WorldWideScience

Sample records for hospital disaster preparedness

  1. Preparedness of Iranian Hospitals Against Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asefzadeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Context Over the past decade the number of accidents and disasters has been growing around the world. In addition to damaging communities and infrastructures, unexpected disasters also affect service providers. This study aimed to evaluate the readiness of hospitals when confronted with unexpected disasters. Evidence Acquisition The present study was a simple review article, which was conducted via searching different sites, such as: Web of Science, Scopus, Science Direct and PubMed, using different key words such as: Disasters, Crisis, Hospital and preparedness. The relationship between the articles found in relation to our subject was investigated through the title and abstract of articles. The relationship between the articles, which were found in relation to our subject, was investigated through the title and abstract of the articles. Our search included papers published during the period between 2007 and 2015 and we only considered studies that measured the preparedness of hospitals in critical conditions. Among the 30 articles, which were found, 17 were excluded from the study due to lack of relevant data. Hence, 15 papers, which were of proper design and robust data analysis, were included in the current study. Results Hospital preparedness in disaster was evaluated in three dimensions: structural, non-structural factors and vulnerability management performance. A total of readiness of hospitals in three dimensions was mediocre. Conclusions Overall, the results derived from these studies indicated that hospital safety levels in most of the surveyed hospitals were moderate. Although the situation in hospitals is not critical, there is a need to plan and take appropriate measures to improve the safety level of the hospitals.

  2. Assessing Hospital Disaster Preparedness of Bushehr province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakimeh Vahedparast

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In disasters, large number of causalities rash into the hospitals in order to get health facilities. So, hospitals are the reference point for delivering the health services in all levels for helping to the most percent of injured people. Aim of study was to assess hospital disaster preparedness of Bushehr province. Maretial and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study which has been done in all Bushehr province hospitals. In order to collect data, we used 210 questions checklist with 10 different aims each aim had consisted of 6 different domains (equipment, working stuff, physical space, structure, protocols and functional chart. The checklists were completed by direct observation and evaluation of equipment, programs and documents based on their domains with different people. Results: The hospital preparedness in traffic base was very poor with mean number of 19/04±16/10 evaluation of security education and management domain with mean number 35/29±26/52, 38/65±19/46, 36/36±24/05, respectively were poor. In logistics, workforce, communications, excused transportation and addition to the hospitals with the mean number of 53/26±26/31, 49/65±27/61, 45/53±18/29, 43/33±19/72, and 40/47±20/37 were estimated as average. The most number was belonged to the emergency with the mean number of 53/80±19/18. Conclusion: The Bushehr province hospitals have not enough preparation against unexpected disasters and cannot be a good supporter for disaster happening, and in the occasions of happenings so many serious problems will occur. It will be suggested that the hospital managers should pay more attention to the unexpected disasters.

  3. Hospital disaster emergency preparedness: A study of Onandjokwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explored disaster emergency preparedness at Onandjokwe Lutheran Hospital in Northern Namibia. It utilized quantitative and qualitative research methods, using a self-administered questionnaire, semi-structured key informant interviews, and a hospital disaster plan checklist. A stratified sample of 120 ...

  4. Non-structural Components influencing Hospital Disaster Preparedness in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsuddin, N. M.; Takim, R.; Nawawi, A. H.; Rosman, M. R.; SyedAlwee, S. N. A.

    2018-04-01

    Hospital disaster preparedness refers to measures taken by the hospital’s stakeholders to prepare, reduce the effects of disaster and ensure effective coordination during incident response. Among the measures, non-structural components (i.e., medical laboratory equipment & supplies; architectural; critical lifeline; external; updated building document; and equipment & furnishing) are critical towards hospital disaster preparedness. Nevertheless, over the past few years these components are badly affected due to various types of disasters. Hence, the objective of this paper is to investigate the non-structural components influencing hospital’s disaster preparedness. Cross-sectional survey was conducted among thirty-one (31) Malaysian hospital’s employees. A total of 6 main constructs with 107 non-structural components were analysed and ranked by using SPSS and Relative Importance Index (RII). The results revealed that 6 main constructs (i.e. medical laboratory equipment & supplies; architectural; critical lifeline; external; updated building document; and equipment & furnishing) are rated as ‘very critical’ by the respondents. Among others, availability of medical laboratory equipment and supplies for diagnostic and equipment was ranked first. The results could serve as indicators for the public hospitals to improve its disaster preparedness in terms of planning, organising, knowledge training, equipment, exercising, evaluating and corrective actions through non-structural components.

  5. A scrutiny of tools used for assessment of hospital disaster preparedness in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidaranlu, Esmail; Ebadi, Abbas; Ardalan, Ali; Khankeh, Hamidreza

    2015-01-01

    In emergencies and disasters, hospitals are among the first and most vital organizations involved. To determine preparedness of a hospital to deal with crisis, health system requires tools compatible with the type of crisis. The present study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of tools used for assessment of hospitals preparedness for major emergencies and disasters in Iran. In this review study, all studies conducted on hospital preparedness to deal with disasters in Iran in the interim 2000-2015 were examined. The World Health Organization (WHO) criteria were used to assess focus of studies for entry in this study. Of the 36 articles obtained, 28 articles that met inclusion criteria were analyzed. In accordance with the WHO standards, focus of tools used was examined in three areas (structural, nonstructural, and functional). In nonstructural area, the most focus of preparation tools was on medical gases, and the least focus on office and storeroom furnishings and equipment. In the functional area, the most focus was on operational plan, and the least on business continuity. Half of the tools in domestic studies considered structural safety as indicator of hospital preparedness. The present study showed that tools used contain a few indicators approved by the WHO, especially in the functional area. Moreover, a lack of a standard indigenous tool was evident, especially in the functional area. Thus, to assess hospital disaster preparedness, the national health system requires new tools compatible with scientific tool design principles, to enable a more accurate prediction of hospital preparedness in disasters before they occur.

  6. [The Hospital Emergency Plan: Important Tool for Disaster Preparedness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurmb, Thomas; Scholtes, Katja; Kolibay, Felix; Rechenbach, Peer; Vogel, Ulrich; Kowalzik, Barbara

    2017-09-01

    Hospitals need to be prepared for any kind of disaster. The terrorist attacks and mass shootings that took place in Europe in recent years impressively demonstrated the capability of hospitals to manage such challenging and disastrous events. To be adequately prepared, the hospital emergency plan is a very important tool. In this article we describe the entire process of drafting the emergency plan. We discuss the theoretical background as well as different models of disaster planning and we give important practical hints and tips for those in charge of the hospital disaster planning. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Impact of the 2011 Revolution on Hospital Disaster Preparedness in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladhrai, Saleem Ahmed; Djalali, Ahmadreza; Della Corte, Francesco; Alsabri, Mohammed; El-Bakri, Nahid Karrar; Ingrassia, Pier Luigi

    2015-08-01

    Hospitals are expected to serve the medical needs of casualties in the face of a disaster or other crisis, including man-made conflicts. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the 2011 Yemeni revolution on hospital disaster preparedness in the capital city of Sana'a. The study was conducted in September 2011 and 2013. For evaluation purposes, the hospital emergency response checklist published by the World Health Organization (WHO) was used. Additional information was also obtained to determine what steps were being taken by hospital authorities to improve hospital preparedness. The study selected 11 hospitals. At the time of the first evaluation, 7 hospitals were rated "unacceptable" for level of preparedness and 4 were rated "insufficient," receiving a WHO checklist rating of 10 to 98. At the second evaluation, 5 hospitals were rated "unacceptable," 3 "insufficient," and 1 "effective," receiving a rating of 9 to 134. Unfortunately, this study shows that between 2011 and 2013, no significant progress was made in hospital disaster preparedness in Sana'a. In a disaster-prone country like Yemen, the current situation calls for drastic improvement. Health system authorities must take responsibility for issuing strategic plans as well as standards, guidelines, and procedures to improve hospital disaster preparedness.

  8. Pediatric disaster preparedness of a hospital network in a large metropolitan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Rizaldy R; Balasuriya, Darshi; Iverson, Ellen; Upperman, Jeffrey S

    2010-01-01

    We describe pediatric-related emergency experiences and responses, disaster preparation and planning, emergency plan execution and evaluation, and hospital pediatric capabilities and vulnerabilities among a disaster response network in a large urban county in the West Coast of the United States. Using semistructured key informant interviews, the authors conducted qualitative research between March and April 2008. Eleven hospitals and a representative from the community clinic association agreed to participate (86 percent response rate) and a total of 22 key informant interviews were completed. Data were analyzed using ATLAS.ti.v.5.0, a qualitative analytical software program. Although hospitals have infrastructure to respond in the event of a large-scale disaster, well-established disaster preparedness plans have not fully accounted for the needs of children. The general hospitals do not anticipate a surge of pediatric victims in the event of a disaster, and they expect that children will be transported to a children's hospital as their conditions become stable. Even hospitals with well-established disaster preparedness plans have not fully accounted for the needs of children during a disaster. Improved communication between disaster network hospitals is necessary as incorrect information still persists.

  9. Effects of Comprehensive Risk Management Program on the Preparedness of Rofeide Rehabilitation Hospital in Disasters and Incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Rajabi

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: Considering the positive impact of the implementation of the risk management program on the preparedness of Rofeide Rehabilitation Hospital and promotion of its preparedness level from poor to moderate, as well as relatively high vulnerability of hospitals against internal and external risks, national hospitals are recommended to use the comprehensive hospital risk management model to be more prepared for disasters.

  10. Evaluation of disaster preparedness for mass casualty incidents in private hospitals in Central Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah A. Bin Shalhoub

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To identify and describe the hospital disaster preparedness (HDP in major private hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: This is an observational cross-sectional survey study performed in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia between December 2015 and April 2016. Thirteen major private hospitals in Riyadh with more than 100 beds capacity were included in this investigation. Results: The 13 hospitals had HDP plan and reported to have an HDP committee. In 12 (92.3% hospitals, the HDP covered both internal and external disasters and HDP was available in every department of the hospital. There were agreements with other hospitals to accept patients during disasters in 9 facilities (69.2% while 4 (30.8% did not have such agreement. None of the hospitals conducted any unannounced exercises in previous year. Conclusion: Most of the weaknesses were apparent particularly in the education, training and monitoring of the hospital staff to the preparedness for disaster emergency occasion. Few hospitals had conducted an exercise with casualties, few had drilled evacuation of staff and patients in the last 12 months, and none had any unannounced exercise in the last year.

  11. Assessment of disaster preparedness among emergency departments in Italian hospitals: a cautious warning for disaster risk reduction and management capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganini, Matteo; Borrelli, Francesco; Cattani, Jonathan; Ragazzoni, Luca; Djalali, Ahmadreza; Carenzo, Luca; Della Corte, Francesco; Burkle, Frederick M Jr; Ingrassia, Pier Luigi

    2016-08-15

    Since the 1990s, Italian hospitals are required to comply with emergency disaster plans known as Emergency Plan for Massive Influx of Casualties. While various studies reveal that hospitals overall suffer from an insufficient preparedness level, the aim of this study was to better determine the preparedness level of Emergency Departments of Italian hospitals by assessing the knowledge-base of emergency physicians regarding basic disaster planning and procedures. A prospective observational study utilized a convenience sample of Italian Emergency Departments identified from the Italian Ministry of Health website. Anonymous telephone interviews were conducted of medical consultants in charge at the time in the respective Emergency Departments, and were structured in 3 parts: (1) general data and demographics, (2) the current disaster plan and (3) protocols and actions of the disaster plan. Eighty-five Emergency Departments met inclusion criteria, and 69 (81 %) agreed to undergo the interview. Only 45 % of participants declared to know what an Emergency Plan for Massive Influx of Casualties is, 41 % believed to know who has the authority to activate the plan, 38 % knew who is in charge of intra-hospital operations. In Part 3 physicians revealed a worrisome inconsistency in critical content knowledge of their answers. Results demonstrate a poor knowledge-base of basic hospital disaster planning concepts by Italian Emergency Department physicians-on-duty. These findings should alert authorities to enhance staff disaster preparedness education, training and follow-up to ensure that these plans are known to all who have responsibility for disaster risk reduction and management capacity.

  12. Hospital-related incidents; causes and its impact on disaster preparedness and prehospital organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khorram-Manesh Amir

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A hospital's capacity and preparedness is one of the important parts of disaster planning. Hospital-related incidents, a new phenomenon in Swedish healthcare, may lead to ambulance diversions, increased waiting time at emergency departments and treatment delay along with deterioration of disaster management and surge capacity. We aimed to identify the causes and impacts of hospital-related incidents in Region Västra Götaland (western region of Sweden. Methods The regional registry at the Prehospital and Disaster Medicine Center was reviewed (2006–2008. The number of hospital-related incidents and its causes were analyzed. Results There were an increasing number of hospital-related incidents mainly caused by emergency department's overcrowdings, the lack of beds at ordinary wards and/or intensive care units and technical problems at the radiology departments. These incidents resulted in ambulance diversions and reduced the prehospital capacity as well as endangering the patient safety. Conclusion Besides emergency department overcrowdings, ambulance diversions, endangering patient s safety and increasing risk for in-hospital mortality, hospital-related incidents reduces and limits the regional preparedness by minimizing the surge capacity. In order to prevent a future irreversible disaster, this problem should be avoided and addressed properly by further regional studies.

  13. Survey of Hospital Employees' Personal Preparedness and Willingness to Work Following a Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, Jane H; Gregg, David; Sawyer, Dalton; Cyr, Julianne M

    2017-08-01

    Little is known about the personal readiness of hospital staff for disasters. As many as 30% of hospital staff say that they plan not to report for work during a large-scale disaster. We sought to understand the personal disaster preparedness for hospital staff. Surveys were distributed to the staff of a large academic tertiary-care hospital by either a paper-based version distributed through the departmental safety coordinators or a Web-based version distributed through employee e-mail services, depending on employee familiarity with and access to computer services. Surveys assessed the demographic variables and characteristics of personal readiness for disaster. Of the individuals who accessed the survey, 1334 (95.9%) enrolled in it. Women made up 75% of the respondents, with a mean age of 43 years. Respondents had worked at the hospital an average of 9 years, with the majority (90%) being full-time employees. Most households (93%) reported ≤4 members, 6% supported a person with special medical needs, and 17% were headed by a single parent. A small number (24%) of respondents reported an established meeting place for reuniting households during a disaster. Many reported stockpiling a 3-day supply of food (86%) and a 3-day supply of water (51%). Eighteen percent of respondents were not aware of workplace evacuation plans. Most respondents were willing to report to work for natural disasters (eg, tornado, snowstorm; all categories >65%), but fewer respondents were willing to report during events such as an influenza epidemic (54%), a biological outbreak (41%), a chemical exposure, (40%), or a radiation exposure (39%). Multivariate analysis revealed being female, having a child in the household younger than 6 years old, and having a child in school lowered the likelihood of being willing to report to work in two or more event types, whereas pet ownership, being a clinical healthcare worker, and being familiar with the work emergency plan increased the likelihood

  14. Bridging the Gap in Hospital Preparedness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adwell, James P

    2007-01-01

    .... This paper reviews personnel attitudes towards preparedness at Johns Hopkins Hospital, types of training used in disaster preparedness and their effectiveness, the use of individual and family...

  15. Committee Opinion No. 726 Summary: Hospital Disaster Preparedness for Obstetricians and Facilities Providing Maternity Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Large-scale catastrophic events and infectious disease outbreaks highlight the need for disaster planning at all community levels. Features unique to the obstetric population (including antepartum, intrapartum, postpartum and neonatal care) warrant special consideration in the event of a disaster. Pregnancy increases the risks of untoward outcomes from various infectious diseases. Trauma during pregnancy presents anatomic and physiologic considerations that often can require increased use of resources such as higher rates of cesarean delivery. Recent evidence suggests that floods and human-influenced environmental disasters increase the risks of spontaneous miscarriages, preterm births, and low-birth-weight infants among pregnant women. The potential surge in maternal and neonatal patient volume due to mass-casualty events, transfer of high-acuity patients, or redirection of patients because of geographic barriers presents unique challenges for obstetric care facilities. These circumstances require that facilities plan for additional increases in necessary resources and staffing. Although emergencies may be unexpected, hospitals and obstetric delivery units can prepare to implement plans that will best serve maternal and pediatric care needs when disasters occur. Clear designation of levels of maternal and neonatal care facilities, along with establishment of a regional network incorporating hospitals that provide maternity services and those that do not, will enable rapid transport of obstetric patients to the appropriate facilities, ensuring the right care at the right time. Using common terminology for triage and transfer and advanced knowledge of regionalization and levels of care will facilitate disaster preparedness.

  16. Committee Opinion No. 726: Hospital Disaster Preparedness for Obstetricians and Facilities Providing Maternity Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Large-scale catastrophic events and infectious disease outbreaks highlight the need for disaster planning at all community levels. Features unique to the obstetric population (including antepartum, intrapartum, postpartum and neonatal care) warrant special consideration in the event of a disaster. Pregnancy increases the risks of untoward outcomes from various infectious diseases. Trauma during pregnancy presents anatomic and physiologic considerations that often can require increased use of resources such as higher rates of cesarean delivery. Recent evidence suggests that floods and human-influenced environmental disasters increase the risks of spontaneous miscarriages, preterm births, and low-birth-weight infants among pregnant women. The potential surge in maternal and neonatal patient volume due to mass-casualty events, transfer of high-acuity patients, or redirection of patients because of geographic barriers presents unique challenges for obstetric care facilities. These circumstances require that facilities plan for additional increases in necessary resources and staffing. Although emergencies may be unexpected, hospitals and obstetric delivery units can prepare to implement plans that will best serve maternal and pediatric care needs when disasters occur. Clear designation of levels of maternal and neonatal care facilities, along with establishment of a regional network incorporating hospitals that provide maternity services and those that do not, will enable rapid transport of obstetric patients to the appropriate facilities, ensuring the right care at the right time. Using common terminology for triage and transfer and advanced knowledge of regionalization and levels of care will facilitate disaster preparedness.

  17. The Effect of the Implementation of the National Program for Hospital Preparedness on the Readiness of Nurses Under Simulated Conditions of Incidents and Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedighe Yousefi

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study showed that education of national hospital preparedness program under simulated conditions of incidents and disasters increased knowledge, attitude, and performance (preparation of nurses in response to the incidents and disasters.

  18. Disaster: Prevention, Preparedness and Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Sally

    1981-01-01

    Discission of threat of disaster to library archival materials focuses on prevention (building maintenance, materials storage, fire prevention), preparedness (preplanning, procedures for handling emergencies, finances of recovery operation), and action (instructions for handling damaged materials). Current library activities in disaster planning…

  19. Assessing hospital disaster preparedness: a comparison of an on-site survey, directly observed drill performance, and video analysis of teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaji, Amy H; Langford, Vinette; Lewis, Roger J

    2008-09-01

    There is currently no validated method for assessing hospital disaster preparedness. We determine the degree of correlation between the results of 3 methods for assessing hospital disaster preparedness: administration of an on-site survey, drill observation using a structured evaluation tool, and video analysis of team performance in the hospital incident command center. This was a prospective, observational study conducted during a regional disaster drill, comparing the results from an on-site survey, a structured disaster drill evaluation tool, and a video analysis of teamwork, performed at 6 911-receiving hospitals in Los Angeles County, CA. The on-site survey was conducted separately from the drill and assessed hospital disaster plan structure, vendor agreements, modes of communication, medical and surgical supplies, involvement of law enforcement, mutual aid agreements with other facilities, drills and training, surge capacity, decontamination capability, and pharmaceutical stockpiles. The drill evaluation tool, developed by Johns Hopkins University under contract from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, was used to assess various aspects of drill performance, such as the availability of the hospital disaster plan, the geographic configuration of the incident command center, whether drill participants were identifiable, whether the noise level interfered with effective communication, and how often key information (eg, number of available staffed floor, intensive care, and isolation beds; number of arriving victims; expected triage level of victims; number of potential discharges) was received by the incident command center. Teamwork behaviors in the incident command center were quantitatively assessed, using the MedTeams analysis of the video recordings obtained during the disaster drill. Spearman rank correlations of the results between pair-wise groupings of the 3 assessment methods were calculated. The 3 evaluation methods demonstrated

  20. Disaster preparedness in an Australian urban trauma center: staff knowledge and perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Ellen; Samrasinghe, Iromi

    2012-10-01

    A substantial barrier to improving disaster preparedness in Australia is a lack of prescriptive national guidelines based on individual hospital capabilities. A recent literature review revealed that only one Australian hospital has published data regarding its current preparedness level. To establish baseline levels of disaster knowledge, preparedness, and willingness to respond to a disaster among one hospital's staff, and thus enable the implementation of national disaster preparedness guidelines based on realistic capabilities of individual hospitals. An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to individuals and departments that play key roles in the hospital's external disaster response. Questions concerned prior education and experience specific to disasters, general preparedness knowledge, perceived preparedness of themselves and their department, and willingness to respond to a disaster from a conventional and/or chemical, biological, or radiological incident. Responses were received from 140 individuals representing nine hospital departments. Eighty-three participants (59.3%) had previously received disaster education; 53 (37.9%) had attended a disaster simulation drill, and 18 (12.9%) had responded to an actual disaster. The average disaster preparedness knowledge score was 3.57 out of 10. The majority of respondents rated themselves as "not really" prepared and were "unsure" of their respective departments' level of preparedness. Most respondents indicated a willingness to participate in both a conventional incident involving burns and/or physical trauma, and an incident involving chemical, biological or radiological (CBR) weapons. Australian hospital staff are under-prepared to respond to a disaster because of a lack of education, insufficient simulation exercises, and limited disaster experience. The absence of specific national standards and guidelines through which individual hospitals can develop their capabilities further compounds the poverty in

  1. Emergency Preparedness for Disasters and Crises in the Hotel Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Rasmi AlBattat; Ahmad Puad Mat Som

    2013-01-01

    Safety and security are the most important issues to tourist while traveling and the first aspect they consider is to be protected from hazards. Emergency planning and preparedness for a crisis are the most significant components of dealing with disasters. Hospitality practitioners noticed a rising number of natural and man-made crises that harm the hospitality industry, regarding its vulnerability to crisis and intern...

  2. InaSAFE applications in disaster preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranantyo, Ignatius Ryan; Fadmastuti, Mahardika; Chandra, Fredy

    2015-04-01

    Disaster preparedness activities aim to reduce the impact of disasters by being better prepared to respond when a disaster occurs. In order to better anticipate requirements during a disaster, contingency planning activities can be undertaken prior to a disaster based on a realistic disaster scenario. InaSAFE is a tool that can inform this process. InaSAFE is a free and open source software that estimates the impact to people and infrastructure from potential hazard scenarios. By using InaSAFE, disaster managers can develop scenarios of disaster impacts (people and infrastructures affected) to inform their contingency plan and emergency response operation plan. While InaSAFE provides the software framework exposure data and hazard data are needed as inputs to run this software. Then InaSAFE can be used to forecast the impact of the hazard scenario to the exposure data. InaSAFE outputs include estimates of the number of people, buildings and roads are affected, list of minimum needs (rice and clean water), and response checklist. InaSAFE is developed by Indonesia's National Disaster Management Agency (BNPB) and the Australian Government, through the Australia-Indonesia Facility for Disaster Reduction (AIFDR), in partnership with the World Bank - Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR). This software has been used in many parts of Indonesia, including Padang, Maumere, Jakarta, and Slamet Mountain for emergency response and contingency planning.

  3. A stochastic mathematical model to locate field hospitals under disruption uncertainty for large-scale disaster preparedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezir Aydin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we consider field hospital location decisions for emergency treatment points in response to large scale disasters. Specifically, we developed a two-stage stochastic model that determines the number and locations of field hospitals and the allocation of injured victims to these field hospitals. Our model considers the locations as well as the failings of the existing public hospitals while deciding on the location of field hospitals that are anticipated to be opened. The model that we developed is a variant of the P-median location model and it integrates capacity restrictions both on field hospitals that are planned to be opened and the disruptions that occur in existing public hospitals. We conducted experiments to demonstrate how the proposed model can be utilized in practice in a real life problem case scenario. Results show the effects of the failings of existing hospitals, the level of failure probability and the capacity of projected field hospitals to deal with the assessment of any given emergency treatment system’s performance. Crucially, it also specifically provides an assessment on the average distance within which a victim needs to be transferred in order to be treated properly and then from this assessment, the proportion of total satisfied demand is then calculated.

  4. Practice parameter on disaster preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Shaw, Jon A

    2013-11-01

    This Practice Parameter identifies best approaches to the assessment and management of children and adolescents across all phases of a disaster. Delivered within a disaster system of care, many interventions are appropriate for implementation in the weeks and months after a disaster. These include psychological first aid, family outreach, psychoeducation, social support, screening, and anxiety reduction techniques. The clinician should assess and monitor risk and protective factors across all phases of a disaster. Schools are a natural site for conducting assessments and delivering services to children. Multimodal approaches using social support, psychoeducation, and cognitive behavioral techniques have the strongest evidence base. Psychopharmacologic interventions are not generally used but may be necessary as an adjunct to other interventions for children with severe reactions or coexisting psychiatric conditions. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Quality indicators to self-assess the level of disaster preparedness.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkers, K.F.J.; Slottje, P.; Yzermans, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: It impossible to predict when or where a disaster will happen next, or what its cause will be. This presentation describes an instrument that was developed to allow hospitals to self-assess their level of disaster preparedness and to prioritize areas for improvement for future disaster

  6. Art of disaster preparedness in European union: a survey on the health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djalali, Ahmadreza; Della Corte, Francesco; Foletti, Marco; Ragazzoni, Luca; Ripoll Gallardo, Alba; Lupescu, Olivera; Arculeo, Chris; von Arnim, Götz; Friedl, Tom; Ashkenazi, Michael; Fischer, Philipp; Hreckovski, Boris; Khorram-Manesh, Amir; Komadina, Radko; Lechner, Konstanze; Patru, Cristina; Burkle, Frederick M; Ingrassia, Pier Luigi

    2014-12-17

    Naturally occurring and man-made disasters have been increasing in the world, including Europe, over the past several decades. Health systems are a key part of any community disaster management system. The success of preparedness and prevention depends on the success of activities such as disaster planning, organization and training. The aim of this study is to evaluate health system preparedness for disasters in the 27 European Union member countries. A cross-sectional analysis study was completed between June-September 2012. The checklist used for this survey was a modified from the World Health Organization toolkit for assessing health-system capacity for crisis management. Three specialists from each of the 27 European Union countries were included in the survey. Responses to each survey question were scored and the range of preparedness level was defined as 0-100%, categorized in three levels as follows: Acceptable; Transitional; or Insufficient. Response rate was 79.1%. The average level of disaster management preparedness in the health systems of 27 European Union member states was 68% (Acceptable). The highest level of preparedness was seen in the United Kingdom, Luxemburg, and Lithuania. Considering the elements of disaster management system, the highest level of preparedness score was at health information elements (86%), and the lowest level was for hospitals, and educational elements (54%). This survey study suggests that preparedness level of European Union countries in 2012 is at an acceptable level but could be improved. Elements such as hospitals and education and training suffer from insufficient levels of preparedness. The European Union health systems need a collective strategic plan, as well as enough resources, to establish a comprehensive and standardized disaster management strategy plan. A competency based training curriculum for managers and first responders is basic to accomplishing this goal. Disaster medicine; Disaster preparedness

  7. Improving Latino disaster preparedness using social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenman, David P; Glik, Deborah; Gonzalez, Lupe; Maranon, Richard; Zhou, Qiong; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Asch, Steven M

    2009-12-01

    Culturally targeted, informal social networking approaches to improving disaster preparedness have not been empirically tested. In partnership with community health promoters and the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health, this study tested a disaster preparedness program for Latino households. This study had a community-based, randomized, longitudinal cohort design with two groups and was conducted during February-October 2007. Assessments were made at baseline and 3 months. Analyses were carried out January-October 2008. Community-based study of 231 Latinos living in Los Angeles County. Participants were randomly assigned to attending platicas (small-group discussions led by a health promoter/promotora de salud) or receiving "media" (a culturally tailored mailer). A total of 187 (81.0%) completed the 3-month follow-up. A self-reported disaster preparedness checklist was used. Among participants who did not have emergency water pre-intervention, 93.3% of those in the platica arm had it at follow-up, compared to 66.7% in the media arm (p=0.003). Among participants who did not have food pre-intervention, 91.7% in the platica arm reported it at follow-up, compared to 60.6% in the media arm (p=0.013). Finally, among participants who did not have a family communication plan pre-intervention, 70.4% in the platica arm reported one at follow-up, compared to 42.3% in the media arm (p=0.002). Although both arms improved in stockpiling water and food and creating a communication plan, the platica arm showed greater improvement than the media group.

  8. Measuring disaster preparedness of local emergency medical services agencies

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Ross W.

    2010-01-01

    CHDS State/Local Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Emergency Medical Services (EMS) plays a key role in disaster response. Yet, determining how much preparedness is enough to achieve an acceptable level of preparedness is challenging. After conducting an extensive literature review, it is evident no nationally accepted method exists to evaluate an EMS system's level of disaster preparedness systematically. Research was conducted to define the skills and equipmen...

  9. Liberia national disaster preparedness coordination exercise: Implementing lessons learned from the West African disaster preparedness initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Melinda J Morton; Reed, Paul L; Greulich, Jane D; Beadling, Charles W

    2017-01-01

    In light of the recent Ebola outbreak, there is a critical need for effective disaster management systems in Liberia and other West African nations. To this end, the West Africa Disaster Preparedness Initiative held a disaster management exercise in conjunction with the Liberian national government on November 24-25, 2015. During this tabletop exercise (TTX), interactions within and between the 15 counties and the Liberian national government were conducted and observed to refine and validate the county and national standard operating procedures (SOPs). The exercise took place in three regional locations throughout Liberia: Monrovia, Buchanan, and Bong. The TTX format allowed counties to collaborate utilizing open-source software platforms including Ushahidi, Sahana, QGIS, and KoBoCollect. Four hundred sixty-seven individuals (representing all 15 counties of Liberia) identified as key actors involved with emergency operations and disaster preparedness participated in the exercise. A qualitative survey with open-ended questions was administered to exercise participants to determine needed improvements in the disaster management system in Liberia. Key findings from the exercise and survey include the need for emergency management infrastructure to extend to the community level, establishment of a national disaster management agency and emergency operations center, customized local SOPs, ongoing surveillance, a disaster exercise program, and the need for effective data sharing and hazard maps. These regional exercises initiated the process of validating and refining Liberia's national and county-level SOPs. Liberia's participation in this exercise has provided a foundation for advancing its preparedness, response, and recovery capacities and could provide a template for other countries to use.

  10. Exploring the Predictors of Organizational Preparedness for Natural Disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiq, Abdul-Akeem; Graham, John D

    2016-05-01

    There is an extensive body of research on the determinants of disaster preparedness at the individual and household levels. The same cannot be said for the organizational level. Hence, the purpose of this study is to shed light on the predictors of organizational preparedness for natural disasters. Since leaders of organizations have an incentive to overstate their level of preparedness and because surveys of organizational leaders suffer from selection bias and low response rates, we take the novel approach of interviewing employees about the organizations that employ them. Using an online survey, we collected information from a national sample of 2,008 U.S. employees and estimated the predictors of preparedness at the organizational level. We find, among other results, that organization size (facility level) is a consistent predictor of preparedness at the organizational level. We conclude with policy recommendations and outline an agenda for future research on organizational preparedness for natural disasters. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  11. [Impact of a disaster preparedness training program on health staff].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra Cotanda, Cristina; Rebordosa Martínez, Mónica; Trenchs Sainz de la Maza, Victoria; Luaces Cubells, Carles

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a disaster preparedness training program in a Paediatric Emergency Department (PED). A quasi-experimental study was conducted using an anonymous questionnaire that was distributed to health care providers of a PED in a tertiary paediatric hospital. The questions concerned the disaster plan (DP), including theoretical and practical aspects. Questionnaires were distributed and completed in January 2014 (period 1) and November 2014 (period 2). The disaster training program includes theoretical and practical sessions. A total of 110 questionnaires were collected in period 1, and 80 in period 2. Almost three-quarters (71.3%) of PED staff attended the theoretical sessions, and 43.8% attended the practical sessions. The application of this training program significantly improved knowledge about the DP, but no improvement was observed in the practical questions. PED staff felt more prepared to face a disaster after the training program (15.5% vs. 41.8%, Ptraining program improved some knowledge about the disaster plan, but it has not improved responses in practical situations, which may be due to the low attendance at practical sessions and the time between the training program and the questionnaires. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Challenge of hospital emergency preparedness: analysis and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbera, Joseph A; Yeatts, Dale J; Macintyre, Anthony G

    2009-06-01

    In the United States, recent large-scale emergencies and disasters display some element of organized medical emergency response, and hospitals have played prominent roles in many of these incidents. These and other well-publicized incidents have captured the attention of government authorities, regulators, and the public. Health care has assumed a more prominent role as an integral component of any community emergency response. This has resulted in increased funding for hospital preparedness, along with a plethora of new preparedness guidance.Methods to objectively measure the results of these initiatives are only now being developed. It is clear that hospital readiness remains uneven across the United States. Without significant disaster experience, many hospitals remain unprepared for natural disasters. They may be even less ready to accept and care for patient surge from chemical or biological attacks, conventional or nuclear explosive detonations, unusual natural disasters, or novel infectious disease outbreaks.This article explores potential reasons for inconsistent emergency preparedness across the hospital industry. It identifies and discusses potential motivational factors that encourage effective emergency management and the obstacles that may impede it. Strategies are proposed to promote consistent, reproducible, and objectively measured preparedness across the US health care industry. The article also identifies issues requiring research.

  13. Emergency Preparedness for Disasters and Crises in the Hotel Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Rasmi AlBattat

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Safety and security are the most important issues to tourist while traveling and the first aspect they consider is to be protected from hazards. Emergency planning and preparedness for a crisis are the most significant components of dealing with disasters. Hospitality practitioners noticed a rising number of natural and man-made crises that harm the hospitality industry, regarding its vulnerability to crisis and internal and external hazards. By using secondary data, this study aims to shed some light on this issue, contributing to knowledge and awareness on emergency preparedness for the hospitality industry. Moreover, the study aims to explain the management’s commitment to adopt, develop, and update emergency plans. The results of this study explain that tourism as an international mobile industry must respond to internal and external hazards such as disease movement and terrorist attacks. Marketing safety is important to promote hotels and tourist destinations to the guests and holiday advisors. Hotels have a long history of being a soft target for terrorist attacks, as can be seen in several accidents that have shaken the hotel industry in the past few decades. Hotels invest a lot to install protective techniques, but terrorists are becoming more organized. Practitioners propose disaster management frameworks using several measurements. Recovery from crisis and learning help business retention that minimizes negative impacts and prevent losses. Finally, evaluation and feedback are very important to overcome the hazards and return to normal, as well as adopting new ideas to deal with emergencies. Single- and double-loop organizational learning should benefit proactive preparedness.

  14. Ready or not: does household preparedness prevent absenteeism among emergency department staff during a disaster?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Mary P; Ancock, Benedict; Levis, Joel T; Reyes, Vivian

    2014-01-01

    During major disasters, hospitals experience varied levels of absenteeism among healthcare workers (HCWs) in the immediate response period. Loss of critical hospital personnel, including Emergency Department (ED) staff, during this time can negatively impact a facility's ability to effectively treat large numbers of ill and injured patients. Prior studies have examined factors contributing to HCW ability and willingness to report for duty during a disaster. The purpose of this study was to determine if the degree of readiness of ED personnel, as measured by household preparedness, is associated with predicted likelihood of reporting for duty. Additionally, the authors sought to elucidate other factors associated with absenteeism among ED staff during a disaster. ED staff of five hospitals participated in this survey-based study, answering questions regarding demographic information, past disaster experience, household disaster preparedness (using a novel,15-point scale), and likelihood of reporting to work during various categories of disaster. The primary outcome was personal predicted likelihood of reporting for duty following a disaster. A total of 399 subjects participated in the study. ED staffs were most likely to report for duty in the setting of an earthquake (95 percent) or other natural disaster, followed by an epidemic (90 percent) and were less likely to report for work during a biological, chemical, or a nuclear event (63 percent). Degree of household preparedness was determined to have no association with an ED HCW's predicted likelihood of reporting for duty. Factors associated with predicted absenteeism varied based on type of disaster and included having dependents in the home, female gender, past disaster relief experience, having a spouse or domestic partner, and not owning pets. Having dependents in the home was associated with predicted absenteeism for all disaster types (OR 0.30-0.66). However, when stratified by gender, the presence of

  15. Hospital emergency preparedness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tamara Shefer

    to make informed decisions about prioritising hazards in view of limited resources ... contingency plan, for instance, the Oshikoto Regional Council has identified ..... hospital relies on exercises conducted by the Namibia Airports Company (NAC) ... Small scale exercises can also be done in which certain elements of the plan ...

  16. Connecting communities for climate and disaster risk preparedness ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Climate adaptation and disaster risk management and response are ... not only mitigate impact but to improve preparedness, risk management, and climate resilience. ... including heat stress, water management, and climate-related migration.

  17. Effects of Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Response on Hospital Focusing on Ancillary and Support Services: Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-12

    trauma centers are required to have immediate availability of trauma surgeons, anesthesiologists, physician specialists, nurses , and resuscitation...has emphasized alternative delivery settings, such as outpatient treatments, home health care, and the use of nursing homes. Managed care...hospitals should do to prepare for an influenza pandemic. Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: Biodefense Strategy, Practice, and Science, 4(4), 397-402

  18. The World Trade Center Attack Disaster preparedness: health care is ready, but is the bureaucracy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattox, Kenneth

    2001-01-01

    When a disaster occurs, it is for governments to provide the leadership, civil defense, security, evacuation, and public welfare. The medical aspects of a disaster account for less than 10% of resource and personnel expenditure. Hospitals and health care provider teams respond to unexpected occurrences such as explosions, earthquakes, floods, fires, war, or the outbreak of an infectious epidemic. In some geographic locations where natural disasters are common, such as earthquakes in Japan, such disaster practice drills are common. In other locations, disaster drills become pro forma and have no similarity to real or even projected and predicted disasters. The World Trade Center disaster on 11 September 2001 provides new information, and points out new threats, new information systems, new communication opportunities, and new detection methodologies. It is time for leaders of medicine to re-examine their approaches to disaster preparedness. PMID:11737919

  19. Enhancing Global Health Security: US Africa Command's Disaster Preparedness Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton Hamer, Melinda J; Reed, Paul L; Greulich, Jane D; Beadling, Charles W

    2018-03-07

    US Africa Command's Disaster Preparedness Program (DPP), implemented by the Center for Disaster and Humanitarian Assistance Medicine, partnered with US Government agencies and international organizations to promote stability and security on the African continent by engaging with African Partner Nations' (PN) civil and military authorities to improve disaster management capabilities. From 2008 to 2015, DPP conducted disaster preparedness and response programming with 17 PNs. DPP held a series of engagements with each, including workshops, strategic planning, developing preparedness and response plans, tabletop exercises, and prioritizing disaster management capability gaps identified through the engagements. DPP partners collected data for each PN to further capacity building efforts. Thus far, 9 countries have completed military pandemic plans, 10 have developed national pandemic influenza plans, 9 have developed military support to civil authorities plans, and 11 have developed disaster management strategic work plans. There have been 20 national exercises conducted since 2009. DPP was cited as key in implementation of Ebola response plans in PNs, facilitated development of disaster management agencies in DPP PNs, and trained nearly 800 individuals. DPP enhanced PNs' ability to prepare and respond to crises, fostering relationships between international agencies, and improving civil-military coordination through both national and regional capacity building. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;page 1 of 11).

  20. Rural Community Disaster Preparedness and Risk Perception in Trujillo, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Matthew; Grahmann, Bridget; Fillmore, Ariel; Benson, L Scott

    2017-08-01

    Introduction Disasters will continue to occur throughout the world and it is the responsibility of the government, health care systems, and communities to adequately prepare for potential catastrophic scenarios. Unfortunately, low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs) are especially vulnerable following a disaster. By understanding disaster preparedness and risk perception, interventions can be developed to improve community preparedness and avoid unnecessary mortality and morbidity following a natural disaster. Problem The purpose of this study was to assess disaster preparedness and risk perception in communities surrounding Trujillo, Peru. After designing a novel disaster preparedness and risk perception survey based on guidelines from the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC; Geneva, Switzerland), investigators performed a cross-sectional survey of potentially vulnerable communities surrounding Trujillo, Peru. Data were entered and analyzed utilizing the Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap; Harvard Catalyst; Boston, Massachusetts USA) database. A total of 230 study participants were surveyed, composed of 37% males, 63% females, with ages ranging from 18-85 years old. Those surveyed who had previously experienced a disaster (41%) had a higher perception of future disaster occurrence and potential disaster impact on their community. Overall, the study participants consistently perceived that earthquakes and infection had the highest potential impact of all disasters. Twenty-six percent of participants had an emergency supply of food, 24% had an emergency water plan, 24% had a first aid kit at home, and only 20% of the study participants had an established family evacuation plan. Natural and man-made disasters will remain a threat to the safety and health of communities in all parts of the world, especially within vulnerable communities in LMICs; however, little research has been done to identify disaster perception

  1. Disaster Preparedness Among University Students in Guangzhou, China: Assessment of Status and Demand for Disaster Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yibing; Liao, Xiaolan; Su, Haihao; Li, Chun; Xiang, Jiagen; Dong, Zhaoyang

    2017-06-01

    This study had 2 aims. First, we evaluated the current levels of disaster preparedness among university students in southern China. Second, we assessed students' demands for future disaster education. In addition, we examined the influence of demographic factors on current disaster preparedness status and demand. A cross-sectional design was used. The data were collected from 1893 students in 10 universities in the Guangzhou Higher Education Mega (GHEM) center. A self-administered questionnaire developed for this study was administered to assess the current status and demand for disaster education. The results are based on 1764 valid questionnaires. Among the participants, 77.8% reported having had disaster education experiences before, 85.5% indicated their desire for a systematic disaster course, and 75.4% expressed their willingness to take such a course upon its availability. The total mean score for demand for disaster course content (5-point Likert scale) was 4.17±0.84, with items relating to rescue skills given the highest scores. These results suggested that students had high desires for disaster preparedness knowledge, especially knowledge concerning rescue skills. We observed significant differences in disaster education experiences between male and female students and across programs, school years, and home locations. Furthermore, we observed significant differences in demand for disaster course content between male and female students and across universities, student programs, years of school, and students' majors. A systematic disaster course focused on rescue skills is needed by all types of universities. To improve the disaster education system in universities, disaster drills should be performed on a semester basis as a refresher and to enhance disaster preparedness. The government and universities should support building a simulated disaster rescue center and recruit faculty from the emergency department, especially those who have had disaster

  2. The Effect of Risk Reduction Intervention on Earthquake Disaster Preparedness of the Elderly People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kian Nourozi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Preparedness programs for disaster risk reduction has a positive effect on the elders’ preparedness. Thus, similar multimodal preparedness programs should be used more frequently for this vulnerable community citizens.

  3. Integrating hospitals into community emergency preparedness planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Barbara I; Wineman, Nicole V; Finn, Nicole L; Barbera, Joseph A; Schmaltz, Stephen P; Loeb, Jerod M

    2006-06-06

    Strong community linkages are essential to a health care organization's overall preparedness for emergencies. To assess community emergency preparedness linkages among hospitals, public health officials, and first responders and to investigate the influence of community hazards, previous preparation for an event requiring national security oversight, and experience responding to actual disasters. With expert advice from an advisory panel, a mailed questionnaire was used to assess linkage issues related to training and drills, equipment, surveillance, laboratory testing, surge capacity, incident management, and communication. A simple random sample of 1750 U.S. medical-surgical hospitals. Of 678 hospital representatives that agreed to participate, 575 (33%) completed the questionnaire in early 2004. Respondents were hospital personnel responsible for environmental safety, emergency management, infection control, administration, emergency services, and security. Prevalence and breadth of participation in community-wide planning; examination of 17 basic elements in a weighted analysis. In a weighted analysis, most hospitals (88.2% [95% CI, 84.1% to 92.3%]) engaged in community-wide drills and exercises, and most (82.2% [CI, 77.8% to 86.5%]) conducted a collaborative threat and vulnerability analysis with community responders. Of all respondents, 57.3% (CI, 52.1% to 62.5%) reported that their community plans addressed the hospital's need for additional supplies and equipment, and 73.0% (CI, 68.1% to 77.9%) reported that decontamination capacity needs were addressed. Fewer reported a direct link to the Health Alert Network (54.4% [CI, 49.3% to 59.5%]) and around-the-clock access to a live voice from a public health department (40.0% [CI, 35.0% to 45.0%]). Performance on many of 17 basic elements was better in large and urban hospitals and was associated with a high number of perceived hazards, previous national security event preparation, and experience in actual

  4. Disaster Preparedness, Adaptive Politics and Lifelong Learning: A Case of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Kaori

    2016-01-01

    Preparedness for disaster scenarios is progressively becoming an educational agenda for governments because of diversifying risks and threats worldwide. In disaster-prone Japan, disaster preparedness has been a prioritised national agenda, and preparedness education has been undertaken in both formal schooling and lifelong learning settings. This…

  5. Perceptions of disaster preparedness among older people in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Myoungran; Lee, Mijung; Tullmann, Dorothy

    2016-03-01

    Older people are a major vulnerable population. During disasters, given their physical frailty, lower social status, loss of medications and medical care, the vulnerability of older people increases. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of older people in Korea on various aspects of disaster preparedness to better understand their special needs and to facilitate appropriate disaster planning. The study was qualitative and used focus group interviews with 12 older people in one major city and one rural area of South Korea. Four themes were identified by the analysis of the interviews: defenceless state, reality of accepting limitations, strong will to live, importance of disaster preparedness governmental efforts for the older people. Findings indicated that preparation of shelters and transportation was critical to help older people survive in times of disasters and suggested that there should be active involvement of the government in terms of disaster planning, managing and preparing older people for disasters. In addition, healthy older people can be assets to disaster relief efforts by providing practical and emotional support for the most fragile older people. Older people can also provide knowledge of their special needs to the government to improve their disaster response policy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Disaster Risk Reduction through school learners’ awareness and preparedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takalani S. Rambau

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2006, the ISDR (International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (2007 initiated a campaign called Disaster Risk Reduction Begins at School to encourage the integration of disaster risk education into school curricula in countries vulnerable to disasters. A study was initiated to determine how education, in particular curriculum development and teaching, contributes to South African learners’ hazard awareness and disaster preparedness. Mixed method research (consisting of questionnaires, interviews and document reviews was done to collect data. 150 educators from Gauteng, the Western Cape, KwaZulu-Natal, North West and the Eastern Cape completed questionnaires. Five curriculum coordinators, three disaster specialists and two disaster lecturers were interviewed to record their perspectives. The first finding of the study was that the majority of educators, disaster specialists and curriculum coordinators identified floods, fire, droughts, epidemics, road accidents and storms as the most prevalent disasters in the country. The second finding from the literature and empirical data collection revealed that South African communities, particularly people residing in informal settlements and other poor areas, are more vulnerable to disasters than their counterparts in more affluent areas. The third finding of the study was that teaching learners about hazards and disasters is vital and must be expanded.

  7. Records and Information Disaster Preparedness in Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study looked at the availability of rules and regulations governing access to and use of records; threats to records management; disaster response plan; extent to which organizations are committed in four major stages of disaster management in organizations in Uganda. In gathering the data, structured questionnaire ...

  8. Keyword: help! Online resources for disaster preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Amadie H; Cushman, Margaret J

    2002-01-01

    Health care organizations such as home care agencies should have post-disaster contingency plans in place that include contacts with the local, county, or state emergency management office, local branch of the Red Cross, and a clearly identified point person within the agency to coordinate disaster response efforts. Home care agencies must plan for the far-reaching effects that disasters can have on people in the community. This article provides some online resources to help you, your organization, and your family prepare for unexpected events.

  9. Social capital and disaster preparedness among low income Mexican Americans in a disaster prone area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reininger, Belinda M; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Lee, Minjae; Chen, Zhongxue; Alam, Sartaj R; Pope, Jennifer; Adams, Barbara

    2013-04-01

    Examination of social capital and its relationship to disaster preparedness has grown in prominence partially due to world-wide need to effectively respond to terrorist attacks, viral epidemics, or natural disasters. Recent studies suggested that social capital may be related to a community's ability to plan for and respond to such disasters. Few studies, however, have examined social capital constructs among low income populations living in disaster prone areas and accounted for the influence of social capital at the individual and community level. We examined social capital as measured by perceived fairness, perceived civic trust, perceived reciprocity and group membership. We undertook a multistage random cluster survey in three coastal counties in Texas (U.S.) noted for their high levels of poverty. Individuals from 3088 households provided data on social capital, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, and self-reported level of preparedness for a hurricane. We used multivariable logistic regression to test potential associations between social capital measures and disaster preparedness. After adjusting for age, gender, marital status, ethnicity, education, employment, household income, acculturation, self-reported health, special needs persons in household, household size, and distance to the shore we found a higher prevalence of preparedness among individuals who reported the highest perception of fairness [AOR = 3.12, 95% CI: (1.86, 5.21)] compared to those individuals who reported lowest perceptions of fairness. We also found a higher prevalence of preparedness [AOR = 2.06; 95% CI: (1.17, 3.62)] among individuals who reported highest perceptions of trust compared to individuals who reported lowest perceptions of trust. Perceived reciprocity and group membership were not associated with preparedness. These results extend previous findings on social capital and disaster preparedness and further characterize social capital's presence among a low

  10. Disaster Preparedness Knowledge, Beliefs, Risk-Perceptions, and Mitigating Factors of Disaster Preparedness Behaviors of Undergraduate Students at a Large Midwest University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Stacy

    2017-01-01

    Disaster preparedness is a national public health concern. The risk of individuals and communities affected by a natural disaster has increased, and unfortunately this trend is expected to continue. College students could play a primary role in responding to and recovering from a major disaster if they have sufficiently prepared for a disaster. A…

  11. The South Dakota Model: Health Care Professions Student Disaster Preparedness and Deployment Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Matt P; Buffington, Cheri; Frost, Michael P; Waldner, Randall J

    2017-12-01

    The Association of American Medical Colleges recommended an increase in medical education for public health emergencies, bioterrorism, and weapons of mass destruction in 2003. The University of South Dakota Sanford School of Medicine (USD SSOM) implemented a 1-day training event to provide disaster preparedness training and deployment organization for health professions students called Disaster Training Day (DTD). Hospital staff and emergency medical services personnel provided the lecture portion of DTD using Core Disaster Life Support (CDLS; National Disaster Life Support Foundation) as the framework. Pre-test and post-test analyses were presented to the students. Small group activities covered leadership, anaphylaxis, mass fatality, points of dispensing deployment training, psychological first aid, triage, and personal protective equipment. Students were given the option to sign up for statewide deployment through the South Dakota Statewide Emergency Registry of Volunteers (SERV SD). DTD data and student satisfaction surveys from 2009 to 2016 were reviewed. Since 2004, DTD has provided disaster preparedness training to 2246 students across 13 health professions. Significant improvement was shown on CDLS post-test performance with a t-score of -14.24 and a resulting P value of training, small group sessions, and perceived self-competency relating to disaster response. SERV SD registration increased in 2015, and 77.5% of the participants registered in 2016. DTD at the USD SSOM provides for an effective 1-day disaster training course for health professions students. Resources from around the state were coordinated to provide training, liability coverage, and deployment organization for hundreds of students representing multiple health professions. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:735-740).

  12. Disaster Medicine : From Preparedness to Follow up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marres, G.M.H.

    2011-01-01

    Providing optimal care for a sudden, unexpected large amount of victims from a disaster or major incident is challenging. It requires an approach different from regular traumacare. The population as a whole, rather than the individual, should be the focus of management. This thesis focuses on

  13. Hospitals Capability in Response to Disasters Considering Surge Capacity Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Khademipour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The man-made and natural disasters have adverse effects with sound, apparent, and unknown consequences. Among various components of disaster management in health sector, the most important role is performed by health-treatment systems, especially hospitals. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the surge capacity of hospitals of Kerman Province in disaster in 2015. Materials and Methods: This is a quantitative study, conducted on private, military, and medical sciences hospitals of Kerman Province. The sampling method was total count and data collection for the research was done by questionnaire. The first section of the questionnaire included demographic information of the studied hospitals and second part examined the hospital capacity in response to disasters in 4 fields of equipment, physical space, human resources, and applied programs. The extracted data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Results: The mean capability of implementing the surge capacity programs by hospitals of Kerman Province in disasters and in 4 fields of equipment, physical space, human resources, and applied programs was evaluated as 7.33% (weak. The surge capacity capability of state hospitals in disasters was computed as 8% and compared to private hospitals (6.07% had a more suitable condition. Conclusion: Based on the results of study and significance of preparedness of hospitals in response to disasters, it is proposed that managers of studied hospitals take measures to promote the hospital response capacity to disasters based on 4 components of increasing hospital capacity.

  14. Nurses’ roles, knowledge and experience in national disaster pre-paredness and emergency response: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Grochtdreis

    2016-12-01

    Results: The sub-themes of the first main theme (a roles of nurses during emergency response include the expectations of the hospital and the public, general and special roles of nurses, assignments of medical tasks, special role during a pandemic influenza, role conflicts during a disaster, willingness to respond to a disaster. For (b disaster preparedness knowledge of nurses, the corresponding sub-themes include the definition of a disaster, core competencies and curriculum, undergraduate nursing education and continuing education programs, disaster drills, training and exercises, preparedness. The sub-themes for the last theme (c disaster experiences of nurses include the work environment, nursing care, feelings, stressors, willingness to respond as well as lessons learned and impacts. Conclusion: There is consensus in the literature that nurses are key players in emergency response. However, no clear mandate for nurses exists concerning their tasks during a disaster. For a nurse, to be able to respond to a disaster, personal and professional preparedness, in terms of education and training, are central. The Framework of Disaster Nursing Competencies of the WHO and ICN, broken down into national core competencies, will serve as a sufficient complement to the knowledge and skills of nurses already acquired through basic nursing curricula. During and after a disaster, attention should be applied to the work environment, feelings and stressors of nurses, not only to raise the willingness to respond to a disaster. Where non-existent, national directives and concepts for disaster nursing should be developed and nurses should be aware of their duties. Nursing educators should prepare nurses for disasters, by adjusting the curricula and by meeting the increased need for education and training in disaster nursing for all groups of nurses. The appropriateness of theoretical and practical preparation of disaster nursing competencies in undergraduate nursing courses and

  15. Radiological incident preparedness for community hospitals: a demonstration project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Mary Ellen

    2010-08-01

    In November 2007, the Wisconsin Division of Public Health Hospital Disaster Preparedness Program State Expert Panel on Radiation Emergencies issued a report titled The Management of Patients in a Radiological Incident. Gundersen Lutheran Health System was selected to conduct a demonstration project to implement the recommendations in that report. A comprehensive radiological incident response plan was developed and implemented in the hospital's Trauma and Emergency Center, including the purchase and installation of radiation detection and identification equipment, staff education and training, a tabletop exercise, and three mock incident test exercises. The project demonstrated that the State Expert Panel report provides a flexible template that can be implemented at community hospitals using existing staff for an approximate cost of $25,000.

  16. Disaster Preparedness among Health Professionals and Support Staff: What is Effective? An Integrative Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowing, Jeremy R; Walker, Kim N; Elmer, Shandell L; Cummings, Elizabeth A

    2017-06-01

    Introduction It is important that health professionals and support staff are prepared for disasters to safeguard themselves and the community during disasters. There has been a significantly heightened focus on disasters since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 in New York (USA); however, despite this, it is evident that health professionals and support staff may not be adequately prepared for disasters. Report An integrative literature review was performed based on a keyword search of the major health databases for primary research evaluating preparedness of health professionals and support staff. The literature was quality appraised using a mixed-methods appraisal tool (MMAT), and a thematic analysis was completed to identify current knowledge and gaps. Discussion The main themes identified were: health professionals and support staff may not be fully prepared for disasters; the most effective content and methods for disaster preparedness is unknown; and the willingness of health professionals and support staff to attend work and perform during disasters needs further evaluation. Gaps were identified to guide further research and the creation of new knowledge to best prepare for disasters. These included the need for: high-quality research to evaluate the best content and methods of disaster preparedness; inclusion of the multi-disciplinary health care team as participants; preparation for internal disasters; the development of validated competencies for preparedness; validated tools for measurement; and the importance of performance in actual disasters to evaluate preparation. The literature identified that all types of disaster preparedness activities lead to improvements in knowledge, skills, or attitude preparedness for disasters. Most studies focused on external disasters and the preparedness of medical, nursing, public health, or paramedic professionals. There needs to be a greater focus on the whole health care team, including allied health

  17. Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Response: There's An App for That.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Daniel J; Jamison, Nathan K; Martin, Andrew; Delgado, Jose; Kman, Nicholas E

    2015-10-01

    Smartphone applications (or apps) are becoming increasingly popular with emergency responders and health care providers, as well as the public as a whole. There are thousands of medical apps available for Smartphones and tablet computers, with more added each day. These include apps to view textbooks, guidelines, medication databases, medical calculators, and radiology images. Hypothesis/Problem With an ever expanding catalog of apps that relate to disaster medicine, it is hard for both the lay public and responders to know where to turn for effective Smartphone apps. A systematic review of these apps was conducted. A search of the Apple iTunes store (Version 12; Apple Inc.; Cupertino, California USA) was performed using the following terms obtained from the PubMed Medical Subject Headings Database: Emergency Preparedness, Emergency Responders, Disaster, Disaster Planning, Disaster Medicine, Bioterrorism, Chemical Terrorism, Hazardous Materials (HazMat), and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). After excluding any unrelated apps, a working list of apps was formed and categorized based on topics. Apps were grouped based on applicability to responders, the lay public, or regional preparedness, and were then ranked based on iTunes user reviews, value, relevance to audience, and user interface. This search revealed 683 applications and was narrowed to 219 based on relevance to the field. After grouping the apps as described above, and subsequently ranking them, the highest quality apps were determined from each group. The Community Emergency Response Teams and FEMA had the best apps for National Disaster Medical System responders. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) had high-quality apps for emergency responders in a variety of fields. The National Library of Medicine's Wireless Information System for Emergency Responders (WISER) app was an excellent app for HazMat responders. The American Red Cross had the most useful apps for natural

  18. Earth Girl Volcano: An Interactive Game for Disaster Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerlow, Isaac

    2017-04-01

    Earth Girl Volcano is an interactive casual strategy game for disaster preparedness. The project is designed for mainstream audiences, particularly for children, as an engaging and fun way to learn about volcano hazards. Earth Girl is a friendly character that kids can easily connect with and she helps players understand how to best minimize volcanic risk. Our previous award-winning game, Earth Girl Tsunami, has seen success on social media, and is available as a free app for both Android and iOS tables and large phones in seven languages: Indonesian, Thai, Tamil, Japanese, Chinese, Spanish, French and English. This is the first public viewing of the Earth Girl Volcano new game prototype.

  19. Challenges of the New Zealand healthcare disaster preparedness prior to the Canterbury earthquakes: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shaqsi, Sultan; Gauld, Robin; Lovell, Sarah; McBride, David; Al-Kashmiri, Ammar; Al-Harthy, Abdullah

    2013-03-15

    Disasters are a growing global phenomenon. New Zealand has suffered several major disasters in recent times. The state of healthcare disaster preparedness in New Zealand prior to the Canterbury earthquakes is not well documented. To investigate the challenges of the New Zealand healthcare disaster preparedness prior to the Canterbury earthquakes. Semi-structured interviews with emergency planners in all the District Health Boards (DHBs) in New Zealand in the period between January and March 2010. The interview protocol revolved around the domains of emergency planning adopted by the World Health Organization. Seventeen interviews were conducted. The main themes included disinterest of clinical personnel in emergency planning, the need for communication backup, the integration of private services in disaster preparedness, the value of volunteers, the requirement for regular disaster training, and the need to enhance surge capability of the New Zealand healthcare system to respond to disasters. Prior to the Canterbury earthquakes, healthcare disaster preparedness faced multiple challenges. Despite these challenges, New Zealand's healthcare response was adequate. Future preparedness has to consider the lessons learnt from the 2011 earthquakes to improve healthcare disaster planning in New Zealand.

  20. Assessment of Environmental Literacy, Concern and Disaster Preparedness Among College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Rosario Clarabel C. Contreras

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate change adversely brings about uncontrollable, unpredictable natural calamities. Municipality of Calinog, strategically located at the center of Panay Island, has its share of environmental hazard nightmares. Thus, it is deemed necessary to assess students’ environmental knowledge, concern and disaster preparedness. Participants were 293 students of West Visayas State University Calinog for AY 2012-13. Modified, partly adapted instrument attempted to collect information from respondents. Statistical tools used- Mean; Standard Deviation; t-test; One-Way ANOVA; and Pearson’s r. Respondents’ level of environmental literacy and concern are “knowledgeable” and “very concerned” respectively. Level of disaster preparedness was “most often prepared” in all variables except to course. Significant relationships between the environmental literacy and concern; and between environmental literacy and disaster preparedness have been observed. Generally, students are environmentally literate, concerned, prepared during disasters occurrence. Significant variations occur in environmental literacy, concern, and disaster preparedness among respondents categorized according to course while no variations occurred among others. Environmental literacy is associated with environmental concern and disaster preparedness while environmental concern not associated with disaster preparedness. Hence, educational institutions must do their share.

  1. Hospital Preparedness to Respond to Biological and Chemical Terrorist Attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florin, P.

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing concern about the terrorist use of chemical or biological agents against civilian population. A large proportion of hospitals are probably poorly prepared to handle victims of chemical or biological terrorism. At national level, starting with 2008 hospitals will be under the administration and control of local authorities. That is good opportunities for local authorities and public health office to tailor the activity of the hospitals to the real needs in the area of responsibility, and to allocate the suitable budget for them. Commonly hospitals are not fully prepared to respond to massive casualty disaster of any kind, either i their capacity to care for large numbers of victims or in their ability to provide care in coordination with a regional or national incident command structure. Preparedness activities to respond properly to chemical or biological attack including the adequate logistic, the principle of training and drill for the hospital emergency units and medical personal, communication and integration of the hospital team in local and regional civil response team are developed by the author.(author)

  2. Households’ Natural Disaster Preparedness: A View from a Second Class Municipality in a Developing Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo T. Bagarinao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The increasing frequency of natural disasters occurrence and severity of climate change impacts in recent years makes disaster preparedness a vital decision among households especially in developing countries like the Philippines. The study was conducted to characterize households' respondents through the use of selected socio-demographic variables. It also aimed to determine their adoption of pre-determined disaster preparedness plans and if an empirical relationship could be established between the adoption of a plan and the selected household socio-demographic variables. Using a stimulus-response framework, a natural disaster preparedness survey protocol with emphasis on households' preparedness plans was developed and implemented from May-July 2015 in one of the typhoon and flood-prone municipalities in the Philippines. With 577 respondents, the average households in the study site consist of 5 members, are below estimated poverty threshold, and residing in the area for more than 30 years. There is variability on the relationships between the socio-demographic characteristic of the respondents and their decision to adopt disaster preparedness plans. These findings call for the expansion of the current climate change adaptation and disaster risk management programs and initiatives of the municipality to include enhancement of households' capacity to prepare and deal with impacts of natural disasters.

  3. Legal preparedness: care of the critically ill and injured during pandemics and disasters: CHEST consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Brooke; Hodge, James G; Toner, Eric S; Roxland, Beth E; Penn, Matthew S; Devereaux, Asha V; Dichter, Jeffrey R; Kissoon, Niranjan; Christian, Michael D; Powell, Tia

    2014-10-01

    hospitals and practitioners who act in good faith from liability. Finally, to address anticipated staffing shortages during severe and prolonged disasters and pandemics, governments should develop approaches to formally expand the availability of qualified health-care workers, such as through using official foreign medical teams. As a fundamental element of health-care and public health emergency planning and preparedness, the law underlies critical aspects of disaster and pandemic responses. Effective responses require comprehensive advance planning efforts that include assessments of complex legal issues and authorities. Recent disasters have shown that although law is a critical response tool, it can also be used to hold health-care stakeholders who fail to appropriately plan for or respond to disasters and pandemics accountable for resulting patient or staff harm. Claims of liability from harms allegedly suffered during disasters and pandemics cannot be avoided altogether. However, appropriate planning and legal protections can help facilitate sound, consistent decision-making and support response participation among health-care entities and practitioners.

  4. Preparedness for Protecting the Health of Community-Dwelling Vulnerable Elderly People in Eastern and Western Japan in the Event of Natural Disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukasaki, Keiko; Kanzaki, Hatsumi; Kyota, Kaoru; Ichimori, Akie; Omote, Shizuko; Okamoto, Rie; Kido, Teruhiko; Sakakibara, Chiaki; Makimoto, Kiyoko; Nomura, Atsuko; Miyamoto, Yukari

    2016-01-01

    We clarified the preparedness necessary to protect the health of community-dwelling vulnerable elderly people following natural disasters. We collected data from 304 community general support centres throughout Japan. We found the following in particular to be challenging: availability of disaster-preparedness manuals; disaster countermeasures and management systems; creation of lists of people requiring assistance following a disaster; evacuation support systems; development of plans for health management following disasters; provision of disaster-preparedness guidance and training; disaster-preparedness systems in the community; disaster information management; the preparedness of older people themselves in requiring support; and support from other community residents.

  5. Emergency and disaster preparedness for chronically ill patients: a review of recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomio J

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jun Tomio,1 Hajime Sato2 1Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Health Policy and Technology Assessment, National Institute of Public Health, Wako, Japan Abstract: Recent disasters, especially those in developed countries, have highlighted the importance of disaster preparedness measures for chronic diseases. A number of surviving patients experienced the exacerbation of a chronic illness, such as hypertension, diabetes, cancer, and chronic respiratory diseases, due to disaster-related stress, interruption of care, or both; for some patients, these exacerbations resulted in death. Here, we review reports from recent disasters in developed countries and summarize the recommendations for disaster preparedness of chronically ill patients. A considerable number of recommendations based on the lessons learned from recent disasters have been developed, and they provide practical and essential steps to prevent treatment interruption during and after a disaster. To improve preparedness efforts, we suggest that health care providers should be aware of the following three suggestions: 1 recommendations should be evidence-based; 2 recommendations should contain consistent messages; and 3 recommendations should be feasible. Keywords: disaster, chronic illness, preparedness

  6. Disaster Coverage Predication for the Emerging Tethered Balloon Technology: Capability for Preparedness, Detection, Mitigation, and Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsamhi, Saeed H; Samar Ansari, Mohd; Rajput, Navin S

    2018-04-01

    A disaster is a consequence of natural hazards and terrorist acts, which have significant potential to disrupt the entire wireless communication infrastructure. Therefore, the essential rescue squads and recovery operations during a catastrophic event will be severely debilitated. To provide efficient communication services, and to reduce casualty mortality and morbidity during the catastrophic events, we proposed the Tethered Balloon technology for disaster preparedness, detection, mitigation, and recovery assessment. The proposed Tethered Balloon is applicable to any type of disaster except for storms. The Tethered Balloon is being actively researched and developed as a simple solution to improve the performance of rescues, facilities, and services of emergency medical communication in the disaster area. The most important requirement for rescue and relief teams during or after the disaster is a high quality of service of delivery communication services to save people's lives. Using our proposed technology, we report that the Tethered Balloon has a large disaster coverage area. Therefore, the rescue and research teams are given higher priority, and their performance significantly improved in the particular coverage area. Tethered Balloon features made it suitable for disaster preparedness, mitigation, and recovery. The performance of rescue and relief teams was effective and efficient before and after the disaster as well as can be continued to coordinate the relief teams until disaster recovery. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:222-231).

  7. Examining the importance of incorporating emergency preparedness and disaster training core competencies into allied health curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Tammy

    2015-01-01

    Preparation for responding to emergency events that does not warrant outside help beyond the local community resources or responding to disaster events that is beyond the capabilities of the local community both require first responders and healthcare professionals to have interdisciplinary skills needed to function as a team for saving lives. To date, there is no core emergency preparedness and disaster planning competencies that have been standardized at all levels across the various allied health curricula disciplines. To identify if emergency preparedness and disaster training content are currently being taught in allied health program courses, to identify possible gaps within allied health curricula, and to explore the perceptions of allied health college educators for implementing emergency preparedness and disaster training core competencies into their existing curricula, if not already included. A quantitative Internet-based survey was conducted in 2013. Convenient sample. Fifty-one allied health college educators completed the survey. Descriptive statistics indicated that the majority of allied health college instructors do not currently teach emergency preparedness and disaster training core competency content within their current allied health discipline; however, their perceived level of importance for inclusion of the competencies was high. The results of this study supported the need for developing and establishing a basic national set of standardized core emergency preparedness and disaster planning competencies at all levels across various allied health curricula disciplines to ensure victims receive the best patient care and have the best possible chance of survival.

  8. Educational competencies and technologies for disaster preparedness in undergraduate nursing education: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Mini M; Dufrene, Claudine

    2014-04-01

    This integrative review of literature was conducted to determine (1) what are the suitable disaster preparedness competencies for undergraduate nursing curriculum? and (2) what are the suitable methods of instruction to deliver disaster preparedness content? A literature search was conducted on three major electronic databases: Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed and the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) using the keywords; Disaster Preparedness, Disaster and nursing education; disaster response and nursing education. Limiters used were published within the last 10 years and in nursing field. Out of the 190 articles retrieved, eight were research articles that met the inclusion criteria. These articles were carefully reviewed and the results are summarized in two sections to answer the research questions. There was no uniformity of intended competencies among the studies, though all studies used resources from reputed national and international organizations. All the studies reviewed adhered to a systematic approach in delivering content and used eclectic methods including multiple technologies to enhance the educational outcomes. Most of the studies had incorporated simulation in different ways involving low to high fidelity simulators, virtual simulation and live actors. Content and length of the programs were greatly varied but stayed focused on the general principles of disaster management and appropriate for the level of the students within the programs. More rigorous research is needed in this area since all published articles had deficiencies in the methodologies, especially in data collection and analysis. Disaster preparedness education was found to be a suitable activity for interprofessional education. © 2013.

  9. Is previous disaster experience a good predictor for disaster preparedness in extreme poverty households in remote Muslim minority based community in China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Emily Y Y; Kim, Jean H; Lin, Cherry; Cheung, Eliza Y L; Lee, Polly P Y

    2014-06-01

    Disaster preparedness is an important preventive strategy for protecting health and mitigating adverse health effects of unforeseen disasters. A multi-site based ethnic minority project (2009-2015) is set up to examine health and disaster preparedness related issues in remote, rural, disaster prone communities in China. The primary objective of this reported study is to examine if previous disaster experience significantly increases household disaster preparedness levels in remote villages in China. A cross-sectional, household survey was conducted in January 2011 in Gansu Province, in a predominately Hui minority-based village. Factors related to disaster preparedness were explored using quantitative methods. Two focus groups were also conducted to provide additional contextual explanations to the quantitative findings of this study. The village household response rate was 62.4 % (n = 133). Although previous disaster exposure was significantly associated with perception of living in a high disaster risk area (OR = 6.16), only 10.7 % households possessed a disaster emergency kit. Of note, for households with members who had non-communicable diseases, 9.6 % had prepared extra medications to sustain clinical management of their chronic conditions. This is the first study that examined disaster preparedness in an ethnic minority population in remote communities in rural China. Our results indicate the need of disaster mitigation education to promote preparedness in remote, resource-poor communities.

  10. Preparedness for natural disasters among older US adults: a nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rousan, Tala M; Rubenstein, Linda M; Wallace, Robert B

    2015-10-01

    We sought to determine natural disaster preparedness levels among older US adults and assess factors that may adversely affect health and safety during such incidents. We sampled adults aged 50 years or older (n = 1304) from the 2010 interview survey of the Health and Retirement Study. The survey gathered data on general demographic characteristics, disability status or functional limitations, and preparedness-related factors and behaviors. We calculated a general disaster preparedness score by using individual indicators to assess overall preparedness. Participant (n = 1304) mean age was 70 years (SD = 9.3). Only 34.3% reported participating in an educational program or reading materials about disaster preparation. Nearly 15% reported using electrically powered medical devices that might be at risk in a power outage. The preparedness score indicated that increasing age, physical disability, and lower educational attainment and income were independently and significantly associated with worse overall preparedness. Despite both greater vulnerability to disasters and continuous growth in the number of older US adults, many of the substantial problems discovered are remediable and require attention in the clinical, public health, and emergency management sectors of society.

  11. [Preparedness for natural disasters among older US adults: a nationwide survery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-rousan, Tala M; Rubenstein, Linda M; Wallace, Robert B

    2014-12-01

    We sought to determine natural disaster preparedness levels among older US adults and assess factors that may adversely affect health and safety during such incidents. We sampled adults aged 50 years or older (n = 1 304) from the 2010 interview survey of the Health and Retirement Study. The survey gathered data on general demographic characteristics, disability status or functional limitations, and preparedness-related factors and behaviors. We calculated a general disaster preparedness score by using individual indicators to assess overall preparedness. Participant (n = 1 304) mean age was 70 years (SD = 9.3). Only 34.3% reported participating in an educational program or reading materials about disaster preparation. Nearly 15% reported using electrically powered medical devices that might be at risk in a power outage. The preparedness score indicated that increasing age, physical disability, and lower educational attainment and income were independently and significantly associated with worse overall preparedness. Despite both greater vulnerability to disasters and continuous growth in the number of older US adults, many of the substantial problems discovered are remediable and require attention in the clinical, public health, and emergency management sectors of society.

  12. Flood disaster preparedness: a retrospect from Grand Forks, North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siders, C; Jacobson, R

    1998-01-01

    Natural disasters often come without warning. The clinical, financial, and business risks can be enormous. Grand Forks' (ND) healthcare systems experienced a flooding disaster of unprecedented proportions in April of 1997. Planned and practiced disaster and evacuation procedures can significantly reduce a healthcare facilities' risk to life, health, and safety. This article retrospectively analyzes disaster preparation and the complete evacuation of the facilities' patients.

  13. Promoting Disaster Science and Disaster Science Communities as Part of Sound Disaster Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNutt, M. K.

    2015-12-01

    During disasters, effectively engaging the vast expertise of the academic community can help responders make timely and critical decisions. A barrier to such engagement, however, is the cultural gap between reward systems in academia and in the disaster response community. Responders often are focused on ending the emergency quickly with minimal damage. Academic scientists often need to produce peer reviewed publications to justify their use of time and money. Each community is used to speaking to different audiences, and delivering answers on their own time scales. One approach to bridge this divide is to foster a cohesive community of interdisciplinary disaster scientists: researchers who focus on crises that severely and negatively disrupt the environment or threaten human health, and are able to apply scientific methods in a timely manner to understand how to prevent, mitigate, respond to, or recover from such events. Once organized, a disaster science community could develop its own unique culture. It is well known in the disaster response community that all the preparation that takes place before an event ever occurs is what truly makes the difference in reducing response time, improving coordination, and ultimately reducing impacts. In the same vein, disaster scientists would benefit from consistently interacting with the response community. The advantage of building a community for all disasters, rather than for just one type, is that it will help researchers maintain momentum between emergencies, which may be decades or more apart. Every disaster poses similar challenges: Knowing when to speak to the press and what to say; how to get rapid, actionable peer review; how to keep proprietary industry information confidential; how to develop "no regrets" actions; and how to communicate with decision makers and the public. During the Deepwater Horizonspill, I personally worked with members of the academic research community who cared not whether they got a peer

  14. Insuring against earthquakes: simulating the cost-effectiveness of disaster preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hoop, Thomas; Ruben, Ruerd

    2010-04-01

    Ex-ante measures to improve risk preparedness for natural disasters are generally considered to be more effective than ex-post measures. Nevertheless, most resources are allocated after an event in geographical areas that are vulnerable to natural disasters. This paper analyses the cost-effectiveness of ex-ante adaptation measures in the wake of earthquakes and provides an assessment of the future role of private and public agencies in disaster risk management. The study uses a simulation model approach to evaluate consumption losses after earthquakes under different scenarios of intervention. Particular attention is given to the role of activity diversification measures in enhancing disaster preparedness and the contributions of (targeted) microcredit and education programmes for reconstruction following a disaster. Whereas the former measures are far more cost-effective, missing markets and perverse incentives tend to make ex-post measures a preferred option, thus occasioning underinvestment in ex-ante adaptation initiatives.

  15. Complete self-sufficiency planning: designing and building disaster-ready hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brands, Chad K; Hernandez, Raquel G; Stenberg, Arnold; Carnes, Gary; Ellen, Jonathan; Epstein, Michael; Strouse, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    The need for healthcare systems and academic medical centers to be optimally prepared in the event of a disaster is well documented. Events such as Hurricane Katrina demonstrate a major gap in disaster preparedness for at-risk medical institutions. To address this gap, we outline the components of complete self-sufficiency planning in designing and building hospitals that will function at full operational capacity in the event of a disaster. We review the processes used and outcomes achieved in building a new critical access, freestanding children's hospital in Florida. Given that hurricanes are the most frequently occurring natural disaster in Florida, the executive leadership of our hospital determined that we should be prepared for worst-case scenarios in the design and construction of a new hospital. A comprehensive vulnerability assessment was performed. A building planning process that engaged all of the stakeholders was used during the planning and design phases. Subsequent executive-level review and discussions determined that a disaster would require the services of a fully functional hospital. Lessons learned from our own institution's previous experiences and those of medical centers involved in the Hurricane Katrina disaster were informative and incorporated into an innovative set of hospital design elements used for construction of a new hospital with full operational capacity in a disaster. A freestanding children's hospital was constructed using a new framework for disaster planning and preparedness that we have termed complete self-sufficiency planning. We propose the use of complete self-sufficiency planning as a best practice for disaster preparedness in the design and construction of new hospital facilities.

  16. Y2K medical disaster preparedness in New York City: confidence of emergency department directors in their ability to respond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, S H; Oster, N; Simmons, B; Garrett, C

    2001-01-01

    To study the preparedness New York City for large scale medical disasters using the Year 2000 (Y2K) New Years Eve weekend as a model. Surveys were sent to the directors of 51 of the 9-1-1-receiving hospitals in New York City before and after the Y2K weekend. Inquiries were made regarding hospital activities, contingencies, protocols, and confidence levels in the ability to manage critical incidents, including weapons of mass destruction (WMD) events. Additional information was collected from New York City governmental agencies regarding their coordination and preparedness. The pre-Y2K survey identified that 97.8% had contingencies for loss of essential services, 87.0% instituted their disaster plan in advance, 90.0% utilized an Incident Command System, and 73.9% had a live, mock Y2K drill. Potential terrorism influenced Y2K preparedness in 84.8%. The post-Y2K survey indicated that the threat of terrorism influenced future preparedness in 73.3%; 73.3% had specific protocols for chemical; 62.2% for biological events; 51.1% were not or only slightly confident in their ability to manage any potential WMD incidents; and 62.2% felt very or moderately confident in their ability to manage victims of a chemical event, but only 35.6% felt similarly about victims of a biological incident. Moreover, 80% felt there should be government standards for hospital preparedness for events involving WMD, and 84% felt there should be government standards for personal protective and DECON equipment. In addition, 82.2% would require a moderate to significant amount of funding to effect the standards. Citywide disaster management was coordinated through the Mayor's Office of Emergency Management. Although hospitals were on a heightened state of alert, emergency department directors were not confident in their ability to evaluate and manage victims of WMD incidents, especially biological exposures. The New York City experience is an example for the rest of the nation to underscore the need

  17. Republic of Senegal Disaster Preparedness and Response Exercise: Lessons Learned and Progress Toward Key Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton Hamer, Melinda J; Jordan, John J; Reed, Paul L; Greulich, Jane D; Gaye, Dame B; Beadling, Charles W

    2017-04-01

    The Republic of Senegal Disaster Preparedness and Response Exercise was held from June 2-6, 2014, in Dakar, Senegal. The goal was to assist in familiarizing roles and responsibilities within 3 existing plans and to update the National Disaster Management Strategic Work Plan. There were 60 participants in the exercise, which was driven by a series of evolving disaster scenarios. During the separate Disaster Management Strategic Work Plan review, participants refined a list of projects, including specific tasks to provide a "road map" for completing each project, project timelines, and estimated resource requirements. Project staff administered a survey to conference participants. A total of 86% of respondents had improved knowledge of Senegal disaster plans as a result of the exercise. A total of 89% of respondents had a better understanding of their ministry's role in disaster response, and 92% had a better understanding of the role of the military during a pandemic. Participants also generated ideas for disaster management system improvement in Senegal through a formal "gap analysis." Participants were in strong agreement that the exercise helped them to better understand the contents of their disaster response plans, build relationships across ministerial lines, and effectively enhance future disaster response efforts. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:183-189).

  18. A political economy analysis of decision-making on natural disaster preparedness in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rono-Bett, Karen C

    2018-01-01

    Most deaths from natural disasters occur in low- or middle-income countries; among them, countries in the Horn of Africa - where Kenya lies. Between September 2015 and September 2016, 23.4 million people in this region faced food insecurity because of the 2015 El Niño, characterised by floods and droughts. The importance of effective government decision-making on preparedness and response are critical to saving lives during such disasters. But this decision-making process occurs in a political context which is marred by uncertainty with other factors at play. Yet, good practice requires making investments on a 'no-regrets' basis. This article looks at the factors influencing Kenya's decision-making process for natural disasters, the preparedness for the 2015 El Niño as a case study. I explored what stakeholders understand by 'no-regrets investments' and its application. I assessed financial allocations by government and donors to disaster preparedness. Based on key informant interviews, focus group discussions and financial analyses, this article presents evidence at national and subnational levels. The findings indicate that in making decisions relating to preparedness, the government seeks information primarily from sources it trusts - other government departments, its communities and the media. With no existing legal frameworks guiding Kenya's disaster preparedness, the coordination of preparedness is not strong. It appears that there is a lack of political will to prioritise these frameworks. The no-regrets approach is applied predominantly by non-state actors. Because there have been 'non-events' in the past, government has become overcautious in committing resources on a no-regrets basis. Government allocation to preparedness exceeds donor funding by almost tenfold.

  19. A political economy analysis of decision-making on natural disaster preparedness in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen C. Rono-Bett

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Most deaths from natural disasters occur in low- or middle-income countries; among them, countries in the Horn of Africa – where Kenya lies. Between September 2015 and September 2016, 23.4 million people in this region faced food insecurity because of the 2015 El Niño, characterised by floods and droughts. The importance of effective government decision-making on preparedness and response are critical to saving lives during such disasters. But this decision-making process occurs in a political context which is marred by uncertainty with other factors at play. Yet, good practice requires making investments on a ‘no-regrets’ basis. This article looks at the factors influencing Kenya’s decision-making process for natural disasters, the preparedness for the 2015 El Niño as a case study. I explored what stakeholders understand by ‘no-regrets investments’ and its application. I assessed financial allocations by government and donors to disaster preparedness. Based on key informant interviews, focus group discussions and financial analyses, this article presents evidence at national and subnational levels. The findings indicate that in making decisions relating to preparedness, the government seeks information primarily from sources it trusts – other government departments, its communities and the media. With no existing legal frameworks guiding Kenya’s disaster preparedness, the coordination of preparedness is not strong. It appears that there is a lack of political will to prioritise these frameworks. The no-regrets approach is applied predominantly by non-state actors. Because there have been ‘non-events’ in the past, government has become overcautious in committing resources on a no-regrets basis. Government allocation to preparedness exceeds donor funding by almost tenfold.

  20. Creation of a Collaborative Disaster Preparedness Video for Daycare Providers: Use of the Delphi Model for the Creation of a Comprehensive Disaster Preparedness Video for Daycare Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar, Pamela; Spears, Robert; Reeb, Jeffrey; Thompson, Sarah B; Myers, Paul; Burke, Rita V

    2018-02-22

    Eight million American children under the age of 5 attend daycare and more than another 50 million American children are in school or daycare settings. Emergency planning requirements for daycare licensing vary by state. Expert opinions were used to create a disaster preparedness video designed for daycare providers to cover a broad spectrum of scenarios. Various stakeholders (17) devised the outline for an educational pre-disaster video for child daycare providers using the Delphi technique. Fleiss κ values were obtained for consensus data. A 20-minute video was created, addressing the physical, psychological, and legal needs of children during and after a disaster. Viewers completed an anonymous survey to evaluate topic comprehension. A consensus was attempted on all topics, ranging from elements for inclusion to presentation format. The Fleiss κ value of 0.07 was obtained. Fifty-seven of the total 168 video viewers completed the 10-question survey, with comprehension scores ranging from 72% to 100%. Evaluation of caregivers that viewed our video supports understanding of video contents. Ultimately, the technique used to create and disseminate the resources may serve as a template for others providing pre-disaster planning education. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;page 1 of 5).

  1. Hospital all-risk emergency preparedness in Ghana | Norman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (2) The hospitals' respective abilities to handle large scale RTA's were ... The biggest challenge facing the hospitals in their emergency intervention is the lack of preemergency and emergency preparedness plans as well as the coordination of the hospitals response mechanisms. Conclusion: The paper ended with ...

  2. The Role of Education on Disaster Preparedness: Case Study of 2012 Indian Ocean Earthquakes on Thailand's Andaman Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raya Muttarak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate how well residents of the Andaman coast in Phang Nga province, Thailand, are prepared for earthquakes and tsunami. It is hypothesized that formal education can promote disaster preparedness because education enhances individual cognitive and learning skills, as well as access to information. A survey was conducted of 557 households in the areas that received tsunami warnings following the Indian Ocean earthquakes on 11 April 2012. Interviews were carried out during the period of numerous aftershocks, which put residents in the region on high alert. The respondents were asked what emergency preparedness measures they had taken following the 11 April earthquakes. Using the partial proportional odds model, the paper investigates determinants of personal disaster preparedness measured as the number of preparedness actions taken. Controlling for village effects, we find that formal education, measured at the individual, household, and community levels, has a positive relationship with taking preparedness measures. For the survey group without past disaster experience, the education level of household members is positively related to disaster preparedness. The findings also show that disaster-related training is most effective for individuals with high educational attainment. Furthermore, living in a community with a higher proportion of women who have at least a secondary education increases the likelihood of disaster preparedness. In conclusion, we found that formal education can increase disaster preparedness and reduce vulnerability to natural hazards.

  3. APPROACH TO ASSESSING THE PREPAREDNESS OF HOSPITALS TO POWER OUTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka BREHOVSKÁ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the secondary impacts of electricity blackouts, it is necessary to pay attention to facilities providing medical care for the population, namely the hospitals. Hospitals represent a key position in the provision of health care also in times of crisis. These facilities must provide constant care; it is therefore essential that the preparedness of such facilities is kept at a high level. The basic aim of this article is to analyse the preparedness of hospitals to power outages (power failures, blackouts within a pilot study. On that basis, a SWOT analysis is used to determine strengths and weaknesses of the system of preparedness of hospitals to power outages and solutions for better security of hospitals are defined. The sample investigated consists of four hospitals founded by the Regional Authority (hospitals Nos. 1-4 and one hospital founded by the Ministry of Health of the Czech Republic (hospital No. 5. The results of the study shows that most weaknesses of the preparedness of hospitals are represented by inadequately addressed reserves of fuel for the main backup power supply, poor knowledge of employees who are insufficiently retrained, and old backup power supplies (even 35 years in some cases.

  4. Evidence-based point-of-care tests and device designs for disaster preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, T Keith; Mecozzi, Daniel M; Sumner, Stephanie; Kost, Gerald J

    2010-01-01

    To define pathogen tests and device specifications needed for emerging point-of-care (POC) technologies used in disasters. Surveys included multiple-choice and ranking questions. Multiple-choice questions were analyzed with the chi2 test for goodness-of-fit and the binomial distribution test. Rankings were scored and compared using analysis of variance and Tukey's multiple comparison test. Disaster care experts on the editorial boards of the American Journal of Disaster Medicine and the Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness, and the readers of the POC Journal. Vibrio cholera and Staphylococcus aureus were top-ranked pathogens for testing in disaster settings. Respondents felt that disaster response teams should be equipped with pandemic infectious disease tests for novel 2009 H1N1 and avian H5N1 influenza (disaster care, p disaster settings, respondents preferred self-contained test cassettes (disaster care, p disaster care, p disaster care scenarios, in which Vibrio cholera, methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli ranked the highest. POC testing should incorporate setting-specific design criteria such as safe disposable cassettes and direct blood sampling at the site of care.

  5. Using Pop Culture to Teach Youths Conflict Resolution, Healthful Lifestyles, Disaster Preparedness, and More

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torretta, Alayne; Black, Lynette Ranney

    2017-01-01

    Adolescents learn sustainable production techniques, civic engagement, leadership, public speaking, food safety practices, conflict resolution, disaster preparedness, and other life skills through Extension programming. Educators can increase participant interest in such programming by applying a creative pop culture twist, such as a zombie…

  6. Assessing Disaster Preparedness Among Select Children's Summer Camps in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Megan; Sielaff, Alan; Bradin, Stuart; Walker, Kevin; Ambrose, Michael; Hashikawa, Andrew

    2017-08-01

    Children's summer camps are at risk for multiple pediatric casualties during a disaster. The degree to which summer camps have instituted disaster preparedness is unknown. We assessed disaster preparedness among selected camps nationally for a range of disasters. We partnered with a national, web-based electronic health records system to send camp leadership of 315 camp organizations a 14-question online survey of disaster preparedness. One response from each camp was selected in the following order of importance: owner, director, physician, nurse, medical technician, office staff, and other. The results were analyzed using descriptive statistics. A total of 181 camps responses were received, 169 of which were complete. Camp types were overnight (60%), day (21%), special/medical needs (14%), and other (5%). Survey respondents were directors (52%), nurses (14%), office staff (10%), physicians (5%), owners (5%), emergency medical technicians (2%), and other (12%). Almost 18% of camps were located >20 mi from a major medical center, and 36% were >5 mi from police/fire departments. Many camps were missing emergency supplies: car/booster seats for evacuation (68%), shelter (35%), vehicles for evacuation (26%), quarantine isolation areas (21%), or emergency supplies of extra water (20%) or food (17%). Plans were unavailable for the following: power outages (23%); lockdowns (15%); illness outbreaks (15%); tornadoes (11%); evacuation for fire, flood, or chemical spill (9%); and other severe weather (8%). Many camps did not have online emergency plans (53%), plans for children with special/medical needs (38%), methods to rapidly communicate information to parents (25%), or methods to identify children for evacuation/reunification with parents (40%). Respondents reported that staff participation in disaster drills varied for weather (58%), evacuations (46%), and lockdowns (36%). The majority (75%) of respondents had not collaborated with medical organizations for planning. A

  7. The Effect of Activating Early Warning System on Motahari Hospital Preparedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Delshad

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the important aspects of hospital preparedness in disasters is its rapid early warning system. In this study, the activation of early warning system was evaluated under the monitoring of disasters workgroup of the Ministry of Health based on the national program of “hospitals preparedness in disasters” in Shahid Motahari Hospital.  Materials and Methods: The sample was composed of 801 adults exposed to the earthquake. Two months after the earthquake, all subjects were surveyed with measures administrated in a standard order as follows: demographic data sheet, disaster experiences scale (DES, general health questionnaire (GHQ, and symptom checklist 90-revised (SCL-90-R. Results: The results revealed that 23% of the survivors in the exposed group had ASD, 10% had anxiety symptoms, 7.5% depression, 4% MADD, 5% psychosomatic disorders, 10% phobia, 7% aggressive behavior, and 10% insomnia. Conclusion: This article has summarized the current status of information on mental disorders caused by experiencing or witnessing a life threatening severe earthquake. The experience of fear, helplessness, and panic during the earthquake, and the appraisal by the victims of serious psychological, social, as well as demographical consequences after the earthquake, were positively related to the subscale scores and the total score of GHQ, SCL-90-R, and DES.

  8. Social Capital Enhanced Disaster Preparedness and Health Consultations after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Nuclear Power Station Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Makoto; Murakami, Michio; Takebayashi, Yoshitake; Suzuki, Satoshi; Ohto, Hitoshi

    2018-03-14

    After the Great East Japan Earthquake and the subsequent Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident in 2011, there was a strong demand to promote disaster preparedness approaches and health checkups for the prevention of lifestyle diseases. This study examined the yearly change in the percentage of those who prepared for disasters and who utilized health checkups in Fukushima Prefecture, and identified the factors governing disaster preparedness and utilization of health checkups. We used the public opinion survey from 2011 to 2015 ( n = 677-779 each year) on prefectural policies that is conducted every year by the Fukushima Prefecture government Public Consultation Unit. We found that the percentage of those who prepare for disasters decreased, while that for health checkups did not significantly change. With regard to disaster preparedness, experiences of disaster enhance disaster preparedness, while bonds with other local people help to maintain preparedness. For health checkups, familiarity with the welfare service was the most important factor governing such consultations. The findings suggest that social capital should be promoted in order to improve disaster preparedness. The findings also suggest that residents' accessibility to medical and welfare services is also important in promoting the utilization of health checkups.

  9. Applying Instructional Design Strategies and Behavior Theory to Household Disaster Preparedness Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Tracy N; Sobelson, Robyn K; Wigington, Corinne J; Davis, Alyson L; Harp, Victoria H; Leander-Griffith, Michelle; Cioffi, Joan P

    Interventions and media campaigns promoting household disaster preparedness have produced mixed results in affecting behaviors. In large part, this is due to the limited application of instructional design strategies and behavior theory, such as the Transtheoretical Model (TTM). This study describes the development and evaluation of Ready CDC, an intervention designed to increase household disaster preparedness among the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) workforce. (1) Describe the instructional design strategies employed in the development of Ready CDC and (2) evaluate the intervention's impact on behavior change and factors influencing stage progression for household disaster preparedness behavior. Ready CDC was adapted from the Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA's) Ready campaign. Offered to CDC staff September 2013-November 2015, it consisted of a preassessment of preparedness attitudes and behaviors, an in-person training, behavioral reinforcement communications, and a 3-month follow-up postassessment. Ready CDC employed well-accepted design strategies, including presenting stimulus material and enhancing transfer of desired behavior. Excluding those in the TTM "maintenance" stage at baseline, this study determined 44% of 208 participants progressed at least 1 stage for developing a written disaster plan. Moreover, assessment of progression by stage found among participants in the "precontemplation" (n = 16), "contemplation" (n = 15), and "preparation" (n = 125) stages at baseline for assembling an emergency kit, 25%, 27%, and 43% moved beyond the "preparation" stage, respectively. Factors influencing stage movement included knowledge, attitudes, and community resiliency but varied depending on baseline stage of change. Employing instructional strategies and behavioral theories in preparedness interventions optimizes the potential for individuals to adopt preparedness behaviors. Study findings suggest that stage movement toward

  10. Assessing school disaster preparedness by applying a comprehensive school safety framework: A case of elementary schools in Banda Aceh City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, A.; Bisri, M. B. F.; Oda, T.; Oktari, R. S.; Murayama, Y.

    2017-02-01

    The study assessed the depth of school disaster safety at public elementary schools in Banda Aceh City, Indonesia in terms of comprehensive school safety, especially school location, disaster management and disaster education. The findings indicate that 56% of public elementary schools in Banda Aceh City are exposed to high tsunami risk, and most externally driven school disaster preparedness activities were not continued by the schools due to lack of ownership and funding. To realize comprehensive school safety, disaster preparedness programs should neither be brought in by external donors, nor be in a patchwork. Rather, it should be conducted jointly and sustainably by the local school and the community and supported by multi-sectoral support in the city. Comprehensive school safety of public elementary schools in Banda Aceh City could be realized by reviewing, updating and localizing school disaster preparedness programs by all the education partners in the city with strong political will and commitment.

  11. Scenario analysis and disaster preparedness for port and maritime logistics risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwesi-Buor, John; Menachof, David A; Talas, Risto

    2016-08-01

    System Dynamics (SD) modelling is used to investigate the impacts of policy interventions on industry actors' preparedness to mitigate risks and to recover from disruptions along the maritime logistics and supply chain network. The model suggests a bi-directional relation between regulation and industry actors' behaviour towards Disaster Preparedness (DP) in maritime logistics networks. The model also showed that the level of DP is highly contingent on forecast accuracy, technology change, attitude to risk prevention, port activities, and port environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Using disaster exercises to determine staff educational needs and improve disaster outcomes in rural hospitals: the role of the nursing professional development educator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Denise A

    2012-06-01

    Using human potential in rural hospitals is vital to successful outcomes when handling disasters. Nursing professional development educators provide leadership and guiding vision during a time when few educational research studies demonstrate how to do so. This article explains the role of the rural nursing professional development educator as a disaster preparedness educator, facilitator, collaborator, researcher, and leader, using the American Nurses Association's Nursing Professional Development: Scope and Standards of Practice. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. disaster preparedness in secondary schools in ruiru division ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-11-11

    Nov 11, 2014 ... EAsT AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL. November 2014 ... Results: The respondents did not know how to use the first aid kit elements ( = 835.263, p = 0.000, df =1). ... A good disaster and emergency response is merely an ...

  14. ‘Prevention is better than cure’: Assessing Ghana’s preparedness (capacity for disaster management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Oteng-Ababio

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines and contributes to the debate on Ghana’s capacity and preparedness to respond to disasters and build safer communities. Having witnessed a series of catastrophic events in recent times, many have questioned the capacity of the National Disaster Management Organisation, an institution mandated to manage disasters in Ghana and whose operations have historically been shaped by external pressures, particularly the populist tendencies of the Provisional National Defense Council government in the 1980s. Analysing the results from the fieldwork and placing them in the context of contemporary disaster management strategies, this article gives an overview of Ghana’s preparedness for emergencies in the face of increasing urbanisation. It finds that the organisation is fixated on a top-down approach with low cooperation, collaboration and coordination with stakeholders, leading to situations where devastation and destruction occur before action is taken. Today, the consensus is that practitioners wean themselves from managing disasters and take to managing risk. Such a redirection of attention calls for the adoption of an appropriate institutional framework: an approach that unites the putative nation beyond competing loyalties to ethnicity, tribe and political entity.

  15. Environmental management and emergency preparedness plan for Tsunami disaster along Indian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Chandramohan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The 26 December 2004 Tsunami generated by the submarine earthquake in Andaman Sea with the magnitude of 9.2 Richter scale triggered the worst destruction, widespread inundation and extensive damage in terms of life and property along the Tamil Nadu coast and Andaman Nicobar Group of Islands. The shoreline features like dunes, vegetation and steepness of beaches played vital role in attenuating the impact of Tsunami from destruction. While the low-level Marina beach experienced minimum inundation, the coast between Adyar and Cooum was inundated heavily. As the present generation of India was not aware of Tsunami, the emergency plan and preparedness were zero and so the loss of human life was huge. In this article, the authors describe the Tsunami occurred in India on 26 December 2004 and its impacts on morphology. The appropriate Emergency Preparedness plan and the Disaster Management Plan in case of reoccurrence of such natural disaster are discussed.

  16. Barriers to disaster preparedness among medical special needs populations

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    Leslie eMeyer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A medical special needs (MSN assessment was conducted among 3088 respondents in a hurricane prone area. The sample was female (51.7%, Hispanic (92.9%, aged > 45 years (51%, not insured for health (59.2%, and with an MSN (33.2%. Barriers to preparedness were characterized for all households, including those with inhabitants reporting MSN ranging from level 0 (mild to level 4 (most severe. Multivariable logistic regression tested associations between hurricane preparedness and barriers to evacuation by level of MSN. A significant interaction effect between number of evacuation barriers and MSN was found. Among households that reported individuals with level 0 MSN, the odds of being unprepared increased 18% for each additional evacuation barrier [OR=1.18, 95% CI (1.08, 1.30]. Among households that reported individuals with level 1 MSN, the odds of being unprepared increased 29% for each additional evacuation barrier [OR=1.29, 95% CI (1.11, 1.51]. Among households that reported individuals with level 3 MSN, the odds of being unprepared increased 68% for each additional evacuation barrier [OR=1.68, 95% CI (1.21, 1.32]. MSN alone did not explain the probability of unpreparedness, but rather MSN in the presence of barriers helped explain unpreparedness.

  17. Considering nuclear emergency preparedness from realities after Fukushima nuclear disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idokawa, Katsutaka

    2013-01-01

    As an ex-chief of affected town of Fukushima nuclear disaster, basic ideas were enumerated as no more accident occurring, necessity of early evacuation, all budget and right belonging to end administrator, appropriate response of government's emergency countermeasure headquarter on proposal of end administrator, failure of evacuation lead coming from government's information concealment, no more secondary damage of affected refuge, public disclosure of information, safety as the top priority with no compromise or preferred profit, new mechanism of resident's direct participation in preventing accidents, and fair review system of inspection based on checklist. Nuclear-related regulatory organizations and electric utilities should be reformed as open and transparent organization and responsible for following results of accidents. Public trust on government was completely lost after the Fukushima nuclear disaster and people should not rely on some organizations and be respective expert and foster self-defense capability so as to establish government by the people. (T. Tanaka)

  18. Hurricane Sandy, Disaster Preparedness, and the Recovery Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzi, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy was the second largest and costliest hurricane in U.S. history to affect multiple states and communities. This article describes the lived experiences of 24 occupational therapy students who lived through Hurricane Sandy using the Recovery Model to frame the research. Occupational therapy student narratives were collected and analyzed using qualitative methods and framed by the Recovery Model. Directed content and thematic analysis was performed using the 10 components of the Recovery Model. The 10 components of the Recovery Model were experienced by or had an impact on the occupational therapy students as they coped and recovered in the aftermath of the natural disaster. This study provides insight into the lived experiences and recovery perspectives of occupational therapy students who experienced Hurricane Sandy. Further research is indicated in applying the Recovery Model to people who survive disasters. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  19. FEMA’s Preparedness for the Next Catastrophic Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    made and is making significant progress. The primary problem, in our opinion, is that the planning efforts discussed above are very geocentric . For...Disaster Page 23 and cost savings. We initiated an audit in January 2008 to determine the extent to which FEMA effectively manages...11 hurricane prone states alone would cost $357 million.10 FEMA has determined through in-depth analysis that pre-positioning commodities is not

  20. Fire disaster preparedness and situational analysis in higher learning institutions of Tanzania

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    Jacob M. Kihila

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fire disasters are accompanied with devastating impact affecting both lives and properties. The magnitude of the impacts has been severe in places with low levels of fire disaster preparedness. A study was conducted in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to investigate the level of fire disaster preparedness considering the availability and condition of firefighting facilities as well as the knowledge on fire management among the selected 10 higher learning institutions. Information for the buildings was obtained from the interviews with the managers of the buildings and field observations; information on the user’s preparedness was obtained from interviews using structured questionnaire conducted with the users of the buildings including the visitors. Results from the studied buildings indicated that 60% of the firefighting facilities were not regularly serviced; 50% stored some hazardous materials; 70% of them had not enough water storage for firefighting purposes; 60% had no identifiable fire assembly points; and 90% of the sessions conducted in the buildings involved more than 100 people in a single venue. Further results indicated that 51% of the respondents were not able to operate the installed firefighting facilities; 80.7% of the respondents had never received any training on firefighting and prevention; 95.6% of the respondents had never participated in any fire drills; and 81.5% of them were not aware of the fire responder’s contacts. General situation indicated that higher learning institutions are not well prepared to manage fire outbreaks suggesting that plans to rectify the situation are imperative.

  1. US school/academic institution disaster and pandemic preparedness and seasonal influenza vaccination among school nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebmann, Terri; Elliott, Michael B; Reddick, Dave; D Swick, Zachary

    2012-09-01

    School pandemic preparedness is essential, but has not been evaluated. An online survey was sent to school nurses (from state school nurse associations and/or state departments of education) between May and July 2011. Overall school pandemic preparedness scores were calculated by assigning 1 point for each item in the school's pandemic plan; the maximum score was 11. Linear regression was used to describe factors associated with higher school pandemic preparedness scores. Nurse influenza vaccine uptake was assessed as well. A total of 1,997 nurses from 26 states completed the survey. Almost three-quarters (73.7%; n = 1,472) reported receiving the seasonal influenza vaccine during the 2010-11 season. Very few (2.2%; n = 43) reported that their school/district had a mandatory influenza vaccination policy. Pandemic preparedness scores ranged from 0 to 10 points, with an average score of 4.3. Determinants of school pandemic preparedness were as follows: planning to be a point of dispensing during a future pandemic (P nurse complete the survey (P school nurse study participant be a member of the school disaster planning committee (P schools must continue to address gaps in pandemic planning. Copyright © 2012 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Disaster Risk Assessment in Educational Hospitals of Qazvin Based on WHO Pattern in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asefzadeh, Saeed; Varyani, Ali Safari; Gholami, Soheyla

    2016-01-01

    In addition to damaging communities and infrastructures, unexpected disasters affect service provider centers as well. Structural, non-structural, and functional components of hospitals could be affected when hazards or disasters occur, and they may be unable to admit casualties, have their own personnel and patients killed or injured, have their property destroyed. In such as case, they would increase the burden of death resulting from the disaster. Therefore, in this study, hospital safety was reviewed in two hospitals in Qazvin in 2015. This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on two of the Rajaee and Velayat Hospitals in Qazvin. The tools used to assess for the hospitals' risk of experiencing a disaster were observation, interviews, and a checklist of hospital disaster risk assessment provided by the World Health Organization (WHO), including 5 sections and 145 indices for the safety assessment of hospitals. To determine the general weight, three main parts of the questionnaire, i.e., functional safety, non-structural safety, and structural safety, were given weights of 0.2, 0.3, and 0.5, respectively, according to the original version of the indices. Each index was scored as 0, 1, and 2 based on the low, medium, and high scores. The safety scores that were obtained were categorized in three groups, i.e., low safety (≤ 34%), medium safety (34-66%), and high safety (> 66%). The data were analyzed using Excel 2007 software. Functional, structural, and non-structural safety scores were evaluated as 60.20% (medium safety), 67.61% (high safety), and 76.16% (high safety), respectively. General preparedness of the hospitals we studied were 71.90%, a high safety level. This high preparedness was related to the indices of availability of medicines, equipment, water supply, and other resources required in emergency conditions (85%), and the lowest preparedness was related to contingency plans of medical operations (19%). The preparedness of the two

  3. [A new stream of the next disaster response with a variety of hospital ship in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Soichiro; Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro

    2016-02-01

    In Japan, experience from an earthquake has always provided an opportunity to reconsider measures of disaster preparedness. To facilitate decision-making and its enforcement in a large-scale disaster response, a cross-agency organization and tough infrastructure are required as a foundation of crisis management. In the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster Management Center could not perform their mission due to the collapse of various infrastructure caused by the earthquake. The archipelago structure of Japan is easy terrain that provides approach from the shore to any place in the country; this makes it possible to plan effective relief operations. Therefore, in preparing for the next large-scale disaster, the use of a hospital ship has been discussed as one of the strong bases to combat collapse of infrastructure. For effective utilization of the ship, we will discuss the main points collated from experience of past disaster responses and training.

  4. Environmental implications for disaster preparedness: lessons learnt from the Indian Ocean Tsunami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Hari; Nakagawa, Yuko

    2008-10-01

    The impact of disasters, whether natural or man-made, not only has human dimensions, but environmental ones as well. Environmental conditions may exacerbate the impact of a disaster, and vice versa, disasters tend to have an impact on the environment. Deforestation, forest management practices, or agriculture systems can worsen the negative environmental impacts of a storm or typhoon, leading to landslides, flooding, silting, and ground/surface water contamination. We have only now come to understand these cyclical causes and impacts and realize that taking care of our natural resources and managing them wisely not only assures that future generations will be able to live in sustainable ways, but also reduces the risks that natural and man-made hazards pose to people living today. Emphasizing and reinforcing the centrality of environmental concerns in disaster management has become a critical priority, requiring the sound management of natural resources as a tool to prevent disasters and lessen their impacts on people, their homes, and livelihoods. As the horrors of the Asian tsunami of December 2004 continue to be evaluated, and people in the region slowly attempt to build a semblance of normalcy, we have to look to the lessons learnt from the tsunami disaster as an opportunity to prepare ourselves better for future disasters. This article focuses on findings and lessons learnt on the environmental aspects of the tsunami, and its implications on disaster preparedness plans. This article essentially emphasizes the cyclical interrelations between environments and disasters, by studying the findings and assessments of the recent Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami that struck on 26 December 2004. It specifically looks at four key affected countries--Maldives, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, and Thailand.

  5. Emergency Response of Iranian Hospitals Against Disasters: A Practical Framework for Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janati, Ali; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Hasanpoor, Edris; Sokhanvar, Mobin; HaghGoshyie, Elaheh; Salehi, Abdollah

    2018-04-01

    Hospital emergency management is a continuous process that requires monolithic integration of planning and response attempts with local and national schemes. The aim of the current study is to evaluate emergency response by hospitals against potential disasters in Tabriz, north-west Iran. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the city of Tabriz, in Iran, in 2016. The study population included all hospitals in Tabriz. A total of 18 hospitals were assessed. The hospital emergency response checklist was used to collect data. Tool components included command and control, communication, safety and security, triage, surge capacity, continuity of essential services, human resources, logistics and supply management, and post-disaster recovery. Data entry and analysis were carried out using SPSS software (version 20). The results showed that the emergency response rate of hospitals was 54.26% in Tabriz. The lowest response rates were for Shafaa hospital (18.89%) and the highest response rates were for Razi Hospital (91.67%). The components of hospital emergency response were assessed to be between 48.07% (surge capacity) and 58.95% (communication). On the basis of the World Health Organization checklist, the emergency response rate for hospitals in Tabriz was only 54.26%. Therefore, hospital emergency responses against disasters have to be improved and must be made to reach 100%. It is essential to design a comprehensive framework for hospital emergency response. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:166-171).

  6. Meta-evaluation of published studies on evaluation of health disaster preparedness exercises through a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhbardsiri, Hojjat; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad H; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Nekoei-Moghadam, Mahmoud; Raeisi, Ahmad Reza

    2018-01-01

    Exercise evaluation is one of the most important steps and sometimes neglected in designing and taking exercises, in this stage of exercise, it systematically identifying, gathering, and interpreting related information to indicate how an exercise has fulfilled its objectives. The present study aimed to assess the most important evaluation techniques applied in evaluating health exercises for emergencies and disasters. This was meta-evaluation study through a systematic review. In this research, we searched papers based on specific and relevant keywords in research databases including ISI web of science, PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, Ovid, ProQuest, Wiley, Google Scholar, and Persian database such as ISC and SID. The search keywords and strategies are followed; "simulation," "practice," "drill," "exercise," "instrument," "tool," "questionnaire," " measurement," "checklist," "scale," "test," "inventory," "battery," "evaluation," "assessment," "appraisal," "emergency," "disaster," "cricise," "hazard," "catastrophe,: "hospital", "prehospital," "health centers," "treatment centers," were used in combination with Boolean operators OR and AND. The research findings indicate that there are different techniques and methods for data collection to evaluate performance exercises of health centers and affiliated organizations in disasters and emergencies including debriefing inventories, self-report, questionnaire, interview, observation, shooting video, and photographing, electronic equipment which can be individually or collectively used depending on exercise objectives or purposes. Taking exercise in the health sector is one of the important steps in preparation and implementation of disaster risk management programs. This study can be thus utilized to improve preparedness of different sectors of health system according to the latest available evaluation techniques and methods for better implementation of disaster exercise evaluation stages.

  7. Assessing Disaster Preparedness among Latino Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers in Eastern North Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Foreman Britt

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural disasters including hurricanes, floods, earthquakes, tornadoes, and fires often involve substantial physical and mental impacts on affected populations and thus are public health priorities. Limited research shows that vulnerable populations such as the low-income, socially isolated migrant and seasonal farmworkers (MSFW are particularly susceptible to the effects of natural disasters. This research project assessed the awareness, perceived risk, and practices regarding disaster preparedness and response resources and identified barriers to utilization of community and government services during or after a natural disaster among Latino MSFWs’ and their families. Qualitative (N = 21 focus groups (3 and quantitative (N = 57 survey methodology was implemented with Latino MSFWs temporarily residing in rural eastern North Carolina to assess perceived and actual risk for natural disasters. Hurricanes were a top concern among the sample population, many participants shared they lacked proper resources for an emergency (no emergency kit in the house, no evacuation plan, no home internet, a lack of knowledge of what should be included in an emergency kit, etc.. Transportation and language were found to be additional barriers. Emergency broadcasts in Spanish and text message alerts were identified by the population to be helpful for disaster alerts. FEMA, American Red Cross, local schools and the migrant clinic were trusted places for assistance and information. In summary, tailored materials, emergency alerts, text messages, and news coverage concerning disaster threats should be provided in the population’s native language and when feasible delivered in a culturally appropriate mechanism such as “charlas” (talks and brochures.

  8. Practical considerations for disaster preparedness and continuity management in research facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortell, Norman; Nicholls, Sam

    2013-10-01

    Many research facility managers, veterinarians and directors are familiar with the principles of Good Laboratory Practice, requirements of the Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International, tenets of biosecurity and standards of animal welfare and housing but may be less familiar with the ideas of business continuity. But business continuity considerations are as applicable to research facilities as they are to other institutions. The authors discuss how business continuity principles can be applied in the research context and propose that such application, or 'research continuity management,' enables a focused but wide-reaching approach to disaster preparedness.

  9. Disaster Preparedness activities in Havana: the study of the Community leaders´ Perception of risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Gaeta Carrillo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Risk reduction and build resilience in order to prevent some disasters require not just well coordinated authorities, a sound legislation and strong institutions. It is also vital to involve the local communities in preventive measures. The design of community training and community based preparedness activities is not ofen planned properly and is done without enough information, leading to a breakdown in the intervention. Based on personal and group interviews and a survey, this study performs an exploration of community leaders´ perceptions about risks in Havana that strengthens or constrains preventive measures and enhance or not response capacities. information that helps to design capacity building activities at studied community.

  10. Salient Public Beliefs Underlying Disaster Preparedness Behaviors: A Theory-Based Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Mehdi; Ardalan, Ali; Akbarisari, Ali; Noorbala, Ahmad Ali; Elmi, Helen

    2017-04-01

    Introduction Given the increasing importance of disaster preparedness in Tehran, the capital of Iran, interventions encouraging disaster preparedness behavior (DPB) are needed. This study was conducted to show how an elicitation method can be used to identify salient consequences, referents, and circumstances about DPB and provide recommendations for interventions and quantitative research. A theory-based qualitative study using a semi-structured elicitation questionnaire was conducted with 132 heads of households from 22 districts in Tehran, Iran. Following the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), six open-ended questions were used to record the opinion of people about DPB: advantages of engaging in DPB; disadvantages of doing so; people who approve; people who disapprove; things that make it easy; and things that make it difficult. Content analysis showed the categories of salient consequences, reference groups, and circumstances. The three most frequently mentioned advantages obtained from inhabitants of Tehran were health outcomes (eg, it helps us to save our lives, it provides basic needs, and it protects us until relief workers arrive); other salient advantages were mentioned (eg, helps family reunification). The main disadvantage was preparedness anxiety. Family members were the most frequently mentioned social referent when people were asked who might approve or disapprove of their DPB. The two main circumstances perceived to obstruct DPB included not having enough knowledge or enough time. The results of this qualitative study suggest that interventions to encourage DPB among Tehran inhabitants should address: perceived consequences of DPB on health and other factors beyond health; barriers of not having enough knowledge and time perceived to hinder DPB; and social approval. More accurate research on salient beliefs with close-ended items developed from these open-ended data and with larger sample sizes of Tehran inhabitants is necessary. Research with other

  11. Missouri K-12 school disaster and biological event preparedness and seasonal influenza vaccination among school nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebmann, Terri; Elliott, Michael B; Artman, Deborah; VanNatta, Matthew; Wakefield, Mary

    2015-10-01

    School preparedness for bioevents, such as emerging infectious diseases, bioterrorism, and pandemics, is imperative, but historically has been low. The Missouri Association of School Nurses members were sent an online survey during the 2013-2014 school year to assess current bioevent readiness. There were 15 and 35 indicators of school disaster and bioevent preparedness, respectively. Multivariate linear regressions were conducted to delineate factors associated with higher school disaster and bioevent preparedness scores. In total, 133 school nurses participated, with a 33.6% response rate. On average, schools had fewer than half of the disaster or bioevent indicators. Disaster and bioevent preparedness scores ranged from 1-12.5 (mean, 6.0) and 5-25 (mean, 13.8), respectively. The least frequently reported plan components included bioterrorism-specific psychological needs addressed (1.5%, n = 2), having a foodservice biosecurity plan (8.3%, n = 11), and having a liberal sick leave policy for bioevents (22.6%, n = 30). Determinants of better bioevent preparedness include perception that the school is well prepared for a pandemic (P = .001) or natural disaster (P nurse being on the disaster planning committee (P = .001), and school being a closed point of dispensing (P < .05). Schools are underprepared for biological events and are not on track to meet state and national biological preparedness goals. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Hospital capacity and management preparedness for pandemic influenza in Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, Ben; Barr, Ian; Robinson, Priscilla

    2014-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate acute hospital pandemic influenza preparedness in Victoria, Australia, particularly focussing on planning and management efforts. A prospective study was conducted by questionnaire and semi-structured interview of health managers across the Victorian hospital system from July to October 2011. Participants with responsibility for emergency management, planning and operations were selected from every hospital in Victoria with an emergency department to complete a questionnaire (response rate 22/43 = 51%). Each respondent was invited to participate in a phone-based semi-structured interview (response rate 11/22 = 50%). Rural/regional hospitals demonstrated higher levels of clinical (86%) and non-clinical (86%) staff contingency planning than metropolitan hospitals (60% and 40% respectively). Pandemic plans were not being sufficiently tested in exercises or drills, which is likely to undermine their effectiveness. All respondents reported hand hygiene and standard precautions programs in place, although only one-third (33%) of metropolitan respondents and no rural/regional respondents reported being able to meet patient needs with high levels of staff absenteeism. Almost half Victoria's healthcare workers were unvaccinated against influenza. Hospitals across Victoria demonstrated different levels of influenza pandemic preparedness and planning. If a more severe influenza pandemic than that of 2009 arose, Victorian hospitals would struggle with workforce and infrastructure problems, particularly in rural/regional areas. Staff absenteeism threatens to undermine hospital pandemic responses. Various strategies, including education and communication, should be included with in-service training to provide staff with confidence in their ability to work safely during a future pandemic. © 2014 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  13. Undergraduate nursing students' perceptions about disaster preparedness and response in Istanbul, Turkey, and Miyazaki, Japan: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztekin, Seher Deniz; Larson, Eric Edwin; Yüksel, Serpil; Altun Uğraş, Gülay

    2015-04-01

    Although the awareness of disasters has increased among nurses, the concept of disaster preparedness and response has not been sufficiently explored with undergraduate nursing students. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the perceptions of students regarding disaster preparedness and response that live in different earthquake-prone cities; Istanbul, Turkey and Miyazaki, Japan. A cross-sectional study employing seven questions was conducted in a final group of 1053 nursing students from Istanbul, Turkey, and Miyazaki, Japan. Most study respondents were female, aged 18-22 years, with a high proportion of second year students in both cities. Istanbul's students had more knowledge about disaster preparedness and response in relation to age and year of university, showing statistically significant differences. Istanbul's highest rated responses to disaster characteristics were on structural elements and injuries/deaths, while Miyazaki's was "unpredictable/sudden/disorganized". Respondents in Istanbul identified earthquakes as the disaster most likely to occur, while respondents in Miyazaki identified typhoon/hurricane. Study participants responded that they could provide caregiver roles during a disaster event rather than triage or managerial roles as disaster responders. Disaster characteristics were not described by one third of the students. Of the two-thirds that were described, most were of events that were highly predictable because of their frequencies in the given areas. Universities need to target and then focus on high-risk factors in their areas and have disaster plans for students who can provide triage and managerial nursing roles as disaster responders. © 2014 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2014 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  14. [El niño phenomenon and natural disasters: public health interventions for disaster preparedness and response].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijar, Gisely; Bonilla, Catherine; Munayco, Cesar V; Gutierrez, Ericson L; Ramos, Willy

    2016-06-01

    This article reviews public health interventions for preparedness and response to natural disasters within the context of El Niño phenomenon using systematic reviews and a review of revisions with emphasis on vector-borne diseases, water-borne diseases, malnutrition, heat stress, drought, flood-associated diseases, mental health problems, vulnerability of the physical health-system infrastructure, as well as long-term policies aimed at protecting the populations of these cases. Environmental interventions were identified, including vector control, chemoprophylaxis, immunization, and intradomiciliary water treatment. While these finds are based primarily on systematic reviews, it is necessary to evaluate the benefit of these interventions within the population, according to the context of each region.

  15. A Case Analysis of Disaster Risk Reduction Preparedness of Iloilo Province: Basis for A Comprehensive Intervention Program

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    Victoria D. Jurilla

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available - This study determined the effectiveness of Disaster Risk Reduction Preparedness of Iloilo Province, Philippines in the areas of Dissemination, Implementation, and Resource Utilization and Operation as evaluated by the 390 citizens of the ten (10 selected municipalities from the five (5 Congressional Districts in the Province of Iloilo, Philippines. This descriptive method of research employed researcher-made instruments and random interviews. Descriptive statistics used were the mean and standard deviation while inferential statistics employed Ttest for independent samples and one-way analysis for variance set at .05 level of significances. Findings revealed that Disaster Risk Reduction Preparedness of Iloilo Province, Philippines is “more effective” in terms of dissemination, implementation, and resource utilization and operation according to the assessment of the 390 respondents of the ten (10 selected municipalities from the five (5 Congressional Districts when they were grouped as to personal variables. Finally, the findings revealed that three (3 out of ten (10 municipalities were very effective and among the five (5 districts, first district was very effective as to dissemination and resource utilization and operation of their respective Disaster Risk Reduction Preparedness Program but as a whole, Iloilo Province was more effective in its Disaster Risk Reduction Preparedness.

  16. A Questionnaire Study on the Attitudes and Previous Experience of Croatian Family Physicians toward their Preparedness for Disaster Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekez-Pavliško, Tanja; Račić, Maja; Jurišić, Dinka

    2018-04-01

    To explore family physicians' attitudes, previous experience and self-assessed preparedness to respond or to assist in mass casualty incidents in Croatia. The cross-sectional survey was carried out during January 2017. Study participants were recruited through a Facebook group that brings together family physicians from Croatia. They were asked to complete the questionnaire, which was distributed via google.docs. Knowledge and attitudes toward disaster preparedness were evaluated by 18 questions. Analysis of variance, Student t test and Kruskal-Wallis test t were used for statistical analysis. Risk awareness of disasters was high among respondents (M = 4.89, SD=0.450). Only 16.4 of respondents have participated in the management of disaster at the scene. The majority (73.8%) of physicians have not been participating in any educational activity dealing with disaster over the past two years. Family physicians believed they are not well prepared to participate in national (M = 3.02, SD=0.856) and local community emergency response system for disaster (M = 3.16, SD=1.119). Male physicians scored higher preparedness to participate in national emergency response system for disaster ( p =0.012), to carry out accepted triage principles used in the disaster situation ( p =0.003) and recognize differences in health assessments indicating potential exposure to specific agents ( p =0,001) compared to their female colleagues. Croatian primary healthcare system attracts many young physicians, who can be an important part of disaster and emergency management. However, the lack of experience despite a high motivation indicates a need for inclusion of disaster medicine training during undergraduate studies and annual educational activities.

  17. Creation of inpatient capacity during a major hospital relocation: lessons for disaster planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, Howard C; Shew, Stephen B; Atkinson, James B; Rosenthal, J Thomas; Hiatt, Jonathan R

    2009-09-01

    To identify tools to aid the creation of disaster surge capacity using a model of planned inpatient census reduction prior to relocation of a university hospital. Prospective analysis of hospital operations for 1-week periods beginning 2 weeks (baseline) and 1 week (transition) prior to move day; analysis of regional hospital and emergency department capacity. Large metropolitan university teaching hospital. Hospital census figures and patient outcomes. Census was reduced by 36% from 537 at baseline to 345 on move day, a rate of 18 patients/d (P emergency operations was unchanged. Hospital admissions were decreased by 42%, and the adjusted discharges per occupied bed were increased by 8% (both P capacity to absorb new patients was limited. During a period in which southern California population grew by 8.5%, acute care beds fell by 3.3%, while Los Angeles County emergency departments experienced a 13% diversion rate due to overcrowding. Local or regional disasters of any size can overwhelm the system's ability to respond. Our strategy produced a surge capacity of 36% without interruption of emergency department and trauma services but required 3 to 4 days for implementation, making it applicable to disasters and mass casualty events with longer lead times. These principles may aid in disaster preparedness and planning.

  18. Hospital emergency preparedness and response during Superstorm Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a report by the HHS Office of Inspector General (OIG) on the performance of 172 Medicare-certified hospitals in the New York Metropolitan Area before, during, and after Sandy. It makes recommendations on how to close gaps that were found in emergency planning and execution for a disaster of this magnitude. To download the complete 40-page report and a Podcast based on it, go to http://oig.hhs.gov/oei/ reports/oei-06-13-00260. asp.

  19. We Need More Focus On Pre-Disaster Preparedness: Early Lessons Learned From Recent Earthquakes in Northwest of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza Shaghaghi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dear Editor-in-ChiefTwo strong earthquakes with the magnitude of 6.4 and 6.3 at a depth of 9.9 km that rattled Iran’s northwest region within 60 km of Tabriz, the capital city of East Azerbaijan province on August 11, 2012 caused extensive damage in about 1000 villages, killed at least 258 and injured 1380 people. The quakes most severely affected villages close to three impacted towns in the disaster area; Varzegan, Ahar and Heris. Some of the villages were hit are in remote areas with limited access to transport routes.Within early hours aftermath of the twin devastating incidents ordinary people and those who had relatives in the affected area rushed towards the region to salvage victims mainly by their own cars. Independent groups such as small units from armed forces were also sent to the region to support rescue operation. Some of the survivors meanwhile, tried to transfer severely injured survivors to nearby hospitals and even to the central hospital in Tabriz using public transportation facilities e.g. taxis, vans or any vehicle available at the time. All these unplanned efforts created traffic jams on the roads leading to the disaster area and delayed rescue operation by trained staff.Now after the earthquakes that rumbled through the disaster area, about 36,000 quake-stricken people were given shelter and are being provided with their basic needs in makeshift camps. Humanitarian aids are reaching affected zone from all over the country and internationally but there are inadequacies in proper distribution of food stuff and equipments among the survivors. Piles of water bottles in front of tents which left in the heat under the sunshine, clothes and canned foods which were distributed by volunteers and are more than current needs of the victims are observable in the disaster area. This is while, lack of sufficient supply of drinking water, canned foods and portable washrooms were reported by the authorities in the first days after the

  20. AAGP position statement: disaster preparedness for older Americans: critical issues for the preservation of mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakauye, Kenneth M; Streim, Joel E; Kennedy, Gary J; Kirwin, Paul D; Llorente, Maria D; Schultz, Susan K; Srinivasan, Shilpa

    2009-11-01

    The Disaster Preparedness Task Force of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry was formed after Hurricane Katrina devastated New Orleans to identify and address needs of the elderly after the disaster that led to excess health disability and markedly increased rates of hopelessness, suicidality, serious mental illness (reported to exceed 60% from baseline levels), and cognitive impairment. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) outlines risk groups which fail to address later effects from chronic stress and loss and disruption of social support networks. Range of interventions recommended for Preparation, Early Response, and Late Response reviewed in the report were not applied to elderly for a variety of reasons. It was evident that addressing the needs of elderly will not be made without a stronger mandate to do so from major governmental agencies (Federal Emergency Management Agency [FEMA] and SAMHSA). The recommendation to designate frail elderly and dementia patients as a particularly high-risk group and a list of specific recommendations for research and service and clinical reference list are provided.

  1. Preparedness for the Rio 2016 Olympic Games: hospital treatment capacity in georeferenced areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Figueiredo Freitas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Recently, Brazil has hosted mass events with recognized international relevance. The 2014 FIFA World Cup was held in 12 Brazilian state capitals and health sector preparedness drew on the history of other World Cups and Brazil's own experience with the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup. The current article aims to analyze the treatment capacity of hospital facilities in georeferenced areas for sports events in the 2016 Olympic Games in the city of Rio de Janeiro, based on a model built drawing on references from the literature. Source of data were Brazilian health databases and the Rio 2016 website. Sports venues for the Olympic Games and surrounding hospitals in a 10km radius were located by geoprocessing and designated a "health area" referring to the probable inflow of persons to be treated in case of hospital referral. Six different factors were used to calculate needs for surge and one was used to calculate needs in case of disasters (20/1,000. Hospital treatment capacity is defined by the coincidence of beds and life support equipment, namely the number of cardiac monitors (electrocardiographs and ventilators in each hospital unit. Maracanã followed by the Olympic Stadium (Engenhão and the Sambódromo would have the highest single demand for hospitalizations (1,572, 1,200 and 600, respectively. Hospital treatment capacity proved capable of accommodating surges, but insufficient in cases of mass casualties. In mass events most treatments involve easy clinical management, it is expected that the current capacity will not have negative consequences for participants.

  2. Hospital incident command system (HICS performance in Iran; decision making during disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalali Ahmadreza

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hospitals are cornerstones for health care in a community and must continue to function in the face of a disaster. The Hospital Incident Command System (HICS is a method by which the hospital operates when an emergency is declared. Hospitals are often ill equipped to evaluate the strengths and vulnerabilities of their own management systems before the occurrence of an actual disaster. The main objective of this study was to measure the decision making performance according to HICS job actions sheets using tabletop exercises. Methods This observational study was conducted between May 1st 2008 and August 31st 2009. Twenty three Iranian hospitals were included. A tabletop exercise was developed for each hospital which in turn was based on the highest probable risk. The job action sheets of the HICS were used as measurements of performance. Each indicator was considered as 1, 2 or 3 in accordance with the HICS. Fair performance was determined as Results None of the participating hospitals had a hospital disaster management plan. The performance according to HICS was intermediate for 83% (n = 19 of the participating hospitals. No hospital had a high level of performance. The performance level for the individual sections was intermediate or fair, except for the logistic and finance sections which demonstrated a higher level of performance. The public hospitals had overall higher performances than university hospitals (P = 0.04. Conclusions The decision making performance in the Iranian hospitals, as measured during table top exercises and using the indicators proposed by HICS was intermediate to poor. In addition, this study demonstrates that the HICS job action sheets can be used as a template for measuring the hospital response. Simulations can be used to assess preparedness, but the correlation with outcome remains to be studied.

  3. Filling the gap between disaster preparedness and response networks of urban emergency management: Following the 2013 Seoul Floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Minsun; Jung, Kyujin

    2015-01-01

    To examine the gap between disaster preparedness and response networks following the 2013 Seoul Floods in which the rapid transmission of disaster information and resources was impeded by severe changes of interorganizational collaboration networks. This research uses the 2013 Seoul Emergency Management Survey data that were collected before and after the floods, and total 94 organizations involving in coping with the floods were analyzed in bootstrap independent-sample t-test and social network analysis through UCINET 6 and STATA 12. The findings show that despite the primary network form that is more hierarchical, horizontal collaboration has been relatively invigorated in actual response. Also, interorganizational collaboration networks for response operations seem to be more flexible grounded on improvisation to coping with unexpected victims and damages. Local organizations under urban emergency management are recommended to tightly build a strong commitment for joint response operations through full-size exercises at the metropolitan level before a catastrophic event. Also, interorganizational emergency management networks need to be restructured by reflecting the actual response networks to reduce collaboration risk during a disaster. This research presents a critical insight into inverse thinking of the view designing urban emergency management networks and provides original evidences for filling the gap between previously coordinated networks for disaster preparedness and practical response operations after a disaster.

  4. Effectiveness of environmental-based educative program for disaster preparedness and burn management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghazy, Amr; Abdelrahman, Amira; Fahim, Ayman

    2012-01-01

    Preparedness is a necessity for proper handling of emergencies and disaster, particularly in Suez Canal and Sinai regions. To assure best success rates, educative programs should be environmentally based. Burn and fire preventive educative programs were tailored to adapt social and education levels of audience. In addition, common etiologies and applicability of preventive measures, according to local resources and logistics, were considered. Presentations were the main educative tool; they were made as simple as possible to assure best understanding. To assure continuous education, brochures and stickers, containing most popular mistakes and questions, were distributed after the sessions. Audience was classified according to their level of knowledge to health professional group; students groups; high-risk group; and lay people group. For course efficacy evaluation, pre- and posttests were used immediately before and after the sessions. Right answers in both tests were compared for statistical significance. Results showed significant acquisition of proper attitude and knowledge in all educated groups. The highest was among students and the least was in health professionals. Comprehensive simple environmental-based educative programs are ideal for rapid reform and community mobilization in our region. Activities should include direct contact, stickers and flyers, and audiovisual tools if possible.

  5. Emergency preparedness in obstetrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeri, Sina; Marcozzi, David

    2015-04-01

    During and after disasters, focus is directed toward meeting the immediate needs of the general population. As a result, the routine health care and the special needs of some vulnerable populations such as pregnant and postpartum women may be overlooked within a resource-limited setting. In the event of hazards such as natural disasters, manmade disasters, and terrorism, knowledge of emergency preparedness strategies is imperative for the pregnant woman and her family, obstetric providers, and hospitals. Individualized plans for the pregnant woman and her family should include knowledge of shelter in place, birth at home, and evacuation. Obstetric providers need to have a personal disaster plan in place that accounts for work responsibilities in case of an emergency and business continuity strategies to continue to provide care to their communities. Hospitals should have a comprehensive emergency preparedness program utilizing an "all hazards" approach to meet the needs of pregnant and postpartum women and other vulnerable populations during disasters. With lessons learned in recent tragedies such as Hurricane Katrina in mind, we hope this review will stimulate emergency preparedness discussions and actions among obstetric providers and attenuate adverse outcomes related to catastrophes in the future.

  6. The Sewol Ferry Disaster: Experiences of a Community-Based Hospital in Ansan City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Hak; Cho, Hanjin; Kim, Joo Yeong; Song, Joo-Hyun; Moon, Sungwoo; Cha, Sang Hoon; Choi, Byung-Min; Han, Chang-Su; Ko, Young-Hoon; Lee, Hongjae

    2017-06-01

    The Sewol ferry disaster is one of the most tragic events in Korea's modern history. Among the 476 people on board, which included Danwon High School students (324) and teachers (14), 304 passengers died in the disaster (295 recovered corpses and 9 missing) and 172 survived. Of the rescued survivors, 72 were attending Danwon High School, located in Ansan City, and residing in a residence nearby. Because the students were young, emotionally susceptible adolescents, both the government and the parents requested the students be grouped together at a single hospital capable of appropriate psychiatric care. Korea University Ansan Hospital was the logical choice, as the only third-tier university-grade hospital with the necessary faculty and facilities within the residential area of the families of the students. We report the experiences and the lessons learned from the processes of preparing for and managing the surviving young students as a community-based hospital. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:389-393).

  7. Dynamic temperature and humidity environmental profiles: impact for future emergency and disaster preparedness and response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, William J; Louie, Richard F; Tang, Chloe S; Paw U, Kyaw Tha; Kost, Gerald J

    2014-02-01

    During disasters and complex emergencies, environmental conditions can adversely affect the performance of point-of-care (POC) testing. Knowledge of these conditions can help device developers and operators understand the significance of temperature and humidity limits necessary for use of POC devices. First responders will benefit from improved performance for on-site decision making. To create dynamic temperature and humidity profiles that can be used to assess the environmental robustness of POC devices, reagents, and other resources (eg, drugs), and thereby, to improve preparedness. Surface temperature and humidity data from the National Climatic Data Center (Asheville, North Carolina USA) was obtained, median hourly temperature and humidity were calculated, and then mathematically stretched profiles were created to include extreme highs and lows. Profiles were created for: (1) Banda Aceh, Indonesia at the time of the 2004 Tsunami; (2) New Orleans, Louisiana USA just before and after Hurricane Katrina made landfall in 2005; (3) Springfield, Massachusetts USA for an ambulance call during the month of January 2009; (4) Port-au-Prince, Haiti following the 2010 earthquake; (5) Sendai, Japan for the March 2011 earthquake and tsunami with comparison to the colder month of January 2011; (6) New York, New York USA after Hurricane Sandy made landfall in 2012; and (7) a 24-hour rescue from Hawaii USA to the Marshall Islands. Profiles were validated by randomly selecting 10 days and determining if (1) temperature and humidity points fell inside and (2) daily variations were encompassed. Mean kinetic temperatures (MKT) were also assessed for each profile. Profiles accurately modeled conditions during emergency and disaster events and enclosed 100% of maximum and minimum temperature and humidity points. Daily variations also were represented well with 88.6% (62/70) of temperature readings and 71.1% (54/70) of relative humidity readings falling within diurnal patterns. Days

  8. Dealing with school shootings, violence: how Jonesboro and Denver hospitals met this new challenge to emergency preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-08-01

    Acts of violence at schools across the country committed by gun-wielding students in recent years have all too frequently, as we know by now, resulted in multiple casualties and widespread community grieving. Two of the shooting rampages noted in this report that attracted national and international media attention--one at West-side Middle School, Jonesboro, AR, on March 24, 1998, and the other at Columbine High School, Littleton, CO, on April 20, 1999--illustrate the importance of hospital preparedness and quick implementation of emergency disaster plans. In both instances, officials say their administrative, clinical, and security personnel were well prepared to handle the physical and emotional trauma caused by the tragedies. Meanwhile, a leading criminologist warns that the trend toward school violence likely will continue and provides tips for hospitals and their security directors.

  9. A comparative assessment of major international disasters: the need for exposure assessment, systematic emergency preparedness, and lifetime health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto G. Lucchini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The disasters at Seveso, Three Mile Island, Bhopal, Chernobyl, the World Trade Center (WTC and Fukushima had historic health and economic sequelae for large populations of workers, responders and community members. Methods Comparative data from these events were collected to derive indications for future preparedness. Information from the primary sources and a literature review addressed: i exposure assessment; ii exposed populations; iii health surveillance; iv follow-up and research outputs; v observed physical and mental health effects; vi treatment and benefits; and vii outreach activities. Results Exposure assessment was conducted in Seveso, Chernobyl and Fukushima, although none benefited from a timely or systematic strategy, yielding immediate and sequential measurements after the disaster. Identification of exposed subjects was overall underestimated. Health surveillance, treatment and follow-up research were implemented in Seveso, Chernobyl, Fukushima, and at the WTC, mostly focusing on the workers and responders, and to a lesser extent on residents. Exposure-related physical and mental health consequences were identified, indicating the need for a long-term health care of the affected populations. Fukushima has generated the largest scientific output so far, followed by the WTCHP and Chernobyl. Benefits programs and active outreach figured prominently in only the WTC Health Program. The analysis of these programs yielded the following lessons: 1 Know who was there; 2 Have public health input to the disaster response; 3 Collect health and needs data rapidly; 4 Take care of the affected; 5 Emergency preparedness; 6 Data driven, needs assessment, advocacy. Conclusions Given the long-lasting health consequences of natural and man-made disasters, health surveillance and treatment programs are critical for management of health conditions, and emergency preparedness plans are needed to prevent or minimize the impact of

  10. A comparative assessment of major international disasters: the need for exposure assessment, systematic emergency preparedness, and lifetime health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchini, Roberto G; Hashim, Dana; Acquilla, Sushma; Basanets, Angela; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Bushmanov, Andrey; Crane, Michael; Harrison, Denise J; Holden, William; Landrigan, Philip J; Luft, Benjamin J; Mocarelli, Paolo; Mazitova, Nailya; Melius, James; Moline, Jacqueline M; Mori, Koji; Prezant, David; Reibman, Joan; Reissman, Dori B; Stazharau, Alexander; Takahashi, Ken; Udasin, Iris G; Todd, Andrew C

    2017-01-07

    The disasters at Seveso, Three Mile Island, Bhopal, Chernobyl, the World Trade Center (WTC) and Fukushima had historic health and economic sequelae for large populations of workers, responders and community members. Comparative data from these events were collected to derive indications for future preparedness. Information from the primary sources and a literature review addressed: i) exposure assessment; ii) exposed populations; iii) health surveillance; iv) follow-up and research outputs; v) observed physical and mental health effects; vi) treatment and benefits; and vii) outreach activities. Exposure assessment was conducted in Seveso, Chernobyl and Fukushima, although none benefited from a timely or systematic strategy, yielding immediate and sequential measurements after the disaster. Identification of exposed subjects was overall underestimated. Health surveillance, treatment and follow-up research were implemented in Seveso, Chernobyl, Fukushima, and at the WTC, mostly focusing on the workers and responders, and to a lesser extent on residents. Exposure-related physical and mental health consequences were identified, indicating the need for a long-term health care of the affected populations. Fukushima has generated the largest scientific output so far, followed by the WTCHP and Chernobyl. Benefits programs and active outreach figured prominently in only the WTC Health Program. The analysis of these programs yielded the following lessons: 1) Know who was there; 2) Have public health input to the disaster response; 3) Collect health and needs data rapidly; 4) Take care of the affected; 5) Emergency preparedness; 6) Data driven, needs assessment, advocacy. Given the long-lasting health consequences of natural and man-made disasters, health surveillance and treatment programs are critical for management of health conditions, and emergency preparedness plans are needed to prevent or minimize the impact of future threats.

  11. Disaster preparedness of dialysis patients for Hurricanes Gustav and Ike 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinpeter, Myra A

    2009-01-01

    Hurricanes Katrina and Rita resulted in massive devastation of the Gulf Coast at Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas during 2005. Because of those disasters, dialysis providers, nephrologists, and dialysis patients used disaster planning activities to work to mitigate the morbidity and mortality associated with the 2005 hurricane season for future events affecting dialysis patients. As Hurricane Gustav approached, anniversary events for Hurricane Katrina were postponed because of evacuation orders for nearly the entire Louisiana Gulf Coast. As part of the hurricane preparation, dialysis units reviewed the disaster plans of patients, and patients made preparation for evacuation. Upon evacuation, many patients returned to the dialysis units that had provided services during their exile from Hurricane Katrina; other patients went to other locations as part of their evacuation plan. Patients uniformly reported positive experiences with dialysis providers in their temporary evacuation communities, provided that those communities did not experience the effects of Hurricane Gustav. With the exception of evacuees to Baton Rouge, patients continued to receive their treatments uninterrupted. Because of extensive damage in the Baton Rouge area, resulting in widespread power losses and delayed restoration of power to hospitals and other health care facilities, some patients missed one treatment. However, as a result of compliance with disaster fluid and dietary recommendations, no adverse outcomes occurred. In most instances, patients were able to return to their home dialysis unit or a nearby unit to continue dialysis treatments within 4 - 5 days of Hurricane Gustav. Hurricane Ike struck the Texas Gulf Coast near Galveston, resulting in devastation of that area similar to the devastation seen in New Orleans after Katrina. The storm surge along the Louisiana Gulf Coast resulted in flooding that temporarily closed coastal dialysis units. Patients were prepared and experienced

  12. Emergency preparedness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanev, P.I.; Hom, S.; Kircher, C.A.; Bailey, N.D.

    1985-01-01

    These lecture notes include the following subject areas: (1) earthquake mitigation planning - general approach and in-house program; (2) seismic protection of equipment and non-structural systems; and (3) disaster preparedness and self help program. (ACR)

  13. Emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanev, P.I.; Hom, S.; Kircher, C.A.; Bailey, N.D.

    1985-01-01

    These lecture notes include the following subject areas: (1) earthquake mitigation planning - general approach and in-house program; (2) seismic protection of equipment and non-structural systems; and (3) disaster preparedness and self help program

  14. Building resiliency: a cross-sectional study examining relationships among health-related quality of life, well-being, and disaster preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowan, Monica E; Kirk, Ray C; Sloan, Jeff A

    2014-06-09

    Worldwide, disaster exposure and consequences are rising. Disaster risk in New Zealand is amplified by island geography, isolation, and ubiquitous natural hazards. Wellington, the capital city, has vital needs for evacuation preparedness and resilience to the devastating impacts and increasing uncertainties of earthquake and tsunami disasters. While poor quality of life (QoL) is widely-associated with low levels of engagement in many health-protective behaviors, the relationships among health-related quality of life (HrQoL), well-being, and preparedness are virtually unknown. We hypothesized that QoL and well-being affect household evacuation preparedness. We performed a quantitative epidemiologic survey (cross-sectional design) of Wellington adults. Our investigation assessed health-promoting attributes that build resiliency, conceptualized as health-protective attitudes and behaviors. Multidimensional QoL variables were measured using validated psychometric scales and analyzed for associations with evacuation preparedness, and we determined whether age and gender affected these relationships. We received 695 survey responses (28.5% response rate; margin of error ±3.8%; 80% statistical power to detect true correlations of 0.11 or greater). Correlational analyses showed statistically significant positive associations with evacuation preparedness for spiritual well-being, emotional well-being, and life satisfaction. No associations were found for mental health, social well-being, or gender; physical health was weakly negatively associated. Evacuation preparedness increased with age. Regression analyses showed that overall health and well-being explained 4.6-6.8% of the variance in evacuation preparedness. Spiritual well-being was the only QoL variable that significantly and uniquely explained variance in preparedness. How well-being influences preparedness is complex and deeply personal. The data indicate that multidimensional readiness is essential, and

  15. Animal Ownership Among Vulnerable Populations in Regional South Australia: Implications for Natural Disaster Preparedness and Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kirrilly; Trigg, Joshua; Smith, Bradley

    Few studies have examined the prevalence of animal ownership among populations likely to be at greater risk from disaster events within a bushfire context. To investigate the proportion of vulnerable community members keeping animals and the types of animals kept, as well as perceived risk of harm to pets, and their inclusion in bushfire survival planning. Statewide anonymous online survey in 2014 of adult South Australian animal owners threatened by bushfire in January 2014. Respondents were asked about animal ownership, their bushfire risk perception, and household survival planning. Descriptive statistics are presented for 5 groups considered likely to contribute to increased risk of harm for households: linguistically diverse, older adults, families with young children, physically frail, and self-identifying disabled, as well as individuals with mental health considerations. An opt-in purposively targeted sample of anonymous South Australians living in high fire-risk locations. Adult South Australian animal owners threatened or directly impacted by bushfire events, including individuals matching 1 of the 5 vulnerable groups. Self-reported details of animal ownership, perceived fire risk, survival planning, and vulnerability characteristics. Animal ownership was found to be more prevalent in these 5 populations than in the wider South Australian population. Perceived risk to pets was low to moderately low in these individuals. Variation was observed in the role of animals generally and pets specifically as motivators for preparing bushfire survival plans. Emergency services and associated agencies need to consider how the unique needs of vulnerable populations that keep animals, and their potential differences in risk perception, relate to their bushfire survival planning and preparedness requirements.

  16. Survey of Emergency Department staff on disaster preparedness and training for Ebola virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddle, Jennica; Tolleson-Rinehart, Sue; Brice, Jane

    2016-01-01

    In the domestic response to the outbreak of Ebola virus disease from 2013 to 2015, many US hospitals developed and implemented specialized training programs to care for patients with Ebola. This research reports on the effects of targeted training on Emergency Department (ED) staff's Ebola-related perceptions and attitudes. One hundred fifty-nine members of the UNC Health Care System ED staff participated in a voluntary cross-sectional, anonymous Web survey administered using a one-time "post then pre" design. Participants responded to questions about risk, roles, willingness to provide care, preparedness, and the contributions of media, training, or time to opinion change using a Likert agree-disagree scale. The authors conducted t test comparisons of Likert responses to pretraining and post-training attitudes about Ebola preparedness. The authors conducted multinomial logistic regression analyses of index scores of change and positivity of responses, controlling for the effects of independent variables. ED staff's opinions supported training; 73 percent felt all workers should receive Ebola education, 60 percent agreed all hospitals should prepare for Ebola, 66 percent felt UNC was better prepared, and 66 percent felt it had done enough to be ready for an Ebola case. Most staff (79 percent) said they had gotten more training for Ebola than for other disease outbreaks; 58 percent had experienced prior epidemics. After training, workers' attitudes were more positive about Ebola preparation including perceived risk of transmission, readiness and ability to manage a patient case, understanding team roles, and trust in both personal protective equipment and the hospital system's preparations (13 measures, p training period (Mean Difference [MD] = 17.45, SD = 9.89) and in the intended positive direction (MD = 15.80, SD = 0.91, p training (p = 0.003). Despite different occupations, mean scores were similar. Staff rated training most important and media least important

  17. Community Mental Health Preparedness in Disasters: A Qualitative Content Analysis in an Iranian Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliet Roudini

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: Mental health preparedness is a multifactorial phenomenon that requires a clear understanding and definition of perceived threats, public trust on social structure and formal and informal supportive organization. This preparedness involves proportional, mental, social, familial, religious beliefs, and cultural sensitivity along with the ability to handle mentally disastrous situation, which can be measured after concept analysis and tool development process.

  18. Collective response to public health emergencies and large-scale disasters: putting hospitals at the core of community resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paturas, James L; Smith, Deborah; Smith, Stewart; Albanese, Joseph

    2010-07-01

    Healthcare organisations are a critical part of a community's resilience and play a prominent role as the backbone of medical response to natural and manmade disasters. The importance of healthcare organisations, in particular hospitals, to remain operational extends beyond the necessity to sustain uninterrupted medical services for the community, in the aftermath of a large-scale disaster. Hospitals are viewed as safe havens where affected individuals go for shelter, food, water and psychosocial assistance, as well as to obtain information about missing family members or learn of impending dangers related to the incident. The ability of hospitals to respond effectively to high-consequence incidents producing a massive arrival of patients that disrupt daily operations requires surge capacity and capability. The activation of hospital emergency support functions provides an approach by which hospitals manage a short-term shortfall of hospital personnel through the reallocation of hospital employees, thereby obviating the reliance on external qualified volunteers for surge capacity and capability. Recent revisions to the Joint Commission's hospital emergency preparedness standard have impelled healthcare facilities to participate actively in community-wide planning, rather than confining planning exclusively to a single healthcare facility, in order to harmonise disaster management strategies and effectively coordinate the allocation of community resources and expertise across all local response agencies.

  19. Emergency Preparedness Safety Climate and Other Factors Associated With Mental Health Outcomes Among World Trade Center Disaster Evacuees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Martin F; Gershon, Robyn R; Riley, Halley E M; Zhi, Qi; Magda, Lori A; Peyrot, Mark

    2017-06-01

    We examined psychological outcomes in a sample of participants who evacuated from the World Trade Center towers on September 11, 2011. This study aimed to identify risk factors for psychological injury that might be amenable to change, thereby reducing adverse impacts associated with emergency high-rise evacuation. We used data from a cross-sectional survey conducted 2 years after the attacks to classify 789 evacuees into 3 self-reported psychological outcome categories: long-term psychological disorder diagnosed by a physician, short-term psychological disorder and/or memory problems, and no known psychological disorder. After nonmodifiable risk factors were controlled for, diagnosed psychological disorder was more likely for evacuees who reported lower "emergency preparedness safety climate" scores, more evacuation challenges (during exit from the towers), and evacuation-related physical injuries. Other variables associated with increased risk of psychological disorder outcome included gender (female), lower levels of education, preexisting physical disability, preexisting psychological disorder, greater distance to final exit, and more information sources during egress. Improving the "emergency preparedness safety climate" of high-rise business occupancies and reducing the number of egress challenges are potential strategies for reducing the risk of adverse psychological outcomes of high-rise evacuations. Focused safety training for individuals with physical disabilities is also warranted. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:326-336).

  20. Assessment of state- and territorial-level preparedness capacity for serving deaf and hard-of-hearing populations in disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Susan L; Tseng, Winston; Dahrouge, Donna; Engelman, Alina; Neuhauser, Linda; Huang, Debbie; Gurung, Sidhanta

    2014-01-01

    Substantial evidence exists that emergency preparedness and response efforts are not effectively reaching populations with functional and access needs, especially barriers related to literacy, language, culture, or disabilities. More than 36 million Americans are Deaf or hard of hearing (Deaf/HH). These groups experienced higher risks of injury, death, and property loss in recent disasters than the general public. We conducted a participatory research study to examine national recommendations on preparedness communication for the Deaf/HH. We assessed whether previous recommendations regarding the Deaf/HH have been incorporated into state- and territorial-level emergency operations plans (EOPs), interviewed state- and territorial-level preparedness directors about capacity to serve the Deaf/HH, and proposed strategies to benefit Deaf/HH populations during emergencies. We analyzed 55 EOPs and 50 key informant (KI) interviews with state directors. Fifty-five percent of EOPs mentioned vulnerable populations; however, only 31% specifically mentioned Deaf/HH populations in their plan. Study findings indicated significant relationships among the following factors: a state-level KI's familiarity with communication issues for the Deaf/HH, making relay calls (i.e., calls to services to relay communication between Deaf and hearing people), and whether the KI's department provides trainings about serving Deaf/HH populations in emergencies. We found significant associations between a state's percentage of Deaf/HH individuals and a KI's familiarity with Deaf/HH communication issues and provision by government of any disability services to Deaf/HH populations in emergencies. Further, we found significant relationships between KIs attending training on serving the Deaf/HH and familiarity with Deaf/HH communication issues, including how to make relay calls. This study provides new knowledge that can help emergency agencies improve their preparedness training, planning, and capacity

  1. Role of Mass Media in the Disaster Preparedness and Sustainable Development of Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seid-Aliyeva, Dinara E.

    2006-01-01

    Better understanding of the causes and effects of large earthquakes can assists in mitigation of damage and loss of lives as a result of destructive natural events. Well-informed and educated population living in geological hazard-prone regions can reduce catastrophic consequences of natural disasters and guaranty the sustainable development of healthy society. A development of information service for disaster management is of importance in reduction of the disaster's consequences

  2. Evaluation of Functional Preparedness and Non Structural Safety of Different Health Units of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in Coping With Natural Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Dargahi

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: In general, the results showed that the average performance percentage and non-structural vulnerability of health units and various other departments are moderate at the headquarters of health centers. According to the study results, disasters like earthquake, dust, flood, and landslide frequently required preparedness in the whole region.

  3. Disaster Preparedness Information Needs of Individuals Attending an Adult Literacy Center: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Daniela; Tanwar, Manju; Yoho, Deborah W.; Richter, Jane V. E.

    2009-01-01

    Being prepared with accurate, credible, and timely information during a disaster can help individuals make informed decisions about taking appropriate actions. Unfortunately, many people have difficulty understanding health and risk-related resources. This exploratory, mixed methods study assessed disaster information seeking behaviors and…

  4. Disaster preparedness for technology and electricity-dependent children and youth with special health care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakashita, Kazumi; Matthews, Wallace J; Yamamoto, Loren G

    2013-06-01

    Children and youth with special health care needs (CYSHCN) are complex and often dependent on electrical devices (technoelectric dependent) for life support/maintenance. Because they are reliant on electricity and electricity failure is common, the purpose of this study was to survey their preparedness for electricity failure. Parents and caregivers of technoelectric CYSHCN were asked to complete a preparedness questionnaire. We collected a convenience sample of 50 patients. These 50 patients utilized a total of 166 electrical devices. A home ventilator, oxygen concentrator, and a feeding pump were identified as the most important device for the children in 35 of the 50 patients, yet only 19 of the 35 patients could confirm that this device had a battery backup. Also, 22 of the 50 patients had a prolonged power failure preparedness plan. Technoelectric-dependent CYSHCN are poorly prepared for electrical power failure.

  5. School Health: an essential strategy in promoting community resilience and preparedness for natural disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kenzo; Kodama, Mitsuya; Gregorio, Ernesto R; Tomokawa, Sachi; Asakura, Takashi; Waikagul, Jitra; Kobayashi, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The Third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction recommended the implementation of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, which aims to achieve substantial risk reduction and to avoid various disaster-associated losses, including human lives and livelihoods, based on the lessons from the implementation of the Hyogo framework. However, the recommendations did not lay enough stress on the school and the Safe School Concept, which are the core components of a disaster response. To raise the issue of the importance of schools in disaster response. For human capacity building to avoid the damage caused by natural disasters, we should focus on the function of schools in the community and on school health framework. Schools perform a range of functions, which include being a landmark place for evacuation, acting as a participatory education hub among communities (students are usually from the surrounding communities), and being a sustainable source of current disaster-related information. In 2007, the Bangkok Action Agenda (BAA) on school education and disaster risk reduction (DRR) recommended the integration of DRR into education policy development, the enhancement of participatory mechanisms to improve DRR education, and the extension of DRR education from schools to communities. Based on our discussion and the recommendations of the BAA, we suggest that our existing challenges are to construct a repository of disaster-related lessons, develop training materials based on current information drawn from previous disasters, and disseminate the training to schools and communities. Schools linked with school health can provide good opportunities for DRR with a focus on development of school health policy and a community-oriented participatory approach.

  6. "Women and children first". Introducing a gender strategy into disaster preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, M

    1994-02-01

    Women have been included in development strategies, but women's issues and women's involvement have been missing from centrally planned government programs of disaster relief. The axiom of putting women and children first has been lost in the maelstrom of immediate need planning without consideration of consequences. The UN developed a training manual and seminars for disaster management. Included in one of the UN manuals are directives that emphasized priorities for nine main components of disaster relief: 1) vulnerability assessment, 2) planning, 3) institutional framework, 4) information systems, 5) resource base, 6) warning systems, 7) response mechanisms, 8) public education and training, and 9) rehearsals. Gender issues should be addressed for each of these components. The question of whether gender was included in a disaster assessment must be answered. Male planners may not be sufficiently informed of how women are affected; therefore, women need to be consulted at the planning stage. A national ministry of women should be involved in disaster relief planning. Women's needs and coping strategies must be accounted for in data-gathering instruments. Emergency supplies must include gynecological and obstetric supplies. The media must be able to reach women and children with disaster warnings. Relief plans must consider whether women will be unduly burdened by the strategy. The inclusion of women in disaster relief efforts not only helps women in crises but helps to break down gender inequalities and imbalances in general.

  7. Fear of Terrorism and Preparedness in New York City 2 Years After the Attacks: Implications for Disaster Planning and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscarino, Joseph A.; Adams, Richard E.; Figley, Charles R.; Galea, Sandro; Foa, Edna B.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To help improve disaster planning and research, we studied psychosocial predictors of terrorism fear and preparedness among New York City residents after the World Trade Center disaster (WTCD). Method We conducted a random cross-sectional survey of 1,681 adults interviewed 2 years after the WTCD. Participants were living in New York City at the time of the attack and exposed to ongoing terrorist threats. Results We found 44.9 percent (95% confidence interval [CI] = 41.9−47.9) of residents were concerned about future attacks and 16.9 percent (95% CI = 14.7−19.3) reported a fear level of “10” on a 10-point analog scale. Furthermore, 14.8 percent (95% CI = 12.8−17.0) reported they had made some plans for a future attack, a significant increase from the previous year. In addition, although 42.6 percent (95% CI = 39.6−45.7) indicated that they would likely wait for evacuation instructions following a chemical, biological, or nuclear attack, 34.4 percent (95% CI = 31.5−37.3) reported they would evacuate immediately against official advice. Predictors of high terrorism fear in a multivariate model included Hispanic ethnicity (odds ratio [OR] = 2.0, P = .006), lower education (OR = 4.4, P terrorism threats, terrorism fear and preparedness were related to socioeconomic factors, mental health status, terrorism exposure levels, and exposure to stressful life events. PMID:17041297

  8. Crisis management, capabilities and preparedness: the case of public hospitals in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafbagy, Reza

    2010-01-01

    Crises occurred in recent decades show that organizations' preparedness to predict and respond to undesired problems is directly related to the degree of their capabilities and preparedness to manage crises in this context, hospitals compared to other organizations are more viable to suffer damages if a crisis occurs. This study investigates the degree of public hospitals capabilities and preparedness to handled possible crises. Responses from hospital managers and directors show that most of them were not familiar with crisis management, while majority of them mentioned that they had crisis management plan and committee in their hospitals. Moreover, most of the respondents believed that if a crisis occurs in the hospital, patients, personnel and documents will be the first victims of the crisis. The study also indicates that having a crisis plan and crisis committee without being familiar with knowledge of crisis management, do not help managers to cope with crisis. Moreover, correlations show that older managers were more familiar with crisis management experiences abroad, and defined responsibilities contributed to setting up crisis committee, and taking crisis seriously.

  9. Applying Feedback Analysis on Citizen’s Participation System of CSFLU Barangays on Disaster Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo, A. J.; Baro, R.; Palaoag, T.

    2018-03-01

    Various initiatives through the use of ICT paved the way to better improve the services of the government during disaster situations. It helped in the preparation and mitigation process during disaster situations through different mediums such as Social Networking Sites and SMS to disseminate information. However, data that are gathered from this medium are not sufficient to address the problem experienced by the citizens, thus the concept of Citizen’s participation system was developed. The objective of the study is to provide a mechanism or tool for barangay officials and the city government to strategically plan preventive measures during times of disasters based on the citizen’s perspective, data analytics gathered from sentiments, suggestions, and feedback of the citizens was analysed using of Feedback Analysis in order to provide accuracy of data which is needed by the disaster response team that will be generated through data analytics.

  10. IDRL in Italy: A Study on Strengthening Legal Preparedness for International Disaster Response

    OpenAIRE

    Gatti, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    This report seeks to identify the main obstacles that existing rules create for international cooperation in the event of disasters in Italy: It does so by looking to the Guidelines for the Domestic Facilitation and Regulation of International Disaster Relief and Initial Recovery Assistance (hereinafter the IDRL Guidelines) and to the EU Host Nation Support Guidelines (HNSG). The analysis seeks to point out solutions (mostly legislative ones) that may contribute to enhancing international coo...

  11. The Need for a Definition of Big Data for Nursing Science: A Case Study of Disaster Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ho Ting; Chiang, Vico Chung Lim; Choi, Kup Sze; Loke, Alice Yuen

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development of technology has made enormous volumes of data available and achievable anytime and anywhere around the world. Data scientists call this change a data era and have introduced the term “Big Data”, which has drawn the attention of nursing scholars. Nevertheless, the concept of Big Data is quite fuzzy and there is no agreement on its definition among researchers of different disciplines. Without a clear consensus on this issue, nursing scholars who are relatively new to the concept may consider Big Data to be merely a dataset of a bigger size. Having a suitable definition for nurse researchers in their context of research and practice is essential for the advancement of nursing research. In view of the need for a better understanding on what Big Data is, the aim in this paper is to explore and discuss the concept. Furthermore, an example of a Big Data research study on disaster nursing preparedness involving six million patient records is used for discussion. The example demonstrates that a Big Data analysis can be conducted from many more perspectives than would be possible in traditional sampling, and is superior to traditional sampling. Experience gained from the process of using Big Data in this study will shed light on future opportunities for conducting evidence-based nursing research to achieve competence in disaster nursing. PMID:27763525

  12. The Need for a Definition of Big Data for Nursing Science: A Case Study of Disaster Preparedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Ting Wong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of technology has made enormous volumes of data available and achievable anytime and anywhere around the world. Data scientists call this change a data era and have introduced the term “Big Data”, which has drawn the attention of nursing scholars. Nevertheless, the concept of Big Data is quite fuzzy and there is no agreement on its definition among researchers of different disciplines. Without a clear consensus on this issue, nursing scholars who are relatively new to the concept may consider Big Data to be merely a dataset of a bigger size. Having a suitable definition for nurse researchers in their context of research and practice is essential for the advancement of nursing research. In view of the need for a better understanding on what Big Data is, the aim in this paper is to explore and discuss the concept. Furthermore, an example of a Big Data research study on disaster nursing preparedness involving six million patient records is used for discussion. The example demonstrates that a Big Data analysis can be conducted from many more perspectives than would be possible in traditional sampling, and is superior to traditional sampling. Experience gained from the process of using Big Data in this study will shed light on future opportunities for conducting evidence-based nursing research to achieve competence in disaster nursing.

  13. The Need for a Definition of Big Data for Nursing Science: A Case Study of Disaster Preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ho Ting; Chiang, Vico Chung Lim; Choi, Kup Sze; Loke, Alice Yuen

    2016-10-17

    The rapid development of technology has made enormous volumes of data available and achievable anytime and anywhere around the world. Data scientists call this change a data era and have introduced the term "Big Data", which has drawn the attention of nursing scholars. Nevertheless, the concept of Big Data is quite fuzzy and there is no agreement on its definition among researchers of different disciplines. Without a clear consensus on this issue, nursing scholars who are relatively new to the concept may consider Big Data to be merely a dataset of a bigger size. Having a suitable definition for nurse researchers in their context of research and practice is essential for the advancement of nursing research. In view of the need for a better understanding on what Big Data is, the aim in this paper is to explore and discuss the concept. Furthermore, an example of a Big Data research study on disaster nursing preparedness involving six million patient records is used for discussion. The example demonstrates that a Big Data analysis can be conducted from many more perspectives than would be possible in traditional sampling, and is superior to traditional sampling. Experience gained from the process of using Big Data in this study will shed light on future opportunities for conducting evidence-based nursing research to achieve competence in disaster nursing.

  14. Compliance of child care centers in Pennsylvania with national health and safety performance standards for emergency and disaster preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olympia, Robert P; Brady, Jodi; Kapoor, Shawn; Mahmood, Qasim; Way, Emily; Avner, Jeffrey R

    2010-04-01

    To determine the preparedness of child care centers in Pennsylvania to respond to emergencies and disasters based on compliance with National Health and Safety Performance Standards for Out-of-Home Child Care Programs. A questionnaire focusing on the presence of a written evacuation plan, the presence of a written plan for urgent medical care, the immediate availability of equipment and supplies, and the training of staff in first aid/cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) as delineated in Caring for Our Children: National Health and Safety Performance Standards for Out-of-Home Child Care Programs, 2nd Edition, was mailed to 1000 randomly selected child care center administrators located in Pennsylvania. Of the 1000 questionnaires sent, 496 questionnaires were available for analysis (54% usable response rate). Approximately 99% (95% confidence interval [CI], 99%-100%) of child care centers surveyed were compliant with recommendations to have a comprehensive written emergency plan (WEP) for urgent medical care and evacuation, and 85% (95% CI, 82%-88%) practice their WEP periodically throughout the year. More than 20% of centers did not have specific written procedures for floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, blizzards, or bomb threats, and approximately half of the centers did not have specific written procedures for urgent medical emergencies such as severe bleeding, unresponsiveness, poisoning, shock/heart or circulation failure, seizures, head injuries, anaphylaxis or allergic reactions, or severe dehydration. A minority of centers reported having medications available to treat an acute asthma attack or anaphylaxis. Also, 77% (95% CI, 73%-80%) of child care centers require first aid training for each one of its staff members, and 33% (95% CI, 29%-37%) require CPR training. Although many of the child care centers we surveyed are in compliance with the recommendations for emergency and disaster preparedness, specific areas for improvement include increasing the frequency

  15. Regulating the helping hand: improving legal preparedness for cross-border disaster medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, David

    2010-01-01

    Medical care is a highly regulated field in nearly every country. Therefore, it is not surprising that legal issues regularly arise in cross-border disaster operations that have with the potential to profoundly impact the effectiveness of international assistance. Little attention has been paid to preparing for and addressing these kinds of issues. This paper will report on research by the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) on International Disaster Response Law, and discuss new developments in the international legal framework for addressing these issues. For seven years, the IFRC has studied legal issues in cross-border disaster assistance. Its activities have included several dozen case studies, a global survey of governments and humanitarian stakeholders, and a series of meetings and high-level conferences. The IFRC has found a consistent set of regulatory problems in major disaster relief operations related to the entry and regulation of international relief. These include some issues specific to the health field, such as the regulation of drug donations and the recognition of foreign medical qualifications. To address the gaps in domestic and international regulatory structures, the IFRC spearheaded the development of new international guidelines. The legal risks for international health providers in disaster settings are real and should be better integrated into program planning. Governments must become more proactive in ensuring that legal frameworks are flexible enough to mitigate these problems.

  16. Evacuation of Hospitals during Disaster, Establishment of a Field Hospital, and Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Tekin, Erdal; Bayramoglu, Atif; Uzkeser, Mustafa; Cakir, Zeynep

    2017-01-01

    The buildings, working personnel, and patients and their relatives may directly or indirectly be affected by the disasters. Here we will discuss evacuation, establishing a field hospital, communication, the role of the media in disasters, and defending against sabotage. The affected individuals should be evacuated and transferred to secure zones safely and rapidly. How the decision for evacuation should be made and how the evacuation triage should be performed are important issues. Field hosp...

  17. Research issues in preparedness for mass casualty events, disaster, war, and terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton Walker, Patricia; Garmon Bibb, Sandra C; Elberson, Karen L

    2005-09-01

    This article provides a perspective on the types of research questions that might be explored and strategies used in relation to disaster,terrorism, and mass casualty events. Research is addressed in the context of three areas of focus: issues related to the health care provider; issues affecting the patient, individual, family, and community; and issues related to the health care system.

  18. Mitigating Local Natural Disaster through Social Aware Preparedness Using Complexity Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supadli, Irwan; Saputri, Andini; Mawengkang, Herman

    2018-01-01

    During and after natural disaster, such as, eruption of vulcano, many people have to abandon their living place to a temporary shelter. Usually, there could be several time for the occurrence of the eruption. This situation, for example, happened at Sinabung vulcano, located in Karo district of North Sumatera Province, Indonesia. The people in the disaster area have become indifferent. In terms of the society, the local natural disaster problem belong to a complex societal problem. This research is to find a way what should be done to these society to raise their social awareness that they had experienced serious natural disaster and they will be able to live normally and sustainable as before. Societal complexity approach is used to solve the problems. Social studies referred to in this activity are to analyze the social impacts arising from the implementation of the relocation itself. Scope of social impact assessments include are The social impact of the development program of relocation, including the impact of construction activities and long-term impact of construction activity, particularly related to the source and use of clean water, sewerage system, drainage and waste management (solid waste), Social impacts arising associated with occupant relocation sites and the availability of infrastructure (public facilities, include: worship facilities, health and education) in the local environment (pre-existing). Social analysis carried out on the findings of the field, the study related documents and observations of the condition of the existing social environment Siosar settlements.

  19. New York City's healthcare transportation during a disaster: a preparedness framework for a wicked problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Ernest; Lee, George C

    2009-01-01

    During a disaster, victims with varied morbidities are located at incident sites, while healthcare facilities with varied healthcare resources are distributed elsewhere. Transportation serves an essential equilibrating role: it helps balance the patients' need for care with the supply of care. Studying the special case of New York City, this article sets out the healthcare transportation components as: (1) incident morbidity; (2) transportation assets; and (3) healthcare capacity. The relationship between these three components raises an assignment problem: the management of healthcare transportation within a dynamic and partly unpredictable incident-transportation-healthcare nexus, under urban disruption. While the routine dispatch problem can be tackled through better geographic allocation software and technical algorithms, the disaster assignment problem must be confronted through real-time, mutual adjustment between institutions. This article outlines institutional alternatives for managing the assignment problem and calls for further research on the merits of alternative institutional models.

  20. Beyond Disaster Preparedness: Building a Resilience-Oriented Workforce for the Future

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Madrigano; Anita Chandra; Tracy Costigan; Joie D. Acosta

    2017-01-01

    Enhancing citizens’ and communities’ resilience is critical to adapt successfully to ongoing challenges faced by communities, as well as acute shocks resulting from disasters. While significant progress has been made in this area, several research and practice gaps remain. A crucial next step to advance resilience is the development of a resilience-oriented workforce. This narrative review examines existing literature to determine key components of a resilience-oriented workforce, with a focu...

  1. Assessment of Disaster Relief Preparedness Capabilities Networks in the EUCOM, PACOM, and SOUTHCOM Areas of Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    25 b. Competency: Food Security and Nutrition ...........................28 c. Competency: Shelter, Settlements, and Non-food Items...impacts of global warming on U.S Military HA/DR operations: Between the 20th and 21st centuries there was a 12% decrease in number of storms...global warming could have on the frequency and intensity of future rapid-onset natural disasters, it is more critical now than ever that the U.S

  2. Assessment of training needs for disaster mental health preparedness in black communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborde, Danielle J; Brannock, Kristen; Parrish, Theodore

    2011-07-01

    Reducing racial disparities in postdisaster mental health requires the integration of unique and complex community challenges in disaster planning. We conducted focus group discussions with 13 community leaders and 7 clinical providers in eastern North Carolina to inform the adaptation of a competency-based training model in postdisaster mental health for black communities. The audience-specific perspectives on disaster mental health and training priorities were identified by structured thematic analyses. Community leaders and clinical providers without personal ties to the local black population were unaware of internal networks and other community resources. Conversely, most black community leaders and clinical providers were unaware of local disaster response resources. All participants identified training in coordination, outreach to reduce mental health stigma, and cultural competence as priority training needs. Black community leaders also were concerned about their inclusion in local planning and leveraging resources. These inputs and suggestions made for tailoring with culturally appropriate language and processes guided the development of learning objectives, content, and field testing of the feasibility of trainer the trainer delivery of postdisaster mental health training for clinical providers and community leaders serving vulnerable black populations.

  3. Disaster metrics: quantitative benchmarking of hospital surge capacity in trauma-related multiple casualty events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Jamil D; Zuabi, Shawki; Subbarao, Italo

    2011-06-01

    Hospital surge capacity in multiple casualty events (MCE) is the core of hospital medical response, and an integral part of the total medical capacity of the community affected. To date, however, there has been no consensus regarding the definition or quantification of hospital surge capacity. The first objective of this study was to quantitatively benchmark the various components of hospital surge capacity pertaining to the care of critically and moderately injured patients in trauma-related MCE. The second objective was to illustrate the applications of those quantitative parameters in local, regional, national, and international disaster planning; in the distribution of patients to various hospitals by prehospital medical services; and in the decision-making process for ambulance diversion. A 2-step approach was adopted in the methodology of this study. First, an extensive literature search was performed, followed by mathematical modeling. Quantitative studies on hospital surge capacity for trauma injuries were used as the framework for our model. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization triage categories (T1-T4) were used in the modeling process for simplicity purposes. Hospital Acute Care Surge Capacity (HACSC) was defined as the maximum number of critical (T1) and moderate (T2) casualties a hospital can adequately care for per hour, after recruiting all possible additional medical assets. HACSC was modeled to be equal to the number of emergency department beds (#EDB), divided by the emergency department time (EDT); HACSC = #EDB/EDT. In trauma-related MCE, the EDT was quantitatively benchmarked to be 2.5 (hours). Because most of the critical and moderate casualties arrive at hospitals within a 6-hour period requiring admission (by definition), the hospital bed surge capacity must match the HACSC at 6 hours to ensure coordinated care, and it was mathematically benchmarked to be 18% of the staffed hospital bed capacity. Defining and quantitatively benchmarking the

  4. Birth preparedness and complication readiness in pregnant women attending urban tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasundhara Kamineni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Birth preparedness and complication readiness (BP/CR is a strategy to promote the timely use of skilled maternal and neonatal care and is based on the theory that preparing for childbirth and being ready for complications reduce delay in obtaining care. Study Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence and predictors of birth preparedness, knowledge on danger signs, and emergency readiness among pregnant women attending outpatient clinic of a tertiary care hospital. Patients and Methods: Six hundred pregnant women attending the outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital for the first time in an urban setting were interviewed using a tool adapted from the “Monitoring BP/CR-tools and indicators for maternal and new born health” of the “JHPIEGO.” The outcomes of the study were birth preparedness, knowledge of severe illness, and emergency readiness. Results: Six hundred pregnant women were in the study. Mean age of respondents was 25.2 (±4 years. The mean gestation at enrolment was 18.7 ± 8 weeks. Among the women who participated in the survey, 20% were illiterate, 70% were homemakers and nearly 70% had a monthly family income >Rs. 15,197 (n = 405. Three hundred and sixteen mothers (52% were primigravida. As defined in the study, 71.5% were birth prepared. However, 59 women (9.8% did not identify a place of delivery, 102 (17% had not started saving money, and 99 mothers (16.5% were not aware of purchasing materials needed for delivery. The predictors of birth preparedness are multiparity (odds ratio [OR]: 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4–3.1, registration in the antenatal clinic in the first trimester (OR: 3.7, 95% CI: 2.2–6.1, educational status of women (OR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.2–3.0, and pregnancy supervison by a doctor (OR: 5, 95% CI: 2.8–6.6. One hundred and sixty-four women (27% made no arrangements in the event of an emergency, 376 women (63% were not aware of their blood group

  5. Open Geosciences Knowledge: foster Information Preparedness in a Disaster Resilience Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapisardi, Elena; Di Franco, Sabina

    2014-05-01

    Information in science communication is the ability and the capacity to transfer scientific knowledge to enable the understanding of communication content. Particularly, as stated in many documents and programs (e.g. UNISDR, a clear and correct information on hazards and emergency matters is crucial,either for practitioners or population,to cope with disaster and to allow collaboration to take the best decision. The Open Knowledge is defined as a set of criteria and conditions related to production, use and distribution, that include principles for better access to knowledge. However,knowledge is a pillar to understand the world in itself and to guide human actions and interactions with the environment. A free and open access to knowledge in a wider perspective includes also an ethical topic that is strictly connected to the acting in terms of interactions and responsibilities, in other words with the purpose of knowledge. Focusing on "data" as a technical issue, could displace ethics and responsibility as external issues, enhancing the technical value of data. In this perspective "opening" to an open knowledge perspective could not only solve problems related to the téchne, such as functionalities and efficiency, but it should foster sharing and collaboration expressed through ethics (praxis). The web era frees the information, hence the internet "information deluge" brings to the idea of "encyclopedia" (and of Wikipedia) as a tool to "organize, control and filter" knowledge, to allow communication, knowledge transfer, education, and sense-making. Social media and crowdsourcing have considerable promise for supporting collaborative and innovative ways that reshape the information production and distribution. However, the debate is now facing an important concern related to true/false issues, focusing on validation, and liability. Without any doubt the massive use of Social Media during recent major and minor disasters highlighted a huge need of clear, correct

  6. Chemical or Biological Terrorist Attacks: An Analysis of the Preparedness of Hospitals for Managing Victims Affected by Chemical or Biological Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Russell L.

    2006-01-01

    questionnaire survey, the availability of functional preparedness plans, specific preparedness education/training, decontamination facilities, surge capacity, pharmaceutical supplies, and laboratory diagnostic capabilities of hospitals were examined. The findings revealed that a majority (89.2%) of hospitals in the State of Mississippi have documented preparedness plans, provided specific preparedness education/training (89.2%), have dedicated facilities for decontamination (75.7%), and pharmaceutical plans and supplies (56.8%) for the treatment of victims in the event of a disaster involving chemical or biological WMD. However, over half (59.5%) of the hospitals could not increase surge capacity (supplies, equipment, staff, patient beds, etc.) and lack appropriate laboratory diagnostic services (91.9%) capable of analyzing and identifying WMD. In general, hospitals in the State of Mississippi, like a number of hospitals throughout the United States, are still not adequately prepared to manage victims of terrorist attacks involving chemical or biological WMD which consequently may result in the loss of hundreds or even thousands of lives. Therefore, hospitals continue to require substantial resources at the local, State, and national levels in order to be “truly” prepared. PMID:16823078

  7. Validation of a Framework for Measuring Hospital Disaster Resilience Using Factor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Zhong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hospital disaster resilience can be defined as “the ability of hospitals to resist, absorb, and respond to the shock of disasters while maintaining and surging essential health services, and then to recover to its original state or adapt to a new one.” This article aims to provide a framework which can be used to comprehensively measure hospital disaster resilience. An evaluation framework for assessing hospital resilience was initially proposed through a systematic literature review and Modified-Delphi consultation. Eight key domains were identified: hospital safety, command, communication and cooperation system, disaster plan, resource stockpile, staff capability, disaster training and drills, emergency services and surge capability, and recovery and adaptation. The data for this study were collected from 41 tertiary hospitals in Shandong Province in China, using a specially designed questionnaire. Factor analysis was conducted to determine the underpinning structure of the framework. It identified a four-factor structure of hospital resilience, namely, emergency medical response capability (F1, disaster management mechanisms (F2, hospital infrastructural safety (F3, and disaster resources (F4. These factors displayed good internal consistency. The overall level of hospital disaster resilience (F was calculated using the scoring model: F = 0.615F1 + 0.202F2 + 0.103F3 + 0.080F4. This validated framework provides a new way to operationalise the concept of hospital resilience, and it is also a foundation for the further development of the measurement instrument in future studies.

  8. Disaster preparedness networks in rural Midwest communities: Organizational roles, collaborations, and support for older residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Sato; Zhu, Xi; Robinson, Erin L; Schroer, Audrey

    2018-05-17

    This study investigated the roles and interconnections among community organizations belonging to local disaster coalitions in Midwest in supporting older residents. Representatives from 44 organizations participated in one-time survey. Most were non-profit (68%) or federal/state/local government agencies (23%). The analyses of 761 relationships showed stronger collaborations in assessment (average strength=2.88 on a 5-point scale), emergency response (2.72), and planning (2.61); and weaker collaborations in co-sponsoring programs (1.71) and supporting older residents (2.03). The extent of collaboration (network density) to support older adults was also low. Coalitions may enhance network density and centralization by developing sub-committee structure and strengthening existing collaborations.

  9. Beyond Disaster Preparedness: Building a Resilience-Oriented Workforce for the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigano, Jaime; Chandra, Anita; Costigan, Tracy; Acosta, Joie D

    2017-12-13

    Enhancing citizens' and communities' resilience is critical to adapt successfully to ongoing challenges faced by communities, as well as acute shocks resulting from disasters. While significant progress has been made in this area, several research and practice gaps remain. A crucial next step to advance resilience is the development of a resilience-oriented workforce. This narrative review examines existing literature to determine key components of a resilience-oriented workforce, with a focus on organizational structures, training and education, and leadership models. Reviewed articles spanned a variety of study types, including needs assessments of existing workforce, program evaluations, and reviews/commentaries. A resilience-oriented workforce spans many disciplines and training programs will need to reflect that. It requires a collaborative organizational model that promotes information sharing structures. Leadership models should foster a balance between workforce autonomy and operation as a collective entity. Optimal strategies to develop a resilience-oriented workforce have yet to be realized and future research will need to collect and synthesize data to promote and evaluate the growth of this field.

  10. Beyond Disaster Preparedness: Building a Resilience-Oriented Workforce for the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Madrigano

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing citizens’ and communities’ resilience is critical to adapt successfully to ongoing challenges faced by communities, as well as acute shocks resulting from disasters. While significant progress has been made in this area, several research and practice gaps remain. A crucial next step to advance resilience is the development of a resilience-oriented workforce. This narrative review examines existing literature to determine key components of a resilience-oriented workforce, with a focus on organizational structures, training and education, and leadership models. Reviewed articles spanned a variety of study types, including needs assessments of existing workforce, program evaluations, and reviews/commentaries. A resilience-oriented workforce spans many disciplines and training programs will need to reflect that. It requires a collaborative organizational model that promotes information sharing structures. Leadership models should foster a balance between workforce autonomy and operation as a collective entity. Optimal strategies to develop a resilience-oriented workforce have yet to be realized and future research will need to collect and synthesize data to promote and evaluate the growth of this field.

  11. Relying on the National Mobile Disaster Hospital as a business continuity strategy in the aftermath of a tornado: The Louisville experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Randy D; Stringer, Lew; Craig, James; Godette-Crawford, Regina; Black, Paul S; Andra, David L; Winslow, James

    2017-01-01

    On 28th April, 2014, a tornado left much of Louisville, MS and the local hospital, Winston Medical Center, in ruin. In the USA, temporary hospital solutions have been used to augment the mainstream healthcare system since the American Civil War. As memories fade, however, the necessary readiness for a temporary hospital also fades, at times leaving a patchwork of resources either underfunded or abandoned. With the creation of the Hospital Preparedness Program, several temporary hospital solutions were created in various states across the USA. In the present case, Mississippi and North Carolina resources were used in Louisville in the aftermath of a direct impact that destroyed the hospital and nursing home. In the hours that followed, after lives were saved and patients safely relocated, a frank assessment confirmed the structural loss of the hospital. Local emergency responders, hospital staff, state and federal representatives all rallied with the aim of saving the community's only hospital. The steps taken in Louisville and the deliberate restoration of these essential services offer a learning opportunity for all involved in healthcare disaster preparedness, response and recovery.

  12. A survey of pandemic influenza preparedness and response capabilities in Chicago area hospital security departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmerly, David P

    2009-01-01

    This article is a summary based on a December 2007 paper prepared by the author in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a master's degree in business and organizational security management at Webster University. The project described was intended to assess Chicago-area healthcare organization security departments' preparedness and response capabilities for a potential influenza pandemic. While the author says healthcare organizations are learning from the pandemics of the past, little research has been conducted on the requirements necessary within hospital security departments. The article explores staffing, planning, preparation and response capabilities within a healthcare security context to determine existing resources available to the healthcare security community. Eleven completed surveys were received from hospital security managers throughout the geographical Chicago area. They reveal that hospital security managers are conscious of the risks of a pandemic influenza outbreak. Yet, it was found that several gaps existed within hospital security department staffing and response capabilities, as hospital security departments may not have the available resources necessary to adequately maintain their operations during a pandemic incident.

  13. Taiwan's Experience in Hospital Preparedness and Response for Emerging Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Hui-Yun; Ko, Hai-Yun; Guo, Peng; Chen, Chang-Hsun; Chou, Su-Mei

    The Communicable Disease Control Medical Network (CDCMN), established in 2003 after the SARS outbreak in Taiwan, has undergone several phases of modification in structure and activation. The main organizing principles of the CDCMN are centralized isolation of patients with severe highly infectious diseases and centralization of medical resources, as well as a network of designated regional hospitals like those in other countries. The CDCMN is made up of a command system, responding hospitals, and supporting hospitals. It was tested and activated in response to the H1N1 influenza pandemic in 2009-10 and the Ebola outbreak in West Africa in 2014-2016, and it demonstrated high-level functioning and robust capacity. In this article, the history, structure, and operation of the CDCMN is introduced globally for the first time, and the advantages and challenges of this system are discussed. The Taiwanese experience shows an example of a collaboration between the public health system and the medical system that may help other public health authorities plan management and hospital preparedness for highly infectious diseases.

  14. NCSE's 13th National Conference on Disasters and Environment: Science, Preparedness and Resilience, Post Conference Follow-up Activities and Dissemination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saundry, Peter [National Council for Science and the Environment, Washington, DC (United States); Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Kossak, Shelley [National Council for Science and the Environment, Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-04-29

    The National Council for Science and the Environment (NCSE) received $15,000 from the US Department of Energy to support post-conference activities of the 13th National Conference on the theme of Disasters and the Environment: Science, Preparedness and Resilience, held on January 15-17, 2013 at the Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center in Washington, DC. Over 1,000 participants from the scientific, emergency response, policy, conservation, and business communities, as well as federal and local government officials, and international entities attended the event. The conference developed actionable outcomes that constructively advance the science behind decision-making on environmental disasters, with an intended result of more prepared and resilient communities in light of a changing climate. Disasters and Environment topic was addressed through six organizing themes: Cascading Disasters; Intersection of the Built and Natural Environments; Disasters as Mechanisms of Ecosystem Change; Rethinking Recovery and Expanding the Vision of Mitigation; Human Behavior and its Consequences; and "No Regrets" Resilience. The program featured eight plenary sessions, 24 symposia and 23 breakout workshops and addressed pivotal issues surrounding disasters and environment including lifeline services, the energy, climate, hazard nexus, grid collapse, community vulnerability, and natural resource management. Sessions, symposia and workshops were conducted by over 200 distinguished thought leaders, scientists, government officials, policy experts and international speakers throughout the three day event. Following the conference, NCSE prepared a set of recommendations and results from the workshops and disseminated the results to universities, organizations and agencies, the business community. NCSE’s national dissemination involved organized several targeted trips and meetings to disseminate significant findings to key stakeholder groups.

  15. Situating Preparedness Education within Public Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Kaori

    2017-01-01

    Both "disaster preparedness" and "public pedagogy" have been broadly defined and diversely utilised. Preparedness has been dealt with in disciplines such as civil engineering, the sociology of disasters, public health and psychology, rather than education. Recently, inquiries into the learning and teaching of preparedness have…

  16. Guidelines for the use of foreign field hospitals in the aftermath of sudden-impact disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Natural and complex disasters can cause a dramatic increase in the demand for emergency medical care. Local health services can be overwhelmed, and damage to clinics and hospitals can render them useless. Many countries maintain mobile field hospitals for defense or humanitarian purposes. Dispatching these facilities to disaster-affected countries would seem an ideal response to emergency medical needs. Unfortunately, experience has shown that in the case of natural disasters, field hospitals often have not met the expectations of recipients and donor institutions. In July 2003, the World Health Organization and Pan American Health Organization sponsored a workshop in El Salvador to discuss the pros and cons of using foreign field hospitals in the aftermath of natural disasters. These guidelines are the result of that workshop. The workshop participants identified different phases when foreign field hospitals and specialized medical personnel are most useful. They can provide advanced trauma care and life support if at the disaster site within 48 hours of the impact of an event; they would provide follow-up care for trauma victims and resumption of routine medical care in the two weeks following the event; during rehabilitation and reconstruction phases (from two months to two or more years), a field hospital might serve as a temporary replacement for damaged health facilities. These guidelines propose conditions that field hospitals and their staff should meet for each of these phases. The guidelines also outline issues that authorities in donor countries and disaster-affected countries should discuss before mobilizing a field hospital.

  17. Disaster preparedness and response improvement: comparison of the 2010 Haiti earthquake-related diagnoses with baseline medical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Berlaer, Gerlant; Staes, Tom; Danschutter, Dirk; Ackermans, Ronald; Zannini, Stefano; Rossi, Gabriele; Buyl, Ronald; Gijs, Geert; Debacker, Michel; Hubloue, Ives

    2017-10-01

    Disaster medicine research generally lacks control groups. This study aims to describe categories of diagnoses encountered by the Belgian First Aid and Support Team after the 2010 Haiti earthquake and extract earthquake-related changes from comparison with comparable baseline data. The hypothesis is that besides earthquake-related trauma, medical problems emerge soon, questioning an appropriate composition of Foreign Medical Teams and Interagency Emergency Health Kits. Using a descriptive cohort study design, diagnoses of patients presenting to the Belgian field hospital were prospectively registered during 4 weeks after the earthquake and compared with those recorded similarly by Médecins Sans Frontières in the same area and time span in previous and later years. Of 7000 triaged postearthquake patients, 3500 were admitted, of whom 2795 were included and analysed. In the fortnight after the earthquake, 90% suffered from injury. In the following fortnight, medical diseases emerged, particularly respiratory (23%) and digestive (14%). More than 53% developed infections within 3 weeks after the event. Médecins Sans Frontières registered 6407 patients in 2009; 6033 in 2011; and 7300 in 2012. A comparison indicates that postearthquake patients suffered significantly less from violence, but more from wounds, respiratory, digestive and ophthalmological diseases. This is the first comparison of postearthquake diagnoses with baseline data. Within 2 weeks after the acute phase of an earthquake, respiratory, digestive and ophthalmological problems will emerge to the prejudice of trauma. This fact should be anticipated when composing Foreign Medical Teams and Interagency Emergency Health Kits to be sent to the disaster site.

  18. Evaluation of a Tabletop Emergency Preparedness Exercise for Pharmacy Students

    OpenAIRE

    Pate, Adam; Bratberg, Jeffrey P.; Robertson, Courtney; Smith, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To describe the implementation and effect of an emergency preparedness laboratory activity on student knowledge, willingness to participate in emergency preparedness training, current level of preparedness, and the importance of a pharmacist’s role in disaster response.

  19. Preparing for Disaster: Taking the Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colber, Judith

    2008-01-01

    In this article, Irwin Redlener, director of the National Center for Disaster Preparedness describes disasters in relation to five phases that may serve as a helpful framework for planning disaster response: (1) before the disaster (pre-disaster); (2) during the disaster (intra-disaster); (3) immediately after the disaster (immediate…

  20. Birth preparedness and complication readiness among prenatal attendees in a teaching hospital in South West Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aduloju, Olusola P; Akintayo, Akinyemi A; Aduloju, Tolulope; Akin-Akintayo, Oladunni O

    2017-11-01

    To assess birth preparedness and complication readiness (BPCR) as well as knowledge of danger signs during pregnancy, labor/delivery, and the postpartum period. A cross-sectional study was undertaken of pregnant women attending the prenatal clinic at a tertiary hospital in Nigeria between October and December 2016. A pretested and structured questionnaire was used to collect data on BPCR, and logistic regression was performed to determine factors affecting BPCR. Of 325 participants, 274 (84.3%) had knowledge of BPCR components, and 265 (81.5%) were well prepared for birth and its complications. However, only 89 (27.4%) knew key danger signs during labor/delivery and 81 (24.9%) knew those in the first 2 days after delivery. Older age, higher parity, tertiary education of women, paid employment of women and their spouses, higher social class, frequent prenatal visits, and knowledge of danger signs were significantly associated with BPCR (Pteaching pregnant women to recognize key danger signs. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  1. Risk, Innovation and Development in a Changing Climate: The Role of Drought Preparedness Policies and Disaster Risk Management in Ceara, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Germano Ferreira Costa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Droughts are among the most common type of disasters, generating enormous socioeconomic impacts in the world, especially when considering the silent character they have. These phenomena are becoming more frequent, intense and longer lasting, which gives us an idea of ​​what may happen with the accentuation of climate change. This article seeks to provide and overview of the measures and policies addressing drought prevention and preparedness, facing the impacts of climate change, in the State of Ceará, Brazil. This study addresses issues of public policies concerning drought risk management in order to allow a greater understanding of policies and programs, experiences and perspectives by the analysis of the process of elaboration of the Integrated Disaster Risk Management Plan of the State of Ceara, Brazil (PIGRD-CE, as well as of the development of the Early Warning System - Drought Monitor -, while addressing the political coordination, which led to the creation of the Drought Commission (Comitê das Secas. As a result, we understand this strategy, concerning drought preparedness, as a tool able to increase the adaptability and resilience of the political process. In this regard, we present the experiences accumulated by the State of Ceara in drought management processes showing a promising potential for replicability in other Latin American countries also subjected to threats that the changing climate may impose, in combination with the analysis of related risks - political/institutional/cultural -, in the development of public policies to draw together the main conclusions, lessons learned and recommendations.

  2. All-Cause Hospital Admissions Among Older Adults After a Natural Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Sue Anne; Abir, Mahshid; Choi, HwaJung; Cooke, Colin; Iwashyna, Theodore

    2017-08-05

    We characterize hospital admissions among older adults for any cause in the 30 days after a significant natural disaster in the United States. The main outcome was all-cause hospital admissions in the 30 days after natural disaster. Separate analyses were conducted to examine all-cause hospital admissions excluding the 72 hours after the disaster, ICU admissions, all-cause inhospital mortality, and admissions by state. A self-controlled case series analysis using the 2011 Medicare Provider and Analysis Review was conducted to examine exposure to natural disaster by elderly adults located in zip codes affected by tornadoes during the 2011 southeastern superstorm. Spatial data of tornado events were obtained from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Severe Report database, and zip code data were obtained from the US Census Bureau. All-cause hospital admissions increased by 4% for older adults in the 30 days after the April 27, 2011, tornadoes (incidence rate ratio 1.04; 95% confidence interval 1.01 to 1.07). When the first 3 days after the disaster that may have been attributed to immediate injuries were excluded, hospitalizations for any cause also remained higher than when compared with the other 11 months of the year (incidence rate ratio 1.04; 95% confidence interval 1.01 to 1.07). There was no increase in ICU admissions or inhospital mortality associated with the natural disaster. When data were examined by individual states, Alabama, which had the highest number of persons affected, had a 9% increase in both hospitalizations and ICU admissions. When all time-invariant characteristics were controlled for, this natural disaster was associated with a significant increase in all-cause hospitalizations. This analysis quantifies acute care use after disasters through examining all-cause hospitalizations and represents an important contribution to building models of resilience-the ability to recover from a disaster-and hospital surge capacity

  3. Introducing Emergency Preparedness in Childbirth Education Classes

    OpenAIRE

    DeWald, Lauren; Fountain, Lily

    2006-01-01

    In the wake of recent natural and man-made disasters and emergency situations, pregnant women are especially vulnerable. The authors of this column encourage childbirth educators to include disaster preparedness instruction and emergency childbirth techniques in their class content.

  4. ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Preparedness of Prospective Nurses to Work as Midwives in Hospital and Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratibha A Chandekar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is desirable to have skilled midwives to provide competent care in hospital and community setting. Aims and Objectives: The objectives were to assess curriculum adequacy, preparedness and job preferences of prospective nurses. Materials and Methods: A descriptive survey was used for the study. Thestudy was carried out at nursing institutes in Ahmednagar District, Maharashtra, India. The participants were the 200 prospective Nurses(final year Nursing students of General Nursing and B.Sc Nursing Programme, who had undergone midwifery examination. A semi structured questionnaire with self report technique method was used. Results: 20.57% and 89.1% students respectively felt that, thetheory input and allotted clinical hours were adequate. During the clinical posting, 29.7% felt that they did not get the opportunity to work in midwifery sections. 33.1% students expressed that they did not get cases as per the requirement prescribed by Indian NursingCouncil.13.7% and 33.7% students respectively agreed that they lacked confidence to perform abdominal palpation of antenatal cases & conduct deliveries independently. A few (26.2% expressed their inability to resuscitate the newborn. 89.1% said that they needed more experience to work independently as midwives. Everyone felt the need of in-service education and majority (77.2% felt that its duration should be either three months or more. Conclusion: Present study reveals that only 7% of the prospective nurses are ready to work in midwifery section. Only 13.7% of the prospective nurses are ready to work in rural area. Since there is a shortfall of 70.02% forspeciality of obstetrics and gynecology in rural health (GOI, 1997, and there are only 40 qualified nurse midwives per 100,000 births inIndia or only one midwife for 2500 births in rural areas, it is imperative to strengthen midwifery training to bridge this gap.

  5. Hospital Nurses' Competencies in Disaster Situations: A Qualitative Study in the South of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Sandra M; Witt, Regina R

    2015-12-01

    Introduction Hospital nurses play a key role in the aftermath of the occurrence of disasters and need specific competencies to work in these situations. From a global perspective, few models exist that focus on disaster nursing. This study aimed to identify hospital nurses' competencies in disaster situations. A qualitative, descriptive, exploratory study was developed using focus groups as a method of data collection. Three meetings were held from June through September 2012 with nurses who worked at a hospital used as reference for disaster situations in the South of Brazil. Thematic analysis of collected data generated the competencies. For statement standardization, a format consistent with a verb, a noun, and a complement was adopted. The group validated 17 competencies, which were organized according to the phases of emergency management described by the World Health Organization (WHO) and classified in domain areas of management, health care, communication, and education. The competencies identified in this study can contribute to the education and practice of nurses in the hospital ambience, strengthening its capacity to face disaster situations.

  6. Collaborative Disaster Preparedness: Vietnam, the United States, and Regional Experiences (Proceedings from Da Nang, Vietnam, August 1820, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-19

    Children, and Catholic Relief Services work to build capacity for communities to respond to disasters 4. incident command system (ICS) (U.S. Forest Service...including Australia, Fiji, France , New Zealand, and the United Kingdom) offered military support to the government’s response. The civilian

  7. Hospital Administration and Nursing Leadership in Disasters: An Exploratory Study Using Concept Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenema, Tener Goodwin; Deruggiero, Katherine; Losinski, Sarah; Barnett, Daniel

    Strong leadership is critical in disaster situations when "patient surge" challenges a hospital's capacity to respond and normally acceptable patterns of care are disrupted. Activation of the emergency operations plan triggers an incident command system structure for leadership decision making. Yet, implementation of the emergency operations plan and incident command system protocols is ultimately subject to nursing and hospital leadership at the service- and unit level. The results of these service-/unit-based leadership decisions have the potential to directly impact staff and patient safety, quality of care, and ultimately, patient outcomes. Despite the critical nature of these events, nurse leaders and administrators receive little education regarding leadership and decision making during disaster events. The purpose of this study is to identify essential competencies of nursing and hospital administrators' leadership during disaster events. An integrative mixed-methods design combining qualitative and quantitative approaches to data collection and analysis was used. Five focus groups were conducted with nurse leaders and hospital administrators at a large urban hospital in the Northeastern United States in a collaborative group process to generate relevant leadership competencies. Concept Systems Incorporated was used to sort, prioritize, and analyze the data (http://conceptsystemsinc.com/). The results suggest that participants' institutional knowledge (of existing resources, communications, processes) and prior disaster experience increase leadership competence.

  8. Hazard Analysis and Disaster Preparedness in the Fairbanks North Star Borough, Alaska using Hazard Simulations, GIS, and Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, K.; Prakash, A.; Witte, W.

    2011-12-01

    The Fairbanks North Star Borough (FNSB) lies in interior Alaska, an area that is dominated by semiarid, boreal forest climate. FNSB frequently witnesses flooding events, wild land fires, earthquakes, extreme winter storms and other natural and man-made hazards. Being a large 19,065 km2 area, with a population of approximately 97,000 residents, providing emergency services to residents in a timely manner is a challenge. With only four highways going in and out of the borough, and only two of those leading to another city, most residents do not have quick access to a main road. Should a major disaster occur and block one of the two highways, options for evacuating or getting supplies to the area quickly dwindle. We present the design of a Geographic Information System (GIS) and network analysis based decision support tool that we have created for planning and emergency response. This tool will be used by Emergency Service (Fire/EMS), Emergency Management, Hazardous Materials Team, and Law Enforcement Agencies within FNSB to prepare and respond to a variety of potential disasters. The GIS combines available road and address networks from different FNSB agencies with the 2010 census data. We used ESRI's ArcGIS and FEMA's HAZUS-MH software to run multiple disaster scenarios and create several evacuation and response plans. Network analysis resulted in determining response time and classifying the borough by response times to facilitate allocation of emergency resources. The resulting GIS database can be used by any responding agency in FNSB to determine possible evacuation routes, where to open evacuation centers, placement of resources, and emergency response times. We developed a specific emergency response plan for three common scenarios: (i) major wildfire threatening Fairbanks, (ii) a major earthquake, (iii) loss of power during flooding in a flood-prone area. We also combined the network analysis results with high resolution imagery and elevation data to determine

  9. Using Rapid Improvement Events for Disaster After-Action Reviews: Experience in a Hospital Information Technology Outage and Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Charles M; McStay, Christopher; Oeth, Justin; Koehler, April; Bookman, Kelly

    2018-02-01

    The use of after-action reviews (AARs) following major emergency events, such as a disaster, is common and mandated for hospitals and similar organizations. There is a recurrent challenge of identified problems not being resolved and repeated in subsequent events. A process improvement technique called a rapid improvement event (RIE) was used to conduct an AAR following a complete information technology (IT) outage at a large urban hospital. Using RIE methodology to conduct the AAR allowed for the rapid development and implementation of major process improvements to prepare for future IT downtime events. Thus, process improvement methodology, particularly the RIE, is suited for conducting AARs following disasters and holds promise for improving outcomes in emergency management. Little CM , McStay C , Oeth J , Koehler A , Bookman K . Using rapid improvement events for disaster after-action reviews: experience in a hospital information technology outage and response. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(1):98-100.

  10. Psychological Correlates of Civilian Preparedness for Conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodas, Moran; Siman-Tov, Maya; Kreitler, Shulamith; Peleg, Kobi

    2017-08-01

    Preparedness for emergencies and disasters is imperative for public resilience. Previous studies have revealed low levels of civilian preparedness for conflicts. Classic behavioral models prove inapt in describing preparedness patterns in victimized populations chronically exposed to this threat. In an effort to expand this perspective, we hypothesized that other psychological constructs are correlated with preparedness. A cross-sectional, Internet-based study was performed in Israel in early 2016. A sociodemographically diverse sample included 385 participants, Jews and Arabs. The tools included a preparedness index, sense of preparedness questionnaire, Trait Anxiety Inventory, Life Orientation Test, Behavioral Inhibition & Activation System scales, and ego defenses. The results suggested that optimistic and rational individuals reported significantly higher levels of preparedness, whereas those who scored highly on the trait anxiety scale and those with a tendency to use denial coping mechanisms reported significantly lower levels of preparedness. The findings suggest that additional constructs, other than classic threat perception components, might play a key role in governing preparedness behavior. In particular, psychological manipulation of dispositional optimism or optimistic thinking might be effective in motivating preparedness behavior. Future research should explore such innovative ways to promoting preparedness. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:451-459).

  11. Connecting care competencies and culture during disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Vivek

    2009-01-01

    Connecting care Competencies and Culture are core fundamentals in responding to disasters. Thick coordination between professionals, communities and agencies in different geographical areas is crucial to the happening of appropriate preparedness and thus efficient response and mitigation of a disaster. In the next few articles, we present diverse examples related to the preparedness and recovery process to adverse disasters across the globe PMID:19561968

  12. Deployment of field hospitals to disaster regions: Insights from ten medical relief operations spanning three decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naor, Michael; Heyman, Samuel N; Bader, Tarif; Merin, Ofer

    2017-01-01

    The Israeli Defense Force (IDF) Medical Corps developed a model of airborne field hospital. This model was structured to deal with disaster settings, requiring self-sufficiency, innovation and flexible operative mode in the setup of large margins of uncertainty regarding the disaster environment. The current study is aimed to critically analyze the experience, gathered in ten such missions worldwide. Interviews with physicians who actively participated in the missions from 1988 until 2015 as chief medical officers combined with literature review of principal medical and auxiliary publications in order to assess and integrate information about the assembly of these missions. A body of knowledge was accumulated over the years by the IDF Medical Corps from deploying numerous relief missions to both natural (earthquake, typhoon, and tsunami), and man-made disasters, occurring in nine countries (Armenia, Rwanda, Kosovo, Turkey, India, Haiti, Japan, Philippines, and Nepal). This study shows an evolutionary pattern with improvements implemented from one mission to the other, with special adaptations (creativity and improvisation) to accommodate logistics barriers. The principals and operative function for deploying medical relief system, proposed over 20 years ago, were challenged and validated in the subsequent missions of IDF outlined in the current study. These principals, with the advantage of the military infrastructure and the expertise of drafted civilian medical professionals enable the rapid assembly and allocation of highly competent medical facilities in disaster settings. This structure model is to large extent self-sufficient with a substantial operative flexibility that permits early deployment upon request while the disaster assessment and definition of needs are preliminary.

  13. Emergency planning and response preparedness in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martincic, R.; Frlin-Lubi, A.; Usenicnik, B.

    2000-01-01

    Disasters do occur and so do nuclear or radiological accidents. Experience has shown that advance emergency response preparedness is essential in order to mitigate the consequences of an accident. In Slovenia, the Civil Protection Organization is the responsible authority for emergency preparedness and response to any kind of disasters. The Krko Nuclear Power Plant is the only nuclear power plant in Slovenia. To date the plant has operated safely and no serious incidents have been recorded. Slovenia nevertheless, maintains a high level of emergency preparedness, which is reflected in the area of prevention and safety and in the area of emergency response preparedness. The emergency management system for nuclear emergencies is incorporated into an overall preparedness and response system. The paper presents an overview of nuclear or radiological emergency response preparedness in Slovenia and its harmonization with the international guidelines. (author)

  14. Emergency preparedness and response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, M.

    1996-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, it became painfully obvious to the international community that there was an urgent need to establish a system for the coordination of international disaster assistance. It became the task of the United Nations Office for Disaster Relief (UNDRO) to develop such a system. The former UNDRO was subsumed into the Department of Humanitarian Affairs (DHA), established in January 1992 on the basis of UN General Assembly Resolution 46/182 adopted in December 1991, and the disaster relief system presently found in DHA is a further evolution of the system established by UNDRO. One particular importance in relation to nuclear accidents is the fact that UNDRO and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) signed a Memorandum of Understanding defining their respective responsibilities and the need for cooperation in case of accidents involving the unintentional release of nuclear radiation. In essence, the MOU makes it clear that the responsibilities of the IAEA, in connection with accidents at Nuclear Power Plants, related to the technical and radiological aspects, in particular to accident prevention, to the on-site preparedness, and to remedial measures within the 30-km zone outside the NPP. DHA's responsibilities, on the other hand, relate to the general preparedness and the rescue efforts outside the 30 km zone. In this respect, the preparedness and emergency response system is no different from the system employed in any other type of sudden-onset emergency

  15. Factors influencing disaster nursing core competencies of emergency nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Young; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2017-10-01

    Emergency nurses are expected to provide required nursing services by using their professional expertise to reduce the risk posed by disasters. Thus, emergency nurses' disaster nursing core competencies are essential for coping with disasters. The purpose of the study reported here was to identify factors influencing the disaster nursing core competencies of emergency nurses. A survey was conducted among 231 emergency nurses working in 12 hospitals in South Korea. Data were collected on disaster-related experience, attitude, knowledge, and disaster nursing core competencies by means of a questionnaire. In multiple regression analysis, disaster-related experience exerted the strongest influence on disaster nursing core competencies, followed by disaster-related knowledge. The explanatory power of these factors was 25.6%, which was statistically significant (F=12.189, pcompetencies of emergency nurses could be improved through education and training programs that enhance their disaster preparedness. The nursing profession needs to participate actively in the development of disaster nursing education and training programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mapping individuals' earthquake preparedness in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guochun; Han, Ziqiang; Xu, Weijin; Gong, Yue

    2018-05-01

    Disaster preparedness is critical for reducing potential impact. This paper contributes to current knowledge of disaster preparedness using representative national sample data from China, which faces high earthquake risks in many areas of the country. The adoption of earthquake preparedness activities by the general public, including five indicators of material preparedness and five indicators of awareness preparedness, were surveyed and 3245 respondents from all 31 provinces of Mainland China participated in the survey. Linear regression models and logit regression models were used to analyze the effects of potential influencing factors. Overall, the preparedness levels are not satisfied, with a material preparation score of 3.02 (1-5), and awareness preparation score of 2.79 (1-5), nationally. Meanwhile, residents from western China, which has higher earthquake risk, have higher degrees of preparedness. The concern for disaster risk reduction (DRR) and the concern for building safety and participation in public affairs are consistent positive predictors of both material and awareness preparedness. The demographic and socioeconomic variables' effects, such as gender, age, education, income, urban/rural division, and building size, vary according to different preparedness activities. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion of the theoretical contribution and potential implementation.

  17. Mapping individuals' earthquake preparedness in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Wu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Disaster preparedness is critical for reducing potential impact. This paper contributes to current knowledge of disaster preparedness using representative national sample data from China, which faces high earthquake risks in many areas of the country. The adoption of earthquake preparedness activities by the general public, including five indicators of material preparedness and five indicators of awareness preparedness, were surveyed and 3245 respondents from all 31 provinces of Mainland China participated in the survey. Linear regression models and logit regression models were used to analyze the effects of potential influencing factors. Overall, the preparedness levels are not satisfied, with a material preparation score of 3.02 (1–5, and awareness preparation score of 2.79 (1–5, nationally. Meanwhile, residents from western China, which has higher earthquake risk, have higher degrees of preparedness. The concern for disaster risk reduction (DRR and the concern for building safety and participation in public affairs are consistent positive predictors of both material and awareness preparedness. The demographic and socioeconomic variables' effects, such as gender, age, education, income, urban/rural division, and building size, vary according to different preparedness activities. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion of the theoretical contribution and potential implementation.

  18. Disaster Preparedness for Your Pet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... opener For cats: litter box and litter For dogs: plastic bags for poop Clean-up items for ... maintained by: Office of the Associate Director for Communication, Digital Media Branch, Division of Public Affairs Email ...

  19. Civil emergency preparedness at the Ignalina nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    Workshop was held in the frame of Lithuania's cooperation with NATO on disasters management subject and was concentrated on the preparation of management of nuclear accident at Ignalina NPP. The following topics were covered: emergency preparedness inside Ignalina NPP, preparedness for nuclear accidents at national level, experience in Nordic countries and IAEA activities in harmonization of nuclear emergency preparedness in different countries

  20. Public Health Preparedness Funding: Key Programs and Trends From 2001 to 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Crystal R; Watson, Matthew; Sell, Tara Kirk

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate trends in funding over the past 16 years for key federal public health preparedness and response programs at the US Department of Health and Human Services, to improve understanding of federal funding history in this area, and to provide context for future resource allocation decisions for public health preparedness. In this 2017 analysis, we examined the funding history of key federal programs critical to public health preparedness by reviewing program budget data collected for our annual examination of federal funding for biodefense and health security programs since fiscal year (FY) 2001. State and local preparedness at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initially received $940 million in FY2002 and resulted in significant preparedness gains, but funding levels have since decreased by 31%. Similarly, the Hospital Preparedness Program within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response was funded at a high of $515 million in FY2003, but funding was reduced by 50%. Investments in medical countermeasure development and stockpiling remained relatively stable. The United States has made significant progress in preparing for disasters and advancing public health infrastructure. To enable continued advancement, federal funding commitments must be sustained.

  1. Medical preparedness for radiation emergency in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akashi, Makoto

    1997-01-01

    Medical preparedness for radiation emergency in Japan is primary for off-site public protection. Many things remains to be discussed about on-site emergency medical problems. On the other hand, each nuclear facility should have a countermeasure plan of radiation emergency including medical measures for the emergency. Disaster countermeasure act and a guideline from NSC entitled 'Off-site emergency planning and preparedness for nuclear power plants' establish the system for countermeasures in radiation emergencies. The guideline also establishes medical plans in radiation emergencies, including care system for the severely contaminated or injured. NIRS is designated by the guideline as the definite care hospital for radiation injuries and is prepared to dispatch medical specialists and to receive the injured. NIRS conducts clinical follow-up studies of the injured, researches of diagnosis and treatments for radiation injuries, and education and training for medical personnel. NIRS has the plans to serve as the reference center for emergency in Japan and also in Asia, if necessary. NIRS would like to serve as a member of WHO Collaborating Center for Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Assistance (REMPAN). Now NIRS is making preparation for providing 24-hours direct or consultative assistance with medical problems associated with radiation accidents in local, national, and hopefully international incidents. (author)

  2. Hospital-based pandemic influenza preparedness and response: strategies to increase surge capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarfone, Richard J; Coffin, Susan; Fieldston, Evan S; Falkowski, Grace; Cooney, Mary G; Grenfell, Stephanie

    2011-06-01

    In the spring of 2009, the first patients infected with 2009 H1N1 virus were arriving for care in hospitals in the United States. Anticipating a second wave of infection, our hospital leaders initiated multidisciplinary planning activities to prepare to increase capacity by expansion of emergency department (ED) and inpatient functional space and redeployment of medical personnel. During the fall pandemic surge, this urban, tertiary-care children's hospital experienced a 48% increase in ED visits and a 12% increase in daily peak inpatient census. However, several strategies were effective in mitigating the pandemic's impact including using a portion of the hospital's lobby for ED waiting, using a subspecialty clinic and a 24-hour short stay unit to care for ED patients, and using physicians not board certified in pediatric emergency medicine and inpatient-unit medical nurses to care for ED patients. The average time patients waited to be seen by an ED physician and the proportion of children leaving the ED without being seen by a physician was less than for the period when seasonal influenza peaked in the winter of 2008-2009. Furthermore, the ED did not go on divert status, no elective medical or surgical admissions required cancellation, and there were no increases in serious patient safety events. Our health center successfully met the challenges posed by the 2009 H1N1 outbreak. The intent in sharing the details of our planning and experience is to allow others to determine which elements of this planning might be adapted for managing a surge of patients in their setting.

  3. Coping with the challenges of early disaster response: 24 years of field hospital experience after earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-On, Elhanan; Abargel, Avi; Peleg, Kobi; Kreiss, Yitshak

    2013-10-01

    To propose strategies and recommendations for future planning and deployment of field hospitals after earthquakes by comparing the experience of 4 field hospitals deployed by The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) Medical Corps in Armenia, Turkey, India and Haiti. Quantitative data regarding the earthquakes were collected from published sources; data regarding hospital activity were collected from IDF records; and qualitative information was obtained from structured interviews with key figures involved in the missions. The hospitals started operating between 89 and 262 hours after the earthquakes. Their sizes ranged from 25 to 72 beds, and their personnel numbered between 34 and 100. The number of patients treated varied from 1111 to 2400. The proportion of earthquake-related diagnoses ranged from 28% to 67% (P earthquakes, patient caseload and treatment requirements varied widely. The variables affecting the patient profile most significantly were time until deployment, total number of injured, availability of adjacent medical facilities, and possibility of evacuation from the disaster area. When deploying a field hospital in the early phase after an earthquake, a wide variability in patient caseload should be anticipated. Customization is difficult due to the paucity of information. Therefore, early deployment necessitates full logistic self-sufficiency and operational versatility. Also, collaboration with local and international medical teams can greatly enhance treatment capabilities.

  4. Implementing a pediatric obesity care guideline in a freestanding children's hospital to improve child safety and hospital preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Renee M; Thrasher, Jodi; Krebs, Nancy F

    2012-12-01

    Medical and surgical care of children with severe obesity is complicated and requires recognition of the problem, appropriate equipment, and safe management. There is little literature describing patient, provider, and institutional needs for the severely obese pediatric patient. Nonetheless, the limited data suggest 3 broad categories of needs unique to this population: (a) airway management, (b) drug dosing and pharmacology, and (c) equipment and infrastructure. We describe an opportunity at the Children's Hospital Colorado to better prepare and optimize care for this patient population by creation of a Pediatric Obesity Care Guideline that focused on key areas of quality and safety. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Emergency Preparedness

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    The trends of RPC work in the area of preparedness for nuclear and radiological accidents are listed. RPC in cooperation with Swedish Government developed the project on preparation for iodine prophylaxis in case of accident at Ignalina NPP and arranged seminar on emergency preparedness issues in 2001.

  6. Hospital organizational response to the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island: implications for future-oriented disaster planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, C.

    1982-01-01

    The 1979 nuclear accident at Three Mile Island (TMI) near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, caused severe organizational problems for neighboring health care institutions. Dauphin County, just north of TMI, contained four hospitals ranging in distance from 9.5 to 13.5 miles from the stricken plant. Crash plans put into effect within 48 hours of the initial incident successfully reduced hospital census to below 50 per cent of capacity, but retained bedridden and critically ill patients within the risk-zone. No plans existed for area-wide evacuation of hospitalized patients. Future-oriented disaster planning should include resource files of host institution bed capacity and transportation capabilities for the crash evacuation of hospitalized patients during non-traditional disasters

  7. Hospital and Pre-Hospital Triage Systems in Disaster and Normal Conditions; a Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Safari

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Triage is a priority classification system based on the severity of problem to do the best therapeutic proceedings for patients in the less time. A triage system should be performed in a way which can make a decision with high accuracy and in the least time for each patient. Simplicity and reliability of the performance are the most important features of a standard triage system. An appropriate triage causes to increase the quality of health care services and patients’ satisfaction rate, decrease the waiting time as well as mortality rate, and increase the yield and efficiency of emergency wards along with reducing the related expenses. Considering to the above statements, in the present study the history of triage formation was evaluated and categorizing of all triage systems regarding prehospital and hospital as well as triage in normal and critical conditions were assessed, too.

  8. Can Disaster Risk Education Reduce the Impacts of Recurring Disasters on Developing Societies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baytiyeh, Hoda

    2018-01-01

    The impacts of recurring disasters on vulnerable urban societies have been tragic in terms of destruction and fatalities. However, disaster risk education that promotes risk mitigation and disaster preparedness has been shown to be effective in minimizing the impacts of recurring disasters on urban societies. Although the recent integration of…

  9. A review of competencies developed for disaster healthcare providers: limitations of current processes and applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daily, Elaine; Padjen, Patricia; Birnbaum, Marvin

    2010-01-01

    In order to prepare the healthcare system and healthcare personnel to meet the health needs of populations affected by disasters, educational programs have been developed by numerous academic institutions, hospitals, professional organizations, governments, and non-government organizations. Lacking standards for best practices as a foundation, many organizations and institutions have developed "core competencies" that they consider essential knowledge and skills for disaster healthcare personnel. The Nursing Section of the World Association for Disaster and Emergency Medicine (WADEM) considered the possibility of endorsing an existing set of competencies that could be used to prepare nurses universally to participate in disaster health activities. This study was undertaken for the purpose of reviewing published disaster health competencies to determine commonalities and universal applicability for disaster preparedness. In 2007, a review of the electronic literature databases was conducted using the major keywords: disaster response competencies; disaster preparedness competencies; emergency response competencies; disaster planning competencies; emergency planning competencies; public health emergency preparedness competencies; disaster nursing competencies; and disaster nursing education competencies. A manual search of references and selected literature from public and private sources also was conducted. Inclusion criteria included: English language; competencies listed or specifically referred to; competencies relevant to disaster, mass-casualty incident (MCI), or public health emergency; and competencies relevant to healthcare. Eighty-six articles were identified; 20 articles failed to meet the initial inclusion criteria; 27 articles did not meet the additional criteria, leaving 39 articles for analysis. Twenty-eight articles described competencies targeted to a specific profession/discipline, while 10 articles described competencies targeted to a defined role

  10. Examining the Importance of Incorporating Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Training Core Competencies into Allied Health Curricula as Perceived by College Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Tammy

    2013-01-01

    Preparation for responding to emergency events that does not warrant outside help beyond the local community resources or responding to disaster events that is beyond the capabilities of the local community both require first responders and health care professionals to have interdisciplinary skills needed to function as a team for saving lives. To…

  11. The role of ASTRO and the radiation oncologist in preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, N.

    2003-01-01

    The events on September 11, 2001 were unpredictable and tragic, however it is not inconceivable that a similar terrorist event could occur again, this time involving radiologic or nuclear material. In order to prepare for this American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) convened a task force. Initially the task force worked with the American College of Radiology (ACR)and the American Society of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM)to publish a PRIMER entitled 'Disaster Preparedness for Radiology Professionals'. The PRIMER serve as a quick reference in the event of a radiation disaster and is available on the ASTRO Web site (www.astro.org). The task force has also developed a detailed and extensive training program, in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy's Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS) in Oak Ridge (TN), that will equip radiation oncologists with the necessary expertise to train hospital radiation oncology departments and other healthcare personnel who are responsible for implementing and carrying out hospital planning for disasters involving radioactive materials. This presentation will outline the effort ASTRO has been involved with since September 11, 2001 to prepare the professional community it represent in the event of a radiation/nuclear disaster

  12. Israeli hospital preparedness for terrorism-related multiple casualty incidents: can the surge capacity and injury severity distribution be better predicted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosashvili, Yona; Aharonson-Daniel, L; Daniel, Limor A; Peleg, Kobi; Horowitz, Ariel; Laor, Danny; Blumenfeld, Amir

    2009-07-01

    The incidence of large-scale urban attacks on civilian populations has significantly increased across the globe over the past decade. These incidents often result in Hospital Multiple Casualty Incidents (HMCI), which are very challenging to hospital teams. 15 years ago the Emergency and Disaster Medicine Division in the Israeli Ministry of Health defined a key of 20 percent of each hospital's bed capacity as its readiness for multiple casualties. Half of those casualties are expected to require immediate medical treatment. This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of the current readiness guidelines based on the epidemiology of encountered HMCIs. A retrospective study of HMCIs was recorded in the Israeli Defense Force (IDF) home front command and the Israeli National Trauma Registry (ITR) between November 2000 and June 2003. An HMCI is defined by the Emergency and Disaster Medicine Division in the Israeli Ministry of Health as >or=10 casualties or >or=4 suffering from injuries with an ISS>or=16 arriving to a single hospital. The study includes a total of 32 attacks, resulting in 62 HMCIs and 1292 casualties. The mean number of arriving casualties to a single hospital was 20.8+/-13.3 (range 4-56, median 16.5). In 95% of the HMCIs the casualty load was concept may improve the utilisation of national emergency health resources both in the preparation phase and on real time.

  13. [Survey about responsiveness of third-level hospitals to a medical disaster: after the pandemic influenza in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna-Ojeda, Juan Carlos; Castañón-González, Jorge Alberto; Macías, Alejandro E; Mansilla-Olivares, Armando; Domínguez-Cherit, Guillermo; Polanco-González, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The recent pandemic influenza AH1N1 virus made it clear that planning for medical disaster response is critical. To know the responsiveness of a sample of highly specialized hospitals in Mexico to a medical disaster, with the previous pandemic influenza AH1N1 as reference. A survey was conducted among the Medical Directors of a sample of highly specialized hospitals, covering: previous experience with the pandemic influenza, space considerations, material resources, staff, logistics, and current general perspectives. Descriptive statistics were used for analysis. A 95% response was obtained from the institutions (19 hospitals). Of these, 47.4% considered that the medical institution was not ready to respond to pandemic influenza. The median surge capacity for the Intensive Care Unit beds was 30% (range 0 to 32 beds). The least reserve in medication was found in the antivirals (26.3%). Only 47.4% considered having enough intensive care nurses and 57.9% enough respiratory technicians; 42.1% would not have an easy access to resources in an emergency. Prevention is key in responsiveness to medical disasters, and therefore the basic steps for planning strategies must be considered.

  14. Disaster healthcare system management and crisis intervention leadership in Thailand--lessons learned from the 2004 Tsunami disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltz, Rami; Ashkenazi, Issac; Schwartz, Dagan; Shushan, Ofer; Nakash, Guy; Leiba, Adi; Levi, Yeheskel; Goldberg, Avishay; Bar-Dayan, Yaron

    2006-01-01

    Quarantelli established criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of disaster management. The objectives of this study were to analyze the response of the healthcare system to the Tsunami disaster according to the Quarantelli principles, and to validate these principles in a scenario of a disaster due to natural hazards. The Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) Home Front Command Medical Department sent a research team to study the response of the Thai medical system to the disaster. The analysis of the disaster management was based on Quarantelli's 10 criteria for evaluating the management of community disasters. Data were collected through personal and group interviews. The three most important elements for effective disaster management were: (1) the flow of information; (2) overall coordination; and (3) leadership. Although pre-event preparedness was for different and smaller scenarios, medical teams repeatedly reported a better performance in hospitals that recently conducted drills. In order to increase effectiveness, disaster management response should focus on: (1) the flow of information; (2) overall coordination; and (3) leadership.

  15. Enhancing Trilateral Disaster Preparedness and Relief Cooperation between Japan, U.S. and Australia: Approaches from Various Civil-Military Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Strategic Dialogue UN United Nations UNHRD United Nations Humanitarian Response Depot (in Malaysia ) UNISDR United Nations International Strategy for...large-scale radioactive contamination , we focus our analysis on the former type of disaster, as it offers a better lens through with which to assess...to Security, Alan Dupont predicts that a failure to reverse the trends of the decline in energy, food and water sufficiency, and the increase in

  16. Emergency preparedness

    CERN Document Server

    Cennini, E; Oortman Gerlings, P

    2009-01-01

    On September 19th 2008, a technical fault was at the centre of a sequence of events which hampered the performance of certain equipments of the LHC 3-4 sector. Once the first effects of this sequence of events were detected, the behaviour of the CERN staff confronted to this complex and critical situation became the centre of the risk control process. During such a downward spiral the preparation of all stakeholders is essential and should respect the (apparently) basic principles of emergency preparedness. Preparedness towards normal operation of CERN facilities towards minor up to major emergency situations will be presented. The main technical, organisational and legal frameworks of the CERN emergency preparedness will be recalled, highlighting the CERN risk management and risk control strategy. Then, the sequence of events experienced by different stakeholders on September 19th will be reported, thus starting the learned lessons process.

  17. Working after a tornado: a survey of hospital personnel in Joplin, Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charney, Rachel; Rebmann, Terri; Flood, Robert G

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, an EF5 tornado hit Joplin, MO, requiring complete evacuation of 1 hospital and a patient surge to another. We sought to assess the resilience of healthcare workers in these hospitals as measured by number reporting to work, willingness to work, personal disaster preparedness, and childcare responsibilities following the disaster. In May 2013, a survey was distributed to healthcare workers at both Joplin hospitals that asked them to report their willingness to work and personal disaster preparedness following various disaster scenarios. For those with childcare responsibilities, scheduling, costs, and impact of hypothetical alternative childcare programs were considered in the analyses. A total of 1,234 healthcare workers completed the survey (response rate: 23.4%). Most (87.8%) worked the week following the Joplin tornado. Healthcare workers report more willingness to work during a future earthquake or tornado compared to their pre-Joplin tornado attitudes (86.2 vs 88.4%, t=-4.3, ptornado personal disaster preparedness, but only preevent preparedness was a significant predictor of postevent preparedness. Nearly half (48.5%, n=598) had childcare responsibilities; 61% (n=366) had childcare needs the week of the tornado, and 54% (n=198) required the use of alternative childcare. If their hospital had provided alternative childcare, 51% would have used it and 42% felt they would have been more willing to report to work. Most healthcare workers reported to work following this disaster, demonstrating true resilience. Disaster planners should be aware of these perceptions as they formulate their own emergency operation plans.

  18. Family emergency plan and preparedness among medical practitioners in Zaria, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makama, Jerry Godfrey; Joshua, Istifanus Anekoson; Makama, Elizabeth Jerry

    There has been an increase in the incidence of disasters in many parts of the world. Similarly, Nigeria has witnessed a recent increase of man-made disaster events such as plane crash, fire incidents, flood, and building collapse, including bomb blast orchestrated by terrorists that often create emergency situations. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate family emergency plan and preparedness among medical practitioners in Zaria. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study (May-July, 2013) of medical practitioners in Zaria, Nigeria. The structured questionnaire sought the socio-demographic features of the respondents, the availability of emergency gate(s) in the house, education of safety measures within and outside the house, well-known located shut-off devices for gases, electricity, and water in the house, and written document/policy in the event of disaster. Also, planned orientations/drills/sensitizations, whether there is contact information of family members and supporting agencies. Majority of the respondents were male 56 (80.0 percent) and fall within the age group of 46-50 years (20.0 percent). Only 8.6 percent admitted having an unwritten policy on emergency management in their houses. Similarly, only 8.6 percent do create time to teach their family members on emergency management. Only 27 (38.6 percent) had emergency supplies kits and among this group, water appears to be the most essential component that the respondents had paid attention to, leaving out special items. The communication plans of respondents to likely supportive services/agencies during disaster showed that majority had contact address or have affirmative plans for hospital and ambulance services than for radio and television stations. Family emergency plans and preparedness among medical practitioners in Zaria are extremely low. There is a gap between knowledge of what need to be done to enhance preparedness and internalizing preparedness recommendations in the study area.

  19. Improving emergency preparedness and crisis management capabilities in transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-30

    Despite the heightened attention disaster preparedness and emergency management have received over the past decade, serious weaknesses in the United States emergency response capabilities remain at all levels of government and across a wide range ...

  20. Hospital ships adrift? Part 1: a systematic literature review characterizing US Navy hospital ship humanitarian and disaster response, 2004-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licina, Derek

    2013-06-01

    United States foreign policy is tied extensively to health initiatives, many related to the use of military assets. Despite substantial resource investment by the US Department of Defense (DoD) in hospital ship humanitarian assistance and disaster response missions, the impact of this investment is unclear. A systematic literature review of both peer-reviewed and grey literature using eight databases representing the international community and multiple sectors was conducted. Data on the characteristics of missions directly related to US Navy hospital ship humanitarian assistance and disaster response from 2004-2012 were extracted and documented. Of the 1445 sources reviewed, a total of 43 publications met criteria for review. Six (13.9%) met empirical documentation criteria and 37 (86.0%) were considered nonempirical expert opinions and anecdotal accounts that were primarily descriptive in nature. Overall, disaster response accounted for 67.4% (29/43) and humanitarian assistance 25.6% (11/43). Public and private sector participants produced 79.0% (34/43) and 20.9% (9/43) of the publications respectively. Of private sector publications, 88.9% (8/9) focused on disaster response compared to 61.8% (21/34) from the public sector. Of all publications meeting inclusion criteria, 81.4% (35/43) focused on medical care, 9.3% (4/43) discussed partnerships, 4.7% (2/43) training, and 4.7% (2/43) medical ethics and strategic utilization. No primary author publications from the diplomatic, development, or participating host nations were identified. One (2.3%) of the 43 publications was from a partner nation participant. Discussion Without rigorous research methods yielding valid and reliable data-based information pertaining to Navy hospital ship mission impact, policy makers are left with anecdotal reports to influence their decision-making processes. This is inadequate considering the frequency of hospital ship deployments used as a foreign policy tool and the considerable

  1. The 2015 Nepal earthquake disaster: lessons learned one year on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, M L; Lee, A C K; Cartwright, C; Marahatta, S; Karki, J; Simkhada, P

    2017-04-01

    The 2015 earthquake in Nepal killed over 8000 people, injured more than 21,000 and displaced a further 2 million. One year later, a national workshop was organized with various Nepali stakeholders involved in the response to the earthquake. The workshop provided participants an opportunity to reflect on their experiences and sought to learn lessons from the disaster. One hundred and thirty-five participants took part and most had been directly involved in the earthquake response. They included representatives from the Ministry of Health, local and national government, the armed forces, non-governmental organizations, health practitioners, academics, and community representatives. Participants were divided into seven focus groups based around the following topics: water, sanitation and hygiene, hospital services, health and nutrition, education, shelter, policy and community. Facilitated group discussions were conducted in Nepalese and the key emerging themes are presented. Participants described a range of issues encountered, some specific to their area of expertize but also more general issues. These included logistics and supply chain challenges, leadership and coordination difficulties, impacts of the media as well as cultural beliefs on population behaviour post-disaster. Lessons identified included the need for community involvement at all stages of disaster response and preparedness, as well as the development of local leadership capabilities and community resilience. A 'disconnect' between disaster management policy and responses was observed, which may result in ineffective, poorly planned disaster response. Finding time and opportunity to reflect on and identify lessons from disaster response can be difficult but are fundamental to improving future disaster preparedness. The Nepal Earthquake National Workshop offered participants the space to do this. It garnered an overwhelming sense of wanting to do things better, of the need for a Nepal-centric approach

  2. The effects of the April 2011 tornado outbreak on personal preparedness in Jefferson County, Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Lisa C; Pevear, Jesse; Rucks, Andrew C; Ginter, Peter M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a tornado disaster on the personal preparedness of local residents to determine (1) to what extent the tornado outbreak experience had altered preparedness awareness, willingness to act, and levels of personal preparedness of residents as measured by possession of a preparedness kit; and (2) what effect this experience had on the variables associated with having a complete disaster preparedness kit. Two random digit-dialed surveys were completed following the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System protocols. The pre-tornado survey was conducted between October and December 2010 and the post-tornado survey was conducted between January and March 2012. After the April 2011 tornado outbreak, 86.08% of the respondents (n = 1364) reported that they had thought more about personal or family preparedness and 59.65% (n = 907) reported that they had taken actions to increase their level of preparedness. Overall, general awareness of preparedness media campaigns increased significantly (almost 24%; P < .0001), as did the percentage of those having a complete disaster preparedness kit (a 66% increase, not quite doubled from 2010 to 2012; P < .0001). Findings of the study indicate that the disaster had a significant impact on the local residents' (1) awareness of preparedness campaigns, (2) awareness of the need to be prepared, (3) willingness to become better prepared, and (4) possession of a disaster and emergency preparedness kit and its associated items.

  3. Reviewing information support during the Great East Japan Earthquake disaster : From the perspective of a hospital library that received support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasawa, Motoko

    The Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011 caused extensive damage over a widespread area. Our hospital library, which is located in the affected area, was no exception. A large collection of books was lost, and some web content was inaccessible due to damage to the network environment. This greatly hindered our efforts to continue providing post-disaster medical information services. Information support, such as free access to databases, journals, and other online content related to the disaster areas, helped us immensely during this time. We were fortunate to have the cooperation of various medical employees and library members via social networks, such as twitter, during the process of attaining this information support.

  4. Food for Disasters

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-07-23

    When disaster strikes, you might not have access to food or water. This podcast discusses types of emergency food supplies you should keep on hand in your emergency kit.  Created: 7/23/2012 by Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (PHPR).   Date Released: 7/23/2012.

  5. Continuity and Change in Disaster Education in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Kaori

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to describe post-war continuity and change in disaster education in Japan. Preparedness for natural disasters has been a continuous agenda in Japan for geographical and meteorological reasons, and disaster education has been practised in both formal and informal settings. Post-war disaster management and education have taken a…

  6. How a hospital must face a massive emergency: the case of Martini Hospital, Turin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Morra

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The terms “disaster” or “surge capability”, referred to hospitals, are often used to define a massive casualty admission. This may be a misleading concept, because emergency may as well arise from inside hospitals, and the last years high figures related to fires in the about 2,000 italian hospitals should suggest a different point of view. In this article the authors describe their experience in hospital preparedness at Ospedale Martini in Turin. Hospital operators regularly attend basic (GOM and advanced (HDM© courses about disaster response and organization, and a specific course is dedicated to operators involved in internal safety (fire emergency. In this courses, computer simulations are widely used, associated with conventional didactic. If education is one of the two cornerstones of disaster preparedness at Ospedale Martini, well designed emergency plans and an effective disaster management are the other one. The Internal Emergency Plan (Fire and Evacuation is aimed to give a proper response to fires and other events arising from inside the hospital and potentially requiring its partial or total evacuation. The Massive Casualties Admission Emergency Plan increases the surge capability of the hospital allowing to take care of a great number of injured people, and at the same time avoiding a dramatic fall in the treatment quality. The “Hospital Disaster Management©” system, created by the authors, is an organizational scheme based on team work. Its aim is to “put order in chaos” when hospitals are facing a disaster. Properly trained physicians and nurses, assigned to key positions, act in this system as Hospital Disaster Managers: their tasks are to coordinate the teams, to manage critical resources and to use the emergency plans as powerful instruments.

  7. The Oklahoma ice storm, a Y2K disaster that arrived one year later--how two rural hospitals coped and what they learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    An unexpected ice storm last December in southeastern Oklahoma cut off power and water for days in the area and punched holes in the disaster plans of the two hospitals most affected. In this report, hospital officials describe how they fared and tell what they will do in the future to be better prepared for such a worst-case scenario.

  8. Jyotiraj Patra: Investigating the use of research in disaster risk ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Jyotiraj Patra worked with the Collaborative Adaptation Research Initiative in Africa and Asia (CARIAA) as a research award recipient in 2014. Jyotiraj Patra got his start with Concern Worldwide, working on disaster preparedness in Odisha, in coastal India. Since then he has continued to work on disaster preparedness and ...

  9. Radiation Emergency Preparedness Tools: Psychological First Aid

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Practical Tools for Radiation Emergency Preparedness. A specialist working with CDC's Radiation Studies Branch describes Psychological First Aid and a newly developed multimedia training program, entitled "Psychological First Aid in Radiation Disasters."

  10. 75 FR 53563 - National Preparedness Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... America A Proclamation During National Preparedness Month, we stress the importance of strengthening the security and resiliency of our Nation through systematic preparation for the full range of hazards threatening the United States in the 21st century, including natural disasters, cyber attacks, pandemic...

  11. 77 FR 55097 - National Preparedness Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... disasters of all types--from cyber incidents and acts of terrorism to tornadoes and flooding. That is why my... all Americans to recognize the importance of preparedness and observe this month by working together to enhance our national security, resilience, and readiness. [[Page 55098

  12. Emergency Preparedness Concerns for Older Adults

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-01-26

    This podcast discusses the special concerns many older adults face during a disaster. It is primarily targeted to public health and aging services professionals.  Created: 1/26/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP) and Coordinating Office for Terrorism Preparedness and Emergency Response (COTPER).   Date Released: 1/26/2009.

  13. Water supply facility damage and water resource operation at disaster base hospitals in miyagi prefecture in the wake of the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Takashi; Osaki, Shizuka; Kudo, Daisuke; Furukawa, Hajime; Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Abe, Yoshiko; Yamanouchi, Satoshi; Egawa, Shinichi; Tominaga, Teiji; Kushimoto, Shigeki

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to shed light on damage to water supply facilities and the state of water resource operation at disaster base hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture (Japan) in the wake of the Great East Japan Earthquake (2011), in order to identify issues concerning the operational continuity of hospitals in the event of a disaster. In addition to interview and written questionnaire surveys to 14 disaster base hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture, a number of key elements relating to the damage done to water supply facilities and the operation of water resources were identified from the chronological record of events following the Great East Japan Earthquake. Nine of the 14 hospitals experienced cuts to their water supplies, with a median value of three days (range=one to 20 days) for service recovery time. The hospitals that could utilize well water during the time that water supply was interrupted were able to obtain water in quantities similar to their normal volumes. Hospitals that could not use well water during the period of interruption, and hospitals whose water supply facilities were damaged, experienced significant disruption to dialysis, sterilization equipment, meal services, sanitation, and outpatient care services, though the extent of disruption varied considerably among hospitals. None of the hospitals had determined the amount of water used for different purposes during normal service or formulated a plan for allocation of limited water in the event of a disaster. The present survey showed that it is possible to minimize the disruption and reduction of hospital functions in the event of a disaster by proper maintenance of water supply facilities and by ensuring alternative water resources, such as well water. It is also clear that it is desirable to conclude water supply agreements and formulate strategic water allocation plans in preparation for the eventuality of a long-term interruption to water services.

  14. Hospital Staff Shortage after the 2011 Triple Disaster in Fukushima, Japan-An Earthquake, Tsunamis, and Nuclear Power Plant Accident: A Case of the Soso District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, Sae; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Kato, Shigeaki; Iwamoto, Shuichi; Ogata, Shinichi; Morita, Tomohiro; Hori, Arinobu; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kikuchi, Antoku; Watanabe, Zenjiro; Kanazawa, Yukio; Kumakawa, Hiromi; Kuma, Yoshinobu; Kumakura, Tetsuo; Inomata, Yoshimitsu; Kami, Masahiro; Shineha, Ryuzaburo; Saito, Yasutoshi

    2016-01-01

    In 2011, Fukushima was struck by a triple disaster: an earthquake, tsunamis, and a nuclear accident. In the aftermath, there was much fear among hospital staff members about radiation exposure and many staff members failed to report to work. One objective is to measure this shortage in hospital staff and another is to compare the difference in recovery by hospital types and by categories of hospital staff. The monthly records of the number of staff members from May 2011 to September 2012 were extracted anonymously from the records of 7 local hospitals in the Soso district in Fukushima. Change in the number of staff was analyzed. Staff shortages at hospitals reached a maximum within one month after the disaster (47% reported to work). The shortage of clerks was the most severe (38% reported to work), followed by nurses (48% reported to work). The shortages remained even 18 months after the disaster. After a disaster in which the damage to hospital functions surpasses the structural damage, massive support of human resources in the acute phase and a smaller volume of support in the mid-term phase appear to be required, particularly for non-medical staff.

  15. Preparedness 101: Zombie Pandemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Partner Tools and Resources Communication Resources Blog Infographics Social Media Graphics Videos CDC Workshop for Risk-based Funding Campaigns Safe and Well Selfie Preparedness Month Preparedness Month ...

  16. Workplace Preparedness for Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ursano, Robert J

    2006-01-01

    Comprehensive workplace preparedness for terrorism must address and integrate the psychological and behavioral aspects of terrorism preparedness and response in order to address issues of human continuity...

  17. Emergency and Disaster Preparedness of School Transportation Staff and School Buses in the United States: Compliance With Recommendations for School Transportation Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olympia, Robert P; Weber, Christopher; Brady, Jodi; Ho, Susana

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the compliance of school transportation staff and school buses with recommendations for the safe transportation of children to and from school and school-related activities. An electronic questionnaire was distributed to school transportation staff represented by the International Brotherhood of Teamsters during the 2013-2014 academic year. Analysis was performed on 558 completed questionnaires (13% usable response rate). Responders had previous training in first aid (89%), basic life support (28%), and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (52%). Seventy-eight percent of school buses in our sample had restraint devices and 87% had seat belt cutters. Responders reported the immediate availability of the following on their bus: communication devices (81%), first aid kits (97%), fire extinguishers (89%), automated external defibrillators (1%), and epinephrine autoinjectors (2%). Thirty percent of responders have had no previous training in the management of emergencies such as trouble breathing, severe allergic reaction, seizures, cardiac arrest or unresponsiveness, and head, neck, or extremity trauma. Thirteen percent of responders are unfamiliar with or have had no previous training on protocols regarding emergency shelters and community evacuation plans in the event of a disaster. Variability exists in the compliance of school transportation staff and school buses with recommendations for the safe transportation of children. Areas for improvement were identified, such as educating school transportation staff in the recognition and initial management of pediatric emergencies, ensuring the presence of restraint devices, increasing the immediate availability of certain emergency medications and equipment, and familiarizing school transportation staff with designated emergency shelters and community evacuation plans.

  18. Exploring staff willingness to attend work during a disaster: a study of nurses employed in four Australian emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbon, Paul; Cusack, Lynette; Ranse, Jamie; Shaban, Ramon Z; Considine, Julie; Kako, Mayumi; Woodman, Richard J; Mitchell, Belinda; Bahnisch, Laura; Hammad, Karen

    2013-08-01

    Much of the literature about emergency nurses willingness to work during disasters has been from a non-Australian perspective. Despite the many recent disasters, little is known of Australian nurse's willingness to participate in disaster response. This paper presents findings from a study that explored nurses willingness to attend work during a disaster and the factors that influenced this decision. Data were collected consecutively using a combination of focus group and interview methods. Participants in this study, registered nurses from emergency departments, were recruited through convenience sampling from four hospitals in Australia. Participant narrative was electronically recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. The participants for both the focus groups and interviews compromised a mix of ages, genders and years of experience as emergency nurses from across four jurisdictions within Australia. Three major themes that influenced willingness emerged with a number of subthemes. Theme one reflected the uncertainty of the situation such as the type of disaster. The second theme surrounded the preparedness of the workplace, emergency nurse and colleagues, and the third theme considered personal and professional choice based on home and work circumstances and responsibilities. The decision to attend work or not during a disaster, includes a number of complex personal, work-related and professional factors that can change, depending on the type of disaster, preparedness of the work environment and the emergency nurses' personal responsibilities at that time. Copyright © 2013 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Development and Evaluation of an Educational Initiative to Improve Hospital Personnel Preparedness to Care for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucarelli, Jennifer; Welchons, Leah; Sideridis, Georgios; Sullivan, Nancy R; Chan, Eugenia; Weissman, Laura

    2018-06-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a multimodal educational curriculum on increasing hospital personnel's awareness of successful strategies and comfort in caring for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We developed a 3-part training for front-line staff (i.e., front desk, clinical assistants, and phlebotomists) in 8 outpatient hospital departments frequented by patients with ASD. Following a needs assessment, participants completed an online educational module and then attended an in-person seminar tailored to each department. To evaluate training effectiveness, we administered pre-, immediate post-, and 1 month post-training surveys assessing personnel attitudes, comfort, perceived knowledge, and behaviors around caring for patients with ASD. We trained 168 staff members from 8 departments. On the needs assessment, participants (N = 129) reported a mean 2.5 behavioral incidents involving patients with ASD over the previous 3 months; 92% believed that the training would be helpful for their work. Across pre-, immediate- and 1-month post-training surveys, scores improved on all questions related to personnel attitudes about the importance of ASD-friendly care, comfort interacting with patients with ASD, perceived knowledge about ASD, and self-reported frequency of behaviors intended to help children with ASD adjust to the hospital setting (p initiative led to improvement in attitudes, comfort level, perceived knowledge, and self-reported behaviors of hospital personnel working with patients with ASD, which was maintained over 1 month.

  20. Hospital seguro frente aos desastres: uma reflexão sobre biossegurança e arquitetura Hospitals safe from disasters: a reflection on architecture and biosafety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Cristina de Paiva Saba

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Um dos maiores desafios da sociedade atual é o enfrentamento das adversidades causadas pelos desastres. Os estabelecimentos de saúde, principalmente os hospitais, são considerados essenciais nessas situações. Este trabalho discute os princípios da arquitetura do hospital seguro frente aos desastres, como propõem a Organização Mundial da Saúde e a Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde. Projetar um hospital seguro exige ações multidisciplinares, com envolvimento de administradores, arquitetos, engenheiros, médicos e enfermeiros. O planejamento de cada hospital pressupõe uma análise de riscos e aspectos de segurança específicos. Também é importante agregar a biossegurança ao conceito de hospital seguro. O equilíbrio entre aspectos arquitetônicos e biossegurança permite a compreensão dos riscos associados ao trabalho, facilitando o dimensionamento de espaços para suportar as ações de resposta frente às emergências. Em suma, a programação de um hospital seguro requer uma síntese de conhecimentos que relacionam diversos saberes, entre eles os da biossegurança e da arquitetura hospitalar. Esses princípios devem embasar as indagações sobre o hospital seguro e o planejamento de projetos arquitetônicos com foco na manutenção das instalações em capacidade máxima mesmo diante de situações adversas.One of the biggest challenges in today’s society is facing adversity caused by disasters. Health facilities, especially hospitals, are considered essential in these situations. This article discusses the principles of architectural design of hospitals safe from disasters, as proposed by the World Health Organization and the Pan American Health Organization. Designing a safe hospital requires multidisciplinary efforts, involving administrators, architects, engineers, physicians, and nurses. The planning of each hospital demands the analysis of specific risks and safety concerns. The concept of biosafety should also be

  1. Hospital infection prevention and control issues relevant to extensive floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Mundy, Linda M; Khawcharoenporn, Thana; Glen Mayhall, C

    2013-02-01

    The devastating clinical and economic implications of floods exemplify the need for effective global infection prevention and control (IPC) strategies for natural disasters. Reopening of hospitals after excessive flooding requires a balance between meeting the medical needs of the surrounding communities and restoration of a safe hospital environment. Postflood hospital preparedness plans are a key issue for infection control epidemiologists, healthcare providers, patients, and hospital administrators. We provide recent IPC experiences related to reopening of a hospital after extensive black-water floods necessitated hospital closures in Thailand and the United States. These experiences provide a foundation for the future design, execution, and analysis of black-water flood preparedness plans by IPC stakeholders.

  2. Emergency Preparedness Education for Nurses: Core Competency Familiarity Measured Utilizing an Adapted Emergency Preparedness Information Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgino, Madeline M; Kress, Terri; Alexander, Sheila; Beach, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to measure trauma nurse improvement in familiarity with emergency preparedness and disaster response core competencies as originally defined by the Emergency Preparedness Information Questionnaire after a focused educational program. An adapted version of the Emergency Preparedness Information Questionnaire was utilized to measure familiarity of nurses with core competencies pertinent to first responder capabilities. This project utilized a pre- and postsurvey descriptive design and integrated education sessions into the preexisting, mandatory "Trauma Nurse Course" at large, level I trauma center. A total of 63 nurses completed the intervention during May and September 2014 sessions. Overall, all 8 competencies demonstrated significant (P < .001; 98% confidence interval) improvements in familiarity. In conclusion, this pilot quality improvement project demonstrated a unique approach to educating nurses to be more ready and comfortable when treating victims of a disaster.

  3. Chapter 9. Educational process. Recommendations and standard operating procedures for intensive care unit and hospital preparations for an influenza epidemic or mass disaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, Guy A.; Sprung, Charles L.; Christian, Michael D.; Camargo, Ruben; Ceraso, Daniel; Azoulay, Elie; Duguet, Alexandre; Guery, Benoit; Reinhart, Konrad; Adini, Bruria; Barlavie, Yaron; Benin-Goren, Odeda; Cohen, Robert; Klein, Motti; Leoniv, Yuval; Margalit, Gila; Rubinovitch, Bina; Sonnenblick, Moshe; Steinberg, Avraham; Weissman, Charles; Wolff, Donna; Kesecioglu, Jozef; de Jong, Menno; Moreno, Rui; An, Youzhong; Du, Bin; Joynt, Gavin M.; Colvin, John; Loo, Shi; Richards, Guy; Artigas, Antonio; Pugin, Jerome; Amundson, Dennis; Devereaux, Asha; Beigel, John; Danis, Marion; Farmer, Chris; Hick, John L.; Maki, Dennis; Masur, Henry; Rubinson, Lewis; Sandrock, Christian; Talmor, Daniel; Truog, Robert; Zimmerman, Janice; Brett, Steve; Montgomery, Hugh; Rhodes, Andrew; Sanderson, Frances; Taylor, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    To provide recommendations and standard operating procedures (SOPs) for intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital preparations for an influenza pandemic or mass disaster with focus on education of all stakeholders, specifically the emergency executive control groups, ICU staff and staff co-opted to

  4. Chapter 5. Essential equipment, pharmaceuticals and supplies. Recommendations and standard operating procedures for intensive care unit and hospital preparations for an influenza epidemic or mass disaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprung, Charles L.; Kesecioglu, Jozef; Christian, Michael D.; Camargo, Ruben; Ceraso, Daniel; Azoulay, Elie; Duguet, Alexandre; Guery, Benoit; Reinhart, Konrad; Adini, Bruria; Barlavie, Yaron; Benin-Goren, Odeda; Cohen, Robert; Klein, Motti; Leoniv, Yuval; Margalit, Gila; Rubinovitch, Bina; Sonnenblick, Moshe; Steinberg, Avraham; Weissman, Charles; Wolff, Donna; de Jong, Menno; Moreno, Rui; An, Youzhong; Du, Bin; Joynt, Gavin M.; Colvin, John; Loo, Shi; Richards, Guy; Artigas, Antonio; Pugin, Jerome; Amundson, Dennis; Devereaux, Asha; Beigel, John; Danis, Marion; Farmer, Chris; Hick, John L.; Maki, Dennis; Masur, Henry; Rubinson, Lewis; Sandrock, Christian; Talmor, Daniel; Truog, Robert; Zimmerman, Janice; Brett, Steve; Montgomery, Hugh; Rhodes, Andrew; Sanderson, Frances; Taylor, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    To provide recommendations and standard operating procedures for intensive care unit and hospital preparations for an influenza pandemic or mass disaster with a specific focus on essential equipment, pharmaceuticals and supplies. Based on a literature review and expert opinion, a Delphi process was

  5. Chapter 4. Manpower. Recommendations and standard operating procedures for intensive care unit and hospital preparations for an influenza epidemic or mass disaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandrock, Christian; Christian, Michael D.; Camargo, Ruben; Ceraso, Daniel; Azoulay, Elie; Duguet, Alexandre; Guery, Benoit; Reinhart, Konrad; Adini, Bruria; Barlavie, Yaron; Benin-Goren, Odeda; Cohen, Robert; Klein, Motti; Leoniv, Yuval; Margalit, Gila; Rubinovitch, Bina; Sonnenblick, Moshe; Sprung, Charles L.; Steinberg, Avraham; Weissman, Charles; Wolff, Donna; Kesecioglu, Jozef; de Jong, Menno; Moreno, Rui; An, Youzhong; Du, Bin; Joynt, Gavin M.; Colvin, John; Loo, Shi; Richards, Guy; Artigas, Antonio; Pugin, Jerome; Amundson, Dennis; Devereaux, Asha; Beigel, John; Danis, Marion; Farmer, Chris; Hick, John L.; Maki, Dennis; Masur, Henry; Rubinson, Lewis; Talmor, Daniel; Truog, Robert; Zimmerman, Janice; Brett, Steve; Montgomery, Hugh; Rhodes, Andrew; Sanderson, Frances; Taylor, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    To provide recommendations and standard operating procedures (SOPs) for intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital preparations for an influenza pandemic or mass disaster with a specific focus on manpower. Based on a literature review and expert opinion, a Delphi process was used to define the essential

  6. Chapter 3. Coordination and collaboration with interface units. Recommendations and standard operating procedures for intensive care unit and hospital preparations for an influenza epidemic or mass disaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joynt, Gavin M.; Loo, Shi; Taylor, Bruce L.; Margalit, Gila; Christian, Michael D.; Sandrock, Christian; Danis, Marion; Leoniv, Yuval; Sprung, Charles L.; Camargo, Ruben; Ceraso, Daniel; Azoulay, Elie; Duguet, Alexandre; Guery, Benoit; Reinhart, Konrad; Adini, Bruria; Barlavie, Yaron; Benin-Goren, Odeda; Cohen, Robert; Klein, Motti; Rubinovitch, Bina; Sonnenblick, Moshe; Steinberg, Avraham; Weissman, Charles; Wolff, Donna; Kesecioglu, Jozef; de Jong, Menno; Moreno, Rui; An, Youzhong; Du, Bin; Joyng, Gavin M.; Colvin, John; Richards, Guy; Artigas, Antonio; Pugin, Jerome; Amundson, Dennis; Devereaux, Asha; Beigel, John; Farmer, Chris; Hick, John L.; Maki, Dennis; Masur, Henry; Rubinson, Lewis; Talmor, Daniel; Truog, Robert; Zimmerman, Janice; Brett, Steve; Montgomery, Hugh; Rhodes, Andrew; Sanderson, Frances

    2010-01-01

    To provide recommendations and standard operating procedures (SOPs) for intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital preparations for an influenza pandemic or mass disaster with a specific focus on enhancing coordination and collaboration between the ICU and other key stakeholders. Based on a literature

  7. Chapter 7. Critical care triage. Recommendations and standard operating procedures for intensive care unit and hospital preparations for an influenza epidemic or mass disaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christian, Michael D.; Joynt, Gavin M.; Hick, John L.; Colvin, John; Danis, Marion; Sprung, Charles L.; Christian, Micahel D.; Camargo, Ruben; Ceraso, Daniel; Azoulay, Elie; Duguet, Alexandre; Guery, Benoit; Reinhart, Konrad; Adini, Bruria; Barlavie, Yaron; Benin-Goren, Odeda; Cohen, Robert; Klein, Motti; Leoniv, Yuval; Margalit, Gila; Rubinovitch, Bina; Sonnenblick, Moshe; Steinberg, Avraham; Weissman, Charles; Wolff, Donna; Kesecioglu, Jozef; de Jong, Menno; Moreno, Rui; An, Youzhong; Du, Bin; Loo, Shi; Richards, Guy; Artigas, Antonio; Pugin, Jerome; Amundson, Dennis; Devereaux, Asha; Beigel, John; Farmer, Chris; Maki, Dennis; Masur, Henry; Rubinson, Lewis; Sandrock, Christian; Talmor, Daniel; Truog, Robert; Zimmerman, Janice; Brett, Steve; Montgomery, Hugh; Rhodes, Andrew; Sanderson, Frances; Taylor, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    To provide recommendations and standard operating procedures for intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital preparations for an influenza pandemic or mass disaster with a specific focus on critical care triage. Based on a literature review and expert opinion, a Delphi process was used to define the

  8. Chapter 8. Medical procedures. Recommendations and standard operating procedures for intensive care unit and hospital preparations for an influenza epidemic or mass disaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmerman, Janice L.; Sprung, Charles L.; Christian, Michael D.; Camargo, Ruben; Ceraso, Daniel; Azoulay, Elie; Duguet, Alexandre; Guery, Benoit; Reinhart, Konrad; Adini, Bruria; Barlavie, Yaron; Benin-Goren, Odeda; Cohen, Robert; Klein, Motti; Leoniv, Yuval; Margalit, Gila; Rubinovitch, Bina; Sonnenblick, Moshe; Steinberg, Avraham; Weissman, Charles; Wolff, Donna; Kesecioglu, Jozef; de Jong, Menno; Moreno, Rui; An, Youzhong; Du, Bin; Joynt, Gavin M.; Colvin, John; Loo, Shi; Richards, Guy; Artigas, Antonio; Pugin, Jerome; Amundson, Dennis; Devereaux, Asha; Beigel, John; Danis, Marion; Farmer, Chris; Hick, John L.; Maki, Dennis; Masur, Henry; Rubinson, Lewis; Sandrock, Christian; Talmor, Daniel; Truog, Robert; Zimmerman, Janice; Brett, Steve; Montgomery, Hugh; Rhodes, Andrew; Sanderson, Frances; Taylor, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    To provide recommendations and standard operating procedures for intensive care unit and hospital preparations for an influenza pandemic or mass disaster with a specific focus on ensuring that adequate resources are available and appropriate protocols are developed to safely perform procedures in

  9. Radiation Emergency Preparedness Tools: Psychological First Aid

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-12-30

    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Practical Tools for Radiation Emergency Preparedness. A specialist working with CDC's Radiation Studies Branch describes Psychological First Aid and a newly developed multimedia training program, entitled "Psychological First Aid in Radiation Disasters.".  Created: 12/30/2010 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) Radiation Studies Branch and Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB)/Joint Information Center (JIC); Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 1/13/2011.

  10. Are hospitals ready to response to disasters? Challenges, opportunities and strategies of Hospital Emergency Incident Command System (HEICS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmohammadian, Mohammad Hossein; Atighechian, Golrokh; Shams, Lida; Haghshenas, Abbas

    2011-08-01

    Applying an effective management system in emergency incidents provides maximum efficiency with using minimum facilities and human resources. Hospital Emergency Incident Command System (HEICS) is one of the most reliable emergency incident command systems to make hospitals more efficient and to increase patient safety. This research was to study requirements, barriers, and strategies of HEICS in hospitals affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (IUMS). This was a qualitative research carried out in Isfahan Province, Iran during 2008-09. The study population included senior hospital managers of IUMS and key informants in emergency incident management across Isfahan Province. Sampling method was in non-random purposeful form and snowball technique was used. The research instrument for data collection was semi-structured interview; collected data was analyzed by Colaizzi Technique. Findings of study were categorized into three general categories including requirements (organizational and sub-organizational), barriers (internal and external) of HEICS establishment, and providing short, mid and long term strategies. These categories are explained in details in the main text. Regarding the existing barriers in establishment of HEICS, it is recommended that responsible authorities in different levels of health care system prepare necessary conditions for implementing such system as soon as possible via encouraging and supporting systems. This paper may help health policy makers to get reasonable framework and have comprehensive view for establishing HEICS in hospitals. It is necessary to consider requirements and viewpoints of stakeholders before any health policy making or planning.

  11. Emergency preparedness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, J. [Key Safety and Blowout Control Corp., Sylvan Lake, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    This presentation included several slides depicting well control and emergency preparedness. It provided information to help in pre-emergency planning for potential well control situations. Key Safety and Blowout Control Corp has gained experience in the Canadian and International well control industry as well as from the fires of Kuwait. The president of the company lectures on the complications and concerns of managers, wellsite supervisors, service companies, the public sector, land owners, government agencies and the media. The slides presented scenarios based on actual blowout recovery assignments and described what types of resources are needed by a well control team. The presentation addressed issues such as the responsibility of a well control team and what they can be expected to do. The issue of how government agencies become involved was also discussed. The presentation combines important information and descriptive images of personal experiences in fire fighting and well control. The emergency situations presented here demonstrate the need for a thorough understanding of preplanning for emergencies and what to expect when a typical day in the oil patch turns into a high stress, volatile situation. tabs., figs.

  12. Are hospitals ready to response to disasters? Challenges, opportunities and strategies of Hospital Emergency Incident Command System (HEICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Yarmohammadian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Applying an effective management system in emergency incidents provides maximum efficiency with using minimum facilities and human resources. Hospital Emergency Incident Command System (HEICS is one of the most reliable emergency incident command systems to make hospitals more efficient and to increase patient safety. This research was to study requirements, barriers, and strategies of HEICS in hospitals affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (IUMS. Methods: This was a qualitative research carried out in Isfahan Province, Iran during 2008-09. The study population included senior hospital managers of IUMS and key informants in emergency incident management across Isfahan Province. Sampling method was in non-random purposeful form and snowball technique was used. The research in-strument for data collection was semi-structured interview; collected data was analyzed by Colaizzi Technique. Results: Findings of study were categorized into three general categories including requirements (organizational and sub-organizational, barriers (internal and external of HEICS establishment, and providing short, mid and long term strategies. These categories are explained in details in the main text. Conclusions: Regarding the existing barriers in establishment of HEICS, it is recommended that responsible authori-ties in different levels of health care system prepare necessary conditions for implementing such system as soon as possible via encouraging and supporting systems. This paper may help health policy makers to get reasonable frame-work and have comprehensive view for establishing HEICS in hospitals. It is necessary to consider requirements and viewpoints of stakeholders before any health policy making or planning.

  13. Disaster Management: Mental Health Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Math, Suresh Bada; Nirmala, Maria Christine; Moirangthem, Sydney; Kumar, Naveen C

    2015-01-01

    Disaster mental health is based on the principles of 'preventive medicine' This principle has necessitated a paradigm shift from relief centered post-disaster management to a holistic, multi-dimensional integrated community approach of health promotion, disaster prevention, preparedness and mitigation. This has ignited the paradigm shift from curative to preventive aspects of disaster management. This can be understood on the basis of six 'R's such as Readiness (Preparedness), Response (Immediate action), Relief (Sustained rescue work), Rehabilitation (Long term remedial measures using community resources), Recovery (Returning to normalcy) and Resilience (Fostering). Prevalence of mental health problems in disaster affected population is found to be higher by two to three times than that of the general population. Along with the diagnosable mental disorders, affected community also harbours large number of sub-syndromal symptoms. Majority of the acute phase reactions and disorders are self-limiting, whereas long-term phase disorders require assistance from mental health professionals. Role of psychotropic medication is very limited in preventing mental health morbidity. The role of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in mitigating the mental health morbidity appears to be promising. Role of Psychological First Aid (PFA) and debriefing is not well-established. Disaster management is a continuous and integrated cyclical process of planning, organising, coordinating and implementing measures to prevent and to manage disaster effectively. Thus, now it is time to integrate public health principles into disaster mental health.

  14. Tourism sector preparedness in zones with a high seismic risk: Case study of the Capital Region of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihui, W.; Wang, D.

    2017-12-01

    Japan is a country highly vulnerable to natural disasters, especially earthquakes. Tourism, as a strategic industry in Japan, is especially vulnerable to destructive earthquake disasters owing to the characteristics of vulnerability, sensitivity and substitutability. Here we aim to provide theoretical understanding of the perception and responses of tourism managers towards damaging disasters in tourism destinations with high seismic risks. We conducted surveys among the mangers of tourism businesses in the capital area of Japan in 2014 and applied structural equation modeling techniques to empirically test the proposed model with four latent variables, which are risk perception, threat knowledge, disaster preparedness and earthquake preparedness. Our results show that threat knowledge affects risk perception and disaster preparedness positively. In addition, disaster preparedness positively affects earthquake preparedness. However, the proposed paths from risk perception to disaster preparedness, risk perception to earthquake preparedness, and threat knowledge to earthquake preparedness were not statistically significant. Our results may provide references for policymakers in promoting crisis planning in tourism destination with high seismic risks.

  15. Functional Safety Status in Isfahan Private Hospitals in Response to Disasters in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Tavakoli

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: The present study showed that the current status of functional safety in Isfahan private hospitals is not completely satisfactory and the provincial health managers, especially Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, are expected to regularly monitor planning and decision-making about the risks threatening these hospitals, especially in the areas of contingency plans of medical operations and access to medicines as well as equipment and supplies needed in an emergency situation.

  16. Integrating authorities and disciplines into the preparedness-planning process: a study of mental health, public health, and emergency management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Madeline; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Codispoti, Catherine R; Montgomery, Juliann M

    2007-01-01

    The process of integrating all necessary authorities and disciplines into an organized preparedness plan is complex, and the inclusion of disaster mental health poses specific challenges. The goals of this project were (1) to identify whether state mental health preparedness was included in state public health and emergency management preparedness plans, (2) to document barriers to entry and strategies reportedly used by state authorities in efforts to incorporate reasonable mental health preparedness into existing public health and emergency management preparedness planning, (3) to employ a theory for organizational change to organize and synthesize this information, and (4) to stimulate further discussion and research supporting coordinated preparedness efforts at the state level, particularly those inclusive of mental health. To accomplish these goals we (1) counted the number of state public health preparedness and emergency management plans that either included, mentioned, or omitted a mental health preparedness plan; (2) interviewed key officials from nine representative states for their reports on strategies used in seeking greater inclusion of mental health preparedness in public health and emergency management preparedness planning; and (3) synthesized these results to contribute to the national dialogue on coordinating disaster preparedness, particularly with respect to mental health preparedness. We found that 15 out of 29 publicly available public health preparedness plans (52 percent) included mental health preparedness, and eight of 43 publicly available emergency management plans (18 percent) incorporated mental health. Interviewees reported numerous barriers and strategies, which we cataloged according to a well-accepted eight-step plan for transforming organizations.

  17. Preparedness of County Referral Health Facilities in Implementing Adolescent Friendly Health Services: A Case Study of Mama Lucy Kibaki Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owuondo, Pacific Akinyi; Mwaura-Tenembergen, Wanja; Adoyo, Maureen; Kiilu, Elizabeth M

    2015-03-25

    Health service delivery is a key pillar of the health system management. The World Health Organization recently emphasized the need to develop adolescent -friendly health services to improve the care provided to young people throughout the world. However, there is limited peer reviewed literature on this subject therefore necessitating assessment of whether the existing health facilities are prepared to implement the adolescent friendly health services. Adolescent friendly health services remains a relatively new and sensitive area mainly due to restrictive norms and policies guiding the services. After International Conference on Population and Development in 1994, countries started implementing adolescent friendly health services. The Government of Kenya together with partners in an attempt to address the health challenges came up with the Adolescent package of care (APOC) in 2013 whose guidelines were finalized in November 2014 and released for use by service providers . Despite this package of care, there is still ineffective staff capacity in relation to skills and knowledge gap of health professionals, training needs, health resources as well as health system factors that can affect implementation of AFHS. The study explored ways of mitigating or addressing the barriers to implementation of these services. The study used both quantitative and qualitative approaches to collect data. The study utilized survey research adapting descriptive cross sectional design and semi-structured questionnaire to interview 348 health care providers and 472 adolescents in Mam Lucy Kibaki Hospital from 3rd May 2014 to 16 June 2014. The key informants were mainly nurses, clinical officers and Medical doctors who were working at the health service delivery area at the time of study and were interviewed using an interview guide. The managers at the hospital were interviewed using an in-depth interview guide while the adolescents were interviewed through interview guide and focused

  18. TEKNA - preparedness seminary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The seminary contains several presentations on various aspects of preparedness in the offshore petroleum sector. The authority organization, Norwegian regulations, industrial management, planning and principles are discussed. Risk assessment and preparedness analysis is emphasized. Some technological aspects are also discussed.

  19. Health facilities safety in natural disasters: experiences and challenges from South East Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovic, Vesela; Vitale, Ksenija; Tchounwou, Paul B

    2012-05-01

    The United Nations named 2010 as a year of natural disasters, and launched a worldwide campaign to improve the safety of schools and hospitals from natural disasters. In the region of South East Europe, Croatia and Serbia have suffered the greatest impacts of natural disasters on their communities and health facilities. In this paper the disaster management approaches of the two countries are compared, with a special emphasis on the existing technological and legislative systems for safety and protection of health facilities and people. Strategic measures that should be taken in future to provide better safety for health facilities and populations, based on the best practices and positive experiences in other countries are recommended. Due to the expected consequences of global climate change in the region and the increased different environmental risks both countries need to refine their disaster preparedness strategies. Also, in the South East Europe, the effects of a natural disaster are amplified in the health sector due to its critical medical infrastructure. Therefore, the principles of environmental security should be implemented in public health policies in the described region, along with principles of disaster management through regional collaborations.

  20. Health Facilities Safety in Natural Disasters: Experiences and Challenges from South East Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesela Radovic

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations named 2010 as a year of natural disasters, and launched a worldwide campaign to improve the safety of schools and hospitals from natural disasters. In the region of South East Europe, Croatia and Serbia have suffered the greatest impacts of natural disasters on their communities and health facilities. In this paper the disaster management approaches of the two countries are compared, with a special emphasis on the existing technological and legislative systems for safety and protection of health facilities and people. Strategic measures that should be taken in future to provide better safety for health facilities and populations, based on the best practices and positive experiences in other countries are recommended. Due to the expected consequences of global climate change in the region and the increased different environmental risks both countries need to refine their disaster preparedness strategies. Also, in the South East Europe, the effects of a natural disaster are amplified in the health sector due to its critical medical infrastructure. Therefore, the principles of environmental security should be implemented in public health policies in the described region, along with principles of disaster management through regional collaborations.

  1. Emergency Preparedness: A Handbook for Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    Advancement of Science, 1966. FAMILY HANDYMAN MAGAZINE. America’s Handyman Book. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1980. FARACE , Richard V., Kenneth...1972. FARACE , Richard V. Communication Strategies for Crisis Relocation Planning. Washington, D.C.: Defense Civil Preparedness Agency, November 1975... FARACE , Richard V., Kenneth L. Villard, and L. Edna Rogers. Family Communication About Plans for Natural and Nuclear Disasters. Washington, D.C

  2. Emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    According the conception of the Emergency Response Centre (ERC) of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA), and the obtained experience from exercises, and as well as on the basis of recommendations of international missions, the NRA SR started, in 1997 the ERC extension. The new room enable the work for radiation protection group, reactor safety and logistic group separately. At the same time special room was build for work of the NECRA Technical Support Group of the Emergency Commission for Radiation Accidents of the SR.This group co-operates closely with ERC while evaluation the situation, and by using the information system of the NRA and database of ERC to generate the conditions of nuclear facilities in once of emergency. Extension of the mentioned rooms was carried out. The financing by the European Union helped to build the project RAMG. In this way the NRA gained a working site which, with its equipment and parameters belongs to the top working sites of regulatory bodies of developed European countries. The NRA preparation of exercise and special staff education was carried out in 1997, for employees of the NRA and members of Emergency Headquarters (EH) for work in ERC in case of nuclear installation accident. The task of education of member of EH was their preparation for carrying out three exercises. These exercises are described. In the area of emergency preparedness, in accordance with inspection plan of the Office, 7 team inspections were carried out in individual localities; in NPP Bohunice, two in NPP Mochovce and one in Bohunice Conditioning Centre for radioactive wastes. Solution of the task of development of science and technology in the area of 'Development of technical and programme means for analyses of accidents and solutions of crisis situations'continued in 1997. Another regulations were elaborated for activity of members of EH of the NRA. The following was was carried out: selection of data for transfer and the

  3. Learning from and Teaching about Disaster: The Case of the April 2011 Tornado Outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Beverly; Hocutt, Martha

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine how secondary teachers teach about disaster using the media during periods of declared natural disaster and post-disaster in their local communities. Issues of preparedness, pre and post disaster, were examined as well. Secondary teachers were queried in one public school system in the Southeastern…

  4. Improving emergency preparedness and crisis management capabilities in transportation : year 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    While disaster preparedness and emergency management have had a high public : profile over the past decade, Hurricane Katrina revealed serious weaknesses in the : United States emergency response capabilities. There is thus much left to do : befor...

  5. Impact of natural disaster combined with nuclear power plant accidents on local medical services: a case study of Minamisoma Municipal General Hospital after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Yuko; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Hayashi, Kaoru; Takano, Michiko; Nagano, Mayumi; Onoda, Katsuko; Yoshida, Toshiharu; Takada, Akemi; Hanai, Tatsuo; Shimada, Shunji; Shimada, Satoko; Nishiuchi, Yasuyuki; Onoda, Syuichi; Monma, Kazuo; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Matsumura, Tomoko; Kami, Masahiro; Kanazawa, Yukio

    2014-12-01

    To elucidate the impacts of nuclear plant accidents on neighboring medical centers, we investigated the operations of our hospital within the first 10 days of the Great East Japan Earthquake followed by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. Data were extracted from medical records and hospital administrative records covering 11 to 20 March 2011. Factual information on the disaster was obtained from public access media. A total of 622 outpatients and 241 inpatients were treated. Outpatients included 43 injured, 6 with cardiopulmonary arrest, and 573 with chronic diseases. Among the 241 inpatients, 5 died, 137 were discharged, and the other 99 were transferred to other hospitals. No communication methods or medical or food supplies were available for 4 days after the earthquake. Hospital directors allowed employees to leave the hospital on day 4. All 39 temporary workers were evacuated immediately, and 71 of 239 full-time employees remained. These employees handled extra tasks besides patient care and patient transfer to other hospitals. Committed effective doses indicating the magnitude of health risks due to an intake of radioactive cesium into the human body were found to be minimal according to internal radiation exposure screening carried out from July to August 2011. After the disaster, hospitals located within the evacuation zone of a 30-km radius of the nuclear power plant were isolated. Maintenance of the health care system in such an event becomes difficult.

  6. Measures of emergency preparedness contributing to nursing home resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Sandi J; McGrady, Elizabeth

    2017-12-13

    Resilience approaches have been successfully applied in crisis management, disaster response, and high reliability organizations and have the potential to enhance existing systems of nursing home disaster preparedness. This study's purpose was to determine how the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) "Emergency Preparedness Checklist Recommended Tool for Effective Health Care Facility Planning" contributes to organizational resilience by identifying the benchmark resilience items addressed by the CMS Emergency Preparedness Checklist and items not addressed by the CMS Emergency Preparedness Checklist, and to recommend tools and processes to improve resilience for nursing homes. The CMS Emergency Preparedness Checklist items were compared to the Resilience Benchmark Tool items; similar items were considered matches. Resilience Benchmark Tool items with no CMS Emergency Preparedness Checklist item matches were considered breaches in nursing home resilience. The findings suggest that the CMS Emergency Preparedness Checklist can be used to measure some aspects of resilience, however, there were many resilience factors not addressed. For nursing homes to prepare and respond to crisis situations, organizations need to embrace a culture that promotes individual resilience-related competencies that when aggregated enable the organization to improve its resiliency. Social workers have the skills and experience to facilitate this change.

  7. Debating life after disaster: charity hospital babies and bioscientific futures in post-Katrina New Orleans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Anne M

    2011-06-01

    In Louisiana's unique, populist-derived charity health system, the self-designation Charity Hospital Baby expresses situational identity anchored in the life cycle and the inversion of racist and authoritative connotations. This article draws on theoretical perspectives of stratified reproduction and the politics of time to examine the controversy in which Babies advocate reopening the Katrina-damaged New Orleans Charity Hospital, and administrators and planners support a new state-of-the-art biosciences district, GNOBED. Babies evoke the present, ethical urgency (kairos) of responding to sickness and disability; GNOBED implies prolonging or saving future lives through biotechnologies under development in accelerated time (chronos). As preservationists and residents threatened with displacement join "re-open Charity" proponents, planners symbolically engage in prolepsis, rhetorically precluding opposing arguments with flash forward of supposedly "done deals." At stake is nothing less than social death for a segment of this ethnically diverse city. [public

  8. Australasian emergency nurses' willingness to attend work in a disaster: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbon, Paul; Ranse, Jamie; Cusack, Lynette; Considine, Julie; Shaban, Ramon Z; Woodman, Richard J; Bahnisch, Laura; Kako, Mayumi; Hammad, Karen; Mitchell, Belinda

    2013-05-01

    The type of disaster, individual demographic factors, family factors and workplace factors, have been identified in the international, multidisciplinary literature as factors that influence a person's willingness to attend and assist in their workplace during a disaster. However, it is unknown if these factors are applicable to Australasian emergency nurses. The research aims to determine the extent to which Australasian emergency nurses are willing to attend their workplace in a disaster. This research was exploratory and descriptive study design, using online and paper based surveys as a means of data collection. Australasian emergency nurses from two Australasian emergency nursing colleges and four Australian hospitals were recruited to participate. Data analysis was conducted using both descriptive and inferential statistics. In total, 451 Australasian emergency nurses participated in this research. Participants were more willing to attend their workplace during a conventional disaster (p ≤ 0.001), if they worked full-time (p = 0.01), had received formal education pertaining to disasters (p ≤ 0.001), had a family disaster plan (p = 0.008), did not have children (p = 0.001) and worked in an environment in which they perceived their colleagues, managers and organisation to be prepared. The factors that influenced Australasian emergency nurses to attend their workplace in a disaster were similar to that described in the international multidisciplinary literature. Of particular note, improving disaster knowledge and skills, having a family disaster plan and improving the perceptions of the nurses' workplace preparedness can enhance the nurses' willingness to assist in a disaster. Copyright © 2013 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. "Skip the infection, get the injection": a case study in emergency preparedness education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Lavonne M; Canclini, Sharon B; Frable, Pamela Jean

    2015-01-01

    The frequency of natural and manmade disasters along with increasing potential for public health emergencies emphasizes the need for emergency preparedness education. Because nurses are the largest group of health professionals to meet the needs of those affected by disasters and public health emergencies, schools of nursing need to prepare graduates who are knowledgeable about disaster and public health emergency management. The use of core competencies may be a means to ensure consistent application of best practices in disaster health care. The next step in competency development involves validation through evidence. Through documentation and dissemination of their experiences with emergency preparedness education, schools of nursing can provide supportive evidence to aid in competency development. The purpose of this paper is present a case study of an ongoing and evolving public health nursing education project consistent with disaster health care and emergency preparedness competencies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Exploring the Demands on Nurses Working in Health Care Facilities During a Large-Scale Natural Disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian C. Scrymgeour

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nurses are pivotal to an effective societal response to a range of critical events, including disasters. This presents nurses with many significant and complex challenges that require them to function effectively under highly challenging and stressful circumstances and often for prolonged periods of time. The exponential growth in the number of disasters means that knowledge of disaster preparedness and how this knowledge can be implemented to facilitate the development of resilient and adaptive nurses and health care organizations represents an important adjunct to nurse education, policy development, and research considerations. Although this topic has and continues to attract attention in the literature, a lack of systematic understanding of the contingencies makes it difficult to clearly differentiate what is known and what gaps remain in this literature. Providing a sound footing for future research can be facilitated by first systematically reviewing the relevant literature. Focused themes were identified and analyzed using an ecological and interactive systems framework. Ten of the 12 retained studies included evacuation, revealing that evacuation is more likely to occur in an aged care facility than a hospital. The unpredictability of an event also highlighted organizational, functional, and competency issues in regard to the complexity of decision making and overall preparedness. The integrative review also identified that the unique roles, competencies, and demands on nurses working in hospitals and residential health care facilities during a natural disaster appear invisible within the highly visible event.

  11. Emergency response planning in hospitals, United States: 2003-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niska, Richard W; Burt, Catharine W

    2007-08-20

    This study presents baseline data to determine which hospital characteristics are associated with preparedness for terrorism and natural disaster in the areas of emergency response planning and availability of equipment and specialized care units. Information from the Bioterrorism and Mass Casualty Preparedness Supplements to the 2003 and 2004 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys was used to provide national estimates of variations in hospital emergency response plans and resources by residency and medical school affiliation, hospital size, ownership, metropolitan statistical area status, and Joint Commission accreditation. Of 874 sampled hospitals with emergency or outpatient departments, 739 responded for an 84.6 percent response rate. Estimates are presented with 95 percent confidence intervals. About 92 percent of hospitals had revised their emergency response plans since September 11, 2001, but only about 63 percent had addressed natural disasters and biological, chemical, radiological, and explosive terrorism in those plans. Only about 9 percent of hospitals had provided for all 10 of the response plan components studied. Hospitals had a mean of about 14 personal protective suits, 21 critical care beds, 12 mechanical ventilators, 7 negative pressure isolation rooms, and 2 decontamination showers each. Hospital bed capacity was the factor most consistently associated with emergency response planning and availability of resources.

  12. State of emergency preparedness for US health insurance plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Raina M; Finne, Kristen; Lardy, Barbara; Veselovskiy, German; Korba, Caey; Margolis, Gregg S; Lurie, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Health insurance plans serve a critical role in public health emergencies, yet little has been published about their collective emergency preparedness practices and policies. We evaluated, on a national scale, the state of health insurance plans' emergency preparedness and policies. A survey of health insurance plans. We queried members of America's Health Insurance Plans, the national trade association representing the health insurance industry, about issues related to emergency preparedness issues: infrastructure, adaptability, connectedness, and best practices. Of 137 health insurance plans queried, 63% responded, representing 190.6 million members and 81% of US plan enrollment. All respondents had emergency plans for business continuity, and most (85%) had infrastructure for emergency teams. Some health plans also have established benchmarks for preparedness (eg, response time). Regarding adaptability, 85% had protocols to extend claim filing time and 71% could temporarily suspend prior medical authorization rules. Regarding connectedness, many plans shared their contingency plans with health officials, but often cited challenges in identifying regulatory agency contacts. Some health insurance plans had specific policies for assisting individuals dependent on durable medical equipment or home healthcare. Many plans (60%) expressed interest in sharing best practices. Health insurance plans are prioritizing emergency preparedness. We identified 6 policy modifications that health insurance plans could undertake to potentially improve healthcare system preparedness: establishing metrics and benchmarks for emergency preparedness; identifying disaster-specific policy modifications, enhancing stakeholder connectedness, considering digital strategies to enhance communication, improving support and access for special-needs individuals, and developing regular forums for knowledge exchange about emergency preparedness.

  13. Impact of social preparedness on flood early warning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girons Lopez, M.; Di Baldassarre, G.; Seibert, J.

    2017-01-01

    Flood early warning systems play a major role in the disaster risk reduction paradigm as cost-effective methods to mitigate flood disaster damage. The connections and feedbacks between the hydrological and social spheres of early warning systems are increasingly being considered as key aspects for successful flood mitigation. The behavior of the public and first responders during flood situations, determined by their preparedness, is heavily influenced by many behavioral traits such as perceived benefits, risk awareness, or even denial. In this study, we use the recency of flood experiences as a proxy for social preparedness to assess its impact on the efficiency of flood early warning systems through a simple stylized model and implemented this model using a simple mathematical description. The main findings, which are based on synthetic data, point to the importance of social preparedness for flood loss mitigation, especially in circumstances where the technical forecasting and warning capabilities are limited. Furthermore, we found that efforts to promote and preserve social preparedness may help to reduce disaster-induced losses by almost one half. The findings provide important insights into the role of social preparedness that may help guide decision-making in the field of flood early warning systems.

  14. Municipalities' Preparedness for Weather Hazards and Response to Weather Warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehiriz, Kaddour; Gosselin, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The study of the management of weather-related disaster risks by municipalities has attracted little attention even though these organizations play a key role in protecting the population from extreme meteorological conditions. This article contributes to filling this gap with new evidence on the level and determinants of Quebec municipalities' preparedness for weather hazards and response to related weather warnings. Using survey data from municipal emergency management coordinators and secondary data on the financial and demographic characteristics of municipalities, the study shows that most Quebec municipalities are sufficiently prepared for weather hazards and undertake measures to protect the population when informed of imminent extreme weather events. Significant differences between municipalities were noted though. Specifically, the level of preparedness was positively correlated with the municipalities' capacity and population support for weather-related disaster management policies. In addition, the risk of weather-related disasters increases the preparedness level through its effect on population support. We also found that the response to weather warnings depended on the risk of weather-related disasters, the preparedness level and the quality of weather warnings. These results highlight areas for improvement in the context of increasing frequency and/or severity of such events with current climate change.

  15. 77 FR 32877 - National Hurricane Preparedness Week, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... and throughout the private and non-profit sectors to develop robust systems for disaster preparedness..., let us recommit to ensuring the safety of our loved ones and our communities, and to building a... government agencies, private organizations, schools, media, and residents in the coastal areas of our Nation...

  16. Strengthening Emergency Preparedness in Higher Education through Hazard Vulnerability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifolt, Matthew; Burrowes, Jeffrey; McPherson, Tarrant; McCormick, Lisa C.

    2016-01-01

    Experts have noted a great deal of variability among U.S. higher education institutions' planning and preparedness for emergency situations. However, resources are available to help campus leaders effectively mitigate, prepare for, respond to, and recover from a multitude of disaster scenarios. One way for emergency managers and campus leaders to…

  17. Flood preparedness : thoughts, feelings and intentions of the Dutch public

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, Teun

    2010-01-01

    Despite the high levels of flood protection in the Netherlands, absolute safety is not guaranteed. Preparing Dutch society for potential flood disasters, including the preparedness of individual citizens, is one of the great challenges in future flood risk management. This thesis is aimed at

  18. Strengthening flood warning systems: the benefits of encouraging social preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girons Lopez, Marc; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Seibert, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Flood warning and response have normally been focused on the technical aspects and disregarded the connections and feedbacks between the hydrological and social dimensions. An increasing body of research, however, points at the importance of considering socio-hydrological aspects to improve flood damage mitigation. One of the key factors is the preparedness of the public and first responders during flood situations, which is influenced by many behavioural traits such as perceived benefits, risk awareness, or denial. In this study, we investigate the impact of social preparedness on the efficiency of flood early warning systems by using the recency of flood experience as a proxy for social preparedness. To this end, we developed a stylised model and a synthetic data-set to perform a hypothetical analysis. The main findings point to the importance of social preparedness for flood loss mitigation, especially when the technical forecasting and warning capabilities are limited. More specifically, efforts to promote and preserve social preparedness may help to reduce disaster-induced losses by almost one half. The findings from this study provide insights into the importance of considering social preparedness in decision-making for disaster risk reduction.

  19. Emergency preparedness of Research Center for Radiation medicine and its hospital to admit and treat the patients with signs of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyi, D. A.; Khomenko, V. I.; Bebeshko, V. G.

    2009-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, the Research Center for Radiation Medicine (RCRM) was established in Kiev (Ukraine). Its main task was to maintain a high level of emergency preparedness and be ready to examine and treat patients who suffer as a result of hypothetical radiation accident. Based on the previous experience, this institution's specialists worked out new diagnostic criteria and drug treatment schemata for acute radiation sickness, created a database on 75 patients with this diagnosis and improved educational programmes for medical students and physicians working in the field of radiation medicine. RCRM collaborates fruitfully with western partners through the joint research projects and connects with the World Health Organisation's Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Assistance Network centre. Collaboration with Kiev Center for Bone Marrow Transplantation allows RCRM to use aseptic wards having highly filtered air for the treatment of most severely irradiated patients. (authors)

  20. Hospital Impact After a Chemical Spill That Compromised the Potable Water Supply: West Virginia, January 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Joy; Del Rosario, Maria C; Thomasson, Erica; Bixler, Danae; Haddy, Loretta; Duncan, Mary Anne

    2017-10-01

    In January 2014, a chemical spill of 4-methylcyclohexanemethanol and propylene glycol phenyl ethers contaminated the potable water supply of approximately 300,000 West Virginia residents. To understand the spill's impact on hospital operations, we surveyed representatives from 10 hospitals in the affected area during January 2014. We found that the spill-related loss of potable water affected many aspects of hospital patient care (eg, surgery, endoscopy, hemodialysis, and infection control of Clostridium difficile). Hospital emergency preparedness planning could be enhanced by specifying alternative sources of potable water sufficient for hemodialysis, C. difficile infection control, and hospital processing and cleaning needs (in addition to drinking water). (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:621-624).

  1. Simulation modelling of a patient surge in an emergency department under disaster conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Gul

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of emergency departments (EDs in handling patient surges during disaster times using the available resources is very important. Many EDs require additional resources to overcome the bottlenecks in emergency systems. The assumption is that EDs consider the option of temporary staff dispatching, among other options, in order to respond to an increased demand or even the hiring temporarily non-hospital medical staff. Discrete event simulation (DES, a well-known simulation method and based on the idea of process modeling, is used for establishing ED operations and management related models. In this study, a DES model is developed to investigate and analyze an ED under normal conditions and an ED in a disaster scenario which takes into consideration an increased influx of disaster victims-patients. This will allow early preparedness of emergency departments in terms of physical and human resources. The studied ED is located in an earthquake zone in Istanbul. The report on Istanbul’s disaster preparedness presented by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA and Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (IMM, asserts that the district where the ED is located is estimated to have the highest injury rate. Based on real case study information, the study aims to suggest a model on pre-planning of ED resources for disasters. The results indicate that in times of a possible disaster, when the percentage of red patient arrivals exceeds 20% of total patient arrivals, the number of red area nurses and the available space for red area patients will be insufficient for the department to operate effectively. A methodological improvement presented a different distribution function that was tested for service time of the treatment areas. The conclusion is that the Weibull distribution function used in service process of injection room fits the model better than the Gamma distribution function.

  2. Utilizing a Pediatric Disaster Coalition Model to Increase Pediatric Critical Care Surge Capacity in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frogel, Michael; Flamm, Avram; Sagy, Mayer; Uraneck, Katharine; Conway, Edward; Ushay, Michael; Greenwald, Bruce M; Pierre, Louisdon; Shah, Vikas; Gaffoor, Mohamed; Cooper, Arthur; Foltin, George

    2017-08-01

    A mass casualty event can result in an overwhelming number of critically injured pediatric victims that exceeds the available capacity of pediatric critical care (PCC) units, both locally and regionally. To address these gaps, the New York City (NYC) Pediatric Disaster Coalition (PDC) was established. The PDC includes experts in emergency preparedness, critical care, surgery, and emergency medicine from 18 of 25 major NYC PCC-capable hospitals. A PCC surge committee created recommendations for making additional PCC beds available with an emphasis on space, staff, stuff (equipment), and systems. The PDC assisted 15 hospitals in creating PCC surge plans by utilizing template plans and site visits. These plans created an additional 153 potential PCC surge beds. Seven hospitals tested their plans through drills. The purpose of this article was to demonstrate the need for planning for disasters involving children and to provide a stepwise, replicable model for establishing a PDC, with one of its primary goals focused on facilitating PCC surge planning. The process we describe for developing a PDC can be replicated to communities of any size, setting, or location. We offer our model as an example for other cities. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:473-478).

  3. Weaving latino cultural concepts into Preparedness Core Competency training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley-Jacome, Mary; Parker, Blanca Angelica Gonzalez; Waltz, Edward C

    2014-01-01

    The New York • New Jersey Preparedness and Emergency Response Learning Center (NY•NJ PERLC) is one of 14 Centers funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention designed to address the preparedness and response training and education needs of the public health workforce. One of the important niches, or focus areas for the Center, is training to improve the capacity of public health workers to respond with competence to the needs of vulnerable populations. During every phase of a disaster, racial and ethnic minorities, including Latinos, suffer worse outcomes than the general population. Communities with diverse cultural origins and limited English speakers often present more complex issues during public health emergencies. Training that incorporates cultural concepts into the Preparedness Core Competencies may improve the ability of public health workers to engage the Latino community in preparedness activities and ultimately improve outcomes during disasters. This article describes initiatives undertaken by the NY•NJ PERLC to improve the capacity of the public health workforce to respond competently to the needs of Latino populations. In 2012, the Center collaborated with national, state, and local partners to develop a nationwide broadcast founded on the Preparedness Core Competencies, Latinos During Emergencies: Cultural Considerations Impacting Disaster Preparedness. The widely viewed broadcast (497 sites in 47 states and 13 nations) highlighted the commonalities and differences within Latino culture that can impact emergency preparedness and response and outlined practical strategies to enhance participation. The success of the broadcast spurred a number of partner requests for training and technical assistance. Lessons learned from these experiences, including our "undercover" work at local Points of Dispensing, are incorporated into subsequent interactive trainings to improve the competency of public health workers. Participants recommended

  4. The Study to Improve Tsunami Preparedness Education in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Mayumi; Tanırcan, Gülüm; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki; Puskulcu, Seyhun; Kumamoto, Kunihiko

    2016-04-01

    Compared to its long history on disastrous earthquakes, disaster education history in Turkey is rather short. It has just started with an initiative of Disaster Preparedness Education Unit of Bogazici University (BU/DPEU) after 1999 Kocaeli Earthquake. Training modules and materials on disaster preparedness were prepared both for students, teachers and community. Regarding to the school education, the Ministry of National Education (MoNE) reformed their education plan in 2003, and disaster education became one of eight focused components for primary-middle education. In 2011-2014 MoNE had conducted "School-based Disaster Education Project" in collaboration with Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). The majority of the school education materials focus more on earthquake and there are very few education programs on tsunami. Within the MarDiM (Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in the Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey) project between Turkey and Japan a multidisciplinary engineering research as well as development of disaster education, tsunami education booklet and video were newly developed in 2015. In order to investigate students' knowledge natural disasters and disaster preparedness with focus on tsunami, a questionnaire based survey was conducted. The survey aims to clarify following questions: 1) how students obtain natural disaster information, 2) how students prepare for natural disaster, 3) knowledge on tsunami (hazard mechanism, evacuation behavior, historical disaster). The study was conducted by BU/DPEU in 2015 and 375 students answered the questionnaire. Results showed that students have more interest on earthquake, flood, tsunami and landslide followed it. Most students have heard about tsunami and the school is a key resource of their information. They know relatively well about tsunami mechanism, however, they have less knowledge on tsunami evacuation behavior and tsunami history in Turkey. In order to let students have

  5. Preparedness for remote possibility of a nuclear emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujishiro, Toshio

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear disaster prevention is fundamentally preparedness for emergency with extremely lower forming probability. In order to establish allowance of nuclear energy application from society, it is essential that it brings relief feelings with preparedness and without anxiety among everything. At a time when use of nuclear energy was begun, a consciousness that a nuclear facility was one highly considered on its safety faster than that in the other industries was large and intense, and then recognition of necessity for nuclear disaster prevention was extremely minute. However, the nuclear emergency of critical accident at the JCO fuel processing facility in Tokai-mura formed on September 30, 1999 gave Japanese extremely large impact so as fundamentally to change actual feelings against conventional nuclear disaster prevention. Here was introduced on efforts onto reinforcement of nuclear disaster prevention together with establishment of the special measure rule nuclear disaster prevention countermeasure as well as its advantages and progress, to investigate on a subject to do it for a preparedness with effectiveness for obtaining real safe feelings. (G.K.)

  6. Emergency preparedness in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koivukoski, J.

    1993-01-01

    Although the menace of nuclear war still persists, the focus in national emergency preparedness in Finland is presently on emergencies involving nuclear installations. The nuclear power plants, nuclear submarines and other installations in the former USSR are a major reason for this. In this article the main features and organization of emergency preparedness in Finland are described. (orig.)

  7. Preparedness events in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    NRPA have as Secretariat for the Crisis Committee and the nuclear preparedness organization in 2008 published several reports of incidents of radioactivity and radioactive pollution to the nuclear preparedness organization, media and the public. In addition to these events, there have been some incidents with radiation and small radioactive sources in Norway during this year. (AG)

  8. Family emergency preparedness plans in severe tornadoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Zhen; Liang, Daan; Luo, Jianjun

    2014-01-01

    Tornadoes, with warnings usually issued just minutes before their touchdowns, pose great threats to properties and people's physical and mental health. Few studies have empirically investigated the association of family emergency preparedness planning and observed protective behaviors in the context of tornadoes. The purpose of this study was to examine predictors for the action of taking shelter at the time of tornadoes. Specifically, this study investigated whether having a family emergency preparedness plan was associated with higher likelihood of taking shelter upon receiving tornado warnings. This study also examined the effects of socioeconomic status and functional limitations on taking such actions. A telephone survey based on random sampling was conducted in 2012 with residents in Tuscaloosa AL and Joplin MO. Each city experienced considerable damages, injuries, and casualties after severe tornadoes (EF-4 and EF-5) in 2011. The working sample included 892 respondents. Analysis was conducted in early 2013. Logistic regression identified emergency preparedness planning as the only shared factor that increased the likelihood of taking shelter in both cities and the only significant factor in Joplin. In Tuscaloosa, being female and white also increased the likelihood of taking shelter. Disability was not found to have an effect. This study provided empirical evidence on the importance of having a family emergency preparedness plan in mitigating the risk of tornadoes. The findings could be applied to other rapid-onset disasters. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine Published by American Journal of Preventive Medicine All rights reserved.

  9. Hospitals: Soft Target for Terrorism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cauwer, Harald; Somville, Francis; Sabbe, Marc; Mortelmans, Luc J

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, the world has been rocked repeatedly by terrorist attacks. Arguably, the most remarkable were: the series of four coordinated suicide plane attacks on September 11, 2001 on buildings in New York, Virginia, and Pennsylvania, USA; and the recent series of two coordinated attacks in Brussels (Belgium), on March 22, 2016, involving two bombings at the departure hall of Brussels International Airport and a bombing at Maalbeek Metro Station located near the European Commission headquarters in the center of Brussels. This statement paper deals with different aspects of hospital policy and disaster response planning that interface with terrorism. Research shows that the availability of necessary equipment and facilities (eg, personal protective clothing, decontamination rooms, antidotes, and anti-viral drugs) in hospitals clearly is insufficient. Emergency teams are insufficiently prepared: adequate and repetitive training remain necessary. Unfortunately, there are many examples of health care workers and physicians or hospitals being targeted in both political or religious conflicts and wars. Many health workers were kidnapped and/or killed by insurgents of various ideology. Attacks on hospitals also could cause long-term effects: hospital units could be unavailable for a long time and replacing staff could take several months, further compounding hospital operations. Both physical and psychological (eg, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) after-effects of a terrorist attack can be detrimental to health care services. On the other hand, physicians and other hospital employees have shown to be involved in terrorism. As data show that some offenders had a previous history with the location of the terror incident, the possibility of hospitals or other health care services being targeted by insiders is discussed. The purpose of this report was to consider how past terrorist incidents can inform current hospital preparedness and disaster response planning

  10. [Disaster nursing and primary school teachers' disaster-related healthcare knowledge and skills].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Fu-Chih; Lei, Hsin-Min; Fang, Chao-Ming; Chen, Jiun-Jung; Chen, Bor-An

    2012-06-01

    The World Bank has ranked Taiwan as the 5th highest risk country in the world in terms of full-spectrum disaster risk. With volatile social, economic, and geologic environments and the real threat of typhoons, earthquakes, and nuclear disasters, the government has made a public appeal to raise awareness and reduce the impact of disasters. Disasters not only devastate property and the ecology, but also cause striking and long-lasting impacts on life and health. Thus, healthcare preparation and capabilities are critical to reducing their impact. Relevant disaster studies indicate children as a particularly vulnerable group during a disaster due to elevated risks of physical injury, infectious disease, malnutrition, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Primary school teachers are frontline educators, responders, and rehabilitators, respectively, prior to, during, and after disasters. The disaster prevention project implemented by the Taiwan Ministry of Education provides national guidelines for disaster prevention and education. However, within these guidelines, the focus of elementary school disaster prevention education is on disaster prevention and mitigation. Little guidance or focus has been given to disaster nursing response protocols necessary to handle issues such as post-disaster infectious diseases, chronic disease management, and psychological health and rehabilitation. Disaster nursing can strengthen the disaster healthcare response capabilities of school teachers, school nurses, and children as well as facilitate effective cooperation among communities, disaster relief institutes, and schools. Disaster nursing can also provide healthcare knowledge essential to increase disaster awareness, preparation, response, and rehabilitation. Implementing proper disaster nursing response protocols in Taiwan's education system is critical to enhancing disaster preparedness in Taiwan.

  11. How Should Disaster Base Hospitals Prepare for Dialysis Therapy after Earthquakes? Introduction of Double Water Piping Circuits Provided by Well Water System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegaya, Naoki; Seki, George; Ohta, Nobutaka

    2016-01-01

    After earthquakes, continuing dialysis for patients with ESRD and patients suffering from crush syndrome is the serious problem. In this paper, we analyzed the failure of the provision of dialysis services observed in recent disasters and discussed how to prepare for disasters to continue dialysis therapy. Japan has frequently experienced devastating earthquakes. A lot of dialysis centers could not continue dialysis treatment owing to damage caused by these earthquakes. The survey by Japanese Society for Dialysis Treatment (JSDT) after the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011 showed that failure of lifelines such as electric power and water supply was the leading cause of the malfunction of dialysis treatment. Our hospital is located in Shizuoka Prefecture, where one of the biggest earthquakes is predicted to occur in the near future. In addition to reconstructing earthquake-resistant buildings and facilities, we therefore have adopted double electric and water lifelines by introducing emergency generators and well water supply systems. It is very important to inform politicians, bureaucrats, and local water departments that dialysis treatment, a life sustaining therapy for patients with end stage renal diseases, requires a large amount of water. We cannot prevent an earthquake but can curb the extent of a disaster by preparing for earthquakes.

  12. How well are healthcare institutions prepared for disasters?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yzermans, J.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The better healthcare providers are educated and trained and the more they practice their skills, the more they are prepared when disaster strikes. However, little is known about the current state of preparedness for managing disasters among healthcare providers. Methods:

  13. Rethinking risk and disasters in mountain areas

    OpenAIRE

    Hewitt, Kenneth; Mehta, Manjari

    2012-01-01

    This chapter presents a view of risk and disaster in the mountains that finds them fully a part of public safety issues in modern states and developments, rather than separated from them. This contrasts with prevailing approaches to disaster focused on natural hazards, “unscheduled” or extreme events, and emergency preparedness; approaches strongly reinforced by mountain stereotypes. Rather, we find the legacies of social and economic histories, especially relations to down-country or metropo...

  14. Legislation for nuclear disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Shozo

    2012-01-01

    Fukushima nuclear disaster accident clarified problems on nuclear-related legislation and its application. Legislation for nuclear disaster (LNA) could not respond to severe accident because assumed size of accident was not enough. After emergency event corresponding to the article 15 of LNA, was reported by the operator, more than two hours passed by the issuance of Emergency State Declaration. Off-site center could not work at all. This article reviewed outline of LNA and introduced discussion on the reform of legislation and its application. Reform discussion should be focused on swift and effective response readiness to emergency: 1) operator's substantial nuclear emergency drilling, (2) reinforcement of government's headquarters for emergency response, (3) after nuclear emergency, government's headquarters remained to enhance resident's safety from radiation hazard and (4) enactment of nuclear emergency preparedness guidelines for local communities. (T. Tanaka)

  15. Theory-based approaches to understanding public emergency preparedness: implications for effective health and risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Hilyard, Karen; Freimuth, Vicki; Barge, J Kevin; Mindlin, Michele

    2010-06-01

    Recent natural and human-caused disasters have awakened public health officials to the importance of emergency preparedness. Guided by health behavior and media effects theories, the analysis of a statewide survey in Georgia reveals that self-efficacy, subjective norm, and emergency news exposure are positively associated with the respondents' possession of emergency items and their stages of emergency preparedness. Practical implications suggest less focus on demographics as the sole predictor of emergency preparedness and more comprehensive measures of preparedness, including both a person's cognitive stage of preparedness and checklists of emergency items on hand. We highlight the utility of theory-based approaches for understanding and predicting public emergency preparedness as a way to enable more effective health and risk communication.

  16. Disaster Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Given the tendency of books on disasters to predominantly focus on strong geophysical or descriptive perspectives and in-depth accounts of particular catastrophes, Disaster Research provides a much-needed multidisciplinary perspective of the area. This book is is structured thematically around key...... approaches to disaster research from a range of different, but often complementary academic disciplines. Each chapter presents distinct approaches to disaster research that is anchored in a particular discipline; ranging from the law of disasters and disaster historiography to disaster politics...... and anthropology of disaster. The methodological and theoretical contributions underlining a specific approach to disasters are discussed and illustrative empirical cases are examined that support and further inform the proposed approach to disaster research. The book thus provides unique insights into fourteen...

  17. [Disasters and emergency situations: what have we learned from the past to prepare for the future?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Kobi

    2010-07-01

    Israel has gained extensive experience in the mass casuaLty field, especially from dealing with terrorism events. This special issue of "Harefuah" includes articles that describe and analyze several aspects and approaches related to mass casualty event (MCE) preparedness and response strategies, based on Israel's experience. Feigenberg reports that Magen David Adom (MDA) was able to evacuate all urgent injuries during an MCE from the site to a hospital in 28 minutes, on average. Of the MCE casualties, 71% were evacuated directly to level 1 trauma centers. Rafalowski notes that the ability of MDA to implement organizational and operational Learning processes close to the time of the incident, as well as their modular operational approach, which allows flexibility in responding to simultaneous events, are probably among the reasons that have helped MDA reach a high Level of success in dealing with MCEs. Analysis of terrorism injury data demonstrates that these injuries, suffered by both children and adults, are characterized by increased complexity, with higher severity, higher in-patient mortality rates, and significantly greater use of precious hospital resources such as intensive care, operating rooms, CT, and days of hospitalization. Extensive experience dealing with MCEs has brought managerial insights to the entire health system, for instance in the hospitalization system and clinical management of injuries. In her article, Adini defines five major components for assessing the Israeli health system in emergencies. Shasha's article discusses the principles of hospital preparedness while working under fire. The importance of this subject has in recent years helped bring a more academic approach to emergency and disaster management in the world and in Israel, as enacted at Tel Aviv University's Multidisciplinary Master's Program in Emergency and Disaster Management, and also in other universities that focus on specific disciplines. In summary, achieving

  18. State health policy for terrorism preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziskin, Leah Z; Harris, Drew A

    2007-09-01

    State health policy for terrorism preparedness began before the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, but was accelerated after that day. In a crisis atmosphere after September 11, the states found their policies changing rapidly, greatly influenced by federal policies and federal dollars. In the 5 years since September 11, these state health policies have been refined. This refinement has included a restatement of the goals and objectives of state programs, the modernization of emergency powers statutes, the education and training of the public health workforce, and a preparation of the health care system to better care for victims of disasters, including acts of terrorism.

  19. Measuring healthcare preparedness: an all-hazards approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcozzi David E

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a paper appearing in this issue, Adini, et al. describe a struggle familiar to many emergency planners—the challenge of planning for all scenarios. The authors contend that all-hazards, or capabilities-based planning, in which a set of core capabilities applicable to numerous types of events is developed, is a more efficient way to achieve general health care system emergency preparedness than scenario-based planning. Essentially, the core of what is necessary to plan for and respond to one kind of disaster (e.g. a biologic event is also necessary for planning and responding to other types of disasters, allowing for improvements in planning and maximizing efficiencies. While Adini, et al. have advanced the science of health care emergency preparedness through their consideration of 490 measures to assess preparedness, a shorter set of validated preparedness measures would support the dual goals of accountability and improved outcomes and could provide the basis for determining which actions in the name of preparedness really matter.

  20. OEM Emergency Preparedness Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Emergency Management compiles a wide variety of information in support of Emergency Preparedness, including certain elements of the System for Risk...

  1. Field Organization and Disaster Medical Assistance Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim ARZIMAN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: Disasters cause an acute deterioration in all stages of life. An area affected by the disaster in which the normal activities of life are disrupted is described as a “Field” in disaster terminology. Although it is not easy to define the borders of this zone, the area where there is normally functioning society is accepted as the boundary. Disaster management is the responsibility of the local government. However, in many large disaster responses many non-governmental and international organizations play a role. A Disaster Medical Team is a trained, mobile, self-contained, self-sufficient, multidisciplinary medical team that can act in the acute phase of a sudden-onset disaster (48 to 72 hours after its occurrence to provide medical treatment in the affected area. The medical team can include physicians, nurses, paramedics and EMTS, technicians, personnel to manage logistics, security and others. Various models of Disaster Medical Teams can be observed around the world. There is paucity of evidence based literature regarding DMTs. There is a need for epidemiological studies with rigorous designs and sampling. In this section of the special edition of the journal, field organizations in health management during disasters will be summarized, with emphasis on preparedness and response phases, and disaster medical teams will be discussed. Keywords: Field organization, disaster, medical team, DMAT

  2. Planning for chemical disasters at Point Lisas, Trinidad and Tobago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, M.N.

    1995-01-01

    No major chemical disaster has taken place so far in Trinidad and Tobago. Even so, in view of the numerous hazards that the various chemical handling plants deal with at Point Lisas, the country has to be prepared to deal with chemical disasters. The country's emergency preparedness plan for chemical disasters aims to localize the emergency, if possible, eliminate it and minimize the effects of the accident on people and property. The hazards of ammonia, hydrogen, chlorine, hydrocarbons and methanol release can have devastating effects on the workers and the residents in the vicinity of the plants. The Emergency Plan identifies an Emergency Co-ordinating Officer who would take command of the off-site activities and coordinate the activities of Works Management, Local Authority, Police, Fire Services, Defence Force, Health Authority and Factory Inspectorate. Resources of fire fighting, medical treatment, telecommunications, waste management and public education have to be enhanced immediately. In the long term a new fire station and a new county hospital have to be built, some housing settlements have to be phased out and non-essential staff relocated

  3. Evaluation of an International Disaster Relief Team After Participation in an ASEAN Regional Forum Disaster Relief Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong Il; Lee, Kang Hyun; Kim, Oh Hyun; Cha, Yong Sung; Hwang, Sung Oh; Kim, Hyun; Cha, Kyung Chul

    2016-10-01

    Devastating disasters around the world directly contribute to significant increases in human mortality and economic costs. The objective of this study was to examine the current state of the Korea Disaster Relief Team that participated in an international training module. The whole training period was videotaped in order to observe and evaluate the respondents. The survey was carried out after completion of the 3-day training, and the scores were reported by use of a 5-point Likert scale. A total of 43 respondents were interviewed for the survey, and the results showed that the overall preparedness score for international disasters was 3.4±1.6 (mean±SD). The awareness of the Incident Command System for international disasters was shown to be low (3.5±1.1). Higher scores were given to personnel who took on leadership roles in the team and who answered "I knew my duty" (4.4±0.6) in the survey, as well as to the training participants who answered "I clearly knew my duty" (4.5±0.5). The preparedness level of the Korea Disaster Relief Team was shown to be insufficient, whereas understanding of the roles of leaders and training participants in the rescue team was found to be high. It is assumed that the preparedness level for disaster relief must be improved through continued training. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;1-5).

  4. Organizing the health sector for response to disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley Shoaf

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Each year millions of people around the world are affected by natural and manmade disasters. The consequences of natural disasters in terms of health are complex. Disasters directly impact the health of the population resulting in physical trauma, acute disease, and emotional trauma. Furthermore, disasters may increase the morbidity and mortality associated with chronic and infectious diseases due to the impact on the health system. The health sector must be organized for adequate preparedness, mitigation, response and recuperation from a plethora of potential disasters. This paper examines the various potential impacts of disasters on health, the components of the health sector and their roles in emergency medical care and disaster situations, as well as the coordination and organization necessary within the system to best meet the health needs of a population in the aftermath of a disaster.

  5. Development of effective emergency preparedness and response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    It has been discussed that there were many differences to international standards and the delay for prior planning implementation of unclear emergency preparedness. Therefore, it was necessary to promote the study to take the concept of the international standard to the Guide 'Emergency Preparedness for Nuclear Facilities', and to apply the Precautionary Action Zone (PAZ) etc. as the protective actions procedure. This study was started since the fiscal year 2010 to enhance the effectiveness of the protective actions, which are corresponding to these requirements based on international aspects in the nuclear disaster occurrence. And the study was conducted to introduce the emergency action level (EAL) as decision criteria and to apply urgent protective action considering PAZ, and the results from this study will be used as the basic data necessary to modify and improve the Guide. In order to fulfill the purposes described above, in fiscal year 2011, followings are executed, (1) analysis and verification for basic evacuation area such as the PAZ, (2) analysis with regard to the EAL and prototype of protective actions for public, and (3) analysis with regard to prototype of protective actions for public including evacuation plan. However, taking account of the significance of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, Japanese emergency preparedness strategy should be studied and reconstructed in logically, systematically, and with international standard, but also being based on the reflection of individual lessons from this accident. (author)

  6. [Disaster Control and Civil Protection in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippnich, Maximilian; Kowalzik, Barbara; Cermak, Rudolf; Kippnich, Uwe; Kranke, Peter; Wurmb, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    The train crash of Bad Aibling/Germany in February 2016 and the terrorist attacks of the recent years in Europe have demonstrated the urgent need to be prepared for such disastrous events. Disaster preparedness and disaster control are very important governmental duties, as are civil protection and civil defense. In Germany the responsibility for those tasks are divided between the 16 "Länder" and the Federation. While the Federation takes care of the civil protection and disaster assistance, the Länder are responsible for disaster control. The presented article focuses on these issues and gives valuable insights into the German system of disaster control and civil protection with a focus on health protection. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Chapter 2. Surge capacity and infrastructure considerations for mass critical care. Recommendations and standard operating procedures for intensive care unit and hospital preparations for an influenza epidemic or mass disaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hick, John L.; Christian, Michael D.; Sprung, Charles L.; Camargo, Ruben; Ceraso, Daniel; Azoulay, Elie; Duguet, Alexandre; Guery, Benoit; Reinhart, Konrad; Adini, Bruria; Barlavie, Yaron; Benin-Goren, Odeda; Cohen, Robert; Klein, Motti; Leoniv, Yuval; Margalit, Gila; Rubinovitch, Bina; Sonnenblick, Moshe; Steinberg, Avraham; Weissman, Charles; Wolff, Donna; Kesecioglu, Jozef; de Jong, Menno; Moreno, Rui; An, Youzhong; Du, Bin; Joynt, Gavin M.; Colvin, John; Loo, Shi; Richards, Guy; Artigas, Antonio; Pugin, Jerome; Amundson, Dennis; Devereaux, Asha; Beigel, John; Danis, Marion; Farmer, Chris; Maki, Dennis; Masur, Henry; Rubinson, Lewis; Sandrock, Christian; Talmor, Daniel; Truog, Robert; Zimmerman, Janice; Brett, Steve; Montgomery, Hugh; Rhodes, Andrew; Sanderson, Frances; Taylor, Bruce; Monrgomery, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    To provide recommendations and standard operating procedures for intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital preparations for a mass disaster or influenza epidemic with a specific focus on surge capacity and infrastructure considerations. Based on a literature review and expert opinion, a Delphi process

  8. Chapter 6. Protection of patients and staff during a pandemic. Recommendations and standard operating procedures for intensive care unit and hospital preparations for an influenza epidemic or mass disaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, Bruce L.; Montgomery, Hugh E.; Rhodes, Andrew; Sprung, Charles L.; Christian, Michael D.; Camargo, Ruben; Ceraso, Daniel; Azoulay, Elie; Duguet, Alexandre; Guery, Benoit; Reinhart, Konrad; Adini, Bruria; Barlavie, Yaron; Benin-Goren, Odeda; Cohen, Robert; Klein, Motti; Leoniv, Yuval; Margalit, Gila; Rubinovitch, Bina; Sonnenblick, Moshe; Steinberg, Avraham; Weissman, Charles; Wolff, Donna; Kesecioglu, Jozef; de Jong, Menno; Moreno, Rui; An, Youzhong; Du, Bin; Joynt, Gavin M.; Colvin, John; Loo, Shi; Richards, Guy; Artigas, Antonio; Pugin, Jerome; Amundson, Dennis; Devereaux, Asha; Beigel, John; Danis, Marion; Farmer, Chris; Hick, John L.; Maki, Dennis; Masur, Henry; Rubinson, Lewis; Sandrock, Christian; Talmor, Daniel; Truog, Robert; Zimmerman, Janice; Brett, Steve; Montgomery, Hugh; Sanderson, Frances

    2010-01-01

    To provide recommendations and standard operating procedures (SOPs) for intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital preparations for an influenza pandemic or mass disaster with a specific focus on protection of patients and staff. Based on a literature review and expert opinion, a Delphi process was used

  9. Implementation Aspects of Flood Warning and Preparedness Planning Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    preparedness planning, establish- ment of la -d use controls and expanded use of other techniques.? In 1974, Congress mandated the full consideration...construction in progressj or wear and tear that has not yet been repaired. It is also familia -r law that property owners are liable for injury to persons...1971. U.S. Department of Defense, Office of Civil Defense. In Time of Emergency, A Citizen’s Handbook on Nuclear Attack, Natural Disasters. March 1968

  10. Associating Factors With Public Preparedness Behavior Against Earthquake: A Review of Iranian Research Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ranjbar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Local preparedness against earthquakes has been recently highlighted in research and policies on disaster management and risk reduction promotion in Iran. To advance the understanding of public preparedness and how it can be applied in diverse localities, further information is required about the predictors of people’s adoption of mitigation activities and earthquake preparedness. A synthesis of the available published research results on earthquake preparedness and the influencing factors in Iran are presented in this literature review. It emphasizes the complexity of both the concept of preparedness and the contextual factors that mediate its adoption. The predominant roles of public awareness, trusted information resources, social capital and community collaboration as predictors are discussed. 

  11. Social media and disasters: a functional framework for social media use in disaster planning, response, and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, J Brian; Hawthorne, Joshua; Perreault, Mildred F; Park, Eun Hae; Goldstein Hode, Marlo; Halliwell, Michael R; Turner McGowen, Sarah E; Davis, Rachel; Vaid, Shivani; McElderry, Jonathan A; Griffith, Stanford A

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive review of online, official, and scientific literature was carried out in 2012-13 to develop a framework of disaster social media. This framework can be used to facilitate the creation of disaster social media tools, the formulation of disaster social media implementation processes, and the scientific study of disaster social media effects. Disaster social media users in the framework include communities, government, individuals, organisations, and media outlets. Fifteen distinct disaster social media uses were identified, ranging from preparing and receiving disaster preparedness information and warnings and signalling and detecting disasters prior to an event to (re)connecting community members following a disaster. The framework illustrates that a variety of entities may utilise and produce disaster social media content. Consequently, disaster social media use can be conceptualised as occurring at a number of levels, even within the same disaster. Suggestions are provided on how the proposed framework can inform future disaster social media development and research. © 2014 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  12. Institutional reforms of nuclear emergency preparedness in Japan and its challenges. Case studies on stakeholder involvement in establishing nuclear emergency preparedness in France and its implications for Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawara, Shin-etsu

    2013-01-01

    Based upon the experiences with the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Japan is now making a comprehensive review of nuclear emergency preparedness. The Nuclear Regulation Authority of Japan has changed drastically its basic concept of nuclear emergency arrangements from their dependence on the prediction methods to advance planning-oriented arrangements. In order to implement such changes in an effective enough manner, this report examines how to improve stakeholder involvement focusing on the French cases, where the Local Information Commissions (CLI) plays a critical role, and thereby derives concrete lessons for Japan. Case studies on CLI's involvement in French nuclear emergency preparedness revealed the following implications for Japan; 1. Improving continuously the disaster prevention plans of local governments and of nuclear utilities thorough recursive cycles of disaster-preparedness drill and its evaluation for the benefits of local inhabitants, 2. Setting appropriate ranges wherein local stakeholders involve constantly in establishing nuclear emergency preparedness without alienating completely other stakeholders, 3. Utilizing the prediction systems not as a means to support decision-making in emergency situations but as a tool for facilitating stakeholder involvement in the phase of advance planning, and 4. Integrating nuclear emergency preparedness into other disaster preventions for reducing complex and unrecognized risks. (author)

  13. Interdisciplinary Environmental-health Science Throughout Disaster Lifecycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, G. S.; Morman, S. A.; Hoefen, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    Potential human health effects from exposures to hazardous disaster materials and environmental contamination are common concerns following disasters. Using several examples from US Geological Survey environmental disaster responses (e.g., 2001 World Trade Center, mine tailings spills, 2005 Hurricane Katrina, 2007-2013 wildfires, 2011 Gulf oil spill, 2012 Hurricane Sandy, 2013 Colorado floods) and disaster scenarios (2011 ARkStorm, 2013 SAFRR tsunami) this presentation will illustrate the role for collaborative earth, environmental, and health science throughout disaster lifecycles. Pre-disaster environmental baseline measurements are needed to help understand environmental influences on pre-disaster health baselines, and to constrain the magnitude of a disaster's impacts. During and following disasters, there is a need for interdisciplinary rapid-response and longer-term assessments that: sample and characterize the physical, chemical, and microbial makeup of complex materials generated by the disasters; fingerprint material sources; monitor, map, and model dispersal and evolution of disaster materials in the environment; help understand how the materials are modified by environmental processes; and, identify key characteristics and processes that influence the exposures and toxicity of disaster materials to humans and the living environment. This information helps emergency responders, public health experts, and cleanup managers: 1) identify short- and long-term exposures to disaster materials that may affect health; 2) prioritize areas for cleanup; and 3) develop appropriate disposal solutions or restoration uses for disaster materials. By integrating lessons learned from past disasters with geospatial information on vulnerable sources of natural or anthropogenic contaminants, the environmental health implications of looming disasters or disaster scenarios can be better anticipated, which helps enhance preparedness and resilience. Understanding economic costs of

  14. Children's Coping in the Context of Disasters and Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Noffsinger, Mary A; Wind, Leslie H; Allen, James R

    2014-01-01

    Disasters and terrorism present significant and often overwhelming challenges for children and families worldwide. Individual, family, and social factors influence disaster reactions and the diverse ways in which children cope. This article links conceptualizations of stress and coping to empirical knowledge of children's disaster reactions, identifies limitations in our current understanding, and suggests areas for future study of disaster coping. Coping strategies, developmental trajectories influencing coping, and the interplay between parent and child coping represent critical areas for advancing the field and for informing programs and services that benefit children's preparedness and foster resilience in the face of mass trauma.

  15. Cardiovascular disease hospitalizations in relation to exposure to the September 11, 2001 World Trade Center disaster and posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Hannah T; Stellman, Steven D; Morabia, Alfredo; Miller-Archie, Sara A; Alper, Howard; Laskaris, Zoey; Brackbill, Robert M; Cone, James E

    2013-10-24

    A cohort study found that 9/11-related environmental exposures and posttraumatic stress disorder increased self-reported cardiovascular disease risk. We attempted to replicate these findings using objectively defined cardiovascular disease hospitalizations in the same cohort. Data for adult World Trade Center Health Registry enrollees residing in New York State on enrollment and no cardiovascular disease history (n = 46,346) were linked to a New York State hospital discharge-reporting system. Follow-up began at Registry enrollment (2003-2004) and ended at the first cerebrovascular or heart disease (HD) hospitalization, death, or December 31, 2010, whichever was earliest. We used proportional hazards models to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (AHRs) for HD (n = 1151) and cerebrovascular disease (n = 284) hospitalization during 302,742 person-years of observation (mean follow-up, 6.5 years per person), accounting for other factors including age, race/ethnicity, smoking, and diabetes. An elevated risk of HD hospitalization was observed among women (AHR 1.32, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.71) but not men (AHR 1.16, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.40) with posttraumatic stress disorder at enrollment. A high overall level of World Trade Center rescue and recovery-related exposure was associated with an elevated HD hospitalization risk in men (AHR 1.82, 95% CI 1.06 to 3.13; P for trend = 0.05), but findings in women were inconclusive (AHR 3.29, 95% CI 0.85 to 12.69; P for trend = 0.09). Similar associations were observed specifically with coronary artery disease hospitalization. Posttraumatic stress disorder increased the cerebrovascular disease hospitalization risk in men but not in women. 9/11-related exposures and posttraumatic stress disorder appeared to increase the risk of subsequent hospitalization for HD and cerebrovascular disease. This is consistent with findings based on self-reported outcomes.

  16. Inequities in resources and preparedness for surgical complications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health-worker training and health-system strengthening are considered important ... To determine preparedness for, and health-system constraints to, safe caesarean section in southern Gauteng hospitals. Methods. This was a ... delivery constraints included an unequal staff distribution between central hospitals and lower ...

  17. Modelling the elements of country vulnerability to earthquake disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asef, M R

    2008-09-01

    Earthquakes have probably been the most deadly form of natural disaster in the past century. Diversity of earthquake specifications in terms of magnitude, intensity and frequency at the semicontinental scale has initiated various kinds of disasters at a regional scale. Additionally, diverse characteristics of countries in terms of population size, disaster preparedness, economic strength and building construction development often causes an earthquake of a certain characteristic to have different impacts on the affected region. This research focuses on the appropriate criteria for identifying the severity of major earthquake disasters based on some key observed symptoms. Accordingly, the article presents a methodology for identification and relative quantification of severity of earthquake disasters. This has led to an earthquake disaster vulnerability model at the country scale. Data analysis based on this model suggested a quantitative, comparative and meaningful interpretation of the vulnerability of concerned countries, and successfully explained which countries are more vulnerable to major disasters.

  18. 1986 viewpoint of emergency preparedness in the upper midwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkyn, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    The recent Soviet emergency preparedness disaster has started a new round of interactions between utilities and civil governments regarding the adequacy of emergency preparedness around nuclear plants. The 1986 annual meeting of the cooperative produced several questions regarding the potentials of the plant and its impact on the public and the cooperative in the event of an off-normal situation. Emergency preparedness requires a real partnership between local civil authorities and the utility in a close spirit of cooperation with local law enforcement, which is frequently charged with the strongest burdens of emergency planning. It is more evident that the virtual veto power of local branches of government over emergency preparedness needs to be more fully recognized by utilities. Early notification and warning systems are coming under a tighter scrutiny as public perception of their fallibility increases. Another continuing problem with emergency preparedness has been the recognition that guarantees of reaching every individual, particularly in more hostile environments, can not be easily made. The lessons learned in nuclear planning indicate that this is an area too often not given a high enough threshold in the total spectrum of nuclear safety and which, from the utility standpoint, needs to be elevated to a higher threshold of importance

  19. Mass-Fatality Incident Preparedness Among Faith-Based Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Qi; Merrill, Jacqueline A; Gershon, Robyn R

    2017-12-01

    Introduction Members of faith-based organizations (FBOs) are in a unique position to provide support and services to their local communities during disasters. Because of their close community ties and well-established trust, they can play an especially critical role in helping communities heal in the aftermath of a mass-fatality incident (MFI). Faith-based organizations are considered an important disaster resource and partner under the National Response Plan (NRP) and National Response Framework; however, their level of preparedness and response capabilities with respect to MFIs has never been evaluated. The purpose of this study was threefold: (1) to develop appropriate measures of preparedness for this sector; (2) to assess MFI preparedness among United States FBOs; and (3) to identify key factors associated with MFI preparedness. Problem New metrics for MFI preparedness, comprised of three domains (organizational capabilities, operational capabilities, and resource sharing partnerships), were developed and tested in a national convenience sample of FBO members. Data were collected using an online anonymous survey that was distributed through two major, national faith-based associations and social media during a 6-week period in 2014. Descriptive, bivariate, and correlational analyses were conducted. One hundred twenty-four respondents completed the online survey. More than one-half of the FBOs had responded to MFIs in the previous five years. Only 20% of respondents thought that roughly three-quarters of FBO clergy would be able to respond to MFIs, with or without hazardous contamination. A higher proportion (45%) thought that most FBO clergy would be willing to respond, but only 37% thought they would be willing if hazardous contamination was involved. Almost all respondents reported that their FBO was capable of providing emotional care and grief counseling in response to MFIs. Resource sharing partnerships were typically in place with other voluntary

  20. "That was the Last Time I Saw my House": The Importance of Place Attachment among Children and Youth in Disaster Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scannell, Leila; Cox, Robin S; Fletcher, Sarah; Heykoop, Cheryl

    2016-09-01

    Place attachment is important for children and youth's disaster preparedness, experiences, recovery, and resilience, but most of the literature on place and disasters has focused on adults. Drawing on the community disaster risk reduction, recovery, and resilience literature as well as the literature on normative place attachment, children and youth's place-relevant disaster experiences are examined. Prior to a disaster, place attachments are postulated to enhance children and youth's disaster preparedness contributions and reinforce their pre-disaster resilience. During a disaster, damage of, and displacement from, places of importance can create significant emotional distress among children and youth. Following a disaster, pre-existing as well as new place ties can aid in their recovery and bolster their resilience moving forward. This framework enriches current theories of disaster recovery, resilience, and place attachment, and sets an agenda for future research. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  1. Minimum initial service package (MISP) for sexual and reproductive health in disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisam, Suchitra

    2014-12-01

    Management Plans of respective agencies. The way forward includes focusing on MISP distance learning module, integration of MISP in Health action plans, and integration into national disaster preparedness and contingency planning of respective agencies and departments and building capacity at various levels. © 2014 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Management of disasters and complex emergencies in Africa: The challenges and constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyu, Alhaji

    2015-01-01

    Natural and man-made catastrophes have caused significant destruction and loss of lives throughout human history. Disasters accompany a wide variety of events with multiple causes and consequences often leading to a cascade of related events. African continent has not been spared of these events. A new phenomenon in the continent is terrorism that is fuelled by globalization of arms trade and has contributed significantly to escalation of conflicts in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) resulting in complex emergencies and destruction of socioeconomic structures. The aim of this paper is to review relevant papers on management of disasters and complex emergencies in Africa and the challenges and constraints against the background of a weakened health system. Systematic search of published literature was conducted between 1990 and 2013. Grey literature (technical reports, government documents), published peer review journals, abstracts, relevant books and internet articles were reviewed. The review revealed that the frequency of both natural and man-made disasters in Africa is escalating. Complex emergencies are also on the increase since the Rwandan crisis in 1994. The impact of these events has overstretched and overwhelmed the health care system that is least prepared to handle and cope with the surge capacity and also render normal services. In conclusion, there is an urgent need for national emergency agencies/departments across Africa to develop a robust emergency preparedness and response plan. Every hospital most have a disaster management committee with flexible disaster management plan to respond to these catastrophes. There is a need for curriculum review in tertiary institutions across SSA to introduce and or expand training in disaster management.

  3. Arctic Risk Management (ARMNet) Network: Linking Risk Management Practitioners and Researchers Across the Arctic Regions of Canada and Alaska To Improve Risk, Emergency and Disaster Preparedness and Mitigation Through Comparative Analysis and Applied Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic Risk Management Network (ARMNet) was conceived as a trans-disciplinary hub to encourage and facilitate greater cooperation, communication and exchange among American and Canadian academics and practitioners actively engaged in the research, management and mitigation of risks, emergencies and disasters in the Arctic regions. Its aim is to assist regional decision-makers through the sharing of applied research and best practices and to support greater inter-operability and bilateral collaboration through improved networking, joint exercises, workshops, teleconferences, radio programs, and virtual communications (eg. webinars). Most importantly, ARMNet is a clearinghouse for all information related to the management of the frequent hazards of Arctic climate and geography in North America, including new and emerging challenges arising from climate change, increased maritime polar traffic and expanding economic development in the region. ARMNet is an outcome of the Arctic Observing Network (AON) for Long Term Observations, Governance, and Management Discussions, www.arcus.org/search-program. The AON goals continue with CRIOS (www.ariesnonprofit.com/ARIESprojects.php) and coastal erosion research (www.ariesnonprofit.com/webinarCoastalErosion.php) led by the North Slope Borough Risk Management Office with assistance from ARIES (Applied Research in Environmental Sciences Nonprofit, Inc.). The constituency for ARMNet will include all northern academics and researchers, Arctic-based corporations, First Responders (FRs), Emergency Management Offices (EMOs) and Risk Management Offices (RMOs), military, Coast Guard, northern police forces, Search and Rescue (SAR) associations, boroughs, territories and communities throughout the Arctic. This presentation will be of interest to all those engaged in Arctic affairs, describe the genesis of ARMNet and present the results of stakeholder meetings and webinars designed to guide the next stages of the Project.

  4. Disaster management in flash floods in Leh (Ladakh: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: On August 6, 2010, in the dark of the midnight, there were flash floods due to cloud burst in Leh in Ladakh region of North India. It rained 14 inches in 2 hours, causing loss of human life and destruction. The civil hospital of Leh was badly damaged and rendered dysfunctional. Search and rescue operations were launched by the Indian Army immediately after the disaster. The injured and the dead were shifted to Army Hospital, Leh, and mass casualty management was started by the army doctors while relief work was mounted by the army and civil administration. Objective: The present study was done to document disaster management strategies and approaches and to assesses the impact of flash floods on human lives, health hazards, and future implications of a natural disaster. Materials and Methods: The approach used was both quantitative as well as qualitative. It included data collection from the primary sources of the district collectorate, interviews with the district civil administration, health officials, and army officials who organized rescue operations, restoration of communication and transport, mass casualty management, and informal discussions with local residents. Results: 234 persons died and over 800 were reported missing. Almost half of the people who died were local residents (49.6% and foreigners (10.2%. Age-wise analysis of the deaths shows that the majority of deaths were reported in the age group of 25-50 years, accounting for 44.4% of deaths, followed by the 11-25-year age group with 22.2% deaths. The gender analysis showed that 61.5% were males and 38.5% were females. A further analysis showed that more females died in the age groups <10 years and ≥50 years. Conclusions: Disaster preparedness is critical, particularly in natural disasters. The Army′s immediate search, rescue, and relief operations and mass casualty management effectively and efficiently mitigated the impact of flash floods, and restored normal

  5. Disaster waste management: a review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Charlotte; Milke, Mark; Seville, Erica

    2011-06-01

    Depending on their nature and severity, disasters can create large volumes of debris and waste. The waste can overwhelm existing solid waste management facilities and impact on other emergency response and recovery activities. If poorly managed, the waste can have significant environmental and public health impacts and can affect the overall recovery process. This paper presents a system overview of disaster waste management based on existing literature. The main literature available to date comprises disaster waste management plans or guidelines and isolated case studies. There is ample discussion on technical management options such as temporary storage sites, recycling, disposal, etc.; however, there is little or no guidance on how these various management options are selected post-disaster. The literature does not specifically address the impact or appropriateness of existing legislation, organisational structures and funding mechanisms on disaster waste management programmes, nor does it satisfactorily cover the social impact of disaster waste management programmes. It is envisaged that the discussion presented in this paper, and the literature gaps identified, will form a basis for future comprehensive and cohesive research on disaster waste management. In turn, research will lead to better preparedness and response to disaster waste management problems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Plastic Surgery Response in Natural Disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Susan; Zimmerman, Amanda; Gaviria, Andres; Dayicioglu, Deniz

    2015-06-01

    Disasters cause untold damage and are often unpredictable; however, with proper preparation, these events can be better managed. The initial response has the greatest impact on the overall success of the relief effort. A well-trained multidisciplinary network of providers is necessary to ensure coordinated care for the victims of these mass casualty disasters. As members of this network of providers, plastic surgeons have the ability to efficiently address injuries sustained in mass casualty disasters and are a valuable member of the relief effort. The skill set of plastic surgeons includes techniques that can address injuries sustained in large-scale emergencies, such as the management of soft-tissue injury, tissue viability, facial fractures, and extremity salvage. An approach to disaster relief, the types of disasters encountered, the management of injuries related to mass casualty disasters, the role of plastic surgeons in the relief effort, and resource management are discussed. In order to improve preparedness in future mass casualty disasters, plastic surgeons should receive training during residency regarding the utilization of plastic surgery knowledge in the disaster setting.

  7. Disaster waste management: A review article

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Charlotte; Milke, Mark; Seville, Erica

    2011-01-01

    Depending on their nature and severity, disasters can create large volumes of debris and waste. The waste can overwhelm existing solid waste management facilities and impact on other emergency response and recovery activities. If poorly managed, the waste can have significant environmental and public health impacts and can affect the overall recovery process. This paper presents a system overview of disaster waste management based on existing literature. The main literature available to date comprises disaster waste management plans or guidelines and isolated case studies. There is ample discussion on technical management options such as temporary storage sites, recycling, disposal, etc.; however, there is little or no guidance on how these various management options are selected post-disaster. The literature does not specifically address the impact or appropriateness of existing legislation, organisational structures and funding mechanisms on disaster waste management programmes, nor does it satisfactorily cover the social impact of disaster waste management programmes. It is envisaged that the discussion presented in this paper, and the literature gaps identified, will form a basis for future comprehensive and cohesive research on disaster waste management. In turn, research will lead to better preparedness and response to disaster waste management problems.

  8. 2nd International Conference on Dynamics of Disasters

    CERN Document Server

    Nagurney, Anna; Pardalos, Panos

    2016-01-01

    This volume results from the “Second International Conference on Dynamics of Disasters” held in Kalamata, Greece, June 29-July 2, 2015. The conference covered particular topics involved in natural and man-made disasters such as war, chemical spills, and wildfires. Papers in this volume examine the finer points of disasters through: · Critical infrastructure protection · Resiliency · Humanitarian logistic · Relief supply chains · Cooperative game theory · Dynamical systems · Decision making under risk and uncertainty · Spread of diseases · Contagion · Funding for disaster relief · Tools for emergency preparedness · Response, and risk mitigation Multi-disciplinary theories, tools, techniques and methodologies are linked with disasters from mitigation and preparedness to response and recovery. The interdisciplinary approach to problems in economics, optimization, government, management, business, humanities, engineering, medicine, mathematics, computer science, behavioral studies, emergency servi...

  9. Knowledge, awareness, and preparedness unlinked in layperson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, S.; Nakayachi, K.

    2012-12-01

    take action for disaster prevention. Examinees are 200 high school and undergraduate students who do not major in Earth science. We first gave them information of basic knowledge such as tectonic backgrounds of Japan and the latest research outcomes such as long-term evaluation of large earthquake occurrence or the strong ground motion, and then asked what they felt. The results show that neither the basic knowledge nor the latest research outcomes motivate examinees to take action for the disaster prevention or even to give awareness. We then showed them the movies of the past earthquake disasters and some episodes who had lost their loved ones from the recent earthquakes, and asked the same question. As psychology implies, this information made examinees feel dread and they became aware of the risks lie ahead. But still, they did not mention what to do to prevent the tragedy. In the presentation, we would like to show the difficulty to make people take action to protect their lives from earthquake disasters. We also show peoples' preparedness/unpreparedness with the information released by a Japanese research group in the late January saying the possibility of metropolitan Tokyo earthquake being 70% in this coming 4-year.

  10. Radiological emergency: Malaysian preparedness and response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusof, M. A. W.; Ali, H. M.

    2011-01-01

    Planning and preparation in advance for radiological emergencies can help to minimise potential public health and environmental threats if and when an actual emergency occurs. During the planning process, emergency response organisations think through how they would respond to each type of incident and the resources that will be needed. In Malaysia, planning, preparation for and response to radiological emergencies involve many parties. In the event of a radiological emergency and if it is considered a disaster, the National Security Council, the Atomic Energy Licensing Board and the Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) will work together with other federal agencies, state and local governments, first responders and international organisations to monitor the situation, contain the release, and clean up the contaminated site. Throughout the response, these agencies use their protective action guidelines. This paper discusses Malaysian preparedness for, and response to, any potential radiological emergency. (authors)

  11. Emergency preparedness in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martincic, R.; Korun, M.; Pucelj, B.; Usenicnik, B.

    1996-01-01

    Slovenia has a two-loop PWR, 632 MW electric power at Krsko and a research reactor (TRIGA, 250 kW) near Ljubljana. Construction at the Krsko site began in early 1975 and the plant was synchronized to the national grid in October 1981. In Slovenia we had also an uranium mine at Zirovski which is at present in the decommissioning stage. There are more than 400 radiation sources with activities between 100 MBq and 10 GBq and a few between 1 and 10 TBq in use in Slovenia. Changes that occurred in Slovenia as a result of independence required a new assessment of the situation in the field of disaster protection, as well as the coordination of policies and goals. Slovenia is at present in the process of reconstructing its system of protection against natural and other disasters. In this general context nuclear or radiological accidents fall under industrial accidents which in turn are treated as 'other disasters'

  12. Communicating with children and adolescents about the risk of natural disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midtbust, Liv Gunvor Hove; Dyregrov, Atle; Djup, Heidi Wittrup

    2018-01-01

    A vast number of people annually are affected by natural disasters. Children are at risk of losing their lives and suffer mentally or physically after such events. The fostering of resilience and preparedness ahead of disasters can reduce untoward effects of disastrous events. Risk communication and disaster education are considered important aspects of disaster preparedness, but little is known about whether such strategies influence children's behaviour when natural disasters occur or how they cope in the aftermath. This paper presents and discusses various strategies that promote preparedness activities to save lives. To a minor extent, it also includes strategies that can promote coping in the aftermath. Strategies such as informational campaigns, educational activities, psychoeducation and parental guidance are addressed. The literature to date indicates that schools are a suitable arena for risk communication, and that adolescents themselves should be involved and engaged in the communication strategies. However, the relationship between knowledge of preparedness strategies and the resulting preparedness actions is largely unknown. It is unknown whether changes in awareness and attitudes have resulted in actual behaviour change. It is advocated that preparedness activities and parental involvement should supplement information-based strategies.

  13. Adoption of flood preparedness actions : A household level study in rural communities in Tabasco, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atreya, Ajita; Czajkowski, Jeffrey; Botzen, Wouter; Bustamante, Gabriela; Campbell, Karen; Collier, Ben; Ianni, Francisco; Kunreuther, Howard; Michel-Kerjan, Erwann; Montgomery, Marilyn

    2017-01-01

    Of all the natural disasters, floods are the most common. While they affect most countries around the world, poor communities are particularly vulnerable to flood risk. The use of early preparedness measures is key for minimizing related flood impacts; however, little is known about what drives

  14. Disaster imminent--Hurricane Hugo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guynn, J B

    1990-04-01

    Response to a disaster situation depends upon the type of circumstances presented. In situations where the disaster is the type that affects the hospital as well as a wide surrounding area directly, the hospital and pharmacy itself may be called upon to continue functioning for some period of time without outside assistance. The ability to function for prolonged periods of time requires the staff to focus on the job at hand and the administrative staff to provide security, compassion, and flexibility. Plans for a disaster of the nature of a hurricane require that attention be paid to staffing, medication inventories, supplies, and services being rendered. Recognition of the singular position occupied by a hospital in the community and the expectations of the local population require that hospitals and the pharmacy department have the ability to respond appropriately.

  15. Engagement and education: care of the critically ill and injured during pandemics and disasters: CHEST consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devereaux, Asha V; Tosh, Pritish K; Hick, John L; Hanfling, Dan; Geiling, James; Reed, Mary Jane; Uyeki, Timothy M; Shah, Umair A; Fagbuyi, Daniel B; Skippen, Peter; Dichter, Jeffrey R; Kissoon, Niranjan; Christian, Michael D; Upperman, Jeffrey S

    2014-10-01

    Engagement and education of ICU clinicians in disaster preparedness is fragmented by time constraints and institutional barriers and frequently occurs during a disaster. We reviewed the existing literature from 2007 to April 2013 and expert opinions about clinician engagement and education for critical care during a pandemic or disaster and offer suggestions for integrating ICU clinicians into planning and response. The suggestions in this article are important for all of those involved in a pandemic or large-scale disaster with multiple critically ill or injured patients, including front-line clinicians, hospital administrators, and public health or government officials. A systematic literature review was performed and suggestions formulated according to the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) Consensus Statement development methodology. We assessed articles, documents, reports, and gray literature reported since 2007. Following expert-informed sorting and review of the literature, key priority areas and questions were developed. No studies of sufficient quality were identified upon which to make evidence-based recommendations. Therefore, the panel developed expert opinion-based suggestions using a modified Delphi process. Twenty-three suggestions were formulated based on literature-informed consensus opinion. These suggestions are grouped according to the following thematic elements: (1) situational awareness, (2) clinician roles and responsibilities, (3) education, and (4) community engagement. Together, these four elements are considered to form the basis for effective ICU clinician engagement for mass critical care. The optimal engagement of the ICU clinical team in caring for large numbers of critically ill patients due to a pandemic or disaster will require a departure from the routine independent systems operating in hospitals. An effective response will require robust information systems; coordination among clinicians, hospitals, and governmental

  16. Disaster preparation in kidney transplant recipients: a questionnaire-based cohort study from a large United States transplant center
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharief, Shimi; Freitas, Daniel; Adey, Deborah; Wiley, James

    2018-04-01

    Few quantitative assessments have assessed disaster preparation in kidney transplant patients. This is a survey-based assessment of disaster preparedness of 200 patients at the University of California San Francisco, USA. Patients answered questionnaires assessing their level of preparedness as well as barriers to preparation. Preparedness was scored based on response to 7 questions. Univariate analyses compared participant characteristics extracted from the medical chart against three tertiles of preparedness: low (scores 0 - 2), medium (scores 3 - 4), and high (scores 5 - 7). California counties were coded and mapped by average preparedness scores. Only 30% of patients were highly prepared for disasters. Participants were prepared with available medication for 2 weeks (78.5%) and least prepared in having a medical ID bracelet (13%). Significant minorities of patients (40% of patients or more) were unprepared with lists of medications, important phone numbers and disaster kits. Preparedness was not associated with demographic and clinical characteristics. Monterey County was the most prepared of the 31 California counties sampled (score of 4.25 out of 7). All patients should be educated regarding disaster preparation. County and medical services should collaborate to address specialized populations in general preparedness planning.
.

  17. A home health agency's pandemic preparedness and experience with the 2009 H1N1 pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebmann, Terri; Citarella, Barbara; Subramaniam, Divya S; Subramaniam, Dipti P

    2011-11-01

    Adequate pandemic preparedness is imperative for home health agencies. A 23-item pandemic preparedness survey was administered to home health agencies in the spring of 2010. The Kruskal-Wallis (KW) test was used to evaluate the relationships between agency size and preparedness indicators. Significant findings were further analyzed by the Mann-Whitney (MW) U post hoc test. The response rate was 25% (526/2,119). Approximately one-third of respondents (30.4%; n = 131) reported experiencing trouble obtaining supplies during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Small agencies were significantly more likely (Krusal-Wallis [KW] = 9.2; P agency pandemic preparedness, including surge capacity and participation in disaster drills, that need to be addressed. Copyright © 2011 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. FEMA Disaster Declarations Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The FEMA Disaster Declarations Summary is a summarized dataset describing all federally declared disasters, starting with the first disaster declaration in 1953,...

  19. 2011 great earthquake disaster data on internal exposure which are required by inhabitants. From 5300 samples at Minamisoma City Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kami, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    Minamisoma City Hospital introduced the whole body counter FASTSCAN made by CANBERRA in France. Domestic equipment does not work properly because the shielding is weak for rather high radiation level at the site. Using FASTSCAN we have measured 579 persons who are younger than junior high school students and 4745 persons who are older than high school students. The ratio of the number of persons who had activities higher than 20 Bg/kg was 0.7% for the younger group and 3.6% for the older group. These results should not be neglected from the viewpoint of public health. Food inspection and check by whole body counter should be continued. (J.P.N.)

  20. Innovations for Tomorrow: Summary of the 2016 Disaster Health Education Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulley, Kelly; Strauss-Riggs, Kandra; Kirsch, Thomas D; Goolsby, Craig

    2017-04-01

    In an effort to enhance education, training, and learning in the disaster health community, the National Center for Disaster Medicine and Public Health (NCDMPH) gathered experts from around the nation in Bethesda, Maryland, on September 8, 2016, for the 2016 Disaster Health Education Symposium: Innovations for Tomorrow. This article summarizes key themes presented during the disaster health symposium including innovations in the following areas: training and education that saves lives, practice, teaching, sharing knowledge, and our communities. This summary article provides thematic content for those unable to attend. Please visit http://ncdmph.usuhs.edu/ for more information. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:160-162).

  1. Impact of 2015 earthquakes on a local hospital in Nepal: A prospective hospital-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Samita; Risnes, Kari; Uleberg, Oddvar; Rogne, Tormod; Shrestha, Sanu Krishna; Nygaard, Øystein Petter; Koju, Rajendra; Solligård, Erik

    2018-01-01

    Natural disasters pose a great challenge to the health systems and individual health facilities. In low-resource settings, disaster preparedness systems are often limited and not been well described. Two devastating earthquakes hit Nepal within a 17-days period in 2015. This study aims to describe the burden and distribution of emergency cases to a local hospital. This is a prospective observational study of patients presenting to a local hospital for a period of 21 days following the earthquake on April 25, 2015. Demographic and clinical information was prospectively registered for all patients in the systematic emergency registry. Systematic telephone interviews were conducted in a random sample of the patients 90 days after admission to the hospital. A total of 2,003 emergency patients were registered during the period. The average daily number of emergency patients during the first five days was almost five times higher (n = 150) than the pre-incident daily average (n = 35). The majority of injuries were fractures (58%), 348 (56%) in the lower extremities. A total of 345 surgical procedures were performed and the hospital treated 111 patients with severe injuries related to the earthquake (compartment syndrome, crush injury, and internal injury). Among those with follow-up interviews, over 90% reported that they had been severely affected by the earthquakes; complete house damage, living in temporary shelter, or loss of close family member. The hospital experienced a very high caseload during the first days, and the majority of patients needed orthopaedic services. The proportion of severely injured and in-hospital deaths were relatively low, probably indicating that the most severely injured did not reach the hospital in time. The experiences underline the need for robust and easily available local health services that can respond to disasters.

  2. The capacity building of disaster management in Bojonegoro regency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbandono, P.; Prastyawan, A.; Gamaputra, G.

    2018-01-01

    East Java is a disaster-prone area. Head of the National Disaster Management Agency, Syamsul Maarif (2012) states that “East Java is a disaster supermarket area. Referring to Act Number 24 Year 2007 Concerning Disaster Management, disaster prevention activities are a series of activities undertaken as an effort to eliminate and/or reduce the threat of disaster (Article 1, paragraph 6).The disaster mitigation is a series of efforts to reduce disaster risk, through physical development and awareness and capacity building in the face of disaster (Article 1, paragraph 9). In 2009, the Provincial Government of East Java has been established Regional Disaster Management Agency and complete it through Local Regulation of East Java Province Number 3 Year 2010. This research was conducted in Bojonegoro. This study described the capacity building disaster handling and used descriptive research with qualitative approach. It focused on the capacity building for community preparedness in the face of. This study showed the vulnerability of regions and populations to threats flood and drought in could be physical, social and/or economical. The aims of the capacity building for the individuals and organizations are to be used effectively and efficiently in order to achieve the goals of the individuals and organizations.

  3. Chapter 2. Surge capacity and infrastructure considerations for mass critical care. Recommendations and standard operating procedures for intensive care unit and hospital preparations for an influenza epidemic or mass disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hick, John L; Christian, Michael D; Sprung, Charles L

    2010-04-01

    To provide recommendations and standard operating procedures for intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital preparations for a mass disaster or influenza epidemic with a specific focus on surge capacity and infrastructure considerations. Based on a literature review and expert opinion, a Delphi process was used to define the essential topics including surge capacity and infrastructure considerations. Key recommendations include: (1) hospitals should increase their ICU beds to the maximal extent by expanding ICU capacity and expanding ICUs into other areas; (2) hospitals should have appropriate beds and monitors for these expansion areas; hospitals should develop contingency plans at the facility and government (local, state, provincial, national) levels to provide additional ventilators; (3) hospitals should develop a phased staffing plan (nursing and physician) for ICUs that provides sufficient patient care supervision during contingency and crisis situations; (4) hospitals should provide expert input to the emergency management personnel at the hospital both during planning for surge capacity as well as during response; (5) hospitals should assure that adequate infrastructure support is present to support critical care activities; (6) hospitals should prioritize locations for expansion by expanding existing ICUs, using postanesthesia care units and emergency departments to capacity, then step-down units, large procedure suites, telemetry units and finally hospital wards. Judicious planning and adoption of protocols for surge capacity and infrastructure considerations are necessary to optimize outcomes during a pandemic.

  4. Community's Emergency Preparedness for Flood Hazards in Dire-dawa Town, Ethiopia: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejeta, Luche Tadesse

    2018-02-21

    Emergency preparedness at all levels (individuals and communities) is the corner stone of effective response to the increasing trends of global disasters due to man-made and natural hazards. It is determined by different factors, including (among others) past direct and indirect exposures to hazards. This study was carried out in Dire Dawa town, Ethiopia, which in the past experienced frequent flooding events, yet dearth of information exists about preparedness in the area.  The aim of the study was to assess the levels of emergency preparedness for flood hazards at households and communities levels. The study was conducted in a qualitative approach and was conducted in Dire Dawa town, which has been divided into nine administrative-units called Kebeles. Two focus group discussions were held in two of these units (Kebele-05 and 06), each focus group comprising twelve people (all above 18 years of age), and in total 24 people (13 females and 11 males) took part in the study. Open ended questions were used that could guide the discussions, and the discussions were audio-taped and transcribed. The results were translated from local language to English and qualitatively presented. The findings of focus group discussions showed that the local government in collaboration with the federal government built the flood protection dams in areas where flood hazards have been thought to be repeatedly wreaking havoc, specifically after the flood disaster of the year 2006. In addition, in Kebele-05, where one Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) was operating on flood hazards prevention and mitigation program, some non-structural emergency preparedness measures were undertaken by the communities. These non-structural measures (the major ones) entailed: establishment of committees recruited from residents and training them to raise awareness among communities on emergency preparedness; some residents made changes to their own houses (retrofitted) and put sandbags around their

  5. Satellite Application for Disaster Management Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpanachi, George

    Abstract Satellites are becoming increasingly vital to modern day disaster management activities. Earth observation (EO) satellites provide images at various wavelengths that assist rapid-mapping in all phases of the disaster management cycle: mitigation of potential risks in a given area, preparedness for eventual disasters, immediate response to a disaster event, and the recovery/reconstruction efforts follo wing it. Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) assist all the phases by providing precise location and navigation data, helping manage land and infrastructures, and aiding rescue crews coordinate their search efforts. Effective disaster management is a complex problem, because it involves many parameters, which are usually not easy to measure and even identify: Analysis of current situation, planning, optimum resource management, coordination, controlling and monitoring current activities and making quick and correct decisions are only some of these parameters, whose complete list is very long. Disaster management information systems (DMIS) assist disaster management to analyse the situation better, make decisions and suggest further actions following the emergency plans. This requires not only fast and thorough processing and optimization abilities, but also real-time data provided to the DMIS. The need of DMIS for disaster’s real-time data can be satisfied by small satellites data utilization. Small satellites can provide up-to-data, plus a better media to transfer data. This paper suggests a rationale and a framework for utilization of small Satellite data by DMIS. DMIS should be used ‘’before’’, ‘’during’’ and ‘’after’’ the disasters. Data provided by the Small Satellites are almost crucial in any period of the disasters, because early warning can save lives, and satellite data may help to identify disasters before they occur. The paper also presents’ ‘when’’,

  6. A Bibliometric Profile of Disaster Medicine Research from 2008 to 2017: A Scientometric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liang; Zhang, Ping; Zhang, Zhigang; Fan, Lidong; Tang, Shuo; Hu, Kunpeng; Xiao, Nan; Li, Shuguang

    2018-05-02

    ABSTRACTThis study analyzed and assessed publication trends in articles on "disaster medicine," using scientometric analysis. Data were obtained from the Web of Science Core Collection (WoSCC) of Thomson Reuters on March 27, 2017. A total of 564 publications on disaster medicine were identified. There was a mild increase in the number of articles on disaster medicine from 2008 (n=55) to 2016 (n=83). Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness published the most articles, the majority of articles were published in the United States, and the leading institute was Tohoku University. F. Della Corte, M. D. Christian, and P. L. Ingrassia were the top authors on the topic, and the field of public health generated the most publications. Terms analysis indicated that emergency medicine, public health, disaster preparedness, natural disasters, medicine, and management were the research hotspots, whereas Hurricane Katrina, mechanical ventilation, occupational medicine, intensive care, and European journals represented the frontiers of disaster medicine research. Overall, our analysis revealed that disaster medicine studies are closely related to other medical fields and provides researchers and policy-makers in this area with new insight into the hotspots and dynamic directions. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;page 1 of 8).

  7. Profile of elementary school science teacher instruction in disaster risk reduction: case study of volcano disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujianto; Prabowo; Wasis

    2018-04-01

    This study examined the profile of science' teacher instruction in Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR), as a feature of instructional quality, on students’ learning experiences. A qualitative study was done to observe teacher activities in teaching of disaster preparedness. Science teacher and 14 students at grade 4 of SDN (elementary school) Kiyaran 2 are involved as the subject of this study. Teacher’ instruction was coded with regard to preparation, action, and evaluation using observation sheets and documentation. Data analysis results showed a positive significant effect of the readiness during preparation on learning process of disaster risk reduction and an indirect effect of teacher’ action on students’ learning experiences. There is a lack of teaching materials about volcano disaster in the elementary school. Teacher found difficulties on evaluation of student achievement in disaster preparedness. These findings highlight the importance of DRR in uphold science teachers’ education. Items of teachers’ skill in preparing of DRR may be used to offer model of concrete instruction situation during university workshop for maintain teacher education.

  8. Mass-casualty events at schools: a national preparedness survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, James; Shirm, Steve; Liggin, Rebecca; Aitken, Mary E; Dick, Rhonda

    2006-01-01

    Recent school shootings and terrorist events have demonstrated the need for well-coordinated planning for school-based mass-casualty events. The objective of this study was to document the preparedness of public schools in the United States for the prevention of and the response to a mass-casualty event. A survey was mailed to 3670 school superintendents of public school districts that were chosen at random from a list of school districts from the National Center for Education Statistics of the US Department of Education in January 2004. A second mailing was sent to nonresponders in May 2004. Descriptive statistics were used for survey variables, and the chi2 test was used to compare urban versus rural preparedness. The response rate was 58.2% (2137 usable surveys returned). Most (86.3%) school superintendents reported having a response plan, but fewer (57.2%) have a plan for prevention. Most (95.6%) have an evacuation plan, but almost one third (30%) had never conducted a drill. Almost one quarter (22.1%) have no disaster plan provisions for children with special health care needs, and one quarter reported having no plans for postdisaster counseling. Almost half (42.8%) had never met with local ambulance officials to discuss emergency planning. Urban school districts were better prepared than rural districts on almost all measures in the survey. There are important deficiencies in school emergency/disaster planning. Rural districts are less well prepared than urban districts. Disaster/mass-casualty preparedness of schools should be improved through coordination of school officials and local medical and emergency officials.

  9. Media framing of natural disasters in Kwazulu-Natal province: Impact of contigency plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethuel Sibongiseni Ngcamu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study explores how the media frame disaster contingency plans which include preparedness, mitigation, response and recovery of the KwaZulu-Natal province before, during and in the aftermath of natural disasters. The province has been stricken by natural disasters. Although newspapers report the disasters they fail to give details of disaster contingency plans that should be available to those who are susceptible to, and the victims of disasters. Based on a content analysis of 114 online newspaper articles between 2000 and 2013 to examine how the media framed the KZN government’s disaster contingency plans. This study concludes that the highest occurrence of disasters (71% was from 2011 onwards as compared to previous years, and most of these were associated with areas that are susceptible to floods (34%. The findings of the study highlight that the media placed an emphasis on disaster response (41% over preparedness (24% and mitigation (7%. The outcomes suggest that newspaper organisations need to appoint a designated reporter responsible for disaster management issues. This is relevant because this study conveys findings that have the potential to persuade government and newspaper organisations to collaborate and to ensure that their officials are multi-skilled and able to cover all phases of disaster management in their articles, in order for these to be understood at all levels of society. This study further adds to the growing body of knowledge regarding quality journalism that meets its objectives.

  10. Lessons learned from the Fukushima accident to improve the performance of the national nuclear preparedness system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewi Apriliani

    2013-01-01

    A study of emergency response failure in the early phase of a nuclear accident in Fukushima, Japan has conducted. This study aimed to obtain lesson learned from the problems and constraints that exist at the time of the Fukushima emergency response. This lesson learned will be adjusted to the situation, conditions and problems in nuclear preparedness systems in Indonesia, so that it can obtain the necessary recommendations to improve the performance of SKNN (National Nuclear Emergency Preparedness System). Recommendations include: improvements in coordination and information systems, including early warning systems and dissemination of information; improvements in the preparation of emergency plans/contingency plan, which includes an integrated disaster management; improvement in the development of disaster management practice/field exercise, by extending the scenario and integrate it with nuclear disaster, chemical, biological, and acts of terrorism; and improvement in public education of nuclear emergency preparedness and also improvement in management for dissemination of information to the public and the mass media. These improvements need to be done as part of efforts in preparing a reliable nuclear emergency preparedness in order to support nuclear power plant development plan. (author)

  11. Disaster Vulnerability in South Korea under a Gender Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Gunhui

    2017-04-01

    The most affected natural disaster has been flooding in South Korea, however, many unexpected natural disasters cause by snow or drought have become severe due to the climate change. Therefore it is very important to analyze disaster vulnerability under the unexpected climate condition. When the natural disaster happens, in many cases, female was more damaged than male because of the cultural and physical limitations. Disaster is never gender neutral. For example, four times as many female as male died in Indonesia tsunami. Therefore, it is very important to consider gender sensitivity in the disaster vulnerability to mitigate effects on the female. In this study, the current disaster management guideline in South Korea is investigated in the gender perspective and compared to the other countries. As a result, gender analysis in the disaster preparedness and response is not implemented in South Korea. Thus, the gender balanced disaster management guideline is newly proposed. Also, the disaster vulnerability considering gendered factors are evaluated and analyzed in the urban area. Acknowledgement This research was supported by Support Program for Women in Science, Engineering and Technology through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and future Planning(No. 2016H1C3A1903202)

  12. Risk, Politics, and Money: The Need for a Value-Based Model for Financing Public Health Preparedness and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    evaluating the costs associated with natural and man-made disasters and events. In this era of fiscal conservatism , one of the biggest challenges in...associated with natural and man-made disasters and events. In this era of fiscal conservatism , one of the biggest challenges in designing and funding...In this era of fiscal conservatism , one of the biggest challenges in designing and funding public health preparedness is deciding exactly how much

  13. Setting Foundations for Developing Disaster Response Metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abir, Mahshid; Bell, Sue Anne; Puppala, Neha; Awad, Osama; Moore, Melinda

    2017-08-01

    There are few reported efforts to define universal disaster response performance measures. Careful examination of responses to past disasters can inform the development of such measures. As a first step toward this goal, we conducted a literature review to identify key factors in responses to 3 recent events with significant loss of human life and economic impact: the 2003 Bam, Iran, earthquake; the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami; and the 2010 Haiti earthquake. Using the PubMed (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD) database, we identified 710 articles and retained 124 after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. Seventy-two articles pertained to the Haiti earthquake, 38 to the Indian Ocean tsunami, and 14 to the Bam earthquake. On the basis of this review, we developed an organizational framework for disaster response performance measurement with 5 key disaster response categories: (1) personnel, (2) supplies and equipment, (3) transportation, (4) timeliness and efficiency, and (5) interagency cooperation. Under each of these, and again informed by the literature, we identified subcategories and specific items that could be developed into standardized performance measures. The validity and comprehensiveness of these measures can be tested by applying them to other recent and future disaster responses, after which standardized performance measures can be developed through a consensus process. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:505-509).

  14. Natural disaster management in India with focus on floods and cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thattai, Deeptha V.; Sathyanathan, R.; Dinesh, R.; Harshit Kumar, L.

    2017-07-01

    Disasters are of two major kinds, natural and manmade, and affect the community. Natural disasters are caused by natural earth processes like floods, droughts, cyclones, tsunamis, earthquakes and epidemics. Manmade disasters occur due to chemical spills, accidents, terrorism activities etc. India is prone to almost all the major natural disasters. The high population density combined with poor preparedness, planning and management, and rescue and relief measures inevitably lead to huge losses of lives and property every year in the country. This paper analyses the disaster management policy of India and its implementation using two recent case studies - one where a relative degree of success has been achieved (cyclones) and the other where we are still struggling to have even a basic preparedness system in place (floods).

  15. Rural transportation emergency preparedness plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Improving the emergency preparedness of rural transportation systems is the overall goal of this research. Unique characteristics exist in rural transportation systems including widely dispersed and diverse populations and geographic areas. Exploring...

  16. 42 CFR 485.727 - Condition of participation: Disaster preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... systems and signals; (3) Methods of containing fire; (4) Notification of appropriate persons; and (5) Evacuation routes and procedures. (b) Standard: Staff training and drills. All employees are trained, as part... program includes orientation and ongoing training and drills for all personnel in all procedures so that...

  17. Science-Driven Approach to Disaster Risk and Crisis Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail-Zadeh, A.

    2014-12-01

    Disasters due to natural extreme events continue to grow in number and intensity. Disaster risk and crisis management requires long-term planning, and to undertake that planning, a science-driven approach is needed to understand and assess disaster risks and to help in impact assessment and in recovery processes after a disaster. Science is used in assessments and rapid modeling of the disaster impact, in forecasting triggered hazards and risk (e.g., a tsunami or a landslide after a large earthquake), in contacts with and medical treatment of the affected population, and in some other actions. At the stage of response to disaster, science helps to analyze routinely the disaster happened (e.g., the physical processes led to this extreme event; hidden vulnerabilities; etc.) At the stage of recovery, natural scientists improve the existing regional hazard assessments; engineers try to use new science to produce new materials and technologies to make safer houses and infrastructure. At the stage of disaster risk mitigation new scientific methods and approaches are being developed to study natural extreme events; vulnerability of society is periodically investigated, and the measures for increasing the resilience of society to extremes are developed; existing disaster management regulations are improved. At the stage of preparedness, integrated research on disaster risks should be developed to understand the roots of potential disasters. Enhanced forecasting and early warning systems are to be developed reducing predictive uncertainties, and comprehensive disaster risk assessment is to be undertaken at local, regional, national and global levels. Science education should be improved by introducing trans-disciplinary approach to disaster risks. Science can help society by improving awareness about extreme events, enhancing risk communication with policy makers, media and society, and assisting disaster risk management authorities in organization of local and regional

  18. The Epidemiology of Operation Stress during Continuing Promise 2011: A Humanitarian Response and Disaster Relief Mission aboard a US Navy Hospital Ship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scouten, William T; Mehalick, Melissa L; Yoder, Elizabeth; McCoy, Andrea; Brannock, Tracy; Riddle, Mark S

    2017-08-01

    /MH complaints increased as the mission progressed, were more prevalent in certain groups, and appeared to be related to ship's movement. These findings document the pattern of operational stress in a ship-based medical humanitarian mission and confirm unique ship-based stressors. This information may be used by planners of similar missions to develop mitigation strategies for known stressors and by preventive medicine, behavioral health specialists, and mission leaders to develop sensitive surveillance tools to better detect and manage operational stress while on mission. Scouten WT , Mehalick ML , Yoder E , McCoy A , Brannock T , Riddle MS . The epidemiology of operation stress during Continuing Promise 2011: a humanitarian response and disaster relief mission aboard a US Navy hospital ship. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(4):393-402.

  19. Radiological emergencies - planning and preparedness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-12-31

    This information and training film in three parts deals with the technical background for emergency planning, emergency planning concepts and emergency preparedness. It describes the technical characteristics of radiological emergencies on which important emergency planning concepts are based and the purpose of those concepts. The film also demonstrates how emergency organizations must work together to ensure adequate preparedness. The programme reflects the standards, guidance and recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency

  20. Preparedness in Long-Term Care: A Novel Approach to Address Gaps in Evacuation Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prot, Emilie Y; Clements, Bruce

    2017-02-01

    With an aging population, the number of elderly individuals residing in long-term care (LTC) facilities will continue to grow and pose unique challenges to disaster preparedness and response. With this rapidly growing vulnerable population, it becomes imperative to identify enhanced and novel preparedness strategies and measures. LTC residents not only have complicated medical needs, including the timing of dispensing multiple medications, but frequently have cognitive and mobility deficits as well. In nearly every major disaster, elderly populations have suffered disproportionate morbidity and mortality. This is often due to elderly evacuees getting overlooked in the chaos of an initial response. Instituting measures to rapidly recognize this population in a crowd during an evacuation will reduce their risk. This commentary reviews the LTC facility evacuation challenges of the 2013 explosion of the West Fertilizer Company plant in West, Texas, and offers a novel solution of mandating the wearing of pink vests by all nursing home residents in case of an evacuation. The pink vests quickly alert disaster rescue and response workers of LTC residents with special needs. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:28-30).

  1. Evaluation of the Implementation of Preparedness Education at mount Bromo and Merapi Valley Communities, Year 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugeni Sugiharto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Basic education through counseling mitigation program is on Statute No 24 Year 2007, Health Minister Decree No 145 year 2007, Decree of Mining an Energy Minister. Preparedness education is efforts to increase knowledge and awareness to face of the volcano disaster, in order to survive and stay healthy. The purpose of this study was to evaluated the implementation of educational preparedness in disaster-prone communities on the slopes of Mount Bromo and Mount Merapi Methods: Croessectional methode, Big sample is 100 people from Bromo area in the Ngadirejo village to 25 people, in the Wonokerso village 25 people, whereas in the Merapi area in the Mangunharjo village 25 people andthe Jaranan village of 25 people. Samples are purvosif determined that only the community on the slopes of Bromo and Merapi eruption affected. Secondary data was obtained from the institution carrying out preparedness education. Results: Preparedness Education through counseling had a basic level of central and local regulation is the reference work BPPD officer. Agencies involved counseling is District Health Offi ce and Health Centre, PMI, LSM,BPBD. Impact preparedness counseling is when the eruption of the volcano was about to evacuate people, including most of the people Bromo, in order to survive, in addition to the public while maintaining the health of the PHBs, to stay healthy. Conclusion: Preparedness education is based on the regulation of the central and local level to help people to volcanic eruptions. The focus of its activities is the procedure for evacuation, rescue and PHBS are implemented on an ongoing basis. Recommendation: Important implement sustainable counseling, so that people have a lasting awareness preparedness for facing volcanic eruptions.

  2. The changing health priorities of earthquake response and implications for preparedness: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, C; Hall, M; Lee, A C K

    2017-09-01

    Earthquakes have substantial impacts on mortality in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). The academic evidence base to support Disaster Risk Reduction activities in LMIC settings is, however, limited. We sought to address this gap by identifying the health and healthcare impacts of earthquakes in LMICs and to identify the implications of these findings for future earthquake preparedness. Scoping review. A scoping review was undertaken with systematic searches of indexed databases to identify relevant literature. Key study details, findings, recommendations or lessons learnt were extracted and analysed across individual earthquake events. Findings were categorised by time frame relative to earthquakes and linked to the disaster preparedness cycle, enabling a profile of health and healthcare impacts and implications for future preparedness to be established. Health services need to prepare for changing health priorities with a shift from initial treatment of earthquake-related injuries to more general health needs occurring within the first few weeks. Preparedness is required to address mental health and rehabilitation needs in the medium to longer term. Inequalities of the impact of earthquakes on health were noted in particular for women, children, the elderly, disabled and rural communities. The need to maintain access to essential services such as reproductive health and preventative health services were identified. Key preparedness actions include identification of appropriate leaders, planning and training of staff. Testing of plans was advocated within the literature with evidence that this is possible in LMIC settings. Whilst there are a range of health and healthcare impacts of earthquakes, common themes emerged in different settings and from different earthquake events. Preparedness of healthcare systems is essential and possible, in order to mitigate the adverse health impacts of earthquakes in LMIC settings. Preparedness is needed at the community

  3. Community emergency department utilization following a natural disaster (the Goderich Tornado).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appavoo, Samuel D; Khemlin, Alexander; Appavoo, Donna M; Flynn, Candi J

    2016-01-01

    On 21 August 2011 an F3 tornado hit the Canadian town of Goderich, Ontario, leaving 40 people injured and one dead. Specific medium-term changes in utilization of health care following a disaster have not been analyzed in medical literature. Documenting the emergency department utilization through this subacute period would be helpful to enable institutions and healthcare practitioners to be better prepared for future events. A medical chart review was conducted at the Alexandra Marine and General Hospital in Goderich. All emergency department visits made during the 30 days after the Tornado in 2011 (intervention group), 30 days prior to the tornado in 2011 (primary control group), and during the similar calendar period of 30 days after the tornado in 2010 (seasonal control group) were reviewed. Medical diagnoses of all patients who presented at the emergency department were collected and compared. Fewer people presented to the emergency department following the tornado than during the control periods, and those who did were significantly older than those who presented in the control periods (pptornado in a rural Ontario community. This information serves to inform the medical community and other hospitals how to increase their level of preparedness should a comparable disaster occur again in the future.

  4. Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program (TEPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    The Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program (TEPP) will develop and enhance integrated emergency preparedness capabilities in two major areas. First, the program is responsible for planning and ensuring proper DOE response to transportation incidents involving DOE shipments. Second, the program is responsible for ensuring DOE can carry out its responsibilities under regulations, the National Contingency Plan (NCP) and the Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP) to provide technical advice and assistance as needed for any transportation incident involving radioactive or mixed hazard materials. This plan proposes a strategy for developing a comprehensive Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program, including a well organized central management and coordination structure, that serves as a process to identify, verify, and establish a consolidated effort across the Department in this very important area. This plan assumes Emergency Management to be the full range of emergency activities necessary for mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery while Emergency Preparedness activities are primarily those necessary in preparation for Incident Response Emergency Preparedness, which is the focus of this strategy plan, requires a well organized central coordination structure to be effective. 7 refs

  5. Business and continuity of operations: care of the critically ill and injured during pandemics and disasters: CHEST consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosh, Pritish K; Feldman, Henry; Christian, Michael D; Devereaux, Asha V; Kissoon, Niranjan; Dichter, Jeffrey R

    2014-10-01

    and supplies known or projected to be in short supply, (5) institute alternate use protocols when a (potential) shortage is identified, and 6) support government and nongovernmental organizations in efforts to address supply chain vulnerability. Health-care IT can be damaged in a disaster, and hospitals and health system leadership should have plans for urgently reestablishing local area networks. Planning should include using portable technology, plans for providing power, maintenance of a patient database that can accompany each patient, and protection of patient privacy. Additionally, long-term planning should include prioritizing servers and memory disk drives and possibly increasing inventory of critical IT supplies in preparedness planning. The provision of care to the critically ill or injured during a pandemic or disaster is dependent on key processes, such as the supply chain, and infrastructure, such as IT systems. Hospitals and health systems will help minimize the impact of medication and supply shortages with a focused strategy using the steps suggested. IT preparedness for maintaining local area networks, functioning clinical information systems, and adequate server and memory storage capacity will greatly enhance preparedness for hospital and health system clinical and business operations.

  6. Vulnerability Factors and Effectiveness of Disaster Mitigation Measures in the Bangladesh Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md. Nazir; Paul, Shitangsu Kumar

    2018-01-01

    The major objective of this paper is to identify the vulnerability factors and examine the effectiveness of disaster mitigation measures undertaken by individuals, government and non-government organisations to mitigate the impacts of cyclones in the Bangladesh coast experiencing from Cyclone Aila. The primary data were collected from two villages of southwestern coastal areas of Bangladesh using questionnaire survey and interviews of the key informants. The data were analysed using the descriptive and inferential statistics. This paper reveals that the disaster management measures have a significant role to lessen the impacts of the cyclonic event, especially in pre-disaster preparedness, cyclone warning message dissemination, evacuation and post-disaster rehabilitation. The households, who have access to shelter, find weather forecast regularly and adopted pre-disaster awareness measures are relatively less susceptible to hazard's impacts. The disaster management measures undertaken by individuals and GOs and NGOs help coastal people to save their lives and property from the negative impacts of cyclones. The analysis shows that the NGOs' role is more effective and efficient than the GOs in cyclone disaster management. This paper identifies distance to shelter, participation in disaster training, efficient warning, etc. as the influential factors of vulnerability cyclones. The analysis finds the households as less affected who have adopted disaster preparedness measures. However, this paper concludes that the effective and proper disaster management and mitigation measures are very crucial to shield the lives and properties of the Bangladeshi coastal people.

  7. Vulnerability Factors and Effectiveness of Disaster Mitigation Measures in the Bangladesh Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md. Nazir; Paul, Shitangsu Kumar

    2018-05-01

    The major objective of this paper is to identify the vulnerability factors and examine the effectiveness of disaster mitigation measures undertaken by individuals, government and non-government organisations to mitigate the impacts of cyclones in the Bangladesh coast experiencing from Cyclone Aila. The primary data were collected from two villages of southwestern coastal areas of Bangladesh using questionnaire survey and interviews of the key informants. The data were analysed using the descriptive and inferential statistics. This paper reveals that the disaster management measures have a significant role to lessen the impacts of the cyclonic event, especially in pre-disaster preparedness, cyclone warning message dissemination, evacuation and post-disaster rehabilitation. The households, who have access to shelter, find weather forecast regularly and adopted pre-disaster awareness measures are relatively less susceptible to hazard's impacts. The disaster management measures undertaken by individuals and GOs and NGOs help coastal people to save their lives and property from the negative impacts of cyclones. The analysis shows that the NGOs' role is more effective and efficient than the GOs in cyclone disaster management. This paper identifies distance to shelter, participation in disaster training, efficient warning, etc. as the influential factors of vulnerability cyclones. The analysis finds the households as less affected who have adopted disaster preparedness measures. However, this paper concludes that the effective and proper disaster management and mitigation measures are very crucial to shield the lives and properties of the Bangladeshi coastal people.

  8. Biodosimetry: emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2016-01-01

    Biodosimetry assays are the only methods available for ascertaining and estimating biological dose for suspected over-exposures and manage radiological emergency situations. These methods also plays a major role in medical management and triage. In the eventuality of radiological emergency, it becomes inevitable to provide care for exposed individuals. However, large numbers of unexposed individuals or those with clinically insignificant doses are to be screened off for effective medical management of those who really need the specialized medical attention. Majority of individuals involved in radiological accidents may not need any medical attention but will need ascertainment of dose estimation and counselling. The decision making and counselling is possible only with the evidence of dose estimation. Though Biodosimetry procedures-are known for their inherent delay, since radiation effects are very slow in nature, give ample time for such investigations to be completed without any hurry to take medical actions in most cases. High throughput facilities in the state of the art Biodosimetry lab established at HS and EG, BARC has helped us to address many small scale radiological emergencies in the past. These experiences also helped the lab to prepare itself for large scale scenario and support the emergency management with continually improving preparedness and indigenous development of facilities. (author)

  9. Improving Citizen Preparedness Through Employee Disaster Preparedness Promotion in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    35 influence change. The selected theories include: the social cognitive theory ( Bandura ), the theory of planned...process approach (Schwarzer). Social cognitive theory (SCT) is based on the assumption that that learning , behavior, and environment have a dynamic and...91 Albert Bandura , Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory (Englewood Cliffs, NJ

  10. Disaster management: using Internet-based technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitruk, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Disasters impose operational challenges and substantial financial burdens on hospitals. Internet-based disaster management technology can help. This technology should: Capture, analyze, and track relevant data. Be available 24/7. Guide decision makers in setting up an incident command center and monitor the completion of jobs by ICC role. Provide assistance in areas that hospitals are not used to dealing with, e.g., chemical or bio-terror agents.

  11. The Central American Network for Disaster and Health Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnesen, Stacey J; Cid, Victor H; Scott, John C; Perez, Ricardo; Zervaas, Dave

    2007-07-01

    This paper describes an international outreach program to support rebuilding Central America's health information infrastructure after several natural disasters in the region, including Hurricane Mitch in 1998 and two major earthquakes in 2001. The National Library of Medicine joined forces with the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization, the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, and the Regional Center of Disaster Information for Latin America and the Caribbean (CRID) to strengthen libraries and information centers in Central America and improve the availability of and access to health and disaster information in the region by developing the Central American Network for Disaster and Health Information (CANDHI). Through CRID, the program created ten disaster health information centers in medical libraries and disaster-related organizations in six countries. This project served as a catalyst for the modernization of several medical libraries in Central America. The resulting CANDHI provides much needed electronic access to public health "gray literature" on disasters, as well as access to numerous health information resources. CANDHI members assist their institutions and countries in a variety of disaster preparedness activities through collecting and disseminating information.

  12. Emergency river storage in the Ooij polder - A bridge too far? Forms of participation in flood preparedness policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warner, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    Disaster policy tends to be in the domain of top-down security governance. However, international organizations are calling for more 'horizontal', participatory forms of planning for flood preparedness together with local stakeholders. But what modality of public involvement do they mean? A case

  13. PREPARE. Innovative integrated tools and platforms for radiological emergency preparedness and post-accident response in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duranova, T.; Bohunova, J.; Raskob, W.; Schneider, T.; Gering, F.; Charron, S.; Zhelezniak, M.; Andronopoulo, S.; Heriard-Dubreuil, G.; Camps, J.

    2014-01-01

    The PREPARE project that started February 2013 and will end beginning of 2016, aims to close gaps that have been identified in nuclear and radiological preparedness in Europe following the first evaluation of the Fukushima disaster. In this abstract the PREPARE project is described. (authors)

  14. Public opinion on Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Hirotada

    2013-01-01

    This article showed trend of public opinion on nuclear power after Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, for which the survey had been done five times under the same method and inquiries. Most unreliable source of information at disaster was government ministries and offices, whose unreliability sharply increased from 20% to about 50% after 3 months later and one year later after March 11 and reliability after 2 year and 5 months later (August 2013) was not high and almost comparable with unreliability of 27%. Nuclear disaster was most serious cause of Great East Japan earthquake disaster (60%) and not entirely ended due to such increase of contaminated water. Public opinion survey in August 2013 showed nuclear power stoppage totaled about 80% with immediate of about 30% and phaseout of about 50%, and possibility of occurrence of another nuclear accident comparable with Fukushima disaster was almost 80% with a belief not only earthquakes, tsunamis, terrorism but also human errors might initiate nuclear disaster if nuclear power restarted. Future most serious disaster would be earthquake (50%) and nuclear disaster (35%). Nuclear accident preparedness of government and local government was not enough (58% and 24%) and nothing (33% and 24%). Residents within UPZ (Urgent Protection action Planning Zone) of 30 km radius could not evacuate safely (57%) and entirely (22%). If government and local government encouraged damaged residents to come home with declaration of safety for evacuation area of nuclear accident, damaged residents might not return almost (46%) and entirely (9%). Notwithstanding people's strong feeling against nuclear power, LDP (Liberal Democratic Party) promoting nuclear power won an overwhelming victory at the election of House of Councilors in July 2013. Public opinion survey in August 2013 showed most important issue of voters was party's image (25%), economic measures (20%) and candidate's personality (13%), and nuclear power policy was only 5%. (T

  15. Children’s Coping in the Context of Disasters and Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    PFEFFERBAUM, BETTY; NOFFSINGER, MARY A.; WIND, LESLIE H.; ALLEN, JAMES R.

    2014-01-01

    Disasters and terrorism present significant and often overwhelming challenges for children and families worldwide. Individual, family, and social factors influence disaster reactions and the diverse ways in which children cope. This article links conceptualizations of stress and coping to empirical knowledge of children’s disaster reactions, identifies limitations in our current understanding, and suggests areas for future study of disaster coping. Coping strategies, developmental trajectories influencing coping, and the interplay between parent and child coping represent critical areas for advancing the field and for informing programs and services that benefit children’s preparedness and foster resilience in the face of mass trauma. PMID:24683315

  16. Hospitals

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This database contains locations of Hospitals for 50 states and Washington D.C. , Puerto Rico and US territories. The dataset only includes hospital facilities and...

  17. Upstream Disaster Management to Support People Experiencing Homelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundareswaran, Madura; Ghazzawi, Andrea; O'Sullivan, Tracey L

    2015-08-18

    The unique context of day-to-day living for people who are chronically homeless or living with housing insecurity puts them at high risk during community disasters. The impacts of extreme events, such as flooding, storms, riots, and other sources of community disruption, underscore the importance of preparedness efforts and fostering community resilience. This study is part of larger initiative focused on enhancing resilience and preparedness among high risk populations. The purpose of this study was to explore critical issues and strategies to promote resilience and disaster preparedness among people who are homeless in Canada. A sample of interviews (n=21) from key informants across Canada was analyzed to explore existing programs and supports for homeless populations. The data was selected from a larger sample of (n=43) interviews focused on programs and supports for people who are at heightened risk for negative impacts during disasters. Qualitative content analysis was used to extract emergent themes and develop a model of multi-level collaboration to support disaster resilience among people who are homeless. The results indicate there is a need for more upstream continuity planning, collaboration and communication between the emergency management sector and community service organizations that support people who are homeless. Prioritization and investment in the social determinants of health and community supports is necessary to promote resilience among this high-risk population. The findings from this study highlight the importance of acknowledging community support organizations as assets in disaster preparedness. Day-to-day resilience is an ongoing theme for people who are chronically homeless or living with housing insecurity. Upstream investment to build adaptive capacity and collaborate with community organizations is an important strategy to enhance community resilience.

  18. Chapter 1. Introduction. Recommendations and standard operating procedures for intensive care unit and hospital preparations for an influenza epidemic or mass disaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprung, Charles L.; Cohen, Robert; Adini, Bruria; Christian, Michael D.; Camargo, Ruben; Ceraso, Daniel; Azoulay, Elie; Duguet, Alexandre; Guery, Benoit; Reinhart, Konrad; Barlavie, Yaron; Benin-Goren, Odeda; Klein, Motti; Leoniv, Yuval; Margalit, Gila; Rubinovitch, Bina; Sonnenblick, Moshe; Steinberg, Avraham; Weissman, Charles; Wolff, Donna; Kesecioglu, Jozef; de Jong, Menno; Moreno, Rui; An, Youzhong; Du, Bin; Joynt, Gavin M.; Colvin, John; Loo, Shi; Richards, Guy; Artigas, Antonio; Pugin, Jerome; Amundson, Dennis; Devereaux, Asha; Beigel, John; Danis, Marion; Farmer, Chris; Hick, John L.; Maki, Dennis; Masur, Henry; Rubinson, Lewis; Sandrock, Christian; Talmor, Daniel; Truong, Robert; Zimmerman, Janice; Brett, Steve; Montgomery, Hugh; Rhodes, Andrew; Sanderson, Frances; Taylor, Bruce; Monrgomery, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    In December 2007, the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine established a Task Force to develop standard operating procedures (SOPs) for operating intensive care units (ICU) during an influenza epidemic or mass disaster. To provide direction for health care professionals in the preparation and

  19. Nuclear and radiological preparedness: the achievements of the European research project prepare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Thierry; Gering, Florian; Charron, Sylvie; Zhelezniak, Mark; Andronopoulos, Spyros; Heriard-Dubreuil, Gilles; Camps, Johan; Raskob, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    The PREPARE project aimed closing gaps identified in nuclear and radiological preparedness in Europe following the first evaluation of the Fukushima disaster. With 46 partners from Europe and Japan, it collected the key players in the area of emergency management and rehabilitation preparedness. Starting from February 2013, the project ended in January 2016. Among others, the project reviewed existing operational procedures for long-lasting releases, cross-border problems in radiation monitoring and food safety and further developed missing functionalities in decision support systems ranging from improved source term estimation and dispersion modelling to the inclusion of hydrological pathways for European water bodies. In addition, a so-called Analytical Platform has been developed to explore the scientific and operational means to improve information collection, information exchange and the evaluation of such types of disasters. The tools developed within the project will be partly integrated into the decision support systems ARGOS and JRODOS. (authors)

  20. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Preparedness for Nuclear and Radiological Threats

    CERN Document Server

    Diamond, David

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear crisis in Fukushima and growing threats of nuclear terrorism must serve as a wake-up call, prompting greater action to prepare ourselves for nuclear and radiological disasters. Our strategy to prepare for these threats is multi-layered and the events of these past years have proved the necessity to re-evaluate the national and international preparedness goals on a scale never before considered. The programme of NATO Advanced Research Workshop on “Preparedness for Nuclear and Radiological Threats” has been focused on science and technology challenges associated with our need to improve the national and international capacity and capability to prevent, protect against, mitigate the effects of, respond to, and recover from the nuclear and radiological disasters, including nuclear and radiological accident, terrorist attack by Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) or by “Dirty Bomb”-Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD), that pose the greatest risk to the national and international security and safety...

  1. Radiation accident/disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kida, Yoshiko; Hirohashi, Nobuyuki; Tanigawa, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    Described are the course of medical measures following Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) Accident after the quake and tsunami (Mar. 11, 2011) and the future task for radiation accident/disaster. By the first hydrogen explosion in FNPP (Mar. 12), evacuation of residents within 20 km zone was instructed, and the primary base for measures of nuclear disaster (Off-site Center) 5 km afar from FNPP had to work as a front base because of damage of communicating ways, of saving of injured persons and of elevation of dose. On Mar. 13, the medical arrangement council consisting from stuff of Fukushima Medical University (FMU), National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Nuclear Safety Research Association and Prefectural officers was setup in residents' hall of Fukushima City, and worked for correspondence to persons injured or exposed, where communication about radiation and between related organizations was still poor. The Off-site Center's head section moved to Prefectural Office on Mar. 15 as headquarters. Early in the period, all residents evacuated from the 20 km zone, and in-hospital patients and nursed elderly were transported with vehicles, >50 persons of whom reportedly died mainly by their base diseases. The nation system of medicare for emergent exposure had consisted from the network of the primary to third facilities; there were 5 facilities in the Prefecture, 3 of which were localized at 4-9 km distance from FNPP and closed early after the Accident; and the secondary facility of FMU became responsible to all exposed persons. There was no death of workers of FNPP. Medical stuff also measured the ambient dose at various places near FNPP, having had risk of exposure. At the Accident, the important system of command, control and communication was found fragile and measures hereafter should be planned on assumption of the worst scenario of complete damage of the infrastructure and communication. It is desirable for Disaster Medical Assistance Team which

  2. 78 FR 54743 - National Preparedness Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... like hurricanes, tornadoes, and floods to shootings, cyber incidents, and even acts of terrorism. While... Preparedness Month. I encourage all Americans to recognize the importance of preparedness and work together to enhance our national security, resilience, and readiness. [[Page 54744

  3. Tsunami disaster risk management capabilities in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marios Karagiannis, Georgios; Synolakis, Costas

    2015-04-01

    Greece is vulnerable to tsunamis, due to the length of the coastline, its islands and its geographical proximity to the Hellenic Arc, an active subduction zone. Historically, about 10% of all world tsunamis occur in the Mediterranean region. Here we review existing tsunami disaster risk management capabilities in Greece. We analyze capabilities across the disaster management continuum, including prevention, preparedness, response and recovery. Specifically, we focus on issues like legal requirements, stakeholders, hazard mitigation practices, emergency operations plans, public awareness and education, community-based approaches and early-warning systems. Our research is based on a review of existing literature and official documentation, on previous projects, as well as on interviews with civil protection officials in Greece. In terms of tsunami disaster prevention and hazard mitigation, the lack of tsunami inundation maps, except for some areas in Crete, makes it quite difficult to get public support for hazard mitigation practices. Urban and spatial planning tools in Greece allow the planner to take into account hazards and establish buffer zones near hazard areas. However, the application of such ordinances at the local and regional levels is often difficult. Eminent domain is not supported by law and there are no regulatory provisions regarding tax abatement as a disaster prevention tool. Building codes require buildings and other structures to withstand lateral dynamic earthquake loads, but there are no provisions for resistance to impact loading from water born debris Public education about tsunamis has increased during the last half-decade but remains sporadic. In terms of disaster preparedness, Greece does have a National Tsunami Warning Center (NTWC) and is a Member of UNESCO's Tsunami Program for North-eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and connected seas (NEAM) region. Several exercises have been organized in the framework of the NEAM Tsunami Warning

  4. Nursing Home Self-assessment of Implementation of Emergency Preparedness Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Sandi J; McGrady, Elizabeth

    2016-08-01

    Introduction Disasters often overwhelm a community's capacity to respond and recover, creating a gap between the needs of the community and the resources available to provide services. In the wake of multiple disasters affecting nursing homes in the last decade, increased focus has shifted to this vital component of the health care system. However, the long-term care sector has often fallen through the cracks in both planning and response. Problem Two recent reports (2006 and 2012) published by the US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), Office of Inspector General (OIG), elucidate the need for improvements in nursing homes' comprehensive emergency preparedness and response. The Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has developed an emergency preparedness checklist as a guidance tool and proposed emergency preparedness regulations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the progress made in nursing home preparedness by determining the level of completion of the 70 tasks noted on the checklist. The study objectives were to: (1) determine the preparedness levels of nursing homes in North and South Carolina (USA), and (2) compare these findings with the 2012 OIG's report on nursing home preparedness to identify current gaps. A survey developed from the checklist of items was emailed to 418 North Carolina and 193 South Carolina nursing home administrators during 2014. One hundred seventeen were returned/"bounced back" as not received. Follow-up emails and phone calls were made to encourage participation. Sixty-three completed surveys and 32 partial surveys were received. Responses were compared to data obtained in a 2010 study to determine progress. Progress had been made in many of the overall planning and sheltering-in-place tasks, such as having contact information of local emergency managers as well as specifications for availability of potable water. Yet, gaps still persisted, especially in evacuation standards, interfacing with emergency

  5. On Line Disaster Response Community: People as Sensors of High Magnitude Disasters Using Internet GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Kodrich

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The Indian Ocean tsunami (2004 and Hurricane Katrina (2005 reveal the coming of age of the on-line disaster response community. Due to the integration of key geospatial technologies (remote sensing - RS, geographic information systems - GIS, global positioning systems – GPS and the Internet, on-line disaster response communities have grown. They include the traditional aspects of disaster preparedness, response, recovery, mitigation, and policy as facilitated by governmental agencies and relief response organizations. However, the contribution from the public via the Internet has changed significantly. The on-line disaster response community includes several key characteristics: the ability to donate money quickly and efficiently due to improved Internet security and reliable donation sites; a computer-savvy segment of the public that creates blogs, uploads pictures, and disseminates information – oftentimes faster than government agencies, and message boards to create interactive information exchange in seeking family members and identifying shelters. A critical and novel occurrence is the development of “people as sensors” - networks of government, NGOs, private companies, and the public - to build rapid response databases of the disaster area for various aspects of disaster relief and response using geospatial technologies. This paper examines these networks, their products, and their future potential.

  6. Ebola virus disease: radiology preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluemke, David A; Meltzer, Carolyn C

    2015-02-01

    At present, there is a major emphasis on Ebola virus disease (EVD) preparedness training at medical facilities throughout the United States. Failure to have proper EVD procedures in place was cited as a major reason for infection of medical personnel in the United States. Medical imaging does not provide diagnosis of EVD, but patient assessment in the emergency department and treatment isolation care unit is likely to require imaging services. The purpose of this article is to present an overview of relevant aspects of EVD disease and preparedness relevant to the radiologic community. © RSNA, 2014.

  7. Before the Emergency: A Framework for Evaluating Emergency Preparedness Alternatives at Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Assessment, and Management. While insightful, the approaches presented in this book require an extensive understanding of mathematics and engineering...use actuarial data to make this type of a calculation, but it seems unlikely that a university decision maker will make a decision about pursing a...proposed preparedness or mitigation strategy using actuarial data. Building a disaster resistant university in accordance with the guidelines

  8. Terrorism preparedness: Web-based resource management and the TOPOFF 3 exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Lenworth M; Burns, Karyl J

    2006-03-01

    The bombings of London on July 7, 2005 highlight the need for continued vigilance and readiness to respond to terrorist attacks. Trauma centers need to be at the core of preparedness activities. The State of Connecticut has taken a lead in preparedness and was selected as a site for the US Department of Homeland Security's Top Officials Three Exercise (TOPOFF 3), the largest and most extensive antiterrorism drill ever conducted. All 32 acute care hospitals in Connecticut took part in the drill. The simulated attacks were designed to test all aspects of emergency preparedness including the ability of hospitals to treat large numbers of victims and effectively monitor and implement mechanisms for surge capacity. In Connecticut, TOPOFF 3 tested the Bioterrorism Preparedness Web Application that was designed to be the primary communication and resource management tool during a terrorist event or public health emergency. This paper describes: 1) the impetus for the State of Connecticut Department of Public Health's Bioterrorism Preparedness Web Application; 2) the strategies used to ensure its readiness and appropriate utilization during a public health emergency; and 3) its use for communication and resource management by the Department of Public Health and the acute care hospitals during TOPOFF 3. The Bioterrorism Preparedness Web Application was successfully implemented and used during TOPOFF 3 to assess surge capacity and other resources. Careful development and implementation of the Web application, or any communication system, as well as training and regular practice are required to ensure effective use during a public health emergency.

  9. Moments of disaster response in the emergency department (ED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, Karen S; Arbon, Paul; Gebbie, Kristine; Hutton, Alison

    2017-11-01

    We experience our lives as a series of memorable moments, some good and some bad. Undoubtedly, the experience of participating in disaster response, is likely to stand out as a memorable moment in a nurses' career. This presentation will describe five distinct moments of nursing in the emergency department (ED) during a disaster response. A Hermeneutic Phenomenological approach informed by van Manen underpins the research process. Thirteen nurses from different countries around the world participated in interviews about their experience of working in the ED during a disaster. Thematic analysis resulted in five moments of disaster response which are common to the collective participant experience. The 5 themes emerge as Notification (as a nurse finds out that the ED will be receiving casualties), Waiting (waiting for the patients to arrive to the ED), Patient Arrival (the arrival of the first patients to the ED), Caring for patients (caring for people affected by the disaster) and Reflection (the moment the disaster response comes to an end). This paper provides an in-depth insight into the experience of nursing in the ED during a disaster response which can help generate awareness and inform future disaster preparedness of emergency nurses. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The challenges of disaster management in south Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qamar-ul-Islam; Anjum, G.A.; Shahzad, M.

    2005-01-01

    The type of this research work reflects an overview of disasters in South Asian countries. This outlines geographical aspects and institutional structures briefly in each country, and identifies gaps in disaster management regimes. Identified of these gaps is expected to give insights to the media to develop more informal disaster communications in South Asian Countries. Natural disasters have become a severe global problem. Deaths, displacements and damages resulting from natural disasters are colossal. During the 1990s global economic losses from major natural catastrophes averaged more than US $ 40 billion a year. The current Tsunami disaster has broken all previous records particularly in Indonesia, Sri Lanka and India. This paper focuses particularly on sub continental countries in the South Asian countries, how they are managed and mismanaged, and aims to provide condensed resource material on the subject. In such countries issues related to natural disasters are covered under the legal frameworks for environment, land use, water resources and human settlements. The shift from emergency management to disaster preparedness requires coordination between various government building departments and ministries and with other international organization and various community organizations. (author)

  11. Simulating and Communicating Outcomes in Disaster Management Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Lichter

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An important, but overlooked component of disaster managment is raising the awareness and preparedness of potential stakeholders. We show how recent advances in agent-based modeling and geo-information analytics can be combined to this effect. Using a dynamic simulation model, we estimate the long run outcomes of two very different urban disasters with severe consequences: an earthquake and a missile attack. These differ in terms of duration, intensity, permanence, and focal points. These hypothetical shocks are simulated for the downtown area of Jerusalem. Outcomes are compared in terms of their potential for disaster mitigation. The spatial and temporal dynamics of the simulation yield rich outputs. Web-based mapping is used to visualize these results and communicate risk to policy makers, planners, and the informed public. The components and design of this application are described. Implications for participatory disaster management and planning are discussed.

  12. Health management in past disasters in Iran: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Nakhaei

    2014-06-01

    Background: Disaster management is relied on prediction of problems and providing necessary preparations in right time and place. In this study researchers intended to explore passed experiences of health disaster management. Method: This study conducted using qualitative content analysis methods. Participants were selected purposefully and data were collected through interviews, observation, and other documents. Results: Transcribed data from 18interviews, field notes and other documents were analyzed. In data analysis reactive management was emerged as main theme. It was included some categories such as ‘exposure shock’, ‘non deliberative relief’, ‘lack of comprehensive health disaster plan’, ‘lack of preparedness’, and ‘poor coordination in health service delivery’ and contextual factors. Discussion: The results clarified deep perception of participants’ experiences about health management in disasters. The professionals' and non-professionals' emotion-based reactions and behaviors, if accompanied with deficiencies in planning and preparedness, can lead to ineffective services, and aggravates the damages.

  13. Stories after disaster survival: Preparing, heeding warnings, and self-reliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killian, Timothy S; Moon, Zola K; McNeill, Charleen C; Person-Michener, Joanna; Garrison, M E Betsy

    The purpose of the study was to examine the content of stories told by people personally impacted by disasters. Semistructured, qualitative interviews. Northwest part of a mid-south state. Fourteen disaster survivors who were recruited through their attendance at an emergency preparedness-related fair. Interview schedule based on previous research using the family resilience framework. Three themes emerged: prior emergency preparation, heeding warnings of impending disaster, and rural self-reliance. Participants had made prior emergency preparedness plans, but their personal experiences led to them adjusting their plans, or making more relevant plans for future disasters. Participants expressed the importance of sharing their experiences with family and community members, expressing hope that others would learn, vicariously rather than first-hand, from their experiences.

  14. Measuring and Comparing Hospital Accessibility for Palm Beach County's Elderly and Nonelderly Populations During a Hurricane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Shivangi

    2017-09-18

    To determine whether, during a hurricane, geographic accessibility to hospitals with emergency care is compromised disproportionately for the elderly than for the nonelderly. The locations of hospitals with emergency health care and a subset of those hospitals functional during a hurricane were compared with the distribution of the elderly population at the block group level in Palm Beach County, Florida. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) proximity analysis (minimum distance to closest hospital) and cumulative distribution functions were used to measure and compare hospital accessibility during normal and hurricane conditions for the elderly and nonelderly populations. Accessibility to closest functional hospital during a hurricane was compromised disproportionately for the elderly. Geographic accessibility to emergency health care is compromised disproportionately for the elderly in Palm Beach County. Compounding the risk is the likelihood of the elderly experiencing a greater health care need during a hurricane. This poses a community public health crisis and calls for effective and collaborative planning between health professionals and disaster planners to address the health care needs of the elderly. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;page 1 of 5).

  15. Back-to-School Preparedness

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-07-28

    CDC provides direction, support, and coordination to help the public be prepared. This podcast discusses how parents and students can be prepared at school.  Created: 7/28/2014 by Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (PHPR).   Date Released: 7/31/2014.

  16. Assessing School Emergency Care Preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Charles; Varnes, Jill

    A study assessed the emergency health care preparedness of a north central Florida public school district in light of seven criteria: (1) school policies regarding delivery of emergency health care; (2) identification of school personnel responsible for rendering emergency care; (3) training levels of emergency health care providers (first aid and…

  17. Emergency preparedness at Ignalina NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kairys, A.

    1998-01-01

    Brief review of Ignalina NPP safety upgrading and personnel preparedness to act in cases of accidents is presented. Though great activities are performed in enhancing the plant operation safety, the Ignalina NPP management pays a lot of attention to preparedness for emergency elimination and take measures to stop emergency spreading. A new Ignalina NPP emergency preparedness plan was drawn up and became operational. It is the main document to carry out organizational, technical, medical, evacuation and other activities to protect plant personnel, population, the plant and the environment from accident consequences. Great assistance was rendered by Swedish experts in drawing this new emergency preparedness plan. The plan consists of 3 parts: general part, operative part and appendixes. The plan is applied to the Ignalina NPP personnel, Special and Fire Brigade and also to other contractor organizations personnel carrying out works at Ignalina NPP. There are set the following emergency classes: incident, emergency situation, alert, local emergency, general emergency. Separate intervention level corresponds to each emergency class. Overview of personnel training to act in case of an emergency is also presented

  18. Preparedness Now! An Emergency Survival Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Edwards, Aton

    2009-01-01

    In uncertain times, a solid preparedness plan is essential for every individual and family. PREPAREDNESS NOW! navigates the new realities of twenty-first century living: extreme weather, economic instability, terror attacks, and more. Packed with checklists, resources, and step-by-step instructions, PREPAREDNESS NOW! details everything needed for office, car, and home preparedness. This newly expanded and revised edition includes an extended chapter on food and water storage and urban gardening, techniques in personal defense, and the latest and best preparedness products on the market. This b

  19. Performance of district disaster management teams after undergoing an operational level planners' training in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orach, Christopher Garimol; Mayega, Roy William; Woboya, Vincent; William, Bazeyo

    2013-06-01

    Uganda is vulnerable to several natural, man-made and a hybrid of disasters including drought, famine, floods, warfare, and disease outbreaks. We assessed the district disaster team's performance, roles and experiences following the training. The disasters most commonly experienced by the district teams were epidemics of diseases in humans (7 of 12), animals (epizoonotics) (3 of 12) and crops (3 of 12); hailstorms and floods (3 of 12). The capabilities viewed most useful for management of disasters were provision of health care services (9/12) and response management (8 of 12). The capability domains most often consulted during the disasters were general response management (31%), health services (29%) and water and sanitation (17%). The skills areas perceived to be vital following the training were response to epidemics 10/12, disaster management planning 8/12, hazards and vulnerability analysis 7/12 and principles of disaster planning 7/12 respectively. Main challenges mentioned by district teams were inadequacy of finance and logistics, lack of commitment by key partners towards disaster preparedness and response. The most common disaster experienced disasters related to outbreaks of diseases in man, animals and crops. The most frequently applied capabilities were response management and provision of emergency health services. The activities most frequently implemented following disaster management teams training were conducting planning meetings, refinement of plans and dissemination of skills gained. The main challenges were related to limited budget allocations and legal frameworks for disaster management that should be addressed by both central and local governments.

  20. A Location Based Communication Proposal for Disaster Crisis Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülnerman, A. G.; Goksel, C.; Tezer, A.

    2014-12-01

    The most vital applications within urban applications under the title of Geographical Information system applications are Disaster applications. Especially, In Turkey the most occured disaster type Earthquakes impacts are hard to retain in urban due to greatness of area, data and effected resident or victim. Currently, communications between victims and institutions congested and collapsed, after disaster that results emergency service delay and so secondary death and desperation. To avoid these types of life loss, the communication should be established between public and institutions. Geographical Information System Technology is seen capable of data management techniques and communication tool. In this study, Life Saving Kiosk Modal Proposal designed as a communication tool based on GIS, after disaster, takes locational emegency demands, meets emergency demands over notification maps which is created by those demands,increase public solidarity by visualizing close emergency demanded area surrounded another one and gathers emergency service demanded institutions notifications and aims to increasethe capability of management. This design prosals' leading role is public. Increase in capability depends on public major contribution to disaster management by required communication infrastructure establishment. The aim is to propound public power instead of public despiration. Apart from general view of disaster crisis management approaches, Life Saving Kiosk Modal Proposal indicates preparedness and response phases within the disaster cycle and solve crisis management with the organization of design in preparedness phase, use in response phase. This resolution modal flow diagram is builded between public, communication tool (kiosk) amd response force. The software is included in communication tools whose functions, interface designs and user algorithms are provided considering the public participation. In this study, disaster crisis management with public

  1. Children capacity in disaster risk reduction: A call for action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Mohammadinia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Disasters have various physical, psychological, social and economical effects on all age group, particularly children who are more vulnerable than adults. In the aftermath of disasters, children like pregnant women, elderly and handicaps are special group with special needs. This is because they are at greater risk based on their specific physiological and psychological characteristics. Moreover,, according to the Sendai document, children need more attention in Disaster Risk Reduction (DRRprograms design, policies implementation with a proactive approach in Disaster Risk Reduction (1. In the Sendai document it is emphasized that policies regarding disaster risk reduction, cognition and risk perception about the risk property should be considered based upon the hazards and the environment in terms of vulnerability, capacity and exposure (2.Hyogo framework for action was also already have been focused on child priority on the legislation program (3. Accordingly, it is necessary to involve children in disaster risk reduction programs actively in order to overcome their needs and their problems (4. As children are more affected groups in various aspects of disasters in most countries, their potential utilization, the conditions and space should be provided based on laws, national policies, training and capacity. Although after disaster children required particular needs and attention(5-6, they should be considered as an active group who could participate in DRR program and help their family and also the community.(4, 7 Some evidences suggest on value of children team working for community preparedness. Iran had a successful experience for using adolescence capacity as a pillar in activation of early warning; including notification announced while observing the rising sea levels for local community in order to reduce the risk of flood disaster at a local area in the North of Iran. According to the Hyogo and the Sendai documents, it seems that using

  2. Conceptual Framework for Educational Disaster Centre "save the Children Life"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandrova, T.; Kouteva, M.; Pashova, L.; Savova, D.; Marinova, S.

    2015-08-01

    Millions of people are affected by natural and man-made disasters each year, among which women, children, elderly persons, people with disabilities or special needs, prisoners, certain members of ethnic minorities, people with language barriers, and the impoverished are the most vulnerable population groups in case of emergencies. Many national and international organizations are involved in Early Warning and Crisis Management training, particularly focused on the special target to safe children and improve their knowledge about disasters. The success of these efforts is based on providing the specific information about disaster preparedness and emergency in adapted for children educational materials, accompanied with simple illustrative explanations for easy and fast understanding of the disasters. The active participation of the children in the educational activities through appropriate presenting the information, short training seminars and entertaining games will increase their resilience and will contribute significantly to their preparedness and adequate response in emergency situations. This paper aims to present the conceptual framework of a project for establishing an Educational Disaster Centre (EDC) "Save the children life" at University of Architecture, Civil Engineering and Geodesy (UACEG), providing relevant justification of the necessity to organize such centre in Bulgaria and discussing good practices in Europe and worldwide for children' education and training in case of disastrous event. General concepts for educational materials and children training are shared. Appropriate equipment for the EDC is shortly described.

  3. Healthcare logistics in disaster planning and emergency management: A perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanVactor, Jerry D

    2017-12-01

    This paper discusses the role of healthcare supply chain management in disaster mitigation and management. While there is an abundance of literature examining emergency management and disaster preparedness efforts across an array of industries, little information has been directed specifically toward the emergency interface, interoperability and unconventional relationships among civilian institutions and the US Department of Defense (US DoD) or supply chain operations involved therein. To address this imbalance, this paper provides US DoD healthcare supply chain managers with concepts related to communicating and planning more effectively. It is worth remembering, however, that all disasters are local - under the auspice of tiered response involving federal agencies, the principal responsibility for responding to domestic disasters and emergencies rests with the lowest level of government equipped and able to deal with the incident effectively. As such, the findings are equally applicable to institutions outside the military. It also bears repeating that every crisis is unique: there is no such thing as a uniform response for every incident. The role of the US DoD in emergency preparedness and disaster planning is changing and will continue to do so as the need for roles in support of a larger effort also continues to change.

  4. What tourist business managers must learn from disaster research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabek, Thomas E

    2016-01-01

    Death and social disruption caused by disasters of varying forms will continue to increase in the future. So too will the impacts on tourism, now one of the fastest growing and largest sectors of the worldwide economy. Tourist business managers must implement evidence-based preparedness activities to enhance the survival potential and future profitability of their firms. Drawing upon recent research studies of the tourist industry during times of crisis and the broad social science knowledge base regarding human responses to disaster, seven key lessons are described. Emergency managers must facilitate the incorporation of these lessons into the culture of tourist business managers.

  5. Evaluation of Pre-disaster Planning of Bengawan Solo River Flood Bojonegoro Regency Year 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enov Sayu Mimanggar Mirahesti

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Early year of 2014 flood was ranked first in the natural disasters with 69 incidences. Bengawan Solo floods is an annual natural disastersin Bojonegoro. Study’s results in 2011 showed that RHA activities was not maximum that pre-disaster activities should be evaluated. Based on management functions, planning is the very first step. Evaluation of pre-disaster planning is the earliest thing to do to minimize the disasters impact. This study aimed to evaluate activities of floods pre-disaster planning in Bojonegoro year 2014. Data were collected by interview anddocument study. Data were analyzed descriptively. The results showed that based on input components, SOP and facilities had met the standard, while the staff, the type of data, and funds had’nt metthe standard yet. Based on process component, contingency planning had been done according to the standard. Both geomedic mapping and identification of social and economic in the process of activities planning of prevention, mitigation, and disaster response preparedness actions didn’t conduct. Based on the output component, the health department already had a contingency plan, but didn’t have geomedic maps and prevention, mitigation, and disaster response preparedness actions plan. This study concluded that pre-disaster planning activities of Bojonegoro Regency Health Office wasn’t good. The suggestion given are control SOP, increase the staff amount, complete thedata types, allocate funds, make budgettaryplanning, provide vehicles, conduct identification of social and economic, give training to staffs, and make outline of the geomedicmap and prevention, mitigation, and disaster response preparedness actions plan. Keywords: planning, pre-disaster, floods

  6. The preparedness of private dental offices and polyclinics for medical emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sebaei, Maisa O.; Alkayyal, Moayyad A.; Alsulimani, Abdulelah H.; Alsulaimani, Othman S.; Habib, Weam T.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess preparedness for medical emergencies in private dental offices in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a survey was distributed to 70 dental offices and polyclinics in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between October 2013 and January 2014. The questionnaire gathered information on the prevention of medical emergencies, the preparedness of the office personnel, and availability of emergency drugs and equipment. Results: For prevention, 92% (n=65) of the offices reported that they obtain a thorough medical history prior to treatment; however, only 11% (n=8) obtain vital signs for each visit. Using a preparedness percent score (0 to 100), the mean level of preparedness of the office personnel in all surveyed dental offices was 55.2±20. The availability of emergency drugs was 35±35, and equipment was 19±22. Conclusion: We found a deficiency in personnel training, availability of drugs, and emergency equipment in the surveyed dental clinics. More stringent rules and regulations for emergency preparedness must be reinforced to avoid disasters in these clinics. PMID:25737177

  7. Fatal work injuries involving natural disasters, 1992-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayard, Gregory M

    2009-12-01

    Although a goal of disaster preparedness is to protect vulnerable populations from hazards, little research has explored the types of risks that workers face in their encounters with natural disasters. This study examines how workers are fatally injured in severe natural events. A classification structure was created that identified the physical component of the disaster that led to the death and the pursuit of the worker as it relates to the disaster. Data on natural disasters from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries for the years 1992 through 2006 were analyzed. A total of 307 natural disaster deaths to workers were identified in 1992-2006. Most fatal occupational injuries were related to wildfires (80 fatalities), hurricanes (72 fatalities), and floods (62 fatalities). Compared with fatal occupational injuries in general, natural disaster fatalities involved more workers who were white and more workers who were working for the government. Most wildfire fatalities stemmed directly from exposure to fire and gases and occurred to those engaged in firefighting, whereas hurricane fatalities tended to occur more independently of disaster-produced hazards and to workers engaged in cleanup and reconstruction. Those deaths related to the 2005 hurricanes occurred a median of 36.5 days after landfall of the associated storm. Nearly half of the flood deaths occurred to passengers in motor vehicles. Other disasters included tornadoes (33 fatalities), landslides (17), avalanches (16), ice storms (14), and blizzards (9). Despite an increasing social emphasis on disaster preparation and response, there has been little increase in expert knowledge about how people actually perish in these large-scale events. Using a 2-way classification structure, this study identifies areas of emphasis in preventing occupational deaths from various natural disasters.

  8. HIGH RISK ZONES ON FLOODS AND LANDSLIDES DISASTERS IN RWANDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nsengiyumva J.ean Baptiste

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Disaster risk management as an issue at stake worldwide shifts its emphases from post disaster to pre-disaster phases. Management activities required in pre-disaster phases, such as risk assessment, hazard identification, preparedness or preventive and mitigation measures needs detailed information about hazard characteristics, social, economic, structural vulnerability and capacity. That information is not usually available in many different countries, as it is the case in Rwanda. Based on the international experiences and practices, knowledge of disaster prone areas can be assumed as an alternative for detailed information acquisition, thus contributing to effective disaster risk management. Identification of disaster higher risk zones on floods and landslides, can lead to better understanding of disaster risk and putting in place measures for risk reduction. Consequently, as Rwanda is prone to natural hazards with lack of adequate information that is essential for effective disaster risk management, due to limited scientific researches; this study aims to address that gap. The results revealed that some areas of the North-Western parts of Rwanda are highly prone to floods and landslides, namely Burera, Musanze, Rulindo, Nyabihu, Ngororero and Rubavu Districts. This is aggravated by some triggering factors such as steep slopes, soil types, heavy rains, landuse Practices and others. Intensity and frequency of disaster events vary from district to district and this geographical dispersal confirms the non-spatial clustering (as confirmed by Moran’s I analysis of risks due to uneven level of Disaster vulnerabilities, coping capacities and available hazards whereby lack of normal distribution of hazards all over all Districts.

  9. Review: Health Management in Disasters with Focusing on Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Khankeh

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Disasters should never be considered as routine. Disasters of any kind—natural or manmade—clearly disrupt the normal functioning of any community and frequently overwhelm both personal and community resources. In the post-disaster context, following the initial shock of the disaster, returning lives and livelihoods to normalcy becomes a primary concern of the affected communities and nations. Traditionally, this has been known as the recovery and rehabilitation phase, where "normalcy" refers to the return of the community to the state it was in prior to the disaster event. Rehabilitation is this process of returning the community to “normal” that may extend for many years and involves the physical, social and economic components of the community. Disasters can take on a life of their own, therefore being prepared is the single most effective way to improve outcomes. Proper pre-event planning and providing mechanisms for resource coordination are critical which will be resulted a successful response. It should focus on increasing the participation of civil authorities in order to reestablish local authorities. In order to develop safer communities with fewer deaths, physical injuries, and psycho-social trauma following disasters, health systems must be capable of providing a coordinated response during disasters and of delivering effective mitigation and preparedness programs before disaster impact. The health sector has a vested interest and a key role in this process. In addition, prior to the occurrence of disasters, national, provincial, and local planning should be blueprinted by managers. The public must be educated regarding the importance of individual and family preparation for disaster

  10. Understanding European education landscape on natural disasters - a textbook research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komac, B.; Zorn, M.; Ciglič, R.; Steinführer, A.

    2012-04-01

    The importance of natural-disaster education for social preparedness is presented. Increasing damage caused by natural disasters around the globe draws attention to the fact that even developed societies must adapt to natural processes. Natural-disaster education is a component part of any education strategy for a sustainably oriented society. The purpose of this article is to present the role of formal education in natural disasters in Europe. To ensure a uniform overview, the study used secondary-school geography textbooks from the collection at the Georg Eckert Institute for International Textbook Research in Braunschweig, Germany. Altogether, nearly 190 textbooks from 35 European countries were examined. The greatest focus on natural disasters can be found in textbooks published in western Europe (3.8% of pages describing natural disasters), and the smallest in those published in eastern Europe (0.7%). A share of textbook pages exceeding three percent describing natural disasters can also be found in northern Europe (3.6%) and southeast Europe, including Turkey (3.4%). The shares in central and southern Europe exceed two percent (i.e., 2.8% and 2.3%, respectively). The types and specific examples of natural disasters most commonly covered in textbooks as well as the type of natural disasters presented in textbooks according to the number of casualties and the damage caused were analyzed. The results show that the majority of European (secondary-school) education systems are poorly developed in terms of natural-disaster education. If education is perceived as part of natural-disaster management and governance, greater attention should clearly be dedicated to this activity. In addition to formal education, informal education also raises a series of questions connected with the importance of this type of education. Special attention was drawn to the importance of knowledge that locals have about their region because this aspect of education is important in both

  11. Critical care management of major disasters: a practical guide to disaster preparation in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Shawn P; Niven, Alexander S; Reese, Jason M

    2012-02-01

    Recent events and regulatory mandates have underlined the importance of medical planning and preparedness for catastrophic events. The purpose of this review is to provide a brief summary of current commonly identified threats, an overview of mass critical care management, and a discussion of resource allocation to provide the intensive care unit (ICU) director with a practical guide to help prepare and coordinate the activities of the multidisciplinary critical care team in the event of a disaster.

  12. Mathematical assessment of Canada's pandemic influenza preparedness plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumel, Abba B; Nuño, Miriam; Chowell, Gerardo

    2008-03-01

    The presence of the highly pathogenic avian H5N1 virus in wild bird populations in several regions of the world, together with recurrent cases of H5N1 influenza arising primarily from direct contact with poultry, have highlighted the urgent need for prepared-ness and coordinated global strategies to effectively combat a potential influenza pandemic. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the Canadian pandemic influenza preparedness plan. A mathematical model of the transmission dynamics of influenza was used to keep track of the population according to risk of infection (low or high) and infection status (susceptible, exposed or infectious). The model was parametrized using available Canadian demographic data. The model was then used to evaluate the key components outlined in the Canadian plan. The results indicated that the number of cases, mortalities and hospitalizations estimated in the Canadian plan may have been underestimated; the use of antivirals, administered therapeutically, prophylactically or both, is the most effective single intervention followed by the use of a vaccine and basic public health measures; and the combined use of pharmaceutical interventions (antivirals and vaccine) can dramatically minimize the burden of the pending influenza pandemic in Canada. Based on increasing concerns of Oseltamivir resistance (wide-scale implementation), coupled with the expected unavailability of a suitable vaccine during the early stages of a pandemic, the present study evaluated the potential impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) which were not emphasized in the current Canadian plan. To this end, the findings suggest that the use of NPIs can drastically reduce the burden of a pandemic in Canada. A deterministic model was designed and used to assess Canada's pandemic preparedness plan. The study showed that the estimates of pandemic influenza burden given in the Canada pandemic preparedness plan may be an underestimate, and that Canada

  13. Disaster recovery: mitigating loss through documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisvert, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Flood, fire, tornado, hurricane. Whatever the cause, natural or man-made, the result on an organization can be devastating. Planning and preparation for disaster must include significant attention to disaster recovery. The ability to produce documentation of what existed, what was damaged, recovery costs and income losses will be essential to the claims adjustment process. This article discusses strategies for creating a historical record, leveraging contemporaneous incident command documentation and working with contractors to identify and record disaster-related expenses. © 2011 American Society for Healthcare Risk Management of the American Hospital Association.

  14. A management plan for hospitals and medical centers facing radiation incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Davari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, application of nuclear technology in different industries has largely expanded worldwide. Proportionately, the risk of nuclear incidents and the resulting injuries have, therefore, increased in recent years. Preparedness is an important part of the crisis management cycle; therefore efficient preplanning seems crucial to any crisis management plan. Equipped with facilities and experienced personnel, hospitals naturally engage with the response to disasters. The main purpose of our study was to present a practical management pattern for hospitals and medical centers in case they encounter a nuclear emergency. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive qualitative study, data were collected through experimental observations, sources like Safety manuals released by the International Atomic Energy Agency and interviews with experts to gather their ideas along with Delphi method for polling, and brainstorming. In addition, the 45 experts were interviewed on three targeted using brainstorming and Delphi method. Results: We finally proposed a management plan along with a set of practicality standards for hospitals and medical centers to optimally respond to nuclear medical emergencies when a radiation incident happens nearby. Conclusion: With respect to the great importance of preparedness against nuclear incidents adoption and regular practice of nuclear crisis management codes for hospitals and medical centers seems quite necessary.

  15. A management plan for hospitals and medical centers facing radiation incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davari, Fereshteh; Zahed, Arash

    2015-09-01

    Nowadays, application of nuclear technology in different industries has largely expanded worldwide. Proportionately, the risk of nuclear incidents and the resulting injuries have, therefore, increased in recent years. Preparedness is an important part of the crisis management cycle; therefore efficient preplanning seems crucial to any crisis management plan. Equipped with facilities and experienced personnel, hospitals naturally engage with the response to disasters. The main purpose of our study was to present a practical management pattern for hospitals and medical centers in case they encounter a nuclear emergency. In this descriptive qualitative study, data were collected through experimental observations, sources like Safety manuals released by the International Atomic Energy Agency and interviews with experts to gather their ideas along with Delphi method for polling, and brainstorming. In addition, the 45 experts were interviewed on three targeted using brainstorming and Delphi method. We finally proposed a management plan along with a set of practicality standards for hospitals and medical centers to optimally respond to nuclear medical emergencies when a radiation incident happens nearby. With respect to the great importance of preparedness against nuclear incidents adoption and regular practice of nuclear crisis management codes for hospitals and medical centers seems quite necessary.

  16. Co-designing communication and hazard preparedness strategies at Turrialba volcano, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, Saskia; Avard, Geoffroy; Martinez, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Globally volcanic activity results in huge human, social, environmental and economic losses. Disaster risk reduction (DRR) is the concept and systematic practice of reducing disaster risks and associated losses through a wide range of strategies, including efforts to increase knowledge through education and outreach. However, recent studies have shown a substantial gap between risk reduction actions taken at national and local levels, with national policies showing little change at the community level. Yet it is at local levels are where DRR efforts can have the biggest impact. This research focuses on communicating hazard preparedness strategies at Turrialba volcano, Costa Rica. Located in the Central Cordillera just 35 km northeast of Costa Rica's capital city San Jose this 3,340 m high active stratovolcano looms over Costa Rica's Central Valley, the social and economic hub of the country. Following progressive increases in degassing and seismic activity Turrialba resumed activity in 1996 after more than 100 years of quiescence. Since 2007 it has continuously emitted gas and since 2010 intermittent phreatic explosions accompanied by ash emissions have occurred. Despite high levels of hazard salience individuals and communities are not or under-prepared to deal with a volcanic eruption. In light of Turrialba's continued activity engaging local communities with disaster risk management is key. At the local levels culture (collective behaviours, interactions, cognitive constructs, and affective understanding) is an important factor in shaping peoples' views, understanding and response to natural phenomena. As such an increasing number of academic studies and intergovernmental organisations advocate for the incorporation of cultural context into disaster risk reduction strategies, which firstly requires documenting people's perception. Therefore approaching community disaster preparedness from a user-centred perspective, through an iterative and collaborative

  17. Emergency preparedness in the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desrosiers, A.E.

    1983-03-01

    This speech discusses safety issues facing nuclear power generation in terms of their contribution to increased costs of construction. The view is advanced that improvements in regulatory methods could be achieved by improvements in probabilistic risk assessment. The major deficiency in risk assessment is that the consequence assessments are not realistic and accident consequences not well understood. It is demonstrated that realistic modelling of evacuation times and other emergency preparedness capabilities can significantly reduce the calculated risk of operating nuclear power plants

  18. Developing utility emergency preparedness exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeblom, K.

    1986-01-01

    Utility emergency preparedness exercises constitute an important link in upgrading the response to nuclear power plant emergencies. Various emergency exercises are arranged annually at the Loviisa nuclear power plant. The on-site simulator is a practical tool in developing suitable accident scenarios and demonstrating them to the site emergency players and spectators. The exercises concentrate on emergency management and radiological activities. It is important to create a high degree of motivation. (author)

  19. Radiological emergency preparedness (REP) program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiatkowski, D.H.

    1995-01-01

    This talk focuses on the accomplishments of Radiological Emergency Preparedness Program. Major topics include the following: strengthening the partnership between FEMA, the States, and the Industry; the Standard Exercise Report Format (SERF); Multi-year performance partnership agreement (MYPPA); new REP Program guidance; comprehensive exercise program; federal radiological emergency response plan (FRERP); international interest; REP user fee; implementation EPA PAGs and Dose Limits; Contamination monitoring standard for portal monitors; guidance documents and training

  20. Hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullins, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The challenge could be briefly seen in these terms: hospitals as places for treatment where there’s a technology focus and hospitals for healing where there’s a human focus. In the 60s - 70s wave of new hospital building, an emphasis on technology can be seen. It’s time to move from the technology...... focus. It is not enough to consider only the factors of function within architecture, hygiene, economy and logistics. We also need to look at aspects of aesthetics, bringing nature into the building, art, color, acoustics, volume and space as we perceive them. Contemporary methods and advances...... placed, accessible, provided with plenty of greenery, and maximize sensory impressions, providing sounds, smells, sight and the possibility to be touched. This is a very well documented area I can say. Hygiene, in terms of architecture can give attention to hand wash facilities and their positioning...

  1. Disaster Managers’ Perception of Effective Visual Risk Communication for General Public

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charriere, M.K.M.; Bogaard, T.A.; Mostert, E.

    2012-01-01

    Risk communication is one of the measures that should be implemented to increase the awareness and preparedness of the general public in order to attain disaster risk reduction. Among the various forms that can be used in communication campaigns, visualizations are appropriate to disseminate

  2. Schools As Post-Disaster Shelters: Planning and Management Guidelines for Districts and Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Office of Emergency Services, Sacramento.

    This guidebook outlines a method for preparing school facilities and personnel in the event that schools are needed for disaster shelters. It serves as a blueprint for planning and preparedness. Chapter 1 provides descriptions of actual incidents in which California schools served as emergency shelters. Chapter 2 describes schools' legal…

  3. Earthquake Preparedness Among Japanese Hemodialysis Patients in Prefectures Heavily Damaged by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugisawa, Hidehiro; Shimizu, Yumiko; Kumagai, Tamaki; Sugisaki, Hiroaki; Ohira, Seiji; Shinoda, Toshio

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the factors related to earthquake preparedness in Japanese hemodialysis patients. We focused on three aspects of the related factors: health condition factors, social factors, and the experience of disasters. A mail survey of all the members of the Japan Association of Kidney Disease Patients in three Japanese prefectures (N = 4085) was conducted in March, 2013. We obtained 1841 valid responses for analysis. The health factors covered were: activities of daily living (ADL), mental distress, primary renal diseases, and the duration of dialysis. The social factors were: socioeconomic status, family structure, informational social support, and the provision of information regarding earthquake preparedness from dialysis facilities. The results show that the average percentage of participants that had met each criterion of earthquake preparedness in 2013 was 53%. Hemodialysis patients without disabled ADL, without mental distress, and requiring longer periods of dialysis, were likely to meet more of the earthquake preparedness criteria. Hemodialysis patients who had received informational social support from family or friends, had lived with spouse and children in comparison to living alone, and had obtained information regarding earthquake preparedness from dialysis facilities, were also likely to meet more of the earthquake preparedness criteria. © 2017 International Society for Apheresis, Japanese Society for Apheresis, and Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy.

  4. PERCC Tools: Public Health Preparedness for Clinicians

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-08-29

    CDC’s Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response funds Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Centers (PERRCs) to examine components of the public health system. This podcast is an overview of mental and behavioral health tools developed by the Johns Hopkins PERRC.  Created: 8/29/2011 by Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB)/Joint Information Center (JIC); Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 8/30/2011.

  5. Managing anaesthetic provision for global disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, R M

    2017-12-01

    The numbers of people affected by large-scale disasters has increased in recent decades. Disasters produce a huge burden of surgical morbidity at a time when the affected country is least able to respond. For this reason an international disaster response is often required. For many years this disaster response was not coordinated. The response consisted of what was available not what was needed and standards of care varied widely producing a healthcare lottery for the affected population. In recent years the World Health organisation has initiated the Emergency Medical Team programme to coordinate the response to disasters and set minimum standards for responding teams. Anaesthetists have a key role to play in Level 2 Surgical Field Hospitals. The disaster context produces a number of logistical challenges that directly impact on the anaesthetist requiring adaptation of anaesthetic techniques from their everyday practice. The context in which they will be working and the wider scope of practice that will be expected from them in the field mandates that deploying anaesthetists should be trained for disaster response. There have been significant improvements in recent years in the speed of response, equipment availability, coordination and training for disasters. Future challenges include increasing local disaster response capacity, agreeing international standards for training and improving data collection to allow for future research and improvement in disaster response. The goal of this review article is to provide an understanding of the disaster context and what logistical challenges it provides. There has been a move during the last decade from a globally uncoordinated, unregulated response, with no consensus on standards, to a globally coordinated response through the World Health Organisation (WHO). A classification system for responding Emergency Medical Teams (EMTs) and a set of agreed minimum standards has been defined. This review outlines the scope of

  6. Renal services disaster planning: lessons learnt from the 2011 Queensland floods and North Queensland cyclone experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David W; Hayes, Bronwyn; Gray, Nicholas A; Hawley, Carmel; Hole, Janet; Mantha, Murty

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, Queensland dialysis services experienced two unprecedented natural disasters within weeks of each other. Floods in south-east Queensland and Tropical Cyclone Yasi in North Queensland caused widespread flooding, property damage and affected the provision of dialysis services, leading to Australia's largest evacuation of dialysis patients. This paper details the responses to the disasters and examines what worked and what lessons were learnt. Recommendations are made for dialysis units in relation to disaster preparedness, response and recovery. © 2012 The Authors. Nephrology © 2012 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  7. Research on evacuation planning as nuclear emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Kazuya

    2007-10-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has introduced new concepts of precautionary action zone (PAZ) and urgent protective action planning zone (UPZ) in 'Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency' (GS-R-2 (2002)), in order to reduce substantially the risk of severe deterministic health effects. Open literature based research was made to reveal problems on evacuation planning and the preparedness for nuclear emergency arising from introduction of PAZ into Japan that has applied the emergency planning zone (EPZ) concept currently. In regard to application of PAZ, it should be noted that the requirements for preparedness and response for a nuclear or radiological emergency are not only dimensional but also timely. The principal issue is implementation of evacuation of precautionary decided area within several hours. The logic of evacuation planning for a nuclear emergency and the methods of advance public education and information in the U.S. is effective for even prompt evacuation to the outside of the EPZ. As concerns evacuation planning for a nuclear emergency in Japan, several important issues to be considered were found, that is, selection of public reception centers which are outside area of the EPZ, an unique reception center assigned to each emergency response planning area, public education and information of practical details about the evacuation plan in advance, and necessity of the evacuation time estimates. To establish a practical evacuation planning guide for nuclear emergencies, further researches on application of traffic simulation technology to evacuation time estimates and on knowledge of actual evacuation experience in natural disasters and chemical plant accidents are required. (author)

  8. Disaster related heat illness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Yasufumi

    2012-01-01

    Explained and discussed are the outline of heat illness (HI), its raised risk and measures taken at the disaster of the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident (FNPPA; Mar. 2011). High temperature and humid environment induce HI through the fervescence and dehydration resulting in the intestinal ischemia/hypoxia and organ failure. Epidemiologic data of the heatstroke in Japan suggest its seemingly parallel incidence to seasonal hotness of the summer. HI is classified in either classical (non-exertional) or exertional heatstroke, both with severity of I (slight), II (slight symptom of the central nervous system (CNS); necessary for consultation) and III (most serious; having dysfunction of CNS, organ or coagulation). Therapy depends on the severity: I for the first aid on site, II necessary for carrying to hospital and III for hospitalization. Protection is possible by personal, neighbors' and managers' carefulness, and supply of sufficient water and minerals. Risk of HI was suddenly raised at taking measures to meet with the FNPPA. Japanese Association for Acute Medicine (JAAM) promptly organized JAAM-FNPPA Working Group to treat the emergent multiple incidents including the radiation exposure and HI as well. Exertional HI was mainly in labors wearing rather sealed closes to protect radiation to work for steps of the Accident, and which was similar to evacuees temporarily entering the evacuation area for visit to their own vacant houses. In the summer, classical HI was also a problem mainly in elderly living in the evacuation dwellings. Document of HI incidents and patients at FNPPA should be recorded for the reference to possible disaster in future. (T.T.)

  9. System-level planning, coordination, and communication: care of the critically ill and injured during pandemics and disasters: CHEST consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dichter, Jeffrey R; Kanter, Robert K; Dries, David; Luyckx, Valerie; Lim, Matthew L; Wilgis, John; Anderson, Michael R; Sarani, Babak; Hupert, Nathaniel; Mutter, Ryan; Devereaux, Asha V; Christian, Michael D; Kissoon, Niranjan

    2014-10-01

    System-level planning involves uniting hospitals and health systems, local/regional government agencies, emergency medical services, and other health-care entities involved in coordinating and enabling care in a major disaster. We reviewed the literature and sought expert opinions concerning system-level planning and engagement for mass critical care due to disasters or pandemics and offer suggestions for system-planning, coordination, communication, and response. The suggestions in this chapter are important for all of those involved in a pandemic or disaster with multiple critically ill or injured patients, including front-line clinicians, hospital administrators, and public health or government officials. The American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) consensus statement development process was followed in developing suggestions. Task Force members met in person to develop nine key questions believed to be most relevant for system-planning, coordination, and communication. A systematic literature review was then performed for relevant articles and documents, reports, and other publications reported since 1993. No studies of sufficient quality were identified upon which to make evidence-based recommendations. Therefore, the panel developed expert opinion-based suggestions using a modified Delphi process. Suggestions were developed and grouped according to the following thematic elements: (1) national government support of health-care coalitions/regional health authorities (HC/RHAs), (2) teamwork within HC/RHAs, (3) system-level communication, (4) system-level surge capacity and capability, (5) pediatric patients and special populations, (6) HC/RHAs and networks, (7) models of advanced regional care systems, and (8) the use of simulation for preparedness and planning. System-level planning is essential to provide care for large numbers of critically ill patients because of disaster or pandemic. It also entails a departure from the routine, independent system and

  10. Health Management in Disasters in Iran: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Nakhaei

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background:  Disaster  management  relies  on  the  prediction  of  problems  and  providing necessary preparations at the right time and place. In this study, researchers intended to explore previous experiences of health disaster management. Materials and Methods: This study conducted using qualitative content analysis method. Participants  were  selected  purposefully  and  data  were  collected  through  interviews, observation, and relevant documents. Results: Transcribed data from 18 interviews, field notes, and other documents were analyzed. In data analysis, “reactive management” was emerged as the main theme. It included some categories such as “exposure shock,” “nondeliberative relief,” “lack of comprehensive health disaster plan,” “lack of preparedness,” and “poor coordination in health service delivery” as well as contextual factors. Conclusion: The results clarified deep perception of participants’ experiences about health management in disasters. The professionals and nonprofessionals’ emotion-based reactions and behaviors, if accompanied with deficiencies in planning and preparedness, can lead to ineffective services and aggravate the damages

  11. Development of procedure for emergency response in the case of combined disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    It has been discussed that there were many differences to international standards and the delay for prior planning implementation of nuclear emergency preparedness. Based on this points, since fiscal year 2011, the framework for execution of the precautionary action etc. in consideration of the international standard to the Guide 'Emergency Preparedness for Nuclear Facilities' has been implemented by NSC (Nuclear Safety Commission) of Japan. On the other hand, it was clarified that there would be many problems for decision making strategies of protective actions at the nuclear disaster (combined disaster) when the natural disasters such as earthquakes and tsunamis, the flood, the heavy snow, and the large-scale fire, etc. occurred, and implementation of criteria and procedure for protective action execution through the experience with protective actions after the East Japan large-scale earthquake. The problem arrangements and data preparations to develop the emergency protective action procedure for the emergency preparedness manuals corresponding to the combined disasters are scheduled to be executed in this study for three years from the fiscal year 2011 based on the experience and the finding in the East Japan large-scale earthquake. Development and verification of the method of Evacuation Time Estimate (ETE) at the combined disaster are executed in this year. (author)

  12. The public's preparedness: self-reliance, flashbulb memories, and conservative values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Michael R; Dyen, Susannah; Elliott, Stacey

    2013-06-01

    We surveyed how many US residents engaged in 6 preparedness activities and measured the relationship between engagement and personal experience in hazard events, flashbulb memories of major events, self-reliance, and other indicators of a conservative philosophy. We used random digit dialing for national landline (75%) and cell phone (25%) surveys of 1930 US residents from July 6, 2011, to September 9, 2011; 1080 of the sample lived near 6 US Department of Energy nuclear waste management facilities and 850 were a national random sample. The median respondent engaged in 3 of the 6 activities; those who disproportionately engaged in 4 or more had experienced a hazard event, had distressing and strong flashbulb memories of major hazard events, and had strong feelings about the need for greater self-reliance. The results for the national and US Department of Energy site-specific surveys were almost identical. A cadre of US residents are disproportionately engaged in disaster preparedness, and they typically have stronger negative memories of past disasters and tend to be self-reliant. How their efforts can or should be integrated into local preparedness efforts is unclear.

  13. The Public’s Preparedness: Self-Reliance, Flashbulb Memories, and Conservative Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyen, Susannah; Elliott, Stacey

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We surveyed how many US residents engaged in 6 preparedness activities and measured the relationship between engagement and personal experience in hazard events, flashbulb memories of major events, self-reliance, and other indicators of a conservative philosophy. Methods. We used random digit dialing for national landline (75%) and cell phone (25%) surveys of 1930 US residents from July 6, 2011, to September 9, 2011; 1080 of the sample lived near 6 US Department of Energy nuclear waste management facilities and 850 were a national random sample. Results. The median respondent engaged in 3 of the 6 activities; those who disproportionately engaged in 4 or more had experienced a hazard event, had distressing and strong flashbulb memories of major hazard events, and had strong feelings about the need for greater self-reliance. The results for the national and US Department of Energy site–specific surveys were almost identical. Conclusions. A cadre of US residents are disproportionately engaged in disaster preparedness, and they typically have stronger negative memories of past disasters and tend to be self-reliant. How their efforts can or should be integrated into local preparedness efforts is unclear. PMID:23597367

  14. Nuclear regulatory policy concept on safety, security, safeguards and emergency preparedness (3S+EP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilyas, Zurias

    2009-01-01

    Regulatory Policy is formulated in regulations that stipulate the assurance of workers and public safety and environmental protection. Legislation and regulations on nuclear energy should consider nuclear safety, security and safeguards, as well as nuclear emergency preparedness (3S+EP) and liability for nuclear damage. Specific requirements stipulated in international conventions and agreements should also be taken into account. Regulatory Policy is formulated in regulations that stipulate the assurance of workers and public safety and environmental protection. Legislation and regulations on nuclear energy should consider nuclear safety, security and safeguards, as well as nuclear emergency preparedness (3S+EP) and liability for nuclear damage. Specific requirements stipulated in international conventions and agreements should also be taken into account. By undertaking proper regulatory oversight on Safety, Security and Emergency Preparedness (3S+EP) as an integrated and comprehensive system, safe and secure use of nuclear energy can be assured. Licence requirements and conditions should fulfil regulatory requirements pertaining to 3S+EP for nuclear installation as an integrated system. An effective emergency capacity that can be immediately mobilized is important. The capacity in protecting the personnel before, during and after the disaster should also be planned. Thus, proper emergency preparedness should be supported by adequate resources. The interface between safety, security, safeguards and emergency preparedness has to be set forth in nuclear regulations, such as regulatory requirements; 3S+EP; components, systems and structures of nuclear installations and human resources. Licensing regulations should stipulate, among others, DIQ, installations security system, safety analysis report, emergency preparedness requirements and necessary human resources that meet the 3S+EP requirements.

  15. Does disaster education of teenagers translate into better survival knowledge, knowledge of skills, and adaptive behavioral change? A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codeanu, Tudor A; Celenza, Antonio; Jacobs, Ian

    2014-12-01

    An increasing number of people are affected worldwide by the effects of disasters, and the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR) has recognized the need for a radical paradigm shift in the preparedness and combat of the effects of disasters through the implementation of specific actions. At the governmental level, these actions translate into disaster and risk reduction education and activities at school. Fifteen years after the UNISDR declaration, there is a need to know if the current methods of disaster education of the teenage population enhance their knowledge, knowledge of skills in disasters, and whether there is a behavioral change which would improve their chances for survival post disaster. This multidisciplinary systematic literature review showed that the published evidence regarding enhancing the disaster-related knowledge of teenagers and the related problem solving skills and behavior is piecemeal in design, approach, and execution in spite of consensus on the detrimental effects on injury rates and survival. There is some evidence that isolated school-based intervention enhances the theoretical disaster knowledge which may also extend to practical skills; however, disaster behavioral change is not forthcoming. It seems that the best results are obtained by combining theoretical and practical activities in school, family, community, and self-education programs. There is a still a pressing need for a concerted educational drive to achieve disaster preparedness behavioral change. School leavers' lack of knowledge, knowledge of skills, and adaptive behavioral change are detrimental to their chances of survival.

  16. Local Social Services in Nordic countries in Times of Disaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eydal, Guðný Björk; Ómarsdóttir, Ingibjörg Lilja; Dahlberg, Rasmus

    of such disasters is on the rise according to forecasts. In order to enhance resilience and preparedness of those most vulnerable in disasters, the involvement of local social services in the emergency management system is of vital importance. The literature shows how social services can enhance social and human......The project focused on the emergency management systems in the five Nordic countries. It investigated whether local social services have a formal role in the contingency planning of the systems. The project was part of The Nordic Welfare Watch research project during the Icelandic Presidency...... Program in the Nordic Council of Ministers 2014-2016. The council financed the project. The main findings show that Finland, Norway and Sweden specifically address the role of social services in times of disaster in their legal frameworks on emergency management. Finland and Norway also address the role...

  17. Social justice in pandemic preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBruin, Debra; Liaschenko, Joan; Marshall, Mary Faith

    2012-04-01

    Pandemic influenza planning in the United States violates the demands of social justice in 2 fundamental respects: it embraces the neutrality of procedural justice at the expense of more substantive concern with health disparities, thus perpetuating a predictable and preventable social injustice, and it fails to move beyond lament to practical planning for alleviating barriers to accessing care. A pragmatic social justice approach, addressing both health disparities and access barriers, should inform pandemic preparedness. Achieving social justice goals in pandemic response is challenging, but strategies are available to overcome the obstacles. The public engagement process of one state's pandemic ethics project influenced the development of these strategies.

  18. An Example of City Disaster Plan in the Context of Integrated Disaster Management with Un sufficient Legal Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kepekci, D.

    2007-01-01

    Disaster management of a city, in coherent, stable and true manner, were realized by understanding and organizing of the disaster plan. When we consider the earthquake hazard of Marmara Region, it was investigated by the scientific studies how -a world city- Istanbul were effected this earthquake. When we consider the scientific data and we take a base the current legal structure of our country, the aim of the disaster plan is to provide the fist and emergency aid for the citizens when the destructive earthquake were occurred and effected the general life. This disaster plan includes base of the coordination and helping each other of the activity which all institution and organizations will do during possible disaster. The aims of making of plan is to provide the cooperation and collaboration between before the disaster and to act urgently during the disaster, and to provide the following necessary activity. This necessary activity as main headlines are; the providing of communication and transportation; regulation of traffic; rescue; emergency medical aid, to transportation patient and injured people to the hospitals; to put out fire; to provide security and public order; eating, dressing, heating and lighting studies; to provide temporary housing; the burial of dead citizens; to remove wreckage; to repair and to re-provide the electrical, water and canalization construction. In this study, it will mainly be presented Istanbul city disaster plan. Disaster plan of this city were produced by the intensive and sacrificial efforts with Turkish legal system. After that, disaster plan must updated as soon as possible. However government must regulate current legal system ( or the body of current law) related disaster plan. City disaster plan, which even construct well, include only the operations after the disaster. Before disaster, methods of preventive precaution against the disaster must add the plan with applicable legal system

  19. Communicating public health preparedness information to pregnant and postpartum women: an assessment of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention web pages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Brianna; Felter, Elizabeth; Downes, Amia; Trauth, Jeanette

    2015-04-01

    Pregnant and postpartum women have special needs during public health emergencies but often have inadequate levels of disaster preparedness. Thus, improving maternal emergency preparedness is a public health priority. More research is needed to identify the strengths and weaknesses of various approaches to how preparedness information is communicated to these women. A sample of web pages from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention intended to address the preparedness needs of pregnant and postpartum populations was examined for suitability for this audience. Five of the 7 web pages examined were considered adequate. One web page was considered not suitable and one the raters split between not suitable and adequate. None of the resources examined were considered superior. If these resources are considered some of the best available to pregnant and postpartum women, more work is needed to improve the suitability of educational resources, especially for audiences with low literacy and low incomes.

  20. Strategies for Improved Hospital Response to Mass Casualty Incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TariVerdi, Mersedeh; Miller-Hooks, Elise; Kirsch, Thomas

    2018-03-19

    Mass casualty incidents are a concern in many urban areas. A community's ability to cope with such events depends on the capacities and capabilities of its hospitals for handling a sudden surge in demand of patients with resource-intensive and specialized medical needs. This paper uses a whole-hospital simulation model to replicate medical staff, resources, and space for the purpose of investigating hospital responsiveness to mass casualty incidents. It provides details of probable demand patterns of different mass casualty incident types in terms of patient categories and arrival patterns, and accounts for related transient system behavior over the response period. Using the layout of a typical urban hospital, it investigates a hospital's capacity and capability to handle mass casualty incidents of various sizes with various characteristics, and assesses the effectiveness of designed demand management and capacity-expansion strategies. Average performance improvements gained through capacity-expansion strategies are quantified and best response actions are identified. Capacity-expansion strategies were found to have superadditive benefits when combined. In fact, an acceptable service level could be achieved by implementing only 2 to 3 of the 9 studied enhancement strategies. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;page 1 of 13).

  1. Health care logistics: who has the ball during disaster?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanvactor, Jerry D

    2011-05-10

    In contemporary organizations, a wide gamut of options is available for sustaining and supporting health care operations. When disaster strikes, despite having tenable plans for routine replenishment and operations, many organizations find themselves ill-prepared, ill-equipped, and without effective mechanisms in place to sustain operations during the immediate aftermath of a crisis. Health care operations can be abruptly halted due to the non-availability of supply. The purpose of this work is to add to a necessary, growing body of works related specifically to health care logistics preparedness and disaster mitigation. Logistics management is a specialized genre of expertise within the health care industry and is largely contributive to the success or failure of health care organizations. Logistics management requires extensive collaboration among multiple stakeholders-internal and external to an organization. Effective processes and procedures can be largely contributive to the success or failure of organizational operations. This article contributes to the closure of an obvious gap in professional and academic literature related to disaster health care logistics management and provides timely insight into a potential problem for leaders industry-wide. One critical aspect of disaster planning is regard for competent logistics management and the effective provision of necessary items when they are needed most. In many communities, there seems to be little evidence available regarding health care logistics involvement in disaster planning; at times, evidence of planning efforts perceptibly end at intra-organizational doors within facilities. Strategic planners are being continually reminded that health care organizations serve a principal role in emergency preparedness planning and must be prepared to fulfill the associated possibilities without notification. The concern is that not enough attention is being paid to repeated lessons being observed in disasters and

  2. PERCC Tools: Public Health Preparedness for Clinicians

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    CDC’s Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response funds Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Centers (PERRCs) to examine components of the public health system. This podcast is an overview of mental and behavioral health tools developed by the Johns Hopkins PERRC.

  3. The politics of risk in the Philippines: comparing state and NGO perceptions of disaster management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankoff, Greg; Hilhorst, Dorothea

    2009-10-01

    It is now generally appreciated that what constitutes vulnerability to one person is not necessarily perceived as such by the next. Different actors 'see' disasters as different types of events and as a result they prepare for, manage and record them in very different ways. This paper explores what different perceptions of vulnerability mean in terms of the understanding and practices of two significant sets of actors and stakeholders involved in disaster preparedness and management in the Philippines: the state and NGOs. Approaches to disaster are not just a function of people's perceptions of disaster risk but also of their understanding of the prevailing social order and social relations. Despite a shared vocabulary-which increasingly presents disasters as processes rather than events, takes a proactive rather than a reactive approach, and favours the inclusion of stakeholders rather than solely relying on technocratic management-different realities continue to make for different responses.

  4. Prevention and treatment of traumatic brain injury due to rapid-onset natural disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L. Regens

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The prevention and treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI attributable to rapid-onset natural disasters is a major challenge confronting disaster preparedness planners and emergency medical personnel responding to those incidents. The kinetic energy released by rapid-onset natural disasters such as earthquakes, hurricanes or typhoons, and tornadoes can cause mild, moderate or severe TBIs. As a result, neurotrauma is a major risk factor for mortality and morbidity outcomes within the spatial domain impacted by a rapid-onset natural disaster. This review article elucidates major challenges associated with immediate emergency medical response, long-term care, and prevention of post-event increases in pediatric TBIs because of child abuse when rapid-onset natural disasters occur.

  5. A national survey of terrorism preparedness training among pediatric, family practice, and emergency medicine programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Shelly D; Bush, Anneke C; Lynch, Julia A

    2006-09-01

    Domestic terrorism is a real threat focusing on a need to engage in effective emergency preparedness planning and training. Front-line physicians are an important component of any emergency preparedness plan. Potential victims of an attack include children who have unique physiologic and psychological vulnerabilities in disasters. Front-line providers need to have adequate training to effectively participate in local planning initiatives and to recognize and treat casualties including children. The goal of the survey was to assess the current state of terrorism preparedness training, including child victims, by emergency medicine, family practice, and pediatric residency programs in the United States and to assess methods of training and barriers to establishing effective training. A survey was e-mailed to a comprehensive list of all US pediatric, family practice, and emergency medicine residency programs 3 times between September 2003 and January 2004. The survey measured the perceived risk of terrorist attack, level of training by type of attack, level of training regarding children, method of training, and barriers to training. Overall, 21% of programs responded (46 of 182 pediatric, 75 of 400 family practice, and 29 of 125 emergency medicine programs). Across all of the event types, emergency medicine programs were more likely to report adequate/comprehensive training. However, terrorism preparedness funding, these data suggest that we are failing to provide adequate training to front-line providers who may care for children in a catastrophic domestic terrorist event.

  6. Ebola Preparedness Planning and Collaboration by Two Health Systems in Wisconsin, September to December 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Kathryn Kraft; Keuler, Megan; Safdar, Nasia; Hunter, Paul

    2016-08-01

    We describe the collaborative approach used by 2 health systems in Wisconsin to plan and prepare for the threat of Ebola virus disease. This was a descriptive study of the preparedness planning, infection prevention, and collaboration with public health agencies undertaken by 2 health systems in Wisconsin between September and December 2014. The preparedness approach used by the 2 health systems relied successfully on their robust infrastructure for planning and infection prevention. In the setting of rapidly evolving guidance and unprecedented fear regarding Ebola, the 2 health systems enhanced their response through collaboration and coordination with each other and government public health agencies. Key lessons learned included the importance of a rigorous planning process, robust infection prevention practices, and coalitions between public and private health sectors. The potential threat of Ebola virus disease stimulated emergency preparedness in which acute care facilities played a leading role in the public health response. Leveraging the existing expertise of health systems is essential when faced with emerging infectious diseases. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:691-697).

  7. Involving Youth in Community Emergency Preparedness: Impacts of a Multistate Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Powell

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The National Preparedness Guidelines (2007 state, “as uniformed responders account for less than 1% of the total U.S. population, it is clear that citizens must be better prepared, trained, and practiced on how best to take care of themselves and assist others in those first crucial hours during and after a catastrophic incident.” This is increasingly more evident due to recent disasters such as hurricane Katrina. The Alert, Evacuate and Shelter (AES program identified and trained youth/adult teams to use geospatial technology to map shelter locations and evacuation routes. Training began with team building activities to strengthen and build youth/adult preparedness partnerships. Program evaluations revealed a major shift in thinking about the positive potential level of involvement of youth in emergencies. Survey results immediately following trainings revealed statistically significant increases in participant knowledge gain regarding emergency preparedness. Follow-up evaluations indicate the success of this project in meeting community preparedness goals.

  8. [One year after the Great Tohoku Disaster].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Masashi

    2012-01-01

    After the great earthquake of March 11, 2011, at least seven hospitals with 723 beds along the Miyagi Prefecture northern coastline were so devastated they could no longer function, leaving only several available hospitals. The two crucial issues thus became maintaining communications and regional transport. Phones and wireless were knocked out in most hospitals and areas. Many of the severe cases had to be brought to the Tohoku University Hospital at Sendai from the above the hospitals. Tohoku University Hospital and other medical facilities in the Tohoku district were in a terrible crisis of electricity shortage. It was a critical situation, particularly for patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis requiring artificial ventilation. We should hurry to submit a guideline for medical transportation for patients with neuromuscular diseases requiring artificial ventilation. We also should research the disaster medicine in the field of neurology, and prevent the neurological disease progressing after the earthquake. A large number of hospitals in coastal areas suffered devastating damage. We do not think it is feasible or even reasonable to restore such hospitals to what they were before the disaster. We started Tohoku Medical Megabank Organization as a disaster recovery model for revitalizing the areas reported to have scarce medical services. The project provides supports to local medical services, constructs a community coalition for medical information, sets up a biobank based on large-scale cohort studies, and provides educational training to produce highly specialized medical practitioners.

  9. The Rapid Disaster Evaluation System (RaDES): A Plan to Improve Global Disaster Response by Privatizing the Assessment Component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iserson, Kenneth V

    2017-09-01

    Emergency medicine personnel frequently respond to major disasters. They expect to have an effective and efficient management system to elegantly allocate available resources. Despite claims to the contrary, experience demonstrates this rarely occurs. This article describes privatizing disaster assessment using a single-purposed, accountable, and well-trained organization. The goal is to achieve elegant disaster assessment, rather than repeatedly exhorting existing groups to do it. The Rapid Disaster Evaluation System (RaDES) would quickly and efficiently assess a postdisaster population's needs. It would use an accountable nongovernmental agency's teams with maximal training, mobility, and flexibility. Designed to augment the Inter-Agency Standing Committee's 2015 Emergency Response Preparedness Plan, RaDES would provide the initial information needed to avoid haphazard and overlapping disaster responses. Rapidly deployed teams would gather information from multiple sources and continually communicate those findings to their base, which would then disseminate them to disaster coordinators in a concise, coherent, and transparent way. The RaDES concept represents an elegant, minimally bureaucratic, and effective rapid response to major disasters. However, its implementation faces logistical, funding, and political obstacles. Developing and maintaining RaDES would require significant funding and political commitment to coordinate the numerous agencies that claim to be performing the same tasks. Although simulations can demonstrate efficacy and deficiencies, only field tests will demonstrate RaDES' power to improve interagency coordination and decrease the cost of major disaster response. At the least, the RaDES concept should serve as a model for discussing how to practicably improve our current chaotic disaster responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Factors Associated with Discussion of Disasters by Final Year High School Students: An International Cross-sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codreanu, Tudor A; Celenza, Antonio; Alabdulkarim, Ali A Rahman

    2015-08-01

    Introduction The effect on behavioral change of educational programs developed to reduce the community's disaster informational vulnerability is not known. This study describes the relationship of disaster education, age, sex, and country-specific characteristics with students discussing disasters with friends and family, a measure of proactive behavioral change in disaster preparedness. Three thousand eight hundred twenty-nine final year high school students were enrolled in an international, multi-center prospective, cross-sectional study using a pre-validated written questionnaire. In order to obtain information from different educational systems, from countries with different risk of exposure to disasters, and from countries with varied economic development status, students from Bahrain, Croatia, Cyprus, Egypt, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Romania, and Timor-Leste were surveyed. Logistic regression analyses examined the relationship between the likelihood of discussing disasters with friends and family (dependent variable) and a series of independent variables (age, gender, participation in school lessons about disasters, existence of a national disaster educational program, ability to list pertinent example of disasters, country's economic group, and disaster risk index) captured by the questionnaire or available as published data. There was no statistically significant relationship between age, awareness of one's surroundings, planning for the future, and foreseeing consequences of events with discussions about potential hazards and risks with friends and/or family. The national educational budget did not have a statistically significant influence. Participants who lived in a low disaster risk and high income Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) country were more likely to discuss disasters. While either school lessons or a national disaster education program had a unique, significant contribution to the model, neither had a better

  11. Assessing Households Preparedness for Earthquakes: An Exploratory Study in the Development of a Valid and Reliable Persian-version Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardalan, Ali; Sohrabizadeh, Sanaz

    2016-02-25

    Iran is placed among countries suffering from the highest number of earthquake casualties. Household preparedness, as one component of risk reduction efforts, is often supported in quake-prone areas. In Iran, lack of a valid and reliable household preparedness tool was reported by previous disaster studies. This study is aimed to fill this gap by developing a valid and reliable tool for assessing household preparedness in the event of an earthquake.  This survey was conducted through three phases including literature review and focus group discussions with the participation of eight key informants, validity measurements and reliability measurements. Field investigation was completed with the participation of 450 households within three provinces of Iran. Content validity, construct validity, the use of factor analysis; internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and test-retest reliability were carried out to develop the tool.  Based on the CVIs, ranging from 0.80 to 0.100, and exploratory factor analysis with factor loading of more than 0.5, all items were valid. The amount of Cronbach's alpha (0.7) and test-retest examination by Spearman correlations indicated that the scale was also reliable. The final instrument consisted of six categories and 18 questions including actions at the time of earthquakes, nonstructural safety, structural safety, hazard map, communications, drill, and safety skills.  Using a Persian-version tool that is adjusted to the socio-cultural determinants and native language may result in more trustful information on earthquake preparedness. It is suggested that disaster managers and researchers apply this tool in their future household preparedness projects. Further research is needed to make effective policies and plans for transforming preparedness knowledge into behavior.

  12. A new preparedness policy for EMS logistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seokcheon

    2017-03-01

    Response time in emergency medical services (EMS) is defined as the interval for an ambulance to arrive the scene after receipt of a 911 call. When several ambulances are available upon the receipt of a new call, a decision of selecting an ambulance has to be made in an effort to reduce response time. Dispatching the closest unit available is commonly used in practice; however, recently the Preparedness policy was designed that is in a simplistic form yet being capable of securing a long-term efficiency. This research aims to improve the Preparedness policy, resolving several critical issues inherent in the current form of the policy. The new Preparedness policy incorporates a new metric of preparedness based on the notion of centrality and involves a tuning parameter, weight on preparedness, which has to be appropriately chosen according to operational scenario. Computational experiment shows that the new policy significantly improves the former policy robustly in various scenarios.

  13. Assessing Emergency Preparedness and Response Capacity Using Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response Methodology: Portsmouth, Virginia, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurkjian, Katie M; Winz, Michelle; Yang, Jun; Corvese, Kate; Colón, Ana; Levine, Seth J; Mullen, Jessica; Ruth, Donna; Anson-Dwamena, Rexford; Bayleyegn, Tesfaye; Chang, David S

    2016-04-01

    For the past decade, emergency preparedness campaigns have encouraged households to meet preparedness metrics, such as having a household evacuation plan and emergency supplies of food, water, and medication. To estimate current household preparedness levels and to enhance disaster response planning, the Virginia Department of Health with remote technical assistance from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducted a community health assessment in 2013 in Portsmouth, Virginia. Using the Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) methodology with 2-stage cluster sampling, we randomly selected 210 households for in-person interviews. Households were questioned about emergency planning and supplies, information sources during emergencies, and chronic health conditions. Interview teams completed 180 interviews (86%). Interviews revealed that 70% of households had an emergency evacuation plan, 67% had a 3-day supply of water for each member, and 77% had a first aid kit. Most households (65%) reported that the television was the primary source of information during an emergency. Heart disease (54%) and obesity (40%) were the most frequently reported chronic conditions. The Virginia Department of Health identified important gaps in local household preparedness. Data from the assessment have been used to inform community health partners, enhance disaster response planning, set community health priorities, and influence Portsmouth's Community Health Improvement Plan.

  14. "Just-in-Time" Personal Preparedness: Downloads and Usage Patterns of the American Red Cross Hurricane Application During Hurricane Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Thomas D; Circh, Ryan; Bissell, Richard A; Goldfeder, Matthew

    2016-10-01

    Personal preparedness is a core activity but has been found to be frequently inadequate. Smart phone applications have many uses for the public, including preparedness. In 2012 the American Red Cross began releasing "disaster" apps for family preparedness and recovery. The Hurricane App was widely used during Hurricane Sandy in 2012. Patterns of download of the application were analyzed by using a download tracking tool by the American Red Cross and Google Analytics. Specific variables included date, time, and location of individual downloads; number of page visits and views; and average time spent on pages. As Hurricane Sandy approached in late October, daily downloads peaked at 152,258 on the day of landfall and by mid-November reached 697,585. Total page views began increasing on October 25 with over 4,000,000 page views during landfall compared to 3.7 million the first 3 weeks of October with a 43,980% increase in views of the "Right Before" page and a 76,275% increase in views of the "During" page. The Hurricane App offered a new type of "just-in-time" training that reached tens of thousands of families in areas affected by Hurricane Sandy. The app allowed these families to access real-time information before and after the storm to help them prepare and recover. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;page 1 of 6).

  15. Radiation emergency medical preparedness and assistance network in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, E. S.; Kong, H. J.; Noh, J. H.; Lim, Y. K.; Kim, C. S.

    2003-01-01

    Nationwide Medical Preparedness for Nuclear Accidents as an integral part of nuclear safety system has been discussed for several years and Radiation Health Research Institute (RHRI) of Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. was established on July, 1999. The National Radiation Emergency Medical Center (NREMC) of Korea Cancer Center Hospital was also founded on September, 2002. Two organizations have established Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Assistance Network in Korea to cope with accidental situations in nuclear power plants and also in handling sites of radionuclides. In order to construct an effective Nationwide Emergency Medical Network System they maintain good cooperation among regional hospitals. RHRI is going to make three types of medical groups, that is to say, the collaboration of the regional (primary appointed) hospital group around the nuclear power plants, the regional core (secondary appointed) hospital group and the central core hospital (RHRI). NREMC is also playing a central role in collaboration with 10 regional hospitals. Two cores are working key role for the maintenance of the network. Firstly, They maintain a radiological emergency response team consisting of physicians, nurses, health physicists, coordinators, and necessary support personnel to provide first-line responders with consultative or direct medical and radiological assistance at their facility or at the accident site. Secondly, they serves educational programs for the emergency personnel of collaborating hospitals not only as a treatment facility but also as a central training and demonstration unit. Regularly scheduled courses for the physician and nurse, and health/medical physicists are conducted. Therefore, to activate Nationwide Emergency Medical Network System and to maintain it for a long time, well-trained specialists and budgetary supports are indispensable

  16. Facilitators and Barriers to Preparedness Partnerships: A Veterans Affairs Medical Center Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Susan; Wyte-Lake, Tamar; Dobalian, Aram

    2017-09-13

    This study sought to understand facilitators and barriers faced by local US Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC) emergency managers (EMs) when collaborating with non-VA entities. Twelve EMs participated in semi-structured interviews lasting 60 to 90 minutes discussing their collaboration with non-VAMC organizations. Sections of the interview transcripts concerning facilitators and barriers to collaboration were coded and analyzed. Common themes were organized into 2 categories: (1) internal (ie, factors affecting collaboration from within VAMCs or by VA policy) and (2) external (ie, interagency or interpersonal factors). Respondents reported a range of facilitators and barriers to collaboration with community-based agencies. Internal factors facilitating collaboration included items such as leadership support. An internal barrier example included lack of clarity surrounding the VAMC's role in community disaster response. External factors noted as facilitators included a shared goal across organizations while a noted barrier was a perception that potential partners viewed a VAMC partnership with skepticism. Federal institutions are important partners for the success of community disaster preparedness and response. Understanding the barriers that VAMCs confront, as well as potential facilitators to collaboration, should enhance the development of VAMC-community partnerships and improve community health resilience. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017; page 1 of 6).

  17. Assessment of Ebola virus disease preparedness in the WHO South-East Asia Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vong, Sirenda; Samuel, Reuben; Gould, Philip; El Sakka, Hammam; Rana, Bardan J; Pinyowiwat, Vason; Bezbaruah, Supriya; Ofrin, Roderico

    2016-12-01

    To conduct assessments of Ebola virus disease preparedness in countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region. Nine of 11 countries in the region agreed to be assessed. During February to November 2015 a joint team from WHO and ministries of health conducted 4-5 day missions to Bangladesh, Bhutan, Indonesia, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Timor-Leste. We collected information through guided discussions with senior technical leaders and visits to hospitals, laboratories and airports. We assessed each country's Ebola virus disease preparedness on 41 tasks under nine key components adapted from the WHO Ebola preparedness checklist of January 2015. Political commitment to Ebola preparedness was high in all countries. Planning was most advanced for components that had been previously planned or tested for influenza pandemics: multilevel and multisectoral coordination; multidisciplinary rapid response teams; public communication and social mobilization; drills in international airports; and training on personal protective equipment. Major vulnerabilities included inadequate risk assessment and risk communication; gaps in data management and analysis for event surveillance; and limited capacity in molecular diagnostic techniques. Many countries had limited planning for a surge of Ebola cases. Other tasks needing improvement included: advice to inbound travellers; adequate isolation rooms; appropriate infection control practices; triage systems in hospitals; laboratory diagnostic capacity; contact tracing; and danger pay to staff to ensure continuity of care. Joint assessment and feedback about the functionality of Ebola virus preparedness systems help countries strengthen their core capacities to meet the International Health Regulations.

  18. Nuclear emergency preparedness in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The preparedness of utilities and government agencies at various levels for dealing with nuclear emergencies occurring at nuclear reactors in Canada is reviewed and assessed. The review is centered on power reactors, but selected research reactors are included also. Emergency planning in the U.S.A., Germany and France, and international recommendations on emergency planning are reviewed to provide background and a basis for comparison. The findings are that Canadians are generally well protected by existing nuclear emergency plans at the electric utility and provincial levels but there are improvements that can be made, mainly at the federal level and in federal-provincial coordination. Ten issues of importance are identified: commitment to nuclear emergency planning by the federal government; division of federal and provincial roles and responsibilities; auditing of nuclear emergency preparedness of all levels of government and of electric utilities; the availability of technical guidance appropriate to Canada; protective action levels for public health and safety; communication with the public; planning and response for the later phases of a nuclear emergency; off-site exercises and training; coordination of international assistance; and emergency planning for research reactors. (L.L.) 79 refs., 2 tabs

  19. Standardization of GIS datasets for emergency preparedness of NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saindane, Shashank S.; Suri, M.M.K.; Otari, Anil; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2012-01-01

    Probability of a major nuclear accident which can lead to large scale release of radioactivity into environment is extremely small by the incorporation of safety systems and defence-in-depth philosophy. Nevertheless emergency preparedness for implementation of counter measures to reduce the consequences are required for all major nuclear facilities. Iodine prophylaxis, Sheltering, evacuation etc. are protective measures to be implemented for members of public in the unlikely event of any significant releases from nuclear facilities. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre has developed a GIS supported Nuclear Emergency Preparedness Program. Preparedness for Response to Nuclear emergencies needs geographical details of the affected locations specially Nuclear Power Plant Sites and nearby public domain. Geographical information system data sets which the planners are looking for will have appropriate details in order to take decision and mobilize the resources in time and follow the Standard Operating Procedures. Maps are 2-dimensional representations of our real world and GIS makes it possible to manipulate large amounts of geo-spatially referenced data and convert it into information. This has become an integral part of the nuclear emergency preparedness and response planning. This GIS datasets consisting of layers such as village settlements, roads, hospitals, police stations, shelters etc. is standardized and effectively used during the emergency. The paper focuses on the need of standardization of GIS datasets which in turn can be used as a tool to display and evaluate the impact of standoff distances and selected zones in community planning. It will also highlight the database specifications which will help in fast processing of data and analysis to derive useful and helpful information. GIS has the capability to store, manipulate, analyze and display the large amount of required spatial and tabular data. This study intends to carry out a proper response and preparedness

  20. Alternate Care Sites for the Management of Medical Surge in Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    care facilities are in place  Plan for community based surge hospital bed surge capacity is in place  A 50-bed nursing subunit—per 50,000...attempt to assess the preparedness of the hospital system, HHS/ASPR commissioned The Center for Biosecurity of UPMC to examine various responses to...catastrophic health efforts. The 11 report The Next Challenge in Healthcare Preparedness: Catastrophic Health Events (Center for Biosecurity of UPMC

  1. Ebola Preparedness in the Netherlands: The Need for Coordination Between the Public Health and the Curative Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaan, Corien M; Öry, Alexander V; Schol, Lianne G C; Jacobi, André; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Timen, Aura

    During the Ebola outbreak in West Africa in 2014-2015, close cooperation between the curative sector and the public health sector in the Netherlands was necessary for timely identification, referral, and investigation of patients with suspected Ebola virus disease (EVD). In this study, we evaluated experiences in preparedness among stakeholders of both curative and public health sectors to formulate recommendations for optimizing preparedness protocols. Timeliness of referred patients with suspected EVD was used as indicator for preparedness. In focus group sessions and semistructured interviews, experiences of curative and public health stakeholders about the regional and national process of preparedness and response were listed. Timeliness recordings of all referred patients with suspected EVD (13) were collected from first date of illness until arrival in the referral academic hospital. Ebola preparedness was considered extensive compared with the risk of an actual patient, however necessary. Regional coordination varied between regions. More standardization of regional preparation and operational guidelines was requested, as well as nationally standardized contingency criteria, and the National Centre for Infectious Disease Control was expected to coordinate the development of these guidelines. For the timeliness of referred patients with suspected EVD, the median delay between first date of illness until triage was 2.0 days (range: 0-10 days), and between triage and arrival in the referral hospital, it was 5.0 hours (range: 2-7.5 hours). In none of these patients Ebola infection was confirmed. Coordination between the public health sector and the curative sector needs improvement to reduce delay in patient management in emerging infectious diseases. Standardization of preparedness and response practices, through guidelines for institutional preparedness and blueprints for regional and national coordination, is necessary, as preparedness for emerging infectious

  2. The global dimensions of public health preparedness and implications for US action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Melinda

    2012-06-01

    The globalization of public health is both real and relevant throughout the United States and to Americans traveling or residing abroad. US public policy responses are evolving, but a crisper and more comprehensive global perspective is needed. I suggest four timely US actions to address today's competing realities of globalization and economic austerity: raise awareness among clinicians and local health departments; capture and share exemplary disaster management practices across countries; ensure that US global health investments are effective, efficient, and sustainable; and think globally while acting locally to enhance US health security. The reauthorization of the Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Act of 2006 provides an opportunity to more clearly address the global dimensions of domestic preparedness.

  3. Conceptualizing Cold Disasters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauta, Kristian Cedervall; Dahlberg, Rasmus; Vendelø, Morten Thanning

    2017-01-01

    In the present article, we explore in more depth the particular circumstances and characteristics of governing what we call ‘cold disasters’, and thereby, the paper sets out to investigate how disasters in cold contexts distinguish themselves from other disasters, and what the implications hereof...... are for the conceptualization and governance of cold disasters. Hence, the paper can also be viewed as a response to Alexander’s (2012a) recent call for new theory in the field of disaster risk reduction. The article is structured in four overall parts. The first part, Cold Context, provides an overview of the specific...... conditions in a cold context, exemplified by the Arctic, and zooms in on Greenland to provide more specific background for the paper. The second part, Disasters in Cold Contexts, discusses “cold disasters” in relation to disaster theory, in order to, elucidate how cold disasters challenge existing...

  4. Disaster in Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illner, Peer

    initiatives and bottom-up organising as the preferred method to combat disaster. Once construed as strictly a responsibility of the state, the mitigation and management of disasters has shifted since the 1970s into a matter for civil society: a shift which has been heralded as progressive, democratic...... the banner of disaster. Focussing on the modifications to disaster management in the United States between 1970 and 2012, I show how the inclusion of civil society in the provision of aid services was accompanied by a structural withdrawal of the state from disaster relief and other welfare services. I...... contextualise this withdrawal in the US government’s general turn to austerity in response to the economic crisis of the 1970s. My account couples the notion of disaster with that of economic crisis on the one hand and structural violence on the other to examine disasters as a specific problem for social...

  5. The Components of Community Awareness and Preparedness; its Effects on the Reduction of Tsunami Vulnerability and Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufekci, Duygu; Lutfi Suzen, Mehmet; Cevdet Yalciner, Ahmet

    2017-04-01

    The resilience of coastal communities against tsunamis are dependent on preparedness of the communities. Preparedness covers social and structural components which increases with the awareness in the community against tsunamis. Therefore, proper evaluation of all components of preparedness will help communities to reduce the adverse effects of tsunamis and increase the overall resilience of communities. On the other hand, the complexity of the metropolitan life with its social and structural components necessitates explicit vulnerability assessments for proper determination of tsunami risk, and development of proper mitigation strategies and recovery plans. Assessing the vulnerability and resilience level of a region against tsunamis and efforts for reducing the tsunami risk are the key components of disaster management. Since increasing the awareness of coastal communities against tsunamis is one of the main objectives of disaster management, then it should be considered as one of the parameter in tsunami risk analysis. In the method named MetHuVA (METU - Metropolitan Human Tsunami Vulnerability Assessment) proposed by Cankaya et al., (2016) and Tufekci et al., (2016), the awareness and preparedness level of the community is revealed to be an indispensable parameter with a great effect on tsunami risk. According to the results obtained from those studies, it becomes important that the awareness and preparedness parameter (n) must be analyzed by considering their interaction and all related components. While increasing awareness can be achieved, vulnerability and risk will be reduced. In this study the components of awareness and preparedness parameter (n) is analyzed in different categories by considering administrative, social, educational, economic and structural preparedness of the coastal communities. Hence the proposed awareness and preparedness parameter can properly be analyzed and further improvements can be achieved in vulnerability and risk analysis

  6. Emergency Preparedness and Role Clarity among Rescue Workers during the Terror Attacks in Norway July 22, 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Janne Botha Pedersen

    Full Text Available Few studies address preparedness and role clarity in rescue workers after a disaster. On July 22, 2011, Norway was struck by two terror attacks; 77 people were killed and many injured. Healthcare providers, police officers and firefighters worked under demanding conditions. The aims of this study were to examine the level of preparedness, exposure and role clarity. In addition, the relationship between demographic variables, preparedness and exposure and a role clarity during the rescue operations and; b achieved mastering for future disaster operations.In this cross-sectional study, healthcare providers (n = 859, police officers (n = 252 and firefighters (n = 102 returned a questionnaire approximately 10 months after the terror attacks.The rescue personnel were trained and experienced, and the majority knew their professional role (healthcare providers M = 4.1 vs. police officers: M = 3.9 vs. firefighters: M = 4.2, p 5 fatalities (OR 1.6, p < .05 were all associated with role clarity, together with a feeling of control, not being obstructed in work and perceiving the rescue work as a success. Moreover, independent predictors of being more prepared for future operations were arousal during the operation (OR 2.0, p < .001 and perceiving the rescue work as a success (OR 1.5, p < .001.Most of the rescue workers were experienced and knew their professional role. Training and everyday-work-experience must be a focal point when preparing rescue workers for disaster.

  7. Ebola in the Netherlands, 2014-2015: costs of preparedness and response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suijkerbuijk, Anita W M; Swaan, Corien M; Mangen, Marie-Josee J; Polder, Johan J; Timen, Aura; Ruijs, Wilhelmina L M

    2017-11-17

    The recent epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD) resulted in countries worldwide to prepare for the possibility of having an EVD patient. In this study, we estimate the costs of Ebola preparedness and response borne by the Dutch health system. An activity-based costing method was used, in which the cost of staff time spent in preparedness and response activities was calculated based on a time-recording system and interviews with key professionals at the healthcare organizations involved. In addition, the organizations provided cost information on patient days of hospitalization, laboratory tests, personal protective equipment (PPE), as well as the additional cleaning and disinfection required. The estimated total costs averaged €12.6 million, ranging from €6.7 to €22.5 million. The main cost drivers were PPE expenditures and preparedness activities of personnel, especially those associated with ambulance services and hospitals. There were 13 possible cases clinically evaluated and one confirmed case admitted to hospital. The estimated total cost of EVD preparedness and response in the Netherlands was substantial. Future costs might be reduced and efficiency increased by designating one ambulance service for transportation and fewer hospitals for the assessment of possible patients with a highly infectious disease of high consequences.

  8. Nonclinical core competencies and effects of interprofessional teamwork in disaster and emergency response training and practice: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peller, Jennifer; Schwartz, Brian; Kitto, Simon

    2013-08-01

    To define and delineate the nontechnical core competencies required for disaster response, Disaster Medical Assistance Team (DMAT) members were interviewed regarding their perspectives and experiences in disaster management. Also explored was the relationship between nontechnical competencies and interprofessional collaboration. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 Canadian DMAT members to explore how they viewed nontechnical core competencies and how their experiences influenced their perceptions toward interprofessonalism in disaster response. Data were examined using thematic analysis. Nontechnical core competencies were categorized under austere skills, interpersonal skills, and cognitive skills. Research participants defined interprofessionalism and discussed the importance of specific nontechnical core competencies to interprofessional collaboration. The findings of this study established a connection between nontechnical core competencies and interprofessional collaboration in DMAT activities. It also provided preliminary insights into the importance of context in developing an evidence base for competency training in disaster response and management. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2013;0:1-8).

  9. A Strategic Look at the Federal Medical Response to Disasters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hutson, Vivian T

    2007-01-01

    ...), which has a mission of medical response to supplement state and local healthcare resources, evacuation of patients from the disaster area, and the provision of definitive care hospital beds to care for victims...

  10. Lessons learned from DMAT medical activities in the great disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigawa, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    Lessons learned from actions taken by DMAT (Disaster Medical Assistant Team) at the Great East Japan Disaster (Mar. 11) are reported. One unit of DMAT consists from 2 doctors, 2 nurses and 1 logistics clerk, who all had education and training authorized by Japan MHLW. On the disaster, MHLW and suffering prefectures can order DMAT to gather at the disaster base hospital or SCU (Staging Care Unit) like an airport nearby. DMAT missions are firstly to grasp the medical state of the disaster and its report to the MHLW through EMIS (Emergency Medical Information System), and then to estimate the possible numbers of serious patients, their transporting systems and further DMAT needed. Within 3 days after the Disaster, 32 base hospitals in Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures received 2,092 patients including 752 serious ones. Needs for DMAT were rather scarce within 48 hr after the Disaster and 103 DMAT in total within Mar. 14 in the 3 prefectures decreased to 50 of 840 patients in the area of 20 km distance from the Plant died during urgent evacuation without medicare staff due to deterioration of the basal disease, dehydration, hypothermia, etc., suggesting necessity of the more flexible action of DMAT, of which responsibility has been defined to be essentially within 48 hr after the disaster. Probably, DMAT should have assumption that complicated disaster with natural and atomic courses can occur at the earthquake in future. (T.T.)

  11. A taxonomy of state public health preparedness units: an empirical examination of organizational structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menachemi, Nir; Yeager, Valerie A; Duncan, W Jack; Katholi, Charles R; Ginter, Peter M

    2012-01-01

    State public health preparedness units (SPHPUs) were developed in response to federal funding to improve response to disasters: a responsibility that had not traditionally been within the purview of public health. The SPHPUs were created within the existing public health organizational structure, and their placement may have implications for how the unit functions, how communication takes place, and ultimately how well the key responsibilities are performed. This study empirically identifies a taxonomy of similarly structured SPHPUs and examines whether this structure is associated with state geographic, demographic, and threat-vulnerability characteristics. Data representing each SPHPU were extracted from publically available sources, including organizational charts and emergency preparedness plans for 2009. A cross-sectional segmentation analysis was conducted of variables representing structural attributes. Fifty state public health departments. Variables representing "span of control" and "hierarchal levels" were extracted from organizational charts. Structural "complexity" and "centralization" were extracted from state emergency preparedness documents and other secondary sources. On average, 6.6 people report to the same manager as the SPHPU director; 2.1 levels separate the SPHPU director from the state health officer; and a mean of 13.5 agencies collaborate with SPHPU during a disaster. Despite considerable variability in how SPHPUs had been structured, results of the cluster and principal component analysis identified 7 similarly structured groups. Neither the taxonomic groups nor the individual variables representing structure were found to be associated with state characteristics, including threat vulnerabilities. Our finding supports the hypothesis that SPHPUs are seemingly inadvertently (eg, not strategically) organized. This taxonomy provides the basis for which future research can examine how SPHPU structure relates to performance measures and

  12. Planning for chronic disease medications in disaster: perspectives from patients, physicians, pharmacists, and insurers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carameli, Kelley A; Eisenman, David P; Blevins, Joy; d'Angona, Brian; Glik, Deborah C

    2013-06-01

    Recent US disasters highlight the current imbalance between the high proportion of chronically ill Americans who depend on prescription medications and their lack of medication reserves for disaster preparedness. We examined barriers that Los Angeles County residents with chronic illness experience within the prescription drug procurement system to achieve recommended medication reserves. A mixed methods design included evaluation of insurance pharmacy benefits, focus group interviews with patients, and key informant interviews with physicians, pharmacists, and insurers. Most prescriptions are dispensed as 30-day units through retail pharmacies with refills available after 75% of use, leaving a monthly medication reserve of 7 days. For patients to acquire 14- to 30-day disaster medication reserves, health professionals interviewed supported 60- to 100-day dispensing units. Barriers included restrictive insurance benefits, patients' resistance to mail order, and higher copay-ments. Physicians, pharmacists, and insurers also varied widely in their preparedness planning and collective mutual-aid plans, and most believed pharmacists had the primary responsibility for patients' medication continuity during a disaster. To strengthen prescription drug continuity in disasters, recommendations include the following: (1) creating flexible drug-dispensing policies to help patients build reserves, (2) training professionals to inform patients about disaster planning, and (3) building collaborative partnerships among system stakeholders.

  13. Medicine procurement in hospital pharmacies of Nepal: A qualitative study based on the Basel Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjit, Eurek

    2018-01-01

    hospital pharmacies of Nepal. Adoption and regulation of national and international policies is recommended for enhancing medicine accessibility, as well as improving preparedness for health emergencies during natural disasters and health epidemics. PMID:29401474

  14. Medicine procurement in hospital pharmacies of Nepal: A qualitative study based on the Basel Statements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Shrestha

    Full Text Available Accessibility and affordability of evidence-based medicines are issues of global concern. For low-income countries like Nepal, it is crucial to have easy and reliable access to affordable, good-quality, evidence-based medicines, especially in the aftermath of natural or manmade disasters. Availability of affordable and evidence-based high quality medicines depends on the medicine procurement procedure, which makes it an important aspect of healthcare delivery. In this study, we aimed to investigate medicine procurement practices in hospital pharmacies of Nepal within the framework of International Pharmaceutical Federation [FIP] hospital pharmacy guidelines "the Basel Statements".We conducted semi-structured interviews with hospital pharmacists or procurement officers in hospital pharmacies of four major regions in Nepal to explore procurement practices. Data were collected until saturation of themes, analysed using the framework approach, and organised around the statements within the procurement theme of the Basel Statements.Interviews conducted with 53 participants revealed that the procurement guidelines of the Basel Statements were adopted to a certain extent in hospital pharmacies of Nepal. It was found that the majority of hospital pharmacies in Nepal reported using an expensive direct-procurement model for purchasing medicines. Most had no formulary and procured medicines solely based on doctors' prescriptions, which were heavily influenced by pharmaceutical companies' marketing strategies. Whilst most procured only registered medicines, a minority reported purchasing unregistered medicines through unauthorised supply-chains. And although the majority of hospital pharmacies had some contingency plans for managing medicine shortages, a few had none.Procurement guidelines of the Basel Statements were thus found to be partially adopted; however, there is room for improvement in current procurement practices in hospital pharmacies of Nepal

  15. Medicine procurement in hospital pharmacies of Nepal: A qualitative study based on the Basel Statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Mina; Moles, Rebekah; Ranjit, Eurek; Chaar, Betty

    2018-01-01

    Accessibility and affordability of evidence-based medicines are issues of global concern. For low-income countries like Nepal, it is crucial to have easy and reliable access to affordable, good-quality, evidence-based medicines, especially in the aftermath of natural or manmade disasters. Availability of affordable and evidence-based high quality medicines depends on the medicine procurement procedure, which makes it an important aspect of healthcare delivery. In this study, we aimed to investigate medicine procurement practices in hospital pharmacies of Nepal within the framework of International Pharmaceutical Federation [FIP] hospital pharmacy guidelines "the Basel Statements". We conducted semi-structured interviews with hospital pharmacists or procurement officers in hospital pharmacies of four major regions in Nepal to explore procurement practices. Data were collected until saturation of themes, analysed using the framework approach, and organised around the statements within the procurement theme of the Basel Statements. Interviews conducted with 53 participants revealed that the procurement guidelines of the Basel Statements were adopted to a certain extent in hospital pharmacies of Nepal. It was found that the majority of hospital pharmacies in Nepal reported using an expensive direct-procurement model for purchasing medicines. Most had no formulary and procured medicines solely based on doctors' prescriptions, which were heavily influenced by pharmaceutical companies' marketing strategies. Whilst most procured only registered medicines, a minority reported purchasing unregistered medicines through unauthorised supply-chains. And although the majority of hospital pharmacies had some contingency plans for managing medicine shortages, a few had none. Procurement guidelines of the Basel Statements were thus found to be partially adopted; however, there is room for improvement in current procurement practices in hospital pharmacies of Nepal. Adoption and

  16. Emergency preparedness lessons from Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.B.

    1987-09-01

    Emergency preparedness at nuclear power plants in the US has been considerably enhanced since the Three Mile Island accident. The Chernobyl accident has provided valuable data that can be used to evaluate the merit of some of these enhancements and to determine the need for additional improvements. For example, the USSR intervention levels of 25 rem and 75 rem for evacuation are contrasted with US Environmental Protection Agency protective action guides. The manner in which 135,000 persons were evacuated from the 30-km zone around Chernobyl is constrasted with typical US evacuation plans. Meteorological conditions and particulate deposition patterns were studied to infer characteristics of the radioactive plume from Chernobyl. Typical plume monitoring techniques are examined in light of lessons learned by the Soviets about plume behavior. This review has indicated a need for additional improvements in utility and government emergency plans, procedures, equipment, and training. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  17. On-site emergency preparedness in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilkamo, O.

    1998-01-01

    General scheme of emergency preparedness in Finland is presented including legal framework, emergency organization and detailed description of plans and procedures. Emergency plan in Finland cover the following matters: classification of emergency situations and description of events and accidents, description of emergency organization, description of the arrangements for alerting and data transfer, management of an emergency situation and radiation protection, worker safety and radiation protection, on- and off-site radiation measurements during a preparedness situation, provision of information, rooms, equipment and facilities, post emergency debriefing and measures, a description of the maintenance of preparedness

  18. Policy statement--emergency information forms and emergency preparedness for children with special health care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Children with chronic medical conditions rely on complex management plans for problems that cause them to be at increased risk for suboptimal outcomes in emergency situations. The emergency information form (EIF) is a medical summary that describes medical condition(s), medications, and special health care needs to inform health care providers of a child's special health conditions and needs so that optimal emergency medical care can be provided. This statement describes updates to EIFs, including computerization of the EIF, expanding the potential benefits of the EIF, quality-improvement programs using the EIF, the EIF as a central repository, and facilitating emergency preparedness in disaster management and drills by using the EIF.

  19. Natural Disasters in the Middle-East and North Africa With a Focus on Iran: 1900 to 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Ghomian

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The trends of natural disasters frequency from 1900 to 2015 in MNA has increased and effective mitigation and preparedness is necessary, both at individual and governance levels. This issue in the middle income and developing countries in MNA should be considered as a high priority in national planning.

  20. Analysis of the Civil-Military Relationship To Improve Efficacy And Coordination Of Humanitarian Aid And Disaster Relief Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    immigration law, protecting cyberspace, and promoting national preparedness for disasters (DHS, 2014). FEMA is an integrated part of the National...came from Argentina, Chile , Mexico, Peru, and Uruguay Europe - Netherlands is most frequent contributor and deployed 18 times in this period

  1. Pediatric disaster response in developed countries: ten guiding principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenburg, Mark A; Arneson, Wendy L

    2007-01-01

    Mass casualty incidents and large-scale disasters involving children are likely to overwhelm a regional disaster response system. Children have unique vulnerabilities that require special considerations when developing pediatric response systems. Although medical and trauma strategies exist for the evaluation and treatment of children on a daily basis, the application of these strategies under conditions of resource-constrained triage and treatment have rarely been evaluated. A recent report, however, by the Institute of Medicine did conclude that on a day-to-day basis the U.S. healthcare system does not adequately provide emergency medical services for children. The variability, scale, and uncertainty of disasters call for a set of guiding principles rather than rigid protocols when developing pediatric response plans. The authors propose the following guiding principles in addressing the well-recognized, unique vulnerabilities of children: (1) terrorism prevention and preparedness, (2) all-hazards preparedness, (3) postdisaster disease and injury prevention, (4) nutrition and hydration, (5) equipment and supplies, (6) pharmacology, (7) mental health, (8) identification and reunification of displaced children, (9) day care and school, and (10) perinatology. It is hoped that the 10 guiding principles discussed in this article will serve as a basic framework for developing pediatric response plans and teams in developed countries.

  2. The US CDC Centers for public health preparedness : building a nationwide exemplar network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, D.A.; Paulson, G.; Perry, E. [New Jersey Univ. of Medicine and Dentistry, New Brunswick, NJ (United States). School of Public Health

    2005-07-01

    The network of Centers for Public Health Preparedness (CPHP) was created by the United