional study, blood samples were collected from 423 pregnant women and from 55 healthy volunteers who visited the University of Gondar Hospital. Serum concentration of vitamin A was measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Results After controlling for total serum protein, albumin and demographic variables, the mean ± SD serum vitamin A in HIV seropositive pregnant women (0.96 ± 0.42 μmol/L was significantly lower than that in pregnant women without HIV infection (1.10 ± 0.45 μmol/L, P Conclusion The present study shows that VAD is a major public health problem among pregnant women in the tropical settings of Northwest Ethiopia. Considering the possible implications of VAD during pregnancy, we recommend multivitamin (which has a lower level of vitamin A supplementation in the care and management of pregnant women with or without HIV infection.

  5. Environmental and host-related determinants of tuberculosis in Metema district, north-west Ethiopia

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    Tesema C

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cheru Tesema,1 Takele Tadesse,2 Mulat Gebrehiwot,2 Azanaw Tsegaw,3 Fitsum Weldegebreal4 1College of Medical and health science, Debremarkos Universitty, Debremarkos, 2Institute of Public Health, College of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, 3College of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, 4Haramaya University, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Department of Medical laboratory Science, Harar, Ethiopia Background: Each year, one third of the world's population is estimated to be infected with tuberculosis (TB. Globally in 2011, there were an estimated 8.7 million TB cases that resulted in 1.4 million deaths. In Ethiopia, TB is the leading cause of morbidity and the third most common cause of hospital admission. The aim of this study is to assess environmental and host-related determinants of TB in Metema district, north-west Ethiopia.Methods: A community-based unmatched case-control study was conducted from March 12 to April 5, 2013. The study population included 655 subjects (218 cases and 437 controls in a ratio of 1:2. Cases were TB patients selected from a total of 475 cases registered and treated from March 2012 to February 2013 at the Metema District Hospital DOTS (direct observation therapy, short-course clinic and selected randomly using a lottery method. Controls were people who had had no productive cough for at least 2 weeks previously and were selected from the community.Results: A total of 655 respondents (218 cases and 437 controls participated in the study. In multivariate analysis, being illiterate (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 3.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.31–5.76, households containing more than four family members (AOR 3.09, 95% CI 2.07–4.61, living space <4 m2 per person (AOR 3.11, 95% CI 2.09–4.63, a nonseparated kitchen (AOR 3.27, 95% CI 1.99–5.35, history of contact with a TB patient (AOR 2.05, 95% CI 1.35–3.12, a house with no ceiling (AOR 1.46, 95% CI 1.07–2

  6. Spatial Runoff Estimation and Mapping of Potential Water Harvesting Sites: A GIS and Remote Sensing Perspective, Northwest Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, M.M.; Melesse, A.M.; Keesstra, S.D.

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater resources scarcity is becoming a limiting factor for development and sustenance in most parts of Ethiopia. The Debre Mewi watershed, in northwest Ethiopia, is one of such areas where the need for supplemental water supply through rainwater harvesting is essential. Suitable water

  7. Quality of family planning services in Northwest Ethiopia | Fantahun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The unmet need for family planning services in Ethiopia is believed to be high (36%) while the already available services do not appear to be optimally used by potential clients. It is thus expected that an assessment and improvement of the quality of family planning services could enhance family planning ...

  8. Immunological and hematological reference intervals among HIV-seronegative pregnant women in northwest Ethiopia

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    Genetu M

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Meaza Genetu,1 Debasu Damtie,1 Meseret Workineh,1 Biniam Mathewos Tebeje,1,2 Bamlaku Enawgaw,3 Tekalign Deressa1 1Department of Immunology and Molecular Biology, School of Biomedical and Laboratory Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Science, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia; 2Molecular Parasitology Laboratory, Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Australia; 3Department of Hematology and Immunohematology, School of Biomedical and Laboratory Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Science, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia Background: Pregnancy is a state characterized by profound physiological hematological changes. However, hematological reference intervals being used in clinical practice in Ethiopia are derived from nonlocal general populations, despite the significant variations reported previously. The aim of this study was to determine the immunological and hematological reference intervals in healthy pregnancy among HIV-seronegative pregnant women in northwest Ethiopia.Materials and methods: A total of 200 healthy, HIV-seronegative pregnant women were enrolled from February 2015 to June 2015 in a cross-sectional study setting at Gondar University Hospital. Sociodemographic and obstetric data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Blood samples collected from each participant were used to define the immunological and hematological parameters. The mean, median, and 95% interval values were calculated for the immunological and hematological parameters. P-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant for all variables.Results: This study found that there were changes in CD4+ T-cell count, platelet count, and hematocrit (HCT values as pregnancy advances. The calculated combined reference intervals for the absolute CD4+ T-cell count and platelet count were 712.47–760.67 and 221.25–240.14, respectively. A progressive decline in the platelet count was observed as pregnancy advanced, with 95

  9. Anthelmintic Resistance of Strongyle Nematodes to Ivermectin and Fenbendazole on Cart Horses in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Seyoum, Zewdu; Zewdu, Alemu; Dagnachew, Shimelis; Bogale, Basazinew

    2017-01-01

    A study was conducted from November 2015 to April 2016 to determine fenbendazole and ivermectin resistance status of intestinal nematodes of cart horses in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia. Forty-five strongyle infected animals were used for this study. The animals were randomly allocated into three groups (15 horses per group). Group I was treated with fenbendazole and Group II with ivermectin and Group III was left untreated. Faecal samples were collected from each cart horse before and after tre...

  10. The effect of incident tuberculosis on immunological response of HIV patients on highly active anti-retroviral therapy at the university of Gondar hospital, northwest Ethiopia: a retrospective follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, Abate; Gelaw, Baye; Getnet, Gebeyaw; Yitayew, Gashaw

    2014-08-27

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is usually complicated by high rates of tuberculosis (TB) co-infection. Impaired immune response has been reported during HIV/TB co-infection and may have significant effect on anti-retroviral therapy (ART). TB/HIV co - infection is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Therefore, the aim of the study was to assess the effect of TB incidence on immunological response of HIV patients during ART. A retrospective follow-up study was conducted among adult HIV patients who started ART at the University of Gondar Hospital. Changes in CD4+ T - lymphocyte count and incident TB episodes occurring during 42 months of follow up on ART were assessed. Life table was used to estimate the cumulative immunologic failure. Kaplan-Meier curve was used to compare survival curves between the different categories. Cox-proportional hazard model was employed to examine predictors of immunological failure. Among 400 HIV patients, 89(22.2%) were found to have immunological failure with a rate of 8.5 per 100 person-years (PY) of follow-up. Incident TB developed in 26(6.5%) of patients, with an incidence rate of 2.2 cases per 100 PY. The immunological failure rate was high (20.1/100PY) at the first year of treatment. At multivariate analysis, Cox regression analysis showed that baseline CD4+ T - cell count immunological failure. There was borderline significant association with incident TB (AHR 2.2; 95%CI: 0.94 - 5.09, p = 0.06). The risk of immunological failure was significantly higher (38.5%) among those with incident TB compared with TB - free (21.1%) (Log rank p = 0.036). High incidence of immunological failure occurred within the first year of initiating ART. The proportions of patients with impaired immune restoration were higher among patients with incident TB. Lower baseline CD4+ T - cells count of immunological failure. The result highlighted the beneficial effects of earlier initiation of ART on CD4+ T - cell count recovery.

  11. Clinical aspects of paediatric visceral leishmaniasis in North-west Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diro, Ermias; Lynen, Lutgarde; Gebregziabiher, Berhane; Assefa, Abraham; Lakew, Wubishet; Belew, Zewdu; Hailu, Asrat; Boelaert, Marleen; van Griensven, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in north-west Ethiopia is causing an overwhelming case load among adult migrant workers that masked the disease burden in children. This study describes the clinical profile and explores comorbidities in paediatric VL patients. A prospective study at two hospitals in this region (Gondar and Humera) was conducted in a year period, 2011-2012. The clinical manifestations and comorbidities such as malnutrition, intestinal parasitosis and vitamin D deficiency and HIV infection were assessed, and treatment outcomes noted. A total of 122 children with VL were detected during the study period with median age of 8.5 years (IQR 5-12 years); 23% were under 5 years. Eighty-five (69.7%) cases were male. The clinical manifestations were similar to the adult patients. High rates of malnutrition, intestinal parasitosis (47.5%) and hypovitaminosis D (56.4%) were detected. The proportion of stunting and wasting was 63% and 22.2% in children aged under five years, and 50.5% and 75.9% in 5-year and older children, respectively, using WHO standard growth curves. Only one child had HIV infection. In 95% of the cases, sodium stibogluconate (20 mg/kg/day for 30 days) was used for treatment. The treatment success rate at end of therapy was 98.3%, but the definitive outcome at 6 months could not be determined because of a high loss to follow-up (80.2%). While HIV co-infection was rare, malnutrition, intestinal parasitosis and vitamin D deficiency were frequent indicating the need for further research on their role in the pathophysiology. Meanwhile, systematic assessment and management of malnutrition and intestinal parasitosis in VL programmes is recommended. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Anemia among adult HIV patients in Ethiopia: a hospital-based cross-sectional study

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    Melese H

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Hermela Melese,1 Molla Mesele Wassie,2 Haile Woldie,2 Abilo Tadesse,3 Nebiyu Mesfin3 1HIV Follow-up Care Clinic, Debre-Tabor Hospital, Debre‑Tabor, 2Department of Human Nutrition, Institute of Public Health, 3Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia Background: Anemia is a major public health problem in HIV patients around the world. It has a negative effect on the quality of life of HIV patients and progression of the HIV disease. In the sub-Saharan African setting, including Ethiopia where both HIV infection and under-nutrition are expected to be high, there is a paucity of data on the matter. This study was aimed to reveal the magnitude and factors associated with anemia among adult HIV patients in Debre-Tabor Hospital, northwest Ethiopia. Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was used among adult HIV patients in Debre-Tabor Hospital from April 1 to May 30, 2015. The diagnosis of anemia was made following the 2011 World Health Organization recommendation on hemoglobin cut-off points. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression was carried out to assess factors associated with anemia. Results: A total of 377 patients’ charts were reviewed. Most of the participants (n=237, 62.9% were taking antiretroviral treatment (ART. The overall prevalence of anemia was 23% (95% CI: 19.1, 27.6. Being ART-naïve (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 3.37; 95% CI: 1.59, 7.14, having treatment history with anti-tuberculosis (TB drug (AOR: 3.2; 95% CI: 1.19, 8.67, taking zidovudine (ZDV-containing ART regimen (AOR: 2.14; 95% CI: 1.03, 4.57, and having recent CD4+ T-lymphocytes count of <200 cells/µL (AOR: 2.13; 95% CI: 1.04, 4.36 were associated with occurrence of anemia among adult HIV patients. Conclusion and recommendation: Anemia continues to be a major co-morbidity among adult HIV patients in Ethiopia. Adult HIV patients who are taking ZDV-containing ART

  13. Podoconiosis patients’ willingness to pay for treatment services in Northwest Ethiopia: potential for cost recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Podoconiosis is non-filarial elephantiasis of the lower legs. It is more commonly found in tropical Africa, Central and South America, and northwest India. In Ethiopia, a few non-governmental organizations provide free treatment to podoconiosis patients, but sustainability of free treatment and scale-up of services to reach the huge unmet need is challenged by resource limitations. We aimed to determine podoconiosis patient’s willingness to pay (WTP) for a treatment package (composed of deep cleaning of limbs with diluted antiseptic solution, soap, and water, bandaging, application of emollient on the skin, and provision of shoes), and factors associated with WTP in northwestern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among randomly selected untreated podoconiosis patients (n = 393) in Baso Liben woreda, northwestern Ethiopia. The contingent valuation method was used with a pre-tested interviewer-administered questionnaire. Results The majority of podoconiosis patients (72.8%) were willing to pay for treatment services. The median WTP amount was 64 Birr (US$ 3.28) per person per year. More than one-third of patients (36.7%) were willing to pay at least half of the full treatment cost and 76.2% were willing to pay at least half of the cost of shoes. A multivariate analysis showed that having a higher monthly income, being a woman, older age, being aware of the role of shoes to prevent podoconiosis, and possession of a functional radio were significantly associated with higher odds of WTP. Conclusions The considerable WTP estimates showed that podoconiosis treatment could improve sustainability and service utilization. A subsidized cost recovery scheme could reduce treatment costs and more feasibility integrate podoconiosis treatment service with other NTDs and the government’s primary health care system. PMID:24642085

  14. Technical efficiency of selected hospitals in Eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Murad; Debela, Megersa; Bamud, Tewfik

    2017-12-01

    This study examines the relative technical efficiency of 12 hospitals in Eastern Ethiopia. Using six-year-round panel data for the period between 2007/08 and 2012/13, this study examines the technical efficiency, total factor productivity, and determinants of the technical inefficiency of hospitals. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) and DEA- based Malmquist productivity index used to estimate relative technical efficiency, scale efficiency, and total factor productivity index of hospitals. Tobit model used to examine the determinants of the technical inefficiency of hospitals. The DEA Variable Returns to Scale (VRS) estimate indicated that 6 (50%), 5 (42%), 3 (25%), 3 (25%), 4 (33%), and 3 (25%) of the hospitals were technically inefficient while 9 (75%), 9 (75%), 7 (58%), 7 (58%), 7 (58%) and 8 (67%) of hospitals were scale inefficient between 2007/08 and 2012/13, respectively. On average, Malmquist Total Factor Productivity (MTFP) of the hospitals decreased by 3.6% over the panel period. The Tobit model shows that teaching hospital is less efficiency than other hospitals. The Tobit regression model further shows that medical doctor to total staff ratio, the proportion of outpatient visit to inpatient days, and the proportion of inpatients treated per medical doctor were negatively related with technical inefficiency of hospitals. Hence, policy interventions that help utilize excess capacity of hospitals, increase doctor to other staff ratio, and standardize number of inpatients treated per doctor would contribute to the improvement of the technical efficiency of hospitals.

  15. Cross-Sectional Study on the Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites and Associated Risk Factors in Teda Health Centre, Northwest Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Abate, Abraraw; Kibret, Biniam; Bekalu, Eylachew; Abera, Sendeku; Teklu, Takele; Yalew, Aregawi; Endris, Mengistu; Worku, Ligabaw; Tekeste, Zinaye

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To assess the magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection and associated risk factors in Teda Health Centre, Northwest Ethiopia. Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Teda Health Centre from February to April, 2011. Stool samples were collected from 410 study participants and analysed by direct wet mount and formal ether concentration techniques. Furthermore, sociodemographic data were collected by using standardized questionnaire. Result. The overall prevalence of intes...

  16. Dietary diversity, meal frequency and associated factors among infant and young children in Northwest Ethiopia: a cross- sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Beyene, Melkamu; Worku, Abebaw Gebeyehu; Wassie, Molla Mesele

    2015-01-01

    Background Inappropriate feeding practice increases risk of under nutrition, illness, and mortality amongst children less than 2 years of age. The objective of this study is to assess minimum dietary diversity, meal frequency and its associated factors among infant and young children aged 6–23 months in Dangila Town, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross sectional study was conducted. Simple random sampling technique was used to select study participants. Interviewer administere...

  17. Causes of severe visual impairment and blindness in students in schools for the blind in Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asferaw, Mulusew; Woodruff, Geoffrey; Gilbert, Clare

    2017-01-01

    To determine the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness (SVI/BL) among students in schools for the blind in Northwest Ethiopia and to identify preventable and treatable causes. Students attending nine schools for the blind in Northwest Ethiopia were examined and causes assigned using the standard WHO record form for children with blindness and low vision in May and June 2015. 383 students were examined, 357 (93%) of whom were severely visually impaired or blind (blind and four were SVI, total 104. The major anatomical site of visual loss among those 0-15 years was cornea/phthisis (47.1%), usually due to measles and vitamin A deficiency, followed by whole globe (22.1%), lens (9.6%) and uvea (8.7%). Among students aged 16 years and above, corneal/phthisis (76.3%) was the major anatomical cause, followed by lens (6.3%), whole globe (4.7%), uvea (3.6%) and optic nerve (3.2%). The leading underlying aetiology among students aged blindness, mainly as the result of measles and vitamin A deficiency, is still a public health problem in Northwest Ethiopia, and this has not changed as observed in other low-income countries. More than three-fourth of causes of SVI/BL in students in schools for the blind are potentially avoidable, with measles/vitamin A deficiency and cataract being the leading causes.

  18. Infection with HIV and intestinal parasites among street dwellers in Gondar city, northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moges, Feleke; Kebede, Yenew; Kassu, Afework; Degu, Getu; Tiruneh, Moges; Gedefaw, Molla

    2006-12-01

    In Ethiopia human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a major health and socioeconomic problem. Sex workers, youth, and mobile populations all show increasing prevalence of HIV. However, there is currently no information about the seroprevalence of HIV and the knowledge of HIV among street dwellers in the country. To fill this gap, 404 street dwellers residing in Gondar, northwest Ethiopia, were included in this cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic data, factors that prompted the subjects to become street dwellers, and their knowledge about HIV were all assessed using a structured questionnaire. Stool samples for diagnosis of intestinal parasites and venous blood for HIV antibody testing were collected and processed following standard procedures. Poverty-associated movement to urban areas in search of work was reported as a major factor that forced them to live in the streets, followed by divorce, family death, and addiction and peer pressure. One or more intestinal parasites were found in 67.6% of the street dwellers. Multiple parasitic infections were detected in 27.7%. The prevalence of HIV in the street dwellers was 6.9%. Fifty-nine (16.6%) participants responded that HIV can be transmitted by eating food together. Seventy-three (18%) believed an infected needle cannot transmit HIV, while 51 (12.6%) said HIV can be transmitted by hand shaking. One hundred ninety-two (47.5%) responded that antiretroviral therapy will not prolong the life of HIV-infected individuals. In summary, the prevalence of HIV and intestinal parasitic infection was quite high among street dwellers in Gondar. Therefore, strategies to control HIV and other infectious diseases should include this group, and regular mass deworming may help to reduce the burden of infection.

  19. Rural communities’ vulnerability to farmland poverty in varied ecological settings of northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menberu Teshome

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental and climate changes are among the serious threats to the world’s land resources in the 21st Century. Particularly, in the developing countries the impact inevitably goes as the continuing toll on agricultural production, human lives, and properties. It is also a driving force of poverty and impediment of overall economic development in many less developed nations, like Ethiopia. Therefore, this paper assesses the rural communities’ vulnerability to farmland poverty in different ecological settings of northwest Ethiopia. Data were collected from 525 randomly selected farming households using questionnaire. Meteorological data were collected from Global Weather Data for soil and water assessment tool (SWAT from 1979 to 2010. Rainfall and temperature trends were characterized using simple linear regression model. Rural communities’ vulnerability to farmland poverty was determined using livelihood vulnerability index (LVI. Indices were constructed using simple and weighted average approaches to measure farmlands’ exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. Overall communities’ levels of vulnerability to farmlands poverty were found to be 0.76 in the lowland, 0.57 in the flat highland and 0.51 in the midland areas. In almost all indicators the lowland (Abay Valley is more vulnerable to farmland-related troubles as the biophysical and socio-economic contexts were found to be the worst there. Communities and government and non-government officials have observed significant negative impacts of drought and extreme weather events on farmlands, pasturelands with declining availability, productivity and quality of farmlands. This study suggests education and research interventions for enhancing community-based participatory integrated watershed management approach supported with best indigenous knowledge and farmers’ practices. Adaptation interventions should also consider local communities’ resource capacity (low

  20. Epidemiology of human fascioliasis and intestinal parasitosis among schoolchildren in Lake Tana Basin, northwest Ethiopia.

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    Fentie, Tsegaw; Erqou, Sebhat; Gedefaw, Molla; Desta, Almaw

    2013-08-01

    Parasitic diseases are the second most frequent cause of outpatient morbidity in Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Lake Tana Basin, northwest Ethiopia, from November 2007 to February 2008, to assess the magnitude and associated risk factors for parasitic diseases, including human fascioliasis. We examined 520 stool samples from randomly selected schoolchildren in six schools by microscopy. Rapid sedimentation and Kato-Katz techniques were used to detect and count Fasciola and Schistosoma eggs. The formol-ether concentration method was used for the identification of other helminth eggs, larvae and cysts of protozoan parasites. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was 71.3% (95% CI 67.3-75.1%). Hookworm was the predominant intestinal parasite (23.5%, 95% CI 19.8-27.1%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (18.5%, 95% CI 15.2-21.9%) and Schistosoma mansoni (16.7%, 95% CI 13.5-19.9%). One hundred and sixty-three (31.4%) children had multiple parasitic infections. The most relevant finding was a prevalence of Fasciola spp. of 3.3% in an area where only sporadic cases have been reported previously. The risk of Fasciola spp. infection was significantly associated with raw vegetable consumption, use of unsafe drinking water sources, irrigation practices and sheep and/or cattle ownership. Irrigation practices, male gender, raw vegetable consumption and use of unsafe drinking water sources were risk factors for S. mansoni infection. A high prevalence of parasitic infections among children in the region was found, including a relatively high prevalence of Fasciola spp. infection. Epidemiological studies on the magnitude of parasitic infections in different regions will enable high-risk communities to be identified and allow for planning of appropriate interventions.

  1. Prevalence and associated factors of presbyopia among school teachers in Gondar City, Northwest Ethiopia, 2016

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    Andualem HB

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Hiwot Berhanu Andualem, Natnael Lakachew Assefa, Dawit Zenebe Weldemichael, Tsehay Kassa Tefera Department of Optometry, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia Introduction: Presbyopia is an age-related decline in accommodation that diminishes the ability of the eye to focus on near objects. This is due to reduced elasticity of the crystalline lens as age increases. It causes near-vision impairment and affects near work, so it has significant effects on quality of life, particularly in the life of teachers, whose work depends mostly on reading and writing at short distances.Objective: The overall objective of the study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of presbyopia among school teachers in Gondar city, Northwest Ethiopia, 2016.Methods: A cross-sectional study design with multistage simple random sampling technique was used to select 668 teachers in Gondar city. The study was conducted in 12 schools from April 15 to May 15, 2016. A pretested structured questionnaire and ophthalmic instruments for an eye examination were used as data collection tools by trained optometrists. Epi Info version 7 was used for data entry, and the data were exported to Statistical Package for Social Science version 20 for further analysis. Multivariate logistic regression was employed using enter method and odds ratio with 95% confidence interval, and p-value of ≤0.05 was considered to identify statistically significant associated factors of the outcome.Results: Prevalence of presbyopia among school teachers was 68.7%. Out of the total examined subjects, 317 (50.2% were females. On multivariate analysis, increased age, salary, work experience, cigarette smoking, pregnancy, and refractive error were positively and significantly associated with presbyopia. On the other hand, use of sunglasses and alcohol consumption were inversely and significantly associated with presbyopia.Conclusion and recommendation

  2. Comparative analysis of hospital energy use: pacific northwest and scandinavia.

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    Burpee, Heather; McDade, Erin

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to establish the potential for significant energy reduction in hospitals in the United States by providing evidence of Scandinavian operational precedents with high Interior Environmental Quality (IEQ) and substantially lower energy profiles than comparable U.S. facilities. These facilities set important precedents for design teams seeking operational examples for achieving aggressive energy and interior environmental quality goals. This examination of operational hospitals is intended to offer hospital owners, designers, and building managers a strong case and concrete framework for strategies to achieve exceptionally high performing buildings. Energy efficient hospitals have the potential to significantly impact the U.S.'s overall energy profile, and key stakeholders in the hospital industry need specific, operationally grounded precedents in order to successfully implement informed energy reduction strategies. This study is an outgrowth of previous research evaluating high quality, low energy hospitals that serve as examples for new high performance hospital design, construction, and operation. Through extensive interviews, numerous site visits, the development of case studies, and data collection, this team has established thorough qualitative and quantitative analyses of several contemporary hospitals in Scandinavia and the Pacific Northwest. Many Scandinavian hospitals demonstrate a low energy profile, and when analyzed in comparison with U.S. hospitals, such Scandinavian precedents help define the framework required to make significant changes in the U.S. hospital building industry. Eight hospitals, four Scandinavian and four Pacific Northwest, were quantitatively compared using the Environmental Protection Agency's Portfolio Manager, allowing researchers to answer specific questions about the impact of energy source and architectural and mechanical strategies on energy efficiency in operational hospitals. Specific architectural, mechanical

  3. Point prevalence of hospital-acquired infections in two teaching hospitals of Amhara region in Ethiopia

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    Yallew WW

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Walelegn Worku Yallew,1 Abera Kumie,2 Feleke Moges Yehuala3 1Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, 2School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, 3Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia Purpose: Hospital-acquired infection (HAI is a major safety issue affecting the quality of care of hundreds of millions of patients every year, in both developed and developing countries, including Ethiopia. In Ethiopia, there is no comprehensive research that presents the whole picture of HAIs in hospitals. The objective of this study was to examine the nature and extent of HAIs in Ethiopia. Methods: A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted in two teaching hospitals. All eligible inpatients admitted for at least 48 hours on the day of the survey were included. The survey was conducted in dry and wet seasons of Ethiopia, that is, in March to April and July 2015. Physicians and nurses collected the data according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition of HAIs. Coded and cleaned data were transferred to SPSS 21 and STATA 13 for analysis. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine the prevalence of HAIs and relationship between explanatory and outcome variables. Results: A total of 908 patients were included in this survey, the median age of the patients was 27 years (interquartile range: 16–40 years. A total of 650 (71.6% patients received antimicrobials during the survey. There were 135 patients with HAI, with a mean prevalence of 14.9% (95% confidence interval 12.7–17.1. Culture results showed that Klebsiella spp. (22.44% and Staphylococcus aureus (20.4% were the most commonly isolated HAI-causing pathogens in these hospitals. The association of patient age and hospital type with the occurrence of HAI was

  4. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthic infections and associated risk factors among schoolchildren in Tilili town, northwest Ethiopia.

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    Abera, Alamneh; Nibret, Endalkachew

    2014-07-01

    To determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthes and associated risk factors among schoolchildren in Tilili town, northwest Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study involving 385 schoolchildren was conducted between November 2011 to February 2012. Each student was selected using systematic random sampling method. Questionnaire and observation were used to identify socio-demographic and associated risk factors. Fresh stool samples were observed using formal-ether concentration technique. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 statistical software. Four species of intestinal helminthes were identified with an overall prevalence of 44.2% (170 of 385 schoolchildren). The predominant parasites were Ascaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides) 153 (39.7%) and Trichuris trichiura (T. trichiura) 30 (7.8%). One hundred thirty five (35.1%) had single infections and 35 (9.2%) were infected with more than one helminthic parasites in which 32 (8.4%) were double infections and 3 (0.8%) were triple infections. Significant associations were observed between intestinal helminth infection and those of age, grade level, and school variables. Prevalence of hookworm infection was significant in children who did not wear shoes regularly (P<0.05). Intervention programs and education on personal and environmental hygiene should be implemented for the prevention and control of helminthic infections in the study area. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Anthelmintic Resistance of Strongyle Nematodes to Ivermectin and Fenbendazole on Cart Horses in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia

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    Zewdu Seyoum

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted from November 2015 to April 2016 to determine fenbendazole and ivermectin resistance status of intestinal nematodes of cart horses in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia. Forty-five strongyle infected animals were used for this study. The animals were randomly allocated into three groups (15 horses per group. Group I was treated with fenbendazole and Group II with ivermectin and Group III was left untreated. Faecal samples were collected from each cart horse before and after treatment. Accordingly, the reduction in the mean fecal egg count at fourteen days of treatment for ivermectin and fenbendazole was 97.25% and 79.4%, respectively. It was significantly different in net egg count between treatment and control groups after treatment. From the study, resistance level was determined for fenbendazole and suspected for ivermectin. In addition, a questionnaire survey was also conducted on 90 selected cart owners to assess their perception on anthelmintics. In the survey, the most available drugs in the study area used by the owners were fenbendazole and ivermectin. Most respondents have no knowledge about drug management techniques. Hence, animal health extension services to create awareness regarding anthelmintic management that plays a key role in reducing the anthelmintic resistance parasites.

  6. Anthelmintic Resistance of Strongyle Nematodes to Ivermectin and Fenbendazole on Cart Horses in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia.

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    Seyoum, Zewdu; Zewdu, Alemu; Dagnachew, Shimelis; Bogale, Basazinew

    2017-01-01

    A study was conducted from November 2015 to April 2016 to determine fenbendazole and ivermectin resistance status of intestinal nematodes of cart horses in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia. Forty-five strongyle infected animals were used for this study. The animals were randomly allocated into three groups (15 horses per group). Group I was treated with fenbendazole and Group II with ivermectin and Group III was left untreated. Faecal samples were collected from each cart horse before and after treatment. Accordingly, the reduction in the mean fecal egg count at fourteen days of treatment for ivermectin and fenbendazole was 97.25% and 79.4%, respectively. It was significantly different in net egg count between treatment and control groups after treatment. From the study, resistance level was determined for fenbendazole and suspected for ivermectin. In addition, a questionnaire survey was also conducted on 90 selected cart owners to assess their perception on anthelmintics. In the survey, the most available drugs in the study area used by the owners were fenbendazole and ivermectin. Most respondents have no knowledge about drug management techniques. Hence, animal health extension services to create awareness regarding anthelmintic management that plays a key role in reducing the anthelmintic resistance parasites.

  7. Nutritional status and dietary intake of urban residents in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia

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    Amare Bemnet

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is paucity of data on the dietary intake and nutritional status of urban Ethiopians which necessitates comprehensive nutritional assessments. Therefore, the present study was aimed at evaluating the dietary intake and nutritional status of urban residents in Northwest Ethiopia. Methods This cross-sectional community based nutrition survey was conducted by involving 356 participants (71.3% female and 28.7% male with mean age of 37.3 years. Subjects were selected by random sampling. Socio demographic data was collected by questionnaire. Height, weight, hip circumference and waist circumference were measured following standard procedures. Dietary intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire and 24-h dietary recall. The recommended dietary allowance was taken as the cut-off point for the assessment of the adequacy of individual nutrient intake. Results Undernourished, overweight and obese subjects composed 12.9%, 21.3% and 5.9% of the participants, respectively. Men were taller, heavier and had higher waist to hip ratio compared to women (P  Conclusions The overall risk of nutritional inadequacy among the study participants was high along with their poor dietary intake. Hence, more stress should be made on planning and implementing nutritional programmes in urban settings aimed at preventing or correcting micronutrient and some macronutrient deficiencies which may be useful in preventing nutrition related diseases in life.

  8. Shift work and sleep disorder among textile mill workers in Bahir Dar, northwest Ethiopia.

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    Abebe, Y; Fantahun, M

    1999-07-01

    To assess the length and quality of sleep among shift workers at Bahir Dar textile mill. A cross sectional study using structured questionnaire that contained sociodemographic variables, duration of work, work schedule, number of sleeping hours, sleep disorders, and associated reasons for such disorders. A textile mill in Bahir Dar, northwest Ethiopia. Three-hundred ninety four random sample of production workers of the mill. Sleep disorders, and the impact of external and home environment on sleep. The mean duration of work in the factory was 25.4 +/- 7.1 years. Ninety-seven per cent of the study population work in a rotating eight hourly shift system. The mean number of hours a worker sleeps after a worked shift was 5.1 +/- 2.3. Two hundred thirty (58.4%) claimed to experience a sleep disorder. Sleep disturbance was significantly associated with rotating shift work, external environmental noise, and working in the spinning department. The majority of the workers in Bahir Dar textile mill experienced sleep disturbances as detailed in the study methodology.

  9. Prevalence of cattle flukes infection at Andassa Livestock Research Center in north-west of Ethiopia

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    Asressa Yeneneh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was carried out from October 2010 to March 2011 at Andassa Livestock Research Center, North-West Ethiopia. The objective was to determine the prevalence of cattle flukes infection. Faecal samples were collected from a total of 384 cattle, cross breed (n= 39 and Fogera breed (n=345 of all age groups and sex. Sedimentation technique was employed for the recovery of fluke eggs from freshly collected fecal sample. The results indicated that the overall prevalence of bovine flukes infection was 60.42%. In this study, the highest prevalence was recorded from Paramphistomosis (45.83% followed by Fasciolosis (23.96%, and Schistosomosis (9.89%. The prevalence of flukes infection was higher in age group 1- 2 years old. There was significant difference in case of Paramphistomosis among age groups. No significant association was found between crossed breeds and sex groups for fluke’s infection. The prevalence of Paramphistomosis was high in cross breed (58.97% than Fogera breed (44.35%. However, in both cases, there was no significant difference. The result of the present study revealed that the prevalence of major bovine fluke infection in the study area was relatively low and is the definite proof of active infection.

  10. Village-based indigenous chicken production system in north-west Ethiopia.

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    Halima, H; Neser, F W C; Van Marle-Koster, E; De Kock, A

    2007-04-01

    Surveys using both purposive and random sampling methods was carried out in four zones of north-west Ethiopia to describe the village-based poultry production systems and constraints in order to design future improvement and conservation strategies. The majority of the respondents were female (74.16%). This indicated that most of the time the women, whether in male-headed or female-headed households, are responsible for chicken rearing while the men are responsible for crop cultivation and other off-farm activities. About 99% of the respondents gave supplementary feeds to their chickens. Almost all farmers provided night shelter for their chickens, in part of the kitchen (1.36%), in the main house (39.07%), in hand-woven baskets (7.29%), in bamboo cages (1.51%) or in a separate shed purpose-made for chickens (50.77%). The major causes of death of chickens during the study were seasonal outbreaks of Newcastle disease (locally known as fengele) and predation. It is important to collect and conserve local poultry breeds before they are fully replaced by the so-called improved breeds. As most of the poultry production is managed by women, focusing on training and education of women will enable not only the improvement of poultry production but also family planning and the overall living standards of the family and the community.

  11. Ectoparasites Prevalence in Small Ruminants in and around Sekela, Amhara Regional State, Northwest Ethiopia

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    Zewdu Seyoum

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and type of ectoparasites and to identify risk factors associated with ectoparasite infestations in small ruminants in and around Sekela, Northwest Ethiopia. Clinical examination and laboratory analysis were made on 304 sheep and 96 goats. The collected raw data were analyzed using χ2-test. Out of the 400 sampled animals, 182 (45.5% were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The prevalent ectoparasites observed were lice, ticks, Ctenocephalides species, Melophagus ovinus, and Demodex species. The infestation rates of ectoparasites with age and sex were significantly varied (P0.05. Body condition score was not significantly associated (P>0.05 with ectoparasites infestation in both sheep and goats. In our attempt, only two cases due to Demodex species were recorded in sheep. In conclusion, the prevalence of ectoparasites in the present study was high and this could affect the wellbeing and productivity of small ruminants. Therefore, to reduce ectoparasites prevalence and impact on the productivity and health status, planning of integrated control measures with sustainable veterinary services aiming at creating awareness about the importance and control of ectoparasites for livestock owners is required.

  12. Ectoparasites Prevalence in Small Ruminants in and around Sekela, Amhara Regional State, Northwest Ethiopia.

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    Seyoum, Zewdu; Tadesse, Tsegaye; Addisu, Agerie

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and type of ectoparasites and to identify risk factors associated with ectoparasite infestations in small ruminants in and around Sekela, Northwest Ethiopia. Clinical examination and laboratory analysis were made on 304 sheep and 96 goats. The collected raw data were analyzed using χ (2)-test. Out of the 400 sampled animals, 182 (45.5%) were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The prevalent ectoparasites observed were lice, ticks, Ctenocephalides species, Melophagus ovinus, and Demodex species. The infestation rates of ectoparasites with age and sex were significantly varied (P 0.05). Body condition score was not significantly associated (P > 0.05) with ectoparasites infestation in both sheep and goats. In our attempt, only two cases due to Demodex species were recorded in sheep. In conclusion, the prevalence of ectoparasites in the present study was high and this could affect the wellbeing and productivity of small ruminants. Therefore, to reduce ectoparasites prevalence and impact on the productivity and health status, planning of integrated control measures with sustainable veterinary services aiming at creating awareness about the importance and control of ectoparasites for livestock owners is required.

  13. Health-related quality of life of HIV infected adults with and without Visceral Leishmaniasis in Northwest Ethiopia.

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    Alemayehu, Mekuriaw; Wubshet, Mamo; Mesfin, Nebiyu; Tamiru, Aschalew; Gebayehu, Abebaw

    2017-08-30

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important outcome measure among HIV infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). When HIV infected patients coinfected with Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) the problem become severe because VL accelerates HIV replication and disease progression. The impact of VL on the quality of life of HIV infected patients has not been studied. In this study in Ethiopia, we compared the quality of life of HIV infected patients with and without VL. A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2015 to September 2016 in selected health centers and hospitals, in Northwest Ethiopia. Data on quality of life was collected by trained nurses. The instrument used to collect the data was the short Amharic version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life for HIV clients (WHOQoL-HIV). Depression was assessed using the validated version of Kessler scale. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Descriptive statistics, bivariate and multivariate linear regression model was used to summarize the results. A total of 590 study participants were included in the study with response rate of 95%. Of the 590 patients included in our study 125 (21%) were HIV-VL coinfection. HIV-VL coinfected patients had a lower quality of life in all the domains as compared to HIV patients without VL. Depression was consistently and strongly associated with all the quality of life domains of both groups. Also, in HIV infected patients a longer duration in ART was associated with higher HRQoL domains except for the spiritual and level of independence domains. With regard to HIV-VL coinfected patients, a longer duration in ART was associated with psychological, spiritual and level of independence domains of HRQoL. Demographics, clinical, and treatment characteristics resulted few significant associations with HRQoL domains of both groups. HIV-VL coinfected patients had a poor quality of life in all the domains of the WHOQoL-HIV instrument

  14. Micronutrient levels and nutritional status of school children living in Northwest Ethiopia

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    Amare Bemnet

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several micronutrients are essential for adequate growth of children. However, little information is available on multiple micronutrient status of school children in Ethiopia. The present study was designed to evaluate the relationship between multiple micronutrient levels and nutritional status among school children. Method In this cross-sectional study, anthropometric data, blood and stool samples were collected from 100 children at Meseret Elementary School in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Serum concentration of magnesium, calcium, iron, copper, zinc, selenium and molybdenum were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Anthropometric indices of weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI-for-age were used to estimate the children's nutritional status. Stool samples were examined by standard microscopic methods for intestinal parasites. Results The prevalence of stunting, underweight, wasting and intestinal parasitoses among school children was 23%, 21%, 11% and18%, respectively. The mean serum levels of magnesium, calcium, iron, copper, zinc, selenium and molybdenum were 2.42±0.32 (mg/dl, 15.31±2.14 (mg/dl, 328.19±148.91 (μg/dl, 191.30±50.17 (μg/dl, 86.40±42.40 (μg/dl, 6.32±2.59 (μg/dl, and 0.23±0.15 (μg/dl, respectively. Selenium deficiency, zinc deficiency and magnesium deficiency occurred in 62%, 47%, and 2% of the school children, respectively. Height-for-age showed significant positive correlation with the levels of copper and molybdenum (p = 0.01 and with the levels of magnesium (p = 0.05. Conclusion Deficiencies of selenium and zinc were high among the school children although the deficiencies were not significantly related with their nutritional status. The prevalence of both malnutrition and intestinal parasitism was not negligible. These calls for the need to undertake multicentre studies in various parts of the country to substantiate the data obtained in the present study so that

  15. Cultural Competence among Maternal Healthcare Providers in Bahir Dar City Administration, Northwest Ethiopia: Cross sectional Study.

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    Aragaw, Amanu; Yigzaw, Tegbar; Tetemke, Desalegn; G/Amlak, Wubalem

    2015-09-24

    Cultural competency is now a core requirement for maternal health providers working in multicultural society. However, it has not yet received due attention in Ethiopia. This study aimed to determine the level of cultural competence and its associated factors among maternal health care providers in Bahir Dar City Administration, Northwest Ethiopia. Institution based cross-sectional study was carried out using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Maternal health care providers from all health facilities were our study participants. Structured Questionnaire with some modification of Campinha Bacote's tool was used to collect quantitative data from health workers and semi structured guide line was used for qualitative data among women. While quantitative data analysis was done using SPSS, qualitative data was analyzed using open code software. P-value of less than 0.05 was taken to determine statistical significance. Cronbach's alpha was used to test internal reliability and a factor loading of 0.3 or greater was the criterion used to retain items. Two hundred seventy four health workers and seven women were involved in the study. The overall competency level was 57.3 % thought vary in different subscales or stages. Of the cultural competent health workers near to three fourth (73.0 %) were in awareness stage which is the earliest stage of competence in which individuals were aware only their own culture but not the world view of their clients. The voices of mothers in the qualitative assessment also showed discordance in cultural competence with their healthcare providers. Female health workers almost six times [AOR,5.5; 2.71, 11.30] more competent than male providers and those who got in-service training related to maternal care provided services more culturally competent than their counter parts with [AOR,3.5; 1.4, 8.64]. Reliability Cronbach's α coefficient value of cultural competence subscales showed 0.672,0 .719, 0.658, 0.714, and 0.631 for cultural

  16. Micronutrient levels and nutritional status of school children living in Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amare, Bemnet; Moges, Beyene; Fantahun, Bereket; Tafess, Ketema; Woldeyohannes, Desalegn; Yismaw, Gizachew; Ayane, Tilahun; Yabutani, Tomoki; Mulu, Andargachew; Ota, Fusao; Kassu, Afework

    2012-12-13

    Several micronutrients are essential for adequate growth of children. However, little information is available on multiple micronutrient status of school children in Ethiopia. The present study was designed to evaluate the relationship between multiple micronutrient levels and nutritional status among school children. In this cross-sectional study, anthropometric data, blood and stool samples were collected from 100 children at Meseret Elementary School in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Serum concentration of magnesium, calcium, iron, copper, zinc, selenium and molybdenum were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Anthropometric indices of weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI-for-age were used to estimate the children's nutritional status. Stool samples were examined by standard microscopic methods for intestinal parasites. The prevalence of stunting, underweight, wasting and intestinal parasitoses among school children was 23%, 21%, 11% and 18%, respectively. The mean serum levels of magnesium, calcium, iron, copper, zinc, selenium and molybdenum were 2.42±0.32 (mg/dl), 15.31±2.14 (mg/dl), 328.19±148.91 (μg/dl), 191.30±50.17 (μg/dl), 86.40±42.40 (μg/dl), 6.32±2.59 (μg/dl), and 0.23±0.15 (μg/dl), respectively. Selenium deficiency, zinc deficiency and magnesium deficiency occurred in 62%, 47%, and 2% of the school children, respectively. Height-for-age showed significant positive correlation with the levels of copper and molybdenum (p = 0.01) and with the levels of magnesium (p = 0.05). Deficiencies of selenium and zinc were high among the school children although the deficiencies were not significantly related with their nutritional status. The prevalence of both malnutrition and intestinal parasitism was not negligible. These calls for the need to undertake multicentre studies in various parts of the country to substantiate the data obtained in the present study so that appropriate and beneficial strategies for micronutrient

  17. Prevalence of malnutrition and associated risk factors among adult visceral leishmaniasis patients in Northwest Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

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    Mengesha, Bewketu; Endris, Mengistu; Takele, Yegnasew; Mekonnen, Kalehiwot; Tadesse, Takele; Feleke, Amsalu; Diro, Ermias

    2014-02-04

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) causes considerable morbidity and mortality in Ethiopia. Data on the prevalence and associated risk factors on malnutrition among VL patients in Ethiopia are scarce. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of malnutrition and its associated risk factor among VL patients in Northwest Ethiopia. An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from June to September 2012 at four leishmaniasis treatment sites in Northwest Ethiopia. Four hundred and three adult VL patients were enrolled in the study. Malnutrition was defined as a body mass index (BMI) ≤ 18.5 kg/m2. The data collected from the VL patients included sex, age, residence, occupation, weight, height, laboratory results (HIV, hemoglobin, intestinal parasites). Multivariate logistic regression model was used to determine the strength of association between malnutrition and associated risk factors. Among 403 adult VL patients 385 (95.5%) were malnourished. Twenty eight percent (n = 113), 30.3% (n = 122), and 37.2% (n = 150) were mildly, moderately and severely malnourished, respectively. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was 47.6% (n = 192) and it was associated with malnutrition (P = 0.01). The prevalence of VL-HIV co-infection was 10.4% (n = 42). Hook worm, Giardia intestinalis and Ascaris lumbircoides were the leading prevalent intestinal parasites. Factors such as age, sex, residence, occupation, HIV status and anemia were not associated with severe malnutrition. The prevalence of malnutrition in VL patients was very high and it was associated with intestinal parasitic infections. Therefore, screening of severely malnourished VL patients for intestinal parasitic infections during admission is recommended.

  18. Malaria infection has spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal heterogeneity in unstable malaria transmission areas in northwest Ethiopia.

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    Kassahun Alemu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malaria elimination requires successful nationwide control efforts. Detecting the spatiotemporal distribution and mapping high-risk areas are useful to effectively target pockets of malaria endemic regions for interventions. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to identify patterns of malaria distribution by space and time in unstable malaria transmission areas in northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: Data were retrieved from the monthly reports stored in the district malaria offices for the period between 2003 and 2012. Eighteen districts in the highland and fringe malaria areas were included and geo-coded for the purpose of this study. The spatial data were created in ArcGIS10 for each district. The Poisson model was used by applying Kulldorff methods using the SaTScan™ software to analyze the purely temporal, spatial and space-time clusters of malaria at a district levels. RESULTS: The study revealed that malaria case distribution has spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal heterogeneity in unstable transmission areas. Most likely spatial malaria clusters were detected at Dera, Fogera, Farta, Libokemkem and Misrak Este districts (LLR =197764.1, p<0.001. Significant spatiotemporal malaria clusters were detected at Dera, Fogera, Farta, Libokemkem and Misrak Este districts (LLR=197764.1, p<0.001 between 2003/1/1 and 2012/12/31. A temporal scan statistics identified two high risk periods from 2009/1/1 to 2010/12/31 (LLR=72490.5, p<0.001 and from 2003/1/1 to 2005/12/31 (LLR=26988.7, p<0.001. CONCLUSION: In unstable malaria transmission areas, detecting and considering the spatiotemporal heterogeneity would be useful to strengthen malaria control efforts and ultimately achieve elimination.

  19. Postpartum contraceptive use in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia: a community based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abera, Yeshewas; Mengesha, Zelalem Birhanu; Tessema, Gizachew Assefa

    2015-01-01

    Addressing family planning in the postpartum period is crucial for better maternal, neonatal and child survival because it enables women to achieve healthy interval between births. The contraceptive behavior of women in the postpartum period is usually different from other times in a woman's life cycle due to the additional roles and presence of emotional changes. Therefore, this study is conducted with the aim of assessing the contraceptive behavior of women in the postpartum period. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in August 2013 among women who gave birth one year before the study period in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Multistage cluster sampling technique was employed to recruit a total of 703 study participants. For data collection, a structured and pretested questionnaire was used. Descriptive statistics were done to characterize the study population using different variables. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression models were fitted. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were computed to identify factors associated with contraceptive use. Nearly half (48.4%) of the postpartum women were using different types of contraceptives. The most commonly used method was injectable (68.5%). Resumption of mensus [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 8.32 95% Confidence Interval (CI): (5.27, 13.14)], age ≤24 years [AOR = 2.36, 95% CI: (1.19, 4.69), duration of 7-9 months after delivery [AOR = 2.26 95% CI: (1.12, 4.54)], and having antenatal care [AOR = 5.76, 95% CI: (2.18, 15.2)] were the factors positively associated with contraceptive use in the extended postpartum period. Postpartum contraceptive practice was lower as compared to the Ethiopian demographic and health survey 2011 report for urban areas. Strengthening family planning counseling during antenatal care visit and postnatal care would improve contraceptive use in the postpartum period.

  20. Mothers' education and ANC visit improved exclusive breastfeeding in Dabat Health and Demographic Surveillance System Site, northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariku, Amare; Alemu, Kassahun; Gizaw, Zemichael; Muchie, Kindie Fentahun; Derso, Terefe; Abebe, Solomon Mekonnen; Yitayal, Mezgebu; Fekadu, Abel; Ayele, Tadesse Awoke; Alemayehu, Geta Asrade; Tsegaye, Adino Tesfahun; Shimeka, Alemayehu; Biks, Gashaw Andargie

    2017-01-01

    Despite its proven benefit in reducing child mortality and morbidity, the coverage of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) remains sub-optimal. In Ethiopia, about 52% of infants under six months of age were exclusively breastfed, implying the need for further identification of the barriers to optimal EBF practice. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate EBF and its determinants in the predominantly rural northwest Ethiopia. The study was conducted at the Dabat Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) site, which is located in Dabat District, northwest Ethiopia. A total of 5,227 mothers with children under five years of age were included for analysis. Multivariable binary logistic regression analysis was employed to identify factors associated with EBF. The Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) with a 95% Confidence Interval (CI) was estimated to show the strength of association. A P-value of ANC visit [AOR = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.23,1.61], initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of birth [AOR = 1.32; 95% CI: 1.15,1.50], richer household [AOR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.65], and withholding prelacteal feeds [AOR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.17, 1.53] were found important determinants of EBF. In this study area, the prevalence of EBF is lower than the national as well as the global recommendation for universal coverage of EBF. Therefore, strengthening the implementation of Infant and Young Child Feeding strategy (IYCF) and maternal health care utilization are essential for stepping up EBF coverage. Moreover, attention should be given to uneducated, rural resident, and adolescent mothers.

  1. Differentials of fertility in North and South Gondar zones, northwest Ethiopia: A comparative cross-sectional study

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    Worku Alemayehu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethiopia is one of the most densely populated countries in Africa with an estimated population of 77.1 million in mid-2007. Uncontrolled fertility has adversely influenced the socio-economic, demographic and environmental situations of the country. It is one of the largest and poorest countries that, even in the midst of crisis, has maintained high levels of fertility. This study was aimed at investigating the most important factors influencing fertility behavior in Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A comparative cross-sectional study which included 2424 women aged 25 years and above was undertaken in the Amhara region of Northwest Ethiopia. The study subjects were grouped into high fertile and low fertile categories. There were 1011 and 1413 women in the high and low fertile groups, respectively. A multi-stage cluster sampling stratified by place of residence was employed to select the required study subjects. Both bivariate and multivariate logistic regression techniques were used to analyze the data. Results Among the 25 variables considered in this study, only 9 of them were found significantly and independently associated with the level of fertility. Women with at least secondary education were at a lower risk of high fertility with OR = 0.37 (95% CI: 0.21 to 0.64 compared to those with no formal education. However, women with primary education did not show any significant difference when compared with the same baseline group. Age at first marriage was inversely associated with the number of children ever born alive. Place of residence, household expenditure, number of children who have died, attitude towards using contraceptives, women's knowledge on the safe period, and current marital status were the other variables that showed significant associations with the level of fertility. Conclusion Female education beyond the primary level, reduced infant and child mortality, delayed marriage and correct knowledge on the safe

  2. Determinants of blood pressure control amongst hypertensive patients in Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshome, Destaw Fetene; Demssie, Amsalu Feleke; Zeleke, Berihun Megabiaw

    2018-01-01

    Controlling blood pressure (BP) leads to significant reduction in cardiovascular risks and associated deaths. In Ethiopia, data is scarce about the level and determinants of optimal BP control among hypertensive patients. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of optimal BP control among hypertensive patients attending at a district hospital. A hospital-based, cross-sectional study was conducted among 392 hypertensive patients who were on treatment and follow-up at a district hospital. A structured questionnaire adopted from WHO approach was prepared to collect the data. Medication adherence was measured by the four-item Morisky Green Levine Scale, with a score ≥3 defined as "good adherence". Blood pressure was measured, and optimal BP control was 0DEFined as systolic BP < 140 mmHg and diastolic BP<90 mmHg. Both binary and multivariable logistic regressions models were fitted to identify correlates of optimal BP control. All statistical tests were two-sided and a p values <0.05 was considered for statistical significance. The mean age of the participants was 58 years (SD±13 years). Over half (53.8%) were females. Three quarters (77.3%) of the participants were adherent to their medications. The overall proportion of participants with optimally controlled BP was 42.9%.Female sex (Adjusted Odd Ratio(AOR) = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.15, 3.26), age older than 60 years (AOR = 2.95, 95% CI: 1.18, 7.40), consumption of vegetables on most days of the week (AOR = 2.16, 95% CI: 1.25, 3.73), physical activity (AOR = 4.85, 95% CI: 2.39, 9.83), and taking less than three drugs per day (AOR = 3.04, 95% CI: 1.51, 6.14) were positively associated with optimally controlled BP. Poor adherence to medications (AOR = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.09, 0.35), having asthma comorbidity (AOR = 0.33, 95% CI:0.12, 0.88) and use of top added salt on a plate (AOR = 0.20, 95% CI:0.11, 0.36) were negatively associated with optimal BP control. A higher proportion of hypertensive patients

  3. Sediment trapping with indigenous grass species showing differences in plant traits in northwest Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, Mulatie; Keesstra, Saskia D.; Ritsema, Coen J.; Stroosnijder, Leo; Baartman, Jantiene E.M.

    2016-01-01

    Soil loss from an 8% sloping Teff field in north-western Ethiopia is significant (~ 70 t ha− 1 yr− 1), and thus found to be an important source of sediment. Grass barriers showing sediment trapping efficacy (STE) are important measures in trapping sediment inside Teff fields

  4. Mothers' education and ANC visit improved exclusive breastfeeding in Dabat Health and Demographic Surveillance System Site, northwest Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amare Tariku

    Full Text Available Despite its proven benefit in reducing child mortality and morbidity, the coverage of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF remains sub-optimal. In Ethiopia, about 52% of infants under six months of age were exclusively breastfed, implying the need for further identification of the barriers to optimal EBF practice. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate EBF and its determinants in the predominantly rural northwest Ethiopia.The study was conducted at the Dabat Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS site, which is located in Dabat District, northwest Ethiopia. A total of 5,227 mothers with children under five years of age were included for analysis. Multivariable binary logistic regression analysis was employed to identify factors associated with EBF. The Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR with a 95% Confidence Interval (CI was estimated to show the strength of association. A P-value of <0.05 was used to declare statistical significance.About 54.5% [95% CI: 51.9, 57.1] of the mothers practiced EBF. Mothers' education [AOR = 2.10; 95% CI: 1.63, 2.71], age (20-35 years [AOR = 1.39; CI: 1.07, 1.80], urban residence [AOR = 1.28; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.54], at least one ANC visit [AOR = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.23,1.61], initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of birth [AOR = 1.32; 95% CI: 1.15,1.50], richer household [AOR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.65], and withholding prelacteal feeds [AOR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.17, 1.53] were found important determinants of EBF.In this study area, the prevalence of EBF is lower than the national as well as the global recommendation for universal coverage of EBF. Therefore, strengthening the implementation of Infant and Young Child Feeding strategy (IYCF and maternal health care utilization are essential for stepping up EBF coverage. Moreover, attention should be given to uneducated, rural resident, and adolescent mothers.

  5. Obstructed Labour in Adigrat Zonal Hospital, Tigray Region, Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Obstructed labour is a common cause of maternal and pernatal morbidity and mortality in developing countries. There are few data from Ethiopia, although the problem is believed to be common. Objective: To describe the frequency, causes, complications and treatment outcome of mothers with obstructed ...

  6. Factors affecting utilization of skilled maternal care in Northwest Ethiopia: a multilevel analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Worku, Abebaw Gebeyehu; Yalew, Alemayehu Worku; Afework, Mesganaw Fantahun

    2013-01-01

    Background The evaluation of all potential sources of low skilled maternal care utilization is crucial for Ethiopia. Previous studies have largely disregarded the contribution of different levels. This study was planned to assess the effect of individual, communal, and health facility characteristics in the utilization of antenatal, delivery, and postnatal care by a skilled provider. Methods A linked facility and population-based survey was conducted over three months (January - March 2012) i...

  7. Magnitude of Birth Defects in Central and Northwest Ethiopia from 2010-2014: A Descriptive Retrospective Study.

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    Molla Taye

    Full Text Available Birth defects are defined as structural and functional defects that develop during the organogenesis period and present at birth or detected later in life. They are one of the leading causes of infant and child mortality, morbidity, and long term disability. The magnitude of birth defects varies from country to country and from race/ethnicity to race/ethnicity, and about 40-60% of their causes are unknown. The known causes of birth defects are genetic and environmental factors which may be prevented. For various reasons, there is lack of data and research on birth defects in Ethiopia.The major objective of this study is to estimate the magnitude of birth defects in Ethiopia.A hospital based, retrospective, cross sectional, descriptive study was conducted. The subjects were babies/children aged 0-17years who visited selected hospitals between 2010 and 2014. Fourteen hospitals (8 in Addis Ababa, 6 in Amhara Region were selected purposively based on case load. A data retrieving form was developed to extract relevant information from record books.In the hospitals mentioned, 319,776 various medical records of children aged 0-17years were found. Of these, 6,076 (1.9% with 95% CI: 1.85%-1.95% children were diagnosed as having birth defects. The majority (58.5% of the children were male and 41.5% female. A slightly more than half (51.1% of the children were urban dwellers, while 48.9% were from rural areas. Among the participants of the study the proportion of birth defects ranged as follows: orofacial (34.2%, neural tube (30.8%, upper and lower limb (12.8%, cardiovascular system (10.3%, digestive system and abdominal wall (4.8%, unspecified congenital malformations (2.5%, Down syndrome (2%, genitourinary system (2%, head, face, and neck defects (0.4%, and others (0.3%. The trend of birth defects increased linearly over time [Extended Mantel-Haenszel chi square for linear trend = 356.7 (P<0.0001]. About 275 (4.5% of the cases had multiple (associated

  8. Soil transmitted helminths and schistosoma mansoni infections among school children in Zarima town, northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, Abebe; Atnafu, Asmamaw; Addis, Zelalem; Shiferaw, Yitayal; Teklu, Takele; Mathewos, Biniam; Birhan, Wubet; Gebretsadik, Simon; Gelaw, Baye

    2011-07-09

    In Ethiopia, because of low quality drinking water supply and latrine coverage, helminths infections are the second most predominant causes of outpatient morbidity. Indeed, there is a scarcity of information on the prevalence of soil transmitted helminths and Schistosomiasis in Ethiopia, special in study area. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of soil transmitted helminths and intestinal Schistosomiasis. Cross-sectional study was conducted among 319 school children of Zarima town from April 1 to May 25, 2009. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data and possible risk factors exposure. Early morning stool samples were collected and a Kato Katz semi concentration technique was used to examine and count parasitic load by compound light microscope. Data entry and analysis was done using SPSS-15 version and p-value transmitted helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides was the predominant isolate (22%) followed by Hookworms (19%) and Trichuris trichiura (2.5%). Schistosoma mansoni was also isolated in 37.9% of the study participants. Hookworm and S. mansoni infections showed statistically significant associations with shoe wearing and swimming habit of school children, respectively. Prevalence of soil transmitted helminths (STH) and S.mansoni was high and the diseases were still major health problem in the study area which alerts public health intervention as soon as possible.

  9. Cross-Sectional Study on the Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites and Associated Risk Factors in Teda Health Centre, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, Abraraw; Kibret, Biniam; Bekalu, Eylachew; Abera, Sendeku; Teklu, Takele; Yalew, Aregawi; Endris, Mengistu; Worku, Ligabaw; Tekeste, Zinaye

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To assess the magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection and associated risk factors in Teda Health Centre, Northwest Ethiopia. Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Teda Health Centre from February to April, 2011. Stool samples were collected from 410 study participants and analysed by direct wet mount and formal ether concentration techniques. Furthermore, sociodemographic data were collected by using standardized questionnaire. Result. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in this study was 62.3%. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most predominant parasite (23.2%) followed by Giardia intestinalis (12.4%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (4.6%), Schistosoma mansoni (8.9%), hookworm (6.6%), Hymenolepis nana (1.5%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.4%), and Strongyloides stercoralis (0.2%). Absence of toilet and hand washing after toilet was shown to be associated with intestinal parasitic infection (P intestinal parasitic infection in the study area. Absence of toilet and hand washing after toilet was found to be associated with intestinal parasitic infection. Therefore, there is a need for integrated control programme to have a lasting impact on transmission of intestinal parasitic infection.

  10. Prevalence and associated factors of myopia among high school students in Gondar town, northwest Ethiopia, 2016

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    Belete GT

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gizachew Tilahun Belete,1 Dereje Hayilu Anbesse,1 Adino Tesfahun Tsegaye,2 Mohammed Seid Hussen1 1Department of Optometry, 2Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Science, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia Introduction: Myopia is an important cause of correctable visual impairment and preventable blindness worldwide. Prevalence rates are approximately 20%–35% among the older teenage population globally. It has a medical burden of pathologic complications such as maculopathy and glaucomatous optic neuropathy. High school students experience high-performance and study pressures in the preparation for the final national examination. As a result they are exposed to excessive near work and indoor activities. They are also ignored for regular screening. Objective: To determine the prevalence and associated factors of myopia among high school students in Gondar town, Ethiopia. Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 498 high school students with systematic random sampling method from April 18 to April 29, 2016, in three full-cycle high schools (9th–12th grades. A standardized structured questionnaire, Snellen acuity chart, pinhole, retinoscope, trial case lenses, pen torch, and direct ophthalmoscope were used to collect data. Results: A total of 495 study participants were included, and they had a mean age of 17.48±1.59 years. The prevalence of myopia was 11.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.2, 17.9. Family history of myopia (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=8.08 [95% CI: 4.30, 15.16], school being private (AOR=2.88 [95% CI: 1.02, 8.11], longer time spent for near work (AOR=2.89 [95% CI: 1.12, 7.43], longer time spent partaking in indoor activities (AOR=4.32 [95% CI: 1.69, 10.99], shorter near working distance (AOR=3.06 [95% CI: 1.33, 7.06], lack of outdoor sport activities (AOR=2.27 [95% CI: 1.05, 4.90], use of visual display units (AOR=2.81 [95% CI

  11. The Effect of Job Demand-Control-Social Support Model on Nurses' Job Satisfaction in Specialized Teaching Hospitals, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Negussie, Nebiat; Kaur, Geetinder

    2016-01-01

    Background The job demand-control-social support model has been widely studied in western countries but has not been theoretically addressed on health workers of sub-Saharan African countries. Therefore, this study investigates the relationship between Job Demand-Control-Support Model and job satisfaction in specialized teaching hospitals in Ethiopia. Method A cross-sectional survey was conducted from September 2014 to May 2015 in three public specialized teaching hospitals in Ethiopia. Among...

  12. Soil transmitted helminths and schistosoma mansoni infections among school children in zarima town, northwest Ethiopia

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    Birhan Wubet

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia, because of low quality drinking water supply and latrine coverage, helminths infections are the second most predominant causes of outpatient morbidity. Indeed, there is a scarcity of information on the prevalence of soil transmitted helminths and Schistosomiasis in Ethiopia, special in study area. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of soil transmitted helminths and intestinal Schistosomiasis. Methods Cross-sectional study was conducted among 319 school children of Zarima town from April 1 to May 25, 2009. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data and possible risk factors exposure. Early morning stool samples were collected and a Kato Katz semi concentration technique was used to examine and count parasitic load by compound light microscope. Data entry and analysis was done using SPSS-15 version and p-value Results Out of 319 study subjects, 263 (82.4% of the study participants infected with one or more parasites. From soil transmitted helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides was the predominant isolate (22% followed by Hookworms (19% and Trichuris trichiura (2.5%. Schistosoma mansoni was also isolated in 37.9% of the study participants. Hookworm and S. mansoni infections showed statistically significant associations with shoe wearing and swimming habit of school children, respectively. Conclusion Prevalence of soil transmitted helminths (STH and S.mansoni was high and the diseases were still major health problem in the study area which alerts public health intervention as soon as possible.

  13. Climate variability, communities’ perceptions and land management strategies in Lay Gayint Woreda, Northwest Ethiopia

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    Menberu Teshome

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate variability is the fluctuation of climatic elements from the normal or baseline values. Agrarian communities are the most sensitive social groups to climate variability and associate extreme weather-induced hazards due to the fact that climate variability affects the two most important direct agricultural production inputs, such as rainfall and temperature. As Ethiopia is heavily dependent on agriculture its economic development is being hindered by climate variability coupled with many other deriving forces. Therefore, the objective of this study is to examine climate variability, local communities’ perceptions and land management strategies to reduce the adverse impact of climate variability in Lay Gayint Woreda, Ethiopia. Both primary and secondary data were used to complete this study. Primary data were collected and analyzed from a total of 200 randomly selected respondents reside in different agro-ecological areas. Metrology data were gathered from Nefas Mewcha Station from the years 1979 to 2010. Standardized rainfall anomaly index (SRAI, crop diversification index (CDI and other descriptive statistical techniques were used to analyze the data. The results obtained from the climate data revealed an increase in temperature, and decrease and/or erratic in rainfall distribution. Time series SRAI from 1979 to 2010 indicates that 2002 and 2008 were characterized by extreme and severe dry conditions in order of importance with high impact on crop yields whist only 1984 and 1990 received near normal rainfall amount. Similarly, the survey result reveals that out of the total household heads, 87.5 % perceived that there was an increase in temperature over the last 20 years. The survey result also disclosed that significant numbers of households are more likely to adopt different land management strategies to reduce the negative impact of climate variability. Constructing terraces and check dams as well as planting trees were the major

  14. ENHANCING RURAL LIVELIHOODS THROUGH SUSTAINABLE LAND AND WATER MANAGEMENT IN NORTHWEST ETHIOPIA

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    Mehretie Belay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rural livelihoods (RLs in highland Ethiopia is critically threatened by increasing degradation of land and water resources (LWRs and lack of sufficient livelihood assets. In response, farmers adapted diverse indigenous land and water management (LWM technologies and livelihood strategies. This paper describes farmers’ methods of soil erosion identification and the practices of managing LWRs to enhance RLs. It presents the results of studies focusing on assessment of soil erosion indicators, farmers’ in-built sustainable land and water management practices (LWMPs and RLs in Dangila woreda (district in the northwestern highlands of Ethiopia. Data were gathered from May 2010 to October 2013 through participatory transect walks, field observation, formal and informal discussions with farmers, examination of office documents and from a survey of 201 rural households. Descriptive statistics and the livelihood strategy diversification index (LSDI were used to analyze the data. Results indicated that farmers employ around 13 indicators to identify soil erosion on their farmlands. Over 79% of the farmers indicated the occurrence of soil erosion on their farm fields and some 59% reported the trend was increasing for twenty years, 1991-2011. More than 174 km soil-bunds and greater than 4 km stone-bunds were constructed on farmlands and on grazing fields through farmer participatory watershed development campaigns. Some 34 gullies were stabilized using check-dams and vegetative measures. Almost 72% of the households applied cattle manure on about of their 75 ha lands to improve soil fertility. A total of 44 diversion canals and 34 water committees were established to facilitate the irrigation practice of 33% rural households. Over 20% farmers obtained results ranging from moderate to excellent by combining manure with chemical fertilizers in the same field. Nevertheless, introduced methods such as improved seeds and fertilizers were commented for

  15. Prevalence and associated factors of computer vision syndrome among bank workers in Gondar City, northwest Ethiopia, 2015

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    Assefa NL

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Natnael Lakachew Assefa, Dawit Zenebe Weldemichael, Haile Woretaw Alemu, Dereje Hayilu Anbesse Department of Optometry, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia Introduction: Use of computers is generally encouraged; this is to keep up with the fast-moving world of technology, research and science. Extensive use of computers will result in computer vision syndrome (CVS, and the prevalence is increased dramatically. The main objective of the study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of CVS among bank workers in Gondar city, northwest Ethiopia.Methods: A cross-sectional institution-based study was conducted among computer-using bank workers in Gondar city from April to June, 2015. Data were collected through structured questionnaires and observations with checklists, entered with Epi Info™ 7 and analyzed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 20. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were carried out to compute the different rates, proportion and relevant associations.Results: Among the total 304 computer-using bank workers, the prevalence of CVS was 73% (95% confidence interval [CI]=68.04, 78.02. Blurred vision (42.4%, headache (23.0% and redness (23.0% were the most experienced symptoms. Inappropriate sitting position was 2.3 times (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=2.33; 95% CI=1.27, 4.28 more likely to be associated with CVS when compared with appropriate sitting position. Those working on the computer for more than 20 minutes without break were nearly 2 times (AOR=1.93; 95% CI=1.11, 3.35 more likely to have suffered from CVS when compared with those taking break within 20 minutes, and those wearing eye glasses were 3 times (AOR=3.19; 95% CI=1.07, 9.51 more likely to suffer from CVS when compared with those not wearing glasses.Conclusion: About three-fourths of computer-using bank workers suffered from CVS with the most experienced symptoms being blurred vision

  16. Cost-effectiveness of anti-retroviral therapy at a district hospital in southern Ethiopia

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    Robberstad Bjarne

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the resource implications of expanding anti-retroviral therapy (ART are likely to be large, there is a need to explore its cost-effectiveness. So far, there is no such information available from Ethiopia. Objective To assess the cost-effectiveness of ART for routine clinical practice in a district hospital setting in Ethiopia. Methods We estimated the unit cost of HIV-related care from the 2004/5 fiscal year expenditure of Arba Minch Hospital in southern Ethiopia. We estimated outpatient and inpatient service use from HIV-infected patients who received care and treatment at the hospital between January 2003 and March 2006. We measured the health effect as life years gained (LYG for patients receiving ART compared with those not receiving such treatment. The study adopted a health care provider perspective and included both direct and overhead costs. We used Markov model to estimate the lifetime costs, health benefits and cost-effectiveness of ART. Findings ART yielded an undiscounted 9.4 years expected survival, and resulted in 7.1 extra LYG compared to patients not receiving ART. The lifetime incremental cost is US$2,215 and the undiscounted incremental cost per LYG is US$314. When discounted at 3%, the additional LYG decreases to 5.5 years and the incremental cost per LYG increases to US$325. Conclusion The undiscounted and discounted incremental costs per LYG from introducing ART were less than the per capita GDP threshold at the base year. Thus, ART could be regarded as cost-effective in a district hospital setting in Ethiopia.

  17. Study on the Diversity and Use of Wild Edible Plants in Bullen District Northwest Ethiopia

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    Tariku Berihun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to document the use and conservation of wild edible plants in Bullen district, northwestern Ethiopia. Data was collected through semistructured interview and focus group discussions. The collected data was analyzed through direct matrix ranking, pairwise ranking, and priority ranking methods. In this study, a total of 77 wild edible plant species were identified. Of these plants, trees account for 35.5% followed by shrubs (31.1%. Fruits were the most harvested parts (59.7% followed by leaves (12.9%, roots and tubers (3.8%, and rhizomes (2.5%. These plants are consumed either raw (57.1% and/or cooked (17%; most are collected by women (62.5% and children (20.8%, but the participation of men is stumpy (4.2%. According to pairwise ranking analysis, fruits of Vitex doniana and the leaves of Portulaca quadrifida are the most preferred plant species because of their sweet taste. However, some of the plants have side effects causing abdominal pain, diarrhea, and constipation. Although religion and cultural norms and values play an important role in the conservation of wild edible plants, population pressure and its associated impacts contributed much to the disappearance of these plants. Thus, community participation is the suggested solution for the conservation and sustainable use of the wild edible plants in the study area.

  18. The Role of Private Health Sector for Tuberculosis Control in Debre Markos Town, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reta, Alemayehu; Simachew, Addis

    2018-01-01

    Tuberculosis has been declared to be a global epidemic. Despite all the effort, only less than half the annual estimated cases are reported by health authorities to the WHO. This could be due to poor reporting from the private sector. In Ethiopia, tuberculosis has also been a major public health problem. The aim of this study was to assess the role of the private health sector in tuberculosis control in Debre Markos. An institution based cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in private health facilities. A total of 260 tuberculosis suspects attending the private clinics were interviewed. Focus group discussion, checklist, and structured questionnaire were used. Majority of the private clinics were less equipped, poorly regulated, and owned by health workers who were self-employed on a part-time basis. Provider delay of 4 and more months was significantly associated higher likelihood of turning to a private provider (OR = 2.70, 95% CI = (1.20, 6.08)). There is significant delay among tuberculosis patients. Moreover, there is poor regulation of the private health sector by public health authorities. The involvement of the private sector in tuberculosis control should be limited to identification and refer to tuberculosis cases and suspects.

  19. Compliance to iron and folic acid supplementation in pregnancy, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birhanu, Tesfaye Molla; Birarra, Mequanent Kassa; Mekonnen, Fantahun Ayenew

    2018-05-30

    Strict compliance to iron and folic acid supplementation is vital for prevention of anemia in pregnancy. However, data are scarce in Ethiopia. So, we conducted this study to assess the level of compliance to iron and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy and its associated factors. Of 418 women, over half, 231 (55.3%), adhered to the recommended iron and folic acid supplementation. Women who started antenatal care (ANC) follow up early [AOR; 95% CI 2.43 (1.12-5.26)], had more frequent number of ANC visit [AOR; 95% CI 2.73 (1.32-5.61)], took small number of tablets per visit [AOR; 95% CI 3.0 (1.21-7.43)], had history of anemia [AOR; 95% CI 1.9 (1.17-3.12)], and were from urban areas [AOR; 95% CI 2.2 (1.29-3.77)], were more likely to conform to recommended iron and folic acid supplementation. Therefore, there need to be prescription of the lowest possible number of tablets per visit. Furthermore, education targeting on increasing maternal health service utilization need to be in place. There need to also be further research aimed at determining the number of tablets to be prescribed per visit specific to individuals' background characteristics.

  20. Outcomes of antiretroviral treatment: a comparison between hospitals and health centers in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcha, Taye T; Jeppsson, Anders

    2010-01-01

    the objective of this study was to compare the outcomes of antiretroviral therapy (ART) between hospital and health center levels in Ethiopia. medical records of 1709 ART patients followed for 24 months at 2 hospitals and 3 health centers in the Oromia region of Ethiopia were reviewed. Noted outcomes of ART were currently alive and on treatment; lost to follow-up (LTFU); transferred out (TO); and died (D). of 1709 HIV-positive patients started on ART between September 2006 and February 2007, 1044 (61%) remained alive and were on treatment after 24-month follow-up. In all, 835 (57%) of ART patients at hospitals and 209 (83%) at health centers were retained in the program. Of those who were alive and receiving ART, 79% of patients at health centers and 72% at hospitals were clinically or immunologically improving. In addition, 331 (23%) patients at hospitals were LFTU as compared to 24 (10%) of patients at health centers (relative risk [RR] at 95% confidence interval [CI]: .358 [.231-.555]). While 11% was the mortality rate at hospitals, 5% of patients at health centers also died (RR at 95% CI: .360 [.192-.673]). antiretroviral therapy at health centers was associated with more favorable outcomes than at hospitals.

  1. Predictors of Hospitalization among Children on ART in Ethiopia: a Cohort study.

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    Haileamlak, Abraham; Hagos, Tesfalem; Abebe, Workeabeba; Abraham, Loko; Asefa, Henok; Teklu, Alula M

    2017-02-01

    Substantial progress has been made in the management of pediatric HIV infection in Ethiopia with the implementation of mother-to-child-prevention programs. Since the introduction of HAART in 2005, mortality among HIV-infected children has reduced while the rate of hospitalization was expected to rise. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to assess predictors of hospitalization in children on ART in seven university referral hospitals in Ethiopia. A prospective cohort study design was employed on children age 0-18 years as part of a multisite observational study. ART-experienced eligible and ART-naïve children with HIV/AIDS were enrolled into the Advanced Clinical Monitoring (ACM) till December 31, 2012 were included. From the database, information on hospitalization and other independent variables were extracted. Analysis was done using both SPSS for Windows version 16.0 and STATA. Descriptive analyses and modeling was done using logistic regression. Of the 405 children on ART (174 experienced, 231 naive), 86 (20.7%) were hospitalized for various reasons; two children were excluded since they were hospitalized for unrelated conditions (appendicitis and burn). Fifty one (60.7%) of the eighty four admitted children were hospitalized in the first six months of ART initiation. Of the independent variables, only the presence of opportunistic infections and duration on ART were significantly associated with hospitalization both on bi-variable and multivariable analyses (P-value ART increased by one month, the risk of hospitalization decreased by 5.4%, which is statistically significant (P hospitalized increased by 35.2% (P = 0.002). Of the individual opportunistic infections, pneumonia was found to be the only predictor of hospitalization (P-value = 0.002). This study showed that nearly two-third of the hospitalization was within 6 months of initiation of ART; and presence of OI and duration on ART were the only predictors of hospitalization.

  2. Use of previous maternal health services has a limited role in reattendance for skilled institutional delivery: cross-sectional survey in Northwest Ethiopia

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    Kebede B

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Bekana Kebede,1 Abebaw Gebeyehu,2 Gashaw Andargie11Department of Health Services Management, 2Department of Reproductive Health, Institute of Public Health, University of Gondar, EthiopiaBackground: Maternal mortality rates are unacceptably high in Ethiopia. Institutional delivery with skilled care of the mother is one of the interventions proven to reduce the risk of complications that can cause maternal and neonatal mortality. Quality of service given during antenatal visits and childbirth are important measures. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of skilled institutional delivery and its repeat use during a subsequent pregnancy and to identify any reasons why women avoid institutional delivery.Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March to June 2012 in Chilga Woreda, Northwest Ethiopia. Data were collected from women who gave birth during the year preceding the survey. Information was entered and cleaned using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Multivariate and binary logistic regression was used to identify the relative effect of each explanatory variable on the outcome.Results: A total of 402 (84.2% women gave birth at home. Previous experience of skilled institutional delivery had a limited role in subsequent acceptance or use of institutional delivery. Most mothers who had previously had institutional delivery gave birth at home. Although 111 (40.8% women visited the health facility during their pregnancy only because of illness, 184 (38.8% did not know when to visit for antenatal care. In multivariate analysis, lower maternal education, being a rural resident, previous use of institutional delivery, remoteness of the health facility, and multiparity were factors significantly associated with less likelihood of institutional delivery. Number of months pregnant at the time of the first antenatal visit had no role in increasing the likelihood of institutional delivery.Conclusion: The

  3. Prevalence of bacteria and intestinal parasites among food-handlers in Gondar town, northwest Ethiopia.

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    Andargie, Gashaw; Kassu, Afework; Moges, Feleke; Tiruneh, Moges; Huruy, Kahsay

    2008-12-01

    Food-handlers with poor personal hygiene working in food-service establishments could be potential sources of infection due to pathogenic organisms. The study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of bacteria and intestinal parasites among 127 food-handlers working in the cafeterias of the University of Gondar and the Gondar Teachers Training College, Gondar, Ethiopia. Fingernail contents of both the hands and stool specimens were collected from all the 127 food-handlers. The samples were examined for bacteria and intestinal parasites following standard procedures. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the predominant bacteria species (41.7%) isolated from fingernail contents, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (16.5%), Klebsiella species (5.5%), Escherichia coli (3.1%), Serratia species (1.58%), Citrobacter species (0.8%), and Enterobacter species (0.8%). Shigella species were isolated from stool samples of four food-handlers (3.1%). None of the food-handlers was positive for Salmonella species and Shigella species in respect of their fingernail contents. No intestinal parasites were detected from fingernail contents. Intestinal parasites detected in the stools of the food-handlers included Ascaris lumbricoides (18.11%), Strongyloides stercoralis (5.5%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (1.6%), Trichuris trichiura (1.6%), hookworm species (0.8%), Gardia lamblia (0.8%), and Schistosoma mansoni (0.8%); 1.6% of the study subjects were positive for each of A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, hookworm, and G. lamblia. The findings emphasize the importance of food-handlers as potential sources of infections and suggest health institutions for appropriate hygienic and sanitary control measures.

  4. Distribution and larval breeding habitats of Aedes mosquito species in residential areas of northwest Ethiopia.

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    Ferede, Getachew; Tiruneh, Moges; Abate, Ebba; Kassa, Wondmeneh Jemberie; Wondimeneh, Yitayih; Damtie, Demekech; Tessema, Belay

    2018-01-01

    The Aedes mosquito is a vector for transmitting many arboviruses. Knowledge of the breeding habitat of this vector is vital for implementing appropriate interventions. Thus, this study was conducted to determine the breeding habitats and presence of Aedes mosquito species in the study areas. A house-to-house cross-sectional survey of Aedes mosquito breeding habitats was carried out in Metema and Humera, Ethiopia, in August 2017. All available water-holding containers present in and around houses were inspected for the presence of immature stages of Aedes mosquitoes, and they were collected and reared to the adult stage for species identification. In the larval survey, the house index, container index, and Breteau index were computed as risk indices. Of the 384 houses surveyed for the presence of Aedes mosquito larval breeding, 98 were found to be positive for larvae. During the survey, a total of 566 containers were inspected, of which 186 were found to be infested with Aedes mosquito larvae, with a container index of 32.9, a house index of 25.5, and a Breteau index of 48.4. The most common Aedes mosquito breeding habitats were discarded tires (57.5%), followed by mud pots (30.0%). Of the 1,077 larvae and pupae collected and reared, Aedes aegypti (49.3%), Ae. vittatus (6.5%), and Culex species (44.2%) were identified. Discarded tires were the most preferred breeding habitats for Aedes mosquitoes. Moreover, Ae. aegypti , the main vector of dengue and other arboviruses, was identified for the first time in this region, suggesting a high potential for arbovirus transmission in the study areas.

  5. Factors affecting utilization of skilled maternal care in Northwest Ethiopia: a multilevel analysis.

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    Worku, Abebaw Gebeyehu; Yalew, Alemayehu Worku; Afework, Mesganaw Fantahun

    2013-04-15

    The evaluation of all potential sources of low skilled maternal care utilization is crucial for Ethiopia. Previous studies have largely disregarded the contribution of different levels. This study was planned to assess the effect of individual, communal, and health facility characteristics in the utilization of antenatal, delivery, and postnatal care by a skilled provider. A linked facility and population-based survey was conducted over three months (January - March 2012) in twelve "kebeles" of North Gondar Zone, Amhara Region. A total of 1668 women who had births in the year preceding the survey were selected for analysis. Using a multilevel modelling, we examined the effect of cluster variation and a number of individual, communal (kebele), and facility-related variables for skilled maternal care utilization. About 32.3%, 13.8% and 6.3% of the women had the chance to get skilled providers for their antenatal, delivery and postnatal care, respectively. A significant heterogeneity was observed among clusters for each indicator of skilled maternal care utilization. At the individual level, variables related to awareness and perceptions were found to be much more relevant for skilled maternal service utilization. Preference for skilled providers and previous experience of antenatal care were consistently strong predictors of all indicators of skilled maternal health care utilizations. Birth order, maternal education, and awareness about health facilities to get skilled professionals were consistently strong predictors of skilled antenatal and delivery care use. Communal factors were relevant for both delivery and postnatal care, whereas the characteristics of a health facility were more relevant for use of skilled delivery care than other maternity services. Factors operating at individual and "kebele" levels play a significant role in determining utilization of skilled maternal health services. Interventions to create better community awareness and perception about

  6. Pharmacy students' provision of health promotion counseling services during a community pharmacy clerkship: a cross sectional study, Northwest Ethiopia.

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    Gelayee, Dessalegn Asmelashe; Mekonnen, Gashaw Binega

    2018-05-04

    Globally, undergraduate pharmacy education comprises practice programs aimed to address different competencies. This study was intended to investigate pharmacy students' provision of health promotion (HP) counseling services during a community pharmacy clerkship in Northwest Ethiopia. A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted on fifty one fifth-year pharmacy students immediately after completion of a 2-week community pharmacy clerkship. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Relationship between variables was examined using Pearson's Chi-square test of independence, Mann-Whitney U test, and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. The mean number of HP counseling service types delivered during the clerkship was 6.3 ± 2.8 out of 12. It is positively correlated with the number of HP counseling service types delivered in students' previous training (rho =0.437, p = 0.001). Nearly half (n = 25, 49%) of the students were actively-involved (i.e delivered ≥ 7 types of HP counseling service types) in the service and those who were well involved in previous training are more likely to do the same during the clerkship (X 2  = 4.581, p = 0.032). The main barriers perceived to hinder health promotion service were clients' lack of time and interest as well as absence of a guideline for health promotion service. Community pharmacy clerkship is a good opportunity for pharmacy students to develop health promotion counseling skill. Clerkship performance can best be improved through successful exposures to similar activities in previous courses and students shall be encouraged to carry out self-assessments of their health promotion counseling practice against standards set for the clerkship.

  7. Competence in metered dose inhaler technique among community pharmacy professionals in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia: Knowledge and skill gap analysis.

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    Belachew, Sewunet Admasu; Tilahun, Fasil; Ketsela, Tirsit; Achaw Ayele, Asnakew; Kassie Netere, Adeladlew; Getnet Mersha, Amanual; Befekadu Abebe, Tamrat; Melaku Gebresillassie, Begashaw; Getachew Tegegn, Henok; Asfaw Erku, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    When compared to systemic administration, if used correctly inhalers deliver a smaller enough percent of the drug right to the site of action in the lungs, with a faster onset of effect and with reduced systemic availability that minimizes adverse effects. However, the health professionals' and patients' use of metered dose inhaler is poor. This study was aimed to explore community pharmacy professionals' (pharmacists' and druggists') competency on metered dose inhaler (MDI) technique. A cross sectional study was employed on pharmacy professionals working in community drug retail outlets in Gondar town, northwest Ethiopia from March to May 2017. Evaluation tool was originally taken and adapted from the National Asthma Education and Prevention Programmes of America (NAEPP) step criteria for the demonstration of a metered dose inhaler to score the knowledge/proficiency of using the inhaler. Among 70 community pharmacy professionals approached, 62 (32 pharmacists and 30 druggists/Pharmacy technicians) completed the survey with a response rate of 85.6%. Only three (4.8%) respondents were competent by demonstrating the vital steps correctly. Overall, only 13 participants got score seven or above, but most of them had missed the essential steps which included steps 1, 2, 5, 6, 7 or 8. There was a significant difference (P = 0.015) in competency of demonstrating adequate inhalational technique among respondents who took training on basic inhalational techniques and who did not. This study shown that, community pharmacy professionals' competency of MDI technique was very poor. So as to better incorporate community pharmacies into future asthma illness management and optimize the contribution of pharmacists, interventions would emphasis to improve the total competence of community pharmacy professionals through establishing and providing regular educational programs.

  8. Condom utilization and sexual behavior of female sex workers in Northwest Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study.

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    Tamene, Masresha Molla; Tessema, Gizachew Assefa; Beyera, Getahun Kebede

    2015-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections are among the most important public health problems in the world. People who indulge in unsafe sex, such as female sex workers are the most at risk population groups due to multiple sexual partners and inconsistent condom use. The aim of this study was to assess condom utilization and sexual behavior of female sex workers in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. A quantitative cross-sectional study triangulated with qualitative method was conducted from March 20 - April 10, 2014 in Gondar town. The quantitative data were collected through interviewing 488 female sex workers while in-depth interview was administered to collect qualitative data from 10 female sex workers. The collected data were entered into EPI-INFO version 3.5.3 and exported to SPSS version 20.0 software for analysis. Logistic regression analysis was done to determine the association between condom utilization and independent variables. This study revealed that less than half (47.7%) of the respondents utilized condom with any type of client. Secondary education or above, perceiving themselves at risk of HIV/AIDS infection, having awareness that sexually transmitted infections could increase HIV infection, being tested for HIV/AIDS in the last 12 months, and having lower number of clients in a month were positively associated with condom utilization. This finding depicted that condom utilization was low among female sex workers. Thus, developing and implementing target oriented behavioral change and communication strategies are needed to prevent the risk of acquiring HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections in female sex workers.

  9. Level of male involvement and associated factors in family planning services utilization among married men in Debremarkos town, Northwest Ethiopia.

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    Kassa, Mihretie; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Gedefaw, Molla

    2014-12-02

    Men's participation is crucial to the success of family planning programs and women's empowerment and associated with better outcomes in reproductive health such as contraceptive acceptance and continuation, and safer sexual behaviors. Limited choice and access to methods, attitudes of men towards family planning, perceived fear of side-effects, poor quality of available services, cultural or religious oppositions and gender-based barriers are some of the reasons for low utilization of family planning. Hence, this study assessed the level of male involvement in family planning services utilization and its associated factors in Debremarkos town, Northwest Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from October to November, 2013. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 524 eligible samples. Data were collected by using semi-structured questionnaires. Epi Info and SPSS were used to enter and analyze the data; univariate, bivariate and logistic regression analyses were performed to display the outputs. Only 44 (8.4%) respondents were using or directly participating in the use of family planning services mainly male condoms. The reasons mentioned for the low participation were the desire to have more children, wife or partner refusal, fear of side effects, religious prohibition, lack of awareness about contraceptives and the thinking that it is the only issue for women. Opinion about family planning services, men approval and current use of family planning methods were associated with male involvement in the services utilization. In this study, the level of male involvement was low. Lack of information, inaccessibility to the services and the desire to have more children were found to be the reasons for low male involvement in family planning services utilization. Governmental and nongovernmental organizations, donors and relevant stakeholders should ensure availability, accessibility and sustained advocacy for use of family planning

  10. Dietary diversity, meal frequency and associated factors among infant and young children in Northwest Ethiopia: a cross- sectional study.

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    Beyene, Melkamu; Worku, Abebaw Gebeyehu; Wassie, Molla Mesele

    2015-10-03

    Inappropriate feeding practice increases risk of under nutrition, illness, and mortality amongst children less than 2 years of age. The objective of this study is to assess minimum dietary diversity, meal frequency and its associated factors among infant and young children aged 6-23 months in Dangila Town, Northwest Ethiopia. A community based cross sectional study was conducted. Simple random sampling technique was used to select study participants. Interviewer administered questionnaire were used. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses was employed to identify factors associated with minimum dietary diversity and meal frequency. A total of 920 children 6-23 months were included. Proportion of children who met the minimum dietary diversity and meal frequency was 12.6 and 50.4 %, respectively. Mothers education [AOR =2.52], age of a child [AOR = 2.05], birth order of index child [AOR = 2.08], living in urban area [AOR = 2.09], having home gardening [AOR = 2.03], and media exposure [AOR = 2.74] were positively associated with dietary diversity. Moreover, age of the child [AOR = 3.03], birth order of index child [AOR = 1.58], mothers involvement in decision making [AOR = 1.51], media exposure [AOR = 2.62], and having postnatal visit [AOR = 2.30] were positively associated with meal frequency. The proportion of children who received minimum dietary diversity and meal frequency was low. Being at younger age, first birth order, and lack of media exposure affect both dietary diversity and meal frequency. Increasing mother's education, home gardening, mass media promotion and empowering women in decision making are highly recommended to increase dietary diversity and meal frequency.

  11. Frequent detection of ‘azole’ resistant Candida species among late presenting AIDS patients in northwest Ethiopia

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    Mulu Andargachew

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The chronic use of antifungal agents in the treatment of fungal infection in general and oropharyngeal candidiasis mainly in AIDS patient’s leads to the selection of strain resistant to these therapies and a shift in the spectrum of Candida species. This study determines the species diversity and in vitro susceptibility of Candida isolates from late presenting AIDS patients in northwest Ethiopia. Methods Two hundred and twenty one HIV/AIDS patients were assessed with a standardized evaluation form at enrolment. Oral rinses were cultured on CHROMagar plates at 37°C for 48 hours and Candida species identification were made following standard microbiological techniques. In vitro drug susceptibility tests were made using broth microdilution method. Results The colonization rate of Candida species was found to be 82.3% (177/215. C. albicans was the predominant species isolated from 139 (81% patients but there was a diversity of other species. C. glabrata was the most frequent non-albicans species isolated in 22.5% (40/177 of the patients followed by C. tropicalis 14.1% (27/177, C. krusei 5.6% (10 and other unidentifiable Candida species 4% (7/177. Recurrent episodes of oropharyngeal candidiasis and previous exposure to antifungal drugs were found to be predisposing factors for colonization by non-albicans species. Irrespective of the Candida species identified 12.2% (11/90, 7.7% (7/90 and 4.7% (4 of the isolates were resistant to fluconazole, ketoconazole and itraconazole, respectively. In contrast, resistance to micafungin, amphotericin B and 5-Fluorocytosine was infrequent. Conclusion HIV/AIDS patients are orally colonized by single or multiple albicans and non- albicans Candida species that are frequently resistant to azoles and occasionally to amphotericin B, 5-Fluorocytosine and micafungin. These highlight the need for national surveillance for examining Candida epidemiology and resistance to antifungal drugs.

  12. Frequent detection of ‘azole’ resistant Candida species among late presenting AIDS patients in northwest Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The chronic use of antifungal agents in the treatment of fungal infection in general and oropharyngeal candidiasis mainly in AIDS patient’s leads to the selection of strain resistant to these therapies and a shift in the spectrum of Candida species. This study determines the species diversity and in vitro susceptibility of Candida isolates from late presenting AIDS patients in northwest Ethiopia. Methods Two hundred and twenty one HIV/AIDS patients were assessed with a standardized evaluation form at enrolment. Oral rinses were cultured on CHROMagar plates at 37°C for 48 hours and Candida species identification were made following standard microbiological techniques. In vitro drug susceptibility tests were made using broth microdilution method. Results The colonization rate of Candida species was found to be 82.3% (177/215). C. albicans was the predominant species isolated from 139 (81%) patients but there was a diversity of other species. C. glabrata was the most frequent non-albicans species isolated in 22.5% (40/177) of the patients followed by C. tropicalis 14.1% (27/177), C. krusei 5.6% (10) and other unidentifiable Candida species 4% (7/177). Recurrent episodes of oropharyngeal candidiasis and previous exposure to antifungal drugs were found to be predisposing factors for colonization by non-albicans species. Irrespective of the Candida species identified 12.2% (11/90), 7.7% (7/90) and 4.7% (4) of the isolates were resistant to fluconazole, ketoconazole and itraconazole, respectively. In contrast, resistance to micafungin, amphotericin B and 5-Fluorocytosine was infrequent. Conclusion HIV/AIDS patients are orally colonized by single or multiple albicans and non- albicans Candida species that are frequently resistant to azoles and occasionally to amphotericin B, 5-Fluorocytosine and micafungin. These highlight the need for national surveillance for examining Candida epidemiology and resistance to antifungal drugs. PMID:23398783

  13. Knowledge, attitudes and practices related to visceral leishmaniasis in rural communities of Amhara State: a longitudinal study in northwest Ethiopia.

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    Noemí López-Perea

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the northwest of Ethiopia, at the South Gondar region, there was a visceral leishmaniasis (VL outbreak in 2005, making the disease a public health concern for the regional health authorities ever since. The knowledge on how the population perceives the disease is essential in order to propose successful control strategies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two surveys on VL knowledge, attitudes and practices were conducted at the beginning (May 2009 and at the end (February 2011 of a VL longitudinal study carried out in rural communities of Libo Kemkem and Fogera, two districts of the Amhara Regional State. Results showed that VL global knowledge was very low in the area, and that it improved substantially in the period studied. Specifically, from 2009 to 2011, the frequency of proper knowledge regarding VL signs and symptoms increased from 47% to 71% (p<0.0001, knowledge of VL causes increased from 8% to 25% (p<0.0001, and knowledge on VL protection measures from 16% to 55% (p<0.0001. Moreover, the improvement observed in VL knowledge was more marked among the families with no previous history of VL case. Finally, in 2011 more than 90% of the households owned at least an impregnated bed net and had been sprayed, and attitudes towards these and other protective measures were very positive (over 94% acceptance for all of them. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In 2009 the level of knowledge regarding VL was very low among the rural population of this area, although it improved substantially in the study period, probably due to the contribution of many actors in the area. VL patients and relatives should be appropriately informed and trained as they may act as successful health community agents. VL risk behavioural patterns are subject to change as attitudes towards protective measures were very positive overall.

  14. Knowledge, attitude and practices related to visceral leishmaniasis among residents in Addis Zemen town, South Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia.

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    Alemu, Agersew; Alemu, Abebe; Esmael, Nuraini; Dessie, Yared; Hamdu, Kedir; Mathewos, Biniam; Birhan, Wubet

    2013-04-24

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), commonly known as kala-azar is a systemic disease caused by parasitic protozoan species of genus Leishmania and transmitted by species of Phlebotomus (sand flies). It is a poverty-related disease and associated with malnutrition, displacement, poor housing, weakness of the immune system and lack of resources. For the success of prevention and control programs of any disease, the most important prerequisite is community participation. Therefore, this study was aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of residents towards VL in Addis Zemen town, south Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia. Community based cross-sectional study was conducted among residents in Addis Zemen town from February to March 2012. A total of 346 households were selected by using simple random sampling techniques from three kebeles in the town. Data was collected using structured Questionnaire. For knowledge, attitude and practice variables each right response was given a score of 1 while a wrong or unsure response was scored 0. Data were double entered and analyzed using SPSS-15 statistical software. The frequency distribution of both dependent and independent variables were worked out. From a total of 346 study participants (136 males and 210 females), 87.6% heard of the disease kala-azar. From participants who heard about kala-azar 93.5% males and 86.7% females had awareness about the disease. The majority (95.7%) of participants had favourable attitude towards the treatment of kala-azar whereas 14.8% didn't use anything to prevent it. More than half of the respondents (68.6%) did practice proper methods for the prevention and control of kala-azar in the study area. In general our findings showed that the residents had good awareness and favourable attitude about the disease, but their overall practice about prevention and control of the disease was low. Therefore, our investigation call for continued and strengthened behavioral change communication and social

  15. Depression and Associated Factors among Adult Inpatients at Public Hospitals of Harari Regional State, Eastern Ethiopia

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    Haile Tilahun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Globally, depression is one of the three leading causes of disease and it will be the second leading cause of world disability by 2030. The prevalence of depression in Sub-Saharan Africa ranges from 15 to 30%. In Ethiopia, depression was found to be the seventh leading cause of disease burden and its prevalence has been increased in hospital compared to community setting because hospital environment itself is stressful. Yet, no study was done in Eastern Ethiopia, where substance use like Khat is very rampant. Objective. To assess depression and associated factors among adult inpatients at public hospitals of Harari Regional State, Eastern Ethiopia, from February 01 to 28, 2017. Methodology. Hospital based cross-sectional study design was employed on 492 admitted adult patients in Harari region hospitals. Consecutive sampling method was used to include study population. The data were collected by interviewee and analyzed by SPSS version 20.0. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were employed. p value of 0.05 or less was considered to be statistically significant. Result. A total of 489 patients were interviewed with response rate of 99.4%. Having duration of 1-2 weeks in the hospital [AOR = 2.02, 95% CI: (1.28, 3.19], being diagnosed with chronic morbidity [AOR = 4.06, 95% CI: (2.23, 7.40], being users of psychoactive drugs [AOR = 2.24, 95% CI: (1.18, 4.24], and having been admitted to surgical ward [AOR = 0.50, 95% CI: (0.31, 0.81] were significantly associated with depression. Conclusion and Recommendation. Prevalence of depression among admitted inpatients was high. Therefore, increasing the awareness of benefits of early diagnosis of patients to prevent major form of depression and strengthening the clinical set-up and establishing good referral linkage with mental health institutions was considered to be cost-effective method to reduce its prevalence.

  16. Nutritional status, intestinal parasite infection and allergy among school children in northwest Ethiopia.

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    Amare, Bemnet; Ali, Jemal; Moges, Beyene; Yismaw, Gizachew; Belyhun, Yeshambel; Gebretsadik, Simon; Woldeyohannes, Desalegn; Tafess, Ketema; Abate, Ebba; Endris, Mengistu; Tegabu, Desalegn; Mulu, Andargachew; Ota, Fusao; Fantahun, Bereket; Kassu, Afework

    2013-01-12

    Parasitic infections have been shown to have deleterious effects on host nutritional status. In addition, although helmintic infection can modulate the host inflammatory response directed against the parasite, a causal association between helminths and allergy remains uncertain. The present study was therefore designed to evaluate the relationship between nutritional status, parasite infection and prevalence of allergy among school children. A cross sectional study was performed involving school children in two elementary schools in Gondar, Ethiopia. Nutritional status of these children was determined using anthropometric parameters (weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI-for-age). Epi-Info software was used to calculate z-scores. Stool samples were examined using standard parasitological procedures. The serum IgE levels were quantified by total IgE ELISA kit following the manufacturer's instruction. A total of 405 children (with mean age of 12.09.1 ± 2.54 years) completed a self-administered allergy questionnaire and provided stool samples for analysis. Overall prevalence of underweight, stunting and thinness/wasting was 15.1%, 25.2%, 8.9%, respectively. Of the total, 22.7% were found to be positive for intestinal parasites. The most prevalent intestinal parasite detected was Ascaris lumbricoides (31/405, 7.6%). There was no statistically significant association between prevalence of malnutrition and the prevalence of parasitic infections. Median total serum IgE level was 344 IU/ml (IQR 117-2076, n=80) and 610 IU/ml (143-1833, n=20), respectively, in children without and with intestinal parasite infection (Z=-0.198, P>0.8). The prevalence of self reported allergy among the subset was 8%. IgE concentration was not associated either with the presence of parasitic infection or history of allergy. The prevalence of malnutrition, intestinal parasitism and allergy was not negligible in this population. In addition, there was no significant association between the

  17. Nutritional status, intestinal parasite infection and allergy among school children in Northwest Ethiopia

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    Amare Bemnet

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parasitic infections have been shown to have deleterious effects on host nutritional status. In addition, although helmintic infection can modulate the host inflammatory response directed against the parasite, a causal association between helminths and allergy remains uncertain. The present study was therefore designed to evaluate the relationship between nutritional status, parasite infection and prevalence of allergy among school children. Methods A cross sectional study was performed involving school children in two elementary schools in Gondar, Ethiopia. Nutritional status of these children was determined using anthropometric parameters (weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI-for-age. Epi-Info software was used to calculate z-scores. Stool samples were examined using standard parasitological procedures. The serum IgE levels were quantified by total IgE ELISA kit following the manufacturer’s instruction. Result A total of 405 children (with mean age of 12.09.1 ± 2.54 years completed a self-administered allergy questionnaire and provided stool samples for analysis. Overall prevalence of underweight, stunting and thinness/wasting was 15.1%, 25.2%, 8.9%, respectively. Of the total, 22.7% were found to be positive for intestinal parasites. The most prevalent intestinal parasite detected was Ascaris lumbricoides (31/405, 7.6%. There was no statistically significant association between prevalence of malnutrition and the prevalence of parasitic infections. Median total serum IgE level was 344 IU/ml (IQR 117–2076, n = 80 and 610 IU/ml (143–1833, n = 20, respectively, in children without and with intestinal parasite infection (Z = −0.198, P > 0.8. The prevalence of self reported allergy among the subset was 8%. IgE concentration was not associated either with the presence of parasitic infection or history of allergy. Conclusion The prevalence of malnutrition, intestinal parasitism and allergy was not

  18. The Impact of Soil Properties on Valley-Bottom Gully Form, Northwest Highlands of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amare, S. D.; Langendoen, E. J.; Keesstra, S.; van der Ploeg, M. J.; Steenhuis, T. S.; Tilahun, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    Gully erosion is an important environmental and food security challenge facing the world. Despite the immense damages resulting from gully erosion, comprehensive studies on the processes of gully formation and its management strategies are limited. This is especially true for valley-bottom gullies, which form under different conditions and are caused by different processes than hillslope gullies. A recent review on valley-bottom gully erosion causes and controlling factors identified that gully geomorphological processes, particularly related to gully bank retreat, governed gully occurrence and reclamations. However, most valley-bottom gully erosion studies do not consider gully bank stability and how it is impacted by soil hydrology and soil intrinsic properties. The aim is to analyze these impacts on gully bank retreat in the Koga river watershed, Ethiopia, for Nitisol and Vertisols, using field and numerical modeling approaches. Field observations showed gully network in Vertisols were greater than those in Nitisols. On the other hand, Nitisol gullies are wider and deeper than Vertisols. Monitoring of hydro-meteorological and soil data was started in June 2017 and will continue until the end of the 2017 rainy season (September) and for 2018 rainy periods as well. Thirty-six piezometers were installed at 4m average depth covering an area of 20 km2 near the gully reaches. Ground anchors were used to measure soil swelling and shrinkage. Soil moisture content and potential were measured using GS1 Soil Moisture sensors and MPS-6 Water Potential sensors. Gully bank soil physicochemical and engineering properties have been sampled and analyzed. Preliminary results from the early portion of the rainy season showed that most piezometers were already filled up with water. However, relatively deep (2m) water tables were recorded in piezometers located near the gully banks. The soil matric potential dropped from the onset of the rainy season (-6800 kPa ) towards the middle

  19. Drug Prescribing Pattern in Two Hospitals in Mwanza, Northwest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Kongola

    A retrospective cross-sectional study to evaluate compliance with Tanzanian guidelines,. World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, and various other aspects of drug prescription at Sekou Toure Regional Hospital and Magu Hospital both in Mwanza. Region of Tanzania was carried out. In particular, the study was ...

  20. Clinical chemistry reference intervals of healthy adult populations in Gojjam Zones of Amhara National Regional State, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Zewdie; Amuamuta, Asmare; Mulu, Wondemagegn; Yimer, Mulat; Zenebe, Yohannes; Adem, Yesuf; Abera, Bayeh; Gebeyehu, Wondemu; Gebregziabher, Yakob

    2017-01-01

    Reference interval is crucial for disease screening, diagnosis, monitoring, progression and treatment efficacy. Due to lack of locally derived reference values for the parameters, clinicians use reference intervals derived from western population. But, studies conducted in different African countries have indicated differences between locally and western derived reference values. Different studies also indicated considerable variation in clinical chemistry reference intervals by several variables such as age, sex, geographical location, environment, lifestyle and genetic variation. This study aimed to determine the reference intervals of common clinical chemistry parameters of the community of Gojjam Zones, Northwest Ethiopia. Population based cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2015 to December 2016 in healthy adult populations of Gojjam zone. Data such as, medical history, physical examination and socio-demographic data were collected. In addition, laboratory investigations were undertaken to screen the population. Clinical chemistry parameters were measured using Mindray BS 200 clinical chemistry autoanalyzer as per the manufacturer's instructions. Descriptive statistics was used to calculate mean, median and 95th percentiles. Independent sample T-test and one way ANOVA were used to see association between variables. After careful screening of a total of 799 apparently healthy adults who were consented for this study, complete data from 446 (224 females and 222 males) were included for the analysis. The mean age of both the study participants was 28.8 years. Males had high (Preference intervals of amylase, LDH, total protein and total bilirubin were not significantly different between the two sex groups (P>0.05). Mean, median, 95% percentile values of AST, ALP, amylase, LDH, creatinine, total protein, total bilirubin, and direct bilirubin across all age groups of participants were similar (P>0.05). But, there was a significant difference in the

  1. Awareness and knowledge of glaucoma and associated factors among adults: a cross sectional study in Gondar Town, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, Destaye Shiferaw; Gudeta, Alemayehu Desalegn; Gebreselassie, Kbrom Legesse

    2017-08-24

    Raising public awareness and knowledge about glaucoma is a key for early case identification and prevention of blindness. However, awareness and knowledge about glaucoma is unknown at community level, making provision of interventions difficult. This study was intended to assess the awareness and knowledge of adults about glaucoma and the factors affecting it in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Community based cross - sectional study was conducted on 701 adults 35 and above years in Gondar from April 12-30, 2016. Multistage sampling technique was used to select study participants. Interviewer administered pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect data after verbal informed consent. Data were entered into EpiData version 3.1 and analyzed by Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models and Odds ratio with 95% interval were used to identify factors. P-value glaucoma aware participants. Education (primary [AOR: 3.21; 1.73, 5.95], secondary [AOR: 4.34; 2.30, 8.22]; college and above [AOR: 9.82; 4.27, 22.60]) and having eye examination [AOR: 2.78; 1.86, 4.15] were positively associated with awareness of glaucoma whereas older age (65 -74 years [AOR: 0.31(0.21, 0.76]) was inversely related. Level of Education (primary[AOR:2.83;1.04,7.71],secondary[AOR:3.45;1.33,9.41],college and above [AOR: 4.86;1.82,12,99] and having eye examination [AOR: 2.61;1.53,4.45] were significantly associated with knowledge. The study has indicated higher level of awareness and knowledge about glaucoma in urban communities than previous studies. It has also identified educational status, eye examination at least once in life are related with better awareness and knowledge. The present awareness and knowledge should be enhanced through public oriented glaucoma education via mass media and incorporating eye check up as a routine in older people.

  2. Sexually transmitted diseases among female commercial sex workers in Finote Selam town, northwest Ethiopia: a community-based cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Anteneh, Zelalem Alamrew; Agumas, Yirdaw Amare; Tarekegn, Molalign

    2017-01-01

    Zelalem Alamrew Anteneh,1 Yirdaw Amare Agumas,2 Molalign Tarekegn3 1School of Public Health, Bahir Dar University, 2Networks of Charitable Societies of HIV Positive Association in Amhara Region (NAP+), 3Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia Background: Female commercial sex workers (FCSWs) are considered a high-risk group for acquiring sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), yet the reported prevalence varies in studies around the world. The aim of this study was...

  3. Pelvic organ prolapse in jimma university specialized hospital, southwest ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmel, Menur; Segni, Hailemariam

    2012-07-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse is the down ward descent of female organs including the bladder, small and large bowel resulting in protrusion of the vagina, uterus or both. It is a disorder exclusive to women and one of the most common indications for gynecologic surgery. This hospital based retrospective descriptive study was conducted to assess the magnitude of pelvic organ prolapse and risk factors for it. All cases of pelvic organ prolapse admitted and treated in Jimma University Specialized Hospital from July 1, 2008 to June 30, 2011 were included. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS computer software version 16.0. Chi-square test was used and was considered to be significant when presidence area. Farmers accounted for 68.2% of the patients and there was a significant association between prolapse and occupation (p creation on risk factors of pelvic organ prolapse and use of contraception to reduce parity is recommended. Health institution delivery should be advocated to minimize the rate of home deliveries and hence of prolonged labor.

  4. Client preferences and acceptability for medical abortion and MVA as early pregnancy termination method in Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Mary T

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing access to safe abortion services is the most effective way of preventing the burden of unsafe abortion, which is achieved by increasing safe choices for pregnancy termination. Medical abortion for termination of early abortion is said to safe, effective, and acceptable to women in several countries. In Ethiopia, however, medical methods have, until recently, never been used. For this reason it is important to assess women's preferences and the acceptability of medical abortion and manual vacuum aspiration (MVA in the early first trimester pregnancy termination and factors affecting acceptability of medical and MVA abortion services. Methods A prospective study was conducted in two hospitals and two clinics from March 2009 to November 2009. The study population consisted of 414 subjects over the age of 18 with intrauterine pregnancies of up to 63 days' estimated gestation. Of these 251 subjects received mifepristone and misoprostol and 159 subjects received MVA. Questionnaires regarding expectations and experiences were administered before the abortion and at the 2-week follow-up visit. Results The study groups were similar with respect to age, marital status, educational status, religion and ethnicity. Their mean age was about 23, majority in both group completed secondary education and about half were married. Place of residence and duration of pregnancy were associated with method choice. Subjects undergoing medical abortions reported significantly greater satisfaction than those undergoing surgical abortions (91.2% vs 82.4%; P Conclusions Women receiving medical abortion were more satisfied with their method and more likely to choose the same method again than were subjects undergoing surgical abortion. We conclude that medical abortion can be used widely as an alternative method for early pregnancy termination.

  5. Perceptions and attitudes toward SLMTA amongst laboratory and hospital professionals in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lulie, Adino D; Hiwotu, Tilahun M; Mulugeta, Achamyeleh; Kebede, Adisu; Asrat, Habtamu; Abebe, Abnet; Yenealem, Dereje; Abose, Ebise; Kassa, Wondwossen; Kebede, Amha; Linde, Mary K; Ayana, Gonfa

    2014-01-01

    Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA) is a competency-based management training programme. Assessing health professionals' views of SLMTA provides feedback to inform program planning, implementation and evaluation of SLMTA's training, communication and mentorship components. To assess laboratory professionals' and hospital chief executive officers' (CEOs) perceptions and attitudes toward the SLMTA programme in Ethiopia. A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted in March 2013 using a structured questionnaire to collect qualitative data from 72 laboratory professionals and hospital CEOs from 17 health facilities, representing all regions and two city administrations in Ethiopia. Focus groups were conducted with laboratory professionals and hospital administration to gain insight into the strengths and challenges of the SLMTA programme so as to guide future planning and implementation. Ethiopian laboratory professionals at all levels had a supportive attitude toward the SLMTA programme. They believed that SLMTA substantially improved laboratory services and acted as a catalyst for total healthcare reform and improvement. They also noted that the SLMTA programme achieved marked progress in laboratory supply chain, sample referral, instrument maintenance and data management systems. In contrast, nearly half of the participating hospital CEOs, especially those associated with low-scoring laboratories, were sceptical about the SLMTA programme, believing that the benefits of SLMTA were outweighed by the level of human resources and time commitment required. They also voiced concerns about the cost and sustainability of SLMTA. This study highlights the need for stronger engagement and advocacy with hospital administration and the importance of addressing concerns about the cost and sustainability of the SLMTA programme.

  6. Perceptions and attitudes toward SLMTA amongst laboratory and hospital professionals in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adino D. Lulie

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA is a competency-based management training programme. Assessing health professionals’ views of SLMTA provides feedback to inform program planning, implementation and evaluation of SLMTA's training, communication and mentorship components. Objectives: To assess laboratory professionals’ and hospital chief executive officers’ (CEOs perceptions and attitudes toward the SLMTA programme in Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted in March 2013 using a structured questionnaire to collect qualitative data from 72 laboratory professionals and hospital CEOs from 17 health facilities, representing all regions and two city administrations in Ethiopia. Focus groups were conducted with laboratory professionals and hospital administration to gain insight into the strengths and challenges of the SLMTA programme so as to guide future planning and implementation. Results: Ethiopian laboratory professionals at all levels had a supportive attitude toward the SLMTA programme. They believed that SLMTA substantially improved laboratory services and acted as a catalyst for total healthcare reform and improvement. They also noted that the SLMTA programme achieved marked progress in laboratory supply chain, sample referral, instrument maintenance and data management systems. In contrast, nearly half of the participating hospital CEOs, especially those associated with low-scoring laboratories, were sceptical about the SLMTA programme, believing that the benefits of SLMTA were outweighed by the level of human resources and time commitment required. They also voiced concerns about the cost and sustainability of SLMTA. Conclusion: This study highlights the need for stronger engagement and advocacy with hospital administration and the importance of addressing concerns about the cost and sustainability of the SLMTA programme.

  7. Implementation of nursing process in clinical settings: the case of three governmental hospitals in Ethiopia, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semachew, Ayele

    2018-03-13

    The purpose of this survey was to evaluate the implementation of the nursing process at three randomly selected governmental hospitals found in Amhara Region North West Ethiopia. From the total 338 reviewed documents, 264 (78.1%) have a nursing process format attached with the patient's profile/file, 107 (31.7%) had no nursing diagnosis, 185 (54.7%) of nurses stated their plan of care based on priority, 173 (51.2%) of nurses did not document their interventions based on plan and 179 (53.0%) of nurses did not evaluate their interventions. The overall implementation of nursing process among Felege Hiwot Referal hospital, Debretabor general hospital and Finoteselam general hospitals were 49.12, 68.18, and 69.42% respectively. Nursing professionals shall improve documentation required in implementing the nursing process. Nursing managers (matron, ward heads) shall supervise the overall implementation of nursing process. Hospital nursing services managers (matrons) shall arrange and facilitate case presentations by the nursing staffs which focus on documentation and updates on nursing process. Hospitals need to establish and support nursing process coordinating staff in their institution.

  8. Prevalence of Anemia and Associated Risk Factors among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care in Azezo Health Center Gondar Town, Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meseret Alem

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Anemia is a global public health problem affecting both developing and developed countries; approximately 1.3 billion individuals suffer from it. Pregnant women are the most vulnerable groups to anemia. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors for anemia in pregnant women attending antenatal care in Azezo Health Center, Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Azezo Health Center from February to May 2011. Red blood cell morphology, Hgb level determination and intestinal parasites were assessed following the standard procedures. Socio-demographic data was collected by using a structured questionnaire. The data entered and analyzed by using the SPSS version 16.0 statistical software. P34, rural residence, history of malaria attack, hookworm infection and absence of iron supplements are significantly associated with increased risk of anemia. The most prevalent intestinal parasite among pregnant women was hookworm 18 (4.7%. Conclusion: In the present study, the prevalence of anemia was low when compared with the previous studies carried out in different countries including Ethiopia. More should be done in respect to the importance of regular visit to maternal care centres and health education promotion programs to succeed more. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2013; 1(3.000: 137-144

  9. Health Seeking Behaviour and Associated Factors among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Suspects in Lay Armachiho District, Northwest Ethiopia: A Community-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshetu Haileselassie Engeda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies in the northern part of Ethiopia showed high prevalence of undiagnosed cluster of tuberculosis cases within the community which demanded an investigation of the health care seeking behaviour of tuberculosis suspects. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Lay Armachiho district, Northwest Ethiopia. Individuals who had cough for at least two weeks and aged greater than or equal to 15 years were included in the study. Data were collected by interview using pretested and structured questionnaire. Logistic regression was computed and adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was calculated. Out of the total population surveyed (29, 735, 663 (2.2% individuals were found to be pulmonary tuberculosis suspects. Majority of the suspects reported that they had visited a modern health care facility. Those aged 15 to 34 and aged 35–54 had secondary educational level and above; those who were civil servants, those who were farmers, those who had previous history of tuberculosis treatment, and those who perceived that they were sick were more likely to visit a modern health care facility. The proportion of respondents who had taken traditional measures was found to be higher than some other districts. Improving the socioeconomic status of the community is recommended.

  10. Patients satisfaction with laboratory services at antiretroviral therapy clinics in public hospitals, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindaye, Tedla; Taye, Bineyam

    2012-07-04

    Despite the fact that Ethiopia has scale up antiretroviral treatment (ART) program, little is known about the patient satisfaction with ART monitoring laboratory services in health facilities. We therefore aimed to assess patient satisfaction with laboratory services at ART clinics in public hospitals. Hospital based, descriptive cross sectional study was conducted from October to November 2010 among clients attending in nine public hospitals ART clinics in Addis Ababa Ethiopia. Patients' satisfaction towards laboratory services was assessed using exit interview structured questionnaire. Data were coded and entered using EPI info 2002 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Atlanta, GA) and analyzed using SPSS version 15 software (SPSS INC, Chicago, IL, USA). A total of 406 clients were involved in the study. Of these 255(62.8%) were females. The overall satisfaction rate for ART monitoring laboratory services was (85.5%). Patients were satisfied with measures taken by health care providers to keep confidentiality and ability of the person drawing blood to answer question (98.3% and 96.3% respectively). Moreover, the finding of this study revealed, statistical significant associations between the overall patients' satisfaction with waiting time to get blood drawing service, availability of ordered laboratory tests and waiting time to get laboratory result with (p ART monitoring laboratory services compared to those who underwent for more than 30 minutes. Overall, the satisfaction survey showed, most respondents were satisfied with ART monitoring laboratory services. However, factors such as improving accessibility and availability of latrines should be taken into consideration in order to improve the overall satisfaction.

  11. Prevalence and factors associated with overweight and obesity among private kindergarten school children in Bahirdar Town, Northwest Ethiopia: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Yoseph; Derso, Terefe; Alene, Kefyalew Addis; Wassie, Molla Mesele

    2017-01-04

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, most nutrition efforts have concentrated on under-nutrition in children. However, national surveys rarely report the high prevalence of overweight and obesity among children. Likewise, in Ethiopia there is growing recognition of the emergence of a "double-burden" of malnutrition, with under and over nutrition occurring simultaneously among children, especially allied with improvements in socio-economic conditions. Hence, the study aimed to assess the prevalence and factors associated with overweight and obesity among private kindergarten school children aged 3-6 years in Bahirdar town, Northwest Ethiopia. A school-based cross sectional study was conducted in Bahirdar Town, northwest Ethiopia from August to September, 2015. Anthropometric measurements such as weight and height were taken from 462 private Kindergarten preschool children aged 3-6 years; socio-economic and demographic factors and feeding practices were collected by interviewing the, mothers or caregivers of the children. The z-score values for BMI-for-age of children were generated using Emergency Nutrition Assessment (ENA) for Standardized Monitoring and Assessment of Relief Transitions (SMART) 2011. Binary logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with overweight and obesity in children. Odds ratio with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated to show the strength of association. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was 6.9% [95% CI 2.4, 11.4]. The prevalence of overweight and obesity were 4.1 and 2.8%, respectively. The odds of overweight and obesity was higher among children with high dietary diversity score (DDS) [AOR = 5.12, 95% CI 1.42, 18.47], family size of less than five [AOR = 4.76, 95% CI 1.84, 12.31] and a family having a private car [AOR = 3.43, 95% CI 1.02, 11.49]. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among private kindergarten preschool children in the study area was high. Interventions on improving feeding

  12. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis and associated risk factors at cow and herd level in dairy farms in North-West Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, S A; Koop, G; Melkie, S T; Getahun, C D; Hogeveen, H; Lam, T J G M

    2017-09-15

    Knowledge of mastitis pathogens and their predominance as well as understanding of risk factors are prerequisites to improve udder health in a herd, region or country. In Ethiopia, such information is scarce, despite the fact that mastitis is an important cattle disease in the country. A cross-sectional study that describes prevalence and causative agents of subclinical mastitis (SCM) as well as risk factors at cow and herd level was conducted on 167 dairy farms in North-West Ethiopia. On average, 33% of the quarters and 62% of the cows were California Mastitis Test (CMT) positive, but the within herd quarter level prevalence ranged between 0 and 100%. A total of 1543 milk samples, being 27 quarters that showed signs of CM, 606 CMT positive quarters and 910 CMT negative quarters were cultured, respectively 40%, 67% and 47% was positive on bacteriological culture. Coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) (31%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (9%) were the pathogens most frequently isolated. Based on face-to-face questionnaire data, 35 herd level and 13 cow level factors were evaluated for their association with SCM (based on CMT) and with a positive culture for any bacteria, CNS or S. aureus. Cows with a history of CM, of higher parity, >150days in milk (DIM) and herds with owners that have >10th grade level of education had higher odds of SCM. The odds of being culture positive for any bacteria was higher in cows with ≥25% Holstein Friesian blood level (HBL), >150 DIM, housed on cemented floors, and milked by squeezing rather than stripping. Similarly, the odds of culturing CNS was higher in cows with 25-50% HBL, >150 DIM, and milked by squeezing. Staphylococcus aureus was more often found in cows with a history of CM and in larger herds. Checking the udder for mastitis, feeding cows according to their requirements and allowing calves to suckle the cows were negatively associated with SCM, with culturing any bacteria and with culturing CNS, respectively. Higher

  13. Routine health information system utilization and factors associated thereof among health workers at government health institutions in East Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiferaw, Atsede Mazengia; Zegeye, Dessalegn Tegabu; Assefa, Solomon; Yenit, Melaku Kindie

    2017-08-07

    Using reliable information from routine health information systems over time is an important aid to improving health outcomes, tackling disparities, enhancing efficiency, and encouraging innovation. In Ethiopia, routine health information utilization for enhancing performance is poor among health workers, especially at the peripheral levels of health facilities. Therefore, this study aimed to assess routine health information system utilization and associated factors among health workers at government health institutions in East Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted at government health institutions of East Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia from April to May, 2013. A total of 668 health workers were selected from government health institutions, using the cluster sampling technique. Data collected using a standard structured and self-administered questionnaire and an observational checklist were cleaned, coded, and entered into Epi-info version 3.5.3, and transferred into SPSS version 20 for further statistical analysis. Variables with a p-value of less than 0.05 at multiple logistic regression analysis were considered statistically significant factors for the utilization of routine health information systems. The study revealed that 45.8% of the health workers had a good level of routine health information utilization. HMIS training [AOR = 2.72, 95% CI: 1.60, 4.62], good data analysis skills [AOR = 6.40, 95%CI: 3.93, 10.37], supervision [AOR = 2.60, 95% CI: 1.42, 4.75], regular feedback [AOR = 2.20, 95% CI: 1.38, 3.51], and favorable attitude towards health information utilization [AOR = 2.85, 95% CI: 1.78, 4.54] were found significantly associated with a good level of routine health information utilization. More than half of the health workers working at government health institutions of East Gojjam were poor health information users compared with the findings of others studies. HMIS training, data

  14. Job satisfaction of nurses in Jimma University Specialized Teaching Hospital, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negussie, Nebiat

    2016-03-01

    In Ethiopia nurses have played a very important role in providing timely and quality health service in healthcare organizations. However, there is a limited literature in the area of nurses' job satisfaction in Ethiopian public hospitals. The objective of this research is to measure job satisfaction of nurses in Jimma University Specialized Teaching Hospital and to determine the influencing factors. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from January 2012 to June 2012 in Jimma University Specialized Teaching Hospital. All full-time nurses with nonsupervisory management position and more than 1 year of work experience were invited to participate in the study. Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire was used to collect the data. A total of 175 copies of the questionnaires were returned out of 186 copies distributed to the respondents. The results indicated that nurses were not satisfied by their job (mean=2.21, SD=0.52). Remuneration (r=0.71, Pjob advancement (r=0.69, Pjob satisfaction. Job security was associated with highest satisfaction (r=0.41, Pjob advancement were the most important factors for nurses' job satisfaction. Hospital administrators as well as health policy makers need to address the two major identified sources of nurses' job dissatisfaction in the study (i.e. remuneration and narrow opportunity of job advancement) and take appropriate measures to overcome their consequences.

  15. Survey of safety practices among hospital laboratories in Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewunet, Tsegaye; Kebede, Wakjira; Wondafrash, Beyene; Workalemau, Bereket; Abebe, Gemeda

    2014-10-01

    Unsafe working practices, working environments, disposable waste products, and chemicals in clinical laboratories contribute to infectious and non-infectious hazards. Staffs, the community, and patients are less safe. Furthermore, such practices compromise the quality of laboratory services. We conducted a study to describe safety practices in public hospital laboratories of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. Randomly selected ten public hospital laboratories in Oromia Regional State were studied from Oct 2011- Feb 2012. Self-administered structured questionnaire and observation checklists were used for data collection. The respondents were heads of the laboratories, senior technicians, and safety officers. The questionnaire addressed biosafety label, microbial hazards, chemical hazards, physical/mechanical hazards, personal protective equipment, first aid kits and waste disposal system. The data was analyzed using descriptive analysis with SPSS version16 statistical software. All of the respondents reported none of the hospital laboratories were labeled with the appropriate safety label and safety symbols. These respondents also reported they may contain organisms grouped under risk group IV in the absence of microbiological safety cabinets. Overall, the respondents reported that there were poor safety regulations or standards in their laboratories. There were higher risks of microbial, chemical and physical/mechanical hazards. Laboratory safety in public hospitals of Oromia Regional State is below the standard. The laboratory workers are at high risk of combined physical, chemical and microbial hazards. Prompt recognition of the problem and immediate action is mandatory to ensure safe working environment in health laboratories.

  16. Prevalence and associated factors of herbal medicine use among pregnant women on antenatal care follow-up at University of Gondar referral and teaching hospital, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekuria, Abebe Basazn; Erku, Daniel Asfaw; Gebresillassie, Begashaw Melaku; Birru, Eshetie Melese; Tizazu, Balem; Ahmedin, Alima

    2017-02-01

    Improving maternal and child health is one of the public health priorities in several African countries including Ethiopia. However, research on herbal medicine use during pregnancy is scarce in Ethiopia. The present study aimed at assessing the prevalence and correlates of herbal medicine use among pregnant women on antenatal care (ANC) follow-up at Gondar university referral hospital, Ethiopia METHODS: An institutional-based cross sectional study was conducted on 364 pregnant women attending ANC clinic from March to May 2016 at University of Gondar referral and teaching hospital, northwest Ethiopia. Data on socio-demography, pregnancy related information as well as herbal medicine use was collected through an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to determine prevalence and associated factors of herbal medicine use. From 364 respondents, 48.6% used herbal medicine during current pregnancy. ginger (40.7%) and garlic (19%) were the two most commonly used herbs in pregnancy. Common cold (66%) and inflammation (31.6%) were the most common reasons for herbal use. Majority of herbal medicine users (89.8%) had not consulted their doctors about their herbal medicine use. Rural residency (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 3.15, Confidence interval (CI): 1.17-6.14), illiteracy (AOR: 4.05, CI: 2.47-6.62) and average monthly income less than 100 USD (AOR: 3.08CI: 1.221-7.77) were found to be strong predictors of herbal medicine use. The use of herbal medicine during pregnancy is a common practice and associated with residency, level of education and average monthly income. From the stand point of high prevalence and low disclosure rate, the health care providers should often consult pregnant women regarding herbal medicine use.

  17. Urinary tract infection among fistula patients admitted at Hamlin fistula hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereje, Matifan; Woldeamanuel, Yimtubezinesh; Asrat, Daneil; Ayenachew, Fekade

    2017-02-16

    Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) causes a serious health problem and affects millions of people worldwide. Patients with obstetric fistula usually suffer from incontinence of urine and stool, which can predispose them to frequent infections of the urinary tract. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine the etiologic agents, drug resistance pattern of the isolates and associated risk factor for urinary tract infection among fistula patients in Addis Ababa fistula hospital, Ethiopia. Across sectional study was conducted from February to May 2015 at Hamlin Fistula Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Socio-demographic characteristics and other UTI related risk factors were collected from study participants using structured questionnaires. The mid-stream urine was collected and cultured on Cysteine lactose electrolyte deficient agar and blood agar. Antimicrobial susceptibility was done by using disc diffusion method and interpreted according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Data was entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 20. Out of 210 fistula patients investigated 169(80.5%) of the patient were younger than 25 years. Significant bacteriuria was observed in 122/210(58.1%) and 68(55.7%) of the isolates were from symptomatic cases. E.coli 65(53.7%) were the most common bacterial pathogen isolated followed by Proteus spp. 31(25.4%). Statistical Significant difference was observed with history of previous UTI (P = 0.031) and history of catheterization (P = 0.001). Gram negative bacteria isolates showed high level of resistance (>50%) to gentamicin and ciprofloxacin, while all gram positive bacteria isolated were showed low level of resistance (20-40%) to most of antibiotic tested. The overall prevalence of urinary tract infection among fistula patient is 58.1%. This study showed that the predominant pathogen of UTI were E.coli followed by Proteus spp. It also showed that amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was a drug of choice for urinary tract

  18. Health-related quality of life of HIV infected adults with and without Visceral Leishmaniasis in Northwest Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Alemayehu, Mekuriaw; Wubshet, Mamo; Mesfin, Nebiyu; Tamiru, Aschalew; Gebayehu, Abebaw

    2017-01-01

    Background Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important outcome measure among HIV infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). When HIV infected patients coinfected with Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) the problem become severe because VL accelerates HIV replication and disease progression. The impact of VL on the quality of life of HIV infected patients has not been studied. In this study in Ethiopia, we compared the quality of life of HIV infected patients with and withou...

  19. Prevalence, causes and management outcome of intestinal obstruction in Adama Hospital, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soressa, Urgessa; Mamo, Abebe; Hiko, Desta; Fentahun, Netsanet

    2016-06-04

    In Africa, acute intestinal obstruction accounts for a great proportion of morbidity and mortality. Ethiopia is one of the countries where intestinal obstruction is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. This study aims to determine prevalence, causes and management outcome of intestinal obstruction in Adama Hospital in Oromia region, Ethiopia. A hospital based cross-sectional study design was used. Data covering the past three years were collected from hospital medical records of sampled patients. The collected data were checked for any inconsistency, coded and entered into SPSS version 16.0 for data processing and analysis. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were used. Statistical significance was based on confidence interval (CI) of 95 % at a p-value of acute abdomen surgery and total surgical admissions, respectively. The mortality rate was 2.5 % (6 of 262). The most common cause of small bowel obstruction was intussusceptions in 48 patients (30.9 %), followed by small bowel volvulus in 47 patients (30.3 %). Large bowel obstruction was caused by sigmoid volvulus in 60 patients (69.0 %) followed by colonic tumor in 12 patients (13.8 %). After controlling for possible confounding factors, the major predictors of management outcome of intestinal obstruction were: duration of illness before surgical intervention (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.49, 95 % CI: 0.25-0.97); intra-operative findings [Viable small bowel volvulus (SBV) (AOR = 0.08, 95 % CI: 0.01-0.95) and viable (AOR = 0.17, 95 % CI: 0.03-0.88)]; completion of intra-operative procedures (bowel resection & anastomosis (AOR = 3.05, 95 % CI: 1.04-8.94); and length of hospital stay (AOR = 0.05, 95 % CI: 0.01-0.16). Small bowel obstruction was more prevalent than large bowel obstruction. Intussusceptions and sigmoid volvulus were the leading causes of small and large bowel obstruction. Laparotomy was the most common methods of intestinal obstruction management. Bowel

  20. Sex trafficking awareness and associated factors among youth females in Bahir Dar town, North-West Ethiopia: a community based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azage, Muluken; Abeje, Gedefaw; Mekonnen, Alemtsehay

    2014-07-16

    Sex trafficking is a contemporary issue in both developed and developing countries. The number of trafficked women and young girls has increased globally. Females aged 18-25 are the most targeted group of trafficking. Although the problem is evident in Ethiopia, there are no studies that explored sex trafficking awareness among females. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess sex trafficking awareness and associated factors among youth females in Bahir Dar town, North-West Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study design was employed to collect data from February 1st-30th 2012 from a total of 417 youth females. The participants in the study were selected using systematic random sampling techniques. A structured Amharic questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were entered, cleaned and analyzed using SPSS 16.0. Descriptive statistics were used to describe data. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with sex trafficking awareness. Two hundred forty-nine (60%) of the participants reported that they had heard or read about sex trafficking. Television (64%), friends (46%) and radio (39%) were the most frequently mentioned sources of information about sex trafficking. About 87% and 74% of the participants mentioned friends and brokers respectively as mediators of sex trafficking. Having TV at home (AOR = 2. 19, 95% CI: 1.31-3.67), completing grade 10 or more (AOR = 2. 22, 95% CI: 1.18-4.17), taking training on gender issues (AOR = 3. 59, 95% CI: 2.11-6.10) and living together with parents (AOR = 3. 65, 95% CI: 1.68-7.93) were factors found associated with sex trafficking awareness. In this study, sex trafficking awareness was low among youth females. Having TV at home, living together with someone and being trained on gender issues were predictors of sex trafficking awareness. Therefore, providing education about sex trafficking will help to increase sex trafficking awareness among youth females.

  1. Legal rights to safe abortion: knowledge and attitude of women in North-West Ethiopia toward the current Ethiopian abortion law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzeyen, R; Ayichiluhm, M; Manyazewal, T

    2017-07-01

    To assess women's knowledge and attitude toward Ethiopian current abortion law. A quantitative, community-based cross-sectional survey. Women of reproductive age in three selected lower districts in Bahir Dar, North-West Ethiopia, were included. Multi-stage simple random sampling and simple random sampling were used to select the districts and respondents, respectively. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire comprising questions related to knowledge and attitude toward legal status of abortion and cases where abortion is currently allowed by law in Ethiopia. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data and multivariable logistic regression computed to assess the magnitude and significance of associations. Of 845 eligible women selected, 774 (92%) consented to participate and completed the interview. A total of 512 (66%) women were aware of the legal status of the Ethiopian abortion law and their primary sources of information were electronic media such as television and radio (43%) followed by healthcare providers (38.7%). Among women with awareness of the law, 293 (57.2%) were poor in knowledge, 188 (36.7%) fairly knowledgeable, and 31 (6.1%) good in knowledge about the cases where abortion is allowed by law. Of the total 774 women included, 438 (56.5%) hold liberal and 336 (43.5%) conservative attitude toward legalization of abortion. In the multivariable logistic regression, age had a significant association with knowledge, whereas occupation had a significant association with attitude toward the law. Women who had poor knowledge toward the law were more likely to have conservative attitude toward the law (adjusted odds ratio, 0.40; 95% confidence interval, 0.23-0.61). Though the Ethiopian criminal code legalized abortion under certain circumstances since 2005, a significant number of women knew little about the law and several protested legalization of abortion. Countries such as Ethiopia with high maternal mortality records need to lift

  2. Determinants of severe anemia among laboring mothers in Mekelle city public hospitals, Tigray region, Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yirga Ebuy

    Full Text Available Anemia is a global public health problem that has affected a significant number of pregnant mothers worldwide. The World Health Organization has estimated the prevalence of anemia in pregnant women at 18% and 56% in developed and developing countries, respectively. This study aimed to identify factors associated with severe anemia among laboring women in Mekelle city public hospitals, Tigray, Ethiopia.This unmatched case-control study involved 264 (88 = cases and 176 = controls pregnant women who were recruited when they came for delivery service in Mekelle city public hospitals. The data was collected from July to August, 2016. In this study, a systematic sampling technique was used inselecting controls, but the cases were enrolled until the required sample size was reached. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to find predictors of severe anemia. Statistically significant predictors of severe anemia were identified at P-value <0.05 and 95% confidence interval.A total of 264 pregnant women who came for delivery services were enrolled in this study. The major predicting variables for the occurrence of severe anemia among laboring women were residency (AOR = 3.28, 95% CI: 1.26-8.48, number of pregnancies (AOR = 2.46, 95% CI: 1.14-5.29, iron folate supplementation (AOR = 3.29, 95% CI: 1.27-8.49, dietary diversification score (AOR = 3.23, 95% CI: 1.19-8.71 and duration of menstrual cycle (AOR = 2.37, 95% CI: 1.10-5.10. The variable 'blood loss during pregnancy' (AOR = 6.63 95% CI: 2.96-14.86 was identified as a strong predictor of the outcome variable, severe anemia.This study identified determinants of severe anemia among laboring women in Mekelle city public hospitals, Northern Ethiopia. To reduce anemia, strengthening health education provision related to the importance of birth spacing and consuming diversified and iron-enriched food should be considered. Moreover, screening of pregnant women for state of anemia during their

  3. Implementing health care reform: implications for performance of public hospitals in central Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyazewal, Tsegahun; Matlakala, Mokgadi C

    2018-06-01

    Understanding the way health care reforms have succeeded or failed thus far would help policy makers cater continued reform efforts in the future and provides insight into possible levels of improvement in the health care system. This work aims to assess and describe the implications of health care reform on the performance of public hospitals in central Ethiopia. A facility-based, cross-sectional study was carried out in five public hospitals with different operational characteristics that have been implementing health care reform in central Ethiopia. The reform documents were reviewed to assess the nature and targets of the reform for interpretive analysis. Adopting dimensions of health system performance as the theoretical framework, a self-administered questionnaire was developed. Consenting health care professionals who have been involved in the reform from inception to implementation filled the questionnaire. Cronbach's alpha was measured to ensure internal consistency of the instrument. Descriptive statistics, weighted median score, χ 2 , and Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for data analysis. s Despite implementation of the reform, the health care system in public hospitals was still fragmented as confirmed by 50% of respondents. Limited effects were reported in favour of quality (48%), access (50%), efficiency (51%), sustainability (53%), and equity (61%) of care, while poor effects were reported in patient-provider (41%) and provider-management (32%) interactions. Though there was substantial gain in infrastructure and workspace, stewardship of health care resources was less benefited. The predominant hindrances of the reform were the working environment (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) = 2.27, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15-4.47), financial resources (aOR = 3.54, 95%CI = 1.97-6.33), management (aOR = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.15-4.47), and information technology system (aOR = 3.15, 95% CI = 1.57-6.32). s The Ethiopian

  4. Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) survival in rural Northwest Ireland: 17 years' experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Masterson, Siobhán

    2011-05-01

    SAVES, the name used to describe a register of survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), was established in rural Northwest Ireland in 1992. From 1992 to 2008, 80 survivors were identified (population 239,000 (2006)). Most incidents were witnessed (69\\/70) and all were in shockable rhythm at the time of first rhythm analysis (66\\/66). Of 66 patients who could be traced, 46 were alive in December 2008. Average survival rates appeared to increase over the lifetime of the database. SAVES has also contributed to the development of a national OHCA register.

  5. Development of pediatric emergency medicine at Addis Ababa University/Tikuranbessa Specialized Hospital, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefera, Muluwork; Bacha, Tigist; Butteris, Sabrina; Teshome, Getachew; Ross, Joshua; Hagen, Scott; Svenson, Jim; Busse, Heidi; Tefera, Girma

    2014-07-01

    In the world emergencies occur everywhere, and each day they consume ressources regardless of whether there are systems capable of achieving good outcomes. Low-income countries suffer the most highest rates of every category of injury--from traffic and the highest rates of acute complications of communicable diseases including tuberculosis, malaria and HIV. To describe the development of pediatrics emergency medicine at Tikur Anbesa Specialized Hospital A twinning partnership model was used in developing a pediatric emergency medicine training program helps in development of pediatrics emergency system. Strengthening the capacity of Addis Ababa University (AAU), Tikur Anbessa Hospital (TASH) to provide pediatric emergency medical services through improved organization of the pediatrics emergency department and strengthening of continuing education opportunities for faculty and staff capacity building by this improving quality of care in pediatrics patients in the country. The Addis Ababa University, University of Wiscosin and People to People partners intend to continue working together to strengthening and developing effetive systems to deliver quality pediatrics emergency medicine care troughout all regions of Ethiopia.

  6. Depression and anxiety disorder among epileptic people at Amanuel Specialized Mental Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegegne, Minale Tareke; Mossie, Tilahun Belete; Awoke, Andargie Abate; Assaye, Ashagre Molla; Gebrie, Belete Temitm; Eshetu, Desalegn Asmare

    2015-09-02

    Although depression and anxiety disorders are very common in people with epilepsy; there are no studies that assessed the magnitude and associated factors among epileptic people in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study determined prevalence and associated factors of depression and anxiety disorders in people with epilepsy. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May, 2013, among 423 people with epilepsy from the outpatient department of Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital. Depression and anxiety were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess predictors of depression and anxiety. The prevalence of anxiety and depression among epileptic people were 33.5 and 32.8%, respectively. Monthly income, frequency of seizure and side effects of anti convulsants were found to be significantly associated with both depression and anxiety. Being divorced/widowed was associated with anxiety while using poly-therapy of anti convulsants, perceived stigma, and inability to read or write were associated with depression. The prevalence of co-morbid anxiety and depression was found to be high among people with epilepsy. Early identification of co-morbid depression and anxiety in people with epilepsy and managing epilepsy to become seizure free should be of great concern for health care providers.

  7. Using Qualitative Methods to Explore Lay Explanatory Models, Health-Seeking Behaviours and Self-Care Practices of Podoconiosis Patients in North-West Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison S Banks

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Podoconiosis (endemic non-filarial elephantiasis is a chronic, non-infectious disease resulting from exposure of bare feet to red-clay soil in tropical highlands. This study examined lay beliefs about three under-researched aspects of podoconiosis patients' care: explanatory models, health-seeking behaviours and self-care.In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were undertaken with 34 participants (19 male, 15 female between April-May 2015 at podoconiosis treatment centres across East and West Gojjam regions in north-west Ethiopia.Explanatory models for podoconiosis included contamination from blood, magic, soil or affected individuals. Belief in heredity or divine punishment often delayed clinic attendance. All participants had tried holy water treatment and some, holy soil. Herbal treatments were considered ineffectual, costly and appeared to promote fluid escape. Motivators for clinic attendance were failure of traditional treatments and severe or disabling symptoms. Patients did not report self-treatment with antibiotics. Self-care was hindered by water being unavailable or expensive and patient fatigue.A pluralistic approach to podoconiosis self-treatment was discovered. Holy water is widely valued, though some patients prefer holy soil. Priests and traditional healers could help promote self-care and "signpost" patients to clinics. Change in behaviour and improving water access is key to self-care.

  8. Using Qualitative Methods to Explore Lay Explanatory Models, Health-Seeking Behaviours and Self-Care Practices of Podoconiosis Patients in North-West Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Harrison S.; Tsegay, Girmay; Wubie, Moges; Tamiru, Abreham; Davey, Gail; Cooper, Max

    2016-01-01

    Background Podoconiosis (endemic non-filarial elephantiasis) is a chronic, non-infectious disease resulting from exposure of bare feet to red-clay soil in tropical highlands. This study examined lay beliefs about three under-researched aspects of podoconiosis patients’ care: explanatory models, health-seeking behaviours and self-care. Methods In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were undertaken with 34 participants (19 male, 15 female) between April-May 2015 at podoconiosis treatment centres across East and West Gojjam regions in north-west Ethiopia. Results Explanatory models for podoconiosis included contamination from blood, magic, soil or affected individuals. Belief in heredity or divine punishment often delayed clinic attendance. All participants had tried holy water treatment and some, holy soil. Herbal treatments were considered ineffectual, costly and appeared to promote fluid escape. Motivators for clinic attendance were failure of traditional treatments and severe or disabling symptoms. Patients did not report self-treatment with antibiotics. Self-care was hindered by water being unavailable or expensive and patient fatigue. Conclusion A pluralistic approach to podoconiosis self-treatment was discovered. Holy water is widely valued, though some patients prefer holy soil. Priests and traditional healers could help promote self-care and “signpost” patients to clinics. Change in behaviour and improving water access is key to self-care. PMID:27536772

  9. Adverse selection and supply-side factors in the enrollment in community-based health insurance in Northwest Ethiopia: A mixed methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atafu, Asmamaw; Kwon, Soonman

    2018-05-20

    Since 2010, the Ethiopian government introduced different measures to implement community-based health insurance (CBHI) schemes to improve access to health service and reduce the catastrophic effect of health care costs. The aim of this study was to examine the determinants of enrollment in CBHI in Northwest Ethiopia. In this study, we utilized a mix of quantitative (multivariate logistic regression applied to population survey linked with health facility survey) and qualitative (focus group discussion and in-depth interview) methods to better understand the factors that affect CBHI enrollment. The study revealed important factors, such as household, informal association, and health facility, as barriers to CBHI enrollment. Age and educational status, self-rated health status, perceived quality of health services, knowledge, and information (awareness) about CBHI were among the characteristics of individual household head, affecting enrollment. Household size and participation in an informal association, such as local credit associations, were also positively associated with CBHI enrollment. Additionally, health facility factors like unavailability of laboratory tests were the main factor that hinders CBHI enrollment. This study showed a possibility of adverse selection in CBHI enrollment. Additionally, perceived quality of health services, knowledge, and information (awareness) are positively associated with CBHI enrollment. Therefore, policy interventions to mitigate adverse selection as well as provision of social marketing activities are crucial to increase enrollment in CBHI. Furthermore, policy interventions that enhance the capacity of health facilities and schemes to provide the promised services are necessary. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Using Qualitative Methods to Explore Lay Explanatory Models, Health-Seeking Behaviours and Self-Care Practices of Podoconiosis Patients in North-West Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Harrison S; Tsegay, Girmay; Wubie, Moges; Tamiru, Abreham; Davey, Gail; Cooper, Max

    2016-08-01

    Podoconiosis (endemic non-filarial elephantiasis) is a chronic, non-infectious disease resulting from exposure of bare feet to red-clay soil in tropical highlands. This study examined lay beliefs about three under-researched aspects of podoconiosis patients' care: explanatory models, health-seeking behaviours and self-care. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were undertaken with 34 participants (19 male, 15 female) between April-May 2015 at podoconiosis treatment centres across East and West Gojjam regions in north-west Ethiopia. Explanatory models for podoconiosis included contamination from blood, magic, soil or affected individuals. Belief in heredity or divine punishment often delayed clinic attendance. All participants had tried holy water treatment and some, holy soil. Herbal treatments were considered ineffectual, costly and appeared to promote fluid escape. Motivators for clinic attendance were failure of traditional treatments and severe or disabling symptoms. Patients did not report self-treatment with antibiotics. Self-care was hindered by water being unavailable or expensive and patient fatigue. A pluralistic approach to podoconiosis self-treatment was discovered. Holy water is widely valued, though some patients prefer holy soil. Priests and traditional healers could help promote self-care and "signpost" patients to clinics. Change in behaviour and improving water access is key to self-care.

  11. Knowledge and Attitude towards Exclusive Breast Feeding among Mothers Attending Antenatal and Immunization Clinic at Dabat Health Center, Northwest Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Institution Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulugeta Wassie Alamirew

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. To assess knowledge and attitude towards exclusive breast feeding among mothers attending antenatal care and immunization clinic in Dabat Health Center, Northwest Ethiopia, 2016. Methodology. Institutional based descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted. The data was collected by using pretested, structured interview based questionnaires. The data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Result. A total of 384 participants were included in the study with a response rate of 100%. The majority were in the age groups of 20–30 (66.9% and the mean age was 27.65; 325 (84.6% were Orthodox Christianity followers. Majority were of Amhara ethnicity 370 (96.4%. Based on knowledge score, 268 (69.8% were grouped as having good knowledge and regarding attitudinal score, 92 (24% of the study participants were categorized as having negative attitude towards exclusive breast feeding (EBF and the remaining 292 (76% were categorized as having positive attitude. Conclusion. In this study, the knowledge of study participant mothers towards EBF is low which is less than three-fourths; however positive attitude towards EBF is more than three-fourths in this study. The authors recommend that health care workers who work in the areas of maternal and child health clinic should give appropriate information about EBF.

  12. Knowledge and Attitude towards Exclusive Breast Feeding among Mothers Attending Antenatal and Immunization Clinic at Dabat Health Center, Northwest Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Institution Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamirew, Mulugeta Wassie; Bayu, Netsanet Habte; Birhan Tebeje, Nigusie; Kassa, Selam Fiseha

    2017-01-01

    To assess knowledge and attitude towards exclusive breast feeding among mothers attending antenatal care and immunization clinic in Dabat Health Center, Northwest Ethiopia, 2016. Institutional based descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted. The data was collected by using pretested, structured interview based questionnaires. The data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. A total of 384 participants were included in the study with a response rate of 100%. The majority were in the age groups of 20-30 (66.9%) and the mean age was 27.65; 325 (84.6%) were Orthodox Christianity followers. Majority were of Amhara ethnicity 370 (96.4%). Based on knowledge score, 268 (69.8%) were grouped as having good knowledge and regarding attitudinal score, 92 (24%) of the study participants were categorized as having negative attitude towards exclusive breast feeding (EBF) and the remaining 292 (76%) were categorized as having positive attitude. In this study, the knowledge of study participant mothers towards EBF is low which is less than three-fourths; however positive attitude towards EBF is more than three-fourths in this study. The authors recommend that health care workers who work in the areas of maternal and child health clinic should give appropriate information about EBF.

  13. Implementation of the WHO multimodal Hand Hygiene Improvement Strategy in a University Hospital in Central Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfäfflin, Frieder; Tufa, Tafese Beyene; Getachew, Million; Nigussie, Tsehaynesh; Schönfeld, Andreas; Häussinger, Dieter; Feldt, Torsten; Schmidt, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    The burden of health-care associated infections in low-income countries is high. Adequate hand hygiene is considered the most effective measure to reduce the transmission of nosocomial pathogens. We aimed to assess compliance with hand hygiene and perception and knowledge about hand hygiene before and after the implementation of a multimodal hand hygiene campaign designed by the World Health Organization. The study was carried out at Asella Teaching Hospital, a university hospital and referral centre for a population of about 3.5 million in Arsi Zone, Central Ethiopia. Compliance with hand hygiene during routine patient care was measured by direct observation before and starting from six weeks after the intervention, which consisted of a four day workshop accompanied by training sessions and the provision of locally produced alcohol-based handrub and posters emphasizing the importance of hand hygiene. A second follow up was conducted three months after handing over project responsibility to the Ethiopian partners. Health-care workers' perception and knowledge about hand hygiene were assessed before and after the intervention. At baseline, first, and second follow up we observed a total of 2888, 2865, and 2244 hand hygiene opportunities, respectively. Compliance with hand hygiene was 1.4% at baseline and increased to 11.7% and 13.1% in the first and second follow up, respectively (p hand hygiene was consistent across professional categories and all participating wards and was independently associated with the intervention (adjusted odds ratio, 9.18; 95% confidence interval 6.61-12.76; p hand hygiene actions. The median hand hygiene knowledge score overall was 13 (interquartile range 11-15) at baseline and increased to 17 (15-18) after training (p hand hygiene is feasible and sustainable in a resource-constrained setting using a multimodal improvement strategy. However, absolute compliance remained low. Strong and long-term commitment by hospital management and

  14. Prevalence and determinants of erectile dysfunction among diabetic patients attending in hospitals of central and northwestern zone of Tigray, northern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seid, Awole; Gerensea, Hadgu; Tarko, Shambel; Zenebe, Yosef; Mezemir, Rahel

    2017-03-15

    The prevalence of erectile dysfunction among diabetic men varies between 35-90%. Although erectile dysfunction is widespread among men with diabetes, the condition often remains undiagnosed and demands appropriate assessment and prompt treatment. Erectile dysfunction can affect all aspects of a patient's life including physical, emotional, social, sexual, and relationships. The main aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and determinants of erectile dysfunction among diabetic patients attending hospitals in the Central and Northwest zone of Tigray, Ethiopia. A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted on 249 male diabetic patients attending five hospitals in the Central and Northwestern Zone of Tigray, Ethiopia using systematic random sampling. The data was collected from January 1 - February 30, 2016 and was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Correlation and multivariate logistic regression was employed to test associations between independent and outcome variables. The mean age of study participants was 43.39 years and the mean duration of diabetes diagnosis was 6.22 years. The overall prevalence of erectile dysfunction was 69.9%, with 32.9% suffering from mild, 31.7% moderate, and 5.2% severe erectile dysfunction. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that erective dysfunction was significantly predicted by old age (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] =15.013, CI:3.212-70.166), longer duration of diabetes (AOR = 3.77, CI:1.291-11.051), and lower monthly income (AOR = 0.285, CI:0.132-0.615). No association was found with body mass index, co-morbidity, glycemic control, and alcohol consumption. The prevalence of erective dysfunction in this study population was very high. Age, income, and duration of diabetes were the independent predictors of erectile dysfunction. Nearly all of the patients in the sample (97%) had not been screened or treated for erectile dysfunction. Assessment and management of erectile dysfunction in the

  15. Use of herbal medicine among pregnant women on antenatal care at nekemte hospital, Western ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayisa, Bodena; Tatiparthi, Ramanjireddy; Mulisa, Eshetu

    2014-11-01

    Investigations across the world confirm dramatic increment in the use of complementary and alternative medicine in pregnant women. The most important aspect is lack of awareness of pregnant women about potential effects of using traditional medicine on fetus; some herbal products may be teratogenic in human and animal models. In this area, so far, no research has been conducted in Ethiopia to assess traditional medicine use in pregnant women. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and use of herbal drugs among pregnant women attending Nekemte Hospital to provide baseline information for future studies. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted by quantitative and qualitative approaches to identify the prevalence of using herbal medicines among pregnant women. About 50.4% of study participants used herbal drugs during their pregnancy. The proportion of herbal drug usage was gradually decreased along with the first, second and third trimesters of pregnancy. The most and least commonly used herbs were ginger (44.36%) and tenaadam (9.15 %), respectively. The common indications of herbal remedies use during pregnancy were nausea (23.90%) and morning sickness (21.05%). The result of the present study confirmed wide use of herbal drugs use during pregnancy that need to report the safety concerns of these drugs during pregnancy. To achieve the requirements of pregnant women, it is vital for health care workers to be familiar with the effect of herbal medicine in pregnancy.

  16. Prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis and assessment of trypanocidal drug resistance in tsetse infested and non-tsetse infested areas of Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimelis Dagnachew

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Northwestern region of Ethiopia is affected by both tsetse and non-tsetse transmitted trypanosomosis with a significant impact on livestock productivity. The control of trypanosomosis in Ethiopia relies on either curative or prophylactic treatment of animals with diminazene aceturate (DA or isometamidium chloride (ISM. In the present work; questionnaire survey, cross-sectional and experimental studies were carried out to; a assess the utilization of trypanocidal drugs; b determine the prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis and; c assess the drug resistant problems respectively in Tsetse and non-tsetse infested areas on NW Ethiopia. A total of 100 respondents were included for the survey and the questionnaires focused on the drug utilization practices for the control of Trypanosomosis. Blood from cattle 640 (324 cattle tested in 2011, 316 cattle tested in 2012 and 795 (390 cattle tested in 2011, 405 cattle tested in 2012 were examined from tsetse infested and non-tsetse infested areas respectively using the buffy coat technique and thin blood smear for the detection of trypanosomes and measurement of packed cell volume (PCV. For the assessment of trypanocidal drug resistance three isolates, one from tsetse (TT and two from non-tsetse (NT areas were used on thirty six trypanosome naïve calves. The experimental animals were divided randomly into six groups of six animals (TT-ETBS2-DA, TT-ETBS2-ISM, NT-ETBD2-DA, NT-ETBD2-ISM, NT-ETBD3-DA and NT-ETBD3-ISM, which were infected with T. vivax isolated from a tsetse-infested or non-tsetse infested area with 2 × 106 trypanosomes from donor animals, and in each case treated with higher dose of DA or ISM. The results of the questionnaire survey showed trypanosomosis was a significant animal health constraint for 84% and 100% of the farmers questioned in non-tsetse and tsetse infested areas of Northwest Ethiopia respectively. Responses on trypanocidal drug utilization practices indicated that risk

  17. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among food handlers at cafeteria of Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hundaol Girma

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence of intestinal parasites and associated risk factors among food-handlers working at cafeteria of Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Jimma, Ethiopia. Methods: Socio-demographic and associated risk factors data were collected using a pretested structured questionnaire. Stool and finger-nail specimens were screened for intestinal parasites using direct wet mount and formol-ether concentration sedimentation techniques. Data were edited, cleaned, entered and analyzed using statistical package for social science (SPSS version 20. P ≤ 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results: A total of 94 food-handlers working at cafeteria of Jimma University Specialized Hospital were participated in the study. From the total 148 samples (94 stool and 54 fingernails content examined, 31 (33% were positive for one or more parasites. Over all eight types of intestinal parasites were identified. The most prevalent parasite identified was Ascaris lumbricoides (16% followed by Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (4.3%. There was significant association between parasitic infection and food handlers who did not practice hand washing after defecation and before serving food. Conclusions: Relatively high prevalence of intestinal parasites is detected indicating poor hygiene practice of the food-handlers at the study site. The study also identified finger-nail status, hand washing after defecation and before serving food as determinants of intestinal parasitic infection. It is crucial for provision of regular training on strict adherence to good personal hygiene and hygienic food-handling practices as well as regular inspection and medical checkup of food-handlers.

  18. Schistosoma mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths among preschool-aged children in Chuahit, Dembia district, Northwest Ethiopia: prevalence, intensity of infection and associated risk factors.

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    Alemu, Agersew; Tegegne, Yalewayker; Damte, Demekech; Melku, Mulugeta

    2016-05-23

    Intestinal schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis are the major public health problems globally. Compared with any other age group, pre-school aged children and school-aged children are the most exposed. There are few studies showing the burden of intestinal schistosomiasis, and soil-transmitted helminthiasis among pre-school aged children in Ethiopia. Hence, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of schistosoma mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths and associated risk factors among preschool aged children of Chuahit and surrounding Kebeles, Northwest Ethiopia. A community based cross sectional study was conducted from February 2 to March 27 2015. Four hundred one preschool-aged children were included in the study by using two stage cluster sampling technique. Pretested structured questionnaire was employed to collected data via face-to-face interview technique. A single stool specimen was collected, and a portion of the sample was processed by Kato Katz method. Of the total children, 141 (35.2 %) harbored one or more intestinal helminthes. Schistosoma mansoni was found in 45 (11.2 %) of preschool age children. Ascaris lumbricoides was the predominant isolate, 77 (19.2 %) followed by S. mansoni, 45 (11.2 %). The least parasites isolated were Tania species, 2 (0.5 %). After adjusting for other variables, being mothers who did not have the habit of washing hands after toilet (AOR = 7.3, 95%CI: 2.97-17.95), being occupationally housewife mothers (AOR = 8.9, 95%CI: 2.27-25.4), using protected spring water as a main family source of water (AOR = 3.9, 95%CI: 1.2-12.3) and child habit of not wearing shoe (AOR = 1.91, 95%CI: 1.01-3.64) were significantly associated with high prevalence of soil-transmitted helminthiasis among preschool-age children in Chuahit. The current study showed that relatively higher level of STH and S. mansoni among preschool-aged children in Chuahit. This finding calls for a need of public health education

  19. Schistosoma mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths among preschool-aged children in Chuahit, Dembia district, Northwest Ethiopia: prevalence, intensity of infection and associated risk factors

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    Agersew Alemu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis are the major public health problems globally. Compared with any other age group, pre-school aged children and school-aged children are the most exposed. There are few studies showing the burden of intestinal schistosomiasis, and soil-transmitted helminthiasis among pre-school aged children in Ethiopia. Hence, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of schistosoma mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths and associated risk factors among preschool aged children of Chuahit and surrounding Kebeles, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross sectional study was conducted from February 2 to March 27 2015. Four hundred one preschool-aged children were included in the study by using two stage cluster sampling technique. Pretested structured questionnaire was employed to collected data via face-to-face interview technique. A single stool specimen was collected, and a portion of the sample was processed by Kato Katz method. Results Of the total children, 141 (35.2 % harbored one or more intestinal helminthes. Schistosoma mansoni was found in 45 (11.2 % of preschool age children. Ascaris lumbricoides was the predominant isolate, 77 (19.2 % followed by S. mansoni, 45 (11.2 %. The least parasites isolated were Tania species, 2 (0.5 %. After adjusting for other variables, being mothers who did not have the habit of washing hands after toilet (AOR = 7.3, 95%CI: 2.97–17.95, being occupationally housewife mothers (AOR = 8.9, 95%CI: 2.27–25.4, using protected spring water as a main family source of water (AOR = 3.9, 95%CI: 1.2–12.3 and child habit of not wearing shoe (AOR = 1.91, 95%CI: 1.01–3.64 were significantly associated with high prevalence of soil-transmitted helminthiasis among preschool-age children in Chuahit. Conclusion The current study showed that relatively higher level of STH and S. mansoni among preschool-aged children in

  20. Undernutrition and associated factors among children aged 6-59 months in East Belesa District, northwest Ethiopia: a community based cross-sectional study

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    Wagaye Fentahun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Undernutrition remains the major public health concern in Ethiopia and continues as the underlying cause of child mortality. However, there is a scarcity of information on the magnitude and determinant factors of undernutrition. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of undernutrition and associated factors among children aged 6–59 months in East Belesa District, northwest Ethiopia. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May, 2014. A multistage stratified sampling technique was used to select 633 study participants. A structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. In order to identify factors associated with undernutrition (stunting and wasting a multivariate logistic regression analysis was employed. The Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR with a 95 % Confidence Interval (CI was computed to show the strength of the association. In the multivariate analysis, variables with a p-value of <0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results In this study, about 57.7 and 16 % of the children were stunted and wasted, respectively. The odds of stunting were higher in children born to mothers who gave their first birth before 15 years of age (AOR = 2.4; 95 % CI: 1.19, 5.09 and gave prelacteal feeding to their child (AOR = 1.83; 95 % CI: 1.28, 2.61. However, lower odds of stunting were observed among children aged 36–47 months (AOR = 0.41; 95 % CI: 0.22, 0.78 and had higher family monthly income, Et. Br. 750–1000, (AOR = 0.61; 95 % CI: 0.39, 0.92. Moreover, the odds of wasting were higher among children who received butter as prelacteal food (AOR = 2.32; 95 % CI:1.82, 5.31. Conclusion Child undernutrition is a critical public health problem in the study area. Advanced age of children (36–47 months and higher family monthly income were inversely associated with stunting. However, higher odds of stunting were observed among

  1. Trends and causes of maternal mortality in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, southwest Ethiopia: a matched case–control study

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    Legesse T

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Tegene Legesse,1 Misra Abdulahi,2 Anteneh Dirar2 1Department of Public Health, Collage of Health Science, Mizan-Tepi University, Mizan Teferi, Ethiopia; 2Department of Population and Family Health, College of Health Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia Introduction: Measures of maternal death are fundamental to a country’s health and development status. In developing countries, it remains a daunting and largely unmet public health challenge. There were two studies completed over 10 years ago in Jimma University Specialized Hospital to identify trends, but recently there have been many changes in Ethiopia to reduce maternal death. Therefore, it is important to track the achievements made in Ethiopia in the context of Jimma University Specialized Hospital. No study undertaken in the country has quantified deaths of women from specific causes after controlling confounders.Objective: To assess trends and causes of maternal death in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, southwest Ethiopia.Methods: A time-matched case–control study was conducted on 600 (120 cases and 480 controls females who utilized obstetrics and gynecology services from January 2010 to December 2014. To observe trends in maternal death, maternal mortality ratio was calculated for each year. Stata version 13 was used to analyze causal inference using propensity score matching method.Results: Maternal mortality ratio was 857/100,000 and had a decreasing trend from it’s highest in 2010 of 1,873/100,000 to it’s lowest of 350/100,000 in 2014. The leading cause of maternal death was hemorrhage (54% (β=0.477, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.307, 0.647, followed by pregnancy-induced hypertension (20% (β=0.232, 95% CI: 0.046, 0.419, and anemia (12% (β=0.110, 95% CI: 0.017, 0.204.Conclusion: There is a decreasing trend of maternal death. Hemorrhage was the major cause of death identified in each year of study. Keywords: maternal death, maternal

  2. Overweight/Obesity and associated factors among preschool children in Gondar City, Northwest Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study.

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    Sorrie, Muluken Bekele; Yesuf, Melkie Edris; GebreMichael, Tsgehana GebreGyorgis

    2017-01-01

    Overweight and obesity among children has emerged as one of the most serious public health concerns in the 21st century, which is a predictor of adulthood obesity, morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of overweight /obesity and associated factors among preschool children. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Gondar City from February 14 to March 4, 2016. Multi stage sampling technique was used to select a total of 504 preschool children. Data were collected using structured interviewer administered questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. Data were entered using Epidata version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20 and WHO 2007 Anthro version 2.0.4 software. Both bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to identify associated factors. P values 2hr/day [AOR = 4.01 (95%CI;2.22, 7.26)] and mother's education at secondary level [AOR = 0.35 (95% CI; 0.12, 0.96)] were associated with overweight/obesity among preschool children. Once considered a high income country problem, result of this study in urban city like Gondar reveals that overweight/obesity is on the rise in urban Ethiopia, which indicates the need for formulating preventive programs and policies during a child's early years.

  3. Overweight/Obesity and associated factors among preschool children in Gondar City, Northwest Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study.

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    Muluken Bekele Sorrie

    Full Text Available Overweight and obesity among children has emerged as one of the most serious public health concerns in the 21st century, which is a predictor of adulthood obesity, morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of overweight /obesity and associated factors among preschool children.A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Gondar City from February 14 to March 4, 2016. Multi stage sampling technique was used to select a total of 504 preschool children. Data were collected using structured interviewer administered questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. Data were entered using Epidata version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20 and WHO 2007 Anthro version 2.0.4 software. Both bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to identify associated factors. P values 2hr/day [AOR = 4.01 (95%CI;2.22, 7.26] and mother's education at secondary level [AOR = 0.35 (95% CI; 0.12, 0.96] were associated with overweight/obesity among preschool children.Once considered a high income country problem, result of this study in urban city like Gondar reveals that overweight/obesity is on the rise in urban Ethiopia, which indicates the need for formulating preventive programs and policies during a child's early years.

  4. Assessment of the health care waste generation rates and its management system in hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2011

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    Debere Mesfin Kote

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare waste management options are varying in Ethiopia. One of the first critical steps in the process of developing a reliable waste management plan requires a widespread understanding of the amount and the management system. This study aimed to assess the health care waste generation rate and its management system in some selected hospitals located in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods Six hospitals in Addis Ababa, (three private and three public, were selected using simple random sampling method for this work. Data was recorded by using an appropriately designed questionnaire, which was completed for the period of two months. The calculations were based on the weights of the health care wastes that were regularly generated in the selected hospitals over a one week period during the year 2011. Average generation indexes were determined in relation to certain important factors, like the type of hospitals (public vs private. Results The median waste generation rate was found to be varied from 0.361- 0.669 kg/patient/day, comprised of 58.69% non-hazardous and 41.31% hazardous wastes. The amount of waste generated was increased as the number of patients flow increased (rs=1. Public hospitals generated high proportion of total health care wastes (59.22% in comparison with private hospitals (40.48%. The median waste generation rate was significantly vary between hospitals with Kruskal-Wallis test (X2=30.65, p=0.0001. The amount of waste was positively correlated with the number of patients (p Conclusion These findings revealed that the management of health care waste at hospitals in Addis Ababa city was poor.

  5. Analysis of economic burden for patients with cystic echinococcosis in five hospitals in northwest China.

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    Wang, Le; Wen, Hao; Feng, Xiaohui; Jiang, Xiaoming; Duan, Xinyu

    2012-12-01

    The direct and indirect economic burden of human cystic echinococcosis (CE) was investigated in the five specialist hydatid hospitals in Xinjiang, PR China, to provide information for health policy in the future. A total of 2018 CE patients (age range 2-88 years) attending the hospitals were studied between 2004 and 2008. The per-person direct medical cost was US$1493.12 (95% CI 1438.43-1547.80) and the per-person direct non-medical cost was US$19.67. The indirect economic cost was US$1435.96 per person, and the disability-adjusted life-years (DALY) lost was approximately 1.03 DALY/person. This study is the first to combine the human capital method with DALYs to analyse the indirect CE economic burden in northwest China. Factors such as age, occupation and hospital level should be considered when developing polices to reduce the economic burden of CE. Copyright © 2012 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Implementation of the WHO multimodal Hand Hygiene Improvement Strategy in a University Hospital in Central Ethiopia

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    Frieder Pfäfflin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The burden of health-care associated infections in low-income countries is high. Adequate hand hygiene is considered the most effective measure to reduce the transmission of nosocomial pathogens. We aimed to assess compliance with hand hygiene and perception and knowledge about hand hygiene before and after the implementation of a multimodal hand hygiene campaign designed by the World Health Organization. Methods The study was carried out at Asella Teaching Hospital, a university hospital and referral centre for a population of about 3.5 million in Arsi Zone, Central Ethiopia. Compliance with hand hygiene during routine patient care was measured by direct observation before and starting from six weeks after the intervention, which consisted of a four day workshop accompanied by training sessions and the provision of locally produced alcohol-based handrub and posters emphasizing the importance of hand hygiene. A second follow up was conducted three months after handing over project responsibility to the Ethiopian partners. Health-care workers’ perception and knowledge about hand hygiene were assessed before and after the intervention. Results At baseline, first, and second follow up we observed a total of 2888, 2865, and 2244 hand hygiene opportunities, respectively. Compliance with hand hygiene was 1.4% at baseline and increased to 11.7% and 13.1% in the first and second follow up, respectively (p < 0.001. The increase in compliance with hand hygiene was consistent across professional categories and all participating wards and was independently associated with the intervention (adjusted odds ratio, 9.18; 95% confidence interval 6.61-12.76; p < 0.001. After the training, locally produced alcohol-based handrub was used in 98.4% of all hand hygiene actions. The median hand hygiene knowledge score overall was 13 (interquartile range 11–15 at baseline and increased to 17 (15–18 after training (p < 0.001. Health

  7. Survey of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus and intestinal parasites among food handlers working at Gondar University, Northwest Ethiopia.

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    Dagnew, Mulat; Tiruneh, Moges; Moges, Feleke; Tekeste, Zinaye

    2012-10-02

    Food borne disease are major health problems in developing countries like Ethiopia. Food handlers with poor personal hygiene working in food establishments could be potential sources of disease due to pathogenic organisms. However; information on disease prevalence among food handlers working in University of Gondar cafeterias are very scarce. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus, their drug resistance pattern and prevalence of intestinal parasites among food handlers working in University of Gondar student's cafeterias. A cross sectional study was conducted among food handlers working in University of Gondar student's cafeterias. A pretested structured questionnaire was used for collecting data. Nasal swab and stool were investigated for S. aureus and intestinal parasites; respectively as per the standard of the laboratory methods. Among 200 food handlers, females comprised 171(85.5%). The majority (67.5%) of the food-handlers were young adults aged 18-39 years. One hundred ninety four (97%) of the food handlers were not certified as a food handler. Forty one (20.5%) food handlers were positive for nasal carriage of S. aureus, of these 4(9.8%) was resistant for methicilin. Giardia lamblia was the most prevalent parasites 22 (11%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides 13(6.5%), Entamoeba histolytica 12 (6%), Strongyloides stercolaris (0.5), Taenia species 1(0.5%) and Schistosoma mansoni 1(0.5%). The finding stressed that food handlers with different pathogenic micro organisms may pose significant risk on the consumers. Higher officials should implement food handler's training on food safety, periodic medical checkup and continuous monitoring of personal hygiene of food handlers.

  8. Survey of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus and intestinal parasites among food handlers working at Gondar University, Northwest Ethiopia

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    Dagnew Mulat

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food borne disease are major health problems in developing countries like Ethiopia. Food handlers with poor personal hygiene working in food establishments could be potential sources of disease due to pathogenic organisms. However; information on disease prevalence among food handlers working in University of Gondar cafeterias are very scarce. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus, their drug resistance pattern and prevalence of intestinal parasites among food handlers working in University of Gondar student’s cafeterias. Method A cross sectional study was conducted among food handlers working in University of Gondar student’s cafeterias. A pretested structured questionnaire was used for collecting data. Nasal swab and stool were investigated for S. aureus and intestinal parasites; respectively as per the standard of the laboratory methods. Results Among 200 food handlers, females comprised 171(85.5%. The majority (67.5% of the food-handlers were young adults aged 18–39 years. One hundred ninety four (97% of the food handlers were not certified as a food handler. Forty one (20.5% food handlers were positive for nasal carriage of S. aureus, of these 4(9.8% was resistant for methicilin. Giardia lamblia was the most prevalent parasites 22 (11%, followed by Ascaris lumbricoides 13(6.5%, Entamoeba histolytica 12 (6%, Strongyloides stercolaris (0.5, Taenia species 1(0.5% and Schistosoma mansoni 1(0.5%. Conclusion The finding stressed that food handlers with different pathogenic micro organisms may pose significant risk on the consumers. Higher officials should implement food handler’s training on food safety, periodic medical checkup and continuous monitoring of personal hygiene of food handlers.

  9. Malaria helminth co-infections and their contribution for aneamia in febrile patients attending Azzezo health center, Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

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    Alemu, Abebe; Shiferaw, Yitayal; Ambachew, Aklilu; Hamid, Halima

    2012-10-01

    To assess the prevalence of malaria helminth co-infections and their contribution for aneamia in febrile patients attending Azzezo health center, Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia. A cross section study was conducted among febrile patients attending Azezo health center from February-March 30, 2011. Convenient sampling technique was used to select 384 individuals. Both capillary blood and stool were collected. Giemsa stained thick and thin blood film were prepared for identification of Plasmodium species and stool sample was examined by direct wet mount and formalin-ether concentration technique for detection of intestinal helminthes parasites. Haemoglobin concentration was determined using a portable haemoglobin spectrophotometer, Hemocue Hb 201 analyzer. Out of 384 febrile patients examined for malaria parasites, 44 (11.5%) individuals were positive for malaria parasites, of which Plasmodium vivax accounted for 75.0% (33), Plasmodium falciparum for 20.5% (9) infectious, whereas two person (4.5%) had mixed species infection. Prevalence of malaria was higher in males (28) when compared with prevalence in females (16). More than half (207, 53.9%) of study participants had one or more infection. Prevalence was slightly higher in females (109, 52.7%) than in males (98, 47.3%). About helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides was the predominant isolate (62.1%) followed by hookworms (18.4%). Only 22 participants were co-infected with malaria parasite and helminths and co-infection with Ascaris lumbricoides was predominant (45.0%). The prevalence of anemia was 10.9% and co-infection with Plasmodium and helminth parasites was significantly associated with (Pparasitic infections is very crucial to improve health of the affected communities in economically developing countries. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of residence on mothers' health care seeking behavior for common childhood illness in Northwest Ethiopia: a community based comparative cross--sectional study.

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    Gelaw, Yalemzewod Assefa; Biks, Gashaw Andargie; Alene, Kefyalew Addis

    2014-10-08

    Children are at higher risk of acquiring infections and developing severe disease. This study assessed the health care seeking behavior and associated factors of urban and rural mothers for common childhood illness in Northwest Ethiopia. A comparative community based cross-sectional study was conducted among urban and rural mothers living in the district. A multistage sampling technique was used to select the study participants. A pre-tested and structured questioner via interview was used to collect the data. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify associated factors. Odds ratio with 95% CI was computed to assess the strength of the associations. A total of 827 (274 urban and 553 rural) mothers were interviewed. Among these, 79.3% (95% CI: (76.5%, 82.06%)) of the mothers were sought health care in the district. Health care seeking behavior was higher among urban mothers (84.6%) than rural mothers (76.7%). Marital status, completion health extension package, and sex of child were significantly associated with health care seeking behavior of urban mothers. Whereas age of child, age and occupation of mothers, educational level of fathers, wealth quintile, and type of reported illness were significantly associated with rural mothers. Perceived severity of illness was significantly associated with both urban and rural mothers for health care seeking behavior. The overall health seeking behaviors of mothers for common childhood illness was high. However, urban mothers seek health care more than rural. Socio Economic position and types of reported illness has an effect for health seeking behavior of rural mothers. Whereas child sex preference and graduation status for health extension package has an effect for health care seeking behavior of urban mothers. Work on strengthen accessibility of health care services in the rural mothers and increase awareness of mothers about the disadvantage of sex preferences will improve the health care seek behavior of

  11. The detection and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Shigella isolates from meat and swab samples at butchers' shops in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia.

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    Garedew, Legesse; Hagos, Zenabu; Zegeye, Bidir; Addis, Zelalem

    2016-01-01

    Food borne pathogens are major causes of deaths, illnesses and billions of dollars of expenses. The burden of food borne illness is worsened by the ever increasing rate of antimicrobial resistance microbes. Shigella, a bacterial pathogen associated with food, is reported to account for higher prevalence rates of food borne illness in different settings. A cross-sectional study was conducted from February 10 to June 30, 2013, at the butcher houses of Gondar town in the Northwest of Ethiopia to assess the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Shigella. Cattle raw meat and swab samples from selected critical control points, including knives, chopping boards, and the hands and noses of butchers, were collected and analyzed. The identification of Shigella was carried out using colony characteristics, the Gram reaction, and biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The overall hygienic status of the butcher shops was also assessed using a checklist. An observational analysis revealed that the sanitary condition of the butcher shops and their premises was poor. Of 306 samples screened, 10.5% were positive for Shigella. Approximately 7.4% of meat samples and 10.2% of swab samples were contaminated with Shigella. Out of the total Shigella isolates, 90.6%, 46.9%, 18.8% and 9.4% were resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin, ceftriaxone and tetracycline, respectively. A multidrug resistance pattern was recorded in 27.8% of the isolates. In conclusion, the safety of meat sold at Gondar butchers houses was poor. The identified Shigella isolates showed high levels of drug resistance and multidrug resistance patterns for commonly used antimicrobials in veterinary and human medicine. Practicing wise use of antimicrobials and strict sanitary interventions at different critical control points is strongly recommended, in addition to further in-depth studies to prevent unprecedented consequences from

  12. Prevalence of stunting and its associated factors among children 6-59 months of age in Libo-Kemekem district, Northwest Ethiopia; A community based cross sectional study.

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    Geberselassie, Selamawit Bekele; Abebe, Solomon Mekonnen; Melsew, Yayehirad Alemu; Mutuku, Shadrack Mulinge; Wassie, Molla Mesele

    2018-01-01

    Children in developing countries are highly vulnerable to impaired physical growth because of poor dietary intake, lack of appropriate care, and repeated infections. This study aimed at assessing the prevalence of stunting and associated factors among children 6-59 months of age in Libo-kemekem district, northwest Ethiopia. A community based cross sectional study was conducted in Libo-Kemekem from October 15 to December 15, 2015. The multistage sampling technique was employed to select 1,320 children aged 6-59months. Data were collected by trained community health extension workers under regular supervision. Data were entered into EPI-Info version 3.5.1, and height for age was converted to Z-score with ENA-SMART software. Data were then exported to SPSS version 20 for descriptive and binary logistic regression analysees. The significance of associations was determined at p<0.05. Out of 1287 children included in the analysis, 49.4% (95% CI: 46.7%-52.3%) were found to be stunted. In the multivariate analysis, increased child age [AOR = 6.31, 95%CI: (3.65, 10.91)], family size of six and above [AOR = 1.77, 95%CI: (1.35, 2.32)] were positively associated with stunting, while, fathers with secondary school education [AOR = 0.50, 95%CI: (0.30, 0.81)], farmers as household heads [AOR = 0.56, 95%CI: (0.38, 0.84)] and self-employed parents as household head [AOR = 0.45, 95% CI: (0.28, 0.72)] were found to be preventive factors. The prevalence of stunting was high in the study area. We found that stunting was significantly correlated with child age, occupational status of household head, family size, and fathers' education. Therefore, intervention focusing on supporting housewives, family planning, and education on child feeding and nutrition should be implemented.

  13. Infant feeding practice and associated factors of HIV positive mothers attending prevention of mother to child transmission and antiretroviral therapy clinics in Gondar Town health institutions, Northwest Ethiopia

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    Muluye Dagnachew

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been estimated that 430,000 children under 15 years of age were newly infected with HIV in 2008, and more than 71% are living in sub-Saharan Africa. In the absence of intervention to prevent mother-to-child transmission, 30-45% of infants born to HIV-positive mothers in developing countries become infected during pregnancy, delivery and breastfeeding. The aim of this study was to assess infant feeding practice and associated factors of HIV positive mothers attending prevention of mother to child transmission and antiretroviral therapy clinics of Northwest Ethiopia. Methods Institution based cross sectional study was conducted from January to May 2011 among all HIV positive mothers with less than two years old child attending prevention of mother to child transmission and antiretroviral therapy clinics in Gondar Town health institutions. A structured pre-tested questionnaire using interview technique was used for data collection. The data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 16 statistical package. Results A total of 209 HIV positive mothers were included in the study. Of these, 187 (89.5% had followed the recommended way of infant feeding practice while significant percentage (10.5% had practiced mixed breast feeding. In multivariate analysis, disclosure of HIV status with their spouse, insufficient breast milk and occupational status were found to be independently associated (p-value of Conclusions Higher proportion of respondents used the recommended way of infant feeding practice by WHO as well as by Ethiopian Ministry of Health. However, mixed feeding in the first 6 months of age, an undesirable practice in infant feeding, were reported in this study. Infant feeding education that is aligned to national policy should be strengthened in primary health care, particularly in situations where prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV is prioritized.

  14. The Relationship between Place of Residence and Hospitalization Rate in the Biggest Referral Hospital of the Northwest according to Hospitalization Wards

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    Amin Talebpour

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ​ Background and objectives: In accordance with the global pattern, the urban population in Iran is higher than the rural population. But, are the statistics of using hospitalization services in public hospitals in these two categories similar to this pattern? This study seeks to determine the effect of place of residence on hospitalization rate by examining annual hospitalization statistics of the country’s biggest referral hospital in the northwest. Material and Methods: The method used in this study is cross-sectional and all cases of hospitalization in Imam Reza Hospital as the northwest’s biggest referral hospital were picked by available sampling method. The cases of 30260 hospitalized patients were examined through direct observation and items extracted from their files were recorded in the checklist. In order to determine the relations between the variables, K2 test was applied and the P-value was considered less than 0.05 The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS.16 software. Results: Results indicated that the frequency distribution of patients in terms of their urban or rural residence did not yield any significant difference (P>0/05. Results also showed that the highest hospitalization rate for urban patients was 16.1% (3305 individuals in surgery ward while it was 14.2% (1384 individuals for rural patients in orthopedic ward. The least significant statistical difference between urban and rural hospitalization rates was observed in renal ward with 72.9% (1162 individual urban patients and 27.1% (432 individuals rural patients of total patients hospitalized in this ward. The most significant statistical difference between urban and rural hospitalization rates was observed in ICU with 44.9% (297 individuals urban patients and 55.1% (365 individuals rural patients of the total patients hospitalized in this ward. Conclusion: A relative comparison among illnesses in urban and rural populations, aside from illnesses caused by trauma

  15. Patterns of treatment seeking behavior for mental illnesses in Southwest Ethiopia: a hospital based study

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    Tesfaye Markos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early recognition of the signs and symptoms of mental health disorders is important because early intervention is critical to restoring the mental as well as the physical and the social health of an individual. This study sought to investigate patterns of treatment seeking behavior and associated factors for mental illness. Methods A quantitative, institution-based cross sectional study was conducted among 384 psychiatric patients at Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH located in Jimma, Ethiopia from March to April 2010. Data was collected using a pretested WHO encounter format by trained psychiatric nurses. Data was analyzed using SPSS V.16. Result Major depression disorder 186 (48.4%, schizophrenia 55 (14.3% and other psychotic disorders 47 (12.2% were the most common diagnoses given to the respondents. The median duration of symptoms of mental illness before contact to modern mental health service was 52.1 weeks. The main sources of information for the help sought by the patients were found to be family 126 (32.8% and other patients 75 (19.5%. Over a third of the patients 135 (35.2%, came directly to JUSH. Half of the patients sought traditional treatment from either a religious healer 116 (30.2% or an herbalist 77 (20.1% before they came to the hospital. The most common explanations given for the cause of the mental illness were spiritual possession 198 (51.6% and evil eye 61 (15.9%, whereas 73 (19.0% of the respondents said they did not know the cause of mental illnesses. Nearly all of the respondents 379 (98.7% believed that mental illness can be cured with modern treatment. Individuals who presented with abdominal pain and headache were more likely to seek care earlier. Being in the age group 31-40 years had significant statistical association with delayed treatment seeking behavior. Conclusions There is significant delay in modern psychiatric treatment seeking in the majority of the cases. Traditional healers

  16. Prevalence of hypertension and its risk factors in southwest Ethiopia: a hospital-based cross-sectional survey

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    Gudina EK

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Esayas Kebede Gudina,1 Yadani Michael,1 Sahilu Assegid2 1Department of Internal Medicine, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia; 2Department of Epidemiology, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia Background: Hypertension is a common medical condition worldwide. It is an important public health challenge because of the associated morbidity, mortality, and the cost to the society. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypertension and its risk factors among attendants of adult outpatient departments at Jimma University Specialized Hospital in southwest Ethiopia. Materials and methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 734 participants aged 15 years or older from May 2012 to June 2012. A pretested structured questionnaire consisting of characteristics related to sociodemographic profiles and risk factors for hypertension was used for data collection. Three separate measurements of blood pressure and relevant anthropometric evaluation were taken according to current recommended standards. Chi-square test and other statistical analyses were done to employ appropriate interpretations of the findings. P-values of <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: The mean age of the participants was 42.3 ± 13.2 years and 71.7% of them were 35 years and older; 58% of them were females. Overall prevalence of hypertension – defined by systolic blood pressure ≥140 and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 or reporting history of hypertension – was found to be 13.2%. Only 35.1% of them were aware of their hypertension and only 23.7% were on treatment. The overall control rate was 15.5%. Family history of hypertension, having diabetes mellitus, being overweight, and oral contraceptive use were associated with high blood pressure. Conclusion: Hypertension was found to be prevalent; morbidity, awareness, treatment, and control in those with hypertension were low. Hence, intervention measures should be undertaken

  17. Complementary Feeding Practice of Mothers and Associated Factors in Hiwot Fana Specialized Hospital, Eastern Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semahegn, Agumasie; Girma, Gezahegn Tesfaye

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Background:- In developing world infant and child mortality remain quite high. Malnutrition remains one of the main public health problems in Ethiopia that contributing to 53% of infant and child mortality. Over one third of under-five mortality is caused by under nutrition related to inadequate complementary feeding. Child feeding behaviors are an evidence that having important for a children intellectual, health and survival. Therefore, the objective of the study was to assess of complementary feeding practice of mothers to their young child. Method:- Cross sectional study design was conducted to assess complementary feeding practice of mothers to their young children in Hiwot Fana specialized hospital in January 2013. Two hundred mothers to child pairs were participate in the study to assess their timely initiation practice of complementary feeding and associated factors. Data were collected by using semi-structured questionnaire for face to face interview method. Descriptive statistics, binary and multiple logistic regressions were used for data analysis. Results: The prevalence of timely initiate of complementary feeding was 60.5%. Nineteen percent of mothers were initiating complementary feeding early (before 6 months). The reason for too early initiation of complementary feeding was lack of knowledge and perceived inadequate breast milk production by mothers were 17(47.2%), 11(30.6%) respectively. Mothers have male child three times more likely timely initiate complementary feeding than female child [AOR = 2.9, 95% CI, 1.2, 7.3]. This might be due to traditional gender norm that discriminate female feeding “female eat little talk little” this might start at early age life. Conclusion: More than half of them initiated complementary feeding timely which was low. The main reason reported by the mothers for early initiation of complementary feeding was lack of knowledge. Mothers who have male child were three times more likely timely initiate

  18. Analysis of HBV basal core promoter/precore gene variability in patients with HBV drug resistance and HIV co-infection in Northwest Ethiopia.

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    Yeshambel Belyhun

    -infected blood donors and CLD patients since none of them developed the YMDD RT motif associated 3TC/ETV resistance mutations. However, HBV mono-infected blood donors and CLD patients who had no any drug resistance gene variants developed comparable G1862T (60.6% vs. 65.1% and G1896A (24.2% vs. 11.6% PC gene mutations.No correlation observed between the BCP/PC genome variability and the YMDD RT motif associated HBV drug resistance gene variants during HIV co-infection. Nevertheless, irrespective of HIV co-infection status, the higher records of the BCP/PC gene variability in this study setting indicate a high risk of potential HBeAg negative chronic HBV infection in Northwest Ethiopia.

  19. HIV, appendectomy and postoperative complications at a reference hospital in Northwest Tanzania: cross-sectional study

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    Heukelbach Jorg

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appendicitis is a frequent surgical emergency worldwide. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of HIV, and the association of infection with clinical, intraoperative and histological findings and outcome, among patients with appendicitis. Methods We performed a cross sectional study at Weill-Bugando Medical Centre in northwest Tanzania. In total, 199 patients undergoing appendectomy were included. Demographic characteristics of patients, clinical features, laboratory, intraoperative and histopathological findings, and HIV serostatus were recorded. Results In total, 26/199 (13.1% were HIV-seropositive. The HIV-positive population was significantly older (mean age: 38.4 years than the HIV-negative population (25.3 years; p Conclusion HIV infections are common among patients with appendicitis in Tanzania, and are associated with severe morbidity, postoperative complications and longer hospital stays. Early diagnosis of appendicitis and prompt appendectomy are crucial in areas with high prevalence of HIV infection. Routine pre-test counseling and HIV screening for appendicitis patients is recommended to detect early cases who may benefit from HAART.

  20. Prevalence of mental distress and associated factors among undergraduate students of University of Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional institutional based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachew, Berihun Assefa; Azale Bisetegn, Telake; Berhe Gebremariam, Resom

    2015-01-01

    Mental health problems affect society as a whole and no group is immune to mental disorders; however, students have significantly high level of mental distress than their community peers. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of mental distress among undergraduate students of University of Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia. Institution based cross sectional study was conducted among 836 students from April 9-11/2014. Stratified multistage sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Data were collected using pretested and structured self-administered questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression model was fitted to identify factors associated with mental distress among students. An adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was computed to determine the level of significance. Prevalence of mental distress among students was found to be 40.9%. Female sex (AOR = 1.65; 95% CI 1.17-2.30), lack of interest towards their field of study (AOR = 2.28; 95% CI 1.49-3.50), not having close friends (AOR = 1.48; 95% CI 1.03-2.14), never attend religious programs (AOR = 1.58; 95% CI 1.02-2.46), conflict with friends (AOR = 1.93; 95% CI 1.41-2.65), having financial distress (AOR1.49 = 95% CI 1.05, 2.10), family history of mental illness (AOR = 2.12; 95% CI 1.31-3.45), Ever use of Khat (AOR = 1.71; 95% CI 1.12-2.59), lower grade than anticipated(AOR = 2.07; 95% CI 1.51-2.83), lack of vacation or break (AOR = 1.46; 95% CI 1.06-2.02), and low social support(AOR = 2.58; 95% CI 1.58-4.22) were significantly associated with mental distress. The overall prevalence of mental distress among students was found to be high. Therefore, it is recommended that mental distress needs due attention and remedial action from policy makers, college officials, non-governmental organizations, parents, students and other concerned bodies.

  1. Prevalence of mental distress and associated factors among undergraduate students of University of Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional institutional based study.

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    Berihun Assefa Dachew

    Full Text Available Mental health problems affect society as a whole and no group is immune to mental disorders; however, students have significantly high level of mental distress than their community peers.The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of mental distress among undergraduate students of University of Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia.Institution based cross sectional study was conducted among 836 students from April 9-11/2014. Stratified multistage sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Data were collected using pretested and structured self-administered questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression model was fitted to identify factors associated with mental distress among students. An adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was computed to determine the level of significance.Prevalence of mental distress among students was found to be 40.9%. Female sex (AOR = 1.65; 95% CI 1.17-2.30, lack of interest towards their field of study (AOR = 2.28; 95% CI 1.49-3.50, not having close friends (AOR = 1.48; 95% CI 1.03-2.14, never attend religious programs (AOR = 1.58; 95% CI 1.02-2.46, conflict with friends (AOR = 1.93; 95% CI 1.41-2.65, having financial distress (AOR1.49 = 95% CI 1.05, 2.10, family history of mental illness (AOR = 2.12; 95% CI 1.31-3.45, Ever use of Khat (AOR = 1.71; 95% CI 1.12-2.59, lower grade than anticipated(AOR = 2.07; 95% CI 1.51-2.83, lack of vacation or break (AOR = 1.46; 95% CI 1.06-2.02, and low social support(AOR = 2.58; 95% CI 1.58-4.22 were significantly associated with mental distress.The overall prevalence of mental distress among students was found to be high. Therefore, it is recommended that mental distress needs due attention and remedial action from policy makers, college officials, non-governmental organizations, parents, students and other concerned bodies.

  2. Tuberculosis infection control practices and associated factors among health care workers in health centers of West Gojjam zone, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamir, Kassahun; Wasie, Belaynew; Azage, Muluken

    2016-08-08

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global health problem. The emerging epidemic of multi- and extensively drug-resistant (M/XDR) TB further imperils health workers, patients and public health. Health facilities with inadequate infection control are risky environments for the emergence and transmission of TB. There was no study that presented data on infection control practices of health care workers. This study aimed to assess tuberculosis infection control practices and associated factors among health care workers in West Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia. Institution based quantitative cross-sectional study triangulated with qualitative observation and key informant interview was conducted. Six hundred sixty two health care workers were selected by multistage random sampling method. Self-administered structured questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data. Observation checklists and key informant interview guides were used to collect qualitative data. Quantitative data were entered in to Epi Info version 3.5.3 and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Odds ratio with 95 % confidence interval was used to identify factors associated with TB infection control practice of health care workers. Qualitative data were translated, transcribed, analyzed and triangulated with the quantitative findings. The proportion of proper TB infection control (TBIC) practices was 38 %. Qualitative data showed that administrative, environmental and personal respiratory protection control measures were not practiced well. Knowledge on the presence of TBIC plan [AOR = 4.25, 95 % CI: 2.46 - 7.35], knowledge on the presence of national guideline [AOR = 8.95, 95 % CI: 4.35 - 18.40] and working department of the health care workers were independent predictors of TBIC practices. The proportion of proper TBIC practices of health care workers was low. TBIC practices were determined by knowing the presence of TBIC plan and national guideline and working department. Hence, supportive

  3. Demand for long acting contraceptive methods and associated factors among family planning service users, Northwest Ethiopia: a health facility based cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalew, Saleamlak Adbaru; Zeleke, Berihun Megabiaw; Teferra, Alemayehu Shimeka

    2015-02-04

    Demand for long acting contraceptive methods is one of the key factors for total fertility rate and reproductive health issues. Increased demand for these methods can decline fertility rate through spacing and limiting family size in turn improving maternal and family health and socioeconomic development of a country. The aim of this study was to assess demand for long acting contraceptives and associated factors among family planning users in Debre-Tabor Town, Northwest Ethiopia. Facility based cross-sectional study was conducted from July to August 2013. Data was collected on 487 current family planning users through face to face interview using structured questionnaire. Study participants were selected by systematic sampling method. Data were entered in to Epi Info and analyzed by using SPSS version 20. Bi-variable and multi-variable regression analyses were done to identify factors associated with demand for long acting contraceptive methods. Odds ratio with 95% CI was used to assess the association between the independent variables and demand for long acting family planning methods. The study showed that, demand for long acting contraceptives was 17%. Only 9.2% of the women were using long acting contraceptive methods (met need). About 7.8% of women were using short acting methods while they actually want to use long acting methods (unmet need). Demand for LACMs was positively associated 3 with being a daily labour (AOR = 3.87, 95% CI = [1.06, 14.20]), being a student (AOR = 2.64, 95% CI = [1.27, 5.47]), no future birth intensions (AOR = 2.17, 95% CI = [1.12, 4.23]), having five or more children (AOR = 1.67, 95% CI = [1.58, 4.83]), deciding together with husbands for using the methods (AOR = 2.73, 95% CI = [1.40, 5.32]) and often having discussion with husband (AOR = 3.89, 95% CI = [1.98, 7.65]). Clients treated poorly by the health care providers during taking the services was negatively associated with demand for LACMs (AOR = 0.42, 95% CI = [0.24, 0

  4. Prevalence of anemia and associated factors among school children in Gondar town public primary schools, northwest Ethiopia: A school-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getaneh, Zegeye; Enawgaw, Bamlaku; Engidaye, Getabalew; Seyoum, Masresha; Berhane, Muruts; Abebe, Zegeye; Asrie, Fikir; Melku, Mulugeta

    2017-01-01

    Anemia is a global public health problem affecting 305 million school children (SC) worldwide. It has deleterious effects in SC, including lower school achievement due to impaired cognitive development and physical growth, fatigue and poor attention span, and increased morbidity because of reduced resistance to infection. Hence, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of anemia among SC attending public primary schools in Gondar town, northwest Ethiopia. A school-based cross sectional study was conducted on a total of 523 SC aged from 6-14 years old. Multi-stage sampling followed by systematic random sampling techniques were employed to select study participants. Data on socio-demographic and socio-economic characteristics, and dietary status of children were collected using pre-tested structured questionnaire through face-to-face interview of children's caregivers. Anthropometric measurements were taken. Hemoglobin (Hb) concentration was determined by using HemoCue 301+analyser. Stool and blood samples were collected in the school premises, and examined for intestinal and hemoparasites, respectively. Data were entered into Epi Info version 3.5.3 and transferred to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Bivariate and multivariate binary logistic regression models were fitted to identify associated factors of anemia. P-value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Of the total SC participated in the study, 269 (51.4%) were males. The median (inter quartile range (IQR)) age was 12 (10-13) years, and 332 (63.5%) of them were in the age group 11-14 years. About 81 (15.5%; 95%CI: 12.4%, 18.7%) of them were anemic: 56 (69.1%) and 25 (38.9%) of them were mildly and moderately anemic, respectively. Low maternal education (AOR = 2.30; 95%CI: 1.11, 4.78), stunting (AOR = 2.22; 95%CI: 1.30, 3.80), severe food insecurity (AOR = 5.11; 95%CI: 1.53, 17.13), and soil-transmitted helminthic (STH) infection (AOR = 7.13; 95%CI: 3.16, 16.86) were

  5. Prevalence of anemia and associated factors among school children in Gondar town public primary schools, northwest Ethiopia: A school-based cross-sectional study.

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    Zegeye Getaneh

    Full Text Available Anemia is a global public health problem affecting 305 million school children (SC worldwide. It has deleterious effects in SC, including lower school achievement due to impaired cognitive development and physical growth, fatigue and poor attention span, and increased morbidity because of reduced resistance to infection. Hence, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of anemia among SC attending public primary schools in Gondar town, northwest Ethiopia.A school-based cross sectional study was conducted on a total of 523 SC aged from 6-14 years old. Multi-stage sampling followed by systematic random sampling techniques were employed to select study participants. Data on socio-demographic and socio-economic characteristics, and dietary status of children were collected using pre-tested structured questionnaire through face-to-face interview of children's caregivers. Anthropometric measurements were taken. Hemoglobin (Hb concentration was determined by using HemoCue 301+analyser. Stool and blood samples were collected in the school premises, and examined for intestinal and hemoparasites, respectively. Data were entered into Epi Info version 3.5.3 and transferred to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Bivariate and multivariate binary logistic regression models were fitted to identify associated factors of anemia. P-value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.Of the total SC participated in the study, 269 (51.4% were males. The median (inter quartile range (IQR age was 12 (10-13 years, and 332 (63.5% of them were in the age group 11-14 years. About 81 (15.5%; 95%CI: 12.4%, 18.7% of them were anemic: 56 (69.1% and 25 (38.9% of them were mildly and moderately anemic, respectively. Low maternal education (AOR = 2.30; 95%CI: 1.11, 4.78, stunting (AOR = 2.22; 95%CI: 1.30, 3.80, severe food insecurity (AOR = 5.11; 95%CI: 1.53, 17.13, and soil-transmitted helminthic (STH infection (AOR = 7.13; 95%CI: 3.16, 16

  6. Serological evidence of Leishmania donovani infection in apparently healthy dogs using direct agglutination test (DAT) and rk39 dipstick tests in Kafta Humera, north-west Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalayou, S.; Tadelle, H.; Bsrat, A.; Abebe, N.; Haileselassie, M.; Schallig, H. D. F. H.

    2011-01-01

    Leishmania (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) are protozoan parasites of significant medical and veterinary importance. Over the last decade, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has emerged as a major opportunistic infection associated with HIV/AIDS in North Western Ethiopia. This paper reports on

  7. Prevalence and Predictors of Maternal Anemia during Pregnancy in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia: An Institutional Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alem, Meseret; Enawgaw, Bamlaku

    2014-01-01

    Background. Anaemia is a global public health problem which has an eminence impact on pregnant mother. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and predictors of maternal anemia. Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted from March 1 to April 30, 2012, on 302 pregnant women who attended antenatal care at Gondar University Hospital. Interview-based questionnaire, clinical history, and laboratory tests were used to obtain data. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to identify predictors. Result. The prevalence of anemia was 16.6%. Majority were mild type (64%) and morphologically normocytic normochromic (76%) anemia. Anemia was high at third trimester (18.9%). Low family income (AOR [95% CI] = 3.1 [1.19, 8.33]), large family size (AOR [95% CI] = 4.14 [4.13, 10.52]), hookworm infection (AOR [95% CI] = 2.72 [1.04, 7.25]), and HIV infection (AOR [95% CI] = 5.75 [2.40, 13.69]) were independent predictors of anemia. Conclusion. The prevalence of anemia was high; mild type and normocytic normochromic anemia was dominant. Low income, large family size, hookworm infection, and HIV infection were associated with anemia. Hence, efforts should be made for early diagnosis and management of HIV and hookworm infection with special emphasis on those having low income and large family size. PMID:24669317

  8. Prevalence and Predictors of Maternal Anemia during Pregnancy in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia: An Institutional Based Cross-Sectional Study

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    Mulugeta Melku

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Anaemia is a global public health problem which has an eminence impact on pregnant mother. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and predictors of maternal anemia. Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted from March 1 to April 30, 2012, on 302 pregnant women who attended antenatal care at Gondar University Hospital. Interview-based questionnaire, clinical history, and laboratory tests were used to obtain data. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to identify predictors. Result. The prevalence of anemia was 16.6%. Majority were mild type (64% and morphologically normocytic normochromic (76% anemia. Anemia was high at third trimester (18.9%. Low family income (AOR [95% CI] = 3.1 [1.19, 8.33], large family size (AOR [95% CI] = 4.14 [4.13, 10.52], hookworm infection (AOR [95% CI] = 2.72 [1.04, 7.25], and HIV infection (AOR [95% CI] = 5.75 [2.40, 13.69] were independent predictors of anemia. Conclusion. The prevalence of anemia was high; mild type and normocytic normochromic anemia was dominant. Low income, large family size, hookworm infection, and HIV infection were associated with anemia. Hence, efforts should be made for early diagnosis and management of HIV and hookworm infection with special emphasis on those having low income and large family size.

  9. Quality of family planning counseling among women attending prenatal care at a hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshome, Abel; Birara, Malede; Rominski, Sarah D

    2017-05-01

    To assess the quality of family planning counseling among women attending a prenatal clinic in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. In a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted between February and April, 2015, at the prenatal care clinic of Saint Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, pregnant women in their third trimester were interviewed about their experience of family planning counseling. Data were collected via a questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to assess predictors of satisfaction with the counseling service. During the study period, 400 women were interviewed. Only 139 women (34.8%) were counseled about family planning. Among those counseled, 126 (90.6%) decided to use a contraceptive method after delivery and 46 (36.7%) decided to use an injectable contraceptive. Women were more likely to report high satisfaction when their provider asked about their partner's attitude toward contraceptive methods (adjusted odds ratio 6.6; Pfamily planning methods (adjusted odds ratio 5.1; Pfamily planning counseling to improve satisfaction and quality of care. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  10. The prevalence of impaired fasting glucose and undiagnosed diabetes mellitus and associated risk factors among adults living in a rural Koladiba town, northwest Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Worede, Abebaw; Alemu, Shitaye; Gelaw, Yalemzewod Assefa; Abebe, Molla

    2017-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is becoming a big public health challenge, particularly in developing countries like Ethiopia. It is a manageable disease if early screening and follow up is made. However, as studies in Ethiopia are limited and unorganized, determining the magnitude of prediabetes and diabetes and identifying associated risk factors is quite essential. Methods A community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted from February to April 2015 among adults (aged ?20?years) in a rur...

  11. Prevalence and outcome of injury in patients visiting the emergency Department of Yirgalem General Hospital, Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negussie, Abel; Getie, Andarge; Manaye, Elias; Tekle, Tamrat

    2018-05-22

    Traumatic injuries continue to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. Despite the high burden of injury in Ethiopia, the occurrence and health impact have not received due attention. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and outcome of injury among patients visiting the Emergency Department (ED) of Yirgalem General Hospital, southern Ethiopia. A facility-based prospective cross sectional study was conducted from March, 27 - April, 30/2017. The final calculated sample size was 353 and all eligible trauma patients who visited the ED of Yirgalem General Hospital during the study period were included in the study. Data was collected using a checklist which was adapted from the WHO injury surveillance guideline. The data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 19. A total of 346 patients, who visited the ED during the study period, participated in the study and of them, 171 (49.4%) were injury cases. Unintentional injuries accounted 123 (71.9%) of the total injuries and the age group ≤24 years (48.2%) was the most commonly affected age group. More than half (51.4%) of unintentional injury cases were due to Road Traffic Injuries (RTIs) and 48 (28%) of the cases were attributed to interpersonal violence (assault). The majority of patients, 97 (56.7%), had a minor or superficial injury (like bruises and minor cuts), 44 (25.7%) had a moderate injury and 16 (9.3%) had severe type of injury requiring intensive medical/surgical management; and RTIs accounted for 11 (68%) of all severe injuries. The prevalence of injury was considerably high in Yirgalem General Hospital. Road Traffic Injuries (RTIs) accounted for the majority of severe injury cases; therefore, appropriate prevention strategies should be strengthened and implemented against RTIs. We also suggest that children and young adults should be educated in schools and work environments to prevent injuries/accidents.

  12. Prevalence of unrecognized depression and associated factors among patients attending medical outpatient department in Adare Hospital, Hawassa, Ethiopia

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    Tilahune AB

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Asres Bedaso Tilahune,1 Gezahegn Bekele,1 Nibretie Mekonnen,2 Eyerusalem Tamiru2 1School of Nursing and Midwifery, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia; 2Department of Medical Case Team, Hawassa University Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Hawassa, Ethiopia Abstract: Depression is an illness that involves the body, mood, and thoughts and that affects the way a person eats, sleeps, feels about him or herself and thinks about things. Depression is one of the most common mental disorders affecting 121 million people in the world, and it frequently goes unrecognized among patients. It is estimated that 5%–10% of the population at any given time is suffering from identifiable depression needing psychiatric or psychosocial intervention. An institution-based cross-sectional study design was implemented to determine the magnitude and associated factors of unrecognized depression among patients attending the adult medical outpatient department in Adare Hospital, Hawassa, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ Region, Ethiopia, among 326 patients selected using systematic random sampling technique. Data were collected using the interviewer-administered technique. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on sociodemographic characteristics and other independent variables. Depression was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire 9. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS 20. The level of significance was determined at P<0.05. About 326 patients were interviewed, of whom 186 (57.1% were males. The mean age of participant was 34 with standard deviation of ±13.1 years. Current substance users accounted for 106 (32.5% of the total participants. Of 326 respondents, 80 (24.5% had significant depressive symptoms, while the detection rate of depression by the clinician was 0%. Depression was associated with female sex (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =1.63 [1.14–2.34], age >60 years (AOR =4

  13. Use of Herbal Medicine Among Pregnant Women on Antenatal Care at Nekemte Hospital, Western Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Bayisa, Bodena; Tatiparthi, Ramanjireddy; Mulisa, Eshetu

    2014-01-01

    Background: Investigations across the world confirm dramatic increment in the use of complementary and alternative medicine in pregnant women. The most important aspect is lack of awareness of pregnant women about potential effects of using traditional medicine on fetus; some herbal products may be teratogenic in human and animal models. In this area, so far, no research has been conducted in Ethiopia to assess traditional medicine use in pregnant women. Objectives: Therefore, the main object...

  14. Medication prescribing errors in the medical intensive care unit of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sada, Oumer; Melkie, Addisu; Shibeshi, Workineh

    2015-09-16

    Medication errors (MEs) are important problems in all hospitalized populations, especially in intensive care unit (ICU). Little is known about the prevalence of medication prescribing errors in the ICU of hospitals in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess medication prescribing errors in the ICU of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital using retrospective cross-sectional analysis of patient cards and medication charts. About 220 patient charts were reviewed with a total of 1311 patient-days, and 882 prescription episodes. 359 MEs were detected; with prevalence of 40 per 100 orders. Common prescribing errors were omission errors 154 (42.89%), 101 (28.13%) wrong combination, 48 (13.37%) wrong abbreviation, 30 (8.36%) wrong dose, wrong frequency 18 (5.01%) and wrong indications 8 (2.23%). The present study shows that medication errors are common in medical ICU of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital. These results suggest future targets of prevention strategies to reduce the rate of medication error.

  15. Pattern of Bacterial Pathogens and Their Susceptibility Isolated from Surgical Site Infections at Selected Referral Hospitals, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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    Walelign Dessie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The emergence of multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens in hospitals is becoming a challenge for surgeons to treat hospital acquired infections. Objective. To determine bacterial pathogens and drug susceptibility isolated from surgical site infections at St. Paul Specialized Hospital Millennium Medical College and Yekatit 12 Referral Hospital Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2013 and March 2014 on 107 surgical site infected patients. Wound specimens were collected using sterile cotton swab and processed as per standard operative procedures in appropriate culture media; and susceptibility testing was done using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique. The data were analyzed by using SPSS version 20. Result. From a total of 107 swabs collected, 90 (84.1% were culture positive and 104 organisms were isolated. E. coli (24 (23.1% was the most common organism isolated followed by multidrug resistant Acinetobacter species (23 (22.1%. More than 58 (75% of the Gram negative isolates showed multiple antibiotic resistance (resistance ≥ 5 drugs. Pan-antibiotic resistance was noted among 8 (34.8% Acinetobacter species and 3 (12.5% E. coli. This calls for abstinence from antibiotic abuse. Conclusion. Gram negative bacteria were the most important isolates accounting for 76 (73.1%. Ampicillin, amoxicillin, penicillin, cephazoline, and tetracycline showed resistance while gentamicin and ciprofloxacin were relatively effective antimicrobials.

  16. Factors associated with unintentional injury among the paediatric age population in the hospitals of Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia

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    Bewket Tadesse Tiruneh

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood unintentional injuries cause nearly 875,000 deaths each year. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and factors associated with unintentional injury of children presenting to the hospitals of Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia. Methods: In a hospital-based, cross-sectional study undertaken in one month, from April 1 to 30th 2016, 893 children less than 18 years of age were included. Data were collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Training was given to all data collectors and supervisors. Data was entered into EPI info version 7 and then exported to SPSS version 20, for further analysis. Results: Unintentional injury caused 62% (554 of all injuries in attending children. Several factors affected the likelihood of injuries, namely the age of the child, age of the parents or guardians, sex of the child, and whether the child lived with the parents. Modifiable factors were the child’s behaviour, awareness of danger, the child’s level of educational, if the child’s parent had received adequate injury counselling, and whether a child was left in the care of another child. The source of light in the house, and house floor material were also significant factors at p < 0.05. Conclusion: The prevalence of unintentional injury was high. Many of the factors associated with injuries are modifiable and safety issues for children need urgent attention. Keywords: Unintentional injury, Paediatric, Ethiopia, Low resource

  17. Hospital Workers' Awareness of Health and Environmental Impacts of Poor Clinical Waste Disposal in the Northwest Region of Cameroon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mochungong, Peter I K; Gulis, Gabriel; Sodemann, Morten

    2010-01-01

    a survey to evaluate hospital workers' awareness of health and environmental impacts of poor clinical waste disposal in Cameroon. We randomly distributed 500 questionnaires to hospital workers in three hospitals in the Northwest Region of Cameroon in April 2008. In addition, we observed collection......Due to the infectious nature of some clinical waste, poor disposal practices have sparked concern regarding the impact on public health and the environment. Lack of sufficient knowledge of the associated risks may be a strong factor contributing to inadequate disposal practices. We conducted......, segregation, transportation, and disposal of clinical waste at the three hospitals. Of 475 total respondents, most lacked sufficient awareness of any environmental or public health impacts of poor clinical waste disposal and had never heard of any policy--national or international--on safe clinical waste...

  18. Multiple challenges of antibiotic use in a large hospital in Ethiopia - a ward-specific study showing high rates of hospital-acquired infections and ineffective prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutema, Girma; Håkonsen, Helle; Engidawork, Ephrem; Toverud, Else-Lydia

    2018-05-03

    This project aims to study the use of antibiotics in three clinical wards in the largest tertiary teaching hospital in Ethiopia for a period of 1 year. The specific aims were to assess the prevalence of patients on antibiotics, quantify the antibiotic consumption and identify the main indications of use. The material was all the medical charts (n = 2231) retrieved from three clinical wards (internal medicine, gynecology/obstetrics and surgery) in Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital (TASH) in Addis Ababa between September 2013 and September 2014. Data collection was performed manually by four pharmacists. Each medical chart represented one patient. About 60% of the patients were admitted to internal medicine, 20% to each of the other two wards. The number of bed days (BD) was on average 16.5. Antibiotics for systemic use were prescribed to 73.7% of the patients (on average: 2.1 antibiotics/patient) of whom 86.6% got a third or fourth generation cephalosporin (mainly ceftriaxone). The average consumption of antibiotics was 81.6 DDD/100BD, varying from 91.8 in internal medicine and 71.6 in surgery to 47.6 in gynecology/obstetrics. The five most frequently occurring infections were pneumonia (26.6%), surgical site infections (21.5%), neutropenic fever (6.9%), sepsis (6.4%) and urinary tract infections (4.7%). About one fourth of the prescriptions were for prophylactic purposes. Hospital acquired infections occurred in 23.5% of the patients (353 cases of surgical site infection). The prescribing was based on empirical treatment and sensitivity testing was reported in only 3.8% of the cases. In the present study from three wards in the largest tertiary teaching hospital in Ethiopia, three out of four patients were prescribed antibiotics, primarily empirically. The mean antibiotic consumption was 81.6 DDD/100BD. Surgical site infections constituted a large burden of the infections treated in the hospital, despite extensive prescribing of prophylaxis. The findings show

  19. Further studies on the phlebotomine sandflies of the kala-azar endemic lowlands of Humera-Metema (north-west Ethiopia with observations on their natural blood meal sources

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    Hailu Asrat

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL has been known to exist in northwest Ethiopia (Humera-Metema lowlands since the early 1970s associated with large scale agricultural development activities, often resulting in outbreaks. The latest outbreak of the disease that has started around 1995 in both regions, has led to the present preliminary entomological surveys (1996-2005 the results of which are reported here. Sandflies were collected using CDC light traps and Phlebotomus females were dissected for Leishmania detection and isolation; freshly fed Phlebotomus females collected were subsequently tested for their blood meal sources using ELISA. All Phlebotomus collections were identified to species. Results During the surveys (1996-2005, a total of 1963 sandflies of six Phlebotomus species (P. orientalis, P. papatasi, P. bergeroti, P. duboscqi, P. rodhaini and P. alexandri were recorded from the study areas: the predominant species was P. orientalis in both localities. None of the total 618 P. orientalis females dissected (506 from Metema and 112 from Humera, nor the total 114 females of four other species dissected (P. papatasi, P. duboscqi, P. bergeroti and P. rodhaini was infected with Leishmania promastigotes. ELISA-based blood meal analysis of 273 fresh fed P. orientalis females collected from Metema revealed a remarkably high bovine blood feeds (92% with only 2.2% of human blood feeds. Conclusion Based on abundance and other circumstantial evidences (its proven role in Sudan, P. orientalis is the most likely vector of VL in northwest Ethiopia, pending further clarifications. The zoophagic feeding behaviour of P. orientalis detected in the present study could have epidemiological significance, but more investigations are required in this and other behavioural characteristics towards appropriate management of the vector.

  20. Prevalence of alcohol use disorders and associated factors among people with epilepsy attending Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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    Waja T

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tsegereda Waja,1 Jemal Ebrahim,2 Zegeye Yohannis,1 Asres Bedaso2 1Department of Psychiatry, Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, 2School of Nursing and Midwifery, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, SNNPR, Ethiopia Introduction: Alcohol use disorders represent one of the leading causes of preventable death, illness, and injury in many societies throughout the world. Heavy alcohol consumption has multiple negative consequences for people with epilepsy such as precipitation of seizure, exacerbation of seizure, poor seizure control, increased side effects of antiepileptic drugs, noncompliance to antiepileptic drugs, alcohol withdrawal seizures, long-term hospital admission, status epilepticus, sudden unexpected death, and premature mortality. Methods: An institution-based cross sectional study was conducted from April 15, 2014 to May 15, 2014 with the aim of assessing prevalence of alcohol use disorders and associated factors among people with epilepsy attending Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A total of 413 randomly selected epileptic patients were included in this study. Data were structured using the 10-item Alcohol Use Disorders Identification questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS Version 20. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to study the association, and variables with P-value <0.05 were considered as having a statistically significant association at 95% confidence interval. Results: A total of 423 study participants were selected, of whom 413 completely filled the questionnaire making the response rate 97.6%. The mean age of the respondents was 31.9 years with standard deviation of ±10.97, and 248 (60% were males. The prevalence of alcohol use disorder was 17.4%. Educational status (grade 9–12 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =3.25, [1.21, 8.69], not living with family members (AOR =1.89, [1.06, 3.39], availability of house (AOR

  1. A three year retrospective study on seroprevalence of syphilis among pregnant women at Gondar University Teaching Hospital, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, Abate

    2014-03-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a serious public health problem in low income countries, including Ethiopia. Syphilis caused by Treponema pallidum remains a major cause of reproductive morbidity and poor pregnancy outcomes in low income countries. Stillbirth, perinatal death, serious neonatal infection and low-birth weight babies are common among seropositive mothers. To assess the seroprevalence of syphilis and risk factor correlates of this infection at Gondar University Teaching Hospital, Ethiopia. The study was done on 2385 pregnant women attending the antenatal care clinic (ANC) from January 2009 to December 2011. Data was abstracted from the antenatal care clinic medical database. Chi-square test was used, using SPSS version 16 and significance level was chosen at 0.05 level with a two-tailed test. Of the total, 69(2. 9%) of pregnant women were confirmed as seropositive for syphilis. Pregnant women with an age group of 21-25 years of old were the most seropositive (3.4%), followed by 26-30 years of old (3.1%). The prevalence of syphilis infection was 3.2% in urban and 2.2% in rural pregnant women. Relatively high prevalence of syphilis infection were identified among students (4.2%) followed by governmental employees (3.8%). The seroprevalence of syphilis among pregnant women attending ANC is declining. However, syphilis is more prevalent in the young and urban pregnant women. Emphasis on education to young people on STI risk behavioral change and partner follow up and notification for exposure to syphilis and treatment should be given.

  2. Complementary and alternative medicine use among elderly patients living with chronic diseases in a teaching hospital in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayele, Asnakew Achaw; Tegegn, Henok Getachew; Haile, Kaleab Taye; Belachew, Sewunet Admasu; Mersha, Amanual Getnet; Erku, Daniel Asfaw

    2017-12-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) among patients with chronic diseases has grown rapidly worldwide. Yet, little has been known about CAM use by elderly patients with chronic diseases in Ethiopia. This study aimed at assessing the prevalence and reasons for CAM utilization among elderly patients living with chronic diseases in Ethiopia. An institution-based quantitative cross-sectional survey was conducted among elderly patients with chronic disease attending outpatient ambulatory clinics of University of Gondar referral and teaching hospital (UoGRTH). An interviewer-administered and semi-structured questionnaire were utilized to collect the data. Of the total respondents, 240 (74%) reported the use of CAM, with herbal medicine and spiritual healing being the most commonly utilized CAM modalities (50.4% and 40.8% respectively). Dissatisfaction with conventional therapy (40.8%) and belief in the effectiveness of CAM (30.8%) are the most commonly cited reasons for the use of CAM therapies. Rural residency, higher educational status, higher average monthly income and presence of co-morbidity were positively associated with the use of CAM. This survey revealed a higher rate of CAM use among elderly patients with chronic diseases, along with a very low rate of disclosing their use to their health care providers. Special attention should be given for these patient population due to the potentially harmful interaction of different herbal remedies with the prescribed medications, thereby predisposing the patient to untoward adverse effects and compromised overall health outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Malnutrition and associated factors among heart failure patients on follow up at Jimma university specialized hospital, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amare, Hiwot; Hamza, Leja; Asefa, Henok

    2015-10-15

    Malnutrition and cachexia are serious consequences of numerous chronic diseases. Severe heart failure patients could be related with marked weight loss. Malnutrition is associated with poor prognosis among heart failure patients. Despite its implication, factors associated with malnutrition among heart failure patients in Africa and Ethiopia was not addressed. Hence, in this study we tried to determine factors associated with malnutrition among heart failure patients on follow up at Jimma University specialized hospital, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was done on 284 randomly selected heart failure patients. The nutritional status of the patients was assessed based on their serum albumin level (normal value 4-5 mg/dl) and triceps skin fold thickness. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with malnutrition among heart failure patients using SPSS 20.0. Based on serum albumin and triceps skin fold thickness, 77.8 % of patients were malnourished. Mean age of the patients was 48.3 ± 15.9 years. The commonest cause of heart failure was ischemic heart disease (34.9 %). Hypertension (36 %) was the commonest co morbid disease. Forty four percent of patients had New York heart association functional class II heart failure. Serum hemoglobin (AOR = 0.77, 95 % CI: 0.67-0.92) was found to be significantly associated with nutritional status of heart failure patients. As serum hemoglobin increases by 1gm/dl, the risk of malnutrition decreased by 15 % (P value = 0.03). The majority of patients were malnourished. A higher hemoglobin concentration was associated with reduced odds of being malnourished.

  4. Evaluation of quality of life of adult cancer patients attending Tikur Anbessa specialized referral hospital, Addis Ababa Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadele, Niguse

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the quality of life of cancer patients in the Ethiopian context. This study evaluated quality of life of cancer patients in Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Addis Ababa University Tikur Anbessa Specialized Referral Hospital Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (TASRH) from March to May 2013. A total of 388 cancer patients were included. Translated in to Amharic, the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QOL C-30) was used to measure Quality of life (QoL). The data was analyzed with SPSS Version 17.0. Among the participants, 251(64.7%) were men and 138(35.6%) were below the age of 40 years. Large proportion of patients were diagnosed with breast cancer, 114(29.4%), and cervical cancer, 102(26.3%), and the clinical stages during the beginning of therapy were at stage II a 133(34.3%). The mean of global health status/QoL was 57.28 (SD= 25.28). Quality of life was found to be associated with some functional scales as role functioning, P≤0.001, social function, P=0.00, and symptom scales as pain, P=0.00, loss of appetite, P=0.004, and financial impact, P=0.02, but no associations were noted in relation to socio demographic characteristics. Quality of life assessments should be included in patient treatment protocols to improve their quality of life since being a cancer patient may be associated with a high level of impairment in different aspects of life.

  5. Sexually transmitted diseases among female commercial sex workers in Finote Selam town, northwest Ethiopia: a community-based cross-sectional study

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    Anteneh ZA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Zelalem Alamrew Anteneh,1 Yirdaw Amare Agumas,2 Molalign Tarekegn3 1School of Public Health, Bahir Dar University, 2Networks of Charitable Societies of HIV Positive Association in Amhara Region (NAP+, 3Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia Background: Female commercial sex workers (FCSWs are considered a high-risk group for acquiring sexually transmitted diseases (STDs, yet the reported prevalence varies in studies around the world. The aim of this study was to determine the magnitude and associated factors of STDs among female sex workers. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among female sex workers in Finote Selam town. A total of 389 sex workers were studied using census method. Data were collected using an interview with structured questionnaires. The data were entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 20 software package.Results: The findings of this study showed that the overall prevalence of STDs was 20.6%. The reported prevalence of genital discharge, ulcer, and bubo was 15.9%, 15.2%, and 11.6%, respectively. In the multivariable logistic regression analysis, respondents who did not use a condom were about four times at higher risk of STDs than those who were using a condom consistently (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.07; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.812, 9.139. Respondents who experienced condom breakages were more than 12 times more likely to report STDs than those who never experienced condom breakages (AOR = 12.291, 95% CI: 5.701, 26.495. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that one in five commercial sex workers in Finote Selam town had STDs. Sex without a condom and condom breakage during sexual intercourse showed a significant association with STDs. Therefore, the Woreda Health Office in collaboration with nongovernmental organizations in the area should work on safe sex promotion to enhance consistent condom use and reduce condom breakage through continuous education among

  6. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis and associated risk factors at cow and herd level in dairy farms in North-West Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, S A; Koop, G|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314130241; Melkie, S T; Getahun, C D; Hogeveen, H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/126322864; Lam, T J G M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/14686820X

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of mastitis pathogens and their predominance as well as understanding of risk factors are prerequisites to improve udder health in a herd, region or country. In Ethiopia, such information is scarce, despite the fact that mastitis is an important cattle disease in the country. A

  7. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis and associated risk factors at cow and herd level in dairy farms in North-West Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, Sefinew Alemu; Koop, G.; Melkie, S.T.; Getahun, C.D.; Hogeveen, H.; Lam, Theo J.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of mastitis pathogens and their predominance as well as understanding of risk factors are prerequisites to improve udder health in a herd, region or country. In Ethiopia, such information is scarce, despite the fact that mastitis is an important cattle disease in the country. A

  8. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infection among HIV Positive Persons Who Are Naive and on Antiretroviral Treatment in Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital, Eastern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Teklemariam, Zelalem; Abate, Degu; Mitiku, Habtamu; Dessie, Yadeta

    2013-01-01

    Background. Intestinal parasitic infection affects the health and quality of life of people living with HIV. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among HIV positive individuals who are naive and who are on antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital, Eastern Ethiopia. Methods. A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted on 371 (112 ART-naive group and 259 on ART) HIV positive individuals. Stool specimens were collected...

  9. Assessment of Antibiotic Utilization Pattern in Treatment of Acute Diarrhoea Diseases in Bishoftu General Hospital, Oromia Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulu, Selamawit; Tadesse, Tarekegne; Alemayehu Gube, Addisu

    2018-01-01

    Majority of acute diarrhoeal diseases are self-limiting and do not require routine treatment. Treatment with empirical antimicrobials is recommended only for dysenteric and invasive bacterial diarrhoea. Irrational use of antibiotics in treatment of acute diarrhoea is common in clinical practice worldwide. This study was carried out to assess the pattern of antibiotic use for acute diarrhoeal diseases in Bishoftu General Hospital, East Shewa Ethiopia. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted from April 1 to April 30, 2016. Data were collected retrospectively from patients treated for diarrhoeal diseases from January 2015 to December 2015 using structured questionnaires and entered into SPSS (IBM 20) and descriptive statistics was carried out. Among the 303 patients, 51.2% were males and 48.8% were females. Of them, 62% were children under five years. Two hundred sixty three (86.8%) patients received eight different types of antibiotics and cotrimoxazole (178 patients, 58.7%) was the most prescribed antibiotics, followed by ciprofloxacin (33, 10.9%) and amoxicillin (14, 4.6%). Based on the presence of blood in stools, 14.5% of cases were of invasive bacterial type. According to the recommendations of WHO, the rate of overuse of antibiotics was 72.3%. This study revealed that there was high overuse of antibiotics for both adults and children under five with acute diarrhoea in Bishoftu General Hospital. And Cotrimoxazole was the most prescribed antibiotic.

  10. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus in patients with diabetes mellitus: a comparative cross sectional study at Woldiya General Hospital, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Daniel; Gebre-Selassie, Solomon; Fantaw, Surafel; Hunegnaw, Andualem; Mihret, Adane

    2014-01-01

    The overall prevalence of HBV in Ethiopia varies from 4.7-16.8% for Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and 70-76.38% for at least one marker positive. Patients suffering from type I Diabetes Mellitus (DM) incur high risk of infection with hepatotropic viruses because of frequent hospitalization and blood tests. A comparative cross sectional study was conducted at Woldiya General Hospital using 108 consented study populations from Diabetes and 108 non diabetes control groups during the period November 2010 - January 2011. VISITECT HBsAg rapid test kit and Humastat 80 chemistry analyzer were used. Multivariate logistic regression was used to see the association of HBV with clinical history of participants and Sociodemographic variables. All tests were two-sided with α-level of 0.05 and 80% power. Prevalence of HBsAg was equal between diabetic and non diabetic individuals, 3.7% indicating that there was no difference between the two groups. Only history of invasive procedures and chronic liver disease showed association with HBsAg seropositivity. In this study a positive relation was not indicated between HBV and Diabetes and the prevalence of HBsAg was equal between diabetic and non diabetic individuals.

  11. Patient side cost and its predictors for cervical cancer in Ethiopia: a cross sectional hospital based study

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    Hailu Alemayehu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer is a leading cause of death from cancer among women in low-resource settings, affecting women at a time of life when they are critical to social and economic stability. In addition, the economic burden is important for policy formulation. The aim of this study is to estimate patient side cost and to determine predictors of its variation for the treatment of cervical cancer. Methods Analytic cross sectional study involving 227 cervical cancer cases at Tikur Anbessa Hospital, Ethiopia was conducted. Cost estimation was based on patients' perspective and using the prevalence-based model as a time frame. Productivity losses were estimated from lost working days. Results The mean outpatient cost per patient for cervical cancer was $407.2 (Median = $206.9. Direct outpatient cost (Mean = $334.2 takes the largest share compared with the indirect counterpart ($150. The outpatient cost for half of the respondent falls in a range between $93.7 and $478. The mean inpatient cost for hospitalized patients was $404.4. The average direct inpatient cost was $329 (74% medical costs and 26% non medical costs. The mean value for total inpatient cost for half of the respondents was in the range of $133.5 and $493.9. For every additional day of inpatient hospital stay, there is a daily incremental inpatient cost of $4.2. Conclusion As has been found in other studies, our findings revealed that cervical cancer creates an immense financial burden on patients. Primary prevention measures, vaccination against HPV and screening, should be initiated and expanded to reduce morbidity from cervical cancer and subsequent costs in both human lives and money resources. Control of co-morbidity and complication should be emphasized during management of cervical cancer patients. Capacitating regional hospitals and provision of low cost or fee exemption schemes should be arranged and strengthened.

  12. Investigating admitted patients' satisfaction with nursing care at Debre Berhan Referral Hospital in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

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    Sharew, Nigussie Tadesse; Bizuneh, Hailegiorgis Teklegiorgis; Assefa, Hilina Ketema; Habtewold, Tesfa Dejenie

    2018-05-17

    The aims of the study were (1) to assess the level of patient satisfaction with nursing care and (2) to identify factors influencing patient satisfaction. A hospital-based, cross-sectional study was conducted with 252 admitted patients in the medical, surgical and paediatric wards. Debre Berhan Referral Hospital, Debre Berhan, Ethiopia, with a catchment population of 2.8 million. All patients admitted at least for 2 days and capable of independent communication were included. However, patients were excluded on any one of the following conditions: admitted for less than 2 days, cannot understand Amharic language, with critical illness or cognitive impairment that affects judgement, or inability to provide written informed consent. The mean age of the patients was 37.9 (SD=12.9) years, and half (50.4%) of them were male. Patient satisfaction with nursing care, measured by the Newcastle Satisfaction with Nursing Scale, was the outcome variable. Using a mean split approach, patient satisfaction scores were dichotomised into 'satisfied' and 'unsatisfied'. 49.2% of patients were satisfied with nursing care. Educational status and history of admission were significant factors influencing patient satisfaction with nursing care. Patients who had high educational status were 80% less satisfied compared with those who had no formal education (p=0.01, OR=0.2, 95% CI 0.1 to 0.7). Patients who had a history of admission were 2.2 times more satisfied compared with those who had no history of admission (p=0.02, OR=2.2, 95% CI 1.2 to 4.2). About half the admitted patients were satisfied with the nursing care. Satisfaction differed significantly by patients' educational attainment and history of admission. This study provided evidence on patient satisfaction with nursing care in Ethiopia. This information may be useful in comparative studies of patient satisfaction and in identifying characteristics that may explain or predict patient satisfaction. © Article author(s) (or

  13. Teleradiology service for mission hospitals: initial experiences in Ethiopia and Kenya

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    Matthew Larrison

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout their history, mission hospitals have provided high quality and lifesaving medical care to regions of the world where medical care is sparse. These hospitals are generally built and equipped through a combination of governmental and non-governmental sources. As advances in diagnostic medical imaging have progressed and become mainstream in the developed world, mission hospitals have adopted advanced imaging modalities. These modalities provide early diagnosis and treatment options for their patients. In addition to the installation and operation of advanced imaging equipment, the need for professional expert interpretation of these studies remains a challenge for mission hospitals. Historically these hospitals have used either voluntary services on site or paid for interpretations from local radiologists; however, with the introduction of high speed internet, teleradiology has become a possibility. This article describes the teleradiology experience of two mission hospitals in rural Africa.

  14. Making strides in women’s mental health care delivery in rural Ethiopia: demographics of a female outpatient psychiatric cohort at Jimma University Specialized Hospital (2006–2008

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    Chemali ZN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Zeina N Chemali,1,2 Christina PC Borba,1,2 Tanya E Henderson,3 Markos Tesfaye41Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; 2Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 3International and Human Rights Law Consultants, Cambridge, MA, USA; 4Department of Psychiatry, College of Public Health and Medical Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, EthiopiaAbstract: This paper presents the delivery of mental health care to a sample of women living in Jimma, rural Ethiopia, and their access to mental health services. A total of 226 psychiatric charts were reviewed for women seen at Jimma University Specialized Hospital. The mental health charts included documentation ranging from one paragraph to a full note. No psychiatric chart recorded medication status, detailed substance abuse history, or a history of violence. Rendering appropriate mental health care for women requires concerted efforts by multiple stake holders. Using our results, we advance concrete and practical suggestions for improving women's mental health in rural Ethiopia. We point out that the health care system needs to be responsive, allowing for change starting with gender rights, so that rural women have access to basic mental health services.Keywords: global mental health, low income country, Africa, gender differences

  15. Teleradiology service for mission hospitals: initial experiences in Ethiopia and Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Larrison; Stanley G. Cheng; Stephen McManus

    2016-01-01

    Throughout their history, mission hospitals have provided high quality and lifesaving medical care to regions of the world where medical care is sparse. These hospitals are generally built and equipped through a combination of governmental and non-governmental sources. As advances in diagnostic medical imaging have progressed and become mainstream in the developed world, mission hospitals have adopted advanced imaging modalities. These modalities provide early diagnosis and treatment options ...

  16. Asymptomatic urinary tract infection among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of Hawassa Referral Hospital, Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Endale; Teshome, Million; Merid, Yared; Kibret, Belayhun; Shimelis, Techalew

    2014-03-17

    Untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) during pregnancy may cause serious complications including pyelonephritis and delivery of premature or low-birth-weight infants. However, little is known about asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy in Ethiopia. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria, bacterial agents, and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern in pregnant women attending antenatal clinic of the Hawassa Teaching and Referral Hospital. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a total of 244 pregnant women with no sign and symptom of urinary tract infection from March 2012 to September 2012. Clean catch mid-stream urine samples were collected from all study participants using sterile containers. Urine samples were cultured using standard bacteriological methods. Identification of suspected colonies and antibiotic sensitivity testing were done. Out of 244 pregnant women, 46(18.8%) were positive for asymptomatic bacteriuria (Colony Forming Unit ≥ 105/mL). There was no difference in prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with respect to age (p = 0.07) and trimester (p = 0.27).The most frequently isolated bacteria were coagulase negative Staphylococcus (32.6%), followed by Escherichia coli (26.1%), and Staphylococcus auerus (13%). The susceptibility rate of bacterial isolate was highest for norfloxacin (64.7%) and lowest for ampicillin (17.6%). The high prevalence of ASB in pregnant women warrant the need to screen all pregnant women and treat those infected with appropriate antimicrobial regimens in order to reduce its complications.

  17. Spoligotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from tuberculosis diagnosed patients at Dilla University Referral Hospital and other private clinics, Southern Ethiopia

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    Gebremedhin Gebrezgabiher

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis strains exsisting in Gedeo zone and the surrounding areas of the Southern Ethiopia using spoligotyping. Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out from February, 2012 to June, 2013 and 97 (76 sputum and 21 fine needle aspirate samples were taken from tuberculosis diagnosed patients at Dilla University Referral Hospital and other private clinics. Culturing, region of difference (RD9 deletion typing and spoligotyping techniques were employed to isolate M. tuberculosis strains. Results: Growth of mycobacteria was observed in 35.1% (34/97. Speciation of isolates showed that 91.2% (31/34 of the isolates were M. tuberculosis. Further characterization led to the identification of 23 different spoligotype patterns of M. tuberculosis of which 61% and 39% displayed unique and cluster patterns, respectively. The most dominant shared type was spoligotype international type 53. Of the 23 strains, 12 have not been registered in the international spoligotyping database (SpolDB4. Seventy one percent of the strains belonged to the Euro-American lineage. Conclusions: This study revealed the existence of both genetically diverse and clustered M. tuberculosis strains from tuberculosis patients in the area, suggesting reactivation of infection and recent transmission, respectively. Molecular epidemiology of M. tuberculosis should be done nationwide in order to set appropriate control measures.

  18. Assessment of pattern and treatment outcome of patients admitted to pediatric intensive care unit, Ayder Referral Hospital, Tigray, Ethiopia, 2015.

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    Haftu, Hansa; Hailu, Tedrose; Medhaniye, Araya; G/Tsadik, Teklit

    2018-05-24

    To describe admission pattern and outcome with its predictor variable on the mortality of children admitted to pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), Ayder Referral Hospital, Northern Ethiopia, from September 2012 to August 2014. From 680 admitted patients, 400 patients were analyzed. Average age at admission was 62.99 ± 60.94 months, with F:M ratio of 1:1.2. Overall (from infectious and non-infectious) the most commonly affected systems were respiratory (90/400 pts., 22.5%) and central nervous system (83/400 pts., 20.75%). Most were admitted due to meningitis (44/400 pts., 11%), post-operative (43/400 pts., 10.8%) and acute glomerulonephritis (41/400 pts., 10.3%). The overall mortality rate was 8.5%. Multivariable logistic regression shows, use of inotropes (p = 0.000), need for mechanical ventilator (p = 0.007) and presence of comorbid illness (p = 0.002), infectious cause (p = 0.015) and low level of Glasgow coma scale less than eight (p = 0.04) were independent predictors of mortality. From this study, common cause of PICU admission and death was meningitis. This highlights the importance of focusing on the preventable methods in the public such as vaccine, creating awareness about hygiene, and expanding ICU for early detection and for treatment acutely ill children.

  19. Prevalence of Depression among Type 2 Diabetic Outpatients in Black Lion General Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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    Tesfa Dejenie Habtewold

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The emotional consequences of diabetes have been scrutinized by a number of investigative teams and there are varying reports about the association of depression with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, there is limited data about this in Ethiopia. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of comorbid depression among type 2 diabetic outpatients. Methods and Materials. Institution based cross-sectional study design was conducted on a random sample of 276 type 2 diabetic outpatients from Black Lion General Specialized Hospital. Systematic random sampling technique was used to get these individual patients from 920 type 2 diabetic outpatients who have an appointment during the data collection period. Patients’ depression status was measured using Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ 9. Result. Totally 264 type 2 diabetic outpatients were interviewed with a response rate of 95.6%. The prevalence of depression among type 2 diabetic outpatients was 13%. Based on PHQ 9 score, 28.4% (75 fulfilled the criteria for mild depression, 12.1% (32 for moderate depression, 2.7% (7 for moderately severe depression, and 1.5% (4 for severe depression. But 45.8% (121 of patients had no clinically significant depression. Conclusion. This study demonstrated that depression is a common comorbid health problem in type 2 diabetic outpatients with a prevalence rate of 13%.

  20. Prevalence of Smear-Positive Tuberculosis among Patients Who Visited Saint Paul’s Specialized Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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    Dinna Abera Nugussie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tuberculosis (TB continues to be a health problem in both developed and developing countries, including Ethiopia. Objective. In this study, the prevalence of smear-positive tuberculosis among presumptive TB cases who visited the hospital was assessed. Method. Acid fast bacilli (AFB test was performed on samples collected from 200 presumptive TB cases. Data were analyzed using appropriate statistical tools. Result. Among 200 presumptive TB cases, 10% (20 individuals (60% were male and 40% were female were found to be positive for the AFB. Of these AFB positive subjects, 11.2% and 6.3% were from urban and rural areas, respectively. Among 20 AFB positive cases, 45% (9, 45% (9, and 10% (2 were HIV positive, HIV negative, and with HIV status unknown, respectively. The highest AFB positive cases were found within age group between 25 and 44 years (70% and followed by age above 40 years (30%. It was found out that 75% (15, 15% (3, 5% (1, and 5% (1 were unemployed, government employed, student, and nongovernment employed, accordingly. Conclusion. This study indicated higher level of AFB positive cases within age groups of 25–44 and 65–74 years and also exhibited higher prevalence of TB cases from urban areas.

  1. Predictors of Treatment Failure among Adult Antiretroviral Treatment (ART) Clients in Bale Zone Hospitals, South Eastern Ethiopia.

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    Haile, Demewoz; Takele, Abulie; Gashaw, Ketema; Demelash, Habtamu; Nigatu, Dabere

    2016-01-01

    Treatment failure defined as progression of disease after initiation of ART or when the anti-HIV medications can't control the infection. One of the major concerns over the rapid scaling up of ART is the emergence and transmission of HIV drug resistant strains at the population level due to treatment failure. This could lead to the failure of basic ART programs. Thus this study aimed to investigate the predictors of treatment failure among adult ART clients in Bale Zone Hospitals, South east Ethiopia. Retrospective cohort study was employed in four hospitals of Bale zone named Goba, Robe, Ginir and Delomena. A total of 4,809 adult ART clients were included in the analysis from these four hospitals. Adherence was measured by pill count method. The Kaplan Meier (KM) curve was used to describe the survival time of ART patients without treatment failure. Bivariate and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used for identifying associated factors of treatment failure. The incidence rate of treatment failure was found 9.38 (95% CI 7.79-11.30) per 1000 person years. Male ART clients were more likely to experience treatment failure as compared to females [AHR = 4.49; 95% CI: (2.61-7.73)].Similarly, lower CD4 count (ART was found significantly associated with higher odds of treatment failure [AHR = 3.79; 95% CI: (2.46-5.84).Bedridden [AHR = 5.02; 95% CI: (1.98-12.73)] and ambulatory [AHR = 2.12; 95% CI: (1.08-4.07)] patients were more likely to experience treatment failure as compared to patients with working functional status. TB co-infected clients had also higher odds to experience treatment failure [AHR = 3.06; 95% CI: (1.72-5.44)]. Those patients who had developed TB after ART initiation had higher odds to experience treatment failure as compared to their counter parts [AHR = 4.35; 95% CI: (1.99-9.54]. Having other opportunistic infection during ART initiation was also associated with higher odds of experiencing treatment failure [AHR = 7.0, 95

  2. Predictors of Treatment Failure among Adult Antiretroviral Treatment (ART Clients in Bale Zone Hospitals, South Eastern Ethiopia.

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    Demewoz Haile

    Full Text Available Treatment failure defined as progression of disease after initiation of ART or when the anti-HIV medications can't control the infection. One of the major concerns over the rapid scaling up of ART is the emergence and transmission of HIV drug resistant strains at the population level due to treatment failure. This could lead to the failure of basic ART programs. Thus this study aimed to investigate the predictors of treatment failure among adult ART clients in Bale Zone Hospitals, South east Ethiopia.Retrospective cohort study was employed in four hospitals of Bale zone named Goba, Robe, Ginir and Delomena. A total of 4,809 adult ART clients were included in the analysis from these four hospitals. Adherence was measured by pill count method. The Kaplan Meier (KM curve was used to describe the survival time of ART patients without treatment failure. Bivariate and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used for identifying associated factors of treatment failure.The incidence rate of treatment failure was found 9.38 (95% CI 7.79-11.30 per 1000 person years. Male ART clients were more likely to experience treatment failure as compared to females [AHR = 4.49; 95% CI: (2.61-7.73].Similarly, lower CD4 count (<100 m3/dl at initiation of ART was found significantly associated with higher odds of treatment failure [AHR = 3.79; 95% CI: (2.46-5.84.Bedridden [AHR = 5.02; 95% CI: (1.98-12.73] and ambulatory [AHR = 2.12; 95% CI: (1.08-4.07] patients were more likely to experience treatment failure as compared to patients with working functional status. TB co-infected clients had also higher odds to experience treatment failure [AHR = 3.06; 95% CI: (1.72-5.44]. Those patients who had developed TB after ART initiation had higher odds to experience treatment failure as compared to their counter parts [AHR = 4.35; 95% CI: (1.99-9.54]. Having other opportunistic infection during ART initiation was also associated with higher odds of

  3. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites and Associated Factors among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Suspected Patients Attending University of Gondar Hospital, Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Tegegne, Yalewayker; Wondmagegn, Tadelo; Worku, Ligabaw; Jejaw Zeleke, Ayalew

    2018-01-01

    Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections are among the major public health problems in developing countries. Hence, it is significant to explore coinfection with intestinal parasites and pulmonary tuberculosis because coinfection increases the complexity of control and prevention of pulmonary tuberculosis and parasitic diseases. Objective. To assess the prevalence of intestinal parasites among pulmonary tuberculosis suspected patients. Method. Institutional based cross-sectional study wa...

  4. Injury characteristics and outcome of road traffic accident among victims at Adult Emergency Department of Tikur Anbessa specialized hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a prospective hospital based study.

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    Seid, Mohammed; Azazh, Aklilu; Enquselassie, Fikre; Yisma, Engida

    2015-05-20

    Road traffic injuries are the eighth leading cause of death globally, and the leading cause of death for young people. More than a million people die each year on the world's roads, and the risk of dying as a result of a road traffic injury is highest in Africa. A prospective hospital based study was undertaken to assess injury characteristics and outcome of road traffic accident among victims at Adult Emergency Department of Tikur Anbessa specialized hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A structured pre-tested questionnaire was used to gather the required data. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to identify predictors of fatalities among the road traffic crash victims. A total of 230 road traffic accident victims were studied. The majority of the study subjects were men 165 (71.7%) and the male/female ratio was 2.6:1. The victims' ages ranged from 14 to 80 years with the mean and standard deviations of 32.15 and ± 14.38 years respectively. Daily laborers (95 (41.3%)) and students (28 (12.2%)) were the majority of road traffic accident victims. Head (50.4%) and musculoskeletal (extremities) (47.0%) were the most common body region injured. Fractures (78.0%) and open wounds (56.5%) were the most common type of injuries sustained. The overall length of hospital stay (LOS) ranged from 1 day to 61 days with mean (± standard deviation) of 7.12 ± 10.5 days and the mortality rate was 7.4%. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that age of the victims (ß = 0.16, p road traffic accident is a major public health problem. Urgent road traffic accident preventive measures and prompt treatment of the victims are warranted in order to reduce morbidity and mortality among the victims.

  5. Retrospective assessment of the status and determinants of tuberculosis treatment outcome among patients treated in government hospitals in North Shoa Administrative Zone, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia

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    Hailemeskel S

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Solomon Hailemeskel,1 Osman Yimer Mohammed,1 Abdurahman Mohammed Ahmed2 1Department of Midwifery, 2Department of Nursing, College of Health Sciences, Institute of Medicine and Health Science, Debre Berhan University, Debre Berhan, Ethiopia Background: One of the specific targets of Directly Observed Treatment, Short-course detailed in the updated Global Plan (2011–2015 was to achieve a treatment success rate of 87% by 2015. This strategy was introduced to Ethiopia in 1995 to reach full coverage in 2005; however, by 2009, treatment had not been as successful as expected.Objective: This study was conducted to determine treatment success rate and identify risk factors for tuberculosis (TB treatment outcomes in North Shoa Administrative Zone, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia.Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on all TB patients (739 who registered for TB treatment from September 1, 2012 to August 31, 2014 at public hospitals in North Shoa Administrative Zone, Ethiopia. Data were gathered by using a pretested structured medical record checklist. Four data collectors and two supervisors were involved in gathering the data. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression and were entered into Epi Info and analyzed by using the SPSS software package version 20.Results: This study revealed that the TB treatment success rate was 86.1% (169 [22.9%] cured and 467 [63.2%] completed. In addition, 22 (3% of the study participants defaulted their treatment of which 19 (86.4% withdrew during the intensive phase. The multiple logistic regression model revealed that the study year of treatment, sputum smear positivity at the second-month follow-up, history of treatment default, and subsequent hospitalization were significantly associated with the TB treatment outcome.Conclusion: The TB treatment success rate in the study area was low compared to that estimated by World Health Organization to achieve by 2015. Therefore

  6. Antibacterial effects of Apis mellifera and stingless bees honeys on susceptible and resistant strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewnetu, Yalemwork; Lemma, Wossenseged; Birhane, Nega

    2013-10-19

    Honey is a natural substance produced by honeybees and has nutritional and therapeutic uses. In Ethiopia, honeys are used traditionally to treat wounds, respiratory infections and diarrhoea. Recent increase of drug resistant bacteria against the existing antibiotics forced investigators to search for alternative natural remedies and evaluate their potential use on scientific bases. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial effects of different types of honeys in Ethiopia which are used traditionally to treat different types of respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. Mueller Hinton agar (70191) diffusion and nutrient broth culture medium assays were performed to determine susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and resistant clinical isolates (Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA), Escherichia coli(R) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (R), using honeys of Apis mellifera and stingless bees in northern and north western Ethiopia. Honey of the stingless bees produced the highest mean inhibition (22.27 ± 3.79 mm) compared to white honey (21.0 ± 2.7 mm) and yellow honey (18.0 ± 2.3 mm) at 50% (v/v) concentration on all the standard and resistant strains. Stingless bees honey was found to have Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of 6.25% (6.25 mg/ml) for 80% of the test organisms compared to 40% for white and yellow Apis mellifera honeys. All the honeys were found to have minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 12.5% (12.5 mg/ml) against all the test organisms. Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) was susceptible to amoxicillin, methicillin, kanamycine, tetracycline, and vancomycine standard antibiotic discs used for susceptibility tests. Similarly, Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) was found susceptible for kanamycine, tetracycline and vancomycine. Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) has not been tested for amoxicillin ampicillin and methicillin. The susceptibility tests performed against

  7. Job related stress among nurses working in Jimma Zone public hospitals, South West Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

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    Dagget, Tadesse; Molla, Ashagre; Belachew, Tefera

    2016-01-01

    Occupational stress exists in every profession, nevertheless, the nursing profession appears to experience more stress at work compared to other health care workers. Unmanaged stress leads to high levels of employee dissatisfaction, illness, absenteeism, high turnover, and decreased productivity that compromise provision of quality service to clients. However, there is a scarcity of information about nurses' job stress in Jimma zone public hospital nurses. The aim of the present study was to assess job related stress and its predictors among nurses working in Jimma Zone public hospitals, South-West Ethiopia in 2014. An institution based cross sectional study was conducted from March 10 to April 10, 2014 through a census of nurses who are working in Jimma Zone public hospitals using a structured self-administered questionnaire. SPSS Statistics Version 20 used. For the outcome variable: overall job related stress, the participant's responses on each item score summed: a stress score ranging from a minimum of 26 and maximum score of 116. The higher the sum the more the stressed the nurse. The level of stress calculated through tertial the lower to low stress, the middle to moderate & the higher to high stress. Moreover, bivariate and multivariable linear regressions done to see the association between the predictor (sex, age, mutual understanding at work, Job satisfaction and working unit/department) and the outcome variable (Job related stress). A total of 341 nurses working in Jimma Zone public hospitals were given the questionnaire, and the response rate was 92.3 % (315). This study indicated an average overall job related stress level of 58.46 ± 12.62. The highest level of job related stress was on the sub scale of dealing with death & dying mean score of 62.94 % followed by uncertainty regarding patient treatment 57.72 % and workload 57.6 %. While job related stress from sexual harassment had the lowest mean score of 46.19 %. Overall job related stress varies

  8. Comprehensive evaluation of electronic medical record system use and user satisfaction at five low-resource setting hospitals in ethiopia.

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    Tilahun, Binyam; Fritz, Fleur

    2015-05-25

    Electronic medical record (EMR) systems are increasingly being implemented in hospitals of developing countries to improve patient care and clinical service. However, only limited evaluation studies are available concerning the level of adoption and determinant factors of success in those settings. The objective of this study was to assess the usage pattern, user satisfaction level, and determinants of health professional's satisfaction towards a comprehensive EMR system implemented in Ethiopia where parallel documentation using the EMR and the paper-based medical records is in practice. A quantitative, cross-sectional study design was used to assess the usage pattern, user satisfaction level, and determinant factors of an EMR system implemented in Ethiopia based on the DeLone and McLean model of information system success. Descriptive statistical methods were applied to analyze the data and a binary logistic regression model was used to identify determinant factors. Health professionals (N=422) from five hospitals were approached and 406 responded to the survey (96.2% response rate). Out of the respondents, 76.1% (309/406) started to use the system immediately after implementation and user training, but only 31.7% (98/309) of the professionals reported using the EMR during the study (after 3 years of implementation). Of the 12 core EMR functions, 3 were never used by most respondents, and they were also unaware of 4 of the core EMR functions. It was found that 61.4% (190/309) of the health professionals reported over all dissatisfaction with the EMR (median=4, interquartile range (IQR)=1) on a 5-level Likert scale. Physicians were more dissatisfied (median=5, IQR=1) when compared to nurses (median=4, IQR=1) and the health management information system (HMIS) staff (median=2, IQR=1). Of all the participants, 64.4% (199/309) believed that the EMR had no positive impact on the quality of care. The participants indicated an agreement with the system and information

  9. Motivation and Factors Affecting It among Health Professionals in the Public Hospitals, Central Ethiopia.

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    Dagne, Tesfaye; Beyene, Waju; Berhanu, Negalign

    2015-07-01

    Motivation is an individual's degree of willingness to exert and maintain an effort towards organizational goals. This study assessed motivational status and factors affecting it among health professionals in public hospitals of West Shoa Zone, Oromia Region. Facility based cross-sectional survey was employed. All health professionals who served at least for 6 months in Ambo, Gedo and Gindeberet hospitals were included. Self-administered Likert scale type questionnaire was used. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Mean motivation calculated as percentage of maximum scale score was used. Bivariate and multiple linear regression analyses were done to see the independent effects of explanatory variables. The overall motivation level of health professionals was 63.63%. Motivation level of health professionals varied among the hospitals. Gindeberet Hospital had lower motivation score as compared to Ambo Hospital (B = -0.54 and 95% CI; -0.08,-0.27). The mean motivation score of health professionals who got monthly financial benefit was significantly higher than those who did not (B = 0.71 and 95% CI; 0.32, 1.10). Environmental factors had higher impact on doctors' motivation compared to nurses' (B = 0.51 and 95% CI; 0.10, 0.92). Supervisor-related factors highly varied in motivation relative to other variables. Motivation of health professionals was affected by factors related to supervisor, financial benefits, job content and hospital location. Efforts should be made to provide financial benefits to health professionals as appropriate especially, to those who did not get any such benefits. Officially recognizing best performance is also suggested.

  10. Asymptomatic bacteriuria and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the isolates among pregnant women attending Dessie referral hospital, Northeast Ethiopia: A hospital-based cross-sectional study.

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    Ali, Ismail Ebrie; Gebrecherkos, Teklay; Gizachew, Mucheye; Menberu, Martha Alemayehu

    2018-05-01

    The aim of the current study was to find out the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria, antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the isolates and related risk factors among pregnant women. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was carried out from February 2017 to May 2017 among asymptomatic pregnant mothers attending Dessie Referral Hospital, Northeast Ethiopia. About 10-15 mL of freshly voided midstream urine samples were collected from each study participants, and analyzed at Dessie regional research microbiology laboratory with conventional antibiotic susceptibility, and biochemical tests. Isolates were tested against commonly used antimicrobials using Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 20 software and in all cases, p-values below 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Overall, 358 pregnant women were included in the study with a mean age of 26.5±4.6 years (range, 19-43 yrs). The overall prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria was 56% (15.6%). Isolated microorganisms were mainly Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus (for each, n=18; 31%). Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were resistant to ampicillin (66.7%), and penicillin (94.44%). The prevalence of multidrug- resistant isolates was 72.4%. History of catheterization [AOR=2.28, 95% CI=(1.03-5.06)] and anemia [AOR=4.98, 95% CI=(2.395-10.34) were statistically significant regarding the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria. The overall prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women in the study area was high. The presence of asymptomatic bacteriuria and their antibiotic susceptibility test results should be taken into consideration during the management of pregnant women who are visiting antenatal care clinic.

  11. Quality of care at ART clinic in Shashamanne referral hospital, West Arsi zone, Oromina National Regional State, South Ethiopia

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    Melese Belayneh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Low income nations like Ethiopia, which are heavily affected by HIV pandemic, health system needs to provide comprehensive services for escalating numbers of HIV positive patients. While demand is increasing, resources are not expanding at desirable rates to meet these demands. This leads to the risk of running poor quality antiretroviral therapy in resource limited health facilities. However, there is paucity of research based evidences on the quality of health services in the country in general, and on anti retroviral therapy in particular. Objective To assess quality of care at antiretroviral therapy clinic in Shashamanne Referral Hospital. Method A cross‐sectional study was conducted in Shashamanne Referral hospital from May 30 to June 30,2017.The study population were selected people living with HIV, antiretroviral therapy clinics and health care workers in antiretroviral therapy clinics during the study period. Stratified sampling method was used to identify study population. Interviewer administered questionnaire was employed among 204 patients to assess their satisfaction. Medical records review check list was used to get vital information from documents of 354 patients. Interview guide was also used to assess providers’ view on services. Data were entered by using SPSS version 20 and analyzed using descriptive, bivariate and multivariate techniques. Ethical clearance was obtained from Jimma University College of Public Health and Medical Sciences. Results Resources required for implementation of antiretroviral therapy wee available as per recommendation by the national Guideline. However, scarcity of some OIs and ARV drugs and absence of a few laboratory services seen in the hospital. HIV/AIDS care given in line with national guidelines but study revealed that only 42.7% of clients eligible for isoniazid preventive therapy actually taken it. Average mean satisfaction score of patients was 2.51 and significant

  12. Predictors of early mortality in a cohort of HIV-infected children receiving high active antiretroviral treatment in public hospitals in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebissa, Getachew; Deyessa, Negusse; Biadgilign, Sibhatu

    2015-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is the breakthrough in care and treatment of people living with HIV, leading to a reduction in mortality and an improvement in the quality of life. Without antiretroviral treatment, most HIV-infected children die before their fifth birthday. So the objective of this study is to determine the mortality and associated factors in a cohort of HIV-infected children receiving ART in Ethiopia. A multicentre facility-based retrospective cohort study was done in selected pediatric ART units in hospitals found in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The probability of survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and multivariate analysis by Cox proportional hazards regression models was conducted to determine the independent predictor of survival. A total of 556 children were included in this study. Of the total children, 10.4% were died in the overall cohort. More deaths (70%) occurred in the first 6 months of ART initiation, and the remaining others were still on follow-up at different hospitals. Underweight (moderate and severe; HR: 10.10; 95% CI: 2.08, 28.00; P = 0.004; and HR: 46.69; 95% CI: 9.26, 200.45; P ART adherence (HR: 11.72; 95% CI: 1.60, 48.44; P = 0.015), and hemoglobin level less than 7 g/dl (HR: 4.08: 95% CI: 1.33, 12.56; P = 0.014) were confirmed as significant independent predictors of death after controlling for other factors. Underweight, advanced disease stage, poor adherence to ART, and anemia appear to be independent predictor of survival in HIV-infected children receiving HAART at the pediatric units of public hospitals in Ethiopia. Nutritional supplementations, early initiation of HAART, close supervision, and monitoring of patients during the first 6 months, the follow up period is recommended.

  13. Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Tikur Anbessa University Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengistie, Zemenu; Woldeamanuel, Yimtubezinash; Asrat, Daniel; Adera, Addis

    2014-11-20

    Bacterial vaginosis is one of the most common genital tract infections among reproductive age group. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis varies from country to country even in the same country it varies among populations of interest. Different social and sexual factors can contribute to the development of bacterial vaginosis. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and to identify the possible risk factors associated among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Tikur Anbessa University Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Randomly selected 57 symptomatic and 195 asymptomatic pregnant women aged between 18 and 40 years visiting obstetric and gynecological clinic from November 2011 to April 2012 screenedusing Gram stain Nugent scoring system. Statistical analysis like univariate analysis to calculate frequencies and proportions, bivariate analysis to see association of selected exposure variables with the outcome variable, and multivariate analysis to check the association of possible factors with bacterial vaginosis by adjusting potential confounding factors was calculated using SPSS (Version 16.0). The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis is 19.4% using Gram stain Nugent scoring system. In addition, prevalence of bacterial vaginosis is 31.6% and 15.9% among symptomatic and asymptomatic pregnant women respectively. A high percentage of bacterial vaginosis positive pregnant women were asymptomatic (63.3%). 36.7% bacterial vaginosis positive pregnant women reported abnormal vaginal discharge with or without unpleasant smell. Multiple lifetime sexual partner (OR: 8.6; 95% CI: 2.5, 29) and previous history of spontaneous abortion (OR: 5.9; 95% CI: 1.5, 23) had remained significantly associated with prevalence of bacterial vaginosis. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis is higher among asymptomatic pregnant women and associated with the factors previous history of multiple lifetime sexual partner and spontaneous abortion.

  14. Knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptive among women who seek abortion care at Jimma University specialized hospital, southwest Ethiopia

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    Tesfaye Tatek

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia maternal mortality rate is very high more than one in five women die from pregnancy or pregnancy related causes. The use of contraceptives to prevent unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortion is an important strategy to minimize maternal mortality rate. Among various forms of contraception, emergency contraceptives are the only one that can be used after sexual intercourse offering chance to prevent unwanted pregnancy. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptive among women who seek abortion care at Jimma University specialized hospital (JUSH. Methods Institution base cross-sectional study on knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptive was conducted at JUSH from April to June, 2011Data was collected using structured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. Results In this study 89 women were interviewed. More than half of them (48 were from urban area and 41 were from rural area.46 (51.7% of them were single. Of all the respondents only nine women had awareness about emergency contraceptive. Seven of the women mentioned pills as emergency contraception and only two of them mentioned both pills and injectable as emergency contraception. All of them have positive attitude towards emergency contraception but none of them have ever used emergency contraceptives. Conclusion and recommendation The finding revealed pregnancy among women of 15-19 years was very common. The knowledge and practice of emergency contraception is very low. But there is high positive attitude towards emergency contraceptives. Since there is much deficit on knowledge of women on emergency contraceptives, in addition to making them accessible; programs targeted at promotion and education of emergency contraceptives is helpful to prevent unwanted pregnancy.

  15. The relationship between oncologists and peripheral hospital radiologists in the north-west of England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bungay, Peter M.; Carrington, Bernadette M.; Corgie, Delphine; Eardley, Anne

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To audit the relationship between Cancer Centre oncologists visiting peripheral hospitals and peripheral hospital radiologists by assessing (i) oncologists' knowledge of local radiological services; (ii) oncologists' perceptions of peripheral radiological services; (iii) peripheral radiologist's perceptions of oncologists; (iv) barriers to communication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A postal questionnaire was sent to all radiology departments visited by an oncologist, and to all medical and clinical oncologists from two regional oncology centres. RESULTS: The response rate was 100% (21 peripheral hospital radiology departments and all 35 oncologists). (i) Oncologists' knowledge of peripheral hospital imaging modalities was limited (especially MRI and intervention). (ii) 72% of oncologists rated the peripheral hospital radiology service as excellent or good, 46% rated the radiology report quality excellent to good. Deficiencies in oncological reports were identified. (iii) 44% of radiologists thought the oncologist did not relate well with the local radiology department. 50% of radiologists did not know the visiting oncologist's specialist interest. (iv) 69% of oncologists did not regularly attend peripheral hospital clinico-radiological meetings. Lack of written and oral information was hampering both specialities. CONCLUSION: Communication between oncologists and the local radiology department should include: (1) information about local radiology services for visiting oncologists (including trainees) and on the oncology team for radiologists; (2) standardized report content; (3) improved clinical information for radiologists; (4) regular clinico-radiological meetings. Bungay, P.M. et al. (2002)

  16. Magnitude and outcomes of road traffic accidents at Hospitals in Wolaita Zone, SNNPR, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailemichael, Feleke; Suleiman, Mohammed; Pauolos, Wondimagegn

    2015-04-09

    A Road traffic accident is an incident on a way or street open to public traffic, resulting in one or more persons being killed or injured, and involving at least one moving vehicle. The aim of this study is to assess magnitude and outcome of road traffic accidents among trauma victims at hospitals in Wolaita zone. A cross sectional hospital based study design using retrospective chart review was conducted from March 5th to March 25th, 2014. Simple random sampling technique was applied to identify sample population. The data was entered in to Epi info version 3.5.1 and transferred to SPSS version 16 for further analysis. A total of 384 trauma victims were incorporated in the study of which 240 (62.5%) were due to road traffic accidents. The majority of patients were male 298 (77.6%) and most commonly aged between 20-29 (35.42%). The principal outcome of injury was more commonly lower extremity (182 patients, 47.4%), compared to upper extremity (126 patients, 32.8%). Of all trauma patient presenting to hospitals (62.5%) are the result of road traffic accident. Hence, the provision of tailored messages to all members of the community regarding knowledge and practices of road safety measures like appropriate use of pavements by pedestrians and avoiding risky driving behaviors. Besides this make use of compulsory motorcycle helmets would appear to be a very important intervention.

  17. Current status of soil transmitted helminths and Schistosoma mansoni infection among children in two primary schools in North Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

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    Mathewos, Biniam; Alemu, Abebe; Woldeyohannes, Desalegn; Alemu, Agersew; Addis, Zelalem; Tiruneh, Moges; Aimero, Mulugeta; Kassu, Afework

    2014-02-10

    School age children are one of the groups at high risk for intestinal parasitic infections especially in developing countries like Ethiopia as the supply of good quality drinking water and latrine coverage are poor. Though there are previous data on the prevalence of soil transmitted helminths (STHs) and Schistosoma mansoni infection among these high risk groups current status in the study area is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the current prevalence and associated risk factors of STHs and S. mansoni infections among school children. A cross-sectional study was carried out in Gorgora and Chuahit towns, North Gondar Zone, North West Ethiopia from January 20 to February 25, 2012 involving 261 school children. A pre-tested and structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data and possible risk factors. Stool samples were collected and examined for intestinal parasites using Kato Katz method. Chi-square test was used to see if there is association between sociodemographic factors and other risk factors for STH and S. mansoni infection and odds ratio with 95% CI was computed as measures of association. P intestinal parasites. Ascaris lumbricoides was the predominant isolates (39.8%) followed by Trichuris trichiura (6.1%) and Hookworms (4.9%). Schistosoma mansoni was detected in 33.7% of the children. Among infected individuals, 9.5% were coinfected by S. mansoni and A. lumbricoides and 1.5% with S. mansoni and T. trichiura. Swimming habit (OR: 2.536, 95% CI: 1.122, 5.737, P = 0.022) was significantly associated with S. mansoni infection. The prevalence of STH and S. mansoni was high among school children. This should call for implementation of an integrated strategy to reduce morbidity and control of transmission of STH and S. mansoni.

  18. The prevalence of impaired fasting glucose and undiagnosed diabetes mellitus and associated risk factors among adults living in a rural Koladiba town, northwest Ethiopia.

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    Worede, Abebaw; Alemu, Shitaye; Gelaw, Yalemzewod Assefa; Abebe, Molla

    2017-07-06

    Diabetes mellitus is becoming a big public health challenge, particularly in developing countries like Ethiopia. It is a manageable disease if early screening and follow up is made. However, as studies in Ethiopia are limited and unorganized, determining the magnitude of prediabetes and diabetes and identifying associated risk factors is quite essential. A community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted from February to April 2015 among adults (aged ≥20 years) in a rural Koladiba town. A multistage sampling technique was used to select a total of 392 study participants. Data were collected after a fully informed written consent was obtained from each participant. Demographic, behavioral, and clinical data were collected using a well-structured questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regression models were fitted to control the effect of confounders. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) with their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were computed to measure associations. A p value of fasting glucose and undiagnosed diabetes mellitus were 12% (95% CI 9-16) and 2.3% (95% CI 1.1-4), respectively, in Koladiba. Overweight (AOR: 4.257, 95% CI 1.345-13.476), obesity (AOR: 5.26, 95% CI 1.138-24.316), hypertriglyceridemia (AOR: 2.83, 95% CI 1.451-5.521), and systolic hypertension (AOR: 3.858, 95% CI 1.62-9.189) were found to be independently associated with impaired fasting glucose. Positive family history of diabetes also showed a marginal association with impaired fasting glucose (p = 0.057). Male sex (p = 0.012) and hypertriglyceridemia (p = 0.030) were associated with undiagnosed diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of impaired fasting glucose and undiagnosed diabetes mellitus are found to be significant. Obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and systolic hypertension are independently associated with impaired fasting glucose among adults. We recommend that the community be aware of healthy life style, early screening, and maintain continuous follow up.

  19. Generalized psychological distress among HIV-infected patients enrolled in antiretroviral treatment in Dilla University Hospital, Gedeo zone, Ethiopia

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    Solomon H. Tesfaye

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychological disorders like depression and anxiety are potentially dangerous conditions. In the context of HIV/AIDS, this can influence health-seeking behavior or uptake of diagnosis and treatment for HIV/AIDS, add to the burden of disease for HIV patients, create difficulty in adherence to treatment, and increase the risk of mortality and morbidity. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of generalized psychological distress among HIV-infected subjects on antiretroviral treatment (ART. Design: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted. Interviews were conducted with 500 patients initiating ART at Dilla Referral Hospital. Generalized psychological distress was measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. A cutoff score ≥19 was used to identify possible cases of patients with generalized psychological distress. Multivariable logistic regression analysis using SPSS Version 20 was performed to identify factors associated with psychological distress. Results: The prevalence of generalized psychological distress among the population of this study was 11.2% (HADS≥19. Factors independently associated with generalized psychological distress were moderate stress (OR=6.87, 95% CI 2.27–20.81, low social support (OR=10.17, 95% CI 2.85–36.29, number of negative life events of six and above (OR=3.99, 95% CI 1.77–8.99, not disclosing HIV status (OR=5.24, 95% CI 1.33–20.62, and CD4 cell count of <200 cells/mm3 (OR=1.98, 95% CI 0.45–0.83 and 200–499 cells/mm3 (OR=3.53, 95% CI 1.62–7.73. Conclusions: This study provides prevalence of psychological distress lower than the prevalence of common mental disorders in Ethiopia and comparable to some other studies in sub-Saharan Africa. The findings are important in terms of their relevance to identifying high-risk groups for generalized psychological distress and preventing distress through integrating mental health

  20. Metabolic syndrome and associated factors among psychiatric patients in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, South West Ethiopia.

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    Asaye, Sintayehu; Bekele, Shiferaw; Tolessa, Daniel; Cheneke, Waqtola

    2018-04-24

    Metabolic syndrome is a multisystem disorder which coined to describe the recognized clustering of metabolic and cardiovascular abnormalities including obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and abnormalities of glucose homeostasis. To assess the prevalence and associated factors of metabolic syndrome among psychiatric patients in Jimma University Specialized Hospital. This study was conducted at Jimma University Specialized hospital psychiatric ward from May 15 to July 16, 2015. A cross-sectional study design and consecutive sampling technique were used. A single population proportion formula was used to include a total of 360 psychiatric patients. An interview administered structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic and some clinical data. Anthropometric data were collected based on standard guild line for anthropometric measurement. Five milliliter of venous blood was collected from ante-cubital fossa after overnight fasting for 8 h. Semi-automated clinical chemistry analyzer (Temis Linear) was used for biochemical laboratory analysis. Data analysis was performed by using SPSS version-20 software. Binary and multiple logistic regressions were used to identify the association between dependent and independent variables. P value less than 0.05 was taken as statistically significant association. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among psychiatric patients was 28.9%. Age greater than 30 years old (AOR: 5.2, CI: 2.3, 11.8, P. value metabolic syndrome among diabetic patients in the study area. The other independent variables such as family history of hypertension, chewing chat, Psychotropic drugs, duration of treatment, regularly eating fruits and vegetables had no statistically significant association with metabolic syndrome (P. value > 0.05). There was high prevalence of metabolic syndrome among the psychiatric patients. Therefore; close assessment, management and treatment of metabolic syndrome among patients with psychiatry problem is

  1. Substance abuse and the risk of readmission of people with schizophrenia at Amanuel Psychiatric Hospital, Ethiopia

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    M.S. Bimerew

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Frequent readmissions of people with schizophrenia pose considerable pressure on the psychiatric service provision of Amanuel Psychiatric Hospital. The purpose of the study was to ascertain factors mainly contributing to the rate of readmissions of people with schizophrenia. Descriptive survey methods and qualitative focus group interviews were employed to conduct the study. Random sampling techniques were used to select 43 respondents of people with schizophrenia from 231 people with schizophrenia who were readmitted for two or more times in the last two years and who gained access during the time of the study. Structured interviews were used for respondents of people with schizophrenia. Fourteen (N = 14 family members/caregivers were selected using purposive sampling methods for focus group discussions. Quantitative data was analyzed using the SPSS Version 11.00 program and the qualitative data was analyzed by generating themes and categories. The results suggest that alcohol and that abuse were contributing factors for the rate of readmissions of people with schizophrenia into the Amanuel Psychiatric Hospital. It was found that communities contribute to the problems of substance abuse by providing and/or selling it to those mentally ill people. The study also revealed that patients use alcohol and that in order to tolerate the severe side effects of the anti-psychotic drugs, to suppress hunger due to shortage of food and to avoid drowsiness. Raising community awareness, psycho-education, strengthening the capacities of caretakers and laws to prevent substance abuse, as well as campaigning to prevent people from abusing mentally ill sufferers, should be established.

  2. Effect of emergency oral contraceptive use on condom utilization and sexual risk taking behaviours among university students, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

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    Wasie, Belaynew; Belyhun, Yeshambel; Moges, Beyene; Amare, Bemnet

    2012-09-13

    Young people between the ages of 15 and 24 years are both the most at risk of HIV and the greatest hope for turning the tide against HIV/AIDS. Although various surveys have been done on sexual behaviour of youth in Ethiopia, studies assessing the effect of emergency oral contraceptives on condom utilization of university students are lacking. A cross-sectional study was conducted in two major universities of Ethiopia from January to May 2011 using structured self administered questionnaire with the aim to assess the effect of introducing oral emergency contraceptive pills on condom utilization and sexual risk taking behaviours among female university students. Study participants were selected by simple random sampling using the list from the associate registrars of each University. Data were entered, cleaned and analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to determine factors associated with condom utilization. a total of 623 students out of 660 were included giving response rate of 94.4%. A total of 103(16.5%) had history of sexual intercourse and nearly half (45.6%) of them had sex before the age of 20 years. Forty (6.4%) students had history of sexually transmitted infections (STI). Sixty seven percent of students had heard about emergency oral contraceptives. One hundred and ninety one (45.7%) of students believe that EOC is effective in preventing pregnancy. Believing that EOC is effective in preventing pregnancy (adjusted Odds ratio, AOR = 0.22 95% CI 0.06, 0.87), condom prevents STI (AOR = 10.37, 95% CI 1.73, 62.24) and younger age below 20 years (AOR = 11.68 95% CI 1.25, 109.19) were statistically significantly associated with condom use. a significant number of students had history of sexual intercourse and used emergency contraception. The belief in the effectiveness of EOC negatively affects condom use. The preference for the pill may make teenagers less prepared to practice STI protective behaviours in

  3. Effect of emergency oral contraceptive use on condom utilization and sexual risk taking behaviours among university students, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

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    Wasie Belaynew

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young people between the ages of 15 and 24 years are both the most at risk of HIV and the greatest hope for turning the tide against HIV/AIDS. Although various surveys have been done on sexual behaviour of youth in Ethiopia, studies assessing the effect of emergency oral contraceptives on condom utilization of university students are lacking. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in two major universities of Ethiopia from January to May 2011 using structured self administered questionnaire with the aim to assess the effect of introducing oral emergency contraceptive pills on condom utilization and sexual risk taking behaviours among female university students. Study participants were selected by simple random sampling using the list from the associate registrars of each University. Data were entered, cleaned and analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to determine factors associated with condom utilization. Results a total of 623 students out of 660 were included giving response rate of 94.4%. A total of 103(16.5% had history of sexual intercourse and nearly half (45.6% of them had sex before the age of 20 years. Forty (6.4% students had history of sexually transmitted infections (STI. Sixty seven percent of students had heard about emergency oral contraceptives. One hundred and ninety one (45.7% of students believe that EOC is effective in preventing pregnancy. Believing that EOC is effective in preventing pregnancy (adjusted Odds ratio, AOR = 0.22 95% CI 0.06, 0.87, condom prevents STI (AOR = 10.37, 95% CI 1.73, 62.24 and younger age below 20 years (AOR = 11.68 95% CI 1.25, 109.19 were statistically significantly associated with condom use. Conclusion a significant number of students had history of sexual intercourse and used emergency contraception. The belief in the effectiveness of EOC negatively affects condom use. The preference for the

  4. Prevalence of Active Trachoma and Its Associated Factors among Rural and Urban Children in Dera Woreda, Northwest Ethiopia: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study

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    Metadel Alemayehu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Trachoma is the most common infectious cause of blindness worldwide. Once an epidemic in most parts of the world, it has largely now disappeared from developed countries. However, it continues to be endemic in many developing countries like Ethiopia. Even if several studies were conducted in different parts of Ethiopia, most of them did not show the independent predictors for rural and urban children separately. Therefore, this study aimed at assessing the prevalence and associated factors of active trachoma in urban and rural children. Methods. Community based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in Dera woreda. Multistage sampling technique was used to select 671 children of one up to nine years of age. Data were collected by face to face interview and observation using a structured and pretested questionnaire. Binary Logistic Regression Model was fitted to consider adding independent predictors of outcome. Results. Out of 671 children, 20 (9.3% of urban and 85 (18.6% of rural children were positive for active trachoma. Having discharge on eye (AOR = 6.9, 95% CI: 1.79–27.89, presence of liquid waste around the main house (AOR = 5.6, 95% CI: 1.94–16.18, and living in households without latrine (AOR = 4.39, 95% CI: 1.39–13.89 were significantly associated with active trachoma of urban children. Rural children who had discharge on their eye (AOR = 5.86, 95% CI: 2.78–12.33, those who had unclean face (AOR = 4.68, 95% CI: 2.24–9.81, and those living in households with feces around their main houses (AOR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.04–3.62 were significantly associated with active trachoma. Conclusion. The result showed that the prevalence of active trachoma in urban areas of the district was below WHO threshold of 10% to determine trachoma as public health problem. However, in rural areas of the district it is far from elimination of trachoma as a public health problem. Thus, in order to improve awareness of the community

  5. Attitude and Vaccination Status of Healthcare Workers against Hepatitis B Infection in a Teaching Hospital, Ethiopia

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    Mohammed Akibu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend all health professionals to get vaccinated against hepatitis B virus before they start the clinical attachments during their stay in the medical school. However, only 18–39% of healthcare workers in low- and middle-income countries received the vaccine. Therefore, this study aims to determine the attitude and vaccination status of health professionals working at Adama General Hospital and Medical College. Methods. An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2016 to February 2017 with 403 health professionals working at Adama General Hospital and Medical College. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaire distributed at the participant’s work unit and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify factors that affect the complete vaccination status and p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Result. The prevalence of complete vaccination against hepatitis B virus was 25.6%. The most frequently mentioned reasons for not being vaccinated were high cost of the vaccine (41% and unavailability of the vaccine (36%. More than three-fourths (77.8% of study participants strongly agreed that hepatitis B is a major public health threat and there was tendency among participants to believe that their profession will put them at increased risk of acquiring the disease (strongly agreed: 75.9%. Attending infection-prevention training [AOR = 2.3; 95% CI, 1.24–6.31], history of exposure to risky behavior [AOR = 5.5; 95% CI, 2.86–9.29], and long years of work experience [AOR = 3.1; 95% CI, 1.98–5.24] were statistically significant with complete vaccination status. Conclusion. Only one-quarter of health professionals received the recommended full dose of the vaccine. Sustained hepatitis B vaccination programs for healthcare workers need to be established by

  6. Medication adherence and its associated factors among diabetic patients at Zewditu Memorial Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

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    Ali, Muhammed; Alemu, Tigestu; Sada, Oumer

    2017-12-04

    Diabetes is a global problem with devastating human, social and economic impact. Anti-diabetic medications play a major role in the glycemic control of patients with diabetes. However, inadequate adherence compromises safety and treatment effectiveness, leading to increased mortality and morbidity. The aim of this study was to assess adherence to anti-diabetic medications and associated factors among patient with diabetes mellitus receiving care at Zewditu Memorial Hospital. Among the total of 146 diabetic patients (mean age 46.5 ± 14.7), the level of adherence to anti diabetic medication was 54.8% (80) whilst 45.2% (66) of the participants were non adherent. Multiple logistic regression showed that knowledge of medication (AOR = 4.905, 95% CI 1.64-14.62, medication availability (AOR = 0.175, 95% CI 0.031-0.987) and education level (AOR = 13.65, 95% CI 1.45-128.456) were reasons for non-adherence.

  7. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Shigella among acute diarrheal outpatients in Mekelle hospital, Northern Ethiopia.

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    Gebrekidan, Atsebaha; Dejene, Tsehaye Asmelash; Kahsay, Getahun; Wasihun, Araya Gebreysus

    2015-10-28

    Emergence of increased antimicrobial resistance of Shigella species is a global challenge, particularly in developing countries where increased misuse of antimicrobial agents occurs. There is no published data in the study area on the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Shigella among acute diarrheal patients. This study was therefore, under taken to fill this gap. Using cross sectional study method, stool specimens were collected from 216 patients with acute diarrhea at Mekelle Hospital from August to November 2014. Standard bacteriological methods were used to isolate and determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the isolates, and data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Out of the total 216 participants, Shigella was isolated from 15 (6.9 %) of the participants. Ten (66.7 %) of the positive isolates were from children Shigella showed 100, 86.7 and 66.7 % resistance to amoxicillin, amoxicillin and cotrimoxazole respectively. Low levels of resistance were observed for norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin (6.7 % each). Overall, 80 % of the isolates showed multidrug resistance. Shigella isolates were highly resistant to amoxicillin, amoxicillin and cotrimoxazole. However, ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin were effective. Antibiotic surveillance is needed to prevent further emergence of drug resistant Shigella strains. More has to be done in the availability of latrine, supply of safe drinking water to the community to reduce the disease burden.

  8. Qualitative Assessment of Challenges in Tuberculosis Control in West Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia: Health Workers’ and Tuberculosis Control Program Coordinators’ Perspectives

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    Senedu B. Gebreegziabher

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Weak health systems pose many barriers to effective tuberculosis (TB control. This study aimed at exploring health worker’s and TB control program coordinator’s perspectives on health systems challenges facing TB control in West Gojjam Zone, Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Methods. This was a qualitative descriptive study. Eight in-depth interviews with TB control program coordinators and two focus group discussions among 16 health workers were conducted. Purposive sampling was used to recruit study participants. Thematic analysis was used to identify and analyse main themes. Results. We found that intermittent interruptions of laboratory reagents and anti-TB drugs supplies, absence of trained and motivated health workers, poor TB data documentation, lack of adherence to TB treatment guideline, and lack of access to TB diagnostic tools at peripheral health institutions were challenges facing the TB control program performance in the study zone. Conclusions. Ensuring uninterrupted supply of anti-TB drugs and laboratory reagents to all health institutions is essential. Continuous refresher training of health workers on standard TB care and data handling and developing and implementing a sound retention strategy to attract and motivate health professionals to work in rural areas are necessary interventions to improve the TB control program performance in the study zone.

  9. Male Partner's Involvement in HIV Counselling and Testing and Associated Factors among Partners of Pregnant Women in Gondar Town, Northwest Ethiopia.

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    Zenebe, Alemu; Gebeyehu, Abebaw; Derseh, Lemma; Ahmed, Kedir Y

    2016-01-01

    Background. Despite the existence of several programmes promoting male involvement in HIV counselling and testing during their wife's pregnancy as a part of PMTCT, few men have heeded the call. The aim of this study was to assess male partner's involvement in HCT and its associated factors. Methods. This study was based on institution based cross-sectional study design that used systematic random sampling technique. A total of 416 partners were interviewed in the data collection. Multivariable logistic regression model was fitted to identify the independent predictors. Result. In this study, the prevalence of male involvement in HCT was found to be 40.1% (95% CI: 35.3%-44.7%). The independent predictors of male involvement were partners who were younger, were cohabitant, were with multigravida wives, were knowledgeable on route of mother-to-child transmission, and discussed HCT. Conclusion. The prevalence of male involvement in HCT was found to be suboptimal compared to similar studies in Ethiopia. There is a need of interventions on partners who are older, separated, and with lower gravidity wife. Awareness creation campaign should also be created on the route of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and on the importance of discussion with wife.

  10. Dietary diversity and associated factors among HIV positive adults attending antiretroviral therapy clinics at Hiwot Fana and Dilchora Hospitals, eastern Ethiopia

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    Weldegebreal F

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Fitsum Weldegebreal,1 Tesfaye Digaffe,1 Frehiwot Mesfin,2 Habtamu Mitiku1 1Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia; 2Department of Public Health, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia Background: Nutritional care is considered a crucial component of comprehensive care for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA, particularly in resource-limited settings where malnutrition and food insecurity are endemic problems, and low quality monotonous diets are the norm. The findings of this study provide baseline information on dietary diversity and related factors for health care providers so that they will be able to improve nutritional care and support activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess dietary diversity and associated factors among HIV positive adults (18–65 years old attending antiretroviral therapy (ART clinics at Hiwot Fana and Dilchora Hospitals, eastern Ethiopia. Patients and methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2015 to February 2016 at the ART clinics of Hiwot Fana and Dilchora Hospitals. Using a systematic random sampling technique, a total of 303 patients were selected from all adults attending the ART clinics. The data were collected with a 95% CI used to show association between dietary diversity and independent factors. Results: A total of 303 adult HIV positive individuals on ART participated in the study and 62.4% were females. The largest numbers of participants (49.5% were 30–40 years of age. Eighty-seven (28.7% participants had low dietary diversity (≤4 food groups. Duration of antiretroviral treatment was the factor significantly associated with dietary diversity: respondents with a duration of antiretroviral treatment of more than 2 years were almost two times more likely to have high dietary diversity compared with those with less than a year of

  11. Patients' satisfaction towards radiological service and associated factors in Hawassa University Teaching and referral hospital, Southern Ethiopia.

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    Mulisa, Teshome; Tessema, Fasil; Merga, Hailu

    2017-06-26

    Patient satisfaction, one of the main components of quality of care, is a crucial phenomenon for the overall health care delivery system. Even though a number of studies have been conducted about patient satisfaction in different health services, studies in radiology services are flimsy in Ethiopia. This study aimed at assessing patient satisfaction towards radiological service and associated factors in Hawassa University Teaching and Referral hospital. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among 321 adult patients presented for radiological service in the study area using stratified sampling technique. Patient satisfaction was measured using SERVQUAL (Service Quality) tool that consisted of seven items: accessibility, quality of radiological service, courtesy of radiology staff, existence of good communication with service provider and desk worker, physical environment and privacy technique. Exit interviews of patients were conducted using a structured and pretested questionnaire. Data was collected by three grade ten completed trained data collectors from May 12 to May 28, 2016. Multiple logistic regressions were used to identify independent factors associated with patient satisfaction on radiological services using SPSS version 21. The overall patient satisfaction towards radiological service was 71.6%. Satisfaction to accessibility of the service was 84.5% while it was 80.6% to courtesy of the staff. Similarly, 81.6% reported satisfied with quality of the service and 59.4% and 71% of reported satisfied with physical environment and radiological service provider respectively. On the other hand, 99.7% of the respondents were dissatisfied with privacy of the service. The study revealed that patients who attended primary school (AOR = 0.317, 95% CI: 0.11-0.88), unemployed patients (AOR = 0.067, 95% CI: 0.007-0.622) and patients who had short waiting time to enter into examination room less than one hour (AOR = 4.12, 95% CI: 1.4-11.62) were

  12. Assessment of client satisfaction on emergency department services in Hawassa University Referral Hospital, Hawassa, Southern Ethiopia.

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    Worku, Mesfin; Loha, Eskindir

    2017-06-27

    Satisfaction refers to a state of pleasure or contentment with an action, event or service, especially one that was previously desired. Regarding to client, satisfaction is the level of happiness that clients experience having used a service. It therefore reflects the gap between the expected service and the experience of the service, from the client's point of view. Information was unavailable regarding the level of satisfaction of patients towards emergency health care servicesat Hawassa University Referral Hospital thatserve a huge catchment area; and this study addressed this gap. Cross-sectional study was conducted from March 13 to May 15/2014. Systematic sampling method was used to enroll study participants. The data was collected by trained data collectors using pre-structured questionnaire. A total 407 clients were enrolled under this study with respondent rate of 96.9%. Nearly two third of study participants were male, 270 (66.3%). 86.7% of study participants were satisfied by services provided in Emergency Out Patient Department (OPD). The percentage of study satisfaction with physical examination by Doctor, nursing, laboratory and pharmacy services were 95.6%, 89.9%, 84.7% and 67.6%, respectively. Only 31.9% were satisfied with availability of drugs in the pharmacy. Regarding to staff courtesy, 91.7% of study participants were satisfied by the manner shown by the staffs working in Emergency OPD. The vast majority of the participants (97%) were satisfied with the courtesy of Medical laboratory personnel and the least satisfaction (79.4%) was recorded for security guards. This study showed low level of patient satisfaction in pharmacy services specifically due to unavailability of drugs due to lack of sustained supply of drugs.

  13. Pediatric Hydrocephalus in Ethiopia: Treatment Failures and Infections: A Hospital-Based, Retrospective Study.

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    Laeke, Tsegazeab; Tirsit, Abenezer; Biluts, Hagos; Murali, Deeptha; Wester, Knut

    2017-04-01

    Treatment of pediatric hydrocephalus in sub-Saharan countries is associated with significant complication rates. The objective of this study is to analyze the management of hydrocephalus and complication rates of surgical intervention in the Ethiopian setting to improve future quality. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in a neurosurgical teaching hospital. Two cohorts separated by 2.5 years were analyzed. A total of 128 (58.6% male and 41.4% female) children with isolated hydrocephalus, meningomyelocele (MMC)-related hydrocephalus, or MMC without hydrocephalus were included. Their age ranged from 1 day to 5 years, for a mean age of 7.2 months (median age 2 months). One hundred thirteen patients had hydrocephalus, of whom 57 (44.5.3%) had isolated hydrocephalus and 56 (43.8%) had hydrocephalus associated with MMC. Seventy-seven (74.7%) patients underwent ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunting, whereas 24 (23.3%) underwent endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV). The incidence of shunt infection was 23.4%. Reoperation was needed in 54 (52.4%) patients, with the most common indication being shunt failure. ETV failed in 14 (58.3%) of the 24 patients undergoing ETV. VP shunt insertions had unacceptably high infection rate despite the presence of a protocol for the procedure. Intraoperative guidelines should be developed further and followed strictly to reduce infections. Such measures should include restricting the number of surgeons performing the procedure. In our opinion, one should avoid insertion of a VP shunt as the primary treatment. ETV has proved to be a good alternative in other studies and the decreasing pattern of ETV failure in our study also suggest ETV as a better alternative to VP shunt. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Tuberculosis and HIV are the leading causes of adult death in northwest Ethiopia: evidence from verbal autopsy data of Dabat health and demographic surveillance system, 2007-2013.

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    Kebede, Yigzaw; Andargie, Gashaw; Gebeyehu, Abebaw; Awoke, Tadesse; Yitayal, Mezgebu; Mekonnen, Solomon; Wubshet, Mamo; Azmeraw, Temesgen; Lakew, Yihunie; Alemu, Kassahun

    2017-07-17

    Reliable data on causes of death form the basis for building evidence on health policy, planning, monitoring, and evaluation. In Ethiopia, the majority of deaths occur at home and civil registration systems are not yet functional. The main objective of verbal autopsy (VA) is to describe the causes of death at the community or population level where civil registration and death certification systems are weak and where most people die at home without having had contact with the health system. Causes of death were classified and prepared based on the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). The cause of a death was ascertained based on an interview with next of kin or other caregivers using a standardized questionnaire that draws information on signs, symptoms, medical history, and circumstances preceding death. The cause of death, or the sequence of causes that led to death, is assigned based on the data collected by the questionnaire. The complete VA questionnaires were given to two blinded physicians and reviewed independently. A third physician was assigned to review the case when disagreements in diagnosis arose. Communicable diseases (519 deaths [48.0%]), non-communicable diseases (377 deaths [34.8%]), and external causes (113 deaths [10.4%]) were the main causes of death between 2007 and 2013. Of communicable diseases, tuberculosis (207 deaths [19.7%]), HIV/AIDS (96 deaths [8.9%]) and meningitis (76 deaths [7.0%]) were the most common causes of death. Tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, and meningitis were the most common causes of deaths among adults. Death due to non-communicable diseases showed an increasing trend. Increasing community awareness of infections and their interrelationships, tuberculosis case finding, effective local TB programs, successful treatment, and interventions for HIV are supremely important.

  15. Helminth infections and practice of prevention and control measures among pregnant women attending antenatal care at Anbesame health center, Northwest Ethiopia.

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    Shiferaw, Melashu Balew; Zegeye, Amtatachew Moges; Mengistu, Agmas Dessalegn

    2017-07-12

    Helminth infections have a terrible impact on child growth and development, and harm pregnant women. Regular treatment and long term preventive interventions are important measures to break the transmission routes. Hence, identifying the status of helminth infection and practices of prevention and control measures among pregnant women is important in different geographical areas of Ethiopia including our setting. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 180 pregnant women from March to June, 2015. About 2 g of stool was collected and examined to identify helminth infections. Proportions and risk factors of helminth infections were calculated using SPSS version 20. Among the total 180 study participants, 38 (21.1% [95% CI 15.2-27.0%]) pregnant women had helminth infections. Hookworm and Schistosoma mansoni were the only identified helminth species. Thirty-six (20.0% [95% CI 14.3-25.7%]) and 4 (2.2% [95% CI 0.2-4.2%]) pregnant women had hookworm and S. mansoni infections, respectively. Of which, double infection (hookworm and S. mansoni) was found in two pregnant women. Only 32 (17.8%) pregnant women had proper hand wash practice after toilet, 48 (26.7%) drank treated water, and 40 (22.2%) wore shoes regularly. Those pregnant women who did not take albendazole or mebendazole dewormers (AOR 3.57; 95% CI 1.19-10.69; P 0.023) were more infected from helminth infections. This study showed that there was a high intestinal helminth infection among pregnant women, and low practice of prevention and control measures. Thus, prevention and control measures should be strengthened in the setting.

  16. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in the environs of Tara-gedam and Amba remnant forests of Libo Kemkem District, northwest Ethiopia.

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    Chekole, Getnet; Asfaw, Zemede; Kelbessa, Ensermu

    2015-01-07

    Remnant forests found in areas that have long been converted to agricultural landscapes are refuges of wild useful plants; and societies inhabiting them are custodians of rich indigenous botanical knowledge. This study was undertaken to document the medicinal plants used by the people living in and around Tara-gedam and Amba remnant forests, northwestern Ethiopia, together with the associated ethnomedicinal knowledge. Data were collected from 105 informants through semi-structured interviews, guided field walk, market survey; and analyzed using standard ethnobotanical analytical tools including ranking and comparison. A total of 163 medicinal plant species in 145 genera and 67 families were recorded among which Zehneria scabra drew the highest community consensus. Seventy-one percent of the medicinal plants were those used for treating human ailments only, 21% for both human and livestock and 8% for livestock only. Asteraceae, with 14 species, had the highest number of medicinal plant species. The medicinal plants mainly (79.1%) belong to the shrub and herb categories and most of them were sourced from the wild habitats. Leaves and fresh plant materials were more frequently used for medicine preparation than other parts. Protected government and church forests as well as tree propagation in nurseries followed by planting them and local practices constitute the major forest conservation efforts that indirectly protect the medicinal plants in the area. Elders and healers knew more about the medicinal plants, their distribution, the local ethnomedicinal practices and knowledge transfer patterns. Though important for the local healthcare system and with potentials for modern drug discovery, both the plants and the knowledge pool are under threat. The diversity of medicinal plants and the associated indigenous knowledge of Tara-gedam and its environs are of a considerable value to the local community and beyond. There is, therefore, a need for conservation of the

  17. Total Delay Is Associated with Unfavorable Treatment Outcome among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in West Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia: A Prospective Cohort Study.

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    Senedu Bekele Gebreegziabher

    Full Text Available delay in diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis (TB may worsen the disease, increase mortality and enhance transmission in the community. This study aimed at assessing the association between total delay and unfavorable treatment outcome among newly diagnosed pulmonary TB (PTB patients.A prospective cohort study was conducted in West Gojjam Zone, Amhara Region of Ethiopia from October 2013 to May 2015. Newly diagnosed PTB patients who were ≥15 years of age were consecutively enrolled in the study from 30 randomly selected public health facilities. Total delay (the time period from onset of TB symptoms to first start of anti-TB treatment was measured. Median total delay was calculated. Mixed effect logistics regression was used to analyze factors associated with unfavorable treatment outcome.Seven hundred six patients were enrolled in the study. The median total delay was 60 days. Patients with total delay of > 60 days were more likely to have unfavorable TB treatment outcome than patients with total delay of ≤ 60 days (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-5.26. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV positive TB patients were 8.46 times more likely to experience unfavorable treatment outcome than HIV negative TB patients (AOR, 8.46; 95% CI, 3.14-22.79.Long total delay and TB/HIV coinfection were associated with unfavorable treatment outcome. Targeted interventions that can reduce delay in diagnosis and treatment of TB, and early comprehensive management of TB/HIV coinfection are needed to reduce increased risk of unfavorable treatment outcome.

  18. Expectation and satisfaction of HIV/AIDS patients toward the pharmaceutical care provided at Gondar University Referral Hospital, Northwestern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

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    Abebe TB

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tamrat Befekadu Abebe,1 Daniel Asfaw Erku,2 Begashaw Melaku Gebresillassie,1 Kaleab Taye Haile,3 Abebe Basazn Mekuria4 1Department of Clinical Pharmacy, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, 3Department of Pharmaceutics, 4Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia Purpose: Measurements of patient satisfaction help to assess the performance of health service provision and predict treatment adherence and outcomes. This study aimed to assess human HIV/AIDS patients’ expectation of and satisfaction with the pharmaceutical service delivered at Gondar University Referral Hospital, Ethiopia. Patients and methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was performed from May 11 to 25, 2015. A total of 291 patients living with HIV/AIDS were included using a simple random sampling method. Data were collected using structured questionnaires measuring expectation and satisfaction of respondents using a Likert scale of 1–5 through face-to-face interviews. The data collected were entered into and analyzed using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences. Comparison was made between those respondents who lived in and outside the town. Results: The overall mean expectation and satisfaction of respondents toward pharmacy setting and services were 3.62 and 3.13, respectively. More than half (56.1% of the participants were dissatisfied with the comfort and convenience of waiting area and private counseling room. Similarly, 69.3% of the respondents claimed that pharmacy professionals did not give information about side effects and drug–drug and drug–food interactions of antiretroviral medications. There was a statistically significant difference between respondents who live in and outside Gondar town in overall expectation (t=3.415, P=0.001 with the pharmacy setting and services. Conclusion: In this study, the overall satisfaction level of respondents with pharmaceutical service (pharmacy setting and services

  19. Cotton dust exposure and self-reported respiratory symptoms among textile factory workers in Northwest Ethiopia: a comparative cross-sectional study.

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    Daba Wami, Sintayehu; Chercos, Daniel Haile; Dessie, Awrajaw; Gizaw, Zemichael; Getachew, Atalay; Hambisa, Tesfaye; Guadu, Tadese; Getachew, Dawit; Destaw, Bikes

    2018-01-01

    Cotton dust induced respiratory disorders are dramatically increased over the globe, especially the problem is serious in developing countries. Respiratory symptoms, such as cough, phlegm, wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, chronic bronchitis, and byssinosis are common among workers exposed to cotton dust. However, in Ethiopia, the magnitude of the problem is not well known and information is limited about the risk factors. Therefore, this study was aimed to assess the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and associated factors. A Comparative cross-sectional study design was employed. A total of 413 (276 exposed and 137 unexposed) participants were included in the study. Stratified and simple random sampling techniques were used to select exposed and unexposed groups to cotton dust respectively. Multivariable binary logistic regression analyses was performed to identify variables associated with respiratory symptoms and adjusted odds ratio (AOR) was used to determine the strength of associations. Significance level was obtained at 95% confidence interval (CI) and p -value ≤0.05. The prevalence of self-reported respiratory symptoms was 47.8% (95% CI: 41.3, 53.7%) and 15.3% (95% CI: 9.6, 22.3%) among exposed and control groups respectively. Sex (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.29, 3.45), service year (AOR = 2.38, 95% CI: 1.19, 4.71) and ventilation (AOR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.17, 4.91) were factors significantly associated with respiratory symptoms. Furthermore, working department such as; ginning (AOR = 5.1, 95% CI: 2.13, 12.16), spinning (AOR = 4.96, 95% CI: 2.18, 11.29), weaving (AOR = 5.9, 95% CI: 2.46, 14.27) and blowing working departments (AOR = 5.14, 95% CI: 1.4, 18.94) were significantly associated with respiratory disorders. The prevalence of self-reported respiratory symptoms was higher among workers exposed to cotton dust than unexposed workers. Sex, service year, working department and work unit ventilation were predictor

  20. Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. among School Children in a Rural Area of the Amhara Region, North-West Ethiopia.

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    Aida de Lucio

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. are enteric protozoan causing gastrointestinal illness in humans and animals. Giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis are not formally considered as neglected tropical diseases, but belong to the group of poverty-related infectious diseases that impair the development and socio-economic potential of infected individuals in developing countries.We report here the prevalence and genetic diversity of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in children attending rural primary schools in the Bahir Dar district of the Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Stool samples were collected from 393 children and analysed by molecular methods. G. duodenalis was detected by real-time PCR, and the assemblages and sub-assemblages were determined by multilocus sequence-based genotyping of the glutamate dehydrogenase and β-giardin genes of the parasite. Detection and identification of Cryptosporidium species was carried out by sequencing of a partial fragment of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene.The PCR-based prevalences of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. were 55.0% (216/393 and 4.6% (18/393, respectively. A total of 78 G. duodenalis isolates were successfully characterized, revealing the presence of sub-assemblages AII (10.3%, BIII (28.2%, and BIV (32.0%. Discordant typing results AII/AIII and BIII/BIV were identified in 7.7% and 15.4% of the isolates, respectively. An additional five (6.4% isolates were assigned to assemblage B. No mixed infections of assemblages A+B were found. Extensive genetic variation at the nucleotide level was observed within assemblage B (but no within assemblage A, resulting in the identification of a large number of sub-types. Cryptosporidium diversity was demonstrated by the occurrence of C. hominis, C. parvum, and C. viatorum in the population under study.Our data suggest an epidemiological scenario with an elevated transmission intensity of a wide range of G. duodenalis genetic variants. Importantly

  1. Different profile of intestinal protozoa and helminthic infections among patients with diarrhoea according to age attending a rural hospital in southern Ethiopia.

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    Ramos, Jose M; Rodríguez-Valero, Natalia; Tisiano, Gabriel; Fano, Haji; Yohannes, Tafese; Gosa, Ashenafi; Fruttero, Enza; Reyes, Francisco; Górgolas, Miguel

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the association of intestinal parasitic diseases with age and gender in patients with diarrhea attending a rural hospital in southern Ethiopia in the period 2007-2012. A total of 32,191 stool examination was performed in patients who presented with diarrhea. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites in the present study was 26.5%. Predominant parasites detected were Giardia lamblia (15.0%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (5.4%), and Ascaris lumbricoides (5.0%). The median of age of diarrheal patients with Hymenolepis species, Schistosoma mansoni and G. lamblia was significantly lower (5 y., 10.5 y., and 18 y., respectively; pintestinal parasite and the profile of intestinal parasitic infections is influenced by age.

  2. Prevalence and phenotypic characterization of Enterococcus species isolated from clinical samples of pediatric patients in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, south west Ethiopia.

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    Toru, Milkiyas; Beyene, Getnet; Kassa, Tesfaye; Gizachew, Zeleke; Howe, Rawleigh; Yeshitila, Biruk

    2018-05-08

    This study was done to determine the prevalence and phenotypic characterization of Enterococcus species isolated from clinical samples of pediatric patients in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia. The overall prevalence of Enterococci species was 5.5% (22/403). Five (22.7%) of Enterococci species were vancomycin resistant. Haemolysin, gelatinase and biofilm production was seen among 45.5, 68.2 and 77.3% of isolates respectively. The overall rate of antibiotic resistance was 95.5% (21/22). High resistance was observed against norfloxacin (87.5%), and tetracycline (77.3%). Whereas, low resistance (36.5%) was observed against ciprofloxacin and eighteen (80.8%) of the isolates were multi-drug resistant.

  3. Prevalence and characteristics of suicide attempters and ideators among acutely admitted psychiatric hospital patients in northwest Russia and northern Norway.

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    Sørlie, Tore; Sørgaard, Knut W; Bogdanov, Anatoly; Bratlid, Trond; Rezvy, Grigory

    2015-08-04

    More knowledge about suicidality and suicide risk profiles in acute psychiatric hospital patients (both first-time and chronic patients) is needed. While numerous factors are associated with suicidality in such populations, these may differ across cultures. Better understanding of factors underlying suicide risk can be informed by cross-cultural studies, and can aid development of therapeutic and preventive measures. An explorative, cross-sectional cohort study was carried out. Acutely admitted patients at one psychiatric hospital in northwest Russia and two in northern Norway were included. At admission, demographic, clinical, and service use data were collected, in addition to an assessment of suicidal ideation and attempts, comprising five dichotomic questions. Data from 358 Norwegian and 465 Russian patients were analyzed with univariate and multivariate statistics. Within each cohort, attempters and ideators were compared with patients not reporting any suicidality. The observed prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempts was significantly higher in the Norwegian cohort than in the Russian cohort (χ(2) = 168.1, p suicidal ideators and attempters had more depressed moods, more personality disorders, and greater problems with alcohol/drugs, but fewer psychotic disorders, cognitive problems or overactivity than non-suicidal patients. Russian suicidal ideators and attempters were younger, more often unemployed, had more depressed mood and adjustment disorders, but had fewer psychotic disorders and less alcohol/drug use than the non-suicidal patients. Rates of suicidal ideation and non-fatal attempts in Norwegian patients were intermediate between those previously reported for patients admitted for the first time and those typical of chronic patients. However, the significantly lower rates of suicidal ideation and non-fatal attempts in our Russian cohort as compared with the Norwegian, contrasted with what might be expected in a region with much higher suicide

  4. Pattern of chemotherapy-related adverse effects among adult cancer patients treated at Gondar University Referral Hospital, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

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    Belachew SA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sewunet Admasu Belachew,1 Daniel Asfaw Erku,2 Abebe Basazn Mekuria,3 Begashaw Melaku Gebresillassie1 1Department of Clinical Pharmacy, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia Background: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs are a global problem and constitute a major clinical problem in terms of human suffering. The high toxicity and narrow therapeutic index of chemotherapeutic agents makes oncology pharmacovigilance essential. The objective of the present study was to assess the pattern of ADRs occurring in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Ethiopia.Methods: A cross-sectional study over a 2-year period from September 2013 to August 2015 was conducted on cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy at Gondar University Referral Hospital Oncology Center. Data were collected directly from patients and their medical case files. The reported ADRs were assessed for causality using the World Health Organization’s causality assessment scale and Naranjo’s algorithm. The severities of the reported reactions were also assessed using National Cancer Institute Common Terminology CTCAE version 4.0. The Pearson’s chi-square test was employed to examine the association between two categorical variables.Results: A total of 815 ADRs were identified per 203 patients included in the study. The most commonly occurring ADRs were nausea and vomiting (18.9%, infections (16.7%, neutropenia (14.7%, fever and/or chills (11.3%, and anemia (9.3%. Platinum compounds (31.4% were the most common group of drugs causing ADRs. Of the reported ADRs, 65.8% were grades 3–4 (severe level, 29.9% were grades 1–2 (mild level, and 4.3% were grade 5 (toxic level. Significant association was found between age, number of chemotherapeutic agents, as well as dose of chemotherapy with the occurrence of grades 3–5 toxicity.Conclusion: The high incidence of

  5. Prevalence of thrombocytopenia before and after initiation of HAART among HIV infected patients at black lion specialized hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

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    Woldeamanuel, Gashaw Garedew; Wondimu, Diresibachew Haile

    2018-01-01

    Hematological abnormalities are common in HIV positive patients. Of these, thrombocytopenia is a known complication which has been associated with a variety of bleeding disorders. However, its magnitude and related factors have not been well-characterized in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of thrombocytopenia before and after initiation of HAART among HIV positive patients attending Black Lion Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted from February to April 2017 in Black Lion Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A total of 176 patients on HAART were selected using simple random sampling techniques. Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of the study patients were collected using structured questionnaire. Measurements of platelet counts and CD4 + T cell counts were made using Sysmex XT 2000i hematology analyzer and BD FACS Count CD4 analyzer, respectively. Statistical analysis of the data (Paired T- test and binary logistic regression) was done using SPSS version 20. P -value  18 years old) were enrolled in this study and had a mean age of 40.08 ± 9.38 years. There was significant increase in the mean values of platelet counts (218.44 ± 106.6 × 10 3 /μl vs 273.65 ± 83.8 × 10 3 /μl, p  < 0.001) after six months of HAART initiation compared to the baseline. Prevalence of thrombocytopenia before and after HAART initiation was 25 and 5.7% respectively. HIV patients whose CD4 counts < 200 Cells/μl were more likely to have thrombocytopenia than HIV patients whose CD4 count ≥350 Cells/μl. However, it was not statistically associated with prevalence of thrombocytopenia. This study has shown that the prevalence of thrombocytopenia after HAART initiation was decreased significantly. Based on our results, a number of study participants still had thrombocytopenia after initiation of HAART

  6. Prevalence and correlates of herbal medicine use among type 2 diabetic patients in Teaching Hospital in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

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    Mekuria, Abebe Basazn; Belachew, Sewunet Admasu; Tegegn, Henok Getachew; Ali, Dawit Simegnew; Netere, Adeladlew Kassie; Lemlemu, Eskedar; Erku, Daniel Asfaw

    2018-03-09

    Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) patients are increasingly using herbal remedies due to the fact that sticking to the therapeutic regimens is becoming awkward. However, studies towards herbal medicine use by diabetic patients is scarce in Ethiopia. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to explore the prevalence and correlates of herbal medicine use with different sociodemographic variables among type 2 diabetes patients visiting the diabetic follow-up clinic of University of Gondar comprehensive specialized hospital (UOGCSH), Ethiopia. A hospital-based cross sectional study was employed on 387 T2DM patients visiting the diabetes illness follow-up care clinic of UOGCSH from October 1 to November 30, 2016. An interviewer-administered questionnaire regarding the demographic and disease characteristics as well as herbal medicine use was completed by the study subjects. Descriptive, univariate and multivariate logistic regression statistics were performed to determine prevalence and come up with correlates of herbal medicine use. From 387 participants, 62% were reported to be herbal medicine users. The most prevalent herbal preparations used were Garlic (Allium sativum L.) (41.7%), Giesilla (Caylusea abyssinica (fresen.) (39.6%), Tinjute (Otostegia integrifolia Benth) (27.2%), and Kosso (Hagenia abyssinicaa) (26.9%). Most of herbal medicine users (87.1%) didn't consult their physicians about their herbal medicine use. Families and friends (51.9%) were the frontline sources of information about herbal medicine followed by other DM patients who used herbal medicines (28.9%). The present study revealed a high rate of herbal medicine use along with a very low rate use disclosure to the health care professionals. Higher educational status, a family history of DM, duration of T2DM and presence of DM complications were identified to be strong predictors of herbal medicine use. From the stand point of high prevalence and low disclosure rate, it is imperative for health

  7. Determinants of maternal near miss among women in public hospital maternity wards in Northern Ethiopia: A facility based case-control study.

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    Dejene Ermias Mekango

    Full Text Available In Ethiopia, 20,000 women die each year from complications related to pregnancy, childbirth and post-partum. For every woman that dies, 20 more experience injury, infection, disease, or disability. "Maternal near miss" (MNM, defined by the World Health Organization (WHO as a woman who nearly dies, but survives a complication during pregnancy, childbirth or within 42 days of a termination, is a proxy indicator of maternal mortality and quality of obstetric care. In Ethiopia, few studies have examined MNM. This study aims to identify determinants of MNM among a small population of women in Tigray, Ethiopia.Unmatched case-control study was conducted in hospitals in Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia, from January 30-March 30, 2016. The sample included 103 cases and 205 controls recruited from among women seeking obstetric care at six (6 public hospitals. Clients with life-threatening obstetric complications, including hemorrhage, hypertensive diseases of pregnancy, dystocia, infection, and anemia or clinical signs of severe anemia (in women without hemorrhage were taken as cases and those with normal obstetric outcomes were controls. Cases were selected based on proportion to size allocation while systematic sampling was employed for controls. Binary and multiple variable logistic regression ("odds ratio" analyses were calculated at 95% CI.Roughly 90% of cases and controls were married and 25% experienced their first pregnancy before the age of 16 years. About two-thirds of controls and 45.6% of cases had gestational ages between 37-41 weeks. Among cases, severe obstetric hemorrhage (44.7%, hypertensive disorders (38.8%, dystocia (17.5%, sepsis (9.7% and severe anemia (2.9% were leading causes of MNM. Histories of chronic maternal medical problems like hypertension, diabetes were reported in 55.3% of cases and 33.2% of controls. Women with no formal education [AOR = 3.2;95%CI:1.24, 8.12], being less than 16 years of age at first pregnancy [AOR = 2

  8. Evaluation of rational drug use based on World Health Organization core drug use indicators in selected public hospitals of eastern Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisay, Mekonnen; Mengistu, Getnet; Molla, Bereket; Amare, Firehiwot; Gabriel, Tesfaye

    2017-02-23

    Despite the complexity of drug use, a number of indicators have been developed, standardized and evaluated by the World Health Organization (WHO). These indicators are grouped in to three categories namely: prescribing indicators, patient care indicators and facility indicators. The study was aimed to evaluate rational drug use based on WHO-core drug use indicators in Dilchora referral hospital, Dire Dawa; Hiwot Fana specialized university hospital, Harar and Karamara general hospital, Jigjiga, eastern Ethiopia. Hospital based quantitative cross sectional study design was employed to evaluate rational drug use based on WHO core drug use indicators in selected hospitals. Systematic random sampling for prescribing indicators and convenient sampling for patient care indicators was employed. Taking WHO recommendations in to account, a total of 1,500 prescription papers (500 from each hospitals) were investigated. In each hospital, 200 outpatient attendants and 30 key essential drugs were also selected using the WHO recommendation. Data were collected using retrospective and prospective structured observational check list. Data were entered to EPI Data Version 3.1, exported and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Besides, the data were evaluated as per the WHO guidelines. Statistical significance was determined by one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for some variables. P-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Finally, tabular presentation was used to present the data. Mean, 2.34 (±1.08) drugs were prescribed in the selected hospitals. Prescriptions containing antibiotics and that of injectables were 57.87 and 10.9% respectively. The average consultation and dispensing time were 276.5 s and 61.12 s respectively. Besides, 75.77% of the prescribed drugs were actually dispensed. Only 3.3% of prescriptions were adequately labeled and 75.7% patients know about the dosage of the prescription. Not more than, 20(66.7%) key drugs were available in

  9. Five years review of cases of adult tetanus managed at Gondar University Hospital, North West Ethiopia (Gondar, Sep. 2003-Aug. 2008).

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    Tadesse, Abilo; Gebre-Selassie, Samuel

    2009-10-01

    Tetanus is a life threatening preventable infection relatively uncommon in the developed world but occurs frequently in developing countries with case fatality rate of 40-60%. We conducted the study as there is no recent review regarding adult tetanus in Ethiopia which looked at the predisposing factors, presenting features and case fatality rate. The study aims to evaluate clinical characteristics of adult tetanus as related to predisposing factors, presenting features and treatment outcome. This is a retrospective review of adult tetanus cases admitted to medical ward of Gondar University Hospital, North West Ethiopia, over a period of 5-years. A total of 29 adults were admitted with the diagnosis of generalized tetanus during the study period. There were more male then female patients (sex ratio 1.9:1) with rural dwellers constituting the majority. The mean age of patients was 35 +/- 14 yrs (range, 18-70 yrs. Majority of patients (72.4%) sustained acute injury preceding symptom onset, often on lower extremity. Three rural mothers, who denied history of trauma, developed puerperal tetanus with in 2 weeks of delivery, genital tract thought to be the portal of entry. Almost all patients, who had sustained acute injury, did not seek medical help for their wounds and missed the chance to receive prophylaxis for tetanus. Over all, 48.3% had severe, 37.9% moderate, and 13.8% mild form of tetanus at presentation. The most common clinical presentation was trismus (100%), followed by stiff neck and back (93.1%) and neck rigidity (86.2).Over all mortality rate was 41.4%. Respiratory failure requiring ventilatory support (66.7%) was the major cause of death. The study recommends a need for tetanus immunization in those who had acute injury and planning to educate individuals at risk to recognise symptoms early, and seek medical care to combat this fatal disease.

  10. Job Satisfaction and Associated Factors among Anesthetists Working in Amhara National Regional State, Northwest Ethiopia, May 2017: A Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study

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    Demeke Yilkal Fentie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Job satisfaction is an important determinant of health staff’s motivation, retention, and performance. Difficulties in critical decision-making and problems with lack of respect and recognition lead to lower job satisfaction level among anesthetists. It leads to high turnover intention, dropout from the profession, burnout, impaired health status of anesthetists, and lower work performance. Objective. The aim of this multicenter cross-sectional study was to assess the level of job satisfaction and associated factors among anesthetists working in Amhara National Regional State. Methods. A multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted from April 1 to June 30, 2017. Ninety-eight anesthetists that were working in Amhara National Regional State Hospitals were involved in this study. The structured questionnaire was scored on five-point Likert scales. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20. Binary logistic regression was used to measure statistical significance between dependent and each independent variable. Variables with P value of ≤0.2 on crude analysis were taken into multivariate analysis, and P value 0.05 and 95% CI was used as cut off point. Result. 98 out of 104 participants were involved in this study with a response rate of 94.3%. The overall level of job satisfaction was 46.9%. Anesthetists in academic working position were satisfied with the odds of about 2.3 (AOR = 2.269; CI = 1.137–6.740 compared to those in clinical working position. Anesthetists were least satisfied with coworker relationships (37.8%, work schedule (43.9%, professional opportunity (46.9%, and recognition (49% while they were most satisfied from their control of responsibility (59.2%, social interaction (55%, and salary and benefits (51%. Conclusion and Recommendation. Job satisfaction of anesthetists was low, and we suggest that facilitation of professional development, creation of smooth relationship in

  11. Incidence of Road Traffic Injury and Associated Factors among Patients Visiting the Emergency Department of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Teaching Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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    Bewket Tadesse Tiruneh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Road traffic injuries are a major public health issue. The problem is increasing in Africa. Objective. To assess the incidence of road traffic injury and associated factors among patients visiting the emergency department of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Teaching Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. Institutional based cross-sectional study design was conducted. A total of 356 systematically selected study subjects were included in the study. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to identify associated factors with road traffic injury. Odds ratios with 95% confidence interval were computed to determine the level of significance. Results. The incidence of road traffic injury in the emergency department of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Teaching Hospital was 36.8%. Being a farmer (AOR = 3.3; 95% CI = 1.06–10.13, conflict with family members (AOR = 7.7; 95% CI = 3.49–8.84, financial problem (AOR = 9.91; 95% CI = 4.79–6.48, psychological problem (AOR = 17.58; 95% CI = 7.70–12.14, and alcohol use (AOR = 2.98; 95% CI = 1.61–5.27 were independently associated with road traffic injury. Conclusion and Recommendation. In this study the incidence of road traffic injury was high. Alcohol is one of the most significant factors associated with Road Traffic Injury. Thus urgent education on the effect of alcohol is recommended.

  12. Quality of anticoagulation management with warfarin among outpatients in a tertiary hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a retrospective cross-sectional study.

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    Fenta, Teferi Gedif; Assefa, Tamrat; Alemayehu, Bekele

    2017-06-06

    Warfarin is the most widely used anticoagulant in the world. The difficulty of managing warfarin contributes to great potential for patient harm, both from excessive anticoagulation and insufficient anticoagulation. This study assessed the International Normalized Ratio (INR) control outcome measures and warfarin dose adjustment practices at cardiology and hematology outpatient clinics at a teaching hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The study was based on a cross - sectional study design involving 360 retrospective patients' chart review among outpatients who received warfarin for its various indications. The mean frequency of INR monitoring per patient was 62.9 days (17.2-143.7 days). Patients spent 52.2%, 29.0% and 18.8% of the time in sub-therapeutic, therapeutic and supra-therapeutic ranges, respectively. The daily warfarin dose was increased 50.9% and 36.9% and decreased in 52.8% and 60.9% of the time for occurrences of sub-therapeutic and supra-therapeutic INRs to achieve target ranges of 2.0-3.0 and 2.5-3.5, respectively. The quality of anticoagulation management with warfarin among outpatients in Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital was sub-optimal. This was reflected by low Time in Therapeutic Range (TTR), longer than recommended INR monitoring frequency, and minimal actions taken to adjust warfarin dose after occurrences of non-therapeutic INRs.

  13. The determinants of patient waiting time in the general outpatient department of Debre Markos and Felege Hiwot hospitals in Amhara regional state, North West, Ethiopia

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    Melesse Belayneh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Patient waiting time is defined as the total time from registration until consultation with a doctor. Experiences of waiting in general are perceived as complex, subjective, and culturally influenced. Registration time, payment process/cash billing, recording classification/triaged time, few human resources and work process are the determinants of patient waiting time in the general outpatient departments. However, the complexity of wait time is poorly understood and has been explored only to a limited extent. The main objective of this study to assess patient waiting time and its determinants in Debre Markos and Felge Hiwot Referral hospitals of Amhara Regional State in North West, Ethiopia. Methods A hospital based comparative cross sectional study design was employed from October 20‐ November 20, 2014. The study population was patients presenting to general outpatient departments, from which 464 patients was selected using systematic random sampling technique. Quantitative Data was collected using structured questionnaire and A check list adopted from studies. Quantitative data was coded, entered, cleaned and analyzed using SPSS Software for windows version 20.0. Linear regression and bivariate logistic regression was applied to identify the determinants of each explanatory variable on outcome (patient waiting time. Finally data was interpreted by referring to the pertinent findings from the relevant literature reviewed. Ethical approval and clearance was obtained from ethical clearance committee of the Jimma University College of Public Health & Medical Sciences Result The measured waiting time in Felge Hiwot referral hospital mean waiting time was and its standard deviation 149.2±72.1 minutes whereas 94.2±58.3 minutes in debere markos referral hospital. The major causes of the long patient waiting time was large numbers of patient with a few doctors 94(40.5%,67(28.9% ,long searching of the cards 67(28.9%,73(31.5,and long

  14. Pre-ART retention in care and prevalence of tuberculosis among HIV-infected children at a district hospital in southern Ethiopia.

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    Westerlund, Emil; Jerene, Degu; Mulissa, Zewdie; Hallström, Inger; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2014-10-04

    The Ethiopian epidemic is currently on the wane. However, the situation for infected children is in some ways lagging behind due to low treatment coverage and deficient prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Too few studies have examined HIV infected children presenting to care in low-income countries in general. Considering the presence of local variations in the nature of the epidemic a study in Ethiopia could be of special value for the continuing fight against HIV. The aim of this study is to describe the main characteristics of children with HIV presenting to care at a district hospital in a resource-limited area in southern Ethiopia. The aim was also to analyse factors affecting pre-ART loss to follow-up, time to ART-initiation and disease stage upon presentation. This was a prospective cohort study. The data analysed were collected in 2009 for the period January 2003 through December 2008 at Arba Minch Hospital and additional data on the ART-need in the region were obtained from official reports. The pre-ART loss to follow-up rate was 29.7%. Older children (10-14 years) presented in a later stage of their disease than younger children (76.9% vs. 45.0% in 0-4 year olds, chi-square test, χ2 = 8.8, P = 0.01). Older girls presented later than boys (100.0% vs. 57.1%, Fisher's exact test, P = 0.02). Children aged 0-4 years were more likely to be lost to follow-up (40.0 vs. 21.8%, chi-square test, χ2 = 5.4, P = 0.02) and had a longer time to initiate ART (Cox regression analysis, HR: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.25-0.97, P = 0.04, controlling for sex, place of residence, enrollment phase and WHO clinical stage upon presentation). Neither sex was overrepresented in the sample. Tuberculosis prevalence upon presentation and previous history of tubercolosis were 14.5% and 8% respectively. The loss to follow-up is alarmingly high and children present too late. Further research is needed to explore specific causes and possible solutions.

  15. Bacterial profile of urinary tract infection and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern among pregnant women attending at Antenatal Clinic in Dil Chora Referral Hospital, Dire Dawa, Eastern Ethiopia

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    Derese B

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Behailu Derese,1 Haji Kedir,2 Zelalem Teklemariam,3 Fitsum Weldegebreal,3 Senthilkumar Balakrishnan4 1Department of Medical Laboratory, Dil Chora Referral Hospital, Dire Dawa, 2Department of Public Health, 3Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, 4Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the bacterial profile of urinary tract infection (UTI and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern among pregnant women attending at antenatal clinic in Dil Chora Referral Hospital, Dire Dawa, Eastern Ethiopia.Patients and methods: An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted from February 18, 2015 to March 25, 2015. Clean-catch midstream urine specimens were collected from 186 pregnant women using sterile containers. Then, culture and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed by standard disk diffusion method. Patient information was obtained using pretested structured questionnaire. Data were entered and cleaned using EpiData Version 3 and then exported to Statistical Package for Social Science (Version 16 for further analysis.Results: The prevalence of significant bacteriuria was 14%. Gram-negative bacteria were more prevalent (73%. Escherichia coli (34.6%, coagulase-negative staphylococci (19.2%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (15.4%, and Klebsiella spp. (11.5% were common bacterial isolates, where most of them were resistant against ampicillin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole, and chloramphenicol. Multidrug resistance (resistance in ≥2 drugs was seen in 100% of the isolated bacteria. A majority of the bacterial isolates were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, erythromycin, and gentamicin.Conclusion: This study found a number of bacterial isolates with very high resistance to the commonly prescribed drugs from pregnant women with and without symptoms of UTI. Therefore, the early routine

  16. Survival and predictors of mortality among human immunodeficiency virus patients on anti-retroviral treatment at Jinka Hospital, South Omo, Ethiopia: a six years retrospective cohort study

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    Ameni, Gobena

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The survival rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients receiving treatment in Ethiopia is poorly understood. This study aimed to determine the survival rate and predictors of mortality among HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy (ART) at Jinka Hospital, South Omo, Ethiopia. METHODS A 6-year retrospective cohort study was conducted using 350 patient records drawn from 1,899 patients on ART at Jinka Hospital from September 2010 to August 2015. The data were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier statistics and Cox regression models. RESULTS Of the 350 study participants, 315 (90.0%) were censored and 35 (10.0%) died. Twenty-two (62.9%) of the deaths occurred during the first year of treatment. The total follow-up encompassed 1,995 person-years, with an incidence rate of 1.75 deaths per 100 person-years. The mean survival time of patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was 30.84±19.57 months. The overall survival of patients on HAART was 64.00% (95% confidence interval [CI], 61.85 to 66.21%) at 72 months of follow-up. The significant predictors of mortality included non-disclosure of HIV status (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 5.82; 95% CI, 1.91 to 17.72), a history of tuberculosis (aHR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.41 to 3.51), and ambulatory (aHR, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.20 to 8.86) or bedridden (aHR, 4.67; 95% CI, 1.30 to 17.27) functional status, World Health Organization (WHO) clinical stage IV illness (aHR, 24.97; 95% CI, 2.75 to 26.45), and substance abusers (aHR, 3.72; 95% CI, 1.39 to 9.97). CONCLUSIONS Patients with a history of tuberculosis treatment, ambulatory or bedridden functional status, or advanced WHO clinical stage disease, as well substance abusers, should be carefully monitored, particularly in the first few months after initiating antiretroviral therapy. Patients should also be encouraged to disclose their status to their relatives. PMID:27820957

  17. Survival and predictors of mortality among human immunodeficiency virus patients on anti-retroviral treatment at Jinka Hospital, South Omo, Ethiopia: a six years retrospective cohort study

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    Erdaw Tachbele

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES The survival rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected patients receiving treatment in Ethiopia is poorly understood. This study aimed to determine the survival rate and predictors of mortality among HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy (ART at Jinka Hospital, South Omo, Ethiopia. METHODS A 6-year retrospective cohort study was conducted using 350 patient records drawn from 1,899 patients on ART at Jinka Hospital from September 2010 to August 2015. The data were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier statistics and Cox regression models. RESULTS Of the 350 study participants, 315 (90.0% were censored and 35 (10.0% died. Twenty-two (62.9% of the deaths occurred during the first year of treatment. The total follow-up encompassed 1,995 person-years, with an incidence rate of 1.75 deaths per 100 person-years. The mean survival time of patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART was 30.84±19.57 months. The overall survival of patients on HAART was 64.00% (95% confidence interval [CI], 61.85 to 66.21% at 72 months of follow-up. The significant predictors of mortality included non-disclosure of HIV status (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 5.82; 95% CI, 1.91 to 17.72, a history of tuberculosis (aHR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.41 to 3.51, and ambulatory (aHR, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.20 to 8.86 or bedridden (aHR, 4.67; 95% CI, 1.30 to 17.27 functional status, World Health Organization (WHO clinical stage IV illness (aHR, 24.97; 95% CI, 2.75 to 26.45, and substance abusers (aHR, 3.72; 95% CI, 1.39 to 9.97. CONCLUSIONS Patients with a history of tuberculosis treatment, ambulatory or bedridden functional status, or advanced WHO clinical stage disease, as well substance abusers, should be carefully monitored, particularly in the first few months after initiating antiretroviral therapy. Patients should also be encouraged to disclose their status to their relatives.

  18. Risk factors associated with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in a tertiary armed force referral and teaching hospital, Ethiopia.

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    Demile, Biresaw; Zenebu, Amare; Shewaye, Haile; Xia, Siqing; Guadie, Awoke

    2018-05-31

    Ethiopia is one of the world health organization defined higher tuberculosis (TB) burden countries where the disease remains a massive public health threat. This study aimed to identify the prevalence and associated factors of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) using all armed force and civilian TB attendants in a tertiary level armed force hospital, where data for MDR-TB are previously unpublished. Cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2014 to August 2015 in a tertiary level Armed Force Referral and Teaching Hospital (AFRTH), Ethiopia. Armed force members (n = 251) and civilians (n = 130) which has been undergone TB diagnosis at AFRTH were included. All the specimens collected were subjected to microscopic smear observation, culture growth and drug susceptibility testing. Data were analyzed using statistical package for social sciences following binary logistic regression and Chi-square. P-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Among 381 TB patients, 355 (93.2%) new and 26 (6.8%) retreatment cases were identified. Culture and smear positive TB cases were identified in 297 (77.9%) and 252 (66.1%) patients, respectively. The overall prevalence of MDR-TB in AFRTH was found 1.8% (1.3% for armed force members and 0.5% for civilian patients) all of which were previously TB treated cases. The entire treatment success rates were 92.6% achieved highest in the armed force (active and pension) than the civilian patients. The failure and dead cases were also found 2.5 and 4.6%, respectively. Using bivariate analysis, category of attendants and TB contact history were strong predictors of MDR-TB in armed force and civilian patients. Moreover, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection also identified a significant (OR = 14.6; 95% CI = 2.3-92.1; p = 0.004) predicting factor for MDR-TB in armed force members. However, sex, age and body mass index were not associated factor for MDR-TB. In AFRTH, lower prevalence of

  19. Perceived Nurse-Physician Communication in Patient Care and Associated Factors in Public Hospitals of Jimma Zone, South West Ethiopia: Cross Sectional Study.

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    Fikadu Balcha Hailu

    Full Text Available Nurse-physician communication has been shown to have a significant impact on the job satisfaction and retention of staff. In areas where it has been studied, communication failure between nurses and physicians was found to be one of the leading causes of preventable patient injuries, complications, death and medical malpractice claims.The objective of this study is to determine perception of nurses and physicians towards nurse-physician communication in patient care and associated factors in public hospitals of Jimma zone, southwest Ethiopia.Institution based cross-sectional survey was conducted from March 10 to April 16, 2014 among 341 nurses and 168 physicians working in public hospitals in Jimma zone. Data was collected using a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire; entered into EpiData version 3.1 and exported to Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 16.0 for analysis. Factor analysis was carried out. Descriptive statistics, independent sample t-test, linear regression and one way analysis of variance were used. Variables with P-value < 0.05 were considered as statistically significant.The response rate of the study was 91.55%. The mean perceived nurse-physician communication scores were 50.88±19.7% for perceived professional respect and satisfaction, and 48.52±19.7% for perceived openness and sharing of patient information on nurse-physician communication. Age, salary and organizational factors were statistically significant predictors for perceived respect and satisfaction. Whereas sex, working hospital, work attitude individual factors and organizational factors were significant predictors of perceived openness and sharing of patient information in nurse-physician communication during patient care.Perceived level of nurse-physician communication mean score was low among nurses than physicians and it is attention seeking gap. Hence, the finding of our study suggests the need for developing and implementing nurse

  20. The common enteric bacterial pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern among HIV-infected individuals attending the antiretroviral therapy clinic of Hawassa university hospital, southern Ethiopia

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    Ayele Kebede

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The frequent occurrence of bacterial gastroenteritis among HIV-infected individuals together with increased antimicrobial drug resistance pose a significant public health challenge in developing countries. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of enteric bacterial pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern among HIV-infected patients in a tertiary hospital in southern Ethiopia. Methods A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted at Hawassa University Comprehensive Specialized Hospital from February to May, 2016. A consecutive 215 HIV-infected patients, with complaints of gastrointestinal tract disease, were enrolled. Data on socio-demography and related factors was collected using a structured questionnaire. A stool sample was collected from each study participant and cultured to isolate enteric bacterial pathogens; isolates were characterized using biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using the Kirby- Bauer disk diffusion technique. Results Out of 215 patients, 27(12.6% were culture positive for various bacterial pathogens. Campylobacter species was the most common bacterial isolate (6.04%, followed by Salmonella species (5.1%. The majority of isolates was sensitive to norfloxacin, nalidixic acid, gentamicin, ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin and showed resistance to trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole (SXT and chloramphenicol. Consumption of raw food was the only risk factor found to be significantly associated with enteric bacterial infection (crude odds ratio 3.41 95% CI 1.13–10.3. Conclusions The observed rate of enteric bacterial pathogens and their antimicrobial resistance pattern to the commonly prescribed antibiotics highlights the need to strengthen intervention efforts and promote rational use of antimicrobials. In this regard, the need to strengthen antimicrobial stewardship efforts should be emphasized to slow grown antimicrobial resistance among this population

  1. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in children under the age of 5 years attending the Debre Birhan referral hospital, North Shoa, Ethiopia.

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    Zemene, Telanesh; Shiferaw, Melashu Balew

    2018-01-22

    Intestinal parasitic infection is one of the major childhood health problems in developing countries. In Ethiopia, epidemiological data for several localities is limited. Hence, the aim of this study is to assess intestinal parasitic infections among under-five children attending in Debre Birhan referral hospital, which could help to decrease morbidity and mortality in children. A cross-sectional study was conducted in February, 2014. Stool specimens were collected and examined using concentration method. Out of the 247 under-five children participated, 17.4% (95% CI 12.7-22.1%) of the children were infected with at least one or more protozoa parasites (14.2% [95% CI 9.9-18.5%]) and helminthes (3.2% [95% CI 1.0-5.4%]). Giardia lamblia (8.5%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (5.7%), Trichuris trichiura (1.6%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (1.2%) were the most identified parasites. Parasitic infection was higher in children who had source of drinking water from the river (36.8%), among children from mothers with poor hand washing practice (31.7%), and among children born from illiterate mothers (27.5%). This revealed that intestinal parasites affect the health of under-five children in the setting. Hence, improving environmental hygiene and inadequate water sanitation, and health education for behavioral changes to personal hygiene would be crucial for effective control of the parasite infections.

  2. Exploratory Analysis of Time from HIV Diagnosis to ART Start, Factors and effect on survival: A longitudinal follow up study at seven teaching hospitals in Ethiopia.

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    Teklu, Alula M; Delele, Kesetebirhan; Abraha, Mulu; Belayhun, Bekele; Gudina, Esayas Kebede; Nega, Abiy

    2017-02-01

    The HIV care in Ethiopia has reached 79% coverage. The timeliness of the care provided at the different levels in the course of the disease starting from knowing HIV positive status to ART initiation is not well known. This study intends to explore the timing of the care seeking, the care provision and associated factors. This is a longitudinal follow-up study at seven university hospitals. Patients enrolled in HIV care from September 2005 to December 2013 and aged ≥14 years were studied. Different times in the cascade of HIV care were examined including the duration from date HIV diagnosed to enrollment in HIV care, duration from enrollment to eligibility for ART and time from eligibility to initiation of ART. Ordinal logistic regression was used to investigate their determinants while the effect of these periods on survival of patients was determined using cox-proportional hazards regression. 4159 clients were studied. Time to enrollment after HIV test decreased from 39 days in 2005 to 1 day after 2008. It took longer if baseline CD4 was higher, and eligibility for ART was assessed late. Young adults, lower baseline CD4, HIV diagnosisART initiation. Male gender, advanced disease stage and lower baseline CD4 were consistent risk factors for mortality. Time to enrollment and duration of ART eligibility assessment as well as ART initiation time after eligibility is improving. Further study is required to identify why mortality is slightly increasing after 2010.

  3. Associated Factors and Outcome of Uterine Rupture at Suhul General Hospital, Shire Town, North West Tigray, Ethiopia 2016: A Case-Control Study

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    Tefera Marie Bereka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Uterine rupture is tearing of the uterine wall during pregnancy or delivery. It may extend to partial or whole thickness of the uterine wall. It is usually a case where obstetric care is poor. In extensive damage, death of the baby and sometimes even maternal death are evident. Objective. This study assesses associated factors and outcome of uterine rupture at Suhul General Hospital, Tigray Region, Ethiopia, 2016. Methodology. A case-control study was conducted by review of data from September 2012 to August 2016. A total of 336 samples were studied after calculating by EPI-INFO using proportion of multiparity (53% and ratio of 1 : 2 for cases and controls, respectively. Analysis was done using SPSS version 20. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was applied with p<0.05. Result. ANC, grand multiparity, malpresentation, and obstructed labor had association, but previous cesarean delivery was not significant. Perinatal mortality was 105 (93% versus 13 (5.8% in cases and controls, respectively. Anemia was highest for both groups (53.7% versus 32.1%. Conclusion. Majority of uterine rupture is attributed to prolonged or obstructed labor. Cases of uterine rupture had prompt management preventing maternal mortality, but burden of perinatal death is still high.

  4. The magnitude and risk factors of intestinal parasitic infection in relation to Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection and immune status, at ALERT Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

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    Taye, Biruhalem; Desta, Kassu; Ejigu, Selamawit; Dori, Geme Urge

    2014-06-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and intestinal parasitic infections are among the main health problems in developing countries like Ethiopia. Particularly, co-infections of these diseases would worsen the progression of HIV to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The purpose of this study was to determine the magnitude and risk factors for intestinal parasites in relation to HIV infection and immune status. The study was conducted in (1) HIV positive on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and (2) ART naïve HIV positive patients, and (3) HIV-negative individuals, at All African Leprosy and Tuberculosis (TB) Eradication and Rehabilitation Training Center (ALERT) hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Study participants were interviewed using structured questionnaires to obtain socio-demographic characteristics and assess risk factors associated with intestinal parasitic infection. Intestinal parasites were identified from fecal samples by direct wet mount, formol ether concentration, and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining techniques. The immune status was assessed by measuring whole blood CD4 T-cell count. The overall magnitude of intestinal parasite was 35.08%. This proportion was different among study groups with 39.2% (69/176), 38.83% (40/103) and 27.14% (38/140) in ART naïve HIV positives patients, in HIV negatives, and in HIV positive on ART patients respectively. HIV positive patients on ART had significantly lower magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection compared to HIV negative individuals. Intestinal helminths were significantly lower in HIV positive on ART and ART naïve patients than HIV negatives. Low monthly income, and being married, divorced or widowed were among the socio-demographic characteristics associated with intestinal parasitic infection. No association was observed between the magnitude of intestinal parasites and CD4 T-cell count. However, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Isospora belli were exclusively identified in individuals with CD4 T

  5. Magnitude of Anemia and Associated Factors among Pediatric HIV/AIDS Patients Attending Zewditu Memorial Hospital ART Clinic, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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    Hylemariam Mihiretie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Anemia is one of the most commonly observed hematological abnormalities and an independent prognostic marker of HIV disease. The aim of this study was to determine the magnitude of anemia and associated factors among pediatric HIV/AIDS patients attending Zewditu Memorial Hospital (ZMH ART Clinic in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among pediatric HIV/AIDS patients of Zewditu Memorial Hospital (ZMH between August 05, 2013, and November 25, 2013. A total of 180 children were selected consecutively. Stool specimen was collected and processed. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on sociodemographic characteristics and associated risk factors. Data were entered into EpiData 3.1.1. and were analyzed using SPSS version 16 software. Logistic regressions were applied to assess any association between explanatory factors and outcome variables. Results. The total prevalence of anemia was 22.2% where 21 (52.5%, 17 (42.5%, and 2 (5.0% patients had mild, moderate, and severe anemia. There was a significant increase in severity and prevalence of anemia in those with CD4+ T cell counts below 350 cells/μL (P<0.05. Having intestinal parasitic infections (AOR = 2.7, 95% CI, 1.1–7.2, having lower CD4+ T cell count (AOR = 3.8, 95% CI, 1.6–9.4, and being HAART naïve (AOR = 2.3, 95% CI, 1.6–9.4 were identified as significant predictors of anemia. Conclusion. Anemia was more prevalent and severe in patients with low CD4+ T cell counts, patients infected with intestinal parasites/helminthes, and HAART naïve patients. Therefore, public health measures and regular follow-up are necessary to prevent anemia.

  6. Prevalence and determinants of unintended pregnancy among pregnant woman attending ANC at Gelemso General Hospital, Oromiya Region, East Ethiopia: a facility based cross-sectional study.

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    Mohammed, Faiza; Musa, Abdulbasit; Amano, Abdella

    2016-08-17

    Unintended pregnancy is among the major public health problems that predispose women to maternal death and illness mainly through unsafe abortion and poor maternity care. The level of unintended pregnancy is high in developing countries. Hence, the purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of unintended pregnancy and the associated factors among pregnant woman attending antenatal care at Gelemso General Hospital, East Ethiopia. A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted from January 10 to April 13, 2015 among women who had attended antenatal care at Gelemso General Hospital. A systematic random sampling technique was used to select a sample of 413 participants. Data were collected via face-to-face interview using a structured and pre-tested questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were made to check the associations among the variables and to control the confounding factors. Out of the 413 pregnancies, 112 (27.1 %) were unintended of which 90(21.9 %) were mistimed, and 22(5.2 %) were unwanted. Multivariate analysis revealed that single, divorced/widowed marital statuses, having more than 2 children, and having no awareness of contraception were significantly associated with unintended pregnancy. Over a quarter of women had an unintended pregnancy, a rate which is lower than previously reported. Designing and implementing strategies that address contraceptive needs of unmarried, divorced and widowed women, creating awareness of contraceptives at community level and reinforcing postnatal contraceptive counseling to all mothers giving birth at health institution is recommended to reduce the rate of the unintended pregnancy among parous women.

  7. Antihypertensive drug prescription patterns and their impact on outcome of blood pressure in Ethiopia: a hospital-based cross-sectional study.

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    Abegaz, Tadesse Melaku; Tefera, Yonas Getaye; Abebe, Tamrat Befekadu

    2017-01-01

    Irrational prescription is strongly associated with poor control of hypertension. The present study aimed to evaluate antihypertensive drug prescription trends and to measure their impact on the level of blood pressure (BP) control in Gondar University Hospital, Gondar, Ethiopia. A hospital-based retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted from May 30 to June 30, 2016. All hypertensive patients on medication were included. A structured data abstraction form was prepared to gather the necessary information. The prescription patterns and BP level were measured retrospectively. A binary logistic regression was computed to determine the effect of different prescription patterns on BP control. A total of 596 hypertension patients were recruited for the study; of them, 561(94%) met the study criteria. The mean age of the respondents was 55.96±14.6 years. Females constituted 58.2% of the study population. Approximately fifty percent of the prescriptions were monotherapies. Twice-daily dosing was associated with lower risk of uncontrolled hypertension (crude odds ratio [COR] =0.51[0.15-0.73], adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.69[0.163-0.91]). Monthly appointment was linked with a nearly 90% reduced incidence of uncontrolled BP (COR =0.15[0.04-0.73], AOR =0.093[0.024-0.359]). Monotherapies were the most frequently prescribed regimens. Twice-daily dosing and monthly appointments were associated with low incidence of uncontrolled BP. Clinicians should be vigilant in adjusting the frequency of dosing and should fix appointment date in consultation with their patients.

  8. Dietary diversity and associated factors among HIV positive adults attending antiretroviral therapy clinics at Hiwot Fana and Dilchora Hospitals, eastern Ethiopia.

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    Weldegebreal, Fitsum; Digaffe, Tesfaye; Mesfin, Frehiwot; Mitiku, Habtamu

    2018-01-01

    Nutritional care is considered a crucial component of comprehensive care for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), particularly in resource-limited settings where malnutrition and food insecurity are endemic problems, and low quality monotonous diets are the norm. The findings of this study provide baseline information on dietary diversity and related factors for health care providers so that they will be able to improve nutritional care and support activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess dietary diversity and associated factors among HIV positive adults (18-65 years old) attending antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinics at Hiwot Fana and Dilchora Hospitals, eastern Ethiopia. An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2015 to February 2016 at the ART clinics of Hiwot Fana and Dilchora Hospitals. Using a systematic random sampling technique, a total of 303 patients were selected from all adults attending the ART clinics. The data were collected with a 95% CI used to show association between dietary diversity and independent factors. A total of 303 adult HIV positive individuals on ART participated in the study and 62.4% were females. The largest numbers of participants (49.5%) were 30-40 years of age. Eighty-seven (28.7%) participants had low dietary diversity (≤4 food groups). Duration of anti-retroviral treatment was the factor significantly associated with dietary diversity: respondents with a duration of antiretroviral treatment of more than 2 years were almost two times more likely to have high dietary diversity compared with those with less than a year of antiretroviral treatment (adjusted odds ratio =0.490; 95% CI: 0.091, 0.978). Low dietary diversity was found to be a nutritional problem among HIV positive adults. Duration of antiretroviral treatment was the predictor of low dietary diversity. Therefore, appropriate dietary management of side effects of ART is important.

  9. Do loss to follow-up and death rates from ART care vary across primary health care facilities and hospitals in south Ethiopia? A retrospective follow-up study

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    Teshome W

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Wondu Teshome,1 Mehretu Belayneh,1 Mathewos Moges,1 Emebet Mekonnen,2 Misganu Endrias,2 Sinafiksh Ayele,2 Tebeje Misganaw,2 Mekonnen Shiferaw,2 Tigist Tesema2 1School of Public and Environmental Health, Hawassa University, 2Health Research and Technology Transfer Support Process, Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples' Regional Health Bureau, Hawassa, Ethiopia Background: Decentralization and task shifting has significantly improved access to antiretroviral therapy (ART. Many studies conducted to determine the attrition rate in Ethiopia have not compared attrition rates between hospitals and health centers in a relatively recent cohort of patients. This study compared death and loss to follow-up (LTFU rates among ART patients in hospitals and health centers in south Ethiopia. Methods: Data routinely collected from patients aged older than 15 years who started ART between July 2011 and August 2012 in 20 selected health facilities (12 being hospitals were analyzed. The outcomes of interest were LTFU and death. The data were entered, cleaned, and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20.0 and Stata version 12.0. Competing-risk regression models were used. Results: The service years of the facilities were similar (median 8 and 7.5 for hospitals and health centers, respectively. The mean patient age was 33.7±9.6 years. The median baseline CD4 count was 179 (interquartile range 93–263 cells/mm3. A total of 2,356 person-years of observation were made with a median follow-up duration of 28 (interquartile range 22–31 months; 24.6% were either dead or LTFU, resulting in a retention rate of 75.4%. The death rates were 3.0 and 1.5 and the LTFU rate were 9.0 and 10.9 per 100 person-years of observation in health centers and hospitals, respectively. The competing-risk regression model showed that the gap between testing and initiation of ART, body mass index, World Health Organization clinical stage, isoniazid prophylaxis

  10. Application of Nursing Process and Its Affecting Factors among Nurses Working in Mekelle Zone Hospitals, Northern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagos, Fisseha; Alemseged, Fessehaye; Balcha, Fikadu; Berhe, Semarya; Aregay, Alemseged

    2014-01-01

    Background. Nursing process is considered as appropriate method to explain the nursing essence, its scientific bases, technologies and humanist assumptions that encourage critical thinking and creativity, and permits solving problems in professional practice. Objective. To assess the application of nursing process and it's affecting factors in Mekelle Zone Hospitals. Methods. A cross sectional design employing quantitative and qualitative methods was conducted in Mekelle zone hospitals March 2011. Qualitative data was collected from14 head nurses of six hospitals and quantitative was collected from 200 nurses selected by simple random sampling technique from the six hospitals proportional to their size. SPSS version 16.1 and thematic analysis was used for quantitative and qualitative data respectively. Results. Majority 180 (90%) of the respondents have poor knowledge and 99.5% of the respondents have a positive attitude towards the nursing process. All of the respondents said that they did not use the nursing process during provision of care to their patients at the time of the study. Majority (75%) of the respondent said that the nurse to patient ratio was not optimal to apply the nursing process. Conclusion and Recommendation. The nursing process is not yet applied in all of the six hospitals. The finding revealed that the knowledge of nurses on the nursing process is not adequate to put it in to practice and high patient nurse ratio affects its application. The studied hospitals should consider the application of the nursing process critically by motivating nurses and monitor and evaluate its progress. PMID:24649360

  11. High Gastrointestinal Colonization Rate with Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Hospitalized Patients: Emergence of Carbapenemase-Producing K. pneumoniae in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desta, Kassu; Woldeamanuel, Yimtubezinash; Azazh, Aklilu; Mohammod, Halima; Desalegn, Dawit; Shimelis, Damte; Gulilat, Dereje; Lamisso, Biruk; Makonnen, Eyasu; Worku, Alemayehu; Mannerqvist, Kerstin; Struwe, Johan; Aspevall, Olov; Aklillu, Eleni

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the gastrointestinal colonization rate and antibiotic resistance patterns of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL)- producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in hospitalized patients admitted at Ethiopia’s largest tertiary hospital. Fecal samples/swabs from 267 patients were cultured on chrome agar. ESBL. Bacterial species identification, verification of ESBL production and antibiotic susceptibility testing were done using Vitek 2 system (bioMérieux, France). Phenotype characterization of ESBL-E.coli and ESBL- K.pneumoniae was done using Neo-Sensitabs™. ESBL positivity rate was much higher in K. pneumoniae (76%) than E. coli (45%). The overall gastrointestinal colonization rate of ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) in hospitalized patients was 52% (95%CI; 46%–58%) of which, ESBL-E. coli and K.pneumoniae accounted for 68% and 32% respectively. Fecal ESBL-E carriage rate in neonates, children and adults was 74%, 59% and 46% respectively. Gastrointestinal colonization rate of ESBL-E.coli in neonates, children and adults was 11%, 42% and 42% respectively. Of all E. coli strains isolated from adults, children and neonates, 44%, 49% and 22% were ESBL positive (p = 0.28). The prevalence of ESBL-K.pneumoniae carriage in neonates, children and adults was 68%, 22% and 7% respectively. All K. pneumoniae isolated from neonates (100%) and 88% of K. pneumoniae isolated from children were ESBL positive, but only 50% of K.pneumoniae isolated from adults were ESBL positive (p = 0.001). Thirteen patients (5%) were carriers of both ESBL-E.coli and ESBL-KP. The overall carrier rate of ESBL producing isolates resistant to carbapenem was 2% (5/267), all detected in children; three with E.coli HL cephalosporinase (AmpC), resistant to ertapenem and two with K. pneumoniae Carbapenemase (KPC) resistant to meropenem, ertapenem and impenem. We report a high gastrointestinal colonization rate with ESBL-E and the emergence of carbapenems-resistant K

  12. Prevalence of potential drug–drug interactions among internal medicine ward in University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Ethiopia

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    Akshaya Srikanth Bhagavathula

    2014-05-01

    Conclusion: We have recorded a high rate of prevalence of potential DDI in the internal medicine ward of UOG hospital and a high number of clinically significant DDIs which the most prevalent DDI were of moderate severity. Careful selection of drugs and active pharmaceutical care is encouraged in order to avoid negative consequences of these interactions.

  13. Pharyngeal colonization and drug resistance profiles of Morraxella catarrrhalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Haemophilus influenzae among HIV infected children attending ART Clinic of Felegehiwot Referral Hospital, Ethiopia.

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    Wondemagegn Mulu

    Full Text Available Asymptomatic pharyngeal colonization by potential bacteria is the primary reservoir for bacterial species within a population and is considered a prerequisite for development of major childhood diseases such as sinusitis, otitis media, pneumonia, bacteremia, and meningitis. However, there is dearth of data on the colonization and drug resistance pattern of the main bacterial pathogens in the pharynx of HIV infected children in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study determined the pharyngeal colonization and drug resistance profile of bacterial pathogens in HIV infected children attending ART clinic of Felegehiwot Referral Hospital (FHRH, Amhara Region, Ethiopia.A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted from May 2016 to June 2017 at the ART clinic of FHRH. A total of 300 HIV infected children were enrolled in the study. Data on socio-demographic characteristics of the study participants were collected with face-to-face interview and patient-card review using structured questionnaire. Bacterial species were identified using standard bacteriological techniques. Drug susceptibility testing was performed using disk diffusion technique. Chi-square test was done to determine associations among variables.The median age of the participants was 11 years. Overall, 153 (51% of children were colonized by respiratory bacteria in their pharynx. Colonization rate was higher in children from mothers who had attained college and above levels of education than others (P = 0.04. It was also higher in children without the sign of malnutrition than others (P = 0.004. The colonization rate of S.aureus, M.catarrhalis, S.pneumoniae and H.influenzae were 88 (29%, 37 (12.3%, 31 (10.3% and 6 (2%, respectively. S.aureus-M.catarrhalis concurrent colonization was found in 14 (4.7% of children. Age (P = 0.03, schooling (P = 0.045 and history of running nose (P = 0.043 were significantly associated with S.aureus colonization. Living in urban setting (P = 0.042 and children

  14. Pattern of Neurosurgical Procedures in Ethiopia: Experience from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In Ethiopia, the number of practicing neurosurgeons is very few and the pattern of neurosurgical diseases and operations is not well known.This study was aimed to define the patterns of neurosurgical diseases and the operative procedures commonly seen at two main neurosurgical hospitals in Ethiopia.

  15. Predictors of CD4 count over time among HIV patients initiated ART in Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, northwest Ethiopia: multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezie, Lemma Derseh

    2016-07-30

    The response of HIV patients to antiretroviral therapy could be measured by its strong predictor, the CD4+ T cell (CD4) count for the initiation of antiretroviral therapy and proper management of disease progress. However, in addition to HIV, there are other factors which can influence the CD4 cell count. Patient's socio-economic, demographic, and behavioral variables, accessibility, duration of treatment etc., can be used to predict CD4 count. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to examine the predictors of CD4 count among ART users enrolled in the first 6 months of 2010 and followed upto mid 2014. The covariance components model was employed to determine the predictors of CD4 count over time. A total of 1196 ART attendants were used to analyze their data descriptively. Eight hundred sixty-one of the attendants had two or more CD4 count measurements and were used in modeling their data using the linear mixed method. Thus, the mean rates of incensement of CD4 counts for patients with ambulatory/bedridden and working baseline functional status were 17.4 and 30.6 cells/mm(3) per year, respectively. After adjusting for other variables, for each additional baseline CD4 count, the gain in CD4 count during treatment was 0.818 cells/mm(3) (p value ART users who reached the normal range of CD4 count was very low. To see their long term treatment outcome, it requires further research with a sufficiently longer follow up data. In line with this, the local CD4 count for HIV negative persons should also be investigated for better comparison and proper disease management.

  16. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from clinical samples at Yekatit 12 Hospital Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

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    Dilnessa, Tebelay; Bitew, Adane

    2016-08-09

    Staphylococcus aureus particularly MRSA strains are one of the major causes of community and hospital acquired bacterial infections. They are also becoming increasingly multi-drug resistant and have recently developed resistance to vancomycin, which has been used successfully to treat MRSA for many years. In-vitro determination of drug resistance patterns of S. aureus is critical for the selection of effective drugs for the treatment of staphylococci infections. The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of methicillin resistant S. aureus strains from different clinical specimens from patients referred for routine culture and sensitivity testing. A cross sectional study was conducted among 1360 participants at Yekatit 12 Hospital Medical College in Ethiopia from September 2013 to April 2014. Clinical samples from various anatomical sites of study participants were cultured on blood agar and mannitol salt agar and identified to be S. aureus by using catalase, coagulase and DNAse tests. S. aureus isolates then were screened for MRSA using 30 μg cefoxitin disc and other 11 antimicrobial drugs by disc diffusion procedure, and agar dilution and E tests for vancomycin. All S. aureus isolates examined for beta-lactamase production by employing nitrocefin. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 software and logistic regressions were applied to assess any association between dependent and independent variables. Of 1360 clinical specimens analyzed S. aureus was recovered from (194, 14.3 %). Rate of isolation of S. aureus with regard to clinical specimens was the highest in pus (118, 55.4 %).No S. aureus was isolated from CSF and urethral discharge. Out of 194 S. aureus isolates, (34, 17.5 %) were found out to be MRSA and the remaining (160, 82.5 %) were MSSA. Ninety eight (50.5 %) S. aureus were multi drug resistant and the highest isolates were resistant to penicillin (187, 96.4 %) and least resistant for clindamycin (23, 11.9 %) and vancomycin

  17. Surgical informed consent in obstetric and gynecologic surgeries: experience from a comprehensive teaching hospital in Southern Ethiopia.

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    Teshome, Million; Wolde, Zenebe; Gedefaw, Abel; Tariku, Mequanent; Asefa, Anteneh

    2018-05-24

    Surgical Informed Consent (SIC) has long been recognized as an important component of modern medicine. The ultimate goals of SIC are to improve clients' understanding of the intended procedure, increase client satisfaction, maintain trust between clients and health providers, and ultimately minimize litigation issues related to surgical procedures. The purpose of the current study is to assess the comprehensiveness of the SIC process for women undergoing obstetric and gynecologic surgeries. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was undertaken at Hawassa University Comprehensive Specialized Hospital (HUCSH) in November and December, 2016. A total of 230 women who underwent obstetric and/or gynecologic surgeries were interviewed immediately after their hospital discharge to assess their experience of the SIC process. Thirteen components of SIC were used based on international recommendations, including the Royal College of Surgeon's standards of informed consent practices for surgical procedures. Descriptive summaries are presented in tables and figures. Forty percent of respondents were aged between 25 and 29 years. Nearly a quarter (22.6%) had no formal education. More than half (54.3%) of respondents had undergone an emergency surgical procedure. Only 18.4% of respondents reported that the surgeon performing the operation had offered SIC, while 36.6% of respondents could not recall who had offered SIC. All except one respondent provided written consent to undergo a surgical procedure. However, 8.3% of respondents received SIC service while already on the operation table for their procedure. Only 73.9% of respondents were informed about the availability (or lack thereof) of alternative treatment options. Additionally, a majority of respondents were not informed about the type of anesthesia to be used (88.3%) and related complications (87.4%). Only 54.2% of respondents reported that they had been offered at least six of the 13 SIC components used by the

  18. Immunological Response of Hiv-Infected Children to Highly Active Antiretoviral Therapy at Gondar University Hospital, North-Western Ethiopia.

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    Kokeb, Mehretie; Degu, Getu

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in children has not been well studied specially in developing countries where the burden of HIV is high. This study was aimed to assess the immunologic response of HIV-infected children to HAART at Pediatric ART Clinic Gondar University Hospital. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted at the Pediatric ART Clinic Gondar University Hospital from March 01-April 30, 2014. The study included 283 HIV-infected children who were on HAART for 6 months and above. Medical records of HIV-infected children were reviewed using pre-tested questionnaire. CD4 count/percent was collected every 6 months retrospectively. For all statistical significance tests, the cut-off value was pimmunological response. The study revealed that there was good Immunological response to ART, and that the maximum response was in the 1(st) 6 months of ART. Low CD4 count at initiation, undisclosed HIV status and lack of good adherence were found to cause low immunological response to HAART.

  19. Independent Predictive Factors of Hospitalization in a North-West Burn Center of Iran; an Epidemiologic Study

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    Samad Shams Vahdati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A high grade burn is one of the most devastating injuries with several medical, social, economic, and psychological effects. These injuries are the most common cause of accidental deaths after traffic injuries in both the developed and developing countries. Therefore this research was aimed to determine demographic characteristics of patients with burn injury admitted to the emergency department and identify predictive factors of hospitalization. Methods: This is a cross sectional descriptive study, which is done in 20 March up to 20 September 2011 in emergency department of Sina Hospital, Tabriz, Iran. Patients’ information including demographic characteristic, cause of burn, place of accident, anatomical areas burned, grading and percent of burning and disposition were gathered and analyzed using SPSS version 18.0 statistical software. Stepwise multivariate regression analysis was used for recognition of independent predictive factors of hospitalization in burned patients. Results: One hundred and sixty patients were enrolled (54.4% female. The average age of those was 20.47±13.5 years. The prevalence of burn was significantly higher in ages under 20 years (p<0.001. Lower limb (37.5%, head and neck (21.25% and upper limb (17.5% were three frequent site of burn. The most common cause of burns was boiling water scalding (34.4%. Home related burn was significantly higher than other place (p<0.001. The most frequent percent of burn was <5% (46.25%. Finally 50 (31.25% cases hospitalized. Univariate analysis demonstrated that age under 20 years old (p=0.02 female gender (p=0.02, burning site (p=0.002, cause (p=0.005, place (p<0.001, grade (p<0.001, and percent (p<0.001 was related to disposition of patients. Stepwise multiple logistic regression showed female gender (OR=3.52; 95% CI: 1.57-7.88; p=0.002, work related burning (OR=1.78; 95% CI: 1.26-2.52; p=0.001, and burning over 5 percent (OR=2.15; 95% CI: 1.35-3.41; p=0.001 as

  20. [Door-to-balloon time and in-hospital mortality in patients with ST-evaluation myocardial infarction: a network experience in a province in northwest Tuscany, Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradossi, Umberto; Palmieri, Cataldo; Trianni, Giuseppe; Ravani, Marcello; Vaghetti, Marco; Rizza, Antonio; Gianetti, Jacopo; Cardullo, Simona; Chabane, Hakim; Maffei, Stefano; Berti, Sergio

    2010-05-01

    A network system for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients offers a quick diagnosis and a rapid transfer to a specialized center for primary percutaneous coronary intervention. The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship between door-to-balloon time and in-hospital mortality in our network of STEMI patients. Our Hub & Spoke network in the province of Massa-Carrara in the northwest of Tuscany Region, Italy, began in April 2006. This program involved 5 Spoke and 1 Hub centers, 1 medical helicopter, 3 advanced life support ambulances with direct transmission of the ECG and vital parameters to our cath lab on call 24h a day for primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Data regarding clinical, echocardiographic and hemodynamic parameters, the door-to-balloon (DTB) time and their impact on mortality were analyzed. Up to January 2008, 312 STEMI patients were enrolled (242 male, mean age 66.6 +/- 12.3 years). The DTB time was 93 min (79-117, 25th-75th percentile, respectively). The gold standard of a DTB mountain area. Patients from the coast (n = 238) had a DTB time lower than patients from the mountain area (89.5 vs 122.5 min, p < 0.0001), and the risk of in-hospital mortality was significantly and independently correlated with the increase in DTB time (p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS; Our data confirm the correlation between DTB time and in-hospital mortality. More efforts are necessary to reduce the time to treatment and mortality rates.

  1. High prevalence of diarrhoegenic intestinal parasite infections among non-ART HIV patients in Fitche Hospital, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamu, Haileeyesus; Wegayehu, Teklu; Petros, Beyene

    2013-01-01

    HIV infection has been modifying both the epidemiology and outcome of parasite infections. Hence, this study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and other intestinal parasite infections among HIV positives with and without Antiretroviral Treatment(ART) and its association with CD4+ T-cell count. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Fitche hospital focusing on HIV positives who came to hospital for follow-ups. A total of 378 HIV positive persons with and without ART participated in the study. Data on socio-demographic factors and diarrhoea status were obtained by interviewing all 214 with ART and 164 without ART. Stool samples were collected from all patients and examined for intestinal parasites using direct, formol-ether and modified acid-fast staining techniques. The prevalence of intestinal parasite infections in this study was significantly higher among HIV positive persons not on ART. Specifically, the rate of infection with Cryptosporidium species, Blastocystis spp., Giardia lamblia, and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar were higher, particularly in those with CD4+ T-cell counts less than 200 cells/µL. Fifty seven percent of the study participants were on ART. Out of these 164/378 (43%) of the non-ART study participants were infected with at least one intestinal parasite species. Significant association was observed between lower CD4+ T-cell count (parasites were significantly more prevalent in HIV positive non-ART patients. HIV infection increased the risk of having Cryptosporidium and other intestinal parasites and diarrhoea. Therefore, raising HIV positive's immune status and screening for intestinal parasites is important. This study showed that patients who are taking ART had a lower prevalence of diarrhoea causing parasites and Cryptosporidium suggesting that ART through improvement of immune status of the patients may have contributed to controlling diarrhoea-causing parasites in HIV positive patients.

  2. [Genital elephantiasis: reconstructive treatment of penoscrotal lymphoedema with a myocutaneous M. gracilis flap. Experiences from a District Hospital in Ethiopia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prica, S; Donati, O F; Schaefer, D J; Peltzer, J

    2008-08-01

    Genital elephantiasis is an illness leading to serious functional and aesthetic as well as psychosocial impairment. Since the 19th century there have been articles describing methods for surgical ablative treatment of penoscrotal lymphoedema. However, most of these methods ignore the creation a new drainage for the lymph. We now describe a new technique using a myocutaneous M. gracilis muscle flap for the reconstruction of the soft tissue damage resulting from radical excision, thus ensuring drainage of the lymph into the deep muscle compartment of the thigh. In the District Hospital "Mettu-Karl Hospital" in the Ethiopian rain forest region of Illubabor, during a period of 6 months the described surgical procedure was applied to 9 patients suffering from severe forms of this grotesquely disfiguring disease. Two patients presented with combined penoscrotal oedema, while the other 7 patients were suffering from isolated scrotal lymphoedema alone. All patients benefited from reconstruction with a myocutaneous M. gracilis muscle flap after radical excision of the affected tissue. All patients were evaluated after 3 and 12 months postoperatively in the presence of a translator. All nine patients showed a functionally and aesthetically satisfying result after 3 months without postoperative occurrence of infection. The evaluation 12 months postoperatively showed no recurrence of genitoscrotal lymphoedema. All patients reported on having regained normal ability for sexual intercourse and no occurrence of urinary tract infections since the operation. Concerning fertility, no statements could be made. A significant improvement in the quality of life was observed by the regained ability to walk and work and consequently the reintegration of the patients into their socio-economic environment. Radical excision of the affected tissue followed by transferring a functioning lymphatic drainage into the deep muscle compartment of the ipsilateral thigh using a proximally based

  3. Nasal and hand carriage rate of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among health care workers in Mekelle Hospital, North Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebreyesus, Araya; Gebre-Selassie, Solomon; Mihert, Adane

    2013-01-01

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is significant major pathogen responsible for hospital and community based infections. The aim of this study was to assess the nasal and hand carriage of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in health care workers of Mekelle Hospital The study was carried out during November 2010 to January 2011. Swab samples from both anterior nares and hands were taken. The samples were cultured on mannitol salt agar and incubated aerobically at 37 degrees C for 48 hours. Staphylococcus aureus was identified as nmannitol fermenter and coagulase test positive. Antimicrobial susceptibility test for MRSA was done by disk diffusion method using oxacillin disks. Data were analysed using SPSS version 16 software. Out of the 177 health care workers screened, 36 (20.3%) of them were methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriers in their hand and anterior nares. More females, 25(14.1%) were colonized by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus than males 11 (6.2%) (P = 0.044). Nasal carriage of MRSA of 25 (14.1%) was higher than hand carriage 11 (6.2%) (p resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage rates of 26 (13.6%) and 4 (2.3%), respectively. The isolated MRSA were resistant to multiple antibiotics. The highest resistance was observed for ampicillin (88.9%) and tetracycline (86.1%). Two (5.6%) of the nasal isolates were vancomycin resistant. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage among health care workers in this study was high. The carriage rate was higher among nurses and doctors. The MRSA isolates were multi drug resistant to other antibiotics. So, the result of this study emphasizes the need of regular surveillance of health care workers. It also calls a need for an effective infection prevention and control program.

  4. High prevalence of diarrhoegenic intestinal parasite infections among non-ART HIV patients in Fitche Hospital, Ethiopia.

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    Haileeyesus Adamu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV infection has been modifying both the epidemiology and outcome of parasite infections. Hence, this study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and other intestinal parasite infections among HIV positives with and without Antiretroviral Treatment(ART and its association with CD4+ T-cell count. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Fitche hospital focusing on HIV positives who came to hospital for follow-ups. A total of 378 HIV positive persons with and without ART participated in the study. Data on socio-demographic factors and diarrhoea status were obtained by interviewing all 214 with ART and 164 without ART. Stool samples were collected from all patients and examined for intestinal parasites using direct, formol-ether and modified acid-fast staining techniques. RESULTS: The prevalence of intestinal parasite infections in this study was significantly higher among HIV positive persons not on ART. Specifically, the rate of infection with Cryptosporidium species, Blastocystis spp., Giardia lamblia, and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar were higher, particularly in those with CD4+ T-cell counts less than 200 cells/µL. Fifty seven percent of the study participants were on ART. Out of these 164/378 (43% of the non-ART study participants were infected with at least one intestinal parasite species. Significant association was observed between lower CD4+ T-cell count (<200 cells/µL and the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Blastocystis spp. The two parasites were significantly more prevalent in HIV positive non-ART patients. CONCLUSION: HIV infection increased the risk of having Cryptosporidium and other intestinal parasites and diarrhoea. Therefore, raising HIV positive's immune status and screening for intestinal parasites is important. This study showed that patients who are taking ART had a lower prevalence of diarrhoea causing parasites and Cryptosporidium suggesting that ART through

  5. Magnitude of Neural Tube Defects and Associated Risk Factors at Three Teaching Hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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    Abel Gedefaw

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There is scarcity of data on prevalence of neural tube defects (NTDs in lower-income countries. Local data are important to understand the real burden of the problem and explore risk factors to design and implement preventive approaches. This study aimed to determine prevalence and risk factors of NTDs. A hospital-based cross-sectional and unmatched case-control study was conducted at three teaching hospitals of Addis Ababa University. NTDs were defined as cases of anencephaly, spina bifida, and encephalocele based on ICD-10 criteria. The prevalence of NTDs was calculated per 10,000 births for both birth and total prevalence. During seven months, we observed 55 cases of NTDs out of 8677 births after 28 weeks of gestation—birth prevalence of 63.4 per 10,000 births (95% confidence interval (CI, 51–77. A total of 115 cases were medically terminated after 12 weeks of gestation. Fifty-six of these terminations (48.7% were due to NTDs. Thus, total prevalence of NTDs after 12 weeks’ gestation is 126 per 10,000 births (95% CI, 100–150. Planned pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio (aOR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.24–0.92, male sex (aOR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.33–0.94, normal or underweight body mass index (aOR, 0.49; 95%, 0.29–0.95, and taking folic acid or multivitamins during first trimester (aOR, 0.47; 95%, 0.23–0.95 were protective of NTDs. However, annual cash family income less than $1,300 USD (aOR, 2.5; 95%, 1.2–5.5, $1,300–1,800 USD (aOR, 2.8; 95%, 1.3–5.8, and $1,801–2,700 USD (aOR, 2.6; 95%, 1.2–5.8 was found to be risk factors compared to income greater than $2,700 USD. The prevalence of NTDs was found to be high in this setting. Comprehensive preventive strategies focused on identified risk factors should be urgently established. More studies on prevention strategies, including folic acid supplementations, should be conducted in the setting.

  6. Magnitude of Neural Tube Defects and Associated Risk Factors at Three Teaching Hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedefaw, Abel; Teklu, Sisay; Tadesse, Birkneh Tilahun

    2018-01-01

    There is scarcity of data on prevalence of neural tube defects (NTDs) in lower-income countries. Local data are important to understand the real burden of the problem and explore risk factors to design and implement preventive approaches. This study aimed to determine prevalence and risk factors of NTDs. A hospital-based cross-sectional and unmatched case-control study was conducted at three teaching hospitals of Addis Ababa University. NTDs were defined as cases of anencephaly, spina bifida, and encephalocele based on ICD-10 criteria. The prevalence of NTDs was calculated per 10,000 births for both birth and total prevalence. During seven months, we observed 55 cases of NTDs out of 8677 births after 28 weeks of gestation-birth prevalence of 63.4 per 10,000 births (95% confidence interval (CI), 51-77). A total of 115 cases were medically terminated after 12 weeks of gestation. Fifty-six of these terminations (48.7%) were due to NTDs. Thus, total prevalence of NTDs after 12 weeks' gestation is 126 per 10,000 births (95% CI, 100-150). Planned pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 0.47; 95% CI, 0.24-0.92), male sex (aOR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.33-0.94), normal or underweight body mass index (aOR, 0.49; 95%, 0.29-0.95), and taking folic acid or multivitamins during first trimester (aOR, 0.47; 95%, 0.23-0.95) were protective of NTDs. However, annual cash family income less than $1,300 USD (aOR, 2.5; 95%, 1.2-5.5), $1,300-1,800 USD (aOR, 2.8; 95%, 1.3-5.8), and $1,801-2,700 USD (aOR, 2.6; 95%, 1.2-5.8) was found to be risk factors compared to income greater than $2,700 USD. The prevalence of NTDs was found to be high in this setting. Comprehensive preventive strategies focused on identified risk factors should be urgently established. More studies on prevention strategies, including folic acid supplementations, should be conducted in the setting.

  7. Prevalence of Dermatophytic Infection and the Spectrum of Dermatophytes in Patients Attending a Tertiary Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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    Gebreabiezgi Teklebirhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dermatophytosis is common worldwide and continues to increase. Objective. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of dermatophytosis and the spectrum of ringworm fungi in patients attending a tertiary hospital. Methods. Samples were collected from 305 patients. A portion of each sample was examined microscopically and the remaining portion of each sample was cultured onto plates of Sabouraud’s dextrose agar containing chloramphenicol with and without cycloheximide. Dermatophyte isolates were identified by studying macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of their colonies. Result. Of 305 samples, fungi were detected in 166 (54.4% by KOH of which 95 were dermatophytes while 242 (79.4% samples were culture positive of which 130 isolates were dermatophytes. Among dermatophyte isolates T. violaceum was the most common (37.7% cause of infection. Tinea unguium was the predominant clinical manifestation accounting for 51.1% of the cases. Patients with age group 25–44 and 45–64 years were more affected. T. violaceum was the most common pathogen in tinea unguium and tinea capitis, whereas T. mentagrophytes was the most common pathogen in tinea pedis. Conclusion. Further intensive epidemiological studies of ring worm fungus induced dermatophytosis which have public health significance are needed.

  8. Prevalence of Antipsychotic Polypharmacy and Associated Factors among Outpatients with Schizophrenia Attending Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siranesh Tesfaye

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Despite recommendations by guidelines to avoid combinations of antipsychotics unless after multiple trials of antipsychotic monotherapy, it is quite a common practice to use combinations. This practice leads to unnecessary expenses and exposes the patient to severe drug adverse effects. Methods. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May 2014. Systematic random sampling technique was used to select 423 study subjects. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify associated factors of antipsychotic polypharmacy among schizophrenia outpatients. Result. The overall prevalence of antipsychotic polypharmacy was found to be 28.2%. Extra pyramidal side effects (AOR = 2.80; 95% CI: 1.38, 5.71, repeated psychiatric hospitalization (AOR = 2.83; 95% CI: 1.45, 5.50, history of substance use (AOR = 2.82; 95% CI: 1.36, 5.88, longer duration of treatment (AOR = 2.10; 95% CI: 1.14, 3.87, and drug nonadherence (AOR = 1.84; 95% CI: 1.14, 2.98 were found to be significantly associated with antipsychotic polypharmacy. Conclusion. Prevalence of antipsychotic polypharmacy was found to be high among the current study participants. Individuals who had extra pyramidal side effects, admission, substance use, duration of treatment, and drug nonadherence were associated with antipsychotic polypharmacy.

  9. Depressed Patients Hospitalized in Southeast-Facing Rooms Are Discharged Earlier than Patients in Northwest-Facing Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gbyl, Krzysztof; Madsen, Helle Ostergaard; Svendsen, Signe Dunker

    2017-01-01

    in a specialized affective disorders unit investigated the impact of daylight on the length of hospital stay and improvement of depression. Methods: For a period of 1 year, we collected data on sociodemographics, length of stay, vitamin D, and depression severity for patients in an inpatient affective disorders....... Conclusion: Due to the study design, no causality for the observed difference in length of stay can be given, but the results support findings in previous studies of the importance of architectural orientation providing natural daylight as a factor for improvement....

  10. Smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis and AFB examination practices according to the standard checklist of WHO's tuberculosis laboratory assessment tool in three governmental hospitals, Eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Abiyu

    2014-05-13

    Using the Directly Observed Treatment-Short course (DOTS) program the World Health Organization's global target was to detect 70% of new sputum-smear positive PTB cases. Smear positive PTB cases are more infectious than the smear negative cases. The TB case detection rate remains very low in Ethiopia, but there are increases in smear-negative PTB diagnosis which could be attributed to several factors including poor quality of sputum smear-microscopy. A five years retrospective record review of data between September, 2007 and August, 2012 and an in-depth assessment of AFB staining practices of sputum smear using a standard checklist were made. The proportion of smear positive cases relative to overall Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB) screened was determined over a five year period to indicate the overall prevalence and the trend. Odds ratio with 95 percent confidence interval was calculated for categorical variables using multivariate Logistic Regression model to assess the strength of association. A total of 1266 individuals' data were reviewed. The majority of the study participants were male, 704 (55.6%), and rural residents, 690 (54.5%). The overall prevalence rate of smear positive PTB was 21.6%. Age categories between 15-24 and 25-34 years were independent predictors of smear positive PTB with adjusted odds ratio of 2.246 [95% CI (1.098-4.597)] and 2.267 [95% CI (1.107-4.642)], respectively. More males were affected by PTB than females with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.426 [95% CI (1.083-1.879)]. An in-depth interview with the respective laboratory chiefs showed that quality control measures for sputum smear microscopy were used at different levels of the testing activities; however, equipment function verification as a quality control measure was not accomplished regularly in all of the study hospital laboratories. The smear positive PTB case detection rate indicated in this study is significantly lower than the countries which met the 70% target of the World Health

  11. Learning from developing countries in strengthening health systems: an evaluation of personal and professional impact among global health volunteers at Addis Ababa University's Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital (Ethiopia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Heidi; Aboneh, Ephrem A; Tefera, Girma

    2014-09-05

    The positive impact of global health activities by volunteers from the United States in low-and middle-income countries has been recognized. Most existing global health partnerships evaluate what knowledge, ideas, and activities the US institution transferred to the low- or middle-income country. However, what this fails to capture are what kinds of change happen to US-based partners due to engagement in global health partnerships, both at the individual and institutional levels. "Reverse innovation" is the term that is used in global health literature to describe this type of impact. The objectives of this study were to identify what kinds of impact global partnerships have on health volunteers from developed countries, advance this emerging body of knowledge, and improve understanding of methods and indicators for assessing reverse innovation. The study population consisted of 80 US, Canada, and South Africa-based health care professionals who volunteered at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital in Ethiopia. Surveys were web-based and included multiple choice and open-ended questions to assess global health competencies. The data were analyzed using IBRM SPSS® version 21 for quantitative analysis; the open-ended responses were coded using constant comparative analysis to identify themes. Of the 80 volunteers, 63 responded (79 percent response rate). Fifty-two percent of the respondents were male, and over 60 percent were 40 years of age and older. Eighty-three percent reported they accomplished their trip objectives, 95 percent would participate in future activities and 96 percent would recommend participation to other colleagues. Eighty-nine percent reported personal impact and 73 percent reported change on their professional development. Previous global health experience, multiple prior trips, and the desire for career advancement were associated with positive impact on professional development. Professionally and personally meaningful learning happens often

  12. CARDIAC SURGERY FOR VALVULAR HEART DISEASE AT A REFERRAL HOSPITAL IN ETHIOPIA: A REVIEW OF CASES OPERATED IN THE LAST 30 YEARS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guteta, Senbeta; Yadeta, Dejuma; Azazh, Aklilu; Mekonnen, Dufera

    2016-04-01

    Valvular heart disease has been a significant cause of heart disease worldwide. In Ethiopia, it particularly affects young individuals and constitutes the major cause of cardiovascular disease. Factors associated with choice of treatment for advanced valvular heart disease are variable. The objective of this study is to review surgery done for Ethiopian patients with valvular heart disease. We analyzed data on patients who had valve surgery and follow-up at the Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital cardiology unit. We collected data on sociodemographic characteristics, the pre-operative status of effected valves and co-morbidities, and assessed their associations with patient management options. A total of 157 valve surgeries were done from 1983 to 2013. Mean age at time of surgery was 26.7 years and females constituted 66% of the cases. Patients with rheumatic heart disease were younger, more likely to be female and have atrial fibrillation, but less likely to have impaired left ventricular systolic function when compared to patients with non-rheumatic heart disease. More than 75% of the surgical procedures done were mechanical valve replacement. Mechanical valves, compared with bioprosthetic valves, were more likely to be used in patients with rheumatic heart disease. The median age of those receiving mechanical valves, 24 (IQR 22-28) years, was lower than those receiving bioprosthetic valves, 31.5 (IQR 29.9-37.9) years. Mechanical valve replacement was significantly higher in those under the age of 20 years (Adjusted Odds Ratio 41.0, 95% CI: 3.0-557.2) and in those between 20 and 29 years of age (Adjusted Odds Ratio 14.3, 95% CI: 2.3-88.6). Valve surgery for valvular heart diseases has been more common performed for young and female patients. A great majority of the replacements done have been with mechanical valves. As many of the patients have been younger and female, the choice of valve surgery and the need for anticoagulation impacts subsequent management of

  13. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and associated risk factors among HIV-infected women within reproductive age group at Mizan Aman General Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeleke, Ayalew Jejaw; Melsew, Yayehirad Alemu

    2017-01-26

    Toxoplasmosis is serious in the case of immune suppression and prenatal transmission. In immunocompromised hosts, it is manifested primarily as a life-threatening condition, toxoplasmic encephalitis. Congenital toxoplasmosis results in abortion or congenitally acquired disorders which primarily affect the central nervous system. This study assessed seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection and associated factors among HIV-infected women within the reproductive age group (18-49 years) at Mizan Aman General Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted from February 01 to May 30, 2015. Systematic random sampling technique was employed for participant selection. Enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay was used to test for T. gondii from venous blood specimens. Participants were interviewed using structured questionnaire for different variables. Descriptive statistics, binary and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed during data analysis. P value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. A total of 270 HIV-infected women within the reproductive age group were included in the study. Mean age of the respondents was 31 years (SD = ±6.5). Of the total study participants, 255 (94.4%), 95% CI (91.6, 97.2%) were found to be seropositive for T. gondii anti-immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody, and 6 (2.2%), 95% CI (1.3, 3.1%) for anti-immunoglobulin M (IgM). All the anti-IgM positive samples were also positive for IgG. Multivariate analysis showed that; age within 28-37 years (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] 2.58, 95% CI 1.01, 6.60), level of education with unable or only able to read and write (AOR = 4.46, 95% CI 1.20, 16.60), and substance abuse (AOR = 4.49, 95 CI 1.60, 12.55) were significantly associated with seropositivity of T. gondii infection. Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among the HIV-infected women in the childbearing age group in Mizan Aman was high. Age, educational status

  14. Co-infection of intestinal parasites and Helicobacter pylori among upper gastrointestinal symptomatic adult patients attending Mekanesalem Hospital, northeast Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seid, Abdurahaman; Tamir, Zemenu; Kasanew, Brhanu; Senbetay, Moges

    2018-02-20

    Intestinal parasites and H. pylori are well-known for their high prevalence worldwide. Thus, the objective of this study waste assess risk factors and co-infection of intestinal parasites and H. pylori among adult patients with upper gastrointestinal complaints. A hospital-based cross sectional study was conducted among 363 consecutive adult patients from December 10, 2015 to February 30,2016. Stool and venous blood were collected for analysis of Intestinal parasites and H. pylori infection, respectively. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16 and logistic regression analysis was carried out to assess predictors of co-infection. A p ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Helicobacter pylori IgG and intestinal parasites were detected in 70.25-38.3% of participants, respectively while G. lamblia accounted 22.3%. G. lamblia prevalence was significantly higher among H. pylori infected participants (COR: 2.76; 95% CI: 1.46-5.23), but E. hystolytica/dispar infection didn't show significant variation (p = 0.15). H. pylori and intestinal parasites concomitant co-infection was associated with male sex (AOR: 1.61; 95% CI: 1.01-2.56), consumption of river water (AOR: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.11-3.07) and ground/spring water (AOR: 4.10; 95% CI: 1.97-8.52). Thus, besides H. pylori investigation, upper gastrointestinal symptomatic patients should be screened for G. lamblia infection and other intestinal parasites.

  15. Intestinal Protozoal Parasites in Diarrheal Children and Associated Risk Factors at Yirgalem Hospital, Ethiopia: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdu, Teshome; Abunna, Fufa; Girma, Mekonnen

    2014-01-01

    Aim. A case-control study was conducted to determine the prevalence of G. lamblia, Cryptosporidium, spp and E. histolytica/dispar in diarrheal children at Yirgalem Hospital from February 2011 to August. Subjects and Methods. A total of 230 children participated in the study of which 115 (50%) were cases and 115 (50%) were controls. A single stool sample was collected and examined by direct saline wet mount, formol-ether concentration, and modified Ziehl-Neelsen. Results. Eighty-four (36.52%) were positive for at least one intestinal parasites (57 (49.56%) from diarrheal children and 27 (23.47%) out of nondiarrheal children). The prevalence of G. lamblia, Cryptosporidium spp, and E. histolytica/dispar was 15.65%, 9.56%, and 4.35% in children with diarrhea and 1.74%, 5.21%, and 1.74% in those without it, respectively. Cryptosporidium spp and E. histolytica/dispar revealed higher infection in males (10.81% and 5.4%, resp.) than in females (7.32% and 2.43%, resp.). G. lamblia infection was higher in females (29.27%) than in males (8.11%). Cryptosporidium spp infection was higher in the age groups of ≤4 years old (53.84%). Significant difference was seen between 10 and 13 (7.69%) years old. Higher prevalence of E. histolytica/dispar was found in 5-9 years (85.71%) than ≤4 years old (14.28%). Conclusion. Cryptosporidium spp, E. histolytica/dispar, and G. lamblia were higher in children with diarrhea than in those without it.

  16. Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Uropathogens from cases of urinary tract infections (UTI) in Shashemene referral hospital, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifu, Wubalem Desta; Gebissa, Alemayehu Desalegn

    2018-01-10

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) remains to be one of the most common infectious diseases diagnosed in developing countries. And a widespread use of antibiotics against uropathogens has led to the emergence of antibiotic resistant species. A laboratory based cross-sectional survey was conducted in Shashemene referral hospital to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of uropathogens. We have collected 384 clean catch mid-stream urine samples from all suspected UTI outpatients using sterile screw capped container. The urine samples were cultured and processed for subsequent uropathogens isolation. The isolated pure cultures were grown on BiOLOG Universal Growth agar (BUG) and identified using GEN III OmniLog® Plus ID System identification protocols. The identified species were then exposed to selected antibiotics to test for their susceptibility. The overall prevalence of urinary tract infection in the area was 90.1%. Most frequently isolated uropathogen in our study was Escherichia coli (39.3%). While, Staphylococcus species (20.2%), Leuconostoc species (11.4%), Raoultella terrigena/Klebsiella spp./ (8.4%), Salmonella typhimurium (6.3%), Dermacoccus nishinomiyaensis (6.3%), Citerobacter freundii (5.2%) and Issatchenkia orientalis/Candida krusei/ (2.7%) were the other isolates. We find that the relationship between uropathogens and some of UTI risk factors was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Gentamicin was the most effective drug against most of the isolates followed by chloramphenicol and nitrofurantoin. In contrast, amoxicillin, vancomycin and cephalexin were the antibiotics to which most of the isolates developed resistance. Urinary tract infection was highly prevalent in the study area and all uropathogens isolated developed a resistance against mostly used antibiotics.

  17. Risky sexual practices and related factors among ART attendees in Addis Ababa Public Hospitals, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessie, Yadeta; Gerbaba, Mulusew; Bedru, Abdo; Davey, Gail

    2011-06-01

    Many HIV-positive persons avoid risky sexual practices after testing HIV sero-positive. However, a substantial number continue to engage in risky sexual practices that may further transmit the virus, put them at risk of contracting secondary sexually transmitted infections and lead to problems with drug resistance. Thus, this study was intended to assess risky sexual practices and related factors among HIV- positive ART attendees in public hospitals of Addis Ababa. A cross-sectional study was conducted among ART attendees from February to March, 2009. Questionnaire-based face-to-face interviews were used to gather data. SPSS software was used to perform descriptive and logistic regression analyses. Six hundred and one ART attendees who fulfilled the inclusion criteria was included in the study and interviewed. More than one-third (36.9%) had a history of risky sexual practices in the three months prior to the study. The major reasons given for not using condoms were: partner's dislike of them, both partners being positive for HIV and the desire to have a child. Factors associated with risky sexual practices included: lack of discussion about condom use (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR = 7.23, 95% CI: 4.14, 12.63); lack of self-efficacy in using condoms (AOR = 3.29, 95% CI: 2.07, 5.23); lack of sexual pleasure when using a condom (AOR = 2.39, 95% CI: 1.52, 3.76); and multiple sexual partners (AOR = 2.67, 95% CI: 1.09, 6.57). Being with a negative sero-status partner (AOR = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.14, 0.80), or partners of unknown sero-status (AOR = 0.19, 95% CI: 0.09, 0.39) were associated with less risky practice. A considerable proportion (36.9%) of respondents engaged in unprotected sexual intercourse, potentially resulting in re-infection by a new virus strain, other sexually transmitted infections and onward transmission of the HIV virus. Health education and counseling which focuses on the identified factors has to be provided. The health education and counseling can be

  18. Risky sexual practices and related factors among ART attendees in Addis Ababa Public Hospitals, Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedru Abdo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many HIV-positive persons avoid risky sexual practices after testing HIV sero-positive. However, a substantial number continue to engage in risky sexual practices that may further transmit the virus, put them at risk of contracting secondary sexually transmitted infections and lead to problems with drug resistance. Thus, this study was intended to assess risky sexual practices and related factors among HIV- positive ART attendees in public hospitals of Addis Ababa. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among ART attendees from February to March, 2009. Questionnaire-based face-to-face interviews were used to gather data. SPSS software was used to perform descriptive and logistic regression analyses. Results Six hundred and one ART attendees who fulfilled the inclusion criteria was included in the study and interviewed. More than one-third (36.9% had a history of risky sexual practices in the three months prior to the study. The major reasons given for not using condoms were: partner's dislike of them, both partners being positive for HIV and the desire to have a child. Factors associated with risky sexual practices included: lack of discussion about condom use (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR = 7.23, 95% CI: 4.14, 12.63; lack of self-efficacy in using condoms (AOR = 3.29, 95% CI: 2.07, 5.23; lack of sexual pleasure when using a condom (AOR = 2.39, 95% CI: 1.52, 3.76; and multiple sexual partners (AOR = 2.67, 95% CI: 1.09, 6.57. Being with a negative sero-status partner (AOR = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.14, 0.80, or partners of unknown sero-status (AOR = 0.19, 95% CI: 0.09, 0.39 were associated with less risky practice. Conclusions A considerable proportion (36.9% of respondents engaged in unprotected sexual intercourse, potentially resulting in re-infection by a new virus strain, other sexually transmitted infections and onward transmission of the HIV virus. Health education and counseling which focuses on the identified factors has to

  19. Evaluating laboratory request forms submitted to haematology and blood transfusion departments at a hospital in Northwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feyisayo Jegede

    2016-05-01

    Objective: We assessed routinely-submitted LRFs to determine the degree of correctness, completeness and consistency. Methods: LRFs submitted to the Department of Haematology (DH and Blood Transfusion Services (BTS of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital in Kano, Nigeria, between October 2014 and December 2014, were evaluated for completion of all items on the forms. Performance in four quality indicator domains, including patient identifiers, test request details, laboratory details and physician details, was derived as a composite percentage. Results: Of the 2084 LRFs evaluated, 999 were from DH and 1085 from BTS. Overall, LRF completeness was 89.5% for DH and 81.2% for BTS. Information on patient name, patient location and laboratory number were 100% complete for DH, whereas only patient name was 100% complete for BTS. Incomplete information was mostly encountered on BTS forms for physician’s signature (60.8% and signature of laboratory receiver (63.5%. None of the DH and only 9.4% of BTS LRFs met all quality indicator indices. Conclusion: The level of completion of LRFs from these two departments was suboptimal. This underscores the need to review and redesign the LRF, improve on training and communication between laboratory and clinical staff and review specimen rejection practices.

  20. Self-medication practices in patients attending a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Urban North-West India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Patrick

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was designed to determine the frequency, reasons, and the association of self-medication with demographic and other factors reported by participants. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in 500 patients visiting a tertiary hospital in Ludhiana, North Western India. Participants were interviewed with a preset questionnaire. Data were entered into Microsoft Excel and analysis was performed using SPSS software version 16. Frequencies and proportions were calculated. Results: Of 500 study participants, 93.8% reported self-medication with no gender difference. The participants who took self-medication were of the opinion that self-medication resulted in quick cure of illness 50.75%, saved their time 17.46%, and gave them a sense of independence in 17.06%, respectively. The common reasons self-medication 45.84% for fever, 18.34% for pain, and 10.87% for headache with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs 49.4% followed by antibiotics (11.6% be the common medication. The most common source of information is local chemists/pharmacy 39%. Conclusions: Self-medication is described as a double-edged sword in India, and regulation of over-the-counter sale of antibiotics prescription medication is necessary to safeguard the populace.

  1. Assessment of Pharmacists Workforce in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Method: A national facility based census of the pharmacist workforce was conducted in Ethiopia. ... pharmacists practice in community, hospitals and other medical .... Higher proportion of female pharmacists than males were working .... Recognition they get for good work. 8 ..... pharmacists' empowerment and organizational.

  2. Do loss to follow-up and death rates from ART care vary across primary health care facilities and hospitals in south Ethiopia? A retrospective follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshome, Wondu; Belayneh, Mehretu; Moges, Mathewos; Mekonnen, Emebet; Endrias, Misganu; Ayele, Sinafiksh; Misganaw, Tebeje; Shiferaw, Mekonnen; Tesema, Tigist

    2015-01-01

    Decentralization and task shifting has significantly improved access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Many studies conducted to determine the attrition rate in Ethiopia have not compared attrition rates between hospitals and health centers in a relatively recent cohort of patients. This study compared death and loss to follow-up (LTFU) rates among ART patients in hospitals and health centers in south Ethiopia. Data routinely collected from patients aged older than 15 years who started ART between July 2011 and August 2012 in 20 selected health facilities (12 being hospitals) were analyzed. The outcomes of interest were LTFU and death. The data were entered, cleaned, and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20.0 and Stata version 12.0. Competing-risk regression models were used. The service years of the facilities were similar (median 8 and 7.5 for hospitals and health centers, respectively). The mean patient age was 33.7±9.6 years. The median baseline CD4 count was 179 (interquartile range 93-263) cells/mm(3). A total of 2,356 person-years of observation were made with a median follow-up duration of 28 (interquartile range 22-31) months; 24.6% were either dead or LTFU, resulting in a retention rate of 75.4%. The death rates were 3.0 and 1.5 and the LTFU rate were 9.0 and 10.9 per 100 person-years of observation in health centers and hospitals, respectively. The competing-risk regression model showed that the gap between testing and initiation of ART, body mass index, World Health Organization clinical stage, isoniazid prophylaxis, age, facility type, and educational status were independently associated with LTFU. Moreover, baseline tuberculous disease, poor functional status, and follow-up at a health center were associated with an elevated probability of death. We observed a higher death rate and a lower LTFU rate in health centers than in hospitals. Most of the associated variables were also previously documented. Higher LTFU was

  3. Ethiopia: Land Opportunity?

    OpenAIRE

    Tommerup, Emil; Valciukaite, Silvestra; Gulbinaite, Simona; Wang, Yizhuo

    2012-01-01

    Since 2008, many foreign companies have been attracted to invest in Ethiopian land, Karuturi is one of the largest land investors in Ethiopia and it also claimed its Corporate Social Responsibility strategy. As a developing country with high ranking in corruption, there might be potential risk for investing in Ethiopia, the problem arises: Why does Karuturi invest its production in Ethiopia and even doing CSR? Focused on this problem within the case study of Karuturi, we implemented analysis ...

  4. Current Level and Correlates of Traditional Cooking Energy Sources Utilization in Urban Settings in the Context of Climate Change and Health, Northwest Ethiopia: A Case of Debre Markos Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumlachew Geremew

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Traditional biomass has been the major source of cooking energy for major segment of Ethiopian population for thousands of years. Cognizant of this energy poverty, the Government of Ethiopia has been spending huge sum of money to increase hydroelectric power generating stations. Objective. To assess current levels and correlates of traditional cooking energy sources utilization. Methods. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted employing both quantitative and qualitative approaches on systematically selected 423 households for quantitative and purposively selected 20 people for qualitative parts. SPSS version 16 for windows was used to analyze the quantitative data. Logistic regression was fitted to assess possible associations and its strength was measured using odds ratio at 95% CI. Qualitative data were analyzed thematically. Result. The study indicated that 95% of households still use traditional biomass for cooking. Those who were less knowledgeable about negative health and environmental effects of traditional cooking energy sources were seven and six times more likely to utilize them compared with those who were knowledgeable (AOR (95% CI = 7.56 (1.635, 34.926, AOR (95% CI = 6.68 (1.80, 24.385, resp.. The most outstanding finding of this study was that people use traditional energy for cooking mainly due to lack of the knowledge and their beliefs about food prepared using traditional energy. That means “…people still believe that food cooked with charcoal is believed to taste delicious than cooked with other means.”  Conclusion. The majority of households use traditional biomass for cooking due to lack of knowledge and belief. Therefore, mechanisms should be designed to promote electric energy and to teach the public about health effects of traditional cooking energy source.

  5. Current level and correlates of traditional cooking energy sources utilization in urban settings in the context of climate change and health, northwest Ethiopia: a case of Debre Markos town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geremew, Kumlachew; Gedefaw, Molla; Dagnew, Zewdu; Jara, Dube

    2014-01-01

    Traditional biomass has been the major source of cooking energy for major segment of Ethiopian population for thousands of years. Cognizant of this energy poverty, the Government of Ethiopia has been spending huge sum of money to increase hydroelectric power generating stations. To assess current levels and correlates of traditional cooking energy sources utilization. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted employing both quantitative and qualitative approaches on systematically selected 423 households for quantitative and purposively selected 20 people for qualitative parts. SPSS version 16 for windows was used to analyze the quantitative data. Logistic regression was fitted to assess possible associations and its strength was measured using odds ratio at 95% CI. Qualitative data were analyzed thematically. The study indicated that 95% of households still use traditional biomass for cooking. Those who were less knowledgeable about negative health and environmental effects of traditional cooking energy sources were seven and six times more likely to utilize them compared with those who were knowledgeable (AOR (95% CI) = 7.56 (1.635, 34.926), AOR (95% CI) = 6.68 (1.80, 24.385), resp.). The most outstanding finding of this study was that people use traditional energy for cooking mainly due to lack of the knowledge and their beliefs about food prepared using traditional energy. That means "...people still believe that food cooked with charcoal is believed to taste delicious than cooked with other means."  The majority of households use traditional biomass for cooking due to lack of knowledge and belief. Therefore, mechanisms should be designed to promote electric energy and to teach the public about health effects of traditional cooking energy source.

  6. Prevalence of mental distress and associated factors among caregivers of patients with severe mental illness in the outpatient unit of Amanuel Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2013: Cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sintayehu, Mezinew; Mulat, Haregwoin; Yohannis, Zegeye; Adera, Tewodros; Fekade, Maereg

    2015-01-01

    Caregivers like family members or other relatives are central and provide not only practical help and personal care but also give emotional support, and they are suffering from plenty of challengeable tasks. These, eventually, cast out family caregivers into multidimensional problems prominently for mental distress like depression, anxiety, sleep problem and somatic disorder which are followed by physiologic changes and impaired health habits that ultimately lead to illness and possibly to death. Numerous studies demonstrate that mental distress of caregivers are two times compared to general populations. Despite it was not uncommon to observe manifestations of caregivers' mental distress, yet there was no study on this area. Therefore, this study was intended to assess the prevalence of mental distress and associated factors among the caregivers of persons with severe mental illness in the out patients unit of Amanuel Hospital, Ethiopia. Institutional based cross sectional study was conducted from May 1 to 31, 2013 at Amanuel Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Systematic random sampling technique with "k" interval of 13 was employed to withdraw a total of 423 participants from study population. Five psychiatric nurses carried out interview by using standardized and validated Self Reported Questionnaire (SRQ 20). Descriptive statistics, binary and multivariate logistic regression analysis were conducted. This study revealed that the overall prevalence of mental distress was found to be 221(56.7 %). The factors like missed social support, two or more times admission of patient, care giving for psychotic patient, being farmer and being female were found to be predictors for mental distress of caregivers with this [AOR 95 % CI = 9.523(5.002, 18.132)], 3.293(1.474, 3.3560), 2.007(1.109, 3.634), 2.245(1.129, 4.463) and 3.170(1.843, 5.454)] respectively. In this respect the study observed that there was a higher level of mental distress experienced by caregivers of

  7. On a mission: training traditional birth attendants in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciolino, Alice

    2011-06-01

    Alice Ciolino, a midwife from London spent eight months in Ethiopia with Doctors of the World. Her mission was to train Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs). Based in the Somali region of Ethiopia, access to healthcare facilities was limited; indeed Kebri Dehar had the only hospital in the region. Here Alice shares her experience of what it is like to live and work in a remote part of the world, far from the medical facilities we take for granted in the West.

  8. Prevalence of Diabetic Foot Ulcer and Associated Factors among Adult Diabetic Patients Who Attend the Diabetic Follow-Up Clinic at the University of Gondar Referral Hospital, North West Ethiopia, 2016: Institutional-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariam, Tesfamichael G.; Alemayehu, Abebaw; Tesfaye, Eleni; Mequannt, Worku; Temesgen, Kiber; Yetwale, Fisseha

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder which is characterized by multiple long-term complications that affect almost every system in the body. Foot ulcers are one of the main complications of diabetes mellitus. However, there is limited evidence on the occurrence of foot ulcer and influencing factors in Ethiopia. An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Gondar University Hospital, Ethiopia, to investigate foot ulcer occurrence in diabetic patients. Systematic random sampling was used to select 279 study participants. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression model was fitted to identify factors associated with diabetic foot ulcer. Odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was computed to determine the level of significance. Diabetic foot ulcer was found to be 13.6%. Rural residence [AOR = 2.57; 95% CI: 1.42, 5.93], type II diabetes mellitus [AOR = 2.58; 95% CI: 1.22, 6.45], overweight [AOR = 2.12; 95% CI: 1.15, 3.10], obesity [AOR = 2.65; 95% CI: 1.25, 5.83], poor foot self-care practice [AOR = 2.52; 95% CI: 1.21, 6.53], and neuropathy [AOR = 21.76; 95% CI: 8.43, 57.47] were factors associated with diabetic foot ulcer. Diabetic foot ulcer was found to be high. Provision of special emphasis for rural residence, decreasing excessive weight gain, managing neuropathy, and promoting foot self-care practice would decrease diabetic foot ulcer. PMID:28791310

  9. Prevalence of Diabetic Foot Ulcer and Associated Factors among Adult Diabetic Patients Who Attend the Diabetic Follow-Up Clinic at the University of Gondar Referral Hospital, North West Ethiopia, 2016: Institutional-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfamichael G. Mariam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder which is characterized by multiple long-term complications that affect almost every system in the body. Foot ulcers are one of the main complications of diabetes mellitus. However, there is limited evidence on the occurrence of foot ulcer and influencing factors in Ethiopia. An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Gondar University Hospital, Ethiopia, to investigate foot ulcer occurrence in diabetic patients. Systematic random sampling was used to select 279 study participants. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression model was fitted to identify factors associated with diabetic foot ulcer. Odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was computed to determine the level of significance. Diabetic foot ulcer was found to be 13.6%. Rural residence [AOR = 2.57; 95% CI: 1.42, 5.93], type II diabetes mellitus [AOR = 2.58; 95% CI: 1.22, 6.45], overweight [AOR = 2.12; 95% CI: 1.15, 3.10], obesity [AOR = 2.65; 95% CI: 1.25, 5.83], poor foot self-care practice [AOR = 2.52; 95% CI: 1.21, 6.53], and neuropathy [AOR = 21.76; 95% CI: 8.43, 57.47] were factors associated with diabetic foot ulcer. Diabetic foot ulcer was found to be high. Provision of special emphasis for rural residence, decreasing excessive weight gain, managing neuropathy, and promoting foot self-care practice would decrease diabetic foot ulcer.

  10. Quasi-Poisson versus negative binomial regression models in identifying factors affecting initial CD4 cell count change due to antiretroviral therapy administered to HIV-positive adults in North-West Ethiopia (Amhara region).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyoum, Awoke; Ndlovu, Principal; Zewotir, Temesgen

    2016-01-01

    CD4 cells are a type of white blood cells that plays a significant role in protecting humans from infectious diseases. Lack of information on associated factors on CD4 cell count reduction is an obstacle for improvement of cells in HIV positive adults. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate baseline factors that could affect initial CD4 cell count change after highly active antiretroviral therapy had been given to adult patients in North West Ethiopia. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted among 792 HIV positive adult patients who already started antiretroviral therapy for 1 month of therapy. A Chi square test of association was used to assess of predictor covariates on the variable of interest. Data was secondary source and modeled using generalized linear models, especially Quasi-Poisson regression. The patients' CD4 cell count changed within a month ranged from 0 to 109 cells/mm 3 with a mean of 15.9 cells/mm 3 and standard deviation 18.44 cells/mm 3 . The first month CD4 cell count change was significantly affected by poor adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (aRR = 0.506, P value = 2e -16 ), fair adherence (aRR = 0.592, P value = 0.0120), initial CD4 cell count (aRR = 1.0212, P value = 1.54e -15 ), low household income (aRR = 0.63, P value = 0.671e -14 ), middle income (aRR = 0.74, P value = 0.629e -12 ), patients without cell phone (aRR = 0.67, P value = 0.615e -16 ), WHO stage 2 (aRR = 0.91, P value = 0.0078), WHO stage 3 (aRR = 0.91, P value = 0.0058), WHO stage 4 (0876, P value = 0.0214), age (aRR = 0.987, P value = 0.000) and weight (aRR = 1.0216, P value = 3.98e -14 ). Adherence to antiretroviral therapy, initial CD4 cell count, household income, WHO stages, age, weight and owner of cell phone played a major role for the variation of CD4 cell count in our data. Hence, we recommend a close follow-up of patients to adhere the prescribed medication for

  11. Light for Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dany, Christian

    2009-07-01

    With the aid of small island PV systems, a German-based aid foundation is bringing light in the huts of Ethiopia's rural population. The solar energy is also awakening the energy of the people themselves. (orig.)

  12. Ethiopia's New Cybercrime Legislation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kinfe Micheal Yilma

    Ethiopia introduced the first set of cybercrime rules with the enactment of the ... Information Network Security Agency (INSA)– released a draft comprehensive .... attention to the importance of cooperation with law enforcement bodies of other.

  13. Deworming and the immune status of HIV positive pre-antiretroviral therapy individuals in Arba Minch, Chencha and Gidole hospitals, Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abossie, Ashenafi; Petros, Beyene

    2015-09-28

    Helminths/HIV co-infections are very common in developing countries, especially in Africa. The effect of overlapping distribution of HIV and helminths becomes important because concomitant infection may exacerbate disease outcome of HIV infection. The study aimed at determining the effect of deworming on the immune status of helminth/HIV coinfected Pre-ART HIV patients attending three health institutions in Southern Ethiopia. 97 HIV-positive Pre-ART individuals were observed into 2 groups on the basis of helminth co-infection and no infection. Out of these, 66 study participants were helminths/HIV co-infected and the remaining 31 study participants were helminths (-)/HIV (+) control. Helminth/HIV co-infected participants CD4+ T-cell count was done at baseline, after 15 weeks and 6 months after antihelminthics treatment. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Ascaris lumbricoides was the highest prevalent soil transmitted helminths in Pre-ART individuals in this study. CD4+ T-cell count in the Ascaris lumricoides/HIV co-infected was significantly higher (P = 0.05) and (P intestinal helminth parasites detected in the study. In conclusion, this finding on Ascaris lumbricoides-specific nature of immune interaction in helminth/HIV co-infection may partly explain the inconsistent reports on the role of intestinal helminths on progression of HIV infection to AIDS. Therefore, a well-designed longitudinal study on helminth species-specific HIV/helminth co-infection will be needed to fully establish the possible benefits of deworming in intestinal helminth/HIV co-infection.

  14. High prevalence of anti-toxoplasma antibodies and absence of Toxoplasma gondii infection risk factors among pregnant women attending routine antenatal care in two Hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woyneshet Gelaye

    2015-05-01

    Conclusion: Prevalence of toxoplasmosis among pregnant women in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia is higher than that reported from other countries. Efforts to describe risk factors for toxoplasma infection among Ethiopians should focus in children.

  15. Hospitals

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This database contains locations of Hospitals for 50 states and Washington D.C. , Puerto Rico and US territories. The dataset only includes hospital facilities and...

  16. Assessing Control of Asthma in Jush, Jimma, South West Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Despite international guidelines, asthma control is short of the goal in different parts of the world. The objective of this study was to assess control of asthma in patients older than 14 years at the Chest Clinic of Jimma University Specialized Hospital/JUSH, South West Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional ...

  17. Etiology and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Pathogenic Bacteria in Children Subjected to UTI: A Referral Hospital-Based Study in Northwest of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee, Mohammad Ahangarzadeh; Abdinia, Babak

    2015-09-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is 1 of the most common bacterial diseases in children with a considerable resistance to antimicrobials. This 5 years prospective study was carried out to determine the frequency of isolation and antimicrobial resistance patterns of uropathogens among children subjected to urine culture at Tabriz Children Educational-Health Care Center, in the northwest of Iran. Organisms were isolated using standard culture techniques. Frequency of UTI among children examined by urine culture was 3.6%. The isolated bacteria were Escherichia coli (71.4%), followed by Klebsiella spp. (9.6%), Enterococcus spp. (6.4%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4.2%), Serratia spp. (4.2%), and Enterobacter spp. (4.2%). E coli resistance levels were 11% for nitrofurantoin, 15% for ciprofloxacin, 25% for nalidixic acid, and 30% to 75% for amikacin, gentamicin, ceftriaxone, ceftizoxime, cefotaxime, and co-trimoxazole. Among the tested antibiotics, ciprofloxacin, showed the highest activity (100%) against Klebsiella and P aeruginosa isolates followed by amikacin, nalidixic acid, and gentamicin. Overall, the highly active antibiotic against Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms was amikacin and then ciprofloxacin. On the other hand, the empirical initial therapy with co-trimoxazole and third-generation cephalosporins would be inadequate for more cases of UTI in the study area. Moreover, susceptibility testing should be carried out on all clinical isolates, and the empirical antibiotic treatment changed accordingly.

  18. Malaria Epidemics in Dembia, Northwest Ethiopia 1952 – 1953

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unhcc

    result, dead bodies were reportedly devoured by dogs and wild animals. That was particularly the case when domestic servants died. They were left in the open field to be eaten by vultures, dogs, and hyenas. Some of the lucky ones were .... had fever and enormous swelling of the spleen and nearly all of them had serious ...

  19. Trade Facilitation in Ethiopia:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tilahun_EK

    so doing, it attempts to examine how Ethiopia's WTO Accession and trade facilitation ... the more expensive imports, exports and production becomes rendering. Ethiopian ..... can reserve the right to refuse requests of importers for the fifth valuation method to ..... units may find it easier to deal with post clearance audit. In the ...

  20. Food choices in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekele, Alemayehu Dekeba; Beuving, Joost; Ruben, Ruerd

    2016-01-01

    This article reports results from a framed market experiment conducted to examine whether milk choices are responsive to changes in the nutritional characteristics of milk products. Using a random-effect Tobit model, we analyzed experimental data collected from 160 participants in urban Ethiopia.

  1. Country programme review. Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This document reviews the current nuclear program in Ethiopia, identifying the peaceful uses of nuclear technology in the country and possible future technical cooperation activities. Separate brief sections deal with food and agriculture; human health; water and geothermal resources; industrial applications and instrumentation; radiation protection; higher education; programming, coordination and development

  2. Sugarcane outgrowers in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assefa Wendimu, Mengistu; Henningsen, Arne; Gibbon, Peter

    smallholders. We apply matching methods to analyze the effects of a public sugarcane outgrower scheme in Ethiopia. Participation in the outgrower scheme significantly reduces the income and asset stocks of outgrowers who contributed irrigated land to the outgrower scheme, while the effect was insignificant...

  3. Sugarcane outgrowers in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendimu, Mengistu Assefa; Henningsen, Arne; Gibbon, Peter

    2016-01-01

    -users. Using data from the oldest and some more recently established sugarcane outgrower schemes in Ethiopia, this paper examines the effects of compulsory participation in sugarcane outgrower production on total household income and asset stocks. Because outgrowers and non-outgrowers may have some differences...

  4. Extent of poly-pharmacy, occurrence and associated factors of drug-drug interaction and potential adverse drug reactions in Gondar Teaching Referral Hospital, North West Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endalkachew Admassie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the extent of poly-pharmacy, occurrence, and associated factors for the occurrence of drug-drug interaction (DDI and potential adverse drug reaction (ADR in Gondar University Teaching Referral Hospital. Institutional-based retrospective cross-sectional study. This study was conducted on prescriptions of both in and out-patients for a period of 3 months at Gondar University Hospital. Both bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used to identify risk factors for the occurrence of DDI and possible ADRs. All the statistical calculations were performed using SPSS; software. A total of 12,334 prescriptions were dispensed during the study period of which, 2,180 prescriptions were containing two or more drugs per prescription. A total of 21,210 drugs were prescribed and the average number of drugs per prescription was 1.72. Occurrences of DDI of all categories (Major, Moderate, and Minor were analyzed and DDI were detected in 711 (32.6% prescriptions. Sex was not found to be a risk factor for the occurrence of DDI and ADR, while age and number of medications per prescription were found to be significant risk factors for the occurrence of DDI and ADR. The mean number of drugs per prescription was 1.72 and hence with regard to the WHO limit of drugs per prescription, Gondar hospital was able to maintain the limit and prescriptions containing multiple drugs supposed to be taken systemically. Numbers of drugs per prescription as well as older age were found to be predisposing factors for the occurrence of DDI and potential ADRs while sex was not a risk factor.

  5. Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristics of Children and Adolescents with Leprosy Admitted Over 16 Years at a Rural Hospital in Ethiopia: A Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, José M; Ortiz-Martínez, Sonia; Lemma, Deriba; Petros, Matheus M; Ortiz-Martínez, Carmen; Tesfamariam, Abraham; Reyes, Francisco; Belinchón, Isabel

    2018-06-01

    To analyse differences in children and adolescents aged ≤18 years admitted to the leprosy ward in a rural Ethiopian hospital >16 years. We retrospectively collected data from leprosy admission registry books on patients with leprosy who were admitted to a referral hospital from September 2000 to September 2016. There were 2129 admissions for leprosy during the study period: 180 (8.4%) patients were s ≤ 18 years old. Of these, 98 (54.4%) were male and 82 (45.6%) were female. The proportion of new diagnoses in children and adolescents was 31.7%, significantly higher than in adults (11.7%; p < 0.001). There were also significant differences in the prevalence of lepromatous ulcers (46.9 vs. 61.7%), leprosy reaction (29.4 vs. 13.0%) and neuritis (16.9 vs.5.3%) between these age groups. There were more new diagnoses, leprosy reactions and neuritis, and fewer lepromatous ulcers, in children and adolescents compared with adults, with younger patients being referred more frequently to reference centres.

  6. Assessment of quality of care given to diabetic patients at Jimma University Specialized Hospital diabetes follow-up clinic, Jimma, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudina Esayas K

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-Saharan Africa is currently enduring the heaviest global burden of diabetes and diabetes care in such resource poor countries is far below standards. This study aims to describe the gaps in the care of Ethiopian diabetic patients at Jimma University Specialized Hospital. Methods 329 diabetic patients were selected as participants in the study, aged 15 years or greater, who have been active in follow-up for their diabetes for more than 1 year at the hospital. They were interviewed for their demographic characters and relevant clinical profiles. Their charts were simultaneously reviewed for characters related to diabetes and related morbidities. Descriptive statistics was used for most variables and Chi-square test, where necessary, was used to test the association among various variables. P-value of Results Blood glucose determination was done for 98.5% of patients at each of the last three visits, but none ever had glycosylated haemoglobin results. The mean fasting blood sugar (FBS level was 171.7 ± 63.6 mg/dl and 73.1% of patients had mean FBS levels above 130 mg/dl. Over 44% of patients have already been diagnosed to be hypertensive and 64.1% had mean systolic BP of > 130 and/or diastolic > 80 mmHg over the last three visits. Diabetes eye and neurologic evaluations were ever done for 42.9% and 9.4% of patients respectively. About 66% had urine test for albumin, but only 28.2% had renal function testing over the last 5 years. The rates for lipid test, electrocardiography, echocardiography, or ultrasound of the kidneys during the same time were Conclusions The overall aspects of diabetes care at the hospital were far below any recommended standards. Hence, urgent action to improve care for patients with diabetes is mandatory. Future studies examining patterns and prevalence of chronic complications using appropriate parameters is strongly recommended to see the true burden of diabetes.

  7. Work-related stress and associated factors among nurses working in public hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salilih, Selamawit Zewdu; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu

    2014-08-01

    Work-related stress is a pattern of reactions to work demands unmatched to nurses' knowledge, skills, or abilities; these challenges exceed their ability to cope, resulting in burnout, turnover, and low quality patient care. An institution-based cross-sectional study of 343 nurses was conducted in public hospitals of Addis Ababa in 2012. Data were collected by pretested and self-administered questionnaires using a nursing stress scale. One hundred twenty-one (37.8%) (95% confidence interval: 34.3 to 39.1) nurses reported experiencing occupational stress. Significant associations were found between nurses' stress and gender, work shift, illness, marital status, and worksite or unit. Prevalence of work-related stress was higher than expected and opportunities exist for stake holders to design stress reduction and management programs for nurses. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Prevalence of intestinal parasites and associated risk factors among HIV/AIDS patients with pre-ART and on-ART attending dessie hospital ART clinic, Northeast Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missaye, Assefa; Dagnew, Mulat; Alemu, Abebe; Alemu, Agersew

    2013-02-25

    Intestinal parasites are a major concern in most developing countries where HIV/AIDS case are concentrate and almost 80% of AIDS patients die of AIDS-related infections. In the absence of ART, HIV/AIDS patients in developing countries unfortunately continue to suffer from the consequences of opportunistic parasites. But this prevalence has dramatically decreased in countries where antiretroviral agents are widely available. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasite and risk factor among pre- ART and on ART adult HIV/ AIDS patients attending ART clinic in Dessie hospital. A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted among pre-ART and on ART adult HIV/AIDS patients of Dessie Hospital. A total of 272 (136 from each group) study subjects were selected by using systematic random sampling. Stool sample was collected and processed using direct wet mount, formol-ether concentration technique and modified Ziehl-Neelson staining techniques. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on Sociodemographic & associated risk factors. Data was entered and analyzed by using SPSS 16 software and logistic regressions were applied to assess any association between explanatory factors and outcome variables. The overall prevalence of IP in pre-ART and on-ART was 39% and 17.6%, respectively with significant decrease of intestinal parasite in the ART era (p intestinal parasite. The overall prevalence of IP was differ by ART status and opportunistic parasite like cryptosporidium spps were found in low CD4 counts in ART naive patients. This study identified some environmental and some clinical finding as determinant factor for IP infections. Therefore, public health measures and adherence to ART should be strengthened to improve the quality of life of these patients.

  9. Dried Blood Spot Test for HIV Exposed Infants and Children and Their Anti-Retro Viral Treatment Status in Selected Hospitals in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wondafrash, Beyene; Hiko, Desta

    2016-01-01

    Infants and children living with HIV receive antiretroviral treatment often late, are exposed to opportunistic infection and quickly develop AIDS. Few hospitals are providing ART service after Dried Blood Spot (DBS)test.The objective of this study is to assess the status of infants and children linked to ART. Descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in hospitals. Data of 138 infants and children exposed to HIV were collected from registration books and data bases from 2009 to 2011. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Chi-squared test and p-value were computed. In-depth interviews were conducted with key informants. Ninety-eight (71%) infants and children exposed to HIV were diagnosed for HIV infection of which 68(69.4%) initiated ART. Twenty four (35.3%) initiated ART one month after HIV screening results. Thirty-three (50.0%) and 23(35.3%) infants and children dropped from and adhered to ART respectively. Eleven (16.2%) of them who initiated ART died within the study period. HIV infection status (p-value=0.003), dropping from ART (p-value=0.002) and death after ART initiation (p-value=0.010) showed significance with mothers' PMTCT service status. Seven in ten HIV-exposed infants and children were diagnosed with HIV, and almost all of them initiated ART. The overall turnaround time was 10 days. Based up on mothers' PMTCT service status, there was a significant difference among HIV-exposed infants and children in acquiring HIV infection from mothers during pregnancy (p-value=0.003) and dropping from ART (p-value=0.010). There were challenges in sample collection and transportation. Early HIV screening during pregnancy and PMTCT service should be strengthened.

  10. Gender Inequalities in Remote Settings: Analysis of 105,025 Medical Records of a Rural Hospital in Ethiopia (2005-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accorsi, Sandro; Somigliana, Edgardo; Farese, Pasquale; Ademe, Tsegaye; Desta, Yonas; Putoto, Giovanni; Manenti, Fabio

    2017-08-01

    Gender inequalities in Sub-Saharan Africa are deemed relevant but data to support this view are scanty. Retrospective analysis of a large dataset of 105,025 patients admitted to an Ethiopian rural private, non-for-profit hospital over a 11 years period (2005-2015). Since 2001, the hospital and the local community are involved in a long-term, comprehensive and externally-supported health care intervention. The total number of admissions was higher for females (61.9% of the total) mainly because of the high frequency of admissions for obstetrics conditions. The total male-to-female ratio (M:F) was 0.6. Except for malaria, men had more admissions for the other leading causes, with the highest M:F being found for injuries (2.7) and musculoskeletal diseases (1.7). Overall, excluding admissions for pregnancy-related issues, the M:F was 1.4. The frequency of admissions changed with age and gender. Female admissions prevailed in the reproductive age period (from 15 to 44 years of age) while males admissions prevailed in the younger and older age groups. The case fatality rate was higher for men (M:F = 2.0). The total M:F and the M:F excluding pregnancy-related admissions did not change during the study period. Gender inequalities do exist in rural remote setting but tend to affect women differently during their lifespan. Even if gender inequalities generally favor males, the substantial proportion of admissions for pregnancy-related situations is encouraging.

  11. Alcohol dependence and physical comorbidity: Increased prevalence but reduced relevance of individual comorbidities for hospital-based mortality during a 12.5-year observation period in general hospital admissions in urban North-West England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoepf, D; Heun, R

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol dependence (AD) is associated with an increase in physical comorbidities. The effects of these diseases on general hospital-based mortality are unclear. Consequently, we conducted a mortality study in which we investigated if the burden of physical comorbidities and their relevance on general hospital-based mortality differs between individuals with and without AD during a 12.5-year observation period in general hospital admissions. During 1 January 2000 and 30 June 2012, 23,371 individuals with AD were admitted at least once to seven General Manchester Hospitals. Their physical comorbidities with a prevalence≥1% were compared to those of 233,710 randomly selected hospital controls, group-matched for age and gender (regardless of primary admission diagnosis or specialized treatments). Physical comorbidities that increased the risk of hospital-based mortality (but not outside of the hospital) during the observation period were identified using multiple logistic regression analyses. Hospital-based mortality rates were 20.4% in the AD sample and 8.3% in the control sample. Individuals with AD compared to controls had a higher burden of physical comorbidities, i.e. alcoholic liver and pancreatic diseases, diseases of the conducting airways, neurological and circulatory diseases, diseases of the upper gastrointestinal tract, renal diseases, cellulitis, iron deficiency anemia, fracture neck of femur, and peripheral vascular disease. In contrast, coronary heart related diseases, risk factors of cardiovascular disease, diverticular disease and cataracts were less frequent in individuals with AD than in controls. Thirty-two individual physical comorbidities contributed to the prediction of hospital-based mortality in univariate analyses in the AD sample; alcoholic liver disease (33.7%), hypertension (16.9%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (14.1%), and pneumonia (13.3%) were the most frequent diagnoses in deceased individuals with AD. Multiple forward

  12. Alcohol use disorder and associated factors among human immunodeficiency virus infected patients attending antiretroviral therapy clinic at Bishoftu General Hospital, Oromiya region, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultum, Jemal Abdella; Yigzaw, Niguse; Demeke, Wubit; Alemayehu, Mekuriaw

    2018-01-01

    Alcohol consumption among patients with HIV/AIDS increases the burden of the disease. HIV/AIDS is an epidemic among Sub-Saharan African countries. Excessive use of alcohol causes a large degree of health problems, social and economic burden in societies. However, the prevalence and associated factors of alcohol use disorder among this group of people has not been studied very well. Therefore, this study sought to assess the magnitude and associated factors of alcohol use disorder among HIV patients attending the antiretroviral (ART) clinic. A hospital based cross sectional study design was conducted at Bishoftu General Hospital from May to June 2015. Systematic random sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Data was collected by face to face interview and chart review. Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) was used to assess alcohol use disorder. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify associated factors and P-value < 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. A total of 527 participants were enrolled in the study with a response rate of 100%. The prevalence of alcohol use disorder (AUD) was 14.2%. Factors associated with alcohol use disorder were educational status AOR = 8.5 (95%CI: 1.70, 42.99), social support AOR = 0.5(95%CI: 0.26, 0.95), cigarette smoking AOR = 3.49(95%CI: 1.01, 12.13), khat chewing AOR = 5.11 (95% CI: 1.60, 16.33), family history of alcohol use AOR = 3.58 (95% CI: 1.52, 8.47), and missing ART drugs AOR 3.05 (95% CI: 1.302, 7.131). The prevalence of alcohol use disorder was high as compared to similar epidemiological studies. Educational status, social support, cigarette smoking, khat chewing, and family history of alcohol use were independent predictors. Providing health education about alcohol use and proper screening of alcohol use disorder among patients with HIV/AIDS is crucial. Strengthening the referral linkage with the psychiatric unit will decrease the

  13. Common causes of vaginal infections and antibiotic susceptibility of aerobic bacterial isolates in women of reproductive age attending at Felegehiwot Referral Hospital, Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulu, Wondemagegn; Yimer, Mulat; Zenebe, Yohannes; Abera, Bayeh

    2015-05-13

    Bacterial vaginosis, candidal, trichomonal and Gonococcal vaginal infections are a major health problems associated with gynecologic complications and increase in replication, shedding and transmission of HIV and other STIs in women of reproductive age. The study aimed at determining the prevalence of common vaginal infections and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of aerobic bacterial isolates in women of reproductive age, attending Felegehiwot referral Hospital. A hospital based cross sectional study was conducted from May to November, 2013. Simple random sampling technique was used. Demographic variables were collected using a structured questionnaire. Clinical data were collected by physicians. Two vaginal swab specimens were collected from each participant. Wet mount and Gram staining were carried out to identify motile T.vaginalis, budding yeast and clue cells. All vaginal specimens were cultured for aerobic bacterial isolates using standard microbiology methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility was performed using disc diffusion technique as per the standard by Kirby-Bauer method. The results were analyzed using descriptive, chi-square and fisher's exact test as appropriate. A total of 409 women in reproductive age (15 - 49 years) participated in the study. The median age of the women was 28 years. Overall, 63 (15.4 %) of women had vaginal infections. The proportion of vaginal infection was higher in non-pregnant (17.3 %) than pregnant women (13.3 %) (P = 0.002). The most common identified vaginal infections were candidiasis (8.3 %) and bacterial vaginosis (2.8 %) followed by trichomoniasis (2.1 %). The isolation rate of N. gonorrhoeae and group B Streptococcus colonization was 4 (1 %) and 6 (1.2 %), respectively. Bacterial vaginosis was higher in non-pregnant (5.6 %) than pregnant women (0.5 %) (P = 0.002). Religion, age, living in rural area and having lower abdominal pain were significantly associated with bacterial vaginosis and

  14. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Suicidal Ideation and Attempt among People Living with HIV/AIDS at Zewditu Memorial Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etsay Hailu Gebremariam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV/AIDS continues to be an underrecognized risk for suicidal ideation, suicidal attempt, and completion of suicide. Suicidal ideation and attempt in HIV/AIDS is not only a predictor of future attempted suicide and completed suicide. Methods. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among HIV-positive patients attending HIV care at Zewditu Memorial Hospital. Systematic random sampling technique was used to recruit 423 participants from April to May 2014. Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to collect data. Multivariable logistic regression was computed to assess factors associated with suicidal ideation and attempt. Result. Suicidal ideation and suicidal attempt were found to be 22.5% and 13.9%, respectively. WHO clinical stage of HIV, not being on HAART, depression, family history of suicidal attempt, and perceived stigma were associated with suicidal ideation. WHO clinical stage, being female, not being on HAART, use of substance, and depression were associated with suicidal attempt. Conclusion. Early diagnosis and treatment of opportunistic infections, depression, and early initiation of ART need to be encouraged in HIV-positive adults. Furthermore, counseling on substance use and its consequences and early identification of HIV-positive people with family history of suicidal ideation have to be considered.

  15. Self-Reported Adverse Drug Reactions, Medication Adherence, and Clinical Outcomes among Major Depressive Disorder Patients in Ethiopia: A Prospective Hospital Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadesse Melaku Abegaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is paucity of data on prevalence of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs and adherence and clinical outcomes of antidepressants. The present study determined the magnitude of ADRs of antidepressants and their impact on the level of adherence and clinical outcome. Methods. A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted among depression patients from September 2016 to January 2017 at Gondar University Hospital psychiatry clinic. The Naranjo ADR probability scale was employed to assess the ADRs. The rate of medication adherence was determined using Morisky Medication Adherence Measurement Scale-Eight. Results. Two hundred seventeen patients participated in the study, more than half of them being males (122; 56.2%. More than one-half of the subjects had low adherence to their medications (124; 57.1% and about 186 (85.7% of the patients encountered ADR. The most common ADR was weight gain (29; 13.2%. More than one-half (125; 57.6% of the respondents showed improved clinical outcome. Optimal level of medication adherence decreased the likelihood of poor clinical outcome by 56.8%. Conclusion. ADRs were more prevalent. However, adherence to medications was very poor in the setup. Long duration of depression negatively affects the rate of adherence. In addition, adherence was found to influence the clinical outcome of depression patients.

  16. Comparison of anti-retroviral therapy treatment strategies in prevention of mother-to-child transmission in a teaching hospital in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumela, Kabaye; Amenu, Demisew; Chelkeba, Legese

    2015-01-01

    More than 90% of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in children is acquired due to mother-to-child transmission, which is spreading during pregnancy, delivery or breastfeeding. To determine the effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral and short course antiretroviral regimens in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and associated factors Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH). A hospital based retrospective cohort study was conducted on HIV infected pregnant mothers who gave birth and had follow up at anti-retroviral therapy (ART) clinic for at least 6 months during a time period paired with their infants. The primary and secondary outcomes were rate of infant infection by HIV at 6 weeks and 6 months respectively. The Chi-square was used for the comparison of categorical data multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify the determinants of early mother-to-child transmission of HIV at 6 weeks. Cox proportional hazard model was used to analyze factors that affect the 6 month HIV free survival of infants born to HIV infected mothers. A total of 180 mother infant pairs were considered for the final analysis, 90(50%) mothers received single dose nevirapine (sdNVP) designated as regimen-3, 67 (37.2%) mothers were on different types of ARV regimens commonly AZT + 3TC + NVP (regimen-1), while the rest 23 (12.8%) mothers were on short course dual regimen AZT + 3TC + sdNVP (regimen-2). Early mother-to-child transmission rate at 6 weeks for regimens 1, 2 and 3 were 5.9% (4/67), 8.6% (2/23), and 15.5% (14/90) respectively. The late cumulative mother-to-child transmission rate of HIV at 6 months regardless of regimen type was 15.5% (28/180). Postnatal transmission at 6 months was 28.5% (8/28) of infected children. Factors that were found to be associated with high risk of early mother-to-child transmission of HIV include duration of ARV regimen shorter than 2 months during pregnancy (OR=4.3, 95%CI =1.38-13.46), base line CD4 less

  17. Indoor air bacterial load and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of isolates in operating rooms and surgical wards at jimma university specialized hospital, southwest ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genet, Chalachew; Kibru, Gebre; Tsegaye, Wondewosen

    2011-03-01

    Surgical site infection is the second most common health care associated infection. One of the risk factors for such infection is bacterial contamination of operating rooms' and surgical wards' indoor air. In view of that, the microbiological quality of air can be considered as a mirror of the hygienic condition of these rooms. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the bacterial load and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of isolates in operating rooms' and surgical wards' indoor air of Jimma University Specialized Hospital. A cross sectional study was conducted to measure indoor air microbial quality of operating rooms and surgical wards from October to January 2009/2010 on 108 indoor air samples collected in twelve rounds using purposive sampling technique by Settle Plate Method (Passive Air Sampling following 1/1/1 Schedule). Sample processing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were done following standard bacteriological techniques. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 16 and interpreted according to scientifically determined baseline values initially suggested by Fisher. The mean aerobic colony counts obtained in OR-1(46cfu/hr) and OR-2(28cfu/hr) was far beyond the set 5-8cfu/hr acceptable standards for passive room. Similarly the highest mean aerobic colony counts of 465cfu/hr and 461cfu/hr were observed in Female room-1 and room-2 respectively when compared to the acceptable range of 250-450cfu/hr. In this study only 3 isolates of S. pyogenes and 48 isolates of S. aureus were identified. Over 66% of S. aureus was identified in Critical Zone of Operating rooms. All isolates of S. aureus showed 100% and 82.8% resistance to methicillin and ampicillin respectively. Higher degree of aerobic bacterial load was measured from operating rooms' and surgical wards' indoor air. Reducing foot trafficking, improving the ventilation system and routine cleaning has to be made to maintain the aerobic bacteria load with in optimal level.

  18. Hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullins, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The challenge could be briefly seen in these terms: hospitals as places for treatment where there’s a technology focus and hospitals for healing where there’s a human focus. In the 60s - 70s wave of new hospital building, an emphasis on technology can be seen. It’s time to move from the technology...... focus. It is not enough to consider only the factors of function within architecture, hygiene, economy and logistics. We also need to look at aspects of aesthetics, bringing nature into the building, art, color, acoustics, volume and space as we perceive them. Contemporary methods and advances...... placed, accessible, provided with plenty of greenery, and maximize sensory impressions, providing sounds, smells, sight and the possibility to be touched. This is a very well documented area I can say. Hygiene, in terms of architecture can give attention to hand wash facilities and their positioning...

  19. Prevalence and Predictors of Immunological Failure among HIV Patients on HAART in Southern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Yirdaw, Kesetebirhan Delele; Hattingh, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Immunological monitoring is part of the standard of care for patients on antiretroviral treatment. Yet, little is known about the routine implementation of immunological laboratory monitoring and utilization in clinical care in Ethiopia. This study assessed the pattern of immunological monitoring, immunological response, level of immunological treatment failure and factors related to it among patients on antiretroviral therapy in selected hospitals in southern Ethiopia. A retrospective longit...

  20. Made in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staritz, Cornelia; Whitfield, Lindsay

    exporting apparel, which makes Ethiopia distinct from most other Sub-Saharan African apparel exporter countries. Ethiopian-owned apparel firms exhibit diverse ownership patterns, including state-owned, party-owned, and private sector-owned firms. The first phase of industrial policy particularly focused...... of the emergence and evolution of the apparel export sector in Ethiopia. It argues that the EPRDF government’s pro-active industrial policy played an important role in the development of the sector. While foreign firms are an important driver behind the growth of apparel exports, there are also locally owned firms...... on exports, the EPRDF government simultaneously has pursued import-substitution policies in the textile and apparel sector, which has helped the development of locally owned apparel firms by subsidizing the cost of learning to export as well as building a national supply chain from cotton to textile...

  1. Decentralization in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Gemechu, Mulugeta Debebbe

    2012-01-01

    Ethiopia officially launched the District Level Decentralization Program (DLDP) by the year 2002. The program flagged core objectives such as institutionalizing viable development centers at local levels, deepening devolution of power, enhancing the democratization process through broad-based participatory strategy, promoting good governance and improving service delivery. Since the inception of this program two strategic planning terms (one strategic term is five years) have already elapsed ...

  2. Policy Brief for Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Agaje Tadele F.; Tarfasa Solomon; Kebede Shiferaw

    2015-01-01

    In the early 1990s the Government of Ethiopia introduced an agriculture based development strategy known as Agricultural Development Led Industrialization (ADLI). The basis for adoption of this strategy is the conviction in strategic importance and centrality of the agricultural sector for the overall economy and the advantage in using the abundant resources of land and labour while progressively increasing capital share in the resource endowment.

  3. Population dynamics of rural Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bariabagar, H

    1978-01-01

    2 rounds of the national sample surveys, conducted by the central statistical office of Ethiopia during 1964-1967 and 1969-1971, provide the only comprehensive demographic data for the country and are the basis for this discussion of rural Ethiopia's population dynamics. The population of Ethiopia is predominantly rural. Agglomerations of 2000 and over inhabitants constitute about 14% of the population, and this indicates that Ethiopia has a low level of urbanization. In rural Ethiopia, international migration was negligent in the 1970's and the age structure can be assumed to be the results of past trends of fertility and mortality conditions. The reported crude birthrate (38.2), crude death rate (12.3) and infant mortality rate (90) of rural Ethiopia fall short of the averages for African countries. Prospects of population growth of rural Ethiopia would be immense. At the rate of natural increase of between 2.4 and 3.0% per annum, the population would double in 24-29 years. Regarding population issues, the programs of the National Democratic Revolution of Ethiopia faces the following main challenging problems: 1) carrying out national population censuses in order to obtain basic information for socialist planning; 2) minimizing or curtailing the existing high urban growth rates; 3) reducing rapidly growing population; and 5) mobilizing Ethiopian women to participate in the social, economic and political life of the country in order to create favorable conditions for future fertility reduction.

  4. Bacterial profile and drug susceptibility pattern of urinary tract infection in pregnant women at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, Addisu; Asrat, Daniel; Woldeamanuel, Yimtubezinash; G/Hiwot, Yirgu; Abdella, Ahmed; Melesse, Tadele

    2008-07-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common complication of pregnancy. It may be symptomatic or asymptomatic. The aim of this cross sectional study was to identify bacterial agents and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern isolated from pregnant women with UTI attending antenatal clinic of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital (TASH). Four hundred and fourteen pregnant women with asymptomatic UTI (n = 369) and symptomatic UTI (n = 45) were investigated for urinary tract infection from January to March 2005. The age range of both groups was 18 to 44 years. Bacteriological screening of mid-stream urine specimens revealed that 39/369 (10.6%) and 9/45 (20%) had significant bacteriuria in asymptomatic and symptomatic group, respectively (p = 0.10). The overall prevalence of urinary tract infection was 48/414 (11.6%). The bacterial pathogens isolated were predominantly E. coil (44%), followed by S. aureus (20%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (16%), and K. pneumoniae (8%). Others found in small in number included P. mirabilis, P. aeruginosa, Enterococcus spp. and non-Group A-beta hemolytic Streptococcus, this accounted 2% for each. The gram positive and negative bacteria accounted 40% and 60% respectively. The susceptibility pattern for gram-negative bacteria showed that most of the isolates (> 65% of the strains) were sensitive to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (70%), chloramphenicol (83.3%), gentamicin (93.3%), kanamycin (93.3%), nitrofurantoin (87.7%) and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (73.3%). Among the gram-positives, more than 60% of the isolates were sensitive to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (100%), cephalothin (95%), chloramphenicol (70%), erythromycin (80%), gentamicin (85%), methicillin (83.3%), nitrofurantoin (100%) and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (65%). Generally, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole were effective at least in 70% of the isolates. Multiple drug resistance (resistance two or

  5. Magnitude of dyslipedemia and its association with micro and macro vascular complications in type 2 diabetes: a hospital based study from Bikaner (Northwest India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, R P; Sharma, Poornima; Pal, Mahender; Kochar, A; Kochar, D K

    2006-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes is not only associated with hyperglycemia but also with disorders of lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of dyslipedemia with micro and macro vascular complications of diabetes. Population based cross sectional study included 4067 diabetic patients who visited hospital during January 2000 to December 2002. Lipid profile was estimated by semi autoanalyser, Retinopathy was assessed by fundoscopy, Nephropathy by microalbuminurea, coronary artery disease (CAD) by electro cardiogram (ECG) changes, peripheral vascular disease (PVD) by doppler study and neuropathy by clinical examinations. The association of dyslipedemia with micro and macro vascular complications was assessed by regression analysis. The prevalence of dyslipedemia is high in diabetic population with high serum cholesterol >240mg/dl was seen in 15%, serum triglycerides >160mg/dl was seen in 42.41%, raised LDL >130mg/dl in 45.26%, VLDL >40mg/dl in 24.09% and low levels of HDL-C <40mg/dl were seen in 52.27%. On regression analysis, CAD had strong correlation with high levels of VLDL (0.76), triglycerides (0.82), LDL (0.23) and low HDL (-0.81). Similar association was seen with PVD. Diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy were found to have significant correlation with low HDL (-0.43) and raised LDL (0.37), respectively. Neuropathy was not found to have any significant correlation with lipid profile abnormalities. Lipid profile abnormalities are very common in type 2 diabetes and it has great influence on CAD and PVD. Hence, appropriate preventive and treatment strategies should be considered timely.

  6. Experiences with smallpox eradication in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quadros, Ciro A

    2011-12-30

    The smallpox eradication campaign operated in Ethiopia from 1970 until 1977. During this time Ethiopia had only 84 hospitals, 64 health centres and fewer than 400 physicians in a country of 25 million people. In 1970 smallpox vaccination was relatively unknown in the country, and the government actually contested the fact that smallpox was present in the country. Most of the resources of the Ministry of Health were used for malaria eradication. Initial pessimism from the Ministry of Health and others was eventually overcome as the smallpox eradication campaign continued to pick up steam but many remained unenthusiastic. Ethiopia was the first country in the world to start its smallpox eradication campaign from day one with the strategy of "Surveillance and Containment". Establishing a surveillance system in a country with a limited health infrastructure was a daunting challenge. At the end of the first year of the programme in 1971, 26,000 cases of smallpox had been registered through the growing surveillance system. Throughout revolution of 1974 the smallpox campaign was the only UN program to operate in the country; in fact it expanded with the hire of many locals leading to a "nationalized" program. This development ushered in the most successful final phase of the program. As the program progressed cases were diminishing in most regions, however transmission continued in the Ogaden desert. Over the course of the campaign approximately 14.3 million US dollars was spent. Working conditions were extremely challenging and a variety of chiefs, guerrillas, landowners and governments had to be appeased. The programme was successful due to the dedicated national and international staff on the ground and by having the full support of the WHO HQ in Geneva. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Determinant of Poverty in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    preferred customer

    a logistic regression model to identify determinants of wellbeing of the household ... interest of researchers, public authorities and international organizations. The ... have to understand the determinants of poverty in rural and urban Ethiopia.

  8. ---Stock Market Devpt in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jetu_E_Ch

    The term stock can be defined as “the capital or principal fund raised by a corporation .... 20 Tiruneh Legesse (2012), “Establishing Financial Markets in Ethiopia: the .... improve accounting and auditing standards, provide effective tools for.

  9. Building emergency medicine in Ethiopia | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-09-05

    Sep 5, 2014 ... Ethiopia faces a critical gap in emergency medical care. ... Dr Biruk Germa, Senior Emergency Medicine Resident at Addis Ababa University, also ... The issue Inaccessibility to veterinary services in Ethiopia's livestock sector.

  10. Analysis of Seed Potato Systems in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirpa, A.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Tesfaye, A.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Tsegaye, A.; Struik, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the seed potato systems in Ethiopia, identify constraints and prioritize improvement options, combining desk research, rapid appraisal and formal surveys, expert elicitation, field observations and local knowledge. In Ethiopia, informal, alternative and formal seed

  11. Alemayehu Yismaw Demamu Abstract Ethiopia overhauled its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Ethiopia overhauled its arbitration laws with the enactment of the Civil Code and .... 2 United Nations Commission on International Trade Law, UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial ...... investment agreement between Ethiopia and Great Britain and Northern Ireland under Article 8, Ethiopia and.

  12. Astronomy in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Legesse W.

    2002-02-01

    There is a recent history of astronomical observations and space-related activities in Ethiopia, even though much of it is now abandoned. However, the proximity of the country to the equator, its extensive high plateaux which rise over 4,600 meters above sea level, as well as the dry weather conditions persistent in most of the regions in the country, make it one of the very few places in the world which can provide optimum sites for high-quality astronomical observations. Currently, an effort is being made to initiate basic space science education and research in the country. This is an effort of the Working Group in Space Sciences in Africa supported by the UNESCO Pilot African Academic Exchange (UPAAE) program, which pays the expenses for the training of academics at the facilities of the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) in Cape Town, South Africa.

  13. The Northwest Passage Dispute

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Danita Catherine

    2018-01-01

    This is an article written for the Oxford Research Group "Sustainable Security" series. It gives an overview of the dispute of the Northwest Passage and discusses factors which will contribute to the evolution of the dispute in the 21st century. This short contribution summarizes and adds to the ...... to the research recently published by the author through Palgrave Macmillan, Danita Catherine Burke, 2018, International Disputes and Cultural Ideas in the Canadian Arctic...

  14. Participatory forest management in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yietagesu, Aklilu Ameha; Larsen, Helle Overgaard; Lemenih, Mulugeta

    2014-01-01

    Different arrangements of decentralized forest management have been promoted as alternatives to centralized and top down approaches to halt tropical deforestation and forest degradation. Ethiopia is one of the countries piloting one of these approaches. To inform future programs and projects...... it is essential to learn from existing pilots and experiences. This paper analyses five of the pilot participatory forest management (PFM) programs undertaken in Ethiopia. The study is based on the Forest User Group (FUG) members’ analyses of the programs using selected outcome variables: forest income, change...

  15. Pelvic Organ Prolapse in Jimma University Specialized Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pelvic Organ Prolapse in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia. ... and there was a significant association between prolapse and residence area. ... Awareness creation on risk factors of pelvic organ prolapse and use of ...

  16. COFFEE GROWING AREAS OF ETHIOPIA"

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    accelerated economic growth, part of which is hoped to be achieved via increased ... at the Fifth International Conference on the Ethiopian Economy held at the United ... Samuel and Ludi: Agricultural commercialisation in coffee growing areas. ... Ethiopia produces and exports one of the best fighland coffees in the world.

  17. ERITREA-ETHIOPIA ARBITRATION: Introduction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SeyoumYT

    basis at the Institute for Peace and Security Studies. The author's ...... Nations, Araya Desta wrote to the President of the Security Council that. Ethiopia ... intervene in the Ethio-Eritrean conflict”, and that “[i]t is in the best interest of the AU (as ...

  18. Wind energy survey in Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolde-Ghiorgis, W.

    1988-01-01

    The results are presented of a wind energy survey made for one country in Eastern Africa (Ethiopia) using mean wind speed data obtained from meteorological observations. The paper also presents reasons for expecting the calculated energy estimates to be potentially useful around most of the sites considered in the study.

  19. Ethiopia: A Democratic Developmental State?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fesseha Mulu Gebremariam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The ruling Ethiopia People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF in its notable second reform appraisal held in the aftermath of the 2005 national election concluded that the utmost priority of the government should be realizing fastest and sustainable economic growth that fairly benefits its citizens’ unless the very existence of the country wouldn’t be guaranteed. Given the history of poverty reduction in developing countries, particularly in Africa, EPRDF realized that it is unthinkable to eradicate poverty from Ethiopia adopting neo-liberalism. Above all, the miraculous economic transformation of the South East Asian countries like South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Hong Kong has proved that there is another way to development, not just neo-liberalism. Accordingly, EPRDF, after examining South Korea’s and Taiwan’s history of economic development in particular where both countries have had a large section of rural population unlike Hong Kong and Singapore where both are urban, found ‘developmental state’ relevant to Ethiopia. However, unlike these countries which were originally under non-democratic regimes where their leaders fear the rural peasant and external aggression from their communist rivals, EPRDF has had a great support of rural and urban population with no imminent foreign threat(s, and decided to execute the ideology rather under the umbrella of democracy. Therefore, employing secondary sources, this desk study aims to analyze whether Ethiopia is a ‘democratic developmental state?’ And, concludes that given the practices of the government vis-a-vis the principles of democracy and developmental state, Ethiopia couldn’t be taken as best model for democratic developmental state, rather emerging developmental state.

  20. Child injuries in Ethiopia: A review of the current situation with projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingfeng; Alonge, Olakunle; Lawhorn, Collene; Ambaw, Yirga; Kumar, Smita; Jacobs, Troy; Hyder, Adnan A

    2018-01-01

    Heavy burden of child injuries and lack of policy response in Ethiopia call for an improved understanding of the situation and development of action plans from multiple governmental agencies and stakeholders. A consortium of international and Ethiopian researchers and stakeholders used extensive literature review and mixed analytical methods to estimate and project the burden of fatal and non-fatal child unintentional injuries in Ethiopia from 2015 to 2030. Estimates were derived for children aged 0-14 years. Data sources include a longitudinal study conducted by the Central Statistics Agency of Ethiopia and the World Bank as well as model-based estimates from World Health Organization 2017 and Global Burden of Disease 2016 project. Injuries caused about 25 thousand deaths among 0-14-year olds in Ethiopia in 2015. The leading cause of fatal child unintentional injuries in Ethiopia was road-traffic injuries, followed by fire, heat and hot substances and drowning. The death rate due to injuries among 0-14 years olds was about 50 percent higher in males than females. Rural children were exposed to a greater risk of injury than their urban peers. The longitudinal survey suggests that the incidence rate of child injuries increased during the period 2011-2014. The annual mortality caused by injuries is projected to increase from 10,697 in 2015 to 11,279 in 2020 and 11,989 in 2030 among children under 5 years, an increase of 12 percentage points in 15 years. The number of deaths among 0-14-year olds will be 26,463, 27,807, and 30,364 respectively in 2015, 2020, and 2030. As the first multisectoral collaboration on child injuries in Ethiopia, this study identified gaps in understanding of the burden of child injuries in Ethiopia. In consultation with Ethiopian government and other stakeholders, we propose starting an injury surveillance system at health clinics and hospitals and building an intervention package based on existing platforms.

  1. Transfer of Knowledge in Muslim Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez-Lopez, Adday

    2018-01-01

    Muslims in Ethiopia represent a considerable part of the total population, but until recently, their literary tradition and their cultural heritage have remained understudied. The present article aims to shed light on the Islamic manuscript tradition in Ethiopia in the late Nineteenth and early...... Twentieth century by focusing on the codices owned by šayḫ Ḥabīb, a renowned scholar and respected walī from Wallo, in northeastern Ethiopia....

  2. Modeling Outcomes of First-Line Antiretroviral Therapy and Rate of CD4 Counts Change among a Cohort of HIV/AIDS Patients in Ethiopia: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadesse Awoke

    Full Text Available Antiretroviral therapy has shown to be effective in reducing morbidity and mortality in patients infected with HIV for the past couples of decades. However, there remains a need to better understand the characteristics of long-term treatment outcomes in resource poor settings. The main aim of this study was to determine and compare the long-term response of patients on nevirapine and efavirenz based first line antiretroviral therapy regimen in Ethiopia.Hospital based retrospective cohort study was conducted from January 2009 to December 2013 at University hospital located in Northwest Ethiopia. Human subject research approval for this study was received from University of Gondar Research Ethics Committee and the medical director of the hospital. Cox-proportional hazards model was used to assess the effect of baseline covariates on composite outcome and a semi-parametric mixed effect model was used to investigate CD4 counts response to treatments.A total of 2386 HIV/AIDS naive patients were included in this study. Nearly one-in-four patients experienced the events, of which death, lost to follow up, treatment substitution and discontinuation of Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors(NNRTI accounted: 99 (26.8%, 122 (33.0%, 137 (37.0% and 12 (3.2%, respectively. The hazard of composite outcome on nevirapine compared with efavirenz was 1.02(95%CI: 0.52-1.99 with p-value = 0.96. Similarly, the hazard of composite outcome on tenofovir and stavudine compared with zidovudine were 1.87 (95%CI: 1.52-2.32, p-value < 0.0001 and 1.72(95% CI: 1.22-2.32, p-value = 0.002, respectively. The rate of CD4 increase in response to treatment was high during the first 10 months and stabilized later.This study revealed that treatment responses were comparable whether nevirapine or efavirenz was chosen to initiate antiretroviral therapy for HIV/AIDS patients in Ethiopia. There was significant difference on risk of composite outcome between patients who were

  3. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2017-11-01

    Nov 1, 2017 ... HIV Sero-negative Pregnant Women at St. Paul's Hospital. Millennium Medical .... Although a single study which determines .... tests during laboratory work. ... and 97.3% (n=390) were married. ..... changes and fluid retention.

  4. Agony in the Northwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labella, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    A public power crisis in the Pacific Northwest arose over plans to build five nuclear power plants. This review traces the decisions made by the 23 members of the Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS), the Bonneville Power Administration, and 115 other utilities and industrial users, rural cooperatives, and investor-owned utilities during the planning and construction stages to the decision to terminate three plants. The effects of political action committees working for referenda to stop bond issues, suits by rate payers and cooperatives, and other financial problems led to the decision to mothball two units and halt construction of a third, which led to the loss of 6000 construction jobs. Work continues at one site at record levels. The region must submit a cost-effective conservation and renewable resource plan next year that will help to clarify the future of nuclear plants in the affected states

  5. Climate change adaptation in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weldegebriel, Zerihun Berhane; Prowse, Martin

    Ethiopia is vulnerable to climate change due to its limited development and dependence on agriculture. Social protection schemes like the Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP) can play a positive role in promoting livelihoods and enhancing households’ risk management. This article examines......, they suggest the PSNP may not be helping smallholders diversify income sources in a positive manner for climate adaptation. The article concludes by arguing for further investigation of the PSNP’s influence on smallholders’ adaptation strategies....

  6. Climate Change, Growth, and Poverty in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    intergration Tests 8 Empirical Strategy 8 Discussion of Estimation Results 9 Climate Change and Economic Growth...production and marketing (Parry, 2007; Barrios et al , 2004), the impact of which can easily be transmitted to Ethiopia through trade channels with...Ethiopia and other developing countries to depend particularly on expensive cereal imports, worsening the trade balance in these countries However

  7. Dynamics of Poverty and Wellbeing in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optiplex 7010 Pro

    of the Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia and the World Bank's Living. Standards ... Panel data also offers significant value in reducing potential bias from confounding ... For these reasons, panel data can play a large role in helping the researcher, .... ESS data but adds to the literature on wellbeing dynamics in Ethiopia.

  8. Agricultural Co-Operatives in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tefera, Delelegne A.; Bijman, Jos; Slingerland, Maja A.

    2017-01-01

    To what extent can co-operatives strengthen rural development in sub-Saharan Africa? This paper explores the development of agricultural co-operatives in Ethiopia, particularly the changes in economic functions. Co-operative development in Ethiopia has been strongly influenced by various political

  9. tive conflict resolution mechanism in eastern Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eastern Ethiopia: The case of the Ittu ... The study was conducted in eastern Ethiopia where the Somali and ... Zigale Tamir Tenaw is assistant professor in the Department of Gender and Development ..... regional state in collaboration with the local people – aggravate the already ..... Resource Based Conflict Network,.

  10. FRANKINCENSE AND MYRRH RESOURCES OF ETHIOPIA: II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Feature article. FRANKINCENSE AND MYRRH RESOURCES OF ETHIOPIA: II. MEDICINAL AND INDUSTRIAL USES. Mulugeta Lemenih1 and Demel Teketay2. 1 Wondo Genet College of Forestry, PO Box, 128 Shashemene, Ethiopia. E-mail: wgcf@telecom.net.et. 2 Ethiopian Agricultural Research Organization, PO Box ...

  11. Meat Consumption Culture in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Cheorun

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of animal flesh food in Ethiopia has associated with cultural practices. Meat plays pivotal and vital parts in special occasions and its cultural symbolic weight is markedly greater than that accorded to most other food. Processing and cooking of poultry is a gender based duty and has socio-cultural roles. Ethiopians are dependent on limited types of animals for meats due to the taboo associated culturally. Moreover, the consumption of meat and meat products has a very tidy association with religious beliefs, and are influenced by religions. The main religions of Ethiopia have their own peculiar doctrines of setting the feeding habits and customs of their followers. They influence meat products consumption through dictating the source animals that should be used or not be used for food, and scheduling the days of the years in periodical permeation and restriction of consumptions which in turn influences the pattern of meat consumption in the country. In Ethiopia, a cow or an ox is commonly butchered for the sole purpose of selling within the community. In special occasions, people have a cultural ceremony of slaughtering cow or ox and sharing among the group, called Kircha, which is a very common option of the people in rural area where access of meat is challenging frequently. PMID:26760739

  12. Global warming: A Northwest perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, M.J.; Counts, C.A. (eds.)

    1990-02-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council convened a symposium in Olympia, Washington, on the subject of global climate change ( the greenhouse effect'') and its potential for affecting the Pacific Northwest. The symposium was organized in response to a need by the Power Council to understand global climate change and its potential impacts on resource planning and fish and wildlife planning for the region, as well as a need to understand national policy developing toward climate change and the Pacific Northwest's role in it. 40 figs., 15 tabs.

  13. User fees and maternity services in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Luwei; Gandhi, Meena; Admasu, Keseteberhan; Keyes, Emily B

    2011-12-01

    To examine user fees for maternity services and how they relate to provision, quality, and use of maternity services in Ethiopia. The national assessment of emergency obstetric and newborn care (EmONC) examined user fees for maternity services in 751 health facilities that provided childbirth services in 2008. Overall, only about 6.6% of women gave birth in health facilities. Among facilities that provided delivery care, 68% charged a fee in cash or kind for normal delivery. Health centers should be providing maternity services free of charge (the healthcare financing proclamation), yet 65% still charge for some aspect of care, including drugs and supplies. The average cost for normal and cesarean delivery was US $7.70 and US $51.80, respectively. Nineteen percent of these facilities required payment in advance for treatment of an obstetric emergency. The health facilities that charged user fees had, on average, more delivery beds, deliveries (normal and cesarean), direct obstetric complications treated, and a higher ratio of skilled birth attendants per 1000 deliveries than those that did not charge. The case fatality rate was 3.8% and 7.1% in hospitals that did and did not charge user fees, respectively. Utilization of maternal health services is extremely low in Ethiopia and, although there is a government decree against charging for maternity service, 65% of health centers do charge for some aspects of maternal care. As health facilities are not reimbursed by the government for the costs of maternity services, this loss of revenue may account for the more and better services offered in facilities that continue to charge user fees. User fees are not the only factor that determines utilization in settings where the coverage of maternity services is extremely low. Additional factors include other out-of-pocket payments such as cost of transport and food and lodging for accompanying relatives. It is important to keep quality of care in mind when user fees are under

  14. Implementing Forest Landscape Restorationin Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till Pistorius

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Driven by various initiatives and international policy processes, the concept of Forest Landscape Restoration, is globally receiving renewed attention. It is seen internationally and in national contexts as a means for improving resilience of land and communities in the face of increasing environmental degradation through different forest activities. Ethiopia has made a strong voluntary commitment in the context of the Bonn Challenge—it seeks to implement Forest Landscape Restoration (FLR on 15 million ha. In the context of rural Ethiopia, forest establishment and restoration provide a promising approach to reverse the widespread land degradation, which is exacerbated by climate change and food insecurity. This paper presents an empirical case study of FLR opportunities in the Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia’s largest spans of degraded and barren lands. Following the Restoration Opportunity Assessment Methodology, the study categorizes the main types of landscapes requiring restoration, identifies and prioritizes respective FLR options, and details the costs and benefits associated with each of the five most significant opportunities: medium to large‐scale afforestation and reforestation activities on deforested or degraded marginal land not suitable for agriculture, the introduction of participatory forest management, sustainable woodland management combined with value chain investments, restoration of afro‐alpine and sub‐afro‐alpine areas and the establishment of woodlots.

  15. FRANKINCENSE AND MYRRH RESOURCES OF ETHIOPIA: I ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    the top export articles of Ethiopia where their export alone ... accelerate economic development in these marginal lands. .... consequences in making identification of source species ...... Ethiopian M.Sc. in Forestry Prgoramme thesis works.

  16. ETHIOPIA'S ACCESSION TO THE WORLD TRADE ORGANISATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    which could be relevant to Ethiopia to devise successful strategies and avoid ... Acronyms. GATS General Agreement on Trade in Services .... services; v. preparation of indigenous traditional medicines; vi. ..... Tourism/ travel services. 66.73.

  17. Public Consultation toward Ethiopia's Family Law Reform ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mandefrot Belay

    A comprehensive and open public consultation was conducted during the revision ... in Ethiopia which are expected to guide any legal reform process so that the ... law, the way in which public consultation forums were organized, and the ...

  18. Agricultural biotechnology research and development in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-29

    Dec 29, 2009 ... Review. Agricultural biotechnology research and development in Ethiopia ... seed micropropagation, virus-cleaning ongoing, good progress. Garlic meristem ... large quantities of disease-free planting materials in short time.

  19. URBANIZATION AND FERTILITY RATES IN ETHIOPIA1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eyerusalem

    Survey (2010) data suggest that Ethiopia not only has one of the largest fertility rates .... Asian countries where the rural-urban fertility differentials were smaller and more ...... Sibanda, A., Z. Woubalem, D. P. Hogan, and D. P. Lindstrom. 2003.

  20. Unconstitutional constitutional amendments in Ethiopia: the practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haramaya Law Review ... The Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (FDRE) under Article 104 and 105 sets ... that sets procedures to be observed in the process of constitutional amendments: both initiation and approval.

  1. Ethnic federalism and conflict in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of identity, language and religion that the existing social realities might not ..... maintains a strict system of controls over digital media, making Ethiopia ...... Yemen. Appendix 2: The nine regional states and the two chartered cities (Addis Ababa ...

  2. Child malnutrition in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulugeta, A.; Hagos, F.; Kruseman, G.; Linderhof, V.G.M.; Stroecker, B.; Abraha, Z.; Yohannes, M.; Samuel, G.G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Estimate levels of and identify factors contributing to child malnutrition in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Rural communities from four zones of Tigray. Subjects: Three hundred and eighteen under five children representing 587 randomly selected

  3. Effectiveness of a multimodal hand hygiene campaign and obstacles to success in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitz, Karen; Kempker, Russell R; Tenna, Admasu; Stenehjem, Edward; Abebe, Engida; Tadesse, Lia; Jirru, Ermias Kacha; Blumberg, Henry M

    2014-01-01

    Background Hand hygiene is the cornerstone of infection control and reduces rates of healthcare associated infection. There are limited data evaluating hand hygiene adherence and hand hygiene campaign effect in resource-limited settings, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study assessed the impact of implementing a World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended multimodal hand hygiene campaign at a hospital in Ethiopia. Methods This study included a before-and-after assessment of health care...

  4. Stigma in Ethiopia: association with depressive symptoms in people with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endeshaw, Meheret; Walson, Judd; Rawlins, Sarah; Dessie, Abere; Alemu, Shitaye; Andrews, Nancy; Rao, Deepa

    2014-01-01

    Rates of depression among people living with HIV can be as high as 50%. In many settings, HIV-related stigma has been associated with depressive symptoms which may lead to poor engagement in care and ultimately, poorer health outcomes. Stigma is a major issue in Ethiopia but data examining the relationship between stigma and depression in Ethiopia are lacking. We performed a mixed-methods cross-sectional study to examine the relationship between stigma of HIV/AIDS and depressive symptoms in Gondar, Ethiopia. We interviewed patients who presented for routine HIV care at Gondar University Hospital during the study period, examining depressive symptoms and HIV/AIDS-related stigma using standardized measures. Multiple-regression was used to assess the relationship between depressive symptoms, stigma, and gender. Of 55 patients included in this analysis, 63.6% were female and most participants had limited formal education (69%, less than 12th grade education). The majority reported experiencing both stigma (78%) and depressive symptoms (60%) ranging in severity from mild to moderately severe. Higher levels of HIV-related stigma were significantly associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms (β = 0.464, p ≤ 0.001). Although gender was associated with stigma, it was not associated with depressive symptoms (β = -0.027, p > 0.05). Results suggest the importance of psychosocial issues in the lives of people with HIV in Ethiopia.

  5. Irradiation of Northwest agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eakin, D.E.; Tingey, G.L.; Anderson, D.B.; Hungate, F.P.

    1985-01-01

    Irradiation of food for disinfestation and preservation is increasing in importance because of increasing resrictions on various chemical treatments. Irradiation treatment is of particular interest in the Northwest because of a growing supply of agricultural products and the need to develop new export markets. Several products have, or could potentially have, significant export markets if stringent insect control procedures are developed and followed. Due to the recognized potential benefits of irradiation, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting this program to evaluate the benefits of using irradiation on Northwest agricultural products under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Defense Byproducts Production and Utilization Program. Commodities currently included in the program are cherries, apples, asparagus, spices, hay, and hides

  6. Irradiation of Northwest agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eakin, D.E.; Tingey, G.L.

    1985-02-01

    Irradiation of food for disinfestation and preservation is increasing in importance because of increasing restrictions on various chemical treatments. Irradiation treatment is of particular interest in the Northwest because of a growing supply of agricultural products and the need to develop new export markets. Several products have, or could potentially have, significant export markets if stringent insect control procedures are developed and followed. Due to the recognized potential benefits of irradiation, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting this program to evaluate the benefits of using irradiation on Northwest agricultural products under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Defense Byproducts Production and Utilization Program. Commodities currently included in the program are cherries, apples, asparagus, spices, hay, and hides

  7. Some structural aspects of urbanization in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, M; Hailemariam, A

    1987-07-01

    This article studies the emerging patterns of urbanization in Ethiopia. Over the period from 1967-1984, a number of structural changes have occurred which are likely to play a dominant role in the future urban growth in Ethiopia. In spite of its long history of settled population, Ethiopia did not witness sustained growth of urban centers. Ethiopia is 1 of the least urbanized areas in the Third World. A 3rd aspect of urbanization in Ethiopia is the wide range of regional differentials in the level of urbanization. Most of the urban population is concentrated in 2 administrative regions--Shoa and Eritrea. A more balanced urban growth may, inter alia, involve a better spread in terms of higher education, industrialization, provision of health and social services, and the development of communication and commercial infrastructure. Another striking feature of urbanization in Ethiopia is that growth has not been disproportionately concentrated in the largest urban centers. The largest urban centers have not assumed an inordinately higher level of primacy. The basic form of the curve depicting the relationship between the size of a locality and its rank has remained unchanged over the period. The post-revolution land reforms and the new socioeconomic structure emerging from reorganization of the society appear to have a rural-urban migration inhibiting effect. Some of the country's regional differentials may be associated with environmental factors.

  8. Project Title: Partnering to establish emergency medicine in Ethiopia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-03-31

    Mar 31, 2014 ... current graduate working in. Ethiopia). Procedures ..... majority (62.6%) of deaths occurred within 48 hours of admission to the emergency department. ..... encourage graduates to pursue careers within Ethiopia. Conclusion: A ...

  9. The State of Competition and the Competition Regime of Ethiopia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-08-14

    Ethiopia has made progress toward market-oriented economic management, but the state of domestic competition remains weak, ... These policies are still in place in Ethiopia, even though they clash with market principles. ... August 14, 2015 ...

  10. Smartphone app is improving sustainable cattle farming in Ethiopia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-01-26

    Jan 26, 2018 ... Inaccessibility to veterinary services in Ethiopia's livestock sector ... of Ethiopia's gross domestic product — and directly contribute to the livelihoods of ... applications of digital technologies to address development challenges.

  11. Assessment of alcohol advertising practices in Ethiopia | Negussie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of alcohol advertising practices in Ethiopia. ... Abstract. Background: Alcohol advertising should be prepared with an appropriate sense of responsibility to the consumer public. In Ethiopia ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  12. Case studies of Teff, Wheat and Rice in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RahelYilma

    Brazil, Behrman and Birdshall estimate a much lower social return to expanding ... higher teacher salaries and greater school length- enhance educational outcomes. 3. Methods ...... Poverty Profile of Ethiopia, March, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

  13. Accessibility Inequality to Basic Education in Amhara Region, Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    educational services in Amhara region of Ethiopia in terms of availability and accessibility ... Dept. of Geography Bahir Dar University Bahir Dar, Ethiopia ... and very high students / teacher ratio. .... facilities to train their children (Hanmer et ...

  14. All projects related to Ethiopia | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A comparative study of child marriage and parenthood in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Zambia. Project. The aim of this project is to enhance the understanding of the complexities of ... Entrepreneurship and small business development in Ethiopia.

  15. The new innovative medical education system in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Background: A New Innovative Medical Education Initiative (NIMEI) had been launched in Ethiopia in February ... development as well as for the overall health system of the country. .... A national survey was conducted in all regions of Ethiopia.

  16. All projects related to ethiopia | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Program: Agriculture and Food Security. Total Funding: ... Region: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, China, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, Uganda. Program: ... Region: Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Sudan, Tanzania, North of Sahara, South of Sahara.

  17. All projects related to Ethiopia | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, China, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, ... exacerbated by widespread poverty and dependence on rainfed agriculture. ... Region: Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Sudan, Tanzania, North of Sahara, South of Sahara.

  18. A review of maternal mortality at Jimma Hospital, Southwestern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective review of hospital maternal deaths at Jimma Hospital, Southwestern Ethiopia, covering the period from September 1990 to May 1999 was conducted with the objectives of determining the overall maternal mortality rate, observing trend of maternal mortality during the period, and identifying major causes of ...

  19. Stigma against Tuberculosis Patients in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebsibe Tadesse

    Full Text Available Stigma attached to tuberculosis contributes to the limited effectiveness of current TB control approaches. However, there is a dearth of studies that explore the causes of stigma attached to tuberculosis and its effects on patients and tuberculosis control programs in Ethiopia.An institution-based qualitative study was conducted at St. Peter Tuberculosis Specialized Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from July to August, 2015. Ten in-depth interviews and 6 key-informant interviews were carried out among tuberculosis patients and healthcare workers, respectively.The Open Code computer software package was used to analyze the data thematically.The study revealed that fear of infection and inappropriate health education messages by media were the main causes of tuberculosis stigma. The patients experienced isolation within their family and community, separation, and financial crisis. The stigma attached to tuberculosis may contribute to delayed healthcare seeking, poor treatment adherence, and poor prognosis.Interventions that reduce the stigma attached to tuberculosis should target on areas, such as creating community awareness, patient counseling on problem-solving and emotional skills, preparing culturally sensitive and scientifically sound media messages, providing financial support for the patients, and enhancing the qualities of the healthcare workers, such as empathy, concern, respect for the patient and cultural sensitivity.

  20. Awareness and determinants of family planning practice in Jimma, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekle, A T; McCabe, C

    2006-12-01

    The continuing growth of the world population has become an urgent global problem. Ethiopia, like most countries in sub-Saharan Africa, is experiencing rapid population growth. Currently, the country's population is growing at a rate of 3%, one of the highest rates in the world and if it continues unabated, the population will have doubled in 23 years, preventing any gain in the national development effort. To determine the level and determinants of family planning awareness and practice in one Ethiopian town. A quantitative study using a descriptive survey design was conducted in Jimma University Hospital. The findings revealed that the knowledge and practice of modern contraception methods was low. Most women's contraceptive knowledge and practice was influenced by socio-cultural norms such as male/husband dominance and opposition to contraception, and low social status of women. A lack of formal education for women was identified as a key factor in preventing change in the patterns of contraceptive knowledge and use by women in this part of Ethiopia. The support and encouragement for women and men to enter and complete formal education is essential in bringing about a cultural and social change in attitude towards the economic and social value of family planning. This study and others suggest that education can address the imbalance in decision making about contraception and the role of women in society generally.

  1. Pacific Northwest Salmon Habitat Project Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the Pacific Northwest Salmon Habitat Project Database Across the Pacific Northwest, both public and private agents are working to improve riverine habitat for a...

  2. Assessment of Medication Use among University Students in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessalegn Asmelashe Gelayee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The extent, nature, and determinants of medication use of individuals can be known from drug utilization studies. Objectives. This study intended to determine medication consumption, sharing, storage, and disposal practices of university students in Northwest Ethiopia. Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 404 university students selected through stratified random sampling technique. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaire and analyzed with SPSS version 20 statistical software. Pearson’s Chi-square test of independence was conducted with P<0.05 taken as statistically significant. Results. At 95.3% response rate, the prevalences of medication consumption and sharing were 35.3% (N=136 and 38.2% (N=147, respectively. One hundred (26% respondents admitted that they often keep leftover medications for future use while the rest (N=285, 74% discard them primarily into toilets (N=126, 44.2%. Evidence of association existed between medication taking and year of study (P=0.048, medication sharing and sex (P=0.003, and medication sharing and year of study (P=0.015. Conclusion. There is a high prevalence of medication consumption, medication sharing, and inappropriate disposal practices which are influenced by sex and educational status of the university students. Thus medication use related educational interventions need to be given to students in general.

  3. Solar 78 Northwest conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    Thirty eight papers are included. One was abstracted previously. Separate entries were prepared for thirty-seven. Also included are the conference evaluation summary, Pacific Northwest Solar Energy Association organization information, lists of commercial and non-commercial exhibitors, speakers and stearing committee members, and attendees. (MHR)

  4. Pacific Northwest regional assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest (comprised of the states of Alaska, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington and Wyoming) can by several measures be regarded as a national warehouse of fossil energy resources. This condition coupled with an evolving national policy stressing utilization of fossil fuels in the near term prior to development of more advanced technologies for energy supply, could result in the imposition of major changes in the region's environmental, socioeconomic and possibly health status. The objective of the Pacific Northwest Regional Assessment Program is to establish and exercise an integrated analytical assessment program for evaluation of these potential changes that may result from various energy development or conservation scenarios. After consideration of a variety of approaches to integrated assessment at a regional level, Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) has concluded that dynamic simulation techniques provide the best available approach to evaluating the issues pertinent to the Northwest. As a result, the PNW Regional Assessment Program has been structured in a framework involving ten sectors. Each of these sectors involve their own submodels that receive information either from outside the model as exogenous inputs or from other sector submodels

  5. Child wasting is a severe public health problem in the predominantly rural population of Ethiopia: A community based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariku, Amare; Bikis, Gashaw Andargie; Woldie, Haile; Wassie, Molla Mesele; Worku, Abebaw Gebeyehu

    2017-01-01

    In Ethiopia, child wasting has remained a public health problem for a decade's, suggesting the need to further monitoring of the problem. Hence, this study aimed at assessing the prevalence of wasting and associated factors among children aged 6-59 months at Dabat District, northwest Ethiopia. A Community based cross-sectional study was undertaken from May to June, 2015, in Dabat District, northwest Ethiopia. A total of 1184 children aged under five years and their mothers/caretakers were included in the study. An interviewer-administered, pre-tested, and structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Standardized anthropometric body measurements were employed to assess the height and weight of the participants. Anthropometric body measurements were analyzed by the WHO Anthro Plus software version 1.0.4. Wasting was defined as having a weight-for-height of Z-score lower than two standard deviations (WHZ public health problem in Dabat District. Therefore, there is a need to strengthen the implementation of optimal breastfeeding practice and dietary diversity. In addition, improving the coverage of mothers ' postnatal vitamin-A supplementation is essential to address the burden of child wasting.

  6. Reducing Maternal Deaths in Ethiopia: Results of an Intervention Programme in Southwest Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernt Lindtjørn

    Full Text Available In a large population in Southwest Ethiopia (population 700,000, we carried out a complex set of interventions with the aim of reducing maternal mortality. This study evaluated the effects of several coordinated interventions to help improve effective coverage and reduce maternal deaths. Together with the Ministry of Health in Ethiopia, we designed a project to strengthen the health-care system. A particular emphasis was given to upgrade existing institutions so that they could carry out Basic (BEmOC and Comprehensive Emergency Obstetric Care (CEmOC. Health institutions were upgraded by training non-clinical physicians and midwives by providing the institutions with essential and basic equipment, and by regular monitoring and supervision by staff competent in emergency obstetric work.In this implementation study, the maternal mortality ratio (MMR was the primary outcome. The study was carried out from 2010 to 2013 in three districts, and we registered 38,312 births. The MMR declined by 64% during the intervention period from 477 to 219 deaths per 100,000 live births (OR 0.46; 95% CI 0.24-0.88. The decline in MMR was higher for the districts with CEmOC, while the mean number of antenatal visits for each woman was 2.6 (Inter Quartile Range 2-4. The percentage of pregnant women who attended four or more antenatal controls increased by 20%, with the number of women who delivered at home declining by 10.5% (P<0.001. Similarly, the number of deliveries at health posts, health centres and hospitals increased, and we observed a decline in the use of traditional birth attendants. Households living near to all-weather roads had lower maternal mortality rates (MMR 220 compared with households without roads (MMR 598; OR 2.72 (95% CI 1.61-4.61.Our results show that it is possible to achieve substantial reductions in maternal mortality rates over a short period of time if the effective coverage of well-known interventions is implemented.

  7. A climate trend analysis of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Christopher C.; Rowland, Jim; Eilerts, Gary; Kebebe, Emebet; Biru, Nigist; White, Libby; Galu, Gideon

    2012-01-01

    This brief report, drawing from a multi-year effort by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET), examines recent trends in March-June, June-September, and March-September rainfall and temperature, identifying significant reductions in rainfall and increases in temperature over time in many areas of Ethiopia. Conclusions: * Spring and summer rains in parts of Ethiopia have declined by 15-20 percent since the mid-1970s. * Substantial warming across the entire country has exacerbated the dryness.* An important pattern of observed existing rainfall declines coincides with heavily populated areas of the Rift Valley in south-central Ethiopia, and is likely already adversely affecting crop yields and pasture conditions. * Rapid population growth and the expansion of farming and pastoralism under a drier, warmer climate regime could dramatically increase the number of at-risk people in Ethiopia during the next 20 years.* Many areas of Ethiopia will maintain moist climate conditions, and agricultural development in these areas could help offset rainfall declines and reduced production in other areas.

  8. Medication administration errors in an intensive care unit in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agalu Asrat

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medication administration errors in patient care have been shown to be frequent and serious. Such errors are particularly prevalent in highly technical specialties such as the intensive care unit (ICU. In Ethiopia, the prevalence of medication administration errors in the ICU is not studied. Objective To assess medication administration errors in the intensive care unit of Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH, Southwest Ethiopia. Methods Prospective observation based cross-sectional study was conducted in the ICU of JUSH from February 7 to March 24, 2011. All medication interventions administered by the nurses to all patients admitted to the ICU during the study period were included in the study. Data were collected by directly observing drug administration by the nurses supplemented with review of medication charts. Data was edited, coded and entered in to SPSS for windows version 16.0. Descriptive statistics was used to measure the magnitude and type of the problem under study. Results Prevalence of medication administration errors in the ICU of JUSH was 621 (51.8%. Common administration errors were attributed to wrong timing (30.3%, omission due to unavailability (29.0% and missed doses (18.3% among others. Errors associated with antibiotics took the lion's share in medication administration errors (36.7%. Conclusion Medication errors at the administration phase were highly prevalent in the ICU of Jimma University Specialized Hospital. Supervision to the nurses administering medications by more experienced ICU nurses or other relevant professionals in regular intervals is helpful in ensuring that medication errors don’t occur as frequently as observed in this study.

  9. Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION. Water is an essential ... dissolved solids, conductivity and redox potential provide a general classification of water bodies with a ..... In rift valley lakes, the smallest value of salinity was noted in koka (200 mg r1. ) which has an ...

  10. ETHIOPIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    tanneries in the world (about 90%) use chromium salts to produce leather, because these salts provide better leather ... former are not biodegradable. .... Each sample was filtered with Whatman filter paper (0.45 μm of pore size). .... might be causing pollution of the surrounding air with hydrogen sulfide, which also warrants.

  11. Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    To secure a computer system and ensure cyber security, it is important to understand the attacks ... Denial-of-service attack: Denial of service attacks are designed to make a machine or network ... Many fail to recognize cybercrimes in their IT.

  12. Canyons off northwest Puerto Rico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, W.D.; Glover, L.K.; Hollister, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    The Nuclear-Research Submarine NR-1 was used to study morphoplogy, sediment, and sediment-water interactions off the northwest coast of Puerto Rico. New detailed bathymetry from the surface-support ship, USS Portland, shows several submarine canyons in the area, some of them unreported previously. The north coast canyons, Arecibo, Tiberones and Quebradillas, are primarily erosional features although no recent turbidity-current evidence is seen. The canyons are presently filling with river-transported sediments. (orig./ME)

  13. Extended-Spectrum beta (β)-Lactamases and Antibiogram in Enterobacteriaceae from Clinical and Drinking Water Sources from Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abera, Bayeh; Kibret, Mulugeta; Mulu, Wondemagegn

    2016-01-01

    The spread of Extended-Spectrum beta (β)-Lactamases (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae has become a serious global problem. ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae vary based on differences in antibiotic use, nature of patients and hospital settings. This study was aimed at determining ESBL and antibiogram in Enterobacteriaceae isolates from clinical and drinking water sources in Bahir Dar City, Northwest Ethiopia. Enterobacteriaceae species were isolated from clinical materials and tap water using standard culturing procedures from September 2013 to March 2015. ESBL-producing-Enterobacteriaceae were detected using double-disk method by E-test Cefotaxim/cefotaxim+ clavulanic acid and Ceftazidime/ceftazidime+ clavulanic acid (BioMerieux SA, France) on Mueller Hinton agar (Oxoid, UK). Overall, 274 Enterobacteriaceae were isolated. Of these, 210 (44%) were from patients and 64 (17.1%) were from drinking water. The median age of the patients was 28 years. Urinary tract infection and blood stream infection accounted for 60% and 21.9% of Enterobacteriaceae isolates, respectively. Klebsiella pneumoniae was isolated from 9 (75%) of neonatal sepsis. The overall prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in clinical and drinking water samples were 57.6% and 9.4%, respectively. The predominant ESBL-producers were K. pneumoniae 34 (69.4%) and Escherichia coli 71 (58.2%). Statistically significant associations were noted between ESBL-producing and non- producing Enterobacteriaceae with regard to age of patients, infected body sites and patient settings (P = 0.001). ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae showed higher levels of resistance against chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin and cotrimoxazole than non-ESBL producers (P = 0.001). ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae coupled with high levels of other antimicrobials become a major concern for treatment of patients with invasive infections such as blood stream infections, neonatal sepsis and urinary tract infections. ESBL

  14. Energy and the agroeconomic complexity of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios

    2016-04-01

    Since the Industrial Revolution, modern agriculture has transformed from a net energy supplier to a net energy user, via the extensive use fossil fuels -that substituted solar energy inputs- and petroleum derivative products (fertilizers) (Pimentel and Pimentel 2008; Woods et al. 2010). This condenses a significant overview of agricultural energetics, especially for economies set on their first stage of development, growth and economic diversification, such as Ethiopia. Ethiopia is the Blue Nile's most upstream country, constituting a very sensitive hydroclimatic area. Since 2008, Ethiopian agriculture experiences a boost in energy use and agricultural value-added per worker, due to the rapid introduction of oil-fueled agricultural machinery that increased productivity and allowed crop diversification. Agriculture in Ethiopia accounts for ~82% of its total exports, ~45% of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and ~75% of its total labor force. In addition, Ethiopia's agricultural sector is equipped with a set of new financial tools to deal with hydroclimatic extremes, like the 1983-85 droughts that deteriorated its crop output, causing a devastating famine. In fact, Ethiopia's resilience from the (most) recent drought (2015-16) has been remarkable. These facts signify that Ethiopia satisfies the necessary conditions to become a regional agritrade gravity center in the Blue Nile, granted that the dispersion of agricultural trade comprises a primary tool for securing food supply. As gravity equations have been used to model global trade webs (Tinbergen 1962), similar principles may apply to agritrade as well, for identifying emergent topological structures and supply chains. By examining the relation between energy inputs in agriculture with crop diversification and value-added chains of Ethiopia's agritrade, we could extract accurate information on the importance of energy for the country's agroeconomic complexity and regionalization trend across its first stages of

  15. Prevalence of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis among prisoners in North Gondar Zone Prison, northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moges, Beyene; Amare, Bemnet; Asfaw, Fanaye; Tesfaye, Wogahta; Tiruneh, Moges; Belyhun, Yeshambel; Mulu, Andargachew; Kassu, Afework

    2012-12-15

    People concentrated in congregated systems, such as prisons, are important but often neglected reservoirs for TB transmission, and threaten those in the outside community. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis in a prison system of North Gondar Zone. An active case-finding survey in North Gondar Prison was carried out from March to May 2011. All prison inmates who had history of cough for at least a week were included in the study. Three morning sputum samples were collected from suspected inmates and examined through fluorescence microscopy. Fine needle aspiration cytology was done for those having significant lymphadenopathy. Pre and post HIV test counseling was provided after written consent. Binary logistic and multivariable analysis was performed using SPSS version 16. A total of 250 prisoners were included in the survey. Among these, 26 (10.4%) prisoners were found to have TB giving a point prevalence of 1482.3 per 100,000 populations of smear positive TB among the TB suspects. All the inmates who participated in the study volunteered for HIV testing and a total of 19(7.6%) inmates were found to be reactive for the HIV antibody test amongst of which 9(47.4%) had TB co-infection. The prevalence of HIV infection in the TB infected inmates was found to be 34.6% (9/26). From the 26 TB cases identified 12 (46.2%) were having under nutrition (BMI Prison with possible active transmission of TB within the prison. There was a high prevalence of HIV among the TB suspects. Strong cooperation between prison authorities and the national tuberculosis control programmes is urgently required to develop locally appropriate interventions to reduce transmission. The determinants for poor nutrition in the prison need also further investigation.

  16. Sediment Evaluation Framework for the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sediment Evaluation Framework provides a regional framework for assessment, characterization and management of sediments in the Pacific Northwest to determine suitability for unconfined in-water disposal.

  17. Crossdating Juniperus procera from North Gondar, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wils, T.; Robertson, I.; Eshetu, Z.; Touchan, R.; Sass-Klaassen, U.; Koprowski, M.

    2011-01-01

    The application of dendrochronology in (sub)tropical regions has been limited by the difficulty in finding trees with distinct annual rings that can be crossdated. Here, we report successful crossdating of Juniperus procera trees from North Gondar, Ethiopia. The trees form annual rings in response

  18. Environmental risk assessment of pesticides in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teklu, B.M.

    2016-01-01

    The current increase in application rate and usage frequency of application of pesticides in Ethiopia pose direct risks to surface water aquatic organisms and humans and cattle using surface water as a source of drinking water in rural parts of the country. A model based risk assessment as

  19. Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding practices in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Despite the demonstrated benefits of breast milk, the prevalence of breastfeeding, in-particular exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), in many developing countries including Ethiopia is lower than the international recommendation of EBF for the first six months of life. Objective: To assess the practice of EBF and ...

  20. Doing Business Economy Profile 2015 : Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2015 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Ethiopia. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2015 is the 12th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. ...

  1. Pragmatic Constraints affecting the efficacy in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    eminence of teacher education and the alternative paradigm to this regard ... Lecturer in Physics, Faculty of Education, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia. .... Selected Indicators of Growth and Development on School Education in India ..... skills as well as the professional skills .... the student teacher perception about the.

  2. Handbook for Greenhouse Rose Production Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maden, van der E.; Hoogerwerf, F.; Marrewijk, van J.; Kerklaan, E.; Posthumus, J.; Boven, van A.; Elings, A.; Garcia Victoria, N.; Rikken, M.; Humphries, G.

    2012-01-01

    This practical handbook is prepared by DLV Plant, in collaboration with Wageningen UR, CBI and EHPEA, under assignment of the Ethiopia Netherlands Horticulture Partnership (ENHP). The following persons have contributed to this handbook: DVL Plant: Edwin van der Maden, Francis Hoogerwerf, Jeroen van

  3. Assessment of the pharmacist workforce in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Method: A national facility based census of the pharmacist workforce was conducted in Ethiopia. Pharmacists' job .... Female. N (%). Total No. of. Pharmacists,. N(%). Population Size. Density of .... 51(13.2). Marital Status. Single. 252 (64.1). Married. 136 (34.6). Divorced ..... Production, attrition and retention: In the memory of.

  4. Pharmaceutical Regulatory Framework in Ethiopia: A Critical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This legislation formed the legal basis for official establishment of drug regulation in the history of Ethiopia, enabling the regulation of the practice of pharmacists, druggists and pharmacy technicians; manufacturing, distribution, and sale of medicines. In June 1999, a new regulation called the “Drug Administration and ...

  5. Establishing financial markets in Ethiopia: the environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper intends to examine the environmental foundation for establishing financial markets in Ethiopia, identify the potential challenges and opportunities. The environmental foundation is assessed using the PEST (political, economic, social and technological) perspectives. Emphasis is given to identify the roles that ...

  6. Determinants of adolescent fertility in Ethiopia | Alemayehu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Worldwide, adolescents suffer from a disproportionate share of reproductive health problem. Throughout the world, over 14 million adolescents aged 15-19 years give birth annually. The purpose of this study was to assess the level and identify proximate and other determinants of adolescent fertility in Ethiopia.

  7. Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, vol. 8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    General information about the Flora project, the history of the scientific exploration of the flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, the natural vegetation, the regional diversity and endemism as reflected in the Flora, the use of wild and cultivated plants in the flora region, important scientific plant...

  8. Demand for money and shortages in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterken, E.

    2004-01-01

    The paper discusses the long-run monetary conditions in Ethiopia in the last three decades. These decades can be characterized by large political changes, leading to shocks on income and population growth, and two serious periods of drought. Both affected inflation and real demand for M-1 through

  9. communicable diseases at health facilities in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    unsatisfactory and it varied between urban (34%) and rural (5%) health facilities. In general, cervical ... data for planning and monitoring scale-up intervention ... authority, Ethiopia, 2016. Regions. Number of facilities Percentage. Tigray. 42. 8. Afar. 38. 7. Amhara. 61. 11. Oromiya. 99. 18. Somali. 43. 8. Beni. Gumuz. 30. 5.

  10. Regional Development Planning in Ethiopia: Past Experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regional Development Planning in Ethiopia: Past Experience, Current Initiatives and Future Prospects. ... Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review ... The main contention of the paper is that in the past, regional development, in line with the functional integration approach, was considered a national project.

  11. Administrative rulemaking in Ethiopia: normative and institutional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The meaning of and the theoretical issues in relation to administrative legislation are discussed followed by the basic procedures and principles that should harness discretion and abuse of authority. Keywords: Administrative law, Administrative rulemaking, FDRE Constitution, Ethiopia MIZAN LAW REVIEW, Vol. 7 No.1 ...

  12. 'Ethiopia-Netherlands AIDS research project'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, E. J.; Rinke de Wit, T. F.; Fontanet, A. L.; Goudsmit, J.; Miedema, F.; Coutinho, R. A.

    2001-01-01

    The 'Ethiopia-Netherlands AIDS Research Project' (ENARP), started in 1994, is a long-term collaboration between AIDS researchers in Amsterdam and the Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute in Addis Ababa. The ENARP's primary objectives include conducting studies on HIV and AIDS in

  13. Atlas of the potential vegetation of Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Demissew, Sebsebe; van Breugel, Paulo

    Based on many years of field work by the two senior authors (Ib Friis and Sebsebe Demissew) and with the application of GIS analyses (by P. van Breugel) 15 major vegetation types in Ethiopia are described and mapped. The book descibes the structure and floristic composition of the vegetation types...

  14. Status of geothermal energy in Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endeshaw, A.; Belaineh, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that there are several identified geothermal localities in Ethiopia. Ten geothermal localities have been studied with regional assessments, while three localities have had pre-feasibility studies. In one area, the Aluto-Langano geothermal field, the feasibility studies have been completed. However, the geothermal resources have not been utilized yet except in the traditional baths

  15. Alemayehu Yismaw Demamu Abstract Ethiopia overhauled its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and Muslims communities in Ethiopia do have their own internal dispute ... Christians offers commercial dispute resolution service involving thousands and ...... practices and decisions of these institutions heighten the quality and prestige of ..... the center spend their money to hotels, restaurants, shops and other services or.

  16. The Pineapple Value Chain in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Drost (Sarah); J.C.A.C. van Wijk (Jeroen)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis report investigates the dynamics of a multi-stakeholder platform (named: coordination group, or CG) for stakeholders of the pineapple value chains in Ethiopia. The CG was initiated by the Dutch development organisation SNV in 2005 as part of a broader programme to improve market

  17. Ethiopia | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    These crises have greatly affected agriculture and quality of life. ... In Ethiopia, this resulted in more effective pest-control strategies, better quality water, and new food and cash crops. ... 111 activities worth CA$30.8 million since 1972. DFID/J.

  18. Agricultural biotechnology research and development in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopia is an agrarian country that can have enormous benefit from the applications of biotechnology for increasing its agricultural productivity. The country is at initial stages of research and development in agricultural biotechnology with scattered efforts underway in various public institutions. Research efforts and ...

  19. Ethiopia - energy situation 1982/83

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-02-01

    The energy situation of Ethiopia is reviewed on the basis of some relevant data. Its energy policy is commented on, and developments in electric power generation are described as well as the trends observed for the various energy sources. Figures are given on external trade and on the balance of payments.

  20. Ethiopia - energy situation 1984. Aethiopien - Energiewirtschaft 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-11-01

    The energy situation of Ethiopia is reviewed on the basis of relevant data. Remarks on the country's national and international energy policy are followed by an outline of trends in energy sources and electric power generation. Important figures are presented on external trade and the balance of payments. (UA).

  1. Ethiopia - energy situation 1985. Aethiopien - Energiewirtschaft 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-10-01

    The energy situation of Ethiopia is reviewed on the basis of relevant data. Data on the country's national energy policy are followed by an outline of trends in energy sources and electric power generation. Key figures are presented on the country's external trade and balance of payments.

  2. Establishing financial markets in Ethiopia: the environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MY

    2012-06-01

    Jun 1, 2012 ... to be of paramount importance in providing input information for policy makers ... military government ruling Ethiopia at that time, no capital market has been ... hinders the growth of investment and private sector involvement in the ...... Alemayehu (2008) clearly shows that Ethiopian firms technology usage is.

  3. Home garden system dynamics in Southern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mellisse, Beyene Teklu; Ven, van de Gerrie W.J.; Giller, Ken E.; Descheemaeker, Katrien

    2017-01-01

    Home gardens in southern Ethiopia are regarded as efficient farming systems, allowing interactions and synergies between crop, tree and livestock components. However, these age-old traditional home gardens are evolving rapidly in response to changes in both the socio-economic and biophysical

  4. Determinants of Crop Diversification in Ethiopia:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diversification of agriculture is central to economic transformation. It contributes to ... growth and poverty reduction strategies of Ethiopia place emphasized on broad ..... Similarly, (Bonham et al., 2012) found that positive relationship between on-farm diversity of pearl millet and income from agricultural production in India.

  5. The Internet and Regulatory Responses in Ethiopia:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KM_Yilma & HH_Abraha

    Law and Policy Researcher at the Ethiopian Information Network Security Agency. ... “The sad irony is that Ethiopia's enthusiastic embrace of the computer has made .... See, for instance, Draft Ethiopian Data Protection Act, Version 1.1, 7 May ...

  6. Wind Energy in Ethiopia | Blaho | Zede Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zede Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9 (1992) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Wind Energy in Ethiopia. M Blaho. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE ...

  7. The Proposed Plea Bargaining in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alemu Meheretu

    Plea bargaining, models of plea bargaining, the proposed plea bargaining, efficiency ... based on my PhD thesis titled: ` Introducing Plea bargaining in Ethiopia: Concerns and prospects`. .... defendant in return to not only pleading guilty but also waiving some rights as .... contradict the adversarial style of plea bargaining.

  8. Pacific Northwest regional AGU meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyndman, Roy

    The 27th Annual Pacific Northwest Regional American Geophysical Union Meeting, held September 25 and 26, 1980, was hosted by the Pacific Geoscience Centre at the Institute of Ocean Sciences, near Victoria, British Columbia. A total of 79 papers was presented to the 150 registrants in six general sessions: seismology; electromagnetic induction; general geophysics; volcanology; hydrology; and oceanography, and in three special symposia: ‘The Queen Charlotte-Fairweather fault syst